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Factors affecting development and implementation of an intermediate grade art curriculum in a South-Central.. 1982

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FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTERMEDIATE GRADE ART CURRICULUM IN A SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICT by CRAIG HORSLAND B .Ed . , The Universi ty of V i c t o r i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES / Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept th is thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982 © Craig Horsland 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s cholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 30, 1982 DE - 6 (3/81) i i Abstract Those factors that pos i t i ve l y and negatively a f fect curriculum develop- ment and curriculum implementation were iden t i f i ed through a l i t e ra tu re review and a f i e l d study in which a sequential intermediate grade ar t curriculum was developed and taken through the i n i t i a l stages of imple- mentation. An attempt was.made to res t ra in the negative factors and to u t i l i z e the pos i t ive factors in a f i e l d study involving volunteer in ter - mediate grade teachers in a south-central B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s - t r i c t . The process of development involved planning a curriculum that had 'poss ib le ' learning outcomes rather than intended learning outcomes. This curriculum proposed a l te rnat ive lesson and uni t components so that teachers in the i r planning could consider d i f fe rent purposes, pup i l s , and s i tua t ions . Not considered per fect , the curriculum f a c i l i t a t e d ob- servation of the factors af fect ing development and implementation. In- troducing the human factor to theoret ica l plans necessitated responsive adaptation in prac t ice . Of a l l the factors a f fect ing th is study the d i s - t r i c t supervisor responsible for curriculum was found to be one of the most important. Communication, t ime, energy, stamina, and perseverence were also seen as being c r i t i c a l to success. Without perseverence suc- cess may not be given an opportunity to evolve. As a resu l t of th is f i e l d study, implementation was determined to be an on-going process when a curriculum is continuously adapted, added to , and modif ied. Im- plementation involved teaching teachers and attempting to provide for teacher success. A broadened de f i n i t i on of in -serv ice was p a r t i a l l y explored. One major recommendation of th is study i s that both the cur- riculum and an implementation plan should be approved by the local cu r - riculum advisory committee and the board of school trustees before im- plementation begins. This study noted the need to l ink the d i s t r i c t level strategy for curriculum implementation with the professional development plans of indiv idual schools. The curriculum development and implementa- t ion model explored, and the accompanying in terpret ive c r i t i c i s m are pro- vided as a data base for other school d i s t r i c t personnel who want a point of reference from which to plan and implement las t ing curriculum changes that allow for continuing modi f icat ion. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem Signi f icance of th is Problem Limitat ions Assumptions 2. FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION 6 Thesis L i terature Review 3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ART CURRICULUM 21 4. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM 42 5. DISCUSSION 91 Ref lect ions Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCE LIST 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF UNCITED MATERIAL 107 APPENDIX A. A CORE SEQUENTIAL ART PROGRAM "109 B. COVERING LETTERS ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ART TEACHERS . . . 175 v LIST OF TABLES Tables Page 1. Student enrollment in ar t 3 2. Factors af fect ing workshop attendance 77 VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Recognition for assistance in th is f i e l d study i s given to my colleagues in the d i s t r i c t in which th is work was undertaken. P a r t i - c u l a r appreciat ion is extended to those who par t ic ipated in the de- velopment of the art curriculum around which th is study focused. A l l ind iv iduals have been given f i c t i t i o u s names, as our real in terest i s in the revelat ion of ins ights that improve teaching and learning in a r t . I wish to thank Dr. James Gray for providing considered advice in channeling several of my seeming diverse in terests into th is one coherent d i r ec t i on . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Problem Experts have spent tremendous amounts of time and energy i n devel- oping c u r r i c u l a with the purpose of improving i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g , but these programs have made l i t t l e l a s t i n g impact upon classrooms and schools (Wiles, 1965). The nature of elementary schools demands that an intermediate grade teacher be a person with d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s i n many sub j e c t s . Although teacher t r a i n i n g programs provide i n t r o d u c t o r y me- thods courses i n a l l subject areas, a lack of time prevents teachers from becoming adequately prepared i n a l l aspects of each subject's cur- riculum. In a d d i t i o n , while teachers work hard to e f f e c t i v e l y teach the language a r t s , a r i t h m e t i c , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and s c i e n c e , they are u s u a l l y unable to f i n d time to think about and plan f o r a r t . An a r t c l a s s may become a time when c h i l d r e n explore a wide v a r i e t y of media, m a t e r i a l s , and p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i v e freedom. In f a c t , a r t may even not be taught. C h i l d r e n do not l e a r n to be s k i l l e d i n , or a r t i c u l a t e with a r t , and a sequential development of s k i l l s , processes, and content u s u a l l y does not occur. Those teachers who do f i n d time to develop pro- grams are o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r attempts to t r a n s l a t e goals i n t o p r a c t i c e , to f i n d w r i t t e n and v i s u a l resource m a t e r i a l s , and to deal with inadequate physical f a c i l i t i e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Problem Because a r t i s considered an important element of the c u r r i c u l u m , there i s a need to f i n d ways through which the development and subse- quent implementation of an a r t curriculum f o r the intermediate grades 2 can be f a c i l i t a t e d . This need is further ampli f ied by recent d i rect ions from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education which have sanctioned current elementary f ine arts curriculum development. For many students the i r elementary school art education i s the only art program that they encounter in school (see Table 1). Indeed, for most of those who do continue taking ar t beyond the elementary level the elementary curriculum comprises the greater part of the i r tota l program (see Table 1). When at t i tudes and values toward ar t and be l ie fs about ar t are developed through an elementary school art program that e i ther terminates or is a dominant part of a tota l art education, that pro- gram's success i s essen t i a l . L imitat ions This f i e l d study was res t r i c ted in these ways: Time. This f i e l d study took place over a period of sixteen school months. The curriculum development phase involved s i x months, while the implementation phase was undertaken during one complete school year. D i s t r i c t s i z e . During the implementation phase, September, 1981, to June, 1982, the d i s t r i c t was composed of 1317 intermediate grade chi ldren and f i f t y - f i v e intermediate grade teachers. The d i s t r i c t in tota l was responsible for educating 4019 f u l l time equivalent students with 248 teachers and f i ve d i s t r i c t s ta f f . This f i e l d study drew upon nine elementary schools, one s a t e l l i t e school enro l l ing students to grade s i x , and a junior secondary school enro l l ing approximately one-third of i t s students in grade seven. Authority ro les . The in i t i a to r /coord ina to r of the f i e l d study was employed as a regular classroom teacher with a f u l l teaching assignment. Source of impetus for change. Although th is art curriculum pro- TABLE 1 STUDENT ENROLLMENT IN ART Survey of grade 11 and 12 students in d i s t r i c t - YEARS N= 4 1 2 % Students who took no art beyond the elementary grades 157 38 Students who dropped ar t af ter one year in secondary school : 1 244 59 Students who dropped art af ter two years in secondary school : 2 301 73 Students who dropped art af ter three years in secondary school : 3 363 88 Students who dropped art af ter four years in secondary school : 4 386 94 Students who took art continuously through secondary school : 26 6 The students surveyed were in grades 11 and 12 in the d i s t r i c t involved in th is f i e l d study. As the survey was taken in mid- June, 1982, and course select ions had been made, grade eleven students were asked to complete the questionnaire as though they were in grade twelve. 4 ject was i n i t i a t ed by one indiv idual in the spring of 1980, support was read i ly given by the supervisor of ins t ruc t ion on behalf of the d i s t r i c t . Extent of teacher involvement. Teacher par t i c ipa t ion throughout both phases was voluntary. Schools were encouraged but not required to become fami l ia r with the curriculum through s ta f f meetings and profes- sional development days. Geography of the d i s t r i c t . Within the d i s t r i c t schools were scat- tered l i nea r l y for a distance of 28 ki lometers. Budget. Within the tota l d i s t r i c t budget no special allotment was made for th is curriculum project . Money was taken from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e ' s general account. Support serv ices . Common d i s t r i c t resources included a local d i s - t r ibu t ion centre that was responsible for re -d i rec t ing f i lms , acquir ing videotapes, and f i l i n g miscellaneous printed materials such as pamphlets. Competition. In recent years several curriculum development and adaptation projects had occurred with teachers selected by the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . During the time of th is f i e l d study a keen in terest in the use of personalized computers was developing. Spec i f i c resource personnel. Although the d i s t r i c t employed a per- forming arts coordinator on a part-time bas is , no v isual arts coordina- tor ex is ted. D i s t r i c t s ta f f included a superintendent, a d i rector of i ns t ruc t i on , a supervisor of i ns t ruc t i on , a special services consultant, and a coor- dinator for elementary ins t ruc t ion and reading. Assumptions The inherent assumptions of th is study are that : 1. Teacher involvement in the planning and adaptation of an ar t 5 curriculum w i l l increase the ult imate impact of that curr iculum. 2. Teachers can only e f fec t i ve ly teach what they know. They must have the same knowledge, s k i l l s , and at t i tudes that the curriculum at- tempts to teach ch i ld ren . 3. Feelings of accomplishment and success w i l l be ref lected in teacher in terest and involvement. 4. Product oriented ar t lessons are seen by teachers as more prac- t i c a l and can more read i ly be incorporated into the i r present programs. 5. Teacher and student competency and sa t i s fac t ion with the produc- t ive aspect of the curriculum w i l l increase opportunit ies for introduc- ing other components such as the development of percept ion, an awareness of her i tage, and c r i t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . 6. Teachers w i l l t ry an innovation when they see i t s relevancy and usefulness and sense the excitement of others using i t . 7. Because a s ign i f i can t number of students never take art a f ter grade seven, an intermediate ar t curriculum must cover basic art pro- cesses, media, s k i l l s , concepts, and related vocabulary. 8. A sequential intermediate grade ar t curriculum can ensure an ordered progression and w i l l help a r t i cu la te a larger curr iculum. 9 . The general discussion of curriculum development and implemen- tat ion that is found in educational l i t e ra tu re can be applied s p e c i f i - c a l l y to art education. 6 CHAPTER 2 FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION Thesis This study was conducted to support the thesis that factors affect- ing curriculum development and curriculum implementation cannot be con- sidered separately i f and when curriculum changes are attempted, and that any innovational attempt to restrain the negative factors requires effort to u t i l i z e positive factors. A key element in support of this thesis is the judgment that of a l l the factors that affect implementation i t is the teacher who is the key, the c r i t i c a l factor, to innovation and change (Gil 1 i s , 1968, p. 45; Michaelis, Grossman & Scott, 1975, p. 459), because "the curriculum changes only as the teacher changes i t " (Moffit, 1963, p. 12). There is an essential need to involve volunteer teachers in planning a curriculum with possible learning outcomes as opposed to im- posing a curriculum with intended learning outcomes (Ben-Peretz, 1975, p. 151). This study accounts for the importance and the influence of this element. Literature Review A literature review of research and journals in education reveals that there is l i t t l e discussion of the subject of curriculum implementa- tion. Instead, most writing discusses curriculum development projects, curriculum guides, and descriptions of art activities and resource ma- terial s . Many curricula are being developed, but there are few studies that either analyze their long-term impact or observe and interpret any related implementation efforts. Virtually a l l other writing found within textbooks reflects this scarcity. Any discussions on curriculum implementation are of a general nature and f a i l to d i rec t the i r at tent ion toward ar t . L i terature strongly indicates that successful curriculum implementa- t ion requires the involvement of the teacher in planning the curriculum (Ben-Peretz, pp. 153-154; Mahan & G i l l , 1972, p. 4; R icher t , 1966, p. 18). Implementors must cer ta in ly recognize the fact that ind iv iduals w i l l i n - terpret and adapt a curriculum (Brugelmann, 1979, p. 140). Teachers should be seen as decision makers rather than as technicians achieving a goal set by someone e lse . Such involvement considers the curriculum as having the means to develop possible learning outcomes and not jus t pre- scr ibed, intended learning outcomes (Ben-Peretz, p. 151). Because those using a curriculum have re la t i ve autonomy in in terpret ing and modifying i t , curriculum development would be more e f fec t ive i f s t rategies were developed that allowed for consideration of d i f fe rent purposes, pup i l s , s i t ua t i ons , and ways of using cu r r i cu la r items (Ben-Peretz, p. 157). In th is way, "Instead of t ry ing in vain to make cur r i cu la 'teacher proof , 1 i t might be better to provide teachers with cu r r i cu la r p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a basis for choice and act ion" (Ben-Peretz, p. 158). If teachers are ignored in curriculum decision making they may ap- pear unenthusiastic and even apathetic (Richer t , p. 19). I n i t i a l l y , "the d i rec t ion for change, the value element in change, must come from the teacher and not be imposed by leadership personnel" (Macdonald, 1966, p.7). A curriculum that i s imposed w i l l lack both involvement and professional commitment (Orl ikow, 1967, p. 28). Imposition w i l l create h o s t i l i t y and inconsistency in pract ice (Mahan & G i l l , p. 4) . Such at t i tudes are seen in teachers who verbal ly accept change but are not personally committed to the curriculum or i t s implementation. Planned changes become inef fec- t i ve . 8 To develop essent ia l commitment teachers must be adequately i n - volved in the planning and se lect ion of the program ( G i l l i s , p. 46; Mahan & G i l l , p. 4; Orl ikow, p. 28; R icher t , p. 20). Such involvement develops a pos i t ive at t i tude toward change, a desire to explore new ideas (Richer t , p. 18), and an i den t i f i ca t i on with the program (Mackenzie, 1964, p. 138). "Most teachers want to par t ic ipa te in the making of decisions that w i l l v i t a l l y a f fect them and the i r da i l y teaching schedules" (Cay, 1966, p. 143). Highly directed change through indoctr inat ion and coer- cion is r e l a t i v e l y ine f fec t ive when compared to planning by equals ( D o l l , 1978, p. 205). Curriculum development and implementation, then, involve more than designing a guide and presenting i t to teachers. Teachers need to be involved in e i ther planning or adapting a curriculum framework which, as a resource, allows modif icat ion of accompanying a l ternat ives and s t ra t - egies according to unique circumstances, pup i l s , f a c i l i t i e s , previous experiences, and unplanned p o s s i b i l i t i e s (Ben-Peretz, pp. 155, 157; R icher t , p. 18). Adapting and designing programs not only helps teachers recognize the design and purpose but allows them to see the philosophy and assumptions which i s something they may otherwise never see. Teachers who help i n i t i a t e programs have a greater commitment to the important pre- cepts of the programs than to the materials themselves (Edwards & Wright, 1975, p. 13). "Our f indings . . . seem to support previous authors' con- tentions that commitment to the phi losophical posi t ion that underl ies change is indeed c r i t i c a l " (Edwards & Wright, p. 20). Motivated teachers are necessary i f there i s to be involvement in planning and subsequent change. Motivation begins with the development of d i ssa t i s fac t i on with the present when i t is compared with what could 9 be ( D o l l , p. 199). Teachers may have res is ted changes simply because they have not recognized the problems that led to the cu r r i cu la r change (Mof f i t , p. 59). Reasons leading to the change must be given. "Unless d i f fus ion mechanisms al low for providing potent ial implementors with the rat ionale for change as well as the prescr ipt ions for i t , change has a great ly diminished chance of enduring" (Edwards & Wright, p. 21). If d i ssa t i s fac t i on does not ex is t i t should be created as a problem to be solved and used to motivate ind iv idua ls . When d i ssa t i s fac t i on pre- cedes or pa ra l l e l s change i t makes change easier (Mof f i t , p. 17). Fur- ther , discontent seems to be required for intent ional change, and i t s degree w i l l determine the urgency for change (M ie l , 1946, p. 40). Changing the curriculum involves soc ia l change in people and the i r a t t i t udes , b e l i e f s , behaviors, knowledge, and s k i l l (M ie l , pp. 10, 14). Even though teachers may recognize inadequacies in a current program, the required sh i f t in indiv idual and group values, a t t i t udes , and be l ie fs may exceed the i r capaci ty. Modifying a t t i t udes , b e l i e f s , and values is d i f - f i c u l t to do. The more a curriculum con f l i c t s with those of the people involved the more d i f f i c u l t i t i s to create an acceptance of the cu r r i cu - lum (Rogers, 1962, p. 5) . In discussing how the change process i s best f a c i l i t a t e d , Macdonald emphasizes the need for using the c l a r i f i c a t i o n process to develop rat ional thinking and valuing (p. 7) . Common values, according to M i e l , unify a group and help develop shared goals (p. 36). As a r e s u l t , a group working as a team needs to set common goals , be- cause those s e l f - s e t goals have greater motivation than those set by others (M ie l , p. 49). There are many sources of the a t t i t udes , b e l i e f s , and values of students. In his discussion of the e x p l i c i t , i m p l i c i t , and nul l c u r r i - 10 cu la , Eisner (1979, chap. 5) states that schools teach a great deal more than they intend and that they also neglect to teach a great dea l . In doing so, schools teach v i t a l a t t i t udes , b e l i e f s , values, knowledge, and s k i l l . While some re la te to school in general , others apply to spec i f i c subject areas. Older s ib l ings and parents also have a major inf luence upon younger family members ( L i p p i t t , 1966, p. 50). The extent to which they accept, re jec t , or ignore a subject area inf luences the at t i tudes of students (Michael is et a l . , p. 462). Students play a major ro le in determining to what extent a cu r r i cu - lum is implemented ( L i p p i t t , p. 46). Teachers measure student response in determining how and to what extent they w i l l use a curriculum ( L i p p i t t , p. 46). Pos i t i ve feedback i s l i k e l y when students see relevance and ex- perience success. Demonstrated student competence, shown through the achievement of s k i l l s , provides inner support to the curriculum ( L i p p i t t , p. 47). As w e l l , motivation maintains pos i t ive feedback when students experience an act ive search, closure in ac t ion , and fun in the learning process ( L i p p i t t , p. 47). To accurately measure student response teach- ers need to be able to diagnose the i r own c lass s i tuat ion (Macdonald, P- 8 ) . Equally as important, teachers must also experience success. "In general , the stronger the be l ie f of the classroom teachers in the i r own suf f ic iency as purveyors of the a r t s , the more l i k e l y they were to rec- commend the program to other teachers and continue i t s use in the i r own classroom" (Edwards & Wright, p. 21). Success can be encouraged by set t ing short-term goals and choosing small manageable parts of the cur- riculum to t ry before larger change is attempted. By st ressing success 11 the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e i s reduced. Concurrently, the psychological threats of condemnation and negative judgment must be removed so that teachers w i l l be r i s k takers (Macdonald, p. 5) and accept f a i l u r e . Freedom to experiment must not be r e s t r a i n e d by f e a r s that c r y s t a l l i z e i n the forms of e v a l u a t i o n , judgment of worth, and concern f o r the unknown (Macdonald, p. 5). There i s a consequent need to develop i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s among teachers that are support- ive and p o s i t i v e (Macdonald, p. 5). Teachers f e e l s u c cessful when they see t h e i r students experiencing success. Therefore, a scheduled time f o r the program w i l l give students a b e t t e r chance to experience success by a l l o w i n g them to p a r t i c i p a t e on a r e g u l a r and meaningful basis (Mahan & G i l l , p. 33). Curriculum change requires teacher involvement and s o c i a l change. The f a c t o r s that e f f e c t planned change must be c o n t r o l l e d ; r e s t r a i n i n g forces must be reduced and d r i v i n g f o r c e s must be strengthened. Achieving p o s i t i v e change. Creati n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and changing a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , v a lues, and goals can help e f f e c t change. " In doing so, teachers can be educated and re-educated in three ways: p r e - s e r v i c e , s e l f - d i r e c t e d study, and i n - s e r v i c e . P r e - s e r v i c e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the u n i v e r s i t y . S e l f - d i r e c t e d study i s a way i n which a teacher can independently grow by e x p l o r i n g new ideas and m a t e r i a l s . Although some teachers grow and change continuously on t h e i r own, most need to be sparked by i n - s e r - v i c e (Macdonald, p. 2). In d i s c u s s i n g independent teacher l e a r n i n g and growth, Macdonald wrote: If a l l teachers could grow in t h i s way there might be no need f o r i n - s e r v i c e programs. The r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n i s that the ma- 12 j o r i t y of our teachers do not d isp lay a noticeable b u i l t - i n pro- fessional growth mechanism. Like the population at la rge , there seem to be r e l a t i ve l y few sel f -educat ing people in teaching (p. 2). In -serv ice , the most frequently discussed way of st imulat ing and guiding professional growth of teachers, rea l i zes that continuous teach- ing i s i nsu f f i c i en t as the only source of growth. Unfortunately, there i s no widespread use of the idea that "curriculum development deals prim- a r i l y with the creat ive re-education of the teacher" (Koopman, 1966, p. 65). In preparing teachers for a change in ins t ruc t iona l r o l e s , i n - service does have an important function (Michaelis et a l . , p. 461). "We have discovered that i f teachers have the opportunity they w i l l engage, on the i r own i n i t i a t i v e , in learning a c t i v i t i e s to achieve s k i l l s needed to master the use of new curriculum that they have come to understand, to be excited about, to be free to adapt" ( L i p p i t t , p. 54). Through i n - service the school system can stimulate growth in everyone involved with education. Although in -serv ice can make education for the teacher exc i t ing and infect ious (Richer t , p. 18), i t must go beyond providing an introduct ion (Orl ikow, p. 27). In-service must be an on-going a c t i v i t y in which the teacher becomes involved in developing, d iscuss ing , and adapting a c u r r i - culurn. One aspect of in -serv ice is the workshop. To prevent the i n s i g n i f i - cant from dominating depth in thought and learn ing , workshops require c lear goals and an ordered plan. Workshops can be used to adapt and d i s - cuss a curr iculum, prepare teaching mater ia ls , and learn competencies. Even though wasted time creates f r u s t r a t i o n , time loss can often be ex- pected when a group attempts to plan a curr iculum. Nevertheless, "p lan- 13 ning by equals seems to have the greatest long-term and desirable ef fect " ( D o l l , p. 205). Act ion research that involves teachers in a process of change can develop a real desire to change and i s "now recognized to be one of the best methods of in -serv ice education" (Mof f i t , p. 45). For change to occur a pos i t ive and st imulat ing soc ia l set t ing is essent ia l (Macdonald, p. 4 ) . Those who inf luence and control decisions must openly support and consciously bui ld a fee l ing that the innovation is advocated and supported. The superintendent, the supervisor, the p r in - c i p a l , and the school board are a l l capable of providing resourcefu l , strong leadership and i n t e l l i gen t d i rec t i on . The soc ia l system over which they exert so much control must encourage and accept growth and change in i t s teachers (Macdonald, pp. 4-5) . "A school system that encourages re - search and experimentation among i t s teachers is always growing" (Cay, p. 175). Cay also stated: Research projects and p i l o t studies or surveys help to bring about change in an order ly , evolutionary way. Change accomplished in th is way i s usual ly of longer duration and has a greater degree of acceptab i l i t y than does revolut ionary progress, (p. 175) "The boundaries of the system must be f l e x i b l e and the system must func- t ion as i f the phenomena of teacher change are natural and desi rable" '(Macdonald, p. 4) . Administrators can give impetus to change. They can provide much needed t ime, supp l ies , and open support (Manan & G i l l , pp. 10, 13). More- over, a pr inc ipa l can have a tremendous inf luence upon a s ta f f , because he/she symbolizes the educational set t ing and acts as a lens through which teachers observe and perceive the system (Macdonald, p. 4) . 14 The coordinator or change agent also plays a s ign i f i can t ro le . In curriculum implementation there is a need to provide continuous a s s i s t - ance in helping teachers discover the curr iculum's potent ial when teach- ers lack time and resources (Richer t , p. 19). The coordinator can put teachers into contact with resources, c l a r i f y d i rec t i ons , and ass i s t in adapting and developing materials ( D o l l , p. 216). Further, th is person can nrovide a var iety of in -serv ice a c t i v i t i e s that ensure both group and indiv idual contact and use l i t e r a r y and mechanical media ( D o l l , pp. 230-231). In general , a coordinator can give support by helping teach- ers loca te , understand, adapt, and use new resources with s k i l l . Unfortunately, a forceful leader or teacher may i n i t i a t e or be as- sociated with a strong program and leave. Whether th is occurs in i s o l a - t ion or in combination with teacher turnover, the newly implemented cur- riculum may be modified or los t (Wiles, pp. 6-8). To some the status of the coordinator may be threatening and, in the end, impede change. As a contr ibut ing part of the cl imate for change, the community must understand and support the cu r r i cu la r change (Michaelis et a l . , p. 462). Essent ial to th is understanding are sound re la t ions between the school and the community which re ly upon administrators who promote com- munication (Cay, p. 140). Community members pa r t i cu la r l y need to know how the curriculum w i l l benef i t the i r ch i ld ren . The degree of support or non-support on the part of the community is re f lec ted in the a t t i - tudes transmitted to the i r ch i ldren (Michaelis et a l . , p. 462). Commit- ment can be developed through in -serv ice that shows the community how to support both learning a c t i v i t i e s and students in the i r special ro le as learner ( L i p p i t t , p. 50). Restraining forces. Restraining fo rces , resistance to change, may 15 be psychological in o r i g i n . Innovations may require new ways of think- ing , and there i s frequently resistance to the unknown (Richer t , p. 19) and veneration of t rad i t i on (Cay, p. 141). Securi ty and sa t i s fac t ion may create resistance to change. The t r a - d i t iona l ways provide secur i ty for some (M ie l , p. 22), and that secur i ty is threatened when routines are upset or los t (Mahan & G i l l , p. 15). General ly , the greater the sa t i s fac t i on with the t rad i t i ona l the greater w i l l be the d i f f i c u l t y in i n i t i a t i n g change (Mof f i t , p. 16). In other words, "Proposals for change that cause the least d isrupt ion within the system usual ly have the greatest chance for being accepted and therefore of succeeding" ( D o l l , p. 208). To avoid threatening secur i t y , change must proceed no fas ter than people are prepared to go ( D o l l , p. 228; M i e l , p. 183). To ensure that such changes are not too sudden, minor concepts or ins ights should be introduced gradually (Mof f i t , p. 16). Both pr inc ipa ls and teachers may be reluctant to implement changes, because there may be a loss of power or a need to adjust to a sh i f t in ro les . For teachers i t may also mean a movement away from the central ro le in the classroom ( D o l l , p.215). It i s easier to change a curriculum than to change teaching methods ( D o l l , p. 214). Con f l i c t can develop when perceptions of the need for teacher i n - volvement and the need to maintain a soc ia l system c lash . Harris (1966) wrote that , "the administrat ive structure is almost exc lus ive ly geared to maintaining a c t i v i t i e s , res i s t i ng change, and avoiding controversy or c o n f l i c t " (p. 93). S i m i l a r l y , "when access to power is not ava i lab le to those with ta lent and a wi l l ingness to accept the inherent responsi- b i l i t y that accrues, then the goals of the school are seen as 'a front for the real purpose - the giving and maintaining of status and ro le 16 s i tua t ions" (Macdonald, p.4). Psychological resistance can be d iverse. Restraining forces appear within the re lat ionships of ind iv iduals and groups. For example, t rus t may not ex is t between teachers and administrators or consultants. "Teach- ers w i l l r e s i s t curriculum changes i f they feel they are being used" (Cay, p. 143). Further, Cay wrote: Again and again, teachers indicated that they f e l t the need of loy- a l ty and support from those with whom and for whom they worked i f they were to feel interested in curriculum change. Otherwise, they were not interested in working extra hours arid expending addit ional energies to ass i s t in curriculum change, (p. 144) Trust may also be lacking in those ind iv idua ls who were not asked to par- t i c i pa te ( D o l l , p. 208). Resistance within a group can resu l t from "a var iety of inh ib i t ions to sharing" ( L i p p i t t , p. 51). The need for teachers to be creat ive in using mater ia ls , to ac t i ve ly share pract ices as they learn together, and to rea l i ze a need for new s k i l l s may never be rea l ized ( L i p p i t t , p. 51). Further res t ra in ing forces within a group may surface when a group is asked to work together when they are not used to doing so ( D o l l , p. 207). The shared power wi thin such a group may mean that f i na l con- t ro l and respons ib i l i t y are unclear ( D o l l , p. 207). Uncertainty threat- ens secur i ty . Groups or c l iques can dramatical ly hinder or help cu r r i cu la r innova- t i on . Cay discusses unprofessional conduct and at t i tudes as bar r ie rs . "Teachers . . . tend to form c l iques within a facul ty of some s i z e , and th is often plays one segment of the facu l ty against another" (Cay, p. 143). 