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Factors affecting development and implementation of an intermediate grade art curriculum in a South-Central.. Horsland, Craig 1982

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FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTERMEDIATE GRADE ART CURRICULUM IN A SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICT by  CRAIG HORSLAND B . E d . , The University of V i c t o r i a ,  1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES /  Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982 ©  Craig Horsland 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Visual and Performing Arts i n Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  September 30,  1982  written  i i Abstract Those f a c t o r s that p o s i t i v e l y and negatively a f f e c t curriculum development and curriculum implementation were i d e n t i f i e d through a l i t e r a t u r e review and a f i e l d study in which a sequential intermediate grade a r t curriculum was developed and taken through the i n i t i a l stages of implementation.  An attempt was.made to r e s t r a i n the negative factors and to  u t i l i z e the p o s i t i v e factors in a f i e l d study involving volunteer i n t e r mediate grade teachers in a south-central B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s trict.  The process of development involved planning a curriculum that  had ' p o s s i b l e ' learning outcomes rather than intended learning outcomes. This curriculum proposed a l t e r n a t i v e lesson and u n i t components so that teachers in t h e i r planning could consider d i f f e r e n t purposes, p u p i l s , and s i t u a t i o n s .  Not considered p e r f e c t , the curriculum f a c i l i t a t e d ob-  servation of the factors a f f e c t i n g development and implementation.  In-  troducing the human f a c t o r to t h e o r e t i c a l plans necessitated responsive adaptation in p r a c t i c e .  Of a l l the factors a f f e c t i n g t h i s study the d i s -  t r i c t supervisor responsible for curriculum was found to be one of the most important.  Communication, time, energy, stamina, and perseverence  were also seen as being c r i t i c a l to success.  Without perseverence suc-  cess may not be given an opportunity to evolve.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s  f i e l d study, implementation was determined to be an on-going process when a curriculum i s continuously adapted, added t o , and modified.  Im-  plementation involved teaching teachers and attempting to provide f o r teacher success. explored.  A broadened d e f i n i t i o n of i n - s e r v i c e was p a r t i a l l y  One major recommendation of t h i s study i s that both the c u r -  riculum and an implementation plan should be approved by the l o c a l c u r riculum advisory committee and the board of school trustees before im-  plementation begins.  This study noted the need to l i n k the d i s t r i c t  level  strategy f o r curriculum implementation with the professional development plans of i n d i v i d u a l schools.  The curriculum development and implementa-  t i o n model explored, and the accompanying i n t e r p r e t i v e c r i t i c i s m are provided as a data base for other school d i s t r i c t  personnel who want a point  of reference from which to plan and implement l a s t i n g curriculum changes that allow f o r continuing m o d i f i c a t i o n .  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  vi  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  The Problem S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Problem Limitations Assumptions 2.  FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION  6  Thesis L i t e r a t u r e Review 3.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ART CURRICULUM  21  4.  THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM  42  5.  DISCUSSION  91  Reflections Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCE LIST  105  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF UNCITED MATERIAL  107  APPENDIX A.  A CORE SEQUENTIAL ART PROGRAM  "109  B.  COVERING LETTERS ADDRESSED TO INTERMEDIATE ART TEACHERS . . .  175  v LIST OF TABLES Tables 1. Student enrollment in a r t 2. Factors a f f e c t i n g workshop attendance  Page 3 77  VI  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Recognition f o r assistance i n t h i s f i e l d study i s given to my colleagues in the d i s t r i c t  in which t h i s work was undertaken.  Parti-  c u l a r appreciation i s extended to those who p a r t i c i p a t e d in the development of the art curriculum around which t h i s study focused. i n d i v i d u a l s have been given f i c t i t i o u s  All  names, as our real i n t e r e s t  is  in the r e v e l a t i o n of i n s i g h t s that improve teaching and learning in art.  I wish to thank Dr. James Gray f o r providing considered advice  in channeling several of my seeming diverse i n t e r e s t s i n t o t h i s one coherent d i r e c t i o n .  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The  Problem Experts have spent tremendous amounts of time and energy i n d e v e l -  oping c u r r i c u l a with the purpose o f improving i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g , but these programs have made l i t t l e l a s t i n g impact upon classrooms and schools (Wiles, 1965). The nature o f elementary schools demands that an intermediate grade teacher be a person with d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s i n many subjects.  Although teacher t r a i n i n g programs provide i n t r o d u c t o r y me-  thods courses i n a l l s u b j e c t areas, a l a c k of time prevents teachers from becoming adequately prepared i n a l l aspects o f each subject's curriculum.  In a d d i t i o n , while teachers work hard to e f f e c t i v e l y teach  the language a r t s , a r i t h m e t i c , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and s c i e n c e , they are u s u a l l y unable to f i n d time to think about and plan f o r a r t . An a r t c l a s s may become a time when c h i l d r e n explore a wide v a r i e t y of media, m a t e r i a l s , and p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i v e freedom. be taught.  In f a c t , a r t may even not  C h i l d r e n do not l e a r n to be s k i l l e d i n , or a r t i c u l a t e with  a r t , and a s e q u e n t i a l development o f s k i l l s , processes, and content u s u a l l y does not occur.  Those teachers who do f i n d time to develop pro-  grams are o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r attempts to t r a n s l a t e goals i n t o p r a c t i c e , to f i n d w r i t t e n and v i s u a l resource m a t e r i a l s , and to deal with inadequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Problem Because a r t i s considered an important element of the c u r r i c u l u m , there i s a need to f i n d ways through which the development and subsequent implementation of an a r t c u r r i c u l u m f o r the intermediate grades  2 can be f a c i l i t a t e d .  This need i s further amplified by recent d i r e c t i o n s  from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education which have sanctioned current elementary fine arts curriculum development. For many students t h e i r elementary school art education i s the only art program that they encounter i n school (see Table 1).  Indeed, for  most of those who do continue taking a r t beyond the elementary level the elementary curriculum comprises the greater part of t h e i r t o t a l program (see Table 1).  When a t t i t u d e s and values toward a r t and b e l i e f s about  a r t are developed through an elementary school art program that e i t h e r terminates or i s a dominant part of a t o t a l art education, that program's success i s e s s e n t i a l . Limitations This f i e l d study was r e s t r i c t e d in these ways: Time. months.  This f i e l d study took place over a period of sixteen school  The curriculum development phase involved s i x months, while the  implementation phase was undertaken during one complete school year. District size.  During the implementation phase, September, 1981,  to June, 1982, the d i s t r i c t was composed of 1317 intermediate grade c h i l d r e n and f i f t y - f i v e intermediate grade teachers.  