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The impact assessment of tourism development on agricultural land use : a case study of the impact on… Sugandhy Apandi, Aca 1980

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THE  IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM  DEVELOPMENT  ON AGRICULTURAL LAND USE A Case  S t u d y o f t h e Impact  Village  Land  on  Traditional  use P a t t e r n s i n B a l i  by AC A ISUGANDHY APANDI  E n g i n e e r , Bandung I n s t i t u t e  o f T e c h n o l o g y , 1971.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to  THE  the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 198 0  Aca  Sugandhy A p a n d i ,  19 8 0  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  ments f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y Columbia, able  I agree that  f o r reference  the L i b r a r y  and s t u d y .  I further  for  extensive copying of this  may  be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my  entatives.  I t i s understood  this  for financial  thesis  my w r i t t e n  shall  thesis  make i t f r e e l y agree t h a t  for scholarly  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  and R e g i o n a l Plann-i-ng^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  avail-  permission purposes  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  permission.  S c h o o l o f Community  British  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s -  that  gain  of  require-  Columbia  without  ABSTRACT The land  impact  o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l  u s e p a t t e r n s , a s p e r c e i v e d and e v a l u a t e d  should  be c o n s i d e r e d  by v i l l a g e r s ,  i n evaluating the d e s i r a b i l i t y  of part-  i c u l a r development programs o r p r o j e c t s f o r r e g i o n s Bali. an  especially  g o a l by v i r t u a l l y  in Bali,  debate over  everyone  but i n e v i t a b l y  the negative  and p o s i t i v e  Tourism  development cannot occur  o f some a g r i c u l t u r a l  village  There w i l l  impacts  formulated,  l a n d , some c h a n g e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l  of modernization  based p r i m a r i l y  interests  must r e f i n e  i n order  between  i n the process  traditional  o f economic  cultural should  growth.  v a l u e s and be  clearly  on t h e s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n  e v a l u a t i o n o f the impact Planners  o f g r o w t h on i t s g o a l  their  to analyze  understanding and e v a l u a t e  g i v e n p r o g r a m o r p r o j e c t on a g i v e n  the  i n B a l i without the  problems of p r e s e r v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l  managing t h e p r e s s u r e s  and  of the i n t r u s i o n  culture.  a l w a y s be c o n f l i c t  s y s t e m s and m o d e r n i z a t i o n  with  i s a continuing  l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , and some d e c l i n e o f B a l i n e s e  culture.  and  as  i n Indonesia,  there  o f m a s s i v e t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t h a t  The  such as  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e i s a c c e p t e d  essential  loss  village  preferences  o f community  t h e impact  society,  t h e p r o p o n e n t s and o p p o n e n t s , u n d e r s t a n d  of a  communicate their objectives  measure t h e community's p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s o f impacts.  The to  the  impact of  loss  village  tourism  development i s d i s c u s s e d  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land-use patterns  land,  and  the  the  change i n  d e c l i n e of  in  relation  traditional  traditional  Balinese culture. In o r d e r of  the  those  to achieve  region  and  cultural  must f i r s t there  are  be  values  Balinese that  land-use. be  land-use p a t t e r n s ,  development i n B a l i the  The  effect  Bali  as  village  of  a tourist  attraction.  hypothesis  i n the  have l e s s  areas  Knowledge o f  the  in helping  directly  i s t h a t those tourism  local  who  community  t o m e d i a t e and  are  plan  will  affecting  appeal  of  villagers  to avoid  traditional  is  the  Balinese  who  will  r e t e n t i o n of areas.  a t t i t u d e s i s an  d e v e l o p m e n t and case i n the  tourism  in isolated  between t o u r i s m particularly  agricultural  development  a t t i t u d e s towards the  land-use than those these  alters  a change i n  then reduce the  study  the  i t i s assumed  uncontrolled  l a n d - u s e and  most a f f e c t e d by  traditional  traditional  factor  of  land-use,  Balinese culture.  indirectly  land-use patterns, T h i s would  that  r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon  or  continued  culture.  The  and  activities  assumed  land-use patterns, 'especially  a decline in agricultural  Balinese  values,  it'is  tourists,  development d i r e c t l y village  traditional  are  Specifically,  c u l t u r e to a t t r a c t  traditional  i t s cultural  growth  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a g r i c u l t u r a l  village  tourism  continued  w h i c h depend upon a g r i c u l t u r a l  identified.  Because t o u r i s m  major g o a l s ,  maintainance of  strong  traditional  the  the  important conflict  systems.  This  example, where a  s t r o n g communal s y s t e m i s a t t h e To  clarify  hypothesis, review  the  the  of the  examination  study  was  organized  of v i l l a g e  l a n d use  impact,  and  finally  Indices of  the  level  e v a l u a t i o n s o f the regional  weighting  A  to  and  from the by  t o measure  e v a l u a t i o n of  perceptions  data  the  and  future consensus  analysis.  using a scaling  concluded  t h a t the  The  device  f o r the q u a l i t y  community p r e f e r e n c e  f r o m w h i c h i t was  1979,  statistical analysis.  greatest preference  significant  comparative  d e v e l o p m e n t i m p a c t and  obtained  a  was  in  shown  hypothesis  untrue. The  i m p l i c a t i o n of these  goal preferences  of  the  the w i l l i n g n e s s of  the  T h e r e was o f how  they  evaluated general  perceived  i n the p l a n n i n g  government.  successful in e l i c i t i n g  p e r c e i v e s and  findings i s that input  society i s absolutely  However, p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t  was  a  technique  perception  of v i l l a g e r s '  tourism  s y s t e m was  question.  on  1  this  c h a n g e s f r o m 1969  the D e l p h i  the  were c o n s t r u c t e d  to determine the  to e x i s t ,  Bali,  growth o r i e n t a t i o n which aggregated  preferences  was  of  to t e s t  i n four stages:  l i t e r a t u r e dealing with  consensus o f the v i l l a g e r s  tourism  the c u l t u r e .  above a s s u m p t i o n s and  a questionnaire adaptation the  r o o t of  The  necessary.  process Delphi  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how  c h a n g e s c a u s e d by  tourism  a g r e e m e n t among r e s p o n d e n t s and  evaluated  iv  changes to  about  depends technique  society development. i n terms  traditional  village  land  culture.  u s e , and how  A consensus of o p i n i o n  socio-economic future  impact o f tourism,  affect  Balinese  a l s o e x i s t e d about the and  about o p t i o n s  for  development.  Further hypothesis the  t h e s e changes  study  and  i s needed  t o improve  r e s u l t s on v i l l a g e r  to reconsider  the v a l i d i t y  perceptions  v  and  the t e s t e d  and s i g n i f i c a n c e evaluations.  TABLE OP CONTENTS Page Title  Page.v  i  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  v i  List  ix  of Tables  L i s t o f F i g u r e s a n d Maps  x i i  Acknowledgement  xiii  PART 1 : THE THESIS BACKGROUND Chapter  1 : INTRODUCTION  2  1.1.  The P u r p o s e o f t h e T h e s i s  1.2.  T h e s i s F o c u s and S t a t e m e n t o f Problems  1.3.  4  Assumptions  and R e s e a r c h  Hypothesis Chapter  2  7  2 : B A L I ISLAND AS A CASE STUDY  9  2.1.  Description  o f t h e Study A r e a  2.2. 2.3.  Tourism i n B a l i I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f theRegional P r o b l e m s and T o u r i s m Impacts  9 33 47  PART 11 : STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS C h a p t e r 3 : THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THE RATIONALE FOR THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT STUDY 3.1. 3.2.  3.3.  The Impact A s s e s s m e n t The R e s e a r c h D e s i g n  53  C o n c e p t and 53  R a t i o n a l e f o r U s i n g t h e Impact A s s e s s m e n t T e c h n i q u e and t h e L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  56  Rationale Method  59  vi  f o r Using the Delphi  Page 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. Chapter  Rationale f o r S e l e c t i n g the Study A r e a  61  Rationale Variables  64  f o r S e l e c t i n g the t o be I n v e s t i g a t e d . . . .  Rationale f o rSelecting the Respondents  65  4 : METHODS 4.1.  C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the Value Orientation  67  4.2.  O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the Hypothesis  68  4.3.  S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Sampling Area Adaptation o f the Delphi Approach  4.4. 4.5.  A n a l y s i s of the Findings  69 70 .  72  PART 111 : DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Chapter  5 : DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 5.1.  5.2.  5.3. Chapter  75  Land u s e Changes Caused by T o u r i s m Development, i n S i x B a l i n e s e V i l l a g e s , 1969-1979  75  V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n o f Land u s e Change and T o u r i s m Impact  90  The H y p o t h e s i s E v a l u a t i o n  6 : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1.  6.2. 6.3.  The I m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s for Planning Review o f t h e Impact Study Recommendations Research  vii  108 114  114  Assessment ;  119  f o r Complementary 123  REFERENCES  APPENDICES : Appendix A  : T a b l e s pp. 130 - 159  Appendix B  : Map  Appendix C  : Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s pp. 162 - 210  p . 16 0  viii  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6  Page Numbers o f D i s t r i c t s , S u b - d i s t r i c t s , O f f i c i a l V i l l a g e s , and T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s i n B a l i . . . .  13  P o p u l a t i o n Growth and D e n s i t y 1954 t o 1974  17  Employment and 1971  in Bali,  Sector of A c t i v i t y i n B a l i , 26  Production of P r i n c i p a l A g r i c u l t u r a l i n B a l i , 1965 t o 1971  Crops  Manufacturing Industries D i s t r i c t , 1970  Each  Tourist  1  Aspects  in Bali  31  R a n k i n g o f t h e Most in Bali,  Impressive  1973  39  2.7  Land-use  2.8  A r e a o f Sawah i n B a l i and e a c h D i s t r i c t , 1950, 1961, 1970, 1973 I n d i c a t o r s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Land u s e  50 76  Indicators of Strong Balinese V i l l a g e Settlement Patterns  77  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4  5.5  5.6 5.7  5.8  5.9  in Bali,  and  29  1950,  1970  and 1973  49  Traditional  I n d i c a t o r s of the E x i s t e n c e of Tourism D e v e l o p m e n t and Impacts i n t h e V i l l a g e The Summary E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e V i l l a g e Land Changes i n t h e s i x V i l l a g e s Sample, 1961-1969 and 1969-1979 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V i l l a g e r ' E t h n i c i n t h e S i x V i l l a g e s Sample, i n 1978 The the  Distribution six Villages  use 82  Origin  o f L a b o u r by O c c u p a t i o n i n Sample, i n 1976  The E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l Sample, i n 197 6  78  86 87  i n the s i x V i l l a g e s 89  Summary o f t h e V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n i n t h e T h r e e D i f f e r e n t Zones o f T o u r i s m Impact  98  Summary o f t h e V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n t h e T h r e e D i f f e r e n t Zones o f T o u r i s m Impact  103  ix  ... C o n t i n u e d Table  Page  A.l  Numbers o f H o t e l s  A.2  Numbers o f H o t e l s i n B a l i and u t i o n i n e a c h D i s t r i c t , 1971  A.3  Kabupaten Badung,  i n B a l i , 1969-1972  (Regency) R e c e i p t s  131  the D i s t r i b 132 : Buleleng  and  1972-1974  133  A.4  Increase  A.5  Numbers o f A r t s h o p s i n B a l i , 1969-1972  135  A.6  Numbers o f R e s t a u r a n t s  136  A.7  Land Use Changes i n t h e S t r o n g Impact V i l l a g e s : Sanur and K u t a i n 1961-1979 Land Use Changes i n t h e P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s : Kesiman and Ubung i n 1961-1979  138  Land Use Changes i n t h e I s o l a t e d Impact V i l l a g e s : Buduk and Munggu i n 1961-1979  139  P o p u l a t i o n Growth and D e n s i t y V i l l a g e s Sample, 1961-1978  140  A.8 A.9 A.10 A.11  The Head  i n V e h i c l e s i n B a l i , 1960-1975  i n B a l i , 1969-1972  of Traditional  Villages'  Personal 141  A.12  The V i l l a g e  A.13  The V i l l a g e E d u c a t e d A d u l t ' P e r s o n a l " Information. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e V i l l a g e s Sample i n t o T h r e e Zones o f T o u r i s m I m p a c t . . . .  A.15 A.16 A.17 A.18  137  i n the s i x  Information.  A.14  134  Farmer' P e r s o n a l  The V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n Impact V i l l a g e s The V i l l a g e r s P e r c e p t i o n Impact V i l l a g e s 1  Information  i n the  14 9 153  Strong 154  i n the P a r t i a l  The V i l l a g e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n Impact V i l l a g e s  155 i n the  The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n i n t h e Impact V i l l a g e s  x  145  Isolated 156 Strong 157  Continued  Table A.19 A.20  Page The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n Impact V i l l a g e s  i n the P a r t i a l  The V i l l a g e r s ' E v a l u a t i o n Impact V i l l a g e s  i n the  xi  158 Isolated 159  L I S T OF FIGURES AND MAPS FIGURE 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 3.1.  3.2.  Page Typical Balinese Traditional V i l l a g e Land Use P a t t e r n s Typical Balinese Lay o u t Total Foreign 1966 t o 1977  Traditional  21 Housing 22  Tourists i n Bali, 43  The G e n e r a l Systems Framework: The R o l e of T r a d i t i o n a l Balinese Culture, i n B a l i n e s e Way o f L i f e and T o u r i s m Development ^  55  The Framework o f t h e S t u d y  57  MAPS 2.1.  Indonesia  : The. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Boundary..  11  2.2.  Bali  : The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B o u n d a r y . .  12  2.3.  Bali  : The T o p o g r a p h y  15  2.4.  Bali  : The M o s t F e r t i l e A g r i c u l t u r e Area  •.  2.5.  Bali  3.1.  District of Badung : The V i l l a g e s Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n of Religions i n Indonesia...  B.l.  : L a n d Use o f B a l i  20  xii  ...  28  63 161  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Most o f a l l , t o Dr. and  of  sincere  Henry H i g h t o w e r and  e f f o r t which they I wish  and  my  this  write this  t o me  T e r r y McGee f o r h i s m o r a l  to guide  and  I am  o f Udayana S t u d e n t s ,  i n c o m p l e t i n g my  and  a l l who  the  study. Thanks a r e a l s o due  finally,  patience enabled  to J a n i c e Doyle  by  study.  completed  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t made i t p o s s i b l e  production of t h i s  the  Planning Unit Staff,  and  t y p i n g and  of  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., and  i n d e b t e d to the B a l i  and  encouragement  by P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman, D i r e c t o r  t h e members o f f a c u l t y  And  support  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e work  t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a d v i c e and  S c h o o l o f Community and  editing  thesis.  thesis.  I wish given  Dr. W i l l i a m Rees f o r t h e .time  s p e n t h e l p i n g me  t o t h a n k Dr.  his willingness  a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed  University  the f i e l d  f o r me  to  for help  other tasks associated with  survey  conduct  with the  thesis. t o my  me  w i f e Y u n i , whose e n c o u r a g e m e n t  t o f i n i s h my  xiii  s t u d i e s a t U.B.C.  and  1  PART I  THE  THESIS  BACKGROUND  2  CHAPTER  1  INTRODUCTION  1.1  THE P U R P O S E OF THE  The should  i m p a c t upon a community o f any proposed  be a p r i m a r y  consideration  changes a r e d e s i r a b l e . assess  land  Balinese  use patterns Culture.  agricultural Balinese  land  It  time,  evaluate  the impact of these  cultural  values  subjective  of the people  t o speak  Land use changes over local  tourist  tourism  aspect  with  use patterns,  traditional therefore,  values. changes  i n village  and o t h e r  about  items.  To  changes on t h e l i v e s and i n the villages,  a p p r o a c h was n e c e s s a r y ,  from each v i l l a g e  traditional  a v a i l a b l e documentation  p r o d u c t i v i t y , housing,  a more  key people being  f o r the others  chosen  there.  t i m e c a n be compared w i t h  development t o gauge t h e i m p a c t o f t h e  on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  and  use, i n particular  to objectively trace using  whether the  w h i c h a r e an i m p o r t a n t  of cultural  development  to identify  development on  Changes t o l a n d  i s possible  agricultural  t h e s i s proposes  use, i s closely associated  culture.  use over  i n deciding  T r a d i t i o n a l land  may r e s u l t i n e r o s i o n  land  This  the impact o f tourism  village of  THESIS  patterns  of land  use.  The  increasing  3 subjective to  their  way o f l i f e  stability of  evaluations  c a n t h e n be examined  of Balinese  tourism The  of the key v i l l a g e r s  cultural  values  drawn w i l l  concerns  f o rBalinese  that culture i s a significant  iveness  of Bali  most d e s i r a b l e l e v e l  and  the best  a)  b)  i n the future.  a comprehensive  While social  i t d o e s a t t e m p t t o make aspect  of  use changes,  this  study  develop-  cannot  and environmental  be impact  some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d  these.  used  an e f f e c t i v e  impact assessment method t o  i n evaluating a given information  t o demonstrate gathering  leaders ism  land  estimate  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e work a r e :  to generate  for  thesis i s to  of agricultural  tourist  program o r p r o j e c t  about the impact o f  d e v e l o p m e n t upon B a l i n e s e c)  because o f  l o c a t i o n and accommodation o f t o u r i s t  to develop be  into  as a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n .  the  ment i n B a l i  input  factor i n the attract-  Thus t h e u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f t h i s  The  onslaught  c u l t u r e f o r i t s own s a k e , b u t a l s o  because  critical  the  be i m p o r t a n t  f o r future development, not only  a  to determine the  under  planning  analysis,  changes  development.  conclusions  considered  about  village  tourism  patterns  the application of the Delphi information  t o d e t e r m i n e what  a n d members p e r c e i v e  technique community  t o be t h e impacts  development on t r a d i t i o n a l  village  land  use  of tourpatterns  4 d)  t o s e c u r e f r o m community  l e a d e r s and members  e v a l u a t i o n s o f the impacts land use brought e)  to determine  about  resulting  by t o u r i s t  f)  study  recommendations f o r f u t u r e development  regions of Bali  to develop  recommendations f o r study o f impact  ment i n s i m i l a r  1.2  t h e h y p o t h e s i s on w h i c h  some c o n c l u s i o n t h a t may be u s e f u l i n  developing p o l i c y  g)  The  failure  make p r i o r problem. countries,  impact  are also  including  impact,  PROBLEMS  o f g o v e r n m e n t s and p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s t o  social There  assess-  situations.  THESIS FOCUS AND STATEMENT OF  social  development  i s based  to generate  in  changes i n  w h e t h e r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f community  l e a d e r s and members s u p p o r t s the  from  their  assessments  of projects  great d i f f i c u l t i e s  Indonesia,  especially  i s a major  i n developing  i n d e s i g n i n g measures o f  when d e a l i n g w i t h  the l e s s  tangible  effects. U n c e r t a i n t i e s about information of  v a l u e s a r e compounded b y i m p e r f e c t  i n b o t h e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  the economic a p p r a i s a l s a r e based  such  as w o r l d market p r i c e s ,  l o c a l markets with benefit  their  output: gross national  Most  on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s  and a r e r a r e l y  shadow p r i c e s .  a n a l y s e s a r e based  appraisal.  applicable to  Social  cost-  on g e n e r a t i n g t h e maximum  income, g r o s s r e g i o n a l  project  product, e t c .  5  Rarely value ly  considered  i t s b e n e f i c i a l o r a d v e r s e i m p a c t s upon t h e i r  process  The  study represents  within  determining  the s o c i a l  region  only  evaluation  of the a f f e c t e d  community.  be u s e f u l f o r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , w h i c h  and i t s s o c i e t y — i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  studies  and  which  evaluations  the Balinese  culture i s generally  an e s s e n t i a l g o a l , b u t i n e v i t a b l y t h e r e over the negative  o f massive tourism  is a  accepted  continuing  and p o s i t i v e i m p a c t o f t h e i n t r u s -  d e v e l o p m e n t on i t .  This  thesis  examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l changes t o B a l i n e s e  traditional  decline of Balinese  c u l t u r e , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  Balinese  villagers  village  caused e i t h e r d i r e c t l y  a r e t h e p e o p l e who e x p e r i e n c e  present  tourism  development i n B a l i  emotional opinion  i s very  aspects,  rather  land,  tourism. the  land use, changes  by t o u r i s m  s t a t e o f knowledge c o n c e r n i n g  emphasizes the n e g a t i v e on  or i n d i r e c t l y  will  l a n d use p a t t e r n s ,  impact o f changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e  The  given  the impacts.  debate  The  aimed  t h e e f f e c t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s on a  Maintaining  ion  culture.  one p a r t o f a p l a n  emphasize t h e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s  as  and t h e  impact assessment p r o c e s s ,  the preferences  results will  investigate  of  distribution  o f t h e b e n e f i t t o members o f t h e s o c i e t y , and u l t i m a t e -  This  at  are the e q u i t a b l e  development.  the impact o f  c o n f u s e d , and g e n e r a l l y  a position often  than c a r e f u l f i e l d  based  research.  6  This the  study attempts a balanced  a c t u a l changes i n l a n d  development, v i l l a g e r s ' their the  evaluations  b a s i s of  use  assessment, i n v e s t i g a t i n g  r e s u l t i n g from  perceptions  of these  tourism changes,  o f p o l i c y recommendations d e v e l o p e d  their  traditional  a r e a s have c h a n g e d  agricultural  land use,  and  r e s u l t e d i n l o s s of  agricultural  land.  the  last  study  therefore  related  l a n d use  within  socio-economic  stated e a r l i e r ,  t o be  analyzes  and  the  the  i s high  opportunities  are  development  changes i n  impact of  desirability s u c h as  tourism  Bali.  there  in  i s thus  arable  what e x i s t s i s h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e .  use  i n the  which are is  villages  partly this  attractive  land  e f f e c t s of use.  f o l l o w s unique t r a d i t i o n a l Balinese  shifts  be  considered  from a g r i c u l t u r a l  limited Land  patterns,  c u l t u r e , and  u n i q u e c u l t u r e w h i c h makes B a l i  factors will  Bali.  high  There i s  t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n i n Indonesia.  interrrelated the  c a p i t a income.  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the  of  of p a r t i c u l a r  low  but  on  information  unemployment and land,  Bali.  aspects.  increasing rapidly  l i m i t e d , and per  prime  environmental design  the  and  of  a comprehensive a n a l y s i s  programs or p r o j e c t s f o r r e g i o n s  Job  l a n d use  purpose i s to provide  used i n e v a l u a t i n g  Population  old patterns  decade, tourism  been a m a j o r c a u s e o f v i l l a g e  agricultural  As  In  the  in  agricultural  This  on  perceptions.  N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l developments l o c a t e d  has  and  in  the  i t  most  A l l of  these  determining  to n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l  7  1.3  ASSUMPTIONS AND The  design of  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS this  r e s e a r c h was  guided  by  five  assumptions: a)  b)  The  level  of  agricultural  the  amount o f  land  activity  available  for  There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p activities  and  traditional  i s determined  by  agriculture.  between  agricultural  Balinese v i l l a g e  land  use  patterns. c)  There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p l a n d use  d)  and  There i s a tourism  e)  traditional  native culture;  feature  between d e v e l o p m e n t  i.e. Balinese culture  in attracting  v i s i t o r s to  or  traditional  patterns,  village  land  use  land  uncontrolled  tourism w i l l  land  a change i n t r a d i t i o n a l  and  The  indirectly  agricultural  use  use.  Related  to  the  i s formalized  as  of is  an  Bali. alters  especially continued  a decline  in  agricultural  village  Balinese  land  culture, to  use  and  tourists.  a h y p o t h e s i s of  the  follows: who  t o w a r d s the  t h a n t h o s e who  of  attractiveness  are  t o u r i s m development w i l l  attitudes use  be  above a s s u m p t i o n s ,  That those v i l l a g e r s by  effect  affecting  thereby reducing B a l i ' s  agricultural culture.  Tourism development d i r e c t l y  patterns, d i r e c t l y  study  Balinese  strong relationship  and  important  the  between  are  i n the  a r e a s most  have l e s s  r e t e n t i o n of i n the  traditional  traditional  isolated  affected  areas.  land  8  Knowledge o f  these  an  important  factor i n helping  to  avoid  the  system  systems.  Balinese i s a t the  Clarification this this  hypothesis study.  community a t t i t u d e s i s t o m e d i a t e and  c o n f l i c t between t o u r i s m  traditional in  local  of  will  This  development  is particularly  example, where a s t r o n g root of the help  the  plan and case  communal  the c u l t u r e .  above a s s u m p t i o n s to achieve  the  and  testing  objectives  of  9  CHAPTER 2  B A L I ISLAND AS To  assess  the  A CASE STUDY  i m p a c t o f a p r o j e c t o r number o f p r o j e c t s  on .communities t h e r e must be  a base f o r d e s i g n i n g  investigation.  Knowledge a b o u t t h e  project(s),  and  about the  r e g i o n a l p r o b l e m s and  i s very  important  as  impacts  selecting site, the  study  area;  the  p r o b l e m s and  2.1  tourism  DESCRIPTION OF  2.1.1  island  THE  profile  the  the  the of  trend of  tourism  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i o n a l  STUDY AREA  lies  Java.  I t e x t e n d s i n an  lying  between l o n g i t u d e s  latitudes  and  socio-economic  Political  of B a l i  In a n o r t h - s o u t h  project  describes  and  the  impacts.  G e o g r a p h y and The  about  This chapter  current role  d e v e l o p m e n t i n B a l i ; and  area,  a basis for designing  t h e methods u s e d .  p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and  study  the  Organization  immediately  to the  east-west d i r e c t i o n 114°25' E a s t  direction  8 ° 0 3 ' S o u t h and  and  South.  of  f o r 150  115°43'  i t e x t e n d s f o r 90 8°51'  east  Bali  km  km,  East.  between  is a  small  2 xsland with  an  0.3%  t o t a l area of  the  of  the  island  fertile. The  a r e a o f a b o u t 5,630 km Indonesia.  i s mountainous t e r r a i n Most o f the  weather i n B a l i  The  and  l a n d i s under  ; i t represents greater part  i t is  only of  extremely  cultivation.  i s a l w a y s warm and  humid, b u t  the  10 heat  i s tempered  mountains. daily in  temperature  f r o m May  s e a b r e e z e s and  T h e r e a r e no h o t and  the n o r t h .  and  by  There  the n o r t h  Map  similar into  i s one  2.1).  f r o m November t o May,  are  2255  The  capital  and  i s administratively  T a b l e 2.1  and  a capital  city.  traditional  villages  The w e s t e r n  Denpasar the  is  cap-  and  small  villages.  1,470  kecamatan Smallest i n  are the cities,  hamlets 50  traditional  kecamatan villages  2.2).  section  of the i s l a n d ,  Jembrana, i s a l o n g n a r r o w m above s e a l e v e l .  and  W i t h i n each regency, t h e r e  there are 8 c a p i t a l  and Map  divided  Karangasem, Jembrana  h i e r a r c h y o f communal o r g a n i z a t i o n  official  i n the  provinces i n Indonesia  (kecamatan). c o n t a i n i n g  towns, 564  when t h e  t h e r e g e n c i e s o f Badung, G i a n y a r ,  c i t y of B a l i Province.  In B a l i  1300  mm,  c i t y o f t h e Regency o f Badung, and  official  prevails,  annual r a i n f a l l  1125  Province of B a l i  E a c h r e g e n c y has  sub-districts  32°C  mm.  Bangli,  (banjars).  (see  average  of twenty-seven  eight districts:,  towns, and the  The  to other provinces i n Indonesia, being  Buleleng.  ital  s e a s o n s , t h e maximum i n t h e s o u t h and  (at S i n g a r a j a ) i s about  Tabanan, K l u n g k u n g ,  the  the  i s a d i s t i n c t dry season e x t e n d i n g  season  Cat D e n p a s a r ) Bali  (see  a i r from  t o November, when t h e s o u t h e a s t monsoon  a d i s t i n c t wet  south  cold  a p p r o x i m a t i n g 28°C  n o r t h w e s t monsoon p r e v a i l s . in  cool  arid  The  the d i s t r i c t o f  promontory;  western uplands  i t rises lead  some  to the  PROVINCES; 1 EAST JAVA 2 CENTRAL JAVA 3 WEST JAVA „ i SPECIAL CAPITAL VS IEKP4TORY JAKARTA 5 SPECIAL TERRITORY JOGJAKARTA 6 NOKIH SUMATRA ? JAMBI ' KIAu 9 WEST SUMATRA 10 SOUTH SUMATRA 11 LAMPuNCi 12 SPECIAL TERRITORY ATjEH 13 BENGKULU U WEST KAIiMANIAN 15 EAST KALIMANTAN 16 SOUTH KAIIMANIAN 17 CEN1RAL KALIMANTAN IB SOUTH SLILAWESI 19 CENTRAt SULAWESI 20 SOUTH-EASI SULAWESI  1  rtPNORTH IB  SULAWESI  Vi.-MALUKU 23 BALI 24 WEST NUSA TENGGARA 2 5 EAST NUSA 11NGGARA 26 WEST IRIAN  n Mwnuog,  Sources : Document o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development, IDA, 1974.  12 TABLE 2 . 1 :  Numbers o f D i s t r i c t s , S u b - d i s t r i c t s , O f f i c i a l V i l l a g e s , and T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B a l i .  District/ SubRegency district (Kabupaten)  Official Village  m -t • , • T Total Traditional,, w i n Area Village ,,, > ^ (ha)  Capital City  1.  Badung  7  51  146  54,253  Denpasar  2.  Jembrana  4  49  41  84,181  Negara  3.  Buleleng  9  1 4 5-J  100  132,085  4.  Tabanan  8  99  354  86,306  Tabanan  5.  Klungkung  4  56  217  31,546  Klungkung  6.  Gianyar  7  51  269  36,835  Gianyar  7 .  Bangli  4  69  192  52,093  Bangli  8.  Karangasem  8  44  151  86  Amlapura  51  564  1470  Bali  Sources  : Bali p.44  Regional Plan Concept and The map  ,172  Singaraja  563,286  1977-2000,  o f Regency o f Badung.  Bappeda,  o  •2  o  <2  I  UJ  14  forested ic  highlands,  highlands  Gianyar,  include the d i s t r i c t s  and a r e s e p a r a t e d  a 1 3 0 0 m saddle. districts in  which culminate  peak o f Mt. B a t u k a u a t an e l e v a t i o n o f  central and  central  m high.  from t h e e a s t e r n  The e a s t e r n h i g h l a n d s ,  North of the highlands,  o f Badung i s c r o s s e d  soft volcanic  fringe of  lowland  by many s t r e a m s and r i v e r s  up on t h e m o u n t a i n  slopes  these  t h e extreme south  is  the Bukit Peninsula  and  flora  typically  of the i s l a n d (see Map  and f a u n a tropical.  a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 2 5 0 m  are typically  concerned.  importance  and a r e u s e d  species  so f a r a s wood  However, t h e t r e e s do s e r v e crops,  Javanese  The f o r e s t s c o n t a i n many  is  beauty.  2.3).  of Bali  t r e e s , none o f c o m m e r c i a l  and o t h e r  into  growing,  r i v e r v a l l e y s are of great  of  coffee  which  rock.  At  The  district  and c u t d e e p l y  S t e e p s i d e d and n a r r o w , t e r r a c e d f o r r i c e g r e e n and v e r d a n t ,  Peak,  the d i s t r i c t of  and a r a b l e l a n d .  The s o u t h e r n  a s shade f o r  f o r fuels  and c r a f t s .  I m p o r t a n t among t h e many s p e c i e s o f p a l m a r e t h e c o c u n u t palm, w h i c h s u p p l i e s c o o k i n g or  by  culminate  v o l c a n i c cone o f Mt. Agung o r B a l i  occupied  the  highlands  including the  c o n s i s t s o f a narrow c o a s t a l lowland  high  The  o f Tabanan,. Badung  Buleleng  arise  m.  2500  o f K l u n g k u n g , B a n g l i , and Karangasem,  the majestic  3,100  i n the volcan-  oil,  and c o p r a ;  the Palmyra  l o n t a r palm, t h e d r i e d l e a v e s o f w h i c h a r e u s e d f o r  m a k i n g b o o k s , and f o r lamaks f o r f e s t i v a l  decorations;  16 the  s a g o p a l m whose sap makes t o d d y and  makes t h a t c h ; and pleasantly  thorny  f l a v o u r e d nut.  monkeys and is  the  snakes are  rice  1970,  numerous.  The  The  Ploughing  t e r r a c e s i s done m a i n l y  pp  2.1.2  n a t u r a l environment of  B a l i n e s e C u l t u r e and section w i l l  attitudes culture,  and  phrase  the e f f e c t  "traditional beliefs  socio-economic preference remaining  s e t by  the  island,  of  (Blackwood,  particularly its  l a n d use  organization, arrangements  environment.in lifestyle  to d e s c r i b e B a l i n e s e  w h i c h a r e one  and  rites,  terms.  First  siting  this  Population  aspect  attitudes" refers  land i s occupied  indigenous  village  cattle  o f e c o n o m i c change on  for maintaining  pattern--the  for  preparation  in i t s religious  attempt  towards l a n d use  religious  is  and  villages.  This  The  cattle,  farm water b u f f a l o  with  which i n t u r n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the the  a  3-4).  topography, i s a b a s i c f a c t o r  on  (ijuk)  s l a k palm which produces  Deer, p i g , b i r d s ,  seen i n S o u t h e r n B a l i .  the  whose f i b r e  of the  pattern.  manifested  agricultural according  Secondly,  is agricultural  cooperation  and  and  the  there  Thirdly, communal  religious  is a  Balinese  physical  The  specific  layout of i s a high f o r the  the  i n nature,  housing  regard natural  the p r e f e r r e d  festivals  and  strong  l a n d use.  B a l i n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e , and a l l i t s beauty.  Balinese  to c e r t a i n  to a very  t e m p l e and  of  these a t t i t u d e s .  i n both  of a l l there  traditional  with  emphasized.  Fourthly, are  the  traditional  accepted, w i t h the  subsistence  and  a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s s u c h as  t w i n aims o f  providing  agriculture  subak  being  a g r i c u l t u r a l products for r e l i g i o u s  festivals. In c o n t r a s t , on  non-traditional a t t i t u d e s place  non-agricultural  associated  land  developments:  architecture unrelated leads in  to  the  Bali  s u c h as  the  This  ethnic  region  as  Their for land  the  other  are Muslim or  (see A p p e n d i x , Map  use  patterns  i n the  very  of B a l i  (see Map area  well  of  2.4).  to  the  the  technology  uniqueness  residents  ( M i s s i n , 1972,  and  villages. reflects  are  other  p.  the  123)  a l l aspects of  Village life their  emanates f r o m t h e  This  i n the  concentrated  s u i t e d to t r a d i t i o n a l  southern  modern  often  I n d o n e s i a , where  influence  a g r i c u l t u r a l area  the maintenance of this  due  strong  lowlands  and  The village  especially in  population  cultural  the  lowlands  in a  p r a c t i c e s has  traditional  area.  culture.  southern  life  both  thousands of  t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d ,  main f e r t i l e  This  including agricultural activities  character  communities  Christian  modern  B.l).  