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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Cezanne as a "decorative" painter Freeman, Dana Alexandra 1982

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CEZANNE AS A "DECORATIVE" PAINTER by DANA ALEXANDRA FREEMAN Diploma i n A r t H i s t o r y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f F i n e A r t s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 19 8 2 (c) Dana A l e x a n d r a Freeman, 19 8 2 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. / Department of Fine Arts  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 18 Oct. 1982 DE-6 (3/81) - r i i -ABSTRACT The thesis focuses on a s i g n i f i c a n t , but neglected aspect of Cezanne's oeuvre: the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Cezanne's pain-tings and the decorative aesthetic of the 1890s. Since the meaning of the term "decorative" underwent s i g -n i f i c a n t changes during the l a s t quarter of the 19th century and the f i r s t decade of the 20th century, p a r t i c u l a r attention i s paid to problems of d e f i n i t i o n i n Chapter I, Part 1. This section shows that the d e f i n i t i o n of what was "true" decoration, and the increasing emphasis on decoration, were related to the process of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l and decorative arts i n France. Chapter I, Part 2 establishes that the general tendency of the avant-garde painting i n the decade 1890-1900 was to be "decorative." The most innovative manifestation of t h i s trend was the introduction of the aesthetics of "decoration" into easel painting. The transformation of painting from tableau into "decoration" was a r e f l e c t i o n of an anti-Natural-i s t , a n t i - p o s i t i v i s t trend. The second chapter of the thesis i s devoted to Cezanne's pos i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the "decorative trend." Chapter II, Part 1 analyses the c r i t i c i s m of Cezanne's contemporaries. Special attention i s given to the writer's p a r t i c u l a r positions on aesthetics, philosophy, r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s (whenever possible), as well as to changes i n these positions. Chapter I I , Part 2 analyses Cezanne's l e t t e r s (considered as the only authentic source of true quotations from the a r t i s t ) and paintings. The conclusion i s that Cezanne not only belongs to the general tendency toward the "decorative," but that he can be considered among i t s i n i t i a t o r s . Moreover, the present author proposes that C§zanne was part of the movement that introduced the aesthetic of "decoration" into easel painting. Q u a l i t i e s such as the interplay between two-dimensionality, and three-dimensionality, the accent on contours, the general aspect of b a s - r e l i e f , or even of tapestry (often noticed by his contem-poraries, as well as by l a t e r c r i t i c s ) , can be explained by Cezanne's intention to apply to his paintings a "decoration paradigm." Special attention i s placed on the method of "colour modulation" and i t s possible r e l a t i o n to similar meth-ods used i n 18th century French tapestries, or those recom-mended for tapestries i n t h e o r e t i c a l works by 19th century French reformers of the decorative a r t s . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES . v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix INTRODUCTION . 1 I THE CONCEPT OF DECORATION IN LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY ART AND THE NEW TENDENCIES IN THE PAINTING OF THE 1890s . 8 Introduction . . 8 Part 1: The R e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the In d u s t r i a l Arts i n France and i t s Role i n Redifining the Concept of Decoration.. .,,10 Part 2: The "New Tendencies" i n the Painting of the 1890s 51 Introduction 51 A. The new "decorative" tendency i n the French avant-garde painting of the 1880s and early 1890s and the " I d e a l i s t Renaissance.". 52 B. The new "decorative" tendency as defined by c r i t i c s i n the early 1890s: Aurier versus Lecomte ,60 C. The a r t i s t s who applied decorative - V -v arts p r i n c i p l e s to easel painting by the early 1890s....... 71 D. The mid and late 1890s 76 II CEZANNE AND THE "DECORATIVE" TREND..... 90 Part 1: Cezanne Seen by His Contemporaries as a "Decorative" Painter..... 90 . Introduction;;•.. . . . . 90 Part 2: Cezanne and the "Decoration Paradigm":. 142 Introduction .. 142 A. Did Cezanne f u l f i l the conditions that led easel painters toward V painting-decoration? . 144 B. Do Cezanne's paintings f i t the "Decoration Paradigm"?. 164 Conclusions 180 NOTES 18 4 Introduction 184 Chapter I, Introduction • 186 Chapter I, Part 1. 186 Chapter I, Part 2 201 Chapter I I , Part 1 241 Chapter II, Part 2 274 BIBLIOGRAPHY 293 LIST OF FIGURES P. Cezanne: Ouverture to Tannhauser. Moscow - Museum of Modern Western Art. 1869-71, V.90, 57x92 cm. (Source: L. Brion-Guerry, Paris, 19 66.) E. Bernard. P o r t r a i t of the A r t i s t ' s  Grandmother. Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. 1887, 53x64 cm. (Source: B. Welsh-Ovcharov, Art G a l l , of Ontario, 19 81.) E. Bernard. S t i l l - L i f e with a Tobacco  Pot. C o l l . Samuel Josefowitz, Lausanne. 1887, 33x56 cm. (Source: L i l l e , exh. Emile Bernard, 19 67.) P.Cezanne. The Temptation of St. Anthony C o l l . J.V. P e l l e r i n , Paris. 1873-77, V. 241, 47x56 cm. (Source: Th. Reff, "Cezanne, Flaubert, St. A n t h o n y 1 9 6 2 P. Cezanne. Madame Cezanne. 1872-1877, V.229, 55x46 cm. (Source: E. Bernard, Souvenirs.... Une Conversa-t i o n . .., Paris: A - Michel, 1926.) E. Bernard. Pont—Aven Seen From Bois  d'Amour. C o l l . Samuel Josefowitz, Lausanne. 1892, 71.5x91 cm. (Source: L i l l e exh.) M. Denis. Hommage a Cezanne. Musee National d'Art Moderne, P a r i s . 1900, approx. 91.5x235 cm. (Source: Bonnard, V u i l l a r d et les Nabis, 19 55.) P..' Cezanne. S t i l l - L i f e.with Compotier. Musee du Luxembourg. 1879-82, V.341, 46x55 cm. (Source: F. Novotny, Cezanne, Phaidon, 1961.) M. Denis. Cezanne sortant de l a messe a  Aix en 190 6. Drawing. (Source: M. Denis Du symbolisme au classicisme, Hermann, 19 - V l l -P. Cezanne. The E n v i r o n s o f A i x - e n -P r o v e n c e . W a l l y F i n d l a y G a l l . N.Y. P a i n t e d s c r e e n , 1858-60, V.3, 402x250 cm P. Cezanne. Grotesque d e c o r a t i o n s on the back o f t h e s c r e e n r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g . 10. V . l - 2 . (Source: L. V e n t u r i , Cezanne..., P a r i s , 1936.) P. Cezanne. Rocks a t L'Estaque. Sao P a u l o Museu de A r t e . ( D e t a i l . ) ( 1882-85, V.404, 73x91 cm. (Source: Sandra O r i e n t i , Complete P a i n t i n g s  of Cezanne, 1972.) P. Cezanne. House i n Provence. C o l l . P. M e l l o n . 1882-85, V.397, 65x81 cm. (Source: The World o f  Cezanne, T i m e - L i f e Books, N.Y.) F r . Boucher. The C h i n e s e F i s h i n g P a r t y . ( D e t a i l . ) B e a u v a i s t a p e s t r y , 1758. (Source: M a d e l e i n e J a r r y , L a T a p i s s e r i e , des o r i g i n e s a nos j o u r s , P a r i s , 1968.) F r . Casanova. Les amusements de l a Cam-pagne: L ' A b r e u v o i r . ( D e t a i l . ) B e a u v a i s t a p e s t r y , 1772. M o b i l i e r N a t i o n a l , P a r i s . ( S o u r c e : P i e r r e V e r l e t e t . a l . , Le Grand  L i v r e de l a T a p i s s e r i e , P a r i s , 1965.) P. Cezanne. Mont S a i n t e - V i c t o i r e . V i a d u c t  and B i g T r e e s . M e t r o p o l i t a n Mus. o f A r t , N. Y. 1885-87, V.452, 65x81 cm. (Source: s l i d e from C a r l B e l z , Cezanne, Mc Graw- '•" H i l l , 1975.) P. Cezanne. Mont S a i n t e - V i c t o i r e Seen " v from Bibemus. The B a l t i m o r e Mus. o f A r t , bequest o f E t t a and C l a r i b e l Cone. 1898-1900, V.766, 64.8x81.3 cm. (Source: t h e p o s t e r o f the MOMA e x h i b . Cezanne. The L a t e Work, 1977-78.) P. Cezanne. S t i l l - L i f e w i t h Peppermint  B o t t l e . N a t i o n a l G a l l , of A r t , Washing-t o n , D.C; C h e s t e r Dale C o l l . 1890-92, V.625, 65x81 cm. (Source: J . W e c h s l e r , Cezanne i n P e r s p e c t i v e , 19 7 5.) P. Cezanne. S t i l l - L i f e w i t h A p p l e s and  Oranges. L o u v r e , P a r i s . 189 5-19 00, V - V l l l -.V.732, 73x92 cm. (Source: C. B e t z , Cezanne.) P.. Cezanne. . The Red Rock. L o u v r e , W a l t e r - G u i l l a u m e C o l l . 1895-1900, V.776, 91x66 cm. ( S o u r c e : S. O r i e n t i , Complete P a i n t i n g s o f  Cezanne. P. Cezanne. Mont S a i n t e - V i c t o i r e . P r i v a t e C o l l . , S w i t z e r l a n d . 1902-1906, V.802, 65x81 cm. (Source: F. Novotny, Cjzanne.) M. D e n i s . Ctszanne "on the M o t i f . " P r i v a t e C o l l . , F r a n c e . 1906. ( S o u r c e : Cat. o f t h e Bremen exh., M e i s t e r w e r k e des N a c h i m p r e s s i o n i s m u s  aus der Sammlung M a u r i c e D e n i s , 17 Oct. 5 Dec. 1971.) - ix -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am indebted to David H. Splkin and Serge Guibault for th e i r guidance and help i n organizing my material, for asking penetrating questions, and for making useful suggestions. I am thankful to George Knox for teaching me how to "see" Cezanne's paintings and for encouragement. I am g r a t e f u l to Albert Boime, who on very short notice, took the time for a help f u l discussion. My research was helped by the Staff of the UBC Fine Art Library, I n t e r l i b r a r y Loan, and Slid e Library. My special thanks to Melva Dwyer, Diana Cooper, A l i c e McNair, Karen Peplow, Barbara Hopkins and Mary Webb. This thesis would not have been written without Mike's support and patience. - 1 -INTRODUCTION 1. The Key I s s u e o f t h e T h e s i s The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f r e s e a r c h on CSzanne shows a s t r o n g C u b i s t b i a s , w h i c h c l e a r l y emerged i n the e x h i b i t i o n o f h i s l a t e work o r g a n i z e d by t h e Museum o f Modern A r t i n 1977. The purpose o f t h i s e x h i b i t i o n was t o emphasize the " e v o l u t i o n " from the l a t e Cezanne t o Cubism and thence t o t h e o t h e r major a r t i s t i c movements o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y . Modern v i e w s o f Cezanne t e n d t o r e l y t o o h e a v i l y on t h o s e o f t h e C u b i s t p a i n t e r s , a t t h e expense o f t h o s e o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c o n t e mporaries." To sum up the s i t u a t i o n r o u g h l y , on one hand we are p r e s e n t e d w i t h a c u r r e n t image of Cezanne t h a t emphasizes the p e r c e p t u a l c h a r a c t e r o f h i s approach (the C u b i s t v i e w , r e -i n f o r c e d by M e r l e a u - P o n t y ' s i n f l u e n t i a l "Cezanne's Doubt" o f 194 8"*") ; on t h e o t h e r hand, we are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who a p p l i e d a d e c o r a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n t o h i s p a i n t i n g s . They saw Cezanne's work i n the l i g h t o f t h e " d e c o r a -t i v e i d e a l " as i t was u n d e r s t o o d a t the end o f the 19th c e n t u r y and t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y . The emphasis put on " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " by avant-garde p a i n t e r s and c r i t i c s was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e s t r o n g r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t r e a l i s m and p o s i t i v i s m t h a t took p l a c e a t t h e end o f the l a s t c e n t u r y . Cezanne d e v e l o p e d h i s mature s t y l e i n t h i s p e r i o d o f r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t N a t u r a l i s m and was c o n s i d e r e d as " i n i t i a t o r " o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s i n avant-garde p a i n t i n g . R i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g , the C u b i s t s emphasized Cezanne's -i 2 -r o l e as t h e i r " f o r e f a t h e r " i n o r d e r t o " l e g i t i m i z e " t h e i r p a i n t i n g . (Cezanne was a l r e a d y an i d o l o f the avant-garde.) A t t h e same time they gave a "death-blow" t o the concept o f p a i n t i n g - d e c o r a t i o n , because t h e y , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r d e a l e r , K a h n w e i l e r , were concerned w i t h the s t a t u s o f p a i n t i n g . They f e l t t h a t t h e s t a t u s o f p a i n t i n g had been e r o d e d , l o w e r e d t o the l e v e l o f d e c o r a t i o n . I n 1912, i n t h e i r Cubism, G l e i z e s and M e t z i n g e r s t a t e d t h i s a n t i - d e c o r a t i v e a t t i t u d e v e r y c l e a r l y : Many c o n s i d e r t h a t d e c o r a t i v e p r e o c c u p a t i o n must govern t h e s p i r i t o f the new p a i n t e r s . ... Enough d e c o r a t i v e p l a s t i c a r t and p i c t o r i a l d e c o r a t i o n , enough c o n f u s i o n and a m b i g u i t y . 2 R e f e r r i n g t o 1906, and t o Braque, D e r a i n and M a t i s s e among o t h e r s , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l d e a l e r i n C u b i s t a r t , D a n i e l - H e n r y K a h n w e i l e r , d e c l a r e d i n 1915: " P a i n t i n g t h r e a t e n e d t o debase i t s e l f t o the l e v e l o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n ; i t sought t o be ' dec-o r a t i v e ' t o 'adorn' the w a l l . " Because K a h n w e i l e r c o n s i d e r e d the s t a t u s o f d e c o r a t i o n i n f e r i o r , he d i d n o t l i k e t he d e s i g -n a t i o n o f Cubism as "Geometric A c t . " R e d u c t i o n s t o s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c a l forms such as cubes, spheres and c y l i n d e r s were "seen" by " e a r l y s p e c t a t o r s " o f C u b i s t p a i n t i n g s he remarked, but a c c o r d i n g t o K a h n w e i l e r , C u b i s t p a i n t e r s d i d n o t p r o c e e d from such r e d u c t i o n s w h i c h are commonplace i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and a p p l i e d a r t s . C u b i s t p a i n t e r s r e p r o d u c e d o b j e c t s he s a i d , by means o f s y n t h e s i z i n g v a r i o u s images o f the o b j e c t , o b t a i n e d from v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s . ^ I n o t h e r words they were " c o n c e p t u a l r e a l i s t s . " T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t as i t r e a l l y i s (as opposed t o t h e way i t appears t o be when seen i n l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e ) was a l s o commonplace i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and a p p l i e d - 3 -a r t s c u r r i c u l a i n t h e 19th c e n t u r y , under t h e name o f d e s s i n 5 g e o m e t r a l (as opposed t o d e s s i n p e r s p e c t i f ) . K a h n w e i l e r a c t u a l l y a d m i t s t h a t t h e r e i s "a c e r t a i n resemblance" between the C u b i s t mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o l i d o b j e c t s and t h i s " g e o m e t r i c a l drawing.. " Both Cubism and d e c o r a t i o n - as t h e l a t t e r was u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y - wanted t o a v o i d i l -l u s i o n i s m and used s i m i l a r methods t o do so. The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e l a y s i n i n t e n t i o n . Cubism wanted t o r e a c t a g a i n s t p a i n t i n g "debased" t o t h e l e v e l o f d e c o r a t i o n , and thus l a b e l l e d i t s e l f " R e a l i s m " (a "pr o f o u n d , " o r b e t t e r , a " c o n c e p t u a l " o n e ) . D e c o r a t i o n a v o i d e d i l l u s i o n i s m i n o r d e r n o t to. " p i e r c e h o l e s " i n t he w a l l s , i n o r d e r t o r e s p e c t t h e i r p l a n a r s u r f a c e , i n o t h e r words o u t o f s u b m i s s i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . E a s e l p a i n t i n g based on t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the R e a l i s m c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i v i s t , e m p i r i c i s t method, w h i c h o n l y r e p r o d u c e d "appearances." T h i s p a i n t i n g d i d n o t a s p i r e t o a h i g h e r s t a t u s than t h a t o f mur a l p a i n t i n g , o f p a i n t i n g t h a t had a s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n . When t h e C u b i s t s g a t h e r e d t h e m s e l v e s under t h e banner o f "R e a l i s m , " t h e y d e c l a r e d t h e i r works d e r i v e d from C o u r b e t 1 s (whose r e a l i s m t h e y l a b e l l e d " s u p e r f i c i a l r e a l i s m " ) and Cezanne's ("profound r e a l i s m " ) . Of c o u r s e , Cezanne was not c o n s i d e r e d as " c o n c e p t u a l " as t h e m s e l v e s , because o t h e r w i s e where would have been t h e i n n o v a t i o n ? Thus t h e main d i f f e r e n c e between t h e C u b i s t s and Cezanne has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s i d e i n t he much more c o n c e p t u a l ( v e r s u s p e r c e p t u a l ) c h a r a c t e r o f C u b i s t a r t . Not l o n g ago, however, W i l l i a m Rubin remarked t h a t - 4 -a l o t o f Cezanne's a r t i s a l s o " c o n c e p t u a l . " He t u r n e d t h i s a d m i s s i o n i n t o an argument i n favour, o f a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between Cezanne and the C u b i s t s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e methods "was as much one o f degree as 8 o f k i n d . " But i f t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n method, i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e r e a re a l s o s i m i l a r i t i e s i n i n t e n t i o n s , i n m o t i v e s . Cezanne's c o n c e p t u a l i s m c o u l d be r o o t e d i n t h e p r i n -c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n , w h i c h were a p p l i e d t o p a i n t i n g as a r e -a c t i o n a g a i n s t r e a l i s m i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . T h i s i s my w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h I hope t o demonstrate by p l a c i n g t h e p a i n t e r i n h i s own. h i s t o r i c a l t i m e . D u r i n g t h e 1890s and t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h i s c e n t u r y , t h e d e c o r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f Cezanne's work were c o n s i d e r e d "paramount 9 and new," as George Heard H a m i l t o n has p o i n t e d o u t . A p p a r e n t l y H a m i l t o n i s t h e o n l y modern a r t h i s t o r i a n who has c o n s i d e r e d t h i s as s i g n i f i c a n t . But even he s e p a r a t e d t h e " d e c o r a t i v e " from t h e " a r c h i t e c t u r a l , " when i n f a c t the two n o t i o n s were n ot a t a l l i n c o m p a t i b l e i n t h e c o n t e x t . o f " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " a t the time i n F r a n c e . ^ The p r e s e n t a u t h o r f e e l s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f Cezanne has been n e g l e c t e d by modern s c h o l a r s h i p : t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between Cezanne's p a i n t i n g and the d e c o r a t i v e a e s t h e t i c o f t h e 1890s and t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y . T h i s i s the key i s s u e o f t h e t h e s i s . 