The d i s t r i c t  in  t o t a l was responsible for educating 4019 f u l l time equivalent students with 248 teachers and f i v e d i s t r i c t  staff.  This f i e l d study drew upon nine elementary s c h o o l s , one s a t e l l i t e school e n r o l l i n g students to grade s i x , and a j u n i o r secondary school e n r o l l i n g approximately one-third of i t s students in grade seven. Authority r o l e s .  The i n i t i a t o r / c o o r d i n a t o r  of the f i e l d study was  employed as a regular classroom teacher with a f u l l teaching assignment. Source of impetus for change.  Although t h i s art curriculum pro-  TABLE 1  STUDENT  ENROLLMENT  Survey of grade 11 and 12 students in d i s t r i c t -  IN  YEARS  Students who took no art beyond the elementary grades  ART  N= 4 1 2  %  157  38  1  244  59  2  301  73  Students who dropped art a f t e r three years in secondary s c h o o l :  3  363  88  Students who dropped art a f t e r four years in secondary s c h o o l :  4  386  94  26  6  Students who dropped a r t a f t e r one year in secondary school :  Students who dropped art a f t e r two years in secondary s c h o o l :  Students who took art continuously through secondary school :  The students surveyed were in grades 11 and 12 in the d i s t r i c t involved in t h i s f i e l d study. As the survey was taken in midJune, 1982, and course s e l e c t i o n s had been made, grade eleven students were asked to complete the questionnaire as though they were in grade twelve.  4  j e c t was i n i t i a t e d by one i n d i v i d u a l in the spring of 1980, support was r e a d i l y given by the supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n on behalf of the Extent of teacher involvement. both phases was voluntary.  Teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n  district.  throughout  Schools were encouraged but not required to  become f a m i l i a r with the curriculum through s t a f f meetings and professional development days. Geography of the d i s t r i c t .  Within the d i s t r i c t schools were s c a t -  tered l i n e a r l y for a distance of 28 kilometers. Budget.  Within the t o t a l d i s t r i c t budget no special allotment was  made for t h i s curriculum p r o j e c t .  Money was taken from the  district  o f f i c e ' s general account. Support s e r v i c e s .  Common d i s t r i c t resources included a l o c a l d i s -  t r i b u t i o n centre that was responsible for r e - d i r e c t i n g f i l m s , acquiring videotapes, and f i l i n g miscellaneous printed materials such as pamphlets. Competition.  In recent years several curriculum development and  adaptation projects had occurred with teachers selected by the office.  district  During the time of t h i s f i e l d study a keen i n t e r e s t in the use  of personalized computers was developing. S p e c i f i c resource personnel.  Although the d i s t r i c t employed a per-  forming arts coordinator on a part-time b a s i s , no v i s u a l arts coordinator e x i s t e d . D i s t r i c t s t a f f included a superintendent, a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , a supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n , a s p e c i a l services consultant, and a coordinator for elementary i n s t r u c t i o n and reading. Assumptions The inherent assumptions of t h i s study are t h a t : 1. Teacher involvement in the planning and adaptation of an a r t  5  curriculum w i l l  increase the ultimate impact of that curriculum.  2. Teachers can only e f f e c t i v e l y teach what they know.  They must  have the same knowledge, s k i l l s , and attitudes that the curriculum attempts to teach c h i l d r e n . 3. Feelings of accomplishment and success w i l l  be r e f l e c t e d in  teacher i n t e r e s t and involvement. 4. Product oriented a r t lessons are seen by teachers as more pract i c a l and can more r e a d i l y be incorporated into t h e i r present programs. 5. Teacher and student competency and s a t i s f a c t i o n with the product i v e aspect of the curriculum w i l l  increase opportunities  for  introduc-  ing other components such as the development of perception, an awareness of heritage, and c r i t i c a l  abilities.  6. Teachers w i l l t r y an innovation when they see i t s relevancy and usefulness and sense the excitement of others using 7.  it.  Because a s i g n i f i c a n t number of students never take art  after  grade seven, an intermediate a r t curriculum must cover basic art processes, media, s k i l l s , concepts, and related vocabulary. 8. A sequential intermediate grade a r t curriculum can ensure an ordered progression and w i l l  help a r t i c u l a t e a larger curriculum.  9 . The general discussion of curriculum development and implement a t i o n that i s found i n educational l i t e r a t u r e can be applied s p e c i f i c a l l y to art education.  6 CHAPTER 2 FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION Thesis This study was conducted to support the thesis that factors a f f e c t ing curriculum development and curriculum implementation cannot be considered separately i f and when curriculum changes are attempted, and that any innovational attempt to restrain the negative factors requires e f f o r t to u t i l i z e positive factors.  A key element in support of this thesis i s  the judgment that of a l l the factors that a f f e c t implementation i t i s the teacher who i s the key, the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r , to innovation and change (Gil 1 i s , 1968, p. 45; Michaelis, Grossman & Scott, 1975, p. 459), because "the curriculum changes only as the teacher changes i t " (Moffit, 1963, p. 12). There i s an essential need to involve volunteer teachers in planning a curriculum with possible learning outcomes as opposed to imposing a curriculum with intended learning outcomes (Ben-Peretz, 1975, p. 151). This study accounts f o r the importance and the influence of this element. Literature Review A l i t e r a t u r e review of research and journals in education reveals that there i s l i t t l e discussion of the subject of curriculum implementation.  Instead, most writing discusses curriculum development projects,  curriculum guides, and descriptions of art a c t i v i t i e s and resource materials.  Many c u r r i c u l a are being developed, but there are few studies  that either analyze their long-term impact or observe and interpret any related implementation e f f o r t s . V i r t u a l l y a l l other writing found within textbooks r e f l e c t s this scarcity.  Any discussions on curriculum implementation are of a general  nature and f a i l  to d i r e c t t h e i r attention toward a r t .  L i t e r a t u r e strongly indicates that successful curriculum implementat i o n requires the involvement of the teacher in planning the curriculum (Ben-Peretz, pp. 153-154; Mahan & G i l l , 1972, p. 4 ; R i c h e r t , 1966, p. 18). Implementors must c e r t a i n l y recognize the fact that i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l t e r p r e t and adapt a curriculum (Brugelmann, 1979, p. 140).  in-  Teachers  should be seen as decision makers rather than as technicians achieving a goal set by someone e l s e .  Such involvement considers the curriculum as  having the means to develop possible learning outcomes and not j u s t pres c r i b e d , intended learning outcomes (Ben-Peretz, p. 151).  Because those  using a curriculum have r e l a t i v e autonomy in i n t e r p r e t i n g and modifying it,  curriculum development would be more e f f e c t i v e i f s t r a t e g i e s were  developed that allowed for consideration of d i f f e r e n t  purposes, p u p i l s ,  s i t u a t i o n s , and ways of using c u r r i c u l a r items (Ben-Peretz, p. 157).  In  t h i s way, "Instead of t r y i n g in vain to make c u r r i c u l a 'teacher  1  proof,  i t might be better to provide teachers with c u r r i c u l a r p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a basis for choice and a c t i o n " (Ben-Peretz, p. 158). If teachers are ignored in curriculum decision making they may appear unenthusiastic and even apathetic ( R i c h e r t , p. 19).  Initially,  "the  d i r e c t i o n for change, the value element in change, must come from the teacher and not be imposed by leadership personnel" (Macdonald, 1966, p.7). A curriculum that i s imposed w i l l commitment (Orlikow, 1967, p. 28).  