molds t h e i r spirit  95%  i s l a n d s of  religious beliefs  Balinese,  and  methods).  a province over  its  i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from  groups i n the  majority  and  setting.  f o r e i g n c u l t u r e and  i t s religious structure:  Hindu.  Balinese  as modern i r r i g a t i o n  i s designated  tourism  modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  to  adoption of  (such  Bali of  use  emphasis  fertile  resulted values  in in  19  The being  mountains a r e regarded  by t h e B a l i n e s e a s h o l y ,  t h e home o f t h e Gods and t h e s o u r c e s  fertility.  The Gunung Agung  o f w e l l b e i n g and  (Mt.Agung) i s r e g a r d e d  n a v e l o f t h e W o r l d , t h e home o f Siwa and o t h e r gods.  To t h e B a l i n e s e i t b e a r s  Kaliasa  everything presence sharks,  evil  even than  maritime  represents  t o the mountains r a t h e r than  and  well being.  Bali  floating  i n the ocean, supported  entwined  snakes, a combination  Throughout h i s t o r y ,  to the land  as t h e e n t i r e by t h e m y t h i c a l  t u r t l e and  the Balinese v i l l a g e unit  and  ownership o f land r e s t r i c t e d  The  l a n d i s communally c u l t i v a t e d  ruled  has been an  by a c o u n c i l rights  to maintain  village  and e v e n t h e g r o u n d on w h i c h t h e h o u s e s  is village  property  traditional  village  for a l l ,  by v i l l a g e r e g u l a t i o n s .  festivals,  government a p p o i n t e d  rituals,  ( C o v a r r u b i a s , 1937; 1970, p . 5 ) .  v o t i n g powers and e q u a l  t h a t c a n be r e c l a i m e d  abuses h i s p r i v e l e g e s .  support  world,  w h i c h a p p e a r s i n many  i n d e p e n d e n t e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l with  In consequence t h e  to the sea f o r t h e i r  i s regarded  and s h r i n e s  c r e a t u r e s s u c h as  t e n d e n c y and l o o k  and  villagers,  the land,  and u n p l e a s a n t  s e a s n a k e s , and v a r i o u s f i s h .  B a l i n e s e have l i t t l e  of  On t h e o t h e r  t o t h e B a l i n e s e - - a v i e w r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  i n i t o f harmful  sculptures  important  t h e same s i g n i f i c a n c e a s  and Meru do t o t h e H i n d u s o f I n d i a .  hand t h e s e a , w h i c h i s l o w e r  as t h e  stand  i f the tenant  In a d d i t i o n t o the formal  leader, there e x i s t s  an e l e c t e d  l e a d e r , who i s t h e t o p d e c i s i o n  20 maker a t the  community  level.  This  communal s y s t e m i s  manifested  i n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of v i l l a g e  structured  i n the  traditional  (see F i g u r e s  2.1  B l a c k w o o d , 197 0, Report, A his  and p.  sawah  morning  of high  to  be  dance or p l a y  i s the  Java  and  t h e most s e v e r e 1971  to h i s crop;  work on  p.  43;  Research  sensitivity. i n the  i s spent  Then, i n t h e  village  they  he  carving  evenings,  orchestra.  and  in  afternoons  a p a i n t i n g or  Art  seems  have a n a t u r a l  s e c o n d most h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d Bali  among t h e  population  3 000  the  population  pressures.  of B a l i  i n c r e a s e a t 2.03%, i t was  average p o p u l a t i o n  island  i s l a n d s of  after  Indonesia  Indonesia  i s the w o r l d ' s most p o p u l o u s  In 1971 rate of  patterns  for i t .  Bali  The  attending  i n g r a i n e d i n the p o p u l a t i o n  Java.  1937,  U n i v e r s i t y o f Udayana  exacting  q u a l i t y and  aptitude  in  (Covarrubias,  for a Balinese v i l l a g e r  (ricefield)  spends i n c a r e f u l ,  may  15;  l a n d use  1973).  typical  he  2.2)  village  land, which i s  a t 125  have million  nation.  was  2,120,338, and  over  2.5  density of B a l i  million  i s around  in  4 00  with  the  1979. persons  2 per  Km  . (see  2.2).  This high  s e r i o u s p r o b l e m due  to the  d e c l i n e of  1979  per  less  Table  t h a n 1 Ha  more c r u c i a l  due  to the  density  The  lowlands,  the v a s t m a j o r i t y  of B a l i  live  on  in  problem i s becoming  r a t e o f unemployment and  development o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n B a l i . p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n  a  the man/land r a t i o ,  farm h o u s e h o l d . high  i s becoming  Only a the  limited small  northern  i n h a b i t i n g t h e v e r y much l a r g e r  21  FIGURE 2A:  TYPICAL BALINESE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE LAND USE PATTERNS  \',«Ric§fields  * Rlc'ef i e l d s  NORTH LEGEND : A. The V i l l a g e B.  Temple  F. W a r i n g i n Tree ( Banyan X  H a l l o f Assembly  G. V i l l a g e Cemetery,  C. Market  \  D. The Large Shed f o r C o c k f i g h t  V.-«* Gardens  E. The Hang Wood Alarm  VS*  | House Ricefields  22  FIGURE 2 . 2 . .  BALINESE TRADITIONAL HOUSING LAY-OUT  1 *  Family  Temple  Area  2 » Sleeping  Parlllion  3 = Sleeping  quarters  the  head o f  (< = S o c i a l 5 =  the  for  family  Pavillion  Kitchen  6 = Rice  granary  7 = Sleeping  Pavillion  8 = Entrance  gate  9 = Wall 10=  Shrines  11=  Fruit  trees.  North  Scale 1 : Sources  300  : F l e l i s Surrey 1979, S i r Robert Blackwood, 1 970, Miguel C o v a r r u b i a s , 1937.  TABLE  2.2  :  Population  Growth and D e n s i t y ,  Bali,  1954  -  1974  District/ Area Regency  Population ( ' 000)  i n Km* 1954  1961  1969  1971  1974  1954  Density  %  Increase  per  in  Density  Km  1961 1969  1971  1974  :  / 4 5  Badung  542  255 .3  310.6  370.2  400.4  414 .1  471  573  683  738  820  74  Jembrana  842  97.6  129.5  155.0  172.0  177 .8  116  153  184  204  209  80  Buleleng  1/ 320  258.7  323.1  390.9  403.3  420.0  196  244  296  305  319  63  Tabanan  863  238 .6  273.6  316 .8  .328.1  354.8  280  317  367  385  421  50 .  Klungkung  315  107 . 0  127 . 9  134.1  139.3  143 . 2  339  406  425  442  445  31  Gianyar  368  211.7  232 . 6  262 .5  271.6  284 .3  575  632  713  738  799  39  Bangli  521  116.6  124.0  133 .5  138 .3  147.5  223  238  256  265  283  27  Karangasem  861  231.3  261.3  257.1  267 .3  178.9  269  303  299  310  332  23  1/517.0 1, 783. 0 2, 020.1 2,12 0.0 2,220.6  269  316  358  377  401  49  B A L I . Sources:  5/632  R u t h Daroesman, Pusat 1961  taken  f r o m 1954, M o n o g r a f i P u l a u  Djawatan P e r t a n i a n  Rakyat, Djakarta  and 1971; Bappeda,. B a l i  Regional  Bali,  1954, p.10;  I G u s t i Gde Population  Raka, Census  P l a n C o n c e p t f o r 1977-2000.  Go  24  area  of  low  land  highlands.  The  to the  south of  population  the  density  c e n t r a l and  in this  eastern  southern  region  2 r a n g e s f r o m 700 the  population  urban area The  - 1000 lives  persons per  i n the  conspicuous  i n the  already  has,  Almost  only  10%  90%  are  as  great  part of  in  i n f l o w of  s o c i e t y i s most  tourists and  i n d i v i d u a l and  the  2000).  Balinese  its life  of  has  society,  communal  land  generated. legal  ownership  land. The  traditional  practice 1.  are  Temple All  2.  as  land  follows:  Village  r i g h t s which are (Francillon,  (pura) l a n d :  i t s products are  has  can  their  use.  the  The  village  However, w i t h land,  The the  this  simple  way  of  f o r the  site  the  itself.  life  and  of  static.  Bali  of years  adapted with  in 736).  property.  needs o f  village for to  so n o t  i s that the  is a living  temple.  village  the  This  I t i s dry  the  community  villagers  s u c h l a n d owe  required.  living  the  community  i s also  land,  not  true  primarily  irrigated.  i n t r u s i o n of commercialization  traditional  fact  as  of  p.  temple  for allotments  holders  meant f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ,  village  termed  I t i s p r i m a r i l y used  a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n labour of  still  1975,  (desa) l a n d : o v e r w h i c h t h e  sole rights.  for  be  intended  communal b u i l d i n g s and  in  -  .  r a p i d g r o w t h o f h o t e l - b u i l d i n g and  arrangements r e g a r d i n g of  on  km  area;  1977  tourism  t r a n s a c t i o n s which the Bali  rural  (Bali r e g i o n a l Plan influence of  sq.  of  regulation i s disrupted. the  people,  Balinese i s not  c u l t u r e as  and  n e v e r has  d y n a m i c s o c i e t y w h i c h has  remarkable f l e x i b i l i t y  to the  expressed been  f o r hundreds forces  of  change.  However, t h e p r o b l e m  • of tourism  reach  make a s l i t t l e  the Balinese  cultural  then i t i s r e a l l y and  evaluation  best  and s t i l l  regulate  impact as p o s s i b l e .  the b e n e f i t s  the industry to  For this  o f the e f f e c t s o f tourism religion  resulting  development, to p r o t e c t  and c u s t o m s i n t h e f a c e o f t h i s  from  tourism  time,  the extent  of environmental  p e r s e h a s n o t been v e r y  great.  primary areas o f concern are the l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l the changes o f t r a d i t i o n a l  to the u n c o n t r o l l e d  village  patterns  lay-out,  and t h e l a g o f p u b l i c  land related  (traditional  irrigation  lay-out,  systems,  village  s y s t e m o r subak ,  streets patterns  i n terms  investment i n  sewerage  e t c . , which d i s r u p t the t r a d i t i o n a l  housing  The  land use p a t t e r n s ,  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as r o a d s , water  electricity use  influx  changes  d e v e l o p m e n t o f h o t e l accommodation  of both l o c a t i o n , design, basic  perception  they can.  Up t o t h e p r e s e n t  and  purpose  i m p o r t a n t t o know what i s t h e B a l i n e s e  t h e i r way o f l i f e , as  i s how t o e n s u r e t h a t  etc).  land  village  From an  e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w , subak i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l t h e autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r among t h e B a l i n e s e undoubtedly 2.1.3  related  If this  way o f l i f e  problems f a c i n g B a l i  to population  traditional  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  organization  will  change  within  i s disrupted  drastically.  Profile  e x p a n s i o n , and l i m i t e d  at  villages.  the v i l l a g e r s '  Economic The  operating  are s t i l l  pressures,  limited  considerable, especially land  for agricultural  growth p o t e n t i a l o f a l l t h e o t h e r non-  sectors except tourism.  a r a t e o f 2.03% p e r y e a r ;  I t s population  i s growing  p e r c a p i t a income i s low; unemploy-  ment and under-employment among t h e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d a d u l t s i s high;  and a b o u t 55% o f t h e g r o s s  d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t and 70% o f  26  employment i s s t i l l Bali's based  on  economy may  agriculture.  a r e a s where v i l l a g e associations  and  relative for  by  9 0%  o f the people  i s characterized  from  -- r e l i g i o n ,  d a n c e , and  employment a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  breakdown by  TABLE 2.3:  sector of t o t a l  Employment and  Sector  by  live  in rural  to  non-  ritual.  Both  agricultural.  output  and  Sector of A c t i v i t y  employment  in Bali/  % of Population Employed  Commerce S e r v i c e s and  ^  0  67.0  55  6.0  9  8.5  14  other  18.5  22  100 Source:  Sceto Consultants Report,  With very agriculture,  and  cash crops  few  agricultural  The  developed  out of those major  cut lowland  the  valleys,  exclusively  cattle.  Hence,  in agriculture  and  as h a n d i c r a f t s have  activities.'  whole B a l i n e s e l a n d s c a p e up  are almost  lies  10.  "industry" i s  c o p r a and  in Bali such  V o l . 5, p.  only  products  other a c t i v i t i e s  t e r r a c e s , which extend  The  1971,  s u c h as c o f f e e and  tourism.  The  100  exceptions B a l i ' s  the major economic p o t e n t i a l  in  1971  Industry &  handicrafts  deeply  A  2.3  Agriculture  rice,  system  cooperative  a strong orientation  1968-69 i s shown i n T a b l e  Light  agriculture.  be d e s c r i b e d as a t r a d i t i o n a l  About  life  resulting  economic a c t i v i t i e s output  generated  i s d o m i n a t e d by  the  rice  f a c e s o f steep s l o p e s i n the  and  ascend  an e n d l e s s s u c c e s s i o n o f s t e p s u n t i l B a l i n e s e are able to c u l t i v a t e  two  the h i l l s  and  t h e y c a n go  mountains no  successive crops  higher. of  27  rice  each year,  as w e l l as an i n t e r m e d i a t e  a natural rotation  and n i t r o g e n e n r i c h m e n t .  system o f i r r i g a t i o n modified is  i s of ancient o r i g i n  and i m p r o v e d  common p r o p e r t y  s y s t e m may  serve  over  a number o f v i l l a g e r s ,  The in  Since  i n the nature  o r a number o f v i l l a g e s ,  T h i s has l e d t o t h e  of local  cooperative water  boards.  s u b a k s a r e composed o f a l l members owning sawah a common i r r i g a t i o n  water  of the i r r i g a t i o n  o f subaks, which a r e , i n e f f e c t , societies  river  developed,  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e  s y s t e m r e q u i r e s a community c o o p e r a t i o n .  agricultural  provides  The B a l i n e s e  and has been  many c e n t u r i e s .  and s i n c e any one u n i t  o r even a whole d i s t r i c t ,  establishment  crop, which  a r e a , who  are compelled  (rice  fields)  to join.  Meetings  a r e n e g e r a l l y h e l d i n a t e m p l e compound l o c a t e d i n t h e r i c e fields, deities  which belongs ( S i r Robert  cooperative available and  t o t h e subak and i s d e d i c a t e d  B l a c w o o d , 1970, p . 7 2 ) .  i s designed  ricelands,  A l l t h e work o f t h e  t o e n s u r e an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  and i s c a r r i e d  on i n a s p i r i t  o f complete  h a r m o n i o u s communal u n i t y . Total  agricultural  land i n B a l i  100,000 ha o f w h i c h i s i r r i g a t e d , plantation, in  to a g r i c u l t u r a l  65,000 i n c o c o n u t s ,  dry crops  than  (see Map  1 ha, w i t h  addition cattle,  there  hogs and p o u l t r y .  If past  with  another  110,000 i n  25,000 i n c o f f e e and 90,000  A b o u t 70% o f t h e p l o t s  a c t u a l owners w o r k i n g  to farming,  been r e l a t i v e l y  expected  2.5).  i s a b o u t 390,000 ha;  73% o f t h e p l o t s .  i s some l i v e s t o c k Until  very  are less  production  In —  r e c e n t l y f i s h i n g has  unimportant.  trends  continue,  to increase roughly  agricultural  output  may  be  i n p r o p o r t i o n to the increase.  MAP  2 . 5 : LAND  USE OF B A L I ,  1971  KjiUNGKULAN  LAUI JAW*  3 A <  M  U  D  R  A  I NDOMESIAivJ  I  N  0 0  O O M I  N E J  S  I  A  Co  : 750.000  Sources : B a l i P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Board, B a l i R e g i o n a l P l a n Concept  1977-2000,  1977.  in population  ( S c e t o , 1971,  sion of a g r i c u l t u r a l be  based  primarily  physical Table  input:  2.4),  v o l . 5 , p.  output  on  on  seeds,  fertilizer,  limited  to the e x i s t i n g  less populated  level  itional  the  important activities  of  into  in  rural to  islands.  i n towns s u c h  expansion  account  already  as D e n p a s a r .  What  of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l sectors unemployed.  How-  aspect of t h i s problem i s t h a t the  trad-  will  u r b a n and  rural  p r e s u m a b l y become l e s s  central  important.  carefully  government p o l i c y  and  considered,  the  wishes  individual Balinese. There i s , a t p r e s e n t  in  term,  choose to m i g r a t e  I n a d d i t i o n m a s s i v e o u t - m i g r a t i o n must be taking  long  rural  o f u r b a n unemployment w h i c h h a s  of absorbing both  an  t h e amount o f  r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n would o n l y c o n t r i b u t e  i s needed i s a r a p i d  ever,  utilization,  circumstances,  numbers o f p e o p l e  become somewhat o f a p r o b l e m  capable  to  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  to i n c r e a s e over  urban c e n t e r s or o t h e r  have  (see  n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r s develop  significant  Obviously,  water, e t c .  Under t h e s e  unemployment i n l i k e l y  or  high.  expan-  improved  scope f o r i n c r e a s i n g  l a n d under c u l t i v a t i o n .  areas  however, w i l l  greater labor  which i s a l r e a d y r e l a t i v e l y  unless of course  Continued  h i g h e r v a l u e c r o p s and  r a t h e r t h a n on  true given very  Bali,  10).  Bali  import  (see T a b l e  2.5).  substitution  and  products.  The  little  extractive  Existing  light  o r heavy i n d u s t r y  industry involves  the p r o c e s s i n g o f b a s i c  most i m p o r t a n t  agricultural  i n t e r m s o f employment i s t h e  30 TABLE 2.4  : Production  of Principal  1965-69 Average  1969 (000  Padi  sawah  Padi  gogo  Agricultural  Crops,  1970  Bali  1971  tons)  489.1  536.6  19.8  523 . 5  625.8*  18.1  12.4  10.8*  48.7  51. 2  59.1  60.8*  Cassava  185.0  168 .2  215.1  221. 6  Sweet  251. 6  202. 6  205.3  230.1  Maize  potatoes  Peanuts  5.9  6.2  8.5  6.5  Soybeans  8.3  9.5  8.2  7.5  ( Coffee  tons)  7, 090  7 ,438  6 ,468  Tobacco  0.4  Kapok  53  23  50  Cotton  73  16  n. a .  Cloves  2  2  5  Pepper  4  6  8  Source:  L a p o r a n Tahunan  op.cit.  *Laporan P e n e l i t i a n f o r maize/ 8,951 for padi  sawah.  I I A, D a f t a r  tons  I I g i v e s 11,747  tons  f o r p a d i gogo, and 476,273  tons  31 TABLE 2.5  : Manufacturing District,  District/ Number o f Regency estab- ' (Kabupaten) l i s h m e n t s  Industries i n Bali  and e a c h  1970  Power (HP)  Number Employed  Nature of Industry  Ricemills  41  5,409  2,406  2. Jembrana  1  48  119  Rubber  3. B u l e l e n g  17  575  303  Mixed  4. Tabanan  26  620  1. Badung  5. K l u n g k u n g 6. G i a n y a r  2  Mostly  ricemills  278  Kretek  cigarette  Mostly  weaving  93  1,409  2  10  32  6,755  5,884  8. Karangasem  -  B a 1 i  107 BPS, S u r v e y  remilling  1,337  18  7. B a n g l i  Sources  -  and T e x t i l e  Ricemills  -  of Manufacturing  I n d u s t r i e s , 1970  32  handicraft the  as  silver  time t h i s  economy:  While to occur  large  i n the  industry  to  b a s k e t making, i r o n roof  thatching  i s developing  scale industrial near  future, food  there  a p p e a r t o be  processing  and  the  level  i n v e s t m e n t i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  and  on  general  and  in construction  other  Increases  activity  expansion of  in  sectors  i n the  the  opportunities services. in  labor  tourism  terms o f  1971,  i n the  near  absorption  prospect  light  industrial  tourist  and  capacity  and  on  hotels,  commercial  non-  with a  likely  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  have a s i g n i f i c a n t  goods  in  the  Balinese  c u l t u r e of  impact  employment and  significant  f o r r e g i o n a l development i n  i m p a c t on  US  future,  c l e a r l y merits  attention  Bali. uncontrolled  question.  c a p i t a income i n B a l i and  prospects  depend l a r g e l y  a growing market f o r l o c a l  development i s s t i l l  in  good  f o r most o t h e r  d e v e l o p m e n t may  government p l a n s  Per  i n response  development of both n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  and  This  However, t h e  etc.  housing.  agricultural  expansion,  will  industrial  With l i m i t e d growth p r o s p e c t s  decline  and  development i s u n l i k e l y  production.  the  materials  tourism.  expansion of  of  satisfying  building  stone s c u l p t u r e ,  type of  demands o f  the  i s oriented  b r i c k s ) , weaving, p o t t e r y ,  w o r k s , wood and  this  to the  for  Production  needs o f a t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d  (such  At  industry.  has  $150-170 i n 1977,  b e e n e s t i m a t e d a t US slightly  above t h e  $50-7 0  national  33  per  c a p i t a income o f a r o u n d US $150 p e r y e a r .  capita to  income i n B a l i  self  sufficiency  compared  in rice,  to a l l Indonesia  The h i g h e r p e r i s due  and t o income c r e a t e d b y  tourism. Bali tourism for  i s in a relatively  good p o s i t i o n t o d e v e l o p i t s  i n d u s t r y a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g  i t s population.  unique t r a d i t i o n a l Monetary Balinese  However, s i n c e B a l i c u l t u r e tourism  the economic has such a  of l i v i n g ,  s i n c e much e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y i s  and t h e s h a r i n g  of  i t i s important  tourism  2.2  i s of great  with  regard  development,  since  land  i m p o r t a n c e and most e c o n o m i c  i s b a s e d on c o o p e r a t i v e  culture,  cooperative  o f income i n k i n d .  Thus, i n c o n s i d e r i n g t o u r i s t  ivity  effects.  i n d i c a t o r s a r e n o t an a d e q u a t e measure o f t h e  standard  conservation  strong  a l s o has n e g a t i v e  b a s e d n o t on money t r a n s a c t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r on effort  base  effort  to identify  to these  rooted  act-  i n Balinese  the d e t r i m e n t a l  effects  sensitive issues.  TOURISM IN BALI  2.2.1  Bali  Regional  Tourism The stated  D e v e l o p m e n t and t h e O b j e c t i v e s o f  Development  o b j e c t i v e s o f r e g i o n a l development i n B a l i as  i n the n a t i o n a l f i v e  National 1977-2000 follows:  Planning  year  development p l a n  B o a r d , 1974) and i n t h e B a l i  (Bali Provincial  Planning  (Indonesian  regional  Board, 1977), a r e as  plan  34 a.  To s o l v e  t h e p r o b l e m s o f p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e by  u r b a n and r u r a l  development,  and o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d b.  To i m p r o v e exported  c.  e.  tourism development  To i m p r o v e  crops  and  and  and  i t s associated  projects.  the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n program  and  the  creation  employment.  To p r e s e r v e  Specifically, as s t a t e d  and  to restore  culture.  Tourism Master Plan  1971  in Bali,  (SCETO R e p o r t  follows:  To p r o v i d e to r a i s e  the B a l i n e s e  the o b j e c t i v e s o f t o u r i s m development  i n the B a l i  1 9 7 1 ) , a r e as a.  production, both food  cash crops.  To i m p r o v e  of  planning  projects.  agricultural  s u p p o r t e d programs d.  encouraging family  balancing  foreign  exchange  the m a t e r i a l  numbers o f l o c a l  e a r n i n g s w h i c h c a n be  standard  inhabitants,  of l i v i n g  of  used  significant  and t o g e n e r a t e r e g i o n a l  development. b.  To c r e a t e  j o b s -- t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t  a significant  impact i n terms o f b o t h the  of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l development  i s e x p e c t e d t o have development  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  of a growing market  for local  goods  the and  services. c.  To i m p r o v e  d.  To d e v e l o p c u l t u r a l culture,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f income  and  employment.  tourism, emphasizing B a l i n e s e  s c e n i c b e a u t y and way  of  life.  35  e.  To  preserve  is  important  also Specific  and  policies  ensure  and  to r e v i v e the valuable  for attracting  to regulate to  and  the  regulate  the  social  the  and  cultural  reference  and  routes  schedules,  ment o f  hard and  a  and  "cultural  to  the  as  It  i s c l e a r from  to  r e i n f o r c e p o s i t i v e impacts of  this  that  the  effects.  2)  w e l l as  tourism  of  conflicts  between t r a d i t i o n a l  and  generate on  the  input, of  village  tourism  only  the  growth  about  the  and  impact of results  regulate  in Bali  as  this  the  a  social  r e c e n t l y put  into  an  visitors.  trying  development, achievement The  issue  effect  study  is  be and  to  development  useful  as  culture  impact  whole.  to h o t e l development,  of  develop-  is  tourism  will  With respect  hotels  tourists  non-traditional values  objective of  community, the  to monitor  order  debate.  of  information  1)  monitor  the  However, the i n question.  one  but  tourism  government  objectives i s s t i l l  Hence, as  to  f o r incoming  a l l these  a continuing  in  numbers o f  of  remains  Balinese  impact of  awareness" program  eliminate negative  the  environment;  particular  tour  to  above o b j e c t i v e s a r e :  growth, with the  only  h o t e l development i n B a l i ,  p r o t e c t i o n of the  not  c u l t u r e , which  tourists.  r e l a t e d to  c o n t r o l of  Balinese  a  the  limitation  i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard  government on  t h a t can  the be  has  number  of  constructed.  New  regulations concerning  zoning  r e g u l a t i o n s and  instituted.  The  Balinese architectural  height r e s t r i c t i o n s  Tourism  Master Plan  Specific policies land  on  loss  t h r e e main a r e a s :  p.  and  Denpasar.  i s a desirable characteristic  development.  This location  beach s i t e s , access  ing  land-use  Fertile lots,  ricefields  have been u s e d  All  land-use  changes hard the  c u t by  affect  hotel  the  of  of good easy  haphazard, the  disrupting  p a t t e r n s and into  roads,  with  provision  the  exist-  ricefields.  scorched  parking  etc; irrigation and  roads.  changes e i t h e r d i r e c t l y t r a d i t i o n a l values  patterns, agricultural through  waters  traditional  d e v e l o p m e n t and  to q u a n t i f y , except  villagers.  and  swimming p o o l s  of these p h y s i c a l  indirectly will village  hotels,  for hotel  irrigation/canals  as r o a d s  have been t u r n e d  garage s t a t i o n s ,  the r e s u l t  b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , and  such  village  tourism  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however,  of b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e traditional  of  a t Tuban, and  l a r g e l y unplanned  about l o c a t i o n ,  in  Such a  to the a v a i l a b i l i t y  attractions.  t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t was decisions  i s primarily  p r o x i m i t y to the a i r p o r t  to t o u r i s t s  agricultural  Hotels are concentrated  concentration  relating  the  7, Annex X I I ) .  or p r e s e r v a t i o n of  Sanur, Kuta  factors  recently  island,  i n connection with  (IBRD, 1974,  are not yet formulated.  historical  have b e e n  o t h e r development c o n t r o l s f o r the  as a w h o l e , have b e e n f o r m u l a t e d Bali  designs,  activities  or traditional etc  the e v a l u a t i o n of  37 To ens  prevent  to destroy  f u r t h e r haphazard development, which Bali's cultural  g o v e r n m e n t h a s recommended be  concentrated  hotel  fields,  that  a t Nusa Dua.  facilities  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Unlike  separated  f r o m t h e most d e n s e l y  richest  Sanur and K u t a , where and r i c e  parts  of B a l i .  s e t t l e d and a g r i c u l t u r a l l y  As s t a t e d  remains u n c o n t r o l l e d .  already,  Why The  region  that  i s built  much  up  illegally.  former c a t e g o r y  f o r the f o r e i g n  i n t o two b r o a d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s :  a t t r a c t i o n s - and n a t u r a l fall  or scenic  the d i v e r s e  attractions.  as w e l l  r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s which a r e deeply of the Balinese  cultural Under t h e  as a v a r i e t y  ingrained  and a r e e x p r e s s e d  festivals,  and h a n d i c r a f t  among t h e n a t u r a l  and s c e n i c  a t t r a c t i o n s a r e rugged  p a d d i e s and w h i t e  i n the  i n Hindu-  temples,  peaks, dense t r o p i c a l  visitor  and u n i q u e a r t f o r m s :  m u s i c , d a n c e , p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e s ,  ic  will  T o u r i s t s come t o B a l i  may be g r o u p e d  Balinese  policy  development o u t s i d e the  primary a t t r a c t i o n s of B a l i  way o f l i f e  this  There i s evidence  h o t e l development i n the o u t s i d e  of  development  on t h e s o u t h e r n end o f t h e i s l a n d ,  be e f f e c t i v e i f t h e a s s o c i a t e d  2.2.2  assets the  Nusa Dua i s i s o l a t e d on a d r y , s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d (Bukit)  area  hotel  i n f r i n g e on e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e s  peninsula  not  future  threat-  items.  Included volcan-  f o r e s t , l u s h , green t e r r a c e d  sand b e a c h e s f l a n k e d  rice  by g r o v e s o f palm  38 t r e e s and  washed by  reefs  tropical  and  blue sea  green waters which c o n c e a l  life  B a l i -Tourism P r o j e c t , 1974, Bali  has  a long  cultural,  wide segments o f t h e  beach t o u r i s m  has  tourism market.  which B a l i  i s u n i q u e and  the extent  t o w h i c h i t s e c o n o m i c and  expression  of  University  o f Udayana i d e n t i f i e d  i t s c u l t u r e and  most i m p r e s s i v e table  The The  Role  tourism  combination appeal  of to  o f t h e ways i n  so a t t r a c t i v e  to t o u r i s t s  social  life  the  B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e as  the  to t o u r i s t s  of Tourism  in Bali's  is  i s the  Research a t  attraction  i n d u s t r y was  F i v e Year P l a n  contribute increased  about B a l i  (see  were g i v e n  first  has  traditional  for tourism  In t h e  Bali,  Java  other  through income  and  Sumatra  development. i s based  absence of v a l u a b l e  economic a c t i v i t y  i n d u s t r y and  can  development  been s t a t e d , t h e economy o f B a l i agriculture.  National  employment and  r e g i o n a l development.  deposits, other  handicraft  to Indonesia's  priority  i n the  a s e c t o r which  f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s , and  As  Economy  recognized  (1969-1974) as  significantly  generation  eral  great natural  a strong One  a  2.6).  2.2.3  First  The  religion.  the  1).  possessing  attractions.  thus  (Appraisal of  image among f o r e i g n e r s as  island,  unique c u l t u r a l s c e n i c and  Annex X I I , p.  standing  most e x o t i c S o u t h P a c i f i c b e a u t y and  of g r e a t beauty  coral  i s limited  agricultural  to  on minthe  i n d u s t r y which  TABLE 2.6  : TOURIST  1  RANKING OF THE MOST IMPRESSIVE ASPECTS IN BALI  Number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , by n a t i o n a l i t y and h i g h e s t r a n k e d combination of aspects  aspect or  Numbers r a n k i n g  e a c h a s p e c t and c o m b i n a t i o n o f a s p e c t s Something Hospitality else C&s Q & H S&H C&S&H (H)  Culture (C)  Scenery (S)  U.S.A  4  2  -  1  1  -  -  5  13  Dutch  2  1  -  1  1  -  -  1  6  German  2  -  -  -  1  -  -  -  3  13  3  3  1  2  -  1  10  33  Swedish  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  1  2  Belgian  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  1  Japanese  1  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  2  Norwegian  1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  Swiss  1  -  -  -  -  1  -  2  4  Canadian  -  -  -  2  -  1  -  -  3  British  -  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  1  French  1  -  -  -  -  -  2  -  3  New  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  1  25  6  4  6  5  4  3  20  73  35%  8%  5%  8%  7%  5%  4%  28%  Nationality  Australian  Zealand  Sources: U n i v e r s i t y  o f Udayana, Research  Report,  1973, p.26.  Total  100%  40 satisfies  the  creasingly,  the  expansion of of  needs o f  a tradition-bound  demands o f  tourists.  a g r i c u l t u r a l land  farms d e c r e a s i n g ,  society  With l i t t l e  possible,  and  employment p r o b l e m s a r e  w o r s e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y among e d u c a t e d  adult  traditional  In  tourism  o r modern s e c t o r  likely  has  jobs.  and,  further  with  the  likely  seeking  these  in-  size  to  either  circumstances,  high developmental p r i o r i t y  for  the  island. Foreign verted  exchange r e c e i p t s  from r u p i a h s a t  have r i s e n f r o m $4.4 of  i n 1971,  $2  and  $2.2  (Francillon,  to n e a r l y  1975,  indicate  tourism  i n the  the  Bali  $4.1  rapid  Daroesman, 1973,  economy s i n c e  the  to  The  value  markets  $6 m i l l i o n i n  g r o w t h and  to  i n 1970,  $9 m i l l i o n i n 1973.  to  (con-  estimated  domestic and'the f o r e i g n  p.729; the  to  are  in Bali  1973  p.49).  These  the  important  role  new  a i r p o r t was  of  opened  1969. The  Plan  a l l o c a t i o n of  focusing  on  a c c o m p a n i e d by foreign  hotel A  a parallel  private  sector  public  funds i n the  communication p r o j e c t s  c u r r e n c y , and  share of  that  dollar)  m i l l i o n i n 1969  figures  in  per  m i l l i o n i n 1969  exports to both  grew f r o m  410  from t o u r i s m  inflow  private  survey c a r r i e d out  1975, by  incomes f o r those i n the  Five  been  An  been a l l o c a t e d  Year  closely  t o u r i s t s , income  investments.  i n v e s t m e n t s has  (Francillion,  of  has  First  in  increasing to  the  p.729).  Udayana U n i v e r s i t y tourist services  indicated industry  were f i v e  times  greater  than  incomes i n f a r m i n g .  t o employment f i g u r e s f o r 1971, u l a t i o n was  i n the  all-Indonesia The  direct  average of  by  estimates  will  I t has  generated  the  other  can  ist  industry.  seven r e g e n c i e s  multiplier of  the e f f e c t  2.2.4  their may of  the  were no the  5% be  into  of the absorbed  classified  study  be  of  the 1971).  to confirm  those  the  employment distribution  distinguished according and  age,  and  i n a time p e r s p e c t i v e .  only  a few  s c h o l a r s and  artists.  opened a t Sanur i n 1966.  I n 1966  A f t e r the  : 1 to  Trend  The  Before and  construction  1969  there  probably  prewar-style  Bali  Beach  o n l y a b o u t 2,150  a i r p o r t was  to  a l l tourists  s m a l l ones;  o n l y t o u r i s t s were a s m a l l number o f  came t o B a l i .  3  employ-  tour-  communities.  l a r g e h o t e l s and  the  the  income and  I n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t between 1963  travellers,  into  the v i l l a g e  can  to  labor force i n  especially  to B a l i  of  (SCETO,  of tourism,  objectives, nationality,  be  in a ratio  t o measure t h e  T o u r i s m Development Visitors  be  However, a c a r e f u l  effects  pop-  that indirect  i n Badung Regency than  i s needed  as compared  been assumed t h a t 75%  T h i s would mean t h a t l e s s  estimates  employed  10%.  tourism  employment.  employment was  of the  service industries,  Tourism Master Plan  ment g e n e r a t e d  22%  According  Hotel visitors  made a c c e s s i b l e i n  1969  to  large  capacity  rose  s t e a d i l y from  240,000 i n 1977  Figure  show t h a t  around  t h a t by  540,000.  1983 This  was  only  the  foreign visitors,  1961  to  per  (I.B.R.D. 1974, of  tourists,  tourists visiting  the  1,  1969.  to  are  the  also  and  to  have It is  to B a l i w i l l the  be  impact  growth r a t e  Annex X I I ) .  of  used  Besides  domestic t o u r i s t s  increasing,  from  32,285  220,000 i n 1972.  i s around  i t i s estimated Bali  and  in Bali  since  visitors  course,  86,067 i n 1969  visitors  10,000 i n 1969,  year  a f t e r 1977  annual average growth r a t e domestic  foreign  p r o j e c t i o n considered  (inter-islands visitors) in  to  of  tourists arrivals  tourist  energy p r i c e s , i n t h a t 14%.  inflow  2.3).  grown a t a r a t e o f a b o u t 27% estimated  the  5,000 i n 1968  (see  These d a t a  jets,  52%.  Including  that during  i n a year w i l l  The  the  these  1980's  t o t a l more t h a n  one  million. In ibility  light of  of  these projected  serious  environmental  deleterious  assets  tourist  flows,  e f f e c t s on  o f B a l i may  be  the  expected  the  poss-  cultural to  and  increase  correspondingly. Related tourist  to the  facilities  r a p i d growth of v i s i t o r s (hotels, cottages,  bungalows, r e s t a u r a n t s ,  artshops),  transportation  and  communication  very  The  expansion of  be  rapidly.  a t t r i b u t e d not  only  to  since  homestays/moteIs,  tourist  services  n e t w o r k s have a l s o the  i t s being  1969,  city  of Denpasar  a P r o v i n c i a l and  and grown may a  43  -FIGURE.2^3:TOTAL  FOREIGN TOURISTS IN BALI ( x  28  ••  26  ..  