17 "Undiscip l ined c r i t i c i s m that i s motivated more by emotion than by fac ts" (Cay, p. 143), is found in most s ta f f rooms and can develop at t i tudes that work against change. A small establ ished group within a s ta f f can thwart p lans, because younger, less experienced teachers may par t ic ipate according to the acceptance given by experienced teachers (Mof f i t , p. 55). Other c r i t i c a l fac to rs . In addi t ion to a l l of these concerns there i s a seeming endless l i s t of other factors that a f fec t curriculum imple- mentation. For example, perceptions may include seeing the new cu r r i cu - lum as another 'bandwagon' that is viewed with suspicion and avoided un- t i l screened ( D o l l , p. 208). As w e l l , the project may ac tua l ly be too complicated and large and therefore unmanageable ( D o l l , p. 228). Funding, t ime, energy and stamina, resources, and textbooks also af fect curriculum development and implementation. Funding can be used to free teachers from the chore of gathering and maintaining equipment. The use of funds, though, must be natural so that the i r use for professional growth is expected (Macdonald, p. 5). Projects that involve curriculum improvement should be provided with special a l locat ions of money within the annual budget that go beyond any minimal support (Cay, p. 139). Money can provide equipment, f a c i l i t i e s , and teaching-learning re - sources. When these e i ther do not ex is t or are lack ing , energy can be quick ly drained and teachers become discouraged. Adequate equipment and materials need to be co l l ec ted , ready, and maintained for teachers (Mahan & G i l l , p. 13). F a c i l i t i e s and storage space should be adequate as well (Mahan & G i l l , p. 13). Professional l i b r a r i e s and teacher re- source centres are needed (Cay, p. 168). "The mere fact that . . . a professional resource centre is ava i lab le encourages teachers to improve 18 themselves and the i r teaching pract ices" (Cay, p. 169). F i n a l l y , pr ior to ac tua l ly i n i t i a t i n g a curriculum pro ject , guides and re lated materi- a ls should be ava i lab le (Cay, p. 168). In other words, everything should be organized so that chances for success are opt imal. Such or- ganizat ion, however,, requires time. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of time and i t s e f f i c i e n t use are important to maintaining in te res t . However, when intermediate grade teachers must prepare in numerous subjects and are involved in ex t racur r icu la r a c t i v i - t i es time may be at a premium. Cay wrote: Many schools expect teachers and administrators to tack le the job of curriculum improvement a f ter four o 'c lock in the afternoon. To add to an already f u l l day of demanding respons ib i l i t y the addi - t ional task of creat ing better learning s i tuat ions is more than one should ask. (p. 137) Teachers may resent the time and energy required for extra preparat ion. Not wanting to give what the change demands, they can become discouraged ( D o l l , p. 202). Par t i c ipa t ion may be seen as yet another job (Mof f i t , p. 4) when present dut ies already need to be re l i eved . Simply, the time spent i s seen as wasteful (Mof f i t , p. 4) . Moreover, i f s im i la r studies have been taking place too f requent ly , teachers may resent the continued demands ( D o l l , p. 202). F i n a l l y , there may be jus t too many a c t i v i t i e s taking p lace, and the teacher 's at tent ion i s diverted elsewhere. Demands upon t ime, energy, and stamina need to be considered and placed into perspect ive. As w e l l , ways must be found "to free teachers for preparation in curriculum-improvement a c t i v i t i e s at times when they are not devoid of energy and enthusiasm" (Cay, p. 138). Demands for t ime, organized content, sequenced mater ia ls , and secu- 19 r i t y make a textbook welcome by teachers (Eisner , p. 27). Eisner s tated: Regardless of what one might want to create with respect to c u r r i - culum mater ia ls , at present the textbook holds a place of unparal- le led importance in inf luencing what sha l l be taught in the schools, (p. 26) Whether curriculum implementation i s being supported by a tex t , i s occur- r ing in sp i te of one, or i s working to replace one that is already ac- cepted, consideration of the textbook's inf luence must be given. Summation. This l i t e ra tu re review has surveyed many of the factors that inf luence curriculum development and implementation. Careful man- agement of these factors can create an optimal educational environment. However, as already noted, the a t t i t udes , b e l i e f s , and values of teach- e rs , administ rators, and students c r i t i c a l l y af fect implementation. Good interpersonal re la t ionships and receptive at t i tudes - the key to changing be l ie fs and values - can temper the impact of the array of fac- tors and provide for growth and change. As previously observed, teachers have a"greater commitment to a curr iculum when they are included in the process of development and implementation. Af ter confirming th is idea, Cay wrote: It i s apparent that teachers do feel keenly about the way other per- sons work with them and that warm supportive re la t ionships tend to el iminate barr iers while nonsupportive or antagonist ic re la t ionships tend to erect them. (p. 152) Att i tudes that are i n i t i a l l y encountered can determine the degree of sub- sequent progress. To th is end, Cay noted: A large portion of successful curriculum improvement l i e s in the 20 state of mind with which a school system approaches i t , and an open mind and a wi l l ingness to experiment can do much to overcome l im i ta t i ons , (p. 175) This review, in examining and summarizing the l i t e ra tu re of the f i e l d , has discussed factors such as teacher involvement, open support and advocacy, a t t i t udes , t ime, and energy as they re la te to th is report- ed f i e l d study. What fol lows in the next two chapters is a descr ipt ion of how those factors surfaced in actual p rac t ice . 21 CHAPTER 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AM ART CURRICULUM This f i e l d study was designed to res t ra in the negative factors and to u t i l i z e the pos i t ive factors in the f i e l d development and implementa- t ion of an art curriculum with volunteer intermediate grade teachers in a south-central B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t . During the develop- ment and implementation phases of th is study journal notes recorded s i g - n i f i can t events, in tent ions, consequences, and my interpretat ions and personal responses. Throughout, d i rec t ion was monitored through respon- sive evaluat ion. From these observations and notes an attempt has been made to re la te the events by descr ibing what was done and how i t was done. This chapter and the next one have drawn upon th is journal and recount h ighl ights of these two phases. An in terpretat ion and apprais- al of the a c t i v i t y that occurred over sixteen months have been accompa- nied with paraphrased comments, d i rec t quotat ions, and narra t ive . A l - though the wr i t ing i s not value f r ee , an attempt has been made to ex- t rac t what is of s ign i f icance in d isc los ing the character of the work, successes, and necessary s k i l l s , as well as the kinds of t raps , d i f f i - c u l t i e s , and fa i l u res experienced. As a resu l t of th is comparison be- tween the hoped-for and the experienced, there has been an e f fo r t to present a summary that may help others who want to e f fect las t ing c u r r i - cular change in intermediate grade art education. Of the two phases that composed th is study the curriculum develop- ment phase lasted s ix months and formally began when a memorandum re- questing a meeting of interested intermediate grade ar t teachers was c i rcu la ted by the d i s t r i c t ' s supervisor of ins t ruc t ion on January 20, 1981. From th is point a ser ies of meetings structured a curriculum for grades four through seven. By May 25, 1981, th is curriculum had been approved as a l o c a l l y developed course by the Board of School Trustees. I n i t i a t i ves toward the second phase, the implementation of th is curr iculum, began on September 10, 1981, and concluded on June 28, 1982, a f ter the curriculum had been printed.and d is t r ibuted and many attempts had been made to involve teachers and provide in -serv ice education. As part of the implementation process, provisions were made to encourage e f fec t i ve communication by providing teachers with opportunit ies to share ideas, problems, concerns, and successes. Further, a form that was designed to promote on-going teacher input and sharing was u t i l i z e d . As w e l l , introductions to the art program and workshops were held at various times and locat ions . Implementation was preceded by the development of the curriculum and that , in tu rn , was the resu l t of planning. Pr io r to January 20, 1981, when teacher par t i c ipa t ion was requested in the development of the ar t program, many hours were spent on my part laying the groundwork. Af ter having i n i t i a t e d the project in May, 1980, I rea l ized that more than a developmental plan and out l ine of the c u r r i - culum i t s e l f could be needed. The p o s s i b i l i t y existed that volunteer teachers could be neither prepared nor knowledgeable about a r t . I f th i s s i tua t ion existed in any measure then some previously planned material would be required, and the respons ib i l i t y for th is presumably rested with me, the i n i t i a t o r . In other words, unsure as to who would volunteer and how much they would contr ibute, I saw the need to have some deta i led ideas and d i rec t ion c lear in my mind. So, with th is thought, preparation through the f a l l of 1980 devoured many hours. By January 1980 a var ie ty of resources had been gathered and several ar t curriculum components had been roughly drafted and typed. The develop- 23 mental phase was ready for committee involvement. January 10, 1981, Saturday A l l a n , a teacher and f r i end , shared his concern that proper cur- riculum development procedures as out l ined by the d i s t r i c t needed to be fol lowed. January 12, Monday As a resu l t of A l l an ' s comment I talked with Ted, my p r i n c i p a l , and was made aware of the existence of a curriculum advisory committee that had been created in the d i s t r i c t to oversee curriculum development pro- jects and to make recommendations to the school board. Two h i s to r i ca l h ighl ights also surfaced. In the past several years numerous elementary grade curriculum projects have involved teachers chosen by d i s t r i c t s ta f f . These teachers have expended many hours of the i r own time on committees and at home. Their projects have included language a r t s , sc ience, physical education, and arcurrent mathematics project . Second, two years ago the local teachers' associat ion was miffed over the lack of consul tat ion they had been receiv ing from the school board regarding the se lec t ion of teachers for these committees. One further s ign i f i can t point was mentioned. Ted noted that p r in - c ipa ls were concerned about the number of workshops held l as t f a l l and the resul tant workload placed on teachers. B r i e f l y , approval from the Curriculum Advisory Committee i s needed before a s ta r t is made on the intermediate art curr iculum. Add i t i ona l l y , some teacher resistance to further demands on time could be experienced. January 19, Monday Over the phone las t Thursday Tasked P r i c e , the supervisor of i n - s t ruc t i on , i f we could discuss the curriculum development project . 24 Today, as promised, he arr ived at the school. Unfortunately, throughout the conversation my attent ion was divided between Pr ice in the hallway to my r igh t and my c lass with my assignment on my l e f t . Pr ice wondered i f I was ready to s ta r t . Knowing a l l too well that I needed more time but would in r e a l i t y probably never be ready, I said that I was. The two of us appeared to have a communication gap over what was being organized. I intended to have a framework around which we could bui ld a curr iculum, wh i le , in cont rast , Pr ice appeared to think that a curriculum was already packaged for presentation and implementation. The need to develop teacher commitment through involvement had been c i ted as c r i t i c a l to success in program implementation, and I was deter- mined that our f i r s t move was in the correct d i r ec t i on . Teachers would be involved in the developmental phase. We discussed some of my concerns, and most were resolved. Once volunteers are i d e n t i f i e d , a timetable of meetings w i l l be made to su i t the i r convenience. Ten copies of the Ohio art guide and one of the re- lated resource k i t s w i l l be ordered for the committee. Release time for those working on the curriculum was given a 'no problem1 answer. In the end, I forgot to ask about typing and copying assis tance. Next time! Yes, next time I hope we can meet when my at tent ion i s not d iver ted. January 20, Tuesday A memorandum requesting voluntary teacher par t i c ipa t ion was sent from the d i s t r i c t o f f i ce to schools. January 27, Tuesday Our f i r s t meeting was held in the l i b ra ry of a cen t ra l l y located school , Waterside Elementary. Five of us started at four o ' c lock , and two others arr ived l a t e r . Other than myself - with grade seven, e ight , and nine art classes - there were Pr ice M i l t on , Supervisor of Instruc- t i o n ; Warren Johnson, a grade four teacher; Nei l James, a head teacher with a grade f i v e / s i x c l a s s ; Arlene Green, a grade f i v e / s i x teacher; A l lan P lanter , a v ice^pr inc ipa l with a grade six/seven c l a s s ; and Dave Pearson, a pr inc ipa l with grade seven. Pr ice provided the factual background to the pro ject , incor rec t ly stated a few f ac t s , and general ly led the i n i t i a l d iscuss ion. Following t h i s , the meeting focused upon my overview of the Ohio guide's s t ruc ture , and our proposed curriculum project was shown to be part of th is larger p o s s i b i l i t y . L ive ly questioning developed. Although a subsequent attempt was made to out l ine a possible frame- work for our own curr iculum, very spec i f i c questions dominated the d i s - cussion. For example, Dave wanted to know where the teaching of content was going to f i t , espec ia l l y the colour wheel. Pr ice wanted to know i f the Ohio guide was organized according to d i f f i c u l t y . Then the perennial worry over s p l i t c lasses arose. How are they accommodated? In an e f fo r t to avoid spec i f i c questions these and other concerns were only b r i e f l y answered. Although these questions were t ry ing to c l a r i f y a log ica l structure for the par t i c ipan ts , they were ind ica t ive of more general questions. How w i l l the new curriculum help me? Wi l l i t make my job more d i f f i - cu l t? Can some of my personal expectations be incorporated? In an attempt to provide d i r ec t i on , the rat ionale for the new cur- riculum and rough l i s t s of possible pro jec ts , media, and a c t i v i t i e s were presented. However, the discussion fa i l ed again to centre around the proposal and shot o f f on another tangent. Warren was very concerned about an apparent lack of handicraf ts , pa r t i cu la r l y moulded ceramics. Most of us had something to say, and some f irm posi t ions were quickly taken against what Warren wanted. Even though most agreed that the topic of moulded ceramics was not ex- cluded but l e f t to the s ix months that were not expected to be part of the core curr iculum, Warren was neither happy nor s a t i s f i e d with the resu l t . What Warren valued other committee members did not. The meeting became more directed as we examined the sequential de- velopment of projects and s k i l l s within the areas of drawing, pa in t ing , printmaking, and c lay . I had previously ou t l ined , typed, and copied four pages that l i s t e d possible projects and media for grades four through seven. Several minor adjustments were requested, d iscussed, and made to drawing, printmaking, and c lay . I avoided defending what was outl ined and t r i ed to accommodate ind iv idual and group reactions through consensus. After an e r ra t i c beginning, agreement was reached on the concept of a sequenced four-month program involv ing core areas of drawing, pa in t ing, printmaking, and c lay . B r i e f l y , the program w i l l ask teachers to teach s i x to eight l e s - sons - three to four weeks - in each of the four areas from grades four through seven. In not claiming the other s ix months, teacher/student in terests and present areas of teacher competency can be accommodated. As w e l l , the remaining s ix months w i l l be ava i lab le for seasonal pro- jects and provide room for expanding any of the core areas. In p r inc ip le the program w i l l be voluntary, b r i e f , easy to fo l low, and non- res t r ic t i ve The curr iculum's major goal w i l l be to ensure that by the end of grade seven students are more a r t i cu la te about and s k i l l e d in art than 27 they are at present. Discussion of the vocabulary sect ion was l e f t for another meeting, as we needed to f i n a l i z e the assignment of media and projects within grades before the correlated vocabulary could be l i s t e d . Time between today and our next meeting w i l l provide opportunit ies to consider possible media and pro jects . Since Warren's request the discussion had been l i v e l y but accommo- dat ing. Without warning, Pr ice unintent ional ly disturbed some values, b e l i e f s , and a t t i tudes . Simply, he wanted a 'cookbook' for teachers and the curriculum wri t ten with behavioral ob jec t ives . I believed that the 'cookbook' would only provide teachers with what they already had so much of - the newest and la tes t easy-to-do ar t projects - and see the essent ia l development of s k i l l s , vocabulary, and concepts ignored. I f at t i tudes had been roused before, P r i ce ' s idea of a 'cookbook' bared a few wires connected to my values and p r i o r i t i e s . No agreement was reached, and further discussion was l e f t for another meeting. The bared wires almost caused a few short c i r c u i t s when we began negotiat ing our way through the issue of behavioral ob jec t ives. Over the past three years teachers have been asked through the i r pr inc ipa ls to prepare annual overviews, term previews, and behavioral object ives for lessons. Other d i s t r i c t curriculum projects were based on behavior- al ob jec t ives , and, as a r esu l t , the i r printed forms were voluminous. Several of our committee f e l t that ar t was the las t place in which more of th is trend was needed. Dave was pa r t i cu la r l y voca l . However, in the end, another issue was l e f t for a future meeting. Emotions set t led when we moved through less controvers ia l content. The need for a materials l i s t received ho response. The sect ion on concepts and major understandings was given a br ie f look but l e f t for another day. Pr ice suggested breaking into small groups to c l a s s i f y these concepts by grade, but with so few of us that seemed impractical . Doing so would have seen curriculum a r t i cu la t i on neglected in the i n - fancy of our pro ject . We agreed to ind iv idua l l y categorize the concepts and major understandings before our next meeting. Consensus was reached on some top ics ! We agreed that any project from an e a r l i e r grade could be used by a teacher, but that projects belonging to a grade fol lowing the grade taught by a teacher were to be avoided. This gave a l l youngsters something to ant ic ipate each year. Although enrichment (extra) a c t i v i t i e s might involve a few select ions from la te r grades, they were pr imar i ly seen as involv ing media unique to the core. When I asked committee members i f they would take on the planning and presentation of short in -serv ice events, scandalized faces stared back. Obviously that route was ei ther a dead end or one that required further de l ica te explorat ion. In t ry ing to keep the meeting b r ie f and to maintain in terest in future meetings, I suggested qu i t t ing at f i ve o 'c lock . However, in te r - est took us to an adjourment at 5:20. Because every afternoon next week has been scheduled for meetings aimed at implementing the science curr iculum, we w i l l meet on February 11 and 18. As we l e f t , Pr ice promised typing time. He also said that the Curriculum Advisory Committee had given us the i r b less ing . Or ig ina l l y I had planned to implement the curriculum as i t was de- veloped. In th is way teacher feedback would have guided planning and 29 meetings would have provided ideas relevant to teacher explorat ion in the classroom. As w e l l , I had expected excitement to have been generated over the curriculum when committee members t r ied ideas and teachers in neighbouring classrooms became in terested. Subsequent involvement by the neighbouring teachers would have promoted the imple- mentation., process . But, a small group severely r e s t r i c t s th is approach. Therefore, I have agreed with Pr ice , , andh'mplementation w i l l fol low development. In one hour and twenty minutes we had unleashed some issues, come to know one another bet ter , surveyed v i r t u a l l y a l l of the components, and made some pivotal dec is ions. Many decisions had been avoided. At f i r s t , that was disappoint ing. However, with the discussion taken to a point and suspended, both the topic and personal opinions were revealed, but ind iv iduals were prevented from taking posi t ions from which i t could have been d i f f i c u l t to retreat with i n teg r i t y . Such was the case of the moulded ceramics. Certa in ly the time between tonight and our next meeting w i l l pro- vide an opportunity for everyone to consider the issues raised and to make thoughtful dec is ions. January 28, Wednesday I have been considering yesterday's meeting. Those who came did not seem to have strong ar t backgrounds. As such, I am pleased that I had so much prearranged mater ia l . Without the d i rec t ion i t gave we would have floundered hopelessly. The small attendance was worse than I had expected. Another an- nouncement might help, but I am doubtfu l . I thought that at least eight teachers would have come, and I was pa r t i cu la r l y disappointed that 30 Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser did not attend. Both are talented art teachers and could contr ibute so much. Perhaps they can be persuaded to attend on the eleventh. Dave was eager! Ar lene, a f i r s t year teacher, was except ional ly qu ie t , and I had the impression that the meeting was not what she expected. Perhaps she was looking for ideas for her day-to-day lessons. She was cer ta in ly unable, tq remain anonymous in such a small group. Whatever, she looked overwhelmed. Other than during the debate over moulded ceramics Warren was quiet for most of the meeting. Warren's feel ings could have been hurt. Then again, he may have f e l t that what he wanted was not compatible with what the group wanted. Part way through he looked as though he wished he had never come. Two members, A l lan and N e i l , are taking graduate work with Gonzaga Universi ty in Spokane, Washington. I expect that both w i l l be busy with that. A l lan has commitments with science meetings as w e l l . Nei l is concerned with his own competency in a r t . A l l a n , in speaking with me today, was annoyed that Pr ice had taken control of the meeting and t r ied to manipulate the group. A l lan f e l t that I should claim the leadership r o l e . February 3, Tuesday Over the phone Price and I agreed that most of the next meeting w i l l be used to assign concepts and major understandings to grade l e v e l s . The intent ion is to assign by grade most of the statements that have been roughly drafted and to keep the s ign i f i can t ones, the appl icable ones, and those that work well together. 31 F e b r u a r y 5, T h u r s d a y D e b b i e ' s s c h o o l b u r n e d . I have been f o r g e t t i n g t o phone h e r a b o u t t h e n e x t m e e t i n g . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y h e r s i t u a t i o n w i l l be v e r y un- s e t t l e d . F e b r u a r y 9, Monday S i n c e o u r l a s t m e e t i n g , more o f my t i m e has been s p e n t a t t h e k i t c h - en t a b l e c o m p a r i n g t h e i n t i a l l i s t o f c o n c e p t s and m a j o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s w i t h o t h e r a r t t e x t s . A n y t h i n g i m p o r t a n t has been a d d e d . N i g h t s h i f t t y p i n g i n t h e s c h o o l o f f i c e has become t o o much o f a r o u t i n e . I s h o u l d be g e t t i n g t h e t y p i n g done a t t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , b u t i t i s t e n m i l e s away and so much o f what n e e d s t o be t y p e d a p p e a r s t o be f r a g m e n t e d and i n s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e t i m e . F e b r u a r y 1 1 , Wednesday Dave was a n x i o u s t o b e g i n o u r m e e t i n g b e f o r e P r i c e a r r i v e d . He o p e n l y s t a t e d t h a t he w a n t e d t o d i s c u s s what I i n t e n d e d r a t h e r t h a n what P r i c e d i d . As I saw i t , Dave was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t a n o t h e r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a r t . I a g r e e d b u t d i d n o t s a y s o . P r i c e n e v e r d i d a r r i v e anyway. W a r r e n , I was t o l d , had had a b u s y d a y and was t a k i n g an e v e n i n g c o u r s e i n c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g t o n i g h t . A r l e n e d i d n o t a r r i v e e i t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r s had p r o m i s e d t o s w e l l o u r numbers by b r i n g i n g some- o n e , o n l y Dave had p e r s u a d e d one o f h i s s t a f f members, H a r r y M i t c h e l l , t o come. As u s u a l , Dave was keen and had c a t e g o r i z e d t h e m a j o r u n d e r s t a n d - i n g s on h i s s h e e t s . No one e l s e h a d . I had t h o u g h t t h a t d o i n g homework w o u l d make t h e m e e t i n g s move more q u i c k l y and g i v e e v e r y o n e a c h a n c e t o c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r t h e p r o p o s a l s i n a d v a n c e . 32 Although Neil deferred to others most of the time, both A l lan and Harry par t i c ipa ted . As we categorized major understandings for l i n e , shape, texture, co lour , and form there was occasional confusion over terminology. Real concern was expressed that teachers would not know what was meant in many cases. For example, how i_s texture shown through l i n e , shape, and colour? Examples need to be given. So the project grows! As we concluded categor iz ing major understandings our dialogue started examining what teachers ac tua l ly would want from an art c u r r i - culum. Those present thought that the need was for spec i f i c projects and a c t i v i t i e s which would teach what We had ten ta t ive ly out l ined. As we worked through to th is conclusion, I was pleased. The solut ion was a compromise that related the ideas teachers were seen as wanting with the s k i l l s , concepts, and so on that we had discussed and I f e l t were important. At 4:55 I suggested stopping, but the others wanted to continue. After making many rapid cuts to the l i s t of major understandings, we concluded at 5:25. The deadline in my mind was important in preventing people from becoming t i red of yet another long meeting and not wanting to par t ic ipate fur ther . Giving a choice developed a commitment to stay. Before leav ing, Dave suggested that we meet next Wednesday as planned. He commented, "The sooner we get f i n i shed , the bet ter . Things are going to get bus ier . " Overa l l , the meeting made good progress. Considering that th is was only our second meeting Dave is in a rush to f i n i s h . His opening com- ment makes me wonder i f he f e l t , as Al lan d i d , that Pr ice t r ied to con- t ro l the d i rec t ion of the group at the f i r s t meeting. 33 February 17, Tuesday Warren was in the grocery store th is afternoon, so I asked him i f he was coming to tomorrow's meeting. He was hes i tant , and I am not sure why. Perhaps he f e l t at odds with the committee. Then again, he is usual ly quiet . I phoned Debbie at her home tonight and asked i f she would l i ke to come to our next meeting. She seemed in terested. Her par t i c ipa t ion is important to me, as her involvement and her example in the classroom w i l l not only help promote the implementation process but w i l l re l ieve me of some of the workload. Tomorrow's major jobs include set t ing further goals and completing the assignment of major understandings. We should also discuss resource tex ts , workshops, explanations for some of the major understandings, and the media which have been tenta t ive ly assigned to each of the grades. I am worried that the others defer to me so much. February 18, Wednesday Dave and Nei l arr ived short ly af ter I d id . A l lan was l a t e . Debbie fa i l ed to at tend, and Harry, committed to Project Teach tonight , was un- able to come. When I asked about Warren, Al lan answered. He sensed our committee was jus t not suited to Warren and that the f i r s t meeting had l i t t l e to do with his nonattendance. The recent ly c l a s s i f i e d concepts and major understandings were reviewed, a.nd two were c l a r i f i e d . 