lack both involvement and professional Imposition w i l l create h o s t i l i t y and  inconsistency in p r a c t i c e (Mahan & G i l l , p. 4 ) .  Such a t t i t u d e s are seen  in teachers who v e r b a l l y accept change but are not personally committed to the curriculum or i t s implementation. tive.  Planned changes become i n e f f e c -  8 To develop e s s e n t i a l commitment teachers must be adequately i n volved in the planning and s e l e c t i o n of the program ( G i l l i s , p. 46; Mahan & G i l l , p. 4 ; Orlikow, p. 28; R i c h e r t , p. 20).  Such involvement  develops a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward change, a desire to explore new ideas ( R i c h e r t , p. 18), and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the program (Mackenzie, 1964, p. 138).  "Most teachers want to p a r t i c i p a t e in the making of decisions  that w i l l v i t a l l y a f f e c t them and t h e i r d a i l y teaching schedules" (Cay, 1966, p. 143).  Highly directed change through i n d o c t r i n a t i o n and coer-  cion i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e when compared to planning by equals ( D o l l , 1978, p. 205). Curriculum development and implementation, then, involve more than designing a guide and presenting i t to teachers.  Teachers need to be  involved in e i t h e r planning or adapting a curriculum framework which, as a resource, allows modification of accompanying a l t e r n a t i v e s and s t r a t egies according to unique circumstances, p u p i l s , f a c i l i t i e s , previous experiences, and unplanned p o s s i b i l i t i e s (Ben-Peretz, pp. 155, 157; R i c h e r t , p. 18).  Adapting and designing programs not only helps teachers  recognize the design and purpose but allows them to see the philosophy and assumptions which i s something they may otherwise never see.  Teachers  who help i n i t i a t e programs have a greater commitment to the important precepts of the programs than to the materials themselves (Edwards & Wright, 1975, p. 13).  "Our findings  . . . seem to support previous authors' con-  tentions that commitment to the philosophical p o s i t i o n that underlies change i s indeed c r i t i c a l " (Edwards & Wright, p. 20). Motivated teachers are necessary i f there i s to be involvement in planning and subsequent change.  Motivation begins with the development  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the present when i t i s compared with what could  9 be ( D o l l , p. 199).  Teachers may have r e s i s t e d changes simply because  they have not recognized the problems that led to the c u r r i c u l a r change ( M o f f i t , p. 59).  Reasons leading to the change must be given.  d i f f u s i o n mechanisms allow for providing potential  "Unless  implementors with the  r a t i o n a l e f o r change as well as the p r e s c r i p t i o n s for i t , change has a greatly diminished chance of enduring" (Edwards & Wright, p. 21). If d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n does not e x i s t i t should be created as a problem to be solved and used to motivate i n d i v i d u a l s .  When d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n pre-  cedes or p a r a l l e l s change i t makes change easier ( M o f f i t , p. 17). t h e r , discontent seems to be required for intentional  Fur-  change, and i t s  degree w i l l determine the urgency for change ( M i e l , 1946, p. 40). Changing the curriculum involves s o c i a l change in people and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , behaviors, knowledge, and s k i l l  ( M i e l , pp. 10, 14).  Even though teachers may recognize inadequacies in a current program, the required s h i f t in i n d i v i d u a l and group v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and b e l i e f s may exceed t h e i r capacity. f i c u l t to do.  Modifying a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , and values i s d i f -  The more a curriculum c o n f l i c t s with those of the people  involved the more d i f f i c u l t i t lum (Rogers, 1962, p. 5 ) .  i s to create an acceptance of the c u r r i c u -  In discussing how the change process i s best  f a c i l i t a t e d , Macdonald emphasizes the need for using the  clarification  process to develop r a t i o n a l thinking and valuing (p. 7 ) .  Common v a l u e s ,  according to M i e l , unify a group and help develop shared goals (p. 36). As a r e s u l t , a group working as a team needs to set common g o a l s , because those s e l f - s e t goals have greater motivation than those set by others ( M i e l , p. 49). There are many sources of the a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , and values of students.  In his discussion of the e x p l i c i t ,  implicit,  and null  curri-  10 c u l a , Eisner (1979, chap. 5) states that schools teach a great deal more than they intend and that they also neglect to teach a great d e a l .  In  doing s o , schools teach v i t a l a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , knowledge, and s k i l l . While some r e l a t e to school in g e n e r a l , others apply to s p e c i f i c subject areas. Older s i b l i n g s and parents also have a major influence upon younger family members ( L i p p i t t , 1966, p. 50).  The extent to which they accept,  r e j e c t , or ignore a subject area influences the attitudes of students (Michaelis et a l . , p. 462). Students play a major r o l e in determining to what extent a c u r r i c u lum i s implemented ( L i p p i t t , p. 46).  Teachers measure student response  in determining how and to what extent they w i l l use a curriculum ( L i p p i t t , p. 46).  P o s i t i v e feedback i s l i k e l y when students see relevance and ex-  perience success.  Demonstrated student competence, shown through the  achievement of s k i l l s , provides inner support to the curriculum ( L i p p i t t , p. 47).  As w e l l , motivation maintains p o s i t i v e feedback when students  experience an a c t i v e search, closure in a c t i o n , and fun in the learning process ( L i p p i t t , p. 47).  To accurately measure student response teach-  ers need to be able to diagnose t h e i r own class s i t u a t i o n (Macdonald, P- 8 ) . Equally as important, teachers must also experience success.  "In  g e n e r a l , the stronger the b e l i e f of the classroom teachers in t h e i r own s u f f i c i e n c y as purveyors of the a r t s , the more l i k e l y they were to r e c commend the program to other teachers and continue i t s use in t h e i r own classroom" (Edwards & Wright, p. 21).  Success can be encouraged by  s e t t i n g short-term goals and choosing small manageable parts of the curriculum to t r y before larger change i s attempted.  By s t r e s s i n g success  11  the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e i s reduced. C o n c u r r e n t l y , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h r e a t s of condemnation judgment must be removed so t h a t teachers w i l l be r i s k takers p. 5) and accept f a i l u r e .  and negative (Macdonald,  Freedom to experiment must not be r e s t r a i n e d  by f e a r s that c r y s t a l l i z e i n the forms of e v a l u a t i o n , judgment of worth, and concern f o r the unknown (Macdonald, p. 5).  There i s a consequent  need to develop i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s among teachers t h a t are supportive and p o s i t i v e (Macdonald, p. 5). Teachers f e e l s u c c e s s f u l when they see t h e i r students e x p e r i e n c i n g success.  T h e r e f o r e , a scheduled time f o r the program w i l l give students  a b e t t e r chance to experience success by a l l o w i n g them to p a r t i c i p a t e on a r e g u l a r and meaningful b a s i s (Mahan & G i l l , p. 33). Curriculum change r e q u i r e s teacher involvement and s o c i a l change. The f a c t o r s that e f f e c t planned change must be c o n t r o l l e d ; r e s t r a i n i n g forces must be reduced and d r i v i n g f o r c e s must be strengthened. Achieving p o s i t i v e change.  