UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The subjective geometry of regional space : a cross cultural inquiry Francoeur, Jean-Gilles 1981

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THE SUBJECTIVE GEOMETRY OF REGIONAL SPACE:'. A CROSS CULTURAL INQUIRY by JEAN-GILLES FRANCOETJR B.A. ( H o n s . ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1981 (c) J e a n - G i l l e s F r a n c o e u r , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my -department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of (s>G^oaya- The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbfook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date |fc t DE-6 (2/79) i i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r more p r e c i s e l y , d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . I t examines t h e n a t u r e o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t i n g how p e o p l e p e r c e i v e d i s t a n c e s a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e . A l s o , i t seeks t o u n d e r -s t a n d some o f t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e o p l e ' s m e n t a l t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n s o f s p a c e . C o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s s t u d i e d i n terms of how p e o p l e make sense of and o r g a n i z e t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g space. I t i s b e l i e v e d t o be a f u n c t i o n o f (1) p e o p l e ' s a c t i v e knowledge and i m p r e s s i o n s o f s p a c e , and (2) p e o p l e ' s ways o f o r g a n i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as t h e e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and dominant f e a t u r e s o f the e n v i r o n m e n t . E x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d i n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o . F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s e n i o r s t u d e n t s o f t e n h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e r e g i o n c o m p l e t e d an e x t e n s i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and a g g r e g a t e l e v e l w i t h s o p h i s t i c a t e d m u l t i - v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s , s m a l l e s t - s p a c e a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . S u b j e c t s made t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e s o f d i s t a n c e when th e y c o u l d gage t h e i r judgment on a w e l l known d i s t a n c e ( s ) . T h i s r a t i o e s t i m a t e was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n an a b s t r a c t " s t r a i g h t l i n e " f a s h i o n b u t , when i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t i m e d i m e n s i o n , t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e p r o v e d t o be much more s e n s i t i v e t o space. U n i t s o f t i m e have p r o v i d e d more p e r s p e c t i v e f o r r e l a t i v e judgment. Such e s t i m a t e s c o r r e s p o n d t o an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f measurement, t y p i c a l o f p r o j e c t i v e s p a c e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n remains d i s t o r t e d and p a r t l y s u b j e c t i v e ; i t p r o v e d t o be p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o v a r i o u s s u b - s p a c e s . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n was shown t o be t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e m e n t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r i p o r of t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f movement i n sp a c e . The amount o f space d i s t o r t i o n depends on p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f spa c e w h i l e t h e d i r e c t i o n ( s i g n ) o f d i s t o r t i o n depends much more on p e o p l e ' s i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . A l s o , p e o p l e ' s ways of s i m p l i f y i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s . C u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s were shown t o e x i s t i v and t h e i m a g e a b l e f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e g i o n p r o v e d t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s i x L i s t of Maps x Acknowledgement x i CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER I I C o g n i t i v e D i s t a n c e L i t e r a t u r e 4 2.1 Co n c e r n and R e s u l t s o f t h e R e s e a r c h 4 2.2 Methods Used 14 2.3 M e t r i c of Space I s s u e 16 2.4 Mechanisms of D i s t a n c e C o g n i t i o n 19 CHAPTER I I I The T h e s i s 24 3.1 Mechanisms o f S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n 24 3.2 D e v e l o p m e n t a l Theory 40 3.3 Models o f Space C o g n i t i o n 49 3.4 Focus o f R e s e a r c h 51 CHAPTER IV Methodology 56 4.1 R e g i o n of Study 56 4.2 S t i m u l i P o i n t s 61 4.3 Sample 63 4.4 The E x p e r i m e n t 66 4.4.1 O p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s 66 4.4.2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : f o r m a t and a p p l i c a t i o n 70 4.4.3 A n a l y s i s 72 CHAPTER V R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n 79 5.1 M e t r i c o f Space A n a l y s i s 79 v i PAGE 5.2 I n f l u e n c e o f F a c t o r s on D i s t a n c e E s t i m a t e s 86 5.2.1 P e r s o n a l f a c t o r s * 86 5.2.2 The s p a t i a l f a c t o r 92 5.2.3 Knowledge and meaning 94 5.2.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f knowledge 105 5.3 D i r e c t i o n E s t i m a t i o n and T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l Maps 117 5.3.1 G e n e r a l i t i e s 117 5.3.2 F a c t o r s 118 5.3.3 T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l maps 127 CHAPTER VI C o n c l u s i o n 131 6.1 M a j o r F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s 131 6.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study and S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 136 Notes 140 B i b l i o g r a p h y 147 Ap p e n d i x 1 159 A p p e n d i x 2 186 A p p e n d i x 3 192 A p p e n d i x 4 202 v i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 2.1 F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d i s t a n c e - c o g n i t i o n 5 4.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s 63 4.2 S a m p l i n g p o i n t s 65 4.3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample 66 4.4 L i s t of o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s 68 4.5 Comparison o f m e t r i c s 73 5.1 D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r each d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e -a l l sample and c u l t u r a l groups 78 5.2 L e v e l o f r e s p o n s e on the r a t i o e s t i m a t e (SUBMAG) f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t (%) 80 5.3 Means o f s t r a i g h t e r r o r measures 81 5.4 Means of r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures 82 5.5 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f s t r a i g h t and r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures "< 84 5.6 R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on t h e p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s 87 5.7 Means o f e r r o r measures f o r each s c h o o l 88 5.8 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f e r r o r measures f o r each c u l t u r e 90 5.9 R e s u l t s o f one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h d i s t a n c e 92 5.10 Tau b s t a t i s t i c o v e r 'knowledge' and 'meaning' v a r i a b l e s 95 5.11 R e s u l t s o f one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e 96 5.12 R e s u l t s o f two-way a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e 97 5.13 R e s u l t s o f r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e 98 5.14 Reasons why p l a c e s were grouped t o g e t h e r - i n p e r c e n t a g e s f o r each s c h o o l and f o r a l l 107 5.15 R e s u l t s of h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on schema e f f e c t 110 v i i i 5.16 R e s u l t s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e on schema e f f e c t 111 5.17 R e s u l t s o f m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d i n geo-p o l i t i c a l groups 113 5.18 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r POLBAR c a t e g o r i e s 114 5.19 R e s u l t s o f m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e ( w i t h RSURGRO) w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on the s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d i n g e o - p o l i t i c a l groups 116 5.20 R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s ( f o r DIRER)' 120 5.21 R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e e r r o r 121 5.22 S i g n e d (+/-) d i r e c t i o n e r r o r m a t r i x 122 5.23 R e s u l t s o f one-way and two-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e on DIRER 124 5.24 R e s u l t s o f m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d i n g e o - p o l i t i c a l groups - DIRER 125 5.25 Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r PHYSBAR and POLBAR c a t e g o r i e s 126 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 3.1 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f Moore's f i r s t l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e g o c e n t r i c r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m 46 3.2 Moore's second l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : D i f f e r e n t i a t e d and p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o f i x e d subgroups 46 3.3 Moore's t h i r d l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : Opera-t i o n a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d 47 3.4 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f P a i l h o u s ' s model o f t h e s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t a x i d r i v e r s i n P a r i s 50 5.1 Composite r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemas i d e n t i f i e d i n Casselman ( f r o m s i m i l a r i t i e s d a t a SURGRO) 106 5.2 Composite r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemas i d e n t i f i e d i n Casselman ( f r o m map e x e r c i s e d a t a MAPGRO) 109 5.3 Examples o f d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n e x e r c i s e where t h e r o a d n e t w o r k (a) and a r i v e r (b) were used as r e f e r e n c e l i n e s 119 5.4 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s p a c e o f W i l l i a m s t o w n 128 5.5 N i n e t y - f i v e (95) p e r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e zones o f e s t i m a t e d l o c a t i o n s - W i l l i a m s t o w n 130 6.1 Frequency o f v i s i t c u r v e s 135 X LIST OF MAPS PAGE Map 1 R e g i o n o f s t u d y 57 Map 2 C u l t u r a l zones o f a r e a of s t u d y 60 Map 3 S t i m u l i p o i n t s 62 Map 4 S a m p l i n g p o i n t s 64 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F i r s t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o thank Ken D e n i k e f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e c t and J i m Duncan and Ray C o r t e e n f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e e a r l i e r work. Beyond t h i s , t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d have been u n e x e c u t a b l e w i t h o u t t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f Canada C o u n c i l , T r a n s p o r t Canada, t h e UBC C e n t r e f o r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d i e s and t h e Geography Department. A l s o , I am g r e a t l y i n debt t o t h e many h i g h - s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s who made d a t a c o l l e c t i n g s u c h a r e w a r d i n g and e n j o y a b l e e x p e r i e n c e . Thank you t o F r a n k F l y n n b u t m o s t l y t o M a l c o l m Greg f o r h i s p a t i e n c e i n h e l p i n g me t h r o u g h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and thank you t o Donna M c C r i r i c k f o r h e r p r e c i o u s e d i t o r i a l comments and t o Maggie Watson f o r h e r h e l p i n t y p i n g . But most of a l l , I wou l d l i k e t o thank K r i s t i w i t h much l o v e . Her h e l p w i t h t h e d r a f t i n g , t h e e d i t i n g and t h e t y p i n g and h e r c o n t i n u o u s encouragements made t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . K r i s t i , m e r c i m i l l e f o i s p o u r t a p r e s e n c e s i p r e c i e u s e . CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n S i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960's geographers have become more and more i n t e r e s t e d i n man's o v e r t and c o g n i t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . B e h a v i o r a l and p e r c e p t i o n geography a r e now w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f i e l d s of t h e d i s c i p l i n e . " ' " T h i s r e s e a r c h s e e ks t o u n d e r s t a n d how man behaves and t h e n c e , what a r e t h e p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g t o o b s e r v a b l e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s . T y p i c a l l y , b e h a v i o r a l g e ographers have s t u d i e d m i g r a t i o n , r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y , d i f f u s i o n , t r a v e l and consumer b e h a v i o r . They have been p r e o c c u p i e d by d e c i s i o n making and t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s b e h i n d t h e s e 2 s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r s . I n p e r c e p t i o n geography t h e emphasis i s on man's m e n t a l r e p r e -3 s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r r e f l e c t s h i s c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e n vironment r a t h e r t h a n t h e o b j e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , b e h a v i o r can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d i f t h e n a t u r e and form o f c o g n i t i v e mapping i s known. S i n c e C C . T r o w b r i d g e ' s (1913) e a r l y work on " i m a g i n a r y maps" and o r i e n t i n g i n s p a c e , and E.C. Tolman's p i e c e on " C o g n i t i v e Maps and R a t s and Men" ( 1 9 4 8 ) , p e r c e p t i o n geography e v o l v e d r a p i d l y . The r e s e a r c h was l a u n c h e d i n t h e e a r l y 1960's by K. B o u l d i n g ( 1 9 5 6 ) , D. L o w e n t h a l ( 1 9 6 1 ) , and K. L y n c h ( 1 9 6 0 ) . I t f o l l o w e d v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s : (1) p e r c e p t i o n of n a t u r a l hazards,"* (2) m e n t a l images of t h e c i t y ( i n s p i r e d by L y n c h , ^ and f o l l o w e d by s i m i l a r s t u d i e s a t 7 8 d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s ) , (3) P. Gould's m e n t a l map s t u d i e s , and more r e c e n t l y , (4) s t u d i e s o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , (5) s t u d i e s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f space and o f t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c o g n i t i v e mapping, and (6) s t u d i e s 9 of t h e development of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . More p r e c i s e l y , i t w i l l examine d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n o r p e o p l e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f s e p a r a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e h e r e i s t o u n d e r s t a n d some o f t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 1 2 p e o p l e ' s m e n t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f sp a c e . M e a n i n g f u l measures of d i s t a n c e a r e needed f o r t h e development o f b e t t e r measures of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , b e t t e r l a n d u s e mod e l s , and b e t t e r s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and l o c a t i o n a l models. On a more academic l e v e l , i f man's s p a t i a l a c t i o n s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by images, t h e n t h e s t u d y o f c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s c e r t a i n l y w o r t h w h i l e . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n m i g h t d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s : d e c i s i o n s t o s t a y , t o go, o f where t o go, and of what r o u t e t o t a k e . " ^ I n t h i s t h e s i s c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s v i e w e d as one element o f t h e i n d i v i -d u a l ' s comprehensive s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s s t u d i e d i n terms of how p e o p l e make sense o f and o r g a n i z e t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s p a c e , o r i n t h i s c a s e , how p e o p l e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r r e g i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . M e n t a l images a r e d e f i n i t e l y u n i q u e t o each i n d i v i d u a l , b u t t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e image, a r e c e r t a i n l y w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l i t y . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o be a f u n c t i o n o f : (1) p e o p l e ' s a c t i v e knowledge and i m p r e s s i o n s o f space ( t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f space and p l a c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ) , arid (2) p e o p l e ' s ways of o r g a n i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as t h e e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s and dominant f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s t h e s i s hopes t o make two c o n t r i b u t i o n s : f i r s t , t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i s s u e o f the adop t e d m e t r i c o f space (a f i e l d where r e s e a r c h i s a l m o s t n o n e x i s t e n t ) , b u t m o s t l y , by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s t u d y o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n w i t h the more encompassing r e s e a r c h on c o g n i t i v e mapping; and s e c o n d l y , t o c o n t r i b u t e t o c u r r e n t work t h r o u g h t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f t h e s t u d y ' s s e t t i n g . E x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d i n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o , i n an a r e a dominated by Ottawa and M o n t r e a l a t e i t h e r end and l o c a t e d between Quebec and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (MAP 1). The r e g i o n a l s c a l e d f s t u d y i s i n t e r e s t i n g b ecause i t has been somewhat abandoned l a t e l y , t o t h e p r o f i t o f ur b a n s t u d i e s . A l s o , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a c o n s i s t s o f two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , F r e n c h and E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s , p r o v i d i n g t h e b a s i s f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s and a l o o k a t t h e impact o f n o t o n l y p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s , b u t a l s o c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , on p e o p l e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f space. However, t h i s l a t t e r i n t e r e s t w i l l be m o s t l y e m p i r i c a l as t h e main f o c u s o f t h e t h e s i s i s on p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l t h e o r y . The l i t e r a t u r e on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n w i l l be r e v i e w e d f i r s t (CHAPTER I I ) , t h e n my a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d and documented a t l e n g t h i n CHAPTER I I I . F o l l o w i n g t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c o u r s e t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t and t h e methodology w i l l be d e s c r i b e d (CHAPTER I V ) . F i n a l l y , t he r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and a s s e s s e d i n CHAPTER V, and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n CHAPTER V I . CHAPTER I I C o g n i t i v e D i s t a n c e L i t e r a t u r e Downs and S t e a have d e f i n e d c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e as " d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s and b e l i e f s made o r h e l d i n t h e absence o f t h e o b j e c t s and w h i c h r e l i e s upon memory, s t o r e d i m p r e s s i o n s , judgments, and b e l i e f s " (1973, p.317). More r e c e n t l y , t h e y have added t h a t d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s " e x p r e s s a complex o f f e e l i n g s about t h e p l a -ces t h e m s e l v e s as much as th e y r e p r e s e n t a human s c a l i n g o f s i m p l e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e " (1977, p.142). D i s t a n c e i s seldom known as f a c t , s i m p l y because such i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t needed i n ev e r y d a y l i f e ( r o a d s i g n s , maps, and the h i g h l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e environment p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n when needed). Man f u n c t i o n s on i m p r e s s i o n s o f s e p a r a t i o n . C o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s " f e l t " , n ot l e a r n -ed l i t e r a l knowledge, i f a t a l l p r e s e n t , q u i c k l y g e t s d i s t o r t e d i n t h e expe-r i e n c e o f space and p l a c e . One may know t h a t two s i t e s a r e e q u i d i s t a n t from home y e t a f t e r t r a v e l i n g t o e a c h , one p l a c e seems t o be f a r t h e r away t h a n t h e o t h e r . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i s e x p e r i e n t i a l l y d e r i v e d and t h e r e f o r e i n h e r e n t l y h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e : i t i s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l — h i s m o t i v e s , h i s sense o f space (knowledge and i m p r e s s i o n s ) , and t h e c o n t e x t ( p h y s i c a l and s i t u a t i o n a l ) o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e . D i s t a n c e s i n v o l v i n g complex and s t r e s s f u l t r a v e l would seem g r e a t e r t h a n t h e y a c t u a l l y a r e . The d r i v e r i n a g r e a t h u r r y would f i n d d i s t a n c e s much l o n g e r t h a n t h e t y p i c a l Sunday d r i v e r . TABLE 2.1 summarizes t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n -f l u e n c e d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as t h e t h e s i s p r o g r e s s e s . 2.1 Concern and R e s u l t s o f t h e R e s e a r c h The n o t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e ( i . e . d i s t a n c e t o o b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e r e a c h > 4 5 TABLE 2.1 F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n E nvironment 1. r e a l d i s t a n c e mag-n i t u d e ( i n m i l e s , t i m e , o r c o s t ) 2. t y p e o f r o u t e ( s c e -n e r y , pace, t r a f f i c , r i s k , v a r i e t y ) 3. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o -p e r t i e s ( c o m f o r t , c o n v e n i e n c e o f t r i p ) 4. a p p e a l , c o m p l e x i t y , i m a g e a b i l i t y ( c o n -c e p t u a l form) o f environment 5. t y p e o f d e s t i n a t i o n 6. t y p e and number o f b a r r i e r s ( p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l ) t o overcome C o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s I n d i v i d u a l ( p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n -f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h s u b j e c t / o b j e c t c o n t a c t ) 1. E x p e r i e n c e o f t r i p : - c o m p l e x i t y , l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y , and u n i t y o f t r a v e l i n g t a s k - i m p r e s s i o n o f r o u t e , t r a v e l mode and t y p e o f t r i p 2. E x p e r i e n c e o f space and  p l a c e s : -knowledge a c q u i r e d ( o r i -e n t a t i o n i n sp a c e ; s i z e , a c t i v i t y , l o o k and ch a -r a c t e r o f p l a c e s and t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n ) -meaning and v a l u a t i o n o f p l a c e s and t h e i r p o p u l a -t i o n , b u t a l s o o f space ( r e g i o n s , a r e a s ) i n ge-n e r a l ( i m p r e s s i o n s f o r -med t h r o u g h d i r e c t expe^ r i e n c e , e x t r a p o l a t i o n s from t h a t , and o t h e r i n -d i r e c t knowledge) 3. C o g n i t i v e mapping p r o c e s s e s : - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f s p a t i a l i n f o r m a -t i o n 1. age, s e x , s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , l e v e l o f m o b i l i t y , t r a v e l i n g h a b i t s 2. d e s i r e o r m o t i v a t i -on t o overcome space (pu r p o s e o f t r i p v s . o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e g o n e ) 3. mood and c i r c u m -s t a n c e s 4. p r e f e r e n c e s and a t -t i t u d e s toward ob-j e c t i v e p a r a m e t e r s o f space ( d i s t a n c e ) and o f s e p a r a t i o n ( t i m e , c o s t , conve-n i e n c e , p l e a s u r e ) o f s e n s e s ) has a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s s i n c e t h e 1950's. How-ev e r , r e s e a r c h on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n o n l y began i n t h e 1960's w i t h t h e work of T. Lee (1964) on t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r space t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and D.L. Thompson (1963) on t h e "new c o n c e p t " o f s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t o r e s . A group from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S t o c k h o l m (Ekman and B r a t f i s c h , 1965; B r a t f i s c h , 1 9 6 9 ; L u n d b e r g , 1973, e t c . ) produced a number of s t u d i e s on t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e and e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h c o n t i n u e s 6 to g e n e r a t e c r i t i c a l work today ( S t a n l e y , 1968, 1971; Walmsley, 1974, 1978). But m o s t l y , D. S t e a ( 1 9 6 9 ) , G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko (1969) and T. Lee (1970) g e n e r a t e d a l o t o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i e l d w i t h t h e i r t h ought p r o v o k i n g i l l u s t r a -t i o n s o f man's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f u r b a n space. M a j o r s t u d i e s f o l l o w e d — B r i g g s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Lowrey ( 1 9 7 3 ) , C a n t e r and Tagg ( 1 9 7 5 ) , C a d w a l l a d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Most of t h e s e s t u d i e s were n o t t o o con c e r n e d w i t h t h e o r y , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p r o c e s s e s o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . Emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e p r a g m a t i c p r o b l e m o f m o d e l i n g c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e . Most r e s e a r c h e r s have been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e form o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e and i n t h e t y p e o f f u n c t i o n t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r i n s t a n c e , B r i g g ' s avowed c o n c e r n was i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g i f t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r e a l and c o g n i z e d d i s t a n c e i n a c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n l i k e l y t o maximize t h a t d i f f e r e n c e . " I f s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s cannot be d e m o n s t r a t e d c o n s i d e r a -b l e f r u i t l e s s r e s e a r c h e f f o r t can be a v o i d e d , and t h e c o n t i n u e d use o f t h e much s i m p l e r o b j e c t i v e measures ( o f d i s t a n c e , i n models of s p a t i a l b e h a v i o r ) w i l l r e s t upon a f i r m e r t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n " (1972, p.14) ( p a r e n t h e s i s m i n e ) . That c o n c e r n f o r m a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l i n g has s e t t h e tone f o r h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e e f f e c t s o f a few f a c t o r s , and f o r l i m i t e d a n a l y s e s d e s i g n s ( e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f u n c t i o n p a r a m e t e r s o v e r a g g r e g a t e d d a t a ) . These s t u d i e s tend t o be r e p e t i t i v e w i t h t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e same f a c t o r s i n s i m i l a r u r b a n c o n t e x t s . A r t i c l e s by G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko ( 1 9 6 9 ) , G o l l e d g e e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Lowrey ( 1 9 7 3 ) , and p a r t o f t h e work of t h e S t o c k h o l m S c h o o l have been c o n c e r n -ed • w i t h methodology. They l o o k e d a t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f new t o o l s o f a n a l y s i s such as v a r i a n t s o f p s y c h o p h y s i c a l and m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . G o l l e d g e e t a l . have o v e r e m p h a s i z e d methodology when th e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t s t e p toward a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o g n i t i v e space was t o improve "methods of f i t t i n g g r i d s t o t h e MDS c o n f i g u r a t i o n s (and t o d e v e l o p ) methods f o r t r a n s -f o r m i n g ' r e a l ' maps of Columbus ( t h e c i t y ) t o f i t t h e p a r t i c u l a r map p r o j e c t i o n s o b t a i n e d from ( t h e i r ) sample r e s p o n d e n t s " (1976, p.112) ( p a r e n t h e s e s m i n e ) — a s i f methods and t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d come b e f o r e i d e a s , i n s i g h t i n t o a p r o b l e m and the e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e o r y ! Few a u t h o r s have been i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ; fewer s t i l l have made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i -b u t i o n . The work o f B r i g g s (1972, 1 9 7 3 ) , C a n t e r and Tagg ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Lee (1963, 1970), S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n (1980a, b ) , S t e a (1969) and Thompson (1963) have how-e v e r , \ p r o v i d e d i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n . R e s u l t s w h i c h r e l a t e t o t h e form o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e and r e a l d i s t a n c e a r e abundant and q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t . A t l e a s t t e n d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d on a c u r v i l i n e a r o r power f u n c t i o n l i n k i n g t h e two v a r i a b l e s ( T o b l e r , 1961; S t e a , 1969; G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko, 1969; Ekman and B r a t f i s c h , 1965; B r a t f i s c h , 1969; Lun d b e r g , 1973; B r i g g s , 1973; Lowrey, 1973; B u r n e t t , 1974; G o l -l e d g e e t a l . , 1 976), w h i l e o n l y S t a p f ( 1 9 6 8 ) , and C a d w a l l a d e r (1973, 1976) had e v i d e n c e o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . C a n t e r and Tagg (1975) showed no p r e f e r e n c e f o r one f u n c t i o n o r t h e o t h e r and Lee (1970) o b s e r v e d no s p e c i f i c t r e n d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Even i f t h e s e s t u d i e s have used d i f f e r e n t methods and have been done a t d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l s c a l e s t h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t d i s -t a n c e c o g n i t i o n does i n f a c t v a r y w i t h s c a l e . C o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s w i t h r e a l d i s t a n c e b u t a t a d e c r e a s i n g r a t e , c o n s e q u e n t l y , l o n g d i s t a n c e s a r e q u i t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . The c a u s e s o f t h i s r e g u l a r i t y however, a r e n o t so c l e a r , and b a s i c a l l y no one would even s p e c u l a t e on t h a t . G e n e r a l l y , a t t h e u r b a n and r e g i o n a l s c a l e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two v a r i a b l e s has been d e s c r i b e d as q u i t e s t r o n g ( p e o p l e have adequate knowledge d i s t a n c e s and t h e y a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r e r r o r ) , b u t t h e S t o c k h o l m S c h o o l , i n t e r e s t e d i n w o r l d w i d e space c o g n i t i o n , has al w a y s o b s e r v e d a v e r y weak r e l a -t i o n s h i p (most p e o p l e have no f e e l i n g f o r such a d i s t a n t and out o f p r o p o r t i o n 8 s p a c e ) . One s h o u l d n o t e however, t h a t s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been o b s e r v e d o v e r a g g r e g a t e d d a t a ; t h e s e t r e n d s a r e n o t so c l e a r a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . There i s ample ground f o r q u e s t i o n n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f s u c h " s t r o n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p s " .- •" F i n a l l y , a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s have o b s e r v e d a g e n e r a l t r e n d i n o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of d i s t a n c e s (Thompson, 1963; L e e , 1970; B r i g g s , 1972; C a d w a l l a -d e r , 1973; C a n t e r and Tagg, 1975). C a d w a l l a d e r m a i n t a i n s t h e r e i s much g r e a t e r leeway f o r o v e r e s t i m a t i o n t h a n t h e r e i s f o r u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s . Here a g a i n though, we a r e l e f t w i t h l i t t l e more t h a n an e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t . That r e s e a r c h has n o t been c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n . No t h e o r e t i c a l framework was p r o v i d e d t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e s u l t s . The f i n d i n g s on t h e r o l e of v a r i o u s f a c t o r s on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n a r e more s t i m u l a t i n g . F o r t h e sake o f c l a r i t y t h o s e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d under t h e c a t e -g o r i e s of " t h e i n d i v i d u a l " , " t h e e n v i r o n m e n t " , and " t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s " (as used i n TABLE 2 . 1 ) . 1 L i t t l e work has been done on t h e f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Wo-men have been shown t o be s l i g h t l y b e t t e r e s t i m a t o r s by Lowrey (1973) and Lee (1970) b u t t h e e v i d e n c e i s n o t s t r o n g . I n Lowrey's s t u d y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p seems to be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a d i f f e r e n c e of m o b i l i t y , w h i l e i n Lee's work women do b e t t e r o n l y f o r d i s t a n c e s toward downtown, an a r e a t h e y v i s i t more o f t e n f o r s h o p p i n g p u r p o s e s . Lowrey a l s o found t h a t age, e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n had no i n f l u e n c e on c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e ; B u r n e t t (1974) got s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r age (group of 21 t o 55 y e a r s ) but he f ound t h a t h i g h e r income groups c o u l d p r o -duce b e t t e r e s t i m a t e s , l i k e l y r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r h i g h e r l e v e l o f m o b i l i t y . M o b i l i t y i t s e l f , was t e s t e d o n l y by Lowrey. He found t h a t n o n - d r i v e r s were more s t a b l e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s w h i l e d r i v e r s tended t o be more c a r e l e s s — n o t s u r p r i s -i n g ' a r e s u l t c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h groups had been c o n t r o l l e d f o r t r a v e l i n g t h e same d i s t a n c e s i n t h e c i t y . A l t h o u g h no s t r i c t t e s t has been made, B r i g g s , Lowrey, and C a n t e r and Tagg have r e p o r t e d a g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e r e s u l t s a t t h e i n -9 d i v i d u a l l e v e l . T h i s p o i n t s t o t h e u n i q u e n e s s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s space r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n and t h e need f o r more a n a l y s i s a t t h a t l e v e l . S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n (1980a, b) have s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed by v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n a l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t t h e y found t h a t d i s t a n c e s on p a t h s w i t h more i n t e r s e c t i o n s were o v e r e s t i m a t e d ( 1 9 8 0 a ) , as were d i s t a n c e s on p a t h s about w h i c h more a t t r i b u t e s ( i n t e r s e c t i n g p a t h names) were remembered (1980b). They c o n f i r m e d t h o s e f i n d i n g s i n a " r e a l w o r l d " e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h showed t h a t a r o a d w i t h more i n t e r s e c t i o n s ( s t o p s and l i g h t s ) was s y s t e m -a t i c a l l y ' o v e r e s t i m a t e d . They e x p l a i n e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i t h t h e " i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e " model, s t a t i n g t h a t r o u t e s w h i c h p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n , and thus more cues f o r e s t i m a t i n g d i s t a n c e s , w i l l be j u d g e d t o be l o n g e r t h a n r o u t e s w i t h l e s s a t t r i b u t e s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems too s i m p l e . F i r s t , t h e i r macro spac e t e s t i s n o t v a l i d : a s t r e e t w i t h more i n t e r s e c t i o n s i s a l s o a s t r e e t w i t h more t r a f f i c and g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y , w h i c h p roduces l e n g t h i e r ( i n tim e ) and more s t r e s s f u l t r a v e l . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s about one p a r -t i c u l a r f a c t o r (amount of i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d ) . More g e n e r a l l y , I would e x t e n d t h e i r t h e o r y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a j o u r n e y about w h i c h one can r e c o n s t r u c t more i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o a j o u r n e y t h a t can be segmented i n t o more p a r t s , and p o s s i -b l y a more complex j o u r n e y . T h i s would c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e " i l l u s i o n " of a l o n g e r d i s t a n c e . B r i g g s (1972) a l s o l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t o f r o u t e t y p e , a r g u i n g t h a t r o u t e s w i t h bends would be j u d g e d as l o n g e r because of t h e i n c r e a s e d s e g m e n t a t i o n o f the p e r c e p t u a l t a s k . I n s t e a d , he found t h a t t h o s e d i s t a n c e s were u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t a c e r t a i n " a i r l i n e " v i e w o f sp a c e , whereby d i s t a n c e s a r e p e r -c e i v e d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e f a s h i o n , was i n o p e r a t i o n (1973, p.190). S t e a (1969) l o o k e d a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e r o u t e and found t h a t peo-p l e tended t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s o v e r a t t r a c t i v e , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r o u t e s . As a t r i p g e t s more i n t e r e s t i n g a t t e n t i o n i s drawn away from t h e t a s k o f o v e r -10 coming space and o f s e p a r a t i o n i t s e l f . F i n a l l y , Lowrey (1970) and B u r n e t t (1974) o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e end p o i n t ( d e s t i n a t i o n ) made no d i f f e r e n c e but B u r n e t t f ound t h a t h i s r e s p o n d e n t s o v e r e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e s t o b i g c i t i e s . T h i s r e s u l t conforms w i t h t h o s e r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t r i p t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y . F a r more a t t e n t i o n has been p ut on f a c t o r s t i e d t o t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s as s u c h — t h e p r o c e s s o f e x p e r i e n c i n g , r e a c t i n g t o , and making sense out of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g space. Most s t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t o f d e s t i n a t i o n f a m i l -i a r i t y on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( u s u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d as a c t i v e k n o w l e d g e ) . The r e -s u l t s a r e v e r y c o n s i s t e n t : d i s t a n c e s t o p l a c e s t h a t a r e f a m i l i a r a r e g e n e r a l l y more a c c u r a t e ( S t e a , 1969; G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko, 1969; G o l l e d g e e t a l . , '.  1976; Thompson, 1963; Lee, 1970) b u t s t i l l u n d e r e s t i m a t e d (Thompson, 1963; L e e , 1970). O n l y B r i g g s (1972) and C a d w a l l a d e r (1976) f a i l t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e r e -l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h , t h e y s u g g e s t , may be due t o t h e i r methodology. As our exper-i e n c e "-' o f d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , we t e n d t o become more o b j e c t i v e . T h i s o c c u r s as we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s ( e . g . a r r i v i n g l a t e a t m e e t i n g , r e p o r t -i n g . on t r i p l e n g t h t o o t h e r p e o p l e , p l a n n i n g t i m e budget of t h e day, b e i n g ex-posed t o r o a d s i g n s , s t r e e t b l o c k s , and v a r i o u s cues) t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o change our f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e " r e a l " d i s t a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s t a n c e s t o b e t t e r known p l a c e s t e n d t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d compared t o d i s t a n c e s t o p o o r l y known p l a c e s . As a p l a c e g e t s v i s i t e d more o f t e n t h e a c t u a l t a s k o f the t r i p g r a d u a l l y becomes more a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g because one can concen-t r a t e on o t h e r t h i n g s t h a n w a y f i n d i n g . One g e t s t o i d e n t i f y landmarks and cues of i n t e r e s t a l o n g t h e way and i n g e n e r a l , g e t s t o be p a r t o f the l i f e o f t h e r o a d e n vironment ( e . g . by o b s e r v i n g changes b e i n g done h e r e and t h e r e from t r i p t o t r i p ) . The t r i p becomes more d i v e r s i f i e d and d i s t r a c t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , as move-ment i n space e x c i t e s t h e a t t e n t i o n and c u r i o s i t y o f t h e p e r s o n , g i v e s him t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f p r o g r e s s i n g toward h i s g o a l , and draws h i s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m 11 t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of f r i c t i o n ( e . g . i n t e r r u p t i o n s and d e l a y s of t r i p ) , t h e t a s k of moving and t h e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s h o r t e r ( F r a i s s e , 1963, pp. 88-89, 94-96). Many s t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t of t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o r d e s i r a b i l -i t y of t h e d e s t i n a t i o n ( s t i m u l i p o i n t ) . Here again the r e s u l t s a r e v e r y c o n s i s -t e n t and i n a s e n s e , a r e complementary t o t h o s e j u s t d i s c u s s e d . Thompson ( 1 9 6 3 ) , S t e a ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and Buckman (1966) have shown t h a t d i s t a n c e s t o d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s a r e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . R e s e a r c h by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of S t o c k h o l m p o i n t s i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . These s t u d i e s l o o k e d a t t h e r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e (SD) and e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ( E I ) t o b i g c i t i e s o f t h e w o r l d under d i f f e r e n t con-2 d i t i o n s o f s t i m u l i s e t , d i s t a n c e r a n g e s , s c a l i n g methods and groups o f s u b j e c t s . A l l s t u d i e s c o n f i r m e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e " i n v e r s e s q u a r e r o o t l a w " (EI=1/VSD) i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . S t a n l e y (1968, 1971) and Walmsley (1974, 1978) soon q u e s t i o n e d t h e l e v e l o f p r e c i s i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n , but n o t t h e g e n e r a l sense • o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h shows t h a t p l a c e s " c l o s e t o h e a r t " a r e a l s o i m a g i n -ed, t o be c l o s e i n space. But why i s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p so s t r o n g ? Does a s i m p l e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n make us f e e l s p a t i a l l y c l o s e r t o p l a c e s we p r e f e r ? Or c o u l d i t be t h a t a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and d e s i r a b i l i t y a r e j u s t o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n s of s p a t i a l 3 knowledge? P l a c e s we l i k e a r e u s u a l l y p l a c e s we tend t o v i s i t . Thus, as argued b e f o r e , t h e h i g h e r t h e i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e t a s k of moving toward t h e g o a l , the e a s i e r t h a t movement seems ( F r a i s s e , 1963, pp.93, 94-96). Where do we draw t h e l i n e between knowledge and meaning? These two a s p e c t s of e x p e r i e n c e a r e l a r g e l y b u i l t t o g e t h e r , and t h e i r e f f e c t on s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n seems t o be cumu-l a t i v e . From a t e c h n i c a l s t a n d p o i n t however, t h e e f f e c t s of knowledge and mean-i n g s h o u l d be t e s t e d w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r each o t h e r , something t h a t has not y e t r i g o r o u s l y been done. I n t h e s t u d y of u r b a n d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , t h e i s s u e t h a t has p r o b a b l y drawn th e most a t t e n t i o n has been t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t i n r e f e r e n c e 12 to t h e CBD. Brennan (1948) and Lee (1962) produced e v i d e n c e t h a t housewives would r a t h e r shop i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f downtown t h a n away. Lee ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i n h i s s t u d y o f Cambridge, d i s c o v e r e d t h a t women f o r e s h o r t e n e d d i s t a n c e s toward down-town. The CBD was thought t o be more a t t r a c t i v e and r e w a r d i n g t o women because of t h e shops; Lee i n t r o d u c e d t h e n o t i o n of t h e downtown schema w i t h i t s p o s i t i v e v a l e n c e . He a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t outward j o u r n e y s (away from CBD) i n v o l v e d more c o r n e r s and were more ti m e consuming ( c o n s e q u e n t l y p e r c e i v e d as l o n g e r ) , and t h a t i n w a r d j o u r n e y s were much more f a m i l i a r t o h i s s u b j e c t s . A number o f N o r t h -A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e same i s s u e and s t r a n g e l y , have come up w i t h o p p o s i t e r e s u l t s , c r e a t i n g a l o t of c o n f u s i o n . G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko (196 9 ) , B r i g g s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and C a d w a l l a d e r (1973) showed t h a t d i s t a n c e s toward the CBD were o v e r e s t i m a t e d , and Walmsley (1978) showed t h a t d i s t a n c e s i n h i g h den-s i t y a r e a s tended t o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . These w r i t e r s e x p l a i n e d t h e i r r e s u l t s i n terms of t h e c o m p l e x i t y , s t r e s s and t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t of t h e j o u r n e y downtown. I n a s e n s e , t o o much e f f o r t has been put i n t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a r a t h e r vague f a c t o r , t h e d i r e c t i o n toward downtown. Whether we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h know-l e d g e , v a l e n c e , o r t h e n a t u r e of t h e t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e ( t i m e , c o m p l e x i t y ) i s n o t c l e a r , and i n f a c t , elements o f t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s and more may be a l l a c t i n g a t t h e same t i m e . Rapoport (1976) b e l i e v e s i n t h e v a l e n c e argument. He e x p l a i n e d the d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s i n terms of t h e p r e f e r e n c e s d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s have f o r u r b a n e l e m e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o him, t h e A m e r i c a n CBD i s seen n e g a t i v e l y whereas th e B r i t i s h CBD i s v i e w e d v e r y p o s i t i v e l y . T h i s would e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a s i d e , i t seems t o me t h e e x p e r i e n -t i a l f a c t o r i s c r u c i a l h e r e a g a i n . I n most c i t i e s a t r i p downtown i s a n n o y i n g and t i m e consuming, t r a v e l i n g i s h i g h l y segmented ( t r a f f i c l i g h t s , cues o f a l l k i n d s , numerous a c t i v i t i e s ) and complex ( c o n g e s t i o n t o a v o i d , maze of one-ways). Such o b s t a c l e s t o movement a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s ( F r a i s s e , 1963, p.89). I n Lee's s t u d y , i t was the t r i p s outward t h a t i n v o l v e d 13 more t i m e and more a r t i f i c i a l b r e a k s i n t h e t a s k . C e r t a i n l y , knowledge and a t t i -t u de toward t h e CBD complement t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n : bad e x p e r i e n c e s g e n e r a t e nega-t i v e f e e l i n g s w h i c h i n t h e i r t u r n g e n e r a t e m i n i m a l t r a v e l i n g t o t h e p o i n t i n q u e s t i o n . A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s combine t o have a s t r o n g impact on t h e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f space. A l a s t t y p e of f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d s p e c u l a t i v e l y , i s t h e way p e o p l e o r g a n i z e space i n t h e i r mind. Lee (1963) pushed t h e i d e a of schemas of space as s i m p l i f i e d compartments of space s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I n s p i r e d by L o r d ' s (1941) s t u d y , he found t h a t c h i l d r e n d i v i d e d t h e i r s p a t i a l w o r l d i n t o v a r i o u s l o c a l schemas w h i c h b o r e a d e t e c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d . O u t s i d e t h i s known a r e a t h e r e was one t o t a l schema, t h e " e l s e w h e r e " s c h e -ma, f o r w h i c h p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s were i r r e l e v a n t . Cox and Zannaras (1973) p u r -sued t h i s i d e a by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f space i n t o schemas prob-a b l y * had a major i n f l u e n c e on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , b u t a t t e m p t e d no i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . S t e a (1969) p r o p o s e d t h a t p h y s i c a l o r c o n c e p t u a l b a r r i e r s a l s o had an im-p a c t on t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of space. He showed t h a t t h e number of b a r r i e r s r a -t h e r t h a n t h e t y p e o f b a r r i e r m a t t e r e d . D i s t a n c e s were o v e r e s t i m a t e d as t h e num-b e r of b a r r i e r s i n c r e a s e d . F i n a l l y , C a n t e r and Tagg (1975) produced a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , b u t not too c o n c l u s i v e s t u d y on t h e r e l a t e d i s s u e of t h e c o n c e p t u a l form of t h e c i t y . They i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e impact of h i g h l y l e g i b l e r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f t h e c i t y ( e . g . r i v -e r s , , r o a d s , topography) on t h e form of images i n g e n e r a l , and d i s t a n c e c o g n i -t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . These r e f e r e n c e l i n e s were seen as o r g a n i z i n g o r a n c h o r i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . They f o u n d e v i d e n c e o f s u c h an i n f l u e n c e i n Glasgow and Tokyo where t h e c i r c u l a r r a i l w a y t r a c k s r e a l l y gave shape t o peo-p l e ' s e s t i m a t e s . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l examine more t h o r o u g h l y t h e l i n k s between d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of m e n t a l space. u 2.2 Methods Used The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d r e f l e c t c e r t a i n m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . One o f t h e f i r s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i s a s k i n g p e o p l e how t h e y t h i n k about d i s t a n c e s . S h o u l d one ask f o r a m i l e , t i m e , o r a s u b j e c t i v e m e t r i c e s t i m a t e , a r o u t e d i s t a n c e o r a s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e ? What fo r m a t s h o u l d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t a k e — o r a l o r w r i t t e n ? I f w r i t t e n , s h o u l d one a s k f o r a l i n e s c a l i n g e s t i m a t e o r a numeral e s t i m a t e ? A l l t h e s e methods and more have been t r i e d , and t h e y a l l seem t o work, y e t t h e y p r o d u c e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . One o f t h e most common has been t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e ( B r i g g s , 1972; G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko, 1969; Lowrey, 1973; C a d w a l l a d e r , 1973; S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n , 1980a, b; and a l l s t u d i e s from t h e S t o c k -holm S c h o o l ) . The e s t i m a t e a s k s f o r a r e l a t i v e judgment. The s u b j e c t has t o e v a l -u a t e • t h e d i s t a n c e t o a p l a c e on t h e b a s i s of a p r e d e t e r m i n e d d i s t a n c e i n d e x fam-i l i a r '• t o him. T h e r e f o r e , t h e m e t r i c o f space i s t h e d i s t a n c e i n d e x , t h e b a s i s of c o m p a r i s o n . T h i s e s t i m a t e i s w e l l r e g a r d e d as i t does n o t i n v o l v e t h e conven-t i o n a l m e t r i c s ( m i l e , t i m e ) and i t l e a v e s t h e s u b j e c t q u i t e f r e e t o e x p r e s s h i s own sense of d i s t a n c e . The r a t i o e s t i m a t e i s a l s o t h o u g h t t o b e t t e r a p p r o x i m a t e the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s w h i c h most l i k e l y i n v o l v e s r e l a t i v e judgments ( B r i g g s , 1972, p.158). O t h e r s t u d i e s have asked f o r d i r e c t m i l e a g e o r t i m e e s t i m a t e s . Ho-ward e t a l . (1973) used mapping and model b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o d e r i v e d i s t a n -ces but t h i s i s n o t recommended s i n c e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t i n d e p e n d e n t o f each o t h e r . O nly G o l l e d g e e t a l . (1976) asked f o r an o r d i n a l l e v e l judgment. Most w r i t e r s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t r o u t e d i s t a n c e s s h o u l d be used f o r t h e c i t y w h i l e "as t h e crow f l i e s " d i s t a n c e s s h o u l d be used f o r l a r g e r s c a l e s , t h i n k i n g t h a t as t h e s c a l e of s t u d y i n c r e a s e s s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n becomes more and more a b s t r a c t . Such grounds f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t y p e o f e s t i m a t e a r e q u i t e s p e c u l a t i v e and t h i s i s -sue s h o u l d be l e f t open f o r s t u d y , n o t f i x e d i n advance by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . A l s o , most s t u d i e s used o n l y one p a r t i c u l a r m e t r i c . R e s u l t s v a r y w i t h t h e t y p e of me-t r i c , t h e r e f o r e , as many as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be used t o p e r m i t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of 15 t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between them. O b j e c t i v e measures of d i s t a n c e ( i n m i l e a g e o r ti m e ) have s i m i l a r l y been used as i f t h e r e was o n l y one p o s s i b l e r e a l i t y t o compare t o . V a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e measures s h o u l d be used t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h r e a l i t y t he e s t i m a t e s a r e c l o s e r t o . A v e r y s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s l i e s i n t h e l e v e l o f ag-g r e g a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . Most a n a l y s e s have been done w i t h means o r medians o f i n d i v i d u a l d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s , a g g r e g a t i n g t h e whole sample o r subgroups of t h e sample (based on s e x , l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e , m o b i l i t y , e t c . ) . Only C a d w a l l a d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , B r i g g s (1972, 1976), and G o l l e d g e e t a l . (1976) (but t h e l a t t e r two o n l y v e r y s l i g h t l y ) were c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . They showed t h a t c o n c l u s i o n s a r e n o t as c l e a r and s t a b l e a t t h a t l e v e l . When a g g r e -g a t e measures a r e used most of the v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d a t a i s c u t out and i n d i -v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h u s o v e r l o o k e d . B e h a v i o r a l and p e r c e p t i o n geography a r o s e i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f s i m p l i s t i c models o f man, w i t h t h e m a j o r i n t e n t i o n o f e x p l o r i n g and t a k i n g man i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A n a l y s i s t h a t does n o t a c c o u n t d i r e c t l y f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n s i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e . The l a s t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h e d e s i g n o f t h e a n a l y s i s . How can one i n v e s t i g a t e a q u e s t i o n i n v o l v i n g so many known and unknown v a r i a b l e s and i s o l a t e t h e e f f e c t o f each v a r i a b l e ? How can one ac c o u n t f o r as many v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e ? Most s t u d i e s have been p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h m o d e l i n g t h e r e a l d i s t a n c e / c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a few s i t u a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e few o u t s i d e f a c t o r s were i n v e s t i g a t e d , and q u i t e r i g i d methods o f a n a l y s i s were used ( m o s t l y f u n c t i o n f i t t i n g ) . B r i g g s , f o r example, has p e r f o r m e d a v e r y t i g h t e x p e r i m e n t ( c a r e f u l c h o i c e o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s and sample) i n o r d e r t o i s o l a t e two v a r i a b l e s ( d i r e c t i o n v s . CBD and t y p e o f r o u t e ) and t h e n f i t r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s s t u d i e d . But most s t u d i e s were n o t w e l l d e s i g n e d and they have v e r y l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r o u t s i d e v a r i a b l e s . The l a t t e r a r e o f t e n assumed t o be c o n s t a n t even when the sample s i z e i s v e r y 16 s m a l l ( C a d w a l l a d e r , 1976; G o l l e d g e , B r i g g s and Demko, 1969; S t o c k h o l m S c h o o l ; S t a n l e y , 1968, 1971; Walmsley, 1974, 1978; C a n t e r and Tagg, 1975). S i n c e my i n -t e r e s t i s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e phenomenon I w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t of numer-ous . v a r i a b l e s t h r o u g h m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s and a t t e m p t t o m i n i m i z e t h e e f f e c t of o u t s i d e v a r i a b l e s by u s i n g an i m p o r t a n t random sample. 