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Form and content in Rembrandt’s early raising of Lazarus theme Harvey, Christl Marcia 1980

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FORM AND CONTENT IN REMBRANDT'S EARLY RAISING OF LAZARUS THEME by C h r i s t l M a r i a Harvey B.F.A., Drake U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The Department o f F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1980 (C) C h r i s t l M a r i a Harvey, 1980 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for r e f e r e n c e and study . I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h is representat ives. It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FlAjB ARTS The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 11. l<j SO ABSTRACT In the formative period of h i s career Rembrandt completed three works dealing with the theme of the re s u r r e c t i o n of Lazarus: the 1630 drawing, the painting c i r c a 1630, and the etching of approximately 1631. A discussion involving the dating of Rembrandt's painting and etching focuses on the chronology of his 1630 drawing, and Jan Lievens* etching and painting of the same theme. The discussion i n s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e of Rembrandt's treatment of the miracle has been li m i t e d p r i m a r i l y to compositional analysis and to the questions addressing the dating chronology. No previous study approaches the icono-graphy of the subject. In t h i s thesis an examination of the theme reveals that Rembrandt's depiction follows the type which i n t e r p r e t s the r a i s i n g of Lazarus as a key to the achievement of eternal l i f e through f a i t h i n C h r i s t . Chapter I introduces and describes the works, notes the legends associated with the Lazarus narrative, summarizes and c i t e s the o r i g i n a l text, and closes with a h i s t o r y of the l i t e r a t u r e . A s e l e c t i o n of works dating from the 2nd to 15th centuries i s examined i n Chapter II to e s t a b l i s h the e a r l i e r p i c t o r i a l t r a d i t i o n and describe motifs common to the depiction of t h i s n a r r a t i v e . Chapter III i s o l a t e s and defines d i s t i n c t Southern and Northern types which appear i n the 16th century. i i In Chapter IV, two of Rembrandt's immediate composition-a l sources, Jan Lievens and P i e t e r Lastman, are i n v e s t i g a t e d . Following a b r i e f c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r personal associa-. t i o n with Rembrandt, several stages i n the development of Rembrandt's conception are explored, contrasting his work with these e a r l i e r sources. As a r e s u l t of t h i s examination i t . i s possible to i s o l a t e the compositional elements Rembrandt was attracted to as well as those which he rejected. The analysis also reveals several aspects of the painting and etching which suggest contrasting influences; these."serve as valuable clues to the doctrines lying' behind them. In the f i n a l chapter I consider the meaning of t h i s theme of r a i s i n g from the dead. The analysis i s divided into two parts. In the f i r s t I review the present scholarship regarding the function of the theme's e a r l i e r t r a d t i o n s . Three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s emerge from t h i s broad perspective: 1) the narrative i s understood simply as a miracle, though Chris t ' s most spectacular, 2) i t embodies a hope of future r e s u r r e c t i o n and promise of r e b i r t h , and 3) i t acts as a symbol of s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h on earth. Although the delineations are not extremely c l e a r - c u t , each of the three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s appears to gain precedence at various times i n h i s t o r y . In part two I consider how Rembrandt's narrative may have functioned i n e a r l y 17th century Holland. Here the outstanding v i s u a l elements i s o l a t e d in Chapter IV are c o n s i -dered i n conjunction with relevant r e l i g i o u s doctrine and i i i documents. Viewed together with the previous iconography t h i s analysis provides clues which suggest the theme's function in the e a r l y 17th century was to reveal that f a i t h i n C h r i s t was the key to eternal l i f e . i v Table of Contents L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i i Chapter I I Introduction and Description 1 II Lazarus Legends . . . . . 3 II I B i b l i c a l Text 6 IV Historiography 9 Chapter II I Introduction: E a r l y t r a d i t i o n s of Lazarus iconography 12 II Early C h r i s t i a n . . . . . 12 II I Byzantine: 6th to 14th centuries 14 la t e 14th centuries 15 IV 12th to 15th century, North . . . . . 16 Chapter III I 16th Century Southern Iconography . . . . . 20 II 16th Century Northern Iconography . . . . . 23 Chapter IV I Introduction . . . . . 29 II Early Collaboration of Jan Lievens . . . . . 30 III Jan Lievens . . . . . 31 IV Rembrandt's Modifications i n the Drawing and Painting 33 V Rembrandt's Etching and Lastman's Influence . . . . . 39 Chapter V: Conclusions I Early Iconography 1. Introduction . . . . . 45 2. Ea r l y C h r i s t i a n 45 3. Byzantine 48 4. 12th to 15th century, North 50 5. 16th century, North and South 52 II Rembrandt . . . . . 62 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 66 v Notes: Chapter I 107 Chapter II 110 Chapter I I I 112 Chapter IV 114 Chapter V 116 Selected Bibliography 119 Appendix . . . . . 126 Notes to Appendix . . . . . 128 v i L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e 4. F i g u r e 5. F i g u r e 6. F i g u r e 7. F i g u r e 8. F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e 10. F i g u r e 11. F i g u r e 12. F i g u r e 13. F i g u r e 14. F i g u r e 15. Rembrandt. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( p a n e l ) , c a . 1630, L.A. County Museum. Rembrandt. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( e t c h i n g ) , c a . 1631. Rembrandt. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( p a n e l , d e t a i l o f C h r i s t ' s f a c e ) , c a . 1630, L.A. County Museum. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , w a l l p a i n t i n g , c a . 240-250, S t . L u c i n a catacombs, Rome. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , s i l v e r r e l i e f , c o v e r o f a p y x i s , c a . 5 t h c., C a s t e l l o d i B r i v i o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , w a l l p a i n t i n g , D o m i t e l l a catacombs, c a . 4 t h c., Rome. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , i v o r y G o s p e l c o v e r from Murano, 9 t h c , N a t i o n a l Museum, Ravenna. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , S y r i a n i v o r y p y x i s , c a . 5 t h c , H e s s i s c h e s Landesmuseum, Da r m s t a d t . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , M a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t i o n , G o s p e l s o f S t . A u g u s t i n e , c a . 600, Monte C a s s i n o M o n a s t e r y . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , Codex P u r p u r e u s R o s s a n e n s i s , Rossano, C a l a b r i a , Ca. 575. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , w a l l p a i n t i n g , Monte C a s s i n o S c h o o l , c a . 1075-1100, S. A n g e l o i n F o r m i s , Rome. G i o t t o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , f r e s c o , A r e n a C h a p e l , c a . 1305, Padua. G i o v a n n i da M i l a n o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1365, S. C r o c e , F l o r e n c e . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , b r o n z e column, c a . 1015-22, H i l d e s h e i m C a t h e d r a l . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s . Bernward m i n i a t u r e , e a r l y 1 1 t h c , H i l d e s h e i m . v i i F i g u r e 16. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , Bohun m a n u s c r i p t Book o f Hours, c a . 1370-80, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , O x f o r d . F i g u r e 17. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , T r e s R i c h e s Heures du due  de B e r r y , c a . l a t e 14th c , Museum Conde, C h a n t i l l y . F i g u r e 18. N i c o l a s Froment. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1461, U f f i z i , F l o r e n c e . F i g u r e 19. A. van Ouwater. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , c a . 1450, B e r l i n - D a h l e m S t a t e Museum. F i g u r e 20. B r a m a n t i n o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , c a . 1504, K r e s s C o l l e c t i o n , New Y o r k . F i g u r e 21. Palma V e c c h i o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , c a . 1520, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , London. F i g u r e 22. S e b a s t i a n o d e l Piombo. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1517*-19, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , London. F i g u r e 23. G i o v a n n i A. Pordenone. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( m o s a i c ) , c a . 1529, S t . M a r k s , V e n i c e . F i g u r e 24. F e d e r i c o Z u c c a r o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( f r e s c o ) , 1564, G r i m a n i C h a p e l , S. F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , V e n i c e . F i g u r e 25. C a v a l i e r e d ' A r p i n o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , c a . 1590, P a l a z z o B a r b e r i n i , Rome. F i g u r e 26. C a r a v a g g i o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1 6 0 8 - 9 , N a t i o n a l Museumf M e s s i n a . F i g u r e 27. J e a n B o u r d i c h o n . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , Hours o f  Anne o f B r i t t a n y , 1511, B i b l i o t h e q u e Nationale. P a r i s . F i g u r e 28. J a n C o r n e l l s Vermeyenc. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , B e l g i u m R o y a l Museum o f F i n e A r t s , B r u s s e l s , 1530. F i g u r e 29. F. P o u r b o u s . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , Tournay C a t h e -d r a l , c a . 1573. F i g u r e 30. Lu c a s van Leyden. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , L e i d e n , P r i n t r o o m , c a . 1508. v i i i F i g u r e 31. Lu c a s C r a n a c h , t h e Younger ( c o p y ) . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s t 1558, l o c a t i o n unknown, photo s o u r c e : G . S c h i l l e r . I c o n o g r a p h y o f A r t . F i g u r e 32. C o r n e l i u s C o r t . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , n.d., e n g r a v i n g a f t e r F e d e r i c o Z u c c a r o , B r i t i s h Museum. F i g u r e 33. Abraham B l o e m a e r t . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( d r a w i n g ) , n.d., L e i p z i g Museum d e r b i l d e n d e n K u e n s t e . F i g u r e 34. J a n M u l l e r . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , n.d., e n g r a v i n g a f t e r Abraham B l o e m a e r t , P r i n t r o o m , Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. F i g u r e 35. T. J . Wtewael. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , n.d., P a l a c e o f F i n e A r t s , L i l l e , F r a n c e . F i g u r e 36. P i e t e r Lastman. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1622, M a u r i t s h u i s , t h e Hague. F i g u r e 37. J a n L i e v e n s . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( e t c h i n g ) , c a . 1619, P r i n t r o o m , Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. F i g u r e 38. Rembrandt, The Entombment o f C h r i s t , ( d r a w i n g ) , 1630, B r i t i s h Museum, London. F i g u r e 39. J a n L i e v e n s . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1631, A r t G a l l e r y , B r i g h t o n . F i g u r e 40. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , Andrews D y p t y c h , 5 t h c , V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, London. F i g u r e 41. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , L u n g a r a S a r c o f a g u s , c a . 4 t h c , Le Terme Museum, Rome. i x 1 C h a p t e r I I . I n t r o d u c t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n ; The R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s by Rembrandt, now i n t h e Los A n g e l e s County Museum ( F i g u r e 1 ) , o i l on p a n e l , measures 2 93.7 x 81.1 cm. T h i s p a i n t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y d a t e d about 3 1630. I t i s f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d by t h e e t c h i n g ( F i g u r e 2) d a t e d about 1631-2. 4 An i n i t i a l assessment o f the p a i n t e d and e t c h e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i m m e d i a t e l y r e v e a l the same major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g e l e m e n t s . The f i r s t t o be n o t e d f o c u s e s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f C h r i s t . I n b o t h w o r k s , C h r i s t , the m i r a c l e w o r k e r , p r o p o r t i o n a l l y 5 o v e r l i f e - s i z e , a c t s as a " m a g i c i a n . " I n t h e p a i n t i n g he s t a n d s b e h i n d the tomb f a c i n g t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h h i s r i g h t arm r a i s e d i n a p o w e r f u l g e s t u r e . He does not wear an e x p r e s s i o n o f c a l m a s s u r a n c e i n h i s d i v i n e power o v e r d e a t h , b u t s t a r e s as though i n a t r a n c e . I n s t e a d o f f o c u s i n g s t e a d i -l y on L a z a r u s , C h r i s t l o o k s w i t h wide-open eyes downward toward L a z a r u s , not d i r e c t l y a t him. C h r i s t ' s brow i s f u r r o w e d ( F i g u r e 3 ) , as though a d i v i n i t y had t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n o r d e r g t o a c h i e v e a m i r a c l e . I n the e t c h i n g C h r i s t s t a n d s w i t h h i s l e f t hand r a i s e d i n an e q u a l l y p o w e r f u l g e s t u r e . Due t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f h i s head C h r i s t ' s e x p r e s s i o n i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y v i s i b l e , b u t i t seems t o be q u i e t e r than i t a p p e a r s i n t h e p a i n t i n g . L a z a r u s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n b o t h works as a f u l l y - d r a p e d 2 wakening corpse grasping the sides of the ground-level tomb as he p u l l s himself forward. His attention i s directed not only away from the observers, but also away from C h r i s t . In the etching, Lazarus acknowledges neither the presence of a kneeling female fig u r e (perhaps one of his s i s t e r s ) placed only a few feet i n front and to his r i g h t , nor the f i g u r e on his l e f t , who leans with outstretched arms over the sarcopha-gus. He i s mentally a l e r t : his eyes are c l e a r l y open and his mouth formed as though i n speech. In contrast, the painting shows Lazarus* e y e l i d s about three quarters open with his l i p s s l i g h t l y separated; though not f u l l y a l e r t , he i s s u f f i c i e n t l y conscious to be aware of his own awakening. Rembrandt c l u s t e r s the witnesses around the sarcophagus. They each show a varying degree of surprise and awe at the spectacle of Lazarus' body coming to l i f e . A majority of the figures i n the painting are placed to the l e f t of the tomb, with the suggestion of a kneeling female f i g u r e i n the f o r e -ground. A greater amount of l i g h t f a l l s on the witnesses and 7 Lazarus than on C h r i s t . In addition to the sing l e kneeling female figure i n the r i g h t foreground, the spectators i n the etching are placed i n two c l u s t e r s , one group to the l e f t behind C h r i s t , the other to the r i g h t behind the tomb. The attention of the spectators i n both works i s focused on Lazarus, with one exception: i n the etching a sing l e f i g u r e looks toward C h r i s t ; he i s one of the group of figures situated d i r e c t l y behind the Saviour. 3 A further element common to both the painting and etching i s the background wall - on i t hang a quiver f u l l of arrows, a sword, and a bow. I I . Lazarus Legends; The d e s c r i p t i o n of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus and the events leading up to i t f a l l within the Gospel of John, Chapter 11, verses 1 to 45. Notably, t h i s event i s not mentioned i n the g Synoptic Gospels, although two other r a i s i n g s from the dead, 9 10 those of Jarius and of Nain, are described. The omission from the Synoptic Gospels of what must have been the most astounding of Ch r i s t ' s miracles has prompted many theologians to question the h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y of the theme. Some scholars suggest that John fab r i c a t e d the story. His s t y l e of gospel exposition i s highly symbolic; i t has been ;proposed that the miracle, as the seventh and l a s t of the Johnannine "signs*" i s used as a c l i m a c t i c symbol of the 11 future death and resurr e c t i o n of C h r i s t . This suggestion i s reinforced when one considers that John has created a great amount of dramatic tension by d e l i b e r a t e l y delaying C h r i s t ' s a r r i v a l u n t i l Lazarus has been 12 dead f o r four days. A popular b e l i e f of the time was that the soul and body separated a f t e r three days, with no hope of r e s u s c i t a t i o n . Other recorded r a i s i n g s had been of 13 persons only recently dead. Lazarus' r e s u r r e c t i o n i s hence magnified not only as the greatest of the r a i s i n g s , but as the greatest of the miracles. 4 A more serious objection to the h i s t o r i c a l a u t h e n t i c i t y of the theme i s the silence of the other evangelists, p a r t i c u -l a r l y that of Luke, who knew of the s i s t e r s , Martha and Mary, 14 but not of Lazarus. Furthermore, the f a c t that Lazarus i s not mentioned i n any other context within the b i b l i c a l text throws addi t i o n a l doubt on the theme's a u t h e n t i c i t y . Some scholars have sought an explanation of the story's o r i g i n i n connection with the parable of the poor man Lazarus 15 of Dives. Jesus gave the name "Lazarus" to the sick and miserable man who lay at the gate, longing i n vain f o r the 16 "crumbs that f e l l from the r i c h man's table." When both men died, Lazarus was borne by an angel to heaven, the r i c h man to the torments of Hades. Suffering g r e a t l y , the r i c h man asked i f his brothers could be spared t h i s pain by warning them of the consequences of t h e i r s e l f i s h actions. He was t o l d , however, that i f his brothers "do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither w i l l they be convinced i f someone 17 should r i s e from the -dead." While i t has been argued that the r a i s i n g originated as an i l l u s t r a t i o n r e i n f o r c i n g the parable's lesson, t h i s explanation does not account f o r the association of Mary and Martha with Lazarus, f o r which no 18 the o l o g i c a l motive can be di s t i n g u i s h e d . Lazarus of Bethany i s hence not to be confused with St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, the poor man " f u l l of sores" of the parable. In the middle ages the poor man of the parable became St. Lazarus, patron of beggars and lepers. This 5 m i l i t a r y o r d e r o f h o s p i t a l l e r k n i g h t s s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y i n the form o f two s e p a r a t e o r d e r s o f m e r i t and k n i g h t h o o d i n I t a l y and F r a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l p o i n t s s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l e g e n d s s u r r o u n d i n g L a z a r u s o f Bethany. A l t h o u g h the B i b l e t e l l s us n o t h i n g o f h i s l a t e r l i f e , and few, i f any, f a c t s a r e known, two l e g e n d s have d e v e l o p e d . I n E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n he, h i s s i s t e r s , and o t h e r s who were s a i d t o have been p u t on a l e a k i n g b oat by t h e Jews o f J a f f a m i r a c u l o u s l y l a n d e d s a f e l y on C y p r u s . L a z a r u s was made b i s h o p a t K i t i o n where he d i e d p e a c e f u l l y t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s l a t e r . I n 890 L a z a r u s * r e p u t e d r e l i c s were moved from Cyprus t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , where a c h u r c h and monastery were b u i l t i n h i s honor by Emperor Leo V I . I n t h e West L a z a r u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l e g e n d o f 19 S t . Mary Magdalen i n P r o v e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s 1 1 t h c e n t u r y l e g e n d , L a z a r u s and h i s s i s t e r s a r r i v e d i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t o f G a u l i n an o a r l e s s , r u d d e r l e s s b o a t . There L a z a r u s d e v e l o p e d a f o l l o w i n g and became b i s h o p o f M a r s e i l l e s . L a t e r m a r t y r e d , he was b u r i e d i n a cave o v e r w h i c h the abbey o f S t . V i c t o r was s u b s e q u e n t l y b u i l t . L a z a r u s r e l i c s , p r i n c i p a l l y a s k u l l , were t r a n s f e r r e d t o Autun and e n s h r i n e d t h e r e i n a new c a t h e d r a l i n 1146. Autun c a t h e d r a l r e m a i n s the p r i n c i p l e L a z a r u s s h r i n e i n Western E u r o p e . 