24  ..  10,000  tourists)  22 • 20  ..  18  ..  16  .  1966  Sources  1968  :  1970  1 9 6 9  Gerald Report,  Francillon, p.  1 0 ,  1971  p.  1 9 7 3 ;  Bappeda B a l i  Regional  and IBRD, p .  17,  1972  724,  1973 1974 1975 1976 1977  1975;  University  R u t h Daroesmahv p .  1974.  P l a n Concept  of  Udayana  49,1973; and  1977-2000, p . 2 8 ;  44 Regency c a p i t a l ,  but  is  tourism.  the  centre of  Between 1969 from  500  Sanur, Kuta,  is  planned  tourism.  and  p.55)  still of  culture For without was  and  social time  inflicting  decided  centrated  and  being,  for  income  from  redistribute still  do  (Ruth  Daroesman,  not  details).  of b e n e f i t s from t o u r i s m  i n an  into  to the v i l l a g e r s ,  strain  attempt  s e r i o u s damage on  island  should  be  (Nusa Dua), limited.  does not  social  o r economic impact.  on  is  expansion Balinese  to reap  stopover  "contained" and  i n a con-  i t s intrusion  However, t h i s  into  concentration  i n terms o f  physical,  There i s a t r e n d towards i n (such as r o a d s ,  p l a c e s , and  i o n s ) o u t s i d e the r e s o r t  the b e n e f i t s  Balinese culture, i t  seem s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r  a s s o c i a t e d development  restaurants,  A3  especially  policy  creased  to  Regency  life.  that tourism  the  w i t h i n the  o f Badung.  to p l a c e g r e a t  r e s o r t area  the r e s t of  construction  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s m a s s i v e  is likely  the  a l l areas  b e n e f i t s to those  in Bali,  and  b e c a u s e new  t a x a t i o n , most r e g i o n s  in question.  tourism  h o t e l s are l o c a t e d  o f government e f f o r t s  Thus t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  Regency  t h e number o f h o t e l s i n c r e a s e d  D e n p a s a r , and  (see T a b l e A2  the r e g i o n s  t h a t Badung  Regency r e c e i v e s most o f t h e  In s p i t e  r e c e i v e equal  fact  Because a l l these  income t h r o u g h  1973,  1974,  o n l y i n Nusa Dua,  o f Badung, t h i s  this  and  t o 3000.  in  a l s o to the  area  other  tourist  (see T a b l e s A.4,  artshops, attractA.5,  and  A.6  45 for d e t a i l s ) .  Most o f t h i s  and i t i s u s i n g traditional  fertile  village  one-sided,  in Bali  Bali will  be headed  traditional values.  s t r u c t u r e , which w i l l  order it  cultural  but prospects f o r  a g a i n s t the B a l i n e s e  values w i l l  will  continue  invariably bring  negative  effects  c h a n g e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  to minimize the n e g a t i v e  formulate  has  can  structure, to  exist  adaptations.  i n any c o u n t r y  i s necessary  danger  damage i t s  changes t o socio-economic  a number o f p o t e n t i a l l y  both  Tourism  t h a t t o u r i s m development  so t h a t B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l  it  aspects  t o w a r d some s e r i o u s u n c o n t r o l l e d  I t i s t o be hoped  Tourism  of the dev-  there i s a great  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t must be b a l a n c e d  only s l i g h t  being  over-emphasizing  b r o u g h t some e c o n o m i c b l e s s i n g t o B a l i ,  with  of  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t o u r i s m  be managed, t o c o n t r o l  raises  villagers.  f a c e t s of development.  i s no e x c e p t i o n ; b y  changes i n socio-economic  culture.  f o r the  and n e g l e c t i n g t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  e q u a l l y important  changing  This situation  b e n e f i t s of tourism  the economic b e n e f i t s o f t o u r i s m , that  l a n d as w e l l as  o v e r s t r e s s i n g t h e economic a s p e c t s  development  uncontrolled,  e c o n o m i s t s have o f t e n been a c c u s e d  elopment e f f o r t as o t h e r  agricultural  l a n d use p a t t e r n s .  doubts about the r e a l Indonesian  development i s s t i l l  to a n t i c i p a t e  the e f f e c t s  p a t t e r n s . Assuming  effects potential  i n terms o f  deterioration. i n tourism  In  development,  p r o b l e m s and t o  on B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l  t h a t the n e g a t i v e  with  effects  village  l a n d use  of tourism  upon  46  traditional may  be  village  expected  increased  l a n d use  p a t t e r n s can  t h a t the p o s i t i v e  i n c o m e s , employment and  would r e s u l t beneficial  i n an o v e r a l l  to the v i l l a g e  impact  c o s t s and  in  t r a d e o f f between g a i n s  employment and  controlled, i t  --  i n terms  f o r e i g n exchange w h i c h , on  communities.  social any  effects  be  earnings-  balance,  The  is  comparison  b e n e f i t s of t o u r i s m development i s  l o s s e s due  i n i n c r e a s e d incomes  to c u l t u r a l  and  of  of  important and  environmental  change. However, e v e n i f t h e n e g a t i v e minimized, of  there w i l l  the people  extremely  and  in their  difficult  a r e and in  The  t o an  are value  based  on  needs  e f f e c t s have a l r e a d y  occurred  tourism development, there are of  of l i f e ,  a significant  f o r c e s such  f a c t o r s was  relatively  low  population  and  compared  i n c r e a s e d f r o m 10,000 i n 1969 estimated  as  540,000 p e r  year  course  impact  communication,  a p p e a r s t o show ., however, t h a t t h e  196 9 when t o u r i s m began t o d e v e l o p .  tourists  be  know what t h e i r  u r b a n g r o w t h , modern e d u c a t i o n evidence  from t h e s e  and  who  life  certain  judgement s h o u l d  f o r c e s i n B a l i w h i c h have had  expansion,  after  Fair  Therefore,  of  communities.  t h e B a l i n e s e way  etc.  tourism i s  p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g which  the v i l l a g e r s ,  With or without  on  of  c h a n g e s i n t h e way  what k i n d s o f n e g a t i v e  their  other  be  to q u a n t i f y .  judgements are needed. e v a l u a t i o n s by  still  impact  As  t o what happened t h e number  t o 240,000 i n  i n 1983,  impact  the  of  1977,  possibility  47 of  significant  may be e x p e c t e d  2.3  effects  on t h e c u l t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t o f B a l i  to increase.  IDENTIFICATION OF THE REGIONAL PROBLEMS AND TOURISM IMPACTS T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t o u r i s t  benefits uted  t o the r e g i o n ,  equitably.  efits  even i f t h a t  B u t t h e main i s s u e i s how t o r e a p t h e b e n -  w h i c h make i t u n i q u e .  the  importance o f the c u l t u r a l  the  B a l i n e s e way o f l i f e ,  Some t r i e d culture,  to identify  that tourism  strain to  on B a l i n e s e  limit  the  Many s t u d i e s have  the impacts o f tourism  on B a l i n e s e  the impact o f d e c l i n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l  recognized  l a n d use p a t t e r n s .  i n the Tourism  e x p a n s i o n was l i k e l y c u l t u r e and s o c i a l  t h e i m p a c t on B a l i n e s e  to place life;  c u l t u r e by  h o t e l d e v e l o p m e n t i n one r e s o r t a r e a T h i s p o l i c y may c o n c e n t r a t e  tourists will  identified  and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s f o r  Balinese v i l l a g e  was e x p l i c i t l y  damaging t h e c h a r a c t e r -  and f o r i t s t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s .  b u t none i d e n t i f y  l a n d on t r a d i t i o n a l It  wish to v i s i t  Master great  i t was  land  (IBRD,  1974).  h o t e l development, b u t  places  outside  the r e s o r t  p l a c e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , and a r t s h o p s ,  and c h a n g i n g v i l l a g e  land  use p a t t e r n s ,  c e n t r a t i o n p o l i c y may n o t p r e v e n t culture.  decided  concentrating  T h i s means u n c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x c u r s i o n stopover  economic  income i s n o t d i s t r i b -  o f economic development w i t h o u t  istics  Plan  development g i v e s  using  area.  roads, agricultural  so t h a t  the con-  damage t o t h e B a l i n e s e  48 The in  table of land  the r i c e f i e l d s  ularly  f r o m 1970  around  75 km  to  1970  2  in Bali  a r e a around t o 1973,  1950,  2.8  shows s i g n i f i c a n t 1970  t o 10 km  t o 1973,  Klungkung, in  most a l s o  B u l e l e n g and  shows a s l i g h t Karang  to changes  works, which might ricefields  increase.  I n Tabanan and  i n r a i n f a l l and  and  Bangli,  d e c r e a s e s f r o m 1950  1973,  t o u r i s m i n 1969,  way  i t i s assumed t h a t  itional  the d e c l i n i n g  t o 197 0 and  Jembrana  they  use  from  also  used  industry.  t o 1961,  and  continuously has had  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  a  urban Since conuntil  strong  use,  i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f Badung.  i s noted i n the s o c i a l  of l i f e ,  volcanic  such e x t e n s i o n o f  1961  It  the  I n Badung, G i a n y a r  s i d e r a b l e d e c r e a s e s from  particularly  decreases  t o needs o f t h e t o u r i s t  t h e r e were no d r a s t i c  into  The  sawah was  areas there.  d e c l i n e s were c a u s e d by  From  damage t o i r r i g a t i o n  Some f o r m e r  the expansion of urban  influence  t o 197 0.  have l e d t o a change i n l a n d  for  Karang  decreases, except  Asem were c a u s e d by  to dry crops.  areas, a t t r i b u t a b l e  1961  showed s i g n i f i c a n t  e r u p t i o n o f Mount Agung. were due  decreases,  p e r y e a r f r o m 195 0  shows t h a t most d i s t r i c t s , e x c e p t  which  Partic-  ;  2  decline  2.7).  Asem, e x p e r i e n c e d sawah d e c r e a s e s f r o m 1970  a n d 1 9 7 3.  i t shows more s i g n i f i c a n t  p e r y e a r , compared  (see T a b l e  Table  use  including  village  profile  agricultural  that  the  Balinese  a c t i v i t i e s and  l a n d use p a t t e r n s , r e f l e c t s  the  trad-  Hindu  TABLE 2.7  : Land Use i n B a l i ,  Land Use  a r o u n d 1950, 197 0 and 1973  Dry  (ricefields)  l a n d a g r i c . and annual crops  Grassland Estates Forests Other  land  964 1783  1973 o.  km^  17  Sawah  32  (ricefields)  Q.  km  756  13  535  Dry l a n d a g r i c . and annu a l c r o p s , and g r a s s l a n d  1522  27  1155  20.5  15  Estates  1284  24  1283  22.8  23  Forests  810  14  1127  20.0  11  Non-agric.  720  13  780  12.0  9.5  73 8 91 1237 672  Non-prod, Lakes, Other TOTAL  1970  Q. "5  km^ Sawah  Land Use  1950  5,632  100  land land  ponds  368  7  302  33  5.4  ..  47  (Rivers etc.)  TOTAL  5,632  100  5,632  S o u r c e s : Ruth Daroesman, t a k e n f r o m 1950, M o n o g r a f i P u l a u B a l i , O p . c i t . ; 1970, L a p o r a n P e n e l i t i a n , o p . c i t . ; and B a l i R e g i o n a l P l a n C o n c e p t 1977-2000, o p . c i t .  100  TABLE  2.8  : A r e a o f Sawah  ( r i c e f i e l d s ) , a r o u n d 1950, 1961, 1970 and 1973  District/ Area  Regency (Kabupaten)  % o f Total. Area  1950  1961 1970 (•000 ha)  1973  1950  1961  1970  1973  19.3  18 .3  13.9  12.8  35  33  26  23  7.3  5.7  3.1  7  9  7  1.  Badung  2.  Jembrana  6.1  3.  Buleleng  13.9  14 . 0  12.5  6.3  10  11  10  5  4.  Tabanan  25.2  25.5  20.0  11.9  29  30  25  13.8  5.  Klungkung  4.8  4.8  3.5  3.7  15  15  11  11  6.  Gianyar  15.8  15.7  11.2  10.2.  43  43  30  28  7 .  Bangli  3.2  3.3  3.3  2.9  6  6  6  5.5  8.  Karangasem  8.1  8.6  5.5  2.5  10  10  6  2.9  75.6  53 .5  17  17  13  .5  Bali  Sources:  96.4  97 .5  3.6  R u t h Daroesman, O p . C i t . and D i r e k t o r a t A g r a r i a D a t i I B a l i ( A g r a r i a n A g e n c y o f B a l i P r o v i n c e ) , 1973. o  religion.  The  d e s t r u c t i o n of  d e c l i n e of a g r i c u l t u r a l traditional  about d r a s t i c r e l i g i o u s Balinese  traditional  c h a n g e s and  values.  significance  i n the  an  f u n c t i o n as  important  under the  spirit  of  related  l o s s of  traditional  the  social  identification to the  will  undoubtedly  These v a l u e s  the  village  agricultural  land  patterns,  affect historical  the  a council Hence,  p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by  bring  system, which  u n i t r u l e d by  l a n d use  have  b a s i c r e g u l a t o r of  of Hinduism.  and  therefore  communal a g r i c u l t u r a l  p e n d e n t e c o n o m i c and villagers  patterns  l a n d use  >is-  indeof  the  tourism and  has  development,  changes i n critically  important. In o r d e r the  t o know what t h e  p e o p l e can  their  accept  i n terms o f  society, i t i s necessary  understanding of Balinese local  groups through  uations  of  clarify  just  what t h e i r This and  the  people.  impacts of  to o b t a i n  social  s t u d i e s of  Balinese  how  community n e e d s , and  the  clarification  will  making d e c i s i o n s  are be  perceptions  This  type of their  about degrees of valuable  on  a much d e e p e r  units, associations  s t r o n g l y they value  preferences  tourism  what  and  eval-  study  would  traditions, tourism  in evaluating  about f u t u r e r e g i o n a l  and  and  impact.  impacts  development.  PART  II  STUDY D E S I G N AND METHODS  53 CHAPTER 3  THE  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND THE RATIONALE FOR THE  3.1  IMPACT ASSESSMENT  STUDY  THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT CONCEPT AND  THE RESEARCH DESIGN  Impact a s s e s s m e n t i n v o l v e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , ation  and e v a l u a t i o n o f i m p a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  project. atic, use  Comprehensive  approach which w i l l  o f t h e n a t u r a l and s o c i a l  effects  o f a program a g a i n s t the g o a l s ;  design;  collection,  data  study  a village  recommendations  1977 p p . 2 - 2 4 ) .  i s o n l y one component o f t h e p l a n n i n g  evaluation process preferences  t h e p r o g r a m , and  a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ;  1972, p.4; and F i n s t e r b u s c h ,  This  and i t i s s o l e l y  concerning society.  concerned with  within  community  t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s i m p a c t The r e s e a r c h  i s designed  i m p a c t o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l  land-use  t o be  Assessment i n v o l v e s : r e s e a r c h  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s i n p o l i c y  (Weiss,  the  environmental  i t i s a tool  i n subsequent d e c i s i o n making about f u t u r e programs.  on  s c i e n c e s and t h e  p u r p o s e o f i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t i s t o measure t h e  in designing  and  ensure i n t e g r a t e d  arts.  The  used  a given  impact assessment r e q u i r e s a system-  inter-disciplinary  design  examin-  p a t t e r n s by i n v e s t i g a t i n g  the comprehensive  context  community  to a s c e r t a i n village  preferences,  of interrelated  socio-  54 e c o n o m i c and The  environmental aspects over  study  initially  ism" d e v e l o p m e n t on  examines the  agricultural  land  time.  continuing use  traditional  These c h a n g e s w i l l ,  hypothetically, alter  s t r u c t u r e and  negative  or p o s i t i v e impact  t o be the  assessed  evaluation  policies, directly The the  (see of  culture.  Figure  the  3.1).  or  indirectly  level  of  i n a given  degree of p r o j e c t c o n c e n t r a t i o n  this  i s a location quotient,  the  tourist  projects  in a village  for  tourist  projects  i n a given  impact i n c l u d e  tourist the  a r t shops, h a n d i c r a f t s ,  supplies used The a)  of  region.  village  the  tourists  to s e l e c t research  a l a n d use itional  the  the total  the  villages.  of  needs  villagers the  vary  with  measure  land  amount u s e d of i n from  (tourist  the  and attract-  agro-industry  that  analysis  a n a l y s i s of changes to and  of  amount o f  includes:  use;  who  changes.  villages,  this  on  and  Indicators  other  sample  land  the  One  activities  Results  s u r v e y and  and  of each v i l l a g e  need).  framework  village  and  of  there.  to the  distance  have a  focuses  village will  developments, a c c e s s i b i l i t y of  number o f a s s o c i a t e d  ions,  be  the  study  impact of  ratio  for  direct  socio-  such changes  perspective the  tour-  patterns.  village  Then t h e  experience  impact  use  questionable  d e s i r a b i l i t y of  p r i m a r i l y from the  land  Whether t h i s w i l l  is still  of  w h i c h may,cause m a j o r  changes i n B a l i n e s e  economic  village  effects  trad-  will  FIGURE 3.1  ; THE GENERAL SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK  56 b)  an  investigation  of v i l l a g e r perceptions  of  changes to t r a d i t i o n a l  of  the development of  In s i x v i l l a g e s survey since  1969.  igate  the  impact of  sample o f zones o f  Next, the  51  d e v e l o p m e n t and Figure  surveys  1979.  3.2  RATIONALE FOR AND The  The  used  THE  and  to t e s t  USING THE  the  ten  years  to i n v e s t -  enlarged three  questionnaires  evaluations of  tourism  the  (see  hypothesis  THE  people  i n the  area.  d e t e r m i n e whether the Regional  Plan,  Development P l a n ,  goals  and  should  c a r r y somewhat  i n the B a l i  lifestyles to the  Tourism  s p e c i f i c a l l y whether  l a n d use  the  land  objectives stated i n  met,  village  i m p a c t on  affect  These  impact assessment t r i e s and  great-  the wishes o f  some l a n d .  indirectly  especially  are being  changes to t r a d i t i o n a l or negative  This  August  STUDY  Most p r o j e c t s w i l l use or  and  IMPACT ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE,  community  changes w i l l d i r e c t l y  itive  an  v a r i a b l e s i n the  LIMITATIONS OF  needs o f  developer.  Bali  used  s e l e c t e d from  weight i n developmental d e c i s i o n s than  use  result  field  previous  were c o n d u c t e d between June 12  29,  of  the  d e v e l o p m e n t on  perceptions  w i l l be  a  3.2).  The  er  over  villages,  impact.  as  i n a 1979  D e l p h i a p p r o a c h was  tourism  investigate villager  determined  l a n d use  traditional  tourism  l a n d use  evaluations  tourism.  l a n d use  i s compared w i t h  village  and  w i l l have a  the B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e .  pos-  57  FIGURE 3.2  ; THE FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY  To i d e n t i f y t h e i m p a c t s T o u r i s m Development  Alteration economic  4  of  To I d e n t i f y the a l t e r a t i o n on s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e :  in  structure  -  Loss of a g r i c u l t u r a l land Change i n B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e  ^ j a t t e r n 8 .  Change i n  I J  To i d e n t i f y the change i n social structure (villagers' way o f l i f e ) based on t h e v i l l a g e r s ' preferences (thei p e r c e p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s )  social  structure  To v e r i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e i m p a c t s on a e s t h e t i c and c u l tural value.  the  focus  of  the r e l a t e d  the  study  aspects  58 Tourists value culture of B a l i . and  versus  e n v i r o n m e n t and u n i q u e  This research w i l l  predictively  attributes.  the a t t r a c t i v e  the impact  examine  o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t on  The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t o u r i s m  agriculture  retrospectively  need t o be a s s e s s e d  these  development  b a s e d on  villager  preferences. The  p o i n t o f view taken  that of present attitudes, effects  use  over  with of  perceptions  study time,  own  as t h e i r  village  that i s , villager  communities.  first  focuses  tourism developments.  well  assessment i s  and s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t o u r i s m  on c h a n g e s t o v i l l a g e  t o see whether these  traditional  impact  day B a l i n e s e s o c i e t y :  i n their  This  i n this  values  changes a r e a s s o c i a t e d  Secondly,  villager  perceptions  and l a n d u s e c h a n g e s a r e e x a m i n e d , as  preferences  about r e t e n t i o n o f . t r a d i t i o n a l  l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e .  b a s e d on v i l l a g e r  e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e impact  study w i l l  attempt to f i n d  of  with  impact,  land  their  Thirdly,  they p e r c e i v e , the  preferences  as to the degree  a view t o making a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y  recommend-  ations . Due t o r e s e a r c h time  and b u d g e t c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e exam-  i n a t i o n o f changes t o v i l l a g e study two  of s i x v i l l a g e s :  i n areas  partly  l a n d u s e was l i m i t e d  two i n t o u r i s t  development  i n f l u e n c e d by t o u r i s m ;  from t o u r i s m developments.  and two  For the Delphi survey  to the areas; isolated fifty-one  59 traditional the  three  igation scale  villages  i n both  the  3.3  RATIONALE  actual  opinions  about  the  survey  first  or  may  USING  THE  villager  knowledge  nize  the  highly  lead  inevitably  complex to  of  intruded  disaster  Bali,  an  emphasis  large  to  projects that use  patterns  their  (Kaufman  of  attitudes  perceptions  of  when  1979,  administered.  c u l t u r e , and  nature  invest-  METHOD  given  Villager and  was  using  under  1969,  into  community  land  period  from  ( i n 3.1),  village  lifestyles.  their  was  DELPHI  of  impacts  change  The  questionnaire  examination the  for a n a l y s i s , again  impact.  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i s the  reflect  of  survey  FOR  research  by  parts  of  development  when  changed  selected  classifications  tourism  As  were  and have  and  and  failure  there-  evaluations to  preferences  and  the  Thomas,  recogmust  1977,  p.389) . The based  on  Delphi their  evaluations These and  One  objectives defining The  the  of  current  and  impacts  demonstrate and  way of  of  arriving  major  at  and  villager  land  use,  planned  objectives,  preferences and  their  development. purposes  p.13). a  community  impact  Method  local  D . i e t z , 1977,  determined  appropriate Delphi  measure to  list  are  to  changes  (McEvoy  a  used of  logical  with  was  perceptions  preferences  values  start  of  method  ranked  set of  measures  objectives. they  can  be  Once used  is  the in  measures.  relies  on  the  iterative  to  procedure  60 by w h i c h a p a n e l o f e x p e r t s i s r e q u e s t e d  to provide  rounds of answers t o a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s .  The  has  2)  three d i s t i n c t  feedback; 1978, The  and  pp.  3)  features:  round  each  W a t t s , 1978,  next round  pp.  o t h e r , o r e v e n knowing e a c h  distribution  specific  The  i s reached.  are necessary The  216-233). without  other.  After  possible  the v i l l a g e r s '  The  as good as t h a t o f e v e r y o n e  have t o assume t h a t question  c o n s i d e r s each  of interdependence  t o be  o f each  someone e l s e ' s  i s challengeable.  The  trends issue  analysis  of  used  to  respondent's  i s as  everyone's  else.  clear  o n l y when  on h i s t o r i c a l  e v a l u a t i o n has  assumes t h a t  a  1978).  nature of the D e l p h i technique  Delphi technique  of  rounds  applied  o f c r o s s impact  p e r c e p t i o n and  back t o t h e r e a l i t y  judgement.  be u s e f u l l y  This technique  technique  three  (Van G i g c h ,  f u t u r e outcomes b a s e d  stated. The  i s continued u n t i l  U s u a l l y no more t h a n  a The  e v a l u a t e the r e s u l t s  process  D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e can  isolation.  is  can  to reach consensus  are p r e c i s e l y  The  Gigch,  o f the answers i s p r e p a r e d .  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  the p r e c e d i n g round. consensus  controlled  o f q u e s t i o n s t h e a n s w e r s a r e t a b u l a t e d and  probability  a)  and  method  (Van  members o f t h e p a n e l answer t h e q u e s t i o n s  each  get  anonymity;  s t a t i s t i c a l group response  432-435, D i c k e y  confronting  in  1)  several  follows:  judgement  respondents  judgement a b o u t  a  do  b)  Delphi  claims  status  i n committees  forecast.  f o r e c a s t of  on  a question,  f i g u r e s on  g r e a t e s t weight  be  described  ground.  upon s p e c i f i c  those  events with  RATIONALE FOR first  to d e f i n e the  regard  i n any  area  As  of  lowlands of B a l i , far mostly  The  and  and  present  very  context.  Balinese  coast,  and  in  d e v e l o p m e n t has the  impact  into eight  boundaries of districts  strongest  culture exist  division  these  be  project.  the  villages  Within  should  representative  a given  because tourism  the  to  STUDY AREA  l a n d use  of B a l i  This  required  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  (Kabupaten) r e f l e c t s "kingdoms".  on  make f o r e c a s t s f o r  a f f e c t e d by  south  confronts  a t t e n t i o n to  impact assessment  traditional  a f f e c t e d the  concentrated  i s placed  to changes i n  the major a g r i c u l t u r a l  manifestation  still  w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t and  region potentially  individual  same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  relative  e v e n t s and  SELECTING THE  stage  a study  as  of  experts.  P a r t i c i p a n t s are  focus  The  the  p r e f e r a b l y t e c h n i c a l matters.  tendency can  of  anonymous  ensure t h a t everyone puts the  and  effects  individual  To  specific  3.4  stifling  through anonymity of  However, a d e v i a n t  the m a j o r i t y c)  to e l i m i n a t e the  are  the 564  so  study  i n those  the  is areas.  districts  former  eight  administrative  units called the  official  villages  government f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  m a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n s everyday units the  social  less  The  traditional  unit  units  planning The  however, t h e s e  administrative than a r e  (desa a d a t ) , w h i c h have  and s p i r i t u a l  over  is first  In  their  strong  members.  of a l l a  religious  process.  Regency o f Badung was c h o s e n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  considerations itional  village  The  as t h e a r e a  study comprises a f i e l d  traditional  villages",  f r o m 14 6 t r a d i t i o n a l  (see  Map  picture  villages  time,  by c l u s t e r  villages  samp-  sample  could  impact o f t o u r i s m  zones o f v i l l a g e s  from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  i n 51  i n t h e Regency o f Badung  of the a c t u a l  s i g n i f i c a n t l y represented Bali.  use i n s i x  o f i t s impact  selected  The 51 t r a d i t i o n a l  the three d i f f e r e n t results  trad-  p e r c e p t i o n s about l a n d use  evaluations  ling  give a clearer  survey of land  of v i l l a g e r  change a l o n g w i t h t h e i r  3.1).  i m p a c t on  t o d e t e r m i n e how i t h a s c h a n g e d o v e r  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  "enlarged  i n which t o u r i s t  l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s was t o be e x a m i n e d .  selected villages  The  o f government.  to the B a l i n e s e  Balinese v i l l a g e  62  (Daroesman, 1973, p . 2 9 ) , an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n  the  in  levels  important  village  s e t up by  and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r -  and economic l i f e ,  are probably  traditional  from h i g h e r  i n f l u e n c e s both p h y s i c a l  and  (desa d i n a s ) ,  classifications.  o f the .enlarged  the degree o f tourism  sample  impact i n  63  THE LIST OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGES,.. SAMPLE; 1. S u b - D i s t r i c t of East Denpasar.  4. S u b - D i s t r i c t of Kuta.  1.1 V i l l a g e of P e n a t i h 1.2 " Tonja 1.3 " Dangin P u r i 1 . if " Suraerta 1.5 " Kesiman  4.1 V i l l a g e o f 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9  OF .  2. S u b - D i s t r i c t o f West Denpasar. 2.1 V i l l a g e of Peguyangan 2.2 " Ubung 2.3 " Padangsambian 2.4 " Pemecutan  2.5  "  5. S u b - D i s t r i c t of Mengv/i. 5.1 V i l l a g e o f 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9  Dauhpuri7  3. S u b - D i s t r i c t of South Denpasar. 3.1 V i l l a g e o f 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6  Sanur Renon Panjer Sesetan Pedungan Serangan  6. S u b - D i s t r i c t  oisrRfcr  Dt$Tf\lcT  or  District  Boundary  Sub-District Boundary Village  Boundary  Sembung Baha Mengv/i Penarungar Sempidi Kapal Mengv/i tana Buduk Munggu  o f Abiansems  6.1 V i l l a g e of Sangeh 6.2 Taman 6.3 Bongkasa Ayunan 6.4 Blahkiuh 6.5 6.6 Abiansemal Manrbal 6.7 6.8 Sedang Angantaka 6.9 Jagapati 6.10 Sibangkaje 6.11 Sibanggede 6.12 Darmasaba 6.13  7. S u b - D i s t r i c t LEGEND:  Dalung Canggu Krobokan Kuta Tiiban. . Jimbaran Pecatu Ungasan Benoa  o f Petang.  7.1: V i l l a g e o f 7.2 " 7.3 " 7.4 "  Belok Pelaga Petang Carangsari  51 T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s Samples.  Main Roads Stop Over P l a c e s C i t y o f Denpasar The S i x Village Samples. (JL.U  t  North Scale  1 :T|00).000  MAP 3.1 :DISTRICT (The  OF BADUNG  V i l l a g e s Sample).  64 A further as  the study  villages, trally  reason  area  t h e Regency o f  i s t h a t Badung c o n s i s t s  f o r w h i c h most o f t h e  registered.  villages  f o r choosing  in certain  statistical  data  from  difficult  t h a t was  used  for selecting  identified  ment o f f i c i a l s  from  The  the  intended  local  Tourism  P l a n n i n g Board, to c o n f i r m the  BE  Changes i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e ,  composition,  and  and  t o a wide v a r i e t y  the  lead social  l e v e l may  system.  or  social  impacts  and  signif-  and  INVESTIGATED density  in  of changes i n o t h e r  P o p u l a t i o n changes a t the  f o l l o w as d i r e c t  given a g r i c u l t u r a l  the  govern-  VARIABLES TO  produce s i g n i f i c a n t  in  of  sample.  distribution  of  w i t h i n each  SELECTING THE  may  the  six villages  P l a n n i n g U n i t , the  t h e Regency o f Badung was  RATIONALE FOR  the  this  villages.  investigation  Provincial  3.5  this  using  official  o f the- v i l l a g e  P l a n n i n g Board, the B a l i  enlarged  traditional  surveys  d i s c u s s i o n with  i n the B a l i  icance of these  cen-  sample were c h o s e n by u s i n g  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  sample.  the  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  criteria  villages  are  to o b t a i n ,  i n the  six  data  y e a r s was  villages  zone t h a t was  official  f o r the  All  sample and  51  Since accurate data  c h o i c e made i t p o s s i b l e t o c o m p l e t e registered  of  Badung  indirect  themselves, components  village  consequences of a  tourism p r o j e c t or p o l i c y ,  t u r n i n f l u e n c e 'other a s p e c t s o f t h e o v e r a l l  and  socio-  will  65 economic  system:  direct  and  indirect  income c h a n g e s , p r o d u c t i v i t y , s i z e The  types of  activity.  v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the  study of  land  t y p e o f use  (agriculture, tourist  n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l ) ; and  distance,  access,  land  site  land  these  All lished and  a g r i c u l t u r e , and  primary data  villages  obtained  gathered  from  two—round  3.6  and  and  51  villages  SELECTING THE  Historically,  the  homes i n t h e  village  village,  grazing  head o f  the  traditional  name o f  the  council.  former  as  (pub-  research),  f o r the  6 selected  information  Delphi  approach with  a  lands,  by  a u t h o r i t y c o n t r o l s the  and  r u l e s the  the  g o d s , he He  village  c h i e f i s a popular  been e l e c t e d , and  severe penalty.  land.  i s u s u a l l y e l e c t e d by  has  the  and  choice  no  s a l a r y , but  The in  the  common influential  has  cannot d e c l i n e to hold  receives  land  communally c u l t i v a t e d  unproductive  village  He  RESPONDENTS  p r i v a t e and  A good v i l l a g e  Once he  sanctioned out  the  RATIONALE FOR  approval.  secondary data  s u r v e y , and  using  as w e l l  questionnaire).  ricefields,  man.  using  information  from a f i e l d  evaluations,  development v a r i a b l e s .  documentation of  ( l a n d use  and  were e x p l o r e d ,  tourism  v a r i a b l e s were s t u d i e d  materials  developments,  characteristics (location,  perceptions  socio-economic aspects  use,  use  value).  In i n v e s t i g a t i n g v i l l a g e r all  effects,  and  change w e r e : other  employment  been office  with-  enjoys s i g -  66 nificant He  advantages  s u c h as l a r g e r  shares of land  and  manages t h e community, p r e s i d e s o v e r m e e t i n g s ,  and  o r g a n i z e s a l l the desa Geertz,  his  description  traditional  likely  village  village, culture  of  land  leader  are  e n t s were s e l e c t e d a traditional  agricultural  therefore  the  two  of  relationship  i s actively  feel and  village  and who  other respond-  someone o t h e r t h a n engaged i n  the d i r e c t  impact  someone between  t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s , who  has  i s neither  of  the  completed  a farmer  nor  l e a d e r , b u t s e e k i n g employment i n  or i n tourism.  Besides the s p e c i f i c t h r e e respondents chosen be k n o w l e d g e a b l e study.  He i s  Hence, h i s p e r c e p t i o n s  l e a d e r , who  primary school,  agriculture  and  range o f views,  l a n d use changes;  a traditional  of  the g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n  from each v i l l a g e :  will  ages o f f i f t e e n and  the r o l e  significant.  village  f a r m i n g and who  under  pp.59-60;  h i s e v a l u a t i o n of tourism impacts  To embrace a w i d e r  least  about  to other a c t i v i t i e s .  u s e change and  that  i s very important.  i t s changing c h a r a c t e r ,  in his village  to  i t i s clear  t o know a g r e a t d e a l  of  at  ( C o v a r r u b i a s , 1937,  1975).  From t h i s the  festivals  food.  criteria  described  above,  the  f r o m e a c h o f t h e 51 v i l l a g e s  adult Balinese residents  i n the  A n o n y m i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s was  had  village  maintained.  67  CHAPTER  4  METHODS  4.1  CLARIFICATION The  study  Differences ing  i n value  current land  and  and  The  frame  perceptions  to  positive  development  upon  classification  o r i e n t a t i o n favoring continued  deemed  t o be  cultural opment be  a  and  negative  traditional the absence  a positive  values.  and/or  negative  An  differ-  land  impact  use  of  agricultural  for distinguishing villager  An  villages,  the  by  culture.  either  of  villagers.  village  of  as  maintenance  or  traditional  evaluations  of reference  involves  orientations of  o r i e n t a t i o n s are demonstrated  tourism  Balinese  ORIENTATION  the value  differing  future  and  VALUE  of changes  by  use  THE  examines  perceptions  patterns,  OF  land of  of  towards  their  traditional  agricultural  use  patterns  tourism  o r i e n t a t i o n towards  in  use,  Balinese i s  traditional  tourism  non-agricultural activities  values.  land  development,  o r i e n t a t i o n towards  o r i e n t a t i o n towards  orientations  devel-  i s considered  traditional  to  cultural  values. Villager their  agreement  impacts opment  evaluations  of  or disagreement with  current  policy.  are distinguished according  A  tourism value  statements about  development  judgement  i s  and  future  requested.  to the  devel-  68  4.2  OPERATIONAL!ZING THE  HYPOTHESIS  To t e s t the hypothesis  r e q u i r e d a means of measuring  v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s of land use changes and v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s of tourism  impacts.  O p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the value o r i e n t a t i o n f o r v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s was  a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d procedure,  f i r s t round q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  using  the  Statements r e l a t e d to B a l i n e s e  c u l t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l land use, t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s and changes i n v i l l a g e land use were c o n s t r u c t e d to form the measurement s c a l e .  