Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The impact assessment of tourism development on agricultural land use : a case study of the impact on… Sugandhy Apandi, Aca 1980

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A6_7 S84.pdf [ 9.4MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095402.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095402-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095402-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095402-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095402-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095402-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095402-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095402-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095402.ris

Full Text

THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON AGRICULTURAL LAND USE A Case Study of the Impact on T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land use P a t t e r n s i n B a l i Engineer, Bandung I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1971. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AC A ISUGANDHY APANDI by THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE September, 198 0 Aca Sugandhy Apandi, 19 8 0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e -ments f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l -able f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School of Community and Regiona l Plann-i-ng^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT The impact of tourism development on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , as p e r c e i v e d and ev a l u a t e d by v i l l a g e r s , should be con s i d e r e d i n e v a l u a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p a r t -i c u l a r development programs or p r o j e c t s f o r r e g i o n s such as B a l i . The p r e s e r v a t i o n of B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s accepted as an e s s e n t i a l goal by v i r t u a l l y everyone i n Indonesia, e s p e c i a l l y i n B a l i , but i n e v i t a b l y there i s a c o n t i n u i n g debate over the negative and p o s i t i v e impacts of the i n t r u s i o n of massive tourism development on t h a t c u l t u r e . Tourism development cannot occur i n B a l i without the l o s s of some a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , some changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , and some d e c l i n e of B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . There w i l l always be c o n f l i c t between t r a d i t i o n a l systems and modernization i n the process of economic growth. The problems of p r e s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and managing the pres s u r e s of modernization should be c l e a r l y formulated, based p r i m a r i l y on the s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the impact of growth on i t s goal p r e f e r e n c e s Planners must r e f i n e t h e i r understanding of community i n t e r e s t s i n order to analyze and ev a l u a t e the impact o f a given program or p r o j e c t on a giv e n s o c i e t y , communicate with the proponents and opponents, understand t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s and measure the community's p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of the impacts. The impact of tourism development i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , the change i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s and the d e c l i n e of t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . In order to achieve the major g o a l s , continued growth of the r e g i o n and maintainance of i t s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , those c u l t u r a l values which depend upon a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s must f i r s t be i d e n t i f i e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t ' i s assumed t h a t there are strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a g r i c u l t u r a l land-use, t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s , and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . Because tourism development i n B a l i r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e to a t t r a c t the t o u r i s t s , i t i s assumed t h a t tourism development d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a l t e r s t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s , ' e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l land-use. The e f f e c t of continued u n c o n t r o l l e d tourism w i l l be a d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land-use and a change i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s , d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . T h i s would then reduce the appeal of B a l i as a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . The hypothesis of the study i s t h a t those v i l l a g e r s who are i n the areas most a f f e c t e d by tourism development w i l l have l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards the r e t e n t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l land-use than those who are i n i s o l a t e d areas. Knowledge of these l o c a l community a t t i t u d e s i s an important f a c t o r i n h e l p i n g to mediate and p l a n to a v o i d the c o n f l i c t between to u r i s m development and t r a d i t i o n a l systems. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n the B a l i n e s e example, where a s t r o n g communal system i s a t the r o o t of the c u l t u r e . To c l a r i f y the above assumptions and to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , the study was organized i n f o u r stages: a review of the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h B a l i , a comparative examination of v i l l a g e land use changes from 1969 to 1979, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d a p t a t i o n of the D e l p h i technique to measure the consensus of the v i l l a g e r s 1 p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of tourism impact, and f i n a l l y the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . I n d i c e s of the l e v e l of v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of the tourism development impact and f u t u r e r e g i o n a l growth o r i e n t a t i o n which aggregated the consensus p r e f e r e n c e s were c o n s t r u c t e d from the data a n a l y s i s . The weighting system was obtained by u s i n g a s c a l i n g d e v i c e to determine the g r e a t e s t p r e f e r e n c e f o r the q u a l i t y i n q u e s t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t community p r e f e r e n c e was shown to e x i s t , from which i t was concluded t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s was untrue. The i m p l i c a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s i s t h a t i n p u t about goal p r e f e r e n c e s of the s o c i e t y i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary. However, p u b l i c involvement i n the p l a n n i n g process depends on the w i l l i n g n e s s of the government. The D e l p h i technique was s u c c e s s f u l i n e l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about how s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e s and e v a l u a t e d changes caused by tourism development. There was g e n e r a l agreement among respondents i n terms of how they p e r c e i v e d and evaluated changes to t r a d i t i o n a l i v v i l l a g e land use, and how these changes a f f e c t B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . A consensus of o p i n i o n a l s o e x i s t e d about the socio-economic impact of tourism, and about o p t i o n s f o r f u t u r e development. F u r t h e r study i s needed to r e c o n s i d e r the t e s t e d hypothesis and to improve the v a l i d i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e the r e s u l t s on v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s . v TABLE OP CONTENTS Page T i t l e Page.v i A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents v i L i s t of Tables i x L i s t o f F i g u r e s and Maps x i i Acknowledgement x i i i PART 1 : THE THESIS BACKGROUND Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION 2 1.1. The Purpose of the T h e s i s 2 1.2. T h e s i s Focus and Statement o f Problems 4 1.3. Assumptions and Research Hypothesis 7 Chapter 2 : BALI ISLAND AS A CASE STUDY 9 2.1. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study Area 9 2.2. Tourism i n B a l i 33 2.3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the Regional Problems and Tourism Impacts 47 PART 11 : STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Chapter 3 : THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THE RATION-ALE FOR THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY 53 3.1. The Impact Assessment Concept and The Research Design 53 3.2. R a t i o n a l e f o r Using the Impact Assessment Technique and the L i m i t -a t i o n s of the Study 56 3.3. R a t i o n a l e f o r Using the D e l p h i Method 59 v i Page 3.4. R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i n g the Study Area 61 3.5. R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i n g the V a r i a b l e s to be I n v e s t i g a t e d . . . . 64 3.6. R a t i o n a l e f o r S e l e c t i n g the Respondents 65 Chapter 4 : METHODS 4.1. C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the Value O r i e n t a t i o n 67 4.2. O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the Hypothesis 68 4.3. S e l e c t i o n o f the Sampling Area 6 9 4.4. A d a p t a t i o n of the De l p h i Approach 7 0 4.5. A n a l y s i s of the F i n d i n g s . 72 PART 111 : DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter 5 : DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 75 5.1. Land use Changes Caused by Tourism Development, i n Six B a l i n e s e V i l l a g e s , 1969-1979 75 5.2. V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of Land use Change and Tourism Impact 90 5.3. The Hypothesis E v a l u a t i o n 108 Chapter 6 : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 114 6.1. The I m p l i c a t i o n of the R e s u l t s f o r P l a n n i n g 114 6.2. Review of the Impact Assessment Study ; 119 6.3. Recommendations f o r Complementary Research 123 v i i REFERENCES APPENDICES : Appendix A : Tables pp. 130 - 159 Appendix B : Map p. 16 0 Appendix C : Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s pp. 162 - 210 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2.1 Numbers of D i s t r i c t s , S u b - d i s t r i c t s , O f f i c i a l V i l l a g e s , and T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s i n B a l i . . . . 13 2.2 P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Dens i t y i n B a l i , 1954 to 1974 17 2.3 Employment and Sector of A c t i v i t y i n B a l i , 1971 26 2.4 P r o d u c t i o n of P r i n c i p a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Crops i n B a l i , 1965 to 1971 29 2.5 Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s i n B a l i and Each D i s t r i c t , 1970 31 2.6 T o u r i s t 1 Ranking of the Most Impressive Aspects i n B a l i , 1973 39 2.7 Land-use i n B a l i , 1950, 1970 and 1973 49 2.8 Area of Sawah i n B a l i and each D i s t r i c t , 1950, 1961, 1970, 1973 50 5.1 I n d i c a t o r s of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land use 7 6 5.2 I n d i c a t o r s of Strong B a l i n e s e T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Settlement P a t t e r n s 77 5.3 I n d i c a t o r s of the E x i s t e n c e of Tourism Development and Impacts i n the V i l l a g e 78 5.4 The Summary E v a l u a t i o n of the V i l l a g e Land use Changes i n the s i x V i l l a g e s Sample, 1961-1969 and 1969-1979 82 5.5 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of V i l l a g e r ' E t h n i c O r i g i n i n the S i x V i l l a g e s Sample, i n 1978 86 5.6 The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Labour by Occupation i n the s i x V i l l a g e s Sample, i n 1976 87 5.7 The E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l i n the s i x V i l l a g e s Sample, i n 197 6 8 9 5.8 Summary of the V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n i n the Three D i f f e r e n t Zones of Tourism Impact 98 5.9 Summary of the V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n the Three D i f f e r e n t Zones of Tourism Impact 103 i x ... Continued Table Page A . l Numbers of Hotels i n B a l i , 1969-1972 131 A.2 Numbers of Hotels i n B a l i and the D i s t r i b -u t i o n i n each D i s t r i c t , 1971 132 A.3 Kabupaten (Regency) Receipts : B u l e l e n g and Badung, 1972-1974 133 A.4 Increase i n V e h i c l e s i n B a l i , 1960-1975 134 A.5 Numbers of Artshops i n B a l i , 1969-1972 135 A.6 Numbers of Restaurants i n B a l i , 1969-1972 136 A.7 Land Use Changes i n the Strong Impact V i l l a g e s : Sanur and Kuta i n 1961-1979 137 A.8 Land Use Changes i n the P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s : Kesiman and Ubung i n 1961-1979 138 A.9 Land Use Changes i n the I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s : Buduk and Munggu i n 1961-1979 139 A.10 P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Dens i t y i n the s i x V i l l a g e s Sample, 1961-1978 140 A.11 The Head of T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s ' P e r sonal Information. 141 A.12 The V i l l a g e Farmer' P e r s o n a l Information 145 A.13 The V i l l a g e Educated A d u l t ' Personal " Information. 14 9 A.14 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the V i l l a g e s Sample i n t o Three Zones of Tourism Impact.... 153 A.15 The V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n i n the Strong Impact V i l l a g e s 154 A.16 The V i l l a g e r s 1 P e r c e p t i o n i n the P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s 155 A.17 The V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n i n the I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s 156 A.18 The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n the Strong Impact V i l l a g e s 157 x Continued Table Page A.19 The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n the P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s 158 A.20 The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n the I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s 159 x i LIST OF FIGURES AND MAPS FIGURE Page 2.1. T y p i c a l B a l i n e s e T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land Use P a t t e r n s 21 2.2. T y p i c a l B a l i n e s e T r a d i t i o n a l Housing Lay out 22 2.3. T o t a l F o r e i g n T o u r i s t s i n B a l i , 1966 to 1977 43 3.1. The General Systems Framework: The Role of T r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e , i n B a l i n e s e Way of L i f e and Tourism Development ^ 55 3.2. The Framework of the Study 57 MAPS 2.1. Indonesia : The. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Boundary.. 11 2.2. B a l i : The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Boundary.. 12 2.3. B a l i : The Topography 15 2.4. B a l i : The Most F e r t i l e A g r i c u l t u r e Area •. 20 2.5. B a l i : Land Use of B a l i ... 28 3.1. D i s t r i c t of Badung : The V i l l a g e s Sample 63 B . l . D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e l i g i o n s i n Indonesia... 161 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Most of a l l , my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to Dr. Henry Hightower and Dr. W i l l i a m Rees f o r the .time and e f f o r t which they spent h e l p i n g me w r i t e t h i s t h e s i s . I wish to thank Dr. T e r r y McGee f o r h i s moral support and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to guide and c o n t r i b u t e to the work of t h i s t h e s i s . I wish to acknowledge the advice and encouragement given to me by P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman, D i r e c t o r of the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., and by the members of f a c u l t y i n completing my study. I am indebted to the B a l i P l anning U n i t S t a f f , U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana Students, and a l l who completed the f i e l d survey and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me to conduct the study. Thanks are a l s o due to J a n i c e Doyle f o r help with e d i t i n g and t y p i n g and other tasks a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . And f i n a l l y , to my w i f e Yuni, whose encouragement and p a t i e n c e enabled me to f i n i s h my s t u d i e s a t U.B.C. x i i i 1 PART I THE THESIS BACKGROUND 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE PURPOSE OF THE THESIS The i m p a c t upon a c o m m u n i t y o f any p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be a p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t h e c h a n g e s a r e d e s i r a b l e . T h i s t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t o i d e n t i f y and a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e . T r a d i t i o n a l l a n d u s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e , i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . C h a n g e s t o l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , t h e r e f o r e , may r e s u l t i n e r o s i o n o f c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o o b j e c t i v e l y t r a c e c h a n g e s i n v i l l a g e l a n d u s e o v e r t i m e , u s i n g a v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n a b o u t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , h o u s i n g , and o t h e r i t e m s . To e v a l u a t e t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e c h a n g e s on t h e l i v e s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e v i l l a g e s , a more s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h was n e c e s s a r y , k e y p e o p l e b e i n g c h o s e n f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e t o s p e a k f o r t h e o t h e r s t h e r e . L a n d u s e c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e c a n be c o m p a r e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l o c a l t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t t o gauge t h e i m p a c t o f t h e t o u r i s m on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f l a n d u s e . The 3 s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e k e y v i l l a g e r s a b o u t c h a n g e s t o t h e i r way o f l i f e c a n t h e n be e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a b i l i t y o f B a l i n e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s u n d e r t h e o n s l a u g h t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t . The c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n w i l l be i m p o r t a n t i n p u t i n t o p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t , n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f c o n c e r n s f o r B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e f o r i t s own s a k e , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e t h a t c u l t u r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e a t t r a c t -i v e n e s s o f B a l i a s a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n . Thus t h e u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t i m a t e t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e l e v e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e c h a n g e s , and t h e b e s t l o c a t i o n a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f t o u r i s t d e v e l o p -ment i n B a l i i n t h e f u t u r e . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a n a l y s i s , i t d o e s a t t e m p t t o make some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d a c r i t i c a l a s p e c t o f t h e s e . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e w o r k a r e : a) t o d e v e l o p an e f f e c t i v e i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t method t o be u s e d i n e v a l u a t i n g a g i v e n t o u r i s t p r o g r a m o r p r o j e c t b) t o g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t upon B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e p a t t e r n s c ) t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e f o r g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e what c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s a n d members p e r c e i v e t o be t h e i m p a c t s o f t o u r -i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s 4 d) t o secure from community l e a d e r s and members t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of the impacts r e s u l t i n g from changes i n land use brought about by t o u r i s t development e) to determine whether the e v a l u a t i o n of community l e a d e r s and members supports the hypothesis on which the study i s based f) to generate some c o n c l u s i o n t h a t may be u s e f u l i n dev e l o p i n g p o l i c y recommendations f o r f u t u r e development i n r e g i o n s of B a l i g) to develop recommendations f o r study of impact a s s e s s -ment i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . 1.2 THESIS FOCUS AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS The f a i l u r e of governments and p r i v a t e developers to make p r i o r s o c i a l impact assessments of p r o j e c t s i s a major problem. There are a l s o g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n dev e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Indonesia, i n d e s i g n i n g measures of s o c i a l impact, e s p e c i a l l y when d e a l i n g with the l e s s t a n g i b l e e f f e c t s . U n c e r t a i n t i e s about v a l u e s are compounded by i m p e r f e c t i n f o r m a t i o n i n both economic and s o c i a l a p p r a i s a l . Most of the economic a p p r a i s a l s are based on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as world market p r i c e s , and are r a r e l y a p p l i c a b l e to l o c a l markets with t h e i r shadow p r i c e s . S o c i a l c o s t -b e n e f i t analyses are based on g e n e r a t i n g the maximum p r o j e c t output: gross n a t i o n a l income, gross r e g i o n a l product, e t c . 5 Rarely c o n s i d e r e d are the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the value of the b e n e f i t to members of the s o c i e t y , and u l t i m a t e -l y i t s b e n e f i c i a l or adverse impacts upon t h e i r c u l t u r e . T h i s study r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one p a r t of a p l a n e v a l u a t i o n process w i t h i n the s o c i a l impact assessment p r o c e s s , aimed at determining the pr e f e r e n c e s of the a f f e c t e d community. The r e s u l t s w i l l be u s e f u l f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , which i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of development p r o j e c t s on a g i v e n r e g i o n and i t s s o c i e t y — i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d i e s which emphasize the r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of the impacts. M a i n t a i n i n g the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y accepted as an e s s e n t i a l g o a l , but i n e v i t a b l y there i s a c o n t i n u i n g debate over the negative and p o s i t i v e impact of the i n t r u s -i o n of massive tourism development on i t . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , changes to B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s , d e c l i n e of B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , and the development of tourism. The B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e r s are the people who experience the impact of changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use, changes caused e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y by tourism development. The present s t a t e of knowledge concerning the impact of tourism development i n B a l i i s very confused, and g e n e r a l l y emphasizes the negative a s p e c t s , a p o s i t i o n o f t e n based on emotional o p i n i o n r a t h e r than c a r e f u l f i e l d r e s e a r c h . 6 T h i s study attempts a balanced assessment, i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a c t u a l changes i n land use r e s u l t i n g from tourism development, v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of these changes, and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of p o l i c y recommendations developed on the b a s i s of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l developments l o c a t e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l areas have changed the o l d p a t t e r n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, and r e s u l t e d i n l o s s of prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In the l a s t decade, tourism development has been a major cause of v i l l a g e l a n d use changes i n B a l i . T h i s study t h e r e f o r e analyzes the impact of tourism on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use w i t h i n a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of r e l a t e d socio-economic and environmental d e s i g n a s p e c t s . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the purpose i s to provide i n f o r m a t i o n to be used i n e v a l u a t i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y of p a r t i c u l a r programs or p r o j e c t s f o r r e g i o n s such as B a l i . P o p u l a t i o n i s high and i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y i n B a l i . Job o p p o r t u n i t i e s are l i m i t e d , and there i s thus h i g h unemployment and low per c a p i t a income. There i s l i m i t e d a r a b l e l a n d , but what e x i s t s i s h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e . Land use i n the v i l l a g e s f o l l o w s unique t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , which are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , and i t i s p a r t l y t h i s unique c u l t u r e which makes B a l i the most a t t r a c t i v e t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n i n Indonesia. A l l of these i n t e r r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n determining the e f f e c t s of s h i f t s from a g r i c u l t u r a l to n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land use. 7 1.3 ASSUMPTIONS AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The d e sign of t h i s r e s e a r c h was guided by f i v e assumptions: a) The l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i s determined by the amount of l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . b) There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . c) There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use and the t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . d) There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between development of tourism and n a t i v e c u l t u r e ; i . e . B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s an important f e a t u r e i n a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t o r s to B a l i . e) Tourism development d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a l t e r s t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use. The e f f e c t of continued u n c o n t r o l l e d tourism w i l l be a d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and a change i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , and thereby r e d u c i n g B a l i ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to t o u r i s t s . Related to the above assumptions, a hypothesis of the study i s f o r m a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : That those v i l l a g e r s who are i n the areas most a f f e c t e d by tourism development w i l l have l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards the r e t e n t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d use than those who are i n the i s o l a t e d areas. 8 Knowledge of these l o c a l community a t t i t u d e s i s an important f a c t o r i n h e l p i n g to mediate and p l a n to a v o i d c o n f l i c t between tourism development and t r a d i t i o n a l systems. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n the B a l i n e s e example, where a s t r o n g communal system i s a t the r o o t of the c u l t u r e . C l a r i f i c a t i o n of the above assumptions and t e s t i n g t h i s hypothesis w i l l h e lp to achieve the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study. 9 CHAPTER 2 BALI ISLAND AS A CASE STUDY To assess the impact of a p r o j e c t or number of p r o j e c t s on .communities there must be a base f o r d e s i g n i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Knowledge about the study area, about the p r o j e c t ( s ) , and about the r e g i o n a l problems and p r o j e c t impacts i s very important as a b a s i s f o r d e s i g n i n g and s e l e c t i n g the methods used. T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the s i t e , p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and socio-economic p r o f i l e of the study area; the c u r r e n t r o l e and the trend of tourism development i n B a l i ; and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l problems and tourism impacts. 2.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 2.1.1 Geography and P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n The i s l a n d of B a l i l i e s immediately to the e a s t of Java. I t extends i n an east-west d i r e c t i o n f o r 150 km, l y i n g between l o n g i t u d e s 114°25' East and 115°43' E a s t . In a north-south d i r e c t i o n i t extends f o r 90 km between l a t i t u d e s 8°03' South and 8°51' South. B a l i i s a small 2 xsland with an area of about 5,630 km ; i t r e p r e s e n t s o n l y 0.3% of the t o t a l area of Indonesia. The g r e a t e r p a r t of the i s l a n d i s mountainous t e r r a i n and i t i s extremely f e r t i l e . Most of the land i s under c u l t i v a t i o n . The weather i n B a l i i s always warm and humid, but the 10 heat i s tempered by sea breezes and c o o l a i r from the mountains. There are no hot and c o l d seasons, the maximum d a i l y temperature approximating 28°C i n the south and 32°C i n the n o r t h . There i s a d i s t i n c t dry season extending from May to November, when the southeast monsoon p r e v a i l s , and a d i s t i n c t wet season from November to May, when the northwest monsoon p r e v a i l s . The average annual r a i n f a l l i n the n o r t h (at Singaraja) i s about 1125 mm, and i n the south Cat Denpasar) 2255 mm. B a l i i s one of twenty-seven p r o v i n c e s i n Indonesia (see Map 2.1). The Province of B a l i i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y s i m i l a r t o other p r o v i n c e s i n Indonesia, being d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t d i s t r i c t s : , the r e g e n c i e s of Badung, Gianyar, Tabanan, Klungkung, B a n g l i , Karangasem, Jembrana and B u l e l e n g . Each regency has a c a p i t a l c i t y . Denpasar i s the c a p i t a l c i t y of the Regency of Badung, and the cap-i t a l c i t y of B a l i P r o v i n c e . Within each regency, there are s u b - d i s t r i c t s (kecamatan). c o n t a i n i n g small kecamatan towns, and o f f i c i a l and t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s . S m a l l e s t i n the h i e r a r c h y of communal o r g a n i z a t i o n are the hamlets ( b a n j a r s ) . In B a l i there are 8 c a p i t a l c i t i e s , 50 kecamatan towns, 564 o f f i c i a l v i l l a g e s and 1,470 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s (see Table 2.1 and Map 2.2). The western s e c t i o n of the i s l a n d , the d i s t r i c t o f Jembrana, i s a long narrow a r i d promontory; i t r i s e s some 1300 m above sea l e v e l . The western uplands l e a d to the PROVINCES; 1 EAST JAVA 2 CENTRAL JAVA 3 WEST JAVA „ i SPECIAL CAPITAL VS IEKP4TORY JAKARTA 5 SPECIAL TERRITORY JOGJAKARTA 6 NOKIH SUMATRA ? JAMBI 1 ' KIAu 9 WEST SUMATRA 10 SOUTH SUMATRA 11 LAMPuNCi 12 SPECIAL TERRITORY ATjEH 13 BENGKULU U WEST KAIiMANIAN 15 EAST KALIMANTAN 16 SOUTH KAIIMANIAN 17 CEN1RAL KALIMANTAN IB SOUTH SLILAWESI 19 CENTRAt SULAWESI 20 SOUTH-EASI SULAWESI rtPNORTH SULAWESI IB Vi.-MALUKU 23 BALI 24 WEST NUSA TENGGARA 2 5 EAST NUSA 11NGGARA 26 WEST IRIAN n Mwnuog, Sources : Document of International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IDA, 1974. 12 TABLE 2 . 1 : Numbers of D i s t r i c t s , S u b - d i s t r i c t s , O f f i c i a l V i l l a g e s , and T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s i n the Province of B a l i . D i s t r i c t / Regency (Kabupaten) Sub-d i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l V i l l a g e m -t • , • T T o t a l T r a d i t i o n a l , , w i n Area V i l l a g e ,,, > ^ ( h a ) C a p i t a l C i t y 1 . Badung 7 5 1 1 4 6 5 4 , 2 5 3 Denpasar 2 . Jembrana 4 4 9 4 1 8 4 , 1 8 1 Negara 3 . B u l e l e n g 9 1 4 5-J 1 0 0 1 3 2 , 0 8 5 S i n g a r a j a 4 . Tabanan 8 9 9 3 5 4 8 6 , 3 0 6 Tabanan 5 . Klungkung 4 5 6 2 1 7 3 1 , 5 4 6 Klungkung 6 . Gianyar 7 5 1 2 6 9 3 6 , 8 3 5 Gianyar 7 . B a n g l i 4 6 9 1 9 2 5 2 , 0 9 3 B a n g l i 8 . Karangasem 8 4 4 1 5 1 8 6 , 1 7 2 Amlapura B a l i 5 1 5 6 4 1 4 7 0 5 6 3 , 2 8 6 Sources : B a l i Regional Plan Concept 1 9 7 7 - 2 0 0 0 , Bappeda, p. 4 4 and The map of Regency of Badung. •2 o <2 UJ o I 1 4 f o r e s t e d c e n t r a l h i g h l a n d s , which culminate i n the v o l c a n -i c peak of Mt. Batukau a t an e l e v a t i o n of 2 5 0 0 m. The c e n t r a l highlands i n c l u d e the d i s t r i c t s of Tabanan,. Badung and Gianyar, and are separated from the e a s t e r n highlands by a 1 3 0 0 m sadd l e . The e a s t e r n h i g h l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g the d i s t r i c t s of Klungkung, B a n g l i , and Karangasem, culminate i n the m a j e s t i c v o l c a n i c cone of Mt. Agung or B a l i Peak, 3 , 1 0 0 m high. North of the hi g h l a n d s , the d i s t r i c t of Bu l e l e n g c o n s i s t s of a narrow c o a s t a l lowland f r i n g e of occupied and a r a b l e land. The southern lowland d i s t r i c t of Badung i s cr o s s e d by many streams and r i v e r s which a r i s e h i g h up on the mountain slopes and cut deeply i n t o the s o f t v o l c a n i c rock. Steep s i d e d and narrow, t e r r a c e d f o r r i c e growing, green and verdant, these r i v e r v a l l e y s are of g r e a t beauty. At the extreme south of the i s l a n d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 2 5 0 m i s the B u k i t P e n i n s u l a (see Map 2 . 3 ) . The f l o r a and fauna o f B a l i are t y p i c a l l y Javanese and t y p i c a l l y t r o p i c a l . The f o r e s t s c o n t a i n many s p e c i e s of t r e e s , none of commercial importance so f a r as wood i s concerned. However, the t r e e s do serve as shade f o r c o f f e e and other crops, and are used f o r f u e l s and c r a f t s . Important among the many s p e c i e s of palm are the cocunut palm, which s u p p l i e s cooking o i l , and copra; the Palmyra or l o n t a r palm, the d r i e d l e a v e s of which are used f o r making books, and f o r lamaks f o r f e s t i v a l d e c o r a t i o n s ; 16 the sagopalm whose sap makes toddy and whose f i b r e ( i j u k ) makes t h a t c h ; and the thorny s l a k palm which produces a p l e a s a n t l y f l a v o u r e d nut. Deer, p i g , b i r d s , c a t t l e , monkeys and snakes are numerous. The farm water b u f f a l o i s seen i n Southern B a l i . Ploughing and p r e p a r a t i o n of the r i c e t e r r a c e s i s done mainly with c a t t l e (Blackwood, 1970, pp 3-4). The n a t u r a l environment of the i s l a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s topography, i s a b a s i c f a c t o r i n i t s r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , which i n t u r n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a n d use arrangements on the v i l l a g e s . 