6 I I I . B i b l i c a l Text: The complete text, taken from the King James t r a n s l a -t i o n f i r s t published i n 1611, London, appears below. In 1630 no Dutch t r a n s l a t i o n of the Bible had yet been published; hence i t i s not c e r t a i n which text Rembrandt , 20 may have used. In C h r i s t ' s three year ministry t h i s deed stands as the f i n a l miracle he performed before the Last Supper. When t h e i r brother Lazarus f e l l i l l , Mary and Marthafof 21 Bethany sent f o r C h r i s t . Because the Jews had rec e n t l y 22 attempted to stone C h r i s t f o r blasphemy the d i s c i p l e s feared f o r his and t h e i r l i v e s and therefore wished to avoid Judaea. Nonetheless, the party proceeds, and not f a r outside Jerusalem, C h r i s t performs the r a i s i n g , some f i f t e e n 23 furlongs (lh miles) o f f the road to Bethany. I t i s to t h i s miracle that John a t t r i b u t e s the de c i s i o n of the High P r i e s t s and Pharisees to k i l l C h r i s t , f o r many Jews were converted by the deed; they "Had seen the things 24 which Jesus d i d , (and) believed on him. M .The Sanhedrin, fearing C h r i s t ' s power, "took co u n c i l together f o r to put 25 him to death." "For t h i s man doeth many miracles. I f we l e t him thus alone, a l l men w i l l believe on him: and the 26 Romans s h a l l come and take away both our place and nation." The other evangelists, probably following Mark 11:18, a t t r i b u t e the Pharisees' anger to Jesus' act of cleansing 27 the temple of the merchants and money changers. The complete text describing the events leading to the 7 r a i s i n g , the d e s c r i p t i o n of the resu r r e c t i o n i t s e l f and the decision of the Sanhedrin, follows: Chaper 11 Now a c e r t a i n man was s i c k , named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her s i s t e r Martha. 2 (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her h a i r , whose brother Lazarus was sick.) 3 Therefore his s i s t e r s sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest i s s i c k . 4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness i s not unto death, but f o r the glory of God, that the Son of God might be g l o r i f i e d thereby. 5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her s i s t e r , and Lazarus. 6 When he had heard therefore that he was s i c k , he abode two days s t i l l i n the same place where he was. 7 Then a f t e r that s a i t h he to his d i s c i p l e s , Let us go into Judaea again. 8 His d i s c i p l e s say unto him, Master, the Jews of l a t e sought to stone thee: and goest thou t h i t h e r again? 9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours i n the day? If any man walk i n the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the l i g h t of t h i s world. 10 But i f a man walk i n the night, he stumbleth, because there i s no l i g h t i n him. 11 These things said he: and a f t e r that he s a i t h unto them, Our f r i e n d Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. 12 Then said his d i s c i p l e s , Lord, i f he sleep, he s h a l l do we 11. 13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest i n sleep. 14 Then said Jesus unto them p l a i n l y , Lazarus i s dead. 15 And I am glad f o r your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless l e t us go unto him. 16 Then said Thomas, which i s c a l l e d Didymus, unto his fellow" d i s c i p l e s , Let us also go, that we may die with him. 17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he had l a i n i n the grave four days already. 18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about f i f t e e n f u r -longs o f f : 19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning t h e i r brother. 20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat s t i l l i n the house. 21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, i f thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. 22 But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou w i l t ask of God, God w i l l give i t thee. 23 Jesus s a i t h unto her, Thy brother s h a l l r i s e again. 8 24 M a r t h a s a i t h u n t o him, I know t h a t he s h a l l r i s e a g a i n i n the r e s u r r e c t i o n a t the l a s t day. 25 J e s u s s a i d u n t o h e r , I am t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n , and t h e l i f e he t h a t b e l i e v e t h i n me, though he were dead, y e t s h a l l he l i v e : 26 And whosoever l i v e t h and b e l i e v e t h i n me s h a l l n e v e r d i e . B e l i e v e s t thou t h i s ? 27 She s a i t h u n t o him, Yea, L o r d : I b e l i e v e t h a t thou a r t the C h r i s t , the Son o f God, w h i c h s h o u l d come i n t o t h e w o r l d . 28 And when she had so s a i d , she went h e r way, and c a l l e d Mary h e r s i s t e r s e c r e t l y , s a y i n g , The M a s t e r i s come, and c a l l e t h f o r t h e e . 29 As soon as she heard t h a t , she a r o s e q u i c k l y , and came un t o him. 30 Now J e s u s was not y e t come i n t o the town, b u t was i n t h a t p l a c e where M a r t h a met him. 31 The Jews th e n w h i c h were w i t h h er i n t h e house, and com-f o r t e d h e r , when t h e y saw Mary, t h a t she r o s e up h a s t i l y and went o u t , f o l l o w e d h e r , s a y i n g , She g o e t h u n t o the g r a v e t o weep t h e r e . 32 Then when Mary was come where J e s u s was, and saw him, she f e l l down a t h i s f e e t , s a y i n g u n t o him, L o r d , i f thou h a d s t been h e r e , my b r o t h e r had not d i e d . 33 When J e s u s t h e r e f o r e saw h e r weep i n g , and t h e Jews a l s o weeping w h i c h came w i t h h e r , he groaned i n t h e s p i r i t , and was t r o u b l e d . 34 And s a i d , Where have ye l a i d him? They s a i d u n t o him, L o r d , come and s e e . 35 J e s u s wept. 36 Then s a i d t h e Jews, B e h o l d how he l o v e d him! 37 And some o f them s a i d , C o u l d not t h i s man, w h i c h opened the eyes o f the b l i n d , have caused t h a t even t h i s man s h o u l d not have d i e d ? 38 J e s u s t h e r e f o r e a g a i n g r o a n i n g i n h i m s e l f cometh t o t h e g r a v e . I t was a c a v e , and a s t o n e l a y upon i t . 39 J e s u s s a i d , Take ye away t h e s t o n e . M a r t h a , t h e s i s t e r o f him t h a t was dead, s a i t h u n t o him, L o r d , by t h i s t i me he s t i n k e t h : f o r he h a t h been dead f o u r d a y s . 40 J e s u s s a i t h ' . u n t o h e r , S a i d I not u n t o t h e e , t h a t , i f thou w o u l d e s t b e l i e v e , thou s h o u l d e s t see t h e g l o r y o f God? 41 Then t h e y took away t h e s t o n e from t h e p l a c e where the dead was l a i d . And J e s u s l i f t e d up h i s e y e s , and s a i d , F a t h e r , I thank t h e e t h a t thou h a s t h e a r d me. 42 And I knew t h a t thou h e a r e s t me a l w a y s : b u t because o f the p e o p l e w h i c h s t a n d by I s a i d i t , t h a t t h e y may b e l i e v e t h a t thou h a s t s e n t me. 43 And when he t h u s had spoken, he c r i e d w i t h a l o u d v o i c e , L a z a r u s , come f o r t h . 44 And he t h a t was dead came f o r t h , bound hand and f o o t w i t h g r a v e c l o t h e s : and h i s f a c e was bound about w i t h a n a p k i n . J e s u s s a i t h u n t o them, Loose him, and l e t him go. 9 45 Then many o f the Jews w h i c h came t o Mary, and had seen the t h i n g s w h i c h J e s u s d i d , b e l i e v e d on him. 46 But some o f them went t h e i r ways t o t h e P h a r i s e e s , and t o l d them what t h i n g s J e s u s had done. 47 Then g a t h e r e d t h e c h i e f p r i e s t s and t h e P h a r i s e e s a c o u n c i l , and s a i d , What do we? f o r t h i s man d o e t h many m i r a c l e s . 48 I f we l e t him t h u s a l o n e , a l l men w i l l b e l i e v e on him: and the Romans s h a l l come and t a k e away b o t h o u r p l a c e and n a t i o n . 49 And one o f them, named C a i a p h a s , b e i n g t h e h i g h p r i e s t t h a t same y e a r , s a i d u n t o them, Ye know n o t h i n g a t a l l . 50 Nor c o n s i d e r t h a t i t i s e x p e d i e n t f o r u s , t h a t one man s h o u l d d i e f o r the p e o p l e , and t h a t the whole n a t i o n p e r i s h n o t . 51 And t h i s spake he not o f h i m s e l f : b u t b e i n g h i g h p r i e s t t h a t y e a r , he p r o p h e s i e d t h a t J e s u s s h o u l d d i e f o r t h a t n a t i o n : 52 And not f o r t h a t n a t i o n o n l y , b u t t h a t a l s o he s h o u l d g a t h e r t o g e t h e r i n one the c h i l d r e n - : o f God t h a t were s c a t t e r e d a b r o a d . 53 Then from t h a t day f o r t h t h e y took c o u n s e l t o g e t h e r f o r t o p u t him t o d e a t h . 54 J e s u s t h e r e f o r e w a l k e d no more o p e n l y among t h e Jews: b u t went thence u n t o a c o u n t r y near t o the w i l d e r n e s s , i n t o a c i t y c a l l e d E p h r a i m , and t h e r e c o n t i n u e d w i t h h i s d i s c i p l e s . 55 And the Jews' p a s s o v e r was n i g h a t hand: and many went o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y up t o J e r u s a l e m b e f o r e t h e p a s s o v e r , t o p u r i f y t h e m s e l v e s . 56 Then sought t h e y f o r J e s u s , and spake among t h e m s e l v e s , as t h e y s t o o d i n t h e t e m p l e , What t h i n k y e , t h a t he w i l l not come t o t h e f e a s t ? 57 Now b o t h t h e c h i e f p r i e s t s and t h e P h a r i s e e s had g i v e n a commandment, t h a t , i f any man knew where he were, he s h o u l d shew i t , t h a t t h e y might t a k e him. IV . H i s t o r i o g r a p h y : B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g f u r t h e r , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f o t h e r a r t h i s t o r i a n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s n a r r a t i v e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The theme i s g i v e n f u l l e r c o v e r a g e i n a r e a s o u t s i d e Rembrandt l i t e r a t u r e . B r i e f l y , P a n o f s k y , i n E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t - i n g , s u g g e s t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r CiQuwater's p a i n t i n g o f 28 1450. C a r a v a g g i o ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o 10 29 t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y t r a d i t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d by R i c h a r d S p e a r ; D e n i s Mahon a l s o d e a l s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i n "A l a t e C a r a v a g g i o 30 r e d i s c o v e r e d . " An a r t i c l e by G i o r g e H. de Loo t o u c h e s on t h e N e t h e r l a n d i s h i n f l u e n c e i n the F r e n c h s c h o o l o f a r t i s t s 3 3. 32 33 s u r r o u n d i n g N i c o l a s Froment. A l s o , M a l e , S c h i l l e r , and 34 K irschenbaum p r o v i d e v e r y u s e f u l i c o n o g r a p h i c s u r v e y s i n w h i c h t h e y o c c a s i o n a l l y advance i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the n a r r a -t i v e . F o c u s i n g on Rembrandt l i t e r a t u r e , the s u b j e c t i s r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d . I n o l d e r s c h o l a r s h i p , S a x l d e a l s w i t h the m i r a c l e i n "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " Pud H o l l a n d , 1 9 2 8 . 3 5 He p r i m a r i l y c o n s i d e r s t h e L i e v e n s p r o blem and d i s c u s s e s f o r m a l a n a l y s i s . Muntz's book, Die Kunst Rembrandt's und Goethes s e h e n , L e i p z i g , 1934, r e m a i n s the most p e n e t r a t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f f o r m a l a n a l y s i s , Muntz t o u c h e s on the theme's r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n 1957, the a r t h i s t o r i a n once a g a i n m e n t i o n s t h e s u b j e c t , though b r i e f l y , 37 i n "Rembrandt's V o r s t e l l u n g von A n t l i t z C h r i s t i . " 38 39 Two a r t i c l e s by Stechow and Johnson p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Los A n g e l e s A r t B u l l e t i n i n 1973 and 1974, r e s p e c t i v e l y , d e a l w i t h the p a i n t i n g . The e a r l i e r p a per p r o v i d e s a c o m p o s i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e d i f f e r i n g ; i o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e L i e v e n s p r o b l e m . J o h n s o n , a r e s t o r e r , d i s c u s s e s the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f the work, i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p a n e l and X - r a y s t a k e n o f the work. The most c u r r e n t i n - d e p t h s t u d y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t 36 11 i s by H. Guratzsch, "Die Untersicht a ls e i n Gestaltung-M 40 smittle i n Rembrandt's Fruhwerk," Pud Holland, 1975. 12 Chapter II I. Introduction: The following h i s t o r i c a l overview i s undertaken to e s t a b l i s h the e a r l y iconographic t r a d i t i o n of the Raising of Lazarus. The focus of the discussion w i l l be on the most t y p i c a l representative types of general time periods, with a b r i e f i n d i c a t i o n of any major divergent motifs. The three time periods to be dealt with i n t h i s chapter are 1) E a r l y C h r i s t i a n - 1st to 9th centuries; 2) Byzantine - 6th to e a r l y 14th centuries, with one example from the l a t e 14th century; and 3) the 12th to the 15th century North. In l a t e r chapters, both the 16th century Northern and Southern t r a d i t i o n s and Rembrandt and h i s immediate c i r c l e w i l l be examined. I t i s only a f t e r completing t h i s overview of the p i c t o r i a l t r a d i t i o n that elements of key iconographic s i g n i f i c a n c e emerge, the general s i g n i f i c a n c e of which w i l l not be discussed u n t i l the l a t t e r part of t h i s paper. I I . E arly C h r i s t i a n : The e a r l i e s t representative type to be considered spans the f i r s t to the ninth centuries. These i n i t i a l works are simple i n d e t a i l . In the St. Lucina catacombs outside Rome, (dated 240-250; Figure 4) only two f i g u r e s , Lazarus and C h r i s t , are present. The Saviour stands facing the viewer, with a wand i n his l e f t hand and his r i g h t arm r a i s e d , as Lazarus, wrapped t i g h t l y i n bands, stands erect at the entrance to a small aedicula. Similar samples of t h i s type are found i n 13 i l l u s t r a t i o n s f i v e and s i x . With few a l t e r a t i o n s , t h i s basic model remains constant u n t i l the 9th century. The most s i g n i f i c a n t innovation l i e s i n the abandonment of the wand. This instrument, with i t s magical association, i s oc c a s i o n a l l y replaced by a long 2 s t a f f , the top of which contains a cross (Figure 7). The s t a f f i s generally held i n the l e f t hand, however, freeing the r i g h t hand to form the gesture which revives Lazarus. The s t a f f was soon relinquished i n favor of the commanding gesture of the r i g h t hand, becoming the sole 3 instrument by which Lazarus i s raised from the dead. As :this theme's dramatic narrative develops, one nat u r a l l y witnesses the addition of greater numbers of f i g u r e s . Not only does t h i s permit a c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n of the moments i l l u s t r a t e d , but some v a r i e t y as w e l l . In the Hessisches Landesmuseum's 5th century Syrian ivory pyxis, (Figure 8), 4 one notes the presence now of both Mary and Martha. Further-more, the textual reference of the depiction i s very c l e a r : C h r i s t has given the order f o r the sepulchre door to be opened; Martha reacts by r a i s i n g the hem of her mantel^ thus r e f e r i n g to the words: "Lord by t h i s time he stinketh, f o r he g hath been dead four days." Yet another example dating from the 6th century i s the miniature of the Gospels of St., Augustine, Monte Cassino Monastery (Figure 9). This work i l l u s t r a t e s a l a t e r moment i n the story of Lazarus. Positioned at the entrance of a 14 s m a l l a e d i c u l e , a f u l l y r e s u r r e c t e d L a z a r u s s t a r e s open-eyed a t t h e w o r l d once a g a i n . I n t h i s example, t h e unbearded C h r i s t f i g u r e p e r f o r m s the m i r a c l e u n a i d e d by wand o r s t a f f , u s i n g i n s t e a d t h e s t r o n g g e s t u r e o f the u p r a i s e d r i g h t hand. I I I . B y z a n t i n e Type; 6 t h t o 14th c e n t u r i e s The B y z a n t i n e model, s p a n n i n g the y e a r s from th e 6 t h t o 1 4 t h c e n t u r i e s i s , l i k e i t s e a r l y C h r i s t i a n f o r e r u n n e r , o f E a s t e r n d e r i v a t i o n ; however, i t stems riot f r o m Greece o r 7 E g y p t , b u t from th e S y r o - P a l e s t i n e a r e a . The e a r l i e s t example i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s e new c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s the Codex P u r p u r e u s R o s s a n e n s i s i n C a l a b r i a , I t a l y , d a t e d c. 575 ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . Here the a d d i t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l i s more advanced. The t o t a l o f f o u r t o s i x f i g u r e s o f e a r l i e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s has now i n c r e a s e d t o a dozen o r more. F u r t h e r m o r e , two p a r t s o f t h e e p i s o d e w h i c h a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y o s e p a r a t e now appear i n one s c e n e . The m e e t i n g on t h e r o a d d u r i n g w h i c h Mary and M a r t h a i m p l o r e t h e S a v i o u r t o save t h e i r b r o t h e r i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d e p i c t e d w i t h t h e scene o f t h e r e s u r r e c t e d L a z a r u s s t a n d i n g i n t h e g r o t t o . Mary and M a r t h a ar e shown p r o s t r a t e a t C h r i s t ' s f e e t , as a group o f a p o s t l e s on C h r i s t ' s r i g h t w i t n e s s t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n w i t h awe and a g a t h e r i n g o f Jews on h i s l e f t r e m a i n unmoved by the s c e n e . A n o t h e r new f e a t u r e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a man u n t y i n g t h e g r a v e bandages w h i l e s h i e l d i n g h i s l o w e r f a c e ( t o m i n i m i z e th e odor o f the f o r m e r c a d a v e r . ) 9 These b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the S y r o - P a l e s t i n i a n 15 Byzantine model remain e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged through the 14th century. Two examples witnessing the same elements observed i n the 6th century Codex Rosanno are i n 12th century wall painting of S. Angelo i n Pormis (Figure 11), and i n the 14th century depiction by Giotto i n the Arena Chapel, Padua (Figure 12). Notwithstanding the consistency i n the repre-sentation of these elements through these centuries, several 10 other minor changes did occur. The modifications which serve p r i m a r i l y to give greater narrative d e f i n i t i o n are the r o l l i n g away of the stone, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the S. Angelo i n Formis wall painting and the representation of a f u l l e r landscape (frequently with the out l i n e of Bethany), depicted 11 i n both of these works. Thus, unlike the Early C h r i s t i a n type, the Byzantine model leaves no question as to which sequences are depicted; c l e a r l y , two h i s t o r i c a l l y separate sequences are presented as though occurring simultaneously. The reason t h i s basic model remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged throughout such an extend-ed time period w i l l be discussed i n Chapter V. Late 14th century: Giovanni da Milano's fresco of 1356 (Figure 13) i n S. Croce, Florence, presents the f i r s t c l e a r break from the 12 Byzantine model exemplified by the Giotto f r e s c o . The most s i g n i f i c a n t change i s i n the consolidation of the narrative moment. While Giotto depicts the two incidents of the b i b l i c a l story, the entreating of Mary and Martha and the r a i s i n g of Lazarus, as though occurring simultaneously, 16 G i o v a n n i o f f e r s a c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h i s more u n i f i e d . The r e q u e s t - r e s p o n s e o f two s e p a r a t e e p i s o d e s i s r e p l a c e d by more f l u i d i t y o f a c t i o n . L a z a r u s no l o n g e r s t a n d s t i g h t l y bound, as Mary and M a r t h a k n e e l a t C h r i s t l s f e e t ; he i s now d r a p e d i n a l o o s e l y f i t t i n g c l o t h , s t e p p i n g f o r w a r d o u t o f an above-ground s a r c o p h a g u s w i t h t h e h e l p o f two a s s i s t a n t s . H i s s i s t e r s , w i t h v a r y i n g g e s t u r e s , l o o k t o C h r i s t , who i n t u r n , l o o k s toward L a z a r u s . Twelve d i s c i p l e s , e ach w i t h nimbed head, g a t h e r on t h e r i g h t w h i l e t o the l e f t t h e Jews s t a n d a t the g a t e o f Bethany. I V . 