Respondents were asked to  agree or d i s a g r e e with each statement.  Cumulative value  s c a l e s were taken as r e f l e c t i n g v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n of  the  values i n question. Measurement of v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s , i n a second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o n s i s t e d of f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r  perceptions  of changes to t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of the impacts of c u r r e n t and tourism development.  finding  out  planned  These e v a l u a t i o n statements were  value judgements with which a respondent c o u l d i n d i c a t e agreement or disagreement u s i n g a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . was  considered  to be of some i n t e r e s t and  It  importance to  v e r i f y the assumption t h a t everyone i s aware of the  rel-  a t i v e l y h i g h d e c l i n e i n the r a t e of a g r i c u l t u r a l land  use  and  and  i t s e f f e c t s on B a l i n e s e v i l l a g e land use p a t t e r n s  culture.  In order to o b t a i n more accurate i n s i g h t  what v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s are of p a r t i c u l a r aspects  into of  69 impact, by  a d i s t i n c t i o n was  t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t and  made between t h e other  to i d e n t i f y  situations  interests,  criteria  4.3  and  had  been  and  a l s o gathered  positions,  thus  in  skills,  ensure t h a t  both village  selection  met.  SELECTION OF The  their  caused  impacts.  Some g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l d a t a was questionnaires  impacts  THE  six villages  SAMPLING AREA i n the  first  sample were s e l e c t e d  as f o l l o w s :  -  two  villages  but  had  two  agricultural  of  t h a t were once a g r i c u l t u r a l  become c o m p l e t e l y  d o m i n a t e d by  settlements  tourist  villages  t h a t have f e l t  villages  isolated  development;  some i n f l u e n c e s  tourism;  two  agricultural  tourist The  from the  areas  of  impact.  criteria  used  t o measure t o u r i s m  1)  concentration of t o u r i s t  2)  associated tourist  3)  d i s t a n c e from o r access  impacts  were:  facilities;  a c t i v i t i e s present; to t o u r i s t  facilities  and  activities. The used  51  traditional villages  i n the  t o measure v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s  selected earlier  f r o m a t o t a l o f 146 d e s c r i b e d , and  zones o f t o u r i s m  and  enlarged  e v a l u a t i o n s were  i n t h e Regency o f Badung  were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d i n t o  impact.  sample  three  as  4.4  70  ADAPTATION OF THE DELPHI APPROACH  4.4.1  Selection of As d e s c r i b e d  villages  4.4.2  informants  earlier,  were g i v e n  three  a d u l t s f r o m e a c h o f 51  t h e two r o u n d  questionnaire.  Administration The  designed  first  o f t h e two r o u n d s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  to f i n d  villager  perception  was  o f l a n d use changes,  b a s e d on f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f l a n d u s e c h a n g e s in  the s i x v i l l a g e s  summaries o f f i r s t The to  find  sampled  earlier.  Means  r o u n d r e s p o n s e s were  evaluations  d e v e l o p m e n t on l a n d  T h i s r o u n d was d e v e l o p e d  was  of the impact o f  use i n B a l i n e s e  other  compiled.  second round o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e villager  and  traditional  designed tourism villages.  from the f i n d i n g s o f the  first  round. The  results  quantitative subjective  of this  Trained  a p p r o a c h were a s e r i e s o f  and s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e  and o b j e c t i v e d a t a  projections,  p r o j e c t i o n s , and some  on t h e r e a s o n s  f o r the  and on t h e d e g r e e o f c o n s e n s u s b e h i n d Balinese  i n t e r v i e w e r s who  respondents administered n a t i v e s was n e c e s s a r y translation  Delphi  problems.  were unknown  the questionnaire.  Use o f  them.' t o the these  t o overcome l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r s and  71 4.4.3  The  Questionnaire  English  translations  to  this  as  t h e y were a d m i n i s t e r e d  blank  thesis  they ian  as A p p e n d i c e s C I and C 2 .  c o p i e s a r e on f i l e  Columbia  School  The o r i g i n a l  to respondents  were i n  versions  Indonesian;  i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  o f Community  are available  and R e g i o n a l  to readers  Planning,  where  w i t h knowledge o f the Indones-  language. The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e s i g n e d  purposes:  to ascertain v i l l a g e r  c h a n g e s ; and t o l e a r n The  their  f o r two  the  sampled was  exception  information requested than  similar  of s p e c i f i c  about t h e i r  e v a l u a t i o n s of these  ensure t o t a l  respondent fidential The questions  was  types  Slightly  of  closed  and u s e d o n l y f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e first  and  h i s perceptions  his  village,  personal data  socio-economic,  were i n c l u d e d areas.  Each con-  study.  about the  about the l o c a t i o n  was  w o u l d be  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d  which cover  more  questions  response  that opinions expressed  with  respondents  some o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s  coverage of important told  traditional  p o s i t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s  Mainly  shifts.  and c o n t e n t s ,  personal data.  leaders.  were a s k e d , a l t h o u g h  i n each  i n format  o f t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d  o f the v i l l a g e  different  p e r c e p t i o n s o f l a n d use  q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r each respondent  village  to  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r s are attached  thirty-three respondent,  and c o n d i t i o n o f  agricultural  and l a n d u s e  72 variables, The  and  tourism  development  variables.  second  round  questionnaire  contained  questions of  covering  tourism  policy, use  preservation  tourism  the  and  Analysis  of  the  findings  suitable  level  and  in  given  deciding given  analysis  tested  This  as  consisted of  1969-1979  Analysis  of  practices, traditional  land  future  of  elements:  the  evaluation  traditional  agricultural  tourist  village  in of  to  turn a  village use  perceptions  of  village  land  towards  in agricultural patterns,  use  project  policy  six  of  be  i s useful  in  extent  the  can  process.  land  The  test  given  facilities  preferences  changes  used  developmental  four  on  was  society.  information  of  in  ascertaining  village  impact  of  villages  value  the  part  examined  villager  on  on  hypothesis  future  changes  of  impact  village  p o l i c y , and  focused  a  focused  proportion  of  kind  appropriate  Analysis  was  impact  evaluation  society,  change  of  The  region.  the  the  preservation  traditional  predictive analysis  hypothesis. a basic  land  of  policy.  FINDINGS  as  2)  Balinese  THE  used  1)  of  OF  thesis  a  agricultural  ANALYSIS  retrospective  evaluation  culture, population  development  most  a  respondent's  development,  patterns  4.5  the  seventeen  in  for  The  land and  use the  villages. land  use  change:  traditional land  Balinese  use, culture,  and  73  tourist 3)  development.  A n a l y s i s o f the v i l l a g e r of  tourism  development  use p a t t e r n s  looked  evaluation  of the impact  on t r a d i t i o n a l  at v i l l a g e r  village  judgement  about  t h e s e i m p a c t s , a b o u t t h e t r a d e o f f s between u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n a l tourism 4)  development  culture value,  i n the f o r s e e a b l e  A n a l y s i s of the t e s t e d hypothesis, rejection can  or confirmation.  and  agricabout  future.  will  tested  result  i n a given  impact assessment process  region, using  inits  hypothesis  be d e v e l o p e d f o r u s e i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  f u t u r e development the  This  land  about  and t o  a similar  improve methodology.  74  PART I I I  DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  75 CHAPTER 5  DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS  This chapter sis  of land  describes  based  regarding  i n fifty-one villages  As  earlier  tourism  mentioned, the survey  5.1  percept-  d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s  i s part o f a broad-  patterns  upon B a l i n e s e  develop-  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  c u l t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t .  LAND USE CHANGES CAUSED BY TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SIX  5.1.1  and v i l l a g e r  the impact o f t o u r i s m  ment upon l a n d u s e , s e t t l e m e n t and t h e r e b y  and a n a l y -  i n t h e Regency o f Badung.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n to assess  structure,  o f a survey  use changes i n s i x v i l l a g e s ,  i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n s impact  the r e s u l t s  BALINESE VILLAGES,  1969-1979  I n d i c a t o r s t o Measure T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e  Land Use  Changes The  methodology d e s c r i b e d  agricultural patterns, the  land use, Balinese  t h e s i s uses q u a l i t y o f  traditional  village  settlement  and t h e t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t i n d i c a t o r s t o examine  a c t u a l and p r e d i c t e d i m p a c t s o f t o u r i s m  purpose o f developing standardised use,  i n this  these  development.  The  i n d i c a t o r s i s t o measure i n a  way c h a n g e s i n B a l i n e s e  and c h a n g e s i n t r a d i t i o n a l  traditional  values  i n three  village different  land  zones  of impact:  s t r o n g , p a r t i a l and  The i n d i c a t o r s land  use adapted  used  isolated.  t o measure c h a n g i n g  agricultural  f r o m B e n - c h i e h L i u a r e as shown  Table  i n Table  5.1.  5.1  INDICATORS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE  Item Area of cultivated Farm  Indicator of Agricultural Land Use  Units  land  size  Agricultural  products  proportion of t o t a l v i l l a g e land  h i g h e r proportion  mean ha  o v e r 1.0  mean  h i g h e r (over 2 ton/ha)  ton/ha  ha  Agricultural fertility  mean o f f i r s t c l a s s agricultural soils  h i g h e r mean  Number o f f a r m e r s  proportions of t o t a l v i l l a g e population  higher tion  Land  R u p i a h / 1 0 0 m2/year  L e s s t h a n Rp. 100,000/100 m2 ( l e s s than doubled)  value  Source  : B e n - c h i e h L i u , 1977, pp.  188-195.  Lower p r o p o r t i o n s o r l o w e r means i n d i c a t e d is for  l i t t l e agricultural  propor-  that there  l a n d o r t h a t t h e amount o f l a n d  used  a g r i c u l t u r e has d e c r e a s e d . The i n d i c a t o r s u s e d  village  t o measure B a l i n e s e  traditional  settlement patterns are given i n Table  5.2  77 TABLE INDICATORS OF PATTERNS  5.2  STRONG BALINESE TRADITIONAL VILLAGE SETTLEMENT  Item  I n d i c a t o r of strong t r a d i t i o n a l patterns  Units  Ethnic composition i n the v i l l a g e  proportion of native B a l i n e s e to t o t a l v i l l a g e population  higher (above  proportion 90%)  Education  p r o p o r t i o n of lower l e v e l of education  higher  proportion  p r o p o r t i o n o f nonformal a c t i v i t i e s  higher  proportion  proportion ricultural  lower  Farming  attainment  activities  Degree o f  urbanization  o f non-agsectors  proportion  Traditional village Land Use patterns  p r o p o r t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l use t o t o t a l v i l l a g e l a n d use.  higher  proportion  Housing  p r o p o r t i o n of i o n a l housing  higher  proportion  Family  Level  type size  of  income  Land t e n u r e and property  Communal  lot  life  tradittype  average size  household  above 5 p e r s o n s  mean o f income  percapita  l e s s than month  $20/  p r o p o r t i o n of v i l l a g e p r o p e r t y and h e r i t a g e land.  higher  proportion  degree of  higher  degree  participation  Public f a c i l i t i e s and i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e  mean o f f a c i l i t i e s and d e v e l o p m e n t  higher  mean  A g r i c u l t u r e as a desirable activity in the v i l l a g e  degree of ity  higher  degree  Source: I b i d  Ben-chieh L i u ,  desirabil-  1977.  Lower p r o p o r t i o n s o r l o w e r means i n d i c a t e weak o r p o o r t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , and t h u s a l s o i n d i c a t e e x i s t e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e land use.  78 The of  i n d i c a t o r s u s e d t o measure t h e e x i s t e n c e and  t o u r i s m development a r e g i v e n  impacts  i n t a b l e 5.3  TABLE 5.3 INDICATORS OF THE EXISTENCE OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND  IMPACTS  IN THE VILLAGE  Item  Units  Indicator of touri s m s e x i s t e n c e and impacts  ' Tourist  development  ratio of tourist development i n the v i l l a g e l a n d use  higher r a t i o  Number o f h o t e l s  ratio  higher  ratio  Number o f r e s t a u r a n t s  ratio of restaurant numbers  higher  ratio  Number o f t o u r i s t services  r a t i o o f number o f t o u r - h i g h e r ist services  ratio  Number o f t o u r i s t attractions  r a t i o o f number o f tourist attractions  higher  ratio  Number o f a r t s h o p s  r a t i o of artshops number  higher  ratio  Number o f a s s o c i a t e d developments: t r a n s portation f a c i l i t i e s , water supply, e l e c r i c a l supply, r e c r e a t ional f a c i l i t i e s  ratio  o f development  higher  ratio  Number o f t o u r i s m employees  ratio  o f employee  higher  ratio  L e v e l o f income  mean o f p e r c a p i t a income h i g h e r  ratio  Number o f t o u r i s t s  mean o f v i s i t o r s  higher  ratio  Land  r u p i a h / 1 0 0 m2/year  higher 500%)  (more  value  Source:  Ibid  o f h o t e l numbers  than  B e n - c h i e h L i u , 1977.  Lower r a t i o s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e ism- d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s i m p a c t s .  o r no e v i d e n c e  of tour-  All  of these i n d i c a t o r s  5.1.2  are used  C o m p a r i s o n o f Land Based  on  Use  Changes i n S i x  the a d v i c e o f knowledgeable  ing  Unit,  chosen, (Sanur  a six village  consisting and  (Kesiman  (Munggu and The resort  Ubung); and  two  Plann-  t h e Regency o f Badung  i n the s t r o n g impact  i n the area o f p a r t i a l  villages  was  areas  impact  i n the i s o l a t e d  areas  Buduk).  s t r o n g impact  villages  areas or w i t h i n  the e s t a b l i s h e d The  villages  villages  reports,  p e r s o n n e l i n the B a l i  sample w i t h i n  o f two  K u t a ) ; two  and  Villages  the r e c o n n a i s s a n c e survey, e a r l i e r  and  79 survey.  i n both- p a r t s of the  are w i t h i n  a radius of less  the  than  tourist  2 km  from  any  of  t o u r i s t development c e n t r e s .  p a r t i a l impact  villages  a r e a r e a s w h i c h have  few  t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t s and w h i c h a r e m o s t l y w i t h i n a r a d i u s greater  than  2 km  but l e s s  opment c e n t r e ; a l s o  included  which are becoming t o u r i s t tourist  attractions,  the t o u r i s t by  than  5 km  from  any  tourist devel-  are areas o u t s i d e of t h i s r a d i u s  stopover places  artshop areas, e t c . ) ,  (scenic and  areas,  areas  e x c u r s i o n roads which are thus p a r t l y  along  influenced  the development o f t o u r i s m . The  isolated  the i n f l u e n c e from  any  impact v i l l a g e s  are areas i s o l a t e d  o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h a r e more t h a n  t o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e , o r t h o s e w i t h no  a c c e s s t o any p l a c e s and  from  tourist  c e n t e r ; o r a r e a s w h i c h have no  are i s o l a t e d  from  the t o u r i s t  5  km  direct stopover  excursion roads.  80 The  six-village  sample was  chosen  to g i v e the  p o s s i b l e view of changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , i n terms o f e f f e c t s housing, It  and was  villages  cultural found  was  predominantly  of t o t a l land.  the  s t r o n g and  After  an a v e r a g e  from  a 75%  o f 90%  average  above 75%  i n Kesiman and  in  as new  the  After  s t r o n g impact  t o 70%  also  influenced  by  full  impact  1974  P a c i f i c Area  75%;  o f Buduk and  Munggu,  A8  l a n d use and  1969,  55%.  villages  remaining  villages  with housing  and  airport  had  been f e l t ,  Travel Association  to  fac-  changes tourist  tourism  was  other types  after  land  i t s effects,  l a n d use  were m a i n l y due  tourism, e s p e c i a l l y  o f t h e new  the  changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  agricultural  and  A9).  other development i n these  P o p u l a t i o n has  and and  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the changes.  g r o w t h and  drastically,  Ubung t o 60%  In t h e p a r t i a l i m p a c t  development a l s o  in  schools, i n d u s t r y , roads, h e a l t h  o n l y p a r t i a l l y the cause,  Bali.  declined  Kuta  above  l a n d use  o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and  housing,  etc.  development.  housing  villages  most o f t h e s e  use were t h e r e s u l t  ilities,  villages  i n most  averaging  agricultural  (see A p p e n d i x T a b l e s A7, 1969,  and  agriculture,  l a n d use  smaller, with agricultural  Before  such  1969  i n Sanur and  However, i n t h e i s o l a t e d d e c l i n e was  t o 19 69  agricultural,  p a r t i a l impact  from  l a n d use  life.  that prior  75%  upon  broadest  of  However, zones 1969 and  was  when t h e after  (PATA) c o n f e r e n c e  i n c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g l y i n these  the in  villages  81 (see the  Appendix isolated  housing  and  population  A10).  villages other  Agricultural  were  fewer  non-tourist  findings  are  loss  of agricultural  villages  from  1961  other  development.  impact loss  by  14%  of  1969,  by  i n Kesiman  of  but  because  or  low  where  These  to  more  and  had  prove a  land.  With  agricultural  losses  i n Kuta.  of  the  to  by  from  land,  the  almost  two  decreased i n the  was  no  loss  development  agricultural  other  no  zones  either land  is  of  tourist  higher. after and  1969,  be  the massive  direct  especially  increasing will  of  partial  development  land  there  tourist land  the  contrast  tourist  loss  by of  was  tourist  By  1%  In  shows  housing  types of development  was  that  there  Munggu,  of  significant  land  1979  Ubung,  and  other  population  to  agricultural  because  compared  of agricultural  dry  in  impact  by  than  i n Ubung.  o f Buduk  1969,  facts  development loss  only  which  strong  less  because  22%  i n the  5.4  and  12%  and  1969  o f h o u s i n g and  relatively impact,  and  land  after  land  after  villages  agricultural  before  changes  resulting  mostly affected  1969  and  Kesiman  agricultural  isolated  was  from  i n Sanur  before 11%  t o 1969  However,  villages  of  use  affected  i n Table  land  types of development,  increased  were  developments  summarized  the  and  and  land  growth.  These that  Table  tourism used  impact upon  ricefields  as  i t is likely  for tourist  tourist the compared that  development.  TABLE 5.4.  :  The Summary E v a l u a t i o n of the V i l l a g e Land-use Changes i n the S i x V i l l a g e s Sample.  Tear and Land* use chan{e«.  % Total arfta  Villages  1961  1961-1969 1969  1979  Khflnn-fl  %  - 1Q7Q  Ha  rh  *  r  T  f  Ha  Strong Impact Sanur  Cultivated Sice Other Community House * Other  T o t a l area - 935.467 Ha lata  fiellgioue  Tourism 'Cultivated Rice Other Community House 4- R e l i g i o u s Other  T o t a l area • 912.73 Ha  Tourlsa  91 % 59 * 32 *  81 % 50 % 31 *  69 % 44 % 25 *  -10 * -15 * - 3 *  - 87 - 79  9 * n.a n.a  - 14 * - 13 * - 18 %  18 % 16 % 2 %  26 * 21 * 5 *  *108 *  • 46 % • 31 *  • •  • 00 %  • 87 n.a n.a  1 % 100 %  5 * 100 %  H5© * 0 *  •367 *  •  93 % 53 * 40 %  88 % 54 * 34 %  77 %  50 % 27 *  7%  - 5* • 2 * -15 *  - 55  - 21 *  12 % 8'* 4 %  17 * 10 % 7 *  •70 % n.a n.a  • 41 % • 25 %  •  •  • 46 n.a n.a  6 % 100 %  • 100 %  •1800 %  •  76 % 67 *  67 * 61 % 6 % 31 % 25 % 6 % Z % 100 %  - 5 * - 2 % -20 %  - 43 - 18  •19 %  • 43 • 40 •- 3  n.a n.a  •  00 %  - 100 %  -  n.a n.a  8  •  0  - 46 • 9  •  T o t a l area - 1109 Ha Ubung  T o t a l area • 600 Ha  Cultivated Rice Other Community House It R e l i g i o u s Other Tourism  80 69 11 20 16  9 * 24 % 20 %  4 * •  \* •  100 %  100 %  Cultivated Rice Other  75 56 19 Community 25 House * r e l i g i o u s 16 Other 9 Tourism  % * * % %  % * * % % %  0  100 *  +22 % • 7 % •25 %  0*  - 25  ,  18 11  45 * 25 % 20 %  •20 %  • 11  0 100  0 100 %  R 0 £ %  0  •15 * • 12 *  •»  7 *  a» em>  •  * 79%  - 11  %  - 8% - 36 % • 27  %  - 22 %  29 *  -11 *  -  - 23  55 % 43 * 12 *  - 3 *  •  0 * - 12 %  0  71 54 17  - 5 %  •194 %  • 26 % 31 % •1106 % 0%  •  -  0%  f i f t l s ! Tanscr, Eeslaan  m  m  - 11  - 12 • 23  • 12 0  % - 26 % • 54 % • ?4 % • 88 % •100 % 0 % - 21  m  • • • •  110 59  51 •77 46 31 33 0 99  35 64 45 19 26 54 6 97 62 36 72  »  14 25 0  m  95 69  • • •  94 37 57  •  26  1  0  t  ... Continued  % 1961 Isolated  1961 - 1969  T o t a l Area 1969  1979  Cultivated Rice Other Community House tt R e l i g i o u s Other  T o t a l area = 950.98 Ha  Tourism  Munggu  Cultivated Rice Other  T o t a l area = 1037 Ha  % % % 16 % 14 % 2 %  ok  61 23  0 100  89 78 11  Community 11 House (c R e l i g i o u s 6 Other 5 Tourism 0 100  % % % % % % % %  83 61 22  17 15 2 0 100  % % % % % % %  % % 10 % 13 % 7 % 6%  87 77  0 100  %  76 59 17 24 21 3 0 100  17 10 7 0 100  %  77 6  : a.a • data not a v a i l a b l e  • B l e s s than 0.5 % o r 0.5 Ha because o f rounding.  % % % % % % %  83  Sources : Appendix Table A.7 , A.8 and A.9  Sums o * f s u b c a t e g o r i e s may d i f f e r s l i g h t l y  % % % % % %  from t o t a l s  - 2 % - 1 % - 4 %  + 8 % + 7 % +19 % 0 % 0 % - 3 % - 1 % -15 *  :  12 3 9 + 12 9 3 0 0  -  28 11  17  +H * +40 %  + 28 + 9 + 19  0 * 0 *  0 0  +25 %  1969 - 1979  %  Ha  Imoact  Buduk  Notes  %  Change  Change Ha  - 9 %  - 2 %  -26 *  +43 * +42 % +47 %  - 69 - 13  - 56  + 69 + 60  + 9  0 % 0 %  0 0  - 4 %  - 35  • -33 %  - 3 - 32  +25 +39 + 9 0 0  + ^6 0 0  % * * % *  84 The will  changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  indirectly  also affect  land  other  use i n a g i v e n  agricultural  possible  d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e whole t r a d i t i o n a l  system.  Hence, s i n c e  use  patterns  strongly will use as  and communal  on a g r i c u l t u r e ,  affect  either  patterns  life  with  impact.  village  land  i t s c u l t u r e depends o f those  changes  and i n d i r e c t l y v i l l a g e  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  due t o  irrigation  Balinese  the existence  directly  i s shown c l e a r l y  tourist  the t r a d i t i o n a l  land  site  land  s t r u c t u r e o f the v i l l a g e s ,  i n the strong  and p a r t i a l  T h i s d i d n o t happen i n t h e  zones o f  isolated  villages. In t h e s t r o n g in  the t r a d i t i o n a l  itional  in  partial the land  impact v i l l a g e s , use p a t t e r n s ,  agricultural  use  patterns The  in the  i n the n a t u r a l  characteristics  and  land.  essentially  changes i n v i l l a g e r  distribution; ations;  landscape;  buildings.  their  village  appeared  villages,  the land  traditional land  character.  use  patterns  development impact  parallel  socio-economic  structure:  ethnic  distribution;  educational  distribution  of the labour  force.  economic changes, t h e r e f o r e ,  In  i n the areas o f housing  In the i s o l a t e d retained  occurred  and i n t h e  some s l i g h t c h a n g e s  but only  zones o f t o u r i s t  changes  changes i n the t r a d -  of existing  changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l  the three  dramatic  land use p a t t e r n s :  environment;  architectural the  impact v i l l a g e s  level;  Such  c a n be p r e d i c t e d  population  socio-  from the  occup-  85 changes i n the Such l a n d use  5.1.3  proportion of  villages, erent  i n Three  zone o f t o u r i s m Strong  erized  by  strongly housing  Impact  significance.  are  The  areas  and  tourism's strong  and  villager related  zone  incomes. factor,  The  a r e no  longer  charact-  and  of  transitional heterogenous,  of n a t i v e B a l i n e s e ,  Chinese,  Religions include Hindu- B a l i ,  others.  Sixty percent  the  density,  income  f u r t h e r i n d i c a t o r s of  (see A p p e n d i x T a b l e level,  i s also slightly  5.6).  impact  population density highest  Educational  labour  (see T a b l e  strong  Population  are  of  activities. i n these  zones. level  patterns  traditional,  s t r u c t u r e s are  5.5).  to other  educational  impact  diff-  identified,  settlement  are markedly higher  impact.  six  village  i s engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  level,  be  patterns  a mixture  (see T a b l e  compared  i n the  have  a mixture  the p o p u l a t i o n being  Land v a l u e s  l a n d use  Non-agricultural activities  Socio-economic  Moslem, C h r i s t i a n  Impact  Villages  intruded. types  Village  the v i l l a g e s w i t h i n each  s e c t o r , l a n d use  modern.  force  of  impact can  agriculture.  others  Zones o f T o u r i s m  changes to t r a d i t i o n a l  characteristics  In t h i s  and  agriculture.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Changes t o T r a d i t i o n a l  B a s e d on  and  to  c h a n g e , t h e r e f o r e , assumes m a j o r  Land Use  a)  land devoted  A10), while  higher  in  as a r e not  here,  a  with  the the  directly more  TABLE 5.5: The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f V i l l a g e r E t h n i c V i l l a g e s Sample i n 1978.  Indonesian C i t i z e n »T • • Non-native — Native • - T—11 i • • j_ (Chinese-Ethnicity) Persons Strong  Persons  Origin  i n the S i x  Total  Foreigners . x Chinese Persons  _, , , Dutch Persons  Village Population  Impact  Sanur  12,507  99.11  50  0.40  44  0.35  18  Kuta  10,583  98.45  134  1.25  32  0.30  11,960  99.79  14  0.12  11  4,709  99.37  26  0.55  Buduk  7,685  100  0  Munggu  8,7 32  10 0  0  Partial  0.14  12,619  100  0  0  10,749  100  0.09  0  0  11,985  100  4  0.08  0  0  4,739  100  0  0  0  0  0  7 ,685  100  0  0  0  0  0  8,732  100  Impact  Kesiman Ubung Isolated  Sources  : Statistic The  R e p o r t s , P o p u l a t i o n o f Badung 1977, S t a t i s t i c A g e n c y  Regency of. Badung, November  1978 .  TABLE  5 . 6 : The D i s t r i b u t i o n or Labour by Occupation in the S i x V i l l a g e s Sample 1976.  Villages  S t r o n g Tmpart  Occupation  Nuaber of Persons  1. Eaployad  6,333  a. Agricultural a actor  4,167  b. Industry c. Trada d. Qovernaent service a. Handicrafts  % or Employed Population  too 66.11  Partial Nuaber or Persona  % of Employed Population  4,160  100  2,505  60.21  22  0.35  000  00  984  15.54  462  11.59  735  219  f. Other  Sanur  186  2. Not Eaployad 5,157  Total Population 11,490  11.61 3.45 2.94  109  000 l,06i. 6,434  10,594  2.62  00 25.58  Nuaber of Persons 4,317  2,813  Tunflfit  [bjmg^  % of Nuaber Employed of Population Persons  100  1,944  % of Employed  Population 100  Nuaber of Peraona 3,921  HUflMH  ~%of Number Employed Of Population Paraons 100  5,513  65.16  852  43.83  8  0.19  300  15,43  000  415  9.61  169  ••69  120  170  3.06  289  3.94  131  6.74  193  4.92  350  8.10  119  102  5.25  000  561  13.00  390  20.06  108  7,590  11,907  2,622  4,566  3,500  3,782  7,703  89.26 00  00 2.76  4,859 000  000 246  * of Employed Population 100 88,14 00  5.24 2.16 00  4.46  3,138  8,651  Sources: Bural Development Agency o f Badung Regency (PMD) Data Tabulation 1976.  00  88  villagers  having  attended  high  school  and u n i v e r s i t y  (see  Table 5.7). b)  Partial  Impact  In t h e s e iated  Villages  villages,  tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s a s s o c -  a c t i v i t i e s have n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  land use p a t t e r n s predominantly are  the r e s u l t  the  effects  impact. istics  and v i l l a g e  agricultural. of housing  of tourism  Socio-economic  o u t from the areas  patterns  and h o u s i n g  of t r a d i t i o n a l  60% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n (see T a b l e  5.6).  less  than  than  i n the i s o l a t e d  than.in  level higher close having  i n the strong  the strong  isolated  zone  with  villages.  to t h a t i n the strong  isolated  areas  A10).  villages.  agricultural somewhat  d e n s i t y i s lower than  Villager  i n the  income  impact areas, but Educational  zone, w i t h more than  5.  of strong  b u t much more  s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y  (see T a b l e 5 . 7 ) .  (see T a b l e  i n the  Population  impact  Balinese  have c h a n g e d  t o t h a t o f the strong  high  Native  zone, s l i g h t l y h i g h e r  i n the i s o l a t e d  attended  character-  As i n t h e a r e a  impact v i l l a g e s ,  as  of strong  some C h i n e s e  Land v a l u e s  impact  occurred  transitional.  i s employed  (see Appendix T a b l e  i s similar than  and  s t r u c t u r e s a r e homogeneous.  Religious differences are s l i g h t .  sector  Land use i s s t i l l  g r o w t h a s w e l l as o f t o u r i s m ,  dominate the p o p u l a t i o n , a l o n g  impact,  village  The c h a n g e s t h a t have  spread  The s e t t l e m e n t a r e a. m i x t u r e  life.  affected  level, i s villagers  i n the  TABLE 5.7  :  The E d u c a t i o n a l  Educational Level  Uneducated  Villages Strong  Persons  Level  i n the Six V i l l a g e s  Primary School  High  Persons  Sample i n 197 6  School  Persons  University Persons  Total Population Persons  %  Impact  Sanur  5,132  44.7  4,505  39.2  1,780  15.5  73  0.6  11,490  100  Kuta  2,958  27.9  7,140  67.4  464  4.4  32  0.3  10,594  100  Kesiman  5,099  42.8  5,912  49.7  820  6.9  76  0.6  11,907  100  Ubung  1,386  30.4  2,539  55.6  630  13.8  11  0.2  4,566  100  Buduk  4,155  53.9  3,125  40.6  423  5.5  0  0  7,703  100  Munggu  3,78 9  4 3.8  4,373  50.6  469  5.4  20  0.2  8,651  100  Partial  Impact  Isolated  Source  Impact  : PMD  ( R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t Agency) o f Badung Regency D a t a T a b u l a t i o n 1976.  CO  90 c)  The  Isolated Villages.  T o u r i s t d e v e l o p m e n t and exist  i n these  potential  the r e s u l t alone.  remote a r e a s ,  tourist  d o m i n a t e d by  itional.  agriculture.  settlement  predominantly  in  the  o f the  and  are  by  Job  the force  lower than  of the  three  All first  of  these  and  (see T a b l e  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n results  of  the  first  was  5.2.1  sample as  are  Changes  regions,  and  levels  are  (see T a b l e  to develop classify  to tourism on  as  5.7).  the the  impact.  the b a s i s of  the  questionnaire.  EVALUATION OF  LAND USE  CHANGE  TOURISM IMPACT  S i g n i f i c a n c e of V i l l a g e r As  two  t o s e l e c t and  re-evaluated  round  the  Population density i s  educational  VILLAGERS' PERCEPTION AND AND  5.6).  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were u s e d  i n the e n l a r g e d  increase  There i s  (see A p p e n d i x A 1 0 ) ,  r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and  51 v i l l a g e s  are  remain t r a d -  opportunities  i n the o t h e r  zones  are  land  to p o p u l a t i o n  housing  not  a g r i c u l t u r e s e c t o r , which  t r a n s a c t i o n s have been few. lowest  patterns  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  do  some  s t r u c t u r e s a r e homogenous,  labour  a v e r a g e income l e v e l s ,  5.2  patterns  of r e l i g i o n s .  generated  land value  land  Losses  l a n d use  are  c o n s i s t i n g purely of native Balinese.  a s l i g h t mixture  employs 80%  The  d e v e l o p m e n t due  Socio-economic  population  even though t h e r e  attractions.  of housing  The  i t s associated a c t i v i t i e s  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  Response  villager  perceptions  and  evalua-  91 t i o n s o f c h a n g e s t o l a n d use  and  of  d e v e l o p m e n t were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 51 villages  w i t h i n the  35% of  of the  f r o m 146  the  The another in  traditional  villages chosen  was  first  b a s e d on  in  verified  The  163. T a b l e s  A. 11,  A. 13  was  represents about  about  3.5%  Bali.  the  In g e n e r a l ,  appear  and  interviewer  information  selection  questionnaires A-. 12" and  sample  e a r l i e r described;  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  detailed  The  and  through personal  the  traditional  ( v i l l a g e head, farmer,  criteria  shows t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s met  data  villages  tourism  interviewing 3  villages.  e d u c a t e d a d u l t ) were s e l e c t e d by  each v i l l a g e  the  selected  (Regency o f B a d u n g ) , and  three v i l l a g e r s  selection in  traditional  universe  1470  impact of  Regency o f Badung by  r e s p o n d e n t s from each o f t h e s e selected  the  the  their gathered  data  criteria. i n t h e A p p e n d i x C . l page  i n the Appendix  summarize  the  collected. The  significant  f i n d i n g s f o r each v i l l a g e r  type  follow  in a  very  below: a)  The  Village  Heads  (see T a b l e  These respondents p e r c e i v e d similar impact. all  way The  villages  were w i t h i n 2 km  villages  they  from these they  to that of  saw  as  saw  as  centres. suffering  the they  of  the  A.11) their  researcher, saw  i n terms o f  as b e i n g  tourism  isolated  villages  strongly  c e n t r e s , and  were o u t s i d e  Sixty-nine percent medium i m p a c t  fell  of  tourism  impacted a l l the  a r a d i u s of the  5  villages  within radius  of  km  2 and  5 km  According tourist with  to  these v i l l a g e  d e v e l o p m e n t and  the  percentage of  non-agricultural patterns;  use  incidence  of  land;  housing patterns  tenure,  and  have t h e  villages  the  highest  lowest.  the  r e s i d e n t s , and  values  of  was  linked  by  percentages of a g r i c u l t u r a l Balinese ing in  and  land values,  The  isolated  use  and  least.  b)  Village  impacts other  and  land  with  villages  traditional  the  The  village  an  had  Farmers  (see  occurring  l a n d use  value.  The  and  village the  isolated  of  land  village with  absence of  and  the  incomes o f the  use  villagers.  and  traditional  heads w i t h land use,  patterns  and  little  o r no  tourist  strong  high native houschange  development. village  impact  land-  villages  A.12)  tourism  development or i t s a higher  percentage  a mixture of a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n the  impact  charactersitics  a c t i v i t i e s and  tenure,  non-  private  strong  the  village  i n areas with  major a c t i v i t i e s ,  agricultural  types;  v i l l a g e , higher  Table  farmers i d e n t i f i e d as  housing  t h e most t r a d i t i o n a l  values,  use  r e s i d e n t i n the v i l l a g e ;  residents, traditional  types,  of  correlated  characteristics  traditional  existence  f o l l o w i n g phenomena:  identifying  the major a c t i v i t y of the certain  be  the  incidence,  Other  the  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l land  and  are  cultural  of  changes i n l a n d  villages  Existence  leaders,  i t s impacts can  non-native Balinese  traditional land  92  away.  village,  a system of  and  of non-  private  land  tenure,  modern and  a better  transitional  use  patterns,  For  a l l of  highest  level  and  these  of  types  increases items the  percentage value  income, the of housing  and  i n land value strong  and  the  existence village  from  1969  impact v i l l a g e s isolated  93  of  land to  1979.  have  villages  the  the  lowest. F a r m e r s saw l a n d use with  and  non-existence  village and  village strong  of  tourist  i n land use,  impact v i l l a g e s l a n d use  and  values  traditional  traditional  values.  