2.1.2 B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e and P o p u l a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l attempt to d e s c r i b e B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards land use which are one aspect of B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , and the e f f e c t of economic change on these a t t i t u d e s . The phrase " t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s " r e f e r s to c e r t a i n B a l i n e s e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and r i t e s , manifested i n both p h y s i c a l and socio-economic terms. F i r s t of a l l there i s a s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land use. The remaining land i s occupied a c c o r d i n g to a very s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n - - t h e s i t i n g of the temple and the l a y o u t of the housing i s s e t by t h i s p a t t e r n . Secondly, there i s a high regard f o r indigenous B a l i n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e , and f o r the n a t u r a l environment.in a l l i t s beauty. T h i r d l y , the p r e f e r r e d l i f e s t y l e i s a g r i c u l t u r a l and communal i n nature, w i t h v i l l a g e c o o p e r a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s emphasized. F o u r t h l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l systems such as subak are accepted, w i t h the twin aims of a g r i c u l t u r e being s u b s i s t e n c e and p r o v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l products f o r r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s . In c o n t r a s t , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s p l a c e emphasis on n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land use such as tourism and i t s a s s o c i a t e d developments: modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and modern a r c h i t e c t u r e u n r e l a t e d to the B a l i n e s e s e t t i n g . T h i s o f t e n leads to the adoption of f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and modern technology i n B a l i (such as modern i r r i g a t i o n methods). B a l i i s designated as a p r o v i n c e due to the uniqueness of i t s r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e : over 95% of the r e s i d e n t s are Hindu. T h i s r e g i o n i s completely d i f f e r e n t from other e t h n i c groups i n the other i s l a n d s of Indonesia, where the m a j o r i t y are Muslim o r C h r i s t i a n ( M i s s i n , 1972, p. 123) (see Appendix, Map B . l ) . T h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s i n f l u e n c e a l l aspects of l i f e f o r the B a l i n e s e , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and land use p a t t e r n s i n the v i l l a g e s . V i l l a g e l i f e both molds t h e i r c h a r a c t e r and r e f l e c t s t h e i r c u l t u r e . The very s p i r i t of B a l i emanates from the thousands of v i l l a g e communities t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the main f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n the southern lowlands (see Map 2.4). T h i s c o n c e n t r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n i n a f e r t i l e area w e l l s u i t e d to t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s has r e s u l t e d i n the maintenance of s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n t h i s southern lowlands area. 19 The mountains are regarded by the B a l i n e s e as holy, being the home of the Gods and the sources of w e l l being and f e r t i l i t y . The Gunung Agung (Mt.Agung) i s regarded as the navel o f the World, the home of Siwa and other important gods. To the B a l i n e s e i t bears the same s i g n i f i c a n c e as K a l i a s a and Meru do to the Hindus of I n d i a . On the other hand the sea, which i s lower even than the lan d , r e p r e s e n t s e v e r y t h i n g e v i l to the B a l i n e s e - - a view r e i n f o r c e d by the presence i n i t o f harmful and unpleasant c r e a t u r e s such as sharks, sea snakes, and v a r i o u s f i s h . In consequence the B a l i n e s e have l i t t l e maritime tendency and look to the land and to the mountains r a t h e r than to the sea f o r t h e i r support and w e l l being. B a l i i s regarded as the e n t i r e world, f l o a t i n g i n the ocean, supported by the m y t h i c a l t u r t l e and entwined snakes, a combination which appears i n many r i t u a l s , s c u l p t u r e s and s h r i n e s (Covarrubias, 1937; 1970, p. 5). Throughout h i s t o r y , the B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e has been an independent economic and s o c i a l u n i t r u l e d by a c o u n c i l of v i l l a g e r s , with v o t i n g powers and equal r i g h t s f o r a l l , and ownership of land r e s t r i c t e d by v i l l a g e r e g u l a t i o n s . The land i s communally c u l t i v a t e d to ma i n t a i n v i l l a g e f e s t i v a l s , and even the ground on which the houses stand i s v i l l a g e p r o p e r t y t h a t can be r e c l a i m e d i f the tenant abuses h i s p r i v e l e g e s . In a d d i t i o n to the formal government appointed l e a d e r , there e x i s t s an e l e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r , who i s the top d e c i s i o n 20 maker a t the community l e v e l . T h i s communal system i s manifested i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i l l a g e l a n d , which i s s t r u c t u r e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s (see F i g u r e s 2.1 and 2.2) (Covarrubias, 1937, p. 43; Blackwood, 197 0, p. 15; U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana Research Report, 1973). A t y p i c a l morning f o r a B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e r i s spent i n h i s sawah ( r i c e f i e l d ) a t t e n d i n g to h i s crop; afternoons he spends i n c a r e f u l , e x a c t i n g work on a p a i n t i n g or c a r v i n g of h i g h q u a l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y . Then, i n the evenings, he may dance or p l a y i n the v i l l a g e o r c h e s t r a . A r t seems to be i n g r a i n e d i n the p o p u l a t i o n and they have a n a t u r a l a p t i t u d e f o r i t . B a l i i s the second most h e a v i l y populated i s l a n d a f t e r Java. Java and B a l i among the 3 000 i s l a n d s of Indonesia have the most severe p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s . Indonesia a t 125 m i l l i o n i n 1971 i s the world's most populous n a t i o n . In 1971 the p o p u l a t i o n of B a l i was 2,120,338, and with the r a t e of i n c r e a s e a t 2.03%, i t was over 2.5 m i l l i o n i n 1979. The average p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of B a l i i s around 4 00 persons 2 per Km . (see Table 2.2). T h i s high d e n s i t y i s becoming a s e r i o u s problem due to the d e c l i n e of the man/land r a t i o , i n 1979 l e s s than 1 Ha per farm household. The problem i s becoming more c r u c i a l due to the high r a t e of unemployment and l i m i t e d development o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n B a l i . Only a small p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n of B a l i l i v e on the n o r t h e r n lowlands, the v a s t m a j o r i t y i n h a b i t i n g the very much l a r g e r 21 FIGURE 2A: TYPICAL BALINESE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE LAND USE PATTERNS \',«Ric§fields * Rlc'ef i e l d s NORTH LEGEND : A. The V i l l a g e Temple B . H a l l of Assembly C. Market D. The Large Shed f o r Cockfight E. The Hang Wood Alarm F. Waringin Tree ( Banyan X G. V i l l a g e Cemetery, \ | House V.-«* Gardens V S * R i c e f i e l d s 22 FIGURE 2 . 2 . . BALINESE TRADITIONAL HOUSING LAY-OUT 1 * F a m i l y Temple Area 2 » S l e e p i n g P a r l l l i o n 3 = S l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s f o r the head o f the f a m i l y (< = S o c i a l P a v i l l i o n 5 = K i t c h e n 6 = R i c e g ranary 7 = S l e e p i n g P a v i l l i o n 8 = E n t r a n c e gate 9 = W a l l 10= S h r i n e s 11= F r u i t t r e e s . N o r t h Scale 1 : 3 0 0 Sources : F l e l i s Surrey 1979, S i r Robert Blackwood, 1 970, Miguel Covarrubias, 1937. TABLE 2.2 : P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Density, B a l i , 1954 - 1974 D i s t r i c t / Regency Area i n Km* P o p u l a t i o n ( ' 000) Density per Km % Increase i n D e n s i t y 1954 1961 1969 1971 1974 1954 1961 1969 1971 1974 :/ 54 Badung 542 255 .3 310.6 370.2 400.4 414 .1 471 573 683 738 820 74 Jembrana 842 97.6 129.5 155.0 172.0 177 .8 116 153 184 204 209 80 Bul e l e n g 1/ 320 258.7 323.1 390.9 403.3 420.0 196 244 296 305 319 63 Tabanan 863 238 .6 273.6 316 .8 .328.1 354.8 280 317 367 385 421 50 . Klungkung 315 107 . 0 127 . 9 134.1 139.3 143 . 2 339 406 425 442 445 31 Gianyar 368 211.7 232 . 6 262 .5 271.6 284 .3 575 632 713 738 799 39 B a n g l i 521 116.6 124.0 133 .5 138 .3 147.5 223 238 256 265 283 27 Karangasem 861 231.3 261.3 257.1 267 .3 178.9 269 303 299 310 332 23 B A L I . 5/632 1/517.0 1, 783. 0 2, 020.1 2,12 0.0 2,220.6 269 316 358 377 401 49 Sources: Ruth Daroesman, taken from 1954, Monografi Pulau B a l i , I G u s t i Gde Raka, Pusat Djawatan P e r t a n i a n Rakyat, Djakarta 1954, p.10; Pop u l a t i o n Census 1961 and 1971; Bappeda,. B a l i Regional Plan Concept f o r 1977-2000. Go 24 area of low l a n d to the south of the c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n h i g h l a n d s . The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t h i s southern r e g i o n 2 ranges from 700 - 1000 persons per sq. km . Almost 90% of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n the r u r a l area; o n l y 10% are i n the urban area ( B a l i r e g i o n a l Plan 1977 - 2000). The i n f l u e n c e of tourism on B a l i n e s e s o c i e t y i s most conspicuous i n the r a p i d growth of h o t e l - b u i l d i n g and l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s which the g r e a t i n f l o w of t o u r i s t s has generated. B a l i a l r e a d y has, as p a r t of i t s l i f e and s o c i e t y , l e g a l arrangements r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l and communal ownership of l a n d . The t r a d i t i o n a l land r i g h t s which are s t i l l i n l i v i n g p r a c t i c e are as f o l l o w s : ( F r a n c i l l o n , 1975, p. 736). 1. Temple (pura) l a n d : can be termed temple p r o p e r t y . A l l i t s products are intended f o r the needs of the temple. 2. V i l l a g e (desa) l a n d : over which the v i l l a g e community has s o l e r i g h t s . I t i s p r i m a r i l y used f o r v i l l a g e communal b u i l d i n g s and f o r a l l o t m e n t s to the v i l l a g e r s f o r t h e i r use. The h o l d e r s of such land owe the community a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n labour as r e q u i r e d . T h i s i s a l s o true of the v i l l a g e s i t e i t s e l f . I t i s dry l a n d , not p r i m a r i l y meant f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , and so not i r r i g a t e d . However, with the i n t r u s i o n of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of v i l l a g e land, t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n i s d i s r u p t e d . The simple f a c t i s t h a t the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e as expressed i n the way of l i f e o f the people, i s not and never has been s t a t i c . B a l i i s a l i v i n g dynamic s o c i e t y which has f o r hundreds of years adapted wi t h remarkable f l e x i b i l i t y to the f o r c e s of change. However, the problem i s how to ensure t h a t the b e n e f i t s • o f tourism reach the B a l i n e s e and s t i l l r e g u l a t e the i n d u s t r y to make as l i t t l e c u l t u r a l impact as p o s s i b l e . For t h i s purpose then i t i s r e a l l y important to know what i s the B a l i n e s e p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s of tourism development, to p r o t e c t t h e i r way o f l i f e , r e l i g i o n and customs i n the face of t h i s i n f l u x as best they can. Up to the present time, the extent of environmental changes r e s u l t i n g from tourism per se has not been very g r e a t . The primary areas of concern are the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and the changes of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , r e l a t e d to the u n c o n t r o l l e d development of h o t e l accommodation i n terms of both l o c a t i o n , d e s i g n , and the l a g of p u b l i c investment i n b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as roads, water sewerage systems, e l e c t r i c i t y e t c . , which d i s r u p t the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s ( t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n system or subak, v i l l a g e l a y - o u t , housing l a y - o u t , s t r e e t s p a t t e r n s e t c ) . From an economic p o i n t of view, subak i s the most important o f a l l the autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l land w i t h i n or among the B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e s . I f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s d i s r u p t e d undoubtedly the v i l l a g e r s ' way of l i f e w i l l change d r a s t i c a l l y . 2.1.3 Economic P r o f i l e The problems f a c i n g B a l i are s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t e d to p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , l i m i t e d land f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion, and l i m i t e d growth p o t e n t i a l of a l l the other non-t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r s except t o u r i s m . I t s p o p u l a t i o n i s growing a t a r a t e o f 2.03% per year; per c a p i t a income i s low; unemploy-ment and under-employment among the b e t t e r educated a d u l t s i s high; and about 55% of the gross domestic product and 70% of 26 employment i s s t i l l generated by a g r i c u l t u r e . B a l i ' s economy may be d e s c r i b e d as a t r a d i t i o n a l system based on a g r i c u l t u r e . About 9 0% of the people l i v e i n r u r a l areas where v i l l a g e l i f e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from a s t r o n g o r i e n t a t i o n to non-economic a c t i v i t i e s -- r e l i g i o n , dance, and r i t u a l . Both output and employment are predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l . A r e l a t i v e breakdown by s e c t o r of t o t a l output and employment f o r 1968-69 i s shown i n Table 2.3 TABLE 2.3: Employment and Sector of A c t i v i t y i n B a l i / 1971 Sector % of P o p u l a t i o n 0 ^ Employed A g r i c u l t u r e 67.0 55 L i g h t Industry & h a n d i c r a f t s 6.0 9 Commerce 8.5 14 S e r v i c e s and other 18.5 22 100 100 Source: Sceto Consultants Report, 1971, V o l . 5, p. 10. With very few e x c e p t i o n s B a l i ' s o n l y " i n d u s t r y " i s a g r i c u l t u r e , and a g r i c u l t u r a l products are almost e x c l u s i v e l y r i c e , cash crops such as c o f f e e and copra and c a t t l e . Hence, the major economic p o t e n t i a l i n B a l i l i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and tourism. The other a c t i v i t i e s such as h a n d i c r a f t s have developed out of those major a c t i v i t i e s . ' The whole B a l i n e s e landscape i s dominated by the r i c e t e r r a c e s , which extend up the faces of steep s l o p e s i n the deeply cut lowland v a l l e y s , and ascend the h i l l s and mountains i n an endless s u c c e s s i o n of steps u n t i l they can go no h i g h e r . The B a l i n e s e are able to c u l t i v a t e two s u c c e s s i v e crops of 27 r i c e each year, as w e l l as an in t e r m e d i a t e crop, which p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l r o t a t i o n and n i t r o g e n enrichment. The B a l i n e s e system of i r r i g a t i o n i s of a n c i e n t o r i g i n and has been developed, m o d i f i e d and improved over many c e n t u r i e s . Since r i v e r water i s common p r o p e r t y and s i n c e any one u n i t of the i r r i g a t i o n system may serve a number of v i l l a g e r s , or a number of v i l l a g e s , or even a whole d i s t r i c t , the development and o p e r a t i o n of the system r e q u i r e s a community c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s has l e d to the estab l i s h m e n t o f subaks, which are, i n e f f e c t , c o o p e r a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s i n the nature o f l o c a l water boards. The subaks are composed of a l l members owning sawah ( r i c e f i e l d s ) i n a common i r r i g a t i o n area, who are compelled to j o i n . Meetings are n e g e r a l l y h e l d i n a temple compound l o c a t e d i n the r i c e f i e l d s , which belongs to the subak and i s d e d i c a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t i e s ( S i r Robert Blacwood, 1970, p. 72). A l l the work of the c o o p e r a t i v e i s designed t o ensure an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e r i c e l a n d s , and i s c a r r i e d on i n a s p i r i t o f complete and harmonious communal u n i t y . T o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n B a l i i s about 390,000 ha; 100,000 ha of which i s i r r i g a t e d , w i t h another 110,000 i n p l a n t a t i o n , 65,000 i n coconuts, 25,000 i n c o f f e e and 90,000 i n dry crops (see Map 2.5). About 70% of the p l o t s are l e s s than 1 ha, wit h a c t u a l owners working 73% of the p l o t s . In a d d i t i o n to farming, there i s some l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n — c a t t l e , hogs and p o u l t r y . U n t i l very r e c e n t l y f i s h i n g has been r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. I f p a s t trends continue, a g r i c u l t u r a l output may be expected to i n c r e a s e roughly i n p r o p o r t i o n to the i n c r e a s e . MAP 2 . 5 : LAND USE OF B A L I , 1971 LAUI JAW* KjiUNGKULAN 3 A M U D R A I N 0 0 N E S I A < I N D O M E S I A i v J O O M I J : 750.000 Sources : B a l i P r o v i n c i a l Planning Board, B a l i Regional Plan Concept 1977-2000, 1977. Co i n p o p u l a t i o n (Sceto, 1971, v o l . 5 , p. 10). Continued expan-s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l output on B a l i , however, w i l l have to be based p r i m a r i l y on higher v a l u e crops and improved p h y s i c a l i n p u t : seeds, f e r t i l i z e r , water, e t c . (see Table 2.4), r a t h e r than on g r e a t e r l a b o r u t i l i z a t i o n , which i s a l r e a d y r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r ue given very l i m i t e d scope f o r i n c r e a s i n g the amount of lan d under c u l t i v a t i o n . Under these circumstances, r u r a l unemployment i n l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e over the long term, unless of course n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s develop i n r u r a l areas or s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of people choose to migrate to urban c e n t e r s or other l e s s populated i s l a n d s . Obviously, r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n would on l y c o n t r i b u t e to the e x i s t i n g l e v e l of urban unemployment which has a l r e a d y become somewhat of a problem i n towns such as Denpasar. What i s needed i s a r a p i d expansion of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s capable of absorbing both urban and r u r a l unemployed. How-ever, an important aspect of t h i s problem i s t h a t the t r a d -i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l presumably become l e s s important. In a d d i t i o n massive o u t - m i g r a t i o n must be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d , t a k i n g i n t o account c e n t r a l government p o l i c y and the wishes of i n d i v i d u a l B a l i n e s e . There i s , a t p r e s e n t l i t t l e e x t r a c t i v e or heavy i n d u s t r y i n B a l i (see Table 2.5). E x i s t i n g l i g h t i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e s import s u b s t i t u t i o n and the p r o c e s s i n g of b a s i c a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The most important i n terms of employment i s the 30 TABLE 2.4 : Pr o d u c t i o n of P r i n c i p a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Crops, B a l i 1965-69 Average 1969 1970 1971 Padi sawah Padi gogo Maize Cassava Sweet potatoes Peanuts Soybeans Coffee Tobacco Kapok Cotton Cloves Pepper 489.1 19.8 48.7 185.0 251. 6 5.9 8.3 (000 tons) 536.6 18.1 51. 2 168 .2 202. 6 6.2 9.5 ( tons) 7, 090 53 73 2 4 523 . 5 12.4 59.1 215.1 205.3 8.5 8.2 7 ,438 23 16 2 6 625.8* 10.8* 60.8* 221. 6 230.1 6.5 7.5 6 ,468 0.4 50 n. a. 5 8 Source: Laporan Tahunan o p . c i t . *Laporan P e n e l i t i a n II A, D a f t a r I I g i v e s 11,747 tons f o r maize/ 8,951 tons f o r p a d i gogo, and 476,273 tons f o r p a d i sawah. 31 TABLE 2.5 : Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s i n B a l i and each D i s t r i c t , 1970 D i s t r i c t / Number of Regency est a b - ' (Kabupaten) lishments Power (HP) Number Employed Nature of Industry 1. Badung 41 5,409 2,406 R i c e m i l l s and T e x t i l e 2. Jembrana 1 48 119 Rubber r e m i l l i n g 3. Bul e l e n g 17 575 303 Mixed 4. Tabanan 26 620 1,337 Mostl y r i c e m i l l s 5. Klungkung 2 - 278 Kretek c i g a r e t t e 6. Gianyar 18 93 1,409 Mostl y weaving 7. B a n g l i 2 10 32 R i c e m i l l s 8. Karangasem - -B a 1 i 107 6,755 5,884 Sources BPS, Survey of Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s , 1970 32 h a n d i c r a f t i n d u s t r y . P r o d u c t i o n i s o r i e n t e d to s a t i s f y i n g the needs of a t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d economy: b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s (such as b r i c k s ) , weaving, p o t t e r y , basket making, i r o n and s i l v e r works, wood and stone s c u l p t u r e , r o o f t h a t c h i n g e t c . At t h i s time t h i s type of i n d u s t r y i s d e v e l o p i n g i n response to the demands of tourism. While l a r g e s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l development i s u n l i k e l y to occur i n the near f u t u r e , there appear to be good p r o s p e c t s f o r the expansion of food p r o c e s s i n g and other l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Increases i n c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l depend l a r g e l y on the l e v e l of investment i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and t o u r i s t h o t e l s , and on the g e n e r a l expansion of i n d u s t r i a l and commercial a c t i v i t y and housing. With l i m i t e d growth prospects f o r most other non-a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s i n the near f u t u r e , and with a l i k e l y d e c l i n e i n the l a b o r a b s o r p t i o n c a p a c i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion, tourism development may have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact i n terms of the development of both n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a growing market f o r l o c a l goods and s e r v i c e s . T h i s prospect c l e a r l y m e r i t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e n t i o n i n government plans f o r r e g i o n a l development i n B a l i . However, the impact on the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e of u n c o n t r o l l e d development i s s t i l l i n q u e s t i o n . Per c a p i t a income i n B a l i has been estimated a t US $50-7 0 i n 1971, and US $150-170 i n 1977, s l i g h t l y above the n a t i o n a l 3 3 per c a p i t a income of around US $150 per year. The hi g h e r per c a p i t a income i n B a l i compared to a l l Indonesia i s due to s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n r i c e , and to income c r e a t e d by tourism. B a l i i s i n a r e l a t i v e l y good p o s i t i o n to develop i t s tourism i n d u s t r y as a means of improving the economic base f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n . However, s i n c e B a l i has such a str o n g unique t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e tourism a l s o has negative e f f e c t s . Monetary i n d i c a t o r s are not an adequate measure of the B a l i n e s e standard of l i v i n g , s i n c e much economic a c t i v i t y i s based not on money t r a n s a c t i o n s , but r a t h e r on c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t and the s h a r i n g of income i n k i n d . Thus, i n c o n s i d e r i n g t o u r i s t development, s i n c e land c o n s e r v a t i o n i s of g r e a t importance and most economic a c t -i v i t y i s based on c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t r ooted i n B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , i t i s important to i d e n t i f y the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of tourism with regard to these s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s . 2.2 TOURISM IN BALI 2.2.1 B a l i Regional Development and the O b j e c t i v e s of  Tourism Development The o b j e c t i v e s of r e g i o n a l development i n B a l i as s t a t e d i n the n a t i o n a l f i v e year development p l a n (Indonesian N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 1974) and i n the B a l i r e g i o n a l p l a n 1977-2000 ( B a l i P r o v i n c i a l P lanning Board, 1977), are as f o l l o w s : 34 a. To so l v e the problems of p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e by b a l a n c i n g urban and r u r a l development, encouraging f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and other a s s o c i a t e d p r o j e c t s . b. To improve a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , both food crops and exported cash crops. c. To improve tourism development and i t s a s s o c i a t e d supported programs and p r o j e c t s . d. To improve the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n program and the c r e a t i o n of employment. e. To preserve and to r e s t o r e the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e s of t o u r i s m development i n B a l i , as s t a t e d i n the B a l i Tourism Master Plan 1971 (SCETO Report 1971), are as f o l l o w s : a. To provide f o r e i g n exchange earnings which can be used to r a i s e the m a t e r i a l standard of l i v i n g of s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s , and to generate r e g i o n a l development. b. To c r e a t e jobs -- tourism development i s expected to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact i n terms of both the development of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the development of a growing market f o r l o c a l goods and s e r v i c e s . c. To improve the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and employment. d. To develop c u l t u r a l tourism, emphasizing B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , s c e n i c beauty and way of l i f e . 35 e. To p r e s e r v e a n d t o r e v i v e t h e B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t and v a l u a b l e n o t o n l y t o t h e B a l i n e s e b u t a l s o f o r a t t r a c t i n g t o u r i s t s . S p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e a b o v e o b j e c t i v e s a r e : 1) t o r e g u l a t e c o n t r o l o f h o t e l d e v e l o p m e n t i n B a l i , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; 2) t o m o n i t o r and r e g u l a t e t h e s o c i a l a nd c u l t u r a l i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m g r o w t h , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e numbers o f t o u r i s t s and t h e t o u r r o u t e s and s c h e d u l e s , a s w e l l a s t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f a " c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s " p r o g r a m f o r i n c o m i n g v i s i t o r s . I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s t r y i n g h a r d t o r e i n f o r c e p o s i t i v e i m p a c t s o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , and e l i m i n a t e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s . H o wever, t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a l l t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i s s t i l l i n q u e s t i o n . The i s s u e o f c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t r a d i t i o n a l and n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s r e m a i n s a c o n t i n u i n g d e b a t e . H e n c e , a s one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o g e n e r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y , t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be u s e f u l as i n p u t , t o m o n i t o r and r e g u l a t e t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r e i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m g r o w t h i n B a l i a s a w h o l e . W i t h r e s p e c t t o h o t e l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s o n l y r e c e n t l y p u t i n t o e f f e c t a l i m i t a t i o n o n t h e number o f h o t e l s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d t h a t c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d . New r e g u l a t i o n s concerning B a l i n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n s , zoning r e g u l a t i o n s and h e i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n s have been r e c e n t l y i n s t i t u t e d . The other development c o n t r o l s f o r the i s l a n d , as a whole, have been formulated i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the B a l i Tourism Master Plan (IBRD, 1974, p. 7, Annex X I I ) . S p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s on l o s s or p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d are not y e t formulated. H o t e l s are concentrated i n three main areas: Sanur, Kuta and Denpasar. Such a c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s a d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of tourism development. T h i s l o c a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of good beach s i t e s , p r o x i m i t y to the a i r p o r t a t Tuban, and easy access to t o u r i s t s a t t r a c t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h i s development was l a r g e l y unplanned and haphazard, w i t h d e c i s i o n s about l o c a t i o n , b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , and the p r o v i s i o n of b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as roads d i s r u p t i n g the e x i s t -i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s and r i c e f i e l d s . F e r t i l e r i c e f i e l d s have been turned i n t o scorched p a r k i n g l o t s , garage s t a t i o n s , h o t e l s , roads, e t c ; i r r i g a t i o n waters have been used f o r h o t e l swimming pools and t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n / c a n a l s c u t by h o t e l development and roads. A l l of these p h y s i c a l changes e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y w i l l a f f e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s , a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s e t c changes hard to q u a n t i f y , except through the e v a l u a t i o n of the v i l l a g e r s . 37 To prevent f u r t h e r haphazard development, which t h r e a t -ens to de s t r o y B a l i ' s c u l t u r a l and environmental a s s e t s the government has recommended t h a t f u t u r e h o t e l development be concentrated a t Nusa Dua. U n l i k e Sanur and Kuta, where h o t e l f a c i l i t i e s i n f r i n g e on e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e s and r i c e f i e l d s , Nusa Dua i s i s o l a t e d on a dry, s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d p e n i n s u l a (Bukit) on the southern end of the i s l a n d , separated from the most densely s e t t l e d and a g r i c u l t u r a l l y r i c h e s t p a r t s of B a l i . As s t a t e d a l r e a d y , t h i s p o l i c y w i l l not be e f f e c t i v e i f the a s s o c i a t e d development o u t s i d e the area remains u n c o n t r o l l e d . There i s evidence t h a t much h o t e l development i n the o u t s i d e r e g i o n i s b u i l t up i l l e g a l l y . 2.2.2 Why T o u r i s t s come to B a l i The primary a t t r a c t i o n s of B a l i f o r the f o r e i g n v i s i t o r may be grouped i n t o two broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : c u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n s - and n a t u r a l or s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s . Under the former category f a l l the d i v e r s e and unique a r t forms: music, dance, p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e s , as w e l l as a v a r i e t y of r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s which are deeply i n g r a i n e d i n the way of l i f e of the B a l i n e s e and are expressed i n Hindu-B a l i n e s e temples, f e s t i v a l s , and h a n d i c r a f t items. Included among the n a t u r a l and s c e n i c a t t r a c t i o n s are rugged v o l c a n -i c peaks, dense t r o p i c a l f o r e s t , l u s h , green t e r r a c e d r i c e paddies and white sand beaches f l a n k e d by groves of palm 38 t r e e s and washed by blue green waters which conceal c o r a l r e e f s and t r o p i c a l sea l i f e of g r e a t beauty ( A p p r a i s a l of the B a l i -Tourism P r o j e c t , 1974, Annex X I I , p. 1). B a l i has a long standing image among f o r e i g n e r s as a most e x o t i c South P a c i f i c i s l a n d , p o s s e s s i n g g r e a t n a t u r a l beauty and unique c u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n s . The combination of c u l t u r a l , s c e n i c and beach tourism has a s t r o n g appeal to wide segments of the tourism market. One of the ways i n which B a l i i s unique and thus so a t t r a c t i v e to t o u r i s t s i s the extent to which i t s economic and s o c i a l l i f e i s the e x p r e s s i o n of i t s c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n . Research a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana i d e n t i f i e d B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e as the most impressive a t t r a c t i o n to t o u r i s t s about B a l i (see t a b l e 2.6). 2.2.3 The Role of Tourism i n B a l i ' s Economy The tourism i n d u s t r y was r e c o g n i z e d i n the N a t i o n a l F i r s t F i v e Year Plan (1969-1974) as a s e c t o r which can c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to Indonesia's development through i n c r e a s e d f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s , employment and income gen e r a t i o n and r e g i o n a l development. B a l i , Java and Sumatra were given f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r tourism development. As has been s t a t e d , the economy of B a l i i s based on t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e . In the absence of v a l u a b l e min-e r a l d e p o s i t s , other economic a c t i v i t y i s l i m i t e d to the h a n d i c r a f t i n d u s t r y and other a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y which TABLE 2.6 : TOURIST 1 RANKING OF THE MOST IMPRESSIVE ASPECTS IN BALI Number of respondents, by n a t i o n a l i t y and hi g h e s t ranked aspect or combination of aspects N a t i o n a l i t y C u l t u r e (C) Numbers Scenery (S) r a n k i n g each H o s p i t a l i t y (H) aspect and combination of Something e l s e C&s Q&H S&H aspects C&S&H T o t a l U.S.A 4 2 - 1 1 - - 5 13 Dutch 2 1 - 1 1 - - 1 6 German 2 - - - 1 - - - 3 A u s t r a l i a n 13 3 3 1 2 - 1 10 33 Swedish - - 1 - - - - 1 2 B e l g i a n - - - - - 1 - - 1 Japanese 1 - - - - 1 - - 2 Norwegian 1 - - - - - - - 1 Swiss 1 - - - - 1 - 2 4 Canadian - - - 2 - 1 - - 3 B r i t i s h - - - 1 - - - - 1 French 1 - - - - - 2 - 3 New Zealand - - - - - - - 1 1 25 6 4 6 5 4 3 20 73 35% 8% 5% 8% 7% 5% 4% 28% 100% Sources: U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana, Research Report, 1973, p.26. 40 s a t i s f i e s the needs of a t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d s o c i e t y and, i n -c r e a s i n g l y , the demands of t o u r i s t s . With l i t t l e f u r t h e r expansion of a g r i c u l t u r a l land p o s s i b l e , and with the s i z e of farms d e c r e a s i n g , employment problems are l i k e l y to worsen, p a r t i c u l a r l y among educated a d u l t seeking e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l or modern s e c t o r jobs. In these circumstances, tourism l i k e l y has h i g h developmental p r i o r i t y f o r the i s l a n d . F o r e i g n exchange r e c e i p t s from tourism i n B a l i (con-v e r t e d from r u p i a h s a t 410 per d o l l a r ) are estimated to have r i s e n from $2 m i l l i o n i n 1969 to $4.1 i n 1970, to $4.4 i n 1971, and to n e a r l y $9 m i l l i o n i n 1973. The value of exports to both the domestic and'the f o r e i g n markets grew from $2.2 m i l l i o n i n 1969 to $6 m i l l i o n i n 1973 ( F r a n c i l l o n , 1975, p.729; Daroesman, 1973, p.49). These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e the r a p i d growth and the important r o l e of tourism i n the B a l i economy s i n c e the new a i r p o r t was opened i n 1969. The a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c funds i n the F i r s t F i v e Year Plan f o c u s i n g on communication p r o j e c t s has been c l o s e l y accompanied by a p a r a l l e l i n f l o w of t o u r i s t s , income i n f o r e i g n currency, and p r i v a t e investments. An i n c r e a s i n g share of p r i v a t e investments has been a l l o c a t e d to the h o t e l s e c t o r ( F r a n c i l l i o n , 1975, p.729). A survey c a r r i e d out by Udayana U n i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t incomes f o r those i n the t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r y were f i v e times g r e a t e r than incomes i n farming. A c c o r d i n g to employment f i g u r e s f o r 1971, 22% of the employed pop-u l a t i o n was i n the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , as compared to the a l l - I n d o n e s i a average of 10%. The Tourism Master Plan estimates t h a t i n d i r e c t employ-ment generated by tourism w i l l be i n a r a t i o of 3 : 1 to d i r e c t employment. I t has been assumed t h a t 75% of the employment was generated i n Badung Regency (SCETO, 1971). This would mean t h a t l e s s than 5% of the l a b o r f o r c e i n the other seven r e g e n c i e s can be absorbed i n t o the t o u r -i s t i n d u s t r y . However, a c a r e f u l study to c o n f i r m those estimates i s needed to measure the income and employment m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s of tourism, e s p e c i a l l y the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the e f f e c t i n t o the v i l l a g e communities. 