12t h t o 1 5 t h c e n t u r y N o r t h Whereas the B y z a n t i n e image r e t a i n e d f a v o r i n I t a l y from the 6 t h t h r o u g h t h e 14th c e n t u r i e s , r e c e i v i n g s p o r a d i c use even i n t o the 15th c e n t u r y , a s e p a r a t e t r a d i t i o n d e v e l o p e d 13 i n N o r t h e r n E u r o p e . E s s e n t i a l l y t h r e e f a c t o r s d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s t y p e from t h e S o u t h e r n model. F i r s t , g e n e r a l l y f e w e r 14 f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , and s e c o n d , a g e n e r a l i n t e n s i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s occurs..; D i r e c t eye c o n t a c t between C h r i s t and L a z a r u s o r Mary and M a r t h a i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and o c c a s i o n a l l y , C h r i s t even g r a s p s L a z a r u s 1 hands. .. The most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e N o r t h e r n t r a d i t i o n , however, i n v o l v e s the image o f L a z a r u s : r a t h e r t h a n s t a n d i n g i n a g r o t t o o r l e a n i n g u p r i g h t i n t h e w a l l s o f a tomb, he i s 15 r e p r e s e n t e d s i t t i n g i n a c o f f i n . Examples i l l u s t r a t i n g t h i s d i s t i n c t N o r t h e r n t y p e a r e found i n an 11th c e n t u r y column ( F i g u r e 14) and i n t h e e a r l y 17 11th century i l l u s t r a t e d Bernward miniature (Figure 15) from Hildesheim. In the former, f i v e figures are present: C h r i s t , Lazarus and three witnesses. C h r i s t looks toward the viewer with his r i g h t arm stretched forward at waist l e v e l , while Lazarus, looking at C h r i s t , r i s e s to a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n i n response to his command. Behind them, three witnesses ges-t i c u l a t e vigorously, exp^pessing wonder at t h i s r a i s i n g from the dead. A further example i s found i n the 14th century Bohun manuscript, Bodleian L i b r a r y , Oxford (Figure 16). Although t h i s composition i s unusual i n i t s numerous f i g u r e s , the cen t r a l configuration of Lazarus and C h r i s t c l e a r l y d i s t i n -guishes i t as Northern. In a d i r e c t confrontation, C h r i s t , arms extended at waist l e v e l , looks down at Lazarus who, wrapped i n a loose shroud, slowly r i s e s . This model appears again i n the l a t e 14th century i l l u s t r a t e d manuscript, Tres Riches Heures du due de Berry, (Figure 17), presently located i n the Conde Museum, C h a n t i l l y . C h r i s t , pointing to the sky, gazes at Lazarus, who moves forward as two figures remove the c o f f i n l i d . As i n the Byzantine examples, d i f f e r e n t moments are i l l u s t r a t e d here as though occurring simultaneously: one of the s i s t e r s kneels, looking up at C h r i s t ; the other holds her nose. Thus, one can c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h the q u a l i t i e s described above as forming a Northern model. By the mid-l5th century a major change i s observable. In addition to the 18 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f L a z a r u s s t e p p i n g f o r t h i n r e s p o n s e t o C h r i s t ' s command, t h e r e a r e now r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f the moment 16 when C h r i s t g i v e s the command t o " u n t i e him." I n N i c o l a s Froment's t r i p t y c h o f 1461 ( F i g u r e 18) i n t h e U f f i z i , F l o r e n c e , L a z a r u s s i t s i n a sunken g r a v e , l o o k i n g toward t h e s k y , h i s l e g s o u t s t r e t c h e d and hands i n a p r a y i n g g e s t u r e . S t . P e t e r i s now f r e q u e n t l y seen a s s i s t i n g i n the u n t y i n g o f the b a n d s . ^ 7 As S c h i l l e r p o i n t s o u t , C h r i s t ' s command t o u n t i e L a z a r u s ' hands has been r e i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h the age s , f o r a t t h e tim e o f C h r i s t , " u n t y i n g " meant l o o s e n i n g o f t h e bands i n 18 w h i c h L a z a r u s ' body was wrapped. The command i s now r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t the r e s u r r e c t e d man's hands were l o c k e d i n a p r a y i n g g e s t u r e w h i c h c o u l d not be r e l a x e d u n t i l 19 t h e t i e was l o o s e n e d . A f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f L a z a r u s i s t h e g r e a t e r r e a l i s m ; h i s e m a c i a t e d body and sunken f a c e emphasize the t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e t h a t he has been 20 "dead f o r f o u r d a y s . " However, we see one o f t h e most r a d i c a l d e v i a t i o n s from the p r e c e d e n t i n a p a i n t i n g by Haarlem a r t i s t A. van Ouwater ( F i g u r e 1 9 ) , c. 1450, B e r l i n - D a h l e m S t a a t l i c h e Museum, w h i c h , as P a n o f s k y s t a t e s , " i s o f u n p a r a l l e l e d i c o n o g r a p h y i n t h e 22 h i s t o r y o f t h e theme." F i r s t mentioned by Max J . F r i e d l a n d e r 23 t h e p a i n t i n g i s l a t e r c o n s i d e r e d by P a n o f s k y . Here, one o f the numerous d e v i a t i o n s P a n o f s k y m e n t i o n s i s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n t e r i o r f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l o p e n - a i r 19 s e t t i n g . ^ This i n t e r i o r consists of a Romanesque c e n t r a l plan b u i l d i n g of a dome and ambulatory, the outer c a p i t a l s of which d e t a i l old testament s t o r i e s from the f l i g h t of Hagar and Ishmael to Moses giving the law. Furthermore, the composition i s s t r i c t l y f r o n t a l i z e d rather than unfold-25 ing l e f t to r i g h t . In addition, St. Peter i s given an unusually prominent r o l e , evenly d i v i d i n g the f a i t h f u l on 26 the l e f t and addressing the non-believers on the r i g h t . C e n t r a l l y placed, Lazarus faces the viewer rather than the Saviour; he i s presented not as one being raised from his grave, but as one who has r i s e n . The eminent a r t h i s t o r i a n continues: "So many deviations from precedent must be dic t a t e d 27 by a d e f i n i t e i n t e n t i o n ; " the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these deviations w i l l be discussed i n Chapter V. 20 Chapter III I . 16th Century Southern Icgn.ogr.aphy Although l i t t l e i s done with t h i s theme i n the South during the 15th century, during the 16th century, treatment of the subject regains major currency. At the turn of the century, strong elements of the Byzantine model remain. A work i n which some of the Giotto Byzantine elements l i n g e r i s the 1504 Bramantino painting (Figure 20), now i n the Kress C o l l e c t i o n , New York. As i n the Giovanni da Milano, the request-response i s replaced with a more u n i f i e d theme. Although not e n t i r e l y consolidated, two c l o s e l y linked, consecutive actions are represented: Lazarus r i s i n g to the point just before he i s commanded to step f o r t h , with the s i s t e r s thanking C h r i s t . Palma Vecchio's painting i n the U f f i z i , Florence, dated 1510 (Figure 21) i s somewhat more developed i n i t s unity of a c t i o n . The scene i s f l u i d : the s i s t e r s ' gestures c l e a r l y show s u r p r i s e . Lazarus r e c l i n e s , his body limp as he i s ass i s t e d from the sarcophagus* By 1519, Sebastiano del Piombo completed a monumental presentation now i n the National G a l l e r y i n London (Figure 22). This work plays a r o l e of major s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r several reasons. F i r s t , i t involves an important competition between Sebastiano and Michelangelo, on the one hand, and Raphael on the other. In 1516 the r i v a l r y of these two fa c t i o n s i s put to a d i r e c t comparative t e s t when Cardinal 21 G i u l i o de' Medici commissions Sebastiano to paint The Raising, and at the same time and on the same scale (3,81 x 2.89 cm.) engages Raphael to paint the Transf i g u r a t i o n, each work intended as a companion picture f o r G i u l i o * s diocese at Narbonne. The degree of Michelangelo's c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Sebastiano i s open to discussion; the evidence i s b r i e f l y examined i n Appendix I. Second, Sebastiano 1s model establishes a new precedent from which the basic layout and motifs are copied f o r over 2 a century. His depiction breaks away from these e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged Byzantine models and establishes a new model i n which C h r i s t ' s commanding pose and gesture dominate a l l other actions. C h r i s t ' s r i g h t arm, bent at the elbow, i s aimed toward the sky. His l e f t arm i s outstretched, h i s f o r e - f i n g e r pointing toward Lazarus. Lazarus i s no longer the mummified f i g u r e with sunken eyes of e a r l i e r representations, but a strong, muscular nude; with some assistance, he loosens his own shroud. The composition i s complex, b u i l t up through d i s t i n c t foreground, middleground and background groupings of the f i g u r e s . The foreground i s dominated by two groups: on the l e f t C h r i s t i s surrounded by Mary, Peter and other kneeling f i g u r e s ; on the r i g h t spectators e n c i r c l e Lazarus while three fi g u r e s help to untie his shroud. In the middleground, on the r i g h t and l e f t sides of the composition, stand a group of fi g u r e s deep i n conversation. 22 Giovanni Pordenone's mosaic of 1529, i n St. Marks, Venice (Figure 32), i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to Sebastiano*s composition. The figures of C h r i s t and Lazarus and the gestures of the two kneeling female witnesses between them evidence t h i s l i k e n e s s . Federico Zuccaro's Venetian fresco (Figure 24); of 1564, i n San Francesco d e l l a Vigna» i s among the most i n f l u e n t i a l 3 representations i n the l a t t e r part of the century. His design was so dynamic that elements were copied and modified by other a r t i s t s well i n t o the 17th century. Although his fresco may have been influenced by a painting a t t r i b u t e d to h i s older brother, Taddeo, which i s now i n the g a l l e r y at Pesaro, Zuccaro's ultimate debt i s to Sebastiano's model. Cavaliere d'Arpino's version of the miracle, now located i n the Palazzo Barberini, Rome,(Figure 25) contains several elements which are c l e a r l y modelled on Federico's composition: the pose of C h r i s t : the pose of Lazarus, with one leg i n the tomb and the other hanging outside; the pose of the kneeling s i s t e r s ; the pose of the fi g u r e embracing the molding of the Ionic base; and the positions of the groups of spectators on 4 ei t h e r s i d e . Some of the Zuccaro elements which appear i n the d'Arpino depiction are also u t i l i z e d by the former's great student, 5 Caravaggio. Caravaggio's painting, now located i n the National Museum, Messina, (Figure 26), i s dated 1608-9. 23 Spear" c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s that those innovative elements 7 8 9 which are i d e n t i f i e d by Priedlaender, Berenson and Wagner as unusual must derive from d'Arpino's little-known painting of the miracle, thus l i n k i n g his composition with t h i s strong 16th century t r a d i t i o n . The f i r s t of the features c i t e d as unusual involves Lazarus; i n both works, he i s posed i n an oblique p o s i t i o n and t o t a l l y nude, the c l e a r l y - d e t a i l e d movement of h i s 10 fi n g e r s echoing renewed l i f e . Further evidence indisputably supporting Spear's argu-ment that d'Arpino's painting i s linked to the 16th century t r a d i t i o n e x i s t s i n the form of the male f i g u r e holding the 11 stone covering of Lazarus' open tomb. Though t e x t u a l l y founded, the presence of t h i s f i g u r e i s rare a f t e r the 14th century. The p o s i t i o n and r o l e of the f i g u r e are i d e n t i c a l i n both paintings: standing between Lazarus and C h r i s t , he leans forward with bare arms diagonally outstretched, h i s head turned sharply to the l e f t . Another s i m i l a r i t y between the two paintings l i e s i n the choice of a grave beneath pavement. F i n a l l y , Caravaggio's Lazarus, l i k e d'Arpino's, i s surrounded by a group of spectators who gaze generally toward the centre of the composition rather than at C h r i s t . I I . 16th Century. Northern .Iconography -Lazarus iconography of the 16th century Northern t r a d i -t i o n presents a " t r u l y u n i q u e " 1 2 s i t u a t i o n . In France, as well as i n Holland and the_?Germanic countries, one moment of 24 the b i b l i c a l text i s represented almost e x c l u s i v e l y , that i s , 13 when C h r i s t commands others to "untie" Lazarus' bands. Although depictions of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r scene occur i n the 15th century, i t i s not u n t i l the 16th century that t h i s representation becomes so popular. Three examples i l l u s t r a t e the use of t h i s moment during the e a r l y , middle and l a t t e r parts of the century: 1) Jean Bourdichon, ca. 1511 (Figure 27) Hours of Anne of Brittany, Biblioteque Nationale, P a r i s ; 2) Jan Cornells Vermeyenc, ca. 1530 (Figure 28), Brussels Museum; and 3) F. Pourbus, ca. 1573 (Figure 29), Tournay Cathedral. In each work, Lazarus receives assistance i n untying his grave bands; from St. Peter i n the Bourdichon and Pourbus examples; and from Lazarus' s i s t e r , Martha, i n the C o r n e l l s . A second iconographic change at t h i s time involves the depiction of the cave. In the e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n Lazarus i s represented s i t t i n g i n a c o f f i n or sarcophagus. For the f i r s t time i n the North the b i b l i c a l text i s accurately portrayed: Jesus "came to the grave, i t was a cave and a 14 stone lay upon i t . " This contrasts strongly with the Southern t r a d i t i o n where the grotto appears as e a r l y as the 6th century i n the Byzantine type, f o r example, i n the Codex  Rossano. Lucas van Leyden's composition (Figure 30; Leiden Printroom) exemplifies the modifications described above. His composition i s simply designed, with Lazarus kneeling i n 25 front of the cave while Peter unties the bands around his outstretched arms. Having just given the command to untie Lazarus, C h r i s t looks skyward, possibly u t t e r i n g the words, 15 "Father, I thank thee that thou has heard me." The town of Bethany can be seen i n the r i g h t background. In the middleground, f i g u r e s walk toward the c e n t r a l action, as bystanders leaning against the trees look toward Lazarus. In the foreground, Mary and Martha stand on e i t h e r side of t h e i r brother. Lucas Cranachuthe Younger 1s painting, dated 1558 (Figure 31), may be considered the f i r s t d e p i c t ion by a Protestant a r t i s t . S c h i l l e r ' s assessment of the presentation seems to me quite accurate: placed i n the center, Lazarus s i t s on the edge of a sunken grave; i n the l e f t foreground, the f a m i l i e s of the donor, Meienburg, and his sons kneel; his daughter and f i r s t and second wives appear acrosss:from 16 him. To the l e f t of Lazarus, a group of reformers c l u s t e r around Luther. This group, as well as the assemblage gathered i n the churchyard, "represents the community of the reformed 17 church i n t h e i r b e l i e f i n the resurrected C h r i s t . " Further discussion of t h i s work appears i n Chapter V. Cornelius Cort's engraving (Figure 32) a f t e r Federico Zuccaro's design, brought the l a t t e r ' s model to the North 18 where i t s influence was seen i n many a r t i s t s ' works. Abraham Bloemaert's drawing (Figure 33) i n the Le i p z i g 19 Kupferstichkabinett was d i r e c t l y based on Cort's engraving. 26 Spreading Zuccaro's conception further was Jan Muller's 20 engraving (Figure 34), styl e d a f t e r Bloemaert*s. In the lat e 16th and e a r l y 17th centuries, two a r t i s t s i n Rembrandt's immediate c i r c l e , Pieter Lastman and J . S. Wtewael, were among those strongly influenced by these important copies of the Zuccaro model. 