1 A good discussion and some compromise took place as we continued sort ing the media and projects for drawing and pa in t ing. Deciding upon the sequence and choosing appropriate media and projects took much of our time. In choosing sui tab le media and projects two ideas guided us. F i r s t , we assumed that primary teachers were not fol lowing a coordin- ated program and could not be re l ied upon to teach spec i f i c media and projects by grade three. Second, because so many students take no ar t beyond grade seven our program would have to cover basic media and projects by the end of elementary school . As such, our range of media and projects was open-ended. We con- cluded that any future primary program could necessitate a re-assessment of the intermediate curr iculum. From o u r - l i s t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , we then chose a range of media and projects for which schools should be expected to provide equipment and mater ia ls . This l i s t was further ref ined as we selected a number that could be covered in four weeks. F i n a l l y , we considered my proposed graded order. In deciding upon th is graded sequence we discussed necessary lead- up s k i l l s , and the dexter i ty and in terests of students at each grade l e v e l . Decisions were based on our past classroom experiences. Uncommitted media and projects were l e f t for possible use in the enrichment sec t ion . Although much of th is meeting involved choosing and sequencing media and pro jects , the decision-making process was e f f i c i e n t . Dave f e l t that having a small group made the c lass i f y i ng much eas ie r . But, more teachers need to be involved. A l lan was the one who f e l t that others must experience a process s im i la r to the one the committee was go- ing through in developing the program. Teachers would then thoroughly understand the curr iculum. I f everyone cannot be involved to that extent then what we produce must be pa r t i cu la r l y c lea r . Dave f e l t that including lessons could help make the guide se l f -exp lanatory . He suggested having 's t rangers ' react to what we had created and proposed bringing at least two of his s ta f f members next week. I was s t i l l concerned about providing oppor- tun i t ies for leading teachers through the guide as they planned a l es - son or ser ies of lessons. "I f we continue at th is same pace," Dave s a i d , "we w i l l never f i n - i s h . " Neil and Al lan agreed. To th is extent they appeared w i l l i n g to spend more time. But, Dave did not want an ent i re day to work on the curr iculum, because the content was 'too heavy'. Our choices included having more meetings, longer meetings, or more defined components pre- sented. Because members were involved and learning so much, I consid-^ ered further meetings. Our present committee is enthusiast ic but the i r preparation time at home is apparently l im i t ed . I f we had started development without my roughly planned components the workload would have been excessive and discouraging. There are a few teachers in the d i s t r i c t who are capable in a r t , but they have not come to any of the meetings. S p e c i f i c a l l y , I am thinking of Debbie and Ross. February 20, Friday The night school classes that Ross Rosser teaches have been on the same day as each of our meetings. I promised Ross a copy of what we have prepared so far and encouraged him to jo in us i f poss ib le . February 24, Tuesday Jack Farmer, pr inc ipa l of Rock H i l l School, apologized for not sending s ta f f members to our meetings. His s ta f f i s involved in producing a musical with the i r c lasses . Mr. Farmer asked me to give his s ta f f some ins t ruc t ion on the i r new pottery wheel. How would innovative schools f ind assistance? Secondary teachers are a p o s s i b i l i t y , but they cannot be expected to spend hours of the i r own time guiding e i ther ind iv iduals or a s ta f f . February 25, Wednesday A l l a n , N e i l , and Dave attended today. No one had done homework. The rough drafts of a t i t l e page and introduct ion were discussed. A few minor changes were made. Fine points in meaning and sentence structure were adjusted on other explanatory pages that I had draf ted. Once again, examples of projects that w i l l teach the major under- standings were seen as being needed. Examples need to be given to explain some statements in the concepts sect ion. The vocabulary l i s t s were adjusted once more to match the media and projects that we had sh i f ted . Every sh i f t in one caused movement in the other. F i n a l l y , the l as t of the major understandings was grouped! This had been a long demanding chore. So many required de f in ing , discussion about how they could be taught, and consideration of the i n te l l ec tua l a b i l i t y of the chi ldren at each grade l e v e l . A l l said that they had prof i ted by the i r involvement. Each of us sensed a fee l ing of accomplishment! At least one more meeting is needed. Sample lessons need to be organized, support texts determined, and workshops planned. Strong signals indicate that committee members have had enough, want to f i n a l i z e the planning booklet, and want me to prepare a sample booklet of ar t ideas. Much of the workload has already f a l l e n to me. A pattern has been establ ished in which I draft p o s s i b i l i t i e s and they adapt, de le te , and add. February 26, Thursday On my way to school I gave Ross a copy of our work to date. At the same time I asked him to out l ine some ideas on the topic of tex- ture. He said he would see what he could do. Somehow he w i l l be involved. March 11, Wednesday Today's meeting was cancel led. A l lan had a pract ice with his basketball team. Dave had arranged a s ta f f meeting, and, considering he is the p r i n c i p a l , I was surprised i t occurred today. When I phoned Neil to cance l t he meeting, he to ld me that he had forgotten about i t anyway. In some ways i t would have been so much easier to have been given s ix afternoons. Pr ice does not seem pa r t i cu la r l y in terested. March 19, Thursday Dave and Nei l were la te for our 3:30 s ta r t . A l lan attended an Elementary A th le t i c Council meeting. Pr ice was asked to come, but his d i s t r i c t s ta f f meeting had been moved from Wednesday to today. To help teachers eas i l y define unfamil iar terms Dave suggested a glossary as part of the guide. As a solut ion we decided to copy and include the glossary from Emphasis Ar t . For me, the decis ion was a good one, as I ant ic ipated the job of sort ing through a stack of books. Pr ice approved my request for support texts e a r l i e r in the a f te r - noon. I brought numerous books for considerat ion. Af ter hearing my reasons, Dave and Neil approved using Emphasis Art and Art in Depth. Sound in philosophy, they are eas i l y read, co lou r fu l , sturdy,- and, as a bonus, they in tersect our own curr iculum. We then tackled the idea handbook. After some time we agreed that i t should be l inked to the planning handbook and provide ideas that w i l l teach the assigned vocabulary, concepts, media, and so on. Dave suggested providing a l ternat ive a c t i v i t i e s in our own printed material when the idea handbook refers to the support tex ts . In th is way, teachers w i l l not be los t when the textbooks are unavai lable. With those guidel ines I was asked to out l ine a possible idea hand- book. As the end of the meeting approached, we discussed a l ternat ive ways of f inding contact time with teachers. Our ideas included using professional days, s ta f f meetings, evening meetings, af ter-school work- shops, and ear ly dismissal for indiv idual schools, groups of schools, and the d i s t r i c t . Daytime workshops involv ing a l imi ted number of teachers reg is ter ing on a ' f i r s t -come ' basis were also suggested. A f i na l idea proposed a form through which teachers could contr ibute ide- as to the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s and pro jects . Whatever we do, a survey determining what teachers want in the way of in -serv ice must be taken. March 20, Friday A few random thoughts have been bashing through my mind concerning yesterday's conversation with Pr i ce . He gave the very d i s t i n c t impres- sion that he wanted to postpone any workshops. I am not sure why, but an afternoon involv ing ear ly dismissal for teachers from grade one to eight is being planned for introducing the math curriculum project . Pr ice and his committee have taken two years to get th is project ready. Perhaps he wants to avoid d iver t ing a t tent ion. Then, there is the p o s s i b i l i t y that he does not appreciate our speedy e f fo r t . We have been given no release time as other projects were, and Price has attended only one meeting. Now a chance to involve teachers through in -serv ice s i tuat ions looks a l i t t l e d is tan t . Have we been neglected? March 22, Sunday Many hours have been spent th is weekend t ry ing to create a s t ruc- ture that re lates the planning handbook to the idea handbook. A num- bering system that correlates the media and projects and concepts and major understandings to the idea handbook appears most p r a c t i c a l . March 24, Tuesday Dave asked me to introduce the art curriculum to his s ta f f at Ridgeview Elementary between 1:15 and 2:50 on Apr i l 3. I suggested that he do that , but he i ns i s t ed . Dave is enthus ias t ic . I wish he would s tar t taking on some of the load. Apr i l 3, Friday An introduct ion to the art curriculum was given to Dave's s t a f f , th is afternoon. The ent i re e f fo r t was a rush: sor t ing pages, planning for the subst i tute teacher, gett ing some lunch, loading the car with art samples, pro jector ; and papers, and a r r i v ing on time. Then I had to unload, unpack, and set up! The ent i re s ta f f from kindergarten to grade seven was joined by the teachers and the aide from the a u t i s t i c and retarded c lasses . The program applied to only a few, but the others were happy fo have had an opportunity to par t i c ipa te . 40 May 8, Friday A memorandum was sent to a l l members of the Curriculum Advisory Committee requesting the i r attendance at a meeting on May 20. The meeting w i l l consider approving three l o c a l l y developed cur- riculum mater ia ls . The Intermediate Core Sequential Art Program w i l l be included. May 20, Wednesday The presentation for the ar t program was given to the Curriculum Advisory Committee at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . Pr ice had copies made for the committee members. Following my explanat ion, committee members voiced these concerns: a) How much material has been taken from other sources? b) What are the f inanc ia l impl icat ions? c) Do we need an ar t consultant to carry th is project through? d) Where w i l l the money for the texts be found? e) Who w i l l lead the workshops? f) How w i l l i t be implemented? g) I f schools that do not have k i lns are given one, w i l l those schools that bought the i r own be compensated? The questioning was r igorous. Further concern was expressed over the number of programs being implemented and the qual i ty of such implementa- t i on . The response from the Curriculum Advisory Committee was very pos i - t i v e . Ted Hamber f e l t that the program was long overdue. The profes- sional look was noted by Cynthia Quadra, while the senior secondary pr inc ipa l said the curriculum was well done. Harold Gordon, another p r i n c i p a l , commented that the guide and the presentation were in great- er deta i l and were better organized than most projects they received. The committee passed the art program for school board consider- a t ion . At the end of the meeting the d i rector of ins t ruc t ion thanked both the art curriculum committee for the i r contr ibut ion to art educa- t ion in the d i s t r i c t and me for giv ing a thorough explanat ion; more complete than usual . Had I talked too long? I did want them to understand! In answering questions I avoided confirming any need for an art consultant. Without one interested teachers would have unrestr icted access to involvement and there would be a more typ ica l look at the factors a f fect ing art curriculum implementation. Tonight I am excited and p leased, although a l i t t l e amazed at the ease with which'the art curriculum was. approved. May 21, Thursday My pr inc ipa l and a fel low teacher separately passed along comments made to them th is morning and las t night by Harold Gordon. Harold thought that the ar t curriculum presentation was exce l len t . This made me except ional ly de l ighted, as Harold is very c r i t i c a l and extremely demanding. May 26, Tuesday The Intermediate Art Program was approved as a l o c a l l y developed course at l as t n ight 's meeting of the Board of School Trustees. June 25, Thursday Before dismissal for the summer, I phoned Pr ice and reminded him to order the resource texts and to have copies of the ar t guide made for September. I was assured that th is would be done. 42 CHAPTER 4 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM As September of 1981 approached and I re f lected upon the develop- mental phase, I rea l ized that tremendous amounts of time and energy were going to be needed on my part i f implementation was going to oc- cur to any extent. The committee that developed the curriculum had i n i t a l l l y been smal l . Although the i r i ns igh t , e f f o r t , and guidance given through the spring of 1981 had been essent ia l to the development of the curr iculum, they had fa i l ed to permanently assume any of the respons ib i l i t y . Be- cause of the i r presumed inadequacies and other commitments, they were content to remain act ive at the committee l e v e l . So, with a small group that would not or could not ass i s t in the curriculum implementa- t ion process, I looked to others. Through the f a l l I r e l i ed upon P r i ce , the supervisor of i ns t ruc t i on , and attempted to involve Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser. September 10, Thursday School has started with the usual sense of excitement and an t i c ipa - t i on . I phoned P r i ce . The resource texts have not a r r i ved , and the curriculum guides have not been pr in ted. I was sure that the guides would have been printed over the summer and ready by now. Keen and enthused before I c a l l e d , I was somewhat disappointed afterward. My hopes had been for an ear ly s ta r t before teachers committed themselves to teams, c lubs , and so on. September 21, Monday Expecting that the texts must be in by now I phoned P r i c e , but he was already on the phone. So, I asked to have my c a l l returned. He 43 did not return my c a l l . September 22, Tuesday Today I phoned P r i c e , but he was on the phone again. September 23, Wednesday Price arr ived at the school . Our conversation was f r iend ly and productive. I sensed that he was being very support ive. Pr ice w i l l d is t r ibu te a memorandum to schools advising that I am prepared to introduce the program within fo r t y - f i ve minutes e i ther at s ta f f meetings or af ter school . I to ld Pr ice that I preferred not be- ing at the end of a s ta f f meeting when everyone wants to go home. These introductions w i l l be followed by a workshop se r i es . If by then teachers have not received an introduct ion an evening to pro- vide an introduct ion w i l l be arranged. Workshops w i l l be organized at several locat ions and on various days to accommodate teachers with other commitments. Through these workshops teachers w i l l become fami l ia r with and somewhat s k i l l e d in the content of each of the four areas: drawing, pa in t ing , printmaking, and c lay . I promised Pr ice a l i s t of materials for the art supply k i t s . He w i l l order most of the supplies from d i s t r i c t money, and I w i l l buy l o c a l l y for the drawing k i t and be reimbursed from d i s t r i c t petty cash. These k i ts for drawing, printmaking, and s i lkscreening w i l l provide supplies and equipment for those teachers who are in schools that do not have some or a l l of what is needed. The drawing k i t w i l l contain sam- ples of a l l the drawing media for the four grades and w i l l be useful in making both teachers and students aware of the total range in the pro- gram. Those teachers with upper grades could ac tua l ly have the i r classes 44 use and share the materials in an exploratory lesson. Some supplies w i l l be found within the d i s t r i c t . P lex ig lass squares for printmaking w i l l be requis i t ioned from maintenance. Pr ice is cer ta in that Maple Creek School w i l l loan brayers. Workshops w i l l use the ar t supply k i ts and supplies l e f t from a workshop held in 1979. The guides have not been pr in ted. Neither of the texts has ar- r i ved . I de f i n i t e l y want both before introducing the program to school s t a f f s . While the texts create in teres t and provide d i r e c t i o n , the guides are simply essent ia l to any explanation. According to P r i c e , the guides w i l l be made. When I to ld Price that I had seen a sale of binders su i tab le for the guide and offered to get f i f t y , he gave no response. Pr ice promised to think of anyone who could help. He suggested John Penny, pr inc ipa l of J .A. Macdonald, Debbie Arnold 's school . I phoned Debbie at 3:30. Although she gave the impression of being hesitant about providing help, she did sound pleased that I had phoned. We agreed to meet tomorrow at her school to review what has been done and to see where she can help. September 24, Thursday Debbie and I reviewed the program. At my expense her copy of the art program was in a binder. I had hoped th is would make her feel valued and encourage her. She was pleased with the binder but sensed I had a reason. I do not want Debbie to feel iso la ted but need her involvement. Cer ta in ly , negative feel ings must be avoided. When I gave her a free choice of developing and presenting any aspect of the program, she pre- ferred drawing and colour. She was w i l l i n g to plan a workshop! 45 However, Debbie explained that the French course she is teaching required considerable planning, and, as a result, she would be unable to do anything until later in October. Even so, we talked about the best way of arranging a workshop and considered sharing the planning and presentation of an area such as drawing. I thought that such a cooperative effort would not only in- volve Debbie but keep her from being overwhelmed. During our conversation one major problem resurfaced. On her part, Debbie wanted r e l i e f time for any workshop planning or presentation. In addition, she expected to see teachers released from their classes to attend any in-service. Debbie said that she would not personally come to an evening meeting and doubted that too many others would either. Then, Debbie was, by her own admission, not hard pressed for ideas. Although I agreed with her and promised to push Price yet again, I do not expect a positive reaction in this direction. Nevertheless, the problem of finding time for preparation and presentation has to be solved! Just one or two in-service sessions is inadequate, especially dur- ing the evening. Such brief contact with only a few teachers who, in fact, want ideas to survive their next week's lessons can not pass on the idea that projects and activities are vehicles capable of teaching concepts, knowledge, and s k i l l s as well as values and attitudes. Even though Debbie seemed interested, she appeared disappointed that the idea handbook was not already overflowing. If Debbie was looking for a package of the newest-and-1atest ideas then others must not have a glimmer of possible goals. A principals' meeting was held this morning, and the art curricu- lum was discussed. That pleases me! Following my v i s i t with Debbie, I had gone to see P r i ce . He had gone home for the day. The superin- tendent and the d i rec tor of ins t ruc t ion saw me and mentioned the p r in - c i p a l s ' meeting. They said that the program was well received and Price was enthused. Both thanked me for the work done. Their 'thank you' has made me feel great tonight and leads me to think that we are of f to a great s ta r t ! Having both the superintendent and the d i rec tor of ins t ruc t ion aware and supportive gives the project even more of an o f f i c i a l sanct ion. The ease with which the project passed the Curriculum Advisory Committee and the Board of School Trustees s t i l l surpr ises me. September 25, Friday I f schools have not had an introduct ion by October 20 an evening should be arranged to introduce the guide and have teachers plan a l e s - son. Then we w i l l be ready to of fer four workshops covering the content related to drawing, pa in t ing , printmaking, and c lay . If teachers are not released from c lasses , we w i l l need to know preferred days and times for out-of-school i n - se rv i ce . September 27, Sunday Planning takes place even on the weekend! I have l i s t e d what is needed for the ar t supply k i ts and t r ied to note any resources that would provide support. September 28, Monday When I phoned Pr ice today I got through r ight away! I reminded him to be sure that the numbers l i nk ing the assigned media and concepts to the idea handbook c lea r l y show in the copies of 47 the guide. When we discussed preparation time for Debbie, Pr ice s a i d , " I ' l l think about i t . " Pushing somewhat, I again asked, "Is there any chance that teachers can be released during the daytime?" To th is Pr ice rep l ied that the subst i tute budget was 'shot a l l to h e l l ' and that re leasing teachers during the day was 'a toughie". "We would," he s a i d , "have everyone knocking at our door." Then a torrent of a l ternat ives came tumbling through the telephone. Professional days can be used by s t a f f s . The ar t curriculum presenta- t ion could be part or a l l of an intermediate professional day. An art day for a l l elementary grades could include using the resource package offered by the Universi ty of V i c t o r i a . One promising idea, the f a l l conference, has been cancel led. I sensed a gap in commitment today. A tremendous amount of time and energy has been given to th is project so fa r . Now that some re- lease time is asked for a l ternat ives are put forward! In the spring of 1980 Price promised subst i tute teacher time for preparing an ar t curr iculum. At that t ime, he bounced f igures and do l - lars of f my chalkboard. I should know better than to l e t people wri te promises on a chalkboard! Obviously, i f funds are used by the f a l l then workshops need to be held ear ly in the year. Or, an allotment needs to be made for i nd i v i d - ual programs. September 29, Tuesday Price phoned. Waterside Elementary School requested that I out- l i ne the program at the i r s ta f f meeting on Monday, October 5. Pr ice was away when the request was made, and his secretary did not think to c a l l me. In any event, my pr inc ipa l w i l l not l e t me go. We also have a s ta f f meeting Monday, and Ted wants me there to jo in the discussion oh 'clubs in the s c h o o l 1 . Although I am disappointed, I do think that Price is more baff led over the s i t ua t i on . He sounded so happy when I f i r s t spoke with him. His memorandum had generated some in te res t . Future planning w i l l have to consider the fact that Monday is a popular day for s ta f f meetings. September 30, Wednesday Some n ibs , pen holders, ar t gum and kneaded erasers, and a var ie ty of penci ls were bought for the drawing k i t . After the t r i p into town, I cast a p laster block to hold a container of India ink. These material are for the drawing k i t . Tonight I cut and mounted samples of paper for a fold-out display that should demonstrate the var ie ty of papers avai lab le for use.. October 13, Tuesday Things are slow - too slow! Nothing seems to be happening. I must see P r i ce . Maintaining momentum requires a constant in terest and a w i l l ingness to constantly ask others what they are doing. Copies of the curriculum guide must be ready soon. Where are the guides to the Ohio program? October 15, Thursday I phoned Price to plan the workshop se r i es . He is away unt i l Mon- day. October 19, Monday Pr ice phoned just as classes were to begin. Because I wanted to get to c l a s s , the dialogue was one-sided. He wanted to know i f I had been told that the Newton School s ta f f wanted an introduct ion to the program on Wednesday, October 21. I had not and w i l l go. The presentation is two days away! What did Price think I did at 8:30? In the afternoon I ca l led Pr ice to see i f copies of the guide were ava i lab le for Newton School. "Yes, " Pr ice said and then added, "That 's the f i r s t time I've been able to say that . " Don't I know i t ! I wonder what Pr ice thought I was going to take to the meeting? Neither of the support texts is i n . They were ordered in June and reordered on September 30. This implementation e f fo r t ce r ta in ly requires time and perseverence. I am not pleased about constantly phoning in an e f fo r t to see what i s happening. There is a need for a budget of some type or a way to d i - rec t l y order suppl ies. A d i s t r i c t supply centre might help. October 20, Tuesday During my spare Price and I had a productive ta l k . Neither of the support texts is i n . Pr ice to ld me that he never ordered the Ohio art guides and the resource k i t l as t January. I could hardly bel ieve him! There i s no money l e f t for binders. Duo-tang covers w i l l have to do. The curriculum guides have not been copied ye t , but Pr ice w i l l get them done. 50 I passed along the l i s t of supplies to be ordered. To make order- ing eas ie r , supp l ie rs ' addresses were included. No other schools have requested an in t roduct ion, but Pr ice was sure Waterside Elementary would be planning for another one. He had not sensed any negative response in the schools. That was not surpr is ing to me as no one has seen the guide ye t ! Although report cards could i n te r fe re , he thought that November 9 was a possible s tar t ing date for the i n - se rv i ce . Places and times required a survey of teacher preferences before mapping. Pr ice prom- ised to have the survey f in ished before October 30. In addi t ion to the e a r l i e r memorandum on September 25, a l i s t has been c i rcu la ted to pr inc ipa ls suggesting possible resource persons for the professional development component of s ta f f meetings. My name was l i s t e d as a resource person for a r t . The receipts for the drawing supplies were given to P r i ce . The drawing k i t is ready, and Price w i l l have s i lkscreen frames made in the senior secondary school 's workshop. October 21, Wednesday This was a hect ic day! Newton School had asked for an introduc- t i on . After I gathered char ts , booklets, and samples of student work las t night and during today's spare, I checked that I had everything. The dismissal be l l had barely stopped by the time 1/ 'was out to the car. The keys were in my classroom! P i l i n g some of the ar t samples on the roof,' I went for the keys. F i n a l l y , I arr ived at Newton School , calmly unloaded, and went i n . Don Johnson immediately asked me to phone my school 's secretary. I did and was to ld that the artwork l e f t on the car ' s roof had been found scattered across the parking l o t . 0ne:'df the 51 teachers would bring the work - t i r e t racks , g rave l , and dust! The program took for ty minutes to run through, and I ac tua l ly f e l t as though I had run through i t . The time ava i lab le barely allowed for an explanation and de f i n i t e l y l e f t no time to have teachers prepare a lesson with the guide. With one exception, the s ta f f was receptive and asked a few questions. Jean commented that more workshops were need- ed, as she had forgotten much of what she had learned from the in -serv ice in the spring of" 1)979. October 22, Thursday Tentative dates for the in -serv ice could be four consecutive Tues- days from November 10. Anything la ter than December 1 might s ta r t con- f l i c t i n g with Christmas. October 28, Wednesday I did not see P r i c e , but he l e f t the supply l i s t in my tray in the school o f f i c e . An attached note said that everything had been ordered. Great! Some time ago I was asked to make two presentations - one primary, the other intermediate - at a f ine arts professional day in a neighbour- ing d i s t r i c t . Even though there has been ample t ime, dozens of hours have been used making sure that everything is packed and that I have e- nough ideas to share. Planning for the day, October 30, has organzied my thoughts and w i l l de f i n i t e l y help with my part of the in -serv ice for our d i s t r i c t ' s program. November 5, Thursday Since October 20 I have not heard from P r i c e , and I need some time with him to arrange for supp l ies , tex ts , and in -se rv i ce . Everything de- pends upon sporadic contact with Pr i ce ! How do I make d i rec t contact 52 with the intermediate teachers? Delays in communication impede pro- gress. I f I had time to v i s i t other teachers I could make contact, develop communication, and share ideas. Perhaps some of th is could be done over my lunch hour; an impract ical thought when distances be- tween schools are considered. This week the teachers' associat ion has been involved in annual contract negotiations with the school board. Teachers have been unhap- py about the fact that they are expected to spend time sponsoring ext ra- cur r i cu la r a c t i v i t i e s . Among teachers an at t i tude is developing against spending time beyond the regular school day. November 8, Sunday The crux for implementation is teacher involvement. November 9, Monday I phoned P r i c e , but he was busy. He returned my c a l l . The art curriculum guides have not been copied. Although no date was se t , they w i l l be done. I have heard th is before! How can I get him moving? The survey to determine teacher preferences for workshop times and places has not been done. The promise was October 30. Three weeks have been l o s t ! Some supplies are i n . Does anyone - Pr ice espec ia l l y - r ea l l y care? I f questions were not asked and pushes' were not given the implementation process would s i t l i ke a neglected car and rust . I am always the one who phones, prods, and asks, or so i t seems. Information i s never volunteered! 53 November 10, Tuesday At today's meeting of the local teachers' associat ion a work-to-rule motion was passed in react ion to an impasse in contract negot iat ions. There is a sense of intense animosity between the teachers and the board. The res t r i c t i ons that were passed take 'e f fec t on Monday, November 16. The ones that most d i r ec t l y a f fect the implementation of our art curriculum fo l low: Members of the associat ion w i l l no longer undertake the fol lowing a c t i v i t i e s : 5. Screening new tex ts , records, f i lms , and other mater ia ls . 11. Par t i c ipa t ing i n , present ing, and attending workshops and c l i n i c s and a c t i v i t y meets outside assigned class time. 17. V i s i t i n g other classrooms to observe and improve ins t ruc t i on . 