C r e a t i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and changing  a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , and goals can help e f f e c t change. " In doing so, teachers can be educated and re-educated i n three ways: p r e - s e r v i c e , s e l f - d i r e c t e d study, and i n - s e r v i c e . P r e - s e r v i c e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the u n i v e r s i t y . S e l f - d i r e c t e d study i s a way i n which a teacher can independently grow by e x p l o r i n g new ideas and m a t e r i a l s . Although some teachers grow and change c o n t i n u o u s l y on t h e i r own, most need to be sparked by i n - s e r v i c e (Macdonald, p. 2). growth, Macdonald  In d i s c u s s i n g independent teacher l e a r n i n g and  wrote:  If a l l teachers could grow i n t h i s way there might be no need f o r i n - s e r v i c e programs.  The r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t the ma-  12 j o r i t y of our teachers do not d i s p l a y a noticeable b u i l t - i n fessional growth mechanism.  pro-  Like the population at l a r g e , there  seem to be r e l a t i v e l y few self-educating people in teaching (p. 2). I n - s e r v i c e , the most frequently discussed way of stimulating and guiding professional growth of teachers, r e a l i z e s that continuous teaching i s i n s u f f i c i e n t as the only source of growth.  Unfortunately,  there  i s no widespread use of the idea that "curriculum development deals prima r i l y with the c r e a t i v e re-education of the teacher" (Koopman, 1966, p. 65).  In preparing teachers for a change i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l  roles, in-  service does have an important function (Michaelis et a l . , p. 461).  "We  have discovered that i f teachers have the opportunity they w i l l engage, on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ,  in learning a c t i v i t i e s to achieve s k i l l s needed  to master the use of new curriculum that they have come to understand, to be excited about, to be free to adapt" ( L i p p i t t , p. 54).  Through i n -  service the school system can stimulate growth in everyone involved with education. Although i n - s e r v i c e can make education for the teacher e x c i t i n g and i n f e c t i o u s ( R i c h e r t , p. 18), i t must go beyond providing an introduction (Orlikow, p. 27).  In-service must be an on-going a c t i v i t y in which the  teacher becomes involved in developing, d i s c u s s i n g , and adapting a c u r r i culurn. One aspect of i n - s e r v i c e i s the workshop.  To prevent the i n s i g n i f i -  cant from dominating depth in thought and l e a r n i n g , workshops require c l e a r goals and an ordered plan.  Workshops can be used to adapt and d i s -  cuss a c u r r i c u l u m , prepare teaching m a t e r i a l s , and learn competencies. Even though wasted time creates f r u s t r a t i o n , time loss can often be expected when a group attempts to plan a curriculum.  Nevertheless, " p l a n -  13 ning by equals seems to have the greatest long-term and d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t " ( D o l l , p. 205).  Action research that involves teachers in a process of  change can develop a real desire to change and i s "now recognized to be one of the best methods of i n - s e r v i c e education" ( M o f f i t , p. 45). For change to occur a p o s i t i v e and stimulating s o c i a l s e t t i n g i s essential (Macdonald, p. 4 ) .  Those who influence and control decisions  must openly support and consciously b u i l d a f e e l i n g that the innovation i s advocated and supported.  The superintendent, the s u p e r v i s o r , the p r i n -  c i p a l , and the school board are a l l capable of providing r e s o u r c e f u l , strong leadership and i n t e l l i g e n t d i r e c t i o n .  The s o c i a l system over which  they exert so much control must encourage and accept growth and change i n i t s teachers (Macdonald, pp. 4 - 5 ) .  "A school system that encourages r e -  search and experimentation among i t s teachers is always growing" (Cay, p. 175).  Cay also s t a t e d :  Research projects and p i l o t studies or surveys help to bring about change in an o r d e r l y , evolutionary way.  Change accomplished in  t h i s way i s usually of longer duration and has a greater degree of a c c e p t a b i l i t y than does revolutionary progress, (p. 175) "The boundaries of the system must be f l e x i b l e and the system must funct i o n as i f the phenomena of teacher change are natural and d e s i r a b l e " '(Macdonald, p. 4 ) . Administrators can give impetus to change.  They can provide much  needed time, s u p p l i e s , and open support (Manan & G i l l , pp. 10, 13). Moreover, a p r i n c i p a l can have a tremendous influence upon a s t a f f , because he/she symbolizes the educational s e t t i n g and acts as a lens through which teachers observe and perceive the system (Macdonald, p. 4 ) .  14 The coordinator or change agent also plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e .  In  curriculum implementation there i s a need to provide continuous a s s i s t ance in helping teachers discover the curriculum's potential when teachers lack time and resources ( R i c h e r t , p. 19).  The coordinator can put  teachers into contact with resources, c l a r i f y d i r e c t i o n s , and a s s i s t in adapting and developing materials ( D o l l , p. 216).  Further, t h i s person  can nrovide a v a r i e t y of i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s that ensure both group and i n d i v i d u a l contact and use l i t e r a r y and mechanical media ( D o l l , pp. 230-231).  In g e n e r a l , a coordinator can give support by helping teach-  ers l o c a t e , understand, adapt, and use new resources with s k i l l . Unfortunately, a f o r c e f u l leader or teacher may i n i t i a t e or be a s sociated with a strong program and leave.  Whether t h i s occurs in i s o l a -  t i o n or in combination with teacher turnover, the newly implemented curriculum may be modified or l o s t (Wiles, pp. 6-8).  To some the status of  the coordinator may be threatening and, i n the end, impede change. As a contributing part of the climate f o r change, the community must understand and support the c u r r i c u l a r change (Michaelis et a l . , p. 462).  Essential to t h i s understanding are sound r e l a t i o n s between the  school and the community which r e l y upon administrators who promote communication (Cay, p. 140).  Community members p a r t i c u l a r l y need to know  how the curriculum w i l l benefit t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  The degree of support  or non-support on the part of the community i s r e f l e c t e d in the a t t i tudes transmitted to t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Michaelis et a l . , p. 462).  Commit-  ment can be developed through i n - s e r v i c e that shows the community how to support both learning a c t i v i t i e s and students in t h e i r special r o l e as learner ( L i p p i t t , p. 50). Restraining f o r c e s .  Restraining f o r c e s , resistance to change, may  15 be psychological in o r i g i n .  Innovations may require new ways of t h i n k -  i n g , and there i s frequently resistance to the unknown ( R i c h e r t , p. 19) and veneration of t r a d i t i o n  (Cay, p. 141).  Security and s a t i s f a c t i o n may create resistance to change.  The t r a -  d i t i o n a l ways provide s e c u r i t y for some ( M i e l , p. 22), and that s e c u r i t y i s threatened when routines are upset or l o s t (Mahan & G i l l , p. 15). G e n e r a l l y , the greater the s a t i s f a c t i o n with the t r a d i t i o n a l w i l l be the d i f f i c u l t y  in i n i t i a t i n g  the greater  change ( M o f f i t , p. 16).  In other  words, "Proposals for change that cause the l e a s t d i s r u p t i o n within the system u s u a l l y have the greatest chance for being accepted and therefore of succeeding" ( D o l l , p. 208).  To avoid threatening s e c u r i t y , change  must proceed no f a s t e r than people are prepared to go ( D o l l , p. 228; M i e l , p. 183).  To ensure that such changes are not too sudden, minor  concepts or i n s i g h t s should be introduced gradually ( M o f f i t , p. 16). Both p r i n c i p a l s and teachers may be reluctant to implement changes, because there may be a loss of power or a need to adjust to a s h i f t roles.  in  For teachers i t may also mean a movement away from the central  r o l e in the classroom ( D o l l , p.215).  It i s easier to change a curriculum  than to change teaching methods ( D o l l , p. 214). C o n f l i c t can develop when perceptions of the need f o r teacher i n volvement and the need to maintain a s o c i a l system c l a s h .  