2.2.4 Tourism Development Trend V i s i t o r s to B a l i can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , n a t i o n a l i t y , and age, and a l l t o u r i s t s may be c l a s s i f i e d i n a time p e r s p e c t i v e . Before c o n s t r u c t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t between 1963 and 1969 there were no l a r g e h o t e l s and o n l y a few small ones; probably the only t o u r i s t s were a sm a l l number of p r e w a r - s t y l e t r a v e l l e r s , s c h o l a r s and a r t i s t s . The B a l i Beach H o t e l opened at Sanur i n 1966. In 1966 only about 2,150 v i s i t o r s came to B a l i . A f t e r the a i r p o r t was made a c c e s s i b l e i n 1969 to l a r g e c a p a c i t y j e t s , the i n f l o w of f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s r o s e s t e a d i l y from 5,000 i n 1968 to 10,000 i n 1969, and to 240,000 i n 1977 (see F i g u r e 2.3). These data show t h a t t o u r i s t s a r r i v a l s i n B a l i have grown at a r a t e of about 27% per year s i n c e 1969. I t i s estimated t h a t by 1983 t o u r i s t v i s i t o r s to B a l i w i l l be around 540,000. T h i s p r o j e c t i o n c o n s i d e r e d the impact of energy p r i c e s , i n t h a t a f t e r 1977 the growth r a t e used was o n l y 14%. (I.B.R.D. 1974, 1, Annex X I I ) . Besides the f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s , of course, the domestic t o u r i s t s ( i n t e r - i s l a n d s v i s i t o r s ) are a l s o i n c r e a s i n g , from 32,285 i n 1961 to 86,067 i n 1969 and to 220,000 i n 1972. The annual average growth r a t e i s around 52%. I n c l u d i n g these domestic t o u r i s t s , i t i s estimated t h a t d u r i n g the 1980's t o u r i s t s v i s i t i n g B a l i i n a year w i l l t o t a l more than one m i l l i o n . In l i g h t of these p r o j e c t e d t o u r i s t flows, the poss-i b i l i t y of s e r i o u s d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on the c u l t u r a l and environmental a s s e t s of B a l i may be expected to i n c r e a s e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y . Related to the r a p i d growth of v i s i t o r s s i n c e 1969, t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s ( h o t e l s , c o t t a g e s , homestays/moteIs, bungalows, r e s t a u r a n t s , a r t s h o p s ) , t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication networks have a l s o grown very r a p i d l y . The expansion of the c i t y of Denpasar may be a t t r i b u t e d not o n l y to i t s being a P r o v i n c i a l and a 43 -FIGURE.2^3 :TOTAL FOREIGN TOURISTS IN BALI ( x 10,000 t o u r i s t s ) 2 8 • • 26 . . 24 . . 22 • 20 . . 1 8 . . 1 6 . 1 9 6 6 1 9 6 8 1 9 6 9 1970 1 9 7 1 1 9 7 2 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Sources : G e r a l d F r a n c i l l o n , p . 7 2 4 , 1 9 7 5 ; U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana R e p o r t , p . 1 0 , 1 9 7 3 ; Ruth Daroesmahv p . 49,1973; and Bappeda B a l i R e g i o n a l P l a n Concept 1977-2000, p . 2 8 ; and IBRD, p . 17, 1974. 44 Regency c a p i t a l , but a l s o to the f a c t t h a t Badung Regency i s the c e n t r e of tourism. Between 1969 and 1974, the number of h o t e l s i n c r e a s e d from 500 to 3000. Because a l l these h o t e l s are l o c a t e d i n Sanur, Kuta, and Denpasar, and because new c o n s t r u c t i o n i s planned o n l y i n Nusa Dua, a l l areas w i t h i n the Regency of Badung, t h i s Regency r e c e i v e s most of the income from tourism. In s p i t e of government e f f o r t s to r e d i s t r i b u t e t h i s income through t a x a t i o n , most r e g i o n s s t i l l do not r e c e i v e equal b e n e f i t s to those of Badung. (Ruth Daroesman, 1973, p.55) (see Table A2 and A3 f o r d e t a i l s ) . Thus the d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s from tourism i n t o the r e g i o n s i n B a l i , and e s p e c i a l l y to the v i l l a g e r s , i s s t i l l i n q u e s t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s massive expansion of tourism i s l i k e l y to p l a c e g r e a t s t r a i n on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and s o c i a l l i f e . For the time being, i n an attempt to reap the b e n e f i t s without i n f l i c t i n g s e r i o u s damage on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , i t was decided t h a t tourism should be "contained" i n a con-c e n t r a t e d r e s o r t area (Nusa Dua), and i t s i n t r u s i o n i n t o the r e s t of the i s l a n d l i m i t e d . However, t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o l i c y does not seem s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r i n terms of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l or economic impact. There i s a trend towards i n -creased a s s o c i a t e d development (such as roads, a r t s h o p s , r e s t a u r a n t s , stopover p l a c e s , and other t o u r i s t a t t r a c t -ions) o u t s i d e the r e s o r t area (see Tables A.4, A.5, and A.6 45 f o r d e t a i l s ) . Most of t h i s development i s s t i l l u n c o n t r o l l e d , and i t i s u s i n g f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d as w e l l as changing t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r a i s e s doubts about the r e a l b e n e f i t s of tourism f o r the v i l l a g e r s . Indonesian economists have o f t e n been accused of being one-sided, o v e r s t r e s s i n g the economic aspects of the dev-elopment e f f o r t and n e g l e c t i n g the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l aspects as other e q u a l l y important f a c e t s of development. Tourism development i n B a l i i s no e x c e p t i o n ; by over-emphasizing the economic b e n e f i t s of tourism, there i s a g r e a t danger t h a t B a l i w i l l be headed toward some s e r i o u s u n c o n t r o l l e d changes i n socio-economic s t r u c t u r e , which w i l l damage i t s t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . There i s no doubt t h a t t o u r i s m has brought some economic b l e s s i n g to B a l i , but p r o s p e c t s f o r economic development must be balanced a g a i n s t the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . I t i s to be hoped t h a t tourism development can be managed, to c o n t r o l changes to socio-economic s t r u c t u r e , so t h a t B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l values w i l l continue to e x i s t with o n l y s l i g h t a d a p t a t i o n s . Tourism i n any country w i l l i n v a r i a b l y b r i n g w i t h i t a number of p o t e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s i n terms of both c u l t u r a l changes and environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n . In order to minimize the negative e f f e c t s i n tourism development, i t i s necessary to a n t i c i p a t e p o t e n t i a l problems and to formulate the e f f e c t s on B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . Assuming t h a t the negative e f f e c t s of tourism upon 46 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s can be c o n t r o l l e d , i t may be expected t h a t the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s -- i n terms of i n c r e a s e d incomes, employment and f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s -would r e s u l t i n an o v e r a l l impact which, on balance, i s b e n e f i c i a l to the v i l l a g e communities. The comparison of s o c i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of tourism development i s important i n any t r a d e o f f between gains i n i n c r e a s e d incomes and employment and l o s s e s due to c u l t u r a l and environmental change. However, even i f the negative impact of tourism i s minimized, there w i l l s t i l l be changes i n the way of l i f e of the people and i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g which are extremely d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y . T h e r e f o r e , c e r t a i n value judgements are needed. F a i r judgement should be based on e v a l u a t i o n s by the v i l l a g e r s , who know what t h e i r needs are and what kinds of n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s have a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d i n t h e i r communities. With or without tourism development, there are of course other f o r c e s i n B a l i which have had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the B a l i n e s e way of l i f e , f o r c e s such as p o p u l a t i o n expansion, urban growth, modern education and communication, e t c . The evidence appears to show ., however, t h a t the impact from these f a c t o r s was r e l a t i v e l y low compared to what happened a f t e r 196 9 when tourism began to develop. As the number of t o u r i s t s i n c r e a s e d from 10,000 i n 1969 to 240,000 i n 1977, and to an estimated 540,000 per year i n 1983, the p o s s i b i l i t y 47 of s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the c u l t u r e and environment of B a l i may be expected to i n c r e a s e . 2.3 IDENTIFICATION OF THE REGIONAL PROBLEMS AND TOURISM IMPACTS There i s no doubt t h a t t o u r i s t development g i v e s economic b e n e f i t s to the r e g i o n , even i f t h a t income i s not d i s t r i b -uted e q u i t a b l y . But the main i s s u e i s how to reap the ben-e f i t s of economic development without damaging the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s which make i t unique. Many s t u d i e s have i d e n t i f i e d the importance of the c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s f o r the B a l i n e s e way of l i f e , and f o r i t s t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s . Some t r i e d to i d e n t i f y the impacts of tourism on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , but none i d e n t i f y the impact of d e c l i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land on t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . I t was e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d i n the Tourism Master Plan t h a t tourism expansion was l i k e l y to p l a c e g r e a t s t r a i n on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and s o c i a l l i f e ; i t was decided to l i m i t the impact on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e by c o n c e n t r a t i n g the h o t e l development i n one r e s o r t area (IBRD, 1974). T h i s p o l i c y may concentrate h o t e l development, but t o u r i s t s w i l l wish to v i s i t p l a c e s o u t s i d e the r e s o r t area. T h i s means u n c o n t r o l l e d development of e x c u r s i o n roads, stopover p l a c e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and artsho p s , u s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and changing v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , so t h a t the con-c e n t r a t i o n p o l i c y may not prevent damage to the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . 48 The t a b l e of land use i n B a l i shows s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n the r i c e f i e l d s area around 1950, 1970 and ;197 3. P a r t i c -u l a r l y from 1970 to 1973, i t shows more s i g n i f i c a n t decreases, 2 2 around 75 km per year, compared to 10 km per year from 195 0 to 1970 (see Table 2.7). Table 2.8 shows t h a t most d i s t r i c t s , except Karang Asem, experienced sawah decreases from 1961 to 197 0. From 1970 to 1973, most a l s o showed s i g n i f i c a n t decreases, except Klungkung, which shows a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e . The decreases i n B u l e l e n g and Karang Asem were caused by the v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n of Mount Agung. In Tabanan and Jembrana they were due to changes i n r a i n f a l l and damage to i r r i g a t i o n works, which might have l e d to a change i n land use from r i c e f i e l d s to dry crops. Some former sawah was a l s o used f o r the expansion of urban areas t h e r e . In Badung, Gianyar and B a n g l i , d e c l i n e s were caused by such e x t e n s i o n of urban areas, a t t r i b u t a b l e to needs of the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . Since there were no d r a s t i c decreases from 1950 to 1961, and con-s i d e r a b l e decreases from 1961 to 197 0 and c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l 1973, i t i s assumed t h a t t ourism i n 1969, has had a strong i n f l u e n c e i n t o the d e c l i n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the d i s t r i c t of Badung. I t i s noted i n the s o c i a l p r o f i l e t h a t the B a l i n e s e way of l i f e , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , r e f l e c t s the Hindu TABLE 2.7 : Land Use i n B a l i , around 1950, 197 0 and 1973 Land Use 1950 Land Use 1970 1973 km^ Q. "5 km^ o. km Q. Sawah ( r i c e f i e l d s ) 964 17 Sawah ( r i c e f i e l d s ) 756 13 535 9.5 Dry land a g r i c . and annual crops 1783 32 Dry land a g r i c . and ann-u a l crops, and gr a s s l a n d 1522 27 1155 20.5 Grassland 73 E s t a t e s 8 91 15 E s t a t e s 1284 24 1283 22.8 F o r e s t s 1237 23 F o r e s t s 810 14 1127 20.0 Other lan d 672 11 Non-agric. land 720 13 780 12.0 Non-prod, land 368 7 302 5.4 Lakes, ponds 33 47 . . Other (Rivers etc.) TOTAL 5,632 100 TOTAL 5,632 100 5,632 100 Sources: Ruth Daroesman, taken from 1950, Monografi Pulau B a l i , O p . c i t . ; 1970, Laporan P e n e l i t i a n , o p . c i t . ; and B a l i Regional Plan Concept 1977-2000, o p . c i t . TABLE 2.8 : Area of Sawah ( r i c e f i e l d s ) , around 1950, 1961, 1970 and 1973 D i s t r i c t / Regency (Kabupaten) 1950 Area 1961 1970 (•000 ha) 1973 1950 % of Total. Area 1961 1970 1973 1. Badung 19.3 18 .3 13.9 12.8 35 33 26 23 2. Jembrana 6.1 7.3 5.7 3.1 7 9 7 3.6 3 . B u l e l e n g 13.9 14 . 0 12.5 6.3 10 11 10 5 4. Tabanan 25.2 25.5 20.0 11.9 29 30 25 13.8 5. Klungkung 4.8 4.8 3.5 3.7 15 15 11 11 6. Gianyar 15.8 15.7 11.2 10.2. 43 43 30 28 7 . B a n g l i 3.2 3.3 3.3 2.9 6 6 6 5.5 8. Karangasem 8.1 8.6 5.5 2.5 10 10 6 2.9 B a l i 96.4 97 .5 75.6 53 .5 17 17 13 .5 Sources: Ruth Daroesman, Op.Cit. and D i r e k t o r a t A g r a r i a D a t i I B a l i (Agrarian Agency of B a l i P r o v i n c e ) , 1973. o r e l i g i o n . The d e c l i n e of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and d e s t r u c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w i l l t h e r e f o r e b r i n g about d r a s t i c r e l i g i o u s changes and undoubtedly a f f e c t B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . These v a l u e s have h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the communal a g r i c u l t u r a l system, which has an important f u n c t i o n as the b a s i c r e g u l a t o r of the inde-pendent economic and s o c i a l u n i t r u l e d by a c o u n c i l of v i l l a g e r s under the s p i r i t of Hinduism. Hence, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problems caused by tourism development, r e l a t e d to the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , >is- c r i t i c a l l y important. In order to know what the community needs, and what the people can accept i n terms of impacts of tourism on t h e i r s o c i e t y , i t i s necessary to o b t a i n a much deeper understanding of B a l i n e s e s o c i a l u n i t s , a s s o c i a t i o n s and l o c a l groups through s t u d i e s of the p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l -u a t i o n s of the B a l i n e s e people. T h i s type of study would c l a r i f y j u s t how s t r o n g l y they value t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , and what t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s are about degrees of tourism impact. T h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n w i l l be v a l u a b l e i n e v a l u a t i n g impacts and making d e c i s i o n s about f u t u r e r e g i o n a l development. PART I I STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS 53 CHAPTER 3 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THE RATIONALE FOR THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY 3.1 THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT CONCEPT AND THE RESEARCH DESIGN Impact assessment i n v o l v e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , examin-a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of impacts a s s o c i a t e d with a g i v e n p r o j e c t . Comprehensive impact assessment r e q u i r e s a system-a t i c , i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach which w i l l ensure i n t e g r a t e d use of the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and the environmental design a r t s . The purpose of impact assessment i s to measure the e f f e c t s of a program a g a i n s t the g o a l s ; i t i s a t o o l to be used i n subsequent d e c i s i o n making about the program, and i n d e s i g n i n g f u t u r e programs. Assessment i n v o l v e s : r e s e a r c h design; data c o l l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and the a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s i n p o l i c y recommendations (Weiss, 1972, p.4; and F i n s t e r b u s c h , 1977 pp.2-24). This study i s o n l y one component of the p l a n n i n g e v a l u a t i o n process and i t i s s o l e l y concerned with community p r e f e r e n c e s concerning t o u r i s m development and i t s impact on a v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . The r e s e a r c h i s designed to a s c e r t a i n the impact of tourism development on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land-use p a t t e r n s by i n v e s t i g a t i n g community p r e f e r e n c e s , w i t h i n the comprehensive context of i n t e r r e l a t e d s o c i o -54 economic and environmental aspects over time. The study i n i t i a l l y examines the c o n t i n u i n g e f f e c t s of t o u r -ism" development on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use which may,cause major changes i n B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s . These changes w i l l , h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , a l t e r v i l l a g e s o c i o -economic s t r u c t u r e and c u l t u r e . Whether t h i s w i l l have a n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e impact i s s t i l l q u e s t i o n a b l e and needs to be assessed (see F i g u r e 3.1). Then the study focuses on the e v a l u a t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of such changes and p o l i c i e s , p r i m a r i l y from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the v i l l a g e r s who d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y experience the impact of the changes. The l e v e l of impact i n a given v i l l a g e w i l l vary with the degree of p r o j e c t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h e r e . One measure of t h i s i s a l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t , the r a t i o of the amount of land f o r t o u r i s t p r o j e c t s i n a v i l l a g e to the t o t a l amount used f o r t o u r i s t p r o j e c t s i n a g i v e n r e g i o n . I n d i c a t o r s of i n -d i r e c t impact i n c l u d e the d i s t a n c e of each v i l l a g e from the t o u r i s t developments, a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the v i l l a g e s , and the number of a s s o c i a t e d v i l l a g e a c t i v i t i e s ( t o u r i s t a t t r a c t -i o n s , a r t shops, h a n d i c r a f t s , and other a g r o - i n d u s t r y t h a t s u p p l i e s the t o u r i s t s need). R e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be used to s e l e c t the sample v i l l a g e s . The r e s e a r c h framework i n c l u d e s : a) a l a n d use survey and a n a l y s i s of changes to t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use; and FIGURE 3.1 ; THE GENERAL SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK 56 b) an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use as a r e s u l t of the development of tourism. In s i x v i l l a g e s land use determined i n a 1979 f i e l d survey i s compared with l a n d use over the p r e v i o u s ten years s i n c e 1969. Next, the D e l p h i approach was used to i n v e s t -i g a t e the impact of tourism development on an enlarged sample of 51 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s , s e l e c t e d from three zones of tourism impact. The v a r i a b l e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n v e s t i g a t e v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of tourism development and w i l l be used to t e s t the hypothesis (see F i g u r e 3.2). The surveys were conducted between June 12 and August 29, 1979. 3.2 RATIONALE FOR USING THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE,  AND THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The needs of the community should c a r r y somewhat g r e a t -er weight i n developmental d e c i s i o n s than the wishes of the developer. Most p r o j e c t s w i l l use some la n d . These land use changes w i l l d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t l i f e s t y l e s of people i n the area. T h i s impact assessment t r i e s to determine whether the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s s t a t e d i n the B a l i Regional P l a n , and e s p e c i a l l y i n the B a l i Tourism Development Pl a n , are being met, s p e c i f i c a l l y whether changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use w i l l have a pos-i t i v e or negative impact on the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . 57 FIGURE 3.2 ; THE FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY To i d e n t i f y the impacts o f Tour i sm Development A l t e r a t i o n i n economic s t r u c t u r e Change i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e 4 To I d e n t i f y the a l t e r a t i o n on s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e : - Loss o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l and - Change i n B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e ^ j a t t e r n 8 . I To i d e n t i f y the change i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( v i l l a g e r s ' way of l i f e ) based on the v i l l a g e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e s ( t h e i p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s ) J To v e r i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e impact s on a e s t h e t i c and c u l -t u r a l v a l u e . the focus of the s tudy the r e l a t e d a spec t s 58 T o u r i s t s value the a t t r a c t i v e environment and unique c u l t u r e of B a l i . T h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l examine r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y and p r e d i c t i v e l y the impact of tourism development on these a t t r i b u t e s . The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of to u r i s m development versus a g r i c u l t u r e need to be assessed based on v i l l a g e r p r e f e r e n c e s . The p o i n t of view taken i n t h i s impact assessment i s t h a t of p r e s e n t day B a l i n e s e s o c i e t y : t h a t i s , v i l l a g e r a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of tourism e f f e c t s i n t h e i r own communities. T h i s study f i r s t focuses on changes to v i l l a g e land use over time, to see whether these changes are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h tourism developments. Secondly, v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and land use changes are examined, as w e l l as t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s about r e t e n t i o n o f . t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . T h i r d l y , based on v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s o f the impact they p e r c e i v e , the study w i l l attempt to f i n d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s as to the degree of impact, w i t h a view t o making a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y recommend-a t i o n s . Due to r e s e a r c h time and budget c o n s t r a i n t s , the exam-i n a t i o n of changes to v i l l a g e land use was l i m i t e d to the study of s i x v i l l a g e s : two i n t o u r i s t development areas; two i n areas p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by tourism; and two i s o l a t e d from tourism developments. For the D e l p h i survey f i f t y - o n e 59 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s , a g a i n u s i n g t h e t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f i m p a c t . The p e r i o d u n d e r i n v e s t -i g a t i o n i n b o t h p a r t s o f t h e s u r v e y was f r o m 1969, when l a r g e s c a l e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t f i r s t i n t r u d e d i n t o B a l i , t o 1979, when t h e a c t u a l s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d . 3.3 RATIONALE FOR USING THE DELPHI METHOD As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ( i n 3.1), an e m p h a s i s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f community a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t s o f g i v e n p r o j e c t s t h a t have changed o r may change v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s and t h e r e -by v i l l a g e r l i f e s t y l e s . V i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e i r knowledge and c u l t u r e , and f a i l u r e t o r e c o g -n i z e t h e h i g h l y complex n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s must l e a d i n e v i t a b l y t o d i s a s t e r (Kaufman and Thomas, 1977, p.389) . The D e l p h i method was u s e d t o measure v i l l a g e r p r e f e r e n c e s b a s e d on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h a n g e s t o l a n d u s e , and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t s o f c u r r e n t and p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t . These p r e f e r e n c e s d e m o n s t r a t e l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s , p u r p o s e s and v a l u e s (McEvoy and D.ietz, 1977, p.13). One l o g i c a l way o f a r r i v i n g a t a s e t o f m e a s u r e s i s t o s t a r t w i t h a l i s t o f m a j o r community o b j e c t i v e s . Once t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d and r a n k e d t h e y c a n be u s e d i n d e f i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e i m p a c t m e a s u r e s . The D e l p h i Method r e l i e s on t h e i t e r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e 60 by which a panel of experts i s requested to p r o v i d e s e v e r a l rounds of answers to a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s . The method has three d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s : 1) anonymity; 2) c o n t r o l l e d feedback; and 3) s t a t i s t i c a l group response (Van Gigch, 1978, pp. 432-435, Dickey and Watts, 1978, pp. 216-233). The members of the panel answer the q u e s t i o n s without c o n f r o n t i n g each o t h e r , or even knowing each o t h e r . A f t e r each round of q u e s t i o n s the answers are t a b u l a t e d and a p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n of the answers i s prepared. The next round the p a r t i c i p a n t s can e v a l u a t e the r e s u l t s of the preceding round. The process i s continued u n t i l a c l e a r consensus i s reached. U s u a l l y no more than three rounds are necessary to reach consensus (Van Gigch, 1978). The D e l p h i technique can be u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d o n l y when s p e c i f i c p o s s i b l e f u t u r e outcomes based on h i s t o r i c a l trends are p r e c i s e l y s t a t e d . T h i s technique c o n s i d e r s each i s s u e i n i s o l a t i o n . The technique of c r o s s impact a n a l y s i s of the v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n has to be used to get back to the r e a l i t y of interdependence of each respondent's judgement. The nature of the D e l p h i technique i s as f o l l o w s : a) The D e l p h i technique assumes t h a t everyone's judgement i s as good as t h a t of everyone e l s e . The respondents do have to assume t h a t someone e l s e ' s judgement about a q u e s t i o n i s c h a l l e n g e a b l e . b) D e l p h i claims to e l i m i n a t e the s t i f l i n g e f f e c t s of s t a t u s i n committees through anonymity of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r e c a s t . However, a d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l s t i l l c o n f r o n t s the m a j o r i t y f o r e c a s t of anonymous e x p e r t s . c) To ensure t h a t everyone puts the same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on a q u e s t i o n , g r e a t e s t weight i s p l a c e d on very s p e c i f i c and p r e f e r a b l y t e c h n i c a l matters. T h i s tendency can be d e s c r i b e d as r e l a t i v e a t t e n t i o n to f i g u r e s on ground. P a r t i c i p a n t s are r e q u i r e d to focus upon s p e c i f i c events and make f o r e c a s t s f o r those events w i t h regard to changes i n context. 3.4 RATIONALE FOR SELECTING THE STUDY AREA The f i r s t stage i n any impact assessment should be to d e f i n e a study area which i s r e l e v a n t and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e g i o n p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by a given p r o j e c t . As the major a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and the s t r o n g e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e e x i s t i n the lowlands of B a l i , and because tourism development has so f a r mostly a f f e c t e d the south c o a s t , the impact study i s concentrated and i n v e s t i g a t e d the v i l l a g e s i n those areas. The present d i v i s i o n of B a l i i n t o e i g h t d i s t r i c t s (Kabupaten) r e f l e c t s the boundaries of the former e i g h t "kingdoms". W i t h i n these d i s t r i c t s are 564 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 62 u n i t s c a l l e d o f f i c i a l v i l l a g e s (desa d i n a s ) , s et up by the government f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r -mation and d i r e c t i o n s from higher l e v e l s of government. In everyday s o c i a l and economic l i f e , however, these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s are probably l e s s important to the B a l i n e s e than are the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e u n i t s (desa a d a t ) , which have st r o n g i n f l u e n c e s both p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l over t h e i r members. The t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e i s f i r s t of a l l a r e l i g i o u s u n i t (Daroesman, 1973, p.29), an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The Regency of Badung was chosen on the b a s i s o f these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as the area i n which t o u r i s t impact on t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s was to be examined. The study comprises a f i e l d survey of land use i n s i x s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e s t o determine how i t has changed over time, and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s about land use change along w i t h t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of i t s impact i n 51 "enlarged t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s " , s e l e c t e d by c l u s t e r samp-l i n g from 14 6 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s i n the Regency of Badung (see Map 3.1). The 51 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s sample c o u l d g i v e a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the a c t u a l impact of tourism i n the three d i f f e r e n t zones of v i l l a g e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the .enlarged sample s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d the degree of tourism impact i n B a l i . THE LIST OF TRADITIONAL  VILLAGES,.. SAMPLE; 1. Sub-District of East Denpasar. 1.1 V i l l a g e of Penatih 1.2 " Tonja 1.3 " Dangin Pu r i 1 . if " Suraerta 1.5 " Kesiman 2. Sub-District of West Denpasar. 2.1 V i l l a g e of Peguyangan 2.2 " Ubung 2.3 " Padangsambian 2.4 " Pemecutan 2.5 " Dauhpuri7 3. Sub-District of South Denpasar. OF . 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 V i l l a g e of Sanur Renon Panjer Sesetan Pedungan Serangan oisrRfcr LEGEND: 63 4. Sub-District of Kuta. 4.1 V i l l a g e of Dalung 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Canggu Krobokan Kuta Tiiban. . Jimbaran Pecatu Ungasan Benoa 5. Sub-District of Mengv/i. 5.1 V i l l a g e of Sembung 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Baha Mengv/i Penarungar Sempidi Kapal Mengv/i tana Buduk Munggu 6. Sub-District of Abiansems 6.1 V i l l a g e of Sangeh Dt$Tf\lcT or 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 Taman Bongkasa Ayunan Blahkiuh Abiansemal Manrbal Sedang Angantaka Jagapati Sibangkaje Sibanggede Darmasaba D i s t r i c t Boundary Sub-District Boundary V i l l a g e Boundary Main Roads Stop Over Places C i t y of Denpasar The Six V i l l a g e Samples. (JL.U 7. Sub-District of Petang. 7.1: V i l l a g e of Belok 7.2 " Pelaga 7.3 " Petang 7.4 " Carangsari 51 T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s Samples. t North Scale 1 :T|00).000 MAP 3.1 :DISTRICT OF BADUNG (The V i l l a g e s Sample). 64 A f u r t h e r reason f o r choosing the Regency of Badung as the study area i s t h a t Badung c o n s i s t s of 51 o f f i c i a l v i l l a g e s , f o r which most of the s t a t i s t i c a l data are cen-t r a l l y r e g i s t e r e d . Since accurate data f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s i n c e r t a i n years was d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n , t h i s c h o i c e made i t p o s s i b l e to complete the surveys u s i n g t h i s r e g i s t e r e d data from the corresponding o f f i c i a l v i l l a g e s . A l l v i l l a g e s i n the sample were chosen by u s i n g the c r i t e r i a t h a t was used f o r s e l e c t i n g the s i x v i l l a g e s sample and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the- v i l l a g e w i t h i n each zone t h a t was i d e n t i f i e d from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s i x v i l l a g e s sample. The d i s c u s s i o n with l o c a l govern-ment o f f i c i a l s i n the B a l i P l anning U n i t , the Tourism Planning Board, the B a l i P r o v i n c i a l P lanning Board, and the Regency of Badung was intended to c o n f i r m the s i g n i f -i c a n ce of these enlarged sample. 3.5 RATIONALE FOR SELECTING THE VARIABLES TO BE INVESTIGATED Changes i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , composition, and d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n produce s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l impacts i n themselves, and may l e a d to a wide v a r i e t y of changes i n other components of the s o c i a l system. P o p u l a t i o n changes a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l may f o l l o w as d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t consequences of a given a g r i c u l t u r a l or tourism p r o j e c t or p o l i c y , and w i l l i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e 'other aspects of the o v e r a l l s o c i o -65 economic system: d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t employment e f f e c t s , income changes, p r o d u c t i v i t y , s i z e and types of a c t i v i t y . The v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the study of land use change were: type of use ( a g r i c u l t u r e , t o u r i s t developments, other n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l ) ; and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( l o c a t i o n , d i s t a n c e , access, land v a l u e ) . In i n v e s t i g a t i n g v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s , a l l these socio-economic aspects were e x p l o r e d , as w e l l as land use, a g r i c u l t u r e , and tourism development v a r i a b l e s . A l l v a r i a b l e s were s t u d i e d u s i n g secondary data (pub-l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s and documentation of former r e s e a r c h ) , and primary data (land use i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the 6 s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e s obtained from a f i e l d survey, and i n f o r m a t i o n gathered from 51 v i l l a g e s u s i n g the D e l p h i approach with a two—round q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . 3.6 RATIONALE FOR SELECTING THE RESPONDENTS H i s t o r i c a l l y , the v i l l a g e a u t h o r i t y c o n t r o l s the land and homes i n the v i l l a g e , p r i v a t e and communally c u l t i v a t e d r i c e f i e l d s , g r a z i n g lands, and unproductive l a n d . The head of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e r u l e s the v i l l a g e i n the name of the c o u n c i l . He i s u s u a l l y e l e c t e d by common appr o v a l . A good v i l l a g e c h i e f i s a popular and i n f l u e n t i a l man. Once he has been e l e c t e d , and the c h o i c e has been sanctioned by the gods, he cannot d e c l i n e to hold o f f i c e w i t h -out severe p e n a l t y . He r e c e i v e s no s a l a r y , but enjoys s i g -66 n i f i c a n t advantages such as l a r g e r shares of land and food. He manages the community, p r e s i d e s over meetings, and o r g a n i z e s a l l the desa f e s t i v a l s (Covarrubias, 1937, pp.59-60; Geertz, 1975). From t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i t i s c l e a r t h a t the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r i s very important. He i s l i k e l y to know a g r e a t d e a l about the g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n o f h i s v i l l a g e , i t s changing c h a r a c t e r , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u l t u r e to other a c t i v i t i e s . Hence, h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of land use change and h i s e v a l u a t i o n of tourism impacts i n h i s v i l l a g e are s i g n i f i c a n t . To embrace a wider range of views, two other respond-ents were s e l e c t e d from each v i l l a g e : someone other than a t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r , who i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n farming and who w i l l t h e r e f o r e f e e l the d i r e c t impact of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use changes; and someone between the ages of f i f t e e n and t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s , who has completed a t l e a s t primary s c h o o l , and who i s n e i t h e r a farmer nor a t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r , but seeking employment i n a g r i c u l t u r e or i n tourism. Besides the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d above, the three respondents chosen from each of the 51 v i l l a g e s had to be knowledgeable a d u l t B a l i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n the v i l l a g e under study. Anonymity of the respondents was maintained. CHAPTER 4 6 7 METHODS 4.1 CLARIFICATION OF THE VALUE ORIENTATION The s t u d y examines t h e v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s o f v i l l a g e r s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d e m o n s t r a t e d by d i f f e r -i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h a n g e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , and by d i f f e r i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t o f c u r r e n t and f u t u r e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t upon a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . The frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s i n v o l v e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s as e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . An o r i e n t a t i o n f a v o r i n g c o n t i n u e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e , m a i n t e n a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s i n B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e s , and t h e a b s e n c e o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , i s deemed t o be a p o s i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . An o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s t o u r i s m d e v e l -opment a n d / o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n e g a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . V i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a greement o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t s o f c u r r e n t t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t and f u t u r e d e v e l -opment p o l i c y . A v a l u e judgement i s r e q u e s t e d . 