20. Par t i c ipa t ing in Pro-D a c t i v i t i e s . Even implementation within schools hours is doubtfu l . Just how long th is work-to-rule s i tua t ion w i l l l as t i s uncerta in, but, i f the impasse continues, escalat ion through further act ion is planned for Monday, No- vember 23. P r i c e ' s f a i l u re to get the booklets ready and the survey completed is discouraging. He seems to lack any genuine in te res t . I cannot see how he was able to order the ar t supplies but unable to buy the binders for the guides. As I presently see the s i t ua t i on , the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s in working through a person who forgets , is busy, or is preoccupied with other p r i - o r i t i e s . For P r i c e , the preoccupation is introducing personal computers into classrooms. The-coordinator of a project needs to have some au^ tho r i t y , some autonomy. November 17, Tuesday Regular communication between Price and myself and re l i ab le fo l low- up on commitments are needed. Others can not be e f fec t i ve l y involved i f plans are not kept on t rack. To date, most intermediate teachers proba- bly do not even know that a new art curriculum e x i s t s . On my par t , p r i o r i t i e s include phoning Pr ice about pr in t ing the guide, ensuring that the guides are d is t r ibuted to teachers, and loca t - ing the support texts and making teachers aware of the i r existence. The p o s s i b i l i t y now ex is ts that many teachers w i l l not receive an introduct ion to the program. Is the guide sel f -explanatory? I f i t i s not, how can i t be adapted further to give a cloudless explanation? Teachers must know the basic in tent : a) par t i c ipa t ion i s voluntary b) the core program involves four months of the school year c) the curriculum is f l e x i b l e , adaptable d) the curriculum out l ines what vocabulary, media, pro jec ts , and concepts are to be taught e) the core program is designed to provide some understanding as to what art and a r t i s t s are about f) the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s , pro jects , and s tar t ing points is dependent upon the i r act ive par t i c ipa t ion g) input toward rev is ion w i l l be required in September 1982. Teachers, though, at least need to have a copy of the program! November 18, Wednesday Price phoned th is morning. Although the texts have not a r r i ved , some supplies are at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . We discussed the guides. Imagine what w i l l be made and d is t r ibuted 55 November 23, Monday The work-to-rule has been l i f t e d . November 25, Wednesday Price arr ived at the school with s i lkscreen squeegees and ac r y l i c paint for screening. He seemed so pleased. I f teachers knew they were to teach s i l ksc ree ing thfey would have these supplies to borrow. November 26, Thursday Price was at the school again. Today he was concerned. He thought that the at t i tude generated by the work-to-rule might resu l t in a poor response to evening workshops. He suggested that Cynthia Quadra arrange an intermediate professional day for January. With:December l o s t , an arrangement for January is the only p rac t i - cal a l te rna t i ve . Waiting for guides and materials has backed me against the*Christmas hol iday. Christmas concerts and other a c t i v i t i e s preclude involvement. December 1, Tuesday I have never been reimbursed for the money spent on drawing sup- pi i e s . December 3, Thursday Brayers, pr in t ing ink, and conte crayons arr ived with Pr i ce . Six copies of Emphasis Art have a r r i ved , and one hundred copies of the art curriculum are ready! A l l of th is is d i f f i c u l t to be l ieve. Even though Christmas holidays s ta r t two weeks from tomorrow I w i l l s ta r t d i s t r i bu t ing guides and v i s i t i n g pr inc ipa ls of some schools. Supplementary sheets for the idea handbook can be d is t r i bu ted . Along with ac tua l ly having a guide, receiv ing idea pages should help develop awareness. 56 Last Apr i l 14, the mathematics curriculum project was explained to a l l elementary and grade eight teachers. These teachers were released one hour ear ly to attend a meeting in the gymnasium at Waterside Elemen- tary. They were handed a guide in a binder, given a lec tu re , and provid- an opportunity to ask questions within small groups. As soon as possi'- b le , teachers started leav ing. Nothing more has ever been heard of the mathematics project . Art is not going to vanish l i k e some spectre in the dark! Pr ice to ld me that he has been out creat ing support in the schools. December 8, Tuesday Students always want to see me when I t ry to leave ear l y . Is th is one of Murphy's Laws? Following d i sm issa l , I went to the d i s t r i c t of- f i ce to f ind the guides and the support tex ts . Because Pr ice was not there, Harry helped me f ind what I wanted, and I l e f t a note. The guides ac tua l ly were copied and s tap led. Stapled! Stapled, with a green coloured paper for a cover. From binder to duo-tang to a sheet of paper. At least I had the guides. Although I had made a hurried attempt to reach pr inc ipa ls before they l e f t , r a t t l i n g the doors at Ridgeview Elementary was a useless ef- fo r t . Hard-working Roi ly Speaker was s t i l l at Poplar Lane School , how- ever, and when he guessed the number of teachers teaching art I gave him eight guides and one copy of Emphasis Ar t . On my way.home i stripped at'Newton School', but Don, the p r i n c i p a l , was gone. Taking the guides to each school should not only assure thei r a r r i - val but give me a chance to see what is happening and what ind iv iduals are th ink ing. 57 December 9, Wednesday I again missed f inding Don at Newton School. Because the Newton School s ta f f was introduced to the program e a r l i e r , I l e f t one text and two more guides. December 11, Friday At Maple Creek School I spoke with the p r i n c i p a l , Glenn Mart in. Glenn did not know who taught the i r own art e i ther and guessed at need- ing nine guides. His secretary understood what I sa id . I hopehhe'did. Copies of Emphasis Art are only being l e f t with schools that make some commitment to the program. When the other copies ar r ive every school w i l l have a copy. December 12, Saturday As part of his coursework, A l lan presented a summary of the devel- opmental phase of the curriculum to his graduate classmates. He told Robert from Debbie's school to give a copy of the guide to two p r i n c i - pa ls , John Penny and Nancy Murphy. A l lan asked iRobert to t e l l them that they w i l l get further copies when I v i s i t and introduce the program. Now that i s a supportive committee member! I was concerned about Al lan presenting the guide to his c lass and mentioning i t s re la t ionsh ip to my own graduate work. I ant ic ipated the development of tremendous resistance to any implementation ef for ts i f teachers f e l t they were being used. A l lan promised not to mention th is re la t ionsh ip . December 14, Monday Crawford Creek School, although several miles away, is r e l a t i v e l y close to my own school , so I was able to eas i l y get there af ter school . Five guides were l e f t with Guy Watson, the p r i n c i p a l . Guy was in te res t - 58 ed and said that he wanted me to speak to his s ta f f in January. Because th is school i s close and the s ta f f is fami l ia r to me, communication should be eas ier . December 17, Thursday I f Pr ice wanted a professional day for the intermediate teachers then a l i t t l e information should be ava i lab le now. With that in mind, I asked. Pr ice repl ied vaguely. He was not sure what was happening. He would have to see. January 4, 1982, Monday Firmly convinced that Price must be re l i ed upon far l e s s , I am determined to assert some authori ty that I do not leg i t imate ly have. After having guided the development without P r i c e , waited for texts that only arr ived in par t , persisted in asking for the guides, and expected workshops that never mater ia l i zed , I am f i n a l l y going to c i r - cumvent both Price and his approval as much as poss ib le . As soon as possible fol lowing d i sm issa l , I l e f t to d is t r ibu te more guides. Six guides were l e f t with Mr. Duncan at Waterside Elementary. He recognized the booklet as the one the committee had prepared l as t year. Unsure as to who taught a r t , he f e l t s ix would be enough. Mr. Farmer was pleased to see seven copies and promised to d i s t r i - bute them at Thursday's s ta f f meeting. Although Mr. Farmer wanted i n - service for his s t a f f , he said that primary teachers needed to be inc lud- ed. He was curious about where the money for the textbooks was coming from. His comment reminded me of the meeting with the Curriculum Advi- sory Committee when i t approved the program. 59 January 5, Tuesday To see the curriculum project vaporize a l l I have to do is s i t and watch. So, with a frustrated sense of vigor a ser ies of workshops w i l l be planned. I had o r i g i n a l l y wanted to survey teachers about con- venient days, t imes, and special areas of i n te res t , but that attempt was shor t -c i rcu i ted e a r l i e r , and I am not about to wait another month. Even then the survey may not be done. As such, eight workshops of one and one-half hours w i l l focus upon printmaking and c lay . As Debbie has already been promised an opportun- i t y to d i rec t a workshop on drawing and colour , painting.and drawing w i l l be l e f t un t i l a response to th is set i s seen, needs are c l a r i f i e d as '. teachers are met at workshops, and Debbie and I can de ta i l her r o l e . Teachers of grades s ix and seven w i l l have sessions on Tuesday of one week and Thursday of the next. Thursday of the f i r s t week and Tues- day of the second w i l l be assigned for grade four and f i ve teachers. Afternoon and evening sessions on the same day w i l l be i d e n t i c a l . In th is way those with ei ther afternoon or evening commitments or Thursday or Tuesday obl igat ions w i l l be able to take in at least one meeting. In theory th is seems to provide an opportunity for most teachers, and i t ce r ta in ly avoids wait ing for a survey. For the idea handbook, which ws often referred to as the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s , pro jects , and s tar t ing points , several pages on g laz ing , wedging,rarid s t e n c i l l i n g have been typed and copied. They w i l l be d i s - tr ibuted with announcements on the workshops. January 6, Wednesday Preparing and typing the three pages for the idea handbook has taken many hours during the past week. I f ind i t d i f f i c u l t to know exact ly how printed l ines w i l l re la te to i l l u s t r a t i o n s unt i l the typing i s e i ther in process or done. Having secre ta r ia l time for th is would be helpful in one way but d i f f i c u l t to e f f i c i e n t l y organize when f i r s t out- l i n i ng ideas. January 9, Saturday Poplar Lane School i s completing a self-assessment th is year , and l i ke Rock H i l l Elementary i s producing a musical . Are these enough d i - versions for those teachers? January 11, Monday The remaining support texts have not a r r i ved. Announcements for the workshops have been typed - by me! I was con cerned that the rough copies might never be typed at the d i s t r i c t o f f i ce so I did them. Typing s ta f f needs to be accessib le and, for t h i s , would have been use fu l . Because of time l i m i t a t i o n s , the announcements are factual and not eye-catching. If the i r d i s t r i bu t ion takes place one week pr io r to the day of each workshop teachers should have ample not ice and not forget . January 12, Tuesday As usua l , Pr ice arr ived while I was teaching, and the resul tant con versat ion was f rene t i c . Ac t i ve ly ta lk ing to my c l a s s , I ha l ted, turned, and l is tened while Pr ice took two paces into the room and s a i d , "The s i lkscreen frames are ready, but I did not bring them as the bases are being cut . " As hurr iedly as he roared i n , he started backing out. "Wait. Wait jus t a minute," I said rummaging through papers. Fortunately, the papers were not in the ar t room, and, with my c lass del ightedly l i s ten ing rather than working, I explained what I want ed. Then I gave him the workshop announcements, the pages on g laz ing , 61 wedging, and s t e n c i l l i n g , and enough guides for the two schools yet without them. I asked about the promised intermediate professional day but received a vague and"confusing answer in which Cynthia Quadra, the coordinator of elementary i ns t ruc t i on , was now planning another pro- fessional day on the topic of 'recent brain research ' . In other words, ' n o ' . As he l e f t , Pr ice promised to arrange for a school in which to hold the workshops, to see Debbie about providing her with release time, and to get my request as s t ra ight as he could. After having said e a r l i e r that I would avoid P r i c e , I have again re l ied upon him to complete c r i t i c a l jobs. Have I done the r ight thing? Better ye t , why did I* ask him? Pr ice w i l l d is t r ibu te the las t of the guides. Getting to these two most d is tant schools in the snow has not appealed to me. Even though A l l a n , through Robert, to ld the pr inc ipa ls of these schools that they would not get the i r guides unt i l I had given an in t roduct ion, I am not prepared to wai t . A copy of Emphasis Art has been sent to Dave'.s school , Ridgeview Elementary, v ia the d i s t r i c t ' s inter-school mail serv ice . Both Dave and his s ta f f have shown previous in te res t . January 13, Wednesday Ross Rosser was asked to out l ine some ideas on the topic of texture. Even though he did not par t ic ipate in the development of the program, the idea handbook has the potential to involve both Ross and his ideas now. January 15, Friday Because several questions needed answering, I phoned Pr ice on my spare. "Have any of the workshop information and ideas pages been d i s - 62 r ibuted?" I asked, "Has a school been arranged?" Price repl ied smoothly, "The schools have been very busy." Nothing has been done, and I cannot help but wonder i f Pr ice has become annoyed with my i n i t i a t i v e or simply forgotten. January 17, Sunday The idea that talented art students should be given some special opportunit ies and recognit ion reached a dead end 1/ast year with the se- condary ar t teachers. I have been thinking that the idea could be used to promote awareness of elementary art and in terest in the program. January 18, Monday Even though I intend to phone ind iv iduals during my spare or the noon hour I aminvar iab ly d is t racted by chores and students and forget. Somehow I remembered to phone Debbie af ter school , but she had l e f t . January 19, Tuesday Once again I phoned Pr i ce . I was becoming persistent and deter- mined about the workshops! In answer to my quest ioning, he's 'a id, "The schools have been very busy, and both the notices and the workshops w i l l have to be one'week l a te . The s i lkscreen frames are ready, and the bases are being cut . " I to ld Pr ice that because my school 's sk i ing schedule has changed my class would not return unt i l af ter f i ve o 'c lock and the afternoon workshop on Thursday, January 28, would have to be cancel led. The an- nouncements d is t r ibu ted by Pr ice w i l l be chased with another cancel l ing that session. Ant ic ipat ing my rush between the time we return from s k i - ing and the 6:30 s t a r t , I almost cancelled the evening session as w e l l . January 22, Friday Debbie returned my c a l l at 3:15, but th is time I had l e f t school . 63 January 25, Monday Debbie phoned th is morning, but I was teaching. I wonder where tomorrow's workshop is being held? I phoned Pr ice and was not only to ld where the workshop would be but that he would come! I wonder where he thought I was going to go? January 26, Tuesday This was a demanding day. Although everything was well planned, a l l of my work and time-consuming preparation over the past two weeks ended with more than enough exercise loading and unloading the car and balancing bundles and boxes into the basement art room of the junior secondary school . Then I found the classroom door locked! F i n a l l y , I found Jack, the ar t teacher. Before I arranged what I had brought, Jack and I talked and shared ideas. With char ts , samples, and work areas ready, I waited through the la te afternoon. And I waited! With the evening attendance equal l ing that of the afternoon, reading the newspa- per was the h igh l igh t . No one came. Pr ice never a r r i ved , and .'he'had promised. January 28, Thursday After a long cold day on the ski h i l l our classes returned to the school at 5:10. By 6:30 I was hungry but again unpacked in the art room ten miles away. Although the afternoon session had been cance l led , the jan i to r told.me that one person had ar r i ved . The evening turnout was worse. Frustrated and discouraged by a dismal response, annoyed that Pr ice had never come, inwardly angry about not d i r ec t l y d i s t r i bu t ing the handouts, I became pa r t i cu la r l y disgrunt led when I remembered that the s i l k -sc reen frames had never been f i n i shed ! Tonight the secretary of Maple Creek Elementary School and I had 64 what was for me an enl ightening ta lk . At Maple Creek School one copy of both the announcements and the handouts were received, and, to her knowledge, no attent ion was drawn to the posted announcements. I had assumed that each teacher would be sent a copy of a l l the papers, but in th is school , at l eas t , that did not happen. Had th is happened elsewhere? Who got what? A d i f fe rent way of d i s t r i bu t ing information is needed. January 29, Friday I needed to discuss what had been happening with someone who had an object ive perspective of the d i s t r i c t . I chose Ted, my own p r i n c i - pa l . In confidence, I shared some f rus t ra t i ons , while he recommended a l ternat ives for making teacher contact. Ted's f i r s t suggestion was using the Intermediate Teachers' Associat ion as a veh ic le . Ove ra l l , though, he thought that I should ignore the supervisory s ta f f . P a r t i c - u l a r l y , he thought that Pr ice should be confronted with the f a i l u r e s , the problems, the inadequacies, and the reasons for my annoyance. P r i c e , Ted f e l t , had good intent ions but f a i l ed to see that much happened unless the project had a high p r o f i l e . We discussed the problem of accommodat- ing both primary and intermediate s ta f f on professional days. This had been the source of Mr. Farmer's reluctance in involv ing the intermediate ar t program. Ted thought that the problem was an excuse and non-exist- ent. Schools can be combined for a professional day with primary and intermediate d iv is ions handled separately. In his op in ion, Ted f e l t that inter-school communication was lack ing . January 30, Saturday Since yesterday's conversation with Ted I have discovered that the Intermediate Teachers' Associat ion i s defunct. Ted suggested that I d is t r ibu te any information on my own. This was the same idea I had been approaching. Yes, although I f e l t that the heading of the d i s t r i c t o f f i ce provided au thent ic i t y , future d i s t r i - bution w i l l not re ly upon the d i s t i c t o f f i c e . The need for e f fec t ive communication outweighs the benefi t of th is implied author i ty . January 31, Sunday Reportrxards are due into the school o f f i ce tommorrow and on my part they are not gett ing thei r usual a t tent ion. Gathering marks and assignments on Friday and preparing for the idea sheets and workshops have prevented me from gett ing around to preparing a second notice for th is week's workshops. February 2, Tuesday After l as t week my keenness has diminished somewhat. As a matter of ob l igat ion I look toward today's workshop. For th is set on clay there seems to be jus t as much to haul . Even though I am becoming used to the rout ine, the planning and preparation are just as demanding: plan the sess ion, gather and make examples, pick and pack supplies and equip- ment, f ind resource mater ia ls , and continue to teach! Then load, unload, unpack, sor t ! Today I did not sor t . I arn a slow learner! In that s ta te , I sat in the basement ar t room and read the newspaper during the afternoon session. Af ter I ate dinner and time had eaten into the evening,I was s t i l l unpacked and resigned to being ignored when a lone, late i nd i v i d - ual was heard asking for d i rect ions in the hallway. Archie Thomas strode i n , and I was surpr ised. Although I did not feel l i ke unpacking, I d id . Archie had heard about the workshop a c c i - denta l ly as he talked with Pr ice just a few days e a r l i e r . Even though 66 t i red and tempted to stay home with his feet up on th is winter night Archie had come. He f e l t that anyone who put time into planning a workshop should be given support. I think he was as amazed that no one had come las t week or tonight as I was that his school had not been informed. As we explored clay and talked I was astonished to learn that the guides, handouts, and workshop information had not been d i s - tr ibuted at his school , J .A . Macdonald. Open to ideas, fascinated with the clay and i t s po ten t ia l , Archie thoroughly enjoyed himself . I gave Archie one of the support texts for his school and asked that he share i t once he had read through i t . As w e l l , I suggested he f ind the guides. Before leav ing , he said he saw a need for his school to have a professional day in a r t v Price had promised to t e l l Debbie that she could have some re- lease time to prepare a workshop on drawing and colour. However, Archie said that to his knowledge Debbie had never been t o l d . Debbie, Archie added, had a t i r i n g c lass th is year and t ru ly needed such time to organize her thoughts, pa r t i cu la r l y as she was not used to speaking to adu l ts . February 3, Wednesday Today I am puzzled and t i red but much wiser a f ter ta lk ing with Archie. Has Pr ice d is t r ibuted the guides to those las t two schools? I f he has where are they? The drawing k i t that I retr ieved from Newton Elementary th is a f ter - noon looked untouched even though the pr inc ipa l relayed the message that the s ta f f was fami l ia r with most items except the bamboo pens, scratchboard, and conte crayon. Following my v i s i t to Newton School I found Price in the d i s t r i c t 67 o f f i c e . He asked me about the attendance at the workshops. According to P r i c e , we s t i l l needed to send the survey on i t s way. In th is way, we would see what teachers wanted and when they wanted i t . He implied that the poor turnout was caused by a lack of pr ior inqui ry . The sur- vey Pr ice promised by October 30 f lashed through my mind, but the thought remained unspoken. The opportunity to confront him as Ted had suggested was there, but I did not. Pr ice had no comprehension of the e f fo r t I had expended and the f rus t ra t ion I was fee l i ng . I proposed sending a questionnaire to determine the reasons for the poor attendance. Sending the questionnaire through the teachers' assoc i - at ion s ta f f representatives would guarantee a return. But, P r i c e , a f ter lengthy considerat ion, said that i f more than one pr inc ipa l f e l l into the same trap as John Penny, Arch ie 's p r i n c i p a l , th is approach might be seen as ' spy i ng ' . Af ter some time we agreed that I would send Pr ice a copy of my questionnaire so that he could d is t r ibu te i t with his own. The rest of our discussion b r i e f l y touched many top ics . Along with his suggestion of planning mult i -school professional days, Pr ice again mentioned having an intermediate professional day! The guides had been sent to the l as t two schools. Oh yes , the s i l k -sc reen frames were ready at the high school , but Pr ice forgot to pick them up. Af ter using my school 's paper for the past year, I b lunt ly asked Pr ice for a package. Unable to f ind an excuse, Pr ice looked around the empty o f f i ce to see who was watching and found a package in a cupboard. Real i ty f i n a l l y found a i r when I asked i f the overdue copies of Emphasis Art had a r r i ved . Only s ix copies were ever ordered! Those, as Pr ice reminded me, were for those schools that made a commitment. "Could we order s ix more of each?" I prompted. 68 "Yes , " said P r i ce . Tonight I have been mull ing over th is afternoon's ta lk with Pr i ce . Our conversation was cer ta in ly the most d i rec t one we have ever'~had. Perhaps the tone was a resu l t of my f rus t ra t ion and Ted's encouragement to become more outspoken. Where have those other guides gone? We d i s - cussed so much that I forgot to ask about my essent ia l quest ion, Debbie's release time. February 4, Thursday This was the day/of the l as t two workshops. After school and on my way into town, I took the drawing k i t to the pr inc ipa l of Crawford Creek School, Guy Watson. Guy had asked to borrow the k i t . He wanted to s i t and t a l k , but I to ld him that I had to get into town for the workshops. "What workshops?" he asked. To make an ugly story shor t , but nevertheless ugly, Guy had shelved a l l the information. Neither he nor his s ta f f knew anything. The attendance at both sessions was zero. Tonight I saw A l l a n . He asked, "Why do you continue to work through Pr ice?" Why do I? I have t r ied avoiding him, but in some way he becomes entangled. February 5,"Friday The day was qu ie t , but the night on the ski h i l l was l i v e l y . By chance, I met Debbie and Nei l in the lodge. As Debbie and I discussed her drawing and colour workshop, she to ld me that she would not consider a workshop before her marriage in A p r i l . She was far more de f in i te a- bout receiv ing release time than before. Pr ice had not to ld her about the promised time. According to Debbie, Archie had not found the guides 69 in the school , but he did enjoy working with the c lay . After speaking with Debbie, I saw N e i l . Nei l had come to the cancelled afternoon workshop. He wanted to know where I had been! Neil said that he would l i ke to observe some of my art c lasses . February 6, Saturday I am slowly c l a r i f y i n g my next step. My continuing f rus t ra t ion with Price and the f a i l u re of the workshops require reassessment and, in re- sponse, a probable new d i rec t i on . D i s t r i c t workshops are past, and, at th is time, I do not feel obl igated to plan s im i la r ones. I f other work- shops are held schools w i l l need to make a request, provide a guaran- teed attendance, and'use a professional day. Involvement and commitment can be developed in many ways. An ex- plorat ion of these other ways is needed to accomplish my i n i t i a l in tent : make contact with teachers, determine further d i rec t ion through informal d iscuss ion , and generate d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , c u r i o s i t y , and enthusiasm. Although face-to- face communication in workshop s i tuat ions would help prevent ba r r i e r s , the route I am planning to explore w i l l l i k e l y bump into some. Barr iers may be met in introducing the program's content and s t ruc ture , having teachers plan lessons with the guide, and developing competency with s k i l l s and processes. But, I s t i l l expect my i n i t i a l intent to be pursuable through other aspects of in -serv ice .educat ion . Furthering education while in service involves more than workshops, one band on the spectrum of in -serv ice education. The idea handbook i s designed to encourage continuing development of and involvement in the ar t curr iculum. The page t i t l e d A c t i v i t i e s , Pro jec ts , Star t ing Points (see Appendix page 151) is the act ive and essent ia l ingredient in t h i s . This is one route I am planning to t r a v e l . 70 Other solut ions are needed, though, to accomplish what the work- shops., were intended to do. Teachers need to be shown samples of high- qual i ty ch i ld ren 's art work; the po ten t ia l . Within teachers th is might develop some d i ssa t i s fac t i on with the i r present p rac t i ces . Teach- ers need to be encouraged to explore new ideas in the i r classrooms. This might promote new a t t i tudes ; a natural acceptance of teacher growth and experimentation. They need to see what others are doing with the program and develop a cu r ios i t y toward't.t. Teachers must see the i r s tu- dents working successfu l ly and, in the process, feel successful them- se lves; a renewed enthusiasm. There i s a need to ant ic ipate the poten- t i a l fun wi th in motivational approaches. Other ways of providing i n - service education w i l l be explored. I f teachers are not going to at- tend workshops, for whatever reason, I w i l l not l e t them ignore the ar t curr iculum! February 7, Sunday I have been f l i pp ing pages through and reading parts of every art book I haveiin an e f fo r t to l i s t samples that can re la te d i r ec t l y to the ar t curr iculum, be produced in quant i ty, and s t i l l be of high qua l i t y . Let an idea incubate in my mind! Here are seven p o s s i b i l i t i e s : a) a: s i 1 k-screen pr in t b) a cut-card block p r in t ' c) a sample of tag s t e n c i l l i n g d) cut c lay shapes - medal l ion, zipper gr ipper, key chain e) a protect ive cardboard mask!.for s tenc i l l ed greeting cards f) an India ink storage'Container g) a drape construct ion clay dish Beyond using samples, s l i d e s , char ts , f i l m s t r i p s , cassette tapes, and frequent addit ions to the idea handbook can be used. I now need to prowl then scrounge and dig for anything usefu l . I hope teachers begin to share. To th is end, the sheet for sharing ideas - A c t i v i t i e s , Pro jec ts , Star t ing Points - w i l l be pushed pers is ten t l y . February 8, Monday Today unfolded with my enthusiasm renewed. My new d i rec t ion re- quired neither Pr ice nor a budget. As I was shuf f l ing through f i l e s in the school o f f i ce Ted stopped to ta l k . He summarized the l as t p r i n c i p a l ' s meeting at which Pr ice raised the topic of the ar t curr iculum. I can only surmise the meet- ing 's tone, but P r i ce ' s comments must have been rather de f in i te and strongly stated. As b r i e f l y to ld to me by Ted, P r i c e , in reference to me, bas i ca l l y s a i d , "Release time w i l l be provided for him so that he can provide schools with help and advice on the ar t curr iculum. If there i s no subst i tute money ava i lab le then I w i l l take over his classes so he can be re leased." That segment of the meeting must have been l i v e l y . His s ince r i t y is appreciated, but I do not expect anything to hap- pen as a resu l t . February 9, Tuesday Because of the uncertainty over who received the sheets on g laz ing , wedging, and s t e n c i l l i n g , dupl icates have been made. These (see Appendi pages 164, 168, 169, 157) and a page descr ibing the ar t supply k i t s , the resource tex ts , and the idea network (see Appendix page 176) w i l l be dis t r ibuted tomorrow. A l e t t e r descr ibing my proposal for talented grade seven ar t s tu- dents was sent to Cynthia Quadra. February 10, Wednesday I d is t r ibuted the stapled idea packets by placing them in schools' trays at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . A covering note asked pr inc ipa ls to d i s - t r ibute them to teachers. I had to t rust somebody! I held back on the packets for two schools - Maple Creek Elementary and Waterside Elemen- tary. Del iver ing them personally gave me the excuse to v i s i t the schools and the opportunity to develop a conversation and see what was happening. Consequently, I discovered that Glenn Mar t in , pr inc ipa l of Maple Creek School , passed the guides to a l l teachers "from grade one up. They are sharing as a resu l t ! While in the d i s t r i c t o f f i ce I l e f t the questionnaire about work- shop attendance. • 'Pr ice w i l l proofread i t and add the questionnaire to his own survey. February 11, Thursday Our school had a dance tonight , but because there were so many par ents and teachers superv is ing, I was able to spend some time working in the art room. I ro l led c lay and cut medal l ions, zipper gr ippers, and key chains. One week has passed since Pr ice so zealously spoke at the p r i n c i - pa ls ' meeting. Even so, he has said nothing to me. What was his rea- son for doing what he did? Does he want to be involved in everything or does he feel some gu i l t about not providing open support. Perhaps he wants others to feel he i s responsible for t h e ' a c t i v i t y t a k i n g place February 16, Tuesday A l e t t e r from Cynthia Quadra ar r ived. She expressed her exc i te - ment over the ar t enrichment idea and inv i ted me to the next meeting of the enrichment teachers. 