Harris (1966)  wrote t h a t , "the administrative structure i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y geared to maintaining a c t i v i t i e s , r e s i s t i n g change, and avoiding controversy or c o n f l i c t "  (p. 93).  S i m i l a r l y , "when access to power i s not a v a i l a b l e  to those with t a l e n t and a w i l l i n g n e s s to accept the inherent responsib i l i t y that accrues, then the goals of the school are seen a s ' a front for the real purpose - the giving and maintaining of status and r o l e  16 s i t u a t i o n s " (Macdonald, p.4). Psychological resistance can be d i v e r s e .  Restraining forces appear  within the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups.  For example, t r u s t  may not e x i s t between teachers and administrators or consultants.  "Teach-  ers w i l l r e s i s t curriculum changes i f they feel they are being used" (Cay, p. 143).  Further, Cay wrote:  Again and a g a i n , teachers indicated that they f e l t the need of l o y a l t y and support from those with whom and for whom they worked i f they were to f e e l interested i n curriculum change.  Otherwise, they  were not interested in working extra hours arid expending additional energies to a s s i s t i n curriculum change, (p. 144) Trust may also be lacking in those i n d i v i d u a l s who were not asked to part i c i p a t e ( D o l l , p. 208). Resistance within a group can r e s u l t from "a v a r i e t y of to sharing" ( L i p p i t t , p. 51).  inhibitions  The need for teachers to be c r e a t i v e i n  using m a t e r i a l s , to a c t i v e l y share practices as they learn together, and to r e a l i z e a need f o r new s k i l l s may never be r e a l i z e d ( L i p p i t t , p. 51). Further r e s t r a i n i n g forces w i t h i n a group may surface when a group i s asked to work together when they are not used to doing so ( D o l l , p. 207).  The shared power w i t h i n such a group may mean that f i n a l con-  t r o l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are unclear ( D o l l , p. 207).  Uncertainty  threat-  ens s e c u r i t y . Groups or cliques can dramatically hinder or help c u r r i c u l a r innovation.  Cay discusses unprofessional conduct and a t t i t u d e s as b a r r i e r s .  "Teachers . . . tend to form c l i q u e s within a f a c u l t y of some s i z e , and t h i s often plays one segment of the f a c u l t y against another" (Cay, p. 143).  17  " U n d i s c i p l i n e d c r i t i c i s m that i s motivated more by emotion than by f a c t s " (Cay, p. 143), i s found in most s t a f f rooms and can develop attitudes that work against change.  A small established group w i t h i n a s t a f f can  thwart plans, because younger, less experienced teachers may p a r t i c i p a t e according to the acceptance given by experienced teachers ( M o f f i t , p. 55). Other c r i t i c a l  factors.  In addition to a l l of these concerns there  i s a seeming endless l i s t of other factors that a f f e c t curriculum implementation.  For example, perceptions may include seeing the new c u r r i c u -  lum as another 'bandwagon' that i s viewed with suspicion and avoided until  screened ( D o l l , p. 208).  As w e l l , the project may a c t u a l l y be too  complicated and large and therefore unmanageable ( D o l l , p. 228). Funding, time, energy and stamina, resources, and textbooks also a f f e c t curriculum development and implementation. Funding can be used to free teachers from the chore of gathering and maintaining equipment.  The use of funds, though, must be natural  so that t h e i r use f o r professional growth i s expected (Macdonald, p. 5). Projects that involve curriculum improvement should be provided with special a l l o c a t i o n s of money w i t h i n the annual budget that go beyond any minimal support (Cay, p. 139). Money can provide equipment, f a c i l i t i e s , and teaching-learning r e sources.  When these e i t h e r do not e x i s t or are l a c k i n g , energy can be  q u i c k l y drained and teachers become discouraged.  Adequate equipment  and materials need to be c o l l e c t e d , ready, and maintained f o r teachers (Mahan & G i l l , p. 13).  F a c i l i t i e s and storage space should be adequate  as well (Mahan & G i l l , p. 13).  Professional l i b r a r i e s and teacher r e -  source centres are needed (Cay, p. 168).  "The mere f a c t that . . .  a  professional resource centre i s a v a i l a b l e encourages teachers to improve  18 themselves and t h e i r teaching p r a c t i c e s " (Cay, p. 169).  F i n a l l y , prior  to a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t i n g a curriculum p r o j e c t , guides and r e l a t e d materia l s should be a v a i l a b l e (Cay, p. 168).  In other words, everything  should be organized so that chances for success are optimal.  Such or-  g a n i z a t i o n , however,, requires time. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of time and i t s e f f i c i e n t use are important to maintaining i n t e r e s t .  However, when intermediate grade teachers must  prepare in numerous subjects and are involved in e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s time may be at a premium.  Cay wrote:  Many schools expect teachers and administrators to t a c k l e the job of curriculum improvement a f t e r four o ' c l o c k in the afternoon.  To  add to an already f u l l day of demanding r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the a d d i t i o n a l task of creating better learning s i t u a t i o n s i s more than one should ask. (p. 137) Teachers may resent the time and energy required for extra preparation. Not wanting to give what the change demands, they can become discouraged ( D o l l , p. 202).  P a r t i c i p a t i o n may be seen as yet another job  p. 4) when present duties already need to be r e l i e v e d . spent i s seen as wasteful ( M o f f i t , p. 4 ) .  (Moffit,  Simply, the time  Moreover, i f s i m i l a r studies  have been taking place too f r e q u e n t l y , teachers may resent the continued demands ( D o l l , p. 202).  F i n a l l y , there may be j u s t too many a c t i v i t i e s  taking p l a c e , and the teacher's a t t e n t i o n i s diverted elsewhere. Demands upon time, energy, and stamina need to be considered and placed into perspective.  As w e l l , ways must be found "to free teachers  f o r preparation i n curriculum-improvement a c t i v i t i e s at times when they are not devoid of energy and enthusiasm" (Cay, p. 138). Demands for time, organized content, sequenced m a t e r i a l s , and secu-  19 r i t y make a textbook welcome by teachers ( E i s n e r , p. 27).  Eisner  stated: Regardless of what one might want to create with respect to c u r r i culum m a t e r i a l s , at present the textbook holds a place of unparall e l e d importance in influencing what s h a l l be taught in the schools, (p. 26) Whether curriculum implementation i s being supported by a t e x t , i s occurring in s p i t e of one, or i s working to replace one that i s already accepted, consideration of the textbook's influence must be given. Summation.  This l i t e r a t u r e review has surveyed many of the f a c t o r s  that influence curriculum development and implementation.  Careful man-  agement of these factors can create an optimal educational environment. However, as already noted, the a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , and values of teache r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and students c r i t i c a l l y a f f e c t  implementation.  Good interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and receptive a t t i t u d e s - the key to changing b e l i e f s and values - can temper the impact of the array of f a c tors and provide for growth and change.  As previously observed, teachers  have a"greater commitment to a curriculum when they are included in the process of development and implementation.  A f t e r confirming t h i s  idea,  Cay wrote: It i s apparent that teachers do feel keenly about the way other persons work with them and that warm supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p s tend to eliminate b a r r i e r s while nonsupportive or antagonistic r e l a t i o n s h i p s tend to erect them. (p. 152) Attitudes that are i n i t i a l l y encountered can determine the degree of subsequent progress.  