2 1 Many s i m i l a r i t i e s to Cort's engraving can be seen i n Bloemaert 1s work. Most s i g n i f i c a n t are those involving Lazarus: he s i t s on the edge of a ground-level grave with one leg dangling insi d e and the opposite foot r e s t i n g against the edge; a fi g u r e supports him as he leans back. One notable a l t e r a t i o n Bloemaert makes i s to p o s i t i o n Lazarus' hands so the t i p s of the fingers are pressed together i n a praying gesture. Other s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Cort engraving and Bloemaert drawing include the pose and gesture of C h r i s t , which, though presented i n reverse i n the Bloemaert, are otherwise i d e n t i c a l . In addi t i o n , i n the drawing, the fig u r e grasping the base of the Ionic column i s depicted facing us rather than with his back to us. Correspondingly i n Cort's engraving the heavily-draped, kneeling s i s t e r on Ch r i s t ' s l e f t i s depicted with her back to us. The open-air s e t t i n g of the miracle i s retained. Utrecht Mannerist J . A. Wtewael included many elements of the o r i g i n a l Zuccaro model i n h i s conception of the miracle (Figure 35), which i s now located i n the L i l l e Museum. One 27 may observe the continued use of the ground-level grave and a loosely-draped Lazarus with one leg i n the tomb and the other dangling at i t s edge. Once again, Lazarus leans back-ward, supported by another f i g u r e . As i n Cort's engraving, C h r i s t ' s l e f t hand holds his robe, Lazarus extends one arm forward, and the background i s an open-air s e t t i n g with roofs and t u r r e t s of Bethany. Most s t r i k i n g l y , the muscular f i g u r e standing i n f u l l view and dominating the l e f t h a l f of the composition i s repeated i n Wtewael's conception of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus. Elements of t h i s model continue to be u t i l i z e d by a r t i s t s up to Rembrandt's immediate predecessor and teacher, P i e t e r 22 Lastman. The key s i m i l a r i t i e s l i n k i n g t h i s model, signed and dated 1622, located i n the Mauritshuis, The Hague, (Figure 36) to the strong I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n l i e i n the motifs of Lazarus and C h r i s t . Lazarus' pose remains c l e a r l y derived from the Zuccaro model. Perhaps more f a m i l i a r with Muller's engraving, Lastman's Lazarus, again loosely wrapped i n a shroud, s i t s at the edge of his grave on a raised stone sarcophagus, one leg:positioned behind the other. The resurrected man leans against another f i g u r e f o r support; f i n g e r - t i p s touching i n a praying gesture, he stares vacuously in t o space. C h r i s t dominates the center of the composition. One arm i s upraised, the other holds the robe draped round him. Both the stone platform on the l e f t of the Muller engraving and the twig i n the foreground are repeated i n Lastman*s 28 pa i n t i n g . Rather than adopting the predominantly Southern t r a d i t i o n of an open-air s e t t i n g , Lastman borrows the bri c k arch of Muller's engraving, u t i l i z i n g i t i n the form of an arched entrance to the cave. 29 Chapter IV I . Introduction: Having established the Northern and Southern t r a d i t i o n s f o r depicting the r a i s i n g of Lazarus which were widely av a i l a b l e to Rembrandt i n Holland through copies, engravings and etchings, we are now prepared to examine the a r t i s t ' s treatment of the theme. A formal analysis of Rembrandt's work reveals how his concepts contrast with his immediate sources and shows the compositional q u a l i t i e s to which he was attracted, those which he rejected, and the elements he added i n t h e i r development. In t h i s way the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Rembrandt's conception to these 16th century Northern and Southern iconographic t r a d i t i o n s w i l l be more c l e a r l y defined. The f i r s t step i n determining Rembrandt's compositional goals i s to examine his creative adaptation of the depictions of the theme by two a r t i s t s i n his immediate c i r c l e : Jan Lievens and Pieter Lastman. F i r s t I w i l l propose that Lievens'• version dates before Rembrandt's dep i c t i o n s . That Lievens i s a primary source f o r Rembrandt may become apparent through a comparison of Rembrandt's painted version of the theme with Lievens' work. A study of Rembrandt's etched:* version reveals several fundamental s t y l i s t i c modifications which appear to r e l y on Lastman's, rather than Lievens', depiction of the-theme. 30 I I . The Early Collaboration of Jan Lievens and Rembrandt The close a r t i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between Lievens and Rembrandt has been well examined. Between 1624 and 1625 Rembrandt returned from Amsterdam to Leiden, where he shared a studio with Lievens. For approximately f i v e years the two a r t i s t s remained i n close contact with one another, working on s i m i l a r themes, sharing models, and o c c a s i o n a l l y working on each other's p r o j e c t s . Rembrandt departed f o r Amsterdam i n 1631 or 1632 and Lievens f o r London i n 1631. The contemporary appraisal of these two a r t i s t s * t a l e n t s , even at t h i s e a r l y point i n t h e i r careers, i s well documented. The young painters, who had not yet reached the age of twenty-2 f i v e , were singled out by Huygens as on a par with most a r t i s t s whom they would, furthermore, soon surpass. The c r i t i c observed that the young Rembrandt was superior to Lievens i n his a b i l i t y to depict expression of emotion and appropriate gesture and movement i n a small c a r e f u l l y worked-out p i c t u r e , while Lievens surpassed Rembrandt i n grandeur of invention and boldness. Huygens se l e c t s the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of Judas i n ^Rembrandt's Judas Returning the T h i r t y Pieces of S i l v e r of 1629 (signed and dated; i n the c o l l e c t i o n of Lady Normanby) to i l l u s t r a t e Rembrandt's superior a b i l i t y to paint a highly dramatic episode from the B i b l e . Judas bewails his crime and asks f o r a pardon which he knows he cannot receive. Rembrandt depicts him as a man of s t r i c k e n conscience, his face f u l l of horror, 31 h i s h a i r d i s h e v e l l e d and h i s c l o t h e s t o r n . Rosenberg and S l i v e p o i n t i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s as a work w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e d i s t i n c t a r t i s t i c s t r e n g t h s o f t h e two a r t i s t s i n t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . I n h i s s e a r c h f o r m o n u m e n t a l i t y L i e v e n s t e n d s t o e x a g g e r a t e the t h e a t r i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s c e n e , a l t h o u g h the d r a m a t i c mood, dark t o n a l i t y , minute t e c h n i q u e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l t y p e s o f L i e v e n s ' R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s a r e s i m i l a r t o Rembrandt's d e p i c t i o n . However, a t " t h i s s t a g e o f t h e i r c a r e e r s Rembrandt had a l r e a d y s u r p a s s e d L i e v e n s i n power o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i n -c i s i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and i n a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t i g h t l y and c o n v i n c i n g l y , t h e s i n g l e p a r t s by the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e 3 c h i a r o s c u r o e f f e c t s . " A f u r t h e r l i n k between the young a r t i s t s i s t h e i r common mentor, P i e t e r Lastman. One y e a r Rembrandt's j u n i o r , L i e v e n s s t u d i e s w i t h Lastman as a young a p p r e n t i c e from 1619 t o 1621. Rembrandt had s p e n t s i x months i n Amsterdam w i t h Lastman between 1624-1625, j u s t p r i o r t o Rembrandt's r e t u r n t o L e i d e n . I t was t h r o u g h Lastman, t h e i r common t e a c h e r , t h a t Rembrandt and L i e v e n s were exposed t o t h e r e a l i s m o f C a r a v a g g i o . I I I . J a n L i e v e n s The e t c h e d v e r s i o n o f L i e v e n s ' R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , d a t e d c a . 1629, 35.88 x 33.02 cm., Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, ( F i g u r e 37) r e v e a l s a d e s i g n based on two s e p a r a t e a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t , t o the l e f t and r i g h t o f the c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l a x i s . 32 On the r i g h t , a c l e a r geometric arrangement i s achieved by the juxtaposition of C h r i s t ' s v e r t i c a l i t y with the emphatic horizontals formed by the platform and c o f f i n which contrasts with the more p l i a n t composition on the l e f t , i n which the l i n e s of the six f i g u r e s tend to flow with the undulating landscape. Here Mary, the foremost f i g u r e , holds the shroud which f a l l s s o f t l y to the rocks below. I t forms the bottom half of an arch which moves upward from the center foreground, while the l i n e of Mary's body p a r a l l e l s t h i s curve, complementing the arc. Behind Mary's r i g h t shoulder Martha p u l l s back, looking somewhat r e l u c t a n t l y toward Lazarus, her back and that of the f i g u r e behind gently repeating t h i s curve. These separate areas of i n t e r e s t do not i s o l a t e the f i g u r e s ; instead, t h e i r contrasting emotions draw them together. One of the l i n k s formed i s between C h r i s t and Lazarus. In the middleground the standing C h r i s t is;viewed f r o n t a l l y on a stage-like platform, his hands clasped as i f in prayer. He does not communicate with those i n his immediate surroundings; rather, he i s i n s p i r i t u a l communion with God. Below him Lazarus' hands r i s e e e r i l y over the edge of the tomb. The power of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s created through t h i s s t r i k i n g juxtaposition of gestures. These movements draw the figures together, evoking a mood of great pathos. This mood i s further reinforced by the contrast between C h r i s t ' s inward i n t e n s i t y and Lazarus' awakening consciousness. 33 A second link i s formed between Ch r i s t and the l e f t -hand figu r e group. Unlike the mood projected by the previous contrast, the f e e l i n g created here i s one of tension. This i s achieved through several means. F i r s t , accentuated by a great c i r c l e of l i g h t , the witnesses maintain a respect-f u l distance from C h r i s t , thus building a b a r r i e r . Second, rather than being drawn toward the Saviour, they r e c o i l from him. For example, the two f i g u r e s d i r e c t l y behind Mary express greater fear than awe at the unfolding miracle, whereas the three most f r o n t a l l y placed convey astonishment. Saxl suggests two d i s t i n c t sources f o r t h i s design. The l i n e a r structure on the r i g h t i s thought to be a more i d e a l i z e d " c l a s s i c a l " motif, as seen i n Guido Reni's P i e t a . The more act i v e , natural reactions of the figures on the l e f t r e f l e c t s the stronger realism of the I t a l i a n Netherlandish painters -above a l l , P i e t e r Lastman. The two figures i n the arched area of the f a r l e f t background of Lievens' work are c i t e d as s i m i l a r to those standing i n the arched area of the cave i n 4 Lastman's p a i n t i n g . IV. Rembrandt's Modifications i n the Drawing and Painting At t h i s point we must consider Lievens' treatment of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus i n his etching and painting of the subject. The etching i n p a r t i c u l a r may provide a prototype f o r Rembrandt's drawing of the miracle dated 1630, l a t e r modified to an entombment of C h r i s t . Although Rembrandt adopted and modified the design i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways, f i r s t i n the:vdrawing 34 and p a i n t i n g and l a t e r i n h i s e t c h i n g , i n my o p i n i o n , L i e v e n s i s t h e i n n o v a t o r . The argument c o n c e r n i n g t h i s d a t i n g sequence f o c u s e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : w h i c h was the i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e theme, L i e v e n s 1 e t c h i n g o r Rembrandt's d r a w i n g ? S c h o l a r l y o p i n i o n i s d i v i d e d . S a x l , 5 Heverkamp-Begeman,^ 7 8 S c h n e i d e r , and W h i t e , s t i p u l a t e t he more c o n v i n c i n g c h r o n o l o g y : L i e v e n s ' e t c h i n g a p p e a r i n g f i r s t i n about 1629 o r 1630 ( F i g u r e 3 7 ) , f o l l o w e d by Rembrandt's d r a w i n g i n 1630 ( F i g u r e 3 8 ) , and L i e v e n s ' p a i n t i n g i n 1631 ( F i g u r e 3 9 ) . T h i s c h r o n o l o g y i s based on an a n a l y s i s o f t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s made i n Rembrandt's d r a w i n g o f 1630. Heverkamp-Begeman argues t h a t Rembrandt's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f h i s R a i s i n g o f Lazarus d r a w i n g t o an Entombment o f C h r i s t makes i t an u n l i k e l y p r o t o t y p e f o r L i e v e n s ' R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s . Both t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f c h a l k i n t h e a d d i t i o n s t o th e Rembrandt d r a w i n g , and t h e g e n e r a l absence o f r e w o r k i n g i n h i s d r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e , s u g g e s t t h a t t h e change would have been made a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y , b e f o r e L i e v e n s ' c o u l d have seen 9 the i n i t i a l L a z a r u s v e r s i o n . And i t does n ot seem l i k e l y t h a t L i e v e n s would have e x t r a c t e d t h e R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s from the f i n a l Entombment. However, the w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the two a r t i s t s was so c l o s e a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f L i e v e n s ' s e e i n g t h e d r a w i n g i n i t s L a z a r u s v e r s i o n c a n n o t be r u l e d - o u t . 35 Stronger evidence supporting t h i s chronology i s Saxl's observation of the modifications made i n Rembrandt's i n i t i a l Raising of Lazarus image. In a d e t a i l e d examination, he established the drawing's conception i n breadth, height, i l l u m i n a t i o n , s i n g l e aspects of l i n e d i r e c t i o n , and back-ground figures as so close s t y l i s t i c a l l y to Lievens' etching that Rembrandt must have indeed copied him. Saxl makes two convincing observations: 1) In the area just below the 1630 date, Lazarus' image i s modified. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the two p a i r s of oblong s e m i c i r c l e s , i n addition to the two heads of the r i s i n g Lazarus, indicate what could be presumed to be Rembrandt's copying of not one, but two d i f f e r e n t pairs of r i s i n g hands. This i s followed by two further stages i n the development of Lazarus' image: the addition i n two places of d i f f e r i n g head poses; 2) The female i n p r o f i l e leaning forward just above the entombment group, dressed with the helmet-like headgear, i s drawn with i l l - d e f i n e d hand strokes. Upon examination of Lievens' design, they can be explained 10 as c l e a r l y taken from the shroud she holds i n her hand. Accepting t h i s chronology, why i s Lievens' painting conceived i n reverse of the etching? As Heverkamp-Begeman points out, i f the date 1631 on the painting i s correct, we can assume that Lievens executed his painting'-.by following the design he etched on the copper plate, before i t was 11 reversed i n the p r i n t i n g process. 36 An o p p o s i n g c h r o n o l o g y p r oposed by Benesch, xc* „ 13 14 15 Muntz, and Bauch " and Haak advances t h e f o l l o w i n g sequence o f d a t e s : 1) Rembrandt's 1630 d r a w i n g ; 2) L i e v e n s ' e t c h i n g 1630-1631; 3) L i e v e n s ' 1631 p a i n t i n g ; 4) Rembrant's e t c h i n g o f about 1631 o r 1632. T h i s p o i n t o f v i e w i s based on the d a t e s a l o n e , p l a c i n g Rembrandt's e t c h i n g l a s t as a r e v e r s e image o f L i e v e n s ' p a i n t i n g . F o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s I f i n d t h i s c h r o n o l o g y u n a c c e p t a b l e . F i r s t , S a x l ' s c o n v i n c i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s o v e r l o o k e d w h e r e i n he i n d i s p u t a b l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n f e e l i n g and b r e a d t h t h a t t h e d r a w i n g appears t o d e r i v e from L i e v e n s ' e t c h i n g . S e c o n d l y , i f L i e v e n s was so i m p r e s s e d by Rembrandt's d r a w i n g as t o p r e s e r v e i t s d i r e c t i o n i n h i s e t c h e d "copy", why d i d he r e v e r s e t h e image i n h i s l a t e r p a i n t i n g ? T h i s p r o b lem r e m a i n s u n s o l v e d and o n l y Haak s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a " m i s s i n g l i n k . " 1 ^ A c c e p t i n g t h e d a t i n g sequence s u p p o r t e d by Heverkamp-Begeman and S a x l , we see two s t a g e s i n Rembrandt's d e v e l o p -ment toward h i s f i r s t f u l l y r e s o l v e d c o n c e p t i o n . The f i r s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s o c c u r i n the 1630 d r a w i n g , w h i c h i s based on t h e L i e v e n s ' e t c h i n g o f c a . 1629. I n t h i s i n i t i a l s t a g e o f development away from L i e v e n s ' v e r s i o n , two s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s a r e made w h i c h a r e m a i n t a i n e d i n s u c c e e d i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e . F i r s t , few changes have been made i n t h e C h r i s t f i g u r e ; t h e b a s i c pose and g e s t u r e a r e c o p i e d , t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e l y i n g i n t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e hem 37 of his garment. However, the s t r i k i n g modification l i e s i n the image of Lazarus; the e e r i l y r i s i n g hands are replaced by a half f i g u r e . Also discernable are the trace of a second head and the hands of Lazarus. The second modification i s the general i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of spectators; they are more numerous and widely dispersed. Those added include two on the r i g h t , looking over the edge of the platform toward Lazarus; the spectator who turns away from the miracle, forward of the p o s i t i o n formally occupied by the pentimenti of C h r i s t ; to his l e f t , another f i g u r e with a t a l l hat; 17 and a man to his r i g h t . The second stage of development involves modifications to the f i r s t f u l l y - r e s o l v e d depiction of the theme, the painting at the Los Angeles County Museum, dated ca. 1630. Although Rembrandt maintains the horizontal and v e r t i c a l arrangement of the Lazarus and C h r i s t f i g u r e s , he makes a key a l t e r a t i o n : rather than an open composition divided along a ce n t r a l axis, he u t i l i z e s a dynamic, t r i a n g u l a r arrangement of fi g u r e s b u i l t up through and reinforced by dramatic body movement and gesture. Rembrandt lessens the pathos between C h r i s t and Lazarus by replacing Lievens* subdued c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n (the quiet, praying gesture) with the robust action of the Saviour's upraised arm. Both C h r i s t ' s gesture and h i s d i r e c t i o n of v i s u a l focus r e i n f o r c e the s t r u c t u r a l build-up of the compo-s i t i o n . Over l i f e - s i z e , C h r i s t ' s short torso and long legs 38 form a v e r t i c a l , h is upraised arm defining the apex of a pyramidal s t r u c t u r e . This creates a d i r e c t l i n e of movement to Lazarus, which i s reinforced by the focus of his t r a n c e - l i k e gaze. The f u l l e r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , horizontal placement and d i r e c t i o n of Lazarus' gaze equally e s t a b l i s h and re i n f o r c e t h i s t r i a n g u l a r s t r u c t u r i n g . Here, the gesture of the two p a r a l l e l hands moving upward i s replaced by the corpse; gross and emaciated, Lazarus s i t s i n the c o f f i n with one hand grasping i t s s i d e . His torso forms the r i g h t corner of t h i s t r i a n g l e , and the p a r a l l e l l i n e s of the grave complete the base. This l i n e of movement i s continued by his gaze, which d i r e c t s the viewer's attention across the composition to the sharply r e c o i l i n g reaction of the witnesses. C l e a r l y , two contrasting points of v i s