68 4.2 OPERATIONAL!ZING THE HYPOTHESIS To test the hypothesis required a means of measuring v i l l a g e r perceptions of land use changes and v i l l a g e r eval-uations of tourism impacts. Operationalizing the value orientation for v i l l a g e r perceptions was a straightforward procedure, using the f i r s t round questionnaire. Statements related to Balinese culture, a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use patterns and changes i n v i l l a g e land use were constructed to form the measurement scale. Respondents were asked to agree or disagree with each statement. Cumulative value scales were taken as r e f l e c t i n g v i l l a g e r perception of the values i n question. Measurement of v i l l a g e r evaluations, i n a second round questionnaire, consisted of formulating their perceptions of changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and finding out their evaluations of the impacts of current and planned tourism development. These evaluation statements were value judgements with which a respondent could indicate agreement or disagreement using a f i v e point scale. I t was considered to be of some intere s t and importance to v e r i f y the assumption that everyone i s aware of the r e l -a t i v e l y high decline i n the rate of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and i t s effects on Balinese v i l l a g e land use patterns and culture. In order to obtain more accurate insight into what v i l l a g e r perceptions are of p a r t i c u l a r aspects of 69 impact, a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the impacts caused by tourism development and other impacts. Some gen e r a l p e r s o n a l data was a l s o gathered i n both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to i d e n t i f y t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , s k i l l s , v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s , and thus ensure t h a t s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a had been met. 4.3 SELECTION OF THE SAMPLING AREA The s i x v i l l a g e s i n the f i r s t sample were s e l e c t e d as f o l l o w s : two v i l l a g e s t h a t were once a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s but had become completely dominated by t o u r i s t development; - two a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e s t h a t have f e l t some i n f l u e n c e s of tourism; two a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e s i s o l a t e d from the areas of t o u r i s t impact. The c r i t e r i a used to measure tourism impacts were: 1) c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s ; 2) a s s o c i a t e d t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s present; 3) d i s t a n c e from or access to t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . The 51 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s i n the enlarged sample used to measure v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d from a t o t a l of 146 i n the Regency of Badung as e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d , and were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three zones of tourism impact. 4.4 ADAPTATION OF THE DELPHI APPROACH 70 4.4.1 S e l e c t i o n of informants As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t h r e e a d u l t s from each of 51 v i l l a g e s were g i v e n the two round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 4.4.2 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The f i r s t of the two rounds of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to f i n d v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n of land use changes, based on f i n d i n g s from the comparison of land use changes i n the s i x v i l l a g e s sampled e a r l i e r . Means and other summaries of f i r s t round responses were compiled. The second round of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to f i n d v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s of the impact of tourism development on land use i n B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s . T h i s round was developed from the f i n d i n g s of the f i r s t round. The r e s u l t s of t h i s D e l p h i approach were a s e r i e s of q u a n t i t a t i v e and s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o j e c t i o n s , and some s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e data on the reasons f o r the p r o j e c t i o n s , and on the degree of consensus behind them.' T r a i n e d B a l i n e s e i n t e r v i e w e r s who were unknown t o the respondents adm i n i s t e r e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Use of these n a t i v e s was necessary t o overcome language b a r r i e r s and t r a n s l a t i o n problems. 71 4.4.3 The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r s are attached to t h i s t h e s i s as Appendices CI and C 2 . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s as they were administered to respondents were i n Indonesian; blank c o p i e s are on f i l e i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , where they are a v a i l a b l e to readers with knowledge of the Indones-i a n language. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were designed f o r two d i f f e r e n t purposes: to a s c e r t a i n v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s of land use changes; and to l e a r n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of these s h i f t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r each respondent i n each t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e sampled was s i m i l a r i n format and conte n t s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l data. S l i g h t l y more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s was requested of the second and t h i r d types of respondents than of the v i l l a g e l e a d e r s . Mainly c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s were asked, although some open-ended qu e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d to ensure t o t a l coverage of important response areas. Each respondent was t o l d t h a t o p i n i o n s expressed would be con-f i d e n t i a l and used o n l y f o r purposes of the study. The f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d t h i r t y - t h r e e q uestions which cover p e r s o n a l data about the respondent, and h i s p e r c e p t i o n s about the l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n o f h i s v i l l a g e , socio-economic, a g r i c u l t u r a l and land use 72 v a r i a b l e s , and t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t v a r i a b l e s . The s e c o n d r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d s e v e n t e e n q u e s t i o n s c o v e r i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s and c u l t u r e , p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y , and f u t u r e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . 4 . 5 ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS A n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s was f o c u s e d on a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e most s u i t a b l e l e v e l o f i m p a c t on v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . The r e t r o s p e c t i v e and p r e d i c t i v e a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o t e s t t h e t h e s i s h y p o t h e s i s . The t e s t e d h y p o t h e s i s i n t u r n c a n be u s e d as a b a s i c e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f a g i v e n p r o j e c t i n a g i v e n r e g i o n . T h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l i n d e c i d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o l i c y f o r a g i v e n s o c i e t y , as a p a r t o f e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . The a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r e l e m e n t s : 1) A n a l y s i s o f c h a n g e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e 1969-1979 f o c u s e d on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e and t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s i n s i x v i l l a g e s . 2) A n a l y s i s o f v i l l a g e s p e r c e p t i o n s o f v i l l a g e l a n d u s e change examined t h e e x t e n t o f l a n d u s e c h a n g e : v i l l a g e r v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s t o w a r d s t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , c h a n g e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e , t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e p a t t e r n s , B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e , and 73 t o u r i s t development. 3) A n a l y s i s of the v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n of the impact of tourism development on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s looked a t v i l l a g e r judgement about these impacts, about the t r a d e o f f s between a g r i c -u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e , and about tourism development i n the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 4 ) A n a l y s i s of the t e s t e d h y p o t h e s i s , w i l l r e s u l t i n i t s r e j e c t i o n or c o n f i r m a t i o n . T h i s t e s t e d hypothesis can be developed f o r use i n recommendations about f u t u r e development i n a g i v e n r e g i o n , and to improve the impact assessment process u s i n g a s i m i l a r methodology. 74 PART I I I DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 75 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS Th i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the r e s u l t s o f a survey and analy-s i s of land use changes i n s i x v i l l a g e s , and v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t -ions and e v a l u a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g tourism development and i t s impact i n f i f t y - o n e v i l l a g e s i n the Regency of Badung. As e a r l i e r mentioned, the survey i s p a r t o f a broad-based i n v e s t i g a t i o n to assess the impact of tourism develop-ment upon land use, settlement p a t t e r n s and socio-economic s t r u c t u r e , and thereby upon B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and environment. 5.1 LAND USE CHANGES CAUSED BY TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN  SIX BALINESE VILLAGES, 1969-1979 5.1.1 I n d i c a t o r s to Measure T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land Use  Changes The methodology d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s uses q u a l i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use, B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s , and the t o u r i s t development i n d i c a t o r s to examine the a c t u a l and p r e d i c t e d impacts o f tou r i s m development. The purpose of developing these i n d i c a t o r s i s to measure i n a sta n d a r d i s e d way changes i n B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use, and changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n three d i f f e r e n t zones of impact: s t r o n g , p a r t i a l and i s o l a t e d . The i n d i c a t o r s used to measure changing a g r i c u l t u r a l land use adapted from Ben-chieh L i u are as shown i n Table 5.1. Table 5.1 INDICATORS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE Item U n i t s I n d i c a t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use Area of c u l t i v a t e d land Farm s i z e A g r i c u l t u r a l products A g r i c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y Number of farmers Land value p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l v i l l a g e land mean ha mean ton/ha mean of f i r s t c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s p r o p o r t i o n s of t o t a l v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n Rupiah/10 0 m2/year higher propor-t i o n over 1.0 ha higher (over 2 ton/ha) higher mean higher propor-t i o n Less than Rp. 100,000/100 m2 ( l e s s than doubled) Source : Ben-chieh L i u , 1977, pp. 188-195. Lower p r o p o r t i o n s or lower means i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d o r t h a t the amount of land used f o r a g r i c u l t u r e has decreased. The i n d i c a t o r s used to measure B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s are given i n Table 5.2 77 TABLE 5.2 INDICATORS OF STRONG BALINESE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE SETTLEMENT PATTERNS Item U n i t s I n d i c a t o r of s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s E t h n i c composition i n the v i l l a g e E ducation attainment p r o p o r t i o n of n a t i v e B a l i n e s e to t o t a l v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n of lower l e v e l of education higher p r o p o r t i o n (above 90%) higher p r o p o r t i o n Farming a c t i v i t i e s p r o p o r t i o n of non-formal a c t i v i t i e s h igher p r o p o r t i o n Degree of u r b a n i z a t i o n T r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e Land Use p a t t e r n s Housing type Family s i z e p r o p o r t i o n of non-ag-r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s p r o p o r t i o n of t r a d -i t i o n a l use to t o t a l v i l l a g e land use. p r o p o r t i o n of t r a d i t -i o n a l housing type average household s i z e lower p r o p o r t i o n h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n above 5 persons L e v e l of income mean of p e r c a p i t a income l e s s than $20/ month Land tenure and l o t p r o p e r t y p r o p o r t i o n of v i l l a g e p r o p e r t y and h e r i t a g e l a n d . higher p r o p o r t i o n Communal l i f e P u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e A g r i c u l t u r e as a des-i r a b l e a c t i v i t y i n the v i l l a g e degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n mean of f a c i l i t i e s and development degree of d e s i r a b i l -i t y h i gher degree higher mean higher degree Source: I b i d Ben-chieh L i u , 1977. Lower p r o p o r t i o n s or lower means i n d i c a t e weak or poor t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s , and thus a l s o i n d i c a t e e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use. 78 The i n d i c a t o r s used to measure the e x i s t e n c e and impacts of tourism development are given i n t a b l e 5.3 TABLE 5.3 INDICATORS OF THE EXISTENCE OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACTS IN THE VILLAGE Item U n i t s I n d i c a t o r o f t o u r -isms e x i s t e n c e and ' impacts T o u r i s t development r a t i o of t o u r i s t development i n the v i l l a g e land use higher r a t i o Number of h o t e l s r a t i o of h o t e l numbers higher r a t i o Number of r e s t a u r a n t s r a t i o o f r e s t a u r a n t numbers higher r a t i o Number of t o u r i s t s e r v i c e s r a t i o of number of t o u r -i s t s e r v i c e s higher r a t i o Number of t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s r a t i o of number of t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s higher r a t i o Number of artshops r a t i o of artshops number higher r a t i o Number of a s s o c i a t e d developments: t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , water supply, e l e c -r i c a l supply, r e c r e a t -i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s r a t i o of development higher r a t i o Number of tourism employees r a t i o o f employee higher r a t i o L e v e l of income mean of p e r c a p i t a income higher r a t i o Number of t o u r i s t s mean of v i s i t o r s higher r a t i o Land value rupiah/100 m2/year higher 500%) (more than Source: I b i d Ben-chieh L i u , 1977. Lower r a t i o s i n d i c a t e t h a t there i s l i t t l e or no evidence of t o u r -ism- development and i t s impacts. 79 A l l of these i n d i c a t o r s are used i n both- p a r t s of the survey. 5.1.2 Comparison of Land Use Changes i n S i x V i l l a g e s Based on the reconnaissance survey, e a r l i e r r e p o r t s , and the advice of knowledgeable personnel i n the B a l i Plann-i n g U n i t , a s i x v i l l a g e sample w i t h i n the Regency of Badung was chosen, c o n s i s t i n g of two v i l l a g e s i n the s t r o n g impact areas (Sanur and Kuta); two v i l l a g e s i n the area of p a r t i a l impact (Kesiman and Ubung); and two v i l l a g e s i n the i s o l a t e d areas (Munggu and Buduk). The strong impact v i l l a g e s are w i t h i n the t o u r i s t r e s o r t areas or w i t h i n a r a d i u s of l e s s than 2 km from any of the e s t a b l i s h e d t o u r i s t development c e n t r e s . The p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s are areas which have few t o u r i s t developments and which are mostly w i t h i n a r a d i u s g r e a t e r than 2 km but l e s s than 5 km from any t o u r i s t d e v e l -opment c e n t r e ; a l s o i n c l u d e d are areas o u t s i d e of t h i s r a d i u s which are becoming t o u r i s t stopover p l a c e s (scenic areas, t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s , artshop a r e a s , e t c . ) , and areas along the t o u r i s t e x c u r s i o n roads which are thus p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the development of tourism. The i s o l a t e d impact v i l l a g e s are areas i s o l a t e d from the i n f l u e n c e of tourism development, which are more than 5 km from any t o u r i s t development c e n t r e , or those with no d i r e c t access to any t o u r i s t c e n t e r ; or areas which have no stopover p l a c e s and are i s o l a t e d from the t o u r i s t e x c u r s i o n roads. 80 The s i x - v i l l a g e sample was chosen to g i v e the broadest p o s s i b l e view of changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use and settlement p a t t e r n s , i n terms of e f f e c t s upon a g r i c u l t u r e , housing, and c u l t u r a l l i f e . I t was found t h a t p r i o r to 19 69 land use i n most v i l l a g e s was predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l , averaging above 75% of t o t a l l a n d . A f t e r 1969 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use i n the s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y , from an average of 90% i n Sanur and Kuta to 70% and 75%; and from a 75% average i n Kesiman and Ubung to 60% and 55%. However, i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s of Buduk and Munggu, the d e c l i n e was s m a l l e r , w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l land use remaining above 75% (see Appendix Tables A7, A8 and A9). Before 1969, most of these changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land use were the r e s u l t of p o p u l a t i o n growth and i t s e f f e c t s , such as new housing, s c h o o l s , i n d u s t r y , roads, h e a l t h f a c -i l i t i e s , e t c . A f t e r 1969, a g r i c u l t u r a l land use changes i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s were mainly due to t o u r i s t development. In the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s tourism was o n l y p a r t i a l l y the cause, with housing and other types of development a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the changes. However, housing growth and other development i n these zones was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by tourism, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1969 when the f u l l impact of the new a i r p o r t had been f e l t , and a f t e r the 1974 P a c i f i c Area T r a v e l A s s o c i a t i o n (PATA) conference i n B a l i . P o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y i n these v i l l a g e s 81 (see A p p e n d i x T a b l e A10). A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e c h a n g e s i n t h e i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s were f e w e r and were a f f e c t e d o n l y by h o u s i n g and o t h e r n o n - t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 5.4 w h i c h shows t h a t t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n t h e s t r o n g i m p a c t v i l l a g e s f r o m 1961 t o 1969 was m o s t l y a f f e c t e d by h o u s i n g and o t h e r t y p e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and l e s s t h a n 1% by t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t . However, f r o m 1969 t o 1979 l o s s e s o f l a n d i n c r e a s e d by 14% i n Sanur and 12% i n K u t a . I n t h e p a r t i a l i m p a c t v i l l a g e s o f Kesiman and Ubung, t h e r e was a l m o s t no l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b e c a u s e o f t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t b e f o r e 1969, b u t a f t e r 1969 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d e c r e a s e d by 11% i n Kesiman and 22% i n Ubung. By c o n t r a s t i n t h e i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s o f Buduk and Munggu, t h e r e was no l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b e c a u s e o f t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r 1969, and t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b e c a u s e o f h o u s i n g and o t h e r t y p e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s r e l a t i v e l y low compared t o t h e two o t h e r z o n e s o f t o u r i s t i m p a c t , where p o p u l a t i o n was h i g h e r . T h e s e f a c t s p r o v e t h a t a f t e r 1969, t h e m a s s i v e t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t had a s i g n i f i c a n t and d i r e c t i m p a c t upon t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y r i c e f i e l d s as compared t o d r y l a n d . W i t h i n c r e a s i n g t o u r i s m i t i s l i k e l y t h a t more a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d w i l l be u s e d f o r t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t . TABLE 5.4. : The Summary Evaluation of the Village Land-use Changes i n the Six Villages Sample. Tear and Land* use chan{e«. % Total arfta V i l l a g e s 1961 1969 1979 Strong Impact Sanur Total area - 935.467 Ha l a t a Total area • 912.73 Ha Cultivated Sice Other Community House * fiellgioue Other Tourism 'Cultivated Rice Other Community House 4- Religious Other Tourlsa 91 % 81 % 69 % 59 * 50 % 44 % 32 * 31 * 25 * 9 * 18 % 26 * n.a 16 % 21 * n.a 2 % 5 * • 1 % 5 * 00 % 100 % 100 % 93 % 88 % 77 % 53 * 54 * 50 % 40 % 34 % 27 * 7 % 12 % 17 * n.a 8'* 10 % n.a 4 % 7 * • • 6 % 00 % - 100 % 100 % f i f t l s ! Tanscr, Eeslaan Total area - 1109 Ha Ubung Total area • 600 Ha Cultivated Rice Other Community House It Other -Tourism 80 % 69 * 11 * 20 % Religious 16 % 4 * • 100 % 75 % 56 * 19 * Cultivated Rice Other Community 25 % House * r e l i g i o u s 16 % Other 9 % Tourism 0 100 * 76 % 67 * 9 * 24 % 20 % \* • 100 % 71 54 17 29 * 18 11 0 100 67 * 61 % 6 31 25 6 Z 100 % % % % % % 55 % 43 * 12 * 45 * 25 % 20 % 0 100 % 1961-1969 Khflnn-fl % Ha - 1Q7Q r h r T f t * Ha -10 * - 87 -15 * - 79 - 3 * - 8 *108 * • 87 n.a n.a n.a n.a H 5 © * • 0 * 0 - 5 * - 46 • 2 * • 9 -15 * - 55 •70 % • 46 n.a n.a n.a n.a • 100 % • - 14 * m 110 - 13 * m 59 - 18 % - 51 • 46 % • •77 • 31 * • 46 •194 % • 31 •367 * • 33 0 * 0 - 12 % •» 99 - 7 * a » 35 - 21 * em> 64 • 41 % • 45 • 25 % • 19 * 79% 26 •1800 % • 54 0 % 6 - 5 * - 43 - 11 % 97 - 2 % - 18 - 8 % m 62 -20 % - 25 - 36 % 36 •19 % • 43 • 27 % • 72 +22 % • 40 • 26 % • » • 7 % •- 3 31 % • 14 •25 % • •1106 % • 25 0 * , 0 0 % 0 - 5 % - 23 - 22 % 95 - 3 * - 11 - 21 % m 69 -11 * - 12 - 26 % 26 •15 * • 23 • 54 % • 94 • 12 * • 12 • ?4 % • 37 •20 % • 11 • 88 % • 57 R £ 0 •100 % • 1 0 % 0 0 % 0 ... Continued % Total Area 1961 - 1969 Change 1969 - 1979 Change 1961 1969 1979 % Ha % Ha Isolated Imoact Buduk Cultivated Rice Other ok 61 23 % % % 83 61 22 % % % 76 59 17 % % % - 2 % - 1 % - 4 % : 12 3 9 - 9 % - 2 % -26 * - 69 - 13 - 56 Community House tt Other 16 Religious 14 2 % % % 17 15 2 % % % 24 21 3 % % % + 8 % + 7 % +19 % + 12 9 3 +43 * +42 % +47 % + 69 + 60 + 9 Total area = 950.98 Ha Tourism 0 100 % 0 100 % 0 100 % 0 % 0 % 0 0 0 % 0 % 0 0 Munggu Cultivated Rice Other 89 78 11 % % % 87 77 10 % % % 83 77 6 % % % - 3 % - 1 % -15 * - 28 11 17 - 4 % • -33 % - 35 - 3 - 32 Community House (c Other 11 Religious 6 5 % % % 13 7 6 % % % 17 10 7 % % % +25 % + H * +40 % + + + 28 9 19 +25 % +39 * + 9 * + ^ 6 Total area = 1037 Ha Tourism 0 100 % 0 100 % 0 100 % 0 * 0 * 0 0 0 % 0 * 0 0 Sources : Appendix Table A.7 , A.8 and A.9 Notes : a.a • data not available • B less than 0.5 % or 0.5 Ha Sums o*fsubcategories may d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from totals because of rounding. 84 The changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i n a given s i t e w i l l i n d i r e c t l y a l s o a f f e c t other a g r i c u l t u r a l land due to p o s s i b l e d i s r u p t i o n of the whole t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n system. Hence, s i n c e the t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s and communal l i f e w ith i t s c u l t u r e depends s t r o n g l y on a g r i c u l t u r e , the e x i s t e n c e of those changes w i l l a f f e c t e i t h e r d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and socio-economic s t r u c t u r e o f the v i l l a g e s , as i s shown c l e a r l y i n the str o n g and p a r t i a l zones of t o u r i s t impact. T h i s d i d not happen i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . In the str o n g impact v i l l a g e s dramatic changes o c c u r r e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l land use p a t t e r n s : changes i n the t r a d -i t i o n a l environment; i n the n a t u r a l landscape; and i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . In the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s , some s l i g h t changes appeared i n the land use p a t t e r n s , but o n l y i n the areas of housing and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , the land use p a t t e r n s e s s e n t i a l l y r e t a i n e d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . The changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s i n the three zones of t o u r i s t development impact p a r a l l e l the changes i n v i l l a g e r socio-economic s t r u c t u r e : p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n ; e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n ; e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ; occup-a t i o n s ; d i s t r i b u t i o n of the labour f o r c e . Such s o c i o -economic changes, t h e r e f o r e , can be p r e d i c t e d from the 85 changes i n the p r o p o r t i o n of land devoted to a g r i c u l t u r e . Such land use change, t h e r e f o r e , assumes major s i g n i f i c a n c e . 5.1.3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Changes to T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e  Land Use i n Three Zones of Tourism Impact Based on changes to t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d use i n the s i x v i l l a g e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i l l a g e s w i t h i n each d i f f -e r e n t zone of tourism impact can be i d e n t i f i e d , a) Strong Impact V i l l a g e s In t h i s s e c t o r , l a n d use p a t t e r n s are no longer c h a r a c t -e r i z e d by a g r i c u l t u r e . N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s have s t r o n g l y i n t r u d e d . The v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s and housing types are a mixture of t r a d i t i o n a l , t r a n s i t i o n a l and modern. Socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s are heterogenous, the p o p u l a t i o n being a mixture of n a t i v e B a l i n e s e , Chinese, and others (see Table 5.5). R e l i g i o n s i n c l u d e Hindu- B a l i , Moslem, C h r i s t i a n and o t h e r s . S i x t y percent of the labour f o r c e i s engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . (see Table 5.6). Land values are markedly higher i n these s t r o n g impact areas compared to other zones. P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , income l e v e l , and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l are f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r s of tourism's impact. The p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y h i g h e s t i n the strong impact zone (see Appendix Table A10), as are the v i l l a g e r incomes. E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , while not a d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d f a c t o r , i s a l s o s l i g h t l y higher here, with more TABLE 5.5: The D i s t r i b u t i o n of V i l l a g e r E t h n i c O r i g i n i n the Six V i l l a g e s Sample i n 1978. Fo r e i g n e r s Indonesian C i t i z e n  »T • • Non-native — . _, , , Native • - T—11 i • • j_ x Chinese Dutch ( C h i n e s e - E t h n i c i t y ) Persons Persons Persons Persons T o t a l V i l l a g e Popula-t i o n Strong Impact Sanur 12,507 99.11 Kuta 10,583 98.45 P a r t i a l Impact Kesiman 11,960 99.79 Ubung 4,709 99.37 I s o l a t e d Buduk 7,685 100 Munggu 8,7 32 10 0 50 0.40 134 1.25 14 26 0 0 0.12 0.55 0 0 44 32 11 4 0 0 0.35 0.30 0.09 0.08 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 0.14 12,619 100 0 10,749 100 0 0 0 0 11,985 100 4,739 100 7 ,685 8,732 100 100 Sources : S t a t i s t i c Reports, P o p u l a t i o n of Badung 1977, S t a t i s t i c Agency The Regency of. Badung, November 1978 . TABLE 5 . 6 : The Distribution or Labour by Occupation in the Six Villages Sample 1976. Villages S t r o n g Tmpart Occupation Nuaber of Persons Sanur % or Employed Population P a r t i a l Tunflfit 1. Eaployad a. Agricultural a actor b. Industry c. Trada d. Qovernaent service a. Handicrafts f. Other 2. Not Eaployad Total Population 6,333 4,167 22 984 735 219 186 5,157 11,490 Nuaber or Persona % of Employed Population Nuaber % of of Employed Persons Population Persons [bjmg^  Nuaber % of of Employed 10,594 Population Nuaber ~%of Number of Employed Of Peraona Population Paraons HUflMH too 4,160 100 4,317 100 1,944 100 3,921 100 66.11 2,505 60.21 2,813 65.16 852 43.83 3,500 89.26 0 . 3 5 000 00 8 0.19 300 15,43 000 00 15.54 462 11.59 415 9.61 169 ••69 120 3.06 11.61 109 2 . 6 2 170 3.94 131 6.74 193 4.92 3.45 000 00 350 8.10 102 5.25 000 00 2.94 l,06i. 2 5 . 5 8 561 13.00 390 20.06 108 2.76 6,434 7,590 2,622 3,782 11,907 4,566 Sources: Bural Development Agency of Badung Regency (PMD) Data Tabulation 1976. 7,703 5,513 4 , 8 5 9 000 289 119 000 246 3,138 8,651 * of Employed Population 100 88,14 00 5.24 2.16 00 4.46 00 8 8 v i l l a g e r s having attended h i g h school and u n i v e r s i t y (see Table 5.7). b) P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s In these v i l l a g e s , tourism development and i t s assoc-i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s have not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and v i l l a g e l i f e . Land use i s s t i l l predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l . The changes t h a t have occ u r r e d are the r e s u l t of housing growth as w e l l as of tourism, as the e f f e c t s of tourism spread out from the areas of str o n g impact. The settlement p a t t e r n s and housing c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s are a. mixture of t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a n s i t i o n a l . Socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s are homogeneous. Native B a l i n e s e dominate the p o p u l a t i o n , along w i t h some Chinese (see Table 5. R e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s are s l i g h t . As i n the area of str o n g impact, 60% of the p o p u l a t i o n i s employed i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r (see Table 5.6). Land val u e s have changed somewhat l e s s than i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s , but much more than i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s lower t h a n . i n the strong impact zone, s l i g h t l y higher than i n the i s o l a t e d zone (see Appendix Table A10). V i l l a g e r income l e v e l i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f the strong impact areas, but higher than i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , i s c l o s e to t h a t i n the strong impact zone, wi t h more v i l l a g e r s having attended high school and u n i v e r s i t y than i n the i s o l a t e d areas (see Table 5.7). TABLE 5.7 : The E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l i n the Six V i l l a g e s Sample i n 197 6 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l V i l l a g e s Uneducated Persons Primary School Persons High School Persons U n i v e r s i t y Persons T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n Persons % Strong Impact Sanur 5,132 44.7 Kuta 2,958 27.9 P a r t i a l Impact Kesiman 5,099 42.8 Ubung 1,386 30.4 I s o l a t e d Impact Buduk 4,155 53.9 Munggu 3,78 9 4 3.8 4,505 39.2 1,780 15.5 7,140 67.4 464 4.4 5,912 49.7 2,539 55.6 3,125 40.6 4,373 50.6 820 6.9 630 13.8 423 469 5.5 5.4 73 0.6 11,490 100 32 0.3 10,594 100 76 0.6 11,907 100 11 0.2 4,566 100 0 0 7,703 100 20 0.2 8,651 100 Source : PMD (Rural Development Agency) of Badung Regency Data T a b u l a t i o n 1976. CO 90 c) The I s o l a t e d V i l l a g e s . T o u r i s t development and i t s a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s do not e x i s t i n these remote areas, even though there are some p o t e n t i a l t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s . The land use p a t t e r n s are dominated by a g r i c u l t u r e . Losses of a g r i c u l t u r a l land are the r e s u l t of housing development due to p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e alone. The settlement p a t t e r n s and housing remain t r a d -i t i o n a l . Socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s are homogenous, the p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g p u r e l y of n a t i v e B a l i n e s e . There i s a s l i g h t mixture of r e l i g i o n s . Job o p p o r t u n i t i e s are predominantly generated by the a g r i c u l t u r e s e c t o r , which employs 80% of the labour f o r c e (see Table 5.6). Changes i n land value are lower than i n the other two r e g i o n s , and land t r a n s a c t i o n s have been few. P o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s the lowest of the three zones (see Appendix A10), as are average income l e v e l s , and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s (see Table 5.7). A l l of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were used to develop the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and to s e l e c t and c l a s s i f y the 51 v i l l a g e s i n the enlarged sample as to tourism impact. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was r e - e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s of the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 5.2 VILLAGERS' PERCEPTION AND EVALUATION OF LAND USE CHANGE  AND TOURISM IMPACT 5.2.1 S i g n i f i c a n c e of V i l l a g e r Response As mentioned e a r l i e r , v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a -91 t i o n s of changes to land use and of the impact of tourism development were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 51 s e l e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s w i t h i n the Regency of Badung by i n t e r v i e w i n g 3 respondents from each of these v i l l a g e s . The sample was s e l e c t e d from 146 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s and r e p r e s e n t s about 35% of the u n i v e r s e (Regency of Badung), and about 3.5% of the 1470 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s i n B a l i . The three v i l l a g e r s chosen ( v i l l a g e head, farmer, and another educated a d u l t ) were s e l e c t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r i n each v i l l a g e based on c r i t e r i a e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d ; t h e i r s e l e c t i o n was v e r i f i e d through p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In g e n e r a l , the data shows t h a t respondents met the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . The d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s appear i n the Appendix C . l page 163. Tables A. 11, A-. 