2. Overview In t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r I propose t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t the new tendency o f F r e n c h avant-garde p a i n t i n g i n t h e decade 1890 -- 5 -1900 was t o be " d e c o r a t i v e . " T h i s . t e n d e n c y (emphasized by t h e c r i t i c s o f t h e p e r i o d ) encompassed more th a n S y m b o l i s t p a i n t i n g . I t i n c l u d e d N e o - T m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g , as w e l l as new p a i n t i n g by the. o l d " i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . " I n C h a p t e r I , P a r t 1 I s h a l l d e a l w i t h problems o f d e f i n i -t i o n . A t o p i c o f utmost importance i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e e x a c t meaning o f " d e c o r a t i v e " a t t h a t t i m e . A p p l i e d t o p a i n t i n g i t d i d n o t mean the same t h i n g t o everybody. F o r some ava n t - g a r d e p a i n t e r s i t meant the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e a s e l p a i n t i n g i n t o " d e c o r a t i o n , " i n o t h e r words i t meant the a b o l u t i o n o f t h e t a b l e a u . I m p r e s s i o n i s m reduced e a s e l p a i n t i n g t o t h e s t a t e o f ebauche o r s k e t c h , b u t p r e s e r v e d t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t a b l e a u . I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g was a l s o " d e c o r a t i v e " i n t h e sense used i n the 1870s, but i t was not a t r u e " d e c o r a t i o n . " " D e c o r a t i o n " i s a g a i n a term t h a t r e q u i r e s d e f i n i t i o n . D ecora-t i o n , as i t was u n d e r s t o o d a t t h e time was s u b s e r v i e n t t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , the most i m p o r t a n t consequence b e i n g t h e p r e s e r -v a t i o n o f t h e f l a t n e s s o f a w a l l . A t a b l e a u would s i m u l a t e a "window" where the a r c h i t e c t d i d not i n t e n d t o p l a c e one. A " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " ( p a i n t i n g - d e c o r a t i o n " was not t o make use e i t h e r o f c h i a r o s c u r o o r p e r s p e c t i v e e f f e c t s ( l i n e a r o r atmos-p h e r i c ) . But. t h i s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s as i n an o r n a m e n t a l d e s i g n . Many " r e f o r m e r s " o f the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n t h e second h a l f o f 1 9 t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e wanted d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g t o r e t a i n something of t h e "Western t r a d i t i o n . " But why d i d t h e a v ant-garde want a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t ime t o t r a n s f o r m e a s e l p a i n t i n g i n t o d e c o r a t i o n ? The " r e b i r t h , " the f l o u r i s h i n g o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n t h e l a s t decade o f t h e - 6 -19th c e n t u r y does n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y e x p l a i n why t h e a r t i s t s d i d n o t j u s t l i m i t thernselyes t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . " Most o f the r e f o r m e r s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s a c t i v e i n the second h a l f o f the l a s t c e n t u r y k e p t two s e p a r a t e s e t s o f "laws": one f o r d e c o r a t i o n , a n o t h e r f o r e a s e l p a i n t i n g s , f o r t a b l e a u x . Only V i o l l e t - l e - D u c and o t h e r G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t s o r s y m p a t h i s e r s would have p r e f e r r e d the "decadent, 1 1 even "pagan" t a b l e a u a b o l i s h e d a l t o g e t h e r . The avant-garde o f the 1890s, as I w i l l d i s c u s s i n C h a p t e r I , P a r t 2, t u r n e d t o t h e s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s recommended f o r d e c o r a t i o n , m o t i v a t e d by i d e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s . I c o n s i d e r e d i t n e c e s s a r y t o s t r e s s t h e . F r e n c h s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e which c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a v a n t - g a r d e ' s o r i e n t a t i o n toward d e c o r a t i o n , because t h i s a s p e c t has been n e g l e c t e d by modern s c h o l a r s h i p . I t i s f o r example customary t o mention the i n f l u e n c e o f R u s k i n o r W i l l i a m M o r r i s on t h e r e b i r t h o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n F r a n c e , o r even on t h e N a b i group o f p a i n t e r s , 12 w i t h o u t a word about V i o l l e t - l e - D u c . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r what t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the a v a n t - g a r d e p a i n t i n g was a t t h e end o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y and the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f the 20th c e n t u r y , I w i l l d e a l i n the second c h a p t e r o f the t h e s i s w i t h Cezanne's p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h i s t r e n d . C h a p t e r I I , P a r t 1 w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e b u l k o f con-temporary c r i t i c i s m emphasized th e " d e c o r a t i v e " f e a t u r e s o f Cezanne's p a i n t i n g s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g what " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " s h o u l d be (some were b o t h e r e d by the f l a t n e s s o f d e c o r a t i o n i n e a s e l p a i n t i n g , f o r i d e o l o g i c a l reasons) th e c r i t i c s can be d i v i d e d i n two main - 7 -groups: those who c o n s i d e r e d Cezanne's " d i s t o r t i o n s " as b e i n g v o l u n t a r y , o f a c o n c e p t u a l n a t u r e , and thos e who blamed them on f a u l t y p e r c e p t i o n o r s k i l l . Both groups remarked though on s i m i l a r i t i e s between Cezanne's p a i n t i n g s and v a r i o u s d e c o r a t i v e a r t s such as c e r a m i c s , O r i e n t a l s i l k s , m o s a i c s , and e s p e c i a l l y t a p e s t r i e s . F i n a l l y , P a r t 2 o f the second c h a p t e r w i l l attempt t o determine i f Cezanne's p a i n t i n g s and h i s own words (I c o n s i d e r as h i s "own words" o n l y what he wrote i n h i s l e t t e r s ) a re com-p a t i b l e w i t h a " d e c o r a t i o n paradigm." My c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g enough case f o r the " d e c o r a t i o n paradigm" f i t t i n g Cezanne's p a i n t i n g s o f h i s "mature" p e r i o d ( i . e . s i n c e the 1880s). Many o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s f i t a c t u a l l y , i n my o p i n i o n , i n t o a " t a p e s t r y paradigm." I r e f e r e s p e c i a l l y t o the 18th c e n t u r y Rococo t a p e s t r i e s , among e x t a n t examples, as w e l l as t o h y p o t h e t i c a l t a p e s t r i e s , as e n v i s a g e d by the r e f o r m e r s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n France i n the l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y . I s h a l l p l a c e a s p e c i a l emphasis on the c o n n e c t i o n w h i c h can be made between Cezanne's method o f " c o l o u r m o d u l a t i o n s " and s i m i l a r methods recommended by t h e w r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s B l a n c and M i c h e l Eugene Chevreul-, o r employed i n 18th c e n t u r y B e a u v a i s t a p e s t r y . - 8 -CHAPTER I THE CONCEPT OF DECORATION IN LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY ART AND THE NEW TENDENCIES IN THE PAINTING OF THE 1890s I n t r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e l a s t few y e a r s a r t h i s t o r i a n s have begun t o r e -c o g n i z e t h e r o l e p l a y e d by the " l o w l y , " "merely d e c o r a t i v e " a r t s i n the f o r m a t i o n o f " h i g h " modern art."*" Because t h e " d e c o r a t i v e " i s today a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s , Cezanne has been e x c l u d e d from r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n s on 2 t h i s t o p i c . Y et Cezanne was c o n s i d e r e d by many o f h i s con-t e m p o r a r i e s as t h e " i n i t i a t o r " o f the new d e c o r a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s m a n i f e s t e d i n p a i n t i n g i n t h e 1890s. I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f y what " d e c o r a t i o n " and " d e c o r a -t i v e " meant a t the time when Cezanne worked, e s p e c i a l l y when he d e v e l o p e d h i s mature s t y l e . One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n s o f C h a p t e r I , P a r t 1 i s t h e f a c t t h a t when Cezanne d e v e l o p e d h i s mature s t y l e , t h e term " d e c o r a t i v e " was n o t equated w i t h a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o most F r e n c h t h e o r i s t s a t t h e t i m e , a s t r i c t t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l f l a t n e s s was no t r e q u i r e d , n or even c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e , n e i t h e r i n d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g nor i n a l l the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , such as t a p e s t r y f o r example ( o n l y i n c a r p e t s , w a l l p a p e r s , pavements, s t a i n e d - g l a s s windows). I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d the - 9 -a p p a r e n t l y sudden i n t e r e s t o f a v a n t - g a r d e a r t i s t s i n " d e c o r a t i o n " and the " d e c o r a t i v e " i n t h e 1890s i n F r a n c e . The i n t e r e s t i n d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , e x p r e s s e d by a r t i s t s p r a c t i c i n g " h i g h " a r t was not a r o u s e d s u d d e n l y i n the 1890s. I t was the a vant-garde of the 1890s who a p p l i e d d e c o r a t i v e a r t s p r i n c i p l e s (which can be summarized as " f l a t n e s s " ) t o e a s e l p a i n t i n g as w e l l as t o m ural d e c o r a t i o n s . (As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C hapter I , P a r t 2, t h i s was r e l a t e d t o the a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t , a n t i - p o s i t i v i s t r e -a c t i o n t h a t began i n t h e 1880s.) Y e t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n , as w e l l as a r e v i v a l o f i n t e r e s t i n d e c o r a t i o n were r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r m u l a t e d and i n i t i a t e d n o t by t h e a v a n t -g arde, b u t by " o f f i c i a l " r e f o r m e r s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . I w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e i n P a r t 1 o f t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r . - 10 -Cha p t e r T, Part' 1  The R e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l A r t s i n France  and i t s R o l e i n R e d e f i n i n g t h e Concept o f D e c o r a t i o n . 3 The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l and/or d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was a c o n s t a n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n the second h a l f o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e . A t f i r s t o n l y t h e Government and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y (not a r t i s t s ) s t r o v e toward t h i s g o a l , s i n c e t h e u l t i m a t e m o t i v e b e h i n d t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n was o f an economic n a t u r e : F r a n c e was a f r a i d o f l o s i n g the l e a d i n t h i s f i e l d , m a i n l y because o f E n g l i s h com-p e t i t i o n . There was however a s u b s t r a t u m o f a non-economic n a t u r e u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e f o r m s proposed: t h e " o f f i c i a l " r e f o r m e r s were G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t s (or s y m p a t h i s e r s ) who wanted t o r e d e f i n e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n i n such a way as t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v i e w p o i n t . They c o n s i d e r e d a r t s i n c e t h e Re n a i s s a n c e 4 as "decadent" o r even "pagan." Of c o u r s e t h e y knew t h a t t h e Government would be v e r y r e c e p t i v e t o such r e a s o n s as an economic l a g and t h e " p r e s t i g e " o f F r a n c e . T h i s t a c t i c e ( s u b s t i t u t i n g economic r e a s o n s f o r t h e i d e o l o g i c a l ones) worked f i r s t v e r y w e l l i n E n g l a n d , where t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l was a s t r o n g e r movement th a n i n France i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y . The o r i g i n a l m o t i v e s b e h i n d t h i s movement were o f a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e ( w i t h e t h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . ) as i s e v i d e n t i n i t s most i m p o r t a n t p r o p a g a n d i s t , t h e a r c h i t e c t and d e s i g n e r A.W.N. P u g i n . He i n s i s t e d on a r e t u r n t o " t r u e " C h r i s t i a n a r t and v i r t u e s w h i c h he found i n the M i d d l e Ages. - 11 -He a l s o found t h e r e a model o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h he ad-v o c a t e d . " O f f i c i a l " r e f o r m e r s , such as the c i v i l s e r v a n t Henry C o l e (1808-1882) and h i s c i r c l e , argued f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e " t r u e " p r i n c i p l e s " o f d e c o r a t i o n , and s t a r t e d a campaign a g a i n s t "bad t a s t e " (read i l l u s i o n i s t i c n a t u r a l i s m ) , 5 based on P u g i n ' s d o c t r i n e s . The Great London E x h i b i t i o n o f 1851 (the World's F a i r a t t h e C r y s t a l P a l a c e ) was s e i z e d upon by t h e s e r e f o r m e r s as a g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y t o l a u n c h t h e i r s u c c e s s -f u l campaign a g a i n s t r e a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n i s m i n d e c o r a t i o n . The e x h i b i t s o f V i c t o r i a n England i n d e e d p r o v i d e d an abundance o f examples o f what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d "bad t a s t e . " I n t h e formu-l a t i o n o f the " t r u e p r i n c i p l