2.3 M e t r i c of Space I s s u e How do p e o p l e measure o r a c c o u n t f o r d i s t a n c e s between p l a c e s ? Do t h e y f a -v o r a p a r t i c u l a r way of t h i n k i n g o r do t h e y measure s e p a r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o r s p a t i a l s c a l e ? Those q u e s t i o n s have not r e a l l y been a d d r e s s e d . The m e t r i c of space i s a u n i t of measurement of s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o un-c o n s c i o u s l y by t h e i n d i v i d u a l when e s t a b l i s h i n g s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o p l a c e s . When one t h i n k s of a d i s t a n c e what comes f i r s t t o m i n d — t h e number of m i l e s , min-u t e s . o r h o u r s , t h e p r o x i m i t y t o a r e f e r e n c e p l a c e , o r t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e des-t i n a t i o n i n a sequence o f p o i n t s ? A t t h e l e v e l o f t o p o l o g i c a l space ( t e r m i n o l o g y of P i a g e t , 1947-1960) mea-surement i s n o t p o s s i b l e s i n c e no m e t r i c e x i s t s . U n l i k e E u c l i d e a n s p a c e , t h a t space i s e l a s t i c , no g e n e r a l system o f r e f e r e n c e u n d e r l a y s i t . The o n l y i n t e r -p o i n t r e l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d a r e t h o s e o f " n e i g h b o r h o o d n e s s " , d i v i s i o n , o r d e r , s u r r o u n d i n g s , e n c l o s u r e and c o n t i n u i t y ( P i a g e t , 1956, p . 4 3 ) . B a s i c a l l y , a p o i n t can o n l y be p o s i t i o n e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o i t s n e i g h b o r s o r o r d e r e d i n a sequence of p l a c e s . A t t h a t l e v e l t h e c o g n i t i v e map i s no more t h a n an o r d e r - p r e s e r v i n g t r a n s f o r m . L y n c h (1960, p.87) o b s e r v e d t h a t h i s m e n t a l maps, however d i s t o r t e d , had a s t r o n g element of t o p o l o g i c a l i n v a r i a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e a l i t y . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of a l l m e n t a l map r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Lowrey (1973) showed t h a t h i s s u b j e c t s had an e x t r e m e l y good knowledge o f t h e o r d e r o f d i s t a n c e s t o p l a c e s , something t h a t nobody e l s e has r e a l l y t e s t e d s i n c e . F o l l o w i n g t h e t o p o l o g i c a l l e v e l , comes th e l e v e l where r e f e r e n c e o b j e c t s 17 a r e used as u n i t v a l u e , and r e p e a t e d o v e r space t o e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s . Such ob-j e c t s may be p a r t of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t : b l o c k s , house numbers, avenue system, o r l a n d d i v i s i o n s ystem ( c o n c e s s i o n s ) i n t h e r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . A l s o , t h e y may be p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l : l a p s e of h a b i t u a l a c t i o n s ( e . g . t h e t i m e f o r two c i g a r e t t e s o r f o r one c a s s e t t e o f m u s i c b e f o r e a r r i v i n g a t a d e s t i n a t i o n ) , range of p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s , and most i m p o r t a n t , e x p e r i e n c e d d i s t a n c e s . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , t h e m e t r i c of space becomes th e known d i s t a n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t ( l a n d -mark, cue, f a m i l i a r p l a c e ) ; p e o p l e t h e n p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e judgment such a s , "Ottawa i s h a l f - w a y t o M o n t r e a l " o r " S e a t t l e i s t w i c e as f a r as B e l l i n g h a m " . T h i s judgment f o l l o w s from t h e r e l a t i o n s of " n e i g h b o r h o o d n e s s " of t h e t o p o l o g i -c a l l e v e l b u t a l s o i n v o l v e s a m e t r i c . I t i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e v e r y p o p u l a r r a -t i o e s t i m a t e d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The l a s t two m e t r i c s a r e more c o n v e n t i o n a l and a l s o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . The m i l e o r k i l o m e t e r i s t h e m e t r i c o f t h e o r g a n i z e d w o r l d ( r o a d s i g n s , maps, c a r odometers) and f o r t h a t r e a s o n , one m i g h t assume such a m e t r i c i s p r e f e r r e d by the i n d i v i d u a l who f u n c t i o n s d a i l y i n t h a t w o r l d . But t h e t i m e m e t r i c i s a l s o v e r y p o p u l a r as i t i s so much p a r t of our l i v e s . Time r u l e s our day, we have d e a d l i n e s t o meet, m e e t i n g s t o a t t e n d , l u n c h t i m e s , s l e e p i n g t i m e s , and t i m e s t o s p a r e ! U n i t s o f t i m e convey a c l e a r s e n s e o f e f f o r t . " I t ' s a two h o u r t r i p t o V a n c o uver" means a l o t more t h a n " I t ' s 140 m i l e s t o V a ncouver", i n c l u d i n g as i t does c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f r o a d c o n d i t i o n s , v e h i c l e t y p e , t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , e t c . C a d w a l l a d e r (1976) found t h a t t h e m i l e and t i m e e s t i m a t e s seemed s l i g h t l y b e t -t e r known ( c l o s e r t o r e a l i t y ) t h a n t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e . A l s o , B u r n e t t (1974) c o n c l u d e d h i s s t u d y by s a y i n g t h a t t h e t i m e e s t i m a t e s were q u i t e s t a b l e no mat-t e r w h i c h f a c t o r was i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s shows t h e e f f i c i e n c y of t h a t m e t r i c i n c o n v e y i n g a good sense of s e p a r a t i o n . L i t t l e e l s e however, i s known of t h e p r o p -e r t i e s of t h e v a r i o u s m e t r i c s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , I would l i k e t o b r i n g back t h e i s s u e o f t h e r o u t e v s . s t r a i g h t 18 l i n e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e . I n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e m e t r i c i s s u e , i t i s t h e l e v e l  o f e x p r e s s i o n of e i t h e r t h e m i l e , t i m e o r r a t i o e s t i m a t e s . The "as t h e r o u t e goes" e s t i m a t e i s much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d because i t i s t i e d down t o t h e d e t a i l o f t h e network. I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of e i t h e r l i t e r a l knowledge ( w h i c h i s u n l i k e l y ) o r of a v e r y a c t i v e and a t t e n t i v e knowledge of a r o u t e , p o s s i b l e o n l y i n t h e c a s e of t r i p s done r e g u l a r l y . The "as t h e . crow f l i e s " e s t i m a t e r e f l e c t s more of an a b s t r a c t way of t h i n k i n g of space when knowledge i s i m p e r f e c t . I t i s t y p i c a l o f l o n g d i s t a n c e s where t h e d e t a i l o f a r o u t e i s h a r d t o remember. C a n t e r and Tagg (1975, p.63) make t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : Crow f l i g h t e s t i m a t e s may be drawn more d i r e c t l y f r o m some a b s t r a c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p r o c e s s w h i c h t h e p e r s o n has d e v e l o p e d . A d m i t t e d l y t h i s p r o c e s s may be b u i l t upon many e x p e r i e n c e s , such as t r a v e l l i n g about t h e c i t y , b u t crow f l i g h t e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d e n a b l e us t o d e a l w i t h t h e g e n e r a l r e s i d u e of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n i t s p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . Y e t B r i g g s (1972) and Howard e t a l . (1973) p r o v i d e i n d i c a t i o n s of p r e f e r r e d "crow" e s t i m a t e s o v e r r a t h e r s h o r t d i s t a n c e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y . I w o u l d s a y t h a t t h e m i l e o r t i m e m e t r i c s a r e much more o f t h e l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of t h e r o u t e e s t i m a t e . M i l e and t i m e m e t r i c s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d a t ground l e v e l , i n t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s of o vercoming t h e f r i c t i o n o f t h e r o a d system, t h e r e f o r e , r o u t e d i s t a n c e s would p r o b a b l y be b e t t e r e s t i m a t e d i n m i l e s o r t i m e . On t h e o t h e r hand, crow d i s t a n c e s s h o u l d be b e t t e r e s t i m a t e d w i t h t h e " i n d e x d i s t a n c e " m e t r i c ( r a -t i o e s t i m a t e ) . One can t h i n k of t h e s e " i n d e x d i s t a n c e s " as y a r d s t i c k s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l moves o v e r h i s m e n t a l space o f r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m t h e c o m p a r a t i v e judgments. T h i s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i s p r o b a b l y l e s s f l e x i b l e t h a n the m i l e o r t i m e u n i t i t e r a t i o n p r o c e s s and i s more th e p r o d u c t o f a b s t r a c t r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s ( b u i l d i n g t h e image of i m p e r f e c t l y known r e a l i t y ) t h a n of t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n of a p r e c i s e l y known r e a l i t y . Of c o u r s e , t h e b i g q u e s t i o n t o answer b e h i n d a l l t h a t c o n c e r n s t h e geomet-19 f i c a l . n a t u r e of c o g n i t i v e space: i s i t t o p o l o g i c a l , e u c l i d e a n ' o r of some i n t e r -m e d i a t e l e v e l ? P i a g e t shows t h a t t h e development of s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e a -ches t h e E u c l i d e a n l e v e l a t around 6 y e a r s . He was however d e a l i n g w i t h p e r c e p -t u a l - s c a l e space and not m a c r o - s c a l e s p a c e . I n g e n e r a l , E u c l i d e a n geometry i s l a r g e l y a c u l t u r a l f a c t : we a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o E u c l i d t h r o u g h s c h o o l and t h e r e -f o r e f i n d i t most c o n v e n i e n t i n our e v e r y d a y c o n t a c t s w i t h s o l i d b o d i e s . On the o t h e r hand e v i d e n c e of n o n - c o n s e r v a t i o n of E u c l i d e a n p r o p e r t i e s o v e r c o g n i t i v e space i s so s t r o n g t h a t i t i s c l e a r we have t o opt f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e . 2.4 Mechanisms of D i s t a n c e C o g n i t i o n How do we g e n e r a t e c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s ? How t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r -i o u s r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d above, i n a comprehensive and c o n v i n c i n g way? Up t o now i n t e r e s t has been e s s e n t i a l l y p r a g m a t i c ( m o d e l i n g ) and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t we s t i l l have no t h e o r y on w h i c h t o g u i d e r e s e a r c h . S t e a ' s (1969) " e x p e r i m e n t a l model o f c o n c e p t u a l s p a c e " was r e a l l y n o t h i n g more t h a n a frame-work w i t h i n w h i c h t o c o n s i d e r t h e c o g n i t i o n of d i s t a n c e , a framework u s e f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g f a c t o r s l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n but l a c k i n g i n e x p l a n a -t i o n of t h e p r o c e s s . B r i g g s (1972, 1973) s u g g e s t e d f i v e p o s s i b l e mechanisms f o r g e n e r a t i n g c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s : 1. motory r e s p o n s e : t h e amount of p h y s i c a l energy expended i n moving 2. t i m e and v e l o c i t y : t h e knowledge of t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t i m e , v e l o c i t y , and d i s t a n c e 3. p e r c e p t i o n : t h e a d d i t i o n of a l l t h e p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e s between p l a c e s ( o r l a n d m a r k s ) on t h e r o u t e f r o m A t o B 4. p a t t e r n s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t : l i k e b l o c k s o r t r a f -f i c l i g h t s 5. s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : r e l i a n c e on maps, r o a d s i g n s , and t h e l i k e ( B r i g g s , 1973, p.187) 20 A l t h o u g h B r i g g s has r e c o g n i z e d a l l mechanisms may o p e r a t e under d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s he s u g g e s t e d t h a t " p e r c e p t i o n " i s most c r i t i c a l . The p r o c e s s i s based on v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n : t h e space between two p o i n t s i s assumed t o be d i v i s -i b l e -in a s e r i e s of " l i n k - n o d e s " , a d j a c e n t p a i r s of w h i c h can be seen s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y . - The p r o c e s s e s of d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n can t h e n o p e r a t e upon t h e s e ad-j a c e n t p a i r s ; c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e between t h e end p o i n t s i s o b t a i n e d by a d d i t i o n of t h e p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e s between t h e l i n k - n o d e p a i r s . To summarize, i t i s be-l i e v e d t h e space between two d i s t a n t p l a c e s i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d from s u c c e s s i v e , s e p a r a t e l y p e r c e i v e d segments and t h e t o t a l d i s t a n c e i s e s t i m a t e d as t h e sum o f t h e d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d i n each segment. An i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s v i e w i s t h a t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e must a l s o i n f l u e n c e c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e . B r i g g s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e tends t o be p r o g r e s s i v e l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d as o b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f segments i n t o w h i c h t h e s p a c e between two p o i n t s i s d i v i d e d , t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e w i l l be ( i . e . one has l e s s chance t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e s ) . B r i g g s d e s i g n e d h i s e x p e r i m e n t upon the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i s t a n c e s toward t h e CBD (where t h e h i g h l a n d - u s e d e n s i t y and t h e l o n g e r t i m e o f t r a v e l a l l o w s more l i n k - n o d e s t o be i d e n t i f i e d ) w ould be o v e r e s t i m a t e d , and t h e second h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i s t a n c e s o v e r bended r o u t e s would a l s o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d ( s i n c e more bends means p o t e n t i a l l y more l i n k -nodes, more d i v i s i o n o f t h e t o t a l d i s t a n c e ) . H i s f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was c o n f i r m e d but h i s second was n o t . Those r e s u l t s s e r i o u s l y c o n t r a d i c t e d h i s m e c h a n i s t i c model. He showed t h a t d i s t a n c e s were e s t i m a t e d i n an a b s t r a c t , s t r a i g h t l i n e f a s h i o n ( B r i g g s , 1972, p.161) even when he had a s ked f o r " b e s t r o u t e " e s t i m a t e s , d e n y i n g t h e v e r y "down t o e a r t h " e s t i m a t e s h i s model was a s k i n g f o r . When t r a v e l i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l may p e r c e i v e s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n vironment o r s p e c i f i c c u e s , b u t he c e r t a i n l y i s n o t a t t e n t i v e t o t h e p o i n t of p e r c e i v i n g d i s t a n c e s between t h e s e p o i n t s , o r 21-u l t i m a t e l y p u t t i n g a l l t h o s e p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e s t o g e t h e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e g l o b a l image. D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n has v e r y l i t t l e t o do w i t h d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n : i t i s based upon i m p r e s s i o n s d e v e l o p e d from a l l a s p e c t s of t h e t r i p and n o t j u s t from memories of p e r c e i v e d segments. The o v e r e s t i m a t i o n t o t h e CBD has more t o do w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y ( o f moving, p a r k i n g , w a l k i n g , e t c . ) and t h e s l o w p r o g r e s s toward t h e g o a l t h a n i t has t o t h e v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n of numerous segments of space a l o n g t h e way. To c o m p l e t e B r i g g s ' s l i s t , R apoport (1976) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r -e n t i a l ' ' a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f d e s t i n a t i o n s p r o v i d e a s i x t h mechanism. I t seems r i g h t t o i n t r o d u c e t h i s as a f a c t o r of d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n b u t c e r t a i n l y n o t as a g e n e r a l mechanism. F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d i e s o f S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n (1980a, b) have p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e " i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e model". The model i s b ased on M i l g r a m ' s (1973) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s p a t i a l d i s t o r t i o n s may r e f l e c t t h e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l has s t o r e d about a r e g i o n : R e g i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n would h y p o t h e t i c a l l y be c o g n i z e d as l a r g e r t h a n r e g i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n . A p p l y i n g t h i s model t o r o u t e s t r u c t u r e w o u l d l e a d t o the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t r o u t e s w i t h more s t o r e d a t t r i b u t e s ( s u c h as t u r n s o r i n t e r s e c -t i o n s ) would be e s t i m a t e d as l o n g e r t h a n r o u t e s of e q u i v a l e n t l e n g t h w i t h fewer s t o r e d a t t r i b u t e s . (1980b, p. 185) L a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s have shown t h a t p a t h s w i t h more i n t e r s e c t i o n s o r w i t h more memorized a t t r i b u t e s (name o f s t r e e t s ) a r e i n d e e d r e c o g n i z e d as l o n g e r . T h e i r t h e o r y s i m p l y p o i n t s t o some k i n d of i l l u s i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be s u b m i t t e d t o w h i l e he m e n t a l l y r e t r a v e r s e s t h e pathway i n an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n -s t r u c t cues f o r d i s t a n c e . Such an e f f e c t m i ght be p r e s e n t b u t f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . A j o u r n e y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n i s a j o u r n e y w h i c h p r e s e n t s more b r e a k s . The more d i v i d e d t h e t a s k of moving, t h e more com-p l e x i t m i ght be, and t h e l o n g e r i t seems. Viewed t h i s way, t h e s t u d i e s c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s w h i c h showed t h a t t r i p s t o l a r g e c e n t r e s , downtown, o r any h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a a r e o v e r e s t i m a t e d . 22 A l l t h o s e mechanisms appear t o be v e r y r e s t r i c t e d however, and do n o t p r o -v i d e a g l o b a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s of d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . T h i n k i n g about s e p a r a t i o n has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h u s i n g a map (mechanism 5 ) , o r r e l a t i n g speed of t r a v e l w i t h t i m e (mechanism 2 ) ; i t may have something t o do w i t h t h e o t h e r mechanisms, e s p e c i a l l y motor r e s p o n s e , d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and i n f o r -m a t i o n s t o r a g e , but s u c h elements p r o v i d e no g l o b a l o u t l o o k t o t h e p r oblem. T h i s r e v i e w has c l a r i f i e d some a s p e c t s of c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e . Numerous s t u d i e s showed t h a t i t i s " f e l t " and v e r y s u b j e c t i v e : c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e i s o n l y an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . Many f a c t o r s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e space d i s -t o r t i o n : t h e d i s t a n c e magnitude i t s e l f , i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s , t h e n a t u r e of t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , f a m i l i a r i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t h e d e s t i n a t i o n , i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e CBD and f i n a l l y , the. i n d i v i d u a l ' s m e n t a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f s p a c e . The one common denominator emphasized was t h e a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p a c e , t h e amount and n a t u r e of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . Many w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d out t h e c r i -t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e of t h a t d i m e n s i o n . P i a g e t ' s w r i t i n g s (1947, 1960, 1966) have been a l m o s t o b s e s s i o n a l i n t h e i r r e i t e r a t i o n t h a t s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e b u i l t up t h r o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d on o b j e c t s i n s p a c e . Tuan i s a l s o v e r y d e f i n i t e on t h a t m a t t e r : The meaning of d i s t a n c e i s as v a r i e d as i t s e x p e r i e n t i a l modes: we a c q u i r e t h e f e e l of d i s t a n c e by t h e e f f o r t o f moving from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r , by t h e need t o p r o j e c t our v o i c e , by h e a r i n g t h e dogs bark at n i g h t , and by r e c o g n i z i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l cues f o r v i s u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . (1977, pp.15-16) E s t i m a t e s of l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s draw on t h e e x p e r i e n c e and i d e a o f e f -f o r t . (1977, p.45) Downs and S t e a have s t r e s s e d t h e same i d e a s : C o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s r e f l e c t much more t h a n t h e s i m p l e geo-g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between p l a c e s on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . They a r e one r e s u l t of t h e a t t e m p t by c o g n i t i v e mapping t o s y n t h e s i z e a v a r i e -t y o f s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . . . . A l l o f t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s t a n c e ( n e a r - f a r , t i m e , m i l e a g e , e t c . ) a r e based on t h e human s c a l e of exper-23 i e n c e ; .They c a l i b r a t e d i s t a n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o the human e x p e n d i t u r e o f e f f o r t t h a t i s needed t o overcome t h e s e p a r a t i o n between p l a c e s : Man i s t h e measure. (1977, p.141) ( p a r e n t h e s i s mine) Y e t t o i n s i s t on e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge of s p a c e i s n o t enough. One must c o n s i d e r how t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e a l s w i t h a l l t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n , how he o r g a n i z e s knowledge i n h i s mind. The p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h o f L e e , S t e a , and C a n t e r and Tagg has p r o v e n t o be most i n s p i r i n g h e r e . I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r I w i l l p r e s e n t my p o s i t i o n more f u l l y . I n t h e l i g h t o f P i a g e t , I w i l l i n d i c a t e why a c t i o n s and n o t p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a t t h e s o u r c e o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . F i n a l l y , I w i l l s p e c u l a t e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p a t i a l i n -f o r m a t i o n and how t h i s r e l a t e s t o d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , b o r r o w i n g from t h e c o g n i -t i v e mapping and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h e m e n t a l map s t u d i e s , and t h e few s t r u c t u r a l models of c o g n i t i v e space. CHAPTER I I I The T h e s i s I n t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l d i s c u s s some i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h u n d e r l i e d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e h e r e i s t o u n d e r s t a n d how man t r a n s f o r m s t h e space t h a t s u r r o u n d s him. I n t h e p a s t a s t r u c t u r a l a pproach has o f t e n been t a k e n t o t h e s t u d y o f c o n c e p t u a l s p a c e s . K a p l a n d e f i n e s t h e c o g n i t i v e map as " t h e s t r u c t u r e t h a t h o l d s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a p e r s o n has about h i s e n v i r o n m e n t " ( K a p l a n , 1972, p . 3 ) . Moore and G o l l e d g e t a l k o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from t h e l a r g e r environment as e x i s t i n g i n some t y p e o f " p s y c h o l o g i c a l s p a c e " o r "ment a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n " (Moore and G o l l e d g e , 1976). O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have been u s i n g e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e " m e n t a l maps", " t h e geography i n men's minds", and t h e " c o g n i t i v e a t l a s " , as i f a p h y s i c a l map a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d i n t h e mind. My main i n t e r e s t i s i n how p e o p l e t h i n k about and o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e g i o n a l environment and how th e y c o n c e p t u a l i z e s e p a r a t i o n . The m o t i v e i s not t o come t o a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t o f t h e c o g n i t i v e map, but t o come t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s b e h i n d c o g n i t i v e mapping. As Downs p u t s i t , " C o g n i t i v e maps a r e g e n e r a t e d t o s e r v e a s p e c i f i c p urpose and do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y " e x i s t " as a g i v e n s t r u c t u r a l form. What does e x i s t a r e s e t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and s e t s o f r u l e s o r h e u r i s t i c s f o r g e n e r a t i n g maps" (1976, p . 6 8 ) . How t h e s e " r u l e s " o p e r a t e i s s t i l l q u i t e u n c l e a r . 3.1 Mechanisms of S p a t i a l C o g n i t i o n C o g n i t i o n i s a c o l l e c t i v e term f o r t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t he a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and use o f knowledge ( i . e . p e r c e p t i o n , memory, a t t e n t i o n , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , l a n g u a g e , t h i n k i n g , i m a g e r y ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e knowledge and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e 24 25 e l ements ( e n t i t i e s ) and r e l a t i o n s o f s p a c e , o r t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f space i n t h o u g h t . I t i n v o l v e s t h e s t u d y o f images, i m p r e s s i o n s , b e l i e f s and the s u b j e c t i v e meanings t h a t p e o p l e have of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Some answers t o q u e s t i o n s about how the i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s space and how he d e a l s w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g him, must be s o u g h t . The p r o b l e m of knowledge i s the p r o b l e m o f t h e r e l a t i o n between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t : r e a l i t y i s c o n s t r u c t e d by an a c t i v e s u b j e c t ( p o s i t i o n o f P i a g e t , Werner, K a p l a n , and o t h e r c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r i s t s ) . S u p p o r t e r s o f t h a t n e o - K a n t i a n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e Mead, Dewey and B e n t l e y , Whorf, and Werner,'' but one man s t a n d s out above a l l f o r t h e d e t a i l of h i s t h e o r y and e m p i r i c a l work, and h i s comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f t h e development o f space c o g n i t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r — t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t J e a n P i a g e t . F o r more t h a n f o r t y y e a r s , P i a g e t has c r e a t e d an enormous l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n i n g a b r o a d and h i g h l y o r i g i n a l t h e o r y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and p e r c e p t u a l development. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b r i e f l y examine P i a g e t ' s s ystem, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n and g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n i n g as w e l l as i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , b u t above a l l , w i l l emphasize P i a g e t ' s i d e a s on t h e mechanisms of c o g n i t i o n , and the f u n d a m e n t a l n a t u r e and r o l e o f space r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (what he c a l l s s p a t i a l " i n t u i t i o n " ) . P i a g e t ' s major i n t e r e s t was r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d by F l a v e l l a s , " t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e development of i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r e s " (1963, p . 1 5 ) . P i a g e t r e s e a r c h e d p e r c e p t i o n , m o r a l a t t i t u d e s and o t h e r v a l u e systems b u t h i s m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n has been i n t h e a r e a o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . He f i r m l y b e l i e v e s t h a t the s t u d y o f o n t o g e n e t i c change i s c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a d u l t human b e h a v i o u r . P i a g e t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l approach i n v o l v e s t h e c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s of s u c c e s s i v e o n t o g e n e t i c s t a t e s i n a g i v e n c u l t u r e . H i s main o b j e c t of i n q u i r y i s b e h a v i o u r change from p r i m a r y t o more advanced ways o f f u n c t i o n i n g . The o n l y v a r i a b l e he i s r e a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. He does not d e a l w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t 26 v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e , p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , e t c . ) w h i c h c o u l d a f f e c t b e h a v i o u r s , a l t h o u g h he a d m i t s s u c h v a r i a b l e s c o u l d change t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l age a t w h i c h a g i v e n s t a g e of f u n c t i o n i n g becomes p r o m i n e n t . P i a g e t does r e c o g n i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n on development; he b e l i e v e s s o c i a l f o r c e s a r e c r u c i a l i n t h e 3 f o r m a t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l thought and a d e c e n t e r e d s u b j e c t . P i a g e t , however, always comes back t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , whom he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e b a s i c l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t , w h i l e language i s a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( s o c i a l s i g n s ) , t h e m e n t a l image- remains i n d i v i d u a l ( a s y m b o l ) , a t r a n s l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and t r u e i n t e r i o r i s a t i o n (1962, p . 7 1 ) . . . . t h e r e i s i n a l l v e r b a l and c o n c e p t u a l thought a s t r a t u m of imaged r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a s s i m i l a t e f o r h i m s e l f t h e g e n e r a l i d e a common t o a l l (1962, p.164). . . ... t h e c o l l e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n o f language i s the main f a c t o r i n b o t h the f o r m a t i o n and s o c i a l i s a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , b u t th e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use v e r b a l s i g n s i s dependent on t h e p r o g r e s s o f h i s , o w n t h o u g h t . Thus, i n a d d i t i o n t o words, t h e b e g i n n i n g s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e t h e s u p p o r t o f a system o f u s a b l e s i g n i f i e r s a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . (1962, p.273) * And t h o s e " s i g n i f i e r s " (as d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o f h i s accommodations t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . Even i f P i a g e t f a v o u r s t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s , he b e l i e v e s i t cannot be s e p a r a t e d from t h e s o c i a l (1971, p.360). P i a g e t ' s m a j o r h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t c o g n i t i v e development i s a c o h e r e n t p r o c e s s o f s u c c e s s i v e e q u i l i b r a t i o n s o f c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , each s t r u c t u r e d e r i v i n g i n e v i t a b l y from t h e p r e c e d i n g one. These s t r u c t u r e s a r e a c t u a l l y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , p r o duced t h r o u g h f u n c t i o n i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g f u n c t i o n i n g ( e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r ) . P i a g e t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u a l i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h o s e p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l s t a g e s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s and n o t m e r e l y t o c a t e g o r i z e b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h he was m o s t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e t a i l s o f s t r u c t u r a l change i n the c o u r s e of development, he has a l s o d e v o t e d a l o t of a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s e s 27 b e h i n d t h o s e changes, t o t h e n a t u r e of i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . P i a g e t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on c o g n i t i v e development i s m o s t l y b i o l o g i c a l ; i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s a s p e c i a l form o f b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y . Through h e r e d i t y we i n h e r i t our b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h p a r t l y c o n d i t i o n how we p e r c e i v e and behave. Most i m p o r t a n t , so f a r as i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n c e r n e d , we i n h e r i t a mode o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , a s p e c i f i c manner i n w h i c h t o d e a l w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s t h i s mode o f f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t g e n e r a t e s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v e t h r o u g h development a l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c mechanisms r e m a i n e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t l i f e . P i a g e t r e f e r s t o t h e s e mechanisms as " f u n c t i o n a l i n v a r i a n t s " . They a r e (1) o r g a n i z a t i o n and (2) a d a p t a t i o n , and the l a t t e r i s t h e r e s u l t of two v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s e s , a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation. They a r e n o t s p e c i f i c t o i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g but h o l d f o r b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n g e n e r a l . A l l l i v i n g m a t t e r a d a p t s t o i t s e n v i r o n m e n t and p o s s e s s e s some i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make t h e a d a p t a t i o n p o s s i b l e . The mechanisms w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l so t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l on t h e r o l e o f a c t i o n s i n t h e t h e o r y as w e l l as t h e n a t u r e of t h e s p a t i a l image becomes more r e l e v a n t l a t e r . P i a g e t b e l i e v e s t h a t c o g n i t i o n i s an o r g a n i z e d p r o c e s s . The i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t presumes some k i n d o f s t r u c t u r e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h i n w h i c h i t p r o c e e d s . Most of P i a g e t ' s work shows t h a t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n changes from s t a g e t o s t a g e i n development. I n t h e p r o c e s s o f coming t o know an e n v i r o n m e n t we go t h r o u g h the r e i t e r a t i n g p r o c e s s o f a c c u m u l a t i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n , o r g a n i z i n g i t , and c h a n g i n g our c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e l i g h t o f the new i n f o r m a t i o n . The dynamic a s p e c t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation . When t h e two p r o c e s s e s a r e i n b a l a n c e we have i n t e l l e c t u a l a d a p t a t i o n . A s s i m i l a t i o n i s t h e b a s i c mechanism b e h i n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s of i n c o r p o r a t i n g new o b j e c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l framework, i . e . t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g r e a l i t y . 28 E v e r y a c t of i n t e l l i g e n c e , however r u d i m e n t a r y and c o n c r e t e , p r e s u p p o s e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s omething i n e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y , t h a t i s , an a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h a t s o m e t h i n g t o some k i n d of meaning system i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ( F l a v e l l , 1963, p . 4 8 ) . As new e x p e r i e n c e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n g e t s m o d i f i e d . Accommodation r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f a d a p t i n g o n e s e l f t o t h e v a r i o u s r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d . Accommodation cannot be d i s s o c i a t e d from a s s i m i l a t i o n as b o t h p r o c e s s e s o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : A s s i m i l a t i o n can n e v e r be pure because by i n c o r p o r a t i n g new e l e ments i n t o i t s e a r l i e r schemata t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n s t a n t l y m o d i f i e s t h e l a t t e r i n . o r d e r t o a d j u s t them to new e l e m e n t s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h i n g s a r e n e v e r known by t h e m s e l v e s , s i n c e t h i s work o f accommodation i s o n l y p o s s i b l e as a f u n c t i o n o f ^ t h e i n v e r s e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n ( P i a g e t , 1952, pp. 6-7) . F o r P i a g e t , a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l c o n c e p t , t h e schema, embraces such e x p r e s s i o n s as " i n t e l l e c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s " . T h i s c o n c e p t i s c r u c i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g P i a g e t ' s system: A schema i s a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h has r e f e r e n c e t o a c l a s s of s i m i l a r a c t i o n s e q uences, t h e s e sequences of n e c e s s i t y b e i n g s t r o n g , bounded t o t a l i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e c o n s t i t u e n t b e h a v i o u r a l e l ements a r e t i g h t l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . ( F l a v e l l , 1963, p.53) Schemas r e f e r t o sequences of a c t i o n s , a t f i r s t o v e r t , b u t t h e n becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a l i z e d as development p r o g r e s s e s . A t t h e l e v e l of s e n s o r i - m o t o r development, P i a g e t speaks of t h e schema o f s u c k i n g , t h e schema of p r e h e n s i o n , and so on. L a t e r , schemas r e f e r t o a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r s o l v i n g p a r t i c u l a r problems ( e . g . p r o b l e m of a s s e s s i n g t h e n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n c e of two s e t s of e l e m e n t s , o r p r o b l e m of c o n s e r v a t i o n o f volume or--d i s t a n c e ) . Those m e n t a l a c t i o n sequences a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " o p e r a t i o n a l schemas". The schema i n v o l v e s the f o r m a t i o n of a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and t h u s t h e 29 d i s p o s i t i o n t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n a c t s on r e p e a t e d o c c a s i o n s . I t becomes an o r g a n i z e d w h o l e , c o h e s i v e and q u a s i - s t a b l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , schemas a r e dynamic and-supple o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o w h i c h a c t i o n s and o b j e c t s a r e a s s i m i l a t e d d u r i n g c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g ; t h e y a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g r e o r g a n i z e d i n t h e i r accommodations. One of t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of schemas i s t h a t , once c o n s t i t u t e d , t h e y a p p l y t h e m s e l v e s r e p e a t e d l y t o a s s i m i l a b l e m a t e r i a l ( f u n c t i o n a l a s s i m i l a t i o n ) . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s r e p e a t e d e x e r c i s e , schemas a r e c o n t i n u a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d , f i r s t by e x t e n d i n g t h e i r f i e l d o f a p p l i c a t i o n t o new o b j e c t s ( g e n e r a l i z i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e newborn c h i l d soon i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t h e schemas o f s u c k i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y v a r i e d o b j e c t s . A l s o , t h e schemas get more and more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ( r e c o g n i t o r y a s s i m i l a t i o n ) as t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h new and v a r i e d e x p e r i e n c e s : R e p e t i t i o n c o n s o l i d a t e s and s t a b l i z e s i t ( t h e schema), as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r change. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n e n l a r g e s i t by e x t e n d i n g i t s domain of a p p l i c a t i o n . And d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n has t h e consequence o f d i v i d i n g t h e o r i g i n a l l y g l o b a l schema i n t o s e v e r a l new schemas, each w i t h a s h a r p e r , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f o c u s on r e a l i t y ( F l a v e l l , p . 5 7 ) . ( p a r e n t h e s i s mine) On t h e o t h e r hand, s e p a r a t e schemas, i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r e v o l u t i o n , may get u n i t e d , each schema a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e o t h e r ( r e c i p r o c a l a s s i m i l a t i o n ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , the s e n s o r y schemas ( v i s i o n , t o u c h , h e a r i n g , k i n e s t h e t i c i m p r e s s i o n s ) become . c o o r d i n a t e d a l l o w i n g f o r more g l o b a l and thus more m e a n i n g f u l a s s i m i l a t i o n s ( P i a g e t , 1952, pp. 75-76). I n P i a g e t ' s s ystem, a c t i o n , t h e a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , i s t h e b a s i c element b e h i n d t h e p r o c e s s o f c o g n i t i o n . A c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e t h e raw m a t e r i a l of a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l and p e r c e p t u a l a d a p t a t i o n . I n i n f a n c y , a c t i o n s a r e o v e r t , s e n s o r i - m o t o r ones ( e . g . g r a s p i n g , s u c k i n g , v i s u a l s e a r c h e s ) b u t w i t h development-, i n t e l l i g e n t a c t i o n s become p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n t e r n a l i z e d and c o v e r t . F i r s t , i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n i s f r a g m e n t a r y and q u i t e l i t e r a l ; the c h i l d does l i t t l e more t h a n r e p l i c a t e i n h i s mind s i m p l e c o n c r e t e a c t i o n 30 sequences. As i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e e d s , c o g n i t i v e a c t i o n s become more a b s t r a c t and b r o a d e r i n r a n g e ; t h e y become what P i a g e t c a l l s " o p e r a t i o n s " . D e s p i t e the enormous d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a b s t r a c t o p e r a t i o n s of m a t u r e , l o g i c a l t hought and s i m p l e s e n s o r i - m o t o r b e h a v i o u r , t h e f o r m e r a r e as t r u l y a c t i o n s as t h e l a t t e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the " i n t u i t i o n " o f space i s n o t a " r e a d i n g " o r a p p r e h e n s i o n of the p r o p e r t i e s o f s p a c e , b u t r i g h t from t h e s t a r t , an a c t i o n p e r f o r m e d on space. P i a g e t ' s c o n c e p t i o n of t h e image i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . He a r g u e s t h a t the image does n o t d e r i v e from t h e p u r e l y r e c e p t i v e a s p e c t of p e r c e p t i o n ; i n t h e make-up o f t h e image, a motor element i s p r e s e n t w h i c h i s an e x t e n s i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l a c t i v i t y as d i s t i n c t f rom p e r c e p t i o n i t s e l f . Imagery i s t h e v e r y a c t i v e p r o c e s s of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e t h e v i s u a l image does not e x i s t p e r s e , s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s much more on t h e p a r t of t h e s u b j e c t t h a n i s . g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d ( l i k e a c t i o n s o f p u t t i n g t h i n g s n e x t t o one a n o t h e r , a c t i o n s of e n c l o s i n g , o f t i g h t e n i n g o r l o o s e n i n g , c h a n g i n g v i e w p o i n t s , r o t a t i n g , e n l a r g i n g o r r e d u c i n g and so on.) The v i s u a l image i s r e a l l y an image of a p o t e n t i a l a c t i o n r e l a t i v e t o what i s s e e n . r a t h e r t h a n a p u r e l y v i s u a l i n t u i t i o n . P i a g e t s a y s , Even i n t h e c a s e o f e v e r y d a y images, i s i t a t a l l p o s s i b l e t o i m a g i n e a l a n d s c a p e , a house o r o t h e r f a m i l i a r o b j e c t w i t h o u t the a i d , as e s s e n t i a l components, of t h e schema o f t h e v a r i o u s r o ads t r a v e r s e d , t h e a c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d , o r t h e changes o f p o s i t i o n commanding d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s ? And t h i s a s s i s t a n c e i s made even more n e c e s s a r y by t h e f a c t t h a t such images a r e n e a r l y a l w a y s m u l t i - s e n s o r i a l and r e f e r t o complex a c t i o n s . (1956, pp. 41-42) T h i s we can e a s i l y r e l a t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s o f d i s t a n c e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , t r a v e l o r t r i p r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The image i s an i m i t a t i o n , one t h a t i s made w i t h o u t r e s o r t t o e x t e r n a l g e s t u r e s a l t h o u g h a t f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d o r b o r n out of s u c h g e s t u r e s . The image i s an i n t e r n a l i z e d i m i t a t i o n : 31 I n i t s a c t u a l o r i g i n s , t h e image i s no more t h a n a r e c o r d o r t r a c e of t h e m u s c u l a r a d a p t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n an a c t i o n . E v e r y a c t i o n p e r f o r m e d on o b j e c t s i s a d a p t e d o r accommodated t o them. That i s . t o s a y , i t r e c e i v e s t h e n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of t h e t h i n g s whose form i t e x p l o r e s . Of c o u r s e , t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f a c t i o n i s n o t t h i s p r o c e s s of i m p r i n t i n g , b u t r a t h e r the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s schemata. However, e v e r y e f f e c t i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n has as i t s c o u n t e r p a r t a more o r l e s s e f f e c t i v e accommodation. When t h i s l a t t e r o c c u r s a t t h e s e n s o r i - m o t o r l e v e l i t c o n s i s t s of an i m i t a t i o n of t h e o b j e c t by an a c t i o n . More p r e c i s e l y , t h e i m i t a t i o n i s m e r e l y t h e p o s i t i v e t r a c e o f t h e b a s i c a l l y n e g a t i v e p r o c e s s of accommodation. Now a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l o r i m a g i n a l l e v e l , d e l a y e d i m i t a t i o n becomes p o s s i b l e ( i t i s moreover j u s t t h i s t r a n s i t i o n from immediate t o d e l a y e d i m i t a t i o n w h i c h forms t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a l l t y p e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t h o u g h t ) and t h i s i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t h e form o f images o r i m i t a t i v e schemata o f t h e o b j e c t - ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956, p.455) ,, P i a g e t made c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n s on c h i l d r e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e passage from o v e r t i m i t a t i o n t o i n t e r i o r i m i t a t i o n o r i magery. Around 12 - 16 months, h i s s u b j e c t s s t a r t r e p r o d u c i n g s c e n e s , words, o b j e c t s , even when t h e model has been a b s e n t f o r some t i m e . F o r i n s t a n c e , , i n o b s e r v a t i o n 58, ( P i a g e t , 1962, p.66) T. i m i t a t e s t h e o p e n i n g o f a matchbox w i t h h i s hand and mouth t o t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d what he had p e r c e i v e d . I n o b s e r v a t i o n 57 (p.65) L . r e s o r t s t o t h e same i m i t a t i v e g e s t u r e s i n o r d e r t o a n t i c i p a t e what w i l l happen when he opens t h e box. From such examples P i a g e t c o n c l u d e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i m i t a t i o n does no t f o l l o w t h e image, b u t p r e c e d e s i t . The image i s thus a p r o d u c t o f i n t e r i o r i z a t i o n and n o t a new c r e a t i o n f r o m some o t h e r s o u r c e . P i a g e t e x p l a i n s f u r t h e r when he a s k s : What i s t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e when we form a m e n t a l image o f a v i s u a l scene p e r c e i v e d e a r l i e r ? We a n a l y s e , compare and t r a n s f o r m , u s i n g an a c t i v i t y w h i c h s t a r t s i n p e r c e p t i v e r e g u l a t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n , b u t i s i n t e g r a t e d i n a s y s t e m of c o n c e p t s e n a b l i n g us t o g i v e meanings t o t h e e l e m e n t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h u s a n a l y s e d . Now i t i s t h i s p e r c e p t i v e a c t i v i t y , and n o t p e r c e p t i o n as s u c h , w h i c h produces t h e image, w h i c h i s a k i n d o f schema o r summary o f the p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t ( P i a g e t , 1962, p . 7 7 ) . A l l forms o f s p a t i a l i n t u i t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a c t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r . P i a g e t ' s numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s show t h a t young c h i l d r e n cannot v i s u a l i z e 32 t h e r e s u l t s of even t h e s i m p l e s t a c t i o n s u n t i l t h e y have p e r f o r m e d them t h e m s e l v e s . Thought can o n l y r e p l a c e a c t i o n on t h e b a s i s of t h e d a t a w h i c h a c t i o n i t s e l f p r o v i d e s . The c h i l d i s f i r s t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e ( i . e . t h e i n t r i n s i c p r o p e r t i e s of t h e o b j e c t o r s i t u a t i o n as s u c h ) ; f o r t o be aware of h i s a c t i o n s he must b e g i n by s e e i n g t h e i r outward r e s u l t s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , however, t h e e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o the i d e a o f space a r e i n f a c t e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e s u b j e c t ' s own a c t i o n s . The c h i l d l e a r n s about t h e o b j e c t but he a l s o l e a r n s something o f t h e way h i s a c t i o n s a r e . c o o r d i n a t e d and how one d e t e r m i n e s a n o t h e r . As t h e e x p e r i m e n t becomes more advanced, t h i s happens more f r e q u e n t l y , and t h e l e v e l o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between a c t i o n s i n c r e a s e s . P i a g e t ' s work shows t h a t c h i l d r e n can o n l y r e c o g n i z e and e s p e c i a l l y , r e p r e s e n t , t h o s e f a c t s w h i c h t h e y can r e c o n s t r u c t t h r o u g h t h e i r own a c t i o n s — f a c t s f o r w h i c h t h e y have c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n s . • C o o r d i n a t i o n s i n c r e a s e and become more complex, s p a t i a l i n t u i t i o n e v o l v e s from the t o p o l o g i c a l , t o t h e p r o j e c t i v e and t h e E u c l i d e a n , l e v e l s . The e v o l u t i o n o f s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s not o n l y b u i l t t h r o u g h a c t i o n , i t i s not o n l y images of t h e r e s u l t s of a c t i o n s , but i s a c t i v e i t s e l f : To a r r a n g e o b j e c t s m e n t a l l y i s not m e r e l y t o i m a g i n e a s e r i e s of t h i n g s a l r e a d y s e t i n o r d e r , n o r even t o i m a g i n e t h e a c t i o n of a r r a n g i n g them. I t means a r r a n g i n g t h e s e r i e s , j u s t as p o s i t i v e l y and a c t i v e l y as i f t h e a c t i o n were p h y s i c a l , b u t p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t i o n i n t e r n a l l y on s y m b o l i c o b j e c t s ( P i a g e t , 1956, p.454). F o r i n s t a n c e , the c o ncept of o r d e r i s a b s t r a c t e d t h r o u g h m e n t a l a c t i o n s o f t r a n s f e r r i n g ( t r a n s p o r t i n g e l ements m e n t a l l y ) and r e p l a c i n g s t e p by s t e p and p i e c e by p i e c e . The c o ncept of measurement comes from e x t r a c t i n g one element out o f a w h o l e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t element as a u n i t , and m e n t a l l y t r a n s p o s i n g t h i s u n i t on t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e w h ole. More g e n e r a l l y , when we a r e a s k e d f o r d i r e c t i o n s on t h e r o a d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t : 33 . . . use o f g e s t u r e s and c a l l i n g a motor schema t o mind a r e f a r more h e l p f u l t h a n t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Above a l l , i f we t h i n k c l o s e l y , we must r e c o g n i z e t h a t our own comings and g o i n g s p r o v i d e the framework f o r our memory-images o f d i s t r i c t s and l a n d s c a p e s . ( P i a g e t , 1960, p. 12) However, i t s h o u l d be made c l e a r t h a t t h e image c a n n o t , by " i t s e l f , e n a b l e t h e s u b j e c t t o g a i n knowledge o f t h e o b j e c t , s i n c e i t i s n o t a t o o l o f a s s i m i l a t i o n as s u c h , but a b y - p r o d u c t o f the accommodation w h i c h accompanies i t . The image i s j u s t a " s i g n i f i e r " o r symbol i n the p r o c e s s of knowing. The r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of the a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o i t s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . Y e t , w h i l e t h e image p l a y s an e s s e n t i a l r o l e as a symbol, i t does n o t d e t e r m i n e th e " s i g n i f i e d " , t h e meaning of t h e a c t o r o b j e c t . The s i g n i f i e d i s t h e p r o d u c t of a s s i m i l a t i o n , w h i c h , by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o b j e c t i n e a r l i e r schemas, t h e r e b y p r o v i d e s i t w i t h meaning.'' T h i s c o n c l u d e s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f P i a g e t , a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f h i s t h e o r y w i l l appear l a t e r . A f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s work I d i s c u s s e d h i s v i e w s o f t h e g e n e r a l mechanisms of c o g n i t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation i n t e r a c t i n g t o p r o d u c e schemas and a l s o images t h r o u g h a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i n g s and jis_ a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i n g s . P i a g e t ' s message seems t o add a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and c r e d i b i l i t y t o t h e p o p u l a r argument t h a t images o f space a r e e x p e r i e n t i a l l y d e r i v e d . Tuan's and Downs and S t e a ' s v i e w s have a l r e a d y been r e v i e w e d . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t of t h i s t h e s i s comes f r o m t h e m e n t a l map s t u d i e s w h i c h show t h a t t h e n ode-path s t r u c t u r e i s v e r y dominant ( A p p l e y a r d , 1970; P o c o ck, 1976a). Easy f o r t h e newcomer t o l e a r n , t h e n ode-path s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o v e r y s t a b l e as l e a r n i n g p r o c e e d s ( D e v l i n , 1976). R o u t e s , th e a c t u a l l i n e s of e x p e r i e n c e o f s p a c e , a r e p r o m i n e n t on most maps; th e y s e r v e as t h e b a s i s o f image o r g a n i z a t i o n . P o c o c k ' s c l o s e a n a l y s i s of m e n t a l maps o f Durham r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e arrangement ( o r i e n t a t i o n ) o f t h e e l i c i t e d m e n t a l map r e f l e c t s a s t r o n g e x p e r i e n t i a l b a s i s i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d t o t h e v i e w f r o m t h e r o a d (1976, p. 510). The u s u a l e n t r y r o u t e i n t h e p l a c e becomes t h e f o c u s o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l frame of r e f e r e n c e . C a r r and S c h i s s l e r (1969) a l s o 34 c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e o p l e ' s Images of p a r t i c u l a r t r i p s i n t h e c i t y a r e b a s i c a l l y a f u n c t i o n of the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . I n t e r r u p t i o n s and a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f the r o a d (known f o r o b v i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n p u r p o s e s ) and t h e dominant e l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e r o a d ( f o r t h e i r prominence i n t h e enrionm e n t o r t h e i r t i m e i n v i e w ) f o r m the s k e l e t o n o f t h e memory. F i n a l l y , P a i l h o u s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , M e r c e r (1971) and Rand (1969) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t image and a c t i v i t y c o r r e l a t e v e r y s t r o n g l y . I t i s c l e a r t h a t : t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s cannot be s e p a r a t e d : m e n t a l mapping a b i l i t i e s depend on t h e t y p e and e x t e n t o f a c t i v i t y , and t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f movement i n t u r n , v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o m e n t a l mapping a b i l i t i e s . Rand compared t h e s e a b i l i t i e s i n t a x i d r i v e r s and a i r p l a n e p i l o t s w h i l e P a i l h o u s l o o k e d a t t a x i d r i v e r s w i t h v a r y i n g d e grees o f e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n o n l y t h e r e c e n t work of S a d a l l a and S t a p l i n i n c o r p o r a t e d the i d e a s o f P i a g e t . They s a i d : We assume t h a t when a s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o make a d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t m e n t a l l y r e t r a v e r s e s t h e pathway i n an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t cues f o r d i s t a n c e . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by s t a t e m e n t s made by many s u b j e c t s who were a s k e d , "What d i d you t h i n k about when you were t r y i n g t o e s t i m a t e how f a r you had w a l k e d ? " D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s , each remembered r o u t e a t t r i b u t e may s e r v e as a cue (1980a, p. 181). P i a g e t ' s work d e a l t m o s t l y w i t h f u n d a m e n t a l space ( t h e space o f o b j e c t s and m i c r o e n v i r o n m e n t s ) , not t h e macro space o f t h e s e l a t t e r s t u d i e s . I n o n l y one c a s e has he extended h i s work t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s e v e r y day l a r g e - s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t ( P i a g e t , I n h e l d e r and S z e m i n s k a , 1960, ch. 1) a l t h o u g h h i s e x p e r i m e n t s on model e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e q u i t e r e l e v a n t t o macro space. A l s o , P i a g e t o f t e n e xtended h i s remarks t o i n c l u d e e v e r y d a y l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s . S i n c e t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the mechanisms o f macro sp a c e c o g n i t i o n i s a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t , one s h o u l d be c a r e f u l i n making c o m p a r i s o n s . B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , a few a d d i t i o n a l i s s u e s 35 r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o l a r g e s c a l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o g n i t i o n w i l l be r a i s e d . C e r t a i n l y , t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l h e r e d e a l s w i t h how t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i m p l i f i e s a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s u r r o u n d s him. R e a l i t y i s s i m p l i f i e d i n v a r i o u s ways. F i r s t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l needs v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o make sense out of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The g r e a t redundancy i n the e n v ironment ( e s p e c i a l l y r o a d e n v i r o n m e n t s ) and our need f o r r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n g o i n g about our d a i l y rounds a c c o u n t f o r t h e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e of e x p e c t a t i o n s and p r e v i o u s l y s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n o u r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . We know ou r way around our h a b i t u a l a c t i o n s p a c e , and what t o e x p e c t from the r o u t i n e a c t i o n s o f a n o r m a l day. The e x p e r i m e n t s of W. Brown (1932) s u g g e s t e d t h a t we have no need f o r a d e t a i l e d s p a t i a l image i n t h e p r a c t i c a l b u s i n e s s o f moving about our d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . R a t h e r , t h e knowledge o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f movements a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e c o g n i z e d v i s u a l c u e s , g u i d e s us. His? e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t s p a t i a l knowledge enhances, b u t i s g n o t n e c e s s a r y , f o r s p a t i a l s k i l l . The e x p e r i m e n t s o f C a r r and S c h i s s l e r (1969) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y have a b e t t e r s t o r e o f images of f a m i l i a r r o u t e s . T h i s c o n f i r m s Brown's p o i n t t h a t p e o p l e do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l y on m e n t a l images t o move a r o u n d , and do n o t need t o be t o o a t t e n t i v e t o t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , as p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e s them what t o e x p e c t . P e o p l e a r e v e r y s e l e c t i v e as t o what t h e y p e r c e i v e and what t h e y remember. A p p l e y a r d (1969) p r o p o s e d t h a t b u i l d i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y known f o r t h e i r v i s u a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s ( i m a g e a b i l i t y ) , t h e i r v i s i b i l i t y from t h e r o a d , t h e i r r o l e o r u s e , and t h e i r c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . C a r r and S c h i s s l e r (1969) s i m i l a r l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s a l o n g a r o a d a r e remembered f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a t i o n f rom t h e b a c k g r o u n d , t h e i r t i m e i n v i e w , and t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n s o f the v i e w e r s e x p e c t a t i o n s . ( e . g . t y p i c a l element o f c i t i e s i n g e n e r a l , o r of t h a t c i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r ) . F i n a l l y , H a r r i s o n and Howard (1972) found t h a t f e a t u r e s o f t h e c i t y were remembered f o r t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the u r b a n 36 s t r u c t u r e and t h e i r f u n c t i o n . P h y s i c a l appearance and p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the f e a t u r e (deeper meaning) were n o t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a . T h i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y remembered f o r f a c t o r s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p a c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, components of p h y s i c a l appearance and s t r o n g p e r s o n a l a t tachment seem q u i t e u n i m p o r t a n t i n p e o p l e ' s mind. " I t i s n o t t h e l a n d s c a p e i t s e l f , b u t t h e human e x p e r i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t g e n e r a t e s space and p l a c e meanings." ( J a k l e , Brunn and Roseman, 1976, p . 8 6 ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l knowledge i s v e r y p e r s o n a l . We a l l p e r c e i v e the w o r l d w i t h " s e l f " as t h e c e n t r e . The g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f r e s p o n s e found i n a l l m e n t a l map s t u d i e s (a d i v e r s i t y o f t e n p a r t l y h i d d e n by t h e s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s used) i s o n l y one i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon. P e o p l e s i m p l i f y r e a l i t y by r e p r e s e n t i n g ! i t i n ' a u n i f o r m , r e g u l a r f a s h i o n . S i n c e our s t r e e t g r i d s a r e t y p i c a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r and most s t r e e t s i n t e r s e c t a t r i g h t - a n g l e s , t h i s s i m p l e p a t t e r n t e n d s t o be emphasized. De Jonge (1962) o b s e r v e d t h a t c i t y p a t t e r n s a r e r e g u l a t e d i n t h a t f a s h i o n . Beck and Wood (1976) n o t e d t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s a r e more p r e c i s e i n l o c a t i n g f e a t u r e s a t a n g l e s o f 45 and 90 d e g r e e s . P e t e r s o n (1916) found t h a t p e o p l e f a v o u r r i g h t a n g l e s (90° and 180°) when e s t i m a t i n g d i r e c t i o n s ; and T r o w b r i d g e (1913) a l s o f o und t h a t t h e c a r d i n a l d i r e c t i o n s were commonly use d . Tuan commented on t h e m e m o r i z a t i o n o f r o u t e s : A p e r s o n seems p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s p o s e d t o d i s c o u n t t h e a n g u l a r d e p a r t u r e s and t o a c c e p t a l l f o r w a r d movements as movements toward h i s g o a l . Hence, when he t r i e s t o r e p r o d u c e h i s r o u t e i n a d r a w i n g he i s l i k e l y t o s i m p l i f y t h e r o u t e and omit o r m i n i m i z e . t h e a n g u l a r i t y o f t h e t u r n s - u n l e s s he happens t o remember a p a r t i c u l a r bend, i n w h i c h case he may w e l l e x a g g e r a t e i t s a n g u l a r i t y . (Tuan, 1977, p.73) I n c o g n i t i v e mapping a number o f d e v i c e s a r e used t o h e l p s i m p l i f y and o r g a n i z e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Lynch has remarked t h a t h i s m e n t a l maps were c o n s t r u c t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t ways: 37 (1) Some were b u i l t as a " m o t i o n p i c t u r e " sequence o v e r t i m e , a form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e f l e c t s more d i r e c t l y t h e s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f space (2) O t h e r maps were o r g a n i z e d as " s t a t i c h i e r a r c h i e s " where e l e m e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e drawn i n s u c c e s s i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , s e c o n d a r y components would be added around a few f a m i l i a r p o i n t s (landmarks o r nodes) o r used t o f i l l i n a w e l l d e f i n e d o u t l i n e , o r s e t of a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s . Sometimes elements would be added a l o n g and outward from, a f a m i l i a r p a t h ( o r g r i d o f paths), o r o t h e r t y p e o f r e f e r e n c e l i n e i n t h e environment, ( e . g . r i v e r s , c a n a l s , r a i l w a y s , p a r t i c u l a r e d g e s ) . P r o c e e d i n g i n c r e m e n t a l l y , from t h e g e n e r a l t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r , from the most o b v i o u s s t r u c t u r i n g d e v i c e t o t h e n o t so e a s i l y remembered d e t a i l s o f the image, t h i s p r o c e s s r e f l e c t s a more a b s t r a c t and g e n e r a l i z e d knowledge of sp a c e . (1960, p.88; see a l s o A p p l e y a r d , 1970) • I n t h i s s t u d y I i n t e n d t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f t h e r e g i o n , t h e r i v e r s and p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h o u t l i n e E a s t e r n O n t a r i o . 9 Such l e g i b l e l i n e s a r e c r u c i a l e l e m e n t s o f image o r g a n i z a t i o n and th e y c o u l d become r e a l b a r r i e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f space ( r e f . S t e a ' s and C a n t e r and Tagg's s t u d i e s ) . A l s o , a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o t h e manner i n w h i c h p e o p l e s u b d i v i d e space, f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . P e o p l e c a t e g o r i z e knowledge, t h e y t e n d t o put t h i n g s i n t o c l a s s e s o r sub-groups — t h i n g s t h a t a r e more o r l e s s m e a n i n g f u l , t h i n g s t h a t n a t u r a l l y seem t o b e l o n g t o g e t h e r o r a r e j u d g e d t o be s i m i l a r . T h i s way, our memory c a p a c i t y expands because d e t a i l s can be a b s t r a c t e d under one c a t e g o r y , m e a n i n g f u l i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o r p a r t s o f t h e image. T h i s p r o c e s s , o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as " r e c o d i n g " of i n f o r m a t i o n by p s y c h o l o g i s t s ( e . g . M i l l e r , 1 9 5 6 ) . i s a w e l l known mnemonic d e v i c e . I t i s a b a s i c mechanism f o r t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The concept has been l a r g e l y used i n geography, s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f F r e n c h g e o g r a p h e r s w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d and l i v e d r e g i o n s o f F r a n c e , t h e "p a y s " o f F r a n c e , and t h e more r e c e n t " q u a r t i e r r u r a l " o f F r a n c e ( B r u n e t , 1968,1969')'. More f a m i l i a r a r e Lynch's n o t i o n o f the " d i s t r i c t " , t he " n e i g h b o u r h o o d " o f the u r b a n g e o g r a p h e r s , dr.: t h e "schemas of sp a c e " i n the p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s o f Lee (1964, 68, 69, 7 0 ) , L o r d ( 1 9 4 1 ) , • Rand ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Cox and Zannaras ( 1 9 7 3 ) , and Rapnport ( 1 9 7 6 ) . They d e f i n e schemas of space as compartments o f s p a c e , s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e t o the i n d i v i d u a l " ^ . ' Schemas a r e m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l e n t i t i e s . They o b t a i n t h e i r d i m e n s i o n s ( a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , s p a t i a l , e t c ) from man's e x p e r i e n c e o f s p a c e , and become o r g a n i z e d wholes o r " g e s t a l t s " w h i c h may t a k e a p a r t i c u l a r meaning. Lee d e f i n e s t h e s p a t i a l schema as a s y n t h e s i s o f p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and space: " . . . t h e space i s a f f e c t e d by what f i l l s i t , t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e space and the p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s a r e c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p e o p l e who l i v e i n them o r make use o f them. T h i s complex i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e r e s u l t s i n a m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t f u n c t i o n s as a u n i t ; " ( L e e , 1968, p.249). Cox and •Zannaras t h i n k o f schemas as some s o r t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p l a c e s i n • b o t h l o c a t i o n a l and n o n - l o c a t i o n a l terms w h i c h a r i s e from e x p e r i e n c e — o r d e r i n g , e l i m i n a t i n g and a d d i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , comparing p l a c e s , o r i n o t h e r words l e a r n i n g about t h e environment (1973, p.163). Schemas a r e i n c l u s i v e , t h e y w o u l d t e n d t o be s e p a r a t e d by c e r t a i n gaps w h i c h may be t h e p r o d u c t o f e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r s ( p o l i t i c a l , p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l ) o r s i m p l y i g n o r a n c e . Lynch speaks o f a l l t h e elements o f t h e urban image as o p e r a t i n g t o g e t h e r i n i n t e r m e d i a t e " w h o l e s " o r "complexes" s e p a r a t e d by " p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e s " (1960, p . 8 5 ) . Schemas can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by s c a l e o r h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement. A range o f schemas can be c o n c e i v e d w h i c h a p p l y t o m i c r o - s p a c e s ( n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , downtown, home a r e a ) up t o t h e macro'.spaces o f w i d e r r e g i o n s , p r o v i n c e s , s t a t e s , c o u n t r i e s . Schemas may r e f e r t o v e r y s p e c i f i c a r e a s o r be more g e n e r a l , a p p l y i n g t o a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s from t h e t y p i c a l c o n c e n t r i c 39 zones of t h e c i t y t o the vague a r e a s "out t h e r e " , w h i c h most p e o p l e know, but cannot d e l i m i t . Cox and Zannaras emphasize t h a t schemas can be b a s e d on d e s i g n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f p l a c e s ( l i k e l o c a t i o n , t o p o g r a p h y , s o c i a l c o n t e n t ) o r a p p r a i s i v e p e r c e p t i o n s , w h i c h have a much s t r o n g e r e v a l u a t i v e and a f f e c t i v e c o n t e n t . P l a c e s may get grouped i n r e g i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (dominant f u n c t i o n , d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e o f t h e a r e a ) , o r s i m p l y on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t y . The c o h e s i o n o f such schemas depends on t h e s i m i l a r i t y and p r o x i m i t y of p l a c e s w i t h i n them. V e r y o f t e n , p r i m a r y p l a c e s a c t as a n c h o r i n g p o i n t s o f our s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Lower o r d e r p l a c e s a r e a t t a c h e d and i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o more prominent p o i n t s . P e o p l e t a l k o f t h e Ottawa r e g i o n , t h e M o n t r e a l a r e a , l o c a t i n g a s m a l l e r p l a c e as c l o s e r t o one c e n t r e o r t h e o t h e r . The c o h e s i o n o f s u c h a c e n t r e - d o m i n a t e d schema depends on t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e a n c h o r i n g p o i n t . Many of our w e l l known r e g i o n s o r i g i n a t e i n t h e p a s t . Most Americans see r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e i r c o u n t r y . The r e g i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s t h e y use (midwest, t h e w e s t , t h e s o u t h , New England) a r e f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r n a t i o n s development. O t h e r schemas s i m p l y o r i g i n a t e i n t h e e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n s o f s p a c e , most'commonly, t h e p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . F i n a l l y , some r e g i o n s r e f l e c t p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a c i e s ( a r e a s known t h r o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e of space — e.g. mushroom p i c k i n g a r e a , r e l a t i v e ' s a r e a ) w h i l e o t h e r s t a k e shape as a r e s u l t o f s o c i a l f o r c e s . The v i e w and use of d i f f e r e n t a r e a s by any group i s o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between t h e v a r i o u s groups i n p r e s e n c e . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n i d e n t i f i a b l e groups s h a r e c e r t a i n s e n s o r y and/or v e r b a l e x p e r i e n c e s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and a r e l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p s i m i l a r schemas. I n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o where we f i n d F r e n c h and E n g l i s h p o p u l a t i o n s , I may be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y c u l t u r a l a r e a s b o r n out o f c o l l e c t i v e o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t e between p l a c e s and p e o p l e . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f schemas have v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s . They may have a 40 p i c t o r i a l n a t u r e : say " s q u a r e " , " t r i a n g l e " , " A f r i c a " and t h e mind i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k s of a p a r t i c u l a r shape, and a u n i q u e e n t i t y (Sanders and P o r t e r , 1974, p.258). Language symbolism i s p r o b a b l y t h e most common way o f r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s : when a name i s n o t ' u s e d d e s c r i p t i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e a r e a a r e s u b s t i t u t e d ( t h e a r e a up t h e G a t i n e a u H i l l s o r t h e " F r e n c h " a r e a , t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n , e t c . ) . When t h i n k i n g o f a r e g i o n , t h e f i r s t t h i n g t o come to mind may be i t s meaning t o the i n d i v i d u a l — happy o r s a d , v e r y p e r s o n a l o r s t e r e o t y p e d , but always a d e f i n i t e i m p r e s s i o n b a s e d on e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e and h e a r s a y . The c o n c e p t of t h e schema of space r e t u r n s a g a i n and a g a i n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as "chunks o f i n f o r m a t i o n " i n p e r c e p t i o n theory"'"''", as " c l u s t e r s o f e l e m e n t s " i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y , and as schemas o r r e g i o n s i n t h e models o f space c o g n i t i o n . 3.2 D e v e l o p m e n t a l Theory The development o f knowledge of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i s a m a t t e r o f q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e changes. W h i l e t h e amount o f knowledge i t s e l f changes o v e r t i m e , p e o p l e a l s o d i f f e r and change i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f what t h e y know. Knowledge i s s t r u c t u r e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways t h r o u g h development. The o r g a n i z i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f space d e t e r m i n e what i s a t t e n d e d t o o r i g n o r e d , as t h e y p r e c e d e , s e l e c t and o r d e r s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e . The s t u d y of t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s s h o u l d h e l p us u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r mature f o r m s , o r man's v a r i o u s ways o f o r g a n i z i n g space and of a c c o u n t i n g f o r s e p a r a t i o n . We a r e l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l s c a l e s of s t u d y and f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a c t i v e knowledge of s p a c e . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l r e v i e w b r i e f l y Werner's and P i a g e t ' s space d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y , and t h e v i e w s o f a few geographers and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h emphasis on Moore's work. Werner's " o r g a n i s m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l " t h e o r y o f space e l a b o r a t e s on a \ p r o g r e s s i o n from r e l a t i v e g l o b a l i t y and l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t o i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a r t i c u l a t i o n and h i e r a r c h i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( H a r t and Moore, 1973, pp. 253-57). Development p r o g r e s s e s from c o n c r e t e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e w o r l d t o a b s t r a c t knowledge. Werner r e c o g n i z e d t h r e e l e v e l s of space c o g n i t i o n a c t i o n - i n - s p a c e , p e r c e p t i o n - o f - s p a c e and c o n c e p t i o n s - a b o u t - s p a c e . I m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f Werner's t h e o r y a r e : (1) As development o c c u r s t h e s e l f becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom t h e environment and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g space s l o w l y t a k e s an i d e n t i t y o f i t s own d i s t i n c t from the s u b j e c t ' s own body. (2) As s e l f - o b j e c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o c c u r s , ends get d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom means and t h e s u b j e c t becomes more a c t i v e i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . A l t e r n a t e ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s a r e f o u n d t o l e a d t o t h e same ends, and a s h i f t o c c u r s from p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e t o a c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y . (3) The c h i l d becomes a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s own v i e w p o i n t from t h a t of o t h e r s , t h u s i n i t i a t i n g t h e s h i f t from e g o c e n t r i s m t o  p e r s p e c t i v i s m . The s p a c e - o f - a c t i o n , bound t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s own body, s l o w l y d e v e l o p s i n t o a c o o r d i n a t e d a b s t r a c t space w h i c h a l l o w s c o n s i d e r a t i o n from many p e r s p e c t i v e s . (4) F i n a l l y , t h e c h i l d ' s s p a c e - o f - a c t i o n once c o n c r e t e and p e r s o n a l , d e v e l o p s i n t o t h e a b s t r a c t and s y m b o l i c s p a c e - o f - c o n t e m p l a t i o n ( H a r t and Moore, 1973, p.256). T h i s c o n c e p t u a l space i s now d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (a space of i n t e r r e l a t e d p a r t s ) , r e v e r s i b l e ( o r i e n t a t i o n a lways p o s s i b l e ) , and v e r y f l e x i b l e ( c o n c e p t i o n o f space i n d e p e n d e n t o f any p a r t i c u l a r cues, or, arrangement o f o b j e c t s ) . Most o f P i a g e t ' s work d e a l t w i t h the s t a g e s of t h e development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , ( h i s m a t e r i a l on t h e development of space c o g n i t i o n , o v e r 1200 pages, i s j u s t one a s p e c t of t h i s i m p o r t a n t w o r k ) . He d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o u r m ajor p e r i o d s i n t h e development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e : 42 (1) S e n s o r i - m o t o r i n t e l l i g e n c e ( 0 - 2 y e a r s ) , where t h e i n f a n t e v o l v e s from a s t a t e o f u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e f l e x a c t i o n s t o a r e l a t i v e l y c o h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e n s o r i - m o t o r a c t i o n s . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n however, i s e n t i r e l y " c o n c r e t e " , i n v o l v i n g n o t h i n g more t h a n p e r c e p t u a l and motor a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . (2) P r e o p e r a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( 2 - 7 y e a r s ) , b e g i n s w i t h t h e f i r s t c r ude s y m b o l i z a t i o n s o f t h e s e n s o r i - m o t o r p e r i o d and c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f f o r m a l t h o u g h t . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t h o u g h t makes i t s appearance a t t h i s s t a g e , b u t i s s t i l l v e r y e g o c e n t r i c . (3) The c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s p e r i o d ( 7 - 1 1 y e a r s ) sees t h e c o n c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e environment become i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a b l e and c o h e r e n t . T h i s i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f l o g i c a l t h o u g h t and r e v e r s i b l e o p e r a t i o n s . The c h i l d no l o n g e r f u s e s h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r s , b u t can now* c o o r d i n a t e v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f v i e w . (4) F o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s (11 - 15 y e a r s ) i n v o l v e s t h e f i n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e ; t h e a d o l e s c e n t can d e a l w i t h r e a l i t y b e f o r e him, b u t a l s o w i t h t h e w o r l d o f pure p o s s i b i l i t y and a b s t r a c t s t a t e m e n t s ( F l a v e l l , 1963, pp. 86 - . 8 7 ) . P i a g e t d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o u r l e v e l s o f s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r a l l e l t o t h e s e p e r i o d s . A t t h e f i r s t l e v e l , s e n s o r i - m o t o r s p a c e , o b j e c t s become permanent ( o b j e c t s s t i l l e x i s t even when out of v i e w o r t o u c h ) . S p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n e v o l v e s from m u l t i p l e s p a c e s , a l l d i s t i n c t and centered on p e r s o n a l needs ( e . g . b u c c a l s p a c e , t a c t i l e s p a c e , v i s u a l s p a c e ) , t o a s i n g l e c o o r d i n a t e d space where o b j e c t s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t e d . I t c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f s e n s o r i - m o t o r schemas ^(-.creation o f image) , independent of a c t u a l b e h a v i o u r . The n e x t t h r e e l e v e l s , p r e o p e r a t i o n a l s p a c e , c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l space and f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n a l space ( H a r t and Moore, 1973, pp. 262.- 63) r e f l e c t developments o f t h e s p a t i a l image i t s e l f . The v e r y 43 c o n c r e t e image ( r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f m a n i p u l a t e d o r p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t s o n l y ) e v o l v e s t o h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n ( c o o r d i n a t e d ; space i n d e p e n d e n t o f what i t c o n t a i n s ) , e g o c e n t r i s m i s r e p l a c e d by p e r s p e c t i v i s m , and t h e s t a t i c , n o n - r e v e r s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e v e l o p s i n t o a f u l l y f l e x i b l e and r e v e r s i b l e s t r u c t u r e . These developments a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by Werner, however, P i a g e t goes f u r t h e r i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e l e v e l s o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s p e o p l e can e s t a b l i s h . T o p o l o g i c a l space i s a s u b j e c t i v e , e l a s t i c space i n v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s o f s u r r o u n d i n g , openness o r c l o s u r e , and p r o x i m i t y and s e p a r a t i o n . Such r e l a t i o n s e x p r e s s t h e s i m p l e s t p o s s i b l e c o o r d i n a t i o n s o f a c t i o n , l i k e f o l l o w i n g an o u t l i n e s t e p by s t e p . They e x i s t between n e i g h b o u r i n g p a r t s o f a s i n g l e o b j e c t o r between an o b j e c t and i t s immediate e n v i r o n m e n t . Space i s a c o n t i n u o u s c o l l e c t i o n o f elements w h i c h may be expanded o r c o n t r a c t e d a t w i l l . F o r t h e c h i l d , t h e r e a r e as many spaces as t h e r e a r e o b j e c t s o r d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s . The e l a b o r a t i o n o f a s i n g l e c o o r d i n a t e d s p a c e s t a r t s w i t h p r o j e c t i v e s p a c e . W h i l e t o p o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d s t e p by s t e p ( i . e . "de pro c h e en p r o c h e " on a s i n g l e f i g u r e ) and w i t h o u t a r e f e r e n c e s y stem, p r o j e c t i v e c o n c e p t s o p e r a t e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p a r t i c u l a r v i e w p o i n t s . P r o j e c t i v e space a c c o u n t s f o r i n t e r n a l ( t o t h e o b j e c t ) , t o p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s , b u t a l s o , f o r t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s p a t i a l elements from a s p e c i f i c p o i n t o f v i e w . As t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o c o o r d i n a t e d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w ( b u i l d p r o j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s ) he s l o w l y l e a r n s t o c o o r d i n a t e d i s t a n c e s ( b u i l d E u c l i d e a n r e l a t i o n s ) . E u c l i d e a n space i s t h e most advanced and o b j e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f s p a c e , b a s e d on an a b s t r a c t system d e t a c h e d from t h e a c t u a l components o f space and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p o i n t o f v i e w . The i n d i v i d u a l now t h i n k s o f space i n terms o f a s t a b l e frame o f r e f e r e n c e o r c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m made up o f v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l a x e s . E u c l i d e a n space c o n s e r v e s d i s t a n c e s as w e l l as s t r a i g h t l i n e s , p a r a l l e l s and a n g l e s . T h i s becomes p o s s i b l e o n l y when space i s c o n s i d e r e d as a " c o n t a i n e r " i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t s c o n t e n t — f i x e d l o c a t i o n s o f o b j e c t s a r e now ^ c o o r d i n a t e d and n o t the m o b i l e o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s . 44 Shemyakin (1962) d i s c u s s e s t h e pa s s a g e f r o m r o u t e mapping, a s e t o f s p e c i f i c u n i n t e g r a t e d p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t o s u r v e y mapping, t h e arrangement of t h e p i e c e s i n a c o h e r e n t whole. The r o u t e map i s t o t a l l y e g o c e n t r i c , i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c r e t e a c q u a i n t a n c e s w i t h d i s p e r s e d elements o f space ( u s u a l l y a l o n g p a t h of movement). Survey maps, on t h e o t h e r hand, show some l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e el e m e n t s of space. P r e s e n t e d as an a b s t r a c t , c o h e r e n t w h o l e , t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s show t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a c e r t a i n " f e e l " o f the p l a c e . S i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s h a v e been made i n t h e m e n t a l map s t u d i e s o f A p p l e y a r d ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Rand ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Ladd ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and Pocock (1976). I t has been found t h a t r o u t e mapping i s not u n i q u e t o c h i l d r e n . Tuan b e l i e v e s t h a t p l a c e c o g n i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o space c o g n i t i o n . Space i s t h e p r o d u c t o f p l a c e , more p r e c i s e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f movement between p l a c e s , of s e p a r a t i o n o r r e l a t i o n s between p l a c e s . I n i t i a l l y , p l a c e s a c t as o b j e c t s , anchor p o i n t s o r b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f s p a c e , d e f i n i n g i t and g i v i n g i t a g e o m e t r i c p e r s o n a l i t y : N e i t h e r t h e newborn i n f a n t n o r t h e man who g a i n s s i g h t a f t e r a l i f e t i m e o f b l i n d n e s s can i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e a g e o m e t r i c shape such as a t r i a n g l e . The t r i a n g l e i s a t f i r s t " s p a c e " , a b l u r r e d image. R e c o g n i z i n g t h e t r i a n g l e r e q u i r e s t h e p r i o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o r n e r s - t h a t i s , p l a c e s . A n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s a t f i r s t a c o n f u s i o n o f images t o t h e new r e s i d e n t ; i t i s b l u r r e d space "out t h e r e " . L e a r n i n g t o know the n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e q u i r e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l i t i e s , s u c h as s t r e e t c o r n e r s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l a n d m a r k s , w i t h i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d space. (Tuan, 1977, pp. 17 - 1 8 ) . However, i f f r o m p l a c e s we o b t a i n s p a c e , t h a t space ( o r p o r t i o n s o f i t ) i s r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o p l a c e , as i t a c q u i r e s d e f i n i t i o n and meaning, as one g e t s a f e e l i n g f o r t h e "whole": "What b e g i n s as u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d space ends as a s i n g l e o b j e c t - s i t u a t i o n o r p l a c e . . . When space f e e l s t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r t o u s , i t has become p l a c e . " (Tuan, 1977, pp. 72 - 7 3 ) . From a c o l l e c t i o n o f s e p a r a t e p l a c e s s p a c e d e v e l o p s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d , o r g a n i z e d w h o l e , comparable t o t h e o r i g i n a l " p l a c e s " o f t h e f i r s t s t a g e o n l y as i t forms a 45 u n i q u e e n t i t y . Tuan and ^Shemyakin have come up w i t h s i m i l a r i d e a s t o t h o s e of Werner and P i a g e t . Space c o g n i t i o n e v o l v e s f r o m s t a t e s o f u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , c o n c r e t e and p e r s o n a l i z e d knowledge t o s t a t e s o f a b s t r a c t o r g a n i z a t i o n and 12 i n t e g r a t i o n , and h i g h e r l e v e l s o f knowledge and meaning. G.Moore summarizes t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e i n t h r e e h y p o t h e t i c a l l e v e l s o f macro space c o g n i t i o n (1976, pp. 150 - 155). H i s o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e 13 based p r i m a r i l y on P i a g e t ' s work and h i s own s t u d i e s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t (Moore, 1973a, 1973b, 1975a). F i g u r e s 3:"1, 3.'2, and 313 i l l u s t r a t e s c h e m a t i c a l l y t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e t h r e e l e v e l s . A t l e v e l 1.. t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f space i s c o n c r e t e , e g o c e n t r i c and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The elements o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( i . e . p a r t i c u l a r towns i f v i e w e d from a r e g i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t ) may have some p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as they a r e r e l a t e d t o one's a c t i o n s i n space. However, a l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s a s s i m i l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t ' s own v i e w p o i n t and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o n t e n t a r e not r e c o g n i z e d a t t h i s s t a g e . Elements a r e g e n e r a l l y u n o r g a n i z e d o r o r g a n i z e d t o p o l o g i c a l l y i n some s i m p l e o r d e r e d sequence r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . F i g u r e 3.1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e new r e s i d e n t l i v i n g a t l o c a t i o n A, a s i m p l e sequence of el e m e n t s ( p h y s i c a l " a c q u a i n t a n c e s " — p l a c e s , landmarks) a l o n g t h e t r a v e l l e d p a t h w i t h some known p l a c e s w h i c h cannot be i n t e g r a t e d i n t h e sequence. A t s t a g e 2 t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d . D i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d between elements o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t th e y a r e not y e t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s s t a g e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f one o r more c l u s t e r s o r subgroups o f elements c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t c o g n i z e d a r e a s o f t h e environment ( i . e . "schemas" o f i n f o r m a t i o n of p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ) . Each one of t h o s e i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r v a n t a g e p o i n t o r j o u r n e y i n mind, b u t t h e p e r s o n cannot y e t • c o o r d i n a t e one p r i v i l e g e d v a n t a g e p o i n t o r j o u r n e y w i t h t h e n e x t . Thus, t h e r e l a t i o n s among 46 • e l e m e n t ( p l a c e ) r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n e l e -m e n t s ( l i n k ) F i g u r e 3.1 - I l l u s t r a t i o n o f Moore's f i r s t l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : f e r e n t i a t e d e g o c e n t r i c r e f e r e n c e system (by the a u t h o r ) Undif-e l e m e n t ( p l a c e ) w i t h i n s c h e m a r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c h e m a r e l a t i o n s c h e m a b o u n d a r y F i g u r e 3.2 - Moore's second l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : D i f f e r e n t i a t e d and p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o f i x e d subgroups (by the a u t h o r ) 47 F i g u r e 3.3 - Moore's t h i r d l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n : O p e r a t i o n a l l y c o o r d i -n a t e d and h i e r a r c h i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d (by t h e a u t h o r ) e lements o f a p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r may be a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ( p r o j e c t i v e o r even m e t r i c ) t h a n t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e v a r i o u s c l u s t e r s 14 ( w h i c h a r e u n e x i s t e n t o r t o p o l o g i c a l ) . I n F i g u r e 3.2 t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s have formed around our s u b j e c t ' s a c t i v i t y s p a c e . The home base a r e a (major a c t i o n space) i s o r g a n i z e d i n a e u c l i d e a n o r m e t r i c f a s h i o n ( a b s t r a c t o r g a n i z a t i o n d e c e n t r e d from s u b j e c t ' s own v i e w p o i n t and showing c o o r d i n a t i o n from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s ) . The o t h e r two a r e a s a r e t h e " p o i n t - a n d - r a d i a l " and t h e " l i n e a r r o u t e " f i x e d r e f e r e n c e s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h a r e a l s o v e r y common. R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e s e l a t t e r c l u s t e r s s t i l l show s i g n s o f e g o c e n t r i s m and c o n c r e t e s t r u c t u r i n g . S t a g e 3 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an o r g a n i z a t i o n b a s e d on a c o o r d i n a t e d and a b s t r a c t e d r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m , i n w h i c h d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s o f t h e environmemt a r e r e l a t e d and s u b o r d i n a t e d . C o o r d i n a t i o n no l o n g e r h i n g e s on t h e s u b j e c t ' s 48 a c t i o n s o r on a f i x e d r e f e r e n c e system ( l i k e p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s o r r o u t e s ) , but r a t h e r i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o a c o mprehensive r e f e r e n c e s ystem, i n t h i s c a s e ( F i g u r e 3.3), a g e o m e t r i c - l i k e s t r u c t u r e ( p o s s i b l y a b s t r a c t e d from e x i s t e n t b o u n d a r i e s o r r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ) t o w h i c h new e l e m e n t s o r c l u s t e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d . Beck and Wood (1976) have shown t h a t c l u s t e r s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d t e n d t o merge t o g e t h e r i n t o t h e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Moore comments on t h e system's f l e x i b i l i t y : , T h i s comprehensive c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between e l e m e n t s and c l u s t e r s i n t h e environment p e r m i t s s y s t e m a t i c c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o p e r a t i o n s of c o m p o s i t i o n ( a l l p a r t s a r e p a r t s of t h e w h o l e ) , i d e n t i f y ( ( e l e m e n t s r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y d e s p i t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ) , a s s o c i a t i v i t y ( r e a c h i n g i n t h o u g h t any p a r t by a v a r i e t y of r o u t e s ) , and r e v e r s i b i l i t y ( i m a g i n i n g a r o u t e i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n ) . (Moore, 1976, pp. 151 - 2) E lements o f t h e s y s t e m a r e r e l a t e d b o t h p r o t e c t i v e l y and g e o m e t r i c a l l y ; r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e s a r e w e l l known. The " l i v i n g domain" ( c i t y o r r e g i o n ) o f most l o n g term r e s i d e n t s would n a t u r a l l y d e v e l o p i n t o s u c h a s t r u c t u r e , but o u t s i d e t h a t domain t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f space becomes l e s s and l e s s r i g o r o u s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . These o b s e r v a t i o n s on o n t o g e n e t i c development changes a r e v e r y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s t h e s i s . The developments w h i c h o c c u r o v e r t h e l i f e c y c l e may a l s o o c c u r o v e r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e , once t h e i n d i v i d u a l has r e a c h e d . m a t u r i t y . A l l e n v i r o n m e n t s cannot be p e r c e i v e d i n the same way s i n c e man does n o t i n t e r a c t everywhere a t t h e same l e v e l . Moore f o u n d : That a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between "degree of f a m i l i a r i t y and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l of sketch-map r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (and t h a t ) a s i g n i f i c a n t . r e l a t i o n a l s o e x i s t s between f a m i l i a r i t y and s u c c e s s v e r s u s f a i l u r e on t h e w a y - f i n d i n g t a s k s a t the n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a l e . Thus, t h e s e r e s u l t s on v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s v a r y d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d epending on t h e demands o f d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s , and t h a t f o r t h e most p a r t s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t f a m i l i a r a r e a s i n a l e v e l I I I , o p e r a t i o n a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d manner, whereas t h e y r e p r e s e n t l e s s f a m i l i a r a r e a s i n a l e v e l . ' I I , p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d manner. (1976, pp. 160 - 61) 49 I b e l i e v e t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a p p l y t o t h e development o f s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n g e n e r a l as w e l l as t o t h e development o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s o r d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r . My s u b j e c t s (young a d u l t s ) a r e a t a mature s t a g e of development on t h e o n t o g e n e t i c s c a l e , b u t t h e y w i l l l i k e l y m a n i f e s t l o w e r forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s , depending on t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e a r e a o f s t u d y . 3.3 Models o f Space C o g n i t i o n The p r o c e s s and e v o l u t i o n o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n has now been d i s c u s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l c o v e r e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same m a t e r i a l i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . Many w r i t e r s have p r e s e n t e d s t a t i c , s t r u c t u r a l models of space c o g n i t i o n . These models d e s c r i b e t h e s p a t i a l image and a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t v e r y c o n v i n c i n g s i n c e t h e y a r e n e i t h e r s u p p o r t e d by e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s n o r any t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s . T h i s r e v i e w w i l l t hus be l i m i t e d t o P a i l h o u s ' s e x c e p t i o n a l work on t h e t a x i d r i v e r s o f P a r i s . H i s s t u d y , l a r g e l y i n s p i r e d by P i a g e t , i s q u i t e r e v e a l i n g as i t l o o k s a t b o t h a c t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . P a i l h o u s (1970) conducted, a number o f e x p e r i m e n t s on n o v i c e and e x p e r i e n c e d t a x i d r i v e r s t o d i s c o v e r t h e i r n o r m a l t r a v e l s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e u r b a n network. On t h e b a s i s o f t h o s e e x p e r i m e n t s he found t h e r o a d system can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : (1) t h e p r i m a r y n e t w o r k , w e l l known t o e v e r y o n e and c o n s i s t i n g of major axes and i n t e r s e c t i o n s , (2) t h e s e c o n d a r y n e t w o r k , a l m o s t unknown as such and c o n s i s t i n g of t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e roads ( F i g u r e 3:4). The p r i m a r y network i s used as much as p o s s i b l e . Most d r i v e r s have a c l e a r and w e l l o r g a n i z e d image o f i t . L o c a t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s a r e w e l l e s t i m a t e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t eucli'dean r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e o b s e r v e d on t h a t " p r i v i l e g e d " s p ace. On t h e o t h e r hand, d r i v e r s r e a c t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e s e c o n d a r y network. The t r a v e l s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t s s i m p l y i n r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p r i m a r y 50 network as soon as p o s s i b l e . O l d e r d r i v e r s a r e more e f f i c i e n t i n d o i n g t h i s , t h e y " f i n d " t h e i r way back by u s i n g a s h o r t e r and o f t e n more o b l i q u e r o u t e toward t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . Movement on t h a t network i s l a r g e l y i m p r o v i s e d , d r i v e r s p r o c e e d by r e c o g n i z a b l e s u b - g o a l s as t h e y have no o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o g u i d e them. P a i l h o u s f ound t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r y network i s a t t a c h e d o r i n d e x e d t o r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s ( u s u a l l y i n t e r s e c t i o n s ) o f t h e p r i m a r y n e t w o r k , d e v e l o p i n g i n t o s u b a r e a s i d e n t i f i a b l e t o p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s . The s i z e of t h e s e a r e a s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t . As d r i v e r s g a i n more e x p e r i e n c e t h e s i z e o f some a r e a s and t h e number o f r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s and i n d e x e d a r e a s i n c r e a s e , t h u s p e r m i t t i n g s i m p l e i n d e x a t i o n o f most a r e a s and m u l t i p l e i n d e x a t i o n o f some p o i n t s on t h e s e c o n d a r y n e t w o r k . Such p o i n t s a r e t h e n e a s i l y l o c a t e d . , (because r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n t o more t h a n one f i x e d p o i n t i s known), but a l w a y s i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r i m a r y n e t w o r k i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o n l y t o p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o l d f o r most o f t h e u r b a n s p a c e . R e l a t i o n -s h i p s between p o i n t s o f t h e s e c o n d a r y n e t w o r k cannot u s u a l l y be e s t a b l i s h e d . F i g u r e 3.4 - I l l u s t r a t i o n s e n t a t i o n of of P a i l h o u s ' s model of t h e s p a t i a l r e p r e -t a x i d r i v e r s i n P a r i s (by the a u t h o r ) 51 P a i l h o u s ' s e x p e r i m e n t s show t h a t t h e image i s v e r y p r a c t i c a l o r f u n c t i o n a l ; a c t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . I n h i s m o del, we r e c o g n i z e t h e s u b a r e a s o r schemas o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , as t h e o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e of space (dominated by w e l l known c e n t r e s h e r e ) , and we n o t e t h e e x i s t e n c e of v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s depending on t h e f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e network ( r o u t e mapping on t h e s e c o n d a r y network and s u r v e y mapping on t h e p r i m a r y ) . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d s i m i l a r models o f c o g n i t i v e space and a l l s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a node/path s t r u c t u r e as t h e b a s i s o f s p a t i a l l e a r n i n g and c o g n i t i v e mapping ( B r i g g s , 1973; 'Golledge e t a l . , 1976; D e v l i n , 1976; S t e a , 1969, 1976:; K a p l a n , 1976). P l a c e s a r e known f i r s t ; when th e p a t h s between t h o s e p l a c e s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s become e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s b a s i c s t r u c t u r e grows g r a d u a l l y i n d e t a i l . B r i g g s ( 1 9 7 3 ) , S t e a (1969) and S t e a and Downs (19.70) have added t h e c o ncept of r e g i o n o r schema t o t h i s model. Schemas a r e d e f i n e d as p a r t i c u l a r s e t s o f nodes and t h e i r i n t e r l i n k i n g p a t h s . Hudson's "Model o f S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s " borrows from c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y . As d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s o n l y i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s a r e l i k e l y t o be known, and s m a l l e r p l a c e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o l a r g e r ones: " P r o c e e d i n g up t h e h i e r a r c h y , each l o c a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o i t s immediate s u p e r -o r d i n a t e . " (1969, p.261). Each h i g h e r o r d e r node r e p r e s e n t s t h e l e s s i m p o r t a n t nodes i n i t s v i c i n i t y . Hudson's model thus i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e i d e a o f a h i e r a r c h y o f nodes depending upon t h e i n c r e a s e o f knowledge"'""' and t h e c o ncept of t h e c e n t e r dominated schema as a s i m p l i f y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g -feature o f s p a c e . 