To t h i s end, Cay noted:  A large portion of successful curriculum improvement l i e s in the  20  state of mind with which a school system approaches i t ,  and an  open mind and a w i l l i n g n e s s to experiment can do much to overcome limitations,  (p. 175)  This review, in examining and summarizing the l i t e r a t u r e of the f i e l d , has discussed factors such as teacher involvement, open support and advocacy, a t t i t u d e s , time, and energy as they r e l a t e to t h i s ed f i e l d study.  report-  What follows in the next two chapters i s a d e s c r i p t i o n  of how those f a c t o r s surfaced in actual p r a c t i c e .  21 CHAPTER 3 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AM ART CURRICULUM This f i e l d study was designed to r e s t r a i n the negative factors and to u t i l i z e the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s in the f i e l d development and implementat i o n of an art curriculum with volunteer intermediate grade teachers i n a south-central B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t .  During the develop-  ment and implementation phases of t h i s study journal notes recorded s i g n i f i c a n t events, i n t e n t i o n s , consequences, and my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and personal responses. sive e v a l u a t i o n .  Throughout, d i r e c t i o n was monitored through respon-  From these observations and notes an attempt has been  made to r e l a t e the events by describing what was done and how i t was done.  This chapter and the next one have drawn upon t h i s journal and  recount h i g h l i g h t s of these two phases.  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and apprais-  al of the a c t i v i t y that occurred over sixteen months have been accompanied with paraphrased comments, d i r e c t quotations, and n a r r a t i v e .  Al-  though the w r i t i n g i s not value f r e e , an attempt has been made to ext r a c t what i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e in d i s c l o s i n g the character of the work, successes, and necessary s k i l l s , as well as the kinds of t r a p s , c u l t i e s , and f a i l u r e s experienced.  diffi-  As a r e s u l t of t h i s comparison be-  tween the hoped-for and the experienced, there has been an e f f o r t to present a summary that may help others who want to e f f e c t l a s t i n g c u r r i cular change in intermediate grade art education. Of the two phases that composed t h i s study the curriculum development phase lasted s i x months and formally began when a memorandum r e questing a meeting of interested intermediate grade a r t teachers was c i r c u l a t e d by the d i s t r i c t ' s supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n on January 20, 1981.  From t h i s point a s e r i e s of meetings structured a curriculum for  grades four through seven.  By May 25, 1981, t h i s curriculum had been  approved as a l o c a l l y developed course by the Board of School Trustees. Initiatives  toward the second phase, the implementation of t h i s  curriculum, began on September 10, 1981, and concluded on June 28, 1982, a f t e r the curriculum had been printed.and d i s t r i b u t e d and many attempts had been made to involve teachers and provide i n - s e r v i c e education. As part of the implementation process, provisions were made to encourage e f f e c t i v e communication by providing teachers with opportunities share i d e a s , problems, concerns, and successes.  to  Further, a form that was  designed to promote on-going teacher input and sharing was u t i l i z e d .  As  w e l l , introductions to the art program and workshops were held at various times and l o c a t i o n s .  Implementation was preceded by the development of  the curriculum and t h a t , in t u r n , was the r e s u l t of planning. P r i o r to January 20, 1981, when teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n was requested in the development of the a r t program, many hours were spent on my part laying the groundwork.  A f t e r having i n i t i a t e d the project in May, 1980,  I r e a l i z e d that more than a developmental plan and o u t l i n e of the c u r r i culum i t s e l f could be needed.  The p o s s i b i l i t y existed that volunteer  teachers could be neither prepared nor knowledgeable about a r t .  If  this  s i t u a t i o n existed i n any measure then some previously planned material would be r e q u i r e d , and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s presumably rested with me, the i n i t i a t o r .  In other words, unsure as to who would volunteer and  how much they would c o n t r i b u t e , and d i r e c t i o n c l e a r in my mind.  I saw the need to have some d e t a i l e d ideas So, with t h i s thought,  preparation  through the f a l l of 1980 devoured many hours. By January 1980 a v a r i e t y of resources had been gathered and several a r t curriculum components had been roughly drafted and typed.  The develop-  23 mental phase was ready for committee involvement. January 10, 1981, Saturday A l l a n , a teacher and f r i e n d , shared his concern that proper curriculum development procedures as outlined by the d i s t r i c t  needed to  be followed. January 12, Monday As a r e s u l t of A l l a n ' s comment I talked with Ted, my p r i n c i p a l , and was made aware of the existence of a curriculum advisory committee that had been created in the d i s t r i c t to oversee curriculum development proj e c t s and to make recommendations to the school board. Two h i s t o r i c a l highlights also surfaced.  In the past several years  numerous elementary grade curriculum projects have involved teachers chosen by d i s t r i c t s t a f f .  These teachers have expended many hours of  t h e i r own time on committees and at home.  Their projects have included  language a r t s , science, physical education, and arcurrent mathematics project.  Second, two years ago the l o c a l teachers' a s s o c i a t i o n was  miffed over the lack of consultation they had been receiving from the school board regarding the s e l e c t i o n of teachers for these committees. One further s i g n i f i c a n t point was mentioned.  Ted noted that p r i n -  c i p a l s were concerned about the number of workshops held l a s t f a l l and the r e s u l t a n t workload placed on teachers. B r i e f l y , approval from the Curriculum Advisory Committee i s needed before a s t a r t i s made on the intermediate art curriculum.  Additionally,  some teacher resistance to further demands on time could be experienced. January 19, Monday Over the phone l a s t Thursday Tasked P r i c e , the supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n , i f we could discuss the curriculum development  project.  24 Today, as promised, he a r r i v e d at the school.  Unfortunately,  throughout the conversation my attention was divided between Price in the hallway to my r i g h t and my c l a s s with my assignment on my l e f t . P r i c e wondered i f  I was ready to s t a r t .  Knowing a l l too well that I  needed more time but would in r e a l i t y probably never be ready, I said that I was. The two of us appeared to have a communication gap over what was being organized.  I intended to have a framework around which we could  b u i l d a c u r r i c u l u m , w h i l e , in c o n t r a s t , Price appeared to think that a curriculum was already packaged f o r presentation and implementation. The need to develop teacher commitment through involvement had been c i t e d as c r i t i c a l to success in program implementation, and I was determined that our f i r s t move was in the c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n .  Teachers would  be involved in the developmental phase. We discussed some of my concerns, and most were r e s o l v e d . volunteers are i d e n t i f i e d , a timetable of meetings w i l l t h e i r convenience.  Once  be made to s u i t  Ten copies of the Ohio art guide and one of the r e -  lated resource k i t s w i l l be ordered f o r the committee.  Release time f o r  those working on the curriculum was given a 'no problem answer. 1  end, I forgot to ask about typing and copying a s s i s t a n c e .  In the  Next time!  