had  o r no the  the  in a l l villages For  chose a g r i c u l t u r e p r e f e r r e d to stay  dominance  housing tenure  by  and  heritage,  change a t a l l .  cultural  The  traditional values  and  However, t h e r e  there  the of  types  still  exist  example, more t h a n 7 0%  as  identified  activities,  strongest  weakest.  village  as b e i n g  development, the  traditional  impact v i l l a g e s that  75%  traditional  pattern, private land  indications  ents  cultural  change i n l a n d v a l u e  isolated  of  percentage of a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d use  less  existence  traditional  a higher  agriculture  the  of  the are  strong respond-  t h e most d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y ,  in their  communal l i f e  rather  and  than  transmigrate. c)  Educated A d u l t  (see T a b l e  These r e s p o n d e n t s opment o r  saw  the  i t s impacts as b e i n g  percentage value  of other  A.13) existence identified  of  tourist  with  major a c t i v i t i e s ,  a  devel-  higher  a mixture  of  94 agricultural  and  n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use  the  purchase of p r i v a t e property,  the  selection the  existence  of housing  and  village  land value  between 1969  the  strong  impact v i l l a g e s  and  the  of  isolated  responses of  a higher  non-existence agricultural types  and  of  villages and  the  for  had  For  the  the  and  highest  and  l a n d use  patterns,  the  i n the  i n d i c a t i o n s of  example, t h e  three the  selection  p a r t i a l impact  The  strong  dominance  selection  less  z o n e s , and  housing of  existence  impact use  impact v i l l a g e s  had  zones o f of  strong, 33%  of  land  respondents,  impact  still  traditional  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  remained  the  change i n  isolated  other  existence  culture  activities,  traditional village  the  value  existence  traditional  h e r i t a g e , and  change a t a l l .  and  items,  percentage  traditional  of  strongest  types  these  people i d e n t i f i e d the  l a n d use  by  most  lowest.  existence  tenure  income,  changes i n  a l l of  the  most d e s i r a b l e s t i l l and  1979.  However, as d i d t h e  educated a d u l t s strong  patterns,  t o u r i s t development, the  cultural values,  the weakest.  l e v e l of  a c t i v i t i e s as most d e s i r a b l e , t h e  o r no  had  and  these  land use,  of p r i v a t e land land value  l a n d use  village,  transitional  percentage of a g r i c u l t u r a l  village  agricultural  o f modern and  villages  traditional village  with  a better  o f n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as  desirable,  The  i n the  12.5%  i n the  the  showed values--  a c t i v i t i e s as i n the  isolated  strong zone.  95 I n a d d i t i o n , 8 0% o f t h e e d u c a t e d transmigrate, traditional  due t o t h e i r  cultural  love  values  tourist  what  the r e s e a r c h e r  and  partial  defined  evidence  communal i t c a n be  initially  d e f i n e d as a r e a s  i m p a c t , and much l e s s  as i s o l a t e d .  evident  The t r a d i t i o n a l  and c u l t u r a l  isolated  villages,  values  still  b u t a r e weaker  village  and  c a n be t a k e n  conclusion derived  as v a l i d  l e a d e r , farmer, important  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  researcher  5.2.2  villages  land use i n these partial  from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  with  the c r i t e r i a  collected  from  and e d u c a t e d  villager  groups  (trad-  adult).  c o n c l u s i o n reached  from t h i s  part  i s t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by t h e into  the perceptions  the three  zones o f  of the v i l l a g e r s  to  extent. Classification into  tourism  o f t h e 51 T r a d i t i o n a l  Three D i f f e r e n t  The 51 v i l l a g e of  of strong  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the perceptions  o f t h e 51 v i l l a g e s  impact agreed a large  evident i n  i n t h e s t r o n g and  e v a l u a t i o n s of each o f the three  A second of  their  concluded  strongly exist  f o r them, and t h e r e f o r e i n f o r m a t i o n  itional  to  lives.  i n the  r e s p o n s e s i s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n g e n e r a l met  then  ties  zones.  An i m p o r t a n t  set  no d e s i r e t o  d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s i m p a c t s a r e v e r y  patterns  impact  f o r and s t r o n g  and t h e i r  From t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e that  a d u l s t showed  sample was  Village  zones o f T o u r i s m c l a s s i f i e d into  i m p a c t b a s e d p a r t i a l l y on t h e  Impact three  zones  characteristics  of  the  6.villages i n i t i a l l y  classification review (For  after  was  intended  t o be The  was  51  traditional  impact v i l l a g e s , gives  5.2.3  The  concerning  8 strong  and  27  Perceptions  of  of both  the  changes t o v i l l a g e  d e v e l o p m e n t , and i n the  v a l i d i t y of the  three  villages.  and  second  classification  the  assigned  16  partial  Appendix  perceptions land use,  the  were  s t r e n g t h of  requested  existence the  d e v e l o p m e n t and  cultural  zones. below.  cultural  land use,  i t s impacts.  responses.  of  impacts  traditional  The  actual questionnaire  i n Appendix C . l .  values.  A value  o f -1  to responses which i n d i c a t e d the e x i s t e n c e  changes t o v i l l a g e  Table  villages.  to responses which i n d i c a t e d the  ence o f t r a d i t i o n a l  3.1)  Villagers  appears i n i t s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n  neutral  import-  (shown i n Map  associated a c t i v i t i e s ,  Results are discussed  assigned  to  questionnaire.  first  impact v i l l a g e s ,  section, villager  of  1 was  round  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  d e v e l o p m e n t and  of  subject  particularly  sample  isolated  tourism this  the  villages  the d e t a i l e d  In t h i s  values  not  this  confirmed.  c l a s s i f i e d into  A.14  first  However, f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n results,  However,  tentative only,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e had  as  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the  which the  ant) .  investigated.  or  the  existence  A value  of  0 was  of  A  value  existwas of  tourism  assigned  to  The  responses of  assigned  to these,  are  the  consensus of o p i n i o n with  summarizes t h e s e  Perceptions  This item ions  t o be  life.  On  in  the  weightings  regard  A.15,  perceptions,  A.16  and  to each item  i s pres-  below.  Villager  life  and  shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e s  A.17.  1.  5.8  villagers,  and  ented  Table  the  average the isolated  partial  was  impact v i l l a g e s ,  2.  of  Perceptions This item  impact  was  slightly  of  t h a t these  stronger  than  quite  Land Use  Patterns  convenience of  r e l a t e d to the  patterns.  patterns  In  the  e x i s t e d i n the  f a r more s t r o n g l y t h a n i n t h e  of  of  villager  isolated  partial  areas  village  existence  summary,  s l i g h t l y more s t r o n g l y t h a n i n t h e  z o n e s , and  communal  villages.  to l i v e ,  l a n d use  discuss-  communal  t h a t i t was  Traditional Village  a place  village  existence  and  i n q u i r e d about the  e n v i r o n m e n t as  villages  the  villages  strong  perception  of  i n community  respondents i n d i c a t e d that  weakened i n t h e  traditional  Life  assumed p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a manifestation  i n the  the  o f Communal  impact  strong  impact. 3.  type  Traditional  R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d  to s e l e c t  of development f o r the  village  o r o t h e r ) , as a t i o n of results ated  C u l t u r a l Values  and  the  a r e f l e c t i o n of r e s p o n d e n t and  of  the the  indicated that t r a d i t i o n a l partially  t h e most s u i t a b l e  ( a g r i c u l t u r e , tourism,  t r a d i t i o n a l value community values  impacted v i l l a g e s ,  and  are  orient-  i n general. strong  slight  in  The isol-  in strongly  ;  TABU  Summary  0  f the v i l l a g e r s '  perception.  Itaaa ( X ) t  1 1  1 2  '3  14  15  16  17 I xS l i  X  ±  Traditional  VlUftfiV Ivftrteffl - 0 . 5 0 0 -0.500.-0.750  1.000  1.000  0.875  1.000  0.500  0.625  0.750  V.000 -0.125  -0.250  0.375  -O.125  0.500  0.346  0.938  0.375 -0.438  1.000  1.000  0.563  0.^38  0.125  0.563  0.188  0.063 -0.313  -0.313  0.250  0.000  0.063  0.346  0.889  0 . 8 1 5 -0.111  1.000  0.963  0.630  0.630 -0.Q?4  0.296  0.000 -0.333 -0.407  -0.296  0.000  -0.889  0.296  0.238  -0.625  0.875  0.750  0.375  0.875  0.875  0.000  0.625  0.375 -0.125  0.750  0.250  -0.500  0.875  -1.000  0.125  0.287  P a r t i a l Impact  -0.250  0.813  0.563 -0.313  0.875  0.938  0.250  0.813 -0.125  0.563  0.313  0.250  -0.375  0.750  -0.813  0.000  0.254  Isolated Impact  -0.111  0.889  1.000  0.963  0.889  -0.185  0.444 -0.444  0.259 -0.296  0.000 -0.444  -0.296  0.815  -0.926  0.000  0.153  -0.250  0.000  0 . 5 0 0 -0.125  1.000  0.875  0.125  0.750  0.500  0.750  0.250 -0.750  0.500 -J0.500  1.000  -0.750  0.125  0.3*4  P a r t i a l Impact  -0.375  0.875  0.125 -0.563  0.938  0.938  0.125  0.750-0.063  0.375  0.313  0.313-0.188  Isolated Impact  -0.259  0,926  0.852  0.889  0.852  -0.222  0.704 -0.444  0.519 - 0 . 0 3 7 -0.148 -0.556  Strong Impact  0.500  p a r t i a l Impact  0.875  Isolated Impact  0.630  Eariflrfl Strong impact  0.039  0.375  0.063  Educated Adults Strong Impact  Villagers'  0.000  0.500  -0.481  0.875  -0.875  0.125  0.246  0.778  -0.963  0.000  0.142  Perception (Averages) - 0 . 1 2 5 - 0.125  0.*50 -0.167 • 0.958  0.917  0.333  0.792  0.458  0.583  0,292  0.833  0.208  -0.417  0.750  -0.6?5  0.250  » r « U l impact  0.083 .0.875  .0.354 .0.438 .0.938  0.959  0.302  0.834-0.02,  0.500  0.188  0.292  -0.083  -0.292  0.625  -0.563  0.063  Isolated Irapuct  0.087  0.901  0.074  0.593 -0.321  0.358 .0.111 -0.160 ,0.469  -0.358  3.531  -0.926  0.099  Strong impact  Sources-Table A.15  0.901  , A.16 sod A.17.  0.889 -0.025  0.951  0.319 "  121 0.178  « °°  99 impacted 4.  areas.  The R o l e o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n S u p p o r t i n g On a v e r a g e t h e v i l l a g e r s  playing  perceived  a m o d e r a t e l y weak r o l e  Village  a g r i c u l t u r e as  i n the p a r t i a l  villages,  and a s l i g h t l y  weak r o l e  villages,  i n the isolated v i l l a g e s  Life  impact  i n the strong  impact  t h e r e s p o n s e was a l m o s t  neutral. 5.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s among A g r i c u l t u r a l  Activities,  R e l i g i o n , C u l t u r e , and T r a d i t i o n a l The 6.  villagers  saw s t r o n g  The I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e T h e r e was a s t r o n g  must be m a i n t a i n e d  Balinese  Land U s e  Patterns  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n most  villages.  Relationships  consensus t h a t these r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i f Balinese  traditional  culture i s to  survive. 7.  Disruption of I r r i g a t i o n Theiperceptibn  irrigation village 8.  patterns  had a s l i g h t  believed  c u l t u r e was a v i t a l  9.  h e r e was t h a t d i s r u p t i o n o f . t r a d i t i o n a l effect  upon  traditional  a s T o u r i s t A t t r a c t i o n and a s a Way o f L i f e  Villagers  in  Patterns  land use p a t t e r n s .  Culture  served  i n R e l a t i o n t o Land Use  strongly that Balinese  part of d a i l y  as a major a t t r a c t i o n  t h e more i s o l a t e d Tourism The  life  in Bali,  to t o u r i s t s ,  traditional and t h a t i t  although  l e s s so  areas.  Impacts on A g r i c u l t u r a l  development o f tourism  Land and I r r i g a t i o n  was s e e n by t h e v i l l a g e r s  100 as  impacting  on a g r i c u l t u r a l  land  systems m o d e r a t e l y i n the s t r o n g in  the p a r t i a l  impact v i l l a g e s  villages.  10.  T o u r i s m Impacts on B a l i n e s e  t o u r i s m development 11.  traditional  irrigation  impact v i l l a g e s ,  and v e r y  ated  Most o f the v i l l a g e r s  and  little  slightly  i n the  isol-  Culture  perceived  on B a l i n e s e  a moderate  effect  of  culture.  The B e n e f i t s o f T o u r i s m on V i l l a g e  Socio-Economic  Structures The d e v e l o p m e n t  of tourism  s t r o n g and p a r t i a l  i m p a c t s was  economic b e n e f i t .  A l m o s t no  perceived 12.  i n the i s o l a t e d  The E x i s t e n c e  villages.  saw  and  t o u r i s m development  agricultural  land  i n the  s e e n t o be s l i g h t  and Land Use  in traditional  i n the i s o l a t e d  strongly  development and a l m o s t  villages  saw  Changes by t o u r i s m  use;  none.  of Tourism  Villagers  o r no n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s  little  development  patterns of land  The N e g a t i v e E f f e c t s  selves resulting  was  ones.  i n the areas affected  saw  were  I t s use of  i n the p a r t i a l l y impacted v i l l a g e s  s l i g h t changes  those 14.  using  T o u r i s m Development Villagers  Development,  that  T h e r e was  none i n t h e i s o l a t e d 13.  socio-  villages.  indicated  v e r y a p p a r e n t and was  and u s e o f l a n d  s e e n t o be o f s l i g h t  Land  Most v i l l a g e r s  impacted  experiencing  socio-economic b e n e f i t s  of T o u r i s t  Agricultural  i n the v i l l a g e s  from the development  of  tourism.  on  them-  101 15.  The E f f e c t  of Uncontrolled  Change on C u l t u r e and  Environment Most v i l l a g e r s  felt  t h a t B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e and v i l l a g e  e n v i r o n m e n t would be s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d i f u n c o n t r o l l e d of a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d r e s u l t e d i n changes t o  l a n d u s e and t r a d i t i o n a l 16.  of a g r i c u l t u r a l 17.  Issues  o r no community d i s c u s s i o n  land use, t r a d i t i o n a l  patterns,  and c u l t u r e .  O t h e r Comments a b o u t T o u r i s m D e v e l o p m e n t and I t s I m p a c t s The  support  responses to t h i s  General  i n d i c a t e d some  the existence  traditional tourism  villagers  of t r a d i t i o n a l  land use p a t t e r n s ,  village  l o c a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  and s l i g h t  of p o l i c y  results.  values, of  The d e g r e e o f p e r c e i v e d  impact  these  impact The  i n the strong  and p a r t i a l  i n the i s o l a t e d  villages.  second round q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  evaluations  cultural  villagers  and o f some i m p a c t on  d e s c r i b e moderate impact  impact v i l l a g e s The  values.  therefore, that Balinese  developments.  varies with  slight  Consensus  c a n be c o n c l u d e d  perceive  round  question  f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l  It  by  t o be l i t t l e  agricultural  patterns.  Community D i s c u s s i o n o f T h e s e There appeared  The  settlement  loss  investigating villager  s t a t e m e n t s , was b a s e d on t h e s e  first-  102 5.2.4  The  Villagers'  Evaluations  T h i s phase of the villager  i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempted  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f B a l i n e s e . c u l t u r e and traditional village  b)  population;  c)  agricultural  d)  tourism  with  Negative  The  results  A.2 0 and  are  summarized  appear  second-round  1.  Villager  (+2)  or  traditional  i n Appendix 5.9.  evaluations  to solve  Table The  programs, o t h e r extension  villagers' very  strong  with  the  and  support  highest  values.  traditional  A.18,  policy  A.19  statements  the  problems of  population  and  trans-  non-agricultural activities,  this  policy  and  of a g r i c u l t u r e .  i n general  strong  The  indicated  f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l  agreement i n the  and  Policy  intensification  e v a l u a t i o n of  agreement  follow:  E v a l u a t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n suggested  to  to responses that i n d i c a t e d  i n c l u d e d more i n t e n s i v e f a m i l y p l a n n i n g  migration  questionnaire  were a s s i g n e d  agreement  i n Table  summaries o f v i l l a g e r  possible  and  statements that supported  and  policy  Balinese  patterns;  P o s i t i v e scores  were a s s i g n e d  values.  increase  this  statements t h a t supported  l a c k of agreement w i t h  The  of  indicated strong  scores  with:  development.  English translation  responses that  l a n d use  land p r e s e r v a t i o n ;  a p p e a r s as A p p e n d i x C.2.  (+1)  determine  a t t i t u d e s towards f u t u r e p o l i c i e s d e a l i n g  a)  An  to  values,  impact v i l l a g e s  and  TABLE 5 . 9 ,  ItM. ( X  j  Summary  )  l  of the V i l l a g e r s '  3  2  Evaluation  <,  5  6  ?  Traditional Village  laadcra  0.938  Strong Impact  P a r t i a l Impact 0 . 7 8 1 0.759  Isolated Impact  0.875  Strong Impact  P a r t i a l Impact 0 . 7 1 9 Isolated Impact  0.796  -0.875  O.438  -0.719  0.313  0.250 0.750 0.2810 . 6 8 8  -0.57*, -0.185  0.296 0.7*t1  0.750  0.563  0.625  0.781  0.563  0.500  0.630 0.611  0.593  0.188  -0.750 0.438 0.563 0.750 -0.531 0.281 0.344 0 . 6 5 6  0.813  0.563  0.719  0.594  -0.611 0.000 0.333  0.704  0.759  0.630  0.500  0.688  0.625  1.000  0.750  0.875  O.875  0.625  0 . 7 1 9 0.531 0 . 3 4 4  0..667  0.611  0.593  0.519  0.750  0.563  0.625  0.313 0.250  0.375  0.456  0.469  0.563  O.375  0 . 2 1 9 0 . 2 1 9 0 . 7 8 1 0.656  0.648 0.556  0.406  0.441  0.593  0.074 - 0 . 0 9 3  0.648  0.667  0.519  0.439  0.563  0.750  0.500  0 . 0 0 0 -0.063  0.750  0.563  O.438  0.452  0.563  0.563  0.531 . 0 . 1 2 5  0.031 0 . 5 0 0  0.688  0.406  0.397  0.500  o.57i.  0.537 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 2 0 4  0.611 0 . 6 3 0  0.370  0.358  O.459  0.459  0.491 0.449 0.409  0.313 0.519 0.722 0.719  O.313 O.313 0 . 9 3 8  0.563  0.093  0.037 -0.074  0.875  0.563  0.750 0.719  0.531  O.759 0 . 6 4 8 O.481  0.188 0.750  0.500  0.564 0.493 0.418  BduSmUfl AfluUa Strong Impact  0.938  -0.625  0.500  P a r t i a l Impact  0.875  -0.625  0.156  Isolated Impact  0.778  - 0 . 6 6 7 - 0 . 0 5 6 0.111  0.375  0 . 1 8 80 . 6 2 5 0.630  O.531 0.611  0.500  0.688  0 . 3 ) 3 0.563 0 . 7 1 9 O.537  0.426  O.648  V i l l a g e r s ' Evaluation (Averages) SLr<mg Impact  o^v/  -0.750  u.459  P a r t i a l Impact  p.,792  -0.625  0.250  Isolated impact  0,778  -O.6.7 -O.OdC  Sources-.Table . , , . , o ^ A  8  A  k  ^  Q >  .  o.u/,  0.750  0.2V1 0.558  0.677  0.490  0.21.7  0.667  O.593  0  i9C  O.o92  0.438  0.813  0.625.  0.75.0  0.459  0.771  0.552  0.615 0.479  0.513  0.679  0.586  0.574  0.55Q  0,138 O.146 0.813,0.646 0.229 0.114 0 . 6 7 7 0 . 6 8 8 0.056 .0.124 0.673 O.648  O.446 0.457  o  104 the lowest 2.  isolated  E v a l u a t i o n of Tourism This  was  i n the  statement  necessary  income.  values. itional  and  asserted that  Policy  the development of  thus  score indicated support  Responses here values i n the zones o f  disagreement  f o r maintenance of  indicated  less  s t r o n g impact  two  other  3.  Development o f Tourism  per with  for  than  this  on A g r i c u l t u r a l  the  tradi n the  statement  was  Land taken  to  f o r the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s .  s u p p o r t was  capita  traditional  support  villages  tourism  impact.  Disagreement with support  Development  i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e employment and  A positive  statement  villages.  more e v i d e n t i n t h e  s t r o n g and  partial  indicate Such impact  villages. 4.  Changes i n A g r i c u l t u r a l  Land  Use  Most o f t h e v i l l a g e r s i n d i c a t e d maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s the p o l i c y  of using a g r i c u l t u r a l  especially  i n the  5.  Controls  on  ( i . e . they disagreed land f o r other  zone o f s t r o n g e s t  a desire  supported  such  to preserve  w i t h the g r e a t e r degree  Land  a policy  their  of support  with  purposes),  impact.  changes to A g r i c u l t u r a l  Most v i l l a g e r s indicating  moderate support f o r  of  Use controls,  traditional  i n the  isolated  culture, villages.  105 6.  P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Prime A g r i c u l t u r a l Strong  tural  land  values, 7.  agreement w i t h  though l e s s  so  highest  tourism while  isolated  agreement i n the  isolated  isolated  villages,  other  9.  P r e s e r v a t i o n o f H o u s i n g and  impacted v i l l a g e s ,  10.  was  cultural  l e s s e n the  strongly impact itional  agreed  the  Patterns  i n the  patterns  strongly traditional as  a means o f  Changes traditional  laws g o v e r n i n g on  a high  culture, this  l a n d use  irrigation.  such a p o l i c y ,  zones, i n d i c a t i n g values.  in  values.  effects  with  Land Use  l a n d use  i m p a c t on  statement advocated o f o w n e r s h i p , and  f o r such a p o l i c y  shown f o r p r e s e r v i n g  Management o f Land Use To  traditional culture,  more marked  a r c h i t e c t u r e , and  maintaining  supported  impact.  strong preference,  housing,  systems,  villages.  residents strongly  to maintain  two  A  traditional  villages.  maintenance of these  moderate support  zones of  supported  Development  c o n t r o l i n order  t h e r e was  agricul-  Systems  favoured  C o n t r o l of Tourism In t h e  i n the  Irrigation  Most r e s p o n d e n t s  8.  of p r e s e r v i n g  i n d i c a t e d t h a t most v i l l a g e r s  Traditional  with  a policy  Land  values, transfer  Most  especially  level  of  villagers i n the  support  strong  for trad-  106 11.  Options  f o r Long Term  Development  R e s p o n d e n t s were r e q u e s t e d a total  shift  to evaluate three  to n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l  ween t o u r i s m and transmigration,  agriculture;  activities;  and  an  f a m i l y p l a n n i n g and  to other r e g i o n s .  There  was  for  third  policies,  the  second  traditional 12.  and  a balance  integrated  bet-  program  districution  strong support  alternatives:  of  of  tourism  in a l l villages  which would b e s t  maintain  values.  L o c a t i o n of Tourism Most r e s p o n d e n t s  t o u r i s m , w h i c h was  i n Areas  strongly  Unsuited  favoured  interpreted  as  to  such  Agriculture location  supporting  of  traditional  values. 13.  Concentration of Tourism and There  Nusa was  i n Sanur, Kuta,  Denpasar  Dua only s l i g h t  support  f o r such  a policy  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , w i t h t h e most a g r e e m e n t i n t h e impacted 14.  villages  and  A Decentralist  the  least  Policy  i n the  to Balance  partially  isolated Social  of  villages.  and  Economic  Effects Overall, villagers such a p o l i c y  i n the  and  even l e s s  support  15.  Tourism Land  Without  strongly i n the  and  only slight partially  isolated  support f o r  impacted  villages,  zones.  D i s r u p t i o n of T r a d i t i o n a l  Village  Use  Most r e s p o n d e n t s site  indicated  strongly  supported  t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t i n a way  with t r a d i t i o n a l e s p e c i a l l y marked  t h a t would not  p a t t e r n s of l a n d use; i n the  zone o f  a policy  such  that  would  interfere  support  strongest tourist  was impact.  107  16.  Regulation  to Preserve  A suggested inforcement and  policy  Traditional  o f i n t e g r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t and l a w  i n v o l v i n g zoning,  r e g u l a t i o n of land  Land Use P a t t e r n s  b u i l d i n g , and o p e r a t i o n  t r a n s a c t i o n s , met w i t h  a g r e e m e n t among a l l v i l l a g e r s , e s p e c i a l l y impacted 17.  highest  Control  agreement i n t h e s t r o n g  the p a r t i a l impact General  was c o n c l u d e d  preferences respect  for this  impact v i l l a g e s  of this  that there  lowest  second round  questionnaire,  i n the three  zones  goal with  t o t h e i m p a c t s o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e  these  the v i l l a g e s  least  and  are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t  among t h e v i l l a g e r s  most r e s p o n d e n t s m o d e r a t e l y  in  with  zone.  maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s .  maintain  concept,  Consensus  From t h e r e s u l t s it  i n the p a r t i a l l y  The I n v o l v e m e n t o f L o c a l and C e n t r a l Governments i n  T h e r e was m o d e r a t e s u p p o r t  The  strong  villages.  Tourism  in  permits,  occurred  values.  In g e n e r a l ,  supported  policies  The g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t  of strongest t o u r i s t i n the i s o l a t e d  t h a t would  occurred  i m p a c t , and t h e  villages.  T h i s and e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h was u s e d hypothesis.  however,  i n examining the  108 5.3  THE  5.3.1  HYPOTHESIS EVALUATION Results Related  The thesis  formal  to the O p e r a t i o n a l  hypothesis  presented  stated that v i l l a g e r s  t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t would be traditional is  land-use  than  i n the less  those  i n Cahpter  areas  in isolated  the  i n c r e a s e of urban a c t i v i t i e s ,  the  tourist  employment. regard  The  land-use  values  in  5.9.  Table  of  i n the  and  by  This  activity  and  because  w h i c h o f f e r s more e c o n o m i c a l l y  impacts  this  retaining  areas.  particularly  consensus of v i l l a g e r  to tourism  1 of  most a f f e c t e d  i n favour  because of the d e c l i n e of a g r i c u l t u r a l  activity  Hypothesis  preferences  the maintenance of is  of  attractive with  traditional  three  zones o f  impact  presented  These r e s u l t s  are used  to evaluate  the  hypothesis. From t h i s  f o r m u l a t i o n , the  There i s a p o s i t i v e of  towards This  that  i s not  occurred  respondents  most n e g a t i v e and  respond  the  loss  must be r e j e c t e d .  between t h e measured v a r i a b l e s  and  the maintenance of  traditional  land-use. a very  i t i s obvious  l a n d has the  relationship  t o u r i s m development impact  values  hypothesis  surprising  conclusion considering  t h a t the g r e a t e s t l o s s i n the  living  i n the  experience  to t h i s  s t r o n g impact  agricultural  villages.  s t r o n g e s t impact  of the  Clearly  a r e a have  l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  s i t u a t i o n with  of t r a d i t i o n a l  of  land-use.  land  attitudes that regret  the  109  Under t h e the  impact  of  large scale tourism  advantages of m a i n t a i n i n g  agricultural residents.  land loss The  such  values  have become c l e a r  villagers  i n the  development,  and  preventing  t o many  village  a r e a s most a f f e c t e d  by  t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t have t h e g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y  to  this  the  c o n c l u s i o n , and  greatest value of  losing  —  on  i t i s these  a s s e t s they  their  people  realize  agricultural  who  they  l a n d and  place are  their  reach  i n the  process  traditional  culture. From t h e s e has  different  physical, effects villages decline  to  of  due  i n the  the  to the  d e v e l o p m e n t on  occur  village  especially  s t r o n g l y by  partial  i n the  than  of  values there  the v i l l a g e r s '  areas.  less  changes  patterns, socio-  not reached impact  a  critical  of  are  still  i s no  doubt  most a f f e c t e d exist  villages  l a n d , and  decline drastically.  in isolated  impact  traditional  indirect  l a n d use  areas  These  T h e r e i s some  settlement  and  tourism  zones, i n  i n most o f t h e  p o i n t i s passed,  values w i l l  that  terms.  villages.  T h i s d e c l i n e has  traditional  critical  values  cultural  land use,  d e v e l o p m e n t where t h e r e w i l l use  three  losses of a g r i c u l t u r a l  structure.  traditional  i n the  values  p o i n t y e t , because the d i r e c t  Once t h e  concluded  s t r o n g and  isolated  traditional  be  i n the o n l y moderate s u p p o r t  traditional  economic  e c o n o m i c and  are g r e a t e r i n the than  i t can  degrees of impact  social,  (reflected values)  findings,  This by  tourism limited. that  will  tourism  traditional  land  T h i s tendency i s  e v a l u a t i o n o f the g i v e n  indicated  statements  in  questions  round  2, 5, 7, 8, 12 and 16 i n t h e s e c o n d -  questionnaire.  5.3.2  Discussion This  and  number  s e c t i o n i s intended  the r e s u l t s  changes,  of the Results  of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f v i l l a g e  and o f v i l l a g e r  use changes  a s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e p r o c e s s  and t o u r i s m  perception  land use  and e v a l u a t i o n  i m p a c t on t h e v i l l a g e s .  of land  I t also  gives  an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s u p p o r t f o r and o p p o s i t i o n t o  those  land  different  use changes  and o f t o u r i s m  has been s t r u c t u r e d  to traditional  tourism  development  characteristics and  village  therefore  zones  istics village  of tourism  o f impact.  land  affects  use.j  and t o i d e n t i f y t h e  village  land use  villages.  use changes,  there  In f a c t ,  changes,  f o r the  are d i f f e r e n t  and o f t o u r i s m  land  has been l o s t  compared t o t h e i s o l a t e d  the v i l l a g e r s '  character-  i m p a c t on t h e  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e and i t s c u l t u r e .  impact v i l l a g e s  changes  to a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the impacts  impact,  example more a g r i c u l t u r a l  this  use  zones  t o compare v i l l a g e  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  contribute  of land  different  zones o f i m p a c t  o f a change i n t h e d i f f e r e n t three  land  l a n d u s e and t h e i m p a c t o f  i n the three  i n d i c a t o r s c a n be u s e d i n the three  village  t o examine a l l o f t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f  changes  changes  i n the three  zones.  Investigation of t r a d i t i o n a l  Such  impact  For  i n the strong  villages,  and  p e r c a p i t a income and j o b  Ill opportunities isolated  i n the  villages.  the mixed v i l l a g e in  the  strong  strong  These e f f e c t s  impact v i l l a g e s  These r e s u l t s  understand  the  three  and  Villager village  the  c h a n g e s and  d e v e l o p m e n t i m p a c t was  villages. questions scales  The  impacts.  l a n d use  Personal  their  village  e x i s t e n c e of the the  e x i s t e n c e of  from  perceptions  of  traditional tourism  own  interview  of  and  traditional  value  traditional  the e x i s t e n c e of tourism  development  differences in Balinese village  development i n the  the primary  land  of t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e v i l l a g e r s was  significance  village  respondents'  s t r o n g o r weak e x i s t e n c e  tourism  51  and  villager  into percentage values  culture values,  impact of  evaluations,  development.  responses to the  c h a n g e s and  to  impact.  tourism  of  to  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e  A s s e s s m e n t shown s i g n i f i c a n t  traditional the  o r no  were f o r m u l a t e d  showing t h e  village  and  yes  and  traditional  determined  i n f o r m a t i o n and  help  are c r u c i a l  chosen to assess  the  in  isolated  may  they  the  patterns  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  impact o f  perception of  l a n d use  personal  first  e v a l u a t i o n s of  c h a n g e s and  to the  examination  zones o f t o u r i s m  D e l p h i Method was  perceptions use  the  c o n s t r u c t i n g the primary  The  religious  of v i l l a g e r perceptions  i n developing  sample i n t o  compared  of the  compared t o  also reflected  the  o b j e c t i v e c h a n g e s , and  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  in  are  e t h n i c g r o u p s and  villages.  especially  impact v i l l a g e s  l a n d use  three  patterns  zones.  used to check  the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 5 1 - v i l l a g e  112  sample. used in  The r e s u l t s  to develop  the p o l i c y  the second round To  related  assess  of the v i l l a g e r  in  villager  The  evaluations village  about p r e s e r v i n g  l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s , and  was d e s i g n e d  t o be d e l i v e r e d t o  s e l e c t e d r e s p o n d e n t s from each v i l l a g e .  this questionnaire  value  d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s a s s o c i a t e d  a questionnaire  to o r support  evaluated  questionnaire.  about managing t o u r i s m  three  s e c t i o n were  s t a t e m e n t s t h a t would be  to the t r a d i t i o n a l  policies  perception  was  to l e a r n the extent  The k e y aim of opposition  f o r the maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l  responses to the i n t e r v i e w questions  were  values.  formulated  into value  s c a l e s w h i c h showed p e r s p e c t i v e l y t h e d e g r e e  of  support  f o r maintaining  of  the v i l l a g e r  traditional  evaluations  of  i n the strong  isolated this  igation  villages.  However, t h e r e a r e  This v e r i f i e s  especially  information.  This conclusion  a l s o be r e a l i z e d  predominantly e x i s t  of t r a d i t i o n a l  as B a l i n e s e  hypothesis  i s considered  the r e s u l t s of  and  personal  that the t r a d i t i o n a l  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n most v i l l a g e s ,  value i n  the e n t i r e i n v e s t -  evaluations, perceptions,  l a n d use p a t t e r n s  indicators  t h a t the  i f i t i s integrated with  I t should  which i s  and l o w e s t  because i t i s c o n s i s t e n t with  each v i l l a g e r s '  village  impact v i l l a g e s  t h e s i s i s untrue.  reasonable  (such  values.  d i f f e r e n c e s ; as t o t h e d e g r e e o f s u p p o r t ,  highest the  Assessment  shows m o d e r a t e s u p p o r t f o r  the maintenance o f t r a d i t i o n a l slight  value.  values  still  and most o f t h e  culture values  i n most  e t h n i c g r o u p and B a l i n e s e  villages  religion)  113  are a l s o All  still  of these r e s u l t s are important  implications future.  dominant.  f o r p l a n n i n g , and  information with  f o r s i m i l a r study  i n the  114 CHAPTER 6  CONCLUSIONS AND  6.1  RECOMMENDATIONS  THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS FOR PLANNING T h i s d i s c u s s i o n has r a n g e d o v e r  from a h y p o t h e s i s traditional  about d i f f e r e n t  values  a variety  villager  i n the v i l l a g e s  of topics;  a t t i t u d e s toward  of the three  zones o f  tourism  impact,  village  l a n d u s e f r o m 1969-1979 and f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t and  of  through d i s c u s s i o n o f changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l  an e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n  evaluation  of v i l l a g e r  o f t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t i m p a c t on  land use, i n c l u d i n g i t s e f f e c t s settlement  traditional  cultural  modernization  on t r a d i t i o n a l  village  should  t h a t t h e problems o f p r e s e r v i n g  values  and managing t h e p r e s s u r e o f  be c l e a r l y  formulated,  based p r i m a r i l y  s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f  g r o w t h on i t s g o a l p r e f e r e n c e s . to  agricultural  p a t t e r n s and B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e .  I t was s u g g e s t e d  on  p e r c e p t i o n and  support  this  contention  T h i s work was a n a t t e m p t  by d e v e l o p i n g  community  input. i  The  hypothesized  values  still  was r e j e c t e d , b e c a u s e i n f a c t  exist  impact v i l l a g e s ,  the t r a d i t i o n a l  t o a moderate degree i n the s t r o n g  more t h a n  i n the i s o l a t e d  ever,  a decline of the t r a d i t i o n a l  exist  i n fact.  