3.4 Focus of R e s e a r c h The t h e o r y o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n has h e l p e d us u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s b e h i n d d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . As P i a g e t showed, s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a v e r y a c t i v e p r o c e s s . Thus c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e s a r e m e n t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f 52 p r e v i o u s t r i p s , p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e of s e p a r a t i o n . We saw how p e o p l e s i m p l i f y and o r g a n i z e macro space i n f o r m a t i o n . D e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y showed t h a t not o n l y does the amount o f knowledge i n c r e a s e as man i n t e r a c t s w i t h h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t a l s o t h e way he o r g a n i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n e v o l v e s , as does h i s a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h e s e o n t o g e n e t i c developments c o u l d be o b s e r v e d a t any p a r t i c u l a r t i m e s i n c e s p a t i a l knowledge v a r i e s around t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c c o r d i n g t o the e x t e n t and " b i a s " of h i s a c t i o n s p a c e . P a i l h o u s ' s e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f t h e u r b a n network c o n f i r m e d t h o s e i d e a s . The l i n k s between d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n and c o g n i t i v e mapping a b i l i t i e s a r e numerous, o n l y some w i l l be e x p l o i t e d h e r e . How i s r e g i o n a l space c o n c e i v e d ? We have seen t h a t c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e s a r e f e l t ( i . e . not r e a l l y known as f a c t ) and e x p e r i e n t i a l l y d e r i v e d ; macro space i s d e f i n i t e l y t r a n s f o r m e d depending on p e o p l e ' s f a m i l i a r i t y and i m p r e s s i o n s o f p l a c e s . R e g i o n a l space i s not as w e l l known as t h e space o f p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t s ( P i a g e t ) o r even t h e w i d e r " p e r s o n a l s p a c e " o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e I e x p e c t more t h a n one l e v e l o f s p a c e c o g n i t i o n . Most o f t h e r e g i o n s h o u l d be c o n c e i v e d a t e i t h e r t h e t o p o l o g i c a l o r p r o j e c t i v e l e v e l s w h i l e f a m i l i a r a r e a s might be c o n c e i v e d a t t h e e u c l i d e a n l e v e l . R e g i o n a l space i s thus an e l a s t i c s p a c e , o n l y p a r t i a l l y - c o o r d i n a t e d ; some a r e a s w i l l be w e l l known f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s w h i l e o t h e r s w i l l r e m a i n " h o l e s " i n t h e s u r f a c e of knowledge. H e r e , t h e c o ncept o f schemas o f space becomes v e r y r e l e v a n t . R e g i o n a l space i s l i k e l y t o be o r g a n i z e d i n t o s u b a r e a s o r schemas c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d i s t i n c t p a r t s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i v i t y space o r c a t e g o r i e s o f h i s s p a t i a l knowledge. Each schema c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d a t a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , but I doubt o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n between a l l schemas e v e r be p o s s i b l e a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e . The l o w e s t l e v e l o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( t o p o l o g i c a l ) c o r r e s p o n d s t o s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o x i m i t y , e s t a b l i s h e d f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own p o i n t o f v i e w ( h i s own e x p e r i e n c e ) . S i n c e no measurement i s p o s s i b l e a t t h i s s t a g e , d r a s t i c 53 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f space t a k e p l a c e . A t t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l ( p r o j e c t i v e ) r e l a t i o n s of p r o x i m i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d from v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f v i e w a l l o w i n g f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e o r d e r of r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s . Measurement i s now p o s s i b l e as t h e i n d i v i d u a l compares and gauges d i s t a n c e s on some o u t s i d e r e f e r e n c e o b j e c t ( i n d e x d i s t . , c i t y b l o c k o r w h a t e v e r ) ( P i a g e t , 1960, ch. 2 ) . T h i s l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l l i k e l y be a d o p t e d a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e . P i a g e t ' s o n l y e x p e r i m e n t on macro 'space (school-home a r e a ) showed t h a t h i s s u b j e c t s ' r e f e r e n c e system was " q u a l i t a t i v e " , t h e b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d b e i n g " t h e r a n k - o r d e r o f o b j e c t s a l o n g t h e two c o o r d i n a t e a x e s " (1960, p . 2 2 ) . The h i g h e s t l e v e l of c o o r d i n a t i o n ( E u c l i d e a n ) o c c u r s when space i s a f u l l y ..coordinated s y s t e m o f f i x e d r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . Space i s now an a b s t r a c t con-t a i n e r p a r t i a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t s c o n t e n t ; r e l a t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f s t a t i o n a r y s i t e s ( P i a g e t , 1960, ch. 3 ) . The v a r i o u s schemas o f space a r e i n t e g r a t e d , i n l i n e w i t h t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e system. D i s t a n c e s between p l a c e s a r e s y m m e t r i c a l , t h e y a r e now c o n s e r v e d w h a t e v e r i n t e r m e d i a t e o b j e c t o r b a r r i e r i s i n t e r p o s e d . A t t h i s l e v e l measurement by i t e r a t i o n o f a u n i t measure ( i . e . m i l e ) becomes p o s s i b l e ( P i a g e t , 1960, ch. 2 ) . V e r y few a r e a s of macro"space c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d a t t h e E u c l i d e a n l e v e l . R e g i o n a l space w i l l f a l l somewhere between t h e t o t a l l y e l a s t i c t o p o l o g i c a l space and t h e f i x e d • c o o r d i n a t e d E u c l i d e a n s p a c e , a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c a r e a s c o u l d f a l l i n e i t h e r extreme. Why would macro-'space r e m a i n somewhat e l a s t i c , s u b j e c t i v e and o n l y p a r t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d ? I n P i a g e t ' s s ystem, n o r m a l c o g n i t i v e development i s o n l y p o s s i b l e i f t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p r e a c h e s a n a t u r a l b a l a n c e , i f t h e r e i s e q u i l i b r i u m between a s s i m i l a t i o n and accommodation: . . . e q u i l i b r i u m . . . connotes a k i n d o f b a l a n c e , a f u n c t i o n a l s t a t e i n w h i c h p o t e n t i a l l y s l a v i s h and n a i v e l y r e a l i s t i c ( i n t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l sense) accommodations t o r e a l i t y a r e e f f e c t i v e l y h e l d i n check by an a s s i m i l a t o r y p r o c e s s w h i c h can o r g a n i z e and d i r e c t accommodations, and 54 i n w h i c h a s s i m i l a t i o n i s k e p t from b e i n g r i o t o u s l y a u t i s t i c by a s u f f i c i e n c y of c o n t i n u i n g accommodatory a d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e r e a l w o r l d . . . Through t h i s f i n e b a l a n c e , a b o t h r e a l i s t i c (accommodation) and m e a n i n g f u l ( a s s i m i l a t i o n ) r a p p o r t between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i s s e c u r e d . ( F l a v e l l , 1963, p.65) Macro s p a c e r s remote: i t i s o n l y s p a r s e l y and s e l e c t i v e l y known because i t c a n -not be apprehended a l l a t once by t h e s e n s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , such an " o b j e c t " i s not immediate enough t o p e r m i t e q u i l i b r i u m o f i n t e l l i g e n t f u n c t i o n i n g , and a c c o -m o d a t i o n i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o a s s i m i l a t i o n . I n t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e s u b j e c t " t a k e s o v e r " t h e e l u s i v e o b j e c t . T h i s r e s u l t s i n P i a g e t ' s c o n c e p t of " p l a y " (1962, p a r t t w o ) . I n the c a s e o f t h e adopted image, " i m i t a t i o n aims a t e x a c t n e s s , i . e . a one-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t s i g n i f i e d . " I n " p l a y " , the image i s d i s t o r t e d , e g o c e n t r i c and s u b j e c t i v e as i t i s d i s s o c i a t e d from im-m e d i a t e accommodation ( P i a g e t , 1962, pp.164-65). W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f v e r y f a m i -l i a r a r e a s , t h i s makes i t v e r y h a r d f o r macro spa c e t o r e a c h t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h how p e o p l e t h i n k about s e p a r a t i o n and why they t r a n s f o r m s p a c e the way t h e y do. F i r s t , I w i l l pay some a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m e t r i c o f space i s s u e . Which m e t r i c do p e o p l e f a v o r ? What l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s can t h e y e s t a b l i s h ? Does th e m e t r i c change as schemas o r p l a c e s become p o o r l y known? The p u r p o s e h e r e i s t o g e t a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own sense of d i s t a n c e . N e x t , I w i l l l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s f a c t o r s on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . A f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r p e r s o n a l and l o c a t i o n a l ( s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s and r e a l d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d ) f a c t o r s , t h e s t u d y w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f : (1) p e o p l e ' s a c t i v e knowledge o f s u r r o u n d i n g p l a c e s , (2) t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l and second hand (word of mouth, media) i m p r e s s i o n s t h e y have d e v e l o p p e d of t h o s e p l a c e s and, (3) t h e i r m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s p a t i a l knowledge, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r o l e of schemas, b a r r i e r s , and r e f e r e n c e l i n e s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e a c t i v e knowledge f a c t o r has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . The " i m p r e s s i o n s " d e v e l o p e d of t h e p l a c e s w i l l be s t u d i e d as a second f a c t o r 55 b e cause t h i s a s p e c t i s n o t s e p a r a b l e from t h e knowledge d i m e n s i o n . As p e o p l e get t o know a p l a c e t h e y d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l i d e a s , i m p r e s s i o n s , and p r e f e r e n c e s about t h a t p l a c e . Beck (1967) s t r e s s e d t h a t s p a t i a l meaning i s supplemented by t h e use and f u n c t i o n o f o b j e c t s ( i . e . p l a c e s ) . As knowledge i n c r e a s e s s p a t i a l meanings get more and more d i v e r s e and spa c e g e t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (Beck, 1967; B u r g e s s , 16 1974, 1978). I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , P i a g e t s e p a r a t e s a f f e c t and c o g n i t i o n b u t i n -s i s t s t h e y a r e i n d i s s o c i a b l e i n r e a l l i f e , b o t h b e i n g n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n a l l human a d a p t a t i o n : A f f e c t i v e l i f e , l i k e i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e , i s a c o n t i n u a l a d a p t a t i o n , and t h e two a r e not o n l y p a r a l l e l b u t i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , s i n c e f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s t h e i n t e r e s t and v a l u e g i v e n t o a c t i o n s o f w h i c h i n t e l l i -gence p r o v i d e s t h e s t r u c t u r e . . . . p e r s o n a l schemas, l i k e a l l o t h e r s , a r e b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l and a f f e c t i v e . ( P i a g e t , 1962, pp. 205-07) I n t h i s t h e s i s , knowledge and meaning a r e b o t h t a k e n t o be e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f p l a c e s . The measurement o f t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . The s u b j e c t s ' d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i r m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p a c e . P e o p l e ' s own c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f s p a -ce as w e l l as t h e " r e a l " ( p o l i t i c a l ) c a t e g o r i e s o f space w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d . W i l l d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n change as t h e schemas become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o a r s e o r l e s s f a m i l i a r ( h o m o g e n i z a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s t o d i s t a n t , vague schemas)? W i l l d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n t h e same schema be more u n i f o r m t h a n i t i s between schemas, e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g e q u a l ? F i n a l l y , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r e f e r e n c e l i n e s (major r i v e r s ) on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l s p a c e , w i l l be s t u d i e d . CHAPTER IV M e thodology T h i s c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e s t u d y r e g i o n and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ; i t d i s c u s s e s t h e c h o i c e o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s and sample. The o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e t h e n d e f i n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f o r m a t and a p p l i c a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i n a l l y , t h e major s t e p s and p roblems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s a r e r e v i e w e d . 4.1 R e g i o n o f Study The c o r e of t h e s t u d y a r e a i s E a s t e r n O n t a r i o , however, t h e a d j a c e n t a r e a i n Quebec and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has been c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e t h e e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s on s p a c e c o g n i t i o n . T h i s r e g i o n i s w e l l c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h e Ottawa and S t . Lawrence r i v e r s , and i s dominated by two l a r g e c e n t r e s a t b o t h ends - Ottawa and M o n t r e a l . As p a r t of t h e S t . Lawrence l o w l a n d s (on what used t o be t h e bottom o f t h e C h a m p l a i n S e a ) , t h e t o p o g r a p h y of the a r e a i s q u i t e f l a t . Sand and c l a y s e d i m e n t s d e p o s i t e d by t h e sea have p r o d u c e d a good a r e a f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . D a i r y f a r m i n g and t h e s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n ; i n t h e l a r g e r towns s m a l l i n d u s t r i e s may be f o u n d . Q u i t e a few towns a r e d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a : (1) c i t i e s : M o n t r e a l (2,802,485), O t t a w a - H u l l (793,288); (2) s m a l l towns: C o r n w a l l (46,121). Hawkesbury (11,306), R o c k l a n d ( 3 , 9 3 0 ) , A l e x a n d r i a ( 3 , 4 9 8 ) ; (3) v i l l a g e s : K e m p t v i l l e ( 2 , 5 4 4 ) , Embrun ( 1 , 7 6 3 ) , W i n c h e s t e r ( 1 , 2 4 5 ) , V a n k l e e k H i l l ( 1 , 5 6 8 ) , Casselman ( 1 , 4 2 2 ) , C h e s t e r v i l l e ( 1 , 3 2 5 ) , A l f r e d ( 1 , 1 0 5 ) ^ and a g r e a t number o f h a m l e t s and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s (MAP 1 ) . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n c e n t r e s on t h e a u t o m o b i l e ; p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a -56 M P 1 - R e g i o n o f s t u d y ( c o m p i l e d by the a u t h o r ) 58 t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o r a i l w a y t r a v e l ( V i a R a i l ) between Ottawa o r T o r o n t o , and M o n t r e a l , w i t h a few s t o p s a l o n g t h e way. The r o a d n e t w o r k though i s h i g h l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h two m u l t i l a n e highways (401 a l o n g S t . Lawrence and 417 t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r ) w h i c h l i n k w i t h a number o f s e c o n d a r y highways; a l o c a l n e t w o r k o f m o s t l y paved roads c o m p l e t e t h e n e t w o r k (MAP 1 ) . F a r l e s s emphasis has been p u t on t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e o f s t u d y i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s . P e r c e p t i o n geography, f o r i n s t a n c e , commonly d e a l s w i t h t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . W h i l e t h e r e g i o n may n o t be t h e s c a l e o f p e r s o n a l i z e d a c t i o n s p a c e , t h e w e e k l y and even d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s o f many p e o p l e o c c u r a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e ( e . g . work t r i p s f o r i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f commuters, s h o p p i n g t r i p s , e t c . ) . I n a d d i t i o n , most p e o p l e ' s "awareness s p a c e " e x t e n d s t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s as i t i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e g i o n a l media ( r a d i o , T.V., p a p e r s ) and word-of-mouth communication n e t w o r k s . The s e t t i n g o f E a s t e r n O n t a r i o , w i t h i t s c l e a r p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and p o s s i b l e c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e s t u d y o f m e n t a l imagery. Among t h e f i r s t s e t t l e r s o f t h e a r e a were L o y a l i s t s , who a r r i v e d a t t h e t u r n o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . E a r l y i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h Canadians moved i n t o P r e s c o t t County t h r o u g h L ' O r i g n a l ' (MAP 2 ) , f r o m t h e o v e r p o p u l a t e d c o u n t i e s o f V a u d r e u i l and the M o n t r e a l a r e a . I n 1847, t h e p a r i s h e s o f t h e Ottawa V a l l e y were d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e D i o c e s e o f K i n g s t o n and e n t r u s t e d t o B i s h o p G u i g u e s , an O b l a t e newly a r r i v e d from F r a n c e . Under him and h i s s u c c e s s o r , A r c h b i s h o p Duhamel (1874-1910), t h e thousands of F r e n c h Canadians who poured i n t o t h e r e g i o n were a s s u r e d o f p a r i s h e s and s c h o o l s i n w h i c h t h e i r own l a n g u a g e w o u l d have p r i o r i t y . C a r t w r i g h t (1977) d e s c r i b e s how P r e s c o t t and R u s s e l l c o u n t i e s d e v e l o p e d under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Quebec c h u r c h , w h i l e t h e F r e n c h p e n e t r a t i o n of G l e n g a r r y and Stormont ( D i o c e s e o f K i n g s t o n ) was much more d i s p e r s e d , r e p l a c i n g the B r i t i s h f a r m e r s who v a c a t e d t h e i r l a n d and moved westward. 59 Today, t h e r e g i o n i s s t i l l o c c u p i e d by what seems t o be two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s : 67% o f E a s t e r n O n t a r i o ' s p o p u l a t i o n i s E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g and 26% i f F r e n c h s p e a k i n g (1971 mother tongue s t a t i s t i c ) . The F r e n c h p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n h a l f o f t h e r e g i o n i n what i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " p e t i t Quebec" o f O n t a r i o . R u s s e l l c o u n t y i s 84% F r e n c h s p e a k i n g , P r e s c o t t 81%, and G l e n g a r r y 44%; Casselman, P l a n t a g e n e t , Hawkesbury and R o c k l a n d a r e a r o u n d 90% F r e n c h , Embrun and A l e x a n d r i a around 65%, C o r n w a l l and O t t a w a - H u l l a r o u n d 30% (see MAP 2 f o r 1971 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f two c u l t u r a l groups of t h e r e g i o n and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s ) . T h i s r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h group has a s s u r e d i t s s u r v i v a l t o t h e p r e s e n t day. Ray's (1967) s t u d y f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e i n consumer t r a v e l b e h a v i o r . C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e each group's a c t i o n s p a c e when i t comes t o i n t e r m e d i a t e ( m e d i c a l and l e g a l s e r v i c e s ) and h i g h e r - o r d e r s e r v i c e s ( d e n t a l , o p t i c a l ) . Today however, t h e p r e s e n c e o f two d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l groups may n o t be so c l e a r . A s s i m i l a t i o n f o r E a s t e r n O n t a r i o as a w h ole r e a c h e d 15% i n 1971 -15% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h F r e n c h m a t e r n a l p a r e n t a g e were u s i n g E n g l i s h a t home (1971 Canada C e n s u s ) . O u t s i d e t h e home, t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s t y p i c a l l y much h i g h e r . The young g e n e r a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d ; i n t h e mixed ( F r e n c h and E n g l i s h ) and even the F r e n c h u n i l i n g u a l h i g h s c h o o l s of t h e r e g i o n , E n g l i s h i s t h e " l a n g u a g e o f t h e c o r r i d o r s " f o r most F r e n c h s t u d e n t s . Beyond the p e t i t Quebec a r e a , and a p p r o a c h i n g t h e l a r g e u r b a n c e n t e r s (Ottawa, C o r n w a l l ) t h e a s s i m i l a t o r y f o r c e s become even more p r o m i n e n t . A l s o , s i n c e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e "417", the f o r m e r l y q u i e t , r u r a l , " p e t i t Quebec" i s b e i n g s l o w l y p o p u l a t e d by E n g l i s h u r b a n d w e l l e r s from Ottawa and M o n t r e a l : F o r e s t P a r k , a new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a between Casselman and Embrun, i s 80% E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g . I t t h u s becomes h a r d e r t o f i n d group s o l i d a r i t y w i t h i n t h e F r e n c h m i n o r i t y . Le " p e t i t Quebec" i s s l o w l y l o s i n g i t s s p a t i a l and s o c i a l i d e n t i t y . L e g e n d -Q F r e n c h ( 8 0 percent a n d Q M o s t l y t r e n c h ( 6 5 - 8 0 percent) O M i x e d ( 5 0 - 6 5 percent for e i ther g r o u p ) Q M o s t l y e n g l i s h ( 6 5 - 8 0 percen t ) H E n g l i s h ( 8 0 pe rcen t a n d m o r e ) ( Z o n e s d e r i v e d f r o m 1971 C A N A D A C E N S U S s ta t is t i c o n l a n g u a g e s p o k e n at home for census s u b d i v i s i o n s a n d towns) MAP 2 - C u l t u r a l zones o f a r e a of s t u d y ( c o m p i l e d by the a u t h o r ) 4.2 S t i m u l i P o i n t s S t i m u l u s p o i n t i s the common name g i v e n t o t h o s e p l a c e s o f t h e a r e a o f s t u d y f o r w h i c h one i s a s k i n g d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s and o t h e r e v a l u a t i o n s . The use of s u c h d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s o r " e l e m e n t s " , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s o f c o g n i t i v e s p a c e , s h o u l d a l l o w us t o get a t t h e d e s i r e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f space. A t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e towns o r p l a c e s a r e t h e most r e l e v a n t b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f sp a c e . Towns a r e commonly r e f e r r e d t o f o r o r i e n t i n g , i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e r e g i o n , e t c e t e r a , and t h e r e f o r e , t h e y a r e t h e r e p o s i t o r i e s o f know-l e d g e , c o n c e r n , and meaning. U n l e s s a p l a c e i s w e l l known p e o p l e w o u l d t e n d t o have a g l o b a l image o f i t , w h i c h can t u r n i n t o -a s t e r e o t y p e ( B u r g e s s , 1974, 1978). Lynch's d e s c r i p t i o n o f a "node" i s a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e ( t h e d i f f e r e n t s c a l e w i t h s t a n d i n g ) : a node i s a s t r a t e g i c f o c u s i n t o w h i c h p e o p l e can e n t e r , a c o n c e p t u a l anchor p o i n t , a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y , a b r e a k i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and f i n a l l y , an element o f spac e around w h i c h l a r g e a r e a s may be o r g a n i z e d (1960, pp. 72-78). The s t i m u l i p o i n t s o f t h i s s t u d y (MAP 3) were chosen e x p r e s s l y t o r e p l i c a t e t h e " r e a l w o r l d " o f t h e r e g i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t : (1) P o i n t s were chosen t o c o v e r t h e whole a r e a o f s t u d y ; p o i n t s o u t s i d e the r e g i o n a l b o r d e r s i n Quebec and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were i n c l u d e d t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s b a r r i e r s . (2) P o i n t s were chosen f o r t h e i r p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g known ( a l t h o u g h good knowledge was n o t n e c e s s a r y ) . (3) They were chosen f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s s i z e s (TABLE 4 . 1 ) , (4) And t h e i r v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t i e s . Twenty-one s t i m u l i p o i n t s were used i n k e e p i n g w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f 35-45 2 mxnutes. 62 M a n i w a k i MAP 3 - S t i m u l i p o i n t s T A B L E 4.1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s i P l a c e s ( p r o v . ) 1. M o n t r e a l ( Q u e b e c ) 2. O t t a w a - H u l l ( O n t . / Q u e ) 3. C o r n w a l l ( O n t a r i o ) 4. V a l l e y f i e l d (Que.) 5. B r o c k v i l l e ( O n t . ) 6. M a s s e n a (N.Y.) 7. L a c h u t e (Que.) 8. B u c k i n g h a m (Que.) 9. S m i t h s F a l l s ( O n t . ) 1 0 . O g d e n s b u r g (N.Y.) 1 1 . H a w k e s b u r y ( O n t . ) 1 2 . A r n p r i o r ( O n t . ) 1 3 . M a n i w a k i (Que.) 14. R o c k l a n d ( O n t . ) 1 5 . A l e x a n d r i a ( O n t . ) 1 6 . K e m p t v i l l e ( O n t . ) 1 7 . R i g a u d (Que.) 1 8 . E m b r u n ( O n t . ) 1 9 . V a n k l e e k H i l l ( O n t . ) 2 0 . C a s s e l m a n ( O n t . ) 2 1 . P l a n t a g e n e t ( O n t . ) 2 2 . ( s a m p l e p o i n t t o w n s ) C h e s t e r v i l l e ( O n t . ) L a n c a s t e r ( O n t . ) A v o n m o r e ( O n t . ) P o p u l a t i o n 2 , 8 0 2 , 4 8 5 68 6 9 3 , 2 8 8 31 4 6 , 1 2 1 31 ' 3 5 , 9 2 0 9 5 2 6 , 8 8 3 1 1 5 , 3 0 0 (N.A. 1 5 , 0 4 2 80 1 4 , 3 2 8 74 1 3 , 3 2 7 1 1 3 , 0 0 0 (N.A. 1 1 , 3 0 6 85 1 0 , 6 6 2 1 5 , 9 69 90 3 ,930 86 ' 3 , 4 9 8 62 2,544 1 2 , 2 0 3 97 1,763 68 1,568 53 1,422 94 9 2 0 88 1,325 2 5 4 0 24 (N.A. b u t (N.A. v e r y s m a l l ! L a n g u a g e s p o k e n a t home (%) F r e n c h E n g l i s h O t h e r s 1 9 13 6 3 6 6 7 2 5 0 97 2 b u t m o s t l y E n g l i s h ) 3 19 26 99 b u t m o s t l y E n g l i s h ) 14 9 8 10 14 38 98 3 31 47 6 12 9 8 74 b u t m o s t l y E n g l i s h ) S o u r c e : 1 9 7 6 C a n a d a C e n s u s ( M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n t h e c a s e o f M o n t r e a l a n d O t t a w a ) , 1 9 7 0 U.S.A. C e n s u s , 1 9 7 1 l a n g u a g e s t a t i s t i c s a S t a t i s t i c n o t a v a i l a b l e 4.3 Sample My sample c o n s i s t e d o f F r e n c h and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s (17 - 18 y e a r s o l d ) from t e n l o c a l i t i e s i n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o (MAP 4 ) . A l a r g e sample a l l o w e d a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s even a t t h e l e v e l o f each s c h o o l , as w e l l as h e l p i n g t o a t t e n u a t e the e f f e c t of u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s . The c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f 12 h i g h s c h o o l s f r o m the c e n t e r o f t h e r e g i o n p r o d u c e d a sample w i t h o u t s p a t i a l b i a s (MAP A ) . 64 MAP 4 - S a m p l i n g p o i n t s The s t u d e n t s came from t h e p a r t i c u l a r towns as w e l l as f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l a r e a s . Groups o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e c e i v e d s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h i s way, t h e chances o f b i a s i n t r o d u c e d by the r e s e a r c h e r were m i n i m i z e d o r a t l e a s t c o n t r o l l e d , s i n c e t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e p e a t e d from p l a c e t o p l a c e . As a l l s c h o o l s approached showed i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t , my sample i n c l u d e s a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of g rade 13 s t u d e n t s i n t h e r e g i o n . I n p l a c e s where grade 13's were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n numbers, grade 12's were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e (TABLE 4.3.1.). The number o f r e s p o n d e n t s p e r s c h o o l as w e l l as t h e i r c u l t u r a l breakdown a r e l i s t e d i n TABLE 4.2 G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e s p o n s e 65 was v e r y good; however, some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h showed s i g n s o f n e g l i g e n c e were n o t a c c e p t e d . TABLE 4.2 Sampling points LOCATION TOTAL TOTAL CULTURAL IDENTITY 1 1 (School) RESPONSE ACCEPTED ENGLISH FRENCH BOTH OTHER 1.Williamstown (Charlan) 40 39 25 3 11 -2.Avonmore (Tagwi) 62 59 36 9 11 3 3.Casselman 118 94 - 81 12 1 4.Hawkesbury 55 49 11 29 9 -5 .Embrun . 47 41 - 32 9 -6.Alexandria (Glengarry) 59 58 32 17 9 -7.Chesterville (North Dundas) 32 32 30 - 1 1 8.Vankleek H i l l 43 39 19 17 3 -9.Plantagenet 38 35 9 17 9 -10.Cornwall 133 98 41 40 14 3 (La C i t a d e l l e St.Laurent General Vanier) ! TOTAL 627 544 203 245 88 8 a Categories to be explained i n 'questionnaire' section The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample a r e shown i n T a b l e 4.3. Most s u b j e c t s were 17 - 18 y e a r s o l d ; G o u l d (1974, 1975 ( b ) , 1976) has shown t h a t s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t e n d s t o l e v e l o f f around t h a t age. T h e r e f o r e , o b s e r v a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s group may n o t be t h a t d i f f e r e n t from o b s e r v a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a d u l t s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s have l i v e d i n the r e g i o n f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s (TABLE 4.3.5, 4.3.6). S t u d e n t s p r o b a b l y have a l o w e r l e v e l o f m o b i l i t y t h a n a d u l t s (TABLE 4.3.7): most used someone e l s e ' s c a r o r t h e y got r i d e s (74%) ( o n l y 15% p o s s e s s e d c a r s ) . The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f them however, admit t o a f a i r amount o f t r a v e l i n g i n t h e r e g i o n . TABLE 4.3 Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample 3.1 3.3 GRADE % 3 2 SEX % 11 0.4 M 45.7 12 36.6 F 54 .3 13 63.0 AGE % 3 4 GEO STUDENT3 % 16 6.8 Yes 27.4 17 42.2 No 72.6 18 48.3 19 2.4 20 0.4 3.5 LENGTH OF % RESIDENCE (YRS) 0 - 1 5.8 2 - 4 10.5 5 - 9 , 17.3 10 - 20 66.4 3.7 MOBILITY % My car 15.2 Others' car 27.7 Ride with somebody 36.8 Public mode 2.2 My car-ride 4.1 Others' car-ride 9.1 L i t t l e t r a v e l 4.1 Other 0.7 3 .6 PREVIOU^ ADDRESS % No change 57 .9 Change i n region 28 .3 Out-Ontario 4 .7 Out-Quebec N 0 .2 Out-Quebec E 7 .3 Far out 1 .6 For whether the student i s taking geography or not k 'Out-Ontario' i s for respondents who came to the region from somewhere else i n Ontario; 'Out-Quebec N' i s for respondents coming from Quebec vnorth of the region, e t c . 4.4 The Ex p e r i m e n t 4.4.1 O p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s The c h o i c e o f o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s i s l a r g e l y dependent on t h e expe r i m e n t d e s i g n . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t would be f i l l e d out e a s i l y and r a t h e r q u i c k l y , r e q u i r i n g m i n i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , was a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l a r g e sample chosen. Of c o u r s e , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m s e r i o u s l y l i m i t s t h e c h o i c e 67 of o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s . TABLE 4.4 l i s t s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s by c a t e g o r i e s of t h e s t u d y ' s c o n c e r n s (see q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x 1 f o r t h e e x a c t f o r m u l a t i o n of each v a r i a b l e ) . The f r o n t page of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n s on age, s e x , s c h o o l g r a d e , a d d r e s s , l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and p r e v i o u s a d d r e s s , c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and l e v e l o f m o b i l i t y . C o n t r o l was done f o r s t u d e n t s t a k i n g geography where t h e exposure t o r e g i o n a l maps may have been h i g h e r . My own f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e r e g i o n and i t s p e o p l e h e l p e d me f o r m u l a t e t h e q u e s t i o n s : f o r example, i n t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y q u e s t i o n , the c a t e g o r y " b o t h o f them" was i n c l u d e d because many i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " b i l i n g u a l " and r e f u s e t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h . I n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e m e t r i c o f space i s s u e , s u b j e c t s were asked t o e s t i m a t e t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i r s c h o o l t o the f i x e d 21 s t i m u l i p o i n t s o f t h e r e g i o n i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways: by t h e p o p u l a r s u b j e c t i v e magnitude o r r a t i o e s t i m a t e , by m i l e a g e , and by t i m e e s t i m a t e s . I n t h e case o f t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e , I d i d n o t s p e c i f y a r o u t e o r a "as the crow f l i e s " e s t i m a t e , t h e r e b y l e a v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s f r e e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r own sense o f d i s t a n c e s . V e r y few o f them thought t h e q u e s t i o n was vague. The d i s t a n c e t o Ottawa was chosen as t h e i n d e x d i s t a n c e because t h i s p r o v e d t o be t h e b e s t known and most t r a v e l l e d d i s t a n c e f o r a l l samples. I n A l e x a n d r i a and W i l l i a m s t o w n I gave t h e s t u d e n t s t h e c h o i c e t o use e i t h e r Ottawa o r M o n t r e a l as i n d e x ; o n l y two s t u d e n t s o p t e d f o r M o n t r e a l . As s u g g e s t e d i n C a d w a l l a d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , t h e d i s t a n c e t o Ottawa was a l w a y s somewhere i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e r a n g e of r e a l d i s t a n c e s t o be e s t i m a t e d . T h i s makes f o r a much b e t t e r " i n d e x " v a l u e a g a i n s t w h i c h o t h e r d i s t a n c e s can be compared. The s t a n d a r d d i s t a n c e was a s s i g n e d t h e v a l u e 100 as i t i s easy t o d i v i d e i n t o s i m p l e r a t i o s and i t e n a b l e s t h e s u b j e c t s t o t h i n k i n terms o f p e r c e n t a g e s i f t h e y d e s i r e . A number i n d e x was p r e f e r r e d t o a l i n e i n d e x ( i . e . where e s t i m a t e s a r e marked on a s t a n d a r d l i n e ) , b e i n g a 68 much more f l e x i b l e s y s t e m and a l l o w i n g f o r a more i n d e p e n d e n t judgment. TABLE 4.4 L i s t of operational variables INTEREST OPERATIONAL VARIABLES QUESTIONNAIRE3 (variable name) (page) 1. Personal characteristics a grade (GRADE) of respondents b age (AGE) c sex (SEX) d taking geography or not (GEO) e home address f length of residence (LTRES)*3 g- previous address i f applicable (PREADD) h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (CULTURE) i . l e v e l of mobility (MOBILE) Front Page 2. How people think about a. 3 distance estimates: distances - what trans- - subjective magnitude estimate (SUBMAG) formations of space they do 2 - mile estimate (SUBMILE) 3 - time estimate (SUBTIME) 3 b. direction estimate (SUBDIR) 4 3. People's active knowledge a. scale evaluation of knowledge (KNOWL) 6 of space b. scale evaluation of amount of v i s i t s for meeting r e l a t i v e s or friends (VISIT 1) 10 c. frequency of road usage (VISIT 2) Map Exercise 4. People's impressions of a. scale evaluation of meaning (MEANIN) 8 places (MEANING) b. scale evaluation of size (SIZE) 11 c. scale evaluation of value (EVALUA) 9 d. scale evaluation of language used (LANGAG)C 7 5. People's mental organization of space a) people's own cate- a. grouping of places according to their gorization of space s i m i l a r i t i e s (SURGRO)d 5 b. subdivision of region into subareas (MAPGRO)d Map Exercise b) influence of p o l i t i c a l a. use of p o l i t i c a l categories of region of and physical barriers study ( i . e . Ontario-Quebec-USA) (POLBAR) b. categorization of region according to physical characters ( i . e . places along rivers, inland places) (PHYSBAR) 1 a Please refer to copy of questionnaire in Appendix 1. ' *^ b LTRES recoded to RLTRES on the basis of four categories of time of residence (1: 1 year or less; 2: 2 to 4 years; 3: 5 to 9; 4: 10 to 20) c LANGAG was recoded to LAGREE, a language agreement variable which indicates to which degree the LANGAG judgment corresponds to the subject's own c u l t u r a l identity on a scale 1 to 7, where 1 i s for when the languages agree and 7 i s for when they disagree. d SURGRO and MAPGRO were recoded as the dichotomous variables RSURGRO and RMAPGRO which simply account for the home and foreign schemas (i . e . a l l non-home schemas recoded here as one foreign schema). I n o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l m e n t a l space of my s u b j e c t s , I a s k e d f o r a d i a g r a m showing d i r e c t i o n s t o t h e same s e t o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown t h a t s u c h e s t i m a t e s l a r g e l y depend on p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e of space (Pocock, 1976a, pp. 510-512; P e t e r s o n , 1916). D i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s a r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by r e f e r e n c e l i n e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and by 69 p e o p l e ' s a b i l i t y t o s i m p l i f y r e a l i t y ( T r o w b r i d g e , 1913; P e t e r s o n , 1916). I n t h i s s t u d y , s t u d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e n o r t h on t h e i r d i a g r a m s ; d i r e c t i o n s were coded i n degrees f r o m t h e n o r t h t a k i n g good c a r e o f t h e 0° -360° a n g l e b r e a k . P e o p l e ' s a c t i v e knowledge o f space was measured i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways: f i r s t , on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 7, s u b j e c t s were a s k e d how w e l l t h e y knew t h e 21 s t i m u l i p o i n t s (p. 6 o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , and how o f t e n t h e y v i s i t e d t h o s e 3 p l a c e s f o r m e e t i n g r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s (p. 1 0 ) . I n the map e x e r c i s e a t t h e end o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d how o f t e n t h e y had used th e d i f f e r e n t r o a d s i n t h e l a s t y e a r o r s o , and how much t h e y e n j o y e d t h o s e 4 r o a d s . That i n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o coded i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e 21 p l a c e s s t u d i e d . P e o p l e ' s i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h o s e p l a c e s were t e n t a t i v e l y measured on a s c a l e o f 1 t o 7 w i t h f o u r v a r i a b l e s , chosen t o r e p r e s e n t t h e a p p r a i s i v e o r a f f e c t i v e component o f meaning. Osgood e t a l . (1957) have shown t h a t t h e measurement o f meaning w i t h s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s r e g u l a r l y p r o d u c e d t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o u t o f f a c t o r a n a l y s i s : (1) e v a l u a t i o n , (2) p o t e n c y (power o r s i z e ) , and (3) a c t i v i t y ( q u i c k n e s s , warmth, a g i t a t i o n ) . I used s c a l e e v a l u a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g two o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s , v a l u e (good - bad) and s i z e ( l a r g e - s m a l l ) . S t u d e n t s were always asked f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f p l a c e s . Then, s t u d e n t s were asked how " F r e n c h " o r " E n g l i s h " t h o s e p l a c e s seemed t o them, i n o r d e r t o check f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r c e i v e d c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s on space t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , I t r i e d t o go d i r e c t l y a t t h e i s s u e o f meaning by a s k i n g s t u d e n t s how p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l were t h e s e p l a c e s ( s t i m u l i p o i n t s ) t o them. I n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s I d e s c r i b e d a m e a n i n g f u l p l a c e as a p l a c e t h a t seemed " d i f f e r e n t " , a p l a c e t o w h i c h one had p e r s o n a l l i n k s , o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n s (ex. from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s ) . The s u b j e c t s ' own c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f space was measured i n two ways. On page 5 o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d e n t s were asked t o r e g r o u p 70 t h e 21 p l a c e s i n t o any number of groups a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r i t y . I emphasized t h a t t h e y s h o u l d group p l a c e s a c c o r d i n g t o p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . S t u d e n t s were as k e d t o i n d i c a t e b r i e f l y t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Cox and Zannaras (1973) have shown t h i s method t o be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . I n t h e map e x e r c i s e , s t u d e n t s were s i m i l a r l y a s k e d t o d i v i d e t h e map i n t o as many sub-r e g i o n s as they d e s i r e d . I n b o t h t h e s i m i l a r i t y g r o u p i n g and t h e map e x e r c i s e s , each s t i m u l u s p o i n t was coded f o r i t s p r e s e n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r group o r s u b r e g i o n . The " r e a l " c a t e g o r i e s and f e a t u r e s o f space were e a s i l y r e p r e s e n t e d by c l a s s i f y i n g t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n ( O n t a r i o , Quebec, U.S.A.), and t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o " i m a g e a b l e " l i n e s (Ottawa and S t . Lawrence r i v e r s ) . W i t h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s were t e s t e d . The l a s t v a r i a b l e s t o be i n t r o d u c e d a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e d i s t a n c e measures. A l l d i s t a n c e s were measured w i t h a p l a n i m e t e r , on a 1/50,000 t o p o g r a p h i c a l map o f t h e r e g i o n . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f many o f t h o s e measurements was v e r i f i e d i n my own t r a v e l s t h r o u g h t h e r e g i o n . S t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e s were s i m p l e t o measure (see r e a l d i s t a n c e m a t r i c e s i n A p p e n d i x 2 ) . "Most p r o b a b l e r o u t e s " were e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f my own e x p e r i e n c e . L o c a l r o a d s and f e r r i e s were c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i n t h e case o f l o c a l t r i p s , s i n c e i t was c o n s i d e r e d l i k e l y t h a t s u b j e c t s w o u l d know them and use them t o save t i m e . I n c a s e s where two r o u t e s had an e q u a l chance o f b e i n g u s e d , I t o o k the a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e o f t h o s e r o u t e s . The mean speeds used t o c a l c u l a t e p r o b a b l e t r a v e l t i m e s were d e r i v e d f r o m my e x p e r i e n c e o f t r a v e l on t h o s e r o a d s ( s ee c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f speeds i n A p p e n d i x 2 ) . 4.4.2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : f o r m a t and a p p l i c a t i o n The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was j u d g e d t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m o f i n q u i r y f o r 71 a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e of t h i s t h e s i s : d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , a f o r m o f p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h i s r e a d i l y q u a n t i f i a b l e . Because o f ti m e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s meant t h e r e s t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n I needed wo u l d be g a t h e r e d i n t h e same way. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , i t had t o be c l e a r and s i m p l e , r e q u i r e m i n i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and l a s t t h e d u r a t i o n o f a t y p i c a l c l a s s p e r i o d , 40 - 45 m i n u t e s . A p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d f o r t h e Vancouver r e g i o n and g i v e n t o 40 f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s a t UBC (same age group as O n t a r i o ' s g r ade 1 3 ) . A l s o , a dozen g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s went t h r o u g h the e x e r c i s e and p r o v i d e d comments. T h i s p i l o t r u n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was too s h o r t , and s u g g e s t e d t h e need t o r e o r d e r t h e q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e most c r u c i a l m a t e r i a l p l a c e d f i r s t . Some changes i n t h e c o n t e n t were a l s o made - t h e number i n d e x f o r example, was found t o be more h e l p f u l t h a n t h e l i n e i n d e x i n t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e . To a v o i d problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o r d e r i n g o f t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s d i f f e r e n t l i s t s were made f o r each page, and f i v e d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f each page were c o m p i l e d , a l l o r d e r i n g s h a v i n g been d e t e r m i n e d by random-number t a b l e s . The 24 x 14 i n c h base map p r o v i d e d f o r t h e map e x e r c i s e (Appendix 1) i s a copy o f t h e 1/500,000' t o p o g r a p h i c a l map o f the r e g i o n . I t was j u d g e d t o be t h e most u n b i a s e d and " o b j e c t i v e " map a v a i l a b l e i n an adequate f o r m a t f o r s t u d e n t s t o draw and use symbols on i t . The E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o F r e n c h by m y s e l f and two o t h e r s . We were c a r e f u l t o convey t h e same meanings i n F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i r s t c o n s i s t e d i n v i s i t i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e s c h o o l s t o e x p l a i n my p r o j e c t and get p e r m i s s i o n t o see t h e s t u d e n t s . E v e r y o n e was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e s e a r c h because i t d e a l t w i t h t h e r e g i o n and was done by somebody f r o m the r e g i o n . S t u d e n t s were a l s o v e r y c o o p e r a t i v e , becoming even more i n t e r e s t e d as t h e y p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e e x e r c i s e . 72 When I p r e s e n t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e I s a i d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e on t h e p u r p o s e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y -to a v o i d i n f l u e n c i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' judgment. I n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n e i t h e r o r b o t h l a n g u a g e s as r e q u i r e d and c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y i n g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e page by page and r e a d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o each q u e s t i o n . I emphasized t h a t I was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r own immediate r e s p o n s e s and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d do t h e e x e r c i s e q u i t e q u i c k l y . I n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s were answered when problems a r o s e . Most s t u d e n t s answered the main p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n 30 - 35 m i n u t e s ; t h e n t h e y were g i v e n t h e map e x e r c i s e w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e i r t h o u g h t s about a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s and t r a v e l i n t h e r e g i o n , d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r o r s o. T h i s t a s k t o o k them about 10 m i n u t e s . I n two s c h o o l s s t u d e n t s had t o b r i n g t h e i r map e x e r c i s e home f o r l a c k o f t i m e t o f i n i s h i n c l a s s . I v i s i t e d 12 s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n i n s i x weeks, r e c e i v i n g o v e r 600 com p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 4.4.3 A n a l y s i s The q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s was done i n two s t a g e s . F i r s t , t h e i n f o r m a -t i o n o f one s c h o o l ( W i l l i a m s t o w n ) was coded and a p i l t o t a n a l y s i s o f t h i s d a t a c o m p l e t e d . Most o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s was done a t t h i s s t a g e and the c o d i n g scheme r e v i s e d . Then, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r e l e v e n s c h o o l s was coded and a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l . T h i s s t u d y o f d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n has l o o k e d a t p e o p l e ' s e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c s , and i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o i n f l u e n c e t h o s e e s t i m a t e s p r o d u c i n g t h e minimum e r r o r . The f i r s t s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s d e a l t w i t h t h e m e t r i c o f space i s s u e and c o n s i s t e d i n comparing my s u b j e c t s ' v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s ( r a t i o , m i l e , t i m e ) w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e " r e a l " d i s t a n c e s , t o pro d u c e d i s t a n c e e r r o r measures p a r t i c u l a r t o each m e t r i c (TABLE 4.5). The r a t i o e s t i m a t e (SUBMAG) was c o n v e r t e d t o a TABLE 4.5 Comparison of metrics ESTIMATED DISTANCE REAL DISTANCE ERROR MEASURE (in m i l e s ) 3 1. SUBMAG (subjective mag-nitude or r a t i o estimate where metric i s the index distance 100 to Ottawa) 1.1 CROWMAG (mile) CROWMAG = SUBMAG x (CROWDIST to Ott/100) 2. 3. -CROWDIST (mile) (as the crow f l i e s distance) 1.2 ROUTEMAG (mile) ROUTEMAG = SUBMAG x (ROUTEDIST to Ott/100) 1.3 TIMEMAG (minutes) TIMEMAG = SUBMAG X (TIMEDIST to Ottawa/100) -ROUTEDIST (mile) (as the route goes distance) -TIMEDIST (mins.) (as the route goes distance) SUBMILE (estimate i n miles) -CROWDIST (mile) 'ROUTEDIST (mile) SUBTIME (estimate i n minutes) -TIMEDIST (min) MCRQWER ( - st r a i g h t error) MCROWER = CROWMA3-CROWDIST ABMCROWERb ZMCRQWER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZMCROWER = MCROWER/CROWDIST ZAMCROWERb MROUTER ( MROUTER = ABMROUTER - stra i g h t error) ROUTEMAG - ROUTEDIST + ZMRQUTER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZMROUTER = MROUTER/ROUTEDIST ZAMR0UTER MTIMER ( - stra i g h t error) MTIMER = TIMEMAG - TIMEDIST ABMTIMER ZMTIMER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZMTIMER = MTIMER/TIMEDIST ZAMTIMER CRQWER ( - stra i g h t error) CR0WER = SUBMILE - CROWDIST ABCROWER ZCROWER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZCROWER = CROWER/CROWDIST ZACROWER ROUTER ( - st r a i g h t error) ROUTER = SUBMILE - ROUTEDIST ABROUTER ZROUTER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZROUTER = ROUTER/ROUTEDIST ZAROUTER TIMER ( - s t r a i g h t error) TIMER = SUBTIME - TIMEDIST ABTIMER ZTIMER ( - r e l a t i v e error) ZTIMER = TIMER/TIMEDIST ZATIMER 3 A l l error measures converted to standard mile metric for purposes of comparison : conversion factor of 0.96 mile = 1 minute obtained from mean SUBMILE and SUBTIME estimates (see TABLE 5.1) Absolute value of above measure s t r a i g h t l i n e (CROWMAG), a s h o r t e s t r o u t e (ROUTEMAG), and a t i m e (TIMEMAG) e s t i m a t e f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t r e a l d i s t a n c e s . The a r i t h m e t i c o f t h o s e c o n v e r s i o n s , as i n d i c a t e d i n TABLE 4.5, s i m p l y i n v o l v e d w e i g h t i n g t h e e s t i m a t e by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e a l d i s t a n c e t o Ottawa. Once t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were done t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e was compared t o t h e r e a l d i s t a n c e s and e r r o r measures were d e r i v e d . A s i g n e d s t r a i g h t e r r o r measure was o b t a i n e d by s i m p l e s u b t r a c t i o n of t h e r e a l d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e s t i m a t e d d i s t a n c e ; t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f t h i s s t r a i g h t e r r o r was a l s o computed. A s i g n e d r e l a t i v e e r r o r measure a c c o u n t i n g f o r d i s t a n c e ( i . e . an e r r o r o f 10 m i l e s o v e r a 25 m i l e d i s t a n c e i s b i g g e r t h a n t h e same e r r o r o v e r a 200 m i l e d i s t a n c e ) , and t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e of t h i s r e l a t i v e e r r o r was t h e n o b t a i n e d . S i m i l a r e r r o r measures were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d i r e c t m i l e (SUBMILE) and t i m e (SUBTIME) e s t i m a t e s (TABLE 4.5). The m i l e e s t i m a t e was compared t o the s t r a i g h t l i n e as w e l l as t h e r o u t e d i s t a n c e even when th e q u e s t i o n asked f o r an e s t i m a t i o n "by the most d i r e c t d r i v i n g r o u t e " ( I wanted t o see i f t h e y had done s o ) . The t i m e e s t i m a t e d i d n o t pose t h a t p r o b l e m as i t would have t o be done i n terms of a d r i v i n g r o u t e . The r a t i o e s t i m a t e was compared t o the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t m e t r i c s (here t h e s u b j e c t had been f r e e t o e x p r e s s h i s own sense of d i s t a n c e s ) . T h i s whole p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r t o f i n d w h i c h " r e a l i t y " t h e i r e s t i m a t e s most c l o s e l y matched. Had t h e y t h o u g h t o f d i s t a n c e i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s , o r had t h e y t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r o a d system w i t h a m i l e o r t i m e e s t i m a t e ? T - t e s t s on t h e mean e r r o r s f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t and F - i t e s t s on t h e i r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e minimum measure of e r r o r . T h i s a p p r o a c h does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e v e a l w h i c h m e t r i c ( i f t h e r e i s s u c h a m e t r i c ) p e o p l e use when t h e y t h i n k of d i s t a n c e s . P e o p l e do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c c o u n t f o r d i s t a n c e s by the "most a c c u r a t e way", but t h e y may p o s s i b l y do so f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : i f t h e i r e s t i m a t e s a r e c l o s e r t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y , i t c o u l d be the one w i t h w h i c h t h e y f u n c t i o n most of 75 the t i m e , t h e one w i t h w h i c h t h e y have more e x p e r i e n c e and p e r s p e c t i v e f o r h a v i n g compared and c o n f r o n t e d i t w i t h numerous s i t u a t i o n s and p e o p l e . From an e x p e r i e n t i a l and an " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " p o i n t o f v i e w , man's c o n c e p t i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n may t e n d t o r e p l i c a t e a p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e " a c c u r a c y a p p r o a c h " t a k e n h e r e m ight a t l e a s t p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e m e t r i c used. The second s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d i n u s i n g t h i s minimum d i s t a n c e e r r o r measure ( t h e assumed adop t e d m e t r i c o f space) as dependent v a r i a b l e i n a m u l t i - v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . T h i s a n a l y s i s examined t h e e f f e c t o f p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r as many o t h e r v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e . The problems i n v o l v e d were h a n d l e d w i t h : (1) a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures and (2) a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e (UBC ANOVAR p r o g r a m s ) . S i n g l e and m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures ( t r i a l f a c t o r o r t r e a t m e n t s were t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s ) were u s e d t o l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s and c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s , s u c h as t h e p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s and p e o p l e ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f sp a c e . The g r e a t advantage o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t i t t a k e s c a r e o f the v a r i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h u s a n a l y z e s v a r i a n c e a t t h e l e v e l o f each r e s p o n d e n t . Winner e x p l a i n s : Because o f l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i e n c e and b a c k g r o u n d , t h e r e s p o n s e s o f p e o p l e t o t h e same e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t may show r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y . I n many c a s e s , much of t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s between p e o p l e e x i s t i n g p r i o r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I f t h i s l a t t e r s o u r c e of v a r i a b i l i t y can be s e p a r a t e d from t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s and e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r , t h e n t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e ex p e r i m e n t may be i n c r e a s e d . I f t h i s s o u r c e o f v a r i a -b i l i t y cannot be e s t i m a t e d i t remains p a r t o f t h e uncon-t r o l l e d s o u r c e s o f v a r i a b i l i t y and i s t h u s a u t o m a t i c a l l y p a r t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r . (1971, p. 361) I n a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n t h e e f f e c t s o f a f a c t o r on s u b j e c t i a r e measured r e l a t i v e t o t h e mean r e s p o n s e o f i on a l l t r e a t m e n t s . Each s u b j e c t s e r v e s as h i s own c o n t r o l and the v a r i a t i o n due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean 76 r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f t h e s u b j e c t i s e l i m i n a t e d from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r . The s u b j e c t s ' own b i a s e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e a c t u a l e f f e c t o f t h e f a c t o r s t u d i e d . I n my e x p e r i m e n t s , t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s were c o n s i d e r e d as t r e a t m e n t s . I t was assumed t h a t t h e i r d i v e r s i f i e d n a t u r e ( b e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f a random c h o i c e ) and t h e i r random o r d e r i n g a s s u r e d an adequate l e v e l o f i ndependence. One-way and two-way a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e were used t o l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e knowledge and meaning v a r i a b l e s . I n t h e one-way a n a l y s e s t h e c o n t r o l f a c t o r was t h e " s u b j e c t s " . Thus, h e r e a g a i n , t h e a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d out a t t h e l e v e l o f each i n d i v i d u a l . A d j u s t m e n t s a r e made f o r d i f f e r e n c e s among s u b j e c t s by m e a s u r i n g v a r i a t i o n s and c o v a r i a t i o n s about t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r y means r a t h e r t h a n t h e g r a n d means. T h i s way, t h e v a r i a t i o n due t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' d i f f e r e n c e s i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t and t h e r e s u l t s a r e p o o l e d , p r o v i d i n g a v e r a g e w i t h i n - c l a s s l e a s t - s q u a r e s c o e f f i c i e n t s . S l o p e t e s t s can t h e n be p e r f o r m e d t o see whether t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p h o l d s f o r each s u b j e c t . I f i t does n o t , p o o l e d r e s u l t s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h t h e same c o n f i d e n c e . S e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s s h o u l d t h e n be c o n d u c t e d f o r each s u b j e c t , but was n o t done h e r e due t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s . I n summary, .'the a n a l y s i s t e l l s u s : (1) w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t s ' e s t i m a t e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m each o t h e r , c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e o r c o v a r i a t e s (ex. assuming equal- k n o w l e d g e ) , (2) whether t h e c o v a r i a t e has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c o n t r o l l i n g f o r s u b j e c t s ' d i f f e r e n c e s and p o s s i b l y o t h e r c o v a r i a t e s , (3) whether t h i s e f f e c t i s t h e same fr o m s u b j e c t t o s u b j e c t . Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s were a l s o t e s t e d i n t h e framework o f a two-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , where th e c o n t r o l f a c t o r s were t h e s u b j e c t s and t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s , w i t h no i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s model c o n t r o l s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b j e c t s and t h o s e between s t i m u l i p o i n t s . I t has t h e e f f e c t of b r i n g i n g t h e a n a l y s i s a t t h e l e v e l o f each s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o see w h e t h e r a r e l a t i o n s h i p o b s e r v e d o v e r a l l p l a c e s a l s o h o l d s f o r any p l a c e i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s t e s t i s much s t r o n g e r as t h e r e i s much l e s s v a r i a t i o n a t t h e l e v e l o f each s t i m u l u s p o i n t t h a n t h e r e i s o v e r a l l s t i m u l i p o i n t s . Note t h a t i n a l l t h e s e a n a l y s e s of c o v a r i a n c e o n l y o r d i n a l s c a l e c o v a r i a t e s were used ( v a r i a b l e s measured on s c a l e o f 1 t o 7 ) . The o r d i n a l s c a l e p r o v i d e s a l i n e a r a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e t r u e i n f l u e n c e o f the c o v a r i a t e . T h i s was j u d g e d adequate as t h e t r u e i n f l u e n c e i s monotone, w h i c h a s s u r e s t h a t i f i t i s n o n - z e r o t h e l i n e a r a p p r o x i m a t i o n w i l l be n o n - z e r o t o o . The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e were a l s o done on the d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s p r o v i d e d by t h e s u b j e c t s . More d e t a i l s on t h e s e a n a l y s e s w i l l be g i v e n i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r e s u l t s . Two more t e c h n i q u e s were used t o l o o k a t o t h e r a s p e c t s of the d a t a . S m a l l e s t space a n a l y s i s was used t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e s t i m a t e d and r e a l con-f i g u r a t i o n s o f p o i n t s p a r t i c u l a r t o each s c h o o l . ^ I u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e b a s i c a l l y as a mapping d e v i c e . The Guttman-Lingoes n o n - m e t r i c a l g o r i t h m (SSA-1) was chosen ( L i n g o e s , 1972; Bloombaum, 1970; Guttman, 1968). F i n a l l y , h i e r a r c h i c a l c l u s t e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s were used t o c o m p i l e t h e s u b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f space as o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e " s i m i l a r i t i e s " d a t a ( q u e s t i o n 1 2 ) , and t h e " s u b - d i v i s i o n o f t h e map" d a t a (map e x e r c i s e ) o f each s c h o o l . The t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s of c l u s t e r i n g were used (COMPLETE o r f u r t h e s t n e i g h b o u r , SINGLE o r n e a r e s t n e i g h b o u r , and SIMPLE o r t h e a v e r a g e t e c h n i q u e ) t o c o u n t e r c h e c k t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s . ^ CHAPTER V R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s i n t h r e e main s e c t i o n s : (1) t h e m e t r i c o f space a n a l y s i s , (2) t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( t h e major p a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s ) , and f i n a l -l y , (3) the a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s and t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l maps. Re-s u l t s w i l l a l s o be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and t h e t h e o r y exposed i n CHAPTER I I I . 5.1 M e t r i c o f Space A n a l y s i s The t h r e e e s t i m a t e s o f d i s t a n c e v a r y i n d i f f e r e n t ways (TABLE 5.1). The r a t i o e s t i m a t e (SUBMAG) got t h e b e s t r e s p o n s e , b e i n g t h e f i r s t i n t h e s e r i e s o f e v a l u a -t i o n s . The n e x t two s e t s o f e s t i m a t e s (SUBMILE, SUBTIME) s u b s e q u e n t l y got l e s s r e s p o n s e . Response l e v e l s v a r i e d v e r y l i t t l e between t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e mean r a t i o e s t i m a t e i s h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r e s t i m a t e . T h i s s i m p l y c o n f i r m s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m e t r i c used i n t h a t c a s e ( i n d e x o f 100 t o Ottawa) was TABLE 5.1 Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s for each distance estimate-a l l sample and cu l t u r a l groups A l l English French Both Other X s resp.a X s resp. X s resp. X s resp. X s resp. SUBMAG 113.6 95.6 74% 95 1 66.3 72% 127 4 108.9 75% 116 2 105.6 75% 120 .5 84.0 77% SUBMILE 61.5 46.9 70% 60 2 40.6 70% 67 6 51.9 70% 61 9 46.9 74% 57 .9 42.1 66% SUBTIME 64.0 41.3 67% 62. 7 36.9 67% 63 3 42.9 66% 68 7 45.5 72% 66 .6 43.4 65% percentage of estimations done 78 79 an o v e r s t a t e m e n t o f t h e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e t o Ottawa. The means a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t , o v e r a l l , t h e t i m e m e t r i c has been j u d g e d as s l i g h t l y l o n g e r t h a n t h e m i l e m e t r i c ; t h e SUBMILE/SUBTIME r a t i o i s 0.96:1. Thus, s u b j e c t s e s t i m a t e d t i m e d i s t a n c e s i n terms o f a t r a v e l i n g speed of s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n 60 m i l e s / h o u r (57.6 m i l e s / h o u r ) ( r e a s o n a b l e speed on r e g i o n a l r o a d s y s t e m — s e e A p p e n d i x 2, T r a v e l Time M a t r i x ) . The F r e n c h group seems t o have made r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r e s t i m a t e s on SUBMAG, i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e E n g l i s h group (mean o f 127.4 compared t o 9 5 . 1 ) . However, v e r y l i t t l e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e means o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m i l e and t i m e e s t i m a t e s . A l o o k a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , ( s ) a l s o i n d i c a t e a much l a r g e r v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e SUBMAG s c o r e s , and i n a l l cases w i t h e x c e p t i o n o f the " O t h e r " group, SUBTIME has t h e l o w e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . These p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r -v a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e m e t r i c has been i n t e r p r e t e d i n a much more f l e x -i b l e way t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t r i c s , w h i c h o b v i o u s l y g i v e more g u i d a n c e f o r judgment. SUBMAG may have g i v e n t h e s u b j e c t more l i b e r t y t o e x p r e s s h i s own sense o f d i s t a n c e . However, one more element s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T here seems t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and t h e l e v e l o f r e s p o n s e : t h e h i g h e r t h e response, t h e h i g h e r t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . The h i g h e r r e s p o n s e l i k e l y i n c l u d e s more " u n c e r t a i n " e s t i m a t e s i n g e n e r a l , and t h e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n of more "bad" e s t i m a t o r s , l e a d i n g i n e v i t a b l y t o more v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e s -t i m a t e . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s can a l s o be o b s e r v e d on t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n : f o r t h e t h r e e e s t i m a t e s , b u t a g a i n , m o s t l y f o r SUBMAG, th e " F r e n c h " and " B o t h " groups a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a much l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n t h a n a r e t h e " E n g l i s h " and " O t h e r " g r o u p s . I am not s u r p r i s e d t o see t h a t s i m i l a r i t y between the F r e n c h and B o t h groups as most s t u d e n t s who c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s " b i l i n g u a l " (as p a r t of b o t h c u l t u r e s ) come from F r e n c h f a m i l i e s . We w i l l see t h e consequences o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a n a l y s e s t o come. TABLE 5.2 p r e s e n t s the mean l e v e l o f r e s p o n s e on SUBMAG f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t . T h i s g i v e s an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n of how w e l l p l a c e s were known as s u b j e c t s 80 TABLE 5.2 Level of response on the r a t i o estimate (SUBMAG) for each stimulus point (%) 40 —t-(low response) 55 58 (high response) Ogdensburg 64 68 71 74 78 83 86 90 Buckingham Arnprior 1 Rockland Mani'waki Kemptville; Mas'senaj Casselman Cornwall-Alexandria Rigaud Plant'agenet : > I Embrun Smiths F a l l s 1 V a l l e y f i e l d ; Vankleek Hill-Lachute Hawkesburyj B r o c k v i l l e Montreal n.b. Ottawa-Hull not included since i t was used as the index distance f o r SUBMAG. 97 100 -t • were r e q u e s t e d not t o make e s t i m a t e s f o r p l a c e s c o m p l e t e l y unknown t o them. The o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e o f 74% i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a h i g h and adequate l e v e l o f knowledge. G e n e r a l l y , t h e l e s s w e l l known towns a r e e i t h e r remote (Ogdensburg, Buckingham, M a n i w a k i , A r n p r i o r , K e m p t v i l l e ) o r r a t h e r s m a l l ( R i g a u d , Casselman, P l a n t a g e n e t ) . The b e t t e r known p l a c e s a r e l a r g e and/or i m p o r t a n t ( M o n t r e a l , B r o c k v i l l e , L a c h u t e , V a l l e y f i e l d , Smiths F a l l s , C o r n w a l l , M a s s e n a ) , o r c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d (Hawkesbury, V a n k l e e k H i l l , A l e x a n d r i a , Embrun) i n t h e r e g i o n . The m e t r i c o f space a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on g e n e r a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s e r r o r meas-u r e s f o r each m e t r i c (CHAPTER I V ) , and i n comparing t h e s e e r r o r measures w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s on t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each s t i -mulus p o i n t . A one-sample t t e s t was f i r s t p e r f o r m e d on t h e mean e r r o r s t o see i f th e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0: t= X i , Ho: / l i = 0 where X i and S i a r e Si/VN-1 r e s p e c t i v e l y the mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of s t i m u l u s p o i n t i ; t h e n u l l hypothe-s i s i s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n mean of t h e e r r o r measure i s n o t d i f f e r e n t from 0. On 81 TABLE 5.3 Means of straight error measures (T-Test results on absolute errors) MCROWER MROUTER MTIMER CROWER ROUTER TIMER ABMCROWER ABMROUTER ABMTIMER ABCROWER ABROUTER ABTIMER N (on sub-mag) A l l 5.5 1.8 -1 .4 22.6 12 .5 10.3 17.5 20 .3 20.6 26.0 22 .0 21 .2 8154 1 Maniwaki -11.2 -42.9 -57 .4 .28.3 -14 .8 -32.5 35.5 56 .6 66.8 49.9 57 .0 54 .7 299 2 Arnprior -20.0 -22 .2 -23 .1 1.6 -10 .2 - 6.0 28.9 32 .5 32.9 25.8 29 .6 30 .5 349 3. Ottawa-Hull 3.0 3.4 3 .4 14.5 8 .0 6.3 10.2 11 .3 12.2 15.3 11 .1 12 .2 (Index) 4 . Buck ingham 20.8 1.3 -5 .4 33.5 7 .2 6.7 24.8 21 _J_ 24.4 34.6 24 23 ^5 294 5. Smiths F a l l s 10.1 6.9 -3 .3 49.1 34 .2 16.7 27.4 31 .1 34.4 53.8 48 .5 37 .4 426 6. Kemptville 5.8 4.2 -3 .3 24.7 15 .7 10.8 17.1 19 .2 21.7 27.6 23 .9 22 .5 364 7. Brockville 5.4 2.7 3 .7 34.0 20 .7 15.6 26.2 29 .0 31.1 41.5 36 .1 30 .5 491 8. Ogdensburg 4.6 -0.4 -4 .2 30.7 18 .4 13.5 24.9 29 .2 30.9 38.6 35 .2 31 .5 220 9. Embrun 1.4 0.1 -3 .2 12.1 6 .3 4.2 9.6 11 .3 11.7 14.3 12 .0 11 .5 419 10. Casselman 2.9 1.7 0 .6 13.3 7 .6 7.4 8.8 10 .5 10.6 14.7 11 .3 11 .0 370 11. Rockland 5.7 1.8 -5 .4 17.4 8 .6 5.9 11.9 13 .2 13.6 18.8 13 .6 15 .5 400 12. Plantagenet 5.8 3.5 -1 .1 16.9 10 .0 8.6 11.3 12 .2 12.4 17.5 13 .0 13 .4 386 13. Massena 15.6 10.3 2.8 27.7 16 .1 15.9 19.1 19_ l£ 19.6 28.4 20_ ._3 22 .8 408 14. Cornwall 6.1 3.9 1 .5 14.5 8 .3 9.2 10.5 11 .1 10.8 15.0 10 13 .3 436 15. Alexandria 4.0 1.9 0 3 13.4 7 .3 9.4 10.0 10 .8 10.8 14.4 10 .2 12 .7 446 16. Vankleek H i l l 1.1 -0.2 -1 2 11.1 5 .6 8.4 9.6 11 .4 11.9 13.1 10_ 13 .0 454 17. Hawkesbury 1.3 0.8 -1 2 15.5 10 .2 10.3 10.0 12 4 12.0 17.1 14 .9 14 .8 462 18. Lachute 10.7 7.6 4 3 29.6 19 .2 15.2 16.5 18 1 17.7 30.9 24 .4 21 .4 451 19. Rigaud 17.4 17.9 18 0 30.3 24 9 24.4 22.0 24 1 23.7 30.7 26 .5 26 .2 378 20. Montreal G.5 9.1 10 3 33.7 25 2 20.8 18.1 22 4 20.3 34.7 28 1 25 .3 1 528 21. V a l l e y f i e l d 13.7 10.7 11 4 27.7 17 7 21.5 21.9 23 8 23.6 29.4 23 4 26 0 1 432 Underlined values proven the smallest |error| measures at l e v e l of significance of 0.05. a l l the t e s t s f o r b o t h the s t r a i g h t and r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures, the n u l l hypothe-s i s was r e j e c t e d a t the 0.05 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l , and the means were shown t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0. My s u b j e c t s have d e f i n i t e l y produced e r r o r , d i s t a n c e s were not known l i t e r a l l y . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i s o f the domain of "im-p r e s s i o n s " . A two-sample t t e s t , matched p a i r s d e s i g n , was th e n performed t o compare the d i f f e r e n t mean e r r o r s f o r the whole sample and f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t i n p a r t i c u -l a r : t= X^^-JUL^^ , Ho: >Ur)£=0 where X ^ , Al^^, and S ^ a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y the sample mean, the p o p u l a t i o n mean, and the sample s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e (D) of each p a i r of means f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t i . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e 82 TABLE 5.4 Means of r e l a t i v e error measures (T-Test results on absolute errors) ZMCROWER ZMROUTER ZMTIMER ZCROWER ZROUTER ZTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMROUTER ZAMTIMER ZACROWER ZAROUTER ZATIMER N (on sub-mag) A l l 0. 20 0. 09 0 01 0 63 0. 29 0. 25 0 47 0. 41 0.37 0.69 0. 44 0.41 8154 1. Maniwaki -0. 12 -0. 33 -0 38 0 33 -0. 11 -0. 21 0_ 40 0 43 0.44 0 57 0. 44 0.36 299 2 . Arnprior -0. 25 -0. 25 -0 25 0 03 -0. 11 -0 05 0 38 0 37 0.36 0 35 0. 34 0.34 349 3. Ottawa-Hull 0.08 0. 08 0 08 0 33 0. 16 0 12 0_ 26 0_ 26 0.25 0 35 0 . 23 0.23 (index) 4. Buckingham 0 74 0 .08 -0 07 1 09 0. 18 0 12 0 84 0 41 0.34 1 12 0 . 47 0.38 294 5. Smith F a l l s 0 18 0 12 -0 01 0 86 0. 52 0 23 0 45 0 43 0.37 0 93 0. 69 0.45 426 6. Kemptville 0 17 0 11 -0 03 0 67 0. 37 0 23 0 44 0 41 0.35 0 73 0. 52 0.41 364 7. Brockville 0 01 0 06 0 07 0 57 0. 30 0 24 0 42 0 40 0.39 0 67 0 48 0.41 491 8. Ogdensburg 0 13 0 03 -0 03 0 75 0 37 0 24 0 52 0_ 47 0.45 0 91 0 64 0.50 220 9. Embrun 0 06 -0 .01 -0 11 0 51 0 21 0 13 0 40 0 37 0.35 0 59 0 38 0.33 419 10. Casselman 0 14 0 05 0 0 0 69 0 30 0 26 0 42 0 39 0.36 0 74 0 42 0.39 370 11. Rockland 0 25 0 06 -0 10 0.64 0 24 0 15 0 45 0 35 0.29 0 68 0 36 0.34 400 12. Plantagenet 0 27 0 11 -0 02 0 .74 0 33 0 27 0 49 0 39 0.35 0 76 0 42 0.39 386 13. Massena 0 63 0 32 0 02 1 .12 0 42 0 32 0 81 0 59 0.45 1 16 0 60 0.49 408 14. Cornwall 0 19 0 10 0 .01 0 .53 0 24 0 .26 0 .39 0 35 0.30 0 55 p_ 33 0.37 436 15. Alexandria 0 .20 0 09 0 .0 0 .64 0 29 0 .32 0 .48 0 41 0.37 0 .69 0 39 0.43 446 16. Vankleek H i l l 0 .08 0 03 -0 .12 0 .49 0 22 0 .31 0_ • 40 0 • 39 0.38 0 .55 0_ 37 0.44 454 17. Hawkesbury 0 .05 0 .05 -0 .02 0 .48 0 27 0 .28 0 .34 0 .36 0.31 0 .52 0 39 0.39 467 18. Lachute 0 .29 0 .16 0 .07 0 .79 0 41 0 .30 0.46 0 .39 0.34 0 .83 0 52 0.42 451 19. Rigaud 0 .52 0 .46 0 .46 0 .92 0 63 0 .66 0 .68 0 .63 0.62 0 .93 0_ 68 0.70 378 20. Montreal 0 .11 0 .14 0 .15 0 .51 0 33 0 .28 0 .28 0_ • 31 0.28 0 .53 0 .37 0.35 528 21. V a l l e y f i e l d 0 .38 0 .28 0 .29 0 .74 0 .40 0 .48 0 .59 0 .52 0.51 0 .79 0_ • 51 0.57 432 N.B. Underlined values proven the smallest lerrorl measures at l e v e l of significance of 0. p o p u l a t i o n mean of t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s i s not d i f f e r e n t from 0, o r t h a t mean e r r o r 1 i s not d i f f e r e n t from mean e r r o r 2. The t e s t s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e abso-l u t e v a l u e s of t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r measures (TABLE 5.3) and t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r meas-u r e s (TABLE 5.4). F o r example, t h e s m a l l e s t e r r o r measure f o r M a n i w a k i i s ABMCR0WER (TABLE 5 . 3 ) , and t h i s e r r o r measure p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a l l the o t h e r e r r o r measures a t t h e l e v e l o f 0.05 ( i t i s t h e o n l y u n d e r l i n e d " s m a l l e s t " mean). The t e s t s f o r A r n p r i o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, show t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t mean e r r o r , ABCR0WER, i s not d i f f e r e n t from the mean e r r o r o f ABMCR0WER ( t h u s t he two " s m a l -l e s t " mean e r r o r s a r e u n d e r l i n e d ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h o s e t e s t s a r e q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e : ABMCROWER was p r o v e n t o be t h e s m a l l e s t s t r a i g h t e r r o r measure f o r a l l s t i m u -l i p o i n t s e x c e p t Buckingham (TABLE 5.3); ZAMTIMER was p r o v e n t o be t h e s m a l l e s t 83 r e l a t i v e e r r o r measure f o r a l l s t i m u l i p o i n t s e x c e p t M a n i w a k i (TABLE 5.4). The concensus was h i g h e s t f o r t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r (ABMCROWER) whereas th e r e l a t i v e e r -r o r (ZAMTIMER) was not as d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t . ZAMTIMER s h a r e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e " s m a l l e s t e r r o r " i n more i n s t a n c e s , and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h ZATIMER. Even i n t h i s l a t t e r c a s e , t h e t i m e r a t i o e s t i m a t e s t i l l p r o d u c e s l e s s e r r o r t h a n t h e r e a l t i m e e s t i m a t e i n 9 c a s e s out o f 21. A l o o k a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of t h e e r r o r measures c o u l d g i v e us a d d i t i o n -a l . . i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e q u a l i t y of p e o p l e ' s judgments. One w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e mean e r r o r , t h e h i g h e r t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h a t e r r o r , b o t h s t a -t i s t i c s r e f l e c t i n g a l e s s c e r t a i n judgment. S i m p l e F t e s t s on t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n s of t h e e r r o r measures were done: F = ( S l m a x . i \ ^ , Ho: S l i = S 2 i where S l i and S 2 i a r e t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f e r r o r measure 1 and e r r o r measure 2, f o r s t i m u l u s p o i n t i . The h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s used as numerator. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t t h e two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s compared a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t . Those t e s t s were done on t h e s i g n e d (+/-) v a l u e s of b o t h t h e s t r a i g h t and t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r s (TABLE 5.5). The F t e s t s r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m the t r e n d s p r e v i o u s l y o b s e r v e d —MCROWER has t h e l o w e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r s f o r a l l s t i -m u l i p o i n t s e x c e p t R i g a u d ; ZMTIMER p r o v e s t o have th e l o w e s t v a r i a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r s i n most c a s e s . Here a g a i n , consensus i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t f o r the t i m e e s t i m a t e as i t i s f o r the crow e s t i m a t e . Two major c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn a t t h i s p o i n t . F i r s t , t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t s show, w i t h o u t any doubt, t h a t t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e has p r o duced t h e l e a s t e r r o r . S u b j e c t s gave a b e t t e r r e l a t i v e e s t i m a t e of d i s t a n c e where th e m e t r i c was t h e w e l l known d i s t a n c e t o Ottawa.''' T h i s i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of measurement c o r r e s -ponds t o t h e p r o j e c t i v e space o f P i a g e t . The s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i l e and t i m e m e t r i c s have been used w i t h more d i f f i c u l t y , a l w a y s p r o d u c i n g more e r r o r and more v a r i a -t i o n of t h e e r r o r . S e c o n d l y , t h e t e s t s on t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t d i s t a n c e s were e s t i m a t e d as s t r a i g h t l i n e s , i n a more a b s t r a c t f a s h i o n . 84 TABLE 5.5 Standard deviations of straight and r e l a t i v e error measures (F-Test results) MCROWER MROUTER MTIMER CROWER ROUTER TIMER 1 e s ZMROUTER ZMTIMER ZCROWER ZROUTER ZTIMER N (on sub-mag) A l l 27.5 31. 9 33.9 39. 2 39. 1 33. 5 0. 70 0.62 0.57 0. 91 0. 70 0.59 8154 1. Maniwaki 44.5 48 7 50 4 74. 8 74. 6 60. 9 0. 50 0.36 0.32 0. 84 0 . 58 0.40 299 2. Arn>prior 28.7 32 7 33 6 34. 4 34. 7 40. 3 0. 21 0.38 0.37 0. 47 0. 41 0.46 349 3. Ottawa-Hull 13.0 15 _1 15 5 18 5 18 5 17 5 0. 33 0.33 0.33 0. 46 0. 42 0.36 (index 4. Buckingham 26.7 30 3 30 7 33 1 39. 0 35 7 1. 0 0.66 0.45 1. 36 0. 77 0.55 294 5. Smiths F a l l s 40.7 48 2 48 3 77 5 78 4 57 7 0. 69 0.64 0.56 1. 45 1. 22 0.73 426 6. Kemptville 24.2 28 3 29 1 37 3 37 5 32 1 0. 65 0.58 0.50 1. 16 0. 92 0.63 364 7. Brockville 36.1 41 2 42 7 54 6 54 1 38 9 0 58 0.53 0.55 0.93 0. 74 0.53 491 8. Ogdensburg 37.5 41 _8 46 0 59 7 58 6 42 2_ 0 74 0.63 0.63 1 65 1. 22 0.73 220 9. Embrun 14.6 17 1 17 3 21 0 20 9 18 6 0 59 0.53 0.49 0 81 0 62 0.50 419 10. Casselman 13.6 16 1 16 4 15 4 15 0 16 2 0 59 0.56 0.53 0 75 0_ _53 0.54 370 11. Rockland 15.4 18 3 18 6 18 4 18 2 24 9 0 59 0.46 0.38 0 63 0 45 0.49 400 12. Plantagenet 14.9 17 6 17 9 17 .2_ 17 4 21 .2 0 60 0.52 0.47 0 64 0_ 51 0.59 386 13. Massena 29.3 31 .£ 33 .4 43 .9 42 2 39 4 1 13 0.91 0.70 o 48 1 03 0.75 408 14. Cornwall 16.9 18 .6 20 .3 15 ._9_ 15 •3- 19 2 0 54 0.52 0.48 0 50 0_ 43 0.51 436 15. Alexandria 14.5 15 .8 16 .6 i i . .7^ 13 •A 18 .0 0 67 0.59 0.54 0 61 0_ 49 0.59 446 16. Vankleek H i l l 13.4 15 .7 16 .6 15 .5 15 .3 18 .2 0_ • 56 0.53 0.53 0 .64 0_ 52 0.59 454 17. Hawkesbury 13.9 17 .0 17 .2 22 .4 22 .5 20 .1 0 .50 0.52 0.46 0 .58 0_ • 50 0.55 467 18. Lachute 21.0 24 .2 25 .4 37 .5 37 .4 30 .0 0 .55 0.49 0 .46 0 .87 0 .71 0.56 451 19. Rigaud 40.4 44 .5 44.7 37 .4 37 .2 30 ^5_ 1 .11 1.04 1.04 0 .89 q_ • 75 0.77 ' 378 20. Montreal 27.9 33 .8 34 .5 45 .6 45 .1 33 .3 0. • 42 0.45 0.45 0 .60 0 .53 0.43 528 21. V a l l e y f i e l d 28.2 31 .9 33 .2 33 .4 32 .6 37 .6 0 .73 0.70 0.71 0 .79 0.65 0.72 432 N.B. Underlined values proven the smallest standard deviations of the /_ error measures at significance of 0.05 However, when this error is examined in relation to the actual distances invol-ved, the time dimension becomes very significant. Time has given more perspec-tive to the subjects' judgments. Although time produces more error, this error is more rationally distributed according to distances involved. The straight line estimate allows error even for nearby places, while the time estimate pro-2 duces error s t r i c t l y as distance increases. Thus, the time dimension added "realism" to the relative judgment, allowing the subject to picture places more accurately in their relations to one another. Several other observations should be made. As discussed in the literature, the signed (+/-) means of TABLE 5.3 and TABLE 5.4 indicate that students gener-85 a l l y ; o v e r e s t i m a t e d t h e d i s t a n c e s t o most p l a c e s ( e x c e p t f o r M a n i w a k i and A r n -p r i o r , r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d towns, and f o r t h e t i m e v e r s i o n o f t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e w h i c h g e n e r a t e s more u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n s ) . At p r e s e n t I cannot e x p l a i n t h i s t e n d e n -cy t o o v e r e s t i m a t e . As p r e d i c t e d , t h e "as t h e crow f l i e s " d i s t a n c e s were e s t i m a -t e d more a c c u r a t e l y w i t h t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e (TABLES 5.3, 5.4, and 5 . 5 ) ; however, th e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m i l e and t i m e e s t i m a t e s i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r r o u t e d i s t a n c e s i s not c l e a r s i n c e I a s k e d f o r t h e s h o r t e s t r o u t e d i s t a n c e i n ques-3 t i o n s 9 and 10. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e n , t h i s i s what I g o t . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e v i -ous r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e m e t r i c used was q u i t e c o n s i s t a n t f o r a l l s t i m u l i p o i n t s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y o r l o c a t i o n . Thus, o n l y one l e v e l o f s p a t i a l c o g-n i t i o n has been o b s e r v e d , most l i k e l y due t o the v e r y g e n e r a l i z e d a n a l y s i s p e r -formed a t t h i s s t a g e . The same c o m p a r a t i v e t e s t s were made f o r each s c h o o l (where N=30), but i n t h e s e c a s e s , no m e t r i c r e a l l y s t o o d out as b e i n g more a c c u r a t e . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e whole sample because o f t h e h i g h de-g r e e s o f freedom ( l a r g e N ) . E v i d e n c e of an adopted m e t r i c o f space i s p r e s e n t i n t h e d a t a but i s n o t v e r y s t r o n g . I n summary, s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t o r t i o n s o f space were made by t h e s u b j e c t s who thought of d i s t a n c e i n an a b s t r a c t f a s h i o n , somewhat remote from t h e d e t a i l s of t h e r o u t e network, but s t i l l t i n t e d by t h e t i m e d i m e n s i o n . S u b j e c t s were b e s t a t making e s t i m a t e s r e l a t i v e t o a w e l l known d i s t a n c e ( r a t i o e s t i m a t e ) , and t h e y p r oduced a s t r a i g h t l i n e e s t i m a t e q u i t e c o n s i s t a n t l y . However, t h i s r e l a t i v e ... e s t i m a t e p r o v e d t o be more " r a t i o n a l l y " r e l a t e d t o space when i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e t i m e d i m e n s i o n . Time seems t o have p r o v i d e d more p e r s p e c t i v e f o r d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n . I n t h e a n a l y s i s t o f o l l o w , t h e e r r o r s o f b o t h t h e s t r a i g h t l i n e r a t i o e s t i -mate (MCROWER), and t h e t i m e r a t i o e s t i m a t e (MTIMER), w i l l be used as dependent v a r i a b l e s . I w i l l t h u s use t h e e s t i m a t e s showing t h e l o w e s t v a r i a t i o n l e v e l s . 86 The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n can o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as g e n e r a l i n d i c a -t i o n s o f t h e m e t r i c o f space used s i n c e a n a l y s i s c o u l d o n l y be p e r f o r m e d a t t h e a g g r e g a t e l e v e l . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h i s u n r e f i n e d approach was n o t s u i t a b l e f o r ex-p l o r i n g f u r t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . A more s o -p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n f o l l o w s i n the n e x t s e c t i o n . 5.2 I n f l u e n c e o f F a c t o r s on D i s t a n c e E s t i m a t e s 5.2.1 P e r s o n a l f a c t o r s S i n g l e and m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures were made on t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s l o c a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n a l s p a c e . TABLE 5.6 summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s . O nly t h e s m a l l e s t p r o -ven e r r o r measures from t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n were a n a l y s e d (MCROWER f o r the s t r a i g h t e r r o r and ZMTIMER f o r t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r ) . B o t h t h e s i g n e d (+/-) and th e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f t h e s e e r r o r s were examined as t h e y r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t a s -p e c t s o f d i s t o r t i o n o f sp a c e . TABLE 5.6 shows: (1) t h e degrees o f freedom ( N ) , (2) t h e F . i r a t i o ( F ) , (3) t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g a F r a t i o t h i s l a r g e o r l a r g -e r ( p r o b ) — c r i t i c a l l e v e l chosen i s 0.05, and (4) t h e mean e r r o r l e f t by t h e model ( E ) . A s i n g l e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e — r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n — w a s f i r s t done w i t h t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s as t r i a l f a c t o r ( t r e a t m e n t s o v e r w h i c h measures a r e r e p e a t e d ) : Y=A+B+E where Y i s the e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n , A i s t h e random sub-j e c t s ' f a c t o r , B i s t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s , and E i s t h e e r r o r (TABLE 5.6, column 1 ) . T h i s a n a l y s i s shows c l e a r l y t h a t b o t h s u b j e c t s and s t i m u l i p o i n t s a r e v e r y s i g n i -f i c a n t f a c t o r s . I n t h e subsequent a n a l y s e s t h e i r e f f e c t w i l l always r e m a i n v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . Each s u b j e c t has pr o d u c e d v e r y d i f f e r e n t e s t i m a t e s ; each s u b j e c t has a v e r y p e r s o n a l i z e d and u n i q u e way o f p e r c e i v i n g s p a c e . T h i s l a r g e l y c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s . The e s t i m a t e s t o each s t i m u l u s p o i n t a r e a l s o v e r y d i f f e r -TABLE 5.6 Results of analysis of variance with repeated measures on the personal factors A = SCHOOL SEX GEO CULTURE MOBILE LTRES RLTRES PREADB 538 ss/8203 obs. (N) 538/8010 538/8005 538/8010 538/8203 538/7915 538/7979 538/7821 538/7265 F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) P (prob) (MCROWER) n.b. A = subjects B - stimuli points A B E 4.6 (.0000) 49.7 (.0000) 556 Aa B(A)b c c ACd E 6 7.15 (.0004) 4.41 (.0000) 52.6 (.0000) 4.13 (.0000) 530 3.8 (.0518) 4.53 (.0000) 49.2 (.0000) 2.14 (.0023) 567 1.77 (.1839) 4. 54 ( .1)000) 49.13 (.0000) 1.31 (.1594) 568 5.7 (.0008) 4.57 (.0000) 50.22 (.0000) 2.53 (.0000) 550 1.18 (.3089) 4.53 (.0000) 48.46 (.0000) 0.87 (.8772) 568 2.18 (.0029) 4.47 (.0000) 50.19 (.0000) 1.15 (.0264) 554 1.11 (.3445) 4.66 (.0000) 49.6 (.0000) 0.91 (.6724) 553 1.41 (.2189) 4.79 (.0000) 45.93 (.0000) 1.19 (.0975) 536 (ABMCROWER) A B E 3.0 (.0000) 60.5 (.0000) 376 A B(A) C AC E 5.01 (.0000) 3.02 (.0000) 62.2 (.0000) 4.4 (.0000) 352 1.18 (.2778) 2.98 (.0000) 57.57 (.0000) 1.4 (.1094) 380 0.82 (.3656) 2.98 (.0000) 5.76 (.0000) 0.65 (.8775) 380 4.26 (.0055) 2.99 (.0000) 61.09 (.0000) 2.3 (.0000) 372 0.99 (.4427) 2.97 (.0000) 56.45 (.0000) 0.89 (.8338) 381 1.66 (.0391) 2.99 (.0000) 58.9 (.0000) 1.04 (.2907) 370 1.19 (.3129) .3.08 (.0000) 58.5 (.0000) 1.26 (.0854) 368 0.86 (.5078) 3.12 (.0000) 53.27 (.0000) 1.34 (.0143) 364 (ZMTIMER) A B E 4.8 (.0000) 46.8 (.0000) .2382 A B(A) C AC E 2.51 (.0008) 4.9 (.0000) 49.4 (.0000) 4.18 (.0000) .2264 0.27 (.6035) 4.7 (.0000) 46.1 (.0000) 2.56 (.0000) .2422 3.08 (.0798) 4.67 (.0000) 45.96 (.0000) 0.97 (.4963) .2432 0.92 (.4309) 4.86 (.0000) 47.5 (.0000) 2.99 (.0000) .2346 1.43 (.1810) 4.67 (.0000) 45.82 (.0000) 1.08 (.2354) .2424 2.37 (.0010) 4.58 (.0000) 47.16 (.0000) 1.11 (.0744) .2375 1.65 (.1769) 4.85 (.0000) 46.9 (.0000) 1.0 (.4760) .2341 1.38 (.2301) 4.85 (.0000) 43.81 (.0000) 0.98 (.5376) .2341 (ZAMTIMER) A B E 2.7 (.0000) 18.6 (.0000) .1513 A B(A) C AC E 1.74 (.0077) 2.7 (.0000) 19.1 (.0000) 2.3 (.0000) .1488 J 0.33 (.5659) 2.66 (.0000) 18.57 (.0000) 1.61 (.0415) .1530 1.08 (.2992) 2.65 (.0000) 18.52 (.0000) 0.79 (.7294) .1533 j 1.67 (.1724) 2.7 (.0000) 18.8 (.0000) 2.14 (.0000) .1500 2.19 (.0268) 2.6 (.0000) 18.64 (.0000) 1.03 (.3671) .1537 2.27 (.0018) 2.6 (.0000) 19.12 (.0000) 1.1 (.0936) .1495 1.37 (.2511) 2.74 (.0000) 18.75 (.0000) 0.65 (.9834) .1480 1.76 (.1194) 2.66 (.0000) 17.86 (.0000) 0.87 (.8171) .1516 3 C n.b. U n d e r l i n e d p r o b a b i l i t y ^ main f a c t o r s t i m u l i p o i n t s v a l u e s a l l under the s u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n A d i n t e r a c t i o n between the main c r i t i c a l l e v e l o f .05 f a c t o r and s t i m u l i p o i n t s oo 88 e n t . - T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , as a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p l a c e s were chosen t o ge n e r a t e d i s t i n c t and v a r i e d r e a c t i o n s . The s u b j e c t and t h e s t i m u l u s p o i n t e f f e c t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e subsequent a n a l y s e s . A s e r i e s o f m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures were:: t h e n p e r f o r m e d u s i n g v a r i o u s g r o u p i n g f a c t o r s , and t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s as t r i a l f a c t o r : Y=A+B(A)+C+AC+E where Y i s t h e e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n , A i s t h e main group-i n g f a c t o r , B(A) i s the random s u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n A, C i s t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s , AC i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e main f a c t o r and t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s , and E i s the e r r o r (TABLE 5.6, 6 l a s t c o l u m n s ) . The e f f e c t o f t h e main f a c t o r (A) i s ana-l y s e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e v a r i a t i o n a l r e a d y known t o e x i s t between s u b j e c t s . The n e s t e d e f f e c t o f B i n A l o o k s a t t h e v a r i a t i o n between s u b j e c t s w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y o f A. F i n a l l y , t he i n t e r a c t i o n element t e s t s i f t h e e f f e c t o f A i s conr stant from s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o s t i m u l u s p o i n t . The f a c t o r SCHOOL f i r s t l o o k s a t t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e e s t i m a t e s from s c h o o l t o s c h o o l (sample p o i n t t o sample p o i n t ) . T h i s f a c t o r i s found v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l e r r o r measures e x c e p t ZAMTIMER; t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s v e r y s i g n i f i -c a n t t oo ( t h e s c h o o l e f f e c t i s not c o n s t a n t from s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o s t i m u l u s TABLE 5 . 7 Means of error measures for each school SCHOOL ABMCROWER MCROWER ZMTIMER Williamstown 17 0 3 3 .04 Avonmore 14 7 1 8 .01 Casselman 20 7 13 6 .11 Hawkesbury 16 1 2 3 - .09 Embrun 22 8 9 3 .01 Alexandria 16 8 5 8 .04 C h e s t e r v i l l e 16 .6 1 8 .05 Vankleek H i l l 15 1 3 7 -.05 Plantagenet 20 0 5 .9 .03 Cornwa11 17 .6 2 3 - .02 ALL 17 .9 5 6 .02 89 p o i n t ) . A l o o k a t t h e means o f t h e e r r o r s (TABLE 5.7) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Embrun, Casselman, and P l a n t a g e n e t g e n e r a l l y made the w o r s t e r r o r s , w h i l e Avonmore, V a n k l e e k H i l l , and Hawkesbury made the l e a s t ; Casselman, Embrun (MCROWER o n l y ) and C h e s t e r v i l l e (ZMTIMER o n l y ) made the most o v e r e s t i m a t i o n w h i l e Hawkesbury, V a n k l e e k H i l l , C o r n w a l l , Avonmore, and C h e s t e r v i l l e (MCROWER o n l y ) made the most r e l a t i v e u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s c h o o l e f f e c t i s s t r o n g , i t i s v e r y h a r d t o e x p l a i n . An e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t i s n o t l i k e l y h e r e because a l l q u e s t i o n -n a i r e a p p l i c a t i o n s were q u i t e s t a n d a r d i z e d . We c o u l d be i n p r e s e n c e of a c u l t u r -a l o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t o r , most l i k e l y , a p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t . D i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s on t h e r e g i o n a l space p r o d u c e d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s of t h e r o a d network and d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s p l a y i n g on t h e a c t i o n s p a c e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . More a n a l y -s i s w i l l be done on t h e s e a s p e c t s l a t e r . The SEX f a c t o r n e v e r s t a n d s out as s i g n i f i c a n t a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l c a s e s e x c e p t ABMCROWER. T h i s means t h a t t h e v a r i a -b l e SEX m a t t e r s b u t i t s e f f e c t v a r i e s from s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o s t i m u l u s p o i n t , e x p l a i n i n g t h e o v e r a l l n u l l e f f e c t . The e s t i m a t e s of geography s t u d e n t s do n o t d i f f e r from t h o s e of o t h e r s t u d e n t s (GEO), and t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t o v e r a l l s t i m -u l i p o i n t s . The CULTURE f a c t o r i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r (MCROWER) but n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the r e l a t i v e e r r o r (ZMTIMER). The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , however, i s a lways s i g n i f i c a n t , w h i c h means t h a t t h e e f f e c t of CULTURE v a r i e s among th e d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i p o i n t s , and t h e r e f o r e the o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s once a g a i n masked . i n t h e c a s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e t i m e e r r o r . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i s e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d as one would e x p e c t F r e n c h p l a c e s to be b e t t e r known t o F r e n c h peo-p l e and v i c e v e r s a f o r E n g l i s h p l a c e s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be l o o k -e d p a t i n s e c t i o n 5.2.3. F o r t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r , TABLE 5.8 shows an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between th e two main groups o f t h i s s t u d y , the F r e n c h and t h e Eng-l i s h ( t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i s a v e r y good i n d i c a t o r of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e and 90 TABLE 5.8 Means and standard deviations of error measures for each culture CULTURE MCROWER ABMCROWER X s X s English 2.6 23 4 15.8 17 5 French 7.5 29 9 18.5 24 7 Both 6.2 28 3 18.3 22 4 Other 8.8 28 2 20.0 21 7 ALL 5.5 27 5 17.5 21 9 t h e means r e i n f o r c e t h i s t r e n d ) . The F r e n c h group made more e r r o r and tended t o -ward more o v e r e s t i m a t i o n t h a n t h e E n g l i s h group. Once a g a i n , t h e b i c u l t u r a l group i s v e r y c l o s e t o the F r e n c h group w h i l e t h i s t i m e , t h e O t h e r s ' group has made the most e r r o r and the most o v e r e s t i m a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each c u l t u r e p r o v i d e some elements o f e x p l a n a t i o n : (1) The m o b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t t h e E n g l i s h group i s more m o b i l e t h a n t h e F r e n c h o r b i l i n g u a l groups (which a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r ) : 12% more E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s have c a r s w h i l e 11% more F r e n c h s t u d e n t s j u s t use r i d e s . A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e O t h e r s c l a i m t o not t r a v e l much i n t h e r e g i o n (12.5% as opposed t o 3% f o r t h e o t h e r g r o u p s ) . (2) The l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e and p r e v i o u s a d d r e s s s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t t h e F r e n c h have been t h e most s t a b l e i n t h e r e g i o n : o n l y 11.2% o f th e F r e n c h group have l i v e d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t a d d r e s s f o r l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s , as opposed t o 19.1% o f t h e E n g l i s h , 24.7% o f t h e b i c u l t u -r a l , and 14.3% o f t h e O t h e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, 85.7% o f t h e Ot h e r s have l i v e d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t a d d r e s s f o r more t h a n 10 y e a r s , as op-posed t o 74.7% o f t h e F r e n c h , 59.3% o f t h e E n g l i s h , and 57.6% o f 91 t h e " b i c u l t u r a l s " . More o f t h e E n g l i s h group have moved from o u t -s i d e t h e r e g i o n , w h i l e t h e b i c u l t u r a l group has moved more w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n o r even t h e same town. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t newcomers do t h e most e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e i r a r e a and, a f t e r a s h o r t p e r i o d , know i t the b e s t . Long term r e s i d e n t s e x p l o r e t h e i r " t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d " r e g i o n l e s s , and t h e i r knowledge a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s e s . T h i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . S t r a n g e l y , t h e m o b i l i t y f a c t o r MOBILE (see c a t e g o r i e s TABLE 4.3.7) p l a y s a r o l e o n l y i n t h e c a s e of t h e r e l a t i v e t i m e e r r o r (ZAMTIMER); th e e f f e c t i s con-* stant from s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o s t i m u l u s p o i n t . The means o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f MOBI-LE show t h a t t h e most m o b i l e s t u d e n t s ( t h o s e h a v i n g c a r o r use o f c a r ) made th e b e s t e s t i m a t e s w h i l e t h o s e who t r a v e l e d l e a s t i n t h e r e g i o n , made th e w o r s t e s -t i m a t e s . The v a r i a b l e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e (LTRES) p r o v e d t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t b u t was c o n c e p t u a l l y u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e . A s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f LTRES (RLTRES) t h e n p r o v e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . The e f f e c t o f t h e t i m e o f r e s i d e n c e f l u c t u a t e s from c a t e g o r y t o c a t e g o r y , and no g e n e r a l t r e n d can be o b s e r v e d . F i n a l l y , t h e v a r i a b l e PREADD ( p r e v i o u s a d d r e s s , see c a t e g o r i e s i n TABLE 4.3) was n o t found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . Because o f t h e u n i f o r m i t y i n s u b j e c t s ' ages, age was not c o n -s i d e r e d as a f a c t o r . To summarize, each s u b j e c t p r o d u c e d v e r y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s and each s t i m u -l u s p o i n t g e n e r a t e d d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n of t h e sample p o i n t s p r o v e d t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , l i k e l y b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n t b i a s e s i n t h e a c t i o n space o r because o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The c u l t u r a l f a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r , once a g a i n , r e a s o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e -g i o n ( m o b i l i t y and moving h a b i t s ) . The m o b i l i t y f a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e case of t h e r e l a t i v e t i m e e r r o r . The v a r i a b l e s s e x , geography, l e n g t h o f r e s i -dence, and p r e v i o u s a d d r e s s were shown t o be e i t h e r u n s i g n i f i c a n t o r d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . The a n a l y s e s t o f o l l o w w i l l c l a r i f y some o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s o b s e r v e d 92 h e r e . 5.2.2 The s p a t i a l f a c t o r P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e s t i m a -t e d and r e a l d i s t a n c e i n o r d e r t o model c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e . My c o n c e r n h e r e w i l l be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . The r e g u l a r i t i e s o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s may o r may n o t h o l d f o r my d a t a , b u t i f t h e e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o r e a l d i s t a n c e , c o n t r o l measures w i l l have t o be t a k e n t o a v o i d s p a t i a l a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n p r o b l e m s . The s p a t i a l dependence o f t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d must be m i n i m i z e d i n o r d e r t o measure t h e i r t r u e e f f e c t . A one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was done on t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r (MCROWER, ABMCROWER) t o d e t e r m i n e i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e a l s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e s : Y=A+/CROWDIST, where Y i s t h e e r r o r and A i s t h e c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e SUBJECTS. T A B L E 5 . 9 R e s u l t s o f o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h d i s t a n c e C O V A R I A T E C R O W D I S T C R O W D I S T T I M E D I S T E R R O R ( Y ) M C R O W E R Z M C R O W E R Z M T I M E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) A r e g . c o e f f . F E 4 . 1 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) a - 0 . 1 5 6 5 1 4 4 . 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 6 1 7 . 8 4 . 5 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 5 3 2 6 1 . 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 3 8 6 0 4 . 3 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 2 5 1 7 6 . 5 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 2 6 1 8 E R R O R ( |Y| ) A B M C R O W E R Z A M C R O W E R Z A M T I M E R A r e g . c o e f f . F i 2 . 9 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 3 3 3 8 1 0 6 7 . 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 3 8 1 . 0 3 . 0 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 2 6 9 2 . 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 2 7 1 7 2 . 5 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 . 7 4 7 2 ( . 3 9 1 7 ) 0 . 1 5 8 2 n . b . N = 8 1 5 9 o b s e r v a t i o n s , 5 3 8 s u b j e c t s a u n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a l l u n d e r c r i t i c a l l e v e l o f . 0 5 , b u t s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s s h o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n d i c a t i o n s o n l y s i n c e t h e r e a l d i s t a n c e o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r 93 I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e v a r i a t i o n i s a n a l y z e d a t t h e l e v e l o f each i n d i v i d u a l and an average w i t h i n - c l a s s s l o p e i s computed. TABLE 5.9 shows t h a t t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r MCROWER and ABMCROWER a r e l a r g e l y s i g n i f i c a n t : t h e more crow 4 d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s t h e more u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o c c u r s , and the more e r r o r a r i s e s . These t r e n d s have r e g u l a r l y been o b s e r v e d b e f o r e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , d i s t a n t , l e s s known p l a c e s were e s t i m a t e d w i t h more d i f f i c u l t y (more e r r o r ) , however, the t r e n d toward u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e i r d i s t a n c e s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . P o s s i b l y , t h i s o c c u r s because man i s accustomed t o d e a l i n g w i t h s m a l l range d i s -t a n c e s i n h i s e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s . He t h e r e f o r e f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e p t u a -l i z e l o n g d i s t a n c e s , and i n e v i t a b l y b r i n g s them back t o a more f a m i l i a r s c a l e . Added t o t h i s , we know t h a t p l a c e s "out t h e r e " a r e g e n e r a l l y p a r t o f a vague, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d schema, whereas schemas c l o s e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e more d i s -t i n c t and d i v e r s i f i e d . The schemas p r o v i d e a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r d i s t a n c e e s -t i m a t i o n ; t h e more o b s c u r e t h e schema, t h e f u z z i e r t h e e s t i m a t e s and t h e more l i k e l y remote schemas w i l l be a s s i m i l a t e d t o c l o s e r , b e t t e r known ones. I t r i e d t o c o n t r o l f o r t h i s " s p a t i a l " e f f e c t by d i v i d i n g a l l s t r a i g h t e r r o r measures by d i s t a n c e t o o b t a i n t h e r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures. T h i s c o n t r o l measure i s good o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s t r a i g h t e r r o r s a r e l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d t o d i s -t a n c e . The c o n t r o l ' s e f f i c i e n c y can be t e s t e d by r e d o i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i -ance on t h e s e r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures. TABLE 5.9 shows t h a t , o n l y i n t h e case of ZAMTIMER was the s p a t i a l e f f e c t c o m p l e t e l y removed. ZMCROWER and ZMTIMER a r e s t i l l i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o r e a l d i s t a n c e , i n d i c a t i n g a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t he s t r a i g h t e r r o r s . Even though t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t , i t has l o s t a l o t o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e ( r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e much s m a l l e r ) , and h o p e f u l l y , t h e consequences f o r s p a t i a l a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be m i n i m a l . ZAMCRO-WER i s a l s o r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y t o d i s t a n c e , t h e more d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s t h e s m a l -l e r t he r e l a t i v e e r r o r . T h i s shows t h a t t h e crow d i s t a n c e e r r o r was n o t " r a t i o n -a l l y " d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r s p a c e . The s t r a i g h t l i n e e s t i m a t e s p r o d u c e d a l o t o f 94 e r r o r even f o r n earby p l a c e s . Once a g a i n however, th e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and even t h e F r a t i o , have l o s t much o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . S p a t i a l a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n problems a r e a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . A one-way a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e on b o t h s t r a i g h t l i n e and t i m e d i s t a n c e s shows t h a t t h e knowledge and meaning v a r i a b l e s ( e x c e p t EVALUA) a r e r e l a t e d t o d i s t a n c e . ( T h i s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y though as t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e n o t i n d e p e n d e n t . ) The r e l a t i v e e r r o r measures have been used i n t h e a n a l y s e s t o come i n o r d e r t o m i n i -m ize t h e problem. 5.2.3 Knowledge and meaning Knowledge and meaning a r e i n s e p a r a b l e e x p r e s s i o n s o f s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e . However, f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e y have been measured w i t h a number of v a r i a b l e s ( O p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , ch . 4 ) w h i c h w i l l now be t e s t e d f o r t h e i r e f f e c t on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . To d i s c o v e r how t h o s e v a r i a b l e s were p e r c e i v e d by s u b j e c t s , and what the v a r i a b l e s a c t u a l l y measured, I l o o k e d f i r s t a t t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . The tau-b measure of a s s o c i a t i o n f o r o r d i n a l - l e v e l v a r i a b l e s was chosen f o r t h i s purpose."' I t s v a l u e ranges from +1 f o r a p e r f e c t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n t o -1 f o r a p e r f e c t n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , and z e r o i n d i c a t e s no a s s o c i a t i o n . There a r e b a s i c a l l y f o u r d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e knowledge-meaning d a t a (TABLE 5.10): (1) The f i r s t d i m e n s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by 4 i n t e r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , KNOWL, MEANIN, VISIT 1 and, VISIT 2, w h i c h o b v i o u s l y r e f e r t o peo-p l e ' s a c t i v e knowledge o f p l a c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see t h a t t h e MEANIN v a r i a b l e was i n t e r p r e t e d i n such a c t i v e e x p e r i e n t i a l t e r m s . (2) P e o p l e ' s e v a l u a t i o n of p l a c e s (EVALUA) comes as a s econd d i m e n s i o n , a l t h o u g h i t i s s l i g h t l y l i n k e d t o t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h MEANIN. (3) The c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n (LANGAG) and, 95 (4) The SIZE d i m e n s i o n come out v e r y d i s t i n c t l y . TABLE 5.10 Tau b s t a t i s t i c over 'knowledge' and 'meaning' variables KNOWL LANG AG MEANIN', • EVALUA SIZE VISIT 1 VISIT 2 — 0 . 1 8 3 i. 0 . 6 7 5 '• 0 . 457 0 . 1 4 1 0 . 5 7 6 0 .51 LANG AG — 0 .171 • 0 .126 0 . 0 2 1 0 .138 0 . 1 1 4 MEANIN — ' 0 . 5 0 9 0 .201 0 . 6 0 6 0 . 4 9 8 EVALUA ! — 1 l_ 0 . 1 8 3 0 .456 o . 3 5 i ; SIZE — 0 . 1 7 3 0 .109 VISIT 1 — 0 . 5 2 5 VISIT 2 — The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n shows t h a t as VISIT 1 o r 2 i n c r e a s e s , so does KNOWL and MEANIN. The second d i m e n s i o n r e v e a l s t h a t "good" p l a c e s a r e a l s o the most " m e a n i n g f u l " (and b e t t e r known) p l a c e s , as hypo-t h e s i z e d e a r l i e r . I n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o f o l l o w , i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t 4 o f t h e 7 v a r i a b l e s a c t u a l l y measure t h e same t h i n g o r a t most, o n l y s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e same t h i n g , i . e . a c t i v e knowledge o f spa c e . To l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f 3 maj o r a n a l y s e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e : (1) t h o s e r e l a t i v e t o a one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h ' s u b j e c t s ' (A) as c o n t r o l f a c t o r (Y=A+/KN0WL+MEANIN+VISITl+VISIT2+LAGREE+ 96 EVALUA+SIZE+E, see TABLE 5.11), (2) t h o s e r e l a t i v e t o a two-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h " s u b j e c t s " (A) and " s t i m u l i p o i n t s " (B) as c o n t r o l f a c t o r s (Y=A+B+/KNOWL+MEA-NIN+VISIT1+VTSIT2+LAGREE+EVALUA+SIZE+E, see TABLE 5.12) and, (3) t h e r e s u l t s coming from an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d T A B L E 5 . 1 1 R e s u l t s o f o n e - w a y a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e N = 4 6 5 / 6 3 0 5 o b s . Z M C R O W E R Z A M C R O W E R F ( p r o b ) F [ p r o b ) ( S u b j e c t s ) A 4 . 2 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) a 2 . 9 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( E r r o r ) E 0 . 3 7 6 1 0 . 2 5 9 9 ( r e g . c o e f f . ) F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f f.) F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 2 1 3 1 0 . 1 1 ( . 0 0 1 7 ) 0 . 0 1 5 3 7 . 5 7 ( . 0 0 6 0 ) M E A N I N 0 . 0 0 5 6 0 . 7 7 ( . 3 8 3 0 ) 0 . 0 1 2 1 5 . 2 6 ( . 0 2 0 7 ) V I S I T 1 0 . 0 0 5 0 0 . 8 8 ( . 3 5 1 9 ) 0 . 0 0 3 6 0 . 6 4 ( . 4 3 0 8 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 1 1 1 5 . 3 2 ( . 0 2 0 0 ) 0 . 0 0 7 5 3 . 4 6 ( . 0 5 9 6 ) L A G R E E b 0 . 0 0 7 9 3 . 2 6 ( . 0 6 7 4 ) 0 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 1 7 ( . 6 8 6 4 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 5 6 6 . 0 1 ( . 0 1 3 7 ) - 0 . 0 1 0 4 3 . 8 9 ( . 0 4 6 0 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 3 6 0 5 1 . 2 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 ( . 9 4 4 2 ) A L L 1 4 . 9 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 1 0 . 8 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) Z M T I M E R Z A M T I M E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) A 4 . 0 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 . 4 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) E 0 . 2 5 5 6 0 . 