e s " a v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y was t h e a r c h i t e c t , i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n e r , and i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t o r Owen Jones (1809-1874) who e s t a b l i s h e d what was " t r u e " and what was " f a l s e " i n the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . He c o n s i d e r e d i t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t an ornament s h o u l d p r e s e r v e t h e u n i t y o f t h e o b j e c t t h a t i t d e c o r a t e d . That i m p l i e d r e s p e c t f o r t h e p l a n e s u r f a c e o f w a l l s and f l o o r s . He o b j e c t e d t o w a l l p a p e r p a t t e r n s t h a t were n o t p e r f e c t l y f l a t , and t o c a r p e t s w i t h " p e r s p e c t i v e 7 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and p i e r c e d f u l l o f h o l e s . " F l a t n e s s , w h i c h o f t e n meant a s i m p l e , a b s t r a c t g e o m e t r i c a l d e s i g n , was v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , f o r mass p r o d u c t i o n . The " o f f i c i a l s " I mentioned b e f o r e were v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and i n d u s t r y . Henry C o l e and h i s c i r c l e (as opposed t o W i l l i a m M o r r i s and the l a t e r A r t s and C r a f t s movement, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d most a r t i s t s ' p o i n t o f view) a c c e p t e d w h o l e h e a r t e d l y t h e r o l e o f t h e machine i n t h e i n d u s -t r i a l a r t s and were i n t e r e s t e d i n b e t t e r d e s i g n s f o r mass-- 12 -produced goods, e s p e c i a l l y w a l l p a p e r s . In a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l , e d u c a t i o n was o f paramount importance.. C o l e c r e a t e d t h e famous "S c h o o l s o f D e s i g n " a t t a c h e d t o t h e South K e n s i n g t o n Museum, where th e " t r u e p r i n c i p l e s " o f o r n a m e n t a l d e s i g n were t a u g h t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e o f f i c i a l r e f o r m e r s ' endeavours were seen i n the E n g l i s h e x h i b i t s a t t h e World's F a i r o f 1862. T h i s time the F r e n c h G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t s and t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s saw t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e " p a n i c . " They found a v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e l i s t e n e r i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e Emperor Napoleon I I I , who was e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . He l o o k e d upon t h e r i v a l r y . b e t w e e n F r a n c e and E n g l a n d i n t h i s f i e l d as a " k i n d o f war, w h i c h makes no v i c t i m s " and h e l d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i n d u s t r y " t e s t i f y t o our m o r a l and 9 p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n . " Even b e f o r e he became emperor, w h i l e s t i l l t h e P r e s i d e n t o f F r a n c e , L o u i s Napoleon had a p p o i n t e d a committee headed by the Comte Leon de Laborde ( c u r a t o r o f m e d i e v a l monuments a t t h e Louvre) t o s t u d y t h e G r e a t London E x h i b i t i o n o f 1851 and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t s and i n d u s t r y . Not everybody i n the government was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e s e r i o u s l y Laborde's w a r n i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the n e c e s s i t y o f r e f o r m s r i g h t t h e n , s i n c e France r e c e i v e d g o l d and s i l v e r medals a t t h e f i r s t W orld's F a i r , p r o o f t h a t t h e r e was no d e s p e r a t e need f o r improve-ment."'"^ , However, i n 1862, t h e s u c c e s s o f England's e x h i b i t s gave more w e i g h t t o the c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d by a n o t h e r m e d i e v a l i s t , P r o s p e r Merimee ( n o v e l i s t and.medieval a r c h a e o l o g i s t , c i v i l s e r v a n t , f r i e n d o f de Laborde and o f V i o l l e t - l e - D u c - t h e b e s t known G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t i n F r a n c e ) , who as a member o f t h e F r e n c h d e l e g a t i o n a t t h e F a i r , d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n as " s e r i o u s , even t h r e a t e n i n g . " The Government of Napoleon I I I became con-v i n c e d t h a t a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . w a s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . That meant a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between, " h i g h a r t " and i n d u s t r y , r e f o r m s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s , as w e l l as the e d u c a t i o n o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s , merchants and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n o r d e r t o improve t h e i r , " t a s t e , " and make everybody aware o f "the t r u e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n . " T h i s p r o c e s s o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n d i d not p r o c e e d smoothly how-e v e r , because o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s o f t h e v a r i o u s groups i n v o l v e d . The Government, as I a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , was i n t e r e s t e d i n F r a n c e ' s " p r e s t i g e " and economic growth, and when c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e was a r e a l t h r e a t t o t h o s e a r e a s , agreed t o a c t . I t was thus p o s s i b l e f o r V i o l l e t - l e - D u c (whose i d e a s on d e c o r a t i o n , as we s h a l l s ee, w i l l be i m p o r t a n t f o r b o t h S y m b o l i s t p a i n t e r s as w e l l as A r t Nouveau) t o have h i s i d e a s on t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f -the E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s a c c e p t e d by t h e Emperor artd h i s a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e body. V i o l l e t - l e - D u c was t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e "Decree o f 1863" which p l a c e d t h e E c o l e des B e a u x - A r t s under d i r e c t government c o n t r o l , u n d e r m i n i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e 12 Academy. The importance o f t h e Decree o f 1863 from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s t r e s s i n g " o r i g i n a l i t y " and i t s consequences f o r t h e development o f independent a r t i s t i c movements has been v e r y w e l l 13 demonstrated by. A l b e r t Boime.. I would l i k e t o p l a c e more em-p h a s i s on t h e o t h e r main i s s u e r a i s e d by t h e Decree ( a l s o p o i n t e d out by Boime), namely t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and i n d u s t r y . One o f t h e i m p o r t a n t achievements o f t h e Decree, i n accordance w i t h V i o l l e t - l e - D u c ' s dream o f u n i t i n g a l l t he a r t s , was t h e -14 r-of p r e p a r a t o r y workshops i n p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e , a r c h i t e c t u r e , as w e l l as i n e n g r a v i n g , m e d a l l i o n s and j e w e l e r y , on the p r e m i s e s o f t h e E c o l e des Beaux-Arts.. T h i s i n t r u s i o n o f t h e a p p l i e d a r t s i n t o t h a t b a s t i o n o f h i g h a r t t h a t was the Beaux-A r t s (where s t r a n g e l y enough n o t even p a i n t i n g was p r e v i o u s l y t a u g h t ) , was suppose t o a t t r a c t t h e b e s t a r t i s t s i n t o the f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . I n the R e p o r t o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f B e a u x - A r t s (a t e x t t h a t was p u b l i s h e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Decree i n the G a z e t t e des Beaux A r t s ) , the Comte A l f r e d - E m i l i e n N i e u -werkerke who h e l d t h i s o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , and who was a l s o co-a u t h o r o f t h e Decree ( w i t h V i o l l e t - l e - D u c ) , d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e E c o l e " w i l l i n s u r e our i n d u s t r y a 14 s u p e r i o r i t y w h i c h i s b e g i n n i n g t o be c o n t e s t e d . " The " o f f i c i a l " r e f o r m e r s ( Nieuwerkerke, V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , de Laborde, Merimee, f o r example) i n the d e s i r e t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s e n t e r e d i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e Academy, because t h e y v i o l a t e d i t s s a c r e d t e r r i t o r y . The p r o t o t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Academy was I n g r e s . He p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t m i x i n g " a r t " and i n d u s t r y a t t h e E c o l e , w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d a 15 " t r u e temple o f A p o l l o . " I n g r e s and h i s p u p i l s succeeded i n f o r c i n g t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f V i o l l e t - l e - D u c as p r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y o f A r t and A e s t h e t i c s , a f t e r o n l y seven l e c t u r e s . Thus h i s i n f l u e n c e was g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c can be c o n s i d e r e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e " o f f i c i a l " s i d e o f t h e above-mentioned c o n f l i c t between the Academy on t h e one s i d e , and t h e o f f i c i a l s on t h e o t h e r . ( T h i s i s a c o n f l i c t t h a t would c o n t i n u e f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e 19th - 15 -16 c e n t u r y . ) He was t h e f a v o u r i t e a r c h i t e c t o f Napoleon I I I , who a p p o i n t e d him I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l . o f d i o c e s a n b u i l d i n g s soon a f t e r he p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f Emperor. V i o l l e t - l e - D u c was not t r a i n e d a t the E c o l e (he was l a r g e l y s e l f - t a u g h t ) and h a t e d t h e Academy (a resentment s h a r e d by Napoleon I I I ) and e v e r y t h i n g i t s t o o d f o r . I n s t e a d o f c l a s s i c i s m he p r a i s e d t h e G o t h i c and t h e s o c i a l system t h a t produced i t , i n w h i c h t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r among a r t i s t s , t h a t would o c c u r l a t e r i n "decadent" s o c i e t i e s , d i d n o t y e t e x i s t . He was a g a i n s t t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f p a i n t i n g s i n c e t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and adv o c a t e d the u n i t y o f t h e t h r e e a r t s : a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e and p a i n t i n g , s i n c e t h e b r e a k i n g o f t h e t i e s between them l e d t o the "decadence o f a l l o f them." He p r a i s e d p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h , he s a i d , "There are not 17 t h r e e v i s u a l a r t s , t h e r e i s o n l y one." V i o l l e t - l e - D u c de-p l o r e d t h e s p l i t between "the b e a u t i f u l " and "the u s e f u l , " between t h e a r c h i t e c t and e n g i n e e r , between " h i g h a r t " and i n -d u s t r y . H i s i d e a s i n the a r t i s t i c r e a l m were a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e o f o l d and new, so t h a t h i s enemies and l a t e r d e t r a c t o r s con-s i d e r e d him mer e l y a " G o t h i c i m i t a t o r " ( w h i l e i n f a c t he op-posed t h e p l a g i a r i s m o f o l d e r s t y l e s ) and among h i s f u t u r e a d m i r e r s he would have such i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s o f A r t Nouveau as H o r t a , Guimard, G a u d i , and S e r r u r i e r - B o v y . A l o o k a t the d e c o r a t i o n s he d i d f o r the Chateau d'Eu, f o r example ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r o n - w o r k o f t h e g r e a t s t a i r c a s e , the c e i l i n g o r n a m e n t a l m o t i f s w i t h a r a besques , t h e m o t i f s i n s p i r e d by o r g a n i c , f l o r a l shapes t h a t d e c o r a t e the h e a t - c o n v e y i n g system) would t e l l 18 why. G r a s s e t , a n o t h e r well-known A r t Nouveau p e r s o n a l i t y ( m e d i e v a l i s t , s t u d e n t o f Japanese a r t and i n s i s t e n t on u s i n g - 16 -orn a m e n t a l m o t i f s d e r i v e d from n a t u r e ) was V i o l l e t - l e - D u c 1 s p u p i l , and so was V.P. G a l l a n d , who .has o n l y l a t e l y been r e -c o g n i z e d as an i n f l u e n c e on t h e development o f t h e A r t Nouveau 19 s t y l e i n F r a n c e . G a l l a n d was a b l e t o r e i n t r o d u c e V i o l l e t - l e -Duc's i d e a s i n t o t h e E c o l e des Beaux- A r t s i n 1873 (and a f t e r ) , when he was a p p o i n t e d t o t e a c h a c o u r s e i n d e c o r a t i v e a r t . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c g l a d l y would have a b o l i s h e d the t a b l e a u ( i n the Academic sense o f the word) a l t o g e t h e r , s i n c e f o r him i t embodied t i m e s o f decadence, and he would have had mur a l p a i n t i n g resemble m e d i e v a l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s . He r e -p r e s e n t e d one p o s i t i o n on d e c o r a t i o n i n France i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y . There was a n o t h e r , w i d e s p r e a d p o s i t i o n , w h i c h w h i l e i t a c c e p t e d t h a t d e c o r a t i o n s h o u l d r e s p e c t t h e f l a t n e s s o f t h e s u r f a c e i t d e c o r a t e d , wanted t o r e t a i n i n " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " something o f the "Western T r a d i t i o n , " t h a t i s , some m o d e l l i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d , and e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e human f i g u r e . (I w i l l come back t o t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g d e c o r a t i o n l a t e r on, when I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e a c t u a l p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n . ) T h i s w i l l be t h e " o f f i c i a l " p o s i t i o n i n the 1880s. An extreme case o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e "Western t r a d i t i o n " was C h a r l e s B l a n c (1813-1882), V i o l l e t - l e - D u c ' s 20 contemporary. I c o n s i d e r e d him an "extreme c a s e " i n p r e -s e r v i n g the O c c i d e n t a l t r a d i t i o n , because i n mur a l p a i n t i n g he d i d not make any c o n c e s s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o m o d e l l i n g o f i n -d i v i d u a l forms ( o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e r s p e c t i v e and c o l o r i n g , r e g a r d i n g t h e g e n e r a l " e f f e c t , " as I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r ) . He was i n t h e p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n of b e i n g b o t h an " o f f i c i a l " and an - 17 -A c a d e m i c i a n , and i t i s e v i d e n t i n h i s i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t i n g s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t he t r i e d t o r e a c h a compromise between th e two s i d e s . He was a f i r m b e l i e v e r i n h i e r a r c h y i n a r t . The h i g h e s t form o f a r t a c c o r d i n g t o him was an a r t t h a t had t h e a b i l i t y t o i n s t i g a t e h e r o i c s e n t i m e n t s i n the v i e w e r , t h a t c o u l d s e r v e ( w i t h o u t a d m i t t i n g t h i s as i t s purpose s i n c e " h i g h a r t " was not supposed t o have u t i l i t a r i a n ends) n o b l e c a u s e s , m o r a l ends. He f a v o u r e d c l a s s i c i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f t h e 21 R e n a i s s a n c e . Thus he was i n tune w i t h t h e Academy. B l a n c h e l d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t o n l y t h e S t a t e s h o u l d have th e monopoly of "grand a r t , " produced f o r t h e " g r e a t e s t g l o r y o f F r e n c h a r t . " M u r a l s were v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s k i n d o f a r t i n h i s v i e w , s i n c e when d e c o r a t i n g p u b l i c e d i f i c e s , t h e y had wide exposure t o numerous peop l e who c o u l d t h u s b e n e f i t from t h o s e 23 "noble i d e a s . " I n "grand a r t " m u r a l s , B l a n c would have never a c c e p t e d f i g u r e s r e n d e r e d i n t h e manner o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s . He s t a t e d t h a t " a t the S a l o n and i n f r o n t o f 24 t h e p u b l i c one must e x h i b i t f i