73 I phoned Pr i ce . The questionnaire was f i ne . Ear ly l as t f a l l Price promised me a l i s t of teachers and the grades to which they taught a r t . I never received i t . Today, he said that he would send me the l i s t . February 17, Wednesday Wednesday is a convenient day to d is t r ibu te idea addit ions to teachers. The weekend gives me a chance to gather my thoughts. Monday is used for typing. Tuesday involves copying and s tap l i ng . In today's packet of ideas I included f ive pages of clay projects (see Appendix pages 161, 163, 165, 166, 167) and a copy of the sheet for sharing ideas. With my excuse in hand, I v i s i t ed Roi ly Speaker, pr inc ipa l of the d i s t r i c t ' s second largest elementary school , Poplar Lane. Roi ly thought that a few teachers could be using the guide, but he was uncertain that anyone was. I was dumbfounded when he said that elementary teachers were not subject oriented l i k e secondary teachers and could not be ex- pected to do too much. What an enl ightening thought! I considered i f the log ic could be applied to mathematics and science as w e l l . February 24, Wednesday A sheet for sharing ideas, a glazed medal l ion, and a covering l e t - ter (see Appendix page 177) were enclosed in envelopes' and sent to a l l grade f i ve and seven teachers. March 9, Monday For three days las t week the B.C. Winter Games used the schools. Many teachers were involved with the Winter Games, so to avoid a c o n f l i c t I made no e f fo r t to promote the ar t curr iculum. I phoned Price and asked his secretary to have him c a l l me. 74 Having considered sending the questionnaire on my own, I had Ted proofread the questionnaire for contentious statements. March 10, Wednesday Again I ca l led Pr i ce . I wanted to discuss the support tex ts , the quest ionnaire 's d i s t r i bu t ion date, and the need for more copy paper. Because Pr ice did not phone and the questionnaire had to be sent before teachers forgot about the workshops, I put questionnaires into school t rays. Grade four teachers were given a sample p laster encased p i l l bot t le for d i s t r i bu t ing India ink (see Appendix page 178). March 15, Monday Pr ice returned l as t Tuesday's ca l l and to ld the school secretary that he would be in a l l day i f I wanted to c a l l him. March 16, Tuesday Paper was s t i l l needed, but the need to discuss the questionnaire was past - given to Pr ice on February 10 and d is t r ibuted on March 10. When I f i n a l l y found time during the day to phone, Pr ice assumed that I wanted to discuss the quest ionnaire, and, before I could explain what I had done, he promised to have i t out by the week's end. I responded, "It was sent out l as t week. Five weeks since the workshops had been a long enough wai t , and I was concerned that teachers might forget that we even had January." A pause was followed by a b r ie f conversation in which Pr ice did not sound pleased. The copy paper w i l l be put into the school 's tray at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . March 17, Wednesday I am determined to stop using so much of the school 's paper supply and to use the better qua l i t y , heavier d i s t r i c t paper. The d i s t r i c t must have that much of a commitment. No paper arr ived today. As a re- s u l t , I decided not to send idea packets to the schools. March 22, Monday The paper has not a r r i ved . March 25, Thursday Several sets of questionnaires have been returned. The return from Poplar Lane Elementary was small in comparison to the s t a f f ' s s i z e . Would R o l l y ' s e a r l i e r opinion that elementary teachers were not subject oriented be related? Twelve questionnaires came back/from Maple Creek School. I sent n ine, the same as the number of guides I l e f t . They must be short guides! March 30, Tuesday Paper arr ived today! Great! I am not sure how long I could have lasted before I gave in to myself. March 31, Wednesday Another idea packet with a fourth sheet for sharing ideas was placed in school trays th is afternoon. The media sheets with the numbers now c lea r l y printed were included. The covering l e t t e r (see Appendix page 179) encouraged using the Idea Network, suggested ordering a few spec i f i c supply items, and promoted two f i lms t r i ps and accompanying tapes on c lay . The second page (see Appendix 180) offered to loan three items for moti- vating chi ldren in a r t . This afternoon was busy. This was the day on which I was asked to share my ideas for encouraging talented art students. The Committee for the Gi f ted and Talented agreed to take advantage of a propit ious oppor- tun i ty . The Emily Carr College of Art Outreach Program w i l l be in our area in two weeks. One student - preferably from grade seven - w i l l 76 be s e n t f r o m e a c h s c h o o l . Payment w i l l be t h e s c h o o l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i s a m o s t p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e ! E c s t a s y ! A p r i l 13, T u e s d a y The E a s t e r h o l i d a y has d e l a y e d a c t i v i t y s l i g h t l y . I d e a s h e e t s were n o t s e n t t o s c h o o l s b e f o r e t h e b r e a k as I f e l t t h e y w o u l d be i g n o r e d . A p r i l 15, T h u r s d a y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been r e t u r n e d f r o m a l l s c h o o l s e x c e p t J.A. Mac- d o n a l d E l e m e n t a r y , D e b b i e and A r c h i e ' s s c h o o l . Inasmuch as t h e Macdon- a l d s t a f f was a p p a r e n t l y unaware o f t h e w o r k s h o p s , I do n o t e x p e c t a n y r e p l y . I h a v e n e v e r been g i v e n t h e s c h o o l - b y - s c h o o l b r e a k d o w n l i s t i n g t h o s e i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g t h e i r own a r t , b u t t h e r e a r e f i f t y - f i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s . O f t h e f o r t y s u r v e y s r e t u r n e d 58% were un- aware o f t h e w o r k s h o p s . T h a t e x c l u d e s t h e t e a c h e r s a t J.A. M a c d o n a l d S c h o o l . The s u r v e y summary ( s e e T a b l e 2) i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l f r e q u e n t r e a s o n s f o r n o n - a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h o s e who were a w a r e : i n c o n v e n i e n t t i m e , i n s u f f i c i e n t n o t i c e , p r i o r i t y i n p l a n n i n g i n a n o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a , and commitments t o t e a m s , m e e t i n g s , and c l u b s . O f t h o s e who m e n t i o n e d o t h e r r e a s o n s , one c o n s i d e r e d t h e t o p i c s u n s u i t a b l e f o r a g r a d e 3/4 s p l i t , two had a t t e n d e d a p r e v i o u s w o r k s h o p h e l d by me i n 1979, a n d , o f t h o s e two, one had a t w o - y e a r c o u r s e on c l a y as a b a c k g r o u n d . A p r i l 19, Monday B r u c e Thompson o f P o p l a r L a n e E l e m e n t a r y has r e q u e s t e d t h e f i l m - s t r i p s and a c c o m p a n y i n g t a p e s on c l a y f o r t h e f i r s t week i n May. He a l - so w anted t o know a b o u t s i l k s c r e e n i n g i n k and w i l l come t o my s c h o o l on Wednesday f o r t h e s i l k s c r e e n i n g p a c k a g e . I am p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s f i r s t r e s p o n s e t o t h e numerous i d e a s h e e t s and c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s . TABLE II FACTORS AFFECTING WORKSHOP ATTENDANCE As support for the intermediate art program seven work- shops were recently arranged. To f a c i l i t a t e planning for future workshops and i n - s e r v i c e we would appreciate the time you might spend answering the following questionaire. More than one answer may be ti c k e d . 23 ********** ********** I WAS NOT AWARE OF THE ART WORKSHOPS, (no further questions) ********** ********** I WAS AWARE OF THE WORKSHOPS BUT... 3 2 6 1 2 1 3 the time was inconvenient and I would prefer the l o c a t i o n was inconvenient and I would prefer 4 I had i n s u f f i c i e n t notice I was not interested 2 I give p r i o r i t y to planning i n other areas I have not seen the guide and didn't know what to expect I use another art program I had a meeting/team/club I had report cards I would have preferred another workshop leader I forgot •I had no energy l e f t I w i l l attend workshops only during school hours other 78 Apr i l 20, Tuesday I had jus t worked my way into a combination chair/desk at the meeting fo>'ther.arts display when Nancy Murphy, pr inc ipa l of Snow Va l - ley Elementary, sat on the edge of the adjoining cha i r . She asked me to consider discussing the art program and explaining the operation of her school 's k i l n during a professional day in la te May. I agreed to le t her make the arrangements through Ted and the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . Apr i l 21, Wednesday Before Bruce took the s i lkscreening package I showed him how to stretch and set up a screen and work through the process. Because the d i s t r i c t frames had no bases, I loaned him my frames. We also discussed c l ay , the k i l n , and related procedures and equipment. Bruce appreciated the help and l e f t happily loaded down with the equipment. Apparently he has been reading his guide! When the clay medallions - zipper gr ippers, key chains - were sent I purposely neglected to mention the need for nichrome wire in the glaze f i r i n g . I have been wait ing for someone to h i t the problem and ca l l - entrapment! Nei l phoned today. He couldlnot understand how the medal- l ions were glazed. After explaining the procedure, I assured him that some wire would be taken from my supplies and sent through the school mail serv ice . For encouragement, I included a metal key chain that can be attached to one of his c lay shapes. Idea packets were l e f t in school trays at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . The pages included twelve possible s t e n c i l l i n g projects and a l i s t of art suppl iers (see Appendix pages 158, 174). A l l grade seven teachers were given a sample cardboard mask that is useful in protecting greeting cards during the s t e n c i l l i n g process. And, every school enro l l ing grade seven was sent a f ive-co lour poster to demonstrate the potent ial of the sten- c i l l i n g process. May 3, Monday The Snow Val ley Workshop was confirmed for May 21. May 5, Wednesday Even though four copies of the page headed A c t i v i t i e s , Pro jec ts , Star t ing Points have been sent, teachers have not shared ideas. In an e f fo r t to make the communication process even eas ie r , a f i f t h copy of th is page was folded and stuffed into a return-addressed envelope. Every teacher was given one in today's packet. My intent could be no c learer ! Ten motivational s ta r t ing points were out l ined and added to a l i s t that described f i f teen items - k i t s , v i s u a l s , pieces of equipment - ava i lab le for loan.(see Appendix page 181). Other than Bruce, no one has borrowed anything. But, I w i l l not be ignored! Every time new pages ar r ive teachers must dig and f ind the i r ar t guide. I hope! I f they do not read i t , the i r guide i s at least be- ing dusted frequent ly. I acc identa l ly met Price as I f in ished my d i s t r i bu t i on . I to ld him that Bruce had been out to the school borrowing equipment, but that I was not sure how he was doing. Concerned, Pr ice s a i d , "There's not enough time for fol low-up. Teachers need to be changed through teaching methods and s t y l e s , not con tent. There are a few exceptions, such as indus t r ia l education and a r t . He shared some of his thoughts on curriculum implementation and the use of professional days. From his viewpoint, professional days have not always been used p ro f i t ab l y , and d i s t r i c t s ta f f should have control over two or three of the a l lo ted f i ve days. For implementation of a pro 80 gram, Pr ice proposed one-hour presentations that could be used as the professional development component of s ta f f meetings. As our d iscus- sion ended Pr ice related disappointment about the push the ar t cu r r i cu - lum had been given and admitted that he had not done too much. Stunned, I said nothing. When I spoke, I asked Pr ice what he thought would hap- pen to the ar t curriculum next year. In rep ly , he to ld me that the Curriculum Advisory Committee had met two weeks ago to make decisions about future curriculum pro jects . I asked him i f art had been spec i f - ica l ly , considered. Price s a i d , "No, i t was lumped with math and science. English was not inc luded." Staf f representatives on the committee were asked to report to s ta f fs and return with input. The text Art in Depth has not a r r i ved , and the recent ly promised extra copies of Emphasis Art were not ordered. Tonight I have been thinking about Pr ice and some of his comments. I f his proposed one-hour professional development components involved any studio/ laboratory work the time l i m i t of one hour might not j u s t i f y the e f fo r t expended in preparation and the movement of supplies and equipment. Pr ice has many promising ideas l i k e th is one, but he is too busy to know what is happening with ar t in the schools. As a r e s u l t , a gap ex is ts in my o r ig ina l intent of adding feedback channelled through Price to comments made by teachers and pr inc ipa ls and of modifying the d i rec t ion of the implementation process by considering th is composite react ion. A perplexing incident occurred th is afternoon as I was sort ing the packets for schools. John Penny passed by. He had just emptied his school's tray but neither acknowledged me nor waited f o r the m a t e r i a l . I f e e l he does not approve o f what i s happening. May 10, Monday Curious to see the progress Bruce Thompson was making, I chose some samples of paper s u i t a b l e f o r s i l k s c r e e n i n g and, in an attempt to see him before he l e f t , l e f t i n a hurry at three o'clock. Bruce was more than happy to have the paper and to share his e f f o r t s with c l a y . He and his c l a s s had had a few problems working with c l a y , but most had been solved. We talk e d about the remaining d i f f i c u l t i e s . Because Bruce was determined that I should have a cup of tea or c o f f e e , we talk e d about s t e n c i l l i n g and s i 1kscreening i n the s t a f f room. The c l a y work had kept him busy and prevented s i 1kscreening from s t a r t - i n g . There had been problems with s t e n c i l l i n g , and, as the s t o r y un- f o l d e d , I saw that the wrong brushes and paper had been used. Bruce thought that the paint had been too t h i c k , but that was the only thing that had been r i g h t ! As we t a l k e d , Bruce recommended the l i n o c u t t e r s he had been using and wanted me to see them. Having seen the c u t t e r s we descended the s t a i r s again and discussed g l a z e , s p e c i f i c a l l y the glaze Bruce had stored i n the stockroom. In the process of i n s p e c t i n g the glaze I discovered more appropriate s t e n c i l l i n g brushes on a s h e l f and commented that i n a school t h i s s i z e other, l a r g e r hog h a i r brushes must be cached. Tonight I have been wondering i f the idea sheet on s t e n c i l l i n g i s c l e a r l y w r i t t e n . In t r y i n g to read i t as though I was a novice, the r e l e v a n t brushes and paper are s p e c i f i c a l l y d e scribed, but the manner.]'.': i n which to'make the brush strokes needs to be c l a r i f i e d . Bruce genu- i n e l y appreciated the chance to share and to discuss d i f f i c u l t i e s . With- 82 out help, problems remain, teachers and students become f rus t ra ted , simple solut ions remain unknown. Bruce i s t ry ing to do a good job , but the support ava i lab le to him is sporadic and happenstance. May 13, Thursday Like l ightn ing more success has pierced the dark. When the f i f t h copy of the idea sharing page was sent on May 5 I was determined to get a react ion and to make communication as easy as poss ib le . Today two suggestions a r r i ved ! Debbie sent an idea that I had encouraged her to share when we met las t September. And, Patsy Freeman thought a project with mosaics would be use fu l . Am I pleased; a l i t t l e smug too! Neither idea d i r ec t l y re lates to the core part of the art program, but that is i r re levan t . The response, the involvement, and the sharing at t i tude are more important. May 19, Wednesday At a planning meeting for the arts d isplay I saw Debbie. She had only recent ly rea l ized that her idea for the handbook had not been sent to me. Perhaps my prompting was needed. While buying groceries Shi r ley Parkinson and I met. A staffmate of Bruce, she too had been t ry ing the s t e n c i l l i n g project with grade seven and had been having t rouble. Her students had been paint ing the cut-card shapes in because the paint was too th ick ! Shi r ley has enjoyed the idea sheets, and, although she has not used them a l l , some have been use fu l . Her school , Poplar Lane, has only recent ly started i t s self-assessment. Jane Daniels from Crawford Creek Elementary asked about borrowing the circus/monster make-up k i t . I am puzzled as to why so much a c t i v i t y would take place so la te in the year. And, so suddenly! 83 May 20, Thursday John Penny phoned Ted, my p r i n c i p a l , to see i f I would present the ar t curriculum on the morning of June 21. Ted agreed to release me and has asked me to phone John. John has not handed his s ta f f the guides yet ! The fact that his s ta f f has seen neither the guides nor the idea packets might explain the consistent lack of response from his school and his avoidance of me. June 21 i s a la te date, but at least I have been given a chance to present the program. My planning for John Penny's school , J .A . Macdonald, s'hould be helped by tomorrow's response to my f i r s t fu l l -day workshop with a school s ta f f . May 21, Friday Short ly af ter the school jan i to r watched me unpack, the Snow Va l - ley s ta f f and I started with an introduct ion to the core program and the supporting mater ia ls . The day moved qu ick ly , and the teachers en- joyed themselves. Although the clay was ' s h o r t ' , and we had d i f f i c u l t y making co i l s and throwing the clay into sheets, two d i s t i n c t blocks of time made the morning worthwhile. The s ta f f had espec ia l ly wanted me to explain how to operate the school 's k i l n which had arr ived a year ago but had only recent ly been connected by the e l e c t r i c i a n . No one knew what to do with the k i l n . Though, now that i t was operable, Carol ine was gathering her nerve to t r y . Methodically;, I explained the par ts , the related supp l ies , and the f i r i n g sequence. As I concluded, I suggested they t ry using the k i l n before my explanation was forgotten and learn from experience. The s ta f f was excited and apprec iat ive. The excitement followed through the rest of the morning as we ex- 84 plored c lay . As I would with a group of youngsters, I introduced vo- cabulary, processes, and s k i l l s . By dipping pro jects , andrpouring and brushing g laze, teachers glazed bisqueware that I had made in the pre- ceding weeks. While teachers worked with c l ay , I stopped them and de- monstrated three or four projects and, where poss ib le , suggested adap- tat ions for the primary teachers. With these i r regu lar in ter rupt ions, we worked through the morning. The only man on s ta f f was Harry. When he succeeded in making a tube vase, he was the subject of some good-natured kidding by'the younger teachers. Even so, Harry was obviously happy with his pro ject , and, l i k e so many othersj he soon had i t drying with the glazed bisque- ware and Egyptian paste projects on a side tab le . Success! In many ways these teachers reacted l i ke my students. Nancy Murphy, the p r i n c i p a l , was neatly set t led on the f loor wedg- ing - not banging as Nancy thought - a block of c lay . She was fasc inat - ed with the c l a y ' s qua l i t i es and found making something far more d i f f i - cu l t than she had imagined. Several wanted Nancy to order more c lay , and Carol ine had to assert hersel f in defending the remains of the c lay that she had ordered for her c l a s s . The budget, as Nancy to ld us, had been spent. However, some money in the school 's own account could be used. Without an opportunity to t ry clay with ch i l d ren , newly"learned s k i l l s would be los t and the morning's buildup would be followed with immediate discouragement - d i sas te r . What did the day achieve? Everyone knew more. Teachers had come to be fami l ia r with the i r k i l n , the qua l i t i es of c l ay , and many pro jects. Ski l ls : :and vocabulary from the core program were taught in context. Most teachers had been successful in some way. Some of the supporting re- 85 source materials had been introduced, and, as a resu l t , several teach- ers wanted to borrow the Fantast ic Packing Crate, the clown/monster make-up k i t , and the pottery charts . A primary teacher needed a ques- t ion answered. Packaged papier mache arr ived without i ns t ruc t ions , and she did not know what to do with the pulp. Throughout the day an- swers met questions. In the end, the teachers were appreciat ive of the encounter with c lay , and I was appreciat ive of the i r enthusiasm and sense of fun! Just before I l e f t , Roseanne stated that we should meet once a week as a c l a s s , because the pottery classes offered through the night school program were always f u l l . The preparation for the clay workshop with the Snow Val ley School s ta f f consumed a tremendous amount of my time. Working during my spare per iod, af ter school , and through evenings has made me t i r e d . Examples* supp l ies , equipment, and support materials need to be ca re fu l l y se lec t - ed. Preparation always seems to involve gathering, so r t i ng , packing, and re-checking to see that nothing has been forgotten. F i n a l l y , plan- ning is required for both the workshop out l ine and the classes l e f t with a subst i tute teacher. When the day i s over everything must be un- packed and assigned i t s usual place in my classroom. May 22, Saturday In the past several weeks there has been so much unexpected re- sponse that I am astounded. Persistence has to be the key! May 23, Sunday I am not interested in preparing ' for ' the workshop at J .A . Macdonald School, but I w i l l . The twenty- f i rs t i s the Monday'-.:in the l as t f u l l school week. Without the workshop everything w i l l be hec t ic . John Pen- ny has probably been caught with one remaining professional development 86 day and needs to f i l l the time. Some advance planning of professional days would f a c i l i t a t e implementation e f f o r t s . Now that some momentum is developing decentra l izat ion away from me is my next goal . Others need to be involved. Pers istent delays and roadblocks have precluded involving Debbie and Ross. Myr7: f rus t ra t ion and occasional sense of discouragement might only have been more intense for them. Then again, others, working as a team, might have provided support and more aggressiveness. Perhaps time to bui ld momentum is need- ed before others can be involved. Since speaking with Sh i r ley Parkinson I have been considering the thought that working with someone who is also w i l l i n g to r i sk and share successes with you is he lp fu l . Apparently Sh i r ley and Ross have been doing that. May 25, Tuesday Ross Rosser has not forgotten about theaart program.and to ld me- that he wfould'outline ideas over the summer. Maybe then the program w i l l be part ly h i s . At noon John Penny ca l led to arrange the half-day on June 21. Ten- t a t i v e l y , we w i l l introduce the ar t curriculum in one hour and work through one of the media areas in two hours. The s ta f f w i l l choose the media area. May 26, Wednesday More idea packets were placed in school trays today. They included the ideas sent from Patsy Freeman and Debbie Arnold. The covering l e t t e r thanked Patsy and Debbie for the i r contr ibut ion and urged other teachers to share, (see Appendix pages 171, 172) May 31, Monday The secretary of Maple Creek School spoke to me today. The p r i n c i - pal there had the ent i re s ta f f sharing the intermediate art guides. However, a f ter I had spoken with her several months ago, she took the job upon hersel f and gathered'the guides together and re-d is t r ibu ted them to intermediate teachers only. Binders were provided. She said that she hoped teachers were properly placing the addi t ional sheets. In any event, the guides w i l l be co l lec ted and checked during the sum- mer. June 1, Tuesday Bruce c a l l e d . He asked i f he could come out to the school to be shown how to operate the pyrometer on the k i l n . As w e l l , he was puz- zled about the many d i f fe rent cones that were on the shel f near his school 's k i l n . His confidence with c lay , he to ld me, was greater, and he wanted to s ta r t s i l k sc ree ing . The d i s t r i c t arts d isplay i s tak- ing place in mid-June and he expects to have some work ready for then. June 4, Friday The clown/monster make-up k i t was returned with a note from Jane Daniels that asked me to v i s i t her class and make up one of her students "When'you haVeitime," she added. Yes, that is the d i f f i c u l t part . How nice to be valued, but how do I get the time to drive there, do th is and return. There is f rus t ra t ion for both of us. June 21, Monday The lead-up to today's workshop at Macdonald Elementary has been exhausting. I honestly do not know why I was asked to come at such a la te date. Better ye t , why did I say I would? After having backed the car down the steepest of a l leys to a base- ment door, a procession of teachers helped pack in mater ia ls . The phys- i ca l s i tua t ion was very awkward. With the i r school destroyed by f i r e in February, 1982, two classes were being accommodated in a large base- ment room. Upon enter ing, I saw, to the l e f t , teachers gathered around low tables and perched on chairs meant for much younger people, d i rec t - ly ahead, rows of desks that f i l l e d much of the room, and, to the far r i gh t , a narrow, curving counter that segregated one corner. Moving to the l e f t , I l i t e r a l l y stacked and balanced much of what I had brought across a table and in front of the s ta f f . The ar t guides had never been d is t r ibuted by John Penny, the p r in - c i p a l . As a consequence, most of an hour was used in sort ing and add- ing a l l of the idea packets sent during the year. With that done, a descr ipt ion of the program was g iven, and motivational approaches and resource materials were shown. The reasons for the art program were re- viewed and expectations were out l ined. The teachers were both aston- ished and impressed with the percentage of students in the i r area that take no ar t past elementary school . F i n a l l y , I was careful to stress that th is was the i r program, our program, and rev is ion in September woul ask for the i r input. Debbie, in seeing her reproduced idea, thought that i t had been f a i t h f u l l y copied, but i t had los t something in the re -wr i t i ng . Helen suggested that I provide a l i s t of suppl iers with the i r addresses. A l - ready done, that page had been given to teachers in A p r i l , but John was unable to f ind the set . Archie had neither shared the copy of Emphasis Art that I had given him in ear ly February nor t r i ed any clay pro jects. Although the f i r e had destroyed the school 's k i l n , Archie was in the secondary school and should have been able to use the k i l n there. Following coffee and a f ter an overview of the printmaking aspect of the program that was i l l u s t r a t e d with student examples, the time was eleven o 'c lock . With fo r t y - f i ve minutes remaining, teachers were g iv- en an opportunity to explore printmaking processes, but many were con- tent tovview s l ides and watch others. After my prompting, a few t r ied a pro ject , but most wanted to see the processes demonstrated as they were unfamil iar with them. By 11:55 s ta f f members had most e f f i c i e n t l y loaded my ca r , and I had started the twenty mile t r i p back and expected to make classes that started at 12:30. I l e f t the s ta f f wanting more. The morning had pro- vided too l i t t l e time, and several teachers said that they should have planned to have me for the afternoon,as we l l . As I slumped into my seat for the return t r i p , I f e l t l i k e a gopher that had been caught in a p ra i r i e windstorm! I have been considering what happened th is morning. The ruinous f i r e that destroyed the i r school has th is s ta f f operating in two loca- tions without some ar t suppl ies . When several teachers rea l ized that the Printmaker's Box had been avai lab le for loan and that they could have used the much needed supp l ies , they were annoyed that they had not known. But, because John had not d is t r ibuted the idea packets, the s ta f f was unaware and did without. June 22, Tuesday I acc identa l ly met Price today in the board o f f i c e . In the past two weeks he has f i n a l l y taken his survey to determine curriculum in te r - ests of teachers. The t a l l y shows that teachers want, among other th ings, a primary art program developed. The Curriculum Advisory Com- mittee has decided to continue current programs in the f a l l . In conclud- ing , Pr ice said that we w i l l have to look at rev is ion of the art program th is coming f a l l as grades f i ve and s ix are weak. 90 I have been thinking about P r i ce ' s l as t comment th is afternoon. I knew rev is ion of the ar t program was expected - in f a c t , bu i l t into the process I have been advocating. But, for Pr ice to suddenly know so much about the program and i t s weaknesses was a shock! June 25, Friday With a smile across her face, Anne Peterson from Macdonald School s a i d , "Everyone enjoyed the morning, even i f you thought you were on a t readmi l l ! " June 30, Wednesday Two school years of planning and e f fo r t were invested in th is f i e l d study. Although recounted highl ights of the project described the char- acter of the work and what was done and how i t was done, the vast amounts of t ime, energy, and stamina that were required can only be suggested. But, what was learned from the experience? What can be abstracted? The next chapter, in attempting to summarize what has already been revealed in the previous chapters, may be, in par t , only redundant and super f i - c i a l . In sp i te of t h i s , such a summary w i l l draw together seeming unre- lated incidents and w i l l act as a reminder of what i s important to con- s ider when planning future development and implementation projects in intermediate grade a r t . 