Most v i l l a g e r s  villages.  How-  v a l u e s was shown t o  understood  this  and s t r o n g l y  115 favored maintaining  prime a g r i c u l t u r a l  l a n d and t r a d i t i o n a l  Balinese culture. Although definitive  the data  i s insufficient  s t a t e m e n t , a recommendation w i l l  t o t h e meaning o f t h e r e s u l t s the  accuracy  especially modelling kept  and v a l i d i t y  a t the v i l l a g e  simple.  correlated  f o r planning  of s t a t i s t i c a l level,  s t r a t e g y o f impact I t was d e s i g n e d  hypothesis.  To a v o i d g r e a t e r  necessary,  raising  to t e s t  to test  stronger  (Alonso,  input  only  1968).  and e v a l u a t i o n s were b u i l t  where  Hence analyses which  Some s o r t o f a v e r a g e o f  t o g i v e p r e d i c t o r s which a r e f a r  a single villager's  opinion.  f r o m t h i s work, i t i s m a i n t a i n e d  into  inter-  s e v e r a l simple  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n derived  t h e s i s was  and a v o i d i n g a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e  perceptions  than  i n Indonesia,  the o p e r a t i o n a l  or division  o f v a r i a b l e s t o powers  was a t t e m p t e d  As  addition or subtraction  among them u s e a l l o f t h e d a t a . these  data  e r r o r , i t avoided  the o p e r a t i o n a l hypothesis  of v i l l a g e r  purposes.  assessment f o r t h i s  v a r i a b l e s , using only  absolutely  be o f f e r e d as  are i n v a r i a b l y poor, the  where p o s s i b l e and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n  the  to warrant a  the planning  process  of the r e s u l t s here that  societal  i s needed, i n o r d e r t o  know t h e r e s i d e n t s ' n e e d s a n d / o r t h e i m p a c t o f a g i v e n on  them.  planning  This input i s very  important  project  information f o r  o r d e r l y development f o r the b e n e f i t o f the s o c i e t y i n  116 the  future.  In t h i s  case  e s p e c i a l l y we a r e d e a l i n g  p o s s i b l e changes t o l a n d use t h a t c o u l d ivity  impair  o f the l a n d , which i s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d  culture  environment t o leave groups.  quality  to our t o t a l  to the motivations  of various  interest  o f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h a l s o has s o c i o should  makers a t a l l l e v e l  be u n d e r s t o o d  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  a l l the f a c t o r s t h a t determine  e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l our  to t r a d i t i o n a l  The k e y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o u r u s e o f l a n d and  economic e f f e c t s ,  Of  the product-  values.  Land u s e d e c i s i o n s a r e t o o c r u c i a l  the  with  land.  (Redding and P a r r y ,  by p l a n n e r s ,  policy  and t h e community.  the q u a l i t y  of our  i s t h e u s e we make o f  1973, p . 3 ; a n d McHarg, 1971,  pp.103-115). The on  impact assessment  study  focused  on t h e e f f e c t s  t h e B a l i n e s e c u l t u r e o f changes t o t r a d i t i o n a l  land  use p a t t e r n s , i . e . a g r i c u l t u r a l  tourism  l a n d u s e , c a u s e d by  development.  Assessing level  village  these  and n a t u r e  villagers,  and many o t h e r  of tourism,  i svital  issues concerning the  using d i r e c t  i n p u t from t h e  i f i n the future tourism  i s n o t t o be  a disruptive force. From t h e s e c o n d a r y d a t a of  and t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  l a n d use changes i n t h e s i x v i l l a g e s ,  ation it  reviews  about v i l l a g e r s ,  was r e c o g n i z e d  villager  that tourism  personal  perceptions  inform-  and e v a l u a t i o n s ,  development i s very  attract-  11-7 ive  f o r B a l i , but  environmental The 1)  the 2)  show t h e  affects  strong  i t leads as  are  also social  economic  and  disadvantages.  results  tourism  that there  only  a limited  impact v i l l a g e s  to the  roads,  advantages of  water  development:  group of v i l l a g e r s  (by g e n e r a t i n g  d e v e l o p m e n t o f new supply,  tourism  jobs  facilities  e l e c t r i c a l supply,  or  in income).  such  sewage works  etc. 3)  4)  1)  i t increases understanding c u l t u r e s t o meet.  i t causes  some p r e s e r v a t i o n o f  and  n a t u r a l beauty  The  disadvantages of tourism  for  amenities; "leaks  thus the  4)  for importing  income f r o m  special  tourist  the  local  b u i l d i n g o f modern h i g h r i s e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  i t causes p o l l u t i o n  of the  especially  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  i t creates  friction  standards  cultural  are:  f o r d e s t r u c t i o n of  environment through the and  region's  out".  i t i s responsible  hotels  the  of  tourists.  i t i n c r e a s e s governmental c o s t s  spending  3)  allowing people  different  tourist  2)  by  of  the  and  native  natural  environment,  areas.  undermines s o c i a l Balinese.  and  cultural  118 If  we  compare t h e s e  a d v a n t a g e s and  massive t o u r i s m development i n B a l i there  i s no  doubt t o u r i s m  development to B a l i maintain  and  traditional  unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n villagers the  has  strong  study,  then,  answered  positive  villages.  and  the  associated policy  the  tourist  ment and  and  development.  the  by  An  land  primary  a t what There  level  are values  compared t o  land  great.  i s not  sufficient  is directly  caused  a l s o by  other  i n t e g r a t e d developmental agricultural of  i n the  the  central  process  the  strong,  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  itself  on  involvement  t h e community  The  use  r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet-  development, but  to c o n t r o l e f f e c t s  essary,  l o n g and  tourism  land  a g r i c u l t u r e are very  l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  o n l y by  village  l o s s e s become t o o  However, t h i s p o l i c y since  impact of  impact v i l l a g e s  i s need f o r a s t r o n g p o l i c y the  villages.  yet c r i t i c a l .  Thus, because the  values  the  the d e c l i n e o f t r a d i t i o n a l  partial  preservation before  not  t h a t the  i s f o r how  an  development i n  i m p a c t s be m a i n t a i n e d .  i n d i c a t i o n s of s t r o n g and  i s not  been  to  isolated  the B a l i n e s e t r a d i t i o n a l  ween t r a d i t i o n a l there  i n the  concludes  t o be  isolated  than  new  decade,  helped  positive  impacts  of  economic  e v e n t o some d e g r e e  those  question  the  some new  of  i n most v i l l a g e s  these  last  However, t h e r e has  patterns  in  brought  the  values.  impact v i l l a g e s  d e v e l o p m e n t on  already  over  w i t h more income, j o b s , and  This  can  has  disadvantages  l a n d use and  planni  i s nec-  local  i s needed -too.  govern  119 This policy  should  ideally  1)  a more e f f e c t i v e  2)  distribution ations  3)  family planning  of tourism  i n the other  an e d u c a t i o n not  include program;  to the other  tourist  destin-  islands.  program d e s i g n e d  to create  only f o r non-agricultural a c t i v i t i e s  employees ( i . e . tour-  i s m and g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e s ) b u t a l s o f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and 4)  order  impact  assessment used  a way s i m i l a r  probable  Vlachos It  t r a n s m i g r a t i o n program  t o encourage B a l i n e s e t o t r a n s m i g r a t e .  to a social  STUDY  i n this  impact  i n v o l v e s a c o n t r a s t between p r e s e n t and  sector.  REVIEW OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT The  in  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  a more i n t e n s i v e and a t t r a c t i v e in  6.2  improving  (adapted  2.  What t r e n d s  4.  1977).  questions:  What g o a l s a r e s o u g h t by t h e community? c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e a l i s a t i o n  of a given  tourism project?  What b r o a d  p h y s i c a l and n o n - p h y s i c a l  such  from  and M e r v i n ,  1.  3.  that  ambient c o n d i t i o n s  and Team, 1975, p . 2 0 ; and O l s e n five  designed  assessment study  or d e s i r a b l e future states  aimed a t a n s w e r i n g t h e s e  t h e s i s was  factors influence  trends?  What p r e d i c t i o n s c a n be made a b o u t p r o b a b l e future  developments?  and p o s s i b l e  120  5.  What p o l i c y net  gains  a l t e r n a t i v e s may  from a g i v e n  Thus t o u r i s m l a n d use  d e v e l o p m e n t i m p a c t s on  life  organizational existence conflict  of  not  only  p l a c e , but  s t r u c t u r e s of the  tourism  with  as w e l l as  takes  on  agricultural the  a l s o on  village  goals,  and  larger society.  to studying  the  term impact  as d e f i n e d  the  villagers'  it and  was  by  village  This  study,  perception Boothroyd  impacted  casual  settlements  as w e l l as  terms of t h e i r  traditional  and  negative  of  at various  the v i l l a g e  d i m e n s i o n s were u s e d  eventual  was  and  even  limited  evaluation. that  between  In t h i s  The  the  study tourism  l a n d use,  trad-  Balinese culture.  i m p a c t s have been  considered  or weakening e f f e c t s  upon  values.  case,  the v i l l a g e  patterns  The  local  (1978) i m p l i e s  thing.  and  o r may  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  supportive  Impacts o c c u r this  people  o b j e c t i v e s of the  a s s o c i a t e d development, a g r i c u l t u r a l  Positive  in  the  a p p l i e d to the  itional  in  t h i n g and  within  community.  a c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s or might e x i s t impacting  area  r e l a t e s to, coincides with  values,  the  greatest  project?  have been a s s e s s e d  which s o c i a l  produce the  as  of  system.  part of  community and  assessment of  levels  the  provide  impacts:  social  systems,  Three i n t e r l o c k i n g effort  the  to  describe  framework f o r  an  121  1.  Profile  of  the  ambient  conditions  of  the  village  environment. 2.  Criteria  exemplified  i n a v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i v e dependent  v a r i a b l e s under the (social 3.  the  ongoing  leading for  e f f e c t s and  system  future  and  can  On  was  was  so  t h a t the  The  the  Delphi  fair  true nature of  villagers  participate in this  the  study. itself  problems i n v o l v e d  the  this  were e a g e r  tended i n the  process  situation.  with  The  the  Delphi to  co-  administration t o make planning  villprocess.  that, although t h i s p a r t i c u l a r questionnaire  difficult,  with  administration  approximately  p e r f o r m the  nature of  p o s i t i v e side, i n proceeding the  the s i t u a t i o n  Method u s e d t o o b t a i n  the  that  blame  c i t i z e n s , d e c i s i o n makers,  true  found  in  i n assigning  the  found  systems),  f o r use  to understand  two-round q u e s t i o n n a i r e  viewers,  study  p a r t of  a g e r s aware o f It  impact  e v a l u a t i o n was  the  alteration  a range of a l t e r n a t i v e s  and  o p e r a t e and the  traditional  perception  method, i t was  of  a social  understand  ( B o o t h r o y d , 1978) .  seeking  (Balinese  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g must be  planners,  villagers'  life  development.  or p r a i s e to impacts, and  consequences of  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  Those u n d e r t a k i n g planning  heading of q u a l i t y of  well-being).  Impacts, or t o an  general  operations.  95%  of  the  by  local  trained  inter-  r e s p o n d e n t s were a b l e  More o v e r , by  interviewing  rep-  to  122 resentative  samples o f v i l l a g e r s  zones c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s  from the t h r e e  i n time  impact  and c o s t c o u l d be  realized. On t h e n e g a t i v e error:  s i d e t h e r e a r e two t y p e s  e r r o r o f measurement and e r r o r o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n  (Alonso,  1968).  E r r o r o f measurement c o u l d happen  b e c a u s e t h e r e were some l i m i t a t i o n s  really  understood  ectly,  due t o t h e i r  ability  the questions limited  constraints.  respondents  and a n s w e r e d them  education,  t o e x p l a i n the statements  clearly,  and t h e t i m e  b e c a u s e t h e y were i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d i v e r s i t y  these  responses  was d i f f i c u l t .  Preparing  that i s truly  Secondly  corr-  the interviewer's  T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were a l s o h a r d  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and response.  first  i n the r e s u l t s , e.g.  t h e r e was some q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r t h e  of  of possible  t o measure o f human  a summary  statement  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f them  t h e r e were p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e  second a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o the l a r g e r sample..  I t was e x t r e m e l y  time  some c h a n g e s i n a n s w e r s o v e r v a l u e was a s s i g n e d values. versus  c o n s u m i n g and t h e r e  time.  Thirdly,  t o answers which s u p p o r t e d  the Utopia  traditional  i n t h e minds o f t h e v i l l a g e r s .  aware o f h i s own v a l u e The  the  a positive  T h i s may have l e d t o a c o n f u s i o n o f t h e r e a l i t y  a r e a l s o doubts as t o whether t h e respondent fully  were  list  was  given  ever  system.  e r r o r o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d o f seventeen  There  statements,  because  p e r c e i v e d and  123 evaluated  by t h e v i l l a g e r s ,  making a d i f f e r e n t i a l statement  6.3  was e q u a l l y w e i g h t e d  ranking  o f the importance  values.  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COMPLEMENTARY RESEARCH  assessing  of p o s s i b l e data  the impact,  assessing the v i l l a g e r s '  the  average  perception Alonso benign  of the value  A s s t a t e d by  the operation o f a d d i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y  respect to the accumulation  from t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of error.  o f t h e impact  T h i s complementary r e s e a r c h w i l l the v i l l a g e r s '  research  should  into value  emphasize these  The r e s u l t s  of the  s t r o n g l y on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the  zones o f t o u r i s m  s c a l e s and w e i g h t i n g  responses  to the given  i s to v e r i f y the  and e v a l u a t i o n s , c o m p l e m e n t a r y  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  three  understanding  and t h e h e a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s t o  perceptions  D e l p h i a p p r o a c h depend villages  needed.  preferences.  hypothesis,  learn v i l l a g e r  study  isstill  give a better  t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e t h e s i s  operational  It i s  assessment  t h a t h a s been d i s c u s s e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  As  measurement  scales) of the v i l l a g e r s '  and e v a l u a t i o n i s l a r g e l y v a l i d .  with  error i n  preferences, the addition of  (means o f t h e v a l u e  (1968),  apparent  specification  and l o w a c c u r a c y  for  the  o f each  i n supporting preservation of t r a d i t i o n a l  In s p i t e  of  without  areas.  villages  impact,  errors of specification  classification  and t h e a c c u r a c y  systems g i v e n  statements.  sample  of the  t o the v i l l a g e r s  Improvement t o a v o i d  and o f measurement  should  124 primarily The in  the  be  done w i t h i n t h e s e  significance  of the v i l l a g e r p e r c e p t i o n s  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  and be  of the v i l l a g e r e v a l u a t i o n s  collected  s e c o n d r o u n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e depends s t r o n g l y on  results  of  contexts.  the v i l l a g e s the g i v e n evaluated  Hence, t h e d e f i n i t e  sample  into  statements are  collected  three  designed  the areas  i n the  impact,  p e r c e i v e d and  t h a t need a s s e s s m e n t i n  of the  thesis  In t h e  analysis 1976,  improving  the v i l l a g e r s  developed  143-154) c a n  "scalability"  by  be  and  no  t o see  his associated our  how  f a r our the  ifying  into  to  area of  evaluated-, see  i f there  ween t h e  items  Correlations  different  improving  the  the c o e f f i c i e n t is a positive and  the  given  among s t a t e m e n t s  and  ideal  g i v e more a c c u r a t e  the v i l l a g e s  yield  items  Such a r a n k i n g w i l l  and  group of  the  results  (Oppenheim, items  This  statements  statement be  for with analy-  patterns. for  class-  zones o f t o u r i s m  or n e g a t i v e  scalogram  villager  scale  correlation  can  villages  a scale  of r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y .  t o them d e v i a t e f r o m  In t h e  responses,  s e e i n g whether i t w i l l  sis  responses  yes  used to t e s t  coefficient  us  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  by Guttman and  a satisfactory enables  valid-  results.  area of  sample, u s i n g  to  proceeding  w i t h complementary r e s e a r c h t h a t i s to improve the ity  first  classification  zones o f t o u r i s m t o be  the  t o be  impact. perceived  c o u l d be  used  correlation  (Moroney 1976,  used t o improve  betpp.271-320). the  125 selection or  and  specification  w e i g h t i n g system A third  round  o f t h e i t e m s and  f o r respondents'  valuation  attitudes.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p r o v i d e d the  are  willing  to p a r t i c i p a t e  the  results  of the v i l l a g e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n  round  the  villagers  would g i v e more a s s u r a n c e i n the  of  second  questionnaire. Finally,  time depending  because on  the responses c o u l d  surrounding elements  of impact a s s e s s -  ments, a method would have t o be d e v e l o p e d monitor results.  or a l l o w f o r a c o n t i n u a l  change w i t h  that  would  u p d a t i n g o f the g e n e r a l  126 REFERENCES 1.  Alonso,  William, Predicting Institute  2.  Bali  Provincial  Best with  of Planner  Planning  J o u r n a l , 1968,  Board, B a l i  1977-2000, D e n p a s a r , 1977 3.  Bali  Planning  Unit, Bali  Imperfect pp.  Regional  (Indonesian  Regional  Data  Data,  1976.  American  248-255.  Plan  Concept  Language). (Indonesian  Language). 4.  Blackwood, S i r Robert, Hall,  5.  Boothroyd, Peter,  Issues  Economic 8.  Dickey,  Melbourne  : Hampden  J o h n W.  Impact A s s e s s m e n t . June  Island o f j B a l i .  Press,  Daroesman, R u t h , An Australia  in Social  118-133, 18/2  Covarrubias, Miguel, University  7.  Bali,  1970.  Canada, pp. 6.  Beautiful  1978. New  York  : Oxford  1937.  Economic  Survey of B a l i .  Canberra:  National University. Bulletin S t u d i e s , Volume IX,  and  Urban and  Plan  Thomas M.  Regional  no.3,  New  Indonesian  November 197 3.  Watts, A n a l y t i c  Planning.  of  Techniques i n  York  : Mc.Graw  Hill  Book Company, U.S.A.,197 8. 9.  Document o f t h e  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  Development. Indonesia, 10.  A p p r a i s a l of the  Social  Francillon,  Gerald  and  o f View.  Geertz,  Impact  Assessment.  Socio C u l t u r a l  International Social  X X V I I , No.4,  1975.  H i l d r e d and  Clifford  Chicago  and  : The  Ross,  Inc.,1977.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Udayana, T o u r i s m  I t s E c o n o m i c and  12.  Project .  Y o r k : Community D e v e l o p m e n t S e r i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f  M a r y l a n d , Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n 11.  Tourism  1974.  F i n s t e r b u s c h , Kurt, Methodology of New  Bali  and  Geertz,  Impact Science  Kinship in  U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  : Three  in  Bali  Points  J o u r n a l , Volume  Bali.  Press,  1975.  127  Indonesia National  Planning  N a t i o n a l Development (Indonesian  Plan  A n a l y s i s . New  and Howard Thomas, Modern  York  : P e n g u i n Book,  Assessment. University Evoy  Pensylvania o f New  Decision  of S o c i a l  Missin,  Impact  : Community D e v e l o p m e n t  Series,  1977.  : The  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Change. New  Social  York  Press,  Handbook o f  Consequences  : J o h n W i l e y and  I a n L., D e s i g n w i t h N a t u r e , New  Day/Natural H i s t o r y  f o r Pro-  paper i n K u r t  I I I , The L a t e James, and Thomas D i e t z ,  Harg,  1974  P r o d u c t i o n Model  Methodology  York,  Environmental Planning  Mc  Year  1977.  Impact A s s e s s m e n t . A c o n t r i b u t e d  F i n s t e r b u s h and C P . W o l f ,  Mc  1974-1979. J a k a r t a ,  Ben-chieh, A.Quality of L i f e  ject  Second F i v e  Language).  Kaufman, G o r d o n M.  Liu,  B o a r d , The  York  of Sons,1977.  : Double  1971.  G.J. V i e w p o i n t on I n d o n e s i a . M e l b o u r n e  : A  G e o g r a p h i c a l S t u d y , Thomas N e l s o n L t d . , 1972. Moroney, M.J.,  Facts  from F i g u r e .  London  : Penguin  0 1 s e n , M a r v i n E , and Donna J . M e r v i n , Toward for of  Conducting S o c i a l Social  Life  Finsterbusch  Quality  I n d i c a t o r s . A c o n t r i b u t e d paper i n Kurt  and C P .  Wolf, Methodology  of  P e n s y l v a n i a : Community  Series,  o f New  University  York,  Social Development  1977.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D e s i g n and  Measurement. London: Heinemann,  a Methodology  Impact A s s e s s m e n t s U s i n g  Impact A s s e s s m e n t .  Oppenheim, A.N.,  Books,1976.  Open U n i v e r s i t y  Attitude  S e t Book,  1976.  R e d d i n g , M a r t i n J . , and B. Thomas P a r r y , Land u s e : A Vital  Link  Planning  to Environmental Quality.  S e r i e s Volume one,1973.  Comprehensive  128  23.  Sceto Consultants  24.  University Tourism 1973.  o f Udayana, Impact  Bali  Research  on B a l i n e s e  Tourism Master  Plan,  Report About  Massive  Way  of Life,  1971.  Denpasar,  (Indonesian Language).  25. V a n G i g c h , J o h n New  Report,  York  P.,  : Harper  Applied  G e n e r a l Systems  a n d Row  Publishers,  Theory  Second  Edition,  1978 . 26. V l a c h o s , E v a n , Overview.  a n d Team, Virginia:  for  Water  Resources,  27. W e i s s ,  Carol  H.,  ing  Program  Inc.,  1972.  Social  Impact  U.S. Army  Assessment  an  Engineer,'Institute  1975.  Evaluation  Research: Methods  Effectiveness.  New  Jersey:  of Assess-  Prentice  Hall  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A:  TABLES A . l TO A.2 0  131  TABLE  A.1  :  Numbers  of Hotels i n Bali  1969 - 1972  International Hotel  Domestic  .Rooms  Bed  Hotel  Rooms  Bed  1969  12  557  1,131  n. a  n. a  n. a  1970  12  557  1,131  n. a  n. a  n. a  1971  13  609  1,235  183  2,498  4,490  1972  23  845  1,690  224  2,832  n. a  n. a Sources  = :  data Tourism p.38;  not available Agency,  Bali  University  Planning  Unit ,  o f Udayana Regional Data  R e p o r t 1973 , 1976  132  TABLE A.2  : Numbers o f in  Hotel  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l and D o m e s t i c )  B a l i 1971, and t h e  distribution in  each d i s t r i c t  District/Regency Hotels  Rooms  Beds  161  2,638  4 ,993  2. Jembrana  3  35  72  3.  8  74  124  4. Tabanan  6  196  366  5. K l u n g k u n g  7  77  117  6.  5  48  91  7. B a n g l i  2  6  14  8. Karangasem  2  33  48  194  3,107  5,825  (Kabupaten) 1. Badung  Buleleng  Gianyar  B A L I  Sources  : Bali  Planning  Unit, Regional  D a t a 197 6.  TABLE A.3  : Kabupaten  (Regency) R e c e i p t s , B u l e l e n g and Badung (RP 000) Buleleng "1972/3  Badung  1973/4 Budgeted  a.  1972/3  1973/4  Budgeted  Actual  Budgeted (unrevised)  Receipts Balance previous year Provincial  Grant  7 00 46,869  n. a,  n. a,  n. a .  51,822  36,000  35,900  45,000  2,500  nil  nil  nil  41,690  38 ,000  84 ,400  40,000  65 0  2,000  130,000  198,900  137,000  2,335  6,035  6,700  Charges f o r s e r v i c e s  22,350  27 ,504  26,400  Other  11,150  3,204  2,900  135,7 04  133 ,241  240,000  Contribution  from  o t h e r kabupaten b  1972/3  n i l  Tax r e c e i p t s Ipeda H o t e l , r e s t a u r a n t and entertainment tax  51,750  c. Other t a x e s  Total n.a  receipts =  8 ,151 > 89,724  i  44,300 4,650  408 ,924  data not a v a i l a b l e  S o u r c e s : Anggaran Pendapatan dan B e l a n j a Daerah Bidang Routine Kabupaten Badung Tahun 1973/1974: A n g g a r a n P e n d a p a t a n dan B e l a n j a B i d a n g R o u t i n e D a e r a h K a b u p a t e n B u l e l e n g Tahun 1973/1974.  27 9,010  134 TABLE A.4  : Increase i n v e h i c l e s i n B a l i Automobiles,  1960 - 1975  t r u c k s , b u s e s and m o t o r c y c l e s )  District/ 1960  Regency  (includes  1970  1971  1972  1973  1974  1975  Badung  n., a  4,418  5,560  6 ,763  11 ,215  14,651  15 ,792  Jembrana  n., a  649  737  570  681  1,329  1,454  Buleleng  n., a  2,276  2,483  1,539  1 ,875  3 ,415  4 ,588  Tabanan  n.. a  1,548  1,681  1,176  1 ,625  2,657  2,965  Klungkung  n., a  693  736  503  647  795  883  Gianyar  n.. a  756  848  610  943  1,395  1,574  Bangli  n.. a  225  229  169  177  248  277  Karangasem  n,. a  265  301  289  313  522  588  10,830 12,575 11,619  17,476  25,012  28,121  B A L I  n.a  4,198  = data not a v a i l a b l e  Sources:  SCETO R e p o r t ,  Volume 5, 1971; T r a f f i c  Office Bali,  1976  135  TABLE A.5 :  NUMBERS OF ARTSHOPS FROM 1969 - 1972 IN BALI  District 1969  1970  1971  1972  Badung  28  28  35  55  Gianyar  17  17  16  36  Klungkung  4  4  4  4  Buleleng  1  1  2  2  (Kabupaten)  Sources  : Bali  Provincial  Trade Agency, U n i v e r s i t y  Udayana R e p o r t 1973, p.39  of  TABLE A.6  NUMBERS OF RESTAURANTS  1969  1970  fiestaurants  n.a  small r e s t aurants  n.a  Total  n.a =  Data n o t a v a i l a b l e  ources  :  B a l i Trade  Agen  R e p o r t , 1973.  IN BALI 1969 - 197 2  19.71  1972  n.a  10  39  n.a  64  64  74  103  T A b L t A.9  Land use c h a n g e s i n the S t r o n g Impact S a n u r and Kuta  Villages'  i n 1961 - 1979.  Sanur  Land Use  '96'  1%9  Area i n Ha 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land-use : 847.97  Kuta  Area i n Ha  1971  '979  '975  Ar,_Ha  Area i n Ha  Area i n Ha  1961 Area i n Ha  H  90.65  760.423  81.29 7 4 6 . 0 7 2 7 9 . 7 5 6 9 0 . 8 6 7  73.85  Ricefields  550.00  58.80  649.780 69.46 846.73  92.76  -  470.563  412.150 4 4 . 0 6 481.50  52.75  -  Dry-land agriculture and O t h e r s .  297.97  31-85  289.660  50.30 469.250 50.16 450.505 48.16 30.99 276.822 29.59 240.362 25.69  237.630 25.401 365.23  40.02  2. T o u r i s t l)evelopment and its associated Hotels, homestays, cottages, restaurants, artshops etc,  9.189  3. H o u s i n g a r e a s : 1,87.50 9.35 Houses, R e l i - : * ( T o t a l o n I y - .u. s- f a c i l i t i ( »- B , Z\$+k ^j •) g„ i. o cemetery e t c . I t l (  3 i  2  +  i  Sources:  10.935  1.17 40.130  16.06 161.600 17.27 185.150  42.500 4.54J  19.79 196.247 20.91  935.467  1.67 16.860  100 9 3 5 . 4 6 7  1.81 19.320  100 935.467  L a n d - u s e Maps  : D i r e c t o r a t e o f Land u s e , 196l, 1971,and  Bali  Regional  1969,1977;Agrarian'Land use Maps:  Villages  7.24  only,  Area i n Ha  %  Area l n Ha  %  '979 Area l n Ha  %  801.12  87.77 791.50 86.70.745.62  490.61  53.75 484.48 53.07 480.03  52.59 454.975 49.89  310.51  34.02 307.02 33.63 265.76  29.10 246.900 27.06  0.33  5.56 0.60 34.14  75.64  8 . 2 9 80.93  8.85 92.60  32.97  3.61  3.85 40.37  81.69 701.875 76.80  3.74 56.625 6.20  10.15 9 5 . 3 4 0 10. 45  2+3+4).  Bali  Plan  66.00  '975  1971 %  a  3.00  (Total  15.669  9 3 5 . 4 6 7 100  B.P.R.I.P.  4.29  f  4. O t h e r n o n agricultural uses: Schools, Health center, village center, roads, industry etc.  Total  150.186  00.98  '96? Area l n  Survey  1977; and S i x V i l l a g e s  2.07 46.940 5.02  100  1975;  S u r v e y 1979.  935.467 100  912.73  100  912.73  35.28  100 912.73  100  912.73  4.42 58.89  100 912.73  6.45  100  ttum  A«#V  I Land-use changes ID The P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s ; Kesiman aad Ubung l a 1961 - 1979.  Kasiman  Laad DM 1961 Area In  Ha  Ubung  1969  1971  Area In Ha  %  Area i n % Ha  -1975 Area i n Ha  %  • 1979 Area i n Ha  884.90  79.79  •*1.53  75.88  813.66  73.37 785.70 7 0 . 8 4  744.31 67.12  - Hie.fields  758.95  68.43  740.81  66.80  726.72  65.53 710.42 64.06  678.96 61.23  125.95 11.36  100.72  Tourist de1.83 velopment and I t s associated! Hotels, home — stays, cottages, restaurants,  0,17  2.28  9.08  86.94  7 . 8 4 75.28  0.21  11.28  1.02 20.00 1.80  6.78  6 5  .  3 5  27.50  Area i n  %  »•  1. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land-use i - Dry land agriculture and others.  1969  '961  %  5  t  8  9  2.48  Area I s  Ha  %  ., 1971 Area i n %  Ha  -12Z5_ Area i n  %  Ha  197,9, assa-la M  J. *  448.05  74.68  425.00 7 0 . 8 3 412.50 68.75 353.283 58.88  329.550 5 4 . 9 2  336.34  56.06  325.12 54.19 317.38 52.90 269.840 44.97  255.600 42.62  111.71  18.62  99.88 16.64 9 5 . 1 2 15.85 83.473 13.91  73.790 12.30  000  00  000  00  000  00  000  00  0.93  0.16  Artshops ete.  3 . Housing Areas 1 7 9 . 8 5 Houses, R e l i gious f a c i l i t i e s cam*tary e t c .  16.22  220.00  4 . Other non42.42 agricultural uses: schools, health center, v i l l a g e center, roads, industry etc.  3.82  45.19  1109  100  1109  19;84 236.06  4.07  100  48.00  1109  21.28 241.80  21.80  4 . 3 3 50.98  5.56  100 1109  278.48 25.11  5^7,  100 1109  5  100  #  2  9  98.02  16.33 109.85 18.31 115.56 19.26 131.680 21.95 146.97 24.50  53.93  8 . 9 9 6 5 . 1 5 1 0 . 8 6 7 1 . 9 4 11.99 115.037 19.17 122.55 20.42  600  100  600  100  600  100 6 0 0  100  600  100  Sources j B a l l Land-Use Haps : Directorate of Land-use, 1 9 6 1 , 1971 and B a l i Heglonal Plan 1969, 1977 ; Agrarian Land Use Maps 1975; B.P.B.I.P. V i l l a g e s Survey 1977; and Six V i l l a g e s Survey 1979.  00  TAJJU. A . 9  Land use i n the Isolated V i l l a g e s , Buduk and Munggu In 1961 - 1979.  Buduk  Laad Uaa Area l n Ha 1. A g r i c u l t u r a l land-use : 600  Munggu 1971 Are.a i n Ha  Area ln  Ha  L222  Area l n Ha  %  L262.  ' 'M.  Area i n Ha  '971 Area l n Ha  Area l n Ha  1975 Area l n Ha  %  1979 Area i s Ha  84.13  81.86  768.47 80.81  719.58  75.67  577.17  738.48  62.91  - Blceflelda  924.50  60.69  574.65  60.43 574.35 60.40  570.07 59.95  561.73  59.07  89.15  897.00  86.50 894.58 86.27.888.88  85.72 862.37 83.16  - Dry land agriculture and otbera.  222.83  810.25  23.43  213.83  22.48 204.10  21.46 198.40 20.86  157.85 16.60  78.13  799.71  77.12 799.71 77.12 799.71  77.12 796.86 76.84  114.25  n.02  97.29  00  000  00  00  000  000  00  14.07  143.24  15.06 152.49  1.80  18.76  2 . Tourist de- 0 0 0 velopaent and Its associated] Hotels, Hoaestaya, cottagea, restaurant, Artahops e t c . 3 . Housing areas 133.76 Houses, Religious facilities, ceaetary e t c . 4. Other nonI6.2i» agricultural uses: schools, health center, v i l l a g e center, roads. Industry ate.  TOTAL  950.98  100  1.98  950.98 100  778.45  '975  Area l n Ha  000  20.04  00  00  16.03 156.77 16.48 203.37 21.39  2. 11  950.98 100  Sources: B a l i Land-Use Maps: Directorate of Land-use,  000  25.74  2.71  950.98 100  28.03  2.94  950.98 100  000  9.38  00  94.87  000  9.15  89.17  000  00  8.60  00  6 5 . 5 1 6.32  000  00  65.85  6.35  74.28  7.16  76.39  7.36  79.45  7 . 6 6 102.63 9 . 9 0  46.65  4.50  66.72  6.34 66.03  6.37  68.67  6.62  1037  100  1037  100 1037  100  1037  100  7 1 . 9 9 6.94  1037  100  1961, 1971 and  B a l l Regional Plan 1969, 1977; Agrarian Land Uee Maps 1975; B.P.B.I.P V i l l a g e a Survey 1977; and S i x V i l l a g e s S u r v e y 1979.  CO  TABLE  A. 10  : Population Qrowth ana Density i n the S i x V i l l a g e s Sample, 1961 - 1978-  TOTAL  Village  Area 1961 in Km2  POPULATION  1974  1971  iiACH Y.-.Aii  1975  1976  iiKNSITY  1977  1978  1961  %  po ryc-ar  1971  peryear  1974  PEB  *  peryear  1975  Km2  Avar-ay.  *  erear  1976  % poryear  1977  * ier  1978 f a f i o n  Increase eac  Jear  Strong Impact Sanur  9.4 7,211  9,982  Kuta  9.»  9,238  6,859  10,218 9,189'  U , MO  12,373 12,619  767  J.8  1,062  9,438 10,594  10,510 10,749  754  3.5  1,015 -0.25,  10,650 11,907  11,978 11,985  718  3.i  936  0.53  946  1.3?  2.6  669  6.65  758  0.66  763-0.26  10,904  0.79  1,082 6 , 7 1,160 5 . 3 4 1,222 7.69 1,316  1.98 1,342  3.65.  1.010 2 . 6 ? J . 0 3 ? 1 2 . ^ 1,164 - 0 . 7 7 1,155 2 . 2 5 1,181 2 , 9 9  Partial Impact  Kesiman Ubung  1V.«  7,939  10,391  10.500  6.0 3,177  4,018  9.5  6,575  10.3 7,188  4,551  4.5UO  4,566  4,687  4,739  529  7,499  7,399*  7,494  7,703  7,685  7,685  692 1.4  789  -0.63  779  1.28  8,321  8,236'  a, 285  8,651  8,732  8,732  698 .1.6  808  -0.49  800  0.50  11.89 1073 0.56  » W 9 O.Of  1080  2.70'  761 2.62  781 1.15  790  2.56.  789 2.79  811 - 0 . 2 5  809 >0.00  804 4.48  840 O.95  Isolated Impact Buduk Munggu  848 0 . 0 0  809 848  0.97-  i.23  1969 Data n o t a v a i l a b l e by v i l l a g e .  • Decline because of transmigration to Sulawesi or i n t e r - v i l l a g e movement. 1969 The O p e n i n g o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Airport.  1-974 PATA ( B a a l C i c Area T r a v e l A s s o c i a t i o n .'jource  Statistic  Reports,  statistic  Agency o f i:o,,i;iicy o f l i a d u n i ; .  ) Conference  was held i n B a l i  P o p u l a t i o n o f l-.a.luuu from 1J(.1 t u 1977,  O  T A B U : A. 11  J The Head of T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e s ' Personal Information and V i l l a g e s Conditions. Villages  It BIB 1, V i l l a g e S i t e and Respondent* Bafkfround Information.  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s -latal  Parcentage( % )  P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s Tnt„l  Pfrf-n  < *  Isolated Impact V i l l a g e s *  T.rff  1  »«r tair. ( K, \ Can  a. Distance <2 Km 2- 5  8  Km  >5 Km  100  68.75  -  31.25  27  100  27  100  b. Sex 8  Hale  100  Female  16  100  c. Ags yearn  5  62.50  3 5 - 5 0 years  >50  3  56.25  37.50  37.50  15-59  ysarm  6.25  d. M a r i t a l Status 8  Married  100  16  19  70.37  6  22.22  2  7.41  100  27  100  Unmarried 2. The l o l e as a T r a d i t i o n a l VIllag« Leader. a. Length of Jon < 5 years  8 5  50.00  10  62.50  4  3  25.00  2  37.50  h  25.00  15  55.55  Only as a T r a d i t i o n a l Leader  7  87.50  15  93.75  Also as an O f f i c i a l Leader  1  85 2  92.59  12.50  5 - 10 yuars 710  years  b. Function  c. As a V i l l a g e r  1  6.25  37.04 7.41  7.41  < 5 years 5 - 10 years >10 3. The  years  8  100  8  100  Ethnicity  a. Nstive Balines* b. Non- Native Balinese  1 >5  16  6.25 93.75 100  27  100  27  100  continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e  P a r t i a l Impact v i l l a g e s  Isolated Iapact V i l l a g e s  Total  Total Percen  Total  Percentage ( %  tage ( * )  Percentage ( % )  it. The Level o f Education. Uneducated Primary Sohool High School University  5  62.50  3  37.50  6.25  3 21 1 1 1  13 3  81.25  27  12 3 l  75.00  93.75 6.25  10  62.50  5  31.25  Other 5. The V i l l a g e Major A c t i v i t y . Agriculture  2  25.00  Mixture  4 2  50.00 25.00  Hon-  Agriculture  6. The Existence Of T o u r i s t Devt. or Touriaa P o t e n t i a l .  8  Exiat  100  Ho E x i s t Potential 7. The Dominant Land Use and the E x i s tence of T r a d i t i o n a l l . u . Patterns.  11.12 77.77 3.70 3.70 3.70 100  18.75  18.75 6.25  23 4  85.18 14.82  a. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture HixturgrLand-Uee Mon-Agriculture b. The Existence of T r a d i t i o n a l V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns. T r a d i t i o n a l Patterns Mixture Patterns Hon-  2 4 2  25.00 50.00 25.00  15 1  3 5  37.50 62.50  16  5 3  62.50 37.50  9 6 1  100  27  100  27  100  T r a d i t i o n a l Patterns  8. The Agriculture F e r t i l i t y . F i r s t Class A g r i c u l t u r a l S o i l s Second Class Third  Class  56.25 37.50 6.25  15 10 2  55.55 37.04 7.41  . continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e 9. The Other Important Production.  Total  Percentage ( %  agriculture  Cattle  2 2  Poultry Flahery  P a r t i a l Impact Villages Total Percen  25.00  12.50  Mo Other  Isolated Impact V i l l a g e s  «« ( * )  Total  Percentage ( % )  12.50  3 1  11.12  2  12.50  2  7.41  11  68.75  2  7.41  12.50  19  70.37  25.00 37.50  Mixture  t a  I  10. The V i l l a g e Population and the Labour Force.  