u a l focus are presented. C h r i s t ' s t r a n c e - l i k e gaze i s not aimed at Lazarus d i r e c t l y , but at a point just beyond him. S i m i l a r l y , Lazarus does not look at C h r i s t , but across the canvas. We are not presented with the d i r e c t eye-to-eye contact of, f o r example, the Sebastiano painting, nor with the inner s p i r i t u a l ecstasy of Lievens, i n which the Saviour's intense, inward concentra-t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by closed eyes and a backward-tilted head. Here two areas of focus are created: that of the resurrector and the resurrected. The viewer's r e l a t i o n s h i p to these two areas of i n t e r e s t i s unmistakable. Drawn int o the painting through the strong 39 v e r t i c a l of C h r i s t ' s f i g u r e , one i s pulled deep in t o the p i c t u r e , at Lazarus' eye l e v e l , to the point by C h r i s t ' s f e e t , where the l i g h t f a l l s , From here we glance momentari-l y to Lazarus, the strong diagonal immediately f o r c i n g us to look up to C h r i s t ; his gesture and glance cast our attention back toward Lazarus. Hence one looks f i r s t to C h r i s t , then to Lazarus. The viewer's attention i s suspended between the two, causing the psychological aspect to come i n t o play; one questions what Lazarus could be thinking, a decaying corpse q u i e t l y awakened a f t e r four days of death. What thoughts occupy C h r i s t ' s mind, given his expression of determined concentration? V. Rembrandt's Etching and Lastman's Influence Having c l a r i f i e d the primary source and major modifica-tions of Rembrandt's f i r s t f u l l y - r e s o l v e d conception of the narrative, we w i l l next consider the etching dated about 1631. This version of the miracle was possibly completed within one year of the p a i n t i n g . While e a r l i e r modifications were directed toward i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the body movements and gesture, In addition to s p a t i a l reorgani-zation, here t i g h t e r f r o n t a l placement of f i g u r e s , C h r i s t ' s and the witnesses' greater c o r p o r a l i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the treatment of l i g h t , are key s t y l i s t i c elements d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from the p a i n t i n g . Here Lastman's de p i c t i o n of the theme w i l l be examined to e s t a b l i s h what means he uses to achieve compositional unity, f o r many of the modifications made i n 40 the etching, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to the use of l i g h t , 18 reveal his influence. P i e t e r Lastman was Rembrandt's mentor i n Amsterdam between 1624 and 1625. His influence on Rembrandt was 19 extensive. In recent l i t e r a t u r e Bruyn examines t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , demonstrating how thoroughly Rembrandt reinterpreted several of Lastman's prototypes; C h r i s t i a n M 20 Tumple considers t h i s association p r i m a r i l y with regard to h i s t o r y painting, suggesting Lastman strongly influenced Rembrandt's narrative s t y l e throughout his career. I t i s also p r i m a r i l y through Lastman, who l i k e many Northern a r t i s t s i n the e a r l y 17th century had been to I t a l y , that the influence of Caravaggio and Elsheimer reached Rembrandt. Lastman was able to convey to Rembrandt the I t a l i a n use of 21 l i g h t as the major device to achieve compositional u n i t y . The Raising of Lazarus by Lastman, signed and dated 1622, The Hague, Mauritshuis, 63 x 92 cm., contrasts with Lievens' treatment of the theme. Here i t i s through an emphasis on t a c t i l e q u a l i t i e s that the viewer i s immediately drawn i n t o the work.„ This i s achieved by several means. The f i r s t and perhaps most obvious i s the f r o n t a l placement of a c t i o n : more than a dozen f i g u r e s are stationed i n the f o r e -ground, the remaining three f a l l i n g to the background. Secondly, l i g h t i s used to i n t e n s i f y the viewer's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the painting, c l e a r l y commanding one's attention and strengthening i t s compositional u n i t y . A t r i a n g u l a r placement 41 of f i g u r e s i s presented i n which C h r i s t forms the apex, the corner of the stone slab forms the r i g h t angle, and Lazarus completes the l e f t angle. The greatest concentration of l i g h t f a l l s on the fig u r e s within t h i s t r i a n g l e , appropriately accenting t h e i r d i f f e r i n g reactions^ while simultaneously unifying them. For example, i n the r i g h t foreground, l i g h t i n d i v i d u a l l y emphasizes the old woman calmly praying, the open-armed, bearded man showing astonish-ment, and the kneeling woman whose powerful glance i s aimed d i r e c t l y at the viewer. Furthermore, l i g h t i s used to e s t a b l i s h the s t r i k i n g l y s o l i d , volumetric, sculpted q u a l i t y of f i g u r e s . An examination of i t s treatment on the resurrected man reveals i t s use i n creating both sharply defined and s o f t e r , more sensually molded e f f e c t s . Entering at the l e f t , middle and foreground, i t casts a sharp l i n e of shadow below Lazarus' u p l i f t e d arms. In the same area, a s o f t e r l i g h t molds c l e a r l y defined muscle modulations of which i n d i v i d u a l sections follow the l i n e s of the r i b cage, thigh, hip, buttock and r i g h t l e g . This sharper l i g h t i s applied not only to Lazarus, but;to the majority of surrounding f i g u r e s . For example, the robes of the figures holding the resurrected man and those to his l e f t are s t i f f l y and c r i s p l y textured, more m e t a l l i c than t e x t i l e - l i k e . Also sharply accented are the geometric l i n e s of the sarcophagus and the c o f f i n l i d . 42 In summary elements of the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n are evident i n Lastman's design. This t r a d i t i o n comes through i n his painting as a tr i a n g u l a r composition, and through the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c placement of fi g u r e s i n the foreground. In : addition, l i g h t i s used as an i n t e g r a l element of the composi-t i o n a l unity, and i s used to e s t a b l i s h a s t r i k i n g l y volumetric s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t y i n the f i g u r e s . Rembrandt's grasp of these I t a l i a n s t y l i s t i c elements, p a r t i c u l a r l y l i g h t , i s more f u l l y r e a l i z e d i n his etched version of the miracle. This treatment of the theme i s a step further removed from Lievens* design than i s the e a r l i e r p a i n t i n g . In the etched version a broadening and loosening of fi g u r e s i s achieved p r i m a r i l y through the new function l i g h t serves. While i t s use i n the 1630 painting was mainly to focus the viewer*s attention, here i t serves as an i n t e g r a l means of b u i l d i n g up the composition i n which neither the l i n e a r structure nor the l i g h t work e f f e c t i v e l y without one another. In general, Rembrandt's etching has greater f l u i d movement. Several s t r i k i n g changes made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n are evident i n the image of C h r i s t . By comparison to the e a r l i e r f r o n t a l l y - p l a c e d f i g u r e , here the Saviour stands i n p r o f i l e , his l e f t arm rather than h i s r i g h t performing the miracle. No longer perpendicularly r a i s e d , t h i s gesture i s more relaxed, yet remains s t r i k i n g l y powerful. In contrast, the other hand gently rests on his hip, while the more f l u i d l i n e s i n the fo l d s of h i s robe flow loosely, and s i m i l a r l y , his h a i r f a l l s 43 r i c h l y about his shoulders. The surrounding figures are equally loosened. Because Ch r i s t ' s gesture assumes a l e s s dominant r o l e , the remaining gestures have a greater impact, which functions to broaden the space. For example, the gesture of the man i n the r i g h t background, whose arms move diagonally i n t o depth, acts as a c l e a r contrast and counter-reaction to C h r i s t ' s . I t also has the e f f e c t of broadening the composition by extend-ing the depth. Furthermore, t h i s f i g u r e and the others surrounding him create an impression of greater openness, as they lean back, gesturing with loosely outstretched arms, contrasting with the c l o s e l y k n i t u n i t on the l e f t , i n which the bearded men appear less as i n d i v i d u a l l y characterized p e r s o n a l i t i e s than as members of a group. B r i e f l y , we immediately perceive that the majority of f i g u r e s remain placed i n a t r i a n g u l a r arrangement; two groups on e i t h e r side of C h r i s t form the base, with C h r i s t as the apex. Light i s used to r e i n f o r c e t h i s t r i a n g u l a r placement. A strong beam f a l l s onto Lazarus and the right-hand f i g u r e group. Highlights accent the face and gesture of the l e f t -hand f i g u r e group. In addition to accenting C h r i s t ' s face and gesture. Simultaneously, t h i s beam of l i g h t e s t a b l i s h e s a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the l e f t side of the t r i a n g l e as C h r i s t ' s back f a l l s i n t o shadow. Furthermore, although the kneeling woman i n the r i g h t foreground i s not part of the major grouping forming t h i s t r i a n g l e , she i s not i s o l a t e d . The dark shading of her back 44 works with the dark shading of the back of C h r i s t and the left-hand f i g u r e group, v i s u a l l y drawing these figures together. This use of l i g h t unites her with the left-hand f i g u r e group, yet she works with the l i n e a r structure closeing o f f the base and th l e f t s i d e . At the same time, t h i s closed-o f f area contrasts with the open space on the r i g h t and r e i n f o r c e s the f e e l i n g of depth created by the diagonally gesturing man. 45 Chapter V: Conclusions: I. E a r l y Iconography 1. Introduction: We are now prepared to consider the meaning and function of t h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n theme. F i r s t , l e t us review the current i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the theme's function i n e a r l i e r a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s . 2 * E a r l y C h r i s t i a n : The e a r l y C h r i s t i a n type establishes the basic elements of t h i s r e l i g i o u s dramatic narrative, which over the course of a long development, i s modified and elaborated according to changing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e and function of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus miracle. The h i s t o r y of t h i s type shows an increasing concern to heighten dramatic impact and d i r e c t involvement of the viewer by focusing on some s p e c i f i c point i n the story. Examples of the e a r l y representations d i s p l a y the rudimentary elements of the type: C h r i s t , bearing a slender rod, a kind of "wand", i n h i s hand, stands before Lazarus, who i s also standing i n a sepulchral aedicule, wrapped i n grave bands. At t h i s point these works have so few d e s c r i p t i v e elements that i t i s impossible to determine the s p e c i f i c moment depicted. Despite the b r i e f , almost symbolic imagery at t h i s elementary stage, a comparison to the b i b l i c a l text reveals additions and omissions which provide the f i r s t clues to theecontemporary function of the theme• 46 S i g n i f i c a n t elements not mentioned i n the b i b l i c a l text are the "wand" held by C h r i s t and the sepulchral aedicule i n place of the "grave i n a cave, with a stone •i l y i n g upon i t , " described i n the text. The presence of these two p a r t i c u l a r items i s even more s t r i k i n g i n the absence of such basic elements as the fig u r e s of Mary and Martha, and the witnesses. These modifications suggest that another prototype was used i n addition to or i n place of the b i b l i c a l t e x t . The source of the unusual elements of t h i s e a r l y type i s found i n the pagan world. Here, the connotation of the wand as a to o l of magic i s c l e a r . The ancient Roman, Greeks and Egyptian worlds saw i t as an instrument of supernatural power. For the Greeks i n the Odyssey, i t was the wand that 2 changed Ulysses* companions to animals. In ancient Egypt, i t was the wand which O s i r i s used to give l i f e to the dead; even within the C h r i s t i a n world, the instrument i s referred to as a tool of magic i n the B i b l e . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Lazarus imagery i s most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to Egyptian t r a d i t i o n . There i s a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y between the depiction of Lazarus as a s t i f f l y upright, mummified f i g u r e , standing i n a box-like structure which frequently had several front steps, together with Christ,who lifee O s i r i s , the divi n e f i g u r e of Egyptian mythology, s t r i k e s the 3 wand which-promises r e b i r t h . 47 In addition to the strong iconographic l i n k with Egypt, there e x i s t s a more fundamental association i n the s i m i l a r i t y between C h r i s t i a n and Egyptian s o t e r i o l o g i e s , the most basic l i n k suggesting that the r e s u r r e c t i o n theme was i n i t i a l l y (and i s e s s e n t i a l l y ) accepted as necromancy. Both C h r i s t i a n and Egyptian r e l i g i o n s accept the death and re s u r r e c t i o n of t h e i r c e n t r a l divine f i g u r e s , C h r i s t and O s i r i s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each i s concerned with i n d i v i d u a l achievement of s a l v a t i o n through the experiences of the divine hero. Both s o t e r i o l o g i e s developed a technique f o r the p a r t i a l achievement of s a l v a t i o n , i n which devotees sought to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the re s u r r e c t i o n achieved by t h e i r heros by r i t u a l l y i m i t a t i n g t h e i r saviour's experiences. In Egyptian mythology, i t was through the mortuary r i t u a l of embalming and other a n c i l l a r y r i t e s ; f o r the C h r i s t i a n , r e b i r t h was symbolized by baptism, and the achievement of sa l v a t i o n through an ongoing, d a i l y e f f o r t to emulate C h r i s t , 4 following his word and example. What did the e a r l i e s t representations of Lazarus symbolize to the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n s ? Deep within the cata-combs, one can r e a d i l y accept the need of the persecuted C h r i s t i a n threatened with v i o l e n t death to believe i n a power over l i f e and death. From the e a r l i e s t catacomb representations to the 9th century depictions, the e s s e n t i a l A 5 6 meaning remained unchanged, both Male and S c h i l l e r suggest: the theme embodied the C h r i s t i a n ' s hope of future r e s u r r e c t i o n , The magical promise of r e b i r t h . Lowrie agrees, but suggests 48 that by the time of Ravenna and Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, i n 7 the 6th century, i t assumed a c l e a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e r o l e , Male submits further evidence suggesting that the need f o r b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of future r e s u r r e c t i o n , was indicated not only by numerous times the scenes were repre-sented i n the catacombs(some seventy i n a l l ) , but by the use of Lazarus s t a t u e t t e s . Small figures of metal, i v o r y or bone, wrapped i n bands representing Lazarus were frequently placed i n the narrow tombs i n which the dead were l a i d . I f used on the outside of the tombs, the statuettes were placed next to a plaque of marble marked with the name of the deceased at the Q moment the loculus was closed. In addition, S c h i l l e r states, the theme can u l t i m a t e l y be regarded as a p r e f i g u r a t i o n of the r e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t and of the r a i s i n g of the Dead at the Last Judgment. Further-more, placed p a r a l l e l to a depiction of the baptism i n the catacombs, i t s meaning could be extended to represent the q symbol of s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h on earth. 3. Byzantines As discussed i n Chapter two the Byzantine model d i s c l o s e s that i n the 6th to 14th century a major s h i f t i n narrative em-phasis took place. Two moments i n the story are shown rather than one: Mary and Martha's request f o r Lazarus 1 1 r e s t o r a t i o n to 10 l i f e , and the f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e i r request, Lazarus' r a i s i n g . These changes may r e l f e c t a contemporary understanding of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus as simply the greatest of C h r i s t ' s s e r i e s of miracles with lessened emphasis on i t s symbolism of hoped fo r r e s u r r e c t i o n . A depiction of t h i s dual request and response stresses the great powers the Savior 49 displays as a miracle worker; his might i s challenged and f a n t a s t i c a l l y , he f u l f i l l s the task. This view of C h r i s t i s shared by the d i s c i p l e who, i n verse 37, says: "Could not th i s man who opened the eyes of the b l i n d , have caused that even t h i s man should not have died?" Further evidence supporting t h i s Byzantine understanding of the theme i s the f a c t that t h i s scene was frequently placed i n a serie s with C h r i s t ' s other miracles. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Andrews Dyptych, at the V i c t o r i a and Albert Museum, dated ca. 5th century (Figure 40), and i n the Lungara Sarcofagus (Figure 41), Le Terme Museum, ca. 4th century. Why did the Byzantine type remain v i r t u a l l y unchanged throughout these centuries? Male r e f e r s to the Guide to 11 Pai n t i n g . Didron saw a r t i s t s frequently consulting i t when painting a fresco at Mount Athos. Though i t dates from the 18th century, a l l those elements which remain constant i n the Byzantine iconography are c l e a r l y d e t a i l e d . A r t i s t s r e f e r i n g to t h i s book would read: Jews by the mountains, Lazarus stands i n a sepulchre, man p u l l s o f f shroud, another l i f t s stone, C h r i s t stands and blesses with r i g h t hand, behind are A p o s t l e s , 1 2 Mary and Martha prostrate themselves. Thus, Male continues, one can understand the immobility of the Byzantine iconography. Further evidence dating from the 5th century suggests the theme's r o l e at that time. A reason f o r i t s consistent icono-graphy i s offered i n St. John Chrysostum's (347-407), Homilies  of John's Gospels. Paraphrased i n the 14th century by St. Gregory Palamas (1296-1359), he states that the miracle 50 occurred to i l l u s t r a t e C h r i s t ' s power over death, a divi n e intervention which converted many non-believers present at 13 the scene: "by his odour and touch they believed i n Him." In conclusion, though evidence suggests that to the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s the theme symbolized t h e i r great hope f o r future r e s u r r e c t i o n , l a t e r , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n appeared to s h i f t i n emphasis from a preoccupation with a f t e r - l i f e to that of divine intervention ON EARTH — the changes which C h r i s t was able to e f f e c t i n the l i v e s of men through super-natural powers of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to resurrect the dead. 4. 