1 5 6 9 ( r e g . c o e f fO F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f f . ) F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 1 5 9 8 . 2 9 ( . 0 0 4 1 ) 0 . 0 0 8 7 4 . 0 1 ( . 0 4 2 9 ) M E A N I N - 0 . 0 0 0 9 0 . 0 3 ( . 8 4 2 3 ) 0 . 0 0 9 9 5 . 7 9 ( . 0 1 5 4 ) V I S I T 1 0 . 0 0 9 6 4 . 6 8 ( . 0 2 8 8 ) 0 . 0 0 6 5 3 . 5 6 ( . 0 5 6 0 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 0 4 1 1 . 0 5 ( . 3 0 7 2 ) 0 . 0 0 3 5 1 . 2 5 ( . 2 6 1 9 ) I A G R E E 0 . 0 0 6 2 2 . 9 6 ( . 0 8 1 5 ) - 0 . 0 0 0 8 0 . 0 9 ( . 7 6 3 2 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 3 0 6 . 1 3 ( . 0 1 2 8 ) - 0 . 0 0 9 3 5 . 0 7 ( . 0 2 3 1 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 5 4 5 1 7 2 . 8 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 0 0 3 7 1 . 3 0 ( . 2 5 2 9 ) A L L 2 9 . 7 3 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 1 0 . 3 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) s i g n i f i c a n t a t . 0 5 a l m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t a t . 0 5 N o t e t h a t L A G R E E n o w r e p l a c e s L A N G A G a s i t i s a m u c h m o r e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s e n s i t i v e v a r i a b l e . I t m e a s u r e s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f a s t i m u l u s p o i n t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s o w n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y 97 measures where t h e s c h o o l s s e r v e as g r o u p i n g f a c t o r (A) and t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s as t r i a l f a c t o r (C) (Y=A+B(A)+C+AC+/KNOWL+MEANIN+ VISIT1+VISIT2+LAGREE+EVALUA+SIZE+E, where B i s s u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n A and AC i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , see TABLE 5.13). TABLES 5.11, 5.12, and 5.13 i n d i c a t e t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f a c t o r ( s ) i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e model, and p r o v i d e t h e p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , w i t h a s s o c i a t e d F r a t i o s and l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r each c o v a r i a t e . The p a r t i a l T A B L E 5 . 1 2 R e s u l t s o f t w o - w a y a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e N = 4 6 5 / 6 3 0 5 o b s . Z M C R O W E R Z A M C R O W E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) ( S u b j e c t s ) A 4 . 9 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 3 . 1 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( S t i m u l i p t s .) B 4 2 . 6 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 1 . 9 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( E r r o r ) E 0 . 3 2 9 2 0 . 2 4 2 4 ( r e g . c o e f f ) F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f f.) F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 3 1 8 2 4 . 4 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 0 1 6 7 9 . 1 9 ( . 0 0 2 6 ) M E A N I N 0 . 0 0 5 1 0 . 7 3 ( . 3 9 8 6 ) 0 . 0 1 0 4 4 . 0 3 ( . 0 4 2 2 ) V I S I T 1 - 0 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 5 ( . 8 0 2 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 1 0 ( . 7 4 7 9 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 0 0 8 0 . 0 3 ( . 8 4 4 5 ) - 0 . 0 0 3 5 0 . 7 5 ( . 3 9 0 9 ) L A G R E E 0 . 0 1 4 0 1 1 . 2 6 ( . 0 0 1 0 ) 0 . 0 0 7 5 4 . 3 8 ( . 0 3 4 3 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 1 3 3 . 5 5 ( . 0 5 6 4 ) - 0 . 0 0 7 5 2 . 1 6 ( • 1 3 7 6 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 7 6 6 1 4 0 . 1 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 3 0 5 3 0 . 0 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) A L L 2 9 . 6 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 9 . 2 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) Z M T I M E R Z A M T I M E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) A 4 . 6 2 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 . 5 3 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) B 3 7 . 4 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 1 4 . 8 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) E 0 . 2 2 7 2 0 . 1 4 9 8 ( r e g . c o e f f ) F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f f.) F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 2 5 3 2 2 . 5 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 0 0 6 8 2 . 4 6 ( . 1 1 2 7 ) M E A N I N 0 . 0 0 5 1 1 . 0 6 ( . 3 0 4 2 ) 0 . 0 1 1 2 7 . 6 2 ( . 0 0 5 8 ) V I S I T 1 0 . 0 0 4 4 1 . 0 6 ( . 3 0 4 7 ) 0 . 0 0 3 3 0 . 8 9 ( . 3 4 7 6 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 0 2 8 0 . 5 2 ( . 4 7 6 2 ) - 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 . 7 4 ( . 3 9 3 1 ) L A G R E E 0 . 0 0 6 1 3 . 1 2 ( . 0 7 3 4 ) 0 . 0 0 2 9 1 . 0 9 ( . 2 9 6 2 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 3 4 7 . 2 6 ( . 0 0 7 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 8 5 4 . 4 6 ( . 0 3 2 9 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 6 2 1 1 3 3 . 2 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 8 1 3 . 4 6 ( . 0 5 9 7 ) A L L 2 9 . 2 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 4 . 7 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 98 r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e t h e s l o p e s o f t h e l e a s t - s q u a r e s e q u a t i o n s i n t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , w i t h a l l o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s h e l d c o n s t a n t . They a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n o n - s t a t i s t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . o f t h e inde p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ' s e f f e c t (change i n t h e e r r o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n i t change i n inde p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ) . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e F r a t i o o f t h e p a r -T A B L E 5 . 1 3 R e s u l t s o f r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e ,N = 4 6 5 / 6 3 0 5 o b s ) Z M C R O W E R Z A M C R O W E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) ( S c h o o l s ) A 4 . 2 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 3 . 8 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( S u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n s c h o o l s ) B ( A ) 5 . 0 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 3 . 1 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( S t i m u l i p t s . ) C 4 5 . 8 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 2 . 2 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( I n t e r a c t i o n ) A C 4 . 2 0 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 3 . 4 3 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) ( E r r o r ) E 0 . 3 0 0 5 0 . 2 2 6 1 t e g . c o e f f ) F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f f ) F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 3 2 0 2 4 . 7 5 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 0 1 9 6 1 2 . 3 3 ( . 0 0 0 6 ) M E A N I N 0 . 0 0 8 2 1 . 9 6 ( . 1 5 7 6 ) p . 0 1 3 2 6 . 7 0 ( . 0 0 9 4 ) V I S I T 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 9 0 . 0 3 ( . 8 3 6 4 ) 0 . 0 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 ( . 9 1 2 9 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 0 0 6 0 . 0 2 ( . 8 6 9 8 ) 0 . 0 0 0 7 0 . 0 3 ( . 8 4 5 6 ) L A G R E E 0 . 0 0 7 1 2 . 5 2 ( - 1 0 8 3 ) 0 . 0 0 2 7 0 . 4 8 ( . 4 9 4 2 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 3 5 5 . 3 3 ( . 0 2 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 0 8 8 3 . 0 3 ( . 0 7 7 9 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 7 3 2 1 3 0 . 5 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 2 9 9 2 9 . 0 2 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) A L L 2 5 . 6 0 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 9 . 8 6 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) Z M T I M E R Z A M T I M E R F ( p r o b ) F ( p r o b ) A * 1 . 0 1 ( . 4 3 1 3 ) 1 . 2 5 ( . 2 6 1 7 ) B ( A ) 4 . 9 8 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 . 6 0 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) C 4 0 . 6 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 1 4 . 7 1 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) A C 3 . 6 0 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 2 . 2 9 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) E 0 . 2 1 0 8 0 . 1 4 4 3 ( r e g . c o e f f ) F ( p r o b ) ( r e g . c o e f £ F ( p r o b ) K N O W L 0 . 0 2 8 0 2 7 . 0 4 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 0 . 0 1 0 1 5 . 0 8 ( . 0 2 3 0 ) M E A N I N 0 . 0 0 9 3 3 . 5 7 ( . 0 5 5 8 ) 0 . 0 1 4 1 1 1 . 8 9 ( . 0 0 0 7 ) V I S I T 1 0 . 0 0 2 5 0 . 3 5 ( . 5 6 1 2 ) 0 . 0 0 4 1 1 . 3 6 ( . 2 4 1 3 ) V I S I T 2 0 . 0 0 3 0 0 . 5 2 ( . 4 7 6 4 ) 0 . 0 0 0 6 0 . 0 3 ( . 8 3 1 0 ) L A G R E E 0 . 0 0 6 1 2 . 6 8 ( . 0 9 7 3 ) 0 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 1 9 ( . 6 6 4 2 ) E V A L U A - 0 . 0 1 2 6 6 . 6 5 ( . 0 0 9 7 ) - 0 . 0 0 7 7 3 . 6 5 ( . 0 5 3 1 ) S I Z E - 0 . 0 5 9 4 1 2 2 . 7 0 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) - 0 . 0 1 0 5 5 . 6 0 ( . 0 1 7 1 ) A L L 2 6 . 9 7 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 7 . 1 3 ( . 0 0 0 0 ) 99 t i a l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e same way as a p a r t i a l c o r -r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . I t measures t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r t h e amount of v a r i a t i o n e x p l a i n e d by one inde p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a f t e r t h e o t h e r s have e x p l a i n e d a l l t h e y c o u l d . T h i s way, t h e inde p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y i f i t b r i n g s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e model i . e . i f i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e s t h e sum o f s q u a r e s . TABLES 5.11 and 5.12 i n d i c a t e as e x p e c t e d , a l l t h e i n t r o d u c e d c o n t r o l f a c -t o r s a r e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , even a f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e c o v a r i a t e s . I n TABLE 5.13, o n l y t h e g r o u p i n g f a c t o r SCHOOL l o s e s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e t i m e e r r o r b u t , s i n c e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e sample l o c a t i o n can s t i l l be a s -sumed t o be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . S i n c e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r t h e b e s t r e l a t i v e judgment ( a judgment more a t t u n e d t o r e a l d i s t a n c e ) i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a change of l o c a t i o n i n t h e p e r c e i v e d s p a c e , r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t e s t i m a t e s t o the s t i m u l i p o i n t s . Through c a n c e l l a t i o n e f f e c t s t h i s would have n u l l i f i e d t h e o v e r -a l l SCHOOL e f f e c t . I f we f i r s t l o o k a t t h e s i g n e d e r r o r (ZMCROWER, ZMTIMER), we f i n d t h a t t h e 4 di m e n s i o n s o f t h e knowledge-meaning v a r i a b l e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o r a l m o s t s i g n i -f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , i n t h e 3 a n a l y s e s . I n t h e one-way a n a l y s i s KNOWL and VISIT (VISIT2 f o r the crow e r r o r and VISI T 1 f o r t h e t i m e e r r o r ) come out f o r th e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n , w h i l e i n t h e n e x t two more s t r u c t u r e d a n a l y s e s , o n l y KNOWL does. A l w a y s , KNOWL i s a v e r y s t r o n g f a c t o r ( h i g h F r a t i o ) . The la n g u a g e dimen-s i o n (LAGREE) i s n o t always s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05, b u t i s v e r y c l o s e . EVALUA i s a v e r y s t e a d y f a c t o r , and SIZE appears as t h e s t r o n g e s t and t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f a l l . B a s i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between t h e crow and t h e t i m e e r -r o r s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e crow and t i m e e r r o r s a r e a g a i n n e g l i g i b l e f o r th e a b s o l u t e e r r o r (ZAMCROWER, ZAMTIMER). I n t h e one-way a n a l y s i s we f i n d t h a t 3 v a r i a b l e s o f t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n a r e p r e s e n t : KNOWL, MEANIN, and a VISI T i s 100 n e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o o (VISIT2 f o r t h e crow e r r o r and V I S I T l f o r t h e t i m e e r r o r ) . EVALUA i s t h e o n l y o t h e r d i m e n s i o n p r e s e n t . I n t h e two-way a n a l y s i s however, KNOWL and MEANIN s t i l l appear f o r t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n ( a l t h o u g h KNOWL i s o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .11 f o r ZAMTIMER); b u t t h i s t i m e EVALUA and SIZE r e p r e s e n t o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s ( a l t h o u g h EVALUA o n l y a t .14 l e v e l f o r ZAMCROWER), and LAGREE i s s i g -n i f i c a n t f o r ZAMCROWER. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s shows t h a t KNOWL, MEANIN, EVALUA ( a l m o s t ) , and SIZE a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . A g a i n SIZE t a k e s a d i s -t i n c t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e case o f t h e crow e r r o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s l o p e - t e s t s t o v e r i f y whether t h e av e r a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ob-s e r v e d a r e c o n s t a n t a c r o s s t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e , c o u l d o n l y be done i n t h e one-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s show t h a t t h e VISIT v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as EVALUA and SIZE have c o n s t a n t e f f e c t s f o r each s u b j e c t . The e f f e c t o f a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s v a r i e s from s u b j e c t t o s u b j e c t . F i r s t , i n t h e case o f t h e measurement o f knowledge, t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e more c o n c r e t e v a r i a b l e s V I S I T l and VISIT2 l e f t l e s s room f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e had a more d e f i n i t e e f f e c t and s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e s i z e and e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n s o f meaning a r e d e f i n i t e l y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s p l a y i n g on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . The t h r e e p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s e s have shown t h a t t h e s i g n e d e r r o r i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s p r e s e n t i n t h e d a t a . The a b s o l u t e e r r o r t e n d s t o r e a c t more t o t h e " a c t i v e knowledge" d i m e n s i o n , a l t h o u g h EVALUA and SIZE s t i l l p l a y a r o l e . The sense o f t h e e r r o r seems more a f f e c t e d by i m p r e s s i o n s , w h i l e t he amount o f e r r o r i s more a f f e c t e d by a c t u a l knowledge. The knowledge d i m e n s i o n and t h e KNOWL v a r i a b l e a r e always p r e s e n t and s t r o n g ; t h e EVALUA d i m e n s i o n i s a l s o v e r y s t e a d y , b u t the SIZE d i m e n s i o n t a k e s an u n e x p e c t e d i m p o r t a n c e . No major d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e crow and t i m e e s t i m a t e s , and g e n e r a l l y t h e f a c t o r s s t u d i e d p r o v e d t o be q u i t e s t r o n g as t h e i r e f f e c t remained s i g n i f i c a n t t h r o u g h a l l t h r e e a n a l y s e s . 101 The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b s e r v e d h e r e g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and t h e t h e o r y c h a p t e r . A c t i v e knowledge comes out as a c r i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n : t h e more p e o p l e know o r v i s i t a p l a c e , t h e more m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y have had i n t h a t p l a c e , t h e l e s s e r r o r and o v e r -e s t i m a t i o n t h e y make. D i s t a n c e s t o b e s t known p l a c e s seem s h o r t e r w h i l e d i s -t a n c e s t o p o o r l y known p l a c e s seem l o n g e r t h a n t h e y a c t u a l l y a r e . These r e g -u l a r i t i e s have been o b s e r v e d b e f o r e . The f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p does n o t r e q u i r e much e x p l a n a t i o n : t h e more one has made a p a r t i c u l a r t r i p , t h e more r e f e r e n c e s one has t o produce a b e t t e r d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e . The second r e l a t i o n s h i p r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between a b e t t e r known t r i p and an unknown t r i p . The f o r m e r w o u l d u s u a l l y be more i n t e r e s t i n g and e n j o y a b l e . On such a t r i p , t h e s u b j e c t has l e s s o r i e n t a t i o n problems ( s t r e s s ) , he can i d e n t i f y w i t h more cues a l o n g t h e way, and g e n e r a l l y t h e t r i p i s more a c t i v e ( m e n t a l l y ) , d i v e r s i f i e d and d i s t r a c t i n g . The t a s k o f moving i s more u n i t a r y ( l e s s d i v i d e d ) as t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e s u b j e c t i s drawn away from t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f f r i c t i o n . Such a t r i p i s s t i m u l a t i n g ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l has t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f p r o g r e s s i n g towards h i s g o a l and t h e r e f o r e , he tend s t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e i t s l e n g t h . On t h e o t h e r hand a l e s s w e l l known t r i p i s more s t r e s s f u l s i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l has v e r y few cues t o o r i e n t h i m s e l f . He cannot i d e n t i f y w i t h t h o s e cues because he has n o t seen them enough. Thus t h e t r i p i s l e s s s t i m u l a t i n g , more d i v i d e d ; t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i s on t h e a c t u a l t a s k o f moving and t h e l e n g t h o f t h a t t a s k i s g e n e r a l l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l be put i n a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . The r e s u l t s a r i s i n g f rom t h e e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n (EVALUA) d i f f e r g r e a t l y from t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . My d a t a shows t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s made more e r r o r f o r t h e " b e t t e r " p l a c e s ( j u d g e d on t h e bad-good s c a l e ) , and a l s o t ended t o o v e r e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s t o such p l a c e s . The f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . I can o n l y remark t h a t v e r y few p l a c e s were c a t e g o r i z e d 102 as "bad" ( 9 % f o r t h e extreme p o s i t i o n on t h e s c a l e (7) o r 26% f o r p o s i t i o n s 5, 6, 7 ) ; t h o s e e x c e p t i o n s may have been q u i t e w e l l known t o a r o u s e s u c h n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , e x p l a i n i n g t h e b e t t e r d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s t h a t r e s u l t e d . The o v e r e s t i -m a t i o n of d i s t a n c e s t o " b e t t e r " p l a c e s r e f l e c t s t h a t anybody i n a h u r r y t o get t o a d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n w i l l f i n d d i s t a n c e s l o n g e r . When t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i s d i r e c t e d toward t h e g o a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e t r i p , t h e t r i p i s o f no i n -t e r e s t , t a k i n g a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a w a i t . The a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i s drawn t o t h e a c t u a l t a s k o f moving and t h e d i s t a n c e i s o v e r e s t i m a t e d . T h i s r e s u l t d i f f e r s from p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s " and " d e s i r a b i l i t y " , b u t h e r e , by c o n t r o l l i n g f o r knowledge i n t h e m u l t i - v a r i a t e ana-l y s i s , I t h i n k t h e t r u e e f f e c t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n i s r e v e a l e d . I n p r e -v i o u s s t u d i e s t h e knowledge d i m e n s i o n might have i n d i r e c t l y dominated t h e e v a l -u a t i o n . dimension. The r e s u l t s o f t h e i m p o r t a n t SIZE d i m e n s i o n l a r g e l y c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s o b s e r -v a t i o n s . I n a l l t h r e e a n a l y s e s , c l e a r l y , p e o p l e t e n d t o o v e r e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s t o l a r g e r p l a c e s . I n t h e l a s t two a n a l y s e s , t h e e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f any s t i m u l u s p o i n t . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be e x p l a i n e d , i n p a r t , by t h e s u b j e c t ' s m e n t a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h o s e p l a c e s . L a r g e p l a c e s have vague • / l i m i t s , l e a d i n g t o much v a r i a t i o n and e r r o r i n t h e e s t i m a t e s . A l s o , t h e r e might s t i l l be t r a c e s o f "knowledge" i n t h e SIZE e f f e c t as t r i p s t o l a r g e p l a c e s (eg. M o n t r e a l ) a r e g e n e r a l l y complex and s t r e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y t o r u r a l r e s i -d e n t s . T r i p s t o such p l a c e s w i l l t h e r e f o r e be l i m i t e d and d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t . The o v e r e s t i m a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e s t o l a r g e p l a c e s i s t h e s t r o n g e s t r e g u l a r i t y o f a l l ; i t c o n f i r m s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e " c o m p l e x i -t y o f t h e t r i p " f a c t o r . T r i p s t o l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s a r e more complex and more s t r e s s f u l t h a n any o t h e r i n t h e r e g i o n ( n o t e t h a t i n t r a - u r b a n t r a v e l m i ght o f t e n be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a v e l i n g jto t h e c i t y ) . H i g h e r l a n d - u s e d e n s i t i e s make f o r d i v i d e d , t i m e consuming t r a v e l (more i n t e r s e c t i o n s , l i g h t s and cues i n g e n e r a l ) . 103 The i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t e n t i o n i s c e n t e r e d upon movement i t s e l f ( d e n s e r t r a f f i c , den-s e r network) and t h e r e f o r e , d i s t a n c e i s i n e v i t a b l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d . A l s o , t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n g t h e way might add t o t h e i l l u s i o n o f a l o n g e r t r i p , as t h e i n d i v i d u a l remembers more about i t . The c u l t u r a l b i a s b e h i n d d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . LAGREE, t h e language agreement v a r i a b l e , i s al w a y s c l o s e t o b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v -e l f o r t h e s i g n e d e r r o r ( s t i l l q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e number of v a r i a -b l e s i n t r o d u c e d i n t h o s e a n a l y s e s ) . F o r t h e a b s o l u t e e r r o r , LAGREE i s o n l y s i g -n i f i c a n t f o r ZAMCROWER i n t h e two-way a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . I n t h i s l a t t e r r e -l a t i o n s h i p , t h e more t h e languages agree ( t h e language o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t v s . h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e language of each s t i m u l u s p o i n t ) , the l e s s e r r o r i s made. C u l -t u r a l a c t i v i t y spaces e x i s t where p e o p l e o f a common language s u p p o r t and f r e -quent p l a c e s o f t h a t l a n g u a g e . The F r e n c h s t u d e n t s v i s i t F r e n c h p l a c e s more f r e -q u e n t l y , p r o d u c i n g b e t t e r d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s t o t h o s e p l a c e s , and v i c e v e r s a f o r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s on t h e s i g n e d e r r o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e more t h e language o f s u b j e c t and p l a c e a g r e e , t h e l e s s o v e r e s t i m a t i o n t h e r e i s . F r e n c h s t u d e n t s have thought o f F r e n c h p l a c e s as b e i n g c l o s e r t o them t h a n E n g l i s h p l a -c e s ; E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s responded the.same way f o r E n g l i s h p l a c e s . These r e g u l a r i t i e s c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e o f c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . I examined t h e q u e s t i o n f u r t h e r by t e s t i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n between LA-GREE and t h e c u l t u r a l groups (CULTURE), and LAGREE and t h e s c h o o l s , u s i n g a h i e r -a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h s l o p e t e s t s : Y=A+B(A)+/LAGREE, where A i s e i t h e r CULTURE o r SCHOOL and B(A) i s t h e s u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n A. W i t h CULTURE, t h e s l o p e t e s t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r ZMTIMER (.0000), and a l m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r ZAM-CROWER (.0671). An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r ZAMCROWER shows t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e F r e n c h group ( r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t s o f 0.0142 f o r F r e n c h group and -0.0007 f o r t h e E n g l i s h g r o u p ) . F r e n c h p e o p l e make even l e s s e r r o r i n t h e case o f F r e n c h towns, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i r 104 a c t i o n s p a c e i s l i k e l y more s e l e c t i v e t h a n t h e E n g l i s h ' s a c t i o n s p a c e . The Eng-l i s h . group had a b e t t e r o v e r a l l knowledge of t h e r e g i o n , w h i c h c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e y were b e t t e r e s t i m a t o r s t h a n t h e F r e n c h , as p r e v i o u s l y o b s e r v e d (CULTURE e f -f e c t ) . The r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r ZMTIMER i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e E n g l i s h group t h i s t i m e (0.0293 f o r t h e E n g l i s h group and -0.0098 f o r the F r e n c h ) . The E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s have t e n d e d t o o v e r e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s t o F r e n c h p l a c e s w h i l e t h e F r e n c h s t u d e n t s have a c t u a l l y tended t o s l i g h t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s t o E n g l i s h p l a c e s . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e E n g l i s h have d e v e l o p e d s t r o n g e r i m p r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t F r e n c h towns ( e s p e c i a l l y Quebec towns) t h a n t h e F r e n c h have a g a i n s t E n g l i s h towns. T y p i c a l l y , t h e F r e n c h p e o p l e of t h e r e g i o n speak t h e second language and a r e q u i t e open t o the E n g l i s h c u l t u r e . These "im-p r e s s i o n s " o f b e i n g c o m f o r t a b l e o r not w i t h t h e o t h e r c u l t u r e , and t h e d e s i r e t o i s o l a t e one's group, might be a t t h e o r i g i n o f c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f LAGREE w i t h SCHOOL was a l w a y s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . D e t a i l e d r e s u l t s w i l l n o t be p r e s e n t e d h e r e but i n g e n e r a l , t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e : (1) LAGREE has more e f f e c t on b o t h t h e s i g n e d e r r o r s and t h e a b s o l u t e e r r o r s ( i . e . even l e s s e r r o r i s made and more u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n i s made when t h e languages agree) o f what seems t o be u n i l i n g u a l p l a -ces (Embrun, P l a n t a g e n e t , W i l l i a m s t o w n , and A l e x a n d r i a and C o r n -w a l l w h i c h r e a c t l i k e u n i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h p l a c e s a l t h o u g h one w o u l d have c a t e g o r i z e d them as b e i n g more b i l i n g u a l , MAP 2 ) . The s t u d e n t s of such a r e a s seem t o have a more c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d a c t i o n s p a c e . (2) LAGREE has v e r y l i t t l e e f f e c t on b o t h the s i g n e d and t h e a b s o l u t e e r r o r s of what seems t o be t h e more b i l i n g u a l a r e a s ( V a n k l e e k H i l l , Hawkesbury) and t h e v e r y c e n t r a l a r e a s (Casselman, Avonmore); peo-p l e f rom t h o s e a r e a s seem t o have a more u n b i a s e d , g e n e r a l i z e d a c -t i o n space. 105 The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e two groups tow a r d each o t h e r , t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h e p o s i t i o n o f the s c h o o l s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l a r e a s , a r e a l l e lements b e h i n d t h e SCHOOL e f f e c t . These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e however, v e r y s p e c u l a t i v e ; o n l y a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e a c t i o n space o f t h e two c u l t u r e s c o u l d g i v e us more i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . 5.2.4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f knowledge The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s have shown how p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s , r e a l d i s t a n c e , know-l e d g e and v a r i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s o f p l a c e s i n f l u e n c e d p e o p l e ' s d i s t o r t i o n s o f sp a c e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , two ways by w h i c h p e o p l e s i m p l i f y and o r g a n i z e t h e i r e nvironment w i l l be s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n — t h e r o l e o f t h e schemas o f space and t h e r o l e o f t h e p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s . The e f f e c t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l be t e s t e d w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e f a c t o r s a l r e a d y p r o v e n s i g n i f i -c a n t . B e f o r e g e t t i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s , some comments s h o u l d be made on t h e s u b j e c t s ' ways o f c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z i n g r e g i o n a l s p a c e . Two e x e r c i s e s were used t o un c o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s ' schemas o f sp a c e . The f i r s t e x e r c i s e a s k e d them t o r e g r o u p t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i -t i e s ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e , page 5 ) ; i t p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s o f v a r i a b l e SURGRO w h i c h s i m p l y i n d i c a t e s i n t o what group t h e p l a c e s f a l l . A s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f SURGRO was a l s o computed so t h a t a l l t h e f o r e i g n (non-home) schemas c o u l d be r e g r o u p e d to form the dichotomous v a r i a b l e RSURGRO (Home/Foreign schemas). W i t h SURGRO, th e n e x t s t e p c o n s i s t e d i n b u i l d i n g a c o m p o s i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemas i d e n t i f i e d by t h e s t u d e n t s o f each s c h o o l . A s i m i l a r i t y i n d e x (number o f t i m e s two p l a c e s were r e g r o u p e d on t h e number o f t i m e s t h e y c o u l d have been regrouped) was d e r i v e d f o r each p a i r o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s e s were t h e n done on t h i s i n d e x t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a g g r e g a t e schemas (groups o f p l a c e s ) f o r each s c h o o l . The n e a r e s t n e i g h b o r , f u r t h e s t n e i g h b o r , and aver a g e t e c h n i q u e o f c l u s t e r i n g were used t o d e f i n e t h e schemas. The r e a s o n s why p l a c e s got r e g r o u p e d were a l s o a n a l y s e d . F i g u r e 5.1 i s t h e c o m p o s i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemas d e f i n e d by F i g u r e 5.1 - Composite r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the schemas i d e n t i f i e d i n Casselman ( f r o m s i m i l a r i t i e s d a t a SURGRO) o as 107 t h e Casselman sample. The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f a l l o t h e r s c h o o l s a r e i n A p p e n d i x 3 The;'second e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t e d i n a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t o s u b d i v i d e t h e a r e a shown on t h e base map i n t o " s i g n i f i c a n t " s u b r e g i o n s . The v a r i a b l e s MAPGRO and RMAPGRO came out o f t h i s e x e r c i s e . MAPGRO was p r o c e s s e d i n t h e same way as SUR-g GRO t o produce t h e a g g r e g a t e schemas f o r each s c h o o l ( F i g u r e 5.2). I n t h e s i m i l a r i t y e x e r c i s e , t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s were r e g r o u p e d f o r m o s t l y a s p a t i a l r e a s o n s . TABLE 5.14 shows t h a t s i z e and knowledge a c c o u n t f o r 60% of the g r o u p i n g s , language and c u l t u r e were used 8.5% o f t h e t i m e , p o l i t i c a l consid-e r a t i o n s 7.1% of t h e t i m e , and s p a t i a l r e a s o n s o n l y 11.5% o f t h e t i m e . F i g u r e 5 t y p i f i e s t h e schemas t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d by each sample (see A p p e n d i x 3 f o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s ) . The s i z e and knowledge d i m e n s i o n s a r e always v e r y p r o m i n e n t , w i t h g r a d a t i o n s f r o m l a r g e t o s m a l l , and w e l l known t o unknown p l a c e s . The lang--uage d i m e n s i o n i s sometimes p r e s e n t , and some schemas have been formed f o r s p a -TABLE 5.14 Reasons why places were grouped together -in percentages for each school and for a l l Size Language Spatial Knowledge Meaning Function Political Character Other No Reason Williamstown 32. 7 3.5 6.9 32.5 1.1 11.6 2.2 5.0 4. 1 0.4 Avonmore 19 . 7 20.1 16.0 26.7 0.5 2.6 6.3 0.0 2. 7 5.3 Casselman 28. 0 11.0 7.1 23.6 2.0 8.7 7.8 1.1 1. 4 9.3 Hawkesbury 32. 8 2.4 16.0 36.2 0 .0 0.0 4.6 0.0 2. 5 5.5 EmbruH '27. 9 10.3 3.9 34.7 2.0 3.5 4.7 0.7 4. 1 8.3 Alexandria 34. 5 1.8 10.7 27.7 1.2 1.5 12.6 2.4 2. 0 5.6 Ch e s t e r v i l l e 31. 8 13.5 13.2 39.4 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.7 0 3 0.0 Vankleek H i l l 35 0 10.2 9.6 17.3 0.7 0.3 14.8 0.5 7. 3 5.2 Plantagenet 28. 0 5.1 7.0 34.0 0.0 1.3 14.1 0.2 1. 2 9.0 Cornwall 34 3 7.2 24.2 17.2 1.4 4.1 3.2 4.9 0. 1. 3.4 A l l 30 5 8.5 11.5 28.9 1.0 3.4 7.1 1.6 2. 6 5 .2 108 t i a l o r p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I f we l o o k beyond t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n however, the c u l t u r a l and s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n s a r e i m p l i c i t i n many o f t h e r e g r o u p i n g s . Nearby p l a c e s and p l a c e s o f t h e same language have o f t e n been b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . I n most cases t h e home schema (schema i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l town) i n c l u d e s p l a c e s t h a t a r e c u l t u r a l l y s i m i l a r and s p a t i a l l y c l o s e . Common s p a t i a l r e g r o u p i n g s a r e the E a s t (Quebec p l a c e s ) , t h e West, Home and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P l a c e s t e n d t o be mixed up o n l y f o r t h e "unknown" schemas ( w i t h o b v i o u s r e a s o n ) , and f o r t h e " b i g c i t i e s " schemas where t h e c h o i c e i s l i m i t e d . O t h e r w i s e t h e d i m e n s i o n s s i z e , knowledge, s p a c e , and language a r e q u i t e w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d i n t h e schemas. I n t h e map e x e r c i s e t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s were o r d e r e d s p a t i a l l y , t h e e x e r c i s e however was not as s u c c e s s f u l l as t h e p r e v i o u s one. The s t u d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y t i r e d a t t h a t s t a g e and many had d i f f i c u l t i e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g what t o do. F i g u r e 9 5.2 t y p i f i e s t h e schemas i d e n t i f i e d on the base map. The map s u b d i v i s i o n de-pended l a r g e l y on how o f t e n t h e a r e a s were v i s i t e d , t h e a c t i v i t i e s p u r s u e d t h e r e , o r i n g e n e r a l , knowledge of t h e a r e a s (see App e n d i x 1, E n g l i s h q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . C e n t e r - d o m i n a t e d schemas were a l s o v e r y common (eg. Ottawa, M o n t r e a l , and Buck-ingham r e g i o n s i n F i g u r e 5.2 and App e n d i x 1, F r e n c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . O t h e r r e a -sons i n v o k e d had t o do w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , o r p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n s o f t h e map. T y p i c a l s u b r e g i o n s i d e n t i f i e d were Quebec, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e C e n t r e , t h e West, and t h e N o r t h ( v a c a t i o n l a n d i n Quebec). Most maps show c l e a r e v i d e n c e of i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e a r e a t o the p e r -iphery ( s e e F i g u r e 5.2 w i t h i t s s m a l l d e t a i l e d c e n t e r schemas, and l a r g e g e n e r a l , " o u t s i d e " schemas). The two schema e x e r c i s e s have g e n e r a t e d s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s b u t th e y b o t h r e v e a l t h a t t h e schemas were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r (1) e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a s o n s , and (2) r e a s o n s o f dominant c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p l a c e s ( s i z e ) o r dominant f e a t u r e o f the a r e a ( c e n t r a l p l a c e ) . Th t h e s i m i l a r i t y e x e r c i s e t h e c u l t u r a l and s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n s were o f t e n i m p l i c i t ; i n t h e map e x e r c i s e " t y p i c a l r e g i o n s " were f r e -F i g u r e 5.2 - Composite r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemas i d e n t i f i e d i n Casselman ( f r o m map e x e r c i s e d a t a MAPGRO) o sO 110 q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d , based on t h e o b j e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n b o t h e x e r c i s e s i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n were o b s e r v e d from the c e n t e r (home) t o the p e r i p h e r y o r from the w e l l known t o t h e unknown. Thus, a h i e r a r c h y o f schemas was e s t a b l i s h e d as t h e i r l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n changes. The e f f e c t o f t h e schemas on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n was t e s t e d w i t h a h i e r a r -c h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e : Y = B + C ( B ) + A ( B C ) + E , where B i s s u b j e c t s , C i s RSURGRO (R M A P G R O ) n e s t e d i n B , and A i s SURGRO ( M A P G R O ) w i t h i n RSURGRO (R M A P G R O ) groups n e s t e d i n B. F a c t o r A ( B C ) has t h e n e t e f f e c t o f t e s t i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o r e i g n groups o f SURGRO (M A P G R O ) w h i l e C ( B ) t e s t s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the home schema and t h e average o f t h e o t h e r schemas. The sum of squa r e s o f t h o s e two f a c t o r s may be j o i n e d t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f a l l t h e schemas t o g e t h e r , ( A ( B ) e f f e c t o f RSURGRO o r R M A P G R O ) . Such f a c t o r s t e s t whether t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s w i t h -i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d groups were p e r c e i v e d more s i m i l a r l y t h a n the s t i m u l i p o i n t s a c r o s s t h e gro u p s , f o r each s u b j e c t . The same h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s was t h e n p e r -formed w i t h a l l c o v a r i a t e s i n : Y=B+C(B)+A(BC)-I-/KN0IAFL+MEANIN+VISIT1-I-LANGAG+EVALUA-I-SIZE+E. T h i s a n a l y s i s c o n t r o l s f o r most o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e schemas, and t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r t e s t o f t h e t r u e e f f e c t o f t h e schemas on c o g n i -t i v e d i s t a n c e . TABLE 5.15 ' Results of hi e r a r c h i c a l analysis of variance on schema effect ZMCROWER ZMTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMTIMER N = 518 subjects/6901 obs. F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) (Subjects) B (RSURGRO nested i n B) C(B) (Foreign nested i n B) A(BC) (SURGRO nested i n B) A(B) (Error) E 4.35 (.0000) 1.53 (.0000) 1.45 (.0000) 1.48 (.0000) 0.3533 4.25 (.0000) 1.50 (.0000) 1.47 (.0000) 1.48 (.0000) 0.2293 3.00 (.0000) 1.22 (.0017) 1.53 (.0000) 1.40 (.0000) 0.2397 2.62 (.0000) 1.10 (-0779) 1.43 (.0000) 1.29 (.0000) 0.1316 N = 355 subjects/5288 obs. F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) (Subjects) B (RMAPGRO nested i n B) C(B) (Foreign nested i n B) A(BC) (MAPGRO nested i n B) A(B) (Error) E 3.84 (.0000) 0.96 (.6947) 0.88 (.9682) 0.91 (.9574) 0.4172 3.73 (.0000) 0.93 (.7913) 0.94 (.8177) 0.94 (.8808) 0.2757 2.67 (.0000) 0.78 (.9981) 0.84 (.9953) 0.82 (.9998) 0.2919 2.23 (.0000) 0.67 (1.000) 0.80 (.9996) 0.75 (.9999) 0.1693 I l l The h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (TABLE 5.15) shows t h a t a l l t h e c a t e -g o r i e s o f SURGRO ( C ( B ) , A(BC) , o r A ( B ) ) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n each s u b j e c t w h i l e t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f MAPGRO a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE 5.16 shows t h a t t h e c a t e g o -r i e s o f SURGRO a r e s t i l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n each s u b j e c t when c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t he c o v a r i a t e s . The schemas e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e b a s i s o f p l a c e s i m i l a r i t i e s seem t o have an e f f e c t o f t h e i r own on b o t h t h e amount and t h e sense o f t h e e r -r o r . The d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e e r r o r s t o p l a c e s w i t h i n schemas a r e more a l i k e t h a n t h o s e t o p l a c e s from d i f f e r e n t schemas. The schema p l a y s t h e o r g a n i z i n g and s i m -p l i f y i n g r o l e d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . W i t h i n - s c h e m a d i s t a n c e s were p e r c e i v e d f r o m a s p e c i f i c p o i n t o f v i e w , w i t h a s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e o r j o u r n e y i n mind, o r i n r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r dominant f e a t u r e (eg. c e n t r a l p l a c e , r e f e r e n c e l i n e , p h y s i c a l o r p o l i t i c a l f e a t u r e ) o r dominant c h a r a c t e r ( e g . crowded, d i f f i c u l t p l a c e t o go t o ) o f t h e p l a c e s . T h i s had t h e e f f e c t o f ho m o g e n i z i n g p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h i n schemas. TABLE 5.16 Results or hie r a r c h i c a l analysis of covariance on schema effect ZMCROWER ZMTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMTIMER N = 508 subjects/6196 obs. F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) (subjects) B 4 .34 .0000) 4 .26 .0000) 3 .09 .0000) 2 .60 (.0000) (RSURGRO nested i n B) C(B) 1 49 .0000) 1 .37 .0000) 1 28 .0001) 1 .13 (.0387) (foreign nested i n B) A(BC) 1 .32 .0000) 1 .26 .0001) 1 .36 .0000) 1 .24 (.0001) (SURGRO nested i n B) A (B) 1 .39 .0000) 1 .31 .0000) 1 .33 .0000) • 1 .19 (.0001) (error) E 0 .3297 0 .2182 0 .2194 0 .1279 To g a i n i n s i g h t on how t h e e r r o r v a r i e s w i t h t h e schemas t h e means and s t a n -d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e e r r o r s o f each s u b j e c t s h o u l d be examined. T h i s c o u l d n o t be done a t t h i s s t a g e . However, a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e o v e r a l l means and s t a n d a r d de-v i a t i o n s f o r RSURGRO i n d i c a t e s t h a t d i s t a n c e s t o t h e home-schema p l a c e s have been b e t t e r e s t i m a t e d , a l t h o u g h u n d e r e s t i m a t e d compared t o t h e f o r e i g n schema 112 p l a c e s (an e f f e c t t h a t I would i n t e r p r e t t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e a c t i v e knowledge f a c t o r ) . The means o f t h e SURGRO groups cannot be e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d s i n c e the d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n SURGRO groups i s d i f f e r e n t f o r each s u b j e c t , and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s not comparable between s u b j e c t s . The t r e n d s f o r RSURGRO a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m e d w i t h SURGRO ( l o w e s t e r r o r and u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n t o p l a c e s of t h e home-schema, compared t o p l a c e s o f most o t h e r f o r e i g n schemas) b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e e r r o r between t h e f o r e i g n groups cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d . P h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s were t e s t e d w i t h a m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n , w i t h SCHOOL (and i n a second s t a g e CUL-TURE) as the g r o u p i n g f a c t o r and t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d i n g e o - p o l i t i c a l groups ( i . e . s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l groups POLBAR and t h o s e i n t u r n n e s t e d w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l groups PHYSBAR) as a h i e r a r c h i c a l t r i a l f a c t o r . The c o m p l e t e model i s : Y=A+B(A)+C+AC+D(C)+AD(C)+F(CD)+AF(CD)+/KN0WL+MEANIN+VISIT1+ VISIT2+LAGREE+EVALUA+SIZE+E, where A i s t h e g r o u p i n g f a c t o r SCHOOL ( o r CULTURE), B(A) i s t h e s u b j e c t s n e s t e d i n A, C i s t h e p h y s i c a l groups (PHYSBAR), AC i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f PHYSBAR w i t h SCHOOL, D(C) i s t h e p o l i t i c a l groups (POLBAR) n e s t e d i n PHYSBAR, AD(C) i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e POLBAR groups w i t h SCHOOL, F(CD) i s th e s t i m u l i p o i n t s n e s t e d i n POLBAR and PHYSBAR ( g e o - p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s ) , and AF(CD) i s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h o s e s t i m u l u s p o i n t groups w i t h SCHOOL. PHYSBAR was d e f i n e d . a s t h e groups o f s t i m u l i p o i n t s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e f o u r major p h y s i c a l d i v i -s i o n s o f t h e r e g i o n : (1) n o r t h o f t h e Ottawa v a l l e y , (2) t h e Ottawa v a l l e y , (3) th e c e n t e r o f E a s t e r n O n t a r i o , and (4) t h e St-Lawrence v a l l e y . POLBAR was d e f i n e d as t h o s e s t i m u l i p o i n t s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e t h r e e p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s o f the r e g i o n : (1) O n t a r i o , (2) Quebec, and (3) t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The t e s t s were made t o see i f t h e p h y s i c a l and/or p o l i t i c a l groups would e x p l a i n t h e v a r i a t i o n a l -ready o b s e r v e d between t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s . The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s were examined f i r s t . R e f e r e n c e l i n e s i n t h e environment have a l r e a d y been shown t o i n f l u e n c e d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( C a n t e r and Tagg, 1975). The e f f e c t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s 113 was t e s t e d w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , o r more p r e c i s e l y , w i t h i n the p h y s i -c a l l y homogeneous Ottawa v a l l e y and St-Lawrence v a l l e y areas where more than one p o l i t i c a l group a r e p r e s e n t . TABLE 5.17 shows the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s . ^ The s u b j e c t s and the stim-u l i p o i n t s a r e s t i l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t , and the gro u p i n g f a c t o r SCHOOL i s almost as s i g n i f i c a n t . The same c o v a r i a t e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the s i g n e d e r r o r s and o n l y SIZE l o s e s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the a b s o l u t e e r r o r s . The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s do not appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h SCHOOL i s o n l y s i g n i f -i c a n t f o r the time e r r o r s . P o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s , however, a r e s i g n i f i c a n t as i s (mostly) t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h SCHOOL. Thus, the r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f the r e g i o n ( r i v e r s ) do not appear t o have a f f e c t e d d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( I w i l l l o o k a t the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s t o be t o t a l l y c e r t a i n ) . On the o t h e r hand, p o l i t i c a l d i v i -s i o n s seem to have p l a y e d an important r o l e , r e f l e c t i n g the a c t i v i t y spaces o f my s u b j e c t s . TABLE 5.17 Results of multi-factor analysis of covariance with repeated measures on stimuli points nested in geo-political groups ZMCROWER ZMTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMTIMER N = 456 subjects/6305 obs. F (prob) F (prob ) F (prob) F (prob) (Schools) A 4.68 ( 0000) 1.08 (.3776) 4.58 (.0000) 1.62 (•i°5i> (Subjects) B(A) 4.30 ( 0000) 4.55 (.0000) 2.92 (.0000) 2.54 (.0000) (PHYSBAR) C 0.16 ( 9214) 1.15 (.3634), 0.24 (.8670) 1.07 (.3934) (Interaction with A) AC 0.76 ( 7932) 1.50 (.0722) 0.82 (.7188) 1.96 (.0074) (POLBAR nested in C) D(C) 2.67 ( 0879) 8.15 (.0022) 4.54 (.0201) 11.35 (.0005) (Interaction with A) AD(C) 1.46 ( 0864) 1.60 (.0454) 1.40 (.1123) 2.63 (.0002) (Stimuli pts in CD) F(CD) 40.80 ( 0000) 19.40 (.0000) 15.73 (.0000) 5.74 (.0000) (Interaction with A) AF(CD) 4.06 ( 0000) 3.09 (.0000) 3.32 (.0000) 1.63 (.0000) KNOWL 6.00 ( 0137) 9.66 (.0021) 5.11 (.0225) 3.70 (.0515) MEANIN 1.58 ( 2052) 2.17 (.1362) 7.14 (.0075) 17.45 (.0005) VISIT 1 0.32 ( .5777) 3.46 (.0592) 0.34 (.5655) 3.13 (.0731) VISIT 2 0.54 ( 4703) 0.04 (.8269) 1.35 (.2446) 0.40 (.5355) LAGREE 17.17 ( •0001) 8.83 (.0031) 5.17 (.0219) 0.43 (.5209) EVALUA 5.64 ( •0168) 5.95 (.0141) 3.44 (.0603) 4.21 (.0380) SIZE 63.06 ( •0000) 107.69 (.0000) 1.80 (.1761) 1.50 (.2184) ALL 15.44 ( •0000) 23.12 (.0000) 8.63 (.0000) 11.49 (.0000) 1 0.3011 0.2106 0.2265 0.1414 114 The s t u d e n t s have g e n e r a l l y made l e s s e r r o r f o r t h e i r own p r o v i n c e , O n t a r i o (TABLE 5.18). I n t h e St-Lawrence v a l l e y , e s t i m a t e s t o U.S. p o i n t s a r e t h e w o r s t f o l l o w e d by t h o s e t o Quebec p o i n t s ; i n t h e Ottawa v a l l e y , t h e Quebec e s t i m a t e s a r e w o r s t o f a l l . The s i g n o f t h e e r r o r r e v e a l s t h a t O n t a r i o d i s t a n c e s a r e gen-e r a l ^ u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . I n t h e St-Lawrence v a l l e y d i s t a n c e s t o U.S. p l a c e s a r e b a d l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d , f o l l o w e d by t h o s e t o Quebec p l a c e s (ZMCROWER); i n t h e O t t a -wa v a l l e y , d i s t a n c e s t o Quebec p l a c e s a r e a g a i n b a d l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e h i g h e r t h e mean e r r o r , t h e h i g h e r i s t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and t h e amount o f o v e r e s t i m a t i o n ; such f i n d i n g s have always a r i s e n i n t h e case o f p o o r l y known p l a c e s o r a r e a s . S t u d e n t s have had t h e most e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r home p r o v -i n c e , f o l l o w e d by Quebec and t h e U.S., r e f l e c t i n g t h e power o f p o l i t i c a l bound-a r i e s .' The i n t e r a c t i o n between POLBAR and SCHOOL was a n a l y s e d t o see how each s c h o o l d i f f e r e d from t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d . These r e s u l t s a r e n o t alw a y s v e r y c l e a r T A B L E 5 . 1 8 Means and standard deviations for POLBAR categories ZMCROWER ZMTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMTIMER X s X s X s X s (Quebec) .27 .75 .11 .52 .50 .60 .39 .38 Ottawa Valley: Quebec .58 1.20 .54 1.13 .71 1.11 .67 1.04 Ontario .04 .53 -.10 .42 .38 .38 .33 .28 (Ontario) .19 .61 .01 .50 .44 .46 .36 .35 St.Lawrence Valley: Quebec .15 .56 .15 .56 .44 .45 .41 .45 Ontario .09 .55 .00 .51 .41 .41 .38 .37 U.S. .45 .96 -.01 .63 .68 .80 .45 .43 115 but some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made. P o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s were o b s e r v e d i n f o u r s c h o o l s : Embrun f o l l o w s t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d because i t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e r e g i o n ; c l o s e r t o Quebec, V a n k l e e k H i l l f a v o r e d Quebec o v e r O n t a r i o , w h i l e Hawkesbury and P l a n t a g e n e t behaved i n t h e same way w i t h e a s t e r n Quebec. No p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s were o b s e r v e d f o r C o r n w a l l as t h i s sample f o l l o w s t h e gen-e r a l t r e n d ( b e t t e r U.S. e s t i m a t e s were e x p e c t e d because C o r n w a l l i s on t h e i n -t e r n a t i o n a l b o r d e r ) . C u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e d t h e a c t i v i t y space i n t h r e e s c h o o l s : t h e m o s t l y E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s o f W i l l i a m s t o w n and A l e x a n d r i a made th e w o r s t e s t i m a t e s f o r Quebec p l a c e s d e s p i t e t h e s c h o o l s ' p r o x i m i t y t o Quebec, w h i l e t h e F r e n c h s t u d e n t s o f Casselman f a v o r e d Quebec i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s a l t h o u g h l o c a t e d i n the c e n t e r of O n t a r i o . Avonmore and N o r t h Dundas d i s p l a y e d no c l e a r p o s i t i o n a l nor c u l t u r a l e f f e c t s . The i n t e r a c t i o n between PHYSBAR and SCHOOL on t h e t i m e e r r o r s was a l s o c h ecked, b u t w i t h l e s s s u c c e s s . Three s c h o o l s (Hawkesbury, N o r t h Dundas, P l a n t a g e n e t ) showed p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s , where t h e e r r o r got worse as t h e p h y s i -c a l d i v i s i o n was f u r t h e r removed from home. O t h e r w i s e , e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e " r e f e r e n c e l i n e s " h y p o t h e s i s ( c i t i e s a l o n g r e f e r e n c e l i n e s s h o u l d be b e t t e r e s -t i m a t e d ) was r e a l l y n o t c o n c l u s i v e . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was done t o c l a r i f y t h e SCHOOL e f f e c t . F i r s t , t h e m u l t i -f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures was done w i t h CULTURE as g r o u p i n g f a c t o r . N e i t h e r t h e p h y s i c a l groups n o r t h e p o l i t i c a l groups p r o v e d t o be i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h CULTURE. The e f f e c t of t h e s e groups ( m o s t l y v i e w e d h e r e as i n d i c a t o r s o f the a c t i v i t y space) on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n was c o n s t a n t a c r o s s c u l -t u r e s . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c u l t u r a l groups f r e q u e n t a r e a s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r own c u l t u r e c o u l d not be p r o v e n s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h i s t e s t . S e c o n d l y , t h e same a n a l y s i s was r e p e a t e d a f t e r r e g r o u p i n g t h e s c h o o l s by c u l t u r e so t h a t " c u l t u r a l groups of s c h o o l s " c o u l d be used as g r o u p i n g factor."'"''' The i n t e r a c t i o n o f PHYS-BAR and POLBAR w i t h t h e " s c h o o l g r o u p s " l o s t a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e e x c e p t f o r ZAM-TIMER. A l s o , a t e s t was made t o see whether t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d between 116 t h e SCHOOL and " s c h o o l g r o u p s " i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , and i n d e e d , th e d i f f e r e n c e s o f sum o f s q u a r e s were a l w a y s p r o v e n s i g n i f i c a n t , showing c l e a r -l y t h a t t h e SCHOOL e f f e c t i n v o l v e s more t h a n c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I t h i n k a po-s i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e i s b e h i n d most o f t h i s e f f e c t . A l a s t a n a l y s i s i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l l f a c t o r s was done u s i n g t h e m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures i n t r o d u c e d p r e v i o u s l y t o t e s t t h e p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s . T h i s t i m e t h e schema e f f e c t was i n c o r p o r a t e d by u s i n g RSURGRO and SURGRO as a d d i t i o n a l c o v a r i a t e s . The SURGRO groups were t e s t -ed i n two s t a g e s : RSURGRO was i n t r o d u c e d a l o n e t o l o o k a t t h e h o m e - f o r e i g n s c h e -ma e f f e c t , t h e n RSURGRO and SURGRO were i n t r o d u c e d t o g e t h e r i n a second a n a l y s i s t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e f o r e i g n groups t h e m s e l v e s . I n t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s , t h e s c h o o l s , s u b j e c t s , and s t i m u l i p o i n t s a r e s t i l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s (TABLE 5.19). The PHYSBAR e f f e c t and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n have not changed. The POLBAR e f f e c t i s b a s i c a l l y t h e same ( e x c e p t f o r ZMCROWER TABLE 5.19 Results of multi-factor analysis of covariance (with RSURGRO) with repeated measures on the stimuli points nested in geo-political groups ZMCROWER ZMTIMER ZAMCROWER ZAMTIMER ,N = 442 subjects/5592 obs. F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) (School) A 4 25 (.0000) 0.79 (.6296) 4 51 ( 0000) 1.60 (.1108) (Subjects) B(A) 4 21 (.0000) 4 52 (.0000) 2 93 ( 0000) 2.65 (.0000) (PHYSBAR) C 0 18 (.9082) 1 05 (.4013) 0 26 ( 8530) 0.77 (.5297) (Interaction with A) AC 0 72 (.8377) 1 48 (.0790) 0 85 ( 6790) 1.81 (.0161) (POLBAR nested in C) D(C) 2 04 (.1545) 6 04 (.0074) 3 47 ( 0452) 6.63 (.0052) (Interaction with A) AD(C) 1 44 (.0944) 1 31 (.1633) 1 19 ( 2582) 1.83 (.0146) (Stimuli pts in CD) F(CD) 41 60 (.0000) 20 31 (.0000) 17 08 ( 0000) 6.91 (.0000) (Interaction with A) AF(CD) 4 25 (.0000) 3 19 (.0000) 3 89 ( 0000) 2.07 (.0000) KNOWL 2 11 (4*24) 5 37 (.0195) 2 14 ( 1390) 2.36 (42Q5) MEANIN 1 40 (.2355) 0 98 (.3228) 6 71 ( 0094) 9.48 (.0023) VISIT 1 0 83 (.3652) 6 13 (.0128) 0 .82 ( 3674) 4.84 (.0263) VISIT 2 1 74 (.1833) 0 49 (.4913) 2 18 ( 1357) 0.88 (.3506) LAGREE 19 51 (.0000) 11 69 (.0008) 9 29 ( 0025) 3.20 (.0701) EVALUA 6 92 (.0084) 7 26 (.0070) 3 .22 ( 0690) 3.84 (.0473) SIZE 51 18 (.0000) 88.06 (.0000) 1 .43 ( 2302) 1.22 (.2690) RSURGRO 9 90 (.0018) 15 50 (.0001) 4 .19 ( 0383) 3.15 (.0722) ALL 14 .64 (.0000) 22 13 (.0000) 8 .74 ( 0000) 11.02 (.0000) E 0 .2666 0 1823 0 .1922 0.1153 117 where i t l o s t some s i g n i f i c a n c e ) , b u t i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h SCHOOL i s now s i g n i -f i c a n t o n l y f o r ZMCROWER and ZAMTIMER. F o r t h e c o v a r i a t e s , we f i r s t n o t e t h a t t h e newly added f a c t o r RSURGRO i s always v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r t h e s i g n e d e r r o r , t h e f o u r d i m e n s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r — K N O W L ( l o s t a b i t o f i t s e f f e c t ) , LAGREE, EVALUA, and SIZE, a r e p r e s e n t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s b a s i c a l l y no change f o r t he a b s o l u t e e r r o r . KNOWL ( s l i g h t l y l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t ) , MEANIN, and EVALUA a r e s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t . The t r a d i t i o n a l dimension,SIZE,; however, f i n a l l y l o s t i t s s i g n i f i -cance (due m o s t l y t o g e o - p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s ) , w h i l e LAGREE r e g a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r b o t h a b s o l u t e e r r o r s (and V I S I T l r e g a i n e d f o r ZAMTIMER). The second a n a l y s i s w i t h RSURGRO and SURGRO showed t h a t t h e f o r e i g n c a t e g o r i e s o f SURGRO d i d n o t add s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f RSURGRO. Thus, most o f t h e s c h e -ma e f f e c t was a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e home and f o r e i g n g r o u p s ; t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween t h e f o r e i g n schemas d i d n ot pr o v e t o be s y s t e m a t i c . T h i s f i n a l a n a l y s i s sum-m a r i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f most f a c t o r s s t u d i e d . I w i l l be back t o t h e s e major f i n d i n g s b u t f i r s t , I must p r e s e n t t h e i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n e s t i -mate e x e r c i s e . They p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n and more g e n e r a l l y , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f sp a c e . 5.3 D i r e c t i o n E s t i m a t i o n and T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l Maps 5.3.1 G e n e r a l i t i e s The d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n e x e r c i s e r e q u i r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s make a dia g r a m , u s i n g p o i n t s and a r r o w s , t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n from t h e s c h o o l t o each o f th e s t i m u l i p o i n t s . I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t d i r e c t i o n and n o t d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s were r e q u i r e d ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e , page 4 ) . S u b j e c t s f ound t h i s e x e r c i s e h a r d e r t h a n t h e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n e x e r c i s e s . The r e s p o n s e l e v e l (% o f e s t i m a t i o n s done) on SUBDIR was o n l y 59% compared t o 74% f o r SUBMAG, 70% f o r SUBMILE and 67% f o r SUBTIME. The mean a b s o l u t e d i r e c t i o n e r r o r f o r a l l e s t i m a t e s was 36 d e g r e e s , and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , 32.2. These f i g u r e s were v e r y s t a b l e a c r o s s t h e c u l t u r a l 118 g r oups. Most s t u d e n t s used a r r o w s , l i n e s , o r j u s t p o i n t s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r e s t i m a t e s ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) . However, a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e diagrams showed t h a t 86% o f t h e s t u d e n t s (79.3% s t r o n g e v i d e n c e , 6.7% s l i g h t e v i d e n c e ) d i d more t h a n d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s . S t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e s t i -m u l i p o i n t s by u s i n g l i n e s and arrows o f d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s o r l o c a t i n g p o i n t s as i f making a map. Over 9% of t h o s e diagrams show w e l l known r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f t h e r e g i o n (Ottawa and St-Lawrence r i v e r s , roads and h i g h w a y s , p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r s ) as d i r e c t i o n g u i d e s ( F i g u r e 5.3). Only 14% o f t h e s t u d e n t s have s t r i c t -l y f o l l o w e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and produced j u s t d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s . F o r most p e o p l e t h i s e x e r c i s e t u r n e d out t o be a c o g n i t i v e mapping e x e r c i s e . F o r d i s t a n c e e s t i -m a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s p r o b a b l y d i d not have t o r e b u i l d t h e whole image o f t h e r e -g i o n as t h e y d i d h e r e . C e r t a i n l y , r e l a t i v e judgments were made i n e s t i m a t i n g d i s -t a n c e s , b u t o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e t o n e i g h b o r i n g towns o r s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f t h e r e -g i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n l o o k s a t t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d c o g n i t i v e map-p i n g . 12 5.3.2 F a c t o r s S i n g l e and m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures were done on t h e a b s o l u t e e r r o r DIRER t o t e s t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s . TA-BLE 5.20 summarizes t h o s e r e s u l t s . The s i n g l e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h s t i m u l i p o i n t s as t r i a l f a c t o r , shows a g a i n t h a t each s u b j e c t has p r o d u c e d u n i q u e e s t i m a t e s ( A ) , and t h a t t h e e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i p o i n t s d i f f e r s g r e a t l y ( B ) . These two f a c t o r s w i l l r e m a i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s . The m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e used t h e g r o u p i n g f a c t o r s (A) shown i n TABLE 5.20. The sample l o c a t i o n (SCHOOL) a g a i n has a l o t o f i n f l u e n c e on t h e d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s . A change i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p e r c e i v e d space g e n e r a t e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f t h a t s p a c e . A l t h o u g h t h e SCHOOL e f f e c t i s n o t c o n s t a n t from s t i m u l u s p o i n t t o s t i m u l u s p o i n t ( i n t e r a c t i o n i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t ) , t h e means o f each s c h o o l b a s i c a l l y c o n f i r m t h e t r e n d s o b s e r v e d f o r the d i s t a n c e F i g u r e 5.3 - Examples of d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n e x e r c i s e where t h e r o a d network (a) and a r i v e r (b) were used as r e f e r e n c e l i n e s (a) D i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s from C o r n w a l l (b) D i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s from Hawkesbury TABLE 5.20 Results of analysis of variance with repeated measures on the personal factors (for DIRER) A= SUBJECTS SCHOOL CULTURE SEX GEO MOBILE LTRES RLTRES N 505ss/6427 obs. 505/6427 505/6427 505/6414 505/6427 505/6370 505/6410 505/6295 F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) F (prob) A B a E b 5.69 (.0000) 6.98 (.0000) 749 A B(A) C C d AC e E 2.81 (.0032) 5.75 (.0000) 7.28 (.0000) 2.46 (.0000) 718 0.47 (.7033) 5.72 (.0000) 6.99 (.0000) 1.07 (.3326) 748 16.85 (.0000) 5.52 (.0000) 6.97 (.0000) 1.41 (.1050) 749 3.22 (.0733) 5.62 (.0000) 6.99 (.0000) 1.35 (.1355) 748 1.37 (.2071) .5.82 (.0000) 7.11 (.0000) 1.84 (.0000) 728 1.15 (.2969) 5.67 (.0000) 7.02 (.0000) 1.06 (.2109) 747 1.32 (.2671) 5.68 (.0000) 6.88 (.0000) 1.20 (.1393) 749 C 6 s t i m u l i points subjects nested i n A intera c t i o n between main mean error d s t i m u l i points f a c t o r a n d s t i m u l i P ° i n t s 121 e s t i m a t e s : g e n e r a l l y , t h e s c h o o l s t h a t d i d b e s t a t d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n d i d b e s t a t d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n and v i c e v e r s a . The l o c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i s th u s q u i t e con-s t a n t b u t o n l y a more r e f i n e d a n a l y s i s w o u l d d e t e r m i n e what l i e s b e h i n d t h a t e f -f e c t . N e i t h e r CULTURE n o r i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h i s t i m e . SEX i s s i g n i f i c a n t and i t s e f f e c t i s c o n s t a n t : males have made b e t t e r e s t i m a t e s t h a n f e m a l e s (mean e r r o r o f 32.7 degrees f o r males as opposed t o 39.3 f o r f e m a l e s ) . S i m i l a r t r e n d s have been o b s e r v e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . I n t h i s case i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e young men a r e much more m o b i l e t h a n t h e young women (31.5% of t h e males have t h e i r own c a r w h i l e o n l y 9.1% o f t h e f e m a l e s do so) and t h e r e -f o r e i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e c o g n i t i v e mapping e x e r c i s e was e a s i e r f o r them. F i n a l l y , GEO, LTRES, and RLTRES a r e s t i l l n o t s i g n i f i c a n t b u t MOBILE ( l e v -e l o f m o b i l i t y ) , a l t h o u g h n ot s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l , has a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n -t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t w i t h t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t m i ght mask t h e main e f f e c t t h r o u g h c a n c e l l a t i o n s (even i f two p e r s o n s a r e e q u a l l y m o b i l e t h e y do n ot n e c e s s a r i l y f r e q u e n t t h e same p l a c e s ) . The g e n e r a l means show t h a t t h e most m o b i l e s t u d e n t s produced t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e s , w h i l e t h e l e a s t m o b i l e produced th e w o r s t e s t i m a t e s . A one-way and two-way a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e were done t o see i f t h e d i r e c -t i o n e r r o r was r e l a t e d t o t h e d i s t a n c e e r r o r (ABMCROWER).TABLE 5.21 shows t h e TABLE 5.21 R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e e r r o r COVARIATE = ABMCROWER ABMCROWER (subjects) A 2.04 (.0000) (subjects) A 2.32 (.0000) reg. coeff. 0 .0302 (stimuli pts.) B 36.32 (.0000) F of reg. coef f . 9.60 (.0021) reg. coeff. 0 .0309 (slope test) 1.22 (.0149) F of reg. coeff 11.14 (.0010) E 378.3 E 332.6 n.b. N= 500 subjects, 5642 observations 122 r e s u l t s . W i t h t h e s u b j e c t s as c o n t r o l f a c t o r , ABMCROWER i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t -ed t o DIRER b u t n o t c o n s t a n t l y a c r o s s t h e s u b j e c t s ( s l o p e t e s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t ) . W i t h the s u b j e c t s and s t i m u l i p o i n t s as c o n t r o l f a c t o r s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s t i l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . Over a l l t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s and, f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d i r e c t i o n e r r o r i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e e r r o r . B o t h e x e r -c i s e s i n v o l v e t h e m e n t a l p o s i t i o n i n g o f p l a c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . DIRER i s n o t r e l a t e d t o r e a l d i s t a n c e CROWDIST (F v a l u e from one-way a n a l y s i s 13 o f c o v a r i a n c e i s 0.14 and s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .7056 l e v e l ) ; s p a t i a l a u t o c o r r e -TABLE 5.22 Signed (+/-) d i r e c t i o n error matrix (stimuli points) (schools) W i l l Avon Cass Haw Emb Alex Ches Vank Plan Corn Maniwaki 4 -7 -1 -1 -29 3 5 -30 11 17 Arnprior 23 31 24 18 -26 29 31 6 1 39 Ottawa-Hull 40 26 19 26 -4 22 33 14 29 28 Buckingham 67 3 18 33 -2 22 30 29 54 33 Smiths F a l l s 1 32 11 5 -23 26 27 30 20 33 Kemptville 17 38 15 27 -8 21 37 20 17 50 Br o c k v i l l e 10 32 22 11 2 23 37 3 30 33 Ogdensburg 12 11 14 16 -44 18 -22 -1 -72 -4 Embrun 49 28 37 21 38 39 25 7 42 Casselman 17 21 32 22 32 29 29 8 15 Rockland . 13 -3 6 17 79 -4 22 20 10 -3 Plantagenet 33 45 38 14 8 10 29 23 13 Massena -7 9 0 5 3 -1 35 -12 26 -24 Cornwall 14 36 15 5 13 17 35 17 15 Alexandria 42 31 25 14 18 9 1 41 34 Vankleek H i l l 24 24 14 7 -1 18 15 29 41 Hawkesbury 30 33 14 5 17 13 -3 25 36 Lachute 45 32 14 -12 -11 24 33 -18 -27 46 Rigaud 62 36 23 -15 2 16 12 -3 10 20 Montreal 35 21 25 6 -3 25 10 4 -7 25 V a l l e y f i e l d 13 21 27 -46 18 2 -1 -20 -12 22 123 l a t i o n w i l l n o t be a p r o b l e m h e r e . A c t u a l l y , a d i s t a n c e decay c o n t r o l i s b u i l t i n t o t h e DIRER measure. The same a n g l e o f e r r o r a c c o u n t s f o r more and more l a t -e r a l , m i s p l a c e m e n t , as t h e s t i m u l u s p o i n t i s f u r t h e r away from t h e o r i g i n o f d e s t i n a t i o n . DIRER a c c o u n t s f o r space j u s t as t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e e r r o r mea-s u r e s d i d b e f o r e . Theory s t a t e s t h a t c o g n i t i v e mapping s i m p l i f i e s r e a l i t y . I n t h e c a s e o f d i r -e c t i o n • e s t i m a t i o n , p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e n o r t h - s o u t h , e a s t - w e s t  axes p l a y a m a j o r g e n e r a l i z i n g r o l e . My d a t a a l s o shows e v i d e n c e o f t h i s e f f e c t . The f r e q u e n c y t a b l e o f t h e d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s shows t h a t 21% of t h e e s t i m a t e s f a l l w i t h i n +/- 5 d e grees o f the major a x e s . A l s o , a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e sense ( d i r e c t i o n ) o f t h e e r r o r made f o r each s t i m u l u s p o i n t by each s c h o o l (TA-BLE 5.22) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t p l a c e s were d e f i n i t e l y r o t a t e d toward a major a x i s i n 59% o f t h e c a s e s : Buckingham was r o t a t e d toward t h e n o r t h a x i s (0-360 d e g r e e s ) , Smiths F a l l s and K e m p t v i l l e were r o t a t e d toward t h e west a x i s , Massena and C o r n -w a l l t o w a r d t h e s o u t h , and L a c h u t e , R i g a u d , M o n t r e a l and V a l l e y f i e l d toward t h e e a s t . The s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n s c l e a r l y p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e l o c a t i o n a l e x e r c i s e . The one-way a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e knowledge and meaning v a r i a b l e s shows t h a t t h r e e v a r i a b l e s from t h e a c t i v e knowledge dimension—KNOWL, MEANIN, and VISIT2 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o r a l m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t (TABLE 5.23). The o n l y o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n i s SIZE. The same p a t t e r n i s o b s e r v e d i n t h e two-way ana-l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h s u b j e c t s and s t i m u l i p o i n t s as c o n t r o l f a c t o r s (TABLE 5.23). These c o n t r o l f a c t o r s a r e s t i l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . We see t h a t as KNOWL, MEANIN, o r VISIT2 i n c r e a s e , DIRER d e c r e a s e s and as t h e SIZE o f t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s i n c r e a s e s , DIRER d e c r e a s e s . T h i s c o n f i r m s a g a i n t h a t a c t i v e knowledge i s a c r u -c i a l f a c t o r b e h i n d s p a t i a l imagery. The more p l a c e s a r e v i s i t e d , t h e e a s i e r t h e y a r e t o l o c a t e i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r (more r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s a r e known). I n -t e r e s t i n g l y , none o f t h e s t u d i e d d i m e n s i o n s o f p l a c e meaning a r e s i g n i f i c a n t 124 T A B L E 5 . 2 3 R e s u l t s o f o n e - w a y a n d t w o - w a y a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e o n D I R E R 439 subjects/ 5228 obs. DIRER DIRER F (Prob) F (Prob) (subjects) A 5.36 (.0000) (subjects) A 5 .42 ( .0000) (stimuli pts.) B 4.78 ( .0000) (error) i 714.9 (error) E 703 .8 (reg .coeffJ F (prob) (reg. coef f.) F (prob) KNOWL 1.09 10.63 ( .0013) KNOWL 1.18 12 22 ( .0006) MEANIN 0.54 3.01 ( .0789) MEANIN 0.54 2 98 ( _.08O7) VISIT 1 -0.21 0.70 ( .4092) VISIT 1 -0.03 0 .01 ( .8712) VISIT 2 0.43 3.45 ( .0601) VISIT 2 0.59 6 .07 ( .0133) LAGREE -0.08 0.13 ( .7145) LAGREE -0.14 0 .42 ( .5234) EVALUA 0.04 0.02 ( .8626) EVALUA 0.03 0 .01 ( .8830) SIZE 0 .93 15.87 ( .0001) SIZE 0.75 4 .49 ( .0322) ALL 14.50 ( .0000) ALL 10 .80 ( .0000) h e r e e x c e p t SIZE. T h i s e f f e c t can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f " i m a g e a b i l i t y " . The l a r g e r t h e s t i m u l u s p o i n t , t h e more i t s t a n d s o u t , d o m i n a t i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d space and t h u s t h e e a s i e r i t i s t o l o c a t e . M o n t r e a l and Ottawa a r e t h e b e s t exam-p l e s o f t h i s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . Such p r i m a r y nodes u s u a l l y occupy c l e a r p o s i t i o n s - i n r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h s m a l l e r p l a c e s can be l o c a t e d . The p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s had i n t e r e s t i n g e f f e c t s on t h e " c o g n i -t i v e mapping" e x e r c i s e . The m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures (TABLE 5.24) i n d i c a t e s , as u s u a l , t h a t s c h o o l s , s u b j e c t s , and s t i m u l i p o i n t s a r e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . But t h i s t i m e , PHYSBAR and POLBAR a r e b o t h s i g n i f i -c a n t . The means f o r PHYSBAR (TABLE 5.25) demon s t r a t e t h a t p o s i t i o n i n g o f p l a c e s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y s have been b e s t . The p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s have a c t e d as e n v i r o n -m e n t a l r e f e r e n c e l i n e s a g a i n s t w h i c h p l a c e s c o u l d be e a s i l y l o c a t e d . The g e n e r a l 125 TABLE 5 .24 Results of multi-factor analysis of covariance with repeated measures on s t i m u l i points nested i n g e o p o l i t i c a l groups- DIRER DIRER N = 430 subjects/5228 obs . F (PROB) (schools) A 2.71 (.0046) (subjects) B (A) 5.25 (.0000) (PHYSBAR) C 3.89 (.0325) (interaction with A) AC 1.32 (.1571) (POLBAR nested i n C) D(C) 3.77 (.0357) (interaction with A) AD(C) 0.59 (.9432) (stimuli pts. i n CD) F(CD) 2.56 (.0011) (interaction with A) AF (CD) 1.84 (.0000) KNOWL 10.24 (.0016) MEANIN 1.89 (.1659) VISIT 1 0.83 (.3648) VISIT 2 3.17 (.0715) LAGREE 0.09 (.7573) EVALUA 0.00 (.9245) SIZE 1.64 (.1968) ALL 7.42 (.0000) E 684.3 e f f e c t o f t h e s e " i m a g e a b l e " l i n e s i s s i m i l a r a c r o s s t h e s c h o o l s ( i n t e r a c t i o n AC o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t .1571), b u t c l e a r p o s i t i o n a l e f f e c t s may s t i l l be o b s e r v e d : s c h o o l s most l i k e l y t o i n t e r a c t a l o n g t h e Ottawa v a l l e y d i d b e s t f o r t h a t v a l l e y (eg.. Casselman, Hawkesbury, V a n k l e e k H i l l , and C h e s t e r v i l l e f o r w h i c h c e n t e r i s good t o o ) , t h o s e c l o s e r t o the St-Lawrence v a l l e y d i d b e s t t h e r e ( e g . W i l l i a m s -town, C o r n w a l l , A l e x a n d r i a ) , and c e n t r a l s c h o o l s d i d b e s t f o r t h e c e n t e r o f t h e r e g i o n (eg. Avonmore, and Embrun f o r w h i c h Ottawa v a l l e y i s a l s o good). The e f -f e c t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s i s a l i t t l e more t r i c k y . The means o f t h o s e c a t e -g o r i e s (TASLE 5.25) show t h a t a l l t h e e f f e c t o f POLBAR comes from t h e St-Lawrence v a l l e y a r e a . T h e r e , O n t a r i o and t h e U.S. a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r w h i l e Quebec has a 126 TABLE 5.25 Means and standard deviations for PHYSBAR and POLBAR categories Physical b a r r i e r s (PHYSBAR) P o l i t i c a l b a r r i e r s (POLBAR) Categories x s Categories x s North of Ottawa Val l e y 39.5 36.2 Quebec North 39.5 36.2 Ottawa Valley 33.4 29.3 Queb ec Ontario 33.9 30.7 33.4 29.0 Centre of Region 37.6 31.9 Ontario 37.6 31.9 St. Lawrence Valley 33.9 30.6 Quebec Ontario U.S.A. 30.9 27.9 38.5 32.0 36.0 32.1 much l o w e r mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . S i n c e t h i s Quebec d i v i s i o n i s composed o f M o n t r e a l and V a l l e y f i e l d POLBAR p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s an " i m a g e a b i l i t y " e f f e c t a g a i n . F i r s t , t h e s i z e o f t h e s e two s t i m u l i p o i n t s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , w h i c h has a c l e a r e f f e c t on d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n o r c o g n i t i v e mapping. Second, t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e two c i t i e s a t t h e t i p o f t h e E a s t e r n O n t a r i o r e g i o n ( t i p o f t h e t r i a n g u -l a r shape) i s a d i s t i n c t i v e one, augmenting t h e s e c i t i e s ' i m a g e a b i l i t y o v e r o t h e r c i t i e s l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e v a l l e y ( C o r n w a l l , B r o c k v i l l e , Massena o r Ogdens-b u r g ) . I n t h i s way, SIZE has l o s t i t s e f f e c t (now m o s t l y c a r r i e d by POLBAR) w h i l e two "knowledge v a r i a b l e s " a r e s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t (KNOWL, V I S I T 2 ) . We n o t e t h a t t h e POLBAR e f f e c t i s c o n s t a n t a c r o s s t h e s c h o o l s . T h e r e f o r e , b o t h PHYSBAR and POLBAR r e f l e c t v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e r e g i o n ' s i m a g e a b i l i t y . We see t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c o g n i t i v e mapping p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , t h e e f f e c t o f SURGRO and MAPGRO was t e s t e d , b u t w i t h l i t t l e s u c -c e s s . Even i n t h e s i m p l e s t models MAPGRO showed no s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i l e n e i t h e r SURGRO n o r RSURGRO had any e f f e c t when i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e m u l t i - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . The s i m p l i f i e d c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n was done 127 m o s t l y i n one b l o c k (no s p a t i a l e f f e c t , no RSURGRO e f f e c t ) where r e f e r e n c e l i n e s and p r i m a r y p o i n t s had a major " a n c h o r i n g " e f f e c t and a c t i v e knowledge o f space p l a y e d a d e t e r m i n i n g r o l e . 5.3.3 T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l maps To get a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f space done, a g g r e g a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s were b u i l t f o r each s c h o o l . These " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s p a c e s " i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e " r e a l " ( r o a d map) c o n f i g u r a t i o n of p o i n t s and t h e students': e s t i m a t e s . The meth-odology;;, b e h i n d t h o s e maps i s q u i t e i n v o l v e d . F i r s t , t h e " e s t i m a t e d c o n f i g u r a -t i o n s " were drawn from SUBMAG and SUBDIR e s t i m a t e s t o each s t i m u l u s p o i n t . The mean SUBMAG and SUBDIR e s t i m a t e s ( f o r each s c h o o l ) were used t o compute t h e s c h o o l ' s m a t r i x of i n t e r d i s t a n c e s between a l l p a i r s o f p o i n t s . From t h e s e s ma-t r i c e s , t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e e s t i m a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f p o i n t s were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h s m a l l e s t - s p a c e a n a l y s i s (SSA-1 program o f G u t t m a n - L i n g o e s ) . S e c o n d l y , t h e " r e a l " c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f p o i n t s was drawn from t h e CROWDIST i n t e r -d i s t a n c e s m a t r i x u s i n g t h e same methods. T h i s way, t h e e s t i m a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o u l d be compared t o t h e r e a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n by s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n . F i g u r e 5.4 shows th e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s p a c e o f W i l l i a m s t o w n ( A ppendix 4 c o n t a i n s t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n spaces o f t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s ) . On t h e s e maps th e d o t s i n d i c a t e t h e l o c a t i o n e s t i -mates, whereas t h e s t a r t of t h e arrows i n d i c a t e t h e " r e a l " l o c a t i o n s o f t h e same p l a c e s . The r e g u l a r i t y o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i s s t r i k i n g a t t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . F o r 9 s c h o o l s out of 10, t h e major t r e n d c o n s i s t s i n a c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n o f the s t i m u l i p o i n t s around t h e o r i g i n o f e s t i m a t i o n . Only Embrun seems t o have produced .' t o t a l l y s t o c h a s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x 4) . The o t h e r s c h o o l s show q u i t e r e g u l a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h i s not t o o s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s have been made on an o r d e r l y d i a g r a m ( t h e y a r e q u i t e dependent on each o t h e r ) . The emphasis i n t h e r o t a t i o n v a r i e s s l i g h t l y w i t h t h e s c h o o l ' s p e r s p e c -129 t l v e : e a s t s i d e s c h o o l s have r o t a t e d m o s t l y w e s t e r n s t i m u l i p o i n t s (Hawkesbury, V a n k l e e k H i l l , A l e x a n d r i a ) ; s o u t h e r n s c h o o l s have emphasized t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h e r n p o i n t s ( W i l l i a m s t o w n , C o r n w a l l , C h e s t e r v i l l e ) w h i l e P l a n t a g e n e t , a n o r -t h e r n s c h o o l , has emphasized t h e s o u t h e r n r o t a t i o n s ; c e n t r a l s c h o o l s have r o t a -t e d p l a c e s a l l around them (Avonmore, C a s s e l m a n ) . The mean d i r e c t i o n e r r o r s o f TABLE 5.22 r e i n f o r c e t h e e v i d e n c e o f c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n : 82% o f t h e mean e r r o r s a r e p o s i t i v e and thus r e p r e s e n t c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n s . Embrun and V a n k l e e k H i l l have made most o f t h e c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n s , and i n g e n e r a l , most o f them have been made f o r M a n i w a k i , Ogdensburg, L a c h u t e and V a l l e y f i e l d . O n ly t h e f i r s t two s t i m u l i p o i n t s can be c o n s i d e r e d n o t t o o w e l l known. At t h i s p o i n t , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and p o t e n t i a l meaning o f t h e s e t r e n d s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h . F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was sought t o t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r o t a t i o n s by c o n s t r u c t i n g a map o f t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e zones around each e s t i m a t e d l o c a t i o n from W i l l i a m s t o w n ( F i g u r e 5.5). These " z o n e s " i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e e s t i m a t e d l o c a t i o n s ( t h e sample d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n e s t i -14 m a t e s ) . F i g u r e 5.5 shows t h a t f o r 13 p o i n t s out o f 21 t h e d i r e c t i o n o f r o t a t i o n w o u l d not be changed i n 95% of t h e c a s e s (95% o f t h e l o c a t i o n e s t i m a t e s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d , a t l e a s t , a s s u r e t h e same c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n ) . I n two cases t h e r e i s a s l i g h t chance o f change i n t h e r o t a t i o n , and i n 6 ca s e s t h e r e i s a b e t t e r chance o f a r e v e r s e d r o t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s map shows t h a t t h e c l o c k -w i s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s done i n W i l l i a m s t o w n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s h e l d f o r o t h e r s c h o o l s . But what i s b e h i n d t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ? I n 7 s c h o o l s out o f 10 t h e r e i s a c l e a r t endency t o push Quebec p l a c e s away b u t I doubt t h i s i s a t t h e o r i g i n o f a l l t h e c l o c k w i s e r o t a t i o n s . The t r i a n g u l a r shape o f t h e r e -g i o n c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t h e r e . The " l e g i b l e l i n e s " o f t h e environment ( e s p e c i -a l l y t h e Ottawa v a l l e y ) may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o make c i r c u l a r t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n s . A t t h i s s t a g e however, t h i s i s o n l y s p e c u l a t i o n . CHAPTER VI C o n c l u s i o n T h i s t h e s i s has had two major o b j e c t i v e s . F i r s t , i t has examined t h e n a t u r e of d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t i n g how p e o p l e p e r c e i v e d i s t a n c e s a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l . I t r i e d t o d i s c o v e r what m e t r i c of space was used and i n w h i c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s . S e c o n d l y , I t r i e d t o e x p l a i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a n s f o r m -a t i o n s o f space. An abundant l i t e r a t u r e a r g u e d t h a t a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f space i s t h e b a s i s o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . V a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t h e r w i t h the ways man s i m p l i f i e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n were shown to i n f l u e n c e d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . The major f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be r e v i e w e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a l o o k a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e t h e s i s and some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 6.1 M a j o r F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h d i s c u s s e d t h e t y p e o f judgment made when p e o p l e e s t i m a t e d i s t a n c e s t o s u r r o u n d i n g p l a c e s . These judgments were f o u n d t o be v e r y a p p r o x i m a t e , based on i m p r e s s i o n s of s e p a r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n f a c t u a l knowledge. The s u b j e c t s made t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e s o f d i s t a n c e when t h e y c o u l d gauge t h e i r judgment on. a w e l l known d i s t a n c e , ; t h i s (or t h e s e ) i n d e x d i s t a n c e ( s ) b e i n g adopted as t h e m e t r i c o f space. T h i s r a t i o e s t i m a t e was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n an a b s t r a c t " s t r a i g h t l i n e " f a s h i o n w h i c h i g n o r e d t h e d e t a i l s of t h e r o a d network. However, when i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t i m e d i m e n s i o n , t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e p r o v e d t o be much more s e n s i t i v e t o s p a c e . A l l t h r o u g h my a n a l y s i s t h e t i m e v e r s i o n o f t h e r a t i o e s t i m a t e has r e a c t e d more s t r o n g l y t h a n t h e crow v e r s i o n t o any v a r i a b l e m e a s u r i n g a change o f p o s i t i o n i n s p a c e , o r a change o f t h e a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d (eg. i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h SCHOOL, 132 t h e e f f e c t of POLBAR and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h SCHOOL). The t i m e d i m e n s i o n has p r o v i d e d more p e r s p e c t i v e f o r r e l a t i v e judgment, a l l o w i n g f o r t h e e r r o r of e s t i m a t i o n t o be d i s t r i b u t e d more " r a t i o n a l l y " o v e r space ( i . e . t h e e r r o r i n c r e a s e s as r e a l d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s ) . U n i t s o f t i m e convey a c l e a r sense o f e f f o r t , a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s p a c e . Thus, an e x p e r i e n t i a l element i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t h e o t h e r w i s e a b s t r a c t and s i m p l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e p a r a t i o n . These o b s e r v a t i o n s d e f i n e t h e l e v e l of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n a t my s c a l e of s t u d y . A c c o r d i n g t o P i a g e t ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h i s i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f measurement, t y p i c a l of p r o j e c t i v e s p a c e . The e s t i m a t e s r e f l e c t more t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own p o i n t o f v i e w ( t o p o l o g i c a l s p a c e ) . A more a b s t r a c t f o r m o f measurement has been used t o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s between p l a c e s : d i s t a n c e s were compared t o each o t h e r , t h e y were e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o a w e l l known i n d e x d i s t a n c e . T h i s a l l o w e d t h e o r d e r o f r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s t o be c o n s e r v e d (see e v i d e n c e o f t h a t on t h e " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n S p a c e s " ) . The E u c l i d e a n l e v e l o f measurement ( m i l e and t i m e e s t i m a t e s ) was not a d o p t e d , as t h e o b j e c t o f c o g n i t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e s e n t (known) f o r t h e accommodatory a d j u s t m e n t s t o be f u l l y made. Thus, t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n remains d i s t o r t e d and p a r t l y s u b j e c t i v e ; t h e p o i n t s a r e s t i l l n ot c o n c e i v e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y from t h e i r c o n t a i n e r , t h e a b s t r a c t g r i d s y s t e m o f E u c l i d e a n " s p a c e . P r o j e c t i v e space i s p a r t i a l l y c o o r d i n a t e d i n t o v a r i o u s s u b - s p a c e s . The r e g i o n was s i m p l i f i e d i n t o m e a n i n g f u l schemas c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i v i t y s pace o r t o d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s ( p l a c e s o r c h a r a c t e r ) o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . These schemas had t h e e f f e c t o f h o m o g e n i z i n g d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n ( t h e d i s t o r t i o n s ) w i t h i n t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s , however, t h e y d i d n o t seem t o mark changes of l e v e l o f c o g n i t i o n ( o f a d o p t e d m e t r i c ) , as h y p o t h e s i z e d . T h i s might be due t o t h e t y p e of g e n e r a l i z e d a n a l y s i s o r t o t h e approach t o d a t a c o l l e c t i n g ( q u e s -t i o n n a i r e where judgments were made i n s e r i e s ) w h i c h b o t h f a v o r e d u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e l e v e l of c o g n i t i o n . 133 Once t h e l e v e l o f c o g n i t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d I t r i e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e e s t i m a t e s a t t h a t l e v e l . P i a g e t has shown t h a t imagery i s t h e v e r y a c t i v e p r o c e s s o f m e n t a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . D i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e m e n t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r i p o r o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f movement i n sp a c e . A l l a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e may become important" i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Not o n l y does t h e ty p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e m a t t e r , b u t t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o e x p l a i n s t h e d i s t o r t i o n s o f s p a c e . Two a s p e c t s o f s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e were c o n s i d e r e d h e r e : t h e amount o f t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e ( k n o w l e d g e ) , and t h e p a r t i c u l a r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t r i p s and des-t i n a t i o n s p e o p l e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h measured q u i t e b r o a d l y , t h e s e two f a c t o r s p r o v e d t o be v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . F i r s t , i t was found t h a t each s u b j e c t had a u n i q u e p e r c e p t i o n o f space ( d i s t a n c e and d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s always d i f f e r e d from s u b j e c t t o s u b j e c t ) . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t each s u b j e c t has h i s own way o f making e s t i m a t e s and a l s o , t h a t t h e e x p e r -i e n c e o f space i s uniq u e t o each i n d i v i d u a l . Man i s t h e measure o f s p a c e . Amidst t h e i d i o s y n c r a c i e s however, v a r i o u s r e g u l a r i t i e s a p p eared. A l l v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g knowledge o r i n t e r a c t i o n i n s p a c e , g e n e r a t e d t h e same r e s u l t : d i s -t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s t o b e t t e r known p l a c e s o r a r e a s were e s t i m a t e d more c o r r e c t l y . Those " a c t i v e knowledge" v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d KNOWL, MEANIN, V I S I T l , V I S I T 2 , LAGREE ( d e f i n i n g t h e c u l t u r a l s p a c e s ) , POLBAR ( d e f i n i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l s p a c e s ) , SCHOOL ( t h e p o s i t i o n i n space) and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h POLBAR and PHYSBAR, and RSURGRO and SURGRO ( d e f i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s p a c e s ) . A l s o , t h e m o b i l i t y f a c t o r r e f l e c t s t h e same i d e a i n t h e v a r i a b l e s MOBILE, SEX (males more m o b i l e ) , and CULTURE ( E n g l i s h more m o b i l e ) . Of c o u r s e t h e r a t i o n a l e h e r e i s s i m p l e : t h e more a d i s t a n c e i s e x p e r i e n c e d , t h e more cues a r e i d e n t i f i e d t o produce t h e r e l a t i v e judgment and a l s o t h e more l i k e l y t h e " r e a l " d i s t a n c e w i l l be known f a c t u a l l y . A l l t he v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g i m p r e s s i o n s o f p l a c e s , 134 as w e l l as some "knowledge" v a r i a b l e s , were s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e s i g n o f t h e e r r o r . D i s t a n c e s t o w e l l known p l a c e s were u n d e r e s t i m a t e d ( r e l a -t i v e t o t h e mean e r r o r , not z e r o ) , d i s t a n c e s t o l a r g e r p l a c e s were q u i t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d ( S I Z E ) , d i s t a n c e s t o w e l l l i k e d (good) p l a c e s were o v e r e s t i m a t e d (EVALUA), and d i s t a n c e s t o p l a c e s a k i n t o t h e e s t i m a t o r s c u l t u r e were u n d e r e s t i m a t e d (LAGREE). A l l t h e s e e f f e c t s c o n f i r m p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s e x c e p t f o r t h e e f f e c t o f EVALUA. They show t h a t t h e amount of space d i s t o r t i o n depends on p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f space ( e x c e p t f o r e f f e c t of EVALUA w h i c h i s u n c l e a r ) w h i l e t h e d i r e c t i o n ( s i g n ) of d i s t o r t i o n depends much more on p e o p l e ' s i m p r e s s i o n s of t h a t e x p e r -i e n c e . (The SIZE and LAGREE f a c t o r s were n o t e d f o r t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . ) The r e s u l t s on t h e s i g n e d e r r o r were g e n e r a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e : t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t , t h e f o c u s of h i s i n t e r e s t and where h i s a t t e n t i o n l i e s d u r i n g t h e t r i p , i n v o l v i n g a s p e c t s such as t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t r i p and t h e u n i t y o f t h e t a s k o f moving. The e f f e c t o f LAGREE can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a v a r i a n t of t h e knowledge e f f e c t ( t h e s u b j e c t ' s own c u l t u r a l space i s v i s i t e d more o f t e n , t h e r e f o r e , d i s t a n c e s a r e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d ) . However, o t h e r r e l e v a n t e x p l a n a t i o n s may l i e w i t h t h e ease of c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , and t h e a t t i t u d e s between t h e two c u l t u r e s . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a c t i v e knowledge d i m e n s i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n a w i d e r c o n t e x t . F i g u r e 6.1 shows how t h e e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e v e r s e d as t h e f r e q u e n c y o f v i s i t s i n c r e a s e . We saw t h a t d i s t a n c e s t o u n f a m i l i a r p l a c e s a r e l a r g e l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d because t h e t r i p i s unknown and u n c l e a r , more o r i e n t a t i o n problems might be e x p e r i e n c e d and o v e r a l l , t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t r i p i t s e l f i s m i n i m a l . As t h e p l a c e i s v i s i t e d more o f t e n ( p r o b a b l y a t a f r e q u e n c y of e v e r y month t o e v e r y week a t t h e r e g i o n a l s c a l e ) e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n r i s e s r a p i d l y and thus m i n i m a l e r r o r i s done. T r a v e l becomes more i n t e r e s t i n g and r e w a r d i n g as more cues o f i n t e r e s t a r e i d e n t i f i e d ; 135 o ( n e v e r ) ( e v e r y month) ( e v e r y day) Frequency o f v i s i t (knowledge) F i g u r e 6.1 - Frequency of v i s i t c u r v e s (by t h e a u t h o r ) the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i s drawn away f r o m the t a s k o f moving, and i n e v i t a b l y d i s t a n c e s a r e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . I n t e r e s t i n t h e t r i p however, w o u l d r e a c h a p o i n t o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s . The s u b j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n wOuld th e n ' f o c u s on h i s d e s t i n a t i o n and t h e t a s k o f moving l i k e l y t a k e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a w a i t . Such c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d once a g a i n g e n e r a t e o v e r e s t i m a t e s and, a t t h i s s t a g e , t h e amount o f e r r o r might i n c r e a s e s i n c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n has been shown t o d e c r e a s e when t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . More r e s e a r c h needs t o be done on v e r y f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o c o n f i r m o r r e j e c t t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l t r e n d s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 6.1. P e o p l e ' s ways o f s i m p l i f y i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s . The s i m i l a r i t y d a t a schemas 136 (SURGRO) had a major o r g a n i z i n g e f f e c t on d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n . Schemas c a r r y meanings w h i c h have a s t r o n g e f f e c t on s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , SURGRO o n l y l o s t i t s e f f e c t i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s when b a s i c a l l y a l l "meanings" had been c o n t r o l l e d . T h e r e f o r e , schemas i n d e e d seem t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t and i t i s o n l y u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not g i v e any d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t on t h i s i s s u e . The d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s were l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d - by t h e s i m -p l i f y i n g mechanisms of s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . The e s t i m a t e s were somewhat g e n e r a -l i z e d i n terms o f t h e n o r t h - s o u t h , e a s t - w e s t a x e s . Imageable f e a t u r e s o f s pace were shown t o i n f l u e n c e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h SIZE ( b i g c i t i e s were e a s i l y l o c a t e d ) , PHYSBAR ( c i t i e s a l o n g t h e two r e f e r e n c e l i n e s o f t h e r e g i o n - t h e r i v e r s - were e a s i l y l o c a t e d ) , and POLBAR ( M o n t r e a l and V a l l e y f i e l d were more a c c u r a t e l y l o c a t e d t h a n any o t h e r c i t y a l o n g t h e S t . Law-r e n c e , because o f t h e i r s i z e and d i s t i n c t i v e p o s i t i o n a t t h e t i p of t h e t r i -a n g u l a r - s h a p e d r e g i o n ) . The r o t a t i o n a l e f f e c t i n t h e t r a n s f o r m e d spaces o f each s c h o o l c o u l d a l s o have been caused by t h e g e n e r a l shape o f t h e r e g i o n . The d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e e x e r c i s e t u r n e d out t o be a m e n t a l mapping e x e r c i s e f o r most s u b j e c t s . W h i l e d i s t a n c e s were e s t i m a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n d e x d i s t a n c e and o t h e r d i s t a n c e s t o n e i g h b o u r i n g towns, d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e s r e q u i r e d t h e f u l l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e image of t h e r e g i o n ( r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h i s l a t t e r e x e r c i s e was m o s t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o r g a n i z i n g f e a t u r e s o f space ( c a r d i n a l d i r e c t i o n s , i m a g e a b l e f e a t u r e s , g e n e r a l s h a p e ) , and of c o u r s e , by knowledge o f s p a c e , w h i l e d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n was m o s t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of s p a c e . D i s t a n c e e s t i m a t i o n i s a l e s s i n v o l v e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l e x e r c i s e , t h e r e f o r e , i t does n o t r e l y as much on t h e s i m p l i f y i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . 6.2 L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study and S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h The g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h l i e s i n i t s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . 137 The a p p r o a c h (sample s i z e , method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t y p e of d a t a ) c o u l d o n l y p r o d u c e v e r y g e n e r a l i z e d r e s u l t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The l a r g e s c a l e s u r v e y can o n l y t a p s u p e r f i c i a l i m p r e s s i o n s and r a t h e r i n d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r example, a c t i v e knowledge o f space was measured w i t h a few v a r i a b l e s , but we s t i l l have l i t t l e knowledge o f t h e customary a c t i v i t y space of t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d f o r v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d a t a t o be measured a t t h e l e v e l of each i n d i v i d u a l ( e x c e p t f o r m e t r i c of space a n a l y s i s ) however, o n l y " p o o l e d " and a v e r a g e d r e s u l t s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d b ecause of t h e l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t s i s , a t t i m e s , d i f f i c u l t t o see. The SCHOOL, CULTURE, and EVALUA e f f e c t s , as w e l l as t h e schema and r o t a t i o n a l e f f e c t s c o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h much c o n f i d e n c e o r d e t a i l a t t h i s s t a g e . A l s o , t h e methodology encouraged f a i r l y u n i f o r m r e s u l t s . F i r s t , judgments made i n s e r i e s always c a r r y r i s k f o r i n d e p e n -dence of t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . S e c o n d l y , t h i s s t u d y l o o k e d a t how s p e c i f i c ways o f o r g a n i z i n g space i n f l u e n c e d d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n a t one t i m e , i t d i d n o t r e a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e p e o p l e ' s v a r i o u s ways o f o r g a n i z i n g and m e a s u r i n g space. I t e s t e d how t h e m e t r i c v a r i e d a c r o s s t h e s t i m u l i p o i n t s , and saw how t h e schemas' o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i e d t h r o u g h space w i t h t h e e f f e c t t h i s had on s p a t i a l d i s t o r t i o n . But s u c h g e n e r a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s d i d n o t p r o p e r l y r e v e a l how s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s v a r y w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y . The t h e s i s t h a t d i s t a n c e c o g n i t i o n i s a s i m p l i f i e d m e n t a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f one's a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f space has been shown t o be c r e d i b l e , i t now has t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n more d e t a i l . The a n a l y s i s must be a p p l i e d a t t h e l e v e l of t h e e x p e r i e n c e of movement i n s p a c e , p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i n s i g h t . i n t o t h e ' n a t u r e of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e and how i t v a r i e s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . We need t o i n v e s t i -g a t e w h i c h elements o f a t r i p make i t more o r l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g . Where i s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the s u b j e c t d u r i n g t h e t r i p (eg. C a r r and S c h i s s l e r , 1969)? How does t h i s v a r y w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n : t h e t y p e of t r i p , t h e mode and f r e q u e n c y 138 o f t r a v e l , and t h e s u b j e c t ' s mood? (Those elements were i n c l u d e d i n TABLE 2.1 b u t m o s t l y n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h i s t h e s i s . ) I n w h i c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s t h e s u b j e c t m o t i v a t e d toward t h e g o a l and i n w h i c h , toward t h e t r i p ? :What makes t h e t a s k o f moving i n space more d i v i d e d o r more complex? A l l t h e s e a s p e c t s and o t h e r s have t o be examined i n r e l a t i o n t o the d i s t o r t i o n s of space t h e y g e n e r a t e . The t i m e d i m e n s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y . I n g e n e r a l , methods o f o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s h o u l d be b r o u g h t down a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . We need t o u n d e r s t a n d b o t h t h e n a t u r e and t h e e x t e n t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e of space and how t h i s r e l a t e s t o h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f space ( e g . P a i l h o u s , 1970). V a r i e d s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and forms o f a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be combined t o b r i n g d i f f e r e n t i n s i g h t s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y , t h e c u l t u r a l o r s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n o f space c o g n i t i o n l a r g e l y remains t o be s t u d i e d . The approach a d o p t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was m o s t l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l but such an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c model o f man i s r e s t r i c t i v e . S o c i a l f o r c e s a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g our knowledge and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . Numerous s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f M. Webber ( 1 9 6 4 ) , P. O r l e a n s ( 1 9 7 3 ) , and A. Rapoport (1976) have shown how d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups p e r c e i v e and c o n c e p t u a l i z e space d i f f e r e n t l y . T. S h i b u t a n i e x p l a i n s one's p e r s p e c t i v e , i s an o r g a n i z e d v i e w o f one's w o r l d , what i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d about t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f o b j e c t s , of e v e n t s , and of human n a t u r e . The environment i n w h i c h men l i v e i s an o r d e r of t h i n g s remembered and e x p e c t e d as w e l l as o f t h i n g s a c t u a l l y p e r c e i v e d . I t i n c l u d e s a s s u m p t i o n s of what i s p l a u s i b l e and what i s p o s s i b l e . (1962, p.130) C u l t u r e i s t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e w o r l d s h a r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r group of p e o p l e . Through t h e s h a r e d , t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d w o r l d , t h e s h a r e d s e t o f e x p e c t a -t i o n s , t h e s h a r e d d e f i n i t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n , p e o p l e a r e l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e and a c t i n a s i m i l a r way. What b r i n g s a c u l t u r e t o g e t h e r i s i t s communication c h a n n e l s . " V a r i a t i o n s i n o u t l o o k a r i s e t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n t a c t and a s s o c i a t i o n ; t h e maintenance o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e - t h r o u g h s e g r e g a t i o n , c o n f l i c t , o r s i m p l y r e a d i n g d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a t u r e - l e a d s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e s " ( S h i b u t a n i , 1962, p.134). I f t h e groups speak d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s 139 t h i s can o n l y a c c e n t u a t e s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and r e i n f o r c e i d e n t i t y t o one d i s t i n c t group. T h i s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l groups of E a s t e r n O n t a r i o p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e s t o t h e same p l a c e s d i f f e r e n t l y (CULTURE e f f e c t ) , b u t above a l l , i t showed t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s i n c o g n i t i v e space. F r e n c h and E n g l i s h Canadians made t h e most d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e o t h e r group's t e r r i t o r y , and b o t h pushed each o t h e r away i n s p a c e . The l a t t e r e f f e c t was s t r o n g e r f o r t h e E n g l i s h group and what were t h e m o s t l y u n i l i n g u a l p l a c e s , whereas t h e f o r m e r e f f e c t was s t r o n g e r f o r t h e F r e n c h group and t h e u n i l i n g u a l p l a c e s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e r e s u l t s , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs t o be done on t h e two c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e h i g h a s s i m i l a t i o n l e v e l of t h e F r e n c h m i n o r i t y , we need t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of t h e two groups and what makes f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t do e x i s t ( i n c l u d i n g t h e economic d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h have h a r d l y been c o n s i d e r e d h e r e ) . How e x c l u s i v e a r e the two c u l t u r e s ' a c t i o n s p a c e s , how do t h e two groups i n t e r a c t and how do t h e y v i e w each o t h e r ( a t t i t u d e s ) ? O nly w i t h such knowledge c o u l d one g i v e an adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r e n d s o b s e r v e d h e r e . O n l y t h e n c o u l d one s t a r t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t r u e r e l a t i o n between t h e c o n c e p t s o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e and c o g n i t i v e d i s t a n c e . 140 Notes CHAPTER I ^ D e t a i l e d r e v i e w s and c r i t i c s o f t h a t r e s e a r c h have been p r o v i d e d by H.C. B r o o k f i e l d , "On t h e Environment as P e r c e i v e d , " i n P r o g r e s s i n Geography, eds. C. Board e t a l . , v o l . 1 (London: Edward A r n o l d , 1 969), pp. 51-80; T. S a a r i n e n , P e r c e p t i o n of t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , R e s o u r c e Paper No.5 (Washington, D.C: Commis-s i o n on C o l l e g e Geography, AAG, 1969); R. Downs, " G e o g r a p h i c Space P e r c e p t i o n : P a s t Approaches and F u t u r e P r o s p e c t s , " i n P r o g r e s s i n Geography, eds. C. Board et a l . , v o l . 