g u r e s and not shadows." T h i s comment was provoked by 'the camaieu p a i n t i n g P u v i s de Chavannes e x h i b i t e d a t t h e S a l o n . o f 1866, whose f i g u r e s , B l a n c s a i d , were "more dreamed th a n p a i n t e d . " But B l a n c had a double s t a n d a r d w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e c o r a t i o n : one r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c a r t , and a n o t h e r one f o r p r i v a t e l y owned a r t . The l a t t e r was supposed t o t r a n s p o r t the v i e w e r " i n t o the i d e a l w o r l d , " t o s e r v e as a means of e s c a p i n g r e a l i t y . I f he owned a p r i v a t e h o t e l , he s a i d , he would have l i k e d t o d e c o r a t e i t s w a l l s w i t h P u v i s 1 p a n e l s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s ( i n w h i c h he d i d n o t , as a r u l e , i n c l u d e - 18 -m u r a l s ) , d e s t i n e d m o s t l y f o r the p r i v a t e enjoyment of an e l i t e , he recommended the form and c o n t e n t o f an I d e a l i s t a r t , as i s e v i d e n t i n h i s Gramma i r e : des a r t s : d e c o r a t i f s, t h e s e q u e l t o 25 t h e Grammaire des a r t s du d e s s i n . B l a n c was an adept o f t h e I d e a l i s t a e s t h e t i c o f Kant and S c h i l l e r , Hegel and S c h e l l i n g , i n t h e form p r o p a g a t e d i n F r ance by V i c t o r C o u s i n , w h i c h was 2 6 q u i t e c l o s e t o t h e t h e o r y of. " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake." A t t h e same time he was i n f l u e n c e d by the w r i t i n g s o f Lamennais, as w e l l as by Proudhon. The l a s t two p e r s o n a l i t i e s were p o l e s a p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , but t h e y b o t h f o u g h t the c o n c e p t o f a r t f o r a r t ' s sake. The c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Proudhon i s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d , s i n c e L o u i s B l a n c , C h a r l e s ' b r o t h e r was -an a r d e n t b e l i e v e r i n the s o c i a l r o l e o f a r t . L i k e Proudhon, who s a i d t h a t "The a r t i s t whose work ... p l e a s e s the g r e a t e s t number w i l l be r a t e d the g r e a t e s t o f a l l C h a r l e s B l a n c c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the work o f a r t " i s ennobled by t h e number o f 27 s p e c t a t o r s who e n j o y x t . " But u n l x k e Proudhon, B l a n c was a g a i n s t r e a l i s m . He admired Lamennais, who was a C a t h o l i c L i b e r a l , and who i n 1830 and 1831 p u b l i s h e d t o g e t h e r w i t h 28 L a c o r d a i r e and Montalembert th e j o u r n a l L ' A v e n i r . Lamennais s a i d t h a t " a r t i s o n l y the e x t e r i o r shape o f i d e a s , the ex-p r e s s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s dogma, and o f the dominant s o c i a l 29 p r i n c i p l e i n c e r t a i n epochs." He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t " A r t f o r a r t ' s sake i s an a b s u r d i t y . " L i k e the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s , he saw i n " i n d u s t r y " an a c t i v i t y t h a t s h o u l d e n j o y the same d i g n i t y as t h e a r t s and the s c i e n c e s . Thus, as A l b e r t Cassagne p o i n t e d o u t i n 1905 i n h i s book La T h e o r i e de l ' a r t pour l ' a r t , Lamennais ^ r e a c h e d c o n c l u s i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f L o u i s B l a n c , Proudhon - 19 -and t h e S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s . Whatever e c l e c t i c i n f l u e n c e s B l a n c a c c e p t e d , i t i s . c l e a r t h a t he b e l i e v e d i n the p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y o f a r t (as d e c o r a t i o n of homes or o b j e c t s ) as l o n g as i t was not "grand a r t . " As an a c t i v e s u p p o r t e r o f the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , he b e l i e v e d i n a " r e j u v e n a t i o n o f f i n e a r t s w i t h t h e purpose o f a p p l y i n g them t o i n d u s t r y , " and i n "wedding the b e a u t i f u l and 31 *1 t h e u s e f u l . " B l a n c s h a r e d Merimee's, de L a b o r d e ' s , and f o r t h a t m a t t e r t h e Emperor's (who d e c o r a t e d Henry C o l e i n 1855) a d m i r a t i o n f o r England's achievements, e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e South K e n s i n g t o n system. I n e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a -t i v e a r t s i n h i s Grammaire des a r t s d e c o r a t i f s (which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more i n d e t a i l l a t e r ) , B l a n c was i n agreement w i t h Owen Jones,' g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , f a i t h f u l t o the " o f f i c i a l " 32 l i n e . But he d i d not d e a l m o s t l y w i t h ornamental a b s t r a c t d e s i g n , as Jones and C o l e ' s c i r c l e d i d , and as I mentioned b e f o r e , he d i d u p h o l d t h e "Western t r a d i t i o n " e x p r e s s e d e s -p e c i a l l y by h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r c o l o u r " g r a d a t i o n , " as opposed t o f l a t t i n t s . As c o n c e r n s t h e q u e s t i o n o f " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" (a key i s s u e i n t h i s p a p e r ) , even i f B l a n c a v o i d s u s i n g t h i s term w h i c h he h a l f - d r e a d e d , u l t i m a t e l y t h i s i s what he recommends f o r the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . D e c o r a t i v e a r t s such as t h e a r t o f t a p e s t r y , i n v o l v e scenes w i t h f i g u r e s , and t h e y were not supposed t o convey p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n s , t o be e l o q u e n t , t o s e r v e any m o r a l i z i n g purpose. They s i m p l y had t o t r a n s p o r t t h e v i e w e r i n t o a w o r l d o f dreams, i n t o an i d e a l w o r l d , t o p l e a s e t h e eye and the " s p i r i t . " He r e q u i r e d e l o q u e n c e , as we have - 20 -a l r e a d y seen, o n l y from the "grand a r t " w h i c h was supposed t o i n s p i r e n o b l e s e n t i m e n t s . As much as he wanted t o p r e s e r v e t h e K a n t i a n autonomy o f a work o f a r t , he c o u l d . n o t f o r s a k e h i s b e l i e f o f a 1848 " r e v o l u t i o n a r y . " These b e l i e f s r e q u i r e d a r t t o have a m o b i l i z i n g , example s e t t i n g r o l e (by p o r t r a y i n g h e r o i c a c t s ) i n s o c i e t y . B l a n c found h i m s e l f a t the t h r e s h o l d o f c h a n g i n g c o n c e p t s : t h e dichotomy o f "pure a r t " v e r s u s " a p p l i e d a r t " w i l l soon be-come o f l e s s importance than the dichotomy o f " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" v e r s u s m o r a l a r t and " l i t e r a t u r e " ( l i t e r a r y a r t ) . So f a r the d i s c u s s i o n has been f o c u s s e d on t h e c o n f l i c t between "Academy" and t h e " O f f i c i a l s . " The i n t e r e s t s o f two o t h e r i m p o r t a n t groups i n v o l v e d i n the a c t u a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and t h e a r t i s t s , were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r . The I n d u s t r i a l i s t s , t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , j o i n e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o form a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e (which d i d , however, g e t s u p p o r t from the Government), the Union C e n t r a i e  des B e a u x - A r t s a p p l i q u e s a l ' i n d u s t r i e ; founded on J u l y 1864, t h i s was renamed Union C e n t r a i e des A r t s D g c o r a t i f s a f t e r un-i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e S o c i e t y o f t h e Museum o f D e c o r a t i v e A r t s , i n 1880. The purpose o f t h e Union C e n t r a i e was t o c e n t r a l i z e the i n d u s t r i a l and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , t a k i n g t h e South K e n s i n g t o n System as i t s model. I t o r g a n i z e d a museum o f a r t o b j e c t s o f v a r i o u s p e r i o d s , p e r i o d i c a l e x h i b i t i o n s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s ( r e t r o s p e c t i v e and c o n t e m p o r a r y ) , p u b l i c l e c t u r e s and a l i b r a r y . The i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e a C o l l e g e de b e a u x - a r t s a p p l i q u € s a l ' i n d u s t r i e n ever q u i t e m a t e r i a l i z e d . Because o f t o o z e a l o u s s u p p o r t on the p a r t - 21 -o f Ch. B l a n c and E. G u i l l a u m e , t h e Union C e n t r a l e was i n f i l -33 t r a t e d w i t h academic t r a d i t i o n . I n s t e a d o f a s i m p l e form o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n f l a t o r n a m e n t a l d e s i g n as most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r w a l l p a p e r s , l i k e t h a t o f f e r e d i n H. C o l e ' s s c h o o l s o f d e s i g n , t h e Union C e n t r a l e o f f e r e d l e c t u r e s i n geometry and p e r s p e c t i v e , as w e l l as i n o t h e r s c i e n c e s , and a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s such as i n t h e l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d by Ch. B l a n c h i m s e l f , c o n t a i n i n g e x c e r p t s from h i s y e t u n p u b l i s h e d book, Grammaire des a r t s du  d e s s i n . Union C e n t r a l e d i d n o t f u l f i l one o f the main purposes f o r w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d , t h a t i s t o a t t r a c t a r t i s t s i n v o l v e d i n f i n e a r t s i n t o t h e f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , p r e c i s e l y because i t was i n t h e hands of " i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , " and d i d not r e p r e s e n t 34 t h e a r t i s t s ' i n t e r e s t s . The A r t i s t s who s p e c i a l i z e d i n " h i g h a r t " were the p r o d u c t o f a p r o c e s s o f " d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r " t h a t gave them a v e r y s p e c i a l s t a t u s , w h i c h t h e y wanted t o m a i n t a i n . Academic a r t i s t s f o r a l o n g time r e s i s t e d t h e i n v a s i o n o f the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n t o t h e S a l o n , on "an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e f i n e a r t s . As l o n g as t h e s t a t u s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d " i n f e r i o r " t o t h a t o f " h i g h a r t , " the j u s t e m i l i e u a r t i s t s o r t h e a v a n t -35 garde a r t i s t s were not i n t e r e s t e d e i t h e r . To a t t r a c t a r t i s t s who d i d not a l r e a d y have th e s t a t u s o f " d e c o r a t o r " i n t o the f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l o r d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n o r d e r t o "improve th e s t a n d a r d s " , . w o u l d have been p o s s i b l e o n l y i n one of t h e f o l l o w i n g two s i t u a t i o n s : 1) The a r t i s t s are committed t o t h e s o c i a l r o l e o f a r t , t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e " b e a u t i f u l " and. t h e " u s e f u l " - 22 -s h o u l d be u n i t e d , and a r e even p r e p a r e d t o d e s i g n f o r i n d u s t r i a l m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n , (thus a c c e p t i n g the r o l e o f "the machine" i n o r d e r t o r e a c h more p e o p l e , w i t h cheaper p r o d u c t s ) . 2) The d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t u s between " h i g h a r t " and . " d e c o r a t i v e a r t " i s a b o l i s h e d , t h u s a r t i s t s h e l d back by s c r u p l e s c onnected w i t h " s t a t u s - , " can now t a k e advantage o f a n o t h e r m a r k e t i n g o u t l e t , w i t h o u t f e e l i n g t h e y a r e " p r o s t i t u t i n g " t h e m s e l v e s . I t i s even b e t t e r i f i t i s emphasized t h a t t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s " a re " e l i t i s t , " " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake," as opposed t o the so-c a l l e d " f i n e a r t " e x h i b i t e d a t t h e S a l o n , t h a t c a t e r e d t o t h e t a s t e o f the p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s crowd. Thus t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s " c o u l d even be c o n s i d e r e d as s u p e r i o r t o S a l o n a r t . The f i r s t s i t u a t i o n never q u i t e m a t e r i a l i z e d i n France i n the second h a l f o f the 19th c e n t u r y . A t f i r s t , o f f i c i a l p r o -paganda, i n t h e 1860s t r i e d t o a t t r a c t a r t i s t s w i t h the s l o g a n o f " u n i t i n g the b e a u t i f u l w i t h the u s e f u l , " a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f an o u t d a t e d U t o p i a n S a i n t - S i m o n i s m . (The i d e a s o f u n i t i n g a r t and i n d u s t r y o r i g i n a t e d i n f a c t i n the 1830s i n F r a n c e , prompted by such i d e a l s . ) Such propaganda was not v e r y s u c c e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y when i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s , t h e " i n d u s t r i a l i s t s " were the ones r e a p i n g t h e p r o f i t s . The a r t i s t s - i n d u s t r i a l i s t s c o n f l i c t became more a c u t e i n the l a t e r p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y , when many a r t i s t s , i n s p i r e d by the example o f W i l l i a m M o r r i s and t h e B r i t i s h A r t s and C r a f t s movement r e a l i z e d t h a t by the m s e l v e s p r o d u c i n g " a r t o b j e c t s " f o r amateurs, a p o t e n t i a l market was open t o them. But t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e v i v a l o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n E n g l a n d and B e l g i u m on one hand, and i n France on t h e o t h e r . M o r r i s and h i s group, as w e l l as t h e B e l g i a n a r t i s t s (such as H e n r i Van de V e l d e ) , b e l i e v e d i n the s o c i a l r o l e o f a r t . The f a c t t h a t F r e n c h a r t i s t s became i n t e r e s t e d i n M o r r i s 1 achievements (and n o t i n Henry C o l e ' s , as t h e Government and t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s were) had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h R u s k i n ' s " G o t h i c " h u m i l i t y " t h a t M o r r i s p r o f e s s e d , w h i c h i n f a c t i m p l i e d t h e l o w e r i n g o f t h e s p e c i a l s t a t u s t h e a r t i s t g a i n e d i n t h e c a p i -t a l i s t s o c i e t y . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e s o c i a l i s t M o r r i s , l a r g e l y be-cause o f h i s h a t r e d o f t h e machine o r any p o s t - m e d i e v a l methods of p r o d u c t i o n , produced " a r t o b j e c t s " t h a t o n l y a w e a l t h y e l i t e c o u l d e n j o y . I t was t h i s p r o s p e c t o f " a r t i s t i c " v e r s u s i n d u s t r i a l m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n t h a t a p p e a l e d t o t h e F r e n c h a r t i s t s , and n o t t h e v i r t u e s o f t h e humble m e d i e v a l a r t i s a n . J u s t t h e o p p o s i t e , t h e y s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r a i s e t h e s t a t u s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s t o t h a t o f f i n e a r t s . The f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1890s t h e r e was a renewed a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i c ( v i s u a l ) a v ant-garde w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l a v a n t - g a r d e , w i t h s o c i a l r a d i c a l i s m i n F r a n c e , d i d n o t a f f e c t the a r t i s t s ' p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . F r a n c e d i d n o t produce a H e n r i van de V e l d e , B e l g i u m d i d , even though t h e r e were i n F rance l o u d v o i c e s t h a t t r i e d t o m o b i l i s e a r t i s t s t o p u t t h e i r a r t i n the s e r v i c e o f t h e p e o p l e , such as H. Nocq's: J 1 a t t e n d avec i m p a t i e n c e l e r e t o u r des a r t i s t e s a 1 ' I n d u s t r i e . Grace a l a p r o d u c t i o n mecanique l e u r s o e u v r e s s e r o n t m i s e s a l a p o r t e e du p l u s grand nombre e t a i n s i s e r v i r o n t au p r o g r e s s o c i a l . ^ 6 - 2:4 -I do n o t i n t e n d t o d i s c u s s B e l g i u m h e r e , b u t the c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r t i s t s and the Worker's p a r t y i n t h a t c o u n t r y can throw a l i g h t on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between F r e n c h and B e l g i a n a v a n t - g a r d e s . (For t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e " c o l l e c t i v i s t " movements i n France and B e l g i u m , and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s toward a r t , see Eugenia H e r b e r t , The A r t i s t and S o c i a l Reform, 1961.) Not o n l y was t h e s o c i a l i s t movement weaker t h a n t h e a n a r c h i s t movement a t the t i m e i n F r a n c e , b u t a l s o i t d i d not g i v e a r t s u f f i c i e n t t h o u g h t . On th e o t h e r hand, t h e a n a r c h i s t movement made a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o a t t r a c t a r t i s t s , and i t s emphasis on " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " a l s o a p p e a l e d t o F r e n c h a r t i s t s , most o f them.coming from b o u r g e o i s 37 backgrounds. Thus t h e N e o 7 l m p r e s s i o n i s t s among p a i n t e r s were a n a r c h i s t s y m p a t h i s e r s . They b e l i e v e d t h a t e v e n t u a l l y , i n t h e f u t u r e , a r t s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the whole s o c i e t y , but f o r t h e time b e i n g , i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s o c i e t y t h e y d i d not c o n s i d e r t h i s p o s s i b l e . T h e i r a r t was produced e s s e n t i a l l y f o r an e l i t e o f amateurs, and as Eugenia and R o b e r t H e r b e r t have p o i n t e d o u t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i t was p r e c i s e l y i n the 1890s, when t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e a n a r c h i s t movement became most m i l i t a n t , t h a t the a r t i s t s adopted a more pronounced " a r t 3 8 f o r a r t ' s sake" p o s i t i o n . S i g n a c , f o r example, was w e l l aware o f the d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s p o l i t i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s and the a e s t h e t i c ones, and t r i e d a t v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s t o j u s t i f y i t . F o r example, i n June 1891, i n the a r t i c l e " I m p r e s s i o n i s t e s e t R e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s , " s i g n e d "an I m p r e s s i o n i s t Comrade," Si g n a c s a i d : - 25 -I t would t h u s be an e r r o r , i n t o w h i c h the b e s t i n t e n t i o n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , l i k e , Proudhon, a l l t o o o f t e n have f a l l e n , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o r e q u i r e a p r e c i s e s o c i a l i s t tendency i n works o f a r t , f o r t h i s tendency w i l l be found much more p o w e r f u l and e l o q u e n t i n t h e pure a e s t h e t e s , r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s by temperament, who, moving f a r o f f the b e a t e n p a t h , p a i n t what t h e y see as t h e y f e e l i t , and v e r y o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s l y g i v e a h a r d blow o f t h e p i c k - a x e t o t h e o l d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . 3 ^ C a m i l l e P i s s a r r o was a n o ther a n a r c h i s t s y m p a t h i s e r , a member o f t h e C l u b de 1'Art S o c i a l , and p r o f e s s e d h a t r e d o f the c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . Y e t h i s a t t i t u d e was t h a t o f the F r e n c h a v a n t - g a r d e i n g e n e r a l , t h a t i s e l i t i s t . He was i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i n g o n l y t h e a r t i s t i c t a s t e o f an e l i t e o f " b uyers," as opposed t o C a r r i e r e (a " j u s t e m i l i e u " p a i n t e r ) , o r t o t h e c r i t i c Gustave G e f f r o y ( a l s o not e x a c t l y an a v a n t - g a r d e . w r i t e r ) , who wanted t o e ducate the w o r k e r s . ^ , I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t , as Chesneau remarked, F r e n c h a r t i s t s 41 had the tendency t o a s p i r e toward th e l o f t i e r l e v e l s o f a r t . As l o n g as t h e i n d u s t r i a l and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s were c o n s i d e r e d as a c t i v i t i e s o f a l e s s e r s t a t u s (an a t t i t u d e s u p p o r t e d by t h e Academy) t h e a r t i s t s ' r esponse was l e s s t h a n e n t h u s i a s t i c . T h i s f a c t was u n d e r s t o o d by t h e non-Academic o f f i c i a l s and o t h e r p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , and t h e campaign t h e y l a u n c h e d s i n c e the l a t e 1870s was based on the e q u a l i z a t i o n i n s t a t u s . I n v o l v e d i n t h i s campaign were I n s p e c t o r s of B e a u x - A r t s , such as Roger B a l l u and Henry Havard, V i c t o r Champier, t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e Revue des A r t s D e c o r a t i f s (founded i n 1880 as an organ o f t h e Union C e n t r a l e ) / v and o f f i c i a l i n the B e a u x - A r t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and Roger Marx, who was a c r i t i c and e d i t o r o f t h e G a z e t t e des Beaux A r t s . Marx - 2.6 -was a l s o an exemplar of a new s p e c i e s : "the e n l i g h t e n e d amateur o f modern a r t , " who formed t h a t " e l i t e " o f c o n n o i s s e u r s , t h a t s p e c i a l group o f the b o u r g e o i s i e f o r whom the avant-garde was c r e a t i n g . He was w e l l aware o f t h e r o l e o f t h e " W r i t e r " i n i n -f l u e n c i n g t h e d e s t i n y o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n F r ance i n the 19th c e n t u r y , and w h i l e r e m i n d i n g h i s r e a d e r s o f the "movements o f o p i n i o n " i n c i t e d by V i c t o r Hugo, V i o l l e t T l e - D u c o r de Laborde, he c a r r i e d on h i s own propaganda t o b r i n g f i n e a r t s and d e c o r -42 . . . a t i v e a r t s t o an e q u a l s t a t u s . T h i s e q u a l i z a t i o n i n s t a t u s d i d n o t mean t h e " d e b a s i n g " o f t h e f i n e a r t s , but j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e , r a i s i n g t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s t o the h i g h e r l e v e l o c c u p i e d by a s t a t u e , and e s p e c i a l l y by a t a b l e a u . Roger Marx c o n t r i b u t e d h i s o r g a n i s i n g s k i l l s t o t h e o p ening o f a s e c t i o n o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s a t t h e S a l o n o f t h e S o c i e t e N a t i o n a l e des 43 B e a u x - A r t s , h e l d a t t h e Champ-de-Mars. T h i s was a second S a l o n , o r g a n i z e d by. a second " s o c i e t y o f a r t i s t s , " t h a t e x h i b i t e d n o n - j u r i e d works, awarded no p r i z e s , and promoted m a i n l y t h e p a i n t e r s o f t h e j u s t e m i l i e u . T h i s second s o c i e t y (the f i r s t one b e i n g , o f c o u r s e , t h e academic o r i e n t e d S o c i e t e des A r t i s t e s F r a n c a i s t h a t h e l d S a l o n s on t h e Champs-E l y s e e s ) was formed i n 1890 a t t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f M e i s s o n i e r (as P r e s i d e n t ) and P u v i s de Chavannes ( V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ) . The i d e a o f a S a l o n o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was n o t new; i t had been t r i e d i n 1882 by the Union C e n t r a i e , w h i c h had opened such a S a l o n , s i d e by s i d e and s i m u l t a n e i o u s l y w i t h t h e r e g u l a r 44 • S a l o n . But Union C e n t r a i e was not p o p u l a r w i t h t h e a r t i s t s . The a r t i s t s - i n d u s t r i a l i s t s c o n f l i c t was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a r t i s t s ' b i t t e r n e s s towards th e Union C e n t r a i e (which was c o n t r o l l e d by - 27 -t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s ) , whose p e r i o d i c a l e x h i b i t i o n s a t t h e P a l a i s de l ' i n d u s t r i e t h e y c o n s i d e r e d " e x c l u s i v e l y c o m m e r c i a l " and as s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e s e c t i o n o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s a t t h e S a l o n o f t h e Champ-de-Mafs. The a r t i s t s f e l t t h a t t h e Union C e n t r a l e d i d not d e s e r v e the f i n a n c i a l h e l p i t r e c e i v e d from the Government, e s p e c i a l l y when i t r e p r e s e n t e d a p o r t i o n o f t h e budget o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s . T h i s resentment was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n t h e e a r l y 1890s, when a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o c r e a t e a new s t y l e i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was h i n d e r e d by t h e i n d u s -t r i a l i s t s and merchants, who c o n s i d e r e d i t more p r o f i t a b l e t o i m i t a t e o l d e r s t y l e s . The a r t i s t s wanted more p e r s o n a l r e -c o g n i t i o n , t h e y wanted t o s i g n t h e i r a r t o b j e c t , t h e y wanted s t a t u s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e avant-garde a r t i s t s . The F r e n c h a r t i s t i c a v a nt-garde was e l i t i s t by d e f i n i t i o n , a l i e n a t e d from t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e d o m i n a t i n g c l a s s -the b o u r g e o i s i e - as w e l l as from mass c u l t u r e . The a v a n t -garde c o u l d have been a t t r a c t e d o n l y by t h e p r o s p e c t o f p r o d u c i n g an e l i t i s t a r t , an a r t wh i c h they, c o u l d judge " s u p e r i o r " because i t was not making any c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e v u l g a r " t a s t e " o f the crowd. F o r the a v a n t - g a r d e , " a r t f o r 45 a r t ' s sake" became a "code o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s . " I f members o f t h e F r e n c h avant-garde p a i n t i n g were a t t r a c t e d i n t o t h e f i e l d o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , i t was not because t h e y wanted t o u n i t e "the b e a u t i f u l " and "the u s e f u l , " but because t h e y were a t t r a c t e d by t h e " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" a s p e c t o f t h e de-c o r a t i v e a r t s . I n d o i n g so, t h e " u t i l i t a r i a n " s i d e o f the de-c o r a t i v e a r t s became secondary. T h i s approach t o d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was emphasized d u r i n g the 188 0s and 1890s by a n t i - a c a d e m i c - 28 -w r i t e r s such as E r n e s t Chesneau or. Henry Havard, who a l s o s h a r e d an a n t i p a t h y f o r the B r i t i s h , and a b e l i e f i n t h e super-46 i o r i t y o f F r e n c h a r t i s t i c g e n i u s . As Chesneau p u t i t , F r e n c h " 47 a r t i s above t h e , " s t a t i s t i c s c o n c e r n i n g commercial e x p o r t . He was a g a i n s t the F r e n c h Government's a d o p t i n g B r i t i s h - t y p e s c h o o l s o f i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n , w h i c h o f c o u r s e were i n t e n d e d f o r 48 t h e development o f mass-produced i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . I n F r a n c e , " i n d u s t r i a l a r t " became more and more a p e j o r a t i v e term i n a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s , w h i l e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t " was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 49 " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake." I n t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s " the accent:'' was on the f o r m a l elements (shapes, c o l o u r s ) d i s p o s e d i n such 50 way as t o gxve p l e a s u r e t o t h e eye and " s p i r i t . " Havard c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e a r t i s t s p r a c t i c i n g t h e Be a u x - A r t s were e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by t h e crowd (la. f o u l e ) , w h i l e t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s "can be a p p r e c i a t e d o n l y by an e l i t e o f c o n o i s s e u r s . " He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e " f a l s e h i e r a r c h y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a r t s " comes from t h e f a c t t h a t " i n a l l 51 txmes t h e i g n o r a n t s were more numerous." To i l l u s t r a t e the a v a n t - g a r d e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s I w i l l m ention Gauguin, E m i l e B e r n a r d and t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e N a b i group. When Gauguin a p p l i e d h i m s e l f t o c e r a m i c s (he worked w i t h t h e famous c e r a m i c i s t C h a p e l e t ) f o r example, he d i d n o t t h i n k i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e o f p r o d u c i n g " u s e f u l o b j e c t s , " b u t " a r t o b j e c t s . " T h i s i s e v i d e n t from a l e t t e r he w r o t e h i s w i f e i n 1886: I am engaged i n making a r t p o t t e r y . S c h u f f e n e c k e r says t h e y a re m a s t e r p i e c e s and so does the maker, b u t t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y t o o a r t i s t i c t o be s o l d . However, he says t h a t i f t h i s i d e a c o u l d e v e r be i n t r o d u c e d i n -t o an e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , i t would have an amazing success.52 Thus Gauguin was t h i n k i n g i n terms o f " a r t p o t t e r y , " "master-p i e c e s . " He a l s o l e f t no doubt as f o r whom he i n t e n d e d h i s work; a n s w e r i n g an i n q u i r y whose purpose was t o probe th e e x i s t e n c e o f a "Renaissance o f t h e a r t - i n d u s t r i e s " and t h e e v e n t u a l emergence of a "new s t y l e , " Gauguin d e c l a r e d : Ne'. c h e r c h e z pas l a s o l u t i o n de v o t r e probleme dans l a r u e , p r e s des monuments p u b l i c s , dans l e s b o u t i q u e s des marchands. Chez 1." amateur seulement vous v e r r e z ce q u i a € t e f a i t . E t pour c e l a , n u l b e s o i n d'un grand nombre, du r e s t e l e s c h e f s - d ' o e u v r e ne se remuent pas a l a p e l l e . ^ 3 H i s " m a s t e r p i e c e s , " d e c o r a t i v e a r t o b j e c t s produced i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y , were d e s t i n e d f o r an e l i t e o f amateurs. Of c o u r s e , one s h o u l d n o t n e g l e c t the economic r e a s o n s , t h e poor f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t l e d some ava n t - g a r d e a r t i s t s i n t o t h e f i e l d o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . E m i l e B e r n a r d , f o r example, even t r i e d h i s hand a t i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n i n 1890 ( w i t h o u t much 54 s u c c e s s ) i n o r d e r t o e a r n a l i v i n g . He a l s o took c o u r s e s a t t h e E c o l e des A r t D e c o r a t i f s b e f o r e he e n t r e d Acadgmie Cormon 55 i n 1885. B e r n a r d was one o f t h e f i r s t a v a nt-garde p a i n t e r s t o be i n v o l v e d i n the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s : s t a i n e d - g l a s s windows, t a p e s t r y , e m b r o i d e r y , e t c . But e v e r y t h i n g was done i n t h e name of a r t f o r a r t ' s sake. I n 1891 (as i s e v i d e n t from a l e t t e r t o S c h u f f e n e c k e r ) , B e r n a r d proposed i n f a c t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a s o c i e t y w i t h , t h e s l o g a n 1' A r t pour 1' A r t . ~*^  T a p e s t r i e s and o t h e r d e c o r a t i v e a r t s were on t h e l i s t o f t h e a r t o b j e c t s t o be produced by t h i s s o c i e t y . The N a b i s ' i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s was e x t e n s i v e . D enis and Ranson even d e s i g n e d " a r t i s t i c " w a l l -57 p a p e r s . Most o f the N a b i s ' work (except f o r c h u r c h com-m i s s i o n s ) was d e s t i n e d f o r t h e d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e apartments - 3D -o f w e l l - t o - d o amateurs (such as Thadee Natanson f o r example), 58 not o f w o r k e r s . The propaganda aimed a t b r i n g i n g f i n e a r t s and d e c o r a t i v e a r t s onto an equal: f o o t i n g i n o r d e r t o r e v i v e (and e v e n t u a l l y t o c r e a t e a new s t y l e o f ) F r e n c h d e c o r a t i o n , t h u s a t t r a c t e d a v a nt-garde a r t i s t s , such as t h e members of Pont-Aven o r N a b i groups. They e x h i b i t e d t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e a r t a t t h e Tndependants, a t t h e S a l o n o f Champ-de-Mars, o r a t B i n g ' s , and r i g h t from t h e s t a r t t h e y had t h e s u p p o r t o f Roger Marx, who as I i n d i c a t e d , had an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the campaign t h a t r a i s e d t h e s t a t u s 59 