12th t o 15th century. North: In the t r a d i t i o n that developed i n the North between the 12th and the 15th centuries, there a r i s e s by the end of t h i s period a new d i s t i n c t iconographic motif i n the imagery of Lazarus narrative: an emphasis on the moment when C h r i s t commands i n John 11:44, "Loose him and l e t him go," as repre-sented i n Nicolas Froment's 1461 U f f i z i , Florence p a i n t i n g . (Figure 18). Male suggests that the remarkably consistent representation of t h i s moment was due to the influence of Fransiscan St. Bonaventure's (1221-1274) Apocryphal Gospel, Meditations of the L i f e of <2hrist. This book was frequently consulted by the authors of the Mystery plays. Male suggests that, as i s seen i n other r e l i g i o u s imagery, t h i s book had a great influence on a r t . I t was above a l l by means of the Mysteries, which were strongly consistent throughout Europe, that the meditations penetrated a r t . In "The Mystery of the Passion of Jean Michel," one saw the re s u r r e c t i o n of Lazarus 51 and heard the following dialogue: "Untie him," commanded C h r i s t to the apostle, St, Peter and St, Andrew responded, 'iket us untie him, f o r the Master orders i t . " Peter removes the t i e s from the wrists of Lazarus, f o r i t i s to Peter that C h r i s t gives, "the r i g h t to t i e and u n t i e . " C h r i s t bestowed a unique p o s i t i o n on Peter and extended 1 5 s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to him when he s a i d , "Thou a r t 16 Peter and upon t h i s rock I w i l l b u i l d my church." Peter i s also "conferred on high the keys of the kingdom of heaven," 17 and to him the power of "lossening the bands" i s granted. Furthermore, . .he....- was the f i r s t Apostle to whom Jesus appeared; when Jesus f i r s t stated the former's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : "Free my lamfes, free my sheep." Thus as Male implies, Peter "had that day exercised f o r the f i r s t time the high perogative," of loosening or f r e e i n g a b e l i e v e r from the bonds of s i n symbolized by the loosening of Lazarus' grave bands. This absolution i s , of course, a p r e r e q u i s i t e to the achievement of s a l v a t i o n . Peter's presence i n t h i s r o l e demonstrates the v i t a l r o l e of the Church as the agent by which men are freed from t h e i r s i n s . In the mid 15th century Ouwater presents a depiction of the miracle (Figure 19) which, as Panofsky states , i s of 19 "unparalleled iconography." Ouwater does not portray the moment of the untying of the bands, as represented i n Nicolas Froment's p a i n t i n g . The unprecedented elements cited i n Ouwater's work are the f o l l o w i n g : 1) The unusual prominence of the r o l e given to St. Peter; 2) the uneven 52 d i v i s i o n between the f a i t h f u l and non-believers; 3) the replacement of the customary open-air s e t t i n g with a Romanesque structure which alludes to Jerusalem both topographically and e s c h a t o l o g i c a l l y ; 4) the semblance of the posture-of Lazarus to that of the resurrector; and 5) the subjection of the whole composition to the p r i n c i p l e of 20 h i e r a t i c symmetry. Ouwater does not i n t e r p r e t the r a i s i n g of Lazarus as a t r a n s i t i o n from death to transient physical l i f e , but has transformed the scene into a s i m i l e of the Last Judgment; i t i s a symbol of the C h r i s t i a n s * r e s u r r e c t i o n from death to e t e r n a l s p i r i t u a l l i f e . As i n the Last Judgment, C h r i s t decides our righteousness and, i f judged righteous, we are brought from ph y s i c a l death to e t e r n a l s p i r i t u a l l i f e . In John 11:25, C h r i s t says, "I am the r e s u r r e c t i o n and the l i f e , he that believeth i n me, though he were dead, yet s h a l l he l i v e ; " This dialogue occurs between C h r i s t and Martha, C h r i s t revealing that i t i s through f a i t h i n him that e t e r n a l 21 l i f e i s achieved. 5.. 16th century. North and South . In the 15th century there are few representation of the subject i n the South. However, as noted i n Chapter three, by the 16th century there i s a great increase i n the popularity of the Lazarus theme not only i n the South but also i n the North. The cause f o r the increased popularity i n 16th century Europe i s a major consideration. I t involves the 53 influence of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation do c t r i n e . The question of the influence t h i s doctrine has on the iconography of the period i s an issue too broad to be d e a l t with here. However, several observations can be made with regard to the theme's function. Evidence suggests the most probable purpose the theme served i n both churches i s to emphasize the r a i s i n g of Lazarus as a s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h , pointing to C h r i s t as the means of achieving e t e r n a l l i f e . The marked s h i f t toward t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be the basis of the theme's renewed pop u l a r i t y . In the period of the Reformation one of the leading points of contention between the Old and Reformed churches was Luther's fundamental adherence to the p r i n c i p l e of "Sola c r i p t u r e . " The Reformers demanded the means of achieving s a l v a t i o n was through "F a i t h and f a i t h alone," while the Cathol i c Church maintained i t s p o s i t i o n of c o n t r o l , granting the sacraments necessary f o r the Catho l i c to achieve s a l v a t i o n . Moreover, the controversy of the means to redemption was not only the chief issue of dispute between the Reformed and Catho l i c churches but the question of when acceptance of f a i t h i n C h r i s t occurs, symbolized by in f a n t or adult baptism, was an important concern among Protestant s e c t s . The d e f i n i t i o n of C h r i s t i a n commitment was at stake. For example, the Anabaptists, commonly known as Mennonites, followers of Simon Minnos, developed a sect i n Zurich around 1535. One of the major issues debated, focussed on the 54 question of baptism. To be a C h r i s t i a n meant a voluntary and deliberate d e c i s i o n which expressed i t s e l f i n the acceptance of adult baptism. Not only the Anabaptist, but the S p i r i t u a l i s t s and the A n t i t r i n i t a r i a n s repudiated 22 inf a n t baptism. In addition, the reformers* emphasis on f a i t h i n C h r i s t alone, as the means to redemption, affected the a t t i t u d e toward death. In the Reformation writings, death had " l o s t i t s s t i n g " , and both the Lutherans and C a l v i n i s t s i n s i s t e d that death had f i n a l l y been vanquished with the help of 23 C h r i s t . In f a c t , i n the e a r l y stages of the Reformation, death was looked on with a renewed sense of optimism being 24 linked with repentance and conversion. A further step i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the review of a 16th century text. In John Calvin's commentary on The Gospel According to John, f i r s t published i n 1540, the reformer r e f e r s to the event both as a miracle and as a sign of promise f o r future r e s u r r e c t i o n . Verse I of the b i b l i c a l text reads: "Now a c e r t a i n man was s i c k , named Lazarus." Ca l v i n makes immediate reference to the f a c t the r a i s i n g i s a "miracle 25 eminently worthy of being recorded." C h r i s t , aware of the imminence of h i s own death, desires to g l o r i f y a l l that he has done i n one f i n a l , magnificent f e a t . The reformer perceives: Of his (Christ's)deathe CsicD was already at hand. We need not wonder, therefore, i f he i l l u s t r a t e d h i s own glory, i n an extraordinary manner, i n that work, the remembrance of which he wished to be 55 deeply impressed on t h e i r minds, that i t might f e e l , i n some respects, a l l that had gone before. 26 C a l v i n stresses that C h r i s t ' s power i s even more extraordinary when one recognizes that although he has raised others from the dead, the Saviour here "displays h i s 27 power on a r o t t i n g corpse." Furthermore, the Reformer r e f e r s to the miracle as proof of C h r i s t ' s power which allows future r e s u r r e c t i o n to occur: Not only did C h r i s t give a remarkable proof of h i s d i v i n e power i n r a i s i n g Lazarus, but he likewise placed before our eyes a l i v e l y image of our future r e s u r r e c t i o n . 28 C l e a r l y while Ca l v i n achnowledges the event as both a miracle and as a promise f o r future r e s u r r e c t i o n , what i s i t s ultimate meaning? The key verses revealing the essence of t h i s 16th century theologian's understanding are those spoken when Martha meets C h r i s t on the road to Bethany, verses 21-26, p a r t i c u l a r l y verses 25-26. Here, Calvin makes c l e a r that C h r i s t r e f e r s to s p i r i t u a l and not physical death; l i f e commences not with physical b i r t h , but with the defeat of s p i r i t u a l a l i e n a t i o n . The Saviour declares i n the f i r s t l i n e of verse 25: "I am the r e s u r r e c t i o n and the l i f e . " C alvin explains: He i s the r e s u r r e c t i o n , because the r e s u r r e c t i o n from death to l i f e n a t u r a l l y comes before the state of l i f e . Now the whole human race i s plunged in t o death; and therefore, no man w i l l be a partaker of l i f e u n t i l he has r i s e n from the dead. Thus, Ch r i s t shows that he i s the commencement of l i f e ; 29 56 That i s to say, since the f a l l of man, the human race was plunged into "death," f o r as sinners, we are estranged from God. The reformer adds: That C h r i s t i s speaking about s p i r i t u a l l i f e i s p l a i n l y shown by the exposition which immediately follows.30 That which follows i s the second l i n e of verse 25: "He who b e l i e v e t h i n me, though he were dead, s h a l l l i v e . " The theologian comments: Away now with those who i d l y t alk that men are prepared f o r r e c e i v i n g the grace of God by the movement of nature. They might as well say that the dead walk...for the death of the soul i s nothing e l s e than being estranged and turned aside from God. Accordingly, they who believe i n C h r i s t , though they were formerly dead, begin to l i v e , because f a i t h i s a s p i r i t u a l r e s u r r e c t i o n of the soul, and so-to-speak animates the soul i t s e l f that i t may l i f t to God... 31 F i n a l l y , Calvin reveals h i s ultimate understanding of the r a i s i n g as a r e v e l a t i o n that the key to e t e r n a l l i f e i s through f a i t h i n C h r i s t . I t i s c l e a r to him that while Martha t a l k s only about a physical l i f e , C h r i s t t a l k s about his authorship of a "more ex c e l l e n t l i f e , a s p i r i t u a l one," and i t i s to give h i s followers some opportunity of knowing t h i s power that he soon a f t e r r a i s e s Lazarus: Martha wished that her brother should be restored to " l i f e . " C h r i s t r e p l i e d that he i s the Author of "a more excellent l i f e , " and that he i s , because he quickens the souls of b e l i e v e r s by divine power. Yet I have no doubt that he intended to include both favor; and therefore, he describes, i n general terms, that s p i r i t u a l l i f e which he bestows on a l l his followers, but wishes to give them some opportunity 57 of knowing t h i s power, which he soon a f t e r wassto manifest i n r a i s i n g Lazarus.32 Calvin views the command given by Ch|;ist, "He c r i e d with a loud voice, bound hand and foot with bandages, 'Loose him, l e t him go,'" as an i n d i c a t i o n that i t i s not by physi-c a l touching that C h r i s t brought Lazarus to l i f e , but that i t i s by his word that C h r i s t resurrected Lazarus. Calvin emphasizes that i n the r a i s i n g of Lazarus, we are given " v i s u a l token or proof, that the key element which makes r e b i r t h possible i s the word of C h r i s t . " I t i s "not by touching with the hand, " but "only by crying with the voice," that C h r i s t ' s ''divine power i s more f u l l y demonstrated." For how did C h r i s t restore l i f e to the dead but by the Word? and therefore, i n r a i s i n g Lazarus, he exhibited a v i s u a l token of his s p i r i t u a l grace, which would experience every day by the per-ception of f a i t h , when he shows that his voice gives l i f e . 34 The reformer disagrees with the Papist i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C h r i s t ' s command to remove Lazarus' bandages. With regard to t h e i r b e l i e f i n the necessity of the Church as the agent by which the f a i t h f u l are reconciled to God, C a l v i n s t a t e s : The Papists act an excessively r i d i c -ulous part by endeavoring to draw au r i c u l a r confession from t h i s passage. They say, " C h r i s t , a f t e r having restored Lazarus to l i f e , commanded his d i s c i p l e s to loose him: and therefore i t i s not enough f o r us to be reconciled to God, unless the Church pardon our s i n s . " 35 Calvin i n s i s t s , "On the contrary," " C h r i s t could have made the bandages give way of themselves." We may i n f e r the order was given to the Jews to further magnify the glory of 58 the miracle, and remove "every ground of doubt or h e s i -36 t a t i o n " of the g l o r y of t h i s r a i s i n g . Hence, unlike the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n or Byzantine i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , Calvin's assessment places the understanding of the miracle on a universal l e v e l . While he re t a i n s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Lazarus as a miracle of C h r i s t , and as a sign of the promise of future resur-r e c t i o n , he believes the most important message of t h i s verse, i f not the e n t i r e text, i s that C h r i s t was sent to reveal himself as the saviour of the s p i r i t u a l world of humankind. The reformer i n t e r p r e t s the r a i s i n g as a master-f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the way i n which f a i t h i n C h r i s t over-comes s i n , death, and h e l l . In e f f e c t , the miracle of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus i s seen as a r e v e l a t i o n of the process of un i v e r s a l s a l v a t i o n . Calvin's understanding of the miracle agrees with the function as r e f l e c t e d i n the 1558 depiction by Lucas Cranach the Younger, the f i r s t conception of the theme by a Protestant a r t i s t . This work, s i m i l a r to Ouwater's points to C h r i s t as the means to redemption. S c h i l l e r suggests the painting " i s born 37 of the s p i r i t of the Reformation" I t embodies the b e l i e f of the f a i t h f u l i n the Gospel, the same b e l i e f which C h r i s t asked God to give the people before he worked the miracle on Lazarus; that i s , b e l i e f i n him as the means to s a l v a t i o n . Lucas Cranach the Elder, and Luther himself are represented i n the immediate l e f t foreground, with other members of the 59 reformed community gathered together i n support of t h e i r b e l i e f i n the resurrected C h r i s t . The reforms i n the Catholic Church also affected the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r a i s i n g of Lazarus theme. Of i n t e r e s t to us here are the r a d i c a l reforms i n the 16th century which took place i n the Franciscan order, some of whose members were seeking a return to the i n i t i a l s i m p l i c i t y of t h e i r movement.* One important event i n the reform was Pope Leo's X Roman assembly of the order on May 31, 1517, which led to the papal b u l l o f f i c a l l y separating the Conventual and the Observant orders. The reform communities were thus united i n the order of the F r i a r s Minor of Observance. Cardinal G i u l i o de Medici's 1517-19 commission of Sebastiano*s Raising of Lazarus and Raphael*s Transfiguration  of C h r i s t as g i f t s to the Franciscan Observant church of Narbonne, may r e f l e c t a possible reform influence i n the theme's function. The o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n of the works i n the church has not been e s t a b l i s h e d . However, the circumstances surrounding t h e i r commission discussed i n Chapter I I I , and the s i m i l a r s i z e and scale, suggests a thematic r e l a t i o n s h i p . In the Transfiguration C h r i s t assumes an alt e r e d state r e v e a l i a message before his d i s c i p l e s , Peter, James, and John. God's voice announces from a brig h t cloud, "This i s my beloved Son, hear ye him." The choice of the Transfiguration as a companion piece to the Raising when considered i n the context of contemporary reforms i n the Franciscan order toward 60 s p i r i t u a l s i m p l i c i t y , suggests that the Raising was viewed as a second instance of al t e r e d state of being i n which the message common to both works i s that s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h occurs when one accepts f a i t h i n C h r i s t , Giovanni Grimani's important commission i s a second example, which may also show reform influence i n the i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of the Raising of Lazarus theme. Grimani, was a member of one of the important Venetian f a m i l i e s , who were also leading patrons of a r t . His chapel i n San Francesco d e l l a Vigna i s sumptuously decorated. Zuccaro completed two fresco's, the Raising of Lazarus and the Conversion of the  Magdalen, placed on e i t h e r side of the Grimani chapel. The theme of the conversion i s associated with a d e f i n i t e adoption of f a i t h . I t may be defined as a turn-about, a regeneration, or a change i n thought, f e e l i n g and w i l l . Here the placement of the Raising across from the Conversion may -j-i i n d i c a t e that the Raising was also viewed as a t r a n s i t i o n , change or s p i r i t u a l r e v e l a t i o n . To summarize, i t i s not unreasonable to suggest that a depiction of a dead man brought back to l i f e by the power of C h r i s t ' s word lends i t s e l f less to an understanding of a physical r e b i r t h or promise of future r e s u r r e c t i o n , but would address the question of more immediate concern i n the 16th century, i n both the Reformation and Counter-Reformation churches, that i s , the means of achieving s a l v a t i o n . While Calvin's commentary c l e a r l y emphasizes the s p i r i t u a l aspects of the r a i s i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g i t as a v i s u a l token 61 or proof that s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h occurs through f a i t h i n the word of C h r i s t , the Franciscan reforms within the Catholic church suggest a s i m i l a r emphasis of s p i r i t u a l r e v e l a t i o n or conversion. F i n a l l y having examined both the Ca t h o l i c and Protestant representations i n the 16th century, one may suggest a possible Iconographic d i s t i n c t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l b i a s . This i s represented by the motif of St. Peter, or a d i s c i p l e loosening the bands of Lazarus' bands. As mentioned i n Chapter I I , t h i s motif, f i r s t represented i n the 15th century, was o r i g i n a l l y i n s p i r e d by the text of St. Bonaventura's Meditations. In the 16th century the presence of Peter, or a d i s c i p l e i n t h i s r o l e i s widely used. I f one recognizes Calvin's comment denying the "Papists" view of C h r i s t ' s command, along with a recognition of the motifs popularity i n the 16th century, i t s use may r e f l e c t the emphasis the Catholic Church places on the importance of i t s r o l e i n achieving s a l v a t i o n . 