91 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Ref lect ions With ends not c l a r i f i e d at the outset, th is f i e l d study proceeded to see how and in what ways the phases of development and implementation would be affected and changed. The process of implementation has been slow and must, out of necess i ty , be considered an on-going a c t i v i t y i n - corporating rev i s i on , continuing teacher in-put , and response to chang- ing condi t ions. Teacher input occasional ly appeared in the form of questions d i rec t - ed toward the sequencing of content. The problem of sequencing content - concepts, major understandings, media, and projects - has been jus t that ; a problem. Even af ter the or ig ina l committee resolved the problem of sequencing, others asked about having to teach what was out l ined. My answer usual ly reminded teachers that the i r par t i c ipa t ion had been asked for and was s t i l l expected. Then I stated that the ar t program was a ' p i l o t ' project in which par t i c ipa t ion was voluntary. Further, as a way of ensuring that a broad range of media and projects would be covered in the intermediate grades, the media and projects had been divided into four graded groups. This did not mean that students were imcapable..of using"the media or.making the projects that had been assigned to other grades. Rather, with the program fo l lowed, chi ldren would have covered the content by grade seven. However, i f a teacher was pa r t i cu la r l y i n - terested or talented in an area covered in a la te r grade the content could be taught. But, they were cautioned to do th is choosing se lec t i ve - l y . Having an idea well taught was preferable to not having i t taught at a l l in a la te r grade. 1 92 Communication with classroom teachers was one of my greatest pro- blems. Staf f meetings, workshops, and in -serv ice should have been used to explain the intent of the art program, to encourage teacher con t r i - but ions, and to measure teachers' needs. However, only four s ta f fs were met w i th , and, of those, two were seen in the l as t f i ve weeks of the school year. So many teachers knew nothing of the workshops, the guide, and the resources that I frequently wondered about the d isc re - t ion of p r inc ipa ls to inform teachers in a routine manner or to ac tua l - ly withhold information. I often wondered who ac tua l ly knew of the or ig ina l curriculum development committee. Because not a l l teachers received an introduct ion to the art pro- gram, pages that made the guide more sel f -explanatory were d is t r ibu ted . One page out l in ing reasons for the program's existence was never made. However, such a page would have informed those who did not receive an introduct ion and would have acted as a reminder for those who d id . In sp i te of communication problems, I remained v i s i b l e and a v a i l a - b l e , but not i n te r fe r ing . In th is manner, I persisted and gained a meas- ure of recognit ion and acceptance for the art program. Accurately meas- uring the success of the program has been a dilemma involving s p e c i f i c i t y . At th is time I can say that in the l i gh t of the barr iers encountered, I am pleased with the extent of teacher response to the curr iculum. A l - though unable to know what a l l teachers have done, I sense that the pro- gram has had an impact upon teacher i n te res t , thought, and ac t ion . Though teachers and students control the extent to which a program is implemented, the Curriculum Advisory Committee, the board of school t rus tees, the superintendent, and the d i rec tor of ins t ruc t ion provided support. They provided the required p o l i t i c a l consent. In theory, the community should have been considered. But, toward th is non- controversia l subject area, however, no community react ion was ever given. P r i c e , though, as the supervisor responsible for curriculum de- velopment, was the most i n f l uen t i a l factor in the project . The r e l a - t ionship between the supervisor and the project coordinator, l i k e the re la t ionsh ip between the coordinator and the teachers, had to be based upon t rust and confidence. But, P r i c e ' s involvement, although des i r - ab le , was, in f ac t , sporadic and unpredictable. Even when he strongly to ld the d i s t r i c t ' s p r inc ipa ls that he would e i ther provide me with the necessary release time or take over my classes himself , nothing hap- pened. In the end, release time was not provided for the developmental phase. The ent i re implementation process received two days so that I could meet with three s t a f f s . The r e l a t i v e l y small amount of re - lease time placed tremendous demands upon my own time and energy. One person cannot carry the ent i re respons ib i l i t y and teach f u l l - time. When the project proceeds to the implementation phase a leader- ship, committee composed of several teachers needs to share responsi- b i l i t y for planning and leading in-depth continuing i n -se rv i ce . I had expected to involve Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser in th is way, but when Debbie's nonexistent release time was combined with my i n a b i l i t y to e f fec t i ve l y organize and maintain a schedule, her p a r t i - c ipat ion was precluded. Ross was diverted by his commitment to teach a special c lass with several behavioral problems. His best promise was to prepare ideas for the handbook over the summer of 1982. When P r i c e ' s lack of support was confirmed to be a continuing r e a l i t y , and the workshops were i ne f fec t i ve , I became determined to 94 prevent teachers from ignoring the ar t curr iculum. Frequent d i s t r i - bution of idea packets kept the ar t program a l i ve and, in the end, prompted three teachers to begin shar ing, several teachers to use ideas and borrow suppl ies , and two schools to request in -serv ice and workshops. Packets that were d is t r ibuted for inc lus ion in the idea handbook were pr imar i ly intended to develop an awareness of the pro- gram and to encourage teachers to begin a sharing process. Sharing was seen as another way of involving more teachers in the develop- ment of the program. I feel that such involvement develops commit- ment. As w e l l , idea packets, selected because they provided support and related to media and pro jec ts , provided teachers with a l te rna t i ves . One inadequately rea l ized goal was the creat ion of sample lessons cor re la t ing projects and media with content. As the program developed Dave asked for lesson plans several t imes. Their creat ion was qu ie t ly assumed to be my job. But, for me, the chore of ou t l in ing them was not only a time consuming one but second in p r i o r i t y to developing an awareness of the curriculum and e l i c i t i n g teacher pa r t i c i pa t i on . Sev- eral sample lessons that followed the lesson planning sheet (see Appen- dix page 116) were draf ted, but only one rea l ized p r in t . Introductions to' the program were o r i g i n a l l y conceived to include an opportunity to plan a lesson or a ser ies of lessons using the guide, but f i r s t - t ime meetings always lacked the time to get that done. In the fu ture, such lessons need to be d i s t r i bu ted . Other ways of providing teachers with an in service education s t i l l need to be explored. For example, small sel f -contained k i ts could be taken home by teachers so that a project or medium could be explored on a week night or over the weekend. 95 The las t two in -serv ice sessions involved both primary and in te r - mediate s ta f f members. Primary teachers were often more open in the i r enthusiasm and, on occasion, asked about the development of a primary ar t program. When P r i c e ' s survey was completed in June, primary teach- ers had ranked art high on the i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s for future c u r r i - culum development. If the in terest was not prompted by the intermedi- ate program, i t was cer ta in ly in tens i f i ed by i t . A curriculum that is not only designed to be adapted by teachers but cont inual ly added to and modified is not only r e a l i s t i c but exc i t - ing and capable of involv ing teachers. The real ism of such a cu r r i cu - lum is based upon the concept that change does not wait over several years for a curriculum to be rev ised. Change i s a continuous process. Ind iv idual ly and as a group our conceptions and knowledge w i l l change over time. As a r e s u l t , we need to have strategies that allow for modif icat ion and adaptation. Other factors - f a c i l i t i e s , funding, a t t i tudes - a lso change and need to be considered. The development and implementation of an art curriculum cannot s ta r t and stop then years la te r s ta r t again. Conclusions This f i e l d study did not y i e l d quant i f iab le data on which to base conclusions. It d i d , however, provide experiences, impressions, and problematic s i tuat ions that led to c learer ideas or useful conclusions about what we are to ld should be done re la t i ve to what ac tua l ly was or i s . Some of the conclusions that fo l low, then, also carry the weight of recommendations. Because curriculum development and curriculum implementation cannot be considered separately, th is f i e l d study developed an art program en- compassing both elements. The intent ion was not to create a perfect program. Rather, the curriculum acted as a ca ta lys t that allowed the factors a f fect ing i t s development and implementation to be iden t i f i ed and observed. Based upon sixteen months of involvement, many conclu- sions have been made about those factors and the extent to which each made an impact. Individuals and groups are central f ac to rs , and taking theory into pract ice means that there w i l l be interact ions between the- ory - the planned for - and ind iv iduals and groups - the unexpected. What appears to be so c lear in theory inev i tab ly requires responsive adaptation in p rac t i ce . Of the ind iv iduals who exert tremendous inf luence upon theory in process, the supervisor responsible for curriculum is one of the most important. Senior administrators have the author i ty to provide impetus to change and can do so with act ive support. However, even when com- mittees and teachers make commitments and expend t ime, the supervisor u l t imately decides what w i l l be promoted and to what extent i t w i l l be emphasized. Personal p r i o r i t i e s play a part in these dec is ions. Fur- ther , the supervisor may want to be involved in every pro jec t , but, in r e a l i t y , is unable to provide spec i f i c guidance in a l l subject areas. When such i s the case, the supervisor must defer to others and r e l i n - quish some author i ty . When working with ind iv iduals and groups, a super- v i s o r ' s re la t ionsh ip must not suggest manipulation as that w i l l create resentment and lessen commitment. Evidence in th is study suggests that i f these points are not considered implementation e f fo r ts w i l l be se- verely hindered but not stopped. Many negative fac to rs , including a superv isor , can be adjusted t o , although support i s obviously preferred. There i s reason to bel ieve that when a supervisor f a i l s to provide open and continuing support and to f a c i l i t a t e a program in which others are taking a leadership r o l e , those ind iv iduals feel used and become d i s - couraged and d i s i l l u s i o n e d . Their diminished enthusiasm w i l l u l t imately a f fect implementation. Moreover, others cannot be r e a l i s t i c a l l y involved when plans are not kept on t rack. When curriculum development and implementation re ly upon a committee of classroom teachers, reading and planning may not be done between meet- ings. If par t ic ipants are neither prepared in ar t nor knowledgeable about art program development should not be a long process. Implementation involves teaching teachers. Evidence in the records of th is study suggest that teachers need to be motivated and taught in a manner that i s s im i la r to that used in any teaching s i tua t ion of qua l i t y . Inherent in th is teaching is the need for success. For program imple-- mentors, in -serv ice provides an opportunity to begin changing be l ie fs and at t i tudes and to develop the same knowledge and s k i l l s in teachers that the program requires of ch i ld ren . In-service makes teachers aware of the program's potent ial and provides for curriculum a r t i c u l a t i o n . However, the concept of in -serv ice is not so le ly res t r i c ted to workshops. In a broader d e f i n i t i o n , in -serv ice i s the education of the teacher while the teacher i s in se rv i ce , and, as such, may involve answering a question over the telephone or v i s i t i n g with a teacher outside of school hours. These contacts provide opportunit ies that have tremendous value in re- solv ing concerns relevant to classroom pract ice and in providing encour- agement. The scope of in -serv ice education needs further explorat ion. In-service most frequently involves the use of professional days or s ta f f meetings. But, professional days do not fol low a long-range plan and are frequently used toward the year 's end. As a resu l t of 98 th is study observations noted that present pract ices do not consider d i s t r i c t curriculum implementation needs and do not coordinate i nd i v i d - ual school 's in -serv ice plans. In-service involves contact time which is essent ia l for e f fec t ive communication. Teachers and pr inc ipa ls need to know what the curriculum invo lves, how i t af fects them, and how i t can improve what they are do- ing. Because teachers and pr inc ipa ls cannot be handed a guide and be ex- pected to understand the program and use i t e f f e c t i v e l y , opportunit ies for planning with and t ry ing the program need to be provided. In addi - t i o n , the guide must be as sel f -explanatory as poss ib le . Even with a sel f -explanatory guide, personal contact provides the best guidance. When contact between those with expert ise and teachers who are making an e f fo r t is incons is tent , processes may not be understood. Teachers and students become confused and f rust rated in the i r attempts. As a r e s u l t , when beginning, teachers need the guidance and approval of a coordinator/ team or a fe l low teacher with whom both problems and successes can be shared. Teachers want leadership and help with technical and planning problems. Success creates continued in te res t . Success ce r ta in ly makes a coordinator want to generate better r esu l t s . This success requires that teachers use good qual i ty materials and have su f f i c i en t equipment in the i r c lasses . Teachers cannot be assumed capable of 'making-do' with second-rate, homemade, home-found suppl ies. Time that i s unnecessari ly used in gathering th is type of material i s only followed with f rus t ra t ion in both teachers and students as those materials f a i l to adequately perform. Teachers and students who expe- rience th is kind of f a i l u r e and discouragement resent fur ther involve- ment. Even when i n i t i a l student/teacher success is not pa r t i cu la r l y high in qua l i t y , encouragement for i t must be given because the success is a s tar t ing point . Teacher confidence and competence are a resu l t of par- t i c i pa t i on and explorat ion. Opportunit ies to see and ac tua l ly t ry the ar t processes and projects provides teachers with a base to which content can be re la ted , personal s k i l l s , an understanding of l im i ta t ions and pos- s i b i l i t i e s , and strengthened chances for classroom success. S k i l l in content can lead to a r t i s t r y in teaching. In th is study perseverence came to be seen as the obvious key to communication when t ry ing to change teachers. If f am i l i a r with numer- ous, previous and s u p e r f i c i a l l y implemented e f f o r t s , teachers need to be convinced that the new program is determined and sincere in i t s in tent . A program resu l t ing from extensive teacher e f fo r t cannot be pr in ted , b r i e f l y introduced, and ignored. Perseverence in exploring the broader de f i n i t i on of in -serv ice encourages teacher e f f o r t , pa r t i c i pa t i on , and shar ing. Risk- tak ing with other teachers and sharing of successes and fa i l u res between colleagues appears to provide mutual support. Change in ind iv iduals w i l l occur before groups are changed. Curriculum implementation is an on-going a c t i v i t y . Teachers are h i red , more teachers see the need to be involved, and others have pre- v ious ly diverted at tent ion and energy ava i lab le . Teachers whose ener- gies were drained by extra r espons ib i l i t i e s or a demanding c lass in one par t i cu la r year need to be given opportunit ies to par t ic ipate in other years. When implementation uses a curriculum that was designed to be frequently reassessed and to involve teachers on a continuing bas is , change i s bu i l t into the program. If implementation is viewed as a short-term process success may 100 not be given enough time to evolve. Decent ra l iza t ion , so that several ind iv idua ls can take respons ib i l i t y for the program, takes time and per- severence. Individual teachers may need to be s p e c i f i c a l l y asked to par- t i c i p a t e , given preparation time, and made to feel valued. Although the time that i s required for teachers and coordinators is a c r i t i c a l factor in implementation success, breaking through an administrat ive barr ier in order to make contact with teachers is more dec is i ve . This bar r ie r i n - volves b e l i e f s , a t t i t udes , p r i o r i t i e s , and values. Any attempt to im- plement an ar t curriculum must consider these elements. Some of these at t i tudes and be l ie fs can only be accommodated. Recommendations Recommendations must consider conclusions in re la t ion to the theor- e t i ca l and, at the same time, consider factors leading to present suc- cess and weakness. When making recommendations, acknowledgement must be given to the fact that we never know enough to p red ic t , only enough to suggest that new d i rect ions be followed or that present actions be main- ta ined. Recommendations, then, can only- be used as a guide for other d i s t r i c t s and d i f fe rent t imes, as decisions must recognize other goals and people. Nevertheless, future act ion depends upon what we have learned from past experiences, and recommendations can a le r t us to poten- t i a l p i t f a l l s and act as steppingstones to success. As a resu l t of th is f i e l d study, what can be abstracted? Pr io r to curriculum development those involved should understand and fo l low the local d i s t r i c t ' s po l icy regarding curriculum development. The project coordinator should obtain from the local curriculum advisory committee a wr i t ten commitment for secre tar ia l help and release time needed in the curr iculum's development. Then, in developing a cu r r i cu - 101 lum, a group composed of volunteers must guide decisions by consensus. If capable teachers are to be involved they must be re l ieved of classroom respons ib i l i t y during the day or compensated for time used beyond the i r regular teaching assignment. Rough draf ts of some curriculum components and a se lect ion of appl icable resources w i l l provide d i r ec t i on , save i n - experienced committee members many hours of work, avoid fa t igue , and f a - c i l i t a t e d iscuss ion. When a curriculum project is presented to a d i s t r i c t ' s curriculum advisory committe and the local board of school t rus tees, i t must be ac- companied by a wri t ten implementation plan. Such a plan should c lea r l y speci fy the ant ic ipated budget, a petty cash al lotment, the amount of release time or method of providing compensation for the coordinator/ team and teachers, the assistance required for typing and copying, the authority/autonomy of the coordinator/team, the respons ib i l i t i e s of the ind iv iduals involved, the in -serv ice schedule, p ivotal deadl ines, and the program's status in the d i s t r i c t . Both the curriculum and the im- plementation plan need to be approved. Approving a curriculum while neg- lec t ing to simultaneously approve an implementation plan w i l l create a super f i c ia l commitment, di f ferences of op in ion, broken promises, unclear d i r e c t i o n , and sh i f t in pract ice caused by the personal p r i o r i t i e s of senior administrators and p r i nc i pa l s . Personal p r i o r i t i e s of senior administrators and pr inc ipa ls must not in ter fere with communication. Because teachers interpret a cu r r i cu - lum, they must be able to make i n t e l l i gen t choices about i t by having a c lear understanding of the program's intent and content. With th is in mind, a curr iculum's coordinator must ensure that communication with teachers i s as d i rec t as poss ib le . Every teacher must be informed by 102 receiv ing indiv idual copies of any printed mater ia l . To th is end, p r i n - c ipa ls must ac tua l ly give teachers the information intended for them. Further, although pr inc ipa ls and supervisors need to have the i r posi t ion respected, they must not act as unnecessary intermediaries between the project coordinator/team and the teachers. Such act ion w i l l only delay communication and the implementation process. Personal values, b e l i e f s , and p r i o r i t i e s must be superseded by professional ism so that the poten- t i a l of each subject area is given a chance to be rea l i zed . In th is l i g h t , the supervisor of ins t ruc t ion must provide open, sustained sup- port , r e l i a b l e fo l low-up, and guidance that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the actions of a coordinator/team. To permit d i rec t communication some authority/autonomy must be g i - ven to the coordinator of the program. As w e l l , time during the day must be provided for. the coordinator so that da i l y assistance and encourage- ment, personal contact with teachers, and fol low-up can be given. Time is also required for reading, th ink ing , planning, and organiz ing. Teach- ers must also be re l ieved of classroom respons ib i l i t i e s so that attend- ance at i n -se rv i ce sessions i s poss ib le . If that is not possible they should be compensated for time spent beyond the regular school day. An expanded de f i n i t i on of in -serv ice needs to be explored. Regard- less of the form that in -serv ice takes, both teachers and pr inc ipa ls need to be par t i c ipants . If in -serv ice takes place outside school hours then actual teacher commitments to attend should precede f i n a l planning. When personal contact is used to provide in -serv ice education for a new curr iculum, several c lose ly scheduled meetings should be arranged, because planning lessons with the guide in the f i r s t in -serv ice meeting i s d i f f i c u l t . The f i r s t session can provide an overview of the program, reasons for i t s ex is tence, and the program's in tents . This takes t ime, and, by teacher request, the introduct ion i s usual ly accompanied with a ' p r a c t i c a l ' product-oriented workshop. Af ter teachers have had an opportunity to consider what was o r i g i n a l l y d iscussed, a second in -ser - v ice meeting should involve a br ie f review of the f i r s t meeting and an opportunity to plan a lesson or ser ies of lessons. Subsequent meetings can then provide chances to explore the potent ial of the media and pro- j e c t s , to re la te the media and projects to the content, and to develop s k i l l s and an understanding of the content. In-service can be extended beyond professional days by providing continuous assis tance. Unfortunately, some d i s t r i c t s may have few or no persons capable of providing th is leadership help. However, i f i n - d iv iduals - the coordinator or a team - are ava i lab le they must be provided with time or these ind iv idua ls w i l l become exhausted, the i r continuing in terest w i l l be f rac tured, and teacher use of the program w i l l not be f a c i l i t a t e d . When implementation i s f i r s t attempted, f u l l - time leadership could be i d e a l , but a f u l l - t ime coordinator/team is not necessar i ly needed i f a substant ia l amount of time that is f ree of c lass room planning and respons ib i l i t y is provided. In encouraging professional in -serv ice education, both pr inc ipa ls and supervisors need to provide open and genuine support and show con- tinued in terest by f a c i l i t a t i n g teacher requests for qua l i ty supp l ies , references, and audio-visual resources. A d i s t r i c t l i b ra ry would be use fu l in th is respect. P a r t i c u l a r l y , p r inc ipa ls must refer teachers to others when they, themselves, are unsure of what to do. School d i s t r i c t s attempting to implement curriculum projects must have a d i s t r i c t level strategy that provides each curriculum implementa- 104 t ion project with a block of time for intense and undiverted attent ion followed by less intense long-term a c t i v i t y that encourages shar ing, experimentation, and r i s k - t ak i ng . Although par t i c ipa t ion should be v o l - untary, a commitment on the part of teachers and schools should be en- couraged. A coordinated d i s t r i c t plan should at least p a r t i a l l y l ink ind iv idual schools to d i s t r i c t implementation commitments. Add i t i ona l l y , in planning professional days, schools need to share resource persons and programs. Workshops should be held e i ther in a classroom s p e c i f i c a l l y designed or modified for workshops and d i s t r i c t use o r , i f app l i cab le , in the ar t room of the workshop leader. The preparation and planning of workshops requires a considerable amount of t ime, but when the transporation of equipment and supplies is d i f f i c u l t and the actual locat ion i s phys ica l ly inadequate, the in -serv ice session becomes less rewarding for everyone and impact i s l o s t . Pr io r to any implementation pro jec t , guides and materials need to be ready. Teachers should be to ld of the reasons that led to the change and what the curriculum expects of them. Pr inc ipa ls should encourage teach- ers to use the curriculum and arrange for teachers to v i s i t other ar t c lasses . In conclus ion, when an ar t curriculum i s o r i g i n a l l y created not a l l teachers w i l l be involved in i t s development. However, an art program that expects continuing teacher par t i c ipa t ion through shar ing, adaptat ion, and reassessment provides opportunit ies for teacher involvement, decis ion making, and commitment. 105 References Ben-Peretz, M. The concept of curriculum po ten t ia l . Curriculum Theory Network, 1975, 5_(1), 151-159. Brugelmann, H. Changes in a curriculum on the way from i t s quthor to the c h i l d : experiences from the analysis and test ing of four CIEL cu r r i cu l a . Western European Education, 1979, JJ_( l -2) , 98-115. Cay, D. F. Curriculum: design for learn ing. Indianapol is: H. W. Sams, 1966. D o l l , R. C. Curriculum improvement. Boston: A l lyn and Bacon, 1978. Edwards, R., & Wright, W. J . Variables af fect ing the successful i n t ro - duction of an innovative program in aesthet ics . Paper presented for the annual meeting of the American Psychological Assoc ia t ion , Wash- ington, D . C , Apr i l 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 106 193) E isner , E. W. The educational imagination. New York: Macmil lan, 1979. G i l l i s , K. E. Curriculum innovation in prac t ice . Educational Review, 1968, 82(2), 44-47. Har r i s , B. M. Strategies for ins t ruc t iona l change: promising ideas and perplexing problems. In J . Raths & R. R. Leeper (Eds . ) , The superv i - sor : agent for change in teaching. Washington, D . C : Associat ion for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966. Koopman, G. R. Curriculum Development. New York: Center for Applied Re- search in Education, 1966. L i p p i t t , R. Processes of curriculum change. In R. R. Leeper (Ed . ) , Curriculum change: d i rec t ion and process. Washington, D . C : Associa- t ion for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966. Macdonald, J . B. Helping teachers change. In J . Raths & R. R. Leeper (Eds . ) , The supervisor: agent for change in teaching. Washington, D . C : Associat ion for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966. Mackenzie, G. N. Cur r icu la r change: par t i c ipan ts , power, and processes. In M. B. Mi les (Ed . ) , Innovation in education. New York; Teachers College Press, 1964. Mahan, J . M., & G i l l , F. J . How to get new programs into elementary schools (Vol . 1). Englewood C l i f f s : Educational Technology Publ ica- t i ons , 1972. Michael i s , J . U . , Grossman, R. H. , & Scot t , L. F. New designs for e l e - mentary curriculum and ins t ruc t ion . New York: McGraw-Hi l l , 1975. M i e l , A. Changing the curr iculum. New York; Appleton-Century^Crofts, 1946, 106 Mo f f i t , J . C. In-service education for teachers. Washington, D . C : Center for Applied Research in Education, 1963. Orl ikow, L. Frustrat ion and h o s t i l i t y - A teacher's view of school change. The Manitoba Teacher, May-June 1967, 46_, 26-28. R icher t , R. Cooperative curriculum bu i ld ing . Arbos, September-October 1966, 3, 18-20. Rogers, E. M. Dif fusions of innovations. New York: The Free Press, 1962. Wi les, K. Contrasts in st rategies of change. In R. R. Leeper (Ed . ) , Strategy for curriculum change. Washington, D . C : Associat ion for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1965. 107 Bibl iography of uncited material Alexander, N. Simple weaving. New York: Tapl inger, 1969. Anderson, W. H. Art learning s i tuat ions for elementary education. Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth, 1965. B a l l , F. C , & Lovoos, J . Making pottery without a wheel. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1965. Br ide , K. W. Time for change. Alberta Teachers' Associat ion Magazine, 1967, 47, 17-21. C o l l i e r , G. Form, space, and v is ion (2nd ed . ) . Englewood C l i f f s : P ren t i ce -Ha l l , 1967. Corn ia, I. E . , Stubbs, C . B . , & Winters, M. B. Art is elementary. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young Univers i ty Press, 1976. Min is t ry of Education, Science and Technology. Curriculum planning 1979. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Pr in ter for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. Davies, W. Three dimensional a c t i v i t i e s for the primary classroom. Loca l ly printed manuscript. (Avai lable from S.D. #11, Courtenay, 607 Cumberland Road, Courtenay, B . C . , V9N 7G5) Drake, K. Simple Pottery. New York: Watson-Gupti11, 1966. E f land, A. Planning ar t education in the middle/secondary schools of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: State of Ohio Department of Education, 1977. Garner, B. S. Canada's Monsters. Hamilton: Pot latch Pub l i ca t ions , 1976. Hast ie , R., & Schmidt, C. Encounter with a r t . New York: McGraw-Hi l l , 1969. Haysom, J . T . , & Sutton, C. R. Mot ivat ion: a neglected component in models for curriculum improvement. Curriculum Theory Network, 1973-74, 4^1), 23-45. Hine, F. D., et a l . The aesthet ic eye project . Final report . Washington, D . C : National Endowment of the Humanities, 1976. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 133 286) Hubbard, G . , & Rouse, M. J . A r t : choosing and expressing. Westchester, I l l i n o i s : Benef ic , 1977. Hunt Manufacturing Co. Speedball textbook (2nd ed . ) . C. Stoner & H. Fran- kenf ie ld (Eds. ) . Ph i lade lph ia : Author, 1972. Linderman, E. W., & Herberholz, D. W. Developing a r t i s t i c and perceptual awareness (2nd ed . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1969. Linderman, M. M. Art in the elementary school (2nd ed . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: 108 Wm. C. Brown, 1979. Mort, P. R. Studies in educational innovation from the Inst i tu te of Ad- minstrat ive Research: an overview. In M. B. Miles (Ed . ) , Innovation in Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 1964. 