Yes, next time I hope we can meet when my a t t e n t i o n i s not d i v e r t e d . January 20, Tuesday A memorandum requesting voluntary teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n was sent from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e to schools. January 27, Tuesday Our f i r s t meeting was held in the l i b r a r y of a c e n t r a l l y located s c h o o l , Waterside Elementary.  Five of us started at four o ' c l o c k , and  two others a r r i v e d l a t e r .  Other than myself - with grade seven, e i g h t ,  and nine art classes - there were Price M i l t o n , Supervisor of  Instruc-  t i o n ; Warren Johnson, a grade four teacher; Neil James, a head teacher with a grade f i v e / s i x c l a s s ; Arlene Green, a grade f i v e / s i x teacher; A l l a n P l a n t e r , a v i c e ^ p r i n c i p a l with a grade six/seven c l a s s ; and Dave Pearson, a p r i n c i p a l with grade seven. Price provided the factual background to the p r o j e c t , stated a few f a c t s , and generally led the i n i t i a l  incorrectly  discussion.  Following t h i s , the meeting focused upon my overview of the Ohio guide's s t r u c t u r e , and our proposed curriculum project was shown to be part of t h i s larger p o s s i b i l i t y .  L i v e l y questioning developed.  Although a subsequent attempt was made to o u t l i n e a possible framework for our own c u r r i c u l u m , very s p e c i f i c questions dominated the d i s cussion.  For example, Dave wanted to know where the teaching of content  was going to f i t ,  e s p e c i a l l y the colour wheel.  Price wanted to know i f  the Ohio guide was organized according to d i f f i c u l t y . worry over s p l i t classes arose.  Then the perennial  How are they accommodated?  In an e f f o r t  to avoid s p e c i f i c questions these and other concerns were only  briefly  answered. Although these questions were t r y i n g to c l a r i f y a l o g i c a l  structure  for the p a r t i c i p a n t s , they were i n d i c a t i v e of more general questions. How w i l l the new curriculum help me? W i l l i t make my job more d i f f i cult?  Can some of my personal expectations be incorporated? In an attempt to provide d i r e c t i o n , the r a t i o n a l e for the new cur-  riculum and rough l i s t s of possible p r o j e c t s , media, and a c t i v i t i e s were presented.  However, the discussion f a i l e d again to centre around  the proposal and shot o f f on another tangent.  Warren was very concerned about an apparent lack of h a n d i c r a f t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y moulded ceramics.  Most of us had something to say, and  some firm positions were quickly taken against what Warren wanted. Even though most agreed that the topic of moulded ceramics was not excluded but l e f t to the s i x months that were not expected to be part of the core curriculum, Warren was neither happy nor s a t i s f i e d with the result.  What Warren valued other committee members did not.  The meeting became more directed as we examined the sequential development of projects and s k i l l s within the areas of drawing, p a i n t i n g , printmaking, and c l a y .  I had previously o u t l i n e d , typed, and copied  four pages that l i s t e d possible projects and media for grades four through seven.  Several minor adjustments were requested, discussed, and  made to drawing, printmaking, and c l a y .  I avoided defending what was  outlined and t r i e d to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l and group reactions through consensus. After an e r r a t i c beginning, agreement was reached on the concept of a sequenced four-month program i n v o l v i n g core areas of drawing, p a i n t i n g , printmaking, and c l a y . B r i e f l y , the program w i l l ask teachers to teach s i x to eight l e s sons - three to four weeks - in each of the four areas from grades four through seven.  In not claiming the other s i x months, teacher/student  i n t e r e s t s and present areas of teacher competency can be accommodated. As w e l l , the remaining s i x months w i l l  be a v a i l a b l e for seasonal pro-  j e c t s and provide room for expanding any of the core areas. the program w i l l  In p r i n c i p l e  be voluntary, b r i e f , easy to f o l l o w , and n o n - r e s t r i c t i v e  The curriculum's major goal w i l l be to ensure that by the end of grade seven students are more a r t i c u l a t e about and s k i l l e d in art than  27  they are at present. Discussion of the vocabulary section was l e f t for another meeting, as we needed to f i n a l i z e the assignment of media and projects within grades before the correlated vocabulary could be l i s t e d . Time between today and our next meeting w i l l provide  opportunities  to consider possible media and p r o j e c t s . Since Warren's request the discussion had been l i v e l y but accommodating.  Without warning, Price u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y  b e l i e f s , and a t t i t u d e s .  disturbed some v a l u e s ,  Simply, he wanted a 'cookbook' for teachers  and the curriculum w r i t t e n with behavioral o b j e c t i v e s . I believed that the 'cookbook' would only provide teachers with what they already had so much of  - the newest and l a t e s t easy-to-do a r t  projects - and see the e s s e n t i a l development of s k i l l s , vocabulary, and concepts ignored.  If attitudes  had been roused before, P r i c e ' s idea of  a 'cookbook' bared a few wires connected to my values and p r i o r i t i e s . No agreement was reached, and further discussion was l e f t for another meeting. The bared wires almost caused a few short c i r c u i t s when we began negotiating our way through the issue of behavioral o b j e c t i v e s . the past three years teachers have been asked through t h e i r to prepare annual overviews, term previews, and behavioral for lessons.  Other d i s t r i c t  Over  principals objectives  curriculum projects were based on behavior-  al o b j e c t i v e s , and, as a r e s u l t , t h e i r printed forms were voluminous. Several of our committee f e l t that a r t was the l a s t place in which more of t h i s trend was needed.  Dave was p a r t i c u l a r l y v o c a l .  However, in the  end, another issue was l e f t for a future meeting. Emotions s e t t l e d when we moved through less c o n t r o v e r s i a l  content.  The need for a materials l i s t received ho response.  The section on  concepts and major understandings was given a b r i e f look but l e f t another day.  for  Price suggested breaking into small groups to c l a s s i f y  these concepts by grade, but with so few of us that seemed impractical . Doing so would have seen curriculum a r t i c u l a t i o n neglected in the i n fancy of our p r o j e c t .  We agreed to i n d i v i d u a l l y categorize the concepts  and major understandings before our next meeting. Consensus was reached on some t o p i c s !  We agreed that any project  from an e a r l i e r grade could be used by a teacher, but that projects belonging to a grade following the grade taught by a teacher were to be avoided.  This gave a l l youngsters something to a n t i c i p a t e each year.  Although enrichment (extra) a c t i v i t i e s might involve a few s e l e c t i o n s from l a t e r grades, they were p r i m a r i l y seen as involving media unique to the core. When I asked committee members i f they would take on the planning and presentation of short i n - s e r v i c e events, scandalized faces stared back.  Obviously that route was either a dead end or one that required  further d e l i c a t e e x p l o r a t i o n . In t r y i n g to keep the meeting b r i e f and to maintain i n t e r e s t future meetings, I suggested q u i t t i n g at f i v e o ' c l o c k . est took us to an adjourment at 5:20.  in  However, i n t e r -  Because every afternoon next  week has been scheduled for meetings aimed at implementing the science curriculum, we w i l l meet on February 11 and 18. As we l e f t , Price promised typing time.  He also said that the  Curriculum Advisory Committee had given us t h e i r b l e s s i n g . O r i g i n a l l y I had planned to implement the curriculum as i t was developed.  In t h i s way teacher feedback would have guided planning and  29  meetings would have provided ideas relevant to teacher exploration in the classroom.  As w e l l , I had expected excitement to have been  generated over the curriculum when committee members t r i e d ideas and teachers in neighbouring classrooms became i n t e r e s t e d .  