3.70  a. TBS V i l l a g e Population Less than 5000  -  5000 l n h . 10,000 l n h .  More than10,000 l n h . b. The Labour Fores Structure Toung Ages Middle ages Old Agss Ho  Ansaer  11, Major Economic Sector o f ths V i l l a g e ,  43.75  37.50 62.50  12.50  48.15 48.15  1  3.70  13  48.15  25.00  50.00 37.50  13 13  31.25  2  12.50  11  68.75  2  12.50  1  Faraing Tourism  1  3.70  6.25  13  48.15  18.75  16  59.26  81.25  10  37.04  1  3.70  Government Services Trade and Industry Mixture A c t i v i t i e s Mo Answer  100  13  12. The V i l l a g e r Income Level per Month. Less Than US. t 20 US. $ 20 - $ 100 More Than US. f 100 Mo Anaser 13  l 37.50  6.25  29.62  II  62.50  4  68.75  14.82  25.00 55.55  The Dominant Ethnic Group Native Balinese  Lees than 90 %  Native balinese  90 - 99 *  Native Balinese  100 %  62.50 37.50  12 4  75.00 25.00  4 23  14.82 85.19  continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s  P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s  Isolated Impact Villages  Total  Total Percen  Total  Percentage ( % )  t a  8« ( % )  Percentage ( % )  14. The V i l l a g e T y p e of, Housing and the V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns. a. Housing Type Traditional  18.75 18.75 62.50  37.50  3 3 10  Traditional  25.00  12  75.00  Mixture  50.00  25.00  Non- T r a d i t i o n a l  25.00  4  25.00  Transitional  37.50  Modern  18  66.6P 33.33  b. V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns 27  100  15. The Lot Property and the Land Tenure a. The Lot Property Heritage  62.50  9  Bought  12.50  4  Rent  25.00  3  56.25  19  25.00  1  3.70  18.75  7  25.93  12  75.00  4  25.00  14  51.85  13  48.15  b. The Land Tenure 100  Private Village 16. The Land Value Changes from 1969-1979. Ro Changes Changes Less Than 2 Times Changes from 2 - 5 Times Changes More Than 5 Times Does Hot Know/ No Answer  8  100  3  18.75  13  81.25  70.37  5  18.52  II  40.74  6  22.22  18.52  TABLE A.I 2  The V i l l a g e Farmer Personal Information of h i s background and h i s v i l l a g e conditions. Villages  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s  -latal  ItfllS  P a r t i a l Impact v i l l a g e s  Percentage ( % ) T o t a l  Percen  I. Respondent' Background.  t a g e  ( %  )  Isolated Impact V i l l a g e s Total  Percentage ( V. 1  a. Age } 50ifears  4  35-50 Tears  3  15-35 Taars  1  50.00  2  12.50  37.50  10  9  62.50  25.94  12.50  17  4  25.00  62.96  3  11.10  b. Sex Male  8  100  16  100  8  100  16  100  16  100  16  100  Female  27  100  27  100  27  100  27  100  c. H a r i t a l Status Married Unmarried 2. i a a V i l l a g e r . <5 Tears  1  12.50  7  87.50  5 - 1 0 Tears >10 Tears 3. The K t h n l c l t y . Native Balinese  8  100  Non- Native Balinese 4. The Level of Education. Uneducated  2  Primary School  5  High School  1  University  25-00  18.75  3.  11.11  3 11 2  68.75 12.50  3  15 1  93.75 6.25  27  100  12.50 50.00  12  75.00  27  100  2  12.50  2  12.50  62.50 12.50  21  77.78 11.11  Other 5. The Agriculture i n the V i l l a g e . a. The Role of A g r i c u l t u r a l A c t i v i t y Major A c t i v i t y  7  No Major A c t i v i t y  1  87.50  b. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture  1,  Mixture Land Use  3  Non-Agriculture  1  37.50 12.50  continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s Total c. The Agriculture  P a r t i a l Impact V i l l a g e s Percentage ( % ) Total Percen tage ( % )  Fertility.  F i r e t Class Agriculture S o i l s  3  37.50  6  37.50  Second Class  4  50.00 12.50  37.50  Third Class  1  6 4  25.00  7  87.50  1  12.50  12  75,00  4  25.00  6. The Existence of Tourist Devt. or Tourism P o t e n t i a l . Exist Ho E x i s t Potential  Isolated Impact V i l l a g e s Total  Percentage ( % )  11  40.74  15  55.56  1  3.70  24  88.89  3  11.11  7. The Household s i z e . Less Than 5 Persons 5-10  Persons  More Than 10 Persons 8 . The Land Tenure. Privats Village 9 . Type of Farming Operation and Farming Size.  1  12.50  1  6.25  8  5  62.50  29.63  10  62.50  15  55.56  2  25.50  5  31.25  4  14.81  6  75.00  2  25.00  11  68.75  5  31.25  26  96.30  1  3.70  10  62.50  22  77.78  6  37.50  5  18.52  a. Farming Operation Family Farming Farming Alone  8  100  Part-time/Using Other Farmer b. Farming  Size  Less Than 1 Ha  5  More Than 1 Ha  1  No Answer 0. The Level of Income Per Month. Less Than US. 8 20 US.  8 20  More Than US. 8 100 No Answer  -  8 100  2  62.50 12.50 25.00  9  56.25  18  66.67  5  31.25  2  12.50  5 4  18.52 14.81  13 8  48.15 29.63  6  ZZ.ZZ  1  12.50  4  25.00  5  62.50  10  62.50  1 1  12.50 12.50  1  6.25  '  6.25  • continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s Total  11. The Other A c t i v i t y Beside Parsing.  P a r t i a l Inpact Villages  Percentage ( % ) Total  Percen  tage ( * )  Isolated Total  Impact V i l l a g e s  Percentage ( % )  Touriaa Qovernsent Services Trade Industry No Other 12. The Most Desirable A c t i v i t y Agriculture  -  » 6  12.50 12.50 75.00  1 11  25.00 6.25 68.75  87.50  11  68.75  I  6.25 18.75 6.25  4  Touriaa Industry Trade  12.50  Qovernaent Services Bo  3 1  saasar  13. The D e s i r a b i l i t y to T r a n s s l g r a t e . Agra* Disagree  4  100  No Answer  12  25.00 75.00  14. The V i l l a g e Type of Housing and the V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns.  4  14.81  23  85.19  1? 1  70.37  1 2 4  3.70  3.70  7.4* 14.81  4 20 3  74.0?  25  92.59  2  7.41  14.81 11.11  a. Bousing Type Traditional Transitional Modern b. V i l l a g e Land Use Traditional Mixture  Patterns.  25.00 50.00 25.00  10  62.50 37.50  16  75.00 12.50 12.50  13 2 1  3 3  62.50 18.75 18.75 100  27  100  Non-Traditional 15. The Lot Heritage Bought Bent  Property.  81.25 12.50 6.25  20 1 6  74.07 3.70 22.22  continued  Strong Impact V i l l a g e s Total  P a r t i a l Impact Villages  Percentage ( % ) Total  Percen  The Land Value Changes from 1969 to 1979.  tags ( % )  Isolated Impact Villages Total  Percentage ( % )  Ho Changes Changes Less Than 2 Times Changes from 2 - 5  Times  Changes More Than 5 Times Does Hot Know  25.00 75.00  6.35 37.50 37.50 18.75  7  3 1 15  25.93 11.11 3.70 55.56  T A B U : A . 13  The V i l l a g e Kuucated Adult' personal Information of h i s background and h i s v i l l a g e Conditions. Villages  S t r o n g Impact V i l l a g e s Total  Items 1. Respondent'  P a r t i a l Impact  P e r c e n t a g e ( % ) Total  Percen  Villages  Isolated Impact  Villages  taga ( t )  Background.  a. Age ^50  Tears  35-50 Years 15-35  Ifaare  b. Sex. Male Female C.Marital Status. Harried Unmmarried  100  5 Years  100  3. The E t h n i c i t y , native Balinese  88.89  15 1  93.75 6.25  24 3  11.11  75.00 25.00  7 9  43.50 56.25  14 13  48.15  12.50  1  6.25  87.50  15  93.75  1 26  96.30  Years  10 Tsars  96.30  87.50 12.50  2. As « V i l l a g e r . 5-10  16  3.70  1 26  100  100  16  27  51.85  3.70  100  Hon- Native Balinese 4. The Level Of Education. Uneducated Primary School  37.50  High School  37.50  University  25.00  Other  12.50  2 11 2  68.75  1  6.25  56.25 25.00 18.75  12.50  8 17 2  29.63  23  85.19  4  14.81  23 4  85.19  62.96 7.41  5. The Agriculture i n the V i l l a g e . a. The Role of A g r i c u l t u r a l A c t i v i t y Major A c t i v i t y  25.00  9  No Major A c t i v i t y  25.00  Hixture  50.00  4 3  b. The Dominant Land Use Agriculture  37.50  Mixture Land Use  37.50  11 1  Non- Agriculture  25.00  3  68.75 6.25 18.75  14.81  Co-  .continued  S t r o n g Impact Total c.  The A g r i c u l t u r e First Third  Partial  ( % ) Total  Impact Percen  Fertility.  Class Agriculture  Second  Villages  Percentage  Soils  Class Class  6. The E x i s t e n c e o f T o u r i s t Tourism P o t e n t i a l .  Devt.  3  37.50  8  50.00  2  25.00  4  25.00  3  37.50  4  25.00  or  Exist  100  No i. E x i s t  12  75,00  4  25.00  Potential 7. The H o u s e h o l d  Size.  L e s s Than 5 P e r s o n s 5-10  Persons  More Than 10 P e r s o n s 8. The Land  6  75.00  8  50.00  2  25.00  8  50.00  Tenure.  Private  6  75.00  14  87.50  Village  2  25.00  '2  12.50  9. Type o f F a r m i n g O p e r a t i o n Farming S i z e . a.  Farming Family Farming Farming  a  g  e  (  %  Isolated )  Total  12  Impact  44.44  3  11.11  23  85.19  4  14.81  3  11.11  16  59.26  8  29.63  24  88.89  3  11.11  3  37.50  9  56.25  Alone  5  62.50  6  27.50  14  51.85  1  6.25  Farmer  Size  9  33.33  4  14.81  6  75.00  12  75.00  More Than 1 Ha  18  66.67  2  25.00  3  18.75  9  33.33  +  6.25  No Answer of  L e s s Than U S . US. More Than US. No J o b  Yet  ( % )  44.44  12  L e s s Than 1 Ha  10. The L e v e l  Villages  Percentage  Operation Farming  P a r t - t i m e / Using Other b.  and  villages t  Income Per M o n t h . . $ 20  1  12.50  2  12.50  8 20 - 8 100  5  62.50  9  56.25  $ 1.00  2  25.00  7  25.93  14  51 .85  3 5  31.25  3  ii.li U.ii  M  (  -  n:  Oi  ...continued  1 ) . The Other A c t i v i t y Beside Farming. Tourism Government Services Trade Industry No Other 12. The Most Desirable A c t i v i t y  Strong Impact V i l l a g e i  P a r t i a l Impact  Villages  Isolated Impact V i l l a g e s  Total  Total  tage ( % )  Total  Percentage ( %  Percentage ( % )  1  12.50  2  25.00  1  6.25  6  22.22  2  25.00  7  43.75  2  25.00  2  12.50  8  29.63  1  12.50  6  37.30  13  48.15  2  12.50  i9  33.33  2  7.41  Agriculture  1 .  Tourism  12.50  3  37.50  Trade  1  12.50  2  25.00  Government Services  1  12.50  Industry  Percen  Ho Answer  3  18.75  1  3.70  2  12.50  3  11.11  9  56.25  12  44.44  The D e s i r a b i l i t y to Transmigrate, agree Dlssgree Mo Answer  12.50  4  25.00  2  7.41  87.50  12  75.00  25  92.59  14. The V i l l a g e type of Housing and the V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns. a. Housing Type Traditional  37.50  5  31.25  16  59.26  62.50  5  31.25  6  22.22  6  37.50  5  18.52  Traditional  25.00  Mixture  75.00  10  62.50  27  6  37.50  13  81.25  2  12.50  1  6.25  Transitional Modern b. V i l l a g e Land Use Patterns.  Hon-  Traditional  100  15. The Lot Property. Heritage Bought Rent  87.50 12.50  24  88.89  3  11.11  .continued  6. The Land V a l u e Changes  Strong  Impact  Total  Percentage  Villages ( % )  Partial  Impact  Total  Percen  2  12.50  Villages  Isolated  tage ( % )  Total  Impact  from  1969 t o 1979 No Changes Changes L e s s Than 2 Times Changes  from 2 - 5  Times  Changes More Than 5 T i m e s Does Not Know  1 6 1  12.50 75.00 12.50  4 8 2  25.00 50.00 12.50  Villages  Percentage  7  25.93  4 5 4  14.81  7  25.93  18.52  14.8T  ( % )  TABLE.  I,  The s t r o n g  villages:  III.  1. V i l l a g e o f  Dangin P u r l ,  2.  »  "  Sumerta  ,  "  "  : 1.4  3.  "  "  Pemecutan  ,  "  "  :  2.4  4.  "  "  Dauh P u r l  ,  "  "  :  2.5  5.  "  "  »  Sanur  village  ,  number:  "  "  :  1.3  3.1  6.  "  "  Kuta  ,  "  "  :  7.  "  "  Tuban  ,  "  "  : 4.5  8.  II.  impact  A . 14: CLASSIFICATION OF T H E VILLAGES SAMPLE INTO THREE ZONES OF TOURISM IMPACT .  "  "  The P a r t i a l i m p a c t  Benoa/Bualu,  "  "  :  4.4  4.9  Villages:  The I s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s  :  1. V i l l a g e II 2. II 3. M 4. M 5. II 6. II 7. II 8. II 9. II 10. II 11. II 12. II 13.  Of  Peguyangan  li  Dalung  it  li  Canggu  ii  II  it  Krobokan  II  II  .  li  Ungasan  n  II  •  li  Sembung  ti  it  II  Baha  II  n  II  Penarungan  II  •i II  t  V i l l a g e number it  Mengwi T a n i  ii  ii  Buduk  it  it  n  Munggu  II  n  it  Tarn an  II  II  li  Bongkasa  it  it  it  Village  of  Penatih  , village  number :  1.1  2.  »  '•  Tonja  ,  "  :  1 .2  3.  »  "  Kesiman  ,  "  "  :  1.5  14.  II  ti  Ayunan  it  n  4.  "  "  Ubung  ,  "  "  :  2.2  II  II  Blahkiuh  II  II  5.  "  "  Padangsambian,  "  "  :  2.3  II  II  Abian  n  n  6.  »  "  Renon  ,  "  "  :  3.2  11  II  Mambal  n  n  7.  »  »  Panjer  ,  "  "  :  3.3  II  n  Sedang  II  II  8.  "  »  Seeetan  ,  "  "  :  3.4  It  it  Angantaka  n  II  9.  »  »  Pedungan  ,  "  "  :  3.5  It  li  Jagapati  n  II  10.  "  "  Serangan  ,  "  "  :  3.6  15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21 . 22. 23.  »  li  Sibangkaja  it  it  Sibanggede  ii  II II  11.  "  "  Jimbaran  ,  "  "  :  12.  "  "  Pecatu  ,  "  "  13.  »  "  Mengwi  ,  "  11  14.  "  "  Sempidi  ,  "  15.  »  "  Kapal  ,  16.  "  "  Sangeh  ,  4.6  :  4.7  :  5.3  "  :  5.5  »  "  :  5.6  "  "  :  6.1  Semal  n  ti  if  ti  Darmaeaba  ti  24,  ••  li  B e l ok  ti  it  25. 26. 27.  n  n  Pelaga  ti  II  n  n  Petang  u  it  ii  ti  Carangsari  tt  ti  : •  2.1 4.1 4.2  •  4.3  5.1 5.2 • 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.3 : 6.4 : 6.5 : 6.6 : 6.7 : 6.8 : 6.9 : 6.10 : 6.11 : 6.12 : 6.13 : 7.1 : 7.2 : 7.3 : 7.4  •  TABLE  The  A.15  villagers'  culture use  perception  value,  changes,  i n the  -4  -6 8 8 7 8  value  is  6 8  judged  specific  values, (  -2 3 -1 4  b a s e d on t h e  question  o r the  investigated  villages.  3 1 1. 1 1 4 3 3 3 1  or negative  of  s c o r e depends  existence  :  of  t o u r i s m development the  first  round  5  7 7 2 5 4 4  . 3 7  -5 7 6 3 7 7 0 5 3 3 -1 6 2  -4 7  1  Total  Weighting  -0.625  2  -2  -0.250  0.875  4  0  0.000  0.750 0.375  6  4  3  -1  0.875  8  8  1.000  0.875  7  7  0.875  0.000 0.625 0.375 0.375 -0.125 0.750 0.250 -0.500 0.875 -1.000 0.125  3  1  0.125  6  6  0.750  5  4  0.500  6  6  O.750  5  2  O.250  7  6  0.750  6  4  0.500  1  -4  -0.500  Weighting  -1  8  Strong on whether  traditional impact  in  village.  ) * The o r i g i n a l number o f  7 7  5  f o l l o w i n g answer  s u p p o r t s the  existence  Educated A d u l t s Total  d o n ' t know and n o .  Assignment o f a p o s i t i v e the  -1  3 2 4 3 4  yes,  impact  land develop-  1 .000 0.500 0.625 0.750 1 .000 -0.125 -0.250 0.375 -0.125 0.500  5  8  The  tourism  0.875  4  5 6 7  4  strong  of  0.500 -0.500 -0.500 -0.750 1 .000 1 .000  -4  1  existence  traditional the v i l l a g e  Weighting  4  4  the  Farmers Total  -1  4  of  existence of  and t h e  ment i m p a c t , Traditional Village leaders  the  questionairo.  the  No  0.500 ' -0.125  8  1  -6  2  1  1.000 -0.750 0.125  i n d i c a t i o n of  the  existence.  value.  Weak i n d i c a t i o n o f  the  existence.  TABLE  A . 16.  The v i l l a g e r s ' value, and  the e x i s t e n c e  the p a r t i a l I terns  p e r c e p t i o n of  the e x i s t e n c e impact  1 (17) 2 (18) 3 (19) 4 (20) 5 (21) 6 (22) 7 (23) 8 (24) 9 (25) 10 (26) '1 (27)  5  5 l  4 3 3 3 3 3 4  13 14 15 16 17  (29) (3D (32) (33)  The  value  (30)  is yes,  judged  specific  land-use  16 16 9 15 2 9 3 1 -5 -5 4 0 1  changes, in  villages.  Weighting  Educated Adults  -1  0.875 0.938 0.375 -0.438 1.000 1.000 0.563 0.938 0.125 0.563 0.188 0.063 -0.313 -0.313 0.250 0.000 0.063  1  3 10  7 1 5 5 5 8 1 14  on t h e f o l l o w i n g answer or negative  question supports of  culture  t o u r i s m development i m p a c t ,  1 4 1 1 1 2 1 6 3 4 5 5 1 2  6 2  1 16  4 14 12 5 14 15 7 13 5 10, 6 10 9 2 13 1  Total  -4 13 9 -5 14 15 4 13 •2 9 l  5 4 -6 12 13 0  Weighting  -1  0  -0.250 0.813 0.563 -0.313 0.875 0.938 0.250 0.813 -0.125 0.563 0.063 0.313 0.250 -0.375 0.750 -0.813 0.000  9  4  1  7 10  -  -  -5  -  6 2 4 3 5 7  -  15  -  -  1  Total  Weighting  3  -6 14 2 -9 15 15 2 12 -1 6 5 8 5 -3  -0.375 0.875 0.125 -0.563 0.938 0.938 0.125 0.750 -0.063 0.375 0.313 0.500 0.313 -0.188  15  9  5  l  1 1 4  15  4  12  15 7  5  5  6 3 2  8 9 11  1  10  5  4  2  14 l  14  2  14  0.875  -14 2  -0.875 0.125  :  d o n ' t know and n o .  o r the e x i s t e n c e  investigated  -7  8  A s s i g n m e n t of- a . p o s i t i v e the  14 15 6  7 4 4  based  traditional  Farmers  15 15 11 4 16 16 10 15 7 11  11  (28)  values;  of  the  the v i l l a g e  Traditional v i l l a g e leaders Total  12  of  1 : Strong i n d i c a t i o n of score  d e p e n d s on w h e t h e r  the e x i s t e n c e  of  traditional  t o u r i s m development impact  in  the  existence  0 : No v a l u e -1•:  Weak i n d i c a t i o n o f  the  existence  the  village.  ( ) * The o r i g i n a l number o i ' t h e f i r u t r o u n J  que:;Lionairii.  Ul  TABLE A,1?  • Th« villagers' value, and  the e x i s t e n c e  in Items ( x  ±  1 (17)" 2 (18) 3 (19) 4 (20) 5 (21) 6 (22) 7 (23) 8 (24) 9 (25) 10 (26) 11 (27) 12 (28)  13 (29) 14 (30) 15 (3D 16 (32) 17 (33)  The  the i s o l a t e d  Traditional V i l l a g e leaders -1 0 1  )  .'•5 1 2 15  l  1  -  1 10 1  17 24 22  12  -3  27  27 26 17 17 .2 8 0 =9 -11  17 18 10 9 7 4  8  1  2 4 -  8  19  v a l u e i u judged based yes,  the s p e c i f i c  question  changes, impact,  villages.  Farmers  Weighting  0.630 0.889 0.815 -0.111 1.000 0.963 0.630 0.630 -0.074 0.296 0.000 .-0.333  13  -  -8  -0.296  0 -24 8  0.000 -0.889  -  16 1 17 11 17 9 -  26  -  4 3  10 24 27 14 26 24 3 12 4  -3 ' 24 27  8  7  1 3 16 15 7 18 1 5 5 17 5  8  0.296  1  •-  -  -0.407  0  -  13  on the f o l l o w i n g answer or negative  supports  o r the e x i s t e n c e  investigated  land-use  27  9 11 5 1  22 1  -  Total  • 1 26  24 -5 '12 -12 -8 0 -12 -8 22 -25' 0  Educated Adults -1 0 1  Weighting  -0.111  14  0.889  1.000 0.P37 0.963 0.889 -0.185 0.444 -0.444 0.259 -0.296 0.000 -0.444 -0.296 0.815 -0.926 0.000  1 2 12  -  -  10  -  15 2 14 13  6  -  -  3 3 4 13 8 9 9  -  5  21  -  15  10 6  -  26  1  1  25  Total  7 26 25 12  -7 25 23 0  24  24  23 4  23  19  -6  1.9  3 16 13 9 6 2 21  -12  -  -26  1  "t. -1 -4  -15 -13 21  0  Weighting  -0.259 0.926 0.852 0,000 0.889 0.852 -0.222 0.704 -0.444  0.519 -0.037 -0.148 -0.556 -O.481  0.778 -0.963 0.000  :•  d o n ' t know and n o .  Assignment o f a p o s i t i v e values,  o f the v i l l a g e  o f the t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t  Total  22 25 24  26  12 5 1 17 7 13 13 10 12 14 10 15 4 19 24 3 -  p e r c e p t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e  the e x i s t e n c e  1 : S t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e score  depends on w h e t h e r  the e x i s t e n c e  of t r a d i t i o n a l  0 : No v a l u e -1 : Weak i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e  o f t o u r i s m development impact i n the  village.  ( ) « The o r i g i n a l number o f the f i r . s t round  qimctionuiro.  (n  TABLE  A. 18  The V i l l a g e r s '  Evaluation  Development and S t r o n g Impact I terns  ,  ( Xj )  -2  -1  1 1  Impact  of  1 1  2  Total  1  7  15  -  1 1 4 4 .2 4 8 4 6 1 1  -  -  2 2  -is  1  6 5 4 4 5 3  1  -  4 2 7 5 5 1 2 7  r  —  Tourism in  the  Villages  -  -  -  The v a l u e  the  ~  1  -2  0.938  _  7  0.438.  4  0.250 0.750 0.750 0.563 0.625 1.000 0.750 0.875 0.563 0.313 0.313 0.938 0.875 0.563  12 12 9 10 16 12 14 9 5 5 15 •14 9  following  —  2  Total  Weighting  1 1  7 '5  -  14 -12 7 9 12 13 9 3 12 '9 ,10 V-5 •4 >3 112 <8  0.875  -  6  —  _  _  -  4  -  3 3 2 4 5 6 5 2  2 1  -  . 1  -  _  _  2 1 _  -  _  3 2 3  4  -  2 4 5 3 2 4 2 2 -  2  -  -  4  4  1 3  6 4  1  1  disagree  negative  statement  score i s  either  a s s i g n e d b a s e d on w h e t h e r  supports or  -2  -  -0.750 0.438 0.750 0.813 0.563 0.188 0.750 0.563 0.625 0.313 0.250 0.188 0.750 0.500 0.375  6  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  1 1 1 1 1  -  -  1  -  -  -  1 1 1 6 5 6 3 4 5 5 5 4 4 2 2 4 7 5  0  1  4  0.563  1  - -  -  -  - - 1 - '1  -  3  2 1 1  -  -  4  - -  2  2 7  .  -  1 1 1 4 3 2 3 2 4 2 1 1 4  Total  Weighting  15 -10  0.938 -0.625 0.500 0.375 0.500 0.688 0.625 0.500 0.688 0.563 0.750 0.500 0.000 -0.063 0.750 0.563 0.438  8  6 8 11 10 8 11 9 12 8 0 -1  12 9 7  1  1  'answer-:  maintenance of  2  :  1  : Moderate I n d i c a t i o n  the  Strong  i n d i c a t i o n ' o f sa-ppor.t. f p r  0  :  No v a l u e  -1  :  Less i n d i c a t i o n ' o f  -2  :-The  least  traditional  of support, for  support, f o r . t r a d i t i o n a l  indication  of support  for  values.  traditional-values.  values.  traditional.values.  traditional Ln  values... Weighting  1 2 -  Know  Strongly  specific  —  —  Disagree  or  0  _  3  Agree  A positive  -1  -0.875  :  7 6 1  j u d g e d based on the  -14  Weighting  S t r o n g l y .agree Don't  Educated Adults  Farmers  0  2  . 6  3 4 5 6. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  of  Development P o l i c y ,  Traditional Village Leaders  1 2  Future  values i n d i c a t e  the  degree of  the  evaluation.  TABLE  A.,9  : The V i l l a g e r s '  E v a l u a t i o n on the  Impact  Development and F u t u r e Development Partial I terns  Traditional Village 'Leaders  Impact  1  0  1  2  -  -  9 1  6 2  -  -  4  -1  7 1 12 11 8 7 6 10 4 10 9 13 10 9 6 9  9  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17  -  -  -  -  -  -  4  -  -  1  -  -  1 1 1 1  5  -  -  The v a l u e  is  -  2 judged  in  the  Farmers  -2  )  Tourism  Villages.  1  ( Xj  of  Policy,  -  1 1 7 9 6 4 12  11  b a s e d on t h e  5 7 2 2  9 7 3  Total  Weighting  25 -23 10 9 22 25 18  0.781 -0.719 0.313 0.281 0.688 0.781 0.563  16  0.500 0.875 0.625 0.719 0.531 0.344 0.093 0.750 0.719 0.531  28 20 23 17 11 3 24  23 17  following  answer  -2 5  3 3 5 4 2 1 3 6  11 8 10 5 9 5 5 7  1 _  _  3  9  _ _ _  _  _ _ _  4 4  _ _  -  -  Total  Weighting  1  2  0.719 -0.531 0.281 0.344 0.656 0.719' 0.594 0.313 0.719 0.469 0.563 0.375 0.219 0.219 0.781 0.656 0.406  2 1  13  23 -17  1 7 8 5 3 7 2 5 1 3 1 10  9 11 21 23 19 10 23 15 18 12 7 7  25 21 13  9  8 6 11 10 8 7 10 8  1 1 7 3  T o t a l Weighting  28 -20 5 6 20 17 10 18 23 18 18  9  17  8 6 6 6 7  4 1 16 22 13  0.875 -0.625 O.156 0.188 0.625 0.531 0.313 0.563 0.719 0.563 0.563 0.531 0.125 0.031 0.500 0.688 0.406  : i n d i c a t i o n o f ' support: f o r  1 : Moderate i n d i c a t i o n o f  iaupport. f o r  traditional-values. traditional  values.  0 : No v a l u e . assigned based.on  supports o r maintenance  whether of  the degree o f  the  the  -1  :  -2  : The l e a s t  Less i n d i c a t i o n of  isupporit:'for  i n d i c a t i o n of  traditional  .values.  'support, f o r • t r a d i t i o n a l  values.  traditional  values. Weighting values i n d i c a t e  2 3  9 3 3  -  disagree.  statement e i t h e r  2  9 2 12 12 7 7 9 7  2 : Strong  A positive- or negative;score i s specific  -1  2  S t r o n g l y agree Agree D o n ' t know Disagree Strongly  Educated Adults  evaluation.  Ln CO  TABLE A . 2 0 :  The v i l l a g e r s ' Development Isolated  Items  <l> X  Traditional Village Leaders  -2 8  4  9 10 11 '2  The  16 11 5  -  8  13 u 15 16 17  -1  -  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  1  -  13  2  1  3  9 21 14 16 17 10 16 15 8 20  1  6 1  3 7 3 1 1 1  -  —  0  2  -  —  1 6  11  11 11 17 16  2  14  -  Total  -31 -10  -  16  40 34 33 32 36 33 32  11  10 9 12  4 2  -15 9 5  0.759 -0.574 -0.185 0.296 0.741 0.630 0.611 0.593  41  13 9 8  Weighting  28  2 -4 41 35 36  values.  9 3  _  8  _  0.611 0.593 0.519 0.037 -0.074 0.759 • 0.648 O.481  _  _  _  12 15 —  -  —  2 16  -  -  Total  11  10  43 -33 0 18 $8 41 34 28 39 35 30  16 3 8 3 8 3 13 3 12 10 6  8  32  3 2 2 2  -  4  1  1 11  5 3  14  20 12 13  1 13 14 10 14 18 5 13 13 1 1 12  Weighting  -2  -  00.796  -0.611 0.000 0.333 0.704 0.759 0.630 0,519 0.722  13 3 1  -  -  0.648  4  4  1  —5  11  0.556 0.593 0.074 -0.093  39  0.648  -  12 1 1  36 28  0.667  -  0.519  4..  1  -1 11 9 7  1 1 11 15  0  I  2 8 2 1 3 12; 4 15 . 4 12 5 11 6 13 7 17 3 13 8 11 6 8 5 12 5 8 5 6 3 15 5 10 13 8  2  T o t a l Weighting  17  42 0.778 -36 -0.667 - 3 -0.056 0.111 6 O.630 34 0.611 33 29 0.537 23 • 0.426 O.648 35 0.500 27 31 0.574 29 0.537 0.056 3 -11 -0.204 0.611 33 0.630 34 20 0.370  -  -  -  11 11 8 3 11 8 12 9 3  -  9 12 6  .'answer-. :>: 2 : Strong  i n d i c a t i o n o f J Isuppbrt. f o r  1 : Moderate  indication  of,  tenppbrt.for  tradlttcuiain'salue.8. traditional  values.  0 : No v a l u e .  s u p p o r t s o r maintenance the degree o f the  -  4 1  of  traditional  :<v-  Weighting values Indicate  15  0  3  s c o r e i s a s s i g n e d based on whether t h e  statement e i t h e r  -1  4  disagree.  A positive or negative specific  -2  Educated Adults  0.667  v a l u e i s j u d g e d b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g S t r o n g l y .agree Agree D o n ' t know Disagree Strongly  Policy, in  Farmers  2  13  on t h e Impact o f T o u r i s m  Development  Villages.  -  15  Evaluation  and F u t u r e  evaluation.  -1  : Less i n d i c a t i o n  -2 : The l e a s t  of•teuppbrt. f o r t r a d i t i o n a l  indication  values.  of support f o r t r a d i t i o n a l  values.  160  APPENDIX B.  MAP IN  B . l SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF INDONESIA  RELIGIONS  MAP.B.I: INDONESIA , RELIGIONS.  \ {ttavt>ut .turn 9aUh«$c Hinduism  APPENDIX C  : QUESTIONNAIRES  C.l  First  Round  C.2  S e c o n d Round  Questionnaire Questionnaire  163 APPENDIX  C.l  : FIRST ROUND  QUESTIONNAIRE*  THE VILLAGERS' PERSONAL INFORMATION AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF THE EXISTENCE OF THE TRADITIONAL AL  CULTURE VALUES, OF TRADITION^  VILLAGE LAND USE CHANGES, AND OF TOURISM  DEVELOPMENT IN THE V I L L A G E .  Name o f t h e v i l l a g e Sub-District Regency o f Badung, P r o v i n c e o f B a l i . Name o f i n t e r v i e w e r Date  Year  Time ..  * Translated original, University  from t h e Indonesian w h i c h i s on f i l e of British  a t the  Columbia  S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l Planning.  164 1.  THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING HEADS OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGES.  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r knowledge and o p i n i o n s conditions  i n your v i l l a g e :  activities;  and e s p e c i a l l y  i t s people, i t s c u l t u r e ,  Balinese and  traditional  c u l t u r e , before  started  r e l a t e d to tourism; i t s  l a n d u s e , and i t s e f f e c t s  village  settlement  and a f t e r m a s s i v e  patterns,  tourist  on t h e religion  development  i n 1969.  All  the information  y o u g i v e u s i s e x p e c t e d t o be  open and t r u e , and i t w i l l used o n l y  be c o m p l e t e l y  f o r the purpose o f t h i s  Instructions Fill  its  a b o u t t h e i s s u e s and o p i n i o n s  concerning- developmental p o l i c y i m p a c t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l  about  c o n f i d e n t i a l and  planning  study.  :  i n and o r c h o o s e an answer, and g i v e  the required  information.  A.  General information  a b o u t y o u r s e l f and y o u r  1.  What i s t h e name o f y o u r v i l l a g e ? Where i s i t l o c a t e d ? Distance and  from Danpasar  from Kuta  District Village  of size  f r o m Sanur  village  165 How  o l d a r e y o u now?  Sex  :  a.  Male  b.  Female  Marital How  status  long  have  :  (Please  a.  less  than  b.  1 - 5  years  c.  5 - 1 0  years  10  e. Do  - 15  more  Married  you f u n c t i o n e d  leader?  d.  a.  1  than  15  years.  b . No  as an o f f i c i a l  Are  you a n a t i v e  a.  Native  How  long  have  you l i v e d  a.  less  than  1  b.  1 - 5  years  c.  5 - 1 0  years  d.  10 - 15  years  village  I f y e s , s i n c e when?  b.  than  kind  village  years  Yes  What  Divorced  year  a.  more  as a t r a d i t i o n a l  c.  circle one).  you f u n c t i o n a l s o  e.  b. Unmarried  villager  o r an  immigrant?  Immigrant i n this  village?  year  15  years.  of educational  a.  Never  attended  school  b.  Primary  c.  Junior  High  school  d.  Senior  High  school  school  level  d i d you  have?  leader?  e.  Technical  f.  Academy  g.  University  h.  Vocational  Please  school  training  describe  villagers. actual  Secondary  the general  educational  level of  ( I f p o s s i b l e use p e r c e n t a g e s as w e l l  numbers).  a.  Never a t t e n d e d  b.  Primary  c.  Junior  d.  Senior  e.  Technical  f.  school  persons....  school  "  ....  High school  "  ....  High school  "  ....  "  ....  Academy  "  ....  g.  University  "  ....  h.  Vocational  "  ....  i.  Other  "  ....  school  training  Is a g r i c u l t u r e the major a c t i v i t y a. y e s  a.  Rice  b.  other  c.  Fishing  d.  Livestock  i n d i c a t e the type  of a c t i v i t y :  farming crops  : Poultry,  cattle.  no, what k i n d o f a c t i v i t i e s  Please  village  b . no  If yes, please  If  i n your  select  from t h i s  a.  Trading  b.  Government/military  list  : vegetables,  do e x i s t ?  :  rice,  services  handicrafts, etc.  c.  Weaving  d.  Curving  e.  Painting  f.  Industrial  activity  Is there  any t o u r i s t  activity  i n your  a. Yes If  b. No  activity  or other  associated  village? c . Don't know.  y e s , what k i n d o f t o u r i s t  your v i l l a g e ?  activities  (Please c i r c l e  a.  Hotel  b.  Restaurant  c.  Travel  d.  T a x i , motor c y c l e ,  e.  Art  f.  Cultural  g-  Carving  h.  Painting  i.  Ceramics  from t h i s  are there i n list).  bureau bike  rental,  canoe  rental  shop attraction  j• What k i n d o f l a n d u s e g e n e r a l l y c a n one f i n d village If  i n 1979?  p o s s i b l e , please  of t o t a l  area.  a.  fields  Rice  i n your  give area  i n Ha o r as p e r c e n t a g e  Ha  %  Grassland  "  %  Dry  "  %  land a g r i c u l t u r e  b.  Housing  Ha  c.  School area  "  d.  Commercial  area  "  e.  I n d u s t r i a l area  "  f.  Tourist  facilities:  Hotels  "  Restaurants  "  Art  "  centres  Recreational  places...  "  Artshops g.  h. Do  " "  Churches  "  Other  "  you have any  a. Yes  b.  idea  fertility? you  about the s i t u a t i o n i n and/or  No  y e s , c a n you  very  :  Mosques  1969?  Do  facilities  temples  before  If  "  Religious Hindu  168  indicate  a. F i r s t  think  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  class  b. Second  the a g r i c u l t u r a l land  class  of  soil c. T h i r d  Class  i n your v i l l a g e i s  productive?  a. v e r y good  b. good  enough  c . bad  d. n o t for  What i s t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y activity  that  exists  suitable  agriculture.  of each type of a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n your  village?  169 a. Wet  land r i c e  field  b. Dry  land r i c e  field  c.  d.  Other  food  ton/ha "  crops:  maize  "  cassava  "  Cash crop  and  fruits  :  Coffee Orange  "  Coconut  "  Other 9.  Are  there  any  livestock  and  fishing  activities  villages? a . Ye s If yes,  b.  No .  please  Livestock  indicate productivity :  :  Chicken Cattle Ducks Pigs Fishery  :  F r e s h water f i s h Sea 10a.  fish  What i s t h e  total  (Please c i r c l e  p o p u l a t i o n of your  one)  village?  i n your  a.  0 - 1,000  b.  1,001 -  2,000  c.  2,001  -  3,000  d.  3,001  -  4,000  e.  4,001 -  5,000  f . . 5,001  -  6,000  g-  6 ,001 -  7,000  h.  7,001 -  8,000  i.  8 ,001 -  9,000  j •  9,001 -10,000  inhabitants  k. more t h a n 10,000 10b.  P l e a s e g i v e i t s age s t r u c t u r e ? a.  0 - 4  b.  5  9  "  c . 10  - 14  "  d.  15  - 19  "  e.  20  - 24  "  f.  25  - 29  "  g.  30  - 34  "  h.  35  - 39  "  i.  40  j.  45  - 49  "  k.  50  - 54  . "  o v e r 55  "  1.  -  years  - 44  persons  "  "  11.  Please  describe  sectors please a.  the  that exist  distribution  i n your v i l l a g e :  indicate i t s distribution  Agriculture  of  the  (If p o s s i b l e ,  and/or i t s p e r c e n t a g e ) .  :  - Wet  land  rice-fields  farming  persons  %  -  land  rice-fields  farming  "  %  "  %  "  %  "  %  Dry  - Cash crops - Livestock  farming farming  - Fishery b.  Tourism a c t i v i t i e s  :  - hotel  persons  %  "  %  - Carving  "  %  - Artshop r e t a i l i n g  "  %  -  T o u r i s t guide  "  %  -  Travel  "  .%  -  c.  Restaurant  '..  bureau  T r a d e and  Industry  :  - Trading  -  ...persons:; "  Textile  "  %  "  %  "  %  "  %  Industry  - Brick -  labour,. .... .  industry  industry  labour...  labour  Other  Services  (Government, M i l i t a r y ,  - Government.'  persons  .  %  Retailer/shopkeeper  - Lime s t o n e  d.  171  economic  Private %  %  enterprises)  172 - Teaching - Private  persons  %  "  %  "  %  enterprise  (bank e t c . ) - Military 12.  Please state  t h e l o w e s t and h i g h e s t  i n your v i l l a g e  ( i f possible  also  a . L e s s t h a n Rp. 10.000 p e r month  income p e r month  g i v e p e r c e n t a g e o f each) %  ( E q u a l t o US  b. Rp. 10.000 - Rp. 15.000 c.  Rp. 15.000 - Rp. 30.000  d. Rp. 3 0.000 - Rp. 50.000  13.  e. Rp. 5 0.000 -  Rp.100.000  f . More t h a n  Rp.100.000  What  group  a. N a t i v e B a l i n e s e  %  b. M i x t u r e B a l i n e s e  %  c.  14.  i s the dominant e t h n i c  i n your  village?  Emigrants : - Javanese  %  - Sundanese  %  - Padangnese  %  - Chinese  %  d. F o r e i g n e r s  %  Do you l i v e  i n a modern o r a t r a d i t i o n a l  a. Modern  b. T r a d i t i o n a l  Does y o u r v i l l a g e  still  c. T r a n s i t i o n a l  have t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  settlement patterns? a. Ye s  house?  b . No  • I f no, c a n you e x p l a i n why n o t ?  village  $20)  173 15a.  Do y o u own a. Yes If  your  b.  lot?  No  y e s , how  large  i s your  parcel?  D i d you buy i t ? a. Yes  15b.  b.  No  If  y e s , when?  If  no,  i s i t a heritage  land?  What i s t h e s y s t e m o f g e n e r a l l a n d  tenure i n your  village?  a. G o v e r n m e n t / v i l l a g e p r o p e r t y b. P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y 16.  What i s t h e c u r r e n t v a l u e o f l a n d How  much has  B.  THE  PERCEPTION OF  17.  D i d you your  THE  ever d i s c u s s  changed  since  HEAD OF THE  yes  b. No.  c. Never  thought about i t  discussed?  b. When? c. Where? d . What were t h e r e s u l t s ? e. What a c t i o n s were t a k e n ? f.  Can  t h e p l a n s be  1.  Yes  If  TRADITIONAL VILLAGE  improvement o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  :  a. What was  no, why  2.  No  not?  village?  1969?  village?  a. Yes If  the p r i c e  i n your  implemented?  of  174  18.  In g e n e r a l , Would you  how  do you  f e e l about your v i l l a g e  say t h a t i t i s :  a. An e x c e l l e n t l i v i n g b. A f a i r l y  good  c. A p o o r p l a c e d. A v e r y  one)  place.  living to  (Circle  environment?  place  live  bad p l a c e  to  live  e. O t h e r o p i n i o n . . . Please 18a.  Based  e x p l a i n your c h o i c e  on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e ,  s e r i o u s problems (Please  select  from the l i s t agricultural  b. I n s u f f i c i e n t  land  c.  water  Insufficient  e. A i r  for  below) land  settlement  supply  pollution  pollution  f.  Noise  g.  Insufficient  problem  h. L i m i t e d  job o p p o r t u n i t i e s  village  land  i.  Inadequate v i l l a g e  j.  The d e c l i n e o f B a l i n e s e  k.  Other  From t h e l i s t development  below,  f o r your  a . To m a i n t a i n Is  t o be  village?  a. I n s u f f i c i e n t  d. Water  19.  i n your  what do y o u c o n s i d e r  there  and  still  infrastructure  please  cultural  indicate  and  social  facilities,  values  t h e most  suitable  village?  to i n t e n s i f y  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  any p o s s i b i l i t y o f d o i n g  land  this?....  175 b.  To d e v e l o p and t o e x t e n d Is  c.  there  still  To d e v e l o p  enough  d.  land  the t o u r i s t  What k i n d o f t o u r i s t To d e v e l o p  trade  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  area  t o be d e v e l o p e d ? . . .  activities a c t i v i t i e s are they?  and o r i n d u s t r y  What k i n d o f t r a d e  and i n d u s t r i a l  a c t i v i t i e s are  they? e. O t h e r Can y o u e x p l a i n y o u r c h o i c e ? Do y o u t h i n k villagers a. Yes  t h a t your c h o i c e  would make? b . No  c . Don't know  If  y e s , a r e they  If  no, what do t h e v i l l a g e r s  a,b,c,d, o r e  Do you t h i n k most v i l l a g e r s from a g r i c u l t u r a l a. Y e s  i s t h e same as o t h e r  b. No  If  y e s , how?  If  no,  ( i n 19 above)  need? g e t enough  subsistence  activities? c . Don't know  why?  Do y o u t h i n k  there  agricultural  activity, Bali  traditional  village  are strong  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  Hindu r e l i g i o n ,  settlement  patterns  Balinese  and B a l i n e s e  culture? a. Y e s  b. No  c . Don't know  If  yes, are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t i l l  in  the t r a d i t i o n a l  a. Y e s If  b. No  no, why  village  strongly  settlement  c . Don't know  manifested  patterns?  176 22.  Do y o u t h i n k and  23.  a.  Yes  b. No  If  y e s , why?  If  no,  should  be p r e s e r v e d ?  c . Don't know  Related  t o those r e l a t i o n s h i p s please  effects  o f d i s t o r t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  use,  (Subak) and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  comment on t h e  versa?  Becoming  b.  Does n o t m a t t e r  c.  Don't know  If  t h e answer  i s a. p l e a s e  e x p l a i n why?  If  t h e answer  i s b. p l e a s e  e x p l a i n why?  serious  Do y o u t h i n k potential  that  Balinese  the Balinese  culture i s not only  a t t r a c t i o n s , but also a  a major  foundation  life?  b. No  c . Don't know.  that  been s t r o n g l y  traditional  b . No  If  yes,  when?  a.  