0'Hani on, J . Three models for the curriculum development process. Cur- r iculum Theory Network, 1973-74, 4(1) , 64-71. Ryburn, W. M., & Forge, K. B. Pr inc ip les of teaching. London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1948. Sayegh, A. Ingredients for successful ar t programs. Educational Leader- sh ip , 1981, 38(7), pp. 581; 588. Schu l tz , L. T. Colorado: studio a r t . National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , 1976, 55(3), 74-76. Sevigny, M. J . Triangulated inqui ry : an a l te rnat ive methodology for the study of classroom l i f e . Review of Research in Visual Arts Education, 1978, 8, 1-16. Simmons, R. Printmaking step-by-step. Don M i l l s , Ont.: C o l l i e r Macmil lan, 1977. Smith, E. W., & Krouse, S. W., J r . The educator's encyclopedia. Englewood C l i f f s : P ren t i ce -Ha l l , 1961. Stake, R. Evaluating the arts in education: a responsive approach. Colum- bus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , 1975. Tri-County Goal Development Project Multnomah County Intermediate Educa- t ion D i s t r i c t . Course goals in a r t , K-12. Por t land, Ore. : Commercial Educational D is t r ibu t ing Serv ices, 1974. Wachowiak, F . , & Hodge, D. Art in depth. Scranton, Penn.: International Textbook, 1970. Wachowiak, F . , & Ramsay, T. Emphasis a r t . Scranton, Penn.: International Textbook, 1965. Werner, W., & Aok i , T. Programs for people. Book in preparat ion, 1979. Wolf, T. H. , & Se id le r , N. The magic of co lor . New York: Odyssey, 1964. APPENDIX A A core sequential ar t program n o A CORE SEQUENTIAL ART PROGRAM This guide to intermediate grade art is in two parts - a book- le t that should help in planning art experiences and a booklet with suggestions for a c t i v i t i e s , pro jects , and s tar t ing points. This project began in January, 1981, when a l l interested teach- ers of the d i s t r i c t were inv i ted to par t ic ipate in planning a sequential core art curr iculum. What you have could be considered a f i r s t d ra f t , as i t i s ex- pected that i t w i l l be continuously adjusted and expanded. A l l suggestions and contr ibut ions to th is end are requested. It is hoped that th is guide w i l l be helpful to you, and that i t w i l l not be seen as another burden. With th is in mind brevi ty has guided i t s planning. If further c l a r i f i c a t i o n is needed, feel free to ask. Ill ^IHTICSIIS <£S-TO"IIXn>XE A. PLANNING ART EXPERIENCES Selected from Planning A/it Education In the. filddlz/Secondany School* oh Ohio. B. THIS SEQUENTIAL CORE ART PROGRAM 1. Four Areas to Explore 2. The Structure - Using i t to Plan a Lesson C. MEDIA IN THE AREAS OF: 1. Drawing 2. Paint ing 3. Printmaking 4. Clay D. STARTING POINTS 1. Mot ivat ional approaches 2. Idea bui lders 3. Subjects, Themes and Projects E. VOCABULARY F. CONCEPTS AND MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS - WHAT TO TEACH G. CHECKPOINTS H. REFERENCE BOOKS I. GLOSSARY J . A HANDBOOK OF A:TIVITIES, PROJECTS, AND STARTING POINTS 112 In perspective: Planning Art Education in the Middle/Secondary Schools of Ohio, re lates the aims and goals of art edu- cat ion to the aims of general education. In add i t ion , the charts on pages 7,43, and 60 place the present focus of our own curriculum - per- sonal development through expression - into perspec- t i ve by i l l u s t r a t i n g i t as part of a more comprehen- sive program. Other aspects of th is larger program should eventual ly become part of our own programs. Further, the charts l o g i c a l l y expand the aims and goals into possible general a c t i v i t i e s . Copies of th is guide are ava i lab le for loan. 113 Four areas have been chosen as the basis for th is core ar t program for the intermediate grades. They inc lude: drav/ing paint ing printmaking c lay . If each of these i s presented for three to four weeks (6 to 8 lessons) every year from grades 4 through 7, a sequential ar t program can be poss ib le . Such a program provides a sequence of common and valuable experiences without r es t r i c t i ng any teacher from developing other ar t experiences. For many students grade 7 is the i r l as t contact with a r t . As a r e s u l t , the i r ar t education terminates with th is year. By the time these youngsters leave elementary school we should be able to say with confidence that they have some understanding as to what ar t and a r t i s t s are about, and that they have had opportunit ies to explore basic ar t media. Although projects and media from an e a r l i e r grade(s) may be repeated, i t i s hoped that those for a l a te r grade(s) would be a - voided so that youngsters have something special to ant ic ipa te each year. 114 To date, th is core ar t program for the intermediate grades has focused on fos ter ing personal development through expression. In doing so: a) media, concepts, major understandings, and vocabulary have been assigned to spec i f i c grades, b) subjects , themes, and motivat ional approaches have been suggested, but, as with p ro jec ts , they have been l e f t to the d isc re t ion of the teacher, keeping in mind the in terests of the ch i l d ren , c) s k i l l s have not been i d e n t i f i e d , because i t i s assumed that they w i l l grow natura l ly out of successful work with media and pro jec ts , d) mater ia ls have not been l i s t e d , because such l i s t s w i l l de- pend upon the projects chosen by the teacher, e) checkpoints have been provided as a guide in ensuring a balanced ar t program, f ) a c t i v i t i e s , p ro jec ts , and s ta r t ing points are out l ined and num- bered in the accompanying handbook and are corre lated to spec i - f i c media, concepts, and major understandings. PLANNING LESSONS WITH THIS GUIDE: 1, SELECT ONE OF THE MEDIA THAT IS ASSIGNED TO YOUR GRADE FOR YOUR CURRENT UNIT OF DRAWING, PAINTING, OR PRINTMAKING: 2, CHOOSE A CONTENT EMPHASIS: SUBJECT OR THEME - OF INTEREST TO YOUR STUDENTS - ENSURE A BALANCE AMONG OBSERVATION, IMAGINATION, AND MEMORY MEDIUM PRODUCT FUNCTION DESIGN STYLE 3, CONSIDER SUGGESTIONS IN THE HANDBOOK OF ACTIVITIES: 4, DECIDE UPON APPROPRIATE CONCEPTS AND MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS: 5, REVIEW THE VOCABULARY AND SELECT A MANAGEABLE LIST: 6, DECIDE UPON A MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH: 7, REVIEW THE CHECKPOINTS: 8, GATHER THE SUPPLIES AND TACKLE THE PROJECT. PLANNING CLAY LESSONS WITH THIS GUIDE: 1, SELECT ONE OF THE PROJECTS THAT IS ASSIGNED TO YOUR GRADE: 2, FOR MODELLING CHOOSE A SUBJECT OR THEME, FOR FUNCTIONAL, DESIGN, AND PRODUCT PROJECTS PREPARE TO DEMONSTRATE, SHOW AN EXAMPLE, AND SUGGEST POSSIBLE USES^ EXPLORING THE MEDIUM IS AN EXCELLENT WAY TO START WHEN STUDENTS HAVE LITTLE EXPERIENCE: 3, TO 8: As ABOVE: 9, CHECK THAT YOUR SINK (IF YOU'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO HAVE ONE!) HAS A TRAP, OR PROVIDE SEVERAL BUCKETS. Lesson Planning CORE AREA MEDIUM I SUBJECT I THEME CONCEPTS VOCABULARY MOTIVATION CHECKPOINTS GATHER SUPPLIES 117 Lesson Planning CORE AREA MEDIUM SUBJECT I THEME CONCEPTS VOCABULARY MOTIVATION Drawing 4 Indian ink I nib see:100,103 Weeds, thistles, branches, berries Each medium has unique characteristics and possibilities. Lines can show direction. Contour lines show edges and shapes. see: 103, 106 Line Sketch Indian ink Converging lines Overlapping lines Still life New materials I tools CHECKPOINTS GATHER SUPPLIES 118 DRAWING CORE ENRICHMENT DRAWING - primary or HB CRAYON INDIAN INK AND NIB BALL POINT PEN 100 105 110 IIS ink and twigs paint and brush Ul OIL PASTEL PAINT AND BRUSH PENCIL CRAYONS INDIAN INK AND STICKS OR TWIGS l-as ISO 135 IWO felt pens 2-B pencil i¥5 14b • PAINT AND RAGS 2-B PENCIL DRAWING CHALK FELT PEN ISO 155 lloO llo5 4-B pencil string no 171 OIL PASTEL CHARCOAL CHARCOAL PENCIL LETTERING PENS INK AND BRUSH OR PAINT AND BRUSH ns l*> 181 185 190 conte crayon scratchboard 4-B pencil 195 l9(, 197 PAINTING CORE ENRICHMENT TEMPERA PAINT FINGER PAINT Zoo X05 marbling TEMPERA PAINT CRAYON/PASTEL RESIST ZZ5 X30 spot paint ing 215 TEMPERA/INDIAN INK XSV t i s s u e paper XI0 TEMPERA/dry brush or POWDER PAINT 275 watercolour a c r y l i c paint crepe paper dye X<?0 X<?/ xqx PRINTMAKING CORE ENRICHMENT VEGETABLE PRINTS FOUND OBJECT PRINTS STYROFOAM BLOCK 3oo 3oS 310 monoprints leaves 320 3xi CRUSHED PAPER PRINTS STRING BLOCK 3zs 330 monoprints sandpaper pr in ts CUT CARD BLOCK 350 351 cut f e l t block cut inner tube block (rubber block) engraving on p l a s t i c 310 311 312. "7t TAG STENCIL •37fe;377 SILK SCREENING 315 3dO 1inoleum block aluminum block 395 CLAY CORE ENRICHMENT PINCH POT DRAPE DISH OVER A HUMP MOULD ¥oo/¥oi ¥05 ¥0<0 glaz ing model 1ing ¥10 HT-I MODELLING COIL POT ¥zS ¥30 glaz ing mosaics cut c lay shapes ¥w PINCH POT MODELLING COIL CONSTRUCTION - f ree standing GLAZING ¥50 ¥55 ¥bO double pinch pot mosaics ¥i>5 ' ¥%l SLAB CONSTRUCTION COIL CONSTRUCTION on p las ter mould GLAZING ¥7S ¥gO ¥XO model 1ing cut c lay shapes glazed t i l e s double pinch pot pinch and c o i l in combination drape on a card tube ¥95 ¥¥b We •4<o5 ¥<rr ¥9?  The time spent in get t ing the ar t lesson s tar ted is c r i t i c a l to the success of the p r o j e c t . The motivat ion should be l i v e l y , i n t e r e s t i n g , and thorough. As w e l l , i t should pro- vide each youngster with a r i c h background of knowledge and ideas . Work on the project can begin when the youngsters are i n t e r e s t e d , eager to s t a r t , and conf ident that they can s u c c e s s f u l l y create something. There are many resources that can be used in b u i l d - ing a background of knowledge, in generating i d e a s , and in developing enthusiasm. 1. read a story 2. s t a r t a story and have i t f i n i s h e d as a p ic ture 3. work from a t i t l e •4 . a poem 5. a play 6 0 s t a r t with c rea t ive drama 7. a taped story 8. taped sounds 9. music 10. radio 11. t e l e v i s i o n 12. a movie / f i lm 13. s l i d e s 14. a f i l m s t r i p 15. t o p i c a l p ic tures ( b u l l e t i n board d isp lay ) 16. an outdoor sketching t r i p 17., objects of in te res t fo r observat ion 18. a hobby c o l l e c t i o n 19. microscopes/magnif iy ing glasses -20. s t i l l l i f e - i n d i v i d u a l / g r o u p / c l a s s arrangement 21. descr ibe a hidden pa int ing 22. a study of reproductions 23. examples of other students ' work 24. a f i e l d t r i p 25. a r e c a l l e d exper ience /person/event / th ing 26. v i s i t by a spec ia l person/posed people 27. pets brought to c l a s s 28. mounted animals 29. a new p r o c e s s / m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s 30. in t roduct ion of a new design element or composition p r i n c i p l e 31. a d iscuss ion - perhaps developed on the blackboard 125 T T T T O J E J ^ y IBTEJIEILiID>IEai PEOPLE: Mom and Dad Grandma and Grandpa f r iends a spec ia l f r i e n d my fami ly - b r o t h e r s / s i s t e r s myself people in a crowd t r a i n engineer sky d ive r scuba d ive r ambulance d r i v e r a r t i s t musician rock group p i l o t dancer o ld person doctor clown in a c i r c u s acrobat a giant p o r t r a i t s : from a model from memory (Mom) s e l f - p o r t r a i t (mirror) a f r i end what I look l i k e when th inking dressed up for Hallowe'en my teacher someone specia l my pet and me ANIMALS: (at home or in t h e i r habi tat ) pets: cats dogs rabbi ts b i rds farm animals jungle animals wi ld animals (zoo) animals that stampede f i s h in the sea f i s h in our aquarium birds - wi ld or caged spiders and t h e i r webs a bug's eye view ( b i r d ' s eye) (worm's eye) bugs and insects - a very fuzzy one or a very long one a f a v o r i t e animal monsters dragons mythical creatures whales/dolphins endangered animals abominable snowman bigfoot things that can: crawl swim s l i d e jump imaginary animals that can do specia l things or that l i v e in strange places EVENTS: the hunt the f i s h i n g t r i p a rescue an accident a stampede a f igh t a ba l l game a hockey game a d i s a s t e r a parade a r e c a l l e d experience - a memory of summer the f lood our t r a i n t r i p the race the track meet the Christmas concert the parade a ba t t le a shipwreck fun in the snow a tremendous storm tobogganing/ski ing /s ledd ing PLACES AND FIELD TRIPS: the playground the swimming pool the lake the cottage (summer cabin) the farm " our tree f o r t our snow f o r t a greenhouse grandpa's basement (shed) church where Mom/Dad works a construct ion s i t e the museum an h i s t o r i c a l s i t e a ghost town a haunted house (old house) the graveyard the hospi ta l a cave a haunted (creepy) lane 'docks/wharves my room a room I l i k e (a place I l i k e ) a canyon a good place to f i s h a good place to swim a mountain a view from a mountain a bridge a tunnel the t r a i n s ta t ion the a i r p o r t undersea outer space an imaginary world the c i r c u s the car races the ice carn iva l our scout /guide camping t r i p the zoo the fo res t (a view through the t rees) a r c t i c scene (cool co lours) 127 THEMES: t r a i n s a i rp lanes k i tes boats /sh ips b i c y c l e races sports/games musical instruments winter snow f lowers/gardens dreams wishes/a wish come true space/space ships c a r n i v a l / c i r c u s f a l l f a i r t ranspor ta t ion t ranspor ta t ion over the years p r imi t ive masks f i s h i n g f i s h water sports o ld things p o l l u t i o n a view through a window a game I enjoy hats seasons d isas te rs - earthquakes (colours) volcanoes (sounds) typhoons (smells) hurricanes f loods f i r e s weather - wind ra in snow hai l sun thunder THINGS: Anything and everything from t h e i r l i f e and exper iences. f lowers weeds t h i s t l e s dandelions b lackberr ies branches f r u i t and vegetables (c ross -sec t ion ) sea forms f i s h b i r d s / n e s t s old houses faces hands machinery baskets grasses trees mosses fungi b i c y c l e s o ld c locks and watches motorcycle insects leaves s h e l l s textured things small plant forms 128 OBSERVATION IMAGINATION MEMORY Penci l HB-2B-6B Penci l crayon Charcoal penci l Fe l t pens Bal l point pen Wax crayons Z O i l pastel < Q Conte Drawing chalk Charcoal Paint Indian ink -n ib - l e t t e r i n g nib - twig P A IN TI N G  Tempera P A IN TI N G  Powder paint P A IN TI N G  Watercolour P A IN TI N G  F inger paint P A IN TI N G  Aery 1 i c P A IN TI N G  Tempera/Ink P A IN TI N G  Spot pa int ing P A IN TI N G  Resi sts P A IN TI N G  Marbling P A IN TI N G  T issue paper P A IN TI N G  Crepe paper dye P A IN TI N G  OBSERVATION IMAGINATION MEMORY PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Rubbing PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Monoprint PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Leaves PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Vegetables PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Found objects PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Crushed paper PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Styrofoam PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S S t r ing PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Cardboard - PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Rubber PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Linoleum PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Cut Fe l t PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Sandpaper 1i tho PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Aluminum PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S Stenci1 PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S S i l k screen PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S P l a s t i c PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S PR IN TM A K IN G  / G R A PH IC S 130 Col lage - c lo th . paper Chalk Crayon Paint - brush - f ingers - Q- t ips Bal l noint pen F e l t pens Indian ink Mosaics Murals Fe l t Oi1 pastel Penci1 Scratchboard Rubbings Cut paper Paper tear ing Votive board T i s s u e paper Transparencies Photomontage Encaust ic Monoprints Styrofoam pr in t Card block h- O FUNCTIONAL MODELLED PURE DESIGN PINCH s ing le double HOLLOW CARVED DRAPE - FORM/MOLD boulder hump c lay hump. p l a s t e r hump cardboard tube newspaper sag mold vermicu l i te COIL f ree standing ins ide form outside form SLAB free standina shaoed card cut card form form Animal F igure /Bust Mask Mosaics T i l e s Cut c lay shapes DRAWING 1 ine sketch cartoon contour 1ine gum eraser converging l ines overlapping l i n e s shape indian ink texture p o r t r a i t m mass drawing gesture drawing landscape s t i l l l i f e c a l l i g r a p h i c l i n e continuous l i n e hatching cross-hatch ing s t i p p l i n g pos i t i ve /nega t i ve space(shape) open/closed space(shapes) paste ls n>> wash drawing l inear composition c a l l i g r a p h i c / c o n t o u r l i n e s focal point perspect ive proport ion geometr ic / f ree shapes 2-B penci l drawing chalk horizon l i n e vanishing point fo re -shor ten i ng c o n t o u r / c a l1 i g r a p h i c / t o n a l 1 ines ground charcoal stump kneaded eraser 4-B penci l charcoal penci l scratchboard PAINTING primary colours warm colours cool co lours tone (value) i n t e n s i t y pa let te wash powder paint tempera paint colour wheel primary/secondary colours t in ts /shades opaque/transparent pointi11 ism texture foreground middleground background r e s i s t pr imary/secondary/ intermediate (or t e r t i a r y ) colours neutral colours r e f r a c t i o n / p r i s m spectrum matte mat board c a n v a s / s o l v e n t / o i l paints hue v a l u e / i n t e n s i t y monochromatic/analogous/ complementary colours hard edge scumble f resco a c r y l i c paints opaque/ t ransparent / t rans lucent 133 PRINTMAKING CLAY brayer p r in t ing i n k / i n k i n g slab p r in t ing block or plate r e l i e f block found objects monoprint styrofoam inc is ing /engrav ing des igns /pat terns wedging/kneading greenware bi squeware k i l n / f i r e b r i c k pottery pinch pot branch pot texture model 1 i n g / s c u l p t i ng /carv i ng glaze f i r i n g SB rubbings s t r i n g block overpr in t /underpr in t 1 ithograph model 1 i n g / s c u l p t i ng/carv ing r e l i e f c o i l pot coi 1 s welding si i p s c o r i n g / s l i p p i n g ki1n/cone p las te r bat leather hard glazeware cm r e l i e f block cardboard block overpr in t /underpr i nt wood block x-acto knife engraving slab p o t / s l a b construct ion ki1n/pyrometer s t i l t s ki 1n fu rn i tu re ceramics p o t t e r ' s wheel/throwing a pot s t e n c i l / s t e n c i l brush s i l k screen p r in t ing (serigraphy) graphics squeegee l inoleum block aluminum block etching s i lhouet te c a l 1 i g r a p h y / l e t t e r i n g mass/form mould p las te r of Par is throwing a pot /grog k i l n / k i l n wash earthenware/stoneware/ porce la in t e r r a - c o t t a engobe foot 134 The concepts and major understandings found on the fo l lowing pages are intended to guide the teacher in i d e n t i f y i n g what should be taught in t h i s sequential core ar t program. If students begin th is program in grade 4 and continue through grade 7, we should be able to say at the end of grade 7 that the youngsters have been exposed to a l l of the ideas and have had opportuni t ies to use many of them in c rea t ing artwork. In most instances the concepts and major understandings w i l l be i n - corporated into lessons or discussed when ind iv idua l c h i l d r e n need d i - r e c t i o n . If the students you teach have not had experiences with the ideas l i s t e d for the previous grade(s ) , you w i l l need to cover some of those ideas before teaching the ones for your own grade. Review and cont inuing d iscuss ion of much of the vocabulary and many of the concepts and major understandings taught in e a r l i e r grades is encouraged and, in f a c t , unavoidable in many s i t u a t i o n s . 135 ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPTS DRAWING * PAINTING * PERSPECTIVE * TREATMENT OF SUBJECT* DESIGN ELEMENTS LINE * SHAPE/SPACE/FORM * TEXTURE * TONE COLOUR * C0MP0SITI0N*/UNITY THROUGH INTERACTION MAJOR PRINCIPLES BALANCE EMPHASIS PROPORTION REPETITION RHYTHM MINOR PRINCIPLES ALTERNATION CONTRAST RADIATION SEQUENCE SYMMETRY PARALLELISM None of these elements can be considered alone, as they work together. For ex- ample, when a l i ne curves around un t i l almost closed i t creates a shape. When several l ines are drawn par- a l l e l to one another (hatch- ing) they begin to create texture. These concepts can help us discuss complex in te r re - la t ionships more e a s i l y . We jus t need to remember that in ar t - in our case c h i l d - ren 's art - the product and process are complex, and a l - ways changing and in terac t - ing. The elements and p r in - c ip les of design are used as guidel ines for arranging space. Those concepts followed by an aster isk have been used to head the fol lowing pages. Some of the others w i l l be found within those pages. A l l of them have been presented as a means of providing a perspect ive. TRANSITION 136 LINE and SHAPE Lines show d i r e c t i o n : curved di agonal hori zontal v e r t i c a l . Shape occupies a two-dimensional area and is defined by an o u t l i n e . Contour l i n e s show the edges and shapes of o b j e c t s . 103 320 -• Line q u a l i t i e s inc lude: l i g h t / d a r k , b l u r r e d / e x a c t , t h i c k / t h i n , s ta t i c /dynamic , s t r a i g h t / c u r v e d , broken/conti nuous. Shapes may be p o s i t i v e or negative ( i e . object is p o s i t i v e , while the area around i t is negat ive) . Hatching and cross-hatch ing can be used to create tone and texture . 326 300 Line can: create texture def ine space (shapes) ind icate d i r e c t i o n suggest movement record a c t i o n . Line communicates: emotion sensation ideas . Shape can be: geometric undefined ( free or amorphous). 176 "7t Line can move in two ways: (a.) mechanical ( i e . only an o u t l i n e ; not th ick or t h i n ) , (b.) spontaneous ( i e . an i n f i n i t e l i n e ; a l i n e of movement). t 0 137 SPACE and FORM Two-dimensional space has width and height ( i e . i t covers an area or sur face ) . Open space in art is l i m i t l e s s . Closed space is l imi ted ( i e . shapes are made by c los ing space and forms are made by f i l l i n g space) . Basic geometric forms inc lude : cube sphere pyramid c y l i nder cone. - Form def ines thre-dimensional space. Form can be: geometric undefined ( f ree or amorphous). Form is a mass and had volume. I l l u s i o n of mass can be created on a two-dimensional sur face . 138 DRAWING Drawing is a v isua l response recorded on a surface with a graphic medium. Every medium has unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o s s i - b i l i t i e s . Drawing can be used f o r : communication decorat ion s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Drawings can be done on a var ie ty of sur faces . Drawing can be used to enr ich l e i s u r e time. 106 Gesture drawing can be used to show the p o s i t i o n , movement, and fee l ings of a person. Drawing technique depends upon: understanding the medium control of l i n e qua l i t y use o f : 1ight shadow texture . 104 - Drawing can be used f o r : i l l u s t r a t i n g composing a p ic ture drawing from: memory imagi nation observat ion expressing an understanding of the environment. Drawing technique depends upon: s k i l l e d use of per- spect ive tech- niques. Anatomical p r i n c i p l e s are useful in f igure drawing. They inc lude : proport ion musculature foreshortening skeleta l s t r u c t u r e . TEXTURE Texture is the surface qua l i t y of anything touched and/ or seen ( v i s u a l / t a c t i l e ) . Visual texture is an i l l u s i o n . 301 Texture can be developed wi th: a . ) l i n e through hatching or cross-hatching b. ) shape ( i e . numerous small shapes) c . ) form ( i e . bumps on clay) d. ) colour ( i e . colours dry brushed in layers or a rubber cement r e s i s t ) e. ) s t i p p l i n g f . ) media and paper (surface worked on) ( i e . rubbing) . 245 345 245 - "7t Texture can be developed by us ing: h igh l ights shadows. 140 PERSPECTIVE Perspective is achieved through: over lapping. 105 Perspective is achieved through: pos i t ion in the composit ion. 126 Perspective is achieved through: use of d e t a i l . *7f Perspective is achieved through: colour foreshortening 1ight and shadow one-point perspect ive two-point perspect ive . Aer ia l perspect ive is based on the idea that objects usual ly appear b lue r , greyer , and l i g h t e r as they get fur ther away. Three-dimensional q u a l i t i e s can be created by using h igh l ights and shadows. 126 141 PAINTING Paint ing can be used f o r : communication decorat ion s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n • colour experimentation. Drawing techniques are necessary in pa in t ing . Paint ing can have: sensory emotional psychological e f f e c t s . 142 • COLOUR The primary colours are r e d , ye l low, and blue. Value (tone) is the l ightness or darkness of a c o l o u r . Colours can be considered to be warm or c o o l . Colours can be c l a s s i f i e d as primary and secondary. The primary colours are r e d , ye l low, and blue. The primary colours are used to make the secondary col ours. The secondary colours are orange, green, and v i o l e t . Tints are l i g h t e r values of a colour made by adding whi te . Shades are darker values of a colour made by adding black. 245 , Colour can be c l a s s i f i e d as primary, secondary, intermediate ( t e r t i a r y ) , and neutral (b lack , - white, and grey) . The primary colours are used to make a l l secondary and intermediate ( t e r t i a r y ) c o l o u r s . Intermediate colours are combinations of primary and secondary colours ( i e . red-orange, b lue-green) . > Refract ion occurs when l i g h t passes through a prism and separates into colours of the spectrum. White l i g h t is made up of the wave lengths of every colour of the spectrum, (above two - science core) Colour has value and i n t e n s i t y . Hue is the name for a colour or non-colour (black/white) in the colour spectrum. Bright colours appear to advance and dul l colours ap- pear to recede. A monochromatic colour scheme cons is ts of gradations of one colour - t i n t s and shades. An analogous colour scheme cons is ts of three to seven adjacent colours on the colour wheel. A complementary colour scheme cons is ts of two colours d i r e c t l y opposite one another on the colour wheel. 470 275 275 143 COMPOSITION Space is arranged: formal ly (symmetrical ly) informal ly (asymmetr ical ly) . Symmetry provides a design with a sense of s t a b i l i t y or balance. 230 - R e a l i s t i c forms located in the lower ha l f of a p ic ture appear s l i g h t l y heavier and nearer to the viewer than when placed in the upper ha l f of a p i c t u r e . Interest can be created through var ie ty by contrast with: dark to l i g h t „ strength against de l i cacy l i n e qua l i ty s m a l l , medium, large shapes ( r e l a t i v e s izes ) complex areas opposed to simple areas broken edges ( l ines ) that allow the eye to complete the edge ( l i n e ) . 470 270 351 When a shadow is drawn or painted detached from an ob jec t , the object appears to be suspended. TREATMENT OF SUBJECT Composition forms inc lude: s t i l l - l i f e f igure study i n t e r i o r scenes ex ter ior scenes ( landscape) . S t i l l - l i f e compositions include non- l i v ing ob jec ts . Figure compositions are dominated by l i v i n g sub jec ts . 127 125 345 Treatment of subject refers to the ways images and ideas are t ranslated into v isual work ( i e . r e a l - i s t i c , a b s t r a c t , s u r r e a l i s t i c , non-ob jec t ive ) . R e a l i s t i c compositions are exact l i t e r a l in te rp re ta - t ions of the subject (exact c o l o u r , d e t a i l , form, propor t ion) . Abstract ar t does not have a l i f e - l i k e exactness and has a subject which has been: a) s i m p l i f i e d , b) d i s t o r t e d , c) exaggerated, or d) repeated. S u r r e a l i s t i c art is created from the subconscious or a fantasy. Non-objective art does not refer to material ob jec ts . 275 190 DIMENSION 2-D 3-D IDEA SOURCE observation imagination memory PROJECT TIME short term 1-2 da. long term 2-4 wk. PROJECT SIZE small 6x6/3x12 large 18x24/24x36 PAPER SHAPE rectangle square c i r c l e s t r i p polygon mural STUDENTS ind iv idua l c lass /group PERIOD 2 - 6 0 min./week TEACHER p lan/organize motivate gu i de evaluate d isp lay PAPER TYPES • b l o t t e r b r i s t o l board ca r t r idoe eellophane const ruct ion drug bond f inger paint f o i l k ra f t /butcher mani i la newsprint pulpboard s i 1ver /gold sugar grey tag - coloured tag - mani l la t i s s u e t rac ing watercolour Wachowiak, F . , & Ramsay, T. Emphasis: A r t , bcranton, Penn- s y l v a n i a : Internat ional Textbook, 1965. Wachowiak, F . , & Hodge, D. Ar t in depth, bcranton, Pennsyl vania: Internat ional Textbook, 1965. Alexander , M. Simple weaving. New York: T a p l i n g e r , 1969. B a l l , F . C . , & Lovoos, J . Making pottery without a wheel. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1965. Herberholz , D . , & Herberholz , B. A c h i l d ' s pursui t of a r t . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1969. Linderman, E.W. Inv i ta t ion to v i s i o n . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1967. Lindermann, M-.M. Ar t in the elementary schoo l . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1974. 147 Rather than create a glossary i t was decided to r e f e r teachers to g l o s s a r i e s i n the support t e x t s : Emphasis Art Art i n Depth ACTIVITIES PROJECTS STARTING POINTS 149 THE ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS AND STARTING POINTS OUTLINED IN THIS HANDBOOK ARE CATEGORIZED AS: MOTIVATIONAL STARTING POINTS 1 - 99 DRAWING 100 . PAINTING 200 PRINTMAKING 300 CLAY 400 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PICTURE MAKING 500 POSTER MAKING / LETTERING 600 RELIEF PROJECTS 700 CARVING / MODELLING / 800 CONSTRUCTING WEAVING / STITCHERY 900 CRAFTS 1000 MOBILES / STABILES 1100 DIORAMAS 1200 FREQUENT REFERENCES ARE MADE TO EmphtxAii KnX. and M X In Vzpth. THESE ARE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED AS SOURCE BOOKS. 