o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . I n t r y i n g t o c o n c l u d e t o what e x t e n t t h e d e s i r e d r e -v i t a l i z a t i o n (even a " R e n a i s s a n c e " as some c a l l e d i t ) o f F r e n c h d e c o r a t i o n was r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e , one can say t h a t i t was a c h i e v e d i n t h e d e c o r a t i v e r a t h e r than i n i n d u s t r i a l a r t s per s e , and t h a t i t r e a c h e d i t s peak i n the decade o f t h e 1890s. The home-grown " A r t Nouveau", t h a t a s s i m i l a t e d Japanese and Rococo i n f l u e n c e s i n t o a new s t y l e i n s p i r e d by n a t u r a l , o r g a n i c shapes, e x c e l l e d e s p e c i a l l y i n " a r t o b j e c t s , " o n e - o f - a k i n d , o r l i m i t e d e d i t i o n s . T h i s new, s p e c i f i c a l l y F r e n c h , d e c o r a t i v e s t y l e s h o u l d n o t be equated w i t h the a b s o l u t e l y f l a t A r t Nouveau s t y l e t h a t f i r s t appeared i n B e l g i u m and became more or l e s s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e . The l a t t e r , w h i l e i t drew from F r e n c h s o u r c e s , was i n t e n d e d f o r m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n , and was a l s o s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s by E n g l i s h i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n . The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n F r ance im-p l i e d a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n , as i t d i d i n England. I s h a l l f o c u s t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o r a w h i l e on - 31 -th e s e " t r u e " p r i n c i p l e s , s i n c e t h e y were i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y f o r the c o n v e n t i o n a l d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , but a l s o f o r t h e development o f e a s e l p a i n t i n g (as i t w i l l be e v i d e n t i n Chapter I , P a r t 2) . I would a l s o l i k e t o emphasize t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c way t h e r e -v i t a l i z a t i o n was p r o c e e d i n g i n F r a n c e , was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c way d e c o r a t i o n was d e f i n e d . E q u a t i n g d e c o r a t i o n w i t h a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s i s c o r r e c t o n l y f o r t he or n a m e n t a l d e s i g n o f f l a t p a t t e r n s , b e s t s u i t e d f o r w a l l -p a p e r s , such as f i r s t t a u g h t i n C o l e ' s s c h o o l s o f d e s i g n . I n f a c t , i n my o p i n i o n , here l i e s t he o r i g i n o f the m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t " d e c o r a t i v e " e q u a l s a f l a t l i n e a r d e s i g n and smooth c o l o u r . I n F r a n c e , as i n E n g l a n d , t h e r e s p e c t f o r the i n t e g r i t y o f t h e d e c o r a t e d o b j e c t became t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f d e c o r a t i o n . Thus a d e c o r a t i o n i n t e n d e d f o r a f l a t s u r f a c e such as a w a l l o r a f l o o r had t o a v o i d " p i e r c i n g h o l e s " i n i t w i t h i l l u s i o n i s t i c d e v i c e s . But i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r l i n e t h a t F r e n c h r e -for m e r s d e f i n e d s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s f o r each b r a n c h o f d e c o r a -t i v e a r t s , a l l o w i n g f o r v a r i o u s degrees o f " f l a t n e s s " among them. W a l l p a p e r s f o r example were suppose t o have f l a t d e s i g n s , b u t s i n c e t h e w a l l p a p e r i n d u s t r y was not t h e " n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y " t h e r e t o t h e e x t e n t i t was i n E n g l a n d , t h i s k i n d o f d e s i g n was not so p r o m i n e n t l y emphasized. I n France t a p e s t r y weaving was c o n s i d e r e d the " n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y , " and t h e r e f o r m e r s o f d e c o r a -t i v e a r t s i n t h i s c o u n t r y were v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n a " r e n a i s s a n c e " o f t h e t a p e s t r y i n d u s t r y based on t h e t r u e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n ( i n s t e a d o f i m i t a t i n g i l l u s i o n i s t i c t a b l e a u x ) , and a c c o r d e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s s u b j e c t . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e o f " t a p e s t r y f l a t n e s s " I would - 32 -l i k e t o mention a few words about t h e r e v i v a l o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s d e c o r a t i v e a r t . I n the second h a l f o f the 19th c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a t e 1870s, t h e a f f l u e n t F r e n c h B o u r g e o i s i e became i n t e r e s t e d i n t a p e s t r i e s f o r home d e c o r a t i o n . In h i s r e p o r t on t a p e s t r y a t t h e U n i v e r s a l E x h i b i t i o n o f 1878, D e n u e l l e remarked t h a t t h e use o f t a p e s t r i e s i n p r i v a t e homes 6 0 had become q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d . I n t h e l a t e 1870s - e a r l y 1880s, t h e r e was an " i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h t h e t a p e s t r i e s done a f t e r t h e c a r t o o n s o f Boucher and C o y p e l " w h i c h l e d t o a tremendous i n -61 c r e a s e i n t h e i r p r i c e . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e G o b e l i n s r e a l i z e d t h e r e was a p o t e n t i a l market f o r modern t a p e s t r y among the l e s s w e a l t h y amateurs who c o u l d not a f f o r d t h e a n t i q u e s . Also, v a r i o u s p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s r e q u i r e d contemporary t a p e s t r i e s . The problem was t o f i n d good models, t h a t i s c a r t o o n s p a i n t e d i n accordance w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a -6 2 t i o n . " O f f i c i a l " a e s t h e t i c i a n s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n d u s t r i -a l i s t s , showed c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I n 1876 Union C e n t r a i e o r g a n i z e d an e x h i b i t i o n o f t a p e s t r i e s w h i c h , as t h e M a r q u i s de C h e n n e v i e r e s ( B l a n c ' s s u c c e s s o r as d i r e c t o r o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s p o i n t e d o u t , "would become the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f so many s t u d i e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a r t , o f w h i c h the o r i g i n s and t h e laws were i n the p r o c e s s o f b e i n g e s -63 t a b l i s h e d . " A t t h e t i m e o f the e x h i b i t i o n t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e G o b e l i n s was A l f r e d D a r c e l , and he p u b l i s h e d i n t h e G a z e t t e des B e a u x - A r t s a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s e n t i t l e d " E x p o s i t i o n de 64 l ' h i s t o i r e de l a t a p i s s e r i e . " He l o o k e d a t t h e e x h i b i t i o n 65 as a t a " l e s s o n i n d e c o r a t i v e a r t t h r o u g h t a p e s t r y . " D a r c e l was i n complete a c c o r d on t h i s s u b j e c t w i t h C h a r l e s B l a n c , from - 33 -whose a r t i c l e "Le Musee des t a p i s . s e r . i e s " (Le Temps, 4 September 66 187 6) he a c t u a l l y quoted. The p r i n c i p l e s a d vocated f o r t h e modern t a p e s t r y drew upon o l d e r p e r i o d s , as l o n g as t h o s e p e r i o d s a v o i d e d t h e r e a l i s t i c trompe l ' o e i l and the "window" e f f e c t . The g e n e r a l consensus was t h a t t a p e s t r y s h o u l d n ot i m i t a t e t a b l e a u x . T h i s c r i t i c i s m was e s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e t a p e s t r i e s weaved i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y , which had t r i e d t o reproduce n o t " d e c o r a t i v e t a b l e a u x , " as t h e Rococo t a p e s t r i e s d i d ( i n f a c t a t the time t h e r e was a r e v i v a l o f b o t h M e d i e v a l and Rococo t a p e s t r i e s ) , b u t " e x p r e s s i v e " .tableaux such as The  Pesthouse o f J a f f a by Gros, w i t h a l l i t s s u b t l e t i e s o f m o d e l l i n g . ^ ' 7 C h a r l e s B l a n c ' s Grammaire des a r t s d e c o r a t i f s (1882) i s one o f t h e b e s t s o u r c e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s p e c i f i c d i f -f e r e n c e s i n t h e r u l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by most r e f o r m e r s f o r v a r i o u s d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , such as: pavements, m e t a l work, w a l l p a p e r , t a p e s t r i e s , c a r p e t s , f u r n i t u r e , g l a s s - w o r k , c e r a m i c s , e t c . C a r p e t s , f o r example, were t o be f l a t and t h e i r d e s i g n were t o e x c l u d e the human f i g u r e . W a l l p a p e r s d e s i g n s c o u l d i n c l u d e human f i g u r e s , b u t r e n d e r e d i n f l a t t i n t s and s i l h o u e t t e d . I n t h e t a p e s t r i e s scenes w i t h f i g u r e s a nd.landscapes were a l l o w e d . The g e n e r a l g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s recommended by B l a n c f o r t a p e s t r y were t h e f o l l o w i n g : a v o i d a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t s o f l i n e a r and a t m o s p h e r i c p e r s p e c t i v e , and av o i d a n c e o f c h i a r o s c u r o e f f e c t , w h i c h was t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h a " d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t " t h a t gave 68 an i m p r e s s i o n o f o v e r a l u n i f o r m i t y o f v a l u e . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e p e r s p e c t i v e e f f e c t , one b a s i c r u l e , a c c o r d i n g t o B l a n c , was t o choose a v e r y h i g h v i e w p o i n t , w h i c h would a l s o 69 a v o i d . d i s p l a y i n g t o o much " s k y . " A good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r s p e c t i v e i n a t a p e s t r y and t h e one i n a t a b l e a u i s g i v e n i n Havard's La D e c o r a t i o n (c.1891, i n which he r e p a t e d much o f what B l a n c s a i d ) . He i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s d i s -t i n c t i o n w i t h two f i g u r e s : one r e p r e s e n t e d a 16th c e n t u r y F l e m i s h t a p e s t r y , the o t h e r t h e same t a p e s t r y "mise en p e r -70 s p e c t i v e . " Havard commented: "The f i r s t one g i v e s the sen-s a t i o n o f a t a p e s t r y , t h e second one p i e r c e s t h e w a l l and has " 71 the a s p e c t o f a t a b l e a u . A v o i d i n g t h e p e r s p e c t i v e " e f f e c t " r e f e r s t o the scene as a whole, i t means a v o i d i n g t h e i l l u s i o n o f d e p t h , but i t does not e x c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s seen i n p e r s p e c t i v e . A l s o , t h e " d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t " d i d not e x c l u d e m o d e l l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l volumes ( a l b e i t r u d i m e n t a r i l y and n o t by s u b t l e g r a d a t i o n s as i n p a i n t i n g ) , i n o t h e r words d i d 72 n o t e x c l u d e an e f f e c t o f r e l i e f . Even w i t h o u t an o u t l i n i n g o f t h e c o n t o u r s , a t a p e s t r y g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f o u t l i n i n g shapes w i t h a l o s t - a n d - f o u n d c o n t o u r , due t o i t s s l i t s . B l a n c d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e a f i r m o u t -l i n i n g o f shapes (he, as I w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r , s t i l l b e l i e v e d i n th e o l d academic p r e j u d i c e about the i r r e c o n c i l a b i l i t y o f " l i n e " , and " c o l o u r , " and b e l i e v e d c o l o u r s h o u l d dominate i n d e c o r a t i o n ) , b u t most r e f o r m e r s r e q u i r e d a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f forms i n d e c o r a t i o n , t a p e s t r y i n c l u d e d . I n D e n u e l l e ' s r e p o r t o f 1877, l e t r a i t de r e d e s s i n e e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o 73 a l l d e c o r a t i v e a r t s d e r i v i n g from a r c h i t e c t u r e . " D a r c e l (who was d i r e c t o r o f t h e G o b e l i n s between 1871 - 1885) a l s o r e q u i r e d " f i r m n e s s i n d r a w i n g , " and C a l m e f t e s (a v e r y thorough h i s t o r i a n - 35 -o f t h e a r t o f t a p e s t r y i n t h e 19th c.) would say a few y e a r s l a t e r t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t r u l e i n t a p e s t r y was the r e n -74 d e r i n g o f t h e p u r i t y o f form, e x p r e s s e d by f i r m c o n t o u r s . Edouard D i d r o n (who f o r a c o u p l e o f y e a r s r a n the A n n a l e s - a r c h e o l o g i q u e s , d e s c r i b e d as "the most e f f e c t i v e mouthpiece" f o r t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i n France)., a l s o l i s t e d t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t 75 among the p r i n c i p l e s he f o r m u l a t e d f o r t a p e s t r y . S i n c e h i s f o r m u l a t i o n (which he extended a l s o t o mosaics) summarizes q u i t e w e l l t h e p r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t a p e s t r i e s i n the l a t e 1870s, I w i l l r e produce i t i n a s l i g h t l y s h o r t e n e d v e r s i o n : 1) A c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t l e a v e s v e r y few s p a c e s . 2) S i m p l i c i t y o f e x e c u t i o n , i n w h i c h th e t r a i t i s predominant and t h e s i l h o u e t t e s are a c c e n t u a t e d . 3) "A sober m o d e l l i n g o f a t r u e d e c o r a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . " 4) An a l m o s t complete l a c k o f p e r s p e c t i v e . I t s h o u l d be c l e a r by how t h a t " t a p e s t r y f l a t n e s s " was not u n d e r s t o o d t o be t h e same as " w a l l p a p e r f l a t n e s s " (or as " s t a i n e d g l a s s window f l a t n e s s " ) by t h o s e who were i n t h e f o r e -f r o n t of t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s r e v i v a l i n F r a n c e . The t a p e s t r y - d e c o r a t i o n v e r s u s t a p e s t r y - t a b l e a u c o n f l i c t had a p a r a l l e l i n the d i s t i n c t i o n between " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " ( i n t h e sense o f monumental p a i n t i n g o r d e c o r a t i o n ) and t a b l e a u . I n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the 19th c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g had emancipated i t s e l f from a r c h i t e c t u r e t o such degree, t h a t m u r a l d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g s became n o t h i n g e l s e b u t l a r g e s c a l e t a b l e a u x . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e r e s i d e d i n the f a c t t h a t b e i n g i n t e n d e d f o r a s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n , t h e u s u a l shape of a t a b l e a u was m o d i f i e d (and even t h i s was not always n e c e s s a r y ) . But d e f i n i n g d e c o r a -t i o n o n l y as a work w i t h a s p e c i f i c d e s t i n a t i o n was not good enough for. t h e r e f o r m e r s o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c was u n e q u i v o c a l on t h i s s u b j e c t : De ce que on p e i n t s u r un mur au l i e u de p e i n d r e s u r une t o i l e , 11 ne s ' e n s u i t pas que 1'oeuvre s o i t une p e i n t u r e monumentale, e t presque t o u t e s l e s p e i n t u r e s m urales p r o d u i t e s de n o t r e temps, ne sont t o u j o u r s , malgre l a d i f f e r e n c e du p r o c e d e , que des t a b l e a u x ; 7 6 D e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g , i n o r d e r t o be a " t r u e " d e c o r a t i o n ( l i k e any o t h e r d e c o r a t i v e a r t ) had t o f u l f i l l t h e " t r u e " p r i n c i p l e s o f d e c o r a t i o n . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e were s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a i n t i n g as d e c o r a t i o n , j u s t as t h e r e were s p e c i f i c r e -qui r e m e n t s for. d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . The g e n e r a l consensus among r e f o r m e r s was t h a t p a i n t i n g as d e c o r a t i o n s h o u l d be s u b o r d i n a t e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . S i n c e most d e c o r a t i o n s were i n t e n d e d f o r f l a t w a l l s , f l a t n e s s was t h e most common r e q u i r e m e n t . But how f l a t ? " F l a t n e s s " i n d e c o r a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y a d v o c a t e d and i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l and t h e N e o - C a t h o l i c movements, as a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t 77 what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be "paganism" and "decadence." S i n c e t h i s f l a t n e s s (which was a b s o l u t e ) , and s i m p l i f i e d d e s i g n , were a l s o v e r y c o n v e n i e n t f o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n , i t became w i d e l y a c c e p t e d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n , and t h e i n i t i a l i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r g o t t e n . I n t h e 1880s 7 " f l a t n e s s " i n d e c o r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d as a "common sense law." Of. c o u r s e , i n t h e f i e l d o f d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t he p r o c e s s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e "common s e n s e " . d i d not d i c t a t e a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s . T h i s i s why i n t h i s a r e a t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n s between t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t s and t h o s e whom I e a r l i e r . c a l l e d u p h o l d e r s o f t h e 79 "Western t r a d i t i o n " i s most o b v i o u s . - 37 -I n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y b e l o n g s o f c o u r s e V i o l l e t - l e - D u c ( G o t h i c R e v i v a l i s t ) , who d i e d i n 1879. I w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e here Henry Havard, c o n s i d e r e d an a u t h o r i t y i n d e c o r a t i o n i n the 1880s and 1890s, who, l i k e V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , b e l i e v e d i n t h e "decadence" brought about i n monumental a r t by the e m a n c i p a t i o n 8 0 o f p a i n t i n g s i n c e the R e n a i s s a n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o V i o l l e t - l e -Duc a monumental p a i n t i n g s h o u l d always p r e s e r v e "the a s p e c t o f a d e c o r a t e d p l a n e s u r f a c e " ("1'aspect d'une s u r f a c e p l a n e 81 d e c o r e e " ) . T h i s was t r u e not o n l y f o r o r n a m e n t a l p a i n t i n g p r o p e r , t h a t i s , t h e p a i n t i n g o f o r n a m e n t a l m o t i f s t h a t do n o t i n v o l v e t h e human f i g u r e and a s u b j e c t , b u t a l s o f o r monumental p a i n t i n g o f v a r i o u s s c e n e s . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c d e c l a r e d : "Les p e u p l e s a r t i s t e s n'ont vu dans l a p e i n t u r e monumentale q u 1 on ». 8 2 d e s s i n enlumine e t t r e s - l e g e r e m e n t modele." He p r e f e r r e d t o see t h e m o d e l l i n g reduced o n l y t o t h e l i n e a r m o d e l l i n g a c h i e v e d by "more o r l e s s a c c e n t u a t e d t r a i t s , " and c o l o u r as n o t h i n g more than an " i l l u m i n a t i o n . " He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the apogee of m e d i e v a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l p a i n t i n g was a t t a i n e d i n t h e 12th c e n t u r y i n F r a n c e , when t h e i n f l u e n c e of the h i e r a t i c B y z a n t i n e 8 3 s t y l e was v e r y pronounced. V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , as has o n l y l a t e l y been acknowledged, d i d n o t advocate a l i t e r a l " i m i t a t i o n " o f t h e G o t h i c s t y l e , b u t o n l y t h e b o r r o w i n g o f c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . Henry Havard, who was u s u a l l y , i n agreement w i t h V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , campaigned more o p e n l y f o r a modern s t y l e t o f i t the needs o f the modern way o f l i f e . L i k e V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , E avard would have p r e f e r r e d a ban on m o d e l l i n g (which g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f r e l i e f ) as w e l l as on t h e i l l u s i o n o f deep s p a t i a l r e c e s s i o n . H i s o p i n i o n - 38 -was t h a t i n a d e c o r a t i o n , n o t o n l y " i t i s awkward t o s i m u l a t e h o l e s and grooves where t h e demands o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r b i d them," but i t i s j u s t as i n c o r r e c t " t o s i m u l a t e r e l i e f s i n a 84 p l a c e where the w a l l s h o u l d remain f i a t . " But even he, who o f c o u r s e banned any " i d e a o f r e l i e f " i n pavements and c a r p e t s , t o l e r a t e d i t e v e n t u a l l y i n mur a l d e c o r a t i o n , because a t l e a s t , he s a i d , one can keep a d i s t a n c e from a w a l l , w h i l e w a l k i n g o v e r s i m u l a t e d r e l i e f s i s v e r y u n p l e a s a n t . H a v a r d 1 s d e s i r e f o r a b s o l u t e f l a t n e s s i n d e c o r a t i o n , even when he does not r e f e r t o p a i n t i n g , i s not r e l a t e d t o t h e problems o f m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h he a c t u a l l y d e p l o r e d . He was a g a i n s t t h e " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f l u x u r y , " and as I mentioned b e f o r e , he f a v o r e d t h e e l i t i s t d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . Havard s h a r e d V i o l l e t - l e - D u c 1 s i n c l i n a t i o n toward a u s t e r i t y (he was a l s o a g a i n s t b r i g h t , pure c o l o u r s i n d e c o r a t i o n ) and h i s p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t p a i n t i n g b e i n g o v e r l y a s s e r t i v e i n d e c o r a t i o n . There were o t h e r s , though, who a c c e p t e d as a "common sense" r u l e t h a t i n d e c o r a t i o n p a i n t i n g had t o be s u b o r d i n a t e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , b u t d i d not want t o renounce t h e "Western" h e r i t a g e (which f a v o r e d m o d e l l i n g i n t h e round) c o m p l e t e l y . As Alphonse Germain (La Plume, 1891) put i t , "A t r u l y sane O c c i -8 5 d e n t a l eye w i l l always f e e l t h e n e c e s s i t y o f g r a d a t i o n s . " (Germain, a r e a c t i o n a r y c r i t i c , s u p p o r t e r o f P e l a d a n , c r i -t i c i s e d t he f l a t n e s s of S y m b o l i s t p a i n t i n g which d i d not r e s p e c t t h e "form" i n the name o f t h e s l o g a n " a r t i s not r e a l i t y > " and whic h would t h u s reduce t o a. " m a g n i f i c e n t a b e r r a t i o n " a l l t h e m a t e r p i e c e s produced s i n c e the Re n a i s s a n c e . ) The c r i t i c c on-s i d e r e d t h a t t h e i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f " b a r b a r i a n s " - 3 9 -(among whom he seems t o i n c l u d e t h e B y z a n t i n e s ) would o n l y l e a d t o an " i n f e r i o r d e c o r a t i v e a r t , because i t was w i t h o u t r a p p o r t w i t h our r a c e and our m o d e r n i t y . " But i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he a c c e p t e d " a r c h a i s m s " i n book d e c o r a t i o n s f o r example (such as D e n i s 1 i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r Sagesse by V e r l a i n e ) . T h i s was so because a t t h e t i m e , i n p a i n t i n g (which had a s p e c i a l s t a t u s s i n c e R e n a i s s a n c e ) , f l a t n e s s was s t i l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an I d e a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y , w i t h r e p r e s e n t i n g the "dream" and t h e 1'au-dela. I mentioned b e f o r e t h a t an extreme case o f "Western t r a -d i t i o n a l i s m " can be found i n C h a r l e s B l a n c . He d i d p r e f e r " g r a d a t i o n s " (to f l a t t i n t s ) i n d e c o r a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , b u t h i s "extremism" i s m a n i f e s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n . In f a c t he d i d not i n c l u d e p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n (except f o r p a i n t i n g on g l a s s . a n d m i n i a t u r e p a i n t i n g - such as were the en l u m i n u r e s o f t h e 14th c e n t u r y - , w h i c h b e l o n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o him " r a t h e r t o o r n a m e n t a t i o n t h a n t o t h e a r t o f t h e p a i n t e r " ) • 8 6 among t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , as d i d Havard and V i o l l e t - l e - D u c . B l a n c d i d a c c e p t . f o r p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n t h e b a s i c r u l e o f "not s i m u l a t i n g h o l e s where the a r c h i t e c t wanted t o have s o l i d s t r u c t u r e s , " i . e . t h e r e s p e c t f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the d e c o r a t e d 8 7 s u r f a c e . But the c o n c e s s i o n s t h a t p a i n t i n g s h o u l d make t o th e f l a t n e s s o f t h e w a l l r e f e r r e d t o the g e n e r a l e f f e c t , and not t o the m o d e l l i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s and f i g u r e s i n the p a i n t i n g , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t the m o d e l l i n g had t o be done i n c o l o u r . To: u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r what were the d i f f e r e n c e s between a d e c o r a t i o n and a t a b l e a u i n B l a n c ' s v i e w (as w e l l as a c c o r d i n g t o o t h e r s ) , I w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e f i r s t on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f the t a b l e a u . V i o l l e t - l e - D u c answered t h e q u e s t i o n "What i s - 40 -a t a b l e a u ? " w i t h the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : C'est une scene qu'on f a i t v o i r au s p e c t a t e u r a t r a v e r s un c a d r e , une f e n e t r e o u v e r t e . U n i t e de p o i n t de vue, u n i t e de d i r e c t i o n de l a l u m i e r e , u n i t e d 1 e f f e c t . 8 8 S i m i l a r l y , C h a r l e s B l a n c wrote i n h i s Grammaire des a r t s du  d e s s i n (1867): M a i n t e n a n t , q u ' e s t - c e qu'un t a b l e a u dans l a p e i n t u r e proprement d i t e ? C'est l a r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n d'une scene dont 1'ensemble peut e t r e embrasse d'un coup d ' o e i l . 8 9 T h i s u n i t o f e f f e c t ( i n o t h e r words the u n i t y p e r c e i v e d i n the p a i n t i n g a t one g l a n c e ) was a c h i e v e d f i r s t o f a l l i n a t a b l e a u (understood s i n c e A l b e r t i as a "window") by the observance of t h e . r u l e s o f l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e , w h i c h r e q u i r e d a u n i t y o f v i e w p o i n t . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t a l l o w e d t h e scene r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t a b l e a u t o be p e r c e i v e d a t one g l a n c e was the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i g h t , w h i c h had t o a c h i e v e what B l a n c c a l l e d "the u n i t y o f c h i a r o s c u r o . " C h i a r o s c u r o was used not o n l y f o r the m o d e l l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l , f o r m s i n a t a b l e a u , but a l s o t o "model the t a b l e a u , " c o n s i d e r e d as a s i n g l e e n t i t y . The u n i t y o f c h i a r o s c u r o r e f e r s t o t h e l a t t e r , and i t means t h a t i n a t a b l e a u t h e r e i s one p r i n c i p a l l i g h t and one dominant dark a r e a . T h i s u n i t y o f 90 c h i a r o s c u r o i n d u c e d an u n i t y or " e f f e c t . " A d e c o r a t i o n was n o t supposed t o s i m i l a t e "windows" i n t h e w a l l , t h r o u g h w h i c h one c o u l d e x p e r i e n c e t h e i l l u s i o n o f d e p t h . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h i s , l i b e r t i e s t a k e n w i t h the r u l e s 91 o f l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e were a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . S i n c e t h e c h i a r o s c u r o e f f e c t a l s o " p i e r c e d " t h e . w a l l , B l a n c recommended i t s r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h a polychrome e f f e c t , t h e u n i t y o f w h i c h i s a c h i e v e d by an even, l i g h t t o n a l i t y . B l a n c a l s o a s s o c i a t e d t h i s k i n d o f e f f e c t , c o n s i s t i n g o f a " d i f f u s e d and generous l i g h t " o b t a i n e d by such c o l o r i s t s as Veronese and Rubens, w i t h 92 th e p a i n t i n g of. scenes t h a t t a k e . p l a c e i n p l a i n a i r . U n i t y i n c o l o r i n g was i n f a c t t h e o n l y way o f a c h i e v i n g t h e " u n i t y o f e f f e c t " i n d e c o r a t i o n , and t h i s u n i t y was s t i l l a r e q u i r e m e n t i n d e c o r a t i o n a l s o , o n l y a c h i e v e d by d i f f e r e n t means th a n i n a t a b l e a u . Other w r i t e r s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h a more summary m o d e l l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l forms t h a n B l a n c was, and i n f a c t such a v i e w w i l l be t h e predominant one i n the 1880s and 1890s, w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a i n t i n g - d e c o r a t i o n . I w i l l g i v e as examples o f such w r i t e r s , D a r c e l and Champier. A l f r e d D a r e e l (1818-1893) had been a s s o c i a t e d a t f i r s t w i t h the G o t h i c R e v i v a l , and he was con-s i d e r e d an a u t h o r i t y on the a r c h e o l o g y o f the F r e n c h M i d d l e 93 Ages, as w e l l a s . o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . He was an o f f i c i a l i n th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s , d i r e c t o r o f the G o b e l i n s , as I a l r e a d y mentioned, as w e l l as o f the Musee de C l u n y , and he was a member of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o u n c i l o f t h e Union  C e n t r a l e des A r t s D e c o r a t i f s . He campaigned f o r t h e i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i n t o t h e S a l o n as e a r l y as 1882, when t h e Union C e n t r a l e h e l d i t s own S a l o n o f d e c o r a t i v e a r t s . On t h i s o c c a s i o n he wrote "Le S a l o n des A r t s D e c o r a t i f s , " an a r t i c l e i n wh i c h he s t a t e d t h a t a " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " ( i n t h e sense o f d e c o r a t i o n ) s h o u l d s a t i s f y the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : Dans l a c o m p o s i t i o n une c e r t a i n e e u r y t h m i e ; dans l e d e s s i n une c e r t a i n e a b r e v i a t i o n , q u i e s t une des c o n d i t i o n s du s t y l e a t q u i n ' e x c l u t p o i n t l a gra c e elle-meme; dans l a c o u l e u r une c e r t a i n e u n i t € q u i r e s u l t e souvent de l a d e c o l o r a t i o n des l u m i a r e s e t une tenue q u i p r o v i e n t de ce que chaque chose e s t simplement modelee p a r l e s d i f f e r e n t s t o n s d'une - 42 -I w i l l come back l a t e r t o D a r c e l ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a i n t i n g -d e c o r a t i o n ; f o r the moment I would l i k e t o p o i n t out t h a t D a r c e l h e l d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i n such a p a i n t i n g e v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be a t l e a s t summarily m o d e l l e d . He c o n t r a s t e d t h i s m o d e l l i n g w i t h t h e e v e n l y a p p l i e d c o l o u r ( l e s a - p l a t ) o f Japonisme, o f w h i c h he d i d not approve. L i k e B l a n c , D a r c e l d i d n o t want a m o d e l l i n g o f t h e p a i n t i n g as a whole ( c h i a r o s c u r o e f f e c t ) , b u t a u n i t y i n c o l o u r i n g ("which o f t e n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e d i s c o l o r a t i o n s o f l i g h t " ) , most i m p o r t a n t l y i n v a l u e . Thus t h e a s p e c t o f a p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n was not t o be as f l a t as a Japanese p r i n t , o r as a m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n , b u t more l i k e an e v e n l y l i t b a s - r e l i e f . The i l l u s i o n o f a h i g h r e l i e f was t o be e x p e c t e d o n l y i n a t a b l e a u . D a r c e l touched upon another d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t was t o be made between a d e c o r a t i o n and a t a b l e a u , r e l a t e d t o the problem of " f i n i s h . " D e c o r a t i o n d i d n o t , r e q u i r e t h e same amount of 95 " f i n i s h " as a t a b l e a u . B u t , on t h e o t h e r hand D a r c e l p o i n t e d o u t , the l a c k o f f i n i s h a l o n e , an ebauche, does not make a d e c o r a t i o n > no\more than t h e shape of the p a i n t i n g does: P a r c e qu'en un panneau une des deux d i m e n s i o n s domine, ou p a r c e que l e p e i n t r e s ' e s t c o n t e n t e de b r o s s e r une ebauche, i l ne f a u d r a i t pas supposer que l a forme du c a d r e , pas p l u s que 1'inacheve, s ' u f f i s e n t . a donner l e c a r a c t e r e de d e c o r a t i o n a une p e i n t u r e ; ^ 0 " Of c o u r s e , what gave a p a i n t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a d e c o r a t i o n , as s h o u l d be c l e a r by now, was a s e t of r u l e s , a l l a i m i n g t o p r e s e r v e more o r l e s s t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f the s u r f a c e decorated..... These r u l e s were g a t h e r e d , t o g e t h e r , i n an even more o r g a n i z e d f a s h i o n than i n D a r c e l ' s a r t i c l e , by V i c t o r - 43 -Champier, t h e d i r e c t o r o f the Revue des A r t s D e c o r a t i f s , and 97 a l s o an o f f i c i a l i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e B e a u x - A r t s . I n t h e second p a r t o f h i s "M.P.