B e f o r e 1969  b.  I n 1969  c. A r o u n d 1974 A r o u n d 1976  e. A r o u n d 197 9  irrigation  s y s t e m s have  a f f e c t e d by t h e c h a n g i n g o r t h e d e c l i n i n g  a g r i c u l t u r a l land?  a. Y e s  d.  problems  for tourist  Do y o u t h i n k of  settlement  and r e s u l t a n t c h a n g e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d  and v i c e  a. Y e s  irrigation  village  a.  of  separated  why?  patterns,  25.  t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n n o t be  a r e something t h a t  system  24.  that  c . Don't  know  177 Please a.  e x p l a i n why; —  Hotel,  restaurant,  i s i ta result of: artshop,  or other  associated  development? b. H o u s i n g , s c h o o l ,  health,  or other  village  development?  c. U r b a n e x p a n s i o n ? 26.  Do y o u t h i n k ened a.  tourism  the Balinese  development  h a s i m p r o v e d o r weak-  culture?  Improved  b. Weakened c. D o n 1 know 1  27  If  i s h a s i m p r o v e d , how?  If  i t h a s weakened, how?  Do y o u t h i n k most v i l l a g e r s a. Y e s  b . No  c . Don't  b e n e f i t from t o u r i s m  development  know  I f y e s , how? If 28.  no, why?  I f tourism use f a r m i n g a.  Yes  development  a.  i n your v i l l a g e  does i t  land?  b . No  c . Don't  I f y e s , can you g i v e and  exists  know  an e s t i m a t e ?  Ha  s i n c e when: B e f o r e 1969  b. I n 1969 c.  Between 1972 - 1975  d. Between 1975 - 1978 e. I n 1979 I f no, what t y p e o f l a n d a. V i l l a g e  land  has been  b. Grass l a n d  used?  c. E s t a t e  d. Other  178 29.  Do y o u t h i n k the  that  t o u r i s t development  a g r i c u l t u r a l land  into non-agricultural b. No  and pushed  has d i r e c t l y  the a g r i c u l t u r a l land use  use?  a.  Yes  If  no, i s t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d  a. Widened  used  c . Don't  know caused by:  street  b. D e v e l o p i n g modern h o u s i n g c.  Hotel  development  d. A r t s h o p d e v e l o p m e n t e. R e s t a u r a n t d e v e l o p m e n t f.  Other  development  Do y o u t h i n k traditional a. 30.  31.  Yes  that  a l l o f t h e s e changes a l s o  village  settlement  villagers  from t o u r i s m  development?  a.  Yes  If  y e s , e x p l a i n why  If  no,  b . No  have  c . Don't  suffered negative  know  that uncontrolled  u s e and t r a d i t i o n a l  development w i l l socio-economic a.  Yes  b. No  If  yes, w i l l  changes o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  village  loss of a g r i c u l t u r a l land  (please  effects  e x p l a i n why  Do y o u t h i n k the  patterns?  b. No  Do y o u t h i n k  land  a f f e c t the  settlement  by  a f f e c t e d by t h e t o u r i s t  have d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s on  Balinese  s t r u c t u r e ; c u l t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t ? c . Don't  know  i t s i n f l u e n c e be s t r o n g  select)  patterns  on t h e f o l l o w i n g ?  a.  The c o n t i n u o u s d e c l i n e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l (especially  the f i r s t  b. D i s o r g a n i z e d  class agricultural  and u n c o n t r o l l e d  Decline  land),  traditional  s y s t e m s due t o t h e l o s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c.  land  irrigation  land.  i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land.  d . The c h a n g i n g o f v i l l a g e r  socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s .  e. The c h a n g i n g o f B a l i n e s e  traditional  settlement f.  patterns.  The d e c l i n e o f a t t r a c t i o n  If not, please  e x p l a i n why  Have you e v e r d i s c u s s e d possible  opment on a g r i c u l t u r a l  a. Yes  patterns,  b. No  If yes, please  i n your v i l l a g e  c.  Health  c . Don't  know  e x p l a i n , i s i t because o f :  development development  d. M a r k e t c e n t r e  development  f. Other Please  be c a u s e d by t o u r i s m  development development  i n d i c a t e where?  devel-  village  and c o n s e q u e n t l y B a l i n e s e  centre  e. S c h o o l  the changes o r  land use, t r a d i t i o n a l  a. Urban e x p a n s i o n b. Housing  for tourists.  and what a r e t h e s e e f f e c t s ? . .  impacts that could  settlement  village  culture?  180 When? What was Was 33.  Do  the c o n c l u s i o n ?  t h e r e any you  action?  have any  other  ism d e v e l o p m e n t on a. Yes  b.  No  o p i n i o n about the  your  impact  of  tour-  village?  c . Don't know  I f y e s , what i s i t ? Or do  this  you  have o t h e r  in  Bali  We  a p p r e c i a t e the  comments on  tourism  development  i n general?  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and  time  you  have t a k e n  t h a n k you  f o r your  to respond  to  cooperation.  181 11.  THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING THE VILLAGE FARMER  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g y o u r o p i n i o n some g e n e r a l village age This  information  from you, as a farmer, about  and a b o u t c h a n g e s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l  settlement  patterns  All  l a n d u s e and  a f f e c t e d by t h e t o u r i s m  i s r e l a t e d t o the socio-economic  traditional  and g a t h e r i n g your vill-  development.  s t r u c t u r e and B a l i n e s e  culture.  the information  y o u g i v e us i s e x p e c t e d  and  t r u e , and i t w i l l  be c o m p l e t e l y  for  the purpose of the p l a n n i n g  confidential  study  t o be open and u s e d  only.  Instructions: Fill  i n and o r c h o o s e an a n s w e r , a n d g i v e  A. G e n e r a l 1.  How  information  the r e q u i r e d  a b o u t y o u r s e l f and y o u r  village  o l d a r e y o u now?  Sex:  a. M a l e  Marital  b . Female  Status:  a. M a r r i e d  b. Unmarried  c.  How many c h i l d r e n do y o u h a v e ? What i s t h e name o f y o u r v i l l a g e ? 2.  How  information  long  have you been s t a y i n g i n t h i s  (Please c i r c l e a.  less  b.  1 - 5  than  one)  1 year  years  village?  Divorced  182 d.  10 - 15  years  e. more t h a n 15 3.  A r e you a n a t i v e a.  Yes  years villager?  b . No  I f no, what i s y o u r e t h n i c a.  Javanese  origin?  b. Sundanese  c. Chinese  d. Other  (Please specify)  4.  What k i n d  of education  a.  Never a t t e n d e d  b.  Primary  c.  Junior  High School  : 1,2,3  d.  Senior  High School  : 1,2,3  e.  Technical  f . Academy g.  school  school:  1,2,3,4,5,6  Secondary  school  ( s e l e c t one)  : 1,2,3  : 1,2,3  University  h. V o c a t i o n a l 5.  do you h a v e ?  : 1,2,3,4,5 training  I s a g r i c u l t u r e the major a c t i v i t y a. Yes  village?  b. No  If  yes, i s i t :  a.  Predominant  b.  Proportionate  c.  O n l y on l i m i t e d  d.  Does n o t mean  with  other  class  l a n d use  land anything  What c l a s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a. F i r s t  i n your  land  b . Second c l a s s  i s i n your c. T h i r d  village? class  183 What p o t e n t i a l do y o u t h i n k y o u r l a n d h a s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a activities? a. V e r y good  b . Good  c . Bad  What t y p e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a. Wet l a n d  rice  fields  b.  Dry l a n d  rice  fields  c.  Cash crops  d.  Fishing  e.  Livestock pigs,  do y o u engage i n ?  farming  farming:  chickens,  cows, w a t e r b u f f a l o ,  ducks e t c .  f.  Other  g.  No o t h e r  Are  there  activity.  any t o u r i s t  activities your  activity  activities  o r any o t h e r  t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d by t o u r i s m  associated  development i n  village?  a. Y e s  b . No  c . Don't know  I f y e s , what t y p e o f t o u r i s t village?  (please  circle  activities  on t h i s  a.  Hotel  b.  Restaurant  c.  Travel  d.  T a x i , motor c y c l e , b i k e ,  e.  Artshop  list)  bureau canoe r e n t a l  f. C u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n g.  Carving  h.  Painting  i.  Ceramics  j.  Other?  Please  describe...  are there  i n your  184 How many p e o p l e Please  give  a.  0 -  4  b.  5 -  9  c . 10  - 14  d.  15  - 19  e.  20  - 24  f.  25  - 29  g-  30  - 34  h.  35  - 39  i.  40  - 44  j • 45  - 49  k.  50  - 54  1.  55  - 59  m. o v e r  are there  i n your  house?,  t h e age s t r u c t u r e .  59  Do you  own  a. Yes  b  I f y e s , s i n c e when d o ' y o u own i t ? a.  less  b.  1 -  than  1 year  5 years  c.  5-10  d.  10 - 15  e. more t h a n  15  years  If  no, do y o u r e n t i t o r a r e y o u o n l y  If  y o u r e n t i t , how much i s t h e r e n t a l ?  How l o n g have y o u r e n t e d i t ?  an e m p l o y e e ?  185  a. L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r b.  1 -  5 years  c.  5-10  d.  10 - 15  e. more t h a n 15 y e a r s 9.  I f y o u f a r m do y o u f a r m by y o u r s e l f a. A l o n e  10.  b. W i t h o t h e r  or with other  farmers?  farmers  I f y o u f a r m w i t h o t h e r f a r m e r s , how many f a r m e r s a r e t h e y ? . . . . What, i s y o u r  average  income f r o m  f a r m i n g p e r month o r  per year? 11a.  I f you farm as w e l l a.  Yes  If  y e s , s i n c e when?  a s t r a d e do y o u own y o u r  b. No  What i s y o u r a v e r a g e or  shop?  income f r o m  trading  i n a month  i n a year?  I f y o u do n o t own t h e s h o p , who owns i t ? S i n c e when? Where i s y o u r  shop  located?..  a. i n t h e v i l l a g e If lib.  i t s location  b. o u t o f v i l l a g e  i s out of the v i l l a g e ,  I f y o u do f a r m i n g b e s i d e w o r k i n g  where i s i t ?  i n a hotel  or rest-  a u r a n t do you own t h e h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t ? a . Yes  b. No  I f y e s , s i n c e when? What i s y o u r If  average  n o t , who owns i t ?  income p e r month o r p e r y e a r ?  186  How  l o n g have you worked  What i s y o u r a v e r a g e  there?  income p e r month o r p e r  year?..  Where i s t h e h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t l o c a t e d ?  11c.  a.  In the v i l l a g e  If  i t i s l o c a t e d out of the v i l l a g e  I f you farm own  the  a. Yes  b. o u t o f t h e  beside working  village where  i n an a r t s h o p ,  is it?.... do you  artshop? b.  No  I f y e s , s i n c e when? What i s y o u r a v e r a g e income p e r month o r p e r If How  no, who  owns t h e a r t s h o p ?  l o n g have you worked  Where i s t h e a r t s h o p a. lid.  In the v i l l a g e  I f y o u do f a r m the  located? b. Out o f t h e  village  b e s i d e work i n an i n d u s t r y do you  b.  y e s , s i n c e when?  I f no, who  income p e r month o r p e r  owns t h e i n d u s t r y ?  l o n g have y o u worked  there?  Where i s t h e i n d u s t r y l o c a t e d ? a.  own  No  What i s y o u r a v e r a g e  How  there?  industry?  a. Yes If  year?..  In the v i l l a g e  b. Out o f t h e  village  year?..  187  12.  I f you were you  13.  14.  most  able  prefer  a.  Farming  b.  Tourist  to select a  j o b , what  kind  o f j o b would  t o do?  services  c.  Industry  d.  Military  e.  Civil  f.  Trade  g.  Fishing  h.  Other  servant  (please  Are you w i l l i n g a.  Yes  If  y e s , why?  If  no,  specify) to  transmigrate?  b . No  why?  Do y o u l i v e  i n modern  How  large  i s your  How  b i g i s your  Do y o u p r e f e r  house  or t r a d i t i o n a l  house?  parcel?  house?  to live  i n a modern  house  or a  traditional  house? a.  Modern  Please 15.  b. T r a d i t i o n a l  state  Do y o u own a.  Ye s  If  y e s , how  Did  your  land?  b . No large  i s it?  you buy i t ?  a . Ye s If  why?  b . No  no, i s i t a h e r i t a g e  Since  when?  land  or a rental  land?  188 16. Has  What i s t h e v a l u e this  changed  o f your  l a n d i n 1979?  s i n c e 1969 ?  What was i t s v a l u e  i n 1969 ?  B. THE PERCEPTION OF THE V I L L A G E FARMER  The of  questionnaire designed  village  village  farmers  to e l i c i t  the perceptions  was t h e same as t h a t d e s i g n e d  heads; r e f e r  t o page  1 7 3 - 180.  f o r the  189 111.  THE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INTERVIEWING EDUCATED (BETWEEN 15 AND  3 5 YEARS OLD).  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing y o u r o p i n i o n s general  information  about your v i l l a g e ,  changes o f a g r i c u l t u r a l patterns related  to the socio-economic  All  settlement  development.  This i s  s t r u c t u r e and B a l i n e s e  culture.  the information  open and t r u e , and w i l l for  and some  e s p e c i a l l y the  l a n d u s e and v i l l a g e  a f f e c t e d by t h e t o u r i s m  traditional  ADULTS  y o u g i v e us i s e x p e c t e d be c o m p l e t e l y  the purpose of the planning  study  t o be  c o n f i d e n t i a l and only.  Instructions: Fill  i n and o r c h o o s e an answer, and g i v e  A. The g e n e r a l 1.  information  the r e q u i r e d  a b o u t y o u r s e l f and y o u r  village  How o l d a r e y o u now? Sex:  a. M a l e  Marital  b . Female  s t a t u s : a. M a r r i e d  b. U n m a r r i e d  c.  How many c h i l d r e n do y o u h a v e ? What i s t h e name o f y o u r v i l l a g e ? 2.  information.  How  l o n g have y o u been s t a y i n g i n t h i s  (Please c i r c l e  one)  village?  Divorced  190  a.  less  b.  1 -  c. d.  than 1 year 5  years  5-10 10  -  15  e. more t h a n 15 3.  Are  you  years  a native  a.  Yes  b.  If  no,  a.  Javanese  villager?  No  what i s y o u r e t h n i c b.  origin?  Sundanese  c. C h i n e s e  d.  Other  (Please Specify)  4.  What k i n d  of education  a.  Never a t t e n d e d  b.  Primary  c.  Junior  high  school:  1,2,3  d.  Senior  High school:  1,2,3  e.  Technical  g.  1,2,3,4,5,6  Secondary s c h o o l :  (select  one)  1,2,3  1,2,3  U n i v e r s i t y : 1,2,3,4,5  h. V o c a t i o n a l  training  Have you  a permanent  a. Yes  b.  yes,  what k i n d  If  no,  why  yes,  b.  of  job  not?  Is a g r i c u l t u r a l a. Yes  job?  No  If  If  have?  school  school:  f . Academy:  5.  d i d you  the major a c t i v i t y  i n your  village?  No  is agricultural  land  i n your  village:  191 a.  Predominant  b.  Proportionate  c.  O n l y on  with  limited  other  land  use  land  d. I n s i g n i f i c a n t What t y p e o f a. Wet  land  rice  fields  b.  Dry  land  rice  fields  c.  Cash crops  d.  Fishing  e.  Other  f . No 6.  agricultural  Are  there  Yes  If  yes,  any  engage  in?  specify)  tourist  i n your  b.  No  (Please  activities  o r any  c.  tourist  circle  activities  from this,  Hotel  b.  Restaurant  c.  Travel  d.  T a x i , motor c y c l e , b i k e ,  e.  Artshop  list)  bureau  f. C u l t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n Carving  h.  Painting  i.  Ceramics  j.  Other  (please  associated  Don't Know  a.  g.  other  village?  what t y p e o f  village?  you  activity  activities a.  do  farming  (please  other  activity  specify)  canoe r e n t a l  are  there  i n your  192 7.  How  many p e o p l e  are t h e r e i n your  ( P l e a s e g i v e t h e age a.  0 -  4 years  b.  5 -  9  "  c . 10  - 14  "  d.  15  - 19  "  e.  20  - 24  "  f.  25 - 29  "  g.  30  - 34  "  h.  35  - 39  "  i.  40  - 44  "  j.  45  - 49  "  k.  5 0 - 54  "  structure) persons  1. o v e r  55  Are  t h e head o f t h e  you  a. Yes  b.  If  no,  a.  Parent people  you  (rental  c. R e l a t i v e o t h e r t h a n 8.  I f you  b.  I f y e s , how a. l e s s  stay?  House) parent  engage i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  agricultural a. Yes  household?  No  w i t h whom do  b. O t h e r  than  house ?  activity,  land? No l o n g have you 1 year  owned i t ?  do  you  own  your  b.  1 - 5  c. d.  years  5-10 10  -  15  e. more t h a n  9.  15  Do  you  rent i t ,  If  you  bought  I f you  farm,  a. A l o n e 10.  193  I f you  years o r d i d you  i t , what was do  you  b. W i t h  do  farming  farm  by  buy  i t or  inherit  it?  the p r i c e ? y o u r s e l f or w i t h  others?  others w i t h o t h e r s , how  many o t h e r  farmers  are i n v o l v e d ? How  l a r g e i s your  a.  1  b.  1 - 2  ha  c.  2 - 5  ha  d.  5 - 10  e.  10  - 15  f.  15  ha  How  land?  ha  ha ha  much i s y o u r  average  income f r o m  farming  in a  as a. p e r m a n e n t o r as a p a r t t i m e  job?  month o r i n a y e a r ? Do  you  farm  a. P a r t t i m e I f you a.  do  b.  other  Permanent  job, i s that:  Trading  b. P a i n t i n g c.  Carving  d.  Government  service  c . None o f  them  194 11.  I f y o u do a n o t h e r part  11a.  time  job beside  farming,  what  job?  a.  Trading  b.  Painting  c.  Carving  d.  Government  e.  Hotel  service  employee  f.  Industry  g.  Other  (Please  specify)  I f y o u a r e a r e t a i l e r , do you have y o u r own a. Yes If  i s your  shop?  b. No  y e s , s i n c e when?  I f no, who  i s t h e owner?  Where i s y o u r  shop  located?  a.  In the v i l l a g e  b. Out o f t h e  village  If  i t i s l o c a t e d out of the v i l l a g e  where^is i t ?  What i s y o u r a v e r a g e income p e r month? lib.  I f y o u a r e a h o t e l o r r e s t a u r a n t employee a r e y o u t h e owner? a. Yes  b.  No  I f y e s , s i n c e when? I f no, who How  i s t h e owner?  l o n g have you:.worked t h e r e ? . . .  Where i s t h e h o t e l / r e s t a u r a n t a.  In the v i l l a g e  If outside  located?  b. Out o f t h e v i l l a g e  the v i l l a g e ,  where  is it?  195 What 11c.  i s your  a.  Yes  If  yes, since  If  n o , who  b.  long  Where  h a v e you. w o r k e d  If  outside  a.  Yes  If  yes, since  If  n o , who  Where  b.  average  I f you a r e an b.  industrial  i s i t ?  employee, a r e you the  owner?  No when?  i s t h e owner?  of industry  there?  i s i t ?  i s i t located?  In the v i l l a g e  If  out of the v i l l a g e , i s your  I f you were would  where  village  income p e r month?  a.  What  Out o f t h e  have you worked  kind  there?  located?  the v i l l a g e ,  i s your  What  owner?  i s t h e owner?  i s the artshop  long  the  when?  In the v i l l a g e  How  employee a r e you  No  a.  What  12.  income p e r month?  I f you a r e an a r t s h o p  How  lid.  average  b.  average able  you most  b.  Tourist services  d.  Military  village  i s i t ?  income p e r month?  prefer?  Farming  Industry  where  to select  a.  c.  Out o f t h e  any  j o b , what  kind  of job  e.  Civil  f.  Trade  g.  Fishing  h.  Other  Are  servant  (please  you w i l l i n g  a.  Yes  If  y e s , why?',.'.'  If  no,  specify) to  transmigrate?  b. No  why?  Do y o u l i v e  i n a modern o r a t r a d i t i o n a l  a. Modern  b. T r a d i t i o n a l  How  large  hous  i s your p a r c e l ?  What i s t h e s i z e o f y o u r house? Do y o u own  your  land?  a.  Yes  If  y e s , what i s t h e s i z e ?  Did  b.. No  you buy i t ?  a.  Yes  b. No  If  y e s , when?  If  no, d i d y o u i n h e r i t  or  i s i t a r e n t a l land?  What i s t h e v a l u e Has l a n d v a l u e a.  Yes  If  y e s what was  it?  of land  i n your  changed s i n c e  b. No i t s value?  1969?  village'  5  197  B.  THE PERCEPTION OF THE V I L L A G E EDUCATED ADULT  The of for  questionnaire designed  to e l i c i t  the perceptions  t h e e d u c a t e d a d u l t g r o u p was t h e same a s t h a t the v i l l a g e  heads; r e f e r  t o page  17 3,- 180.  used  198  APPENDIX C.2:  SECOND ROUND QUESTIONNAIRE *  THE VILLAGERS' EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TOURISM  DEVELOP-  MENT ON TRADITIONAL VILLAGE LAND USE PATTERNS.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e villagers'  e v a l u a t i o n o f the impact o f tourism  on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l on t o u r i s m  i s t o examine t h e  village  development  land use p a t t e r n s  itself  development  and i t s e f f e c t s  i n the foreseeable  future.  Name o f t h e v i l l a g e Sub-District Regency o f Badung, P r o v i n c e  of B a l i .  Interviewer Date  Year  Time  * Translated  from t h e  o r i g i n a l Indonesian questionnaire is  on f i l e  University Columbia  a t The of B r i t i s h  School of  Community and Planning  which  Regional  199 THE  L I S T OF  (THE THE OF  POLICY STATEMENT TO  HEAD OF  THE  TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON  THE  VILLAGERS  V I L L A G E FARMER,  AND  SEEK A CONSENSUS ABOUT IMPACTS  BALINESE TRADITIONAL V I L L A G E LAND  PATTERNS  Based on we  EVALUATED BY  TRADITIONAL V I L L A G E , THE  VILLAGE EDUCATED ADULT) TO  USE  BE  now  ible  the r e s u l t s of our  want t o know y o u r e v a l u a t i o n o f  changes to the  c a u s e d by  the  elopment. economic  loss  traditional  These changes w i l l s t r u c t u r e of  All open and  the  affect  true; i t w i l l the  be  g i v e us  are  right  o r wrong  to tourism  dev-  s o c i o - c u l t u r e and u l t i m a t e l y the  study  to  confidential,  be and  for  only.  these  following  statements;  a l l matters of your f r e e o p i n i o n , t h e r e are  no  answers.  Just  i n d i c a t e the  with  each  reactions  poss-  patterns  i s expected  completely  planning  a c t u a l or  itself.  s t a t e y o u r a t t i t u d e s on  these  the  questionnaire,  l a n d use  l a n d due  t h e B a l i n e s e , and  i n f o r m a t i o n you  the purpose.of  the  village  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  f u t u r e of t o u r i s m development  Please  first-round  extent  statement; t o the  t o w h i c h you  please  following  freely  agree or  disagree  i n d i c a t e your  statements.  Place  1,  i f you  agree  strongly  Place  2,  i f you  agree  somewhat  Place  3, i f you  disagree  somewhat  Place  4,  i f you  disagree  strongly  Place  5,  i f you  d o n ' t know  initial  200 Information  about the  respondent  Name: Age: How a. b.  l o n g have you less 1 - 5  c. d.  than  1  village?  year  years  5-10 10  -  15  e. more t h a n 1.  been i n t h i s  We  15  learned  villages land  years  from our  the  educational  i s limited  to p o p u l a t i o n  p r o b l e m s and policy  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e l e v e l i s low;  (generally less  pressure);  job o p p o r t u n i t y  The  first  the  i s limited.  than  the  1 Ha  l e v e l of  t h a t i n most  size per  of  farming  family  income i s low;  These c o n d i t i o n s are  due and  serious  solutions d i f f i c u l t .  alternatives  to solve those  problems are  as  follows: a. To  limit  population pressure  family planning  by  intensifying  program and/or the  the  transmigration  program. b.  c.  To  improve  be  q u a l i f i e d to f i l l  To  intensify  level,  and  to m a i n t a i n  the  educational  l e v e l so t h a t l o c a l s  j o b s c r e a t e d by  existing  agricultural  to preserve subsistence  first  class  i n farming  the  will  developments.  l a n d to the agricultural f o r the  optimal land  Balinese.  201  d.  To open j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t o i n c r e a s e p e r c a p i t a income by d e v e l o p i n g integrated ing  with  the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l  tourism  activities  d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t by promot-  i t s positive effects  and m i n i m i z i n g  i t s negative  effects. Do y o u a g r e e w i t h 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  those a l t e r n a t i v e s ?  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e , somewhat 4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don't know If  y o u have a d d i t i o n a l o r d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  please We  learned  ultural only  from our f i r s t  production  a t a minimum  activities ities  s t a t e them round q u e s t i o n n a i r e  can support level;  are very  t h e B a l i n e s e way o f  hence t o u r i s m  important  2. A g r e e  life  and i t s r e l a t e d  t o g i v e more j o b o p p o r t u n -  and t o i n c r e a s e B a l i n e s e  1. S t r o n g l y  that a g r i c -  p e r c a p i t a income.  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don't know. Considering first  that B a l i  i s a tourist  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e  area,  and s i n c e o u r  i n d i c a t e d a trend  f o r most o f  202 the  villages  t o become i n v o l v e d  do  you agree t h a t  in  your v i l l a g e , 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  using  activity  be d e v e l o p e d  land?  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  learned  development,  a g r e e , why  somewhat  1  should  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  3. D i s a g r e e  5. Don t We  tourist  i n tourism  know from our f i r s t  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e  that i n  most v i l l a g e s  a g r i c u l t u r e i s the major a c t i v i t y .  some v i l l a g e s  that  are d i r e c t l y  development, a g r i c u l t u r a l tourist  development o r other  (non-agricultural ultural land  land  uses).  use should  tourism  u s e h a s been c h a n g e d  associated  Do you a g r e e be c h a n g e d  into  into  development that  the a g r i c -  non-agricultural  uses?  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why..  5. Don 1 1  We  land  a f f e c t e d by  In  learned  know from our f i r s t  Balinese  culture  in  i n addition  Bali,  i s a very  environment of B a l i . Culture, should  scenery  be p a i d  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e important  to the scenic  that the  tourist attraction  b e a u t y and u n i q u e  Hence t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n  of  Balinese  and e n v i r o n m e n t i s n e e d e d and a t t e n t i o n  to the basic  aspect  t h a t m i g h t change i t ;  203  alterations village  to agricultural  land  use  Strongly  2.  Agree  3.  Disagree  somewhat  4.  Disagree  strongly,  round  village  land  and B a l i n e s e patterns  of these  especially  why  questionnaire  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  traditional  settlement  why  know.  strong  view  agree,  on o u r f i r s t  religion,  facts,  prime  agricultural  are at the root  activities,  Balinese  Hindu  1.  Strongly  agree,  2.  Agree  3.  Disagree  somewhat  4.  Disagree  s t r o n g l y , why  culture  village In  of agricultural  i n order  use, the t r a d i t i o n a l  and B a l i n e s e  to  village  land  maintain settle-  i s an a b s o l u t e  necessity.  why  somewhat  know  The  responses  the  traditional maintaining  Related  land  there  of the culture.  the preservation  patterns  in  that  culture; the t r a d i t i o n a l  agricultural  land  i t seems  agricultural  use patterns,  ment  5. D o n ' t  traditional  somewhat  5. D o n ' t  are  use and  patterns.  1.  Based  land  to our f i r s t irrigation  round system  the agricultural  to the statement  questionnaire (subak)  land  i n number  6,  show  i s also  use i n each this  a  that factor  village.  traditional  204 irrigation  s y s t e m must be e v a l u a t e d  development which w i l l 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  change  carefully  i n any  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  land use.  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don 1 know 1  8. The f i r s t villages  round q u e s t i o n n a i r e under d i r e c t  influence)  has u s e d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l al  land use p a t t e r n s .  itional affect effects is  village  tourist  development  and c h a n g e d  T h i s change  i t s tradition-  has a f f e c t e d t h e t r a d -  patterns  culture.  (especially i n  and u l t i m a t e l y w i l l  Considering  these  negative  as w e l l as t h e p o s i t i v e ones, a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n  to l i m i t  tourism  agricultural only  land  settlement  the Balinese  shows t h a t  land.  Balinese  development  This, hopefully w i l l  subsistence  ence o f B a l i n e s e  i n order  farming,  to preserve maintain not  but a l s o the e x i s t -  traditional village  settlement  patterns  and c u l t u r e . 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don't  know  9. We a l s o l e a r n e d desire  to stay  t h a t , i f p o s s i b l e , most B a l i n e s e in traditional  housing.  Hence,  still  preserv-  205  a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l is  village  settlement  needed, i n c l u d i n g i t s t r a d i t i o n a l  and  i t s Balinese  entirely and  possible  types  If preservation  due t o t h e i n f l u x  the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y  materials, use  architecture.  housing  patterns  of land  i s not  o f modern h o u s i n g and b u i l d i n g  then a t l e a s t the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e  patterns  should  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  be  land  preserved.  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don't know .Land p r o p e r t y , important ecially  value,  and c h a n g e s t o i t , a r e v e r y  f a c t o r s i n the use o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ,  r e l a t e d t o t h e demand  elopment.  Hence, t o m a i n t a i n  traditional the  land  village  benefits  settlement  for non-agricultural  patterns  o f s o c i e t y and f o r f u t u r e  and f a i r  Ideally, be  judgement o f p o s s i b l e  the p o s s i b l e  ascertained 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  impact of land  and c u l t u r e f o r tourism  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e , s t r o n g l y , why 5. D o n 1 know 1  .  develop-  management,  land  value  use changes  b a s e d on t h e e v a l u a t i o n a g r e e , why  dev-  the a g r i c u l t u r a l land use,  ment, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have c l e a r l a n d control  esp-  change should  o f the v i l l a g e r s .  206  10.1.To s u p p o r t is  needed  t h e above p o l i c y to preserve  s t a t e m e n t , law enforcement  the prime a g r i c u l t u r a l  govern p o s s i b l e changes o f t r a d i t i o n a l that  c a n n o t be a v o i d e d ,  value on  land; to  village  i t i s necessary  land use  t o manage  land  c h a n g e s , t r a n s f e r o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , and e f f e c t s  the t r a d i t i o n a l 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  irrigation  system.  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don 1 know 1  11.  I n t h e l o n g r u n , due t o p o p u l a t i o n Bali will by  not l i k e l y  depending only  support the  be a b l e  i n c r e a s e each  to maintain  on s u b s i s t e n c e  from n o n - a g r i c u l t u r e  self-sufficiency  farming,  without  activities.  i n t r u s i o n of massive tourism  year,  strong  However,  development,  with  then  B a l i must f a c e up t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s : 11.1 A. t o t a l  shift  agriculture, ible  from a g r i c u l t u r a l  i n which i t w i l l  to preserve  patterns,  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  a g r e e , why  somewhat somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  1  know  village  t o nonor imposs-  land use  Balinese v i l l a g e  3. D i s a g r e e  5. D o n 1  be d i f f i c u l t  the t r a d i t i o n a l  c u l t u r e and t o t a l  activities  environment.  : • 207  2 Since  the o b j e c t i v e of tourism  support  the Balinese  c a r e f u l design agricultural ism  development  village  i s to  c u l t u r e and n o t t h e r e v e r s e , t h e  o f optimum l a n d u s e c o m p a t i b i l i t y f o r  a c t i v i t i e s and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r e  and a s s o c i a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t )  traditional  in Bali  village  i s needed  l a n d use p a t t e r n s  to  ( i . e . tourmaintain  and B a l i n e s e  environment.  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5 . Don 1 know 1  3 Since Island  there  i s a limit  to support  to the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of B a l i  i t s population  time i n the f u t u r e the c r i t i c a l Under t h e s e  circumstances  planning  programs,  tourists  t o the other  region  of B a l i ,  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  and t o u r i s t  with  tourist  and f a m i l y  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  d e s t i n a t i o n s i n outer  a r e recommended. a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  •5 . Don' t know If  tourism  d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be m a x i m i z e d  concentration  some  p o i n t w i l l be r e a c h e d .  the transmigration  together  demand,  e i t h e r by  or d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , then s e l e c t i o n o f  208  first  class agricultural  have t o p  priority,  agricultural al  village  land  i n a given  to minimize the  l a n d and  l a n d use  development should  to maintain  patterns. be  i n the  village  l o s s of Balinese  I d e a l l y any low  class  such  must prime  traditiontourist  agricultural  land. 1.  Strongly  2. A g r e e  At  somewhat  3.  Disagree  somewhat  4.  Disagree  s t r o n g l y , why  5.  Don't know  this  time t o u r i s t  concentrated and  the  new  ment on  the  negative class  the  negative  Balinese  effects  patterns,  concentration  2. A g r e e  culture.  with  the  and  the  of t o u r i s t  develop-  I n v i e w o f p o s i t i v e and (the  l o s s of  p o s s i b l e impact of  f u t u r e ) , do  you  agree t h a t  i s a good p o l i c y ?  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3.  Disagree  somewhat  4.  Disagree  s t r o n g l y , why  5.  Don't know.  Denpasar  objective  first  l a n d , changes to t r a d i t i o n a l  policy  Strongly  effects  to your v i l l a g e  development i n the  1.  (Sanur, K u t a ,  d e v e l o p m e n t i n Nusa Dua)  agricultural use  development i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  i n some r e s o r t a r e a s  of m i n i m i z i n g  land  a g r e e , why  village  tourist this  209 14.  Or do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t o u r i s t development w i l l whole r e g i o n  g i v e a more b a l a n c e d  effect  and t h u s be b e t t e r t h a n  1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  to the  concentration?  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  5. Don 1 know 1  15.  In o r d e r itional  to preserve village  agricultural  settlement  development o f t o u r i s m  land use, t r a d -  patterns,  and e n s u r e  i n the forseeable  future,  the  development i n B a l i  ing  t h e macro and m i c r o cosmos o f B a l i n e s e  Hita  Karana).  should  should  The t r a d i t i o n a l  be t h e b a s i s f o r s i t i n g  ment e i t h e r w i t h i n o r n e a r 1. S t r o n g l y 2. A g r e e  orderly ideally  be r e g u l a t e d by f o l l o w -  village  religion (Tri  land use p a t t e r n s  d e c i s i o n f o r any  develop-  the v i l l a g e .  a g r e e , why  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e  s t r o n g l y , why  ...  5. Don't know 16.  To a c h i e v e traditional rated covers  the goal  land use p a t t e r n s ,  developmental p o l i c y zoning,  transactions, permit  of maintaining  the existence  strong  i s needed..  and l a n d  and c l e a r i n t e g -  and l a w e n f o r c e m e n t  b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i o n  of the  permits,  which and l a n d  I d e a l l y , the operation  t r a n s a c t i o n permit  should  n o t be  issued,  210  before  t h e z o n i n g and b u i l d i n g  p e r m i t s have been  approved.  1. S t r o n g l y a g r e e , why 2. A g r e e  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 1 1  17.  know  Considering these p o l i c y  alternatives,  i n t e g r a t e d management and c o n t r o l i s m and i t s a s s o c i a t e d use  i s needed.  other and  i t i s clear  o f the impact  of tour-  d e v e l o p m e n t on a g r i c u l t u r a l  Since the development w i l l  relate  s e c t o r a l development, the involvement  central  that  land to the  of local  g o v e r n m e n t i s a must.  1. S t r o n g l y a g r e e , why 2. A g r e e  somewhat  3. D i s a g r e e  somewhat  4. D i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y , why 5. Don 1 1  We r e a l l y responses  a p p r e c i a t e the time  and y o u r  statements.  know  you have t a k e n ,  free opinions i n evaluating  Many t h a n k s  f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n .  your  t h e above  

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