2 (London: 1970), pp.65-108; R.G. G o l l e d g e e t a l . , " B e h a v i o r a l Approaches i n Geography: An O v e r v i e w , " The A u s t r a l i a n Geographer, 12 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 59-79; P.Gould, P e o p l e i n I n f o r m a t i o n . Space: t h e M e n t a l Maps and I n f o r m a t i o n  S u r f a c e s of Sweden, Lund S t u d i e s i n Geography: S e r i e s B (Lund, Sweden: R o y a l U n i v e r s i t y of Lund P r e s s , 1975); R.M.Downs and D.Stea, Maps i n Minds (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1977); R.M. Downs and J.T.Meyer, "Geography and the M i n d , " A m e r i c a n B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n t i s t , 2 2 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 59-77; T . E . B u n t i n g and L . G u e l k e , "Be-h a v i o r a l and P e r c e p t i o n Geography," AAAG,69(1979), 448-462. 2 F o r a few examples of such s t u d i e s see: J . W o l p e r t , " B e h a v i o r a l A s p e c t s of t h e D e c i s i o n t o M i g r a t e , " P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e  A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 5 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 159-169; J . W o l p e r t , " D i s t a n c e and D i r e c t i o n a l B i a s i n I n t e r - U r b a n . M i g r a t o r y Streams," AAAG, 5 7 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 605-615; L.Brown and D.Long-b r a k e , " M i g r a t i o n Flows i n I n t r a - U r b a n Space," AAAG, 6 0 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 368-384; L. Brown and J.Holmes, " S e a r c h B e h a v i o r i n an I n t r a - U r b a n M i g r a t i o n C o n t e x t , " Environment and P l a n n i n g , 3 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 307-326; T . H a g e r s t r a n d , The P r o p a g a t i o n  of I n n o v a t i o n Waves, S t u d i e s i n Geography: S e r i e s B, No.4 (Lund, Sweden: Lund U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952); L.A.Brown and K.R.Cox, " E m p i r i c a l R e g u l a r i t i e s i n the D i f f u s i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n , " AAAG, 6 1 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 551-559; D.Huff, "A T o p o g r a p h i c Model o f Consumer Space P r e f e r e n c e , " Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s o f the R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , 6 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 81-90; D.Marble, "A T h e o r e t i c a l E x p l a n a t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l T r a v e l B e h a v i o r , " i n Q u a n t i t a t i v e Geography, P a r t 1, Economic and  C u l t u r a l T o p i c s , eds. W . G a r r i s o n and D.Marble ( E v a n s t o n , i l l . : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), pp.33-53; G.Rushton, " A n a l y s i s of S p a t i a l B e h a v i o r by R e v e a l e d Space P r e f e r e n c e , " AAAG, 5 9 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 391-400; R . G . G o l l e d g e , "Con-c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e M a r k e t D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s , " J o u r n a l of R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e , 7 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 239-258; J . W o l p e r t , "The D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s i n a S p a t i a l C o n t e x t , " AAAG, 5 4 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 536-558; R . G o l l e d g e and L.Brown, " S e a r c h , L e a r n i n g and t h e Market D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s , " G e o g r a f i s k a A n n a l e r , 49B(1967) , 34-49; P . B u r n e t t , "The Dimensions of A l t e r n a t i v e s i n S p a t i a l C h o i c e P r o c e s s e s , " G e o g r a p h i c a l  A n a l y s i s , 5 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 179-204. 3 Note t h a t i n t h i s t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , image, m e n t a l o r c o g n i t i v e map a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y a l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t two e x p r e s s i o n s a r e p r e f e r r e d . 4 C o g n i t i v e mapping r e f e r s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o c o l l e c t , mani-p u l a t e , and o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c r e -a t e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f space when needed. ~* F o r example, G.White, C h o i c e o f A d j u s t m e n t t o F l o o d s , R e s e a r c h P a p e r No.93 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Dept. o f Geography, 1964); I . B u r t o n and R . K a t e s , "The P e r c e p t i o n o f N a t u r a l H a z a r ds i n R e s o u r c e Managament." Na-t u r a l R e s o u r c e s J o u r n a l , 3 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 412-441; T . S a a r i n e n , P e r c e p t i o n of t h e 141 Drought H a z a r d on t h e G r e a t P l a i n s , R e s e a r c h Paper No.106 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , Dept. of Geography, 1966); G.White, ed. , N a t u r a l H a z a rds (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974). Fo r example, D.DeJonge, "Images o f Urban A r e a s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n  I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 2 8 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 266-276; F.C.Ladd, " B l a c k Youths View t h e i r E n v i r o n m e n t , " Environment and B e h a v i o r , 2 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 74-99; D.Mercer, " D i s c r e t i o -n a r y T r a v e l B e h a v i o r and t h e Urban M e n t a l Map," A u s t r a l i a n G e o g r a p h i c a l S t u d i e s , 9 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 133-143; D.Pocock, "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of M e n t a l Maps," I n s t i t u t e  of B r i t i s h G e o g r a p h e r s , T r a n s a c t i o n s , 6 5 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 493-512; D. Pocock, "A Comment on Images D e r i v e d from I n v i t a t i o n - t o - M a p E x e r c i s e s , " The P r o f e s s i o n a l Geogra-p h e r , 2 8 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 161-165. / F o r example, S.Carr and D . S c h i s s l e r , "The C i t y as a T r i p , " E n v i r o n m e n t  and B e h a v i o r , 1 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 7-35; J . P . R o b i n s o n and R.Hefner, " P e r c e p t u a l Maps of th e W o r l d , " P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a t e r l y , 3 2 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 273-280; R.E. L l o y d , "A Compa-r i s o n o f - C o g n i t i v e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " P r o -c e e d i n g s of t h e AAG, 7 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 121-126. g F o r example, P.Gould, On M e n t a l Maps, M i c h i g a n I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y Communi-t y o f M a t h e m a t i c a l G e o g r a p h e r s , D i s c u s s i o n Paper No.9 (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , Dept. o f Geography, 1966); P.Gould, " A c q u i r i n g S p a t i a l I n f o r m a t i o n , " Economic Geography, 5 1 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 87-99; P.Gould and R.White, M e n t a l Maps (Harmonds-w o r t h : P e n g u i n , 1974). 9 Note t h a t t h i s more r e c e n t work w i l l be r e v i e w e d a t l e n g t h i n t h e n e x t two c h a p t e r s ; a l l r e f e r e n c e s can be found t h e r e . ^ I say "might i n f l u e n c e " because we s t i l l know v e r y l i t t l e on t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m e n t a l images and a c t u a l b e h a v i o r . As T.R.Bunting and L . G u e l k e (1979) p o i n t o u t , v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has y e t a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h a t i s s u e ( s t r a n g e l y enough) and a l l we r e a l l y have a r e c l u e s of a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s no more t h a n " c l u e s " a g a i n , as i t l o o k s a t the r o l e o f b e h a v i o r on images, n o t t h e r o l e o f images on b e h a v i o r . CHAPTER I I ^ My main i n t e r e s t h e r e , as e l s e w h e r e , i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d -i n g s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most w r i t e r s do n o t p r o v i d e many comments o r e x p l a n a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , a l l remarks a r e my own u n l e s s e x p l i c i t l y i n d i c a -t e d o t h e r w i s e . 2 E m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i s . m e a s u r e d as empathy w i t h i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y . 3 What i s l i k e d tends t o be what i s known and v i c e v e r s a . B u r g e s s (1978) has d e m o n s t r a t e d i n h e r s t u d y o f H u l l , E n g l a n d t h a t t h e more p e o p l e know t h e p l a c e t h e more t h e y have p o s i t i v e v i e w s of i t . G ould's numerous s t u d i e s have c o n f i r m e d t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s : p e o p l e ' s space of p r e f e r e n c e s ( f o r r e s i d e n c e ) i s a lways v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r ' i n f o r m a t i o n s p a c e ' . Tuan (1977) i n s i s t s on t h e f a c t t h a t knowledge comes as a r e s u l t o f e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t i t i s a compound of b o t h thought and emotion: " b o t h a r e ways o f knowing" (1977, pp.8-10). A c c o r -d i n g t o t h i s v i e w knowledge i s i n s e p a r a b l e from e m o t i o n s . Many o t h e r w r i t e r s 142 s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t meanings of p l a c e s ( i m p r e s s i o n s and f e e l i n g s about a p l a c e ) can o n l y be d e r i v e d t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p l a c e and i t s p e o p l e (Beck, 1967; J a k l e e t a l . , 1976; Tuan, 1974). How c o u l d one p o s s i b l y d i s s o c i a t e what i s known and l e a r n e d from what i s f e l t , as t h i s i s a l l a mani-f e s t a t i o n o f t h e same e x p e r i e n c e . ^ L o r d ' s s t u d y on s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d t h e y had a l o c a l " d i r e c t ex-p e r i e n c e " schema and beyond t h a t o n l y a vague second hand knowledge of d i s t a n c e s t o c e r t a i n c i t i e s . E x c e p t f o r C a d w a l l a d e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , who uses m i l e , t i m e , and r a t i o m e t r i c s , B r i g g s (1972, 1976) who uses r a t i o and m i l e m e t r i c s , and Thompson (1963) who uses m i l e and t i m e . CHAPTER I I I ^ See r e v i e w s i n Moore (1 9 7 6 ) , and H a r t and Moore (1973). 2 Throughout t h i s t h e s i s ' P i a g e t ' w i l l r e f e r t o b o t h t h e man and h i s many c o l l a b o r a t o r s i n c l u d i n g B. I n h e l d e r i n t h e f i e l d o f s p a t i a l c o g n i t i o n . 3 See The Language and Thought i n t h e C h i l d (1926) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . 4 W i t h t h e s e b a s i c mechanisms c o g n i t i v e development i s a s s u r e d i n two d i f -f e r e n t ways. F i r s t l y , accomodatory a c t s i n h e r e n t l y e x t e n d t o new f e a t u r e s o f t h e environment.. As a new element i s a s s i m i l a t e d t o an e x i s t i n g c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e , t h e element t e n d s t o change t h a t s t r u c t u r e (accommodation) and t h r o u g h t h i s chan-ge, make f u r t h e r accommodatory e x t e n s i o n s p o s s i b l e . S e c o n d l y , even w i t h o u t e x t e -r i o r s t i m u l a t i o n , c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s a r e n e v e r s t a t i c : "systems o f meanings a r e c o n s t a n t l y becoming r e o r g a n i z e d i n t e r n a l l y , and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r s y s -tems" ( F l a v e l l , 1963, pp.49-50). N e v e r t h e l e s s , c o g n i t i v e p r o g r e s s i s o n l y v e r y g r a d u a l because t h e o r g a n i s m can a s s i m i l a t e o n l y t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h p a s t a s s i -m i l a t i o n s have made p o s s i b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e . There must a l r e a d y be a system o f meanings, an e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o make th e a s s i m i l a t i o n p o s s i b l e . Thus, a s s i m i l a t i o n i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o c e s s i n t h a t i t r e d u c e s t h e new t o t h e o l d . The s u b j e c t can i n c o r p o r a t e o n l y t h o s e components o f r e a l i t y w h i c h i t s o n g o i n g c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e can a s s i m i l a t e w i t h o u t d r a s t i c change. ~* F o r P i a g e t space c o g n i t i o n (what he c a l l s t h e i n t u i t i o n o f space) has a v e r y s p e c i a l s t a t u s . He compares the s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l o p e r a t i o n s ( a c t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n i m a g i n a t i o n and d e a l i n g w i t h space) t o t h e l o g i c o - a r i t h m e t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s ( i n t e r n a l i z e d a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g ) : t h e l a t t e r deals w i t h t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between d i s c r e t e o b j e c t s w h i l e t h e f o r m e r d e a l s o n l y w i t h v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e same o b j e c t . T h e r e f o r e , space i s c o n c e i v e d as a u n i q u e schema (sequence o f m e n t a l a c t i o n s ) , c o m p r i s i n g , i n one b l o c k , a l l a d j o i n i n g e l e m e n t s r e g r o u p e d i n terms of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y , w h i l e a l o g i c a l c l a s s c o n s i s t s of d i s c r e t e e lements r e g r o u p e d f o r t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e i r d i s t a n c e s i n space o r t i m e . I n t h e c a s e o f s p a t i a l i n -t u i t i o n , t h e image i s a v e r y u s e f u l a u x i l i a r y t o t h o u g h t ; s p a c e i s t h i s u n i q u e o b j e c t , a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e image. I n t h e case o f l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , t h e image can o n l y r e p r e s e n t p a r t of t h e w h o l e , and i s t h u s v e r y i n a d e q u a t e as a s y m b o l i c . d e v i c e . The s i g n systems of b o t h common and m a t h e m a t i c a l l a n guages 143 a r e more h e l p f u l h e r e ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956, pp.456-459). The f i r s t l e v e l o f s p a t i a l i n t u i t i o n r e q u i r e s o n l y t h e s i m p l e s t c o o r d i n a -t i o n s of a c t i o n s , l i k e f o l l o w i n g a c o n t o u r , s u r r o u n d i n g , s e p a r a t i n g , and so on. Only such t o p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s as openness o r c l o s u r e , p r o x i m i t y and s e p a r a t i o n a r e a p p l i e d . W i t h s t a g e 2 ( p r o j e c t i v e ) , a c t i o n s of e q u a l i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e d i r e c t i o n o f movement, and t h e r e l a t i o n s between movements become i m p o r t a n t ways of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s t r a i g h t and c u r v e d l i n e s , a n g l e s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s , p a r a l l e l s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s between e q u a l o r u n e q u a l l e n g t h s o r d i s t a n c e s . A t t h e e u c l i d e a n l e v e l , space i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s y s t e m o f axes o f r e f e r e n c e . The a c t of r e t u r n , t o a f i x e d p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e ( c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t h a t l e v e l ) n e c e s -s a r y f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of shapes and space i n g e n e r a l i s , once a g a i n , a c l e a r example of t h e c o n n e c t i o n between r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , c o n c e p t u a -l i z a t i o n , and c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n s ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956, p . 4 3 ) . ^ P i a g e t sees t h e s y m b o l i c image as a s i g n i f i e r between t h e i n d e x ( a s p e c t of o b j e c t o r s i t u a t i o n w h i c h h e l p s s e n s o r i - m o t o r a d a p t a t i o n ) and t h e s i g n ( d i s -t i n c t s i g n i f i e r o f language s y s t e m ) : The image i s t h e r e f o r e a schema w h i c h has a l r e a d y been accommodated and i s now used i n p r e s e n t a s s i m i l a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e a l s o i n t e r i o r i s e d , as " s i g n i f i e r " f o r t h e s e " s i g n i f i e d " . The image i s t h e r e f o r e a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s i g n i f i e r , more so t h a n the i n d e x s i n c e i t i s d e t a c h e d from t h e p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t ( o n l y an i m i t a t i o n ) , b u t l e s s so t h a n t h e s i g n , s i n c e i t i s s t i l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t , and t h e r e f o r e i s a " m o t i v a t e d " s i g n , as d i s t i n c t from v e r b a l s i g n s w h i c h a r e " a r b i t r a r y " . M o r e o v er, t h e image i s a s i g n i f i -e r w h i c h i s w i t h i n t h e scope of i n d i v i d u a l t h o u g h t , w h i l e t h e p u r e s i g n i s a lways s o c i a l ( P i a g e t , 1962, p.163) ( p a r e n t h e s i s m i n e ) . g F o r more on t h i s theme see Tuan, "Images and M e n t a l Maps," 1975. 9 M i l g r a m (1976) found t h a t t h e S e i n e was a major element o f t h e m e n t a l maps of P a r i s and DeJonge (1962) found t h a t Amsterdam, w i t h i t s u n i q u e s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . r i v e r , c a n a l s and r a d i a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n ) , p r o duced t h e s t r o n g e s t and c l e a r e s t image, even i f i t was t h e f a r t h e s t o f a group of n i n e Dutch c i t i e s . ^ Not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e m e n t a l schemas of P i a g e t a l t h o u g h some s i m i -l a r i t i e s e x i s t . ^ E v i d e n c e from a u d i t o r y , t a s t e , and v i s i o n e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t the span of a b s o l u t e judgment (amount of i n f o r m a t i o n one can g i v e about t h e s t i m u -l u s ) and t h e span o f immediate memory a r e l i m i t e d t o about sev e n p i e c e s o f i n -f o r m a t i o n ( M i l l e r , 1956). But man uses v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s t o i n c r e a s e h i s p e r -c e p t u a l c a p a c i t i e s . One t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e s o r g a n i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o u n i t s o r chunks w h i c h c o n t a i n and s t a n d f o r a c e r t a i n amount o f t h e o r i g i n a l . F o r i n s -t a n c e , l e t t e r s a r e remembered i f grouped i n t o words, and words i n t o p h r a s e s . The l o c a t i o n o f d o t s i s easy t o remember i f p a t t e r n s can be r e c o g n i z e d . E x p e r i m e n t s on t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f c h e s s b o a r d arrangements a r e v e r y r e v e a l i n g : the n o v i c e sees th e l a y o u t as a l a r g e number o f i n d e p e n d e n t p i e c e s w h i l e t h e c h e s s m a s t e r s ap-p e a r t o g r a s p the. s i t u a t i o n i n an i n s t a n t : The m a s t e r ' s chunks were not o n l y p a t t e r n s of a d j a c e n t p i e c e s : He sometimes t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e u n i t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f chessmen t h a t were r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r o n l y by the f a c t t h a t t h e y were c o n v e r g i n g i n a t t a c k on some v u l -n e r a b l e p i e c e . The m a s t e r ' s s u p e r i o r i t y d i s a p p e a r e d when arrangements of chessmen on t h e s t i m u l u s b o a r d were random, and n o t a c t u a l chess p o s i t i o n s . (Hochberg, 1968, p.185) 144 A l t h o u g h p e r c e p t i v e and memory c a p a c i t i e s a r e q u i t e s t a b l e (7 +/-2 p i e c e s of i n -f o r m a t i o n ) , e n c o d i n g speed and chunk s i z e v a r y w i t h t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t and h i s knowledge of t h e s i t u a t i o n . Word sym b o l i s m and imagery a r e t h e most com-mon ways of c h u n k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Thus, t h e p a r a l l e l s we can draw between chun-k i n g t h e o r y and t h e d i s c u s s i o n on c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f s p a c e a r e s t r i k i n g . 12 See a l s o Beck (1967) f o r c o n f i r m i n g i d e a s on t h e development o f s p a t i a l meaning. 13 M o s t l y h i s e x p e r i m e n t s on c h i l d r e n ' s knowledge of t h e e v e r y d a y l a r g e -s c a l e environment ( P i a g e t , I n h e l d e r and Szeminska, 1960, c h a p t e r 1 ) , and h i s e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e model o f t h e v i l l a g e ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956, c h a p t e r 1 4 ) . 14 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of l i n e s i n F i g u r e s 2 and 3. See P i a g e t ' s examples o f how h i s c h i l d r e n s u b d i v i d e d t h e i r environment i n t o v a r i o u s s u b - a c t i o n s p a c e s , 1960, pp.15-19. 1 5 G o l l e d g e e t a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , B r i g g s (1973) and S t e a (1969,1976) a l s o s u p p o r t t h a t p o s i t i o n . 16 F o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f meaning o r sense o f p l a c e see f o r i n s t a n c e : Tuan (1974, 1977), and R e l p h ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; f o r an e m p i r i c a l s t u d y of t h e r o l e o f mea-n i n g i n t h e image see H a r r i s o n and Howard ( 1 9 7 2 ) . CHAPTER IV ^ P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s from 1976 Canada Census. 2 Twenty-two s t i m u l i p o i n t s were used i n t h e c a s e s where t h e sample p o i n t was n o t a s t i m u l u s p o i n t . 3 S i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e s have p r o v e n q u i t e r e l i a b l e i n t h e p a s t ( G o l l e d g e e t a l . , 1976; H a r r i s o n , 1976; B r a t f i s c h , 1969). 4 The c a t e g o r i e s of t h i s v a r i a b l e (VISIT 2) a r e : (1) a t l e a s t once a weak, (2) a t l e a s t once a month, (3) a t l e a s t once a y e a r , (4) l i k e r o a d t o , (5) t y p e s (1) o r (2) roads n e a r b y the s t i m u l i p o i n t s , (6) t y p e s (3) o r (4) n e a r b y , (7) no r e l a t i o n t o any of t h o s e r o a d s ( i . e . n e v e r v i s i t e d ) . ^ Those " r e a s o n s " were c l a s s i f i e d and coded i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: (0) no r e a -s o n s , (1) s i z e , (2) l a n g u a g e , (3) s p a t i a l (same a r e a o r d i s t a n c e ) , (4) knowledge ( a c t i v i t y t h e r e ) , (5) meaning ( a p p r a i s i v e o r a f f e c t i v e r e a s o n s ) , (6) f u n c t i o n , (7) p o l i t i c a l , (8) c h a r a c t e r of p l a c e , (9) o t h e r ( s p o r t teams, t y p e of p e o p l e , r i v a l r y between p l a c e s , e t c . ) . T h i s a n a l y s i s was c r i t i c i z e d f o r i m p o s i n g a s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e on a s p a t i a l d a t a ( p r e f e r e n c e s , s i m i l a r i t i e s ) t o i n f e r c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e mind (Harman and B e t a k , 1976; G o u l d , 1976; G o o d c h i l d , 1976). I l a r g e l y e s c a p e t h i s c r i t i c i s m as my d a t a i s o f a s p a t i a l n a t u r e ( d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e s ) and t h e t e c h n i q u e was used as a mapping d e v i c e o n l y . F o r more d e t a i l s on t h i s a n a l y s i s see A n d e r b e r g , 1973, and Gower, 1976. 145 CHAPTER V Results for Ottawa show that subjects did just as well on any of the three estimates and that this city produced the least error (mostly for rela-tive error). This confirms the fact that the distance to Ottawa is the best ' known distance of the region and should thus be used as index. 2 This is confirmed in section 5.2.2 where I look at the relationship between distance and error. 3 TABLES 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 show clearly that the mile estimate was done in accordance with the route distance as required on the questionnaire. Also, a l -though the ratio estimate is always the most accurate, we can see that the means of the mile and time estimates are relatively close to those of the ratio estima-te and the standard deviations of the time estimate in particular are very close to those of the time ratio estimate. Therefore, the mile and time estimates seem to express route distances in a very adequate way. 4 Note that always I w i l l be talking of underestimation or overestimation relative to the mean signed error and not relative to an absolute zero. Since there is a general tendency for true overestimation in my data, an underestima-tion may actually mean a relatively small overestimation in comparison to the much larger ones of the end of the scale. 5 No s t a t i s t i c a l test of the relations could be used as both the tests of significance for tau b and chi-square failed to discriminate between the impor-tance of the various relations (probably because of large N since these analy-ses cannot be done at individual level). F tests of the slopes of control factor A are non-significant for those variables: the F probability figures are, for VISIT 1 (.3160) for ZMCROWER, (.2883) for ZMTIMER, (.5900) for ZAMCROWER and (.5207) for ZAMTIMER, for VISIT2 in the same order of errors, (.5059),(.5442), (.8358), (.9325), for EVALUA, (.5525), (.1784), (.9709), (v.9276), and for SIZE the effect is constant only in the case of the crow estimate, (.8962), (.0498), (.9918), (.0010) which shows that the more refined time estimate is less likely to be regularly influenced by the SIZE factor. ^ Note that the point configurations of those representations come from smallest-space analyses (SSA-1 of Guttman-Lingoes) of the similarity index whereas the actual regroupings identified come from the cluster analyses of the index. g This time, the point configuration comes from the "real" map of the region. 9 Note that the aggregate representations of the other schools are not in-cluded in the thesis because they do not really provide additional interesting information. ^ Note that for these last "all-encompassing" analyses the c r i t i c a l level has been risen slightly (approx. 0.10). Those tests are considered very conser-vative since so many control variables are introduced. ^ The following "cultural groups" were established: (1) Williamstown and 146 N o r t h Dundas as t h e E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , (2) Casselman, Embrun and P l a n t a g e n e t as t h e F r e n c h s c h o o l s , (3) V a n k l e e k H i l l and Hawkesbury as b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l s , and (4) C o r n w a l l and A l e x a n d r i a as b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l s where t h e F r e n c h i s p r o b a b l y more t h r e a t e n e d . 12 I n t he f o l l o w i n g t e s t s t h e a b s o l u t e e r r o r o f d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t i o n i s used as dependent v a r i a b l e . Because o f t h e format o f t h e e x e r c i s e t h e e s t i m a t e s of each s u b j e c t a r e n o t r e a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f each o t h e r . T h i s p r o b l e m i s p a r t -l y t a k e n c a r e o f s i n c e t h e a n a l y s e s a r e done a t t h e l e v e l o f each i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e d e v i a t i o n s from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s means a r e a n a l y s e d , n o t the d e v i a t i o n s from a grand mean. 13 T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o n l y s i n c e t h e CROWDIST o b s e r v a t i o n s cannot be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t o f each o t h e r . 14 F o r each p o i n t (1) t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l o f the mean d i s t a n c e e s t i m a t e (d) was c a l c u l a t e d (d+/- t ,*SEj where S E j i s the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f d) and (2) n- i d d t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l o f t h e mean d i r e c t i o n e s t i m a t e (9) was c a l c u l a t e d (9 +/-t _ i _ 1 * S E 5 ) . 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A p p e n d i x 1 Example o f E n g l i s h and F r e n c h v e r s i o n s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e used n.b. O r i g i n a l s i z e s : - q u e s t i o n n a i r e pages ( 8 % x 14 i n c h ) - map (24 x 14 i n c h ) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 Wesbrook Mall Vanoouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1W5 Department of Geography 1. Name 1 2. Grade: 3. Age: H 4. Sex: M F • 5. Home address (complete): How long have you resided there: (if applicable) What was your previous address: 6. To which cultural group do you identify yourself? (1) English Canadian (2) French Canadian ~ J (3) both of them _ ] (4) other ~} Specify. 7. How do you usually travel within this region (the eastern Ontario region appro ximately delimited by the triangle Ottawa-Montreal^-Brockville)? (1) I drive my own oar (or motorcycle) j_7j (2) I usually drive somebody else's car ~] (3) I usually get a ride with someone _ (4) I usually use the publio modes of transport (train or bus) ~] (5) It varies. Specifyi ____________________________________ (6) I travel very seldom in this region ~] N.B. You only have 30 minutes to answer the rest of this questionnaire. Thus you can't afford losing too much "precious" time on any one specific question. Note that there is no "correct" answer to any one of these questions. What we want to get is your own immediate responses, your personal judgments. 8. Note that a l l estimates you will te asked to make in questions 8, 9, and 10 should be based on immediate, unsophisticated impressions. Do not answer i f a place (city or village) is completely unknown to you. Suppose the number "100" represents or indioates the distance from this school Use this standard as a comparative basis and rate the distances from here to the following places accordingly (for instance, i f you felt that one of .the following places was only half as far as the standard is you would assign i t the "relative number" 50 and i f you felt i t is twice as far as the standard you would assign i t the number 200) s from here to Casselman Plantagenet S O from here to Rigaud " Lachute so 15 Valleyfield 15*6 Ottawa-Hull 1,60 Smiths Falls Kemptville Embrun 0 Massena Vankleek H i l l _>EL— Maniwaki Alexandria Buckingham. £5. B r o c k v i l l e ^0(D Kock land Montreal Cornwall Amprior Ogdensburg mi 162 3. 9 . Write your estimation of the road distance in miles (or kilometers i f you prefer) by the most direct driving route from this school to the following places. Do not answer i f the place is completely unknown to you. Alexandria ^ f) m or km Valleyfield iXQ. m or km Casselman _ ~"5 m O T ^ Brockville [ S o m or km Rigaud m o r ^an Ogdensburg O m or km Lachute m o r • • *® IluHluiiBUiu.';y , m or km Plantagenet _ S L £ L M O R  Vankleek Hil l m o r ^ Buckingham .JciCL m o r ^ Cornwall (n 3 m o r ^ Massena | t T) m or km Maniwaki Si^ Q m o r ^ Rockland {-[ ^  m or km Arnprior ) Q-~ 0 m or km Smiths Falls 1 ^ 0 m or km Ottawa-Hull m or km Kemptville Cj> f~) m or km Montreal (n 5 m or km Embrun Jp D * m or Ion 10. Write your estimation of the travel time in hours and/or minutes using the most direct driving route from this school to the following places. Do not answer i f the place is completely unknown to you. Cornwall , 1 W.  Ottawa-Hull Casselman j U.... lachute tf^v, ; , ^ Alexandria M W , ' n Smiths Falls ^ J j ^ r . , ? Brockville .lk3Dm^  Kemptville #£3P /n . /» -Ogdensburg gk£_ Arnprior _ n^tjJV'30WL'N Plantagenet My? Valleyfield JJl£j3Qw If) . Buckingham { ftlfV,— / Massena Vankleek H i l l _j*HLjDfl»l "0 > Montroal _L-hjCi Maniwaki ^ H ^ ' Rockland Embrun Rigaud I 163 1 1 . Suppose you are asked the approximate direction to each one of the following 1 Q places (Vfuikleoli H i l l - — jtoesgna, SnbrtST; Keapl-cLLle, SBTJrttiH—Fa-lls, &as= s^Junan, •Haidiijitim'a-, Planxagenet, -O+Tawa-Hull, MarriTraki, Ogdensburg, 4±e*an--'drla, -Vrnpriort gigtmd, -eoTRwail, taeirtfEe, -MoTTtrwai, Valleyfield, Rockland, Buckingham, B^a_Jry_ille) from here (where your present location i s indicated by an "X" in the middle of this page). Using identified points and arrows make a diagram on this sheet of paper that w i l l indicate the direction to each one of those places from here (i . e . a diagram that would orient a stran-ger towards those places). Note that you are asked to indicate directions to those places and not distances to those places. Be as precise as possible in your direction estimations. Do not make an estimation to a completely unknovm place. i • UcvU/ y • Y c o m ^ o . 12. U s i n g your own c r i t e r i a , regroup tho p l a c e s from the f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n t o as many groups as you wish a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s . Note that there i s no c o r r e c t answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n . We are o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n your immedia-te f e e l i n g s ao to which places s h o u l d be put together a c c o r d i n g to how s i m i -l a r they a r e . Decide on the groups as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , ( n . b . you can add o t h e r p l a c e s o f the r e g i o n which are v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t to you i f you want) L i s t o f p l a c e s ; —Beck±and ^J-IIJLM^'• •^gcrenstfurg ^ - Vankloolt - Montrof t l— v a l l e y i i & i d ~~ Group 1 P Po-f^ On \ . ,Bnrl; ingham ftfinnglimn 'Man rwflki Letch ulu —BlgauoT-.—Maeciiina ~-Qt.t. f l-- a-n 1 1-| -[ - B i r riaiitagenct ~Ke"npIville— SBTrtha Falls Group 2 — G{WOQ-/TU(( G r o u p 3 - O u i l l W d l l Others s etc 3 $ a etc/' i o n -^ a t k Very b r i e f l y i n d i c a t e on what c r i t e r i o n ( a ) you based your r e g r o u p i n g o f the Placer, (why you dec ided to put such and such a p l a c e together?) : if- d 6. 13. In questions 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, *nd 18 we are interested in your evaluation of places on a scale ranging from 1 to 7. Each question asks for a different type of evaluation. For instanoe, i n question 13 on this page you have to indicate how well you know each place l i s t e d . I f you feel you know the place very well you check box 1. At the other end of the scale, i f you feel you don't know i t at a l l you oheck box 7. Place the oheok-nark i n the box which most olosely corres-ponds to your immediate judgment. Question 14 has to do with how "frenoh" or "english" those plaoes are to you, question 15 has to do with how meaningful each place i s to you, etc ... Work at a f a i r l y high speed through this exercise. On the other hand dc not be careless. The same instructions apply for questions 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. Ottawa-Hull Vankleek H i l l Maniwaki Rockland Brockville Embrun Ogdensburg Massena Cornwall Buckingham Plantagenet Arnprior Casselman Montreal Alexandria Lachute Smiths Falls Kemptville Hawkesbury Va l l e y f i e l d Rigaud ( ) very well Known 7Z Z "Z za z: ZZL ZZL ZZL 2 ZZL "j not known LJ Z l 14. Same i n s t r u c t i o n s as f o r q u e s t i o n 13. Smiths Palls O t t a w a - H u l l V a l l e y f i e l d Hawkesbury Buckingham Casselman Embrun Ogdensburg Arnprior Mar.iwaki P l a n t a g e n e t M o n t r e a l Cornwa l l Maaaena A l e x a n d r i a Vankleek H i l l J ' emptv i l l e Rigaud Lcchuto Rock land E r o c k v i l l e ( ) f r e n c h s p e a k i n g ZZL 5 3 7ZL 17 e n g l i s h s p e a k i n g r z i ZD HZ ~221 1 5 . 3ame instructions ae for question 13. Note that moaningful stands for place that means a l o t " to you while meaningless stands for "a place t doesn't mean anything" to you. Brockville Smiths Falls Rockland Ottawa-Hull Lachute V a l l e y f i e l d R igaud Hawkesbury Kemptville Buckingham Vankleek H i l l Casselman Alexandria Embrun Massena Ogdensburg Cornwall Arnprior Montreal Maniwaki Plantagenet ( ) meaningful I j meaningle; 168 16. Same i n s t r u c t i o n s as f o r q u e s t i o n 13. M o n t r e a l Maniwaki V a l l e y f i e l d Rigaud Lachute Smiths F a l l s CasBelman Embrun A r n p r i o r Ottawa-Hull Buckingham Rockland Plantagenet Hawkesbury C o r n w a l l MapBena O/jdensburg B r o c k v i l l e A l e x a n d r i a K e m p t v i l l e Vankleek H i l l ( ) good bad \rzL WL 17. Same i n s t r u c t i o n s as f o r question 13. 10. 169 a p l a c e where Vankleek H i l l f r i e n d s Buckingham n Hawkesbury B r o c k v i l l e M o n t r e a l A l e x a n d r i a P lan tagenet Smiths P a l l s Ogdensburg Rigaud Cornwal l I'5assena V a l l e y f i e l d K e m p t v i l l e Laohute Maniwaki Embrun O t t a w a - H u l l Casselman A r n p r i o r Rockland v : z not a p lace where I meet r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s x z ; i 11. 1 7 0 ie. Same inatruotions as for q u e s t i o n 13. Embrun Rockland Vankleek H i l l Massena Buckingham A r n p r i o r Ottawa-Hull Laohute Kemptville Valleyfield Rigaud Hawkesbury Smiths Falls .Alexandria Casselman Plantagenet Cornwall Ogdensburg Brockville Maniwaki Montreal ( ) large small Name: 1 2 . 1. On the accompanying hase map i n d i c a t e , u s i n g the appropriate symbols, (1) the routes ( i n c l u d e s r a i l r o a d s ) taken at l e a s t onco a year ( I I I I I ) (2) the routes taken at l e a s t onco a month (-ft—X—£•) (3) the routes taken at l e a s t once a week (—©—6—9-) 2. Is there any p a r t i c u l a r r o u t e ( s ) you r e a l l y enjoy t r a v e l i n g on i n that region? I f so i n d i c a t e which with t h i s symbol, (—Q—Q—) and state the reason(s) o f your choice (why do you l i k e that (those) r o u t e ( s ) ?) y Reason(s): ^fl_x^x^-J^v -_fe_fer-<ZI3^ 5\Aj^  -3. How would you subdivide the area shown on t h i s map. Draw your subregions on the baso map and i n d i c a t e which of those you consider to be y_our region. T e l l me why you subdivided the area the way you d i d . Reasons o f s u b d i v i s i o n ; THE UHIVSKSITy OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2075 Uesbrook H a l l Vancouver, C.B. , Canada V6T 1W5 Departement de Geographie 1. Nom: €<-ccJhcwU ''V~ 2. Anr.ee s c o l - l i r e ; \~2 J"~ 3. Agei / 4. Sexe. M 0 £ Q 'j. Air-corse a c t u e l l e (complete): Depuis quand demeurez-vous a c e t t e adrosse;: / / ( S i n e c e s s a i r e ) Indiquez v o t r e adresse preeedante: A quel groupe c u l t u r e l vous i d e n t i f i e z - v o u s ? il.) canadien f r a n c a i s [Df (2) canadien a n g l a i s Q (3) l e s deux Q (4) a u t r e s Q S p e c i f i e z : Habituellement, comment vous deplacez-vous dans l a r e g i o n ( r e g i o n do 11 e s t de 1'Ontario approximativement contenue dans l e t r i a n g l e 0ttava-Kon*real-B r o c k v i l l e ) ? (1) Je conduis ma propre auto (ou motocyclette) Q (2) Uabituellement je conduis l'auto d'un parent ou d'un ami \c^A (3) Uabituellement j'obtiens un tour avec quelqu'un [~J (4) Habituolloment . j ' u t i l i s e l e t r a i n ou 1'autobus £~j (>) ^a var.ic; beaucoup. Specifier,.-(6) Je voyage rarement dans c e t t e r e - i o n £j 174 2. K . B . Vous n 'avez que 30 minutes pour r^pondre au r e s t e de ce q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l o r s i l f a u t vous h a t e r . Ne vous a t ta rdez pas s u r aucune q u e s t i o n en p a r t i c u l i e r . Notez q u ' i l n ' y a pas de reponse "exacte" 7i aucune de ces q u e s t i o n s . Nous sommes p l u t o t i n t e r e s s e s a vo t re jugement immediat, v o t r e o p i n i o n p e r s o n e l -l e sur chacune de ces q u e s t i o n s . 8. Notez que toutes l e s e s t i m a t i o n s demandees aux quest ions 8, 9» et 10 do iven t e t r e basees sur vos premieres i m p r e s s i o n s . E v i t e z de f a i r e un est ime pour un e n d r o i t ( v i l l e ou v i l l a g e ) que vous ne conna issez vraiment pas (un e n d r o i t dont vous n 'avez jamais entendu p a r l e r ) . Supposez que l e c h i f f r e "100" represen te ou ind ique l a d i s t a n c e entre c e t t e eco le ou nous sommes presentement e t (^)-lJfA.'^J C~ . U t i l i s a n t c e t t e d i s t a n c e e t a l o n comme base de comparaison, eva luez l e s d i s -tances de c e t t e e c o l e aux e n d r o i t s s u i v a n t s (par exemple, s i vous croyez que l a d i s t a n c e a un e n d r o i t quelconque e s t l e double de l a d i s t a n c e e t a l o n vous l u i a t t r i b u r e z a l o r s l e nombre r e l a t i f 200; s i vous est imez que l a d i s -tance a un autre e n d r o i t n ' e s t que l a m o i t i e de l a d i s t a n c e e t a l o n , vous u t i l i s e r e z le nombre r e l a t i f 50) ; d ' i c i a Rigaud d ' i c i a P lantagenet Vankleek H i l l ~S ,-t-O -Em In gun -Rock land Massena Maniwaki Montrea l Buckingham B r o c k v i l l e Cornwal l ____ _____ *6C _______ _______ ________ A r n p r i o r "2*y-0 Ogdensburg Casselman S'2> A l e x a n d r i a "2 <TL> K e m p t v i l l e 7 <rf) Lachute _L____ Smiths F a l l s _ _ _ L _ _ _ Ottawa-Hul l /OO Hawkesbury "-Wo V a l l e y f i e l d "b TO 175 3. 9. Ecrivez votre estimation de l a distance routiere en milles (ou kilometres s i vous preferez) par le chemin le plus court entre cette ecole ou nous sommes et les endroits suivants. Evitez de faire un estime pour un endroit quo vous ne connaissez vraiment pas. ~ — km km km luii _ km km km km km km Ion km km 1cm km km km km km km km Alexandria 7*r m ou Valleyfield m ou Casselman m ou Brockville m ou Rigaud .7 If ? m ou Ogdensburg m ou Lachute m OU Hawkesbury m ou Plantagenet . y s ' m ou Vankleek H i l l • • «4T m ou Buckingham • V m ou Cornwall _ r s z m ou Massena m ou Maniwaki ILS-Q m ou Rockland _ O m ou Arnprior ~7 O m ou Smiths Falls m ou Ottawa-Hull 2 sr m ou Kemptville m ou Montreal m ou m ou 10. Scrivez votre estimation du temps de parcours en heures et/ou minutes u t i l i -sant le chemin le plus court entre cette ecole et les endroits suivants. E v i -tez de faire un estime pour un endroit que vous ne connaissez vraiment pas. Cornwall Casselman Alexandria Brockville Ogdensburg Arnprior Plantagenet Valleyfield Buckingham Massena Vankleek H i l l Montreal Maniwaki Rockland Rigaud ' /: 3D ' ; «<--. / : J»'C. . u , ?0 /: yo Ottawa-Hull Lachute Smiths Falls Kemptville Hawkesbury l /y 1 7 6 l i , f.i_ppo::ez rju'on vous domande d ' e s t i m e r l a d i r e c t i o n approximat ive des "Zp e n d r o i t s au ivan ts (Vankleek H i l l , Massena, JSmtrrnn, Kemptville, Smiths F a l l s , Casselman, Hawkesbury, P l a n t a g e n e t , Ottawa—Hull , Maniwaki , Ogdensburg, A l e x -a n d r i a , A r n p r i o r , R i g a u d , C o r n w a l l , L a c h u t e , M o n t r e a l , V a l l e y f i e l d , R o c k l a n d , Buckingham, B r o c k v i l l e ) a p a r t i r d ' i c i ( vo t re l o c a l i s a t i o n a c t u e l l e e s t i n -d iquee par un "X" au m i l i e u de c e t t e p a g e ) . En u t i l i s a n t des p o i n t s i d e n t i -f i e s e t des f l e c h o s , c o n 3 t r u i s e z un diagramme s u r c e t t e page q u i i n d i q u e r a i t l a d i r e c t i o n de chacun de ces e n d r o i t s ( i . e . un diagramme q u i o r i e n t e r a i t u n s t r a n g e r v e r s ces e n d r o i t s ) . Notez qu 'on vous demande d ' e s t i m e r l e s ' d i r e c - t i o n s ct non l e s d i s t a n c e s a ces e n d r o i t s . Soyez a u s s i p r e c i s que p o s s i b l e dans w a e s t i m a t i o n s des d i r e c t i o n s . F A r i t e z de f a i r e un est ime pour un e n -dro i t , que vous ne c o n n a i 3 s e z vra iment pas . 177 1 2 . En u t i l i s a n t l e s c r i t e r e s de votre choix regroupez l e s e n d r o i t s suivants en autant de groupes que vous d e s i r e z selon l e u r s s i m i l a r i t e s . Notez q u ' i l n'y a pas de reponse "exaote" a c e t t e question. Nous sommes p l u t o t i n t e r e s s e s a vos premieres impressions, a v o t r e jugement personnel immediat sur l e s groupes S. e t a b l i r . He mettez pas trop de temps a decider de ces groupes. (n.b. s i vous d e s i r e z , vous pouvez ajouter d'autres endroits de l a r e g i o n qui vous sont t r e s s i g n i f i o a t i f s ) L i s t e dos endroits; Groupe 1 Rockland Vankleek H i l l A r n p r i o r Buckingham Casselman Hawkesbury Ottawa-Hull B r o c k v i l l e Groupe 2 E m b r u n Montreal Maniwaki Alexandria Lachute Flantagcnet Kemptville Smiths F a l l s Ogdensburg V a l l e y f i e l d Rigaud Massena Cornwall Autres: Groupe 3 etc Indiquez bricvement sur q u e l ( s ) c r i t e r e ( s ) repose(nt) l e chcix de ces r e -groupoments (pour q u e l l e s r a i s o n s avez-vous regroupe t o l s ou t e l s e n d r o i t s ensemble?) : 13. Aux questions 13, 14* 15, 16* 17> et 16 nous eommes int£ress£s en votre pro-pre -valuation de'divers endroits sur une eobelle de 1 a 7. Chaque question requiert une Evaluation diff£rente. Far exemple, a l a question 13 sur cette page vous ave- a indiquer Jusqu'a quel point vous oonnaissez les endroits mentionnes. Si vous oonnaissez tres bien 1'endroit en question vous ooohez l a case 1. A 1'autre extremity de l'6onelle f s i vous ne oonnaissez pas set endroit du tout vous ooohez l a case 7. Coohez l a case qui oorrespond le mieux a votre jugement iminediat. A l a question 14 on vous demande de juger de 1*identity culturelle des en- / droits en question (d 1apres vous, s ' a g i t - l l d 1endroits tres francais ou tres anglais ou plus ou moins bilingues?); a l a question 15 on vous demands de juger de l a "signification" de chaque endroit pour vous, eto . .. II vous faut repondre rapidement a oes questions. Toutefois, ne soyez pas negligent ou insouciant. Les meme8 instructions s'appliquent aux questions 14, 15, 16, 17, et 18. Alexandria Embrun Valleyfield Montreal C ossein an Kemptville Brookville Ottawa-Hull Rigaud Smiths Palls Ogdensburg Arnprior Laohute Eookland Hawkesbury Maniwaki Plantagenet Massena Vankleek H i l l Cornwall Buckingham ( ) tres bien oonnu 1 7 pas oonnu 179 7. 14. Memes Instructions qu'a la question 13. Cornwall 11*°° **** I I 1 I 1 T I P l a o e * r t s franc alee — i — j — — y 5 — 5 — ~ anglalse Maniwaki | 1 1 -^1 I I I I Brookville » I I I I I 1 I (X I Montreal I I ^  \ I I I I 1 Lachute | _/ \ \ | | | | ~] Ogdensburg I I I I I I | Smiths Falls 1 I I I I I I Valleyfield | | \ </\ | | | ~| Casselman \ \ 1 I I I I I E i e a u d I 1 I I I I I Hawkesbury I I 1 1 1 I ~1 Alexandria | | | | 1 ^ 1 I I Buckingham [ .—" | - - } | | | I ~1 Plaatagenet | | | c ^ | | | I I Kemptville | | I I I I ts"\ \ Embrun | | L/~ I I I I I ~1 Arnprior I I I I I I I I Massena I I I I I I I Rockland | | | cs'\ | | | ~| Ottawa-Hull | | | | <s\ I I I Vankleek H i l l I I I I I I I ~" 180 15. MSmes instructions qu'a la question 13. Notez que par tres significatif nous entendons un endroit qui represente pu "veux dire" beaucoup pour vous, alors que par pas significatif nous entendons un endroit qui ne represente ou ne "veux absolument rien dire" pour vous. Vankleek Hil l Cornwall Ottawa-Hull Maniwaki Rockland Brockville Massena Montreal Arnprior Lachute Embrun Ogdensburg Kemptville Smiths Falls Plantagenet Valleyfield Buckingham Casselman Alexandria Rigaud Hawkesbury ( ) tres significatif 17 17 i f CA p a B 7 significatif 16. MSmes instructions qu'a la question 13. Montreal ton I [ t^I I I I I 1 mauvais 1 2 i * * t ? Maniwaki „ I I <_^T I I 1 I I „ Valleyfield „ I I I I I I "I „ Rigaud I , [ -""f I I I I I Lachute | | | 1 I I I Smiths Falls 1 1 1 ! ^ \ 1 1 I Casselman 1 1 1 ! < *T 1 I I Embrun I I I I I I I Arnprior [ •—^ ] 1 I I 1 I I Ottawa-Hull | iX| | | | | I I Buckingham | | | I I I I I Rockland | | | | cS | | | | Plantagenet | | <_/ 1 I i I I I Hawkesbury [ 1 I I I I I Cornwall | | | I I I 1 Massena | I I I I I c^'\ I Ogdensburg I I I I I I I IA> Brockville I I I I I I c-^ T I Alexandria I I I I I I I Kemptville I I I I I C^\~ I ~j Vankleek H i l l I I I I I I I c"1~ < ) I I I I I I I I 182 10. 17. Memes i n s t r u c t i o n s - q u ' a l a q u e s t i o n 13. Embrun Buckingham Hawkesbury B r o c k v i l l e Mont rea l A l e x a n d r i a P lantagenet Smiths F a l l s Ogdensburg E igaud Cornwal l Massena V a l l e y f i e l d K e m p t v i l l e Lachute Maniwaki Vankleek H i l l O t tawa-Hu l l Casselman A r n p r i o r Rockland ( ) un e n d r o i t ou je r e n -cont re amis e t parents tr&s souvent 3 : pas un e n -d r o i t pour | [ r e n c o n t r e r 7 amis e t p a -r e n t s "Z3 .=3' r a -rzr TIES 1 3 " 3 " I i A i i i — 1 —J L _ _ L _ T 183 11. 18. MSmes instructions qu'a l a question 13. Hawkesbury Kemptville Smiths Falls Lachute Ottawa-Hull Higaud Embrun Rockland Maniwaki Montreal Vankleek H i l l Massena Buckingham Valleyfield Plantagenet Arnprior Ogdensburg Brockville Alexandria Casselman Cornwall ( ) gros 3 1ZL T7* 17 "HI 7 7 petit 77, IT 184 12. Mom: ^MXLQtl Bfin ixCUJ^i^ 1. Sur l a carte de base qui s u i t indiquez, en u t i l i s a n t l e s symboles appro-pries, (1) l e s routes (ou chemins de f e r ) que vous u t i l i s e z au moins une f o i s par annee ( t i l — I — ) - ) (2) l e s routes (ou chemins de f e r ) que vous u t i l i s e z au moins une f o i s par mois (—X—Jr—&) (3) l e s routes (ou chemins de f e r ) que vous u t i l i s e z au moins une f o i s par semaine (—8—6—&) 2. Y a - t - i l une (ou des) r o u t e ( s ) (ou chemin de f e r ) que vous aimez vraiment emprunter dans cette region? S i o u i , indiquez avec ce symbole (-Q—B"")s et p r e e i s e z l e s raisons de votre choix (pourquoi aimez-vous cette (ou ces) r o u t e ( s ) en p a r t i c u l i e r ? ) R a i s o n ( s ) : febccabA u ^ Zi ^  ^ t ^ w . 3. Comment su b d i v i s e r i e z - v o u s l a region qui apparait sur cette c a r t e ? Dessinez vos sous-regions sur l a c a r t e de base et indiquez ce que vous considerez comme etant " v o t r e " region. Dites-moi pourquoi vous avez s u b d i v i s e l a carte de c e t t e facon (pourquoi vous en etes venus a d e f i n i r ces sous-regions?). Raison ( s ) : (CANADA TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS - N«T«S« No.31S«W«, 31S»E«) A p p e n d i x 2 R e a l d i s t a n c e m a t r i c e s 187 Straight Line Distances: Miles iH s « CQ rH OJ rH 60 u las HS c g CO •H lill T3 P CO c B .antagene a) miwakj Amprioi :tawa-l ick.ingt tilths I ;mptvi] rockvi] jdensbi >rth Di Metcalfe ibrun e rH 0) CO CO jcklanc .antagene igwi. HS tssena >rnwal] Llliams Lexandi tnkleer twkesbt ichute Lgaud mtrea] illeyfi 2 Amprioi o aa in aa o Metcalfe w CJ OS H u 3 < > £ _a OS X. > fH CM CO m 00 o> o rH rH CN rH n rH rH m vo rH CO ON rH o CN rH CN CN CN CT) CN CN in CN 1 . Maniwaki 68 68 60 102 95 124 119 94 78 83 81 63 74 93 111 107 107 99 85 86 89 100 122 116 2. Arnpr ior 31 47 40 45 67 68 59 47 56 63 53 68 75 83 88 92 86 85 87 100 103 134 111 3. Ot tawa-Hull 19 38 27 56 50 29 16 23 32 22 35 41 51 55 58 55 53 56 69 70 100 80 4. Buckingham 57 41 70 62 35 25 23 25 6 21 37 52 52 51 43 37 39 53 55 85 68 5. Smiths Falls 21 27 30 38 35 45 54 58 66 57 56 64 73 74 80 85 98 94 123 97 6. Kemptville 29 24 19 17 25 34 40 48 37 38 45 53 53 60 65 78 73 102 77 7. Brockville 12 40 46 52 59 69 75 56 46 56 68 72 83 89 99 92 118 90 8. Ogdensburg 29 37 42 47 60 63 43 34 44 55 60 70 76 88 80 106 78 9. North Dundas HS 14 13 19 32 34 19 23 28 35 35 43 49 60 55 84 58 10. Metcalfe 9 20 24 31 27 35 39 44 41 45 50 62 60 90 66 11. Embrun. 10 19 23 19 31 32 35 32 35 40 52 50 81 56 12. Casselman 19 16 12 28 27 28 22 26 31 43 40 71 47 13. Rockland 14 32 47 46 45 36 31 34 47 48 78 62 14. Plantagenet 25 42 37 34 24 17 19 32 34 65 47 15. Tagwi HS 17 14 17 17 27 34 44 37 65 39 16. Massena 10 22 29 43 49 57 47 73 43 17. Cornwall 11 20 35 41 48 38 62 34 18. Williamstown 11 26 32 37 27 52 24 19. Alexandria 14 21 28 20 49 25 20. Vankleek H i l l 6 17 17 47 31 21. Hawkesbury 13 17 47 34 22. Lachute 12 36 30 23. Rigaud 30 17 24. Montreal 29 25. Valleyfield 188 Straight Line Distances: Kilometres CO CO c H^ rH rd 4J s •H U iH £ <u 01 TJ CD 0 io >, rH 3 (0 u c c C 4J •H u ID •rH S-l a x: EM rH 3 3 co TJ ID C/l CO U 3 •H X "0 tr> •H -rH _a tn Q E C Oi 10 6 TJ CD a CD T3 ro CM (0 •rH m c 01 > > IB id c io io C CD 10 +J 0) >i u •rH . c •p X c rC (0 9 0) rH -U •H 0) 3 •rl CO ta 3 3 u ID •5 a, 3 X 4J OJ u 0) XI o U ul C S 10 C rH X M ro 4J rH c c •P o •rH E 0 TJ u 4-> CO o it) & (0 M CD 3 U cn c rd rH ' 3 E <U u E?1 0 0) 10 q ID id O •H H 10 ro •5 •H 0 10 E < o CQ O z s & u a P* f-i a O s < > X . J £ E > rH m •c in r- CO m o CN n in CD r~ CO cn O in H rH rH CN CN CN CN 1. Maniwaki 110 109 96 164 153 199 191 151 126 134 130 102 119 150 178 173 172 160 136 139 144 161 197 187 2. Ar nprior 50 76 65 73 108 109 95 75 90 102 86 109 121 134 141 148 138 137 140 161 165 216 179 3. Ottawa-Hull 30 61 43 90 81 47 26 37 52 35 56 66 82 89 93 88 85 90 111 112 161 129 4. Buckingham 92 66 113 100 56 40 37 40 10 33 60 84 83 82 69 60 63 85 88 136 110 5. Smiths F a l l s 33 43 49 61 57 72 87 93 107 92 90 103 118 119 129 137 157 151 198 156 6. Kemptville 47 38 30 28 40 55 65 78 60 61 73 86 86 97 105 125 118 164 124 7 . Brockville 19 65 74 83 95 111 120 90 74 90 109 116 133 143 160 148 190 145 8. Ogdensburg 47 60 67 76 97 102 70 55 71 88 97 113 123 141 129 171 126 9. North Dundas HS 22 21 30 51 55 30 37 45 56 57 69 79 97 89 135 94 10. Metcalfe 15 32 38 50 43 57 63 71 66 72 80 100 97 145 106 11. Embrun 16 31 37 30 50 52 57 51 56 65 84 80 130 90 12. Casselman 31 26 20 45 43 45 36 42 50 70 65 114 76 13. Rockland 23 51 76 74 73 58 50 54 75 78 126 100 14. Plantagenet 40 67 60 55 38 27 31 52 55 104 76 15. Tagwi HS 28 23 27 27 44 54 71 59 105 63 16. Massena 16 35 47 69 79 91 76 117 70 17. Cornwall 18 32 56 66 77 61 100 55 18. Williamstown 18 42 52 60 43 83 38 19. Alexandria 23 34 45 32 79 41 20. Vankleek H i l l 10 28 28 76 50 21. Hawkesbury 21 28 76 54 22. Lachute 20 58 48 23. Rigaud 49 28 24. Montreal 47 25. V a l l e y f i e l d 189 Most Probable Route Distances: Miles n.b. Only regional roads and highways, except for some small roads for l o c a l t r i p s . 3 f e r r i e s considered 190 Most Probable Route Distances: Kilometres u i -D r-. CO CTl O fH CM CN 1 Maniwaki \ 192 135 161 202 184 244 225 190 166 176 192 177 197 220 257 239 247 240 236 230 246 268 323 297 2 Arnprior \ 57 97 71 82 121 123 113 88 105 114 99 123 144 172 161 169 162 160 157 182 190 245 215 3 Ottawa-Hull 40 67 49 109 90 55 31 41 57 42 62 85 122 104 112 105 101 95 120 133 188 162 4. Buckingham \ 107 89 149 130 95 71 81 97 19a 44* 125 162 144 138 115 88 77 95 109 163 144 5. Smiths Falls 38 50 81 72 69 86 103 109 129 104 131 147 166 131 158 164 189 196 247 201 6. Kemptville 58 42 34 34 51 68 92 112 66 90 95 101 93 120 131 156 130 195 149 7. Brockville 32 78 92 109 126 151 171 100 82 98 117 140 168 178 203 175 198 152 8. Ogdensburg 62 83 100 117 132 152 85 55 75 99 122 149 160 185 157 180 134 9. North Dundas HS 30 30 45 97 81 32 79 58 67 59 86 97 122 96 158 112 10. Metcalfe 17 34 73 71 61 98 82 89 82 78 89 114 110 164 139 11. Embrun 17 52 54 40 84 64 72 65 61 72 97 93 147 122 12. Casselman 45 37 30 69 49 57 50 46 57 82 78 132 107 13. Rockland 24 65 112 92 87 78 67 56 81 86 141 135 14. Plantagenet 50 88 68 63 54 37 34 59 64 119 111 15. Tagwi HS 46 26 35 27 54 65 90 64 126 80 16. Massena 20 44 67 94 105 130 102 125 79 17. Cornwall 24 47 74 85 110 82 105 59 18. Williamstown 22 50 61 86 59 89 41 19. Alexandria 27 38 63 37 104 57 20. Vankleek H i l l 11 36 30 85 65 21. hawkesbury 25 32 87 67 22. Lachute 2 7 a 64 62a 23. Rigaud 55 35 24. Montreal 60 25. Valleyfield n.b. Only regional roads and highways considered, except for some small roads for local trips ferries considered 191 Most Probable Travel Times: Minutes CD X 0 •H JS 1-1 O i-Hull igham t Falls rille rille iburg Dundas CD CM Loan a igenet w X cd rH rH imstown cdria ;ek HilJ jbury 0) :real ffield 10 r-l i t-i iH _c r* 4-1 6 j= 3 3 cu rH u iH Ol s •H CO rH cu 3 *3 :real 01 s Amp 4-1 O Smit t o Ogde M CO U CO « Mass M rH a) B 1 U 00 B rH Amp o CQ Smit ca Ogde Z s o u Cc H Mass 3 3 < > X 3 a X > rH CO <r m vO CO CJV o I-t rH rH CN rH CO rH -cr rH m rH vo rH rH OO rH av H O CN rH CN CM CM CO CN -cr CN CO CN 1. Maniwaki \147 103 123 154 140 168 177 145 127 121 132 135 150 152 182 165 170 166 180 176 188 204 223 205 2. Arnprior v 36 67 54 63 92 99 86 67 72 72 68 85 91 113 101 106 102 101 108 126 131 154 135 3. Ottawa-Hull 51 37 75 74 42 24 26 35 32 47 53 82 65 70 66 62 60 92 81 115 102 4. Buckingham \ 8 2 68 103 104 73 54 51 61 45a 64 a 79 107 91 105 88 67 59 73 75 112 99 5. Smiths F a l l s 38 56 55 53 66 79 83 98 79 95 92 104 100 121 125 144 135 155 126 6. Kemptville 36 37 26 26 39 52 70 85 50 74 60 64 71 92 100 119 90 123 94 7. Brockville 25 49 58 69 79 104 118 63 57 60 71 88 106 112 128 110 121 93 8. Ogdensburg 44 57 68 79 106 101 58 42 57 66 82 99 106 121 104 115 87 9. North Dundas HS 23 23 34 74 62 24 65 44 51 45 66 74 93 66 99 70 10. Metcalfe 13 26 56 49 47 67 52 68 63 49 56 72 69 103 87 11. Embrun 13 40 41 31 69 49 55 41 38 45 61 58 92 77 12. Casselman 34 23 21 53 34 39 31 28 36 52 48 80 67 13. Rockland 18 50 90 70 66 54 51 43 62 59 89 85 14. Plantagenet 38 72 52 48 37 28 26 45 41 75 72 15. Tagwi HS 40 20 27 21 34 41 57 40 79 50 16. Massena 20 33 47 64 71 91 69 81 54 17. Cornwall 15 30 47 55 71 52 64 36 18. Williamstown 17 38 47 66 37 55 25 19. Alexandria 21 29 48 23 65 36 20. Vankleek H i l l 8 27 19 52 41 21. Hawkesbury 19 20 54 42 22. Lachute 36 40 60 23. Rigaud 34 27 24. Montreal 37 25. V a l l e y f i e l d n.b. Speeds used: (1) regional network (R) - 1.31 Km/m., (2) mixed >R - 1.45 , (3) mixed >H - 1.59 , (4) highway (H) - 1.64 (+ 5 minutes for international borders). 3 ferry - + 30 minutes A p p e n d i x 3 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e schemas formed the l e v e l o f each s c h o o l ( f r o m s i m i l a r i t y d a t a SURGRO) n.b. P l a c e l a b e l s : M o n t r e a l - Mont O t t a w a - H u l l - OtHu C o r n w a l l - Corn V a l l e y f i e l d - V a i l B r o c k v i l l e - B r o k Massena - Mass L a c h u t e - L a c h Buckingham - Buck Smiths F a l l s - S F a l Ogdensburg - Ogde Hawkesbury - Hawk A r n p r i o r - Arnp M a n i w a k i - Mani R o c k l a n d - Rock A l e x a n d r i a - A l e x K e m p t v i l l e - Kemp Ri g a u d - R i g d Embrun - Embr V a n k l e e k H i l l - V H i l Casselman - Cass P l a n t a g e n e t - P l a n L a n c a s t e r - Lane Avonmore - Avon C h e s t e r v i l l e - Ches Hawkesbury Corn S i z e Otrfu Mont • V a i l kLach Mani • P o l i t i c a l k n o w l s i z e Buck R i g d P l a n t a g e n e t ho o o 202 A p p e n d i x 4 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s paces o f each s c h o o l M a n i Avonmore 204 Mani Hawkesbury M a n i Buck? A l e x a n d r i a 208 Mani Buck P l a n t a g e n e t Buck C o r n w a l l 

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