62 I I . Rembrandt The underlying p r i n c i p l e molding the young a r t i s t ' s conception i s his desire to achieve the most emotionally strong and gripping means of presenting the miracle. The unity of Rembrandt's composition arises from t h i s s i n g l e dramatic i n t e n t i o n . His design achieves the maximum amount of physical as well as emotional i n t e r p l a y between the f i g u r e s . This e f f e c t i s accomplished p r i m a r i l y through Rembrandt's under-standing of the power of the i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e . The composition i s constructed as a s p a t i a l p o l a r i t y focusing on the powerful magician image of C h r i s t , counter-balanced by Lazarus. The f i g u r e s are arranged i n a strong pyramidal structure which i s set up by t h e i r placement and outwardly dir e c t e d gestures. This l i n e a r arrangement i s balanced by the psychological tension created by the strong contrast between C h r i s t ' s i n t e n s e l y inward expression and the outward attention of Lazarus' q u i e t l y awakening eyes and the spectators' strong expressions of awe and s u r p r i s e . In the etching Rembrandt makes even greater use of l i g h t to b u i l d up the dramatic structure and to i n t e n s i f y the compositional u n i t y . Rembrandt looked to models strongly influenced by I t a l i a n prototypes. He did not follow the strong Northern t r a d i t i o n of the miracle, represented, f o r example, by Lucas van Leyden's d e p i c t i o n . Unlike him, Rembrandt does not u t i l i z e the motif of the untying of the bands. Nor does he construct a composition structured on a c l e a r d i v i s i o n of 63 foreground, middle and background areas. Rather, Rembrandt borrows from Lievens those elements that o f f e r the most t h e a t r i c a l l y dramatic means of presenting the nar r a t i v e . Prom Lievens he adopts the horizontal and v e r t i c a l composition o r i g i n a l l y i n s p i r e d by Guido Reni, but a l t e r s t h i s " c l a s s i c a l * * layout and quiet mood by rearranging the fig u r e s into a dynamic pyramidal s t r u c t u r e . Above a l l , Rembrandt copies the c l i m a t i c moment between l i f e and death i n which Lazarus hovers, that t r a n s i t i o n a l point, which had not been represented since Caravaggio. From Lastman Rembrandt borrows elements of the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n ; t r i a n g u l a r composition, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c placement of f i g u r e s i n the foreground, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the use of l i g h t . C l e a r l y , the model f o r the Chr i s t f i g u r e i n the Raising of  Lazarus follows an I t a l i a n prototype. Miintz suggests that of Rubens* i n his version of the theme. Stechow suggests that Rembrandt developed the gesture from Lastman*s 1622 picture of the miracle, a model which can be linked u l t i m a t e l y to Sebastiano*s pa i n t i n g . Furthermore, the s i m i l a r i t y to the -. C h r i s t f i g u r e i n Caravaggio's C a l l i n g of St. Matthew and Raphael»s figu r e of Paul i n the Tapestry Cartoons of "Paul Preaching i n Athens" can not be overlooked. The consideration remains, what i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the subtly l i t , yet prominently placed quiver f u l l of arrows, sheathed sword, bow and cap, which hang on the cave wall just above Lazarus? This embellishment i s not present i n the Lievens, or previous compositions. White suggests, " i n following the Gothic proportions of his copy a f t e r Lievens" Rembrandt i s completely " i n t o t h i s s e t t i n g " , introducing a 64 "note of t o t a l l y inappropriate realism, by adding the dead man's personal e f f e c t s , the sword, bow and arrows." On the contrary,I believe these items act as v i s u a l symbols providing clues to the themes underlying meaning. The b i b l i c a l references to each of these objects i l l u d i n g to s p i r i t u a l l i f e are numerous. For example, the arrow frequently symbolizes God's power or judgement, as i n Kings 13: 17, "theiarrow of the Lord's deliverance," and i n Eze k i e l 55:16, " e v i l arrow of famine." The quiver often symbolizes the grave, a protected place, or preparedness f o r the grave. For example, i n Jeremiah 5:6, "Their quiver i s as an open sepulchre." References to the grave as a sheltered place are made i n Isaiah 49:2, " i n the shadow of h i s hand hath he hid me, and made me a polished^shaft; i n his quiver hath he hid me." In Psalm 127:5, "the man that hath quiver f u l l (of arrows)," the quiver acts as a sign of s p i r i t u a l preparedness or preparedness f o r the judgement of the grave. The bow i s sometimes a symbol f o r God's power and wrath, as i n Psalm 7:12, "He hath bent h i s bow, and made i t ready." Most notably, Ephesians 6: 16-18 r e f e r s to the "helmet of sa l v a t i o n , and the sword of the s p i r i t , " "wherewith ye s h a l l be able to quench a l l the f i e r y darts of the wicked," by, "taking the sh i e l d of f a i t h . " In summary, while the young a r t i s t ' s p r e v a i l i n g concern i s to achieve the most emotionally gripping means of presenting the narrative, the message conveyed by the r a i s i n g c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s "ideas f l o a t i n g i n the a i r . " Calvinism had become 65 the established r e l i g i o n by 1570 i n the Zuider See area, and by 1618 had gained the "upper hand" i n the Northern Provinces. C e r t a i n l y , Calvin's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the theme, would have been preached from the p u l p i t s of Amsterdam. Furthermore, the C a l v i n l s t a ttitude toward death as more of a completion than as a ravage or punishment 4 2 would influence the under-standing of t h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n . Thus, i f one accepts Lazarus' personal e f f e c t s on the grave wall to symbolize s p i r i t u a l preparedness, and i f one acknowledges Calvin's understanding of the miracle to symbolize s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h on earth, these points considered with t h i s a t t i t u d e toward death, suggest the theme's function simply as a miracle or as the hope f o r future res u r r e c t i o n and promice of r e b i r t h , i s u n l i k e l y . A more immediate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the narrative was demanded and understood; linked with repentance and conversion Rembrandt's res u r r e c t i o n of Eazarus acts as a symbol of s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h on earth revealing that f a i t h i n C h r i s t i s the key to eternal l i f e . 66 Figure 2. Rembrandt. Raising of Lazarus, (etching, 36.6 x 25.8 cm.), ca. 1631. 68 gure 3, Rembrandt. Raising of Lazarus, (panel, d e t a i l of C h r i s t ' s f a c e ) , ca. 1630, L.A. County Museum 69 Figure 4. Raising of Lazarus, wall painting, ca. 240-250, St. Lucina catacombs, Rome. 70 Figure 5. Raising of Lazarus, s i l v e r r e l i e f , cover of a pyxis, ca. 5th c , C a s t e l l o d i B r i v i o . 71 Figure 6. Raising of Lazarus, wall painting, Domitella catacombs, ca. 4th c , Rome. 72 Figure 7. Raising of Lazarus, i v o r y Gospel cover from Murano, 9th c , National Museum, Ravenna. 73 Figure 8. Raising of Lazarus, Syrian i v o r y pyxis, ca. 5th c.| Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt. 74 Figure 9. Raising of Lazarus, manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n , Gospels of St. Augustine, ca. 600, Monte Cassino Monastery. 75 Figure 10, Raising of Lazarus, Codex Purpureus Rossanensis, Rossano, Calabria, ca. 575. 76 Figure 11. Raising of Lazarus, wall painting, Monte Cassino School, ca. 1075 - 1100, S. Angelo i n Formis, Rome. 77 Figure 12 Giott o . Raising of Lazarus, fresco, Areno Chapel, ca. 1305, Padua. 78 Figure 13. Giovanni da Milano. Raising of Lazarus, 1365, S. Croce, Florence. 79 Figure 14. Raising of Lazarus, bronze column, ca. 1015-22, Hildesheim Cathedral. 80 81 Figure 16. Raising of Lazarus, Bohun manuscript Book of Hours, ca. 1370-80, Bodleian L i b r a r y , Oxford. 82 Figure 17 Raising of Lazarus, Tres Riches Heures du due  de Berry, ca. late 14th c , Museum Conde, C h a n t i l l y . 83 iiiP I. : i l Figure 18. Nicolas Froment. Raising of Lazarus, 1461, U f f i z i , Florence. Figure 19. A. van Ouwater. Raising of Lazarus, ca. 1450, Berlin-Dahlem State Museum. Figure 20. Bramantino. Raising of Lazarus, ca. 1504, Kress C o l l e c t i o n , New York. 86 Figure 21. Palma Vecchio. Raising of Lazarus, ca. 1520 National G a l l e r y , London. 87 F i g u r e 22. S e b a s i a n o d e l Piombo. R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , ( p a i n t i n g ) , c a . 1520, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , London. 88 Figure 23, Giovanni A. Pordenone. Raising of Lazarus, (mosaic), ca, 1529, St, Marks, Venice, Figure 24. Frederico Zuccaro. Raising of Lazarus, ( f r e s c o ) , 1564, Grimani Chapel, S. Francesco d e l l a Vigna, Venice. 90 Figure 2 5 . Caveliere d'Arpino. Raising of Lazarus, ca. 1590, Palazzo B a r b e r i n i , Rome. 91 F i g u r e 26. C a r a v a g g i o . R a i s i n g o f L a z a r u s , 1608, N a t i o n a l Museum, M e s s i n a . 92 Figure 27. Jean Bourdichon. Raising of Lazarus, Hours of  Anne of Brittany. 1511, Bibliothgque Nationale, P a r i s . Figure 28. Jan Cornells Vermeyenc. Raising of Lazarus, Belgium Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels, 1530. 94 Figure 29. F. Pourbous. Raising of Lazarus, Tournay Cathedral, ca. 1573. Figure 30. Lucas van Leyden. Raising of Lazarus, Leiden, Printroom, ca. 1508. F i g u r e 31. L u c a s C r a n a c h , the Younger, (copy) R a i s i n g o f  L a z a r u s , 1558, l o c a t i o n unknown, photo s o u r c e : G. S c h i l l e r , I c o n o g r a p h y o f C h r i s t i a n A r t . 97 Figure 32. Cornelius Cort. Raising of Lazarus, n.d., engraving a f t e r Frederico Zuccaro, B r i t i s h Museum. Figure 33. Abraham Bloemaert. Raising of Lazarus, (drawing), n.d., L e i p z i g Museum der bildenden Kiinste. 99 Figure 34. Jan Muller. Raising of Lazarus, n.d., engraving a f t e r Abraham Bloemaert, Printroom, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 100 101 Figure 36. P i e t e r Lastman. Raising of Lazarus, (63 x 92 cm.), Mauritshuis, The Hague. 102 Figure 37 Jan Lievens. Raising of Lazarus, (etching, 35.88 x 33.02 cm.), ca. 1619, Printroom, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 103 Figure 38. Rembrandt, The Entombment of C h r i s t , (drawing), 1630, London: B r i t i s h Museum. 104 Figure 39. Jan Lievens. Raising of Lazarus, (105 x 114.3 cm.), 1631, Art G a l l e r y , Brighton. 105 Figure 40, Raising of Lazarus, Andrews Dyptych, 5th c , V i c t o r i a and Albert Museum, London. 106 Figure 41. Raising of Lazarus, Lungara Sarcofagus, ca. 4th c , Le Terme Museum, Rome. 107 Notes t o C h a p t e r I Rembrandt c o m p l e t e d two l a t e r works on t h e R a i s i n g o f  L a z a r u s theme; a pen and b i s t r e d r a w i n g and an e t c h i n g . The f o r m e r , i n the Boymans-van Beuningen Museum, Ro t t e r d a m , measures 18.2 x .15.7 cm. Benesch, i n The Drawings o f Rembrandt, 6 v o l s . , (London: P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1954-7), v o l . 3, No. 578, s u g g e s t s the d a t e 1642. W h i t e , i n Rembrandt as E t c h e r , (London: Zemmer L t d . , 1969), p.50, a g r e e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h e d r a w i n g r e p r e s e n t s a f i r s t i d e a f o r the 1642 e t c h i n g . The l a t t e r , the s o - c a l l e d " s m a l l e r p l a t e , " measures 15 x 11.4 cm. and i s d a t e d and s i g n e d : Rembrandt f 1642. F o r the most co m p l e t e l i s t o f p r i n t l o c a t i o n s , see White and Boone, Rembrandt's E t c h i n g s , 2 v o l s . (Amsterdam: A. L. van Gendt and Co., 1969) v o l . 1, p. 37, c a t . Mo. B72. 2 The Los A n g e l e s County p a i n t i n g i s c a t a l o g u e d as number 538 i n A. B r e d i u s ' Rembrandt P a i n t i n g s , r e v i s e d e d . H. Gerson (London: Phaidon"^ 1969). K. Bauch l i s t s the p a i n t -i n g as no. 51 i n Rembrandt Gemalde, ( B e r l i n : W. de G r u y t e r and Co. 1966). F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on i t s p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , see B. B. J o h n s o n , " E x a m i n a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f Rembrandt's R e s u r r e c t i o n o f L a z a r u s , " Los A n g e l e s County  Museum o f A r t B u l l e t i n , 20 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 18-35. 3 The d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e d a t i n g o f b o t h the 1630 p a i n t i n g and t h e c a . 1631 e t c h i n g by Rembrandt appears i n C h a p t e r I V . 4 » L. Muntz's A C r i t i c a l C a t a l o g u e o f Rembrandt's E t c h i n g s , 2 v o l s . (London: P h a i d o n P r e s s , 1952), l i s t s t h e e t c h i n g as no. 192. I t i s i n d e x e d B73 i n White and Boon, op. c i t . , v o l . I , p. 38. I m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e l a r g e r p l a t e a r e l o c a t e d i n the B r i t i s h Museum, V i e n n a and Amsterdam. F o r a d d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n changes made i n the n i n e s t a t e s , see t h e s e two c a t a l o g u e s . The e t c h i n g i s s i g n e d RHL van Ryn f . ^L. M i i n t z , "Rembrandt's V o r s t e l l u n g von A n t l i t z C h r i s t i , " F e s t s c h r i f t K u r t Bauch, ( M u n i c h : D e u t s c h e r K u n s t v e r l a g ) : ib8-269. 6 I b i d . 7 B. Haak, Rembrandt - H i s L i f e , Work and Times, {London: Thames & Hudson"]! 1969), p. 63. Q C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , s.v. " L a z a r u s , " by E. May. 9 M a r k 5:22-43. Luke 7:11-17 108 11 May, "Lazarus." 12 Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the B i b l e : Introduction and Commentary f o r Each Book of the Bible  Including the Apocrypha, with general a r t i c l e s , s.v. "John 11:1-44." : " 13 The Interpreter's Dictionary of the B i b l e : an  I l l u s t r a t e d Encyclopedia I d e n t i f y i n g and Explaining a l l Proper Names and S i g n i f icant~~Terms and Subjects i n the Holy  Sciptures, Including the Apocrypha, with an Attention to  Archaeological Discoveries and Researches Into the L i f e  and F a i t h of Ancient Times, s.v. "Lazarus of Bethany," by J . N. Sanders suggests i n the case of J a r i u s ' daughter (Mark 5:22-43) and the son of the widow of Nain (Luke 7: 11-17), that i t can be argued they were riot r e a l l y dead,, but deeply unconscious; indeed, i n the former case, C h r i s t states, "The c h i l d i s not dead, but sleeping." (Mark 5:39). 14 x * I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . 16 Luke 16:21. The complete text of Lazarus of Dives occurs i n Luke, verses 19 to 31. 1 7Luke 16:31 18 Sanders, "Lazarus of Bethany'.y 19 A. Butler, Lives of the Saints, ed., revised and supp, by H. Thurson and D. Attwater, 4vols., (New York: Kennedy, 1956), p. 574. 20 Li s t e d as #169 i n the June 25,1656 inventory of Rembrandt's goods i n Hofstede de Groot's Die Urkunden uber  Rembrandt, (The Hague: 1906), item #285 r e f e r s to an "old B i b l e . " More d e t a i l e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the text i s not provided. The 1618-19 Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church of Dordrect ordered a new t r a n s l a t i o n of the Bible made from the o r i g i n a l text; i t was f i r s t published i n 1637. 2 l J o h n 11:3 2 2 J o h n 10:31 2 3 J o h n 11:18 2 4 J o h n 11:45 2 5 J o h n 11:53 2 6 J o h n 11:47-48 27 Sanders, "Lazarus of Bethany." 109 28 Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, 2 v o l s . (New York: Harper and Row, 1953), p. 320 f . 29 Richard Spear, "The Raising of Lazarus - Caravaggio and the 16th century t r a d i t i o n , " Gazette des Beaux-Arts (February 1965): 65-70. 30 Denis Mahon, "A Late Caravaggio Rediscovered," Burlington Magazine 98 (1956): 225-8. 31 George Hulin de Loo* "Die Auferweckung des Lazarus der Sammlung von Kaufmann und die Niederlander Maler des Konlgs Rene d'Arijou," Jahrbuch der Preussesheh Kunst Sammlunqen 25 (1904): 72-9. ' " Emile Male, "La Resurrection de Lazare dans l ' a r t , " La Revue des A r t s , 1 (1951): 43-52. 33 * G. S c h i l l e r , Iconography of C h r i s t i a n Art, 2 v o l s . , trans, by Janet Seligman. (Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, 1971), 1: 181-6. 34 E. Kirschenbaum, Lexikon der C h r i s t l i c h e n Ikonographie, 3 v o l s . (Freiburg i n Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1971)3: p. 35. 3 5 F . Sax1, "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " Pud Holland (1923-4): 145-60. L. Miintz, Die Kunst Rembrandts und Goethes Sehen, ( L e i p z i g : Verlag Heinrich K e l l e r , 1934), passim. "~~ L. Miintz, "Rembrandts Vorstellung von A n l i t z C h r i s t i , " F e s t s c h r i f t Kurt Bauch (Munich: Deutscher Kunst Verlag): pp. 205-27. ~ 38 W. Stechow, "Rembrandt's Resurrection of Lazarus," Los Angeles County Museum of Art B u l l e t i n 19 (1973): 7-11. 39 B. B. Johnson, "Examination and Treatment of Rembrandts Resurrection of Lazarus," Los Angeles County Museum Art  B u l l e t i n (1974): 18-35. 40 H. Guratzsch, "Die Untersicht a l s e i n Gestaltung-s m i t t l e i n Rembrandts Fruhwerk," Pud Holland 89 (1975): 243-263. 110 Notes to Chapter II S l a l e , "La Resurrection," ,p. 46. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . 4 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 183. 5 I b i d . 6John 11:39. 7 For further discussion of Byzantine iconography r e f e r to M i l l e t ' s Recherches sur I'Iconographle de l'Evangile ( P a r i s : E. de Boccard, I960),; p. 233, wherein he describes an I t a l i a n Byzantine and Capadocean model. The elements of the Capadocean are i d e n t i c a l to the Syro-Palestinian type described by t h i s writer i n the t e x t . The elements which d i s t i n g u i s h the Syro-Palestinian type from the I t a l i a n Byzantine type are: 1) C h r i s t ' s entry i n t o the scene from the r i g h t instead of the l e f t ; and 2) the stone of the tomb i s frequently r o l l e d at an angle. The I t a l i a n Byzantine type i s exemplified by the Raising of Lazarus on the Pisa Doors. Note that the I t a l i a n Byzantine model i s f a r less frequently represented. 8Male, "La Resurrection," p. 46. 9 I b i d . 10 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 183. 1 1 I b i d . 12 S c h i l l e r suggests i n Iconography, p. 186^ that the operative influence here i s not so much the Gothic p i c t o r i a l type, but an a s s i m i l a t i o n of the image of the Resurrection  of C h r i s t . 1 3 I b i d . , p. 184* 1 4 I b i d . 1 5 I b i d . 16 A s Male, "La Resurrection," p. 50. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 49. 18 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 186. I l l 19 2 0 J o h n 11:39 21 P a n o f s k y , E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t i n g , v o l . 1, p. 36. 22 M. J . F r i e d l a e n d e r , D i e a l t n i e d e r l a n d i s c h e M a l e r e i , 14 v o l s . , ( B e r l i n : P a u l C a s s i r e r ( I - X I ) and L e i d e n : A. W. S i j h o f f ( X I I - X I V ) 1924-1937), 3: 57, 112. 23 P a n o f s k y , E a r l y N e t h e r l a n d i s h P a i n t i n g , v o l . 1, p. 320. I b i d . 25 " i b i d . 2 6 I b i d . 27 I b i d . 112 Notes to Chapter I I I C e c i l Gould, National G a l l e r y - The Sixteenth Century  I t a l i a n School Excluding the Venetian, (London: Publications Department, National G a l l e r y , 1962), indicates the painting was sent from Rome to Narbonne Cathedral some time a f t e r A p r i l 12, 1520. Some time before 1723 the regent of Orleans "bought or begged" the work from the Chapter of Narbonne. The l o c a t i o n within the Cathedral during the two centuries i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r ; i t may have been i n the apsidal chapel of St. Michel. A copy,by Carle Vanloo arrived around 1750 and was i n the chapel of St. Martin. A f t e r the Orleans sale (Lyceum, London, 26, December 1798), i t went in t o the Argerstein c o l l e c t i o n . That National G a l l e r y acquired the work i n 1824. I t i s on canvas transferred from panel. 