12" and A. 13 i n the Appendix summarize the data c o l l e c t e d . The s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r each v i l l a g e r type f o l l o w below: a) The V i l l a g e Heads (see Table A.11) These respondents p e r c e i v e d t h e i r v i l l a g e s i n a very s i m i l a r way to t h a t of the r e s e a r c h e r , i n terms of tourism impact. The v i l l a g e s they saw as being s t r o n g l y impacted a l l were w i t h i n 2 km of the tourism c e n t r e s , and a l l the v i l l a g e s they saw as i s o l a t e d were o u t s i d e a r a d i u s of 5 km from these c e n t r e s . S i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of the v i l l a g e s they saw as s u f f e r i n g medium impact f e l l w i t h i n r a d i u s of 92 2 and 5 km away. Acc o r d i n g to these v i l l a g e l e a d e r s , the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s t development and i t s impacts can be c o r r e l a t e d with the percentage of i n c i d e n c e of the f o l l o w i n g phenomena: n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l use of l a n d ; n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l land use p a t t e r n s ; non-native B a l i n e s e r e s i d e n t i n the v i l l a g e ; non-t r a d i t i o n a l housing p a t t e r n s and housing types; p r i v a t e land tenure, and changes i n land v a l u e . The s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s have the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e , and the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s the lowest. Other i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r s i t i c s are the major a c t i v i t y of the v i l l a g e , higher incomes of the r e s i d e n t s , and c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i l l a g e r s . E x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s was l i n k e d by the v i l l a g e heads with high percentages of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and land use, n a t i v e B a l i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e p a t t e r n s and hous-i n g types, and v i l l a g e land tenure, with l i t t l e or no change i n l a n d v a l u e s , and w i t h an absence of t o u r i s t development. The i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s had the most t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d -use and t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , and the strong impact v i l l a g e s the l e a s t . b) V i l l a g e Farmers (see Table A.12) The farmers i d e n t i f i e d tourism development or i t s impacts as o c c u r r i n g i n areas with a higher percentage of other major a c t i v i t i e s , a mixture of a g r i c u l t u r a l and non-a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i n the v i l l a g e , a system of p r i v a t e 93 land tenure, a b e t t e r l e v e l of income, the e x i s t e n c e of modern and t r a n s i t i o n a l types of housing and v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , and i n c r e a s e s i n land value from 1969 to 1979. For a l l of these items the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s have the h i g h e s t percentage value and the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s the lowest. Farmers saw the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s as being i d e n t i f i e d w ith a higher percentage of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , the non-existence of t o u r i s t development, the dominance of a g r i c u l t u r e i n land use, t r a d i t i o n a l housing types and v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n , p r i v a t e l a n d tenure by h e r i t a g e , and l e s s change i n land value or no change a t a l l . The i s o l a t e d impact v i l l a g e s had the s t r o n g e s t t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and the strong impact v i l l a g e s the weakest. However, there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i n a l l v i l l a g e s there s t i l l e x i s t s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . For example, more than 7 0% of respond-ents chose a g r i c u l t u r e as the most d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y , and 75% p r e f e r r e d to stay i n t h e i r communal l i f e r a t h e r than tra n s m i g r a t e . c) Educated A d u l t (see Table A.13) These respondents saw the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s t d e v e l -opment or i t s impacts as being i d e n t i f i e d with a higher percentage value of other major a c t i v i t i e s , a mixture of 94 a g r i c u l t u r a l and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i n the v i l l a g e , the purchase of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , a b e t t e r l e v e l of income, the s e l e c t i o n of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as most d e s i r a b l e , the e x i s t e n c e of modern and t r a n s i t i o n a l types of housing and v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , and changes i n land value between 1969 and 1979. For a l l of these items, the strong impact v i l l a g e s had the h i g h e s t percentage v a l u e and the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s the lowest. The responses of these people i d e n t i f i e d the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e with a higher percentage of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , the non-existence of t o u r i s t development, the dominance of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l housing types and v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , the s e l e c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as most d e s i r a b l e , the e x i s t e n c e of p r i v a t e land tenure by h e r i t a g e , and l e s s change i n land value or no change a t a l l . The i s o l a t e d impact v i l l a g e s had the s t r o n g e s t t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and the strong impact v i l l a g e s had the weakest. However, as d i d the other respondents, the educated a d u l t s i n the three zones of impact s t i l l showed strong i n d i c a t i o n s of the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s - -f o r example, the s e l e c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as most d e s i r a b l e s t i l l remained s t r o n g , 12.5% i n the s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impact zones, and 33% i n the i s o l a t e d zone. 95 In a d d i t i o n , 8 0% of the educated a d u l s t showed no d e s i r e to tr a n s m i g r a t e , due to t h e i r love f o r and strong t i e s to t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and t h e i r communal l i v e s . From the q u e s t i o n n a i r e evidence i t can be concluded t h a t t o u r i s t development and i t s impacts are very e v i d e n t i n what the r e s e a r c h e r i n i t i a l l y d e f i n e d as areas of st r o n g and p a r t i a l impact, and much l e s s e v i d e n t i n the v i l l a g e s d e f i n e d as i s o l a t e d . The t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s s t i l l s t r o n g l y e x i s t i n these i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , but are weaker i n the strong and p a r t i a l impact zones. An important c o n c l u s i o n d e r i v e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses i s the respondents i n g e n e r a l met the c r i t e r i a s e t f o r them, and t h e r e f o r e i n formation c o l l e c t e d from then can be taken as v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of each of the three v i l l a g e r groups ( t r a d -i t i o n a l l e a d e r , farmer, and educated a d u l t ) . A second important c o n c l u s i o n reached from t h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h a t the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by the r e s e a r c h e r of the 51 v i l l a g e s i n t o the three zones of impact agreed with the p e r c e p t i o n s of the v i l l a g e r s to a l a r g e extent. 5.2.2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 51 T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e i n t o Three D i f f e r e n t zones of Tourism Impact The 51 v i l l a g e sample was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three zones of t ourism impact based p a r t i a l l y on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 6 . v i l l a g e s i n i t i a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . However, t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was intended as t e n t a t i v e o n l y , s u b j e c t to review a f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (For which the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was not p a r t i c u l a r l y import-ant) . However, f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of both f i r s t and second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s , the v a l i d i t y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n had to be confirmed. The 51 t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s sample (shown i n Map 3.1) was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o 8 s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s , 16 p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s , and 27 i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . Appendix Table A.14 g i v e s the d e t a i l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v i l l a g e s . 5.2.3 The P e r c e p t i o n s of the V i l l a g e r s In t h i s s e c t i o n , v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s were requested concerning changes to v i l l a g e land use, the e x i s t e n c e of tourism development and a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , the impacts of t h i s development, and the s t r e n g t h of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n the three zones. R e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d below. The a c t u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e appears i n i t s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n Appendix C . l . A v a l u e of 1 was assigned to responses which i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t -ence of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . A value of -1 was assigned to responses which i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of changes to v i l l a g e land use, or the e x i s t e n c e of tourism development and i t s impacts. A value of 0 was a s s i g n e d to n e u t r a l responses. The responses of the v i l l a g e r s , and the weightings assigned to these, are shown i n Appendix Tables A.15, A.16 and A.17. Table 5.8 summarizes these p e r c e p t i o n s , and the consensus of o p i n i o n w i t h regard to each item i s p r e s -ented below. 1. V i l l a g e r P e r c e p t i o n s of Communal L i f e T h i s item assumed p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community d i s c u s s -ions to be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of communal l i f e . On average the respondents i n d i c a t e d t h a t communal l i f e i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s was s l i g h t l y stronger than i n the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s , and t h a t i t was q u i t e weakened i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s . 2. P e r c e p t i o n s of T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land Use P a t t e r n s T h i s item i n q u i r e d about the convenience of the v i l l a g e environment as a p l a c e to l i v e , r e l a t e d to the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . In summary, v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n was t h a t these p a t t e r n s e x i s t e d i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s s l i g h t l y more s t r o n g l y than i n the p a r t i a l impact zones, and f a r more s t r o n g l y than i n the areas of s t r o n g impact. 3. T r a d i t i o n a l C u l t u r a l Values Respondents were asked to s e l e c t the most s u i t a b l e type of development f o r the v i l l a g e ( a g r i c u l t u r e , tourism, or o t h e r ) , as a r e f l e c t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e o r i e n t -a t i o n of the respondent and of the community i n g e n e r a l . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s are strong i n i s o l -ated and p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s , and s l i g h t i n s t r o n g l y TABU ; Summary 0 f the villagers' perception. Itaaa ( Xt ) 1 1 1 2 ' 3 14 15 16 17 I xS l i X ± Traditional VlUftfiV Ivftrteffl Strong Impact 0.500 - 0 . 5 0 0 -0.500.-0.750 1.000 1.000 0 .875 1.000 0.500 0 .625 0.750 V.000 -0.125 -0 .250 0 .375 -O.125 0 . 5 0 0 0.346 pa r t i a l Impact 0 .875 0.938 0 .375 -0 .438 1.000 1.000 0.563 0.^38 0.125 0 .563 0.188 0 .063 -0.313 - 0 . 3 1 3 0 .250 0.000 0 . 0 6 3 0 .346 Isolated Impact 0.630 0.889 0 .815 -0.111 1.000 0.963 0.630 0.630 -0.Q?4 0.296 0.000 -0.333 -0.407 -0 .296 0.000 -0.889 0.296 0 .238 Eariflrfl Strong impact -0.625 0 .875 0 .750 0 .375 0.875 0 .875 0.000 0 .625 0.375 0.375 -0.125 0 .750 0 .250 -0.500 0 .875 -1.000 0 .125 0 .287 P a r t i a l Impact - 0 . 2 5 0 0 .813 0.563 -0.313 0.875 0.938 0.250 0.813 -0.125 0 .563 0 .063 0 .313 0 .250 - 0 . 3 7 5 0.750 - 0 . 8 1 3 0 . 0 0 0 0 .254 Isolated Impact -0.111 0.889 1.000 0.039 0 .963 0.889 -0.185 0.444 -0.444 0 .259 -0.296 0.000 -0.444 -0 .296 0 .815 -0.926 0 . 0 0 0 0 .153 Educated Adults Strong Impact -0 .250 0.000 0 .500 -0.125 1.000 0.875 0 .125 0 .750 0 .500 0.750 0.250 - 0 . 7 5 0 0 .500 -J0 .500 1.000 -0.750 0.125 0 .3*4 P a r t i a l Impact -0.375 0.875 0 .125 -0.563 0 .938 0 .938 0 .125 0 . 7 5 0-0 . 0 6 3 0 .375 0.313 0.500 0 . 3 1 3 - 0 . 1 8 8 0 .875 -0 .875 0.125 0 .246 Isolated Impact -0 .259 0 ,926 0.852 0.000 0.889 0.852 -0.222 0.704 -0.444 0.519 - 0 . 0 3 7 -0.148 -0.556 -0.481 0.778 -0 .963 0 . 0 0 0 0 .142 Villagers' Perception (Averages) Strong impact -0.125- 0.125 0.*50 -0.167 • 0.958 0.917 0.333 0.792 0.458 0.583 0,292 0.833 0.208 -0.417 0.750 -0.6?5 0.250 0.319 « » r « U l impact 0.083 .0.875 .0.354 .0.438 .0.938 0.959 0.302 0.834-0.02, 0.500 0.188 0.292 -0.083 -0.292 0.625 -0.563 0.063 " 121 °° Isolated Irapuct 0.087 0.901 0.889 -0.025 0.951 0.901 0.074 0.593 -0.321 0.358 .0.111 -0.160 ,0.469 -0.358 3.531 -0.926 0.099 0.178 Sources-Table A.15 , A.16 sod A.17. 99 impacted areas. 4. The Role of A g r i c u l t u r e i n Supporting V i l l a g e L i f e On average the v i l l a g e r s p e r c e i v e d a g r i c u l t u r e as p l a y i n g a moderately weak r o l e i n the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s , and a s l i g h t l y weak r o l e i n the str o n g impact v i l l a g e s , i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s the response was almost n e u t r a l . 5. R e l a t i o n s h i p s among A g r i c u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s , B a l i n e s e R e l i g i o n , C u l t u r e , and T r a d i t i o n a l Land Use P a t t e r n s The v i l l a g e r s saw strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n most v i l l a g e s . 6. The Importance of these R e l a t i o n s h i p s There was a s t r o n g consensus t h a t these r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be maintained i f B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e i s to s u r v i v e . 7 . D i s r u p t i o n of I r r i g a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to Land Use P a t t e r n s T h e i p e r c e p t i b n here was t h a t d i s r u p t i o n of . t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n p a t t e r n s had a s l i g h t e f f e c t upon t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . 8. C u l t u r e as T o u r i s t A t t r a c t i o n and as a Way of L i f e V i l l a g e r s b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y t h a t B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e was a v i t a l p a r t of d a i l y l i f e i n B a l i , and t h a t i t served as a major a t t r a c t i o n to t o u r i s t s , although l e s s so i n the more i s o l a t e d areas. 9. Tourism Impacts on A g r i c u l t u r a l Land and I r r i g a t i o n The development of tourism was seen by the v i l l a g e r s 100 as impacting on a g r i c u l t u r a l land and t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n systems moderately i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s , s l i g h t l y i n the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s and very l i t t l e i n the i s o l -ated v i l l a g e s . 10. Tourism Impacts on B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e Most of the v i l l a g e r s p e r c e i v e d a moderate e f f e c t of tourism development on B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . 11. The B e n e f i t s of Tourism on V i l l a g e Socio-Economic S t r u c t u r e s The development of tourism i n the v i l l a g e s e x p e r i e n c i n g s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impacts was seen to be of s l i g h t s o c i o -economic b e n e f i t . Almost no socio-economic b e n e f i t s were p e r c e i v e d i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 12. The E x i s t e n c e of T o u r i s t Development, and I t s use of A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Most v i l l a g e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t tourism development was very apparent and was u s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the s t r o n g l y impacted v i l l a g e s . There was seen to be s l i g h t development and use of land i n the p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s and almost none i n the i s o l a t e d ones. 13. Tourism Development and Land Use Changes V i l l a g e r s i n the areas a f f e c t e d by t o u r i s m development saw s l i g h t changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of land use; those i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s saw none. 14. The Negative E f f e c t s of Tourism V i l l a g e r s saw l i t t l e or no negative e f f e c t s on them-s e l v e s r e s u l t i n g from the development of tourism. 101 15. The E f f e c t of U n c o n t r o l l e d Change on C u l t u r e and Environment Most v i l l a g e r s f e l t t h a t B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and v i l l a g e environment would be s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d i f u n c o n t r o l l e d l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e s u l t e d i n changes to a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and t r a d i t i o n a l s ettlement p a t t e r n s . 16. Community D i s c u s s i o n of These Issues There appeared to be l i t t l e or no community d i s c u s s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , and c u l t u r e . 17. Other Comments about Tourism Development and I t s Impacts The responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d some s l i g h t support f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . The General Consensus I t can be concluded t h e r e f o r e , t h a t B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e r s p e r c e i v e the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , of t r a d i t i o n a l land use p a t t e r n s , and of some impact on these by tourism developments. The degree of p e r c e i v e d impact v a r i e s with v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The v i l l a g e r s d e s c r i b e moderate impact i n the str o n g and p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s and s l i g h t impact i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . The second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n v e s t i g a t i n g v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s of p o l i c y statements, was based on these f i r s t -round r e s u l t s . 102 5.2.4 The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n s T h i s phase of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempted to determine v i l l a g e r a t t i t u d e s towards f u t u r e p o l i c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h : a) p r e s e r v a t i o n of B a l i n e s e . c u l t u r e and B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s ; b) p o p u l a t i o n ; c) a g r i c u l t u r a l land p r e s e r v a t i o n ; and d) tourism development. An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s second-round q u e s t i o n n a i r e appears as Appendix C.2. P o s i t i v e scores were assigned to responses t h a t i n d i c a t e d strong agreement (+2) or agreement (+1) with statements t h a t supported t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Negative scores were assigned to responses t h a t i n d i c a t e d l a c k of agreement with statements t h a t supported t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . The r e s u l t s appear i n Appendix Table A.18, A.19 and A.2 0 and are summarized i n Table 5.9. The p o l i c y statements and summaries of v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s f o l l o w : 1. V i l l a g e r E v a l u a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n P o l i c y The p o l i c y suggested to s o l v e the problems of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n c l u d e d more i n t e n s i v e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and t r a n s -m i g r a t i o n programs, other n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e . The v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y i n g e n e r a l i n d i c a t e d very s t r o n g support f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , with the h i g h e s t agreement i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s and TABLE 5 . 9 , Summary of the Villagers' Evaluation ItM. ( X j ) l 2 3 <, 5 6 ? T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e l a a d c r a Strong Impact 0.938 Part i a l Impact 0.781 Isolated Impact 0 . 7 5 9 Strong Impact 0.875 Par t i a l Impact 0 .719 Isolated Impact 0.796 BduSmUfl AfluUa Strong Impact 0.938 Part i a l Impact 0 . 8 7 5 Isolated Impact 0 .778 -0.875 O.438 0.250 -0.719 0.313 0.281 -0.57*, -0.185 0.296 -0.750 0.438 0.563 -0.531 0.281 0.344 -0.611 0.000 0.333 - 0 . 6 2 5 0 . 5 0 0 0.375 - 0 . 6 2 5 0 .156 0.188 - 0 . 6 6 7 - 0 . 0 5 6 0.111 0.750 0 . 7 5 0 0 . 5 6 3 0.688 0.781 0.563 0.7*t1 0 .630 0.611 0.750 0 .813 0 . 5 6 3 0.656 0 .719 0.594 0.704 0 . 7 5 9 0 . 6 3 0 0 . 5 0 0 0 . 6 8 8 0 . 6 2 5 0.625 O.531 0 . 3 ) 3 0.630 0.611 O.537 Villagers' Evaluation (Averages) SLr<mg Impact o^v/ -0.750 u.459 0.i9C o.u/, 0.750 Partial Impact p.,792 -0.625 0.250 0.2V1 0.558 0.677 0.490 Isolated impact 0,778 -O.6.7 -O.OdC 0.21.7 O.o92 0.667 O.593 Sources-.Table A., 8 , A.,o ^  k ^ Q >0.625 0.500 0.593 1.000 O.875 0..667 0 .750 0.875 0 .563 O.313 O.313 0 . 9 3 8 0 . 8 7 5 0 .625 0.719 0.531 0 .344 0.093 0 . 7 5 0 0.719 0.611 0.593 0.519 0.037 - 0 . 0 7 4 O.759 0.648 0.563 0.531 O.481 0.564 0 . 4 9 3 0.418 0.188 0.313 0.750 0.719 0.519 0.722 0.648 0.556 0.563 0.625 0 .313 0.250 0.188 0.750 0 . 5 0 0 0.469 0.563 O.375 0.219 0.219 0.781 0.656 0.593 0.074 - 0 . 0 9 3 0 .648 0.667 0.375 0.406 0.519 0.456 0.441 0.439 0.500 0.688 0.563 0.719 0.426 O.648 0.563 0.750 0.500 0 .000 -0.063 0 .750 0.563 O.438 0.452 0.563 0.563 0.531 . 0 . 1 2 5 0.031 0 . 5 0 0 0.688 0 . 4 0 6 0.397 0 . 5 0 0 o.57i. 0.537 0 .056 - 0 . 2 0 4 0.611 0 . 6 3 0 0.370 0.358 0.438 0.813 0.625. 0.75.0 O.459 0.459 0.771 0.552 0.615 0.479 0.513 0.679 0.586 0.574 0.55Q 0,138 O.146 0.813,0.646 0 .459 0.491 0.229 0.114 0 .677 0 .688 O.446 0.449 0.056 .0.124 0.673 O.648 0.457 0.409 o 104 the lowest i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 2. E v a l u a t i o n of Tourism Development P o l i c y T h i s statement a s s e r t e d t h a t the development of tourism was necessary i n order to i n c r e a s e employment and per c a p i t a income. A p o s i t i v e score i n d i c a t e d disagreement with the statement and thus support f o r maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Responses here i n d i c a t e d l e s s support f o r t r a d -i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s than i n the two other zones of impact. 3. Development of Tourism on A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Disagreement with t h i s statement was taken to i n d i c a t e support f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Such support was more e v i d e n t i n the s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s . 4. Changes i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use Most of the v i l l a g e r s i n d i c a t e d moderate support f o r maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s ( i . e . they d i s a g r e e d with the p o l i c y of u s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r other purposes), e s p e c i a l l y i n the zone of s t r o n g e s t impact. 5. C o n t r o l s on changes to A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use Most v i l l a g e r s supported such a p o l i c y of c o n t r o l s , i n d i c a t i n g a d e s i r e to preserve t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , w ith the g r e a t e r degree of support i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 105 6. P r e s e r v a t i o n of Prime A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Strong agreement with a p o l i c y of p r e s e r v i n g a g r i c u l -t u r a l land i n d i c a t e d t h a t most v i l l a g e r s supported t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , though l e s s so i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 7. T r a d i t i o n a l I r r i g a t i o n Systems Most respondents favoured maintenance of these systems, with h i g h e s t agreement i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 8. C o n t r o l of Tourism Development In the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , r e s i d e n t s s t r o n g l y supported tourism c o n t r o l i n order to m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , while there was moderate support f o r such a p o l i c y i n the two other zones of impact. 9. P r e s e r v a t i o n of Housing and Land Use P a t t e r n s A strong p r e f e r e n c e , more marked i n the s t r o n g l y impacted v i l l a g e s , was shown f o r p r e s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l housing, a r c h i t e c t u r e , and land use p a t t e r n s as a means of m a i n t a i n i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . 10. Management of Land Use Changes To l e s s e n the impact on t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , t h i s statement advocated laws governing land use v a l u e s , t r a n s f e r of ownership, and e f f e c t s on i r r i g a t i o n . Most v i l l a g e r s s t r o n g l y agreed with such a p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s t r o n g impact zones, i n d i c a t i n g a h i g h l e v e l of support f o r t r a d -i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 106 11. Options f o r Long Term Development Respondents were requested to e v a l u a t e three a l t e r n a t i v e s : a t o t a l s h i f t to n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; a balance b e t -ween tourism and a g r i c u l t u r e ; and an i n t e g r a t e d program of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n , f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and d i s t r i c u t i o n of tourism to other r e g i o n s . There was strong support i n a l l v i l l a g e s f o r the second and t h i r d p o l i c i e s , which would best m a i n t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 12. L o c a t i o n of Tourism i n Areas Unsuited to A g r i c u l t u r e Most respondents s t r o n g l y favoured such l o c a t i o n of tourism, which was i n t e r p r e t e d as s u p p o r t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 13. C o n c e n t r a t i o n of Tourism i n Sanur, Kuta, Denpasar and Nusa Dua There was o n l y s l i g h t support f o r such a p o l i c y of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , with the most agreement i n the p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s and the l e a s t i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . 14. A D e c e n t r a l i s t P o l i c y to Balance S o c i a l and Economic E f f e c t s O v e r a l l , v i l l a g e r s i n d i c a t e d o n l y s l i g h t support f o r such a p o l i c y i n the s t r o n g l y and p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s , and even l e s s support i n the i s o l a t e d zones. 15. Tourism Without D i s r u p t i o n of T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land Use Most respondents s t r o n g l y supported a p o l i c y t h a t would s i t e tourism development i n a way t h a t would not i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of land use; such support was e s p e c i a l l y marked i n the zone of s t r o n g e s t t o u r i s t impact. 107 16. R e g u l a t i o n to Preserve T r a d i t i o n a l Land Use P a t t e r n s A suggested p o l i c y of i n t e g r a t e d development and law inforcement i n v o l v i n g zoning, b u i l d i n g , and o p e r a t i o n p e r m i t s , and r e g u l a t i o n o f land t r a n s a c t i o n s , met with s t r o n g agreement among a l l v i l l a g e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s . 17. The Involvement of L o c a l and C e n t r a l Governments i n Tourism C o n t r o l There was moderate support f o r t h i s concept, with h i g h e s t agreement i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s and lowest i n the p a r t i a l impact zone. The General Consensus From the r e s u l t s of t h i s second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was concluded t h a t there are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t g o a l p r e f e r e n c e s among the v i l l a g e r s i n the three zones with r e s p e c t to the impacts of tourism development and the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . In g e n e r a l , however, most respondents moderately supported p o l i c i e s t h a t would maintain these v a l u e s . The g r e a t e s t support o c c u r r e d i n the v i l l a g e s of s t r o n g e s t t o u r i s t impact, and the l e a s t occurred i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . T h i s and e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h was used i n examining the hy p o t h e s i s . 108 5.3 THE HYPOTHESIS EVALUATION 5.3.1 R e s u l t s Related to the O p e r a t i o n a l Hypothesis The formal hypothesis presented i n Cahpter 1 of t h i s t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t v i l l a g e r s i n the areas most a f f e c t e d by t o u r i s m development would be l e s s i n favour of r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l land-use than those i n i s o l a t e d areas. T h i s i s because of the d e c l i n e of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and the i n c r e a s e of urban a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y because of the t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y which o f f e r s more eco n o m i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e employment. The consensus of v i l l a g e r p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h regard to tourism impacts and the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l land-use values i n the three zones of impact i s presented i n Table 5.9. These r e s u l t s are used to e v a l u a t e the h y p o t h e s i s . From t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , the hypothesis must be r e j e c t e d . There i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the measured v a r i a b l e s of tourism development impact and the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v alues towards land-use. T h i s i s not a very s u r p r i s i n g c o n c l u s i o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t i s obvious t h a t the g r e a t e s t l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land has o c c u r r e d i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s . C l e a r l y the respondents l i v i n g i n the s t r o n g e s t impact area have the most negative experience of the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land and respond to t h i s s i t u a t i o n with a t t i t u d e s t h a t r e g r e t the l o s s of t r a d i t i o n a l land-use. 109 Under the impact of l a r g e s c a l e tourism development, the advantages of m a i n t a i n i n g such v a l u e s and p r e v e n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land l o s s have become c l e a r to many v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s . The v i l l a g e r s i n the areas most a f f e c t e d by tourism development have the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y to reach t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , and i t i s these people who p l a c e the g r e a t e s t value on a s s e t s they r e a l i z e they are i n the process of l o s i n g — t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . From these f i n d i n g s , i t can be concluded t h a t tourism has d i f f e r e n t degrees of impact i n the three zones, i n p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l terms. These e f f e c t s are g r e a t e r i n the s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s than i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . There i s some d e c l i n e of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n most of the v i l l a g e s ( r e f l e c t e d i n the o n l y moderate support of t r a d i t i o n a l values) due to the l o s s e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , and changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use, settlement p a t t e r n s , s o c i o -economic s t r u c t u r e . T h i s d e c l i n e has not reached a c r i t i c a l p o i n t y e t , because the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t impact of tourism development on t r a d i t i o n a l land use v a l u e s are s t i l l l i m i t e d . Once the c r i t i c a l p o i n t i s passed, there i s no doubt t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s w i l l d e c l i n e d r a s t i c a l l y . T h i s w i l l occur e s p e c i a l l y i n the areas most a f f e c t e d by tourism development where there w i l l e x i s t l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l land use values than i n i s o l a t e d areas. T h i s tendency i s i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g l y by the v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n of the g i v e n statements i n q uestions number 2, 5, 7, 8, 12 and 16 i n the second-round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 5.3.2 D i s c u s s i o n of the R e s u l t s T h i s s e c t i o n i s intended as an overview of the process and the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v i l l a g e land use changes, and of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of land use changes and tourism impact on the v i l l a g e s . I t a l s o g i v e s an overview of the support f o r and o p p o s i t i o n to those land use changes and of tourism impact i n the three d i f f e r e n t zones. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use changes has been s t r u c t u r e d to examine a l l of the i n d i c a t o r s of changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use and the impact of tourism development i n the three d i f f e r e n t zones of impact. Such i n d i c a t o r s can be used to compare v i l l a g e land use.j changes i n the three zones of impact and to i d e n t i f y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use changes, and t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e to a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the impacts of a change i n the d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s . In f a c t , f o r the three zones of tourism impact, there are d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of land use changes, and of tourism impact on the v i l l a g e socio-economic s t r u c t u r e and i t s c u l t u r e . For example more a g r i c u l t u r a l land has been l o s t i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s compared t o the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , and t h i s a f f e c t s the v i l l a g e r s ' per c a p i t a income and job I l l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s compared to the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . These e f f e c t s are a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the mixed v i l l a g e e t h n i c groups and the r e l i g i o u s p a t t e r n s i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s compared to the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . These r e s u l t s of the examination may help to understand the o b j e c t i v e changes, and they are c r u c i a l to an understanding of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n d e v e l o p i n g the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the primary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 51 v i l l a g e sample i n t o three zones of tourism impact. The D e l p h i Method was chosen to assess v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use changes and the impact of tourism development. V i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use changes and of the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s m development impact was determined from respondents' p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r own v i l l a g e s . The yes or no responses to the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s were formulated i n t o percentage v a l u e s and v a l u e s c a l e s showing the s t r o n g or weak e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use changes and the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s m development impacts. Assessment shown s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and the impact of tourism development i n the three zones. P e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the v i l l a g e r s was used to check the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the primary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 5 1 - v i l l a g e 112 sample. The r e s u l t s of the v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s e c t i o n were used to develop the p o l i c y statements t h a t would be eva l u a t e d i n the second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . To assess v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s about p r e s e r v i n g value r e l a t e d to the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , and about managing tourism development and i t s a s s o c i a t e d p o l i c i e s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed to be d e l i v e r e d to three s e l e c t e d respondents from each v i l l a g e . The key aim i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was to l e a r n the extent of o p p o s i t i o n to or support f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . The responses to the i n t e r v i e w questions were formulated i n t o value s c a l e s which showed p e r s p e c t i v e l y the degree of support f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e . Assessment of the v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s shows moderate support f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . However, there are s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s ; as to the degree of support, which i s h i g h e s t i n the str o n g impact v i l l a g e s and lowest value i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . T h i s v e r i f i e s t h a t the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s i s untrue. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d reasonable because i t i s c o n s i s t e n t with the e n t i r e i n v e s t -i g a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i s i n t e g r a t e d with the r e s u l t s of each v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I t should a l s o be r e a l i z e d t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s and a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e s s t i l l predominantly e x i s t i n most v i l l a g e s , and most of the i n d i c a t o r s of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e s i n most v i l l a g e s (such as B a l i n e s e e t h n i c group and B a l i n e s e r e l i g i o n ) 113 are a l s o s t i l l dominant. A l l of these r e s u l t s are important i n f o r m a t i o n with i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g , and f o r s i m i l a r study i n the f u t u r e . 114 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS FOR PLANNING This d i s c u s s i o n has ranged over a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s ; from a hypothesis about d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e r a t t i t u d e s toward t r a d i t i o n a l values i n the v i l l a g e s of the three zones of tour i s m impact, through d i s c u s s i o n of changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use from 1969-1979 and f u t u r e development and of an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of tourism development impact on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, i n c l u d i n g i t s e f f e c t s on t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . I t was suggested t h a t the problems of p r e s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and managing the pressure of modernization should be c l e a r l y formulated, based p r i m a r i l y on s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the impact of growth on i t s g o a l p r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s work was an attempt to support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g community i n p u t . i The hypothesized was r e j e c t e d , because i n f a c t the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s s t i l l e x i s t to a moderate degree i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s , more than i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . How-ever, a d e c l i n e of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s was shown t o e x i s t i n f a c t . Most v i l l a g e r s understood t h i s and s t r o n g l y 115 favored m a i n t a i n i n g prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land and t r a d i t i o n a l B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . Although the data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to warrant a d e f i n i t i v e statement, a recommendation w i l l be o f f e r e d as to the meaning of the r e s u l t s f o r pl a n n i n g purposes. As the accuracy and v a l i d i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l data i n Indonesia, e s p e c i a l l y a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l , are i n v a r i a b l y poor, the mo d e l l i n g s t r a t e g y of impact assessment f o r t h i s t h e s i s was kept simple. I t was designed to t e s t the o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s . To avoid g r e a t e r e r r o r , i t avoided i n t e r -c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , u s i n g o n l y a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n where p o s s i b l e and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n or d i v i s i o n o n l y where a b s o l u t e l y necessary, and a v o i d i n g as f a r as p o s s i b l e the r a i s i n g of v a r i a b l e s to powers (Alonso, 1968). Hence to t e s t the o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s s e v e r a l simple analyses of v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s were b u i l t which among them use a l l of the data. Some s o r t of average of these was attempted to gi v e p r e d i c t o r s which are f a r stronger than a s i n g l e v i l l a g e r ' s o p i n i o n . On the b a s i s of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s d e r i v e d from t h i s work, i t i s maintained here t h a t s o c i e t a l i n p u t i n t o the p l a n n i n g process i s needed, i n order to know the r e s i d e n t s ' needs and/or the impact of a given p r o j e c t on them. T h i s i n p u t i s very important i n f o r m a t i o n f o r pl a n n i n g o r d e r l y development f o r the b e n e f i t of the s o c i e t y i n 116 the f u t u r e . In t h i s case e s p e c i a l l y we are d e a l i n g w i t h p o s s i b l e changes t o land use t h a t c o u l d impair the product-i v i t y of the lan d , which i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e s . Land use d e c i s i o n s are too c r u c i a l to our t o t a l environment to leave to the m o t i v a t i o n s of v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. The key r e l a t i o n s h i p s between our use of land and the q u a l i t y of our environment, which a l s o has s o c i o -economic e f f e c t s , should be understood by pl a n n e r s , p o l i c y makers a t a l l l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and the community. Of a l l the f a c t o r s t h a t determine the q u a l i t y of our environment, the most fundamental i s the use we make of our land. (Redding and P a r r y , 1973, p.3; and McHarg, 1971, pp.103-115). The impact assessment study focused on the e f f e c t s on the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e of changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , i . e . a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, caused by tourism development. A s s e s s i n g these and many other i s s u e s concerning the l e v e l and nature of tourism, u s i n g d i r e c t i n p u t from the v i l l a g e r s , i s v i t a l i f i n the f u t u r e tourism i s not to be a d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e . From the secondary data reviews and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l a n d use changes i n the s i x v i l l a g e s , p e r s o n a l inform-a t i o n about v i l l a g e r s , v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s , i t was recog n i z e d t h a t tourism development i s very a t t r a c t -11-7 i v e f o r B a l i , but t h a t there are a l s o s o c i a l economic and environmental disadvantages. The r e s u l t s show the advantages of tourism development: 1) tourism a f f e c t s o n l y a l i m i t e d group of v i l l a g e r s i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s (by g e n e r a t i n g jobs or income). 2) i t leads to the development of new f a c i l i t i e s such as roads, water supply, e l e c t r i c a l supply, sewage works e t c . 3) i t i n c r e a s e s understanding by a l l o w i n g people of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s to meet. 4) i t causes some p r e s e r v a t i o n of the r e g i o n ' s c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l beauty f o r t o u r i s t s . The disadvantages of tourism are: 1) i t i n c r e a s e s governmental c o s t s f o r importing s p e c i a l t o u r i s t amenities; thus the income from t o u r i s t spending "leaks out". 2) i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e s t r u c t i o n of the l o c a l environment through the b u i l d i n g of modern h i g h r i s e h o t e l s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. 3) i t causes p o l l u t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment, e s p e c i a l l y of a g r i c u l t u r a l areas. 4) i t c r e a t e s f r i c t i o n and undermines s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l standards of the n a t i v e B a l i n e s e . 118 I f we compare these advantages and disadvantages of massive tourism development i n B a l i over the l a s t decade, there i s no doubt tourism has brought some new economic development to B a l i and has even to some degree helped maintain t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . However, there has been an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of those p o s i t i v e impacts to the v i l l a g e r s with more income, jobs, and new development i n the strong impact v i l l a g e s than i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . T h i s study, then, concludes t h a t the impact of tourism development on the B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s i n most v i l l a g e s i s not y e t c r i t i c a l . The primary q u e s t i o n to be answered i s f o r how long and a t what l e v e l can these p o s i t i v e impacts be maintained. There are a l r e a d y i n d i c a t i o n s of the d e c l i n e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n the s t r o n g and p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s compared to the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . Thus, because the r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet-ween t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and a g r i c u l t u r e are very s t r o n g , there i s need f o r a s t r o n g p o l i c y of a g r i c u l t u r a l land p r e s e r v a t i o n b e f o r e the l o s s e s become too g r e a t . However, t h i s p o l i c y by i t s e l f i s not s u f f i c i e n t s i n c e the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s d i r e c t l y caused not o n l y by the t o u r i s t development, but a l s o by other a s s o c i a t e d development. An i n t e g r a t e d developmental p l a n n i p o l i c y to c o n t r o l e f f e c t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i s nec-es s a r y , and the involvement of the c e n t r a l and l o c a l govern ment and the community i n the process i s needed -too. 119 T h i s p o l i c y should i d e a l l y i n c l u d e 1) a more e f f e c t i v e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g program; 2) d i s t r i b u t i o n of tourism to the other t o u r i s t d e s t i n -a t i o n s i n the other i s l a n d s . 3) an education program designed to c r e a t e employees not o n l y f o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . t o u r -ism and government s e r v i c e s ) but a l s o f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and improving the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . 4) a more i n t e n s i v e and a t t r a c t i v e t r a n s m i g r a t i o n program i n order to encourage B a l i n e s e to t r a n s m i g r a t e . 6.2 REVIEW OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY The impact assessment used i n t h i s t h e s i s was designed i n a way s i m i l a r t o a s o c i a l impact assessment study t h a t i n v o l v e s a c o n t r a s t between present ambient c o n d i t i o n s and probable or d e s i r a b l e f u t u r e s t a t e s (adapted from Vlachos and Team, 1975, p.20; and Olsen and Mervin, 1977). I t aimed a t answering these f i v e q u e s t i o n s : 1. What goals are sought by the community? 2. What trends c h a r a c t e r i z e the development and r e a l i s a t i o n of a gi v e n tourism p r o j e c t ? 3. What broad p h y s i c a l and n o n - p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e such trends? 4. What p r e d i c t i o n s can be made about probable and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e developments? 120 5. What p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s may produce the g r e a t e s t net gains from a g i v e n p r o j e c t ? Thus tourism development impacts on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use have been assessed not only on the area w i t h i n which s o c i a l l i f e takes p l a c e , but a l s o on the people and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s of the v i l l a g e community. The e x i s t e n c e of tourism r e l a t e s t o , c o i n c i d e s with or may even c o n f l i c t w i t h v a l u e s , g o a l s , and o b j e c t i v e s of the l o c a l as w e l l as the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . T h i s study, was l i m i t e d to s t u d y i n g the v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . The term impact as d e f i n e d by Boothroyd (1978) i m p l i e s t h a t a c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s or might e x i s t between the impacting t h i n g and the impacted t h i n g . In t h i s study i t was a p p l i e d to the c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between tourism and a s s o c i a t e d development, a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use, t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlements p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . P o s i t i v e as w e l l as negative impacts have been c o n s i d e r e d i n terms of t h e i r s u p p o r t i v e or weakening e f f e c t s upon t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Impacts occur at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s o c i a l systems, i n t h i s case, of the v i l l a g e system. Three i n t e r l o c k i n g dimensions were used as p a r t of the e f f o r t to d e s c r i b e the v i l l a g e community and p r o v i d e the framework f o r an eventual assessment of impacts: 121 1. P r o f i l e of the ambient c o n d i t i o n s of the v i l l a g e environment. 2. C r i t e r i a e x e m p l i f i e d i n a v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s under the g e n e r a l heading of q u a l i t y of l i f e ( s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g ) . 3. Impacts, or the e f f e c t s and consequences of a l t e r a t i o n to an ongoing system (Balinese t r a d i t i o n a l systems), l e a d i n g to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r f u t u r e development. Those undertaking a s o c i a l impact study f o r use i n p l a n n i n g and decision-making must be f a i r i n a s s i g n i n g blame or p r a i s e to impacts, so t h a t the c i t i z e n s , d e c i s i o n makers, and p l a n n e r s , can understand the t r u e nature of the s i t u a t i o n (Boothroyd, 1978) . The D e l p h i Method used to o b t a i n the v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n was p a r t of the process seeking to understand the t r u e nature of the s i t u a t i o n . On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , i n proceeding with t h i s D e l p h i method, i t was found t h a t the v i l l a g e r s were eager to co-operate and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the two-round q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f tended to make v i l l -agers aware of the problems i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t was found t h a t , although t h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i f f i c u l t , w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by l o c a l t r a i n e d i n t e r -viewers, approximately 95% of the respondents were able to perform the o p e r a t i o n s . More over, by i n t e r v i e w i n g rep-122 r e s e n t a t i v e samples of v i l l a g e r s from the three impact zones c o n s i d e r a b l e savings i n time and c o s t c o u l d be r e a l i z e d . On the negative s i d e there are two types of p o s s i b l e e r r o r : e r r o r of measurement and e r r o r of s p e c i f i c a t i o n (Alonso, 1968). E r r o r of measurement co u l d happen f i r s t because there were some l i m i t a t i o n s i n the r e s u l t s , e.g. there was some q u e s t i o n as to whether the respondents r e a l l y understood the qu e s t i o n s and answered them c o r r -e c t l y , due to t h e i r l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the statements c l e a r l y , and the time c o n s t r a i n t s . These c o n d i t i o n s were a l s o hard t o measure because they were i n f l u e n c e d by the d i v e r s i t y of human i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and response. P r e p a r i n g a summary statement of these responses t h a t i s t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of them was d i f f i c u l t . Secondly t h e r e were problems w i t h the second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , to the l a r g e r sample.. I t was extremely time consuming and there were some changes i n answers over time. T h i r d l y , a p o s i t i v e v alue was assigned to answers which supported t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s may have l e d to a c o n f u s i o n of the r e a l i t y versus the Utopia i n the minds of the v i l l a g e r s . There are a l s o doubts as to whether the respondent was ever f u l l y aware of h i s own value system. The e r r o r of s p e c i f i c a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d because the l i s t of seventeen g i v e n statements, p e r c e i v e d and 123 evaluated by the v i l l a g e r s , was e q u a l l y weighted without making a d i f f e r e n t i a l ranking o f the importance of each statement i n suppo r t i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 6.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COMPLEMENTARY RESEARCH In s p i t e of p o s s i b l e data s p e c i f i c a t i o n e r r o r i n a s s e s s i n g the impact, and low accuracy of the value measurement f o r a s s e s s i n g the v i l l a g e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e s , the a d d i t i o n of the average (means of the value s c a l e s ) of the v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n i s l a r g e l y v a l i d . As s t a t e d by Alonso (1968), the o p e r a t i o n of a d d i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y benign with r e s p e c t to the accumulation of e r r o r . I t i s apparent from the experience o f the impact assessment study t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l needed. T h i s complementary r e s e a r c h w i l l g i v e a b e t t e r understanding of the v i l l a g e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e s . As the main o b j e c t i v e of the t h e s i s i s to v e r i f y the o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s , and the h e a r t of the a n a l y s i s i s to l e a r n v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s , complementary r e s e a r c h should emphasize these areas. The r e s u l t s of the De l p h i approach depend s t r o n g l y on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v i l l a g e s sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v i l l a g e s sample c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o three zones of tourism impact, and the accuracy of the value s c a l e s and weighting systems given to the v i l l a g e r s responses to the given statements. Improvement to av o i d the e r r o r s of s p e c i f i c a t i o n and of measurement should 124 p r i m a r i l y be done w i t h i n these c o n t e x t s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n the second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e depends s t r o n g l y on the r e s u l t s of the v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Hence, the d e f i n i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v i l l a g e s sample i n t o three zones of tourism impact, and the g i v e n statements designed to be p e r c e i v e d and to be e v a l u a t e d are the areas t h a t need assessment i n proceeding w i t h complementary r e s e a r c h t h a t i s to improve the v a l i d -i t y of the t h e s i s r e s u l t s . In the area of improving c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v i l l a g e s sample, u s i n g the v i l l a g e r s yes and no responses, the scalogram a n a l y s i s developed by Guttman and h i s a s s o c i a t e d (Oppenheim, 1976, 143-154) can be used to t e s t our group of items f o r " s c a l a b i l i t y " by seeing whether i t w i l l y i e l d a s c a l e w i t h a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o e f f i c i e n t of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . T h i s analy-s i s enables us to see how f a r our items and v i l l a g e r responses to them d e v i a t e from the i d e a l s c a l e p a t t e r n s . Such a ra n k i n g w i l l g i v e more accurate r e s u l t s f o r c l a s s -i f y i n g the v i l l a g e s i n t o d i f f e r e n t zones of tourism impact. In the area of improving the statements to be p e r c e i v e d and evaluated-, the c o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c ould be used to see i f there i s a p o s i t i v e or negative c o r r e l a t i o n bet-ween the items and the given statement (Moroney 1976, pp.271-320). C o r r e l a t i o n s among statements can be used to improve the 125 s e l e c t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the items and the v a l u a t i o n or weighting system f o r respondents' a t t i t u d e s . A t h i r d round q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p rovided the v i l l a g e r s are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e would g i v e more assurance of the r e s u l t s of the v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n i n the second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i n a l l y , because the responses c o u l d change w i t h time depending on surrounding elements of impact a s s e s s -ments, a method would have to be developed t h a t would monitor or a l l o w f o r a c o n t i n u a l updating of the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s . 126 REFERENCES 1. Alonso, W i l l i a m , P r e d i c t i n g Best w i t h Imperfect Data, American I n s t i t u t e of Planner J o u r n a l , 1968, pp. 248-255. 2. B a l i P r o v i n c i a l P lanning Board, B a l i Regional Plan Concept 1977-2000, Denpasar, 1977 (Indonesian Language). 3. B a l i P l a n n i n g U n i t , B a l i Regional Data 1976. (Indonesian Language). 4. Blackwood, S i r Robert, B e a u t i f u l B a l i , Melbourne : Hampden H a l l , 1970. 5. Boothroyd, P e t e r , Issues i n S o c i a l Impact Assessment. P l a n Canada, pp. 118-133, 18/2 June 1978. 6. C o v a r r u b i a s , M i g u e l , I s l a n d o f j B a l i . New York : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. 7. Daroesman, Ruth, An Economic Survey of B a l i . Canberra: A u s t r a l i a N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y . B u l l e t i n of Indonesian Economic S t u d i e s , Volume IX, no.3, November 197 3. 8. Dickey, John W. and Thomas M. Watts, A n a l y t i c Techniques i n Urban and Regional P l a n n i n g . New York : Mc.Graw H i l l Book Company, U.S.A.,197 8. 9. Document of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development. A p p r a i s a l of the B a l i Tourism P r o j e c t . Indonesia, 1974. 10. F i n s t e r b u s c h , Kurt, Methodology of S o c i a l Impact Assessment. New York: Community Development S e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc.,1977. 11. F r a n c i l l o n , G e r a l d and U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana, Tourism i n B a l i I t s Economic and Socio C u l t u r a l Impact : Three P o i n t s  of View. I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l , Volume XXVII, No.4, 1975. 12. Geertz, H i l d r e d and C l i f f o r d G e ertz, K i n s h i p i n B a l i . Chicago : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1975. 127 Indonesia N a t i o n a l Planning Board, The Second F i v e Year  N a t i o n a l Development Plan 1974-1979. J a k a r t a , 1974 (Indonesian Language). Kaufman, Gordon M. and Howard Thomas, Modern D e c i s i o n  A n a l y s i s . New York : Penguin Book, 1977. L i u , Ben-chieh, A . Q u a l i t y of L i f e P r o d u c t i o n Model f o r Pro- j e c t Impact Assessment. A c o n t r i b u t e d paper i n Kurt F i n s t e r b u s h and C P . W o l f , Methodology of S o c i a l Impact Assessment. P e n s y l v a n i a : Community Development S e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of New York, 1977. Mc Evoy I I I , The Late James, and Thomas D i e t z , Handbook of  Environmental P l a n n i n g : The S o c i a l Consequences of  Environmental Change. New York : John Wiley and Sons,1977. Mc Harg, Ian L., Design with Nature, New York : Double Day/Natural H i s t o r y P r e s s , 1971. M i s s i n , G.J. Viewpoint on Indonesia. Melbourne : A Geographical Study, Thomas Nelson L t d . , 1972. Moroney, M.J., F a c t s from F i g u r e . London : Penguin Books,1976. 01sen, Marvin E, and Donna J . Mervin, Toward a Methodology  f o r Conducting S o c i a l Impact Assessments Using Q u a l i t y  of S o c i a l L i f e I n d i c a t o r s . A c o n t r i b u t e d paper i n Kurt F i n s t e r b u s c h and C P . Wolf, Methodology of S o c i a l Impact Assessment. P e n s y l v a n i a : Community Development S e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of New York, 1977. Oppenheim, A.N., Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Design and A t t i t u d e  Measurement. London: Open U n i v e r s i t y Set Book, Heinemann, 1976. Redding, M a r t i n J . , and B. Thomas Parry, Land use: A  V i t a l Link to Environmental Q u a l i t y . Comprehensive Planning S e r i e s Volume one,1973. 128 23. S c e t o C o n s u l t a n t s R e p o r t , B a l i T o u r i s m M a s t e r P l a n , 1971. 24. U n i v e r s i t y o f Udayana, R e s e a r c h R e p o r t A b o u t M a s s i v e T o u r i s m Impact on B a l i n e s e Way o f L i f e , D e n p a s a r , 1973. ( I n d o n e s i a n L a n g u a g e ) . 25. Van G i g c h , John P., A p p l i e d G e n e r a l Systems T h e o r y New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row P u b l i s h e r s , S e c ond E d i t i o n , 1978 . 26. V l a c h o s , E v a n , and Team, S o c i a l Impact A s s e s s m e n t an O v e r v i e w . V i r g i n i a : U.S. Army E n g i n e e r , ' I n s t i t u t e f o r Water R e s o u r c e s , 1975. 27. W e i s s , C a r o l H., E v a l u a t i o n R e s e a r c h : Methods o f A s s e s s -i n g P rogram E f f e c t i v e n e s s . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1972. APPENDICES APPENDIX A: TABLES A . l TO A.2 0 131 TABLE A. 1 : Numbers o f H o t e l s i n B a l i 1969 - 1972 I n t e r n a t i o n a l D o m e s t i c H o t e l .Rooms Bed H o t e l Rooms Bed 1969 12 557 1,131 n. a n. a n. a 1970 12 557 1,131 n. a n. a n. a 1971 13 609 1,235 183 2,498 4,490 1972 23 845 1,690 224 2,832 n. a n. a = d a t a n o t a v a i l a b l e S o u r c e s : T o u r i s m A g e n c y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Udayana R e p o r t 1973 , p.38; B a l i P l a n n i n g U n i t , R e g i o n a l D a t a 1976 132 TABLE A.2 : Numbers of H o t e l ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l and Domestic) i n B a l i 1971, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each d i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t / R e g e n c y (Kabupaten) Hote l s Rooms Beds 1. Badung 161 2,638 4 ,993 2. Jembrana 3 35 72 3. Buleleng 8 74 124 4. Tabanan 6 196 366 5. Klungkung 7 77 117 6. Gianyar 5 48 91 7. B a n g l i 2 6 14 8. Karangasem 2 33 48 B A L I 194 3,107 5,825 Sources : B a l i P l anning U n i t , Regional Data 197 6. TABLE A.3 : Kabupaten (Regency) R e c e i p t s , Buleleng and Badung (RP 000) Buleleng  "1972/3 1973/4 Budgeted 1972/3 Budgeted Badung 1972/3 A c t u a l 1973/4 Budgeted (unrevised) a. Receipts Balance p r e v i o u s year 7 00 P r o v i n c i a l Grant 46,869 C o n t r i b u t i o n from other kabupaten n i l b Tax r e c e i p t s Ipeda 51,750 H o t e l , r e s t a u r a n t and entertainment tax 65 0 c. Other taxes 2,335 Charges f o r s e r v i c e s 22,350 Other 11,150 T o t a l r e c e i p t s 135,7 04 n. a, 51,822 2,500 41,690 2,000 6,035 27 ,504 3,204 133 ,241 n. a. 36,000 n i l 38 ,000 130,000 6,700 26,400 2,900 240,000 35,900 n i l 84 ,400 198,900 > 89,724 i 408 ,924 n. a, 45,000 n i l 40,000 137,000 8 ,151 44,300 4,650 27 9,010 n.a = data not a v a i l a b l e Sources: Anggaran Pendapatan dan B e l a n j a Daerah Bidang Routine Kabupaten Badung Tahun 1973/1974: Anggaran Pendapatan dan B e l a n j a Bidang Routine Daerah Kabupaten B u l e l e n g Tahun 1973/1974. 134 TABLE A.4 : Increase i n v e h i c l e s i n B a l i 1960 - 1975 ( i n c l u d e s Automobiles, t r u c k s , buses and motor c y c l e s ) D i s t r i c t / Regency 1960 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 Badung n. , a 4,418 5,560 6 ,763 11 ,215 14,651 15 ,792 Jembrana n. , a 649 737 570 681 1,329 1,454 Bul e l e n g n. , a 2,276 2,483 1,539 1 ,875 3 ,415 4 ,588 Tabanan n. . a 1,548 1,681 1,176 1 ,625 2,657 2,965 Klungkung n. , a 693 736 503 647 795 883 Gianyar n. . a 756 848 610 943 1,395 1,574 B a n g l i n. . a 225 229 169 177 248 277 Karangasem n, . a 265 301 289 313 522 588 B A L I 4,198 10,830 12,575 11,619 17,476 25,012 28,121 n.a = data not a v a i l a b l e Sources: SCETO Report, Volume 5, 1971; T r a f f i c O f f i c e B a l i , 1976 135 TABLE A.5 : NUMBERS OF ARTSHOPS FROM 1969 - 1972 IN BALI D i s t r i c t (Kabupaten) 1969 1970 1971 1972 Badung 28 28 35 55 Gianyar 17 17 16 36 Klungkung 4 4 4 4 Bule l e n g 1 1 2 2 Sources : B a l i P r o v i n c i a l Trade Agency, U n i v e r s i t y of Udayana Report 1973, p.39 TABLE A.6 NUMBERS OF RESTAURANTS IN BALI 1969 - 197 2 1969 1970 19.71 1972 fiestaurants n.a n.a 10 3 9 small r e s t -aurants n.a n.a 64 64 T o t a l 74 103 n.a = Data not a v a i l a b l e ources : B a l i Trade Agen Report, 1973. T A b L t A.9 Land use changes i n the S t r o n g Impact V i l l a g e s ' Sanur and Kuta i n 1961 - 1979. Sanur Land Use Kuta ' 96 ' 1%9 1971 '975 '979 Area i n Ha Area i n Ha Ar,_-Ha Area i n Ha Area i n Ha 760.423 81.29 746.072 79.75 690.867 73.85 470.563 50.30 469.250 50.16 450.505 48.16 289.660 30.99 276.822 29.59 240.362 25.69 649.780 69.46 412.150 44.06 237.630 25.401 9.189 00.98 10.935 1.17 40.130 4.29 42.500 4.54J 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land-use : 847.97 90.65 - R i c e f i e l d s 550.00 58.80 - D r y - l a n d 297.97 31-85 a g r i c u l t u r e and O t h e r s . 2. T o u r i s t l)e-velopment and i t s a s s o c i a t e d H o t e l s , home-s t a y s , c o t t a g e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , a r t shops e t c , 3. Housing a rea s : 1,87.50 9.35 150.186 16.06 161.600 17.27 185.150 19.79 196.247 20.91 Houses, R e l i - : * ( T o t a l o n I y „ . - . . - t l ( - 3 i 2 ^ j + i f •) 1961 '96? 1971 '975 Area i n Ha '979 Area ln % Area i n % Area l n % Area l n % H a Ha Ha Ha 846.73 481.50 365.23 92.76 52.75 40.02 g ious f a c i l i t i ( » B , Z\$ k cemetery e t c . I 4. Other non-a g r i c u l t u r a l uses : S c h o o l s , H e a l t h c e n t e r , v i l l a g e c e n t e r , roads , i n d u s t r y e t c . 15.669 1.67 16.860 1.81 19.320 2.07 46.940 5.02 66.00 7.24 ( T o t a l only, 2+3+4). 801.12 87.77 791.50 86.70.745.62 81.69 701.875 76.80 490.61 53.75 484.48 53.07 480.03 52.59 454.975 49.89 310.51 34.02 307.02 33.63 265.76 29.10 246.900 27.06 3.00 0.33 5.56 0.60 34.14 3.74 56.625 6.20 75.64 8.29 80.93 8.85 92.60 10.15 95.340 10. 45 32.97 3.61 35.28 3.85 40.37 4.42 58.89 6.45 T o t a l 935.467 100 935.467 100 935.467 100 935.467 100 935.467 100 912.73 100 912.73 100 912.73 100 912.73 100 912.73 100 Sources : B a l i Land-use Maps : D i r e c t o r a t e of Land use , 196l, 1971,and B a l i R e g i o n a l P l a n 1969,1977;Agrarian'Land use Maps: 1975; B . P . R . I . P . V i l l a g e s Survey 1977; and S i x V i l l a g e s Survey 1979. ttum A«#V I Land-use changes ID The Partial Impact Villages; Kesiman aad Ubung l a 1961 - 1979. Laad DM 1961 Kasiman 1969 1971 -1975 Area In Ha • 1979 Area In % Area in % Area in % Area in % Ha Ha Ha Ha 1. Agricultural Land-use - Hie.fields i - Dry land agriculture and others. 8 8 4 . 9 0 79.79 758.95 6 8 . 4 3 125.95 11.36 • * 1 . 5 3 75.88 813.66 73.37 785.70 70.84 744.31 67.12 740.81 66.80 726.72 65.53 710.42 64.06 678.96 61.23 100.72 9 .08 8 6 . 9 4 7 .84 75.28 6.78 6 5 . 3 5 5 t 8 9 Tourist de-velopment and Its associated! Hotels, home — stays, cottages, restaurants, Artshops ete. 1.83 0,17 2 .28 0.21 11.28 1.02 2 0 . 0 0 1.80 27 . 5 0 2.48 3 . Housing Areas Houses, Re l i -gious f a c i l i t i e s cam*tary etc. 4 . Other non-agricultural uses: schools, health center, village center, roads, industry etc. 179.85 16.22 2 2 0 . 0 0 19;84 236.06 21 .28 241 .80 2 1 . 8 0 278.48 25.11 42.42 3.82 4 5 . 1 9 4 . 0 7 4 8 . 0 0 4 . 3 3 5 0 . 9 8 5.56 5 ^ 7 , 5 # 2 9 ' 9 6 1 1969 Ubung ., 1971 -12Z5_ 197,9, Area in % Area Is % Area in % Area i n % assa-la M »• Ha Ha Ha J. * 448.05 74.68 425.00 7 0 . 8 3 412.50 68.75 353.283 58.88 329.550 5 4 . 9 2 336.34 56.06 325.12 54.19 317.38 52.90 269.840 44.97 255.600 42.62 111.71 18.62 99.88 16.64 95.12 15.85 83.473 13.91 73.790 12.30 000 00 000 00 000 00 000 00 0 . 9 3 0.16 98.02 16.33 109.85 18.31 115.56 19.26 131.680 21.95 146.97 24.50 53.93 8 . 9 9 65.15 10.86 71.94 11.99 115.037 19.17 122.55 20.42 1109 100 1109 100 1109 100 1109 100 1109 1 0 0 600 100 600 100 600 100 600 100 600 100 Sources j Ball Land-Use Haps : Directorate of Land-use, 1961, 1971 and Bali Heglonal Plan 1969, 1977 ; Agrarian Land Use Maps 1975; B.P.B.I.P. Villages Survey 1977; and Six Villages Survey 1979. 00 TAJJU. A . 9 Land use in the Isolated Villages, Buduk and Munggu In 1961 - 1979. Laad Uaa Area ln Ha 1. Agricultural land-use : 600 - Blceflelda 577.17 - Dry land 2 2 2 . 8 3 agriculture and otbera. 2 . Tourist de- 000 velopaent and Its associated] Hotels, Hoae-staya, cottagea, restaurant, Artahops etc. 3. Housing areas 133.76 Houses, Religious f a c i l i t i e s , ceaetary etc. 4. Other non-agricultural uses: schools, health center, village center, roads. Industry ate. I6.2i» T O T A L Buduk A r e a l n Ha Munggu Are. Ha 1971 a in '975 Area ln Ha L222 Area ln % Ha 00 950.98 100 84.13 738.48 62.91 778.45 81.86 768.47 80.81 719.58 75.67 60.69 574.65 60.43 574.35 60.40 570.07 59.95 561.73 59.07 23.43 213.83 22.48 204.10 21.46 198.40 20.86 157.85 16.60 000 00 000 00 000 00 000 1.80 18.76 1.98 20.04 2. 11 950.98 100 950.98 100 00 14.07 143.24 15.06 152.49 16.03 156.77 16.48 203.37 21.39 25.74 2.71 28.03 2.94 950.98 100 950.98 100 ' 'M. L262. '971 Area in Ha Area ln Ha Area ln Ha 1975 1979 Area l n Ha % Area i s Ha 924.50 810.25 114.25 000 89.15 897.00 86.50 894.58 86.27.888.88 85.72 862.37 83.16 78.13 799.71 77.12 799.71 77.12 799.71 77.12 796.86 76.84 n.02 97.29 9.38 94.87 9.15 89.17 8.60 65.51 6.32 00 000 00 000 00 000 00 000 00 65 .85 6.35 74.28 7.16 76.39 7.36 79.45 7 .66 102.63 9 . 9 0 46.65 4.50 66.72 6.34 66.03 6.37 68.67 6.62 7 1 . 9 9 6.94 1037 100 1037 100 1037 100 1037 100 1037 100 Sources: Bali Land-Use Maps: Directorate of Land-use, 1961, 1971 and Ball Regional Plan 1969, 1977; Agrarian Land Uee Maps 1975; B.P.B.I.P Villagea Survey 1977; and S i x Villages Survey 1979. CO TABLE A. 10 : Population Qrowth ana Density in the Six Villages Sample, 1961 - 1978-TOTAL POPULATION iiACH Y.-.Aii Village St rong  Impact S a n u r Kuta Area 1961 in Km2 1971 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 9.4 7,211 9.» 6,859 9,982 9,238 10,218 9,189' 10,904 U, MO 9,438 10,594 12,373 12,619 10,510 10,749 iiKNSITY PEB Km2 1961 % po r -yc-ar 1971 per -year 1974 * per-year 1975 * e r -ear 1976 % por-year 1977 767 J.8 1,062 754 3.5 1,015 A v a r - a y . * 1978 fafion ier eac Jear Inrease 0.79 1,082 6 ,7 1,160 5.34 1,222 7.69 1,316 1.98 1,342 3 .65. -0 .25, 1.010 2 . 6 ? J . 0 3 ? 1 2 . ^ 1,164 -0.77 1,155 2 .25 1,181 2 , 9 9 P a r t i a l  Impact Kesiman Ubung 1V.« 7,939 6.0 3,177 10,391 4,018 10.500 4,551 10,650 11,907 4.5UO 4,566 11,978 11,985 4,687 4,739 718 3. i 529 2.6 936 669 0.53 6.65 946 1.3? 11.89 1073 0.56 »W9 O.Of 1080 2.70' 758 0.66 763-0 .26 761 2.62 781 1.15 790 2 .56. Isolated  Impact Buduk Munggu 9.5 6,575 10.3 7,188 7,499 8,321 7,399* 8,236' 7,494 a, 285 7,703 8,651 7,685 8,732 7,685 8,732 692 1.4 698 .1.6 789 808 -0.63 -0.49 779 1.28 789 2.79 811 -0.25 809 >0.00 809 0 .97-800 0.50 804 4.48 840 O.95 848 0 . 0 0 848 i.23 1969 Data not available by v i l l a g e . • Decline because of transmigration to Sulawesi or inter-village movement. 1969 The Opening of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Airport. 