150 It w i l l be possible to add further sheets numerically i f th is handbook is kept in a binder. General information pages GI may be grouped at the very end or placed ind iv idua l l y . The numbering system described on the previous page has been subdivided fur ther . In each area suggestions are grouped so that each grade can have up to twenty-five related pro jects , a c t i v i t i e s , or s ta r t ing points . A c t i v i t i e s ending in these numbers are matched to these spec i f i c grades: Those numbers ending in 99 have been assigned to general in fo r - mation pages and are for teachers of a l l grades. (As a r e s u l t , grade 7 has only twenty-four p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ) In th is way, for example, sheet 143 refers to drawing (100) in grade f i ve (43). Number 475 refers to c lay (400) in grade seven (75). A l l of our indiv idual programs w i l l be improved and the usefulness of th is curriculum w i l l be increased i f we share own own ideas and those we have seen. The next few pages, t i t l e d A c t i v i t i e s , Pro jec ts , Star t ing Po in ts , are one facet of the IDEA NETWORK. They may prove useful in out- l i n i ng ideas that are to be shared. When submitted, ideas w i l l be assigned a number. This number may re la te the outl ined suggestion to the core areas and concepts. Your a c t i v i t y , pro ject , or s ta r t ing point w i l l then be typed, copied, c red i t - ed to you, and d is t r ibuted to other teachers. SPECIAL NOTE: One of the intents of th is handbook has been to improve the qua l i ty of ar t programs through sharing among teachers. Unfortunately, many pub- l ished ideas from pe r iod i ca l s , tex ts , and so on are not ava i lab le in quan- t i t i e s that can be shared among a l l of a d i s t r i c t ' s teachers. As a r e s u l t , we have found i t useful to reproduce many items for which we cannot claim c red i t . In th is ed i t i on , these a r t i c l es have been omitted. grade 4 grade 5 grade 6 grade 7 0-24 25-49 50-74 75-98 ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS, STARTING POINTS SEQUENTIAL CORE ART PROGRAM PLEASE CONSIDER SHARING IDEAS THAT YOU HAVE FOUND USEFUL IN YOUR OWN ART CLASSES. EITHER ATTACH A MASTER THAT CAN BE USED FOR COPYING OR OUTLINE YOUR IDEAS HERE. AREA OF GRADE MEDIUM RELATED CONCEPTS / MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS CREDIT: NAME SCHOOL TELEPHONE ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS, STARTING POINTS SEQUENTIAL CORE ART PROGRAM PLEASE CONSIDER SHARING IDEAS THAT YOU HAVE FOUND USEFUL IN YOUR OWN ART CLASSES. EITHER ATTACH A MASTER THAT CAN BE USED FOR COPYING OR OUTLINE YOUR IDEAS HERE. AREA OF GRADE MEDIUM RELATED CONCEPTS / MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS CREDIT: NAME SCHOOL TELEPHONE CREATING A PICTURE FROM A DESCRIPTION A p i c t u r e , se lected because a teacher l i k e s i t and knows c h i l d r e n would a l s o , can provide a s t a r t i n g point fo r p ic ture mak- ing in a var ie ty of media. Keeping th is photo, reproduction of a paint ing or drawing unnamed and hidden adds to the excitement and mot ivat ion. A c a r e f u l l y planned d e s c r i p t i o n can be used to introduce vocabulary such as foreground, middleground and background. Propor- t i o n , composi t ion, c o l o u r , tone, tex ture , shapes, and forms can a lso be d i s c u s s e d . But , th is depends upon the grade. Several descr ip t ions can be g iven ; beginning with the large shapes and ending with any i n t e r e s t i n g or important d e t a i l s . Throughout the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n the c h i l d r e n can l i s t e n and imagine Then, as the p ic ture is descr ibed a second t ime, they can sketch t h e i r ideas on a postcard s i z e piece of paper. Some youngsters may want to make several p lans. When a sketch i s f i n i s h e d a f u l l s ized p ic ture can be s ta r ted . Pa in t , drawing cha lk , penci l c rayons, and co l lage material are a few of the media that can be used with t h i s s t a r t i n g po in t . When the projects are f i n i s h e d the p ic ture that was des- cr ibed can be shown and d iscussed . STARTING POMS 28 DINOSAUR SLIDES This set of s l i d e s i l l u s t r a t e s the outdoor d isp lay on Ca lgary 's St . George's Is land. Supplemented with books and, p i c t u r e s , these could be used to s t a r t drawings, p a i n t i n g s , p r in ts or c lay modell ing p ro jec ts . ' 29 MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Students enjoy posing for drawing lessons i f they have musical instruments to ho ld . A trumpet, g u i t a r , saxophone, banjo . . . are only a few p o s s i b i l i t i e s of course. From these drawings other projects can be developed and used to teach about c o l o u r , composi t ion, perspect ive and so on. 30 MONSTER DAY CIRCUS DAY Selected students could be made up and pose for the c l a s s , or everyone could become a monster fo r a day. With make-up - fake b lood, scar wax, clown white, and grease s t i cks - the e f fec ts can become quite gruesome. The same approach could be taken for a c i r c u s theme. Posters , b a l l o o n s , s l i d e s , and music could be added. Red, whi te , and blue bunting can sometimes be found. Popcorn could f i n i s h . o f f the day as wel1 as you. 31 j TOYS This could prove to be an e x c i t i n g s t i l l l i f e . Have every- one in the c l a s s bring at l eas t one of t h e i r f a v o r i t e toys . Create a s t i l l l i f e and unpack the ar t s u p p l i e s . STARTING POINTS 32 BOULDER CREATURE Many animals have strange habits and l i v e in very unique p laces . Several animals - about which we know very l i t t l e - hibernate through the winter ins ide boulders . We are unsure as to j u s t how they make t h e i r way i n s i d e , but with specia l ray equipment we can see t h e i r shapes huddled i n s i d e . As w e l l , we can hear t h e i r breathing and detect t h e i r body heat. As a matter of f a c t , boulders are often seen near creeks with l i t t l e snow on them in the win- t e r . It would appear that the body heat of these creatures is jus t high enough that i t melts the surface snow. I've brought in t h i s boulder today to show you what I am t a l k - ing about. Inside i s one of those creatures - s l e e p i n g , q u i e t l y res t ing and wait ing for s p r i n g . We could break i t open with a sledge hammer, but in doing so we would k i l l the animal i n s i d e . I wonder what he looks l i k e ? 33 A LONG INSECT OR BUG Long insects or bugs can be created on s t r i p s of add- ing machine tape, 8" by 36" s t r i p s of paper, or oddly cut shapes of paper tha t , as a c l a s s t o t a l , f i t together into a mural. A d iscuss ion of insect and bug c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be i l l u s t r a t e d in columns on the chalkboard. Headings might inc lude: eyes, snouts , l e g s , knees, f e e t , e a r s , a n t e n n a e . . . . | 34 | THE VISITING LEPRECHAUN A teacher f r i end of many years used to i n s p i r e her c lass by arranging two cha i rs while the c lass was out . With paper on the c h i l d r e n ' s desks and penci ls ready, she would i n t r o - duce, converse wi th , and descr ibe her leprechaun f r i end s i t - t ing beside her. The leprechaun was convenient ly i n v i s i b l e , of course. 35 AN OLD BROOM This Halloween idea is s i m i l a r to the one above. An old broom - perhaps helped in i t s aging - is s u r p r i s i n g l y found propped up in the room one morning. Who l e f t i t and why? What did the person look l i k e ? Where does the person l i v e and w i l l a return t r i p be made to pick i t up? TOO EmphaM-Li knX page 64 101 102 103 CONTOUR LINE DRAWING - A drawing of th is type usual ly requires 1 c l o s e , carefu l observat ion . It is used to record the edges of objects and to def ine shapes. A good project i n - volves the use of pen and indian ink or p e n c i l . A s e l e c t i o n of plant material - weeds, grasses , seed pods - can be used e i ther by p lac ing a small c o l l e c t i o n in f ront of each c h i l d or in an arrangement for a small group (the ch i ld ren can go outside to c o l l e c t the m a t e r i a l ) . Compare contour l ines to what would be seen i f there was no colour in the comics. Car t r idge-paper works very well - 9x12 or smal ler . 104 GESTURE DRAWING - A drawing of th is type uses a c a l l i g r a p h i c ' (sketchy) l i n e and f requent ly doesn' t involve much e r a s i n g . It is used to record the p o s i t i o n , movement, or f ee l ings of a person. Large sheets of newsprint and pastel (crayon, char- c o a l , paint and brush) can be used. A demonstration and a d iscuss ion of th is type of l i n e can be followed by s e l e c t i n g a c l a s s member for posing. If students ignore the face other than i t s shape and o u t l i n e , they fee l more s u c c e s s f u l . Se- veral of these drawings can be done in a per iod . Pose the subject so that some act ion is evident and that there are some p o s i t i v e and negative spaces. TAG STENCIL 1. MATERIALS: mani l la tag and/or pulp board (other cards as well ) tempera paint (powder paint w i l l do) or paste ls or crayons x -acto knives hog ha i r b r i s t l e brushes or s t e n c i l 'brushes const ruct ion paper cut t ing boards and/or newspaper' 2. TOPICS: can be s imple: f r u i t animal i n i t i a l s or complex: posters with several s t e n c i l s (one f o r each colour) 3. PROCESS: the idea can be planned in penci l on the mani l la tag R tabs need to be l e f t attached to the centres of l e t t e r s and other shapes cut with an x-acto kni fe ensuring c lean ly cut edges and the use of newspaper or a cut t ing board a.) pastel or crayon approach - o i l pastel can be traced around the edge of the s t e n c i l and smeared with a paper towel stub toward the centre b.) paint approach - use th ick tempera paint from the bot t le - d ip the end of the hog ha i r brush into the paint and remove any excess on some paper towel - with the brush held v e r t i c a l l y apply paint evenly and l i g h t l y - several l i g h t coats of paint can create a much better r e s u l t than one heavy coat - the r e s u l t should be a s o f t , textural one ( i t can be helpful to show students the wrong way to do t h i s and to remind them that i f we want a s o l i d heavy e f f e c t we should look for another approach such as s i l kscreen ing ) 4. VARIATIONS: Both the p o s i t i v e and negative parts of the s t e n c i l can be used. S tenc i l brushes can be bought but #12 hog ha i r brushes work almost as w e l l . If they are not s t i f f enough they can be wrapped t i g h t l y with an e l a s t i c band. ' If several colours are being used and the colours are c lose then several s t e n c i l s should be cu t . Draw the idea on newsprint and tape i t to the top l e f t corner of the mani l la tag . With carbon paper t race the parts that are to be red. Then tape the newsprint to another piece of tag and trace those parts that are a second co lour . Do th is f o r each co lour . 158 STENCILS - MAtJILLA TAG 1. Silhouettes - usin<j a variety of paper C o u l d include: apple / pear •trees face (profile) "train / car Z. G r e e t i n g C o r d s Stxjges+ buying "He- envelopes before cu/rting the paper making protecting guides - -pvlpboord base, rcard flap -masking Tape. FLAP BASt ihe.se. will k&ep the- left- side of the card dean and a- li'^h -Hie stencil. 3. T-Shirf - Pentel Pyeino Itastels T-shirt can be stretched over a,n iS'x zv-* piece of pu'pboard. Slide a IT." x id * piece of newsprint under fhe T-shirt to keep the pulpboord re-useable. One stencil or more can be used. Be sure the entire- T-shirt is protected wi+fi scrap paper. Press -firmly near -the. area being coloured fo avoid Sliding. Iron over bnoion paper. Exfra newsprint or broutti paper can be put under -me shirt to keep •me oil pasfels from stamina the pulpboard. ,377 4-. Pos4ers - see #600 Several colours can be stencilled from one stencil if spaces are we4l separated. Several s+encils can allow for an assembly line. 5. Banner / Handing /Plactmat/Jotejiag Fun felt /cffHon/ bvrlap Colonial -textile silk screening ink. Acrylic- paint. (o. Crest / Personal Coat-erf-Arms Plan on newsprint and +mce v/Hh carbon paper onto the manilla too sheets' - \)&J\ou> areas on one- sheet, blue on another.... 7. Personal Hog t. Booklet Cover For science, social studies, English. Own lettering and designs. 9. 6order Design 10. Pi'ctvre- 11. Mural -^roup project. Each child could have several stencils which could be repeated in clusters or in combination wiih others. iz. Book plate Stvdent initials in a sty/ijed design for placing inside "Hie cover o f a iavori-fe book. 159 160 400 PINCHPOT wedge the c lay and form into a bal l that can e a s i l y be held in one hand rest your arms across your lap as you s i t and hold t h e , c l a y between your knees hold the c lay in one hand and push the thumb of the other hand into the centre with the c l a y b a l l now held sideways push again and pul l some c lay toward the opening turn the ba l l s l i g h t l y and push and pul l some more c lay toward the opening t u r n , push, and pu l l work to the bottom and to the side u n t i l . the c lay is about 1/4 to 3/8 inch th ick the youngsters can be shown the thickness as a d istance between your f ingers (they can t ry to estimate the d istance with t h e i r eyes c losed - a real chal lenge) you are working a "pottery wheel" - of sorts continue turning the ba l l and p u l l i n g small amounts of c lay toward the surface each pul l should s t a r t with the thumb at the centre in the bottom as t h i s w i l l create a smooth surface eventual ly your thumb won't reach the bottom, but you w i l l have a smooth surface and the proper thickness anyway! i f the height of the pot becomes awkward, cut some away with a wire - s i t the pot on a square of newspaper, hold a needle l e v e l , have pot turned the opening can be wide or narrow to form a branch pot when you have b a s i c a l l y completed your work, place three or four f ingers ins ide the pot ( i f i t has a large opening) and texture the outside in some way - avoid drawing - see Hating Pott&uj Without a Wheel handbuilt pottery can be very d i f f i c u l t to smooth f o r c h i l d r e n and textur ing helps improve the appearance plop f i rm ly but c a r e f u l l y onto a pad of newspaper to create a f l a t bottom use a needle' to scra tch 1/4 inch i n i t i a l s . in to the bottom 161 162 405 DRAPE DISH OVER A HUMP MOULD wedge the c lay slab the c lay out into a sheet approximately 1/4 to 3/8 inch th ick t h i s can be done by: a) using two wooden s l a t s made of plywood or hardboard and a r o l l i n g pin or dowel of s i m i l a r thickness put even but not excessive pressure on the c lay and r o l l out as you would pastry turn the c lay f requent ly or i t tends to gather newspaper as the paper gets damp and d is in tenra tes b) throwing the c lay at an angle onto a canvas covered table or pad of newspaper with the folded side fac ing the d i - rec t ion of the throw drape th is c l a y over a c lean but dry and f a i r l y smooth boulder ( i f i t i s not so smooth i t can be covered with s t r i p s of damo paper towel l ing and smoothedjand tr im edges with a cork and needle form three b a l l s of so f t c lay making sure they are equal in s i ze place these on the bottom so that a f l a t surface can res t on a l l three but s t i l l c l e a r the bottom gr ip each ba l l f i rm ly between your thumb and f i r s t two f ingers press and twist each ba l l with a gentle firmness into pos i t ion smear and smooth the edges of each ba l l onto the base be carefu l not to smooth the edges to the rock loosen the d ish from the boulder and replace remove the d ish from the boulder only when i t i s f i r m - leather -hard stage smooth rough edges and surfaces at the leather hard stage or e a r l i e r with a damp sponge, index f inger (sandpaper i f dry - do outs ide - dust problem!) CAUTION: i f the c lay i s l e f t on the boulder too long i t w i l l crack as . the c l a y shrinks 163 D R A P E D I S H 1. Candy / Soap Dish - boulder hump 2. Pickle. Dish-boulder/plaster/ clay hump GLAZING Some glazes are safe for food con ta ine rs , while others are not. If t h i s is app l icab le to your work check to see which type of glaze i t i s before you buy or before you use i t . There are three basic ways of applying glaze f o r elementary c h i l d r e n : 1. BRUSHING - Apply 3 coats in 3 d i r e c t i o n s with a s q u i r r e l ha i r brush (#8 to #12). - Allow each coat to dry before applying the next. - To paint s t ra igh t edges hold and draw the brush p a r a l l e l to the edge being painted. If the brush is kept in from the edge s l i g h t l y then a s l i g h t pressure w i l l ease' the brush and the glaze toward the edge. 2. POURING - Apply one coat on ly . - Although t h i s is the best way to glaze enclosed c o n t a i n e r s , i t can be widely used. - Pour the glaze into the con ta ine r , and pour out by turning the container upside-down. - To avoid dr ips turn the pot in a complete c i r c l e . In other words, twist your hand around so that your elbow moves upward. 3. DIPPING ' • - Apply one coat on iy . - Th is works well i f large quant i t i es of g laze are a v a i l a b l e . - Simply dip the object into the g l a z e , and allow excess glaze to d r ip back into the pa i l of g laze . Avoid leaving excess glaze in the bottom of the containers as i t can cause problems in the f i r i n g ( i e . bubbl ing) . If the glaze tends to peel away during a p p l i c a t i o n wet the piece before cont inu ing . CUT CLAY SHAPES 1. Placjues - -Fish I birds /animals /cars.-. 2. Pebble, Mosaic Panel - textures 3. Medallions - pendanf /Ripper grab drinking sfraW to make hole. 77/e Wall Hangings / M obi It es 4 5. Free-s-hndinp Tile Pillar -C&merrf- blocks •templates pre-cut •from ice-cream lids for regular shapes lo. Mosaic Tile Hot Tray -grov+edj glued to plywood base 7 Wind Chimes - thm clay 6. Flower Pof - single or duster SL46 CONSTRUCTION 1. Boy, -cut MH-h a cardboard -template d- Cut Card Form - corrugated cardboard - bnwn paper -hps. on edg * cardboard • dampens and is removed 168 HEDGING To avoid breakage during the greenware f i r i n g , c lay must not only be dry but f ree of a i r pockets. To remove the a i r c lay i s wedged by e i ther kneading i t or throwing i t onto a hard sur face . 1. KNEADING - Kneading is useful for large quant i t i es of c l a y . - Take the c lay and shape i t into a b lock . - Stand above the c lay and almost s t ra ighten your - With f ingers to the top and the heels of both hands j u s t below centre lean down on the heels of both hands. - L i f t your hands pu l l ing the c lay upward at the same time. - Give . the block of c lay a 1/4 turn and lean down aga in . - L i f t , t u r n , l ean . - Get a rhythm and carry on. - The c lay w i l l develop the' rough shape of a cone. 2. THROWING - This approach is more useful with c h i l d r e n as they are probably not using large amounts of c l a y . - Wedging the c l a y th is way is better doneon the f l o o r as i t i s quieter (unless someone is under you!) than on a desk top and f a s t e r because of the f i rm f l o o r . - Assuming students are on t h e i r knees they need to throw the c lay from no higher than chest height . - Firm throws should d i r e c t a new surface to the f l o o r each time. - In t h i s way the c lay is kept in rough block form. - Al lowing the c lay to f l a t t e n w i l l probably mean that a i r w i l l be trapped when i t i s put back into a b lock . This is p a r t i c u l a r l y so i f c h i l d r e n f o l d the c l a y . Wedging can be done on a pad of newspaper. Care must be taken to see that the newspaper doesn't become damp ,̂ d i s i n t e g r a t e and s t i c k to the c l a y . If the pad i s turned f requent ly or the outer sheet is removed then t h i s usual ly doesn' t happen. arms. CHECK FOR AIR To check f o r a i r c l a y i s cut with a w i re , a piece of strong thread, or a piece of f i s h i n g l i n e . Wire cut ters can be bought or made with two thread spools and a length of wire . A t h i r d option is to set up a c lay table with a wire permanently st rung. This works better as no one ends up searching for a c lay cut ter that is i n v a r i a b l y under papers or in a pocket. If cut c lay is put back together i t must be re-wedged or the cut w i l l p e r s i s t . DRIED CLAY CAN B E REUSED I F I T IS CLEAN OF PLASTER, PAPER, AND DIRT. 1. T H E CLAY MUST B E THOROUGHLY DRY AMD BROKEN INTO SMALL P I E C E S - A HAMMER IS U S E F U L (GREAT THERAPY!), 2. L I N E A P A I L WITH A P L A S T I C BAG ( T H E ONE THE CLAY CAME I N ) . 3. F I L L T H E P A I L WITH CLAY P I E C E S . 4. ADD WATER U N T I L I T COMES J U S T TO THE TOP OF THE CLAY. DUST AND SMALLER P I E C E S CAN TOP IT OFF AND SOAK UP THE EXCESS WATER, 5. ALLOW I T TO S I T FOR SEVERAL DAYS. 6. POUR OFF ANY EXCESS WATER. 7. P U L L OUT T H E BAG AND F L I P I T UPSIDE-DOWN ONTO A) A P L A S T I C SHEET B) A CANVAS COVERED T A B L E OR BOARD C) A PLASTER SLAB COVERED WITH A P I E C E OF CANVAS. 8. F L I P T H E CLAY OCCASIONALLY TO EVEN OUT THE DRYING PROCESS. 9. B E CAREFUL NOT TO OVERDO I T OR YOU'LL B E BACK A T S T E P ONE. SOMETIMES A P I E C E OF P L A S T I C CAN BE DRAPED OVER THE CLAY HEAP TO KEEP THE TOP FROM DRYING OUT TOO FAST. 10. WHEN T H E CLAY IS READY, STORE IN P L A S T I C BAGS OR A P L A S T I C GARBAGE P A I L . You MIGHT L I K E TO WEDGE I T BY KNEADING BEFORE STORAGE. KNEADING ALLOWS MORE TO B E DONE A T ONCE AND IS MUCH EASIER AND QUIETER. 171 SNAKE MOSAIC The Eastern Mosaics of the emperors (early Christian and Byzantine art)are of interest to children. They find the jewels especially interesting. This activity can be related to the unit on snakes for SPIL grade 4. This activity seemed well suited to a group of blood- thirsty, snake-crazy grade fours. The snakes were drawn on large, medium, and small sized papers. Each child drew a snake, cut i t out, and then used torn or cut paper to make mosaic pattern effects on the snake's btdy. Each child's snake was then glued to a back- drop called "The Snake Pit". The project was simple and easy to set up, and i t seemed a fairly effective exercise, especially as an introduction to mosaic work. Many snake pictures show exceptional pattern effects that children can model or adapt. Having the mosaic area snail makes the mosaic experience something that can be finished in a couple of periods rather than something that seems to go on forever. WLth. thanki to: Patsy Freeman Crawford Creek Elementary 172 R O Y A L T Y The theme for th is project is r o y a l t y . It can be used to teach the use of space, and contrast ( d a r k / l i g h t and d u l l / b r i g h t c o l o u r s ) . Students br ing k ings , queens, and jacks from a var ie ty of d i f f e r e n t card decks. Observation is d i rec ted to note the d i f fe rence in design. • Take large mani l la paper and block out the spac ing . • Do th is f a i r l y l i g h t l y . • Think b i g . • This is an important s tep . Then draw in d e t a i l s of f a c e , h a i r , crown, and c loak . Careful observat ion of the cards w i l l give good ideas f o r d e t a i l . Colour in with penci l crayon (paint ing is poss ib le but usua l ly with less successful r e s u l t s ) . Encourage l o t s of c o l o u r , remind about d a r k / l i g h t and d u l l / br ight colour c o n t r a s t s . Discourage copying of the cards . The resu l ts should be f a n t a s t i c . Debbie Arnold J . A . Macdonald Elementary 173 METHODS paper drawn thread open mesh god's eye card loom Hungarian loom spool f inger weaving s l o t loom T-D loom card weaving box loom ink le loom twine rug s a l i s h loom PROJECTS k n i t t i n g / s h o p , bag book marker coin purse/purse skipping rope bracelet book c a r r i e r p ic ture be l t gu i tar strap rug scar f hot pad placemat tea cozy wall hanging ART SUPPLIERS and PROJECTS FOR MATERIALS THEY SUPPLY o Behnsen Graphic Supplies S t e n c i l l i n g grade 7 - dyeing pastels 1016 Richards Street S i l k s c r e e i n g grade 7 - t e x t i l e ink f o r Vancouver T - s h i r t s V6B 3B9 - nylon screen f a b r i c Printmaking a l l grades - r i c e paper - t e x t i l e ink grade 7 - l inoleum suppl ies General suppl ies - double sided masking tape Greenbarn Pottery Supply L t d . 2982 - 164th Street Surrey V4B 4Z5 Coast Ceramics L t d . 2U31 west 41st Vancouver V6M 1X7 King Sales L t d . Si Ikscreening grade 7 - Derivan a c r y l i c paint 136 Short ing Road Agincour t , Ontario MIS 4J3 Central Stores General suppl ies - white b l o t t e r paper School D i s t r i c t No.33 (ch i l l iwack ) 8880 S. Young Street Chil1iwack V2P 4P5 Lewi s c r a f t 40 Commander B lvd . Scarborough, Ontario MIS 3S2 Wil lox Graphic Supplies 1310 E. Hastings Vancouver V5L I S3 (Ocaldo p a i n t s . . . . ) Anthes u f f i c e Products 341 Heart Lake Road S. Brampton, Ontario L6W 3K8 (Reeves paints ) - a v a r i e t y OT papers ( t r a c i n g , block p r i n t i n g , scraper board , t issue) - f luorescent paint S i lkscreen ing grade 7 - squeegees General c r a f t suppl ies General suppl ies - instant papier mache A l l grades - bamboo brushes - p r in t ing ink - water soluble Printmaking - grade 7 - l inoleum suppl ies General suppl ies - instant papier mache - a var ie ty of papers (parchment, m e t a l l i c , t i s s u e , watercolour) A l l t g r a d e s - bamboo brushes - p r i n t i n g ink - water soluble Printmaking - grade 7 - l inoleum suppl ies A l l grades - l i q u i d paint - i n d i a n ink , charcoal APPENDIX B Covering letters addressed to intermediate art teache 176 ART SUPPLY KITS 1. DRAWING KIT This k i t contains samples of the recommended drawing media for the core intermediate program. It i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l schools for a 2 week loan . 2. PRINTMAKER'5 BOX This box conta ins : 3 brayers 3 p lex ig lass sheets 3 tubes of p r i n t i n g ink These mater ia ls are for those schools without p r in t ing s u p p l i e s . It i s a v a i l a b l e fo r a 2 week l o a n , but extensions are poss ib le i f no one is wa i t ing . 3. SILKSCREENER'S PACKAGE This k i t conta ins : 3 squeegees 3 screens 3 colours of a c r y l i c paint You need: newsprint X-acto knives const ruct ion paper- These mater ia ls are f o r grade 7 teachers in those schools wi th- o u t the screening s u p p l i e s . The package i s a v a i l a b l e op a 2 week l o a n , but extensions are poss ib le i f no one is wa i t ing . TEXTS 1. Emphasis Ar t 2. Ar t in Depth These books are a v a i l a b l e fo r loan i f your school has not yet received c o p i e s . GUIDE TO THE CURRICULUM Every intermediate teacher of ar t should now have one. It w i l l be p e r i o d i c a l l y added t o . IDEA NETWORK We can share ideas with each other by o u t l i n i n g them on the sheet headed k c A l v i t i t b , P f i o j z c t i , Sttwting Volwtf,. WORKSHOPS Seven have already been of fered on printmaking and c lay work. FURTHER? Let us know what would prove to be useful to you. A GIFT FOR YOU.1 I T I S N ' T TOO O F T E N T H A T A F R E E G I F T A R R I V E S W I T H NO S T R I N G S A T T A C H E D , B U T , WE W E R E N ' T S U R E J U S T HOW YOU WOULD WANT T O U S E T H I S . A F T E R A L L , I T C O U L D B E A M E D A L L I O N OR A P E N D A N T . P E R H A P S Y O U C O U L D U S E I T A S A K E Y R I N G . T H E N A G A I N , I T C O U L D S E R V E A S A Z I P P E R G R I P P E R . YOUR S T U D E N T S I N G R A D E S 5 A N D 7 M I G H T L I K E TO M A K E O N E . T H I S A N D M A N Y O T H E R E N R I C H M E N T S U G G E S T I O N S A R E F O U N D I N YOUR C O P Y O F T H E T R A I L D I S T R I C T ' S C O R E S E Q U E N T I A L A R T P R O G R A M UNDER W6. WOULD YOU CONSIDER SHARING AN IDEA? THE IDEA NEM)RK CAN WORK. A S H E E T H A S B E E N A T T A C H E D TO H E L P YOU DO J U S T T H A T - WHEN YOUR I D E A I S D I S T R I B U T E D Y O U ' L L B E G I V E N F U L L C R E D I T . FURTHER? L E T U S KNOW WHAT WOULD H E L P YOU A S YOU U S E T H E C U R R I C U L U M . TEXTS E M P H A S I S A R T A N D A R T IN D E P T H I F YOUR S C H O O L D O E S N ' T H A V E A C O P Y Y E T , A FEW A R E A V A I L A B L E FOR L O A N , T O : T E A C H E R S O F A R T I N G R A D E S 4 A N D 5 F R O M : C R A I G H O R S L A N D A HELPFUL IDEA FOR TEACHERS OF GRADE H AND 5 ART A L O N G W I T H T H I S N O T E YOU S H O U L D R E C E I V E A P L A S T E R E N C A S E D P I L L C O N T A I N E R . I T C A N B E A G R E A T WAY T O S T O R E I N D I A I N K . T H E S E C O N T A I N E R S - E M B E D D E D I N P L A S T E R O F P A R I S - A R E V E R Y S T A B L E A N D E A S Y T O S T O R E A N D D I S T R I B U T E . T U P P E R W A R E C U P S A R E I D E A L . WHEN P A R T L Y F I L L E D W I T H P L A S T E R P U S H I N T H E P L A S T I C P I L L C O N T A I N E R . ART GUIDE REPLACEMENT YOUR O R I G I N A L G U I D E WAS U N F O R T U N A T E L Y M I S S I N G NUMBERS ON SOME P A G E S , R E P L A C E M E N T S A R E A T T A C H E D . T H E N U M B E R S R E F E R TO A C T I V I T I E S , P R O J E C T S , A N D S T A R T I N G P O I N T S I N T H E S E C O N D S E C T I O N , F O R E X A M P L E , I F YOU WERE T E A C H I N G C R A Y O N D R A W I N G TO G R A D E 4 T H E NUMBER (#105) WOULD R E F E R YOU TO A N A C T I V I T Y T H A T YOU M I G H T F I N D U S E F U L . T H E SUGGESTION(s) A R E T H E R E IN T H E E V E N T T H A T YOU D O N ' T Q U I T E KNOW WHAT TO DO OR WANT TO C H A N G E FROM WHAT YOU U S U A L L Y D O . H O W E V E R , YOUR I D E A S M I G H T B E B E T T E R . WOULD YOU L I K E TO S H A R E SOME O F T H E M THROUGH T H E I D E A N E T W O R K ? THE IDEA NETWORK A L L OF OUR I N D I V I D U A L PROGRAMS C A N B E I M P R O V E D B Y S H A R I N G I D E A S ON T H E A T T A C H E D S H E E T . T H E T I M E S P E N T WOULD B E A P P R E C I A T E D B Y MANY C O L L E A G U E S . . ORDERING SUPPLIES? Kneaded erasers can be useful when drawing with B type penc i ls or charcoa l . They are gray or blue coloured erasers that are stretched or kneaded to make them a c t i v e . Teachers of ar t to grades 4 and 5 might consider ordering p l a s t i c p i l l containers to make india ink r e s e r v o i r s . -They range in pr ice from 54 to 1 Oct each depending upon the drug s to re . ART SUPPLY KITS T H E S E A R E S T I L L A V A I L A B L E . J U S T A R E M I N D E R ! A-V SUPPORT I N T R O D U C E C L A Y WORK TO YOUR C L A S S W I T H TWO F I L M S T R I P S : ElemzntA o^ Vottoxtj VotX.QJx.ij: Hand BuiZding Te.ckniqu.zi T H E Y A R E A C C O M P A N I E D B Y TWO C A S S E T T E T A P E S O F 8 A N D 9 M I N U T E S R E S P E C T I V E L Y . 130 WANT SOMETHING DIFFERENT FOR GETTING THE IDEAS GOING? YOU MIGHT LIKE TO BORROW SOME OF THESE PIECES OF EQUIPMENT, THE FANTASTIC PACKING CRATE This authentic looking packing crate - measuring 17 x 31 x 16 - can a r r i ve at your classroom door and provide a lo t of imagination s t re tch ing as you and your c lass d iscuss i t s contents. It appears to have come from Braz i l via Paris and Montreal to you. In a d d i t i o n , i t contains a l i v e specimen and is securely padlocked and bound with rope. What p ictures could be pa inted, drawn, or coloured with this as a s t a r t i n g point ! A PICTURE BOX This box contains a p ic ture of one of the most in te res t ing and n icest persons in the world. Chi ldren are s i t t i n g , ready to go with pencil and paper (or pa in t , penci l c r a y o n s . . . ) , as you t e l l them that each w i l l get a chance to see th is p ic ture for just a few moments. Then they must qu ie t l y return to the i r desk without t e l l i n g anyone what they saw and begin the i r work. The challenge for them is to make the most accurate drawing they can by remembering what was seen. JUST WHO DID THEY SEE? GIOVANNI AND THE GIANT This is a commercially prepared casset te tape. O r i g i n a l l y designed as a s ta r t ing point for c rea t ive w r i t i n g , i t can be used to develop many ideas for artwork. It might be better sui ted for grades 4 and 5, but you might l i k e to l i s t e n to i t and then decide . THE IDEA NETWORK Yet another sheet t i t l e d ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS, STARTING POINTS has been at tached. The time you take from your busy day is much apprecia ted. 181 *********************************** The attached sheets can be inserted into your copy of the Core Sequential Art Guide. The fo l lowing mater ia ls are a v a i l a b l e for the ask ing: 1. Make-up for clowns and monsters, c i rcus posters , and red , white, and blue bunting. 2. Ten s l i d e s of d inosaurs . 3. Two excel 1ent texts about elementary school a r t . 4. S i l k s c r e e n e r ' s package with squeegees, screens, and pa int . 5. One heavy boulder. 6. Canada's Monsters with more s t o r i e s . 7. Drawing k i t with samples of the recommended drawing media. 8. The fan tas t ic packing crate from "Braz i l via Paris and Montreal with a l i v e specimen". 9. F i lmst r ips and tapes for introducing pottery to your k ids . 10. Giovanni and the Giant tape for mot ivat ion . 11. Printmaker's Box with brayers , p l e x i g l a s s , and ink. 12. Reinhold Art V isuals on surface and percept ion . 13. F i lmst r ips on Canadian a r t i s t s : Pel lan Carr Mi 1 ne Kr ieghoff West Coast A r t i s t s 14. Charts for teaching hand-bui l t pot tery . 15. A p ic ture box containing a r e f l e c t i v e image of one of the n ices t persons in the world! Great motivat ion for p o r t r a i t drawing.

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