2 R. Spear on page 64 i n "The Raising of Lazarus: Caravaggio and the 16th century t r a d i t i o n , " points to Sebastiano as an e a r l i e r source f o r F. Zuccaro's 1564 Raising of Lazarus. 3 I b i d , p. 68. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , p. 65. g Spear, "Caravaggio and the 16th century t r a d i t i o n , " p. 65. 7 W. Friedlaender, Caravaggio Studies. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955), pp. 213-6. 8 i ; ; (London: Chapman H a l l , 19535, pp. 42-3. Q Hugo Wagner. Michelangelo da Caravaggio, (Bern: B e n t e l i , 1958), pp. 156-8. 1 G I b i d . , p. 64. 11 I b i d . A l l the points described as s i m i l a r between Caravaggio and d'Arpino's work i n t h i s paragraph appear on page 66. l 2Male, "La Resurrection," p. 51. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 49. B.Berenson, Caravaggio, His Incongruity and His Fame. 113 *John 11:38. 1 5 J o h n 11:41. 16 E. Ruhmer, Cranach, trans, by Joan Spencer (London: Phaidon, 1963), p. 27. 17 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 186. 18 Spear, "Caravaggio and the 16th century t r a d i t i o n , " p. 68. 19 ^ I b i d . 2 G I b i d . 21 * x I b i d . 22 Lastman completed two versions of t h i s theme. The l a t e r painting i s located i n The Hague, Mauritshuis, signed and dated 1622, on panel 63 x 92 cm. The other version i n the c o l l e c t i o n of P. Leendertz, Amsterdam, on panel, 62 x 84 cm., i s dated ca. 1620-2. 114 Notes to Chapter IV 1 Seymour S l i v e , "The Young Rembrandt," A l l e n Memorial Art B u l l e t i n Museum 20 (Spring, 1963): 120-49, i n p a r t i c u l a r 136-44, S l i v e discusses the two young a r t i s t s 1 c o l l a b o r a -t i o n . This association i s complicated by the f a c t that Rembrandt and Lievens o c c a s i o n a l l y worked on one another's p r o j e c t s . S l i v e points to several e a r l y drawings and paintings which are ascribed to Lievens by some scholars and to Rembrandt by others. For example, The P o r t r a i t of an  Old Man, now at the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, i s c l e a r l y dated 1632 and monogrammed by Rembrandt, but shows unmistakable traces of the s o f t , s i l k y touch Lievens developed around 1630. 2 Constantine Huygens was secretary to Stadtholder Prince Frederick Henry, from 1625, when he was 29 years o l d to 1687 at the time of his death. One of the most outstanding men of the Netherlands during the 17th century, he not only served h i s country but was also a d i l e t t a n t e of the a r t s . Around 1630 Huygens began an autobiography which among other subjects, discusses p a i n t i n g . 3 J . Rosenberg; S. S l i v e ; and E. H. t e r Ku i l e , Dutch Art and Architecture 1600-1800, (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1966), p. 144. E. Heverkamp-Begeman, "Review of Otto Benesch - The Drawing of"Rembrandt," Kunstchronik 14 (January 1961): 20. H. Schneider, Jan Lievens - Sein Leben und Seine Werjc, supplemented by R. E. O. Ekkart, (Amsterdam: V. M. I s r a e l , 1972)j p. 38, catalogue no. 31. 4 Saxlj "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " p. 147. 5 I b i d . 8 White, Rembrandt as Etcher, p.30. 9 Heverkamp-Begeman , "Review of Otto Benesch," p. 20. 10 Saxl, "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " p. 146^7. Heverkamp-Begeman, "Review of Otto Benesch," p. 20. 11 Benesch, Drawings of Rembrandt, p. 7, catalogue no. 17, fi g u r e 22. — - — - • 115 1 ^ I I \-L. Muntz, A C r i t i c a l Catalogue of Rembrandt's  Etching, (London: Phaidon Press, 1952), 2: 176, catalogue no 192. 14 K. Bauch, "Zum Werk des J . Lievens," Pantheon 25 (May/June 1967): 166ff. 15 B. Haak, Rembrandt - His L i f e , Work and Times (London: Thames and Hudson), f i g . 91, p. 62f. 1 6 I b l d . , p. 63. 17 Saxl, "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " p. 146. A O A Saxl, "Rembrandt und I t a l i e n , " p. 152. 19 J . Bruyn, "Rembrandt and the I t a l i a n Baroque," Simlolus 4 (1970): 40. C. Tiimple, "The Iconography of the Pre-Rembrandtists," (Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a : E. B. Crocker Art Ga l l e r y , 1974) p. 127. 21 Rosenberg, S l i v e , and ter Kuile, Dutch Art and Arch i t e c t u r e j p. 131. 116 Notes to Chapter V ajohn 11:38 o Male, "La Resurrection," p.45. 3 I b i d . 4David Plusser, *'The Redemption i n Ancient Egypt and Early C h r i s t i a n i t y , " Types of Redemption, ed. by R. J . Werblowsky; C. Jouco Bleeber (Leiden: E. J . B r i l l , 1970), p. 39. 5Male, "La Resurrection," p. 44. S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 181. W. Lowrie, Art i n the E a r l y Church, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1947), p. 97. 8Male, MLa Resurrection," p. 44. 9 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 181. 10 • Male, "La Resurrection," p. 46. 1 1 I b i d . l 2 I b i d . 13 ^ M i l l e t , Recherches sur 1 1Iconographie de l'Evangile, p. 231. 1 4 A s quoted from Male, "La Resurrection," p. 51. D. Attwater, Dictionary of Saints. (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1965), p. 274. • 1 6Matthew 16:16-19. 1 7Matthew 18:18 1 8 J o h n 21:15-19 19 Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, p. 321. 2 G I b i d . 117 2 1 I b i d . 22 Hans J . Hill e r b r a n d , The World of the Reformation, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973), p. 61. 23 As quoted from Edelgrad Dubruck i n David E. Standad, Death i n the Western T r a d i t i o n , (New York: Oxford Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1977), p. 22. 2 4 I b i d . 25 J . C a l v i n , Commentaries on the Gospels, translated by Reverend William Pr i n g l e , (Edinburgh: Edinburgh P r i n t i n g , 1847), p. 424. 2 6 I b i d . 27 * I b i d . 2 8 I b i d . 2 9 I b i d . , p. 435. 3 0 I b i d . 31 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 463-7. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 447. 3 4 I b i d . 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 I b i d . 37 S c h i l l e r , Iconography, p. 186. 3 8Muntz, Rembrandt's Etchings, number 214. 118 Stechow,"Rembrandt*s Resurrection of Lazarusi". p. 8. ^ w h i t e , Rembrandt as Etcher, p. 31. K JiHuistnga, Duteh. C i v i l i z a t i o n i n the Seventeenth  Century, trans, by Arnold J . Pomerans, (London:Fontana Press, 1968), p. 52. 4 2 J . B . Knipping, Iconography of the Counter Reformation  i n the Netherlands. 2 v o l s . , (Leiden: A.W. S i j t k o f f , 1974), p.92. 119 Selected Bibliography Attwater, Donald. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1965. Bauch, K. Der Fruhe Rembrandt und Seine Z e i t . B e r l i n : Ver1ag Gebr-Mann, 1960. • "Rembrandts 'Christus am Kreutz.'" Pantheon 20 (May/June 1962): 137-44. — • Rembrandt Gemalde. B e r l i n : W. de Gruyter and Co., 1966. "Zum Werk des Jan Lievens." Pantheon 25 (1967): 160-70. Benesch, O. Rembrandt, Biographical and C r i t i c a l Study. Translated by J . Emmons. New York: S k i r a , 1957. • The Drawings of Rembrandt. 6 v o l s . London: Phaidon Press, 1954-57. Berenson, Bernard. Caravaggio: His Incongruity and His a; 'y Fame. London: Chapman & H a l l , 1953. Biorklund, G. Rembrandt's Etchings: True and Fal s e . Sweden: Es s e l t e Aktiebolag, 1968. Bornkamm, H. Heart of Reformation F a i t h - The Fundamental  Axioms of Evangelical B e l i e f . New York: Harper and Row, 1963. Bredius, H. Rembrandt - The Complete E d i t i o n of the Paintings. Revised and edited by H. Gerson. London: Phaidon Press, 1969. Brochhagen, Ernst. "Beobachtungen an den Passionsbildern Rembrandts i n Munchen." Munschula Disclpulorium -Ku n s t r h l s t o r i s c h e Studlen~Hans Kauffman zum 70  Geburtstag. B e r l i n : Verlag Bruno Hesslinq. 1968. Bruyn, J . "Rembrandt and the I t a l i a n Baroque." Simiolus 4 (1970): 28-48. Butler, Alban. Lives of the Sain t s . Edited, revised and supplemented by H. Thurson and D. Attwater. 4 v o l s . New York: Kennedy, 1956. 120 C a l v i n , John. Commentaries on the Gospels. Translated by Rev. William P r i n g l e . Edinburgh: Edinburgh P r i n t i n g . 1847. Clark, K. Rembrandt and the I t a l i a n Renaissance. New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Coley, G. C. "Raising of Lazarus." B u l l e t i n of John Heron Art I n s t i t u t e i n Indianapolis 47 (March 1960): 23-5. Chrysostomus, John. Commentaries on Saint John. Translated by S i s t e r Thomas Aquinas Goggin. New York: Fathers of the Church, 1957. Flusser, David. "The Redemption i n Ancient Egypt and E a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y , " Types of Redemption, edited by R. J . Werblowsky; C. Jouco Bleeber. Leiden: E. J . B r i l l , 1970. Freedberg, S. J . Painting of the High Renaissance i n Rome  and Florence"! New York: Harper and Row, 1972. Friedlaender, Max J . Die Altniederlandische Malerei. Vols. 1-11. Leiden: A. W. S i k t h o f f , v o l s . 12-14, 1924037. V o l . 3. B e r l i n : Paul C a s s i r e r . Friedlaender, Max J . j Rosenberg, J . The Painting of Lucas  Cranach. Ithaca, New York: Cornell U n i v e r s i t y Press. Friedlaender, W. Caravaggio s t u d i e s . Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. Gardet, L.; Gurevic, A. J . ; Kagame, A. Cultures and Time. P a r i s : Unesco Press, 1976. Gelder, van H. A. E. The Two Reformations i n the 16th Century- A Study of the Religious Aspects and Consequences of  the Remaissance and Humanism^ The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f , 1961. ' Gerson, H. Seven Lett e r s by Rembrandt. The Hague: L. J . C. Boucher, 1961. • Rembrandt Paintings. Amsterdam: Reynal and Company, 1968. : Geyl, P i e t e r . The Revolt of the Netherlands 1555-1609. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1958. Gould, C e c i l . National G a l l e r y - The Sixteenth Century  I t a l i a n School Excluding the Venetian. London: Publications Department, National G a l l e r y , 1962. 121 Grave, M. A. "The Stone of Unction i n Caravaggio 1s Painting f o r Chiesa Nuova." Art B u l l e t i n 40 (September 1958): 223-38. . Guratzsch, H. "Die Untersicht a l s e i n Gestaltungsmittle i n Rembrandts Friihwerk." Pud Holland 89 (1975): 243-65. Haak, B. Rembrandt - His L i f e , Work and Times. London: Thames and Hudson, 1969. Harbison, C ; Panofsky, E. Symbols i n Transformation  Iconographic Themes at the Time of the Reformation. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969. Harbison, C. The Last Judgement i n Sixteenth Century Northern  Europe: A Study of the Relation between Art and the  Reformation. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1976. Heverkamp-Begeman, E. "Review of Otto Benesch - The Drawings of Rembrandt, F i r s t Complete E d i t i o n . " Kunstchronik 14 (January 1961): 20 f . Hermann, A l f r e d . "Agypologische Marginalien zur Spatantiken Ikonographie Lazarus und C s i r i s . " Jahrbuch f u r Antike  und Christentum. 5 (1962): 60-9. H i l l e r b r a n d , Hans J . The World of the Reformation. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973. Hind, A. A Catalogue of Rembrandt's Etchings Chronologically  Arranged and Completely I l l u s t r a t e d . 2 v o l s . London: Methuen and Co., 1924. Hofstede de Groot, C. Die Urkunden uber Rembrandt - 1575-1721, The Hague: M. Nikhoff, 1906. . Rembrandt's Hanzeichnungen. Haarlem: De Erven F. Bohn, 1906. Howard, Deborah. Jacopo Sansovino: Architecture and Patronage  i n Renaissance Venice. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974. Huizinga, J . H. Dutch C i v i l i z a t i o n i n the 17th Century and  Other Essays. London: Fontana, 1968. Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the B i b l e : Introduction  and Commentary f o r Each Book of the Bible Including the  Apocrypha, with general a r t i c l e s . 1971 ed., S.v. "John 11:1-44." 122 The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bibl e ; an I l l u s t r a t e d  Encyclopedia I d e n t i f y i n g and Explaining a l l Proper  Names and S i g n i f i c a n t Terms and Subjects i n the Holy  Scriptures, Including the Apocrypha, with an Attention  to Archaeological Discoveries and Researches in t o the  L i f e and F a i t h of Ancient Times. 1962 ed.,S.-.v. "Lazarus of Bethany," by J . N. Sanders. Johnson, B. B. "Examination and Treatment of Rembrandt's Resurrection of Lazarus." Los Angeles County Museum  of Art B u l l e t i n . 20 (1974): 18-35. Kirschenbaum, E. Lexikon der C h r l s t l i c h e n Ikonographie. 3 v o l s . Freiburg i n Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1971. Knipping, B. J . Iconography of the Counter Reformation i n  the Netherlands. 2 v o l s . Leiden: A. w. S i j t k o f f , 1974. Knuttel, G. "Rembrandt's E a r l y Works," Burlington Magazine, 97 (January 1955): 44-50. Lamberton, Clark D. Themes from St. John's Gospel i n Earl y Roman Catacomb Pai n t i n g ! Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1905. Loo, Georges Hulin de. "Die Auferweckung des Lazarus der Sammlung von Kaufmann und die niederlander Maler des Konigs Rene d'Anjou." Jahrbuch der Preussischen kunst Sammlungen 25 (1904): 72-9. Lowrie, W. Art i n the Early Church. New York: Pantheon Books, 1947. Mahon, Denis. "A Late Caravaggio Rediscovered." Burlington  Magazine 98 (January 1956):225-8. Male, E. "La Resurrection de Lazare dans l ' a r t . " Revue des  Arts 1 (195l):43-s.52. May, E. Catholic Encyclopedia. 1907-12 ed., s.v. "Lazarus." M i l l e t , G a b r i e l . Recherches sur 1'Iconographie de l'Eva n g i l e. P a r i s : E. de Boccard, 1960. Moir, A l f r e d . 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Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Kunstgeschichte. 5 (1936): 311-20. 124 S l i v e , S. "Art Historians and Art C r i t i c s - VI - Huygens n on Rembrandt." Burlington Magazine 94 (September 1952): 261-4. — - . "Notes on the Relationship of Protestantism to 17th Century Dutch Painting." Art Quarterly 19 (Spring 1956): 2-15. — -. "The Young Rembrandt." A l l e n Memorial Art Museum B u l l e t i n 20 (Spring 1963): 120-49"! . Drawings of Rembrandt. 2 v o l s . New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965. . Rembrandt and His C r i t i c s : 1630-1730. The Hague: N. N i j h o f f , 1953. Spear, R. W. "The Raising of Lazarus - Caravaggio and the 16th Century T r a d i t i o n . " Gazette des Beaux Arts 65 (February 1965): 65-70. - — • . "Rembrandt's Darstellung der Kreuzabnahme." Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunst Sammlunqen 50 (1929): 217-32. Standad, David, E. Death i n Western T r a d i t i o n . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977. Stechow, W. "Rembrandt's Resurrection of Lazarus." Los  Angeles County Museum of Art B u l l e t i n 19 (1973): 7-11. • "Some Observations on Rembrandt and Lastman." Pud Holland 84 (1969): 148-62. — — — , . "Rembrandt's Darstellung des Emmausmahles." Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Kunstqeschichte 3 (1934) 329-41. Swarenski, G. " I t a l i e n i s c h e Quellen der Deutschen P i e t a . " F e s t s c h r i f t Heinrich W o l f f l i n . Munchen: Druck der Graphischen Kunstanstalten (1924): 127-34. Thomas, Keith'. Religion and the Decline of Magic. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1973. Trevor-Roper, H. R. The European Witch-Craze of the 16th  and 17th Centuries and Other Essays. New York: Harper & Row, 1956. Tselos, D i m i t r i . "The P i e t a : The Enigma of i t s Origins and Meanings." 63rd Annual Meeting of the College A rt Association of America. January 22-5, 1975. Tiimple, A s t r i d ; Tumple, C h r i s t i a n . Foreword by Wolfgang Stechow. The Pre-Rembrandtists. Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a : E. B. Crocker Art G a l l e r y , 1974. 125 Tumple, C h r i s t i a n . Rembrandt l i e g t die Bibel aus. B e r l i n : Verlag Bruno Hessling, 1970. Wagner, Hugo. Michelangelo da Caravaggio. Bern: B e n t e l i , 1958. White, C. Rembrandt as an Etcher - A Study,of the A r t i s t at Work. 2 v o l s . London: A. Zemmer* Ltd., !  — — — • Rembrandt's Etchings, An I l l u s t r a t e d C r i t i c a l  Catalogue. 2 v o l s . Amsterdam: Van Gendt & Co., Amsterdam, 1969. white, C ; Boon, K. G. Rembrandt's Etchings. 2 v o l s . Amsterdam: A. L. van Gendt and Co., 1969. Wilde, Johannes. I t a l i a n Drawings i n the Department of  Pri n t s and Drawings i n the B r i t i s h Museum, Michelangelo and His Studio" London: Publications Department, B r i t i s h Museum, 1953. Wilson, Charles. The Dutch Republic and C i v i l i z a t i o n of  the Seventeenth Century. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. 126 Appendix The extent of Michelangelo's c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the design i s open to disc u s s i o n , Vasari, who describes the circumstances under which the picture was commissioned and executed, asserts that i t was done, "sotto o r d i n i e disegno i i n alcune p a r t i d i Michelangelo," As Preedberg suggests, the phrase "may be interpreted i n several ways, but i t s l i t e r a l meaning i s that Michelangelo supplied ideas, not for the e n t i r e composition, but f o r some motives; i n ; it,?' 2 As we know from Sebastiano's l e t t e r s to Michelangelo, the degree of Michelangelo's supervision was t r u l y minimal; he saw the work only once i n January 1518, several months a f t e r Sebastiano had begun the p a i n t i n g . ^ Thus, i f Michelangelo had no part i n the design as a whole, the question a r i s e s as to the extent of h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Evidence of Michelangelo's assistance e x i s t s i n the form of three preparatory drawings, one f o r the Lazarus f i g u r e and two f o r h i s attendants. Opinion i s divided as to the authorship of these drawings, Johannes Wilde a t t r i -butes them to Michelangelo i n his 1953 catalogue, though he previously a t t r i b u t e d them to Sebastiano, 4 Gould, i n his 1964 catalogue, also ascribes = the drawings to Michelangelo, Freedberg disagrees and suggests that although the three drawings are dependent on Michelangelo's draftsmanship to the point of possible confusion, t h i s l i t e r a l n e s s decreases 127 as Sebastiano moves toward the f i n a l form, Freedberg points out that several other f i g u r e s resemble Michelangelo motifs more c l o s e l y , such as those taken from the S i s t i n e C e i l i n g . For example, the arras of C h r i s t are s i m i l a r i n both the Separation of Earth and Water and the Creation of  Adam. In ad d i t i o n , the at t i t u d e of Martha i s s i m i l a r to that of Adam i n Michelangelo's Expulsion. In Freedberg's opinion, the Lazarus fig u r e was "with great p r o b a b i l i t y based on a suggestion i n drawing made ad hoc by Michelangelo at Sebastiano's request," but i n i t s f i n a l conception, i s not l i t e r a l l y derived, but worked up and away from Michelangelo's o r i g i n a l suggestion. 6 Whichever a t t r i b u t i o n of the drawings one accepts, i t i s c l e a r that several motifs o r i g i n a t e from Michelangelo. In some cases, they are more l i t e r a l l y borrowed. In others, they are more g r e a t l y evolved. However, Freedberg concludes that although Michelangelo did contribute to t h i s work i n some degree, the contribution was i n s i g n i f i c a n t and the painting i s Sebastiano'a personal c r e a t i o n . 128 Notes to Appendix Vasari, as quoted i n S. J . Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance i n Rome and Florence, (New York: Harper and Row, 1972), p. 383. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . Johannes Wild, I t a l i a n Drawings i n the Department of  Pr i n t s and Drawings i n the B r i t i s h Museum, Michelangelo and His Studio, (London: Publications Department, B r i t i s h Museum, 1953), p.30. Gould, Sixteenth Century I t a l i a n School Excluding the  Venetian, p. 78. ~~ Freedberg, Painting of the High Renaissance, p. 383 

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