1-974 PATA ( B a a l C i c Area Travel A s s o c i a t i o n ) Conference was held i n Bali S t a t i s t i c R e p o r t s , P o p u l a t i o n o f l-.a.luuu from 1J(.1 tu 1977, s t a t i s t i c Agency o f i:o,,i;iicy of l i a d u n i ; . .'jource O T A B U : A. 11 J The Head of Traditional Villages' Personal Information and Villages Conditions. Villages It BIB 1, Village Site and Respondent* Bafkfround Information. a. Distance <2 Km 8 2 - 5 Km >5 Km -b. Sex Hale 8 Female c. Ags >50 yearn 5 35-50 years 3 15-59 ysarm d. Marital Status Married 8 Unmarried 2. The l o l e as a Traditional VIllag« Leader. a. Length of Jon < 5 years 5 - 10 yuars 5 710 years 3 b. Function Only as a Traditional Leader 7 Also as an O f f i c i a l Leader 1 c. As a Villager < 5 years 5 - 10 years >10 years 8 3. The Ethnicity a. Nstive Balines* 8 b. Non- Native Balinese Strong Impact Villages Partial Impact Villages Isolated Impact Villages -latal Parcentage( % ) Tnt„l Pfrf-n < * * T.rff1 »«r C a ntair. ( K, \ 100 100 6 2 . 5 0 3 7 . 5 0 100 6 2 . 5 0 3 7 . 5 0 8 7 . 5 0 12.50 100 8 4 h 15 1 68.75 31.25 16 100 56.25 37 .50 6 .25 16 100 5 0 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 93.75 6 .25 1 6 .25 >5 93.75 27 27 19 6 2 27 100 16 100 10 2 15 85 2 27 27 100 100 7 0 . 3 7 22.22 7.41 100 3 7 . 0 4 7.41 55.55 9 2 . 5 9 7.41 100 100 continued it. The Level of Education. Uneducated Primary Sohool High School University Other 5. The Village Major Activity. Agriculture Mixture Hon- Agriculture 6. The Existence Of Tourist Devt. or Touriaa Potential. Exiat Ho Exist Potential 7. The Dominant Land Use and the Exis-tence of Traditional l.u. Patterns. a. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture HixturgrLand-Uee Mon-Agriculture b. The Existence of Traditional Village Land Use Patterns. Traditional Patterns Mixture Patterns Hon- Traditional Patterns 8. The Agriculture F e r t i l i t y . F i r s t Class Agricultural Soils Second Class Third Class Strong Impact Village Total Percentage ( % 5 62.50 3 37.50 2 25.00 4 50.00 2 25.00 8 100 2 25.00 4 50.00 2 25.00 3 37.50 5 62.50 5 62.50 3 37.50 Partial Impact villages Isolated Iapact Villages Total Percen tage ( * ) Total Percentage ( % ) 10 5 62.50 31.25 6.25 13 3 81.25 18.75 12 3 l 75.00 18.75 6.25 3 21 1 1 1 11.12 77.77 3.70 3.70 3.70 27 100 23 4 85.18 14.82 15 93.75 1 6.25 16 100 27 100 27 100 9 6 1 56.25 37.50 6.25 15 10 2 55.55 37.04 7.41 . continued 9. The Other Important agriculture Production. Cattle Poultry Flahery Mixture Mo Other 11, Strong Total 2 2 10. The Village Population and the Labour Force. a. TBS Village Population Less than 5000 lnh. 5000 - 10,000 lnh. More than10,000 lnh. b. The Labour Fores Structure Toung Ages Middle ages Old Agss Ho Ansaer Major Economic Sector of ths Village, Faraing Tourism Government Services Trade and Industry Mixture A c t i v i t i e s Mo Answer 12. The Villager Income Level per Month. Less Than US. t 20 US. $ 20 - $ 100 More Than US. f 100 Mo Anaser The Dominant Ethnic Group Native Balinese Lees than 90 % Native balinese 90 - 99 * Native Balinese 100 % 13 Impact Village Percentage ( % 25.00 25.00 37.50 12.50 37.50 62.50 50.00 37.50 12.50 100 37.50 62.50 62.50 37.50 Partial Impact Villages Isolated Impact Villages Total Percen t a«« ( * ) Total Percentage ( % ) 12.50 2 11 I 12.50 68.75 12.50 3 1 2 2 19 11.12 3.70 7.41 7.41 70.37 43.75 31.25 25.00 13 13 1 48.15 48.15 3.70 2 11 2 1 12.50 68.75 12.50 6.25 13 1 13 48.15 3.70 48.15 18.75 16 59.26 13 81.25 10 1 37.04 3.70 l II 4 6.25 68.75 25.00 29.62 14.82 55.55 12 4 75.00 25.00 4 23 14.82 85.19 continued Strong Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) Partial Impact Villages Total Percen t a8« ( % ) 14. The Village Type of, Housing and the Village Land Use Patterns. Isolated Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) a. Housing Type Traditional Transitional Modern b. Village Land Use Patterns Traditional Mixture Non- Traditional 15. The Lot Property and the Land Tenure a. The Lot Property Heritage Bought Rent b. The Land Tenure Private Village 16. The Land Value Changes from 1969-1979. Ro Changes Changes Less Than 2 Times Changes from 2 - 5 Times Changes More Than 5 Times 8 Does Hot Know/ No Answer 25.00 37.50 37.50 25.00 50.00 25.00 62.50 12.50 25.00 100 100 3 3 10 12 4 9 4 3 12 4 3 13 18.75 18.75 62.50 75.00 25.00 56.25 25.00 18.75 75.00 25.00 18.75 81.25 18 27 19 1 7 14 13 5 II 6 66.6P 33.33 100 70.37 3.70 25.93 51.85 48.15 18.52 40.74 22.22 18.52 TABLE A.I 2 The Village Farmer Personal Information of his background and his village conditions. Villages I t f l l S I. Respondent' Background. a. Age } 50 ifears 4 35-50 Tears 3 15-35 Taars 1 b. Sex Male 8 Female c. Harital Status Married 8 Unmarried 2. i a a Villager. <5 Tears 1 5 - 1 0 Tears >10 Tears 7 3. The Kthnlclty. Native Balinese 8 Non- Native Balinese 4. The Level of Education. Uneducated 2 Primary School 5 High School 1 University Other 5. The Agriculture in the Village. a. The Role of Agricultural Activity Major Activity 7 No Major Activity 1 b. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture 1, Mixture Land Use 3 Non-Agriculture 1 Strong Impact Villages Partial Impact villages -latal Percentage ( % ) Total Percen t a g e ( % ) Isolated Impact Villages Total Percentage ( V. 1 50.00 37.50 12.50 100 100 12.50 87.50 100 25-00 62.50 12.50 87.50 12.50 50.00 37.50 12.50 2 10 4 16 16 16 16 3 11 2 15 1 12 2 2 12.50 62.50 25.00 100 100 100 100 18.75 68.75 12.50 93.75 6.25 75.00 12.50 12.50 9 17 3 27 27 27 27 3. 21 3 27 27 25.94 62.96 11.10 100 100 100 100 11.11 77.78 11.11 100 100 continued c. The Agriculture F e r t i l i t y . F i r e t Class Agriculture Soils Second Class Third Class 6. The Existence of Tourist Devt. or Tourism Potential. Exist Ho Exist Potential 7. The Household size. Less Than 5 Persons 5 - 1 0 Persons More Than 10 Persons 8 . The Land Tenure. Privats Village 9 . Type of Farming Operation and Farming Size. a. Farming Operation Family Farming Farming Alone Part-time/Using Other Farmer b. Farming Size Less Than 1 Ha More Than 1 Ha No Answer 0. The Level of Income Per Month. Less Than US. 8 20 US. 8 20 - 8 100 More Than US. 8 100 No Answer Strong Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) 3 37.50 4 50.00 1 12.50 7 87.50 1 12.50 1 12.50 5 62.50 2 25.50 6 75.00 2 25.00 Partial Impact Villages Total Percen tage ( % ) 6 37.50 6 37.50 4 25.00 12 75,00 4 25.00 1 6.25 10 62.50 5 31.25 11 68.75 5 31.25 Isolated Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) 11 40.74 15 55.56 1 3.70 24 8 8 . 8 9 3 11.11 8 29.63 15 55.56 4 14.81 26 96.30 1 3.70 8 100 5 62.50 1 12.50 2 25.00 1 12.50 5 62.50 1 12.50 1 12.50 10 62.50 6 37.50 9 56.25 5 31.25 2 12.50 4 25.00 10 62.50 1 6.25 ' 6.25 22 77.78 5 18.52 18 66.67 5 18.52 4 14.81 13 48.15 8 29.63 6 ZZ.ZZ • continued 11. The Other Activity Beside Parsing. Touriaa Qovernsent Services Trade Industry No Other 12. The Most Desirable Activity Agriculture -Touriaa Industry Trade Qovernaent Services Bo saasar 13. The Desirability to Transslgrate. Agra* Disagree No Answer 14. The Village Type of Housing and the Village Land Use Patterns. a. Bousing Type Traditional Transitional Modern b. Village Land Use Patterns. Traditional Mixture Non-Traditional 15. The Lot Property. Heritage Bought Bent Strong Impact Villages Partial Inpact Villages Isolated Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) Total Percen tage ( * ) Total Percentage ( % ) » 6 12.50 12.50 75.00 87.50 12.50 100 25.00 50.00 25.00 62.50 37.50 75.00 12.50 12.50 4 1 11 11 I 3 1 4 12 10 3 3 16 13 2 1 25.00 6.25 68.75 68.75 6.25 18.75 6.25 25.00 75.00 62.50 18.75 18.75 100 81.25 12.50 6.25 4 23 1? 1 1 2 4 4 20 3 25 2 14.81 85.19 70.37 3.70 3.70 7.4* 14.81 14.81 74.0? 11.11 92.59 7.41 27 100 20 74.07 1 3.70 6 22.22 continued The Land Value Changes from 1969 to 1979. Ho Changes Changes Less Than 2 Times Changes from 2 - 5 Times Changes More Than 5 Times Does Hot Know Strong Impact Villages Partial Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) Total Percen tags ( % ) 25.00 75.00 6.35 37.50 37.50 18.75 Isolated Impact Villages Total Percentage ( % ) 7 3 1 15 25.93 11.11 3.70 55.56 T A B U : A . 13 The Village Kuucated Adult' personal Information of his background and his village Conditions. Villages Items S t r o n g Impact V i l l a g e s T o t a l Percentage ( % ) Partial Impact Villages Total Percen taga ( t ) Isolated Impact Villages 1. Respondent' Background. a. Age ^ 5 0 Tears 35-50 Years 15-35 Ifaare b. Sex. Male Female C.Marital Status. Harried Unmmarried 2. As « Villager. 5 Years 5 - 1 0 Years 10 Tsars 3. The Ethnicity, native Balinese Hon- Native Balinese 4. The Level Of Education. Uneducated Primary School High School University Other 5. The Agriculture in the Village. a. The Role of Agricultural Activity Major Activity No Major Activity Hixture b. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture Mixture Land Use Non- Agriculture 100 87.50 12.50 75.00 25.00 12.50 87.50 100 37.50 37.50 25.00 25.00 25.00 50.00 37.50 37.50 25.00 16 15 1 7 9 1 15 16 2 11 2 1 9 4 3 11 1 3 100 93.75 6.25 43.50 56.25 6.25 93.75 100 12.50 68.75 12.50 6.25 56.25 25.00 18.75 68.75 6.25 18.75 1 26 24 3 14 13 1 26 27 8 17 2 23 4 23 4 3.70 96.30 8 8 . 8 9 11.11 51.85 48.15 3.70 96.30 100 29.63 62.96 7.41 85.19 14.81 85.19 14.81 Co-. c o n t i n u e d c . The A g r i c u l t u r e F e r t i l i t y . F i r s t C l a s s A g r i c u l t u r e S o i l s Second C l a s s T h i r d C l a s s 6. The E x i s t e n c e o f T o u r i s t D e v t . or Tour i sm P o t e n t i a l . E x i s t No i. E x i s t P o t e n t i a l 7. The Household S i z e . Le s s Than 5 Persons 5 - 1 0 Persons More Than 10 Persons 8. The Land T e n u r e . P r i v a t e V i l l a g e 9. Type of Farming O p e r a t i o n and Farming S i z e . a . Farming O p e r a t i o n F a m i l y Farming Farming Alone P a r t - t i m e / U s i n g Other Farmer b. Farming S i z e Less Than 1 Ha More Than 1 Ha No Answer 10. The L e v e l o f Income Per Month. . Les s Than US. $ 20 US. 8 20 - 8 100 More Than US. $ 1.00 No Job Yet S t rong Impact V i l l a g e s T o t a l Percentage ( % 3 37.50 2 25.00 3 37.50 P a r t i a l Impact v i l l a g e s ) T o t a l Percen t a g e ( % 8 50.00 4 25.00 4 25.00 I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s ) T o t a l Percentage ( % ) 12 44.44 12 44.44 3 11.11 100 12 4 75,00 25.00 23 4 85.19 14.81 6 75.00 2 25.00 6 75.00 2 25.00 8 50.00 8 50.00 14 87.50 '2 12.50 3 11.11 16 59.26 8 29.63 24 88.89 3 11.11 3 37.50 5 62.50 6 75.00 2 25.00 1 12.50 5 62.50 2 25.00 9 56.25 6 27.50 1 6.25 12 75.00 3 18.75 + 6.25 2 12.50 9 56.25 5 31.25 14 51.85 9 33.33 4 14.81 18 66.67 9 33.33 7 25.93 14 51 .85 M 3 i i . l i (-n: O i 3 U . i i ...continued 1). The Other Activity Beside Farming. Tourism Government Services Trade Industry No Other 12. The Most Desirable Activity Agriculture Tourism Industry Trade Government Services Ho Answer The Desirability to Transmigrate, agree Dlssgree Mo Answer 14. The Village type of Housing and the Village Land Use Patterns. a. Housing Type Traditional Transitional Modern b. Village Land Use Patterns. Traditional Mixture Hon- Traditional 15. The Lot Property. Heritage Bought Rent Strong Impact Villagei Total Percentage ( % 1 2 2 2 1 1 . 3 1 2 1 12.50 25.00 25.00 25.00 12.50 12.50 37.50 12.50 25.00 12.50 12.50 87.50 37.50 62.50 25.00 75.00 87.50 12.50 Partial Impact Villages Isolated Impact Villages Total Percen tage ( % ) Total Percentage ( % ) 1 6.25 7 43.75 2 12.50 6 37.30 2 12.50 3 18.75 2 12.50 9 56.25 4 25.00 12 75.00 6 22.22 8 29.63 13 48.15 i9 33.33 2 7.41 1 3.70 3 11.11 12 44.44 2 7.41 25 92.59 5 31.25 5 31.25 6 37.50 10 62.50 6 37.50 13 81.25 2 12.50 1 6.25 16 59.26 6 22.22 5 18.52 27 100 24 88.89 3 11.11 . c o n t i n u e d 6. The Land Value Changes from 1969 to 1979 No Changes Changes L e s s Than 2 T imes Changes from 2-5 Times Changes More Than 5 Times Does Not Know S t r o n g Impact V i l l a g e s P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s T o t a l Percentage ( % ) T o t a l Percen tage ( % ) T o t a l Percentage ( % ) 1 12.50 6 75.00 1 12.50 2 12.50 4 25.00 8 50.00 2 12.50 7 25.93 4 14.81 5 18.52 4 14.8T 7 25.93 TABLE. A . 14: CLASSIFICATION OF THE VILLAGES SAMPLE INTO THREE ZONES OF TOURISM IMPACT . I , The s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s : 1. V i l l a g e o f Dangin P u r l , v i l l a g e number: 1.3 2. » " Sumerta , " " : 1.4 3. " " " Pemecutan , " " : 2.4 4. " " Dauh P u r l , " " : 2.5 5. " » Sanur , " " : 3.1 6. " " Kuta , " " : 4.4 7. " " Tuban , " " : 4.5 8. " " Benoa /Bua lu , " " : 4.9 I I . The P a r t i a l impact V i l l a g e s : V i l l a g e o f P e n a t i h , v i l l a g e number : 1.1 2. » '• Ton ja , " : 1 .2 3. » " Kesiman , " " : 1.5 4. " " Ubung , " " : 2.2 5. " " Padangsambian, " " : 2.3 6. » " Renon , " " : 3.2 7. » » P a n j e r , " " : 3.3 8. " » Seeetan , " " : 3.4 9. » » Pedungan , " " : 3.5 10. " " Serangan , " " : 3.6 11. " " J imbaran , " " : 4.6 12. " " Peca tu , " " : 4.7 13. » " Mengwi , " 1 1 : 5.3 14. " " Sempidi , " " : 5.5 15. » " Kapal , » " : 5.6 16. " " Sangeh , " " : 6.1 I I I . The I s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s : 1. V i l l a g e O f Peguyangan t V i l l a g e number : 2.1 2. II l i Dalung it it • 4.1 3. II l i Canggu i i II 4.2 4. M it Krobokan II II . 4.3 5. M l i Ungasan n II • 6. II l i Sembung ti it • 5.1 7. II II Baha II n • 5.2 8. II II Penarungan II • i • 5.4 9. II it Mengwi T a n i i i II 5.7 10. II i i Buduk it it 5.8 11. II n Munggu II n 5.9 12. II it Tarn an II II 6.2 13. II l i Bongkasa it it 6.3 14. II ti Ayunan it n : 6.4 15. II II B l a h k i u h II II : 6.5 16. II II Abian Semal n n : 6.6 17. 11 II Mambal n n : 6.7 18. II n Sedang II II : 6.8 19. It it Angantaka n II : 6.9 20. It l i J a g a p a t i n II : 6.10 21 . » l i S ibangka ja it it : 6.11 22. n ti Sibanggede i i II : 6.12 23. if ti Darmaeaba ti II : 6.13 24, •• l i Bel ok ti it : 7.1 25. n n Pelaga ti II : 7.2 26. n n Petang u it : 7.3 27. i i ti C a r a n g s a r i tt ti : 7.4 TABLE A.15 The v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e , the e x i s t e n c e of the v i l l a g e l and use changes , and the e x i s t e n c e of tour i sm deve lop-ment impac t , i n the s t r o n g impact v i l l a g e s . T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e l e a d e r s -1 T o t a l Weight ing 4 4 1 4 5 6 7 8 3 2 4 3 4 4 -4 -4 -6 8 8 7 8 4 5 6 8 -1 -2 3 -1 4 0.500 -0.500 -0.500 -0.750 1 .000 1 .000 0.875 1 .000 0.500 0.625 0.750 1 .000 -0.125 -0.250 0.375 -0.125 0.500 Farmers 3 1 1. 1 1 4 3 3 3 1 T o t a l Weight ing 7 7 5 7 7 2 5 4 4 . 3 7 5 -5 7 6 3 7 7 0 5 3 3 -1 6 2 -4 7 -0.625 0.875 0.750 0.375 0.875 0.875 0.000 0.625 0.375 0.375 -0.125 0.750 0.250 -0.500 0.875 -1.000 0.125 Educated A d u l t s -1 1 T o t a l Weight ing 2 -2 -0.250 4 0 0.000 6 4 0.500 ' 3 -1 -0.125 8 8 1.000 7 7 0.875 3 1 0.125 6 6 0.750 5 4 0.500 6 6 O.750 5 2 O.250 7 6 0.750 6 4 0.500 1 -4 -0.500 8 8 1.000 1 -6 -0.750 2 1 0.125 The va lue i s judged based on the f o l l o w i n g answer : y e s , d o n ' t know and no. Assignment o f a p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e score depends on whether the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n suppor t s the e x i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , or the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s m development impact i n the i n v e s t i g a t e d v i l l a g e . ( ) * The o r i g i n a l number o f the f i r s t round q u e s t i o n a i r o . S t rong i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e . No v a l u e . Weak i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e . TABLE A . 16. The v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e , the e x i s t e n c e o f the v i l l a g e land-use changes, and the e x i s t e n c e of tour i sm development impact , i n the p a r t i a l impact v i l l a g e s . I terns 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) 8 (24) 9 (25) 10 (26) '1 (27) 12 (28) 13 (29) 14 (30) 15 (3D 16 (32) 17 (33) T r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r s T o t a l Weight ing 5 11 5 l 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 15 15 11 4 16 16 10 15 7 11 8 7 4 4 14 15 6 -7 16 16 9 15 2 9 3 1 -5 -5 4 0 1 0.875 0.938 0.375 -0.438 1.000 1.000 0.563 0.938 0.125 0.563 0.188 0.063 -0.313 -0.313 0.250 0.000 0.063 Farmers -1 1 3 10 7 1 5 5 5 8 1 14 4 1 1 1 2 1 6 3 4 5 5 1 2 6 2 1 16 1 4 14 12 5 14 15 7 13 5 10, 6 10 9 2 13 1 The v a l u e i s judged based on the f o l l o w i n g answer : yes, d o n ' t know and no . Assignment of- a . p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e s core depends on whether the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s u p p o r t s the e x i s t e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s ; or the e x i s t e n c e o f t o u r i s m development impact i n the i n v e s t i g a t e d v i l l a g e . ( ) * The o r i g i n a l number oi ' the f i r u t rounJ que:;Lionairii. Educated A d u l t s T o t a l Weight ing -1 0 1 T o t a l Weight ing -4 -0.250 9 4 3 -6 -0.375 13 0.813 1 - 15 14 0.875 9 0.563 7 - 9 2 0.125 -5 -0.313 10 5 l -9 -0.563 14 0.875 - 1 15 15 0.938 15 0.938 - 1 15 15 0.938 4 0.250 -5 4 7 2 0.125 13 0.813 - 4 12 12 0.750 •2 -0.125 6 5 5 -1 -0.063 9 0.563 2 6 8 6 0.375 l 0.063 4 3 9 5 0.313 5 0.313 3 2 11 8 0.500 4 0.250 5 1 10 5 0.313 -6 -0.375 7 5 4 -3 -0.188 12 0.750 - 2 14 14 0.875 13 -0.813 15 - l -14 -0.875 0 0.000 - 14 2 2 0.125 1 : S t rong i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e 0 : No va lue - 1 • : Weak i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e U l TABLE A,1? • T h « v i l l a g e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e v a l u e , the e x i s t e n c e of the v i l l a g e l and-use changes , and the e x i s t e n c e of the tour i sm development impact , i n the i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . Items T r a d i t i o n a l ( x ± ) V i l l a g e l e a d e r s Farmers Educated A d u l t s -1 0 1 T o t a l Weight ing 0 1 T o t a l Weight ing -1 0 1 T o t a l Weight ing 1 (17)" .'•5 22 17 0.630 13 4 10 -3 -0.111 14 6 7 -7 -0.259 2 (18) 1 l 25 24 0.889 - 3 24 ' 24 0.889 1 - 26 25 0.926 3 (19) 2 1 24 22 0.815 - - 27 27 1.000 2 - 25 23 0.852 4 (20) 15 12 -3 -0.111 13 •- 14 • 1 0.P37 12 3 12 0 0,000 5 (21) - 27 27 1.000 - 1 26 26 0.963 - 3 24 24 0.889 6 (22) 1 26 26 0.963 - 3 24 24 0.889 - 4 23 23 0.852 7 (23) 10 17 17 0.630 8 16 3 -5 -0.185 10 13 4 -6 -0.222 8 (24) 1 8 18 17 0.630 - 15 12 '12 0.444 - 8 19 1.9 0.704 9 (25) 12 5 10 .2 -0.074 16 7 4 -12 -0.444 15 9 3 -12 -0.444 10 (26) 1 17 9 8 0.296 1 18 8 7 0.259 2 9 16 " t . 0.519 11 (27) 7 13 7 0 0.000 17 1 9 -8 -0.296 14 - 13 -1 -0.037 12 (28) 13 10 4 = 9 . -0.333 11 5 11 0 0.000 - 13 5 9 -4 -0.148 13 (29) 12 14 1 -11 -0.407 17 5 5 -12 -0.444 21 - 6 -15 -0.556 14 (30) 10 15 2 -8 -0.296 9 17 1 -8 -0.296 15 10 2 -13 -O.481 15 (3D 4 19 4 0 0.000 - 5 22 22 0.815 - 6 21 21 0.778 16 (32) 24 3 - -24 -0.889 26 - 1 -25' -0.926 26 1 - -26 -0.963 17 (33) - 19 8 8 0.296 - 27 - 0 0.000 1 25 1 0 0.000 The va lue i u judged based on the f o l l o w i n g answer :• y e s , d o n ' t know and no. Assignment of a p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e score depends on whether the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n support s the e x i s t e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , o r the e x i s t e n c e of t o u r i s m development impact i n the i n v e s t i g a t e d v i l l a g e . ( ) « The o r i g i n a l number of the f i r . s t round q i m c t i o n u i r o . 1 : S t rong i n d i c a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e 0 : No va lue -1 : Weak i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e ( n TABLE A. 18 The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n of the Impact o f Tourism Development and Future Development P o l i c y , i n the S t rong Impact V i l l a g e s I terns , T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Leaders Farmers Educated A d u l t s ( Xj ) -2 -1 0 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing -2 -1 0 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing -2 1 0 1 2 . T o t a l Weight ing 1 - 1 7 15 0.938 _ _ 2 6 14 0.875 - - - 1 7 15 0.938 2 . 6 2 - - - -14 -0.875 - - - -12 -0.750 4 1 - 1 - -10 -0.625 3 1 6 1 7 0.438. - 1 7 - 7 0.438 - - 1 6 1 8 0.500 4 1 1 5 1 4 0.250 — — 1 '5 2 9 0.563 - 1 1 5 1 6 0.375 5 - 4 4 12 0.750 - 4 4 12 0.750 - - 1 6 1 8 0.500 6. 4 4 12 0.750 - 3 5 13 0.813 - - 1 3 4 11 0.688 7 1 5 . 2 9 0.563 2 3 3 9 0.563 - - 1 4 3 10 0.625 8 1 3 4 10 0.625 3 1 2 2 3 0.188 - 1 - 5 2 8 0.500 9 - 8 16 1.000 — — - 4 4 12 0.750 - - - 5 3 11 0.688 10 - 4 4 12 0.750 _ _ . 1 5 2 '9 0.563 - - 1 5 2 9 0.563 11 - 2 6 14 0.875 - 6 2 ,10 0.625 - - '- 4 4 12 0.750 12 - 7 1 9 0.563 _ _ 3 5 - V-5 0.313 - - 2 4 2 8 0.500 13 2 r 5 1 5 0.313 2 2 2 2 •4 0.250 - 4 1 2 1 0 0.000 14 2 5 1 :5 0.313 1 3 4 - >3 0.188 1 3 1 2 1 -1 -0.063 15 - 1 7 15 0.938 - 4 4 112 0.750 - - - 4 4 12 0.750 16 - 2 6 •14 0.875 _ _ 1 6 1 <8 0.500 - - - 7 1 9 0.563 17 - — ~ 7 1 9 0.563 - 3 4 1 6 0.375 - - 2 5 1 7 0.438 The va lue i s judged based on the f o l l o w i n g 'answer- : S t r o n g l y .agree Agree Don' t Know Disagree S t r o n g l y d i sagree A p o s i t i v e or nega t ive score i s a s s i g n e d based on whether the s p e c i f i c statement e i t h e r suppor t s or maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l va lues . . . Weight ing va lues i n d i c a t e the degree of the e v a l u a t i o n . 2 : S t rong i n d i c a t i o n ' o f sa-ppor.t. f p r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 1 : Moderate I n d i c a t i o n of support , f o r t r a d i t i o n a l - v a l u e s . 0 : No value -1 : Less i n d i c a t i o n ' o f support , f o r . t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . -2 : -The l e a s t i n d i c a t i o n of support fo r t r a d i t i o n a l . v a l u e s . Ln TABLE A . , 9 : The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n on the Impact of Tourism Development and Future Development P o l i c y , i n the P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s . I terns T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e 'Leaders Farmers ( X j ) -2 1 0 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing -2 -1 1 - - - 7 9 25 0.781 2 9 6 - 1 - -23 -0.719 5 9 3 1 2 - 12 1 10 0.313 3 4 - 4 - 11 1 9 0.281 3 5 - - 1 8 7 22 0.688 6 - - 7 9 25 0.781 7 - 4 6 6 18 0.563 - _ 8 - 10 4 16 0.500 _ 3 9 - - 4 12 28 0.875 _ 10 - 1 10 5 20 0.625 _ 11 - - 9 7 23 0.719 _ _ 12 - 1 13 2 17 0.531 _ 13 5 1 10 2 11 0.344 _ 4 14 1 9 - 3 0.093 _ 4 15 - 1 6 9 24 0.750 _ 16 - - 9 7 23 0.719 _ 17 2 11 3 17 0.531 - -The va lue i s judged based on the f o l l o w i n g answer : S t r o n g l y agree Agree D o n ' t know Disagree S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . A p o s i t i v e - o r n e g a t i v e ; s c o r e i s a s s i g n e d ba sed .on whether the s p e c i f i c s tatement e i t h e r suppor t s o r maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Weight ing v a l u e s i n d i c a t e the degree o f the e v a l u a t i o n . Educated A d u l t s 2 T o t a l Weight ing 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing 2 1 2 3 3 3 5 4 2 1 3 6 9 2 12 12 7 7 9 7 9 11 8 10 5 9 5 5 7 1 7 8 5 3 7 2 5 1 3 1 10 23 -17 9 11 21 23 19 10 23 15 18 12 7 7 25 21 13 0.719 -0.531 0.281 0.344 0.656 0.719' 0.594 0.313 0.719 0.469 0.563 0.375 0.219 0.219 0.781 0.656 0.406 2 1 9 8 6 11 10 8 7 10 8 9 8 6 6 6 7 13 1 1 7 3 28 -20 5 6 20 17 10 18 23 18 18 17 4 1 16 22 13 0.875 -0.625 O.156 0.188 0.625 0.531 0.313 0.563 0.719 0.563 0.563 0.531 0.125 0.031 0.500 0.688 0.406 2 : S t rong i n d i c a t i o n o f ' support : f o r t r a d i t i o n a l - v a l u e s . 1 : Moderate i n d i c a t i o n of iaupport. f o r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 0 : No v a l u e . -1 : Less i n d i c a t i o n o f isupporit:'for t r a d i t i o n a l . v a l u e s . -2 : The l e a s t i n d i c a t i o n of 'support, f o r • t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Ln CO TABLE A . 2 0 : The v i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n on the Impact of T o u r i s m Development and Future Development P o l i c y , i n I s o l a t e d V i l l a g e s . Items T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Leaders Farmers < Xl > -2 -1 0 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing -2 -1 1 - - 13 14 41 0.759 2 8 16 2 1 - -31 -0.574 9 15 3 4 11 3 9 - -10 -0.185 3 8 4 5 1 21 - 16 0.296 4 5 - - 14 13 40 0.741 6 - 2 16 9 34 0.630 _ _ 7 - 2 17 8 33 0.611 8 - 6 10 11 32 0.593 9 - 1 16 10 36 0.667 10 - 3 15 9 33 0.611 _ 11 - 7 8 12 32 0.593 1 ' 2 - 3 20 4 28 0.519 _ _ 13 13 1 11 2 2 0.037 12 u 15 1 11 -- -4 -0.074 15 15 - 1 1 1 15 41 0.759 16 - 1 17 9 35 • 0.648 — — 17 — — 6 16 5 36 O.481 -The va lue i s judged based on the f o l l o w i n g .'answer-. :>: S t r o n g l y .agree Agree D o n ' t know Disagree S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . A p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e score i s a s s i g n e d based on whether the s p e c i f i c statement e i t h e r suppor t s o r maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . :<v-Weight ing v a l u e s I n d i c a t e the degree o f the e v a l u a t i o n . Educated A d u l t s 0 1 2 T o t a l Weight ing -2 -1 0 I 2 T o t a l Weight ing - 11 16 43 00.796 - 2 8 17 42 0.778 3 - - -33 -0.611 13 11 2 1 - -36 -0.667 2 14 - 0 0.000 3 9 3 12; - - 3 -0.056 2 20 1 18 0.333 1 7 4 15 . - 6 0.111 2 12 13 $8 0.704 - 4 12 11 34 O.630 - 13 14 41 0.759 - 5 11 11 33 0.611 3 14 10 34 0.630 - 6 13 8 29 0.537 4 18 5 28 0,519 - 7 17 3 23 • 0.426 1 13 13 39 0.722 - 3 13 11 35 O.648 4 1 1 12 35 0.648 - 8 11 8 27 0.500 5 11 10 30 0.556 1 6 8 12 31 0.574 3 16 8 32 0.593 1 5 12 9 29 0.537 3 8 4 4 0.074 11 5 8 3 3 0.056 3 8 1 — 5 -0.093 1 15 5 6 - -11 -0.204 3 13 11 39 0.648 - 3 15 9 33 0.611 3 12 12 36 0.667 - 5 10 12 34 0.630 10 6 1 1 28 0.519 4.. 13 8 6 20 0.370 2 : S t rong i n d i c a t i o n o f J Isuppbrt. f o r t r ad l t t cu ia i n ' s a lue .8. 1 : Moderate i n d i c a t i o n o f , tenppbrt.for t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 0 : No v a l u e . -1 : Less i n d i c a t i o n of • teuppbrt . f o r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . -2 : The l e a s t i n d i c a t i o n o f support f o r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . 160 APPENDIX B. MAP B . l SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGIONS IN INDONESIA MAP.B.I: INDONESIA , RELIGIONS. \ {ttavt>ut .turn 9aUh«$c Hinduism APPENDIX C : QUESTIONNAIRES C . l F i r s t Round Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C.2 Second Round Qu e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX C . l : FIRST ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE* 163 THE VILLAGERS' PERSONAL INFORMATION AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF THE EXISTENCE OF THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE VALUES, OF TRADITION^ AL VILLAGE LAND USE CHANGES, AND OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE VILLAGE. Name of the v i l l a g e S u b - D i s t r i c t Regency of Badung, Provinc e of B a l i . Name of i n t e r v i e w e r Date Year Time .. * T r a n s l a t e d from the Indonesian o r i g i n a l , which i s on f i l e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g . 164 1. THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING HEADS OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGES. We are i n t e r e s t e d i n your knowledge and o p i n i o n s about c o n d i t i o n s i n your v i l l a g e : i t s people, i t s c u l t u r e , i t s a c t i v i t i e s ; and e s p e c i a l l y about the i s s u e s and o p i n i o n s concerning- developmental p o l i c y r e l a t e d to tourism; i t s impacts on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, and i t s e f f e c t s on the B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s , r e l i g i o n and c u l t u r e , before and a f t e r massive t o u r i s t development s t a r t e d i n 1969. A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e us i s expected to be open and t r u e , and i t w i l l be completely c o n f i d e n t i a l and used o n l y f o r the purpose of t h i s p l a n n i n g study. I n s t r u c t i o n s : F i l l i n and or choose an answer, and g i v e the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A. General i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f and your v i l l a g e 1. What i s the name of your v i l l a g e ? Where i s i t lo c a t e d ? D i s t a n c e from Danpasar from Sanur and from Kuta D i s t r i c t of V i l l a g e s i z e 165 How o l d a r e you now? Sex : a. M a l e b. F e male M a r i t a l s t a t u s : a. M a r r i e d b. U n m a r r i e d c . D i v o r c e d How l o n g have you f u n c t i o n e d as a t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r ? ( P l e a s e c i r c l e o n e ) . a. l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r b. 1 - 5 y e a r s c. 5 - 1 0 y e a r s d. 10 - 15 y e a r s e. more t h a n 15 y e a r s . Do you f u n c t i o n a l s o as an o f f i c i a l v i l l a g e l e a d e r ? a. Yes b. No I f y e s , s i n c e when? A r e y ou a n a t i v e v i l l a g e r o r an i m m i g r a n t ? a. N a t i v e b. Immigrant How l o n g have you l i v e d i n t h i s v i l l a g e ? a. l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r b. 1 - 5 y e a r s c. 5 - 1 0 y e a r s d. 10 - 15 y e a r s e. more t h a n 15 y e a r s . What k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l d i d you have? a. N e v e r a t t e n d e d s c h o o l b. P r i m a r y s c h o o l c. J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l d. S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l e. T e c h n i c a l Secondary school f. Academy g. U n i v e r s i t y h. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g Please d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of v i l l a g e r s . (If p o s s i b l e use percentages as w e l l a c t u a l numbers). a. Never attended school persons.... b. Primary school " .... c. J u n i o r High school " .... d. Senior High school " .... e. T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l " .... f . Academy " .... g. U n i v e r s i t y " .... h. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g " .... i . Other " .... Is a g r i c u l t u r e the major a c t i v i t y i n your v i l l a g e a. yes b. no I f yes, ple a s e i n d i c a t e the type of a c t i v i t y : a. Rice farming b. other crops c. F i s h i n g d. L i v e s t o c k : P o u l t r y , c a t t l e . I f no, what k i n d of a c t i v i t i e s do e x i s t ? Please s e l e c t from t h i s l i s t : a. Tr a d i n g : v e g e t a b l e s , r i c e , h a n d i c r a f t s , e t c . b. Government/military s e r v i c e s c. Weaving d. Curving e. P a i n t i n g f . I n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y Is there any t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y or other a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know. If yes, what k i n d o f t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s are there i n your v i l l a g e ? (Please c i r c l e from t h i s l i s t ) . a. H o t e l b. Restaurant c. T r a v e l bureau d. T a x i , motor c y c l e , b i k e r e n t a l , canoe r e n t a l e. A r t shop f . C u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n g- C a rving h. P a i n t i n g i . Ceramics j • What k i n d of land use g e n e r a l l y can one f i n d i n your v i l l a g e i n 1979? I f p o s s i b l e , please g i v e area i n Ha or as percentage of t o t a l area. a. Rice f i e l d s Ha % Grasslan d " % Dry land a g r i c u l t u r e " % b. Housing Ha c. School area " d. Commercial area " e. I n d u s t r i a l area " f . T o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s : H o t e l s " Restaurants " A r t c e n t r e s " R e c r e a t i o n a l p l a c e s . . . " Artshops " g. R e l i g i o u s f a c i l i t i e s : Hindu temples " Mosques " Churches " h. Other " 168 Do you have any i d e a about the s i t u a t i o n i n and/or be f o r e 1969? a. Yes b. No I f yes, can you i n d i c a t e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l f e r t i l i t y ? a. F i r s t c l a s s b. Second c l a s s c. T h i r d C l a s s Do you t h i n k the a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n your v i l l a g e i s very p r o d u c t i v e ? a. very good b. good enough c. bad d. not s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . What i s the p r o d u c t i v i t y of each type of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y t h a t e x i s t s i n your v i l l a g e ? 169 a. Wet land r i c e f i e l d ton/ha b. Dry land r i c e f i e l d " c. Other food c r o p s : maize " cassava " d. Cash crop and f r u i t s : C o f f e e Orange " Coconut " Other 9. Are there any l i v e s t o c k and f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n your v i l l a g e s ? a . Ye s b. No . I f yes, please i n d i c a t e p r o d u c t i v i t y : L i v e s t o c k : Chicken C a t t l e Ducks Pigs F i s h e r y : F r e s h water f i s h Sea f i s h 10a. What i s the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of your v i l l a g e ? (Please c i r c l e one) a. 0 - 1,000 i n h a b i t a n t s b. 1,001 - 2,000 c. 2,001 - 3,000 d. 3,001 - 4,000 e. 4,001 - 5,000 f . . 5,001 - 6,000 g- 6 ,001 - 7,000 h. 7,001 - 8,000 i . 8 ,001 - 9,000 j • 9,001 -10,000 k. more than 10,000 10b. Please g i v e i t s age s t r u c t u r e ? a. 0 - 4 years persons b. 5 - 9 " c. 10 - 14 " d. 15 - 19 " e. 2 0 - 24 " f . 25 - 29 " g. 30 - 34 " h. 35 - 39 " i . 4 0 - 44 " j . 45 - 49 " k. 50 - 54 . " 1. over 55 " " 11. 1 7 1 Please d e s c r i b e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the economic s e c t o r s t h a t e x i s t i n your v i l l a g e : (If p o s s i b l e , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n and/or i t s percentage). a. A g r i c u l t u r e : - Wet l a n d r i c e - f i e l d s farming persons % - Dry land r i c e - f i e l d s farming " % - Cash crops farming " % - L i v e s t o c k farming " % - F i s h e r y " % b. Tourism a c t i v i t i e s : - h o t e l persons % - Restaurant '.. " % - C a r v i n g " % - Artshop r e t a i l i n g " % - T o u r i s t guide " % - T r a v e l bureau " . % c. Trade and Industry : - Trading ...persons:; % R e t a i l e r / s h o p k e e p e r " . % - T e x t i l e Industry labour,. .... . " % - Lime stone i n d u s t r y l a b o u r . . . " % - B r i c k i n d u s t r y labour " % - Other " % d. S e r v i c e s (Government, M i l i t a r y , P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s ) - Government.' persons % 172 - Teaching persons % - P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e (bank e t c . ) " % - M i l i t a r y " % 12. Please s t a t e the lowest and h i g h e s t income per month i n your v i l l a g e ( i f p o s s i b l e a l s o g i v e percentage of each) a. Less than Rp. 10.000 per month % (Equal to US $20) b. Rp. 10.000 c. Rp. 15.000 d. Rp. 3 0.000 e. Rp. 5 0.000 f . More than 13. What i s the dominant e t h n i c group i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Native B a l i n e s e % b. Mixture B a l i n e s e % c. Emigrants : - Javanese % - Sundanese % - Padangnese % - Chinese % d. F o r e i g n e r s % 14. Do you l i v e i n a modern or a t r a d i t i o n a l house? a. Modern b. T r a d i t i o n a l c. T r a n s i t i o n a l Does your v i l l a g e s t i l l have the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e ttlement p a t t e r n s ? a. Ye s b. No •If no, can you e x p l a i n why not? - Rp. 15.000 - Rp. 30.000 - Rp. 50.000 - Rp.100.000 Rp.100.000 173 15a. Do you own your l o t ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, how l a r g e i s your p a r c e l ? Did you buy i t ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, when? I f no, i s i t a h e r i t a g e land? 15b. What i s the system of g e n e r a l land tenure i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Government/village p r o p e r t y b. P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y 16. What i s the c u r r e n t value of land i n your v i l l a g e ? How much has the p r i c e changed s i n c e 1969? B. THE PERCEPTION OF THE HEAD OF THE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE 17. Did you ever d i s c u s s improvement or the development of your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No. c. Never thought about i t I f yes : a. What was discussed? b. When? c. Where? d. What were the r e s u l t s ? e. What a c t i o n s were taken? f . Can the plans be implemented? 1. Yes 2. No I f no, why not? 174 18. In g e n e r a l , how do you f e e l about your v i l l a g e environment? Would you say t h a t i t i s : ( C i r c l e one) a. An e x c e l l e n t l i v i n g p l a c e . b. A f a i r l y good l i v i n g p l a c e c. A poor p l a c e to l i v e d. A very bad p l a c e to l i v e e. Other o p i n i o n . . . Please e x p l a i n your c h o i c e 18a. Based on your experience, what do you c o n s i d e r to be s e r i o u s problems i n your v i l l a g e ? (Please s e l e c t from the l i s t below) a. I n s u f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l land b. I n s u f f i c i e n t land f o r settlement c. I n s u f f i c i e n t water supply d. Water p o l l u t i o n e. A i r p o l l u t i o n f . Noise problem g. I n s u f f i c i e n t job o p p o r t u n i t i e s h. L i m i t e d v i l l a g e land i . Inadequate v i l l a g e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , j . The d e c l i n e of B a l i n e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s k. Other 19. From the l i s t below, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e the most s u i t a b l e development f o r your v i l l a g e ? a. To maintain and to i n t e n s i f y the a g r i c u l t u r a l land Is there s t i l l any p o s s i b i l i t y of doing t h i s ? . . . . 175 b. To develop and to extend the a g r i c u l t u r a l area Is there s t i l l enough land to be developed?... c. To develop the t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s What k i n d o f t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s are they? d. To develop trade and or i n d u s t r y What kind of trade and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s are they? e. Other Can you e x p l a i n your choice? Do you t h i n k t h a t your c h o i c e i s the same as other v i l l a g e r s would make? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know If yes, are they a,b,c,d, or e ( i n 19 above) I f no, what do the v i l l a g e r s need? Do you t h i n k most v i l l a g e r s get enough s u b s i s t e n c e from a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know If yes, how? If no, why? Do you t h i n k there are str o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , B a l i Hindu r e l i g i o n , B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t i l l s t r o n g l y manifested i n the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know If no, why 176 22. Do you t h i n k t h a t those r e l a t i o n s h i p s cannot be separated and are something t h a t should be preserved? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, why? I f no, why? 23. Related to those r e l a t i o n s h i p s p l e a s e comment on the e f f e c t s of d i s t o r t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n system (Subak) and the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s , and r e s u l t a n t changes of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, and v i c e versa? a. Becoming s e r i o u s problems b. Does not matter c. Don't know I f the answer i s a. pl e a s e e x p l a i n why? If the answer i s b. ple a s e e x p l a i n why? 24. Do you th i n k t h a t the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s not o n l y a major p o t e n t i a l f o r t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s , but a l s o a found a t i o n of B a l i n e s e l i f e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know. 25. Do you th i n k t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n systems have been s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by the changing or the d e c l i n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l land? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, when? a. Before 1969 b. In 1969 c. Around 1974 d. Around 1976 e. Around 197 9 177 Please e x p l a i n why; — i s i t a r e s u l t o f : a. H o t e l , r e s t a u r a n t , a r t s h o p , or other a s s o c i a t e d development? b. Housing, s c h o o l , h e a l t h , or other v i l l a g e development? c. Urban expansion? 26. Do you t h i n k tourism development has improved or weak-ened the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e ? a. Improved b. Weakened c. Don 11 know I f i s has improved, how? If i t has weakened, how? 27 Do you t h i n k most v i l l a g e r s b e n e f i t from tourism development a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, how? I f no, why? 28. I f tourism development e x i s t s i n your v i l l a g e does i t use farming land? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, can you g i v e an estimate? Ha and s i n c e when: a. Before 1969 b. In 1969 c. Between 1972 - 1975 d. Between 1975 - 1978 e. In 1979 I f no, what type of land has been used? a. V i l l a g e land b. Grass land c. E s t a t e d. Other 178 29. Do you th i n k t h a t t o u r i s t development has d i r e c t l y used the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and pushed the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use i n t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l use? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know If no, i s the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land caused by: a. Widened s t r e e t b. Developing modern housing c. Hote l development d. Artshop development e. Restaurant development f . Other development Do you t h i n k t h a t a l l of these changes a l s o a f f e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s ? a. Yes b. No 30. Do you th i n k v i l l a g e r s have s u f f e r e d negative e f f e c t s from tourism development? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, e x p l a i n why I f no, e x p l a i n why 31. Do you th i n k t h a t u n c o n t r o l l e d changes of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s by the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a f f e c t e d by the t o u r i s t development w i l l have dramatic e f f e c t s on B a l i n e s e socio-economic s t r u c t u r e ; c u l t u r e and environment? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, w i l l i t s i n f l u e n c e be str o n g on the f o l l o w i n g ? (please s e l e c t ) a. The continuous d e c l i n e of a g r i c u l t u r a l land ( e s p e c i a l l y the f i r s t c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l land), b. D i s o r g a n i z e d and u n c o n t r o l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n systems due to the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . c. D e c l i n e i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l land. d. The changing of v i l l a g e r socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s . e. The changing of B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s . f . The d e c l i n e of a t t r a c t i o n f o r t o u r i s t s . I f not, pl e a s e e x p l a i n why and what are these e f f e c t s ? . . Have you ever d i s c u s s e d i n your v i l l a g e the changes or p o s s i b l e impacts t h a t c o u l d be caused by tourism d e v e l -opment on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e ttlement p a t t e r n s , and consequently B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, pl e a s e e x p l a i n , i s i t because o f : a. Urban expansion b. Housing development c. Health c e n t r e development d. Market c e n t r e development e. School development f . Other development Please i n d i c a t e where? 180 When? What was the c o n c l u s i o n ? Was there any a c t i o n ? 33. Do you have any other o p i n i o n about the impact of t o u r -ism development on your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, what i s i t ? Or do you have other comments on tourism development i n B a l i i n general? We a p p r e c i a t e the time you have taken to respond to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . 181 11. THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING THE VILLAGE FARMER We are i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g your o p i n i o n and g a t h e r i n g some g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n from you, as a farmer, about your v i l l a g e and about changes to a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and v i l l -age settlement p a t t e r n s a f f e c t e d by the tourism development. T h i s i s r e l a t e d to the socio-economic s t r u c t u r e and B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n you gi v e us i s expected to be open and t r u e , and i t w i l l be completely c o n f i d e n t i a l and used f o r the purpose of the p l a n n i n g study o n l y . I n s t r u c t i o n s : F i l l i n and or choose an answer,and give the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n A. General i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f and your v i l l a g e 1. How o l d are you now? Sex: a. Male b. Female M a r i t a l S t a t u s : a. Ma r r i e d b. Unmarried c. Divorced How many c h i l d r e n do you have? What i s the name of your v i l l a g e ? 2. How long have you been s t a y i n g i n t h i s v i l l a g e ? (Please c i r c l e one) a. l e s s than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years 182 d. 10 - 15 years e. more than 15 years 3. Are you a n a t i v e v i l l a g e r ? a. Yes b. No If no, what i s your e t h n i c o r i g i n ? a. Javanese b. Sundanese c. Chinese d. Other (Please s p e c i f y ) 4. What k i n d of education do you have? a. Never attended school b. Primary s c h o o l : 1,2,3,4,5,6 ( s e l e c t one) c. J u n i o r High School : 1,2,3 d. Senior High School : 1,2,3 e. T e c h n i c a l Secondary school : 1,2,3 f . Academy : 1,2,3 g. U n i v e r s i t y : 1,2,3,4,5 h. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g 5. Is a g r i c u l t u r e the major a c t i v i t y i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, i s i t : a. Predominant b. P r o p o r t i o n a t e w i t h other land use c. Only on l i m i t e d land d. Does not mean anything What c l a s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s i n your v i l l a g e ? a. F i r s t c l a s s b. Second c l a s s c. T h i r d c l a s s 183 What p o t e n t i a l do you t h i n k your land has f o r a g r i c u l t u r a a c t i v i t i e s ? a. Very good b. Good c. Bad What type of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y do you engage i n ? a. Wet land r i c e f i e l d s b. Dry land r i c e f i e l d s c. Cash crops farming d. F i s h i n g e. L i v e s t o c k farming: c h i c k e n s , cows, water b u f f a l o , p i g s , ducks e t c . f . Other g. No other a c t i v i t y . Are there any t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s or any other a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are a f f e c t e d by tourism development i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't know I f yes, what type of t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s are there i n your v i l l a g e ? (please c i r c l e on t h i s l i s t ) a. H o t e l b. Restaurant c. T r a v e l bureau d. T a x i , motor c y c l e , b i k e , canoe r e n t a l e. Artshop f . C u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n g. Carving h. P a i n t i n g i . Ceramics j . Other? Please d e s c r i b e . . . 184 How many people are there i n your house?, Please g i v e the age s t r u c t u r e . a. 0 - 4 b. 5 - 9 c . 10 - 14 d. 15 - 19 e. 20 - 24 f . 25 - 29 g- 30 - 34 h. 35 - 39 i . 40 - 44 j • 45 - 49 k. 50 - 54 1. 55 - 59 m. over 59 Do you own a. Yes b I f yes, s i n c e when do'you own i t ? a. l e s s than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years c. 5 - 1 0 d. 10 - 15 e. more than 15 years I f no, do you r e n t i t or are you o n l y an employee? I f you r e n t i t , how much i s the r e n t a l ? How long have you rented i t ? 185 a. Less than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years c. 5 - 1 0 d. 10 - 15 e. more than 15 years 9. I f you farm do you farm by y o u r s e l f or with other farmers? a. Alone b. With other farmers 10. I f you farm w i t h other farmers, how many farmers are they?... . What, i s your average income from farming per month or per year? 11a. I f you farm as w e l l as trade do you own your shop? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? What i s your average income from t r a d i n g i n a month or i n a year? I f you do not own the shop, who owns i t ? Since when? Where i s your shop l o c a t e d ? . . a. i n the v i l l a g e b. out of v i l l a g e I f i t s l o c a t i o n i s out of the v i l l a g e , where i s i t ? l i b . I f you do farming beside working i n a h o t e l or r e s t -aurant do you own the h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? What i s your average income per month or per y e a r ? I f not, who owns i t ? 186 How long have you worked there? What i s your average income per month or per year?.. Where i s the h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t l o c a t e d ? a. In the v i l l a g e b. out of the v i l l a g e I f i t i s l o c a t e d out of the v i l l a g e where i s i t ? . . . . 11c. I f you farm beside working i n an artshop, do you own the artshop? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? What i s your average income per month or per year?.. I f no, who owns the artshop? How long have you worked there? Where i s the artshop l o c a t e d ? a. In the v i l l a g e b. Out of the v i l l a g e l i d . I f you do farm beside work i n an i n d u s t r y do you own the i n d u s t r y ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? What i s your average income per month or per ye a r ? . . I f no, who owns the i n d u s t r y ? How long have you worked there? Where i s the i n d u s t r y located? a. In the v i l l a g e b. Out of the v i l l a g e 187 12. I f you were a b l e t o s e l e c t a j o b , what k i n d o f j o b would you most p r e f e r t o do? a. F a r m i n g b. T o u r i s t s e r v i c e s c. I n d u s t r y d. M i l i t a r y e. C i v i l s e r v a n t f . T r a d e g. F i s h i n g h. O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) 13. A r e you w i l l i n g t o t r a n s m i g r a t e ? a. Yes b. No I f y e s , why? I f no, why? 14. Do you l i v e i n modern house o r t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e ? How l a r g e i s y o u r p a r c e l ? How b i g i s y o u r h o u s e ? Do you p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a modern house o r a t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e ? a. Modern b. T r a d i t i o n a l P l e a s e s t a t e why? 15. Do you own y o u r l a n d ? a. Ye s b. No I f y e s , how l a r g e i s i t ? D i d y ou buy i t ? a . Ye s b. No I f no, i s i t a h e r i t a g e l a n d o r a r e n t a l l a n d ? S i n c e when? 188 16. What i s the value of your land i n 1979? Has t h i s changed s i n c e 1969 ? What was i t s value i n 1969 ? B. THE PERCEPTION OF THE VILLAGE FARMER The q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to e l i c i t the p e r c e p t i o n s of v i l l a g e farmers was the same as t h a t designed f o r the v i l l a g e heads; r e f e r to page 173- 180. 189 111. THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING EDUCATED ADULTS  (BETWEEN 15 AND 3 5 YEARS OLD). We are i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing your o p i n i o n s and some gene r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about your v i l l a g e , e s p e c i a l l y the changes of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use and v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s a f f e c t e d by the tourism development. T h i s i s r e l a t e d to the socio-economic s t r u c t u r e and B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n you gi v e us i s expected to be open and t r u e , and w i l l be completely c o n f i d e n t i a l and f o r the purpose of the p l a n n i n g study o n l y . I n s t r u c t i o n s : F i l l i n and or choose an answer, and g i v e the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A. The gen e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f and your v i l l a g e 1. How o l d are you now? Sex: a. Male b. Female M a r i t a l s t a t u s : a. Ma r r i e d b. Unmarried c. Divorced How many c h i l d r e n do you have? What i s the name of your v i l l a g e ? 2. How long have you been s t a y i n g i n t h i s v i l l a g e ? (Please c i r c l e one) 190 a. l e s s than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years c. 5 - 1 0 d. 10 - 15 e. more than 15 years 3. Are you a n a t i v e v i l l a g e r ? a. Yes b. No I f no, what i s your e t h n i c o r i g i n ? a. Javanese b. Sundanese c. Chinese d. Other (Please S p e c i f y ) 4. What k i n d of education d i d you have? a. Never attended school b. Primary s c h o o l : 1,2,3,4,5,6 ( s e l e c t one) c. J u n i o r high s c h o o l : 1,2,3 d. Senior High s c h o o l : 1,2,3 e. T e c h n i c a l Secondary s c h o o l : 1,2,3 f. Academy: 1,2,3 g. U n i v e r s i t y : 1,2,3,4,5 h. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g Have you a permanent job? a. Yes b. No I f yes, what k i n d of job I f no, why not? 5. Is a g r i c u l t u r a l the major a c t i v i t y i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, i s a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n your v i l l a g e : 191 a. Predominant b. P r o p o r t i o n a t e with other land use c. Only on l i m i t e d land d. I n s i g n i f i c a n t What type of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y do you engage i n ? a. Wet land r i c e f i e l d s b. Dry land r i c e f i e l d s c. Cash crops farming d. F i s h i n g e. Other (please s p e c i f y ) f . No other a c t i v i t y 6. Are there any t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s or any other a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n your v i l l a g e ? a. Yes b. No c. Don't Know I f yes, what type of t o u r i s t a c t i v i t i e s are there i n your v i l l a g e ? (Please c i r c l e from this, l i s t ) a. H o t e l b. Restaurant c. T r a v e l bureau d. T a x i , motor c y c l e , b i k e , canoe r e n t a l e. Artshop f . C u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n g. Carving h. P a i n t i n g i . Ceramics j . Other (please s p e c i f y ) 192 7. How many people are there i n your house ? (Please g i v e the age s t r u c t u r e ) a. 0 - 4 years persons b. 5 - 9 " c. 10 - 14 " d. 15 - 19 " e. 20 - 24 " f . 25 - 29 " g. 30 - 34 " h. 35 - 39 " i . 40 - 44 " j . 45 - 49 " k. 5 0 - 54 " 1. over 55 Are you the head of the household? a. Yes b. No I f no, with whom do you stay? a. Parent b. Other people ( r e n t a l House) c. R e l a t i v e other than parent 8. I f you engage i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y , do you own your a g r i c u l t u r a l land? a. Yes b. No I f yes, how long have you owned i t ? a. l e s s than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years 193 c. 5 - 1 0 d. 10 - 15 e. more than 15 years Do you r e n t i t , or d i d you buy i t or i n h e r i t i t ? I f you bought i t , what was the p r i c e ? 9. I f you farm, do you farm by y o u r s e l f or w i t h o t h e r s ? a. Alone b. With others 10. I f you do farming with o t h e r s , how many other farmers are i n v o l v e d ? How l a r g e i s your land? a. 1 ha b. 1 - 2 ha c. 2 - 5 ha d. 5 - 10 ha e. 10 - 15 ha f. 15 ha How much i s your average income from farming i n a month or i n a year ? Do you farm as a. permanent or as a p a r t time job? a. P a r t time b. Permanent c. None of them I f you do other job, i s t h a t : a. Trading b. P a i n t i n g c. Carving d. Government s e r v i c e 194 11. I f you do another job beside farming, what i s your p a r t time job? a. Trading b. P a i n t i n g c. Carving d. Government s e r v i c e e. H o t e l employee f. Industry g. Other (Please s p e c i f y ) 11a. I f you are a r e t a i l e r , do you have your own shop? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? I f no, who i s the owner? Where i s your shop l o c a t e d ? a. In the v i l l a g e b. Out of the v i l l a g e I f i t i s l o c a t e d out of the v i l l a g e where^is i t ? What i s your average income per month? l i b . I f you are a h o t e l or r e s t a u r a n t employee are you the owner? a. Yes b. No I f yes, s i n c e when? I f no, who i s the owner? How long have you:.worked t h e r e ? . . . Where i s the h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t l o c a t e d ? a. In the v i l l a g e b. Out of the v i l l a g e I f o u t s i d e the v i l l a g e , where i s i t ? 195 What i s y o u r a v e r a g e income p e r month? 11c. I f you a r e an a r t s h o p employee a r e you t h e owner? a. Yes b. No I f y e s , s i n c e when? I f no, who i s t h e owner? How l o n g have you. worked t h e r e ? Where i s t h e a r t s h o p l o c a t e d ? a. I n t h e v i l l a g e b. Out o f t h e v i l l a g e I f o u t s i d e t h e v i l l a g e , where i s i t ? What i s y o u r a v e r a g e income p e r month? l i d . I f you a r e an i n d u s t r i a l e m p l o y e e , a r e you t h e owner? a. Yes b. No I f y e s , s i n c e when? I f no, who i s t h e owner? How l o n g have you worked t h e r e ? What k i n d o f i n d u s t r y i s i t ? Where i s i t l o c a t e d ? a. I n t h e v i l l a g e b. Out o f t h e v i l l a g e I f o u t o f t h e v i l l a g e , where i s i t ? What i s y o u r a v e r a g e income p e r month? 12. I f you were a b l e t o s e l e c t any j o b , what k i n d o f j o b w o u l d y o u most p r e f e r ? a. F a r m i n g b. T o u r i s t s e r v i c e s c. I n d u s t r y d. M i l i t a r y e. C i v i l servant f . Trade g. F i s h i n g h. Other (please s p e c i f y ) Are you w i l l i n g to transmigrate? a. Yes b. No I f yes, why?',.'.' I f no, why? Do you l i v e i n a modern or a t r a d i t i o n a l hous a. Modern b. T r a d i t i o n a l How l a r g e i s your p a r c e l ? What i s the s i z e of your house? Do you own your land? a. Yes b.. No I f yes, what i s the s i z e ? Did you buy i t ? a. Yes b. No I f yes, when? I f no, d i d you i n h e r i t i t ? or i s i t a r e n t a l land? What i s the value of land i n your v i l l a g e ' 5 Has land value changed s i n c e 1969? a. Yes b. No I f yes what was i t s value? 197 B. THE PERCEPTION OF THE VILLAGE EDUCATED ADULT The q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to e l i c i t the p e r c e p t i o n s of the educated a d u l t group was the same as t h a t used f o r the v i l l a g e heads; r e f e r to page 17 3,- 180. 198 APPENDIX C.2: SECOND ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE * THE VILLAGERS' EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TOURISM DEVELOP-MENT ON TRADITIONAL VILLAGE LAND USE PATTERNS. The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s to examine the v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n of the impact of tourism development on the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and i t s e f f e c t s on tourism development i t s e l f i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . Name of the v i l l a g e S u b - D i s t r i c t Regency of Badung, Province of B a l i . Interviewer Date Year Time * T r a n s l a t e d from the o r i g i n a l Indonesian q u e s t i o n n a i r e which i s on f i l e a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Community and Regional Planning 199 THE LIST OF POLICY STATEMENT TO BE EVALUATED BY THE VILLAGERS  (THE HEAD OF THE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, THE VILLAGE FARMER, AND  THE VILLAGE EDUCATED ADULT) TO SEEK A CONSENSUS ABOUT IMPACTS  OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON BALINESE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE LAND  USE PATTERNS Based on the r e s u l t s of our f i r s t - r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , we now want to know your e v a l u a t i o n of the a c t u a l or poss-i b l e changes to the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s caused by the l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d due to tourism dev-elopment. These changes w i l l a f f e c t the s o c i o - c u l t u r e and economic s t r u c t u r e of the B a l i n e s e , and u l t i m a t e l y the f u t u r e of tourism development i t s e l f . A l l the i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e us i s expected to be open and t r u e ; i t w i l l be completely c o n f i d e n t i a l , and f o r the purpose.of the p l a n n i n g study o n l y . Please s t a t e your a t t i t u d e s on these f o l l o w i n g statements;  these are a l l matters of your f r e e o p i n i o n , there are no  r i g h t or wrong answers. J u s t i n d i c a t e the extent to which you agree or d i s a g r e e with each statement; p l e a s e f r e e l y i n d i c a t e your i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s to the f o l l o w i n g statements. Place 1, i f you agree s t r o n g l y P l a c e 2, i f you agree somewhat Place 3, i f you d i s a g r e e somewhat Place 4 , i f you d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y Place 5, i f you don't know 200 Information about the respondent Name: Age: How long have you been i n t h i s v i l l a g e ? a. l e s s than 1 year b. 1 - 5 years c. 5 - 1 0 d. 10 - 15 e. more than 15 years 1. We l e a r n e d from our f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i n most v i l l a g e s the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s low; the s i z e of farming land i s l i m i t e d ( g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 1 Ha per f a m i l y due to p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e ) ; the l e v e l of income i s low; and job o p p o r t u n i t y i s l i m i t e d . These c o n d i t i o n s are s e r i o u s problems and s o l u t i o n s d i f f i c u l t . The p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s to s o l v e those problems are as f o l l o w s : a. To l i m i t p o p u l a t i o n pressure by i n t e n s i f y i n g the f a m i l y p l a n n i n g program and/or the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n program. b. To improve the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l so t h a t l o c a l s w i l l be q u a l i f i e d t o f i l l jobs c r e a t e d by the developments. c. To i n t e n s i f y e x i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l land to the optimal l e v e l , and to preserve f i r s t c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d to maintain s u b s i s t e n c e i n farming f o r the B a l i n e s e . 201 d. To open job o p p o r t u n i t i e s and to i n c r e a s e per c a p i t a income by dev e l o p i n g the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h tourism development, but by promot-in g i t s p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s and minimizing i t s negative e f f e c t s . Do you agree wi t h those a l t e r n a t i v e s ? 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree, somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know If you have a d d i t i o n a l or d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s , p l e a s e s t a t e them We l e a r n e d from our f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t a g r i c -u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n can support the B a l i n e s e way of l i f e o n ly at a minimum l e v e l ; hence to u r i s m and i t s r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s are very important to g i v e more job opportun-i t i e s and to i n c r e a s e B a l i n e s e per c a p i t a income. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t B a l i i s a t o u r i s t area, and s i n c e our f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e d a trend f o r most of 202 the v i l l a g e s to become i n v o l v e d i n tourism development, do you agree t h a t t o u r i s t a c t i v i t y should be developed i n your v i l l a g e , u s i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l land? 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 1 t know We le a r n e d from our f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i n most v i l l a g e s a g r i c u l t u r e i s the major a c t i v i t y . In some v i l l a g e s t h a t are d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by tourism development, a g r i c u l t u r a l land use has been changed i n t o t o u r i s t development or other a s s o c i a t e d development ( n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s ) . Do you agree t h a t the a g r i c -u l t u r a l land use should be changed i n t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land uses? 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why.. 5. Don 11 know We l e a r n e d from our f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s a very important t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n i n B a l i , i n a d d i t i o n to the s c e n i c beauty and unique environment of B a l i . Hence the p r e s e r v a t i o n of B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e , scenery and environment i s needed and a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d to the b a s i c aspect t h a t might change i t ; 203 a l t e r a t i o n s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e and t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s . 1. S t r o n g l y a g r e e , why 2. A g r e e somewhat 3 . D i s a g r e e somewhat 4. D i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know. Based on o u r f i r s t r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t seems t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , B a l i n e s e H i n d u r e l i g i o n , and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e ; t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a r e a t t h e r o o t o f t h e c u l t u r e . I n v i e w o f t h e s e f a c t s , t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d e s p e c i a l l y p r i m e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e t t l e -ment p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s an a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y . 1. S t r o n g l y a g r e e , why 2. A g r e e somewhat 3. D i s a g r e e somewhat 4. D i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know The r e s p o n s e s t o o u r f i r s t r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e show t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m (subak) i s a l s o a f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u s e i n e a c h v i l l a g e . R e l a t e d t o t h e s t a t e m e n t i n number 6, t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l 204 i r r i g a t i o n system must be eval u a t e d c a r e f u l l y i n any development which w i l l change the a g r i c u l t u r a l land use. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know 8. The f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e shows t h a t ( e s p e c i a l l y i n v i l l a g e s under d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e ) t o u r i s t development has used the a g r i c u l t u r a l land and changed i t s t r a d i t i o n -a l land use p a t t e r n s . T h i s change has a f f e c t e d the t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s and u l t i m a t e l y w i l l a f f e c t the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . C o n s i d e r i n g these n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s as w e l l as the p o s i t i v e ones, a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n i s to l i m i t tourism development i n order to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . T h i s , h o p e f u l l y w i l l m a i n t a i n not only B a l i n e s e s u b s i s t e n c e farming, but a l s o the e x i s t -ence of B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s and c u l t u r e . 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know 9. We a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t , i f p o s s i b l e , most B a l i n e s e s t i l l d e s i r e to stay i n t r a d i t i o n a l housing. Hence, p r e s e r v -205 a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s i s needed, i n c l u d i n g i t s t r a d i t i o n a l housing types and i t s B a l i n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e . I f p r e s e r v a t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e due to the i n f l u x of modern housing and the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of land and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , then a t l e a s t the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s should be preserved. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know .Land p r o p e r t y , land v a l u e , and changes to i t , are very important f a c t o r s i n the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , esp-e c i a l l y r e l a t e d to the demand f o r n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l dev-elopment. Hence, to maintain the a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s ettlement p a t t e r n s and c u l t u r e f o r the b e n e f i t s of s o c i e t y and f o r f u t u r e tourism develop-ment, i t i s necessary t o have c l e a r land management, c o n t r o l and f a i r judgement of p o s s i b l e land value change I d e a l l y , the p o s s i b l e impact of land use changes should be a s c e r t a i n e d based on the e v a l u a t i o n of the v i l l a g e r s . 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree, s t r o n g l y , why . 5. Don 11 know 206 10.1.To support the above p o l i c y statement, law enforcement i s needed to preserve the prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ; to govern p o s s i b l e changes of t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use t h a t cannot be avoided, i t i s necessary to manage land value changes, t r a n s f e r of land ownership, and e f f e c t s on the t r a d i t i o n a l i r r i g a t i o n system. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know 11. In the long run, due to p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e each year, B a l i w i l l not l i k e l y be ab l e to maintain s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y by depending on l y on s u b s i s t e n c e farming, without s t r o n g support from n o n - a g r i c u l t u r e a c t i v i t i e s . However, with the i n t r u s i o n of massive tourism development, then B a l i must face up to the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s : 11.1 A. t o t a l s h i f t from a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s to non-a g r i c u l t u r e , i n which i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t or imposs-i b l e to preserve the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , c u l t u r e and t o t a l B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e environment. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know : • 207 2 Since the o b j e c t i v e of tourism development i n B a l i i s to support the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and not the r e v e r s e , the c a r e f u l d esign of optimum land use c o m p a t i b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r e ( i . e . t o u r -ism and a s s o c i a t e d development) i s needed to maintain t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e l a n d use p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e environment. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5 . Don 1 1 know 3 Since there i s a l i m i t to the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of B a l i I s l a n d to support i t s p o p u l a t i o n and t o u r i s t demand, some time i n the f u t u r e the c r i t i c a l p o i n t w i l l be reached. Under these circumstances the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n and f a m i l y p l a n n i n g programs, together with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o u r i s t s to the other t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n s i n outer r e g i o n of B a l i , are recommended. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why •5 . Don' t know If tourism development w i l l be maximized e i t h e r by c o n c e n t r a t i o n or d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , then s e l e c t i o n of 208 f i r s t c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n a g i v e n v i l l a g e must have top p r i o r i t y , to minimize the l o s s of such prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land and to m a i n t a i n B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n -a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s . I d e a l l y any t o u r i s t development should be i n the low c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a nd. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know At t h i s time t o u r i s t development i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y concentrated i n some r e s o r t areas (Sanur, Kuta, Denpasar and the new development i n Nusa Dua) with the o b j e c t i v e of m i n i m i z i n g the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of t o u r i s t develop-ment on the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e . In view of p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t s to your v i l l a g e (the l o s s of f i r s t c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s , and the p o s s i b l e impact of t o u r i s t development i n the f u t u r e ) , do you agree t h a t t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o l i c y i s a good p o l i c y ? 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don't know. 209 14. Or do you b e l i e v e t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t o u r i s t development w i l l g i v e a more balanced e f f e c t to the whole r e g i o n and thus be b e t t e r than c o n c e n t r a t i o n ? 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know 15. In order to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d -i t i o n a l v i l l a g e settlement p a t t e r n s , and ensure o r d e r l y development of tourism i n the f o r s e e a b l e f u t u r e , i d e a l l y the development i n B a l i should be r e g u l a t e d by f o l l o w -i n g the macro and micro cosmos of B a l i n e s e r e l i g i o n ( T r i H i t a Karana). The t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s should be the b a s i s f o r s i t i n g d e c i s i o n f o r any develop-ment e i t h e r w i t h i n or near the v i l l a g e . 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why ... 5. Don't know 16. To achieve the go a l of m a i n t a i n i n g the e x i s t e n c e of the t r a d i t i o n a l land use p a t t e r n s , s t r o n g and c l e a r i n t e g -r a t e d developmental p o l i c y and law enforcement which covers zoning, b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i o n p e r m i t s , and land t r a n s a c t i o n s , i s needed.. I d e a l l y , the o p e r a t i o n permit and land t r a n s a c t i o n permit should not be i s s u e d , 210 before the zoning and b u i l d i n g permits have been approved. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know 17. C o n s i d e r i n g these p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t e g r a t e d management and c o n t r o l of the impact of t o u r -ism and i t s a s s o c i a t e d development on a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i s needed. Since the development w i l l r e l a t e to the other s e c t o r a l development, the involvement of l o c a l and c e n t r a l government i s a must. 1. S t r o n g l y agree, why 2. Agree somewhat 3. Disagree somewhat 4. Disagree s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 11 know We r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e the time you have taken, your responses and your f r e e o p i n i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g the above statements. Many thanks f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095402/manifest

Comment

Related Items