-V. G a l l a n d e t 1'enseignement de l ' a r t d e c o r a t i f , " (1888) Champier f o r m u l a t e d "the p r i n c i p l e s o f t r u e d e c o r a t i o n " f o r " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " - a n e c e s s a r y t a s k , because as he put i t , " i n s p i t e o f common sense, r e a s o n and good t a s t e , " t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s were v i o l a t e d i n p r a c t i c e . The most b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t was o f c o u r s e , "not t o s i m u l a t e o p e n i n g s " i n the s o l i d i t y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , because t h i s would " t r o u b l e " our eye, i n d u c i n g i t t o "doubt" t h i s s o l i d i t y . I n o t h e r words, a degree o f f l a t n e s s was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . Then he added the f o l l o w i n g " l a w s " : La f r a n c h i s e dans l a c o l o r a t i o n s , une f a c t u r e s i m p l e e t l a r g e , presque j a m a i s de t o n s n e u t r e s , des masses b i e n e q u i l i b r e e s , pas de t r o m p e - 1 1 o e i l s e r r a n t de p r e s l a n a t u r e , n i de modele p r e c i e u x e t d e l i c a t comme dans l e s t a b l e a u x , v o i l a q u e l l e s s o n t , pour c e t t e forme d ' a r t , l e s l o i s c o n s a c r e e s p a r 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e e t l e bon sens. Champier t r i e d t o be above i d e o l o g i e s and p r e s e n t e d t h e s e "laws" as d e r i v i n g s i m p l y from "common sense." He c o n s i d e r e d them as " t r u t h s , " " p r o c l a i m e d by a l l a e s t h e t i c i a n s , " and which c o u l d be 99 found i n h i s day " i n most books." He gave V i o l l e t - l e - D u c a s p e c i a l m e n t i o n , but he combined i n f a c t t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s p o i n t o f v i e w w i t h B l a n c ' s , and p r a i s e d m e d i e v a l a r t as w e l l as t h e d e c o r a t i o n s o f Raphael and M i c h e l a n g e l o i n the V a t i c a n . H i s a n t i p a t h y f o r t h e Academy was o b v i o u s , though, i n h i s remarks about n o t w a n t i n g t o sound "dogmatic" a n d . e s t a b l i s h a "program" l i k e t h e "grammarians o f a r t " (most l i k e l y an a l l u s i o n t o B l a n c ' s two "grammars"). Champier wanted o n l y t o make i t c l e a r t h a t " D e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g and e a s e l p a i n t i n g a re two t o t a l l y d i s t i n c t g e n r e s , w i t h s e p a r a t e laws and a d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e . " " L U ± T h i s i s i n f a c t t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n t o be r e t a i n e d so f a r . As I w i l l i n d i c a t e i n t h e second p a r t o f t h i s , c h a p t e r , t h e most avant-garde t r e n d s i n t h e p a i n t i n g o f t h e 1890s would make use of t h e s e "laws" o f d e c o r a t i o n , but a t the same time t h e y would a b o l i s h the double s t a n d a r d s w h i c h the " o f f i c i a l " a e s t h e t i c i a n s o f t h e second p a r t o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y m a i n t a i n e d f o r d e c o r a -t i o n and t a b l e a u . By a p p l y i n g t h e "laws o f d e c o r a t i o n " even t o t h e e a s e l p a i n t i n g , t h e y w i l l i n f a c t a b o l i s h t h e t a b l e a u . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e new " d e c o r a t i v e " t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e p a i n t i n g o f . t h e 1890s, i t i s n e c e s s a r y , because o f a c o n f u s i n g t e r m i n o l o g y , t o d e f i n e D e c o r a t i v e as opposed t o D e c o r a t i o n . By t h e 1880s (and a l r e a d y q u i t e o f t e n i n t h e 1870s) the term " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " became i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h " p a i n t i n g -d e c o r a t i o n " (as i s e v i d e n t i n Champier's a r t i c l e f o r example). Thus " d e c o r a t i v e " became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " d e c o r a t i o n , " t h a t i s , w i t h d e s i g n i n g a work o f a r t produced f o r a s p e c i f i c des-t i n a t i o n , w h i c h i m p l i e d o b e y i n g s p e c i f i c r u l e s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g (not o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a i n t i n g ) any d e c o r a t i o n was t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , " a s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n o f which was g i v e n i n H a v a r d 1 s book La D e c o r a t i o n : B i e n que t o u s l e s a r t s p l a s t i q u e s c o n c o u r e n t dans une mesure p l u s ou moins l a r g e a l a d e c o r a t i o n , on donne p l u s s p e c i a l e m e n t l e nom d ' a r t s d e c o r a t i f s a ceux q u i o n t pour b u t , non pas l a c r e a t i o n d'une oeuvre d ' a r t i n d e p e n d a n t e , mais 1 1 o r n e m e n t a t i o n d'un ensemble de c o n s t r u c t i o n , d'une p i e c e , d'une s u r f a c e ou d'un o b j e t p r e a l a b l e m e n t e x i s t a n t . 1 ^ 2 R e t u r n i n g j u s t t o p a i n t i n g (because t h i s i s o f immediate i n t e r e s t ) , s i n c e t h e s u r f a c e f o r w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d was u s u a l l y a f l a t w a l l , f l a t n e s s (a f o r m a l element) was t h e most - 45 -i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h d e f i n e d p a i n t i n g - d e c o r a t i o n . I t was a~ consequence o f i t s dependence on a r c h i t e c t u r e . Thus d e c o r a t i o n means f i r s t o f a l l s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . A t a b l e a u , w h i c h i s "independent" of a r c h i t e c t u r e , i s n o t a d e c o r a t i o n . Yet the term " d e c o r a t i v e " was a l s o used t o q u a l i f y some t a b l e a u x . D u r i n g the 1860s and.1870s t h e g e n e r a l consensus was t h a t " d e c o r a t i v e " a r t was an a r t a p p e a l i n g o n l y t o the s e n s e s , i . e . p u r e l y " e x t e r n a l . " D u r i n g t h e 1880s and e a r l y 1890s i t was s a i d t h a t i t p l e a s e d t h e eye, b u t t h a t i t was a l s o r e s t f u l f o r t h e mind, o r p l e a s e d t h e " s p i r i t " , a s w e l l . I n any e v e n t , used i n t h i s s ense, t h e a d j e c t i v e " d e c o r a t i v e " d i d not r e f e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r work d e c o r a t e d a p a r t i c u l a r s u r f a c e (even though i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a d e c o r a t i o n as w e l l as t o a t a b l e a u ) b u t t o t h e enjoyment bro u g h t t o the v i e w e r , t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t i t had o n h i m . T h i s e f f e c t was such as not t o i n v o l v e him e m o t i o n a l l y , b u t r a t h e r a e s t h e t i c a l l y . Chesneau f o r example gave t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " d e c o r a t i v e " a r t (I w i l l use t h e n o t a t i o n " d e c o r a t i v e " a r t and " d e c o r a t i v e a r t " t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two meanings o f " d e c o r a t i v e " ! ) as i t was commonly u n d e r s t o o d i n the 1960s and 1970s: " I c a l l work of d e c o r a t i v e a r t any work made s o l e l y f o r t he p l e a s u r e o f the eyes , w i t h o u t any thought o f emotion." He a l s o s a i d t h a t i n t h e f i e l d o f " p l a s t i c a r t s , " " d e c o r a t i v e " 104 a r t i s t h e same as " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake", ( l ' a r t pour l ' a r t ) . Thus d e c o r a t i v e was synonymous w i t h a r t f o r a r t ' s sake, because i t emphasized n ot a s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h a t would i n d u c e i n t h e v i e w e r p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n s , but f o r m a l , and t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s , t h e m e t i e r . There were " d e c o r a t i v e " t a b l e a u x (which d i d not have t o - 46 -renounce a e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r example, s i n c e i t d i d not m a t t e r i f t h e y gave the i l l u s i o n o f d e p t h ) , as t h e r e were " d e c o r a t i v e " d e c o r a t i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y , as I a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , i n t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s " t h e ' • u t i l i t a r i a n " : a s p e c t was pushed a s i d e , c o n s i d e r e d s e condary, and t h e i r " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" c h a r a c t e r ( a r t w i t h o u t m o r a l ends) emphasized. D u r i n g t h e 1860s and most o f the 1870s, the term " d e c o r a -t i v e " p a i n t i n g had a p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n , because i t was d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o academic t r a d i t i o n , i n o p p o s i t i o n t o " e x p r e s s i v e " p a i n t i n g , t h e p a i n t i n g o f " S t y l e , " c a p a b l e o f e x p r e s s i n g "noble emotions" ( r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e , o r h e r o i c , e t c . ) , i n o t h e r words c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h "grand" a r t . The Academy ( l e a n i n g . h e a v i l y toward C l a s s i c i s m ) , c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e t o be a s u p e r i o r a r t , one w h i c h a p p e a l s t o t h e i n t e l l e c t (which c o u l d i n c l u d e a l s o m u r a l s ) , and an i n f e r i o r one, w h i c h a p p e a l s t o t h e s e n s e s , i t i s d e c o r a t i v e (which c o u l d . i n c l u d e " d e c o r a t i v e " t a b l e a u x ) . Such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r p e t u a t e d the o l d P o u s s i n i s t / R u b e n i s t , C l a s s i c a l / R o m a n t i c , d r a w i n g o r l i n e ( r e l a t e d t o " S t y l e " ) / c o l o u r s q u a b b l e s . The " d e c o r a t i v e " p a i n t i n g t h u s d e f i n e d had a " m a t e r i a l i s t i c " c o n n o t a t i o n , because i t was suppose t o p l e a s e o n l y t h e senses (not t h e " s p i r i t " o r t o i n -v o l v e t h e i n t e l l e c t ) and t o emphasize the " m a t e r i a l " s i d e o f p a i n t i n g . Thus, i n " d e c o r a t i v e " p a i n t i n g t h e form i s r e n d e r e d by i n t e r i o r m o d e l l i n g (as opposed t o c o n t o u r , w h i c h d i s p l a y e d "the i n t e l l i g e n t arabesque o f t h e l i n e , " i n t h e p a i n t i n g o f " S t y l e " ) and by "the movement o f l a p a t e . " The p a i n t e r s who produced t h i s k i n d o f p a i n t i n g were m o s t l y " c o l o r i s t s " and p a i n t e r s o f "temperament" (as opposed t o p a i n t e r s o f i n t e l l e c t - 47 -10 b o r e s p r i t ) . The p e r s o n a l " t o u c h " ( l a t o u c h e ) , o f t e n i n heavy i m p a s t o , was i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s " d e c o r a t i v e " or. " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake" p a i n t i n g . A N a t u r a l i s t . - ; p a i n t i n g such as an Im-p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g o f t h e 1870s f i t s v e r y w e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y o f " d e c o r a t i v e " p a i n t i n g . C h a r l e s B l a n c i n f a c t up-d a t e d t h e s e t o f c o n t r a r i e s p e r p e t u a t e d by the Academy, mentioned above, by r e d u c i n g them t o t h e dichotomy of S t y l e .T , , .. 106 v e r u s N a t u r a l i s m . As I i n d i c a t e d , i n t h e l a t e 1870s and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e 1880s, th e term " d e c o r a t i v e " was used more and more t o d e s i g -n a t e a " d e c o r a t i o n " (thus t h e e x p r e s s i o n " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " meant p a i n t i n g - d e c o r a t i o n ) . T h i s was done i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h o s e who wanted t o r a i s e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e a r t s ; t h e y l o o s e l y used th e e x p r e s s i o n " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " t o i n -d i c a t e any m u r a l , p a s t o r p r e s e n t (be i t " d e c o r a t i v e " i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l sense or n o t ) , because t h e y wanted t o be a b l e t o say t h a t " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " was p r a c t i c e d by such g i a n t s as M i c h e l a n g e l o o r R a p h a e l . T h i s t e r m i n o l o g y brought p r o t e s t s from C h a r l e s B l a n c f o r example, who c o n s i d e r e d d e p l o r a b l e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m u r a l s of Mantegna, M i c h e l a n g e l o o r Raphael ( a l l p a i n t i n g s o f S t y l e and i n d u c i n g p o w e r f u l emotions i n t h e 107 v i e w e r ) as " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g . " Of c o u r s e , one can h a r d l y d e s c r i b e The L a s t Judgement of M i c h e l a n g e l o as " d e c o r a t i v e , " w h i c h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l sense meant s i m p l y p l e a s i n g t h e eye. I n f a c t such a d e c o r a t i o n d i d not even f i t t h e c a t e g o r y "de-c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " as d e f i n e d by a l l r e f o r m e r s , because t h e y f o r b a d e i n d e c o r a t i o n s scenes e x p r e s s i n g s t r o n g e motions. To resume, now ( i n t h e 1880s) " d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g " meant - 4 8 " -" d e c o r a t i v e " p a i n t i n g w h i c h was a l s o " d e c o r a t i o n " ( t h a t i s f i r s t o f a i l , q u i t e " f l a t " ) . . But t h e meaning o f t h e term " d e c o r a t i v e " ( t h a t meaning w h i c h r e l a t e s t o t h e e f f e c t t h e work has on t h e v i e w e r ) was changed. A " d e c o r a t i v e " work o f a r t was not a d d r e s s e d now o n l y t o t h e se n s e s , b u t a l s o t o t h e mind, even t o t h e " s o u l . " Thus t h e " d e c o r a t i v e " was n o t t o be de-f i n e d o n l y i n a m a t e r i a l i s t i c framework, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a N a t u r a l i s t p a i n t i n g was n o t " d e c o r a t i v e " by t h e new s t a n d a r d s . A l s o , t h e term " d e c o r a t i v e " d i d n o t have a p e j o r a t i v e con-n o t a t i o n anymore. I w i l l d i s c u s s b r i e f l y t h e l a s t two p o i n t s . " D e c o r a t i o n " and t h e " d e c o r a t i v e a r t s , " were d e f i n e d by th e o r i g i n a l r e f o r m e r s i n an i d e a l i s t i c framework, b o t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o form and c o n t e n t . F o r m a l l y , a r e a l i s t i c , i l l u s i o n -i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was f o r b i d d e n . T h i s c o u l d (as l a t e r be-came the norm) be j u s t i f i e d by a "common sense law" o f subor-d i n a t i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e , w h i c h r e q u i r e d " f l a t n e s s . " Of c o u r s e , t h i s "law" does not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y a s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f i d e a l i s t c o n t e n t , u n l e s s one b e l i e v e s t h e r e s h o u l d be such correspondence between form and c o n t e n t . T h i s i s e x a c t l y what the o r i g i n a l r e f o r m e r s had b e l i e v e d . C h a r l e s B l a n c , f o r example, wanted t o be t r a n s p o r