Subsequent  involvement by the neighbouring teachers would have promoted the implementation., process . But, a small group severely r e s t r i c t s t h i s approach. I have agreed with P r i c e , , andh'mplementation w i l l  Therefore,  follow development.  In one hour and twenty minutes we had unleashed some i s s u e s , come to know one another b e t t e r , surveyed v i r t u a l l y a l l of the components, and made some pivotal d e c i s i o n s . At f i r s t , that was d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  Many decisions had been avoided. However, with the discussion taken  to a point and suspended, both the topic and personal opinions were revealed, but i n d i v i d u a l s were prevented from taking positions from which i t could have been d i f f i c u l t to retreat with i n t e g r i t y .  Such  was the case of the moulded ceramics. C e r t a i n l y the time between tonight and our next meeting w i l l vide an opportunity  pro-  for everyone to consider the issues raised and to  make thoughtful d e c i s i o n s . January 28, Wednesday I have been considering yesterday's meeting. Those who came did not seem to have strong a r t backgrounds. such, I am pleased that I had so much prearranged m a t e r i a l .  As  Without  the d i r e c t i o n i t gave we would have floundered hopelessly. The small attendance was worse than I had expected. nouncement might h e l p , but I am doubtful.  Another an-  I thought that at l e a s t eight  teachers would have come, and I was p a r t i c u l a r l y disappointed that  30 Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser did not attend. teachers and could contribute so much.  Both are talented art  Perhaps they can be persuaded  to attend on the eleventh. Dave was eager! A r l e n e , a f i r s t year teacher, was exceptionally q u i e t , and I had the impression that the meeting was not what she expected.  Perhaps she  was looking for ideas for her day-to-day l e s s o n s .  She was c e r t a i n l y  unable, tq remain anonymous in such a small group.  Whatever, she looked  overwhelmed. Other than during the debate over moulded ceramics Warren was quiet for most of the meeting.  Warren's feelings could have been hurt.  Then  a g a i n , he may have f e l t that what he wanted was not compatible with what the group wanted.  Part way through he looked as though he wished he had  never come. Two members, A l l a n and N e i l , are taking graduate work with Gonzaga University i n Spokane, Washington. that.  I expect that both w i l l  A l l a n has commitments with science meetings as w e l l .  be busy with Neil i s  concerned with his own competency i n a r t . A l l a n , i n speaking with me today, was annoyed that Price had taken control of the meeting and t r i e d to manipulate the group.  Allan f e l t  that I should claim the leadership r o l e . February 3, Tuesday Over the phone Price and I agreed that most of the next meeting w i l l be used to assign concepts and major understandings to grade l e v e l s . intention i s to assign by grade most of the statements that have been roughly drafted and to keep the s i g n i f i c a n t ones, the a p p l i c a b l e ones, and those that work well  together.  The  31  F e b r u a r y 5,  Thursday  Debbie's school burned. the next meeting.  I have been f o r g e t t i n g t o p h o n e h e r a b o u t  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y h e r s i t u a t i o n w i l l be v e r y un-  settled. F e b r u a r y 9, Monday S i n c e o u r l a s t m e e t i n g , more o f my t i m e has been s p e n t a t t h e k i t c h en t a b l e c o m p a r i n g  t h e i n t i a l l i s t o f c o n c e p t s and m a j o r  w i t h o t h e r a r t t e x t s . A n y t h i n g i m p o r t a n t has been a d d e d .  understandings Night s h i f t  t y p i n g i n t h e s c h o o l o f f i c e has become t o o much o f a r o u t i n e .  I should  be g e t t i n g t h e t y p i n g d o n e a t t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , b u t i t i s t e n m i l e s away and so much o f w h a t n e e d s t o be t y p e d a p p e a r s t o be f r a g m e n t e d  and  i n s i g n i f i c a n t at the time. F e b r u a r y 1 1 , Wednesday Dave was a n x i o u s t o b e g i n o u r m e e t i n g b e f o r e P r i c e a r r i v e d . o p e n l y s t a t e d t h a t he w a n t e d Price did.  He  t o d i s c u s s what I i n t e n d e d r a t h e r than what  As I saw i t , Dave was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t a n o t h e r s e t o f  objectives, especially in art.  I agreed but d i d not say so.  Price  never d i d a r r i v e anyway. Warren,  I was t o l d , had had a b u s y d a y and was t a k i n g an e v e n i n g  c o u r s e i n computer  programming  t o n i g h t . A r l e n e d i d not a r r i v e e i t h e r .  A l t h o u g h t h e o t h e r s had p r o m i s e d t o s w e l l o u r numbers by b r i n g i n g someo n e , o n l y Dave had p e r s u a d e d one o f h i s s t a f f members, H a r r y M i t c h e l l , t o come. As u s u a l , Dave was keen and had c a t e g o r i z e d t h e m a j o r i n g s on h i s s h e e t s .  No one e l s e h a d .  understand-  I had t h o u g h t t h a t d o i n g homework  w o u l d make t h e m e e t i n g s move more q u i c k l y and g i v e e v e r y o n e a c h a n c e t o c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r the proposals i n advance.  32 Although Neil deferred to others most of the time, both A l l a n and Harry p a r t i c i p a t e d . As we categorized major understandings for l i n e , shape, t e x t u r e , c o l o u r , and form there was occasional confusion over terminology.  Real  concern was expressed that teachers would not know what was meant in many cases. colour?  For example, how i_s texture shown through l i n e , shape, and  Examples need to be given.  So the project grows!  As we concluded categorizing major understandings our dialogue started examining what teachers a c t u a l l y would want from an art culum.  curri-  Those present thought that the need was for s p e c i f i c projects  and a c t i v i t i e s which would teach what We had t e n t a t i v e l y o u t l i n e d . we worked through to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , I was pleased.  As  The s o l u t i o n was  a compromise that related the ideas teachers were seen as wanting with the s k i l l s , concepts, and so on that we had discussed and I f e l t were important. At 4:55 I suggested stopping, but the others wanted to continue. After making many rapid cuts to the l i s t of major understandings, we concluded at 5:25.  The deadline i n my mind was important in preventing  people from becoming t i r e d of yet another long meeting and not wanting to p a r t i c i p a t e f u r t h e r .  Giving a choice developed a commitment to stay.  Before l e a v i n g , Dave suggested that we meet next Wednesday as planned.  He commented, "The sooner we get f i n i s h e d , the better.  Things  are going to get b u s i e r . " O v e r a l l , the meeting made good progress.  Considering that t h i s was  only our second meeting Dave i s in a rush to f i n i s h .  His opening com-  ment makes me wonder i f he f e l t , as A l l a n d i d , that P r i c e t r i e d to cont r o l the d i r e c t i o n of the group at the f i r s t meeting.  33 February 17, Tuesday Warren was in the grocery store t h i s afternoon, so I asked him i f he was coming to tomorrow's meeting. not sure why.  He was h e s i t a n t , and I am  Perhaps he f e l t at odds with the committee.  Then a g a i n ,  he i s usually q u i e t . I phoned Debbie at her home tonight and asked i f she would l i k e to come to our next meeting.  She seemed i n t e r e s t e d .  Her p a r t i c i p a t i o n  is  important to me, as her involvement and her example in the classroom will  not only help promote the implementation process but w i l l  relieve  me of some of the workload. Tomorrow's major jobs include s e t t i n g further goals and completing the assignment of major understandings.  We should also discuss resource  t e x t s , workshops, explanations for some of the major understandings, and the media which have been t e n t a t i v e l y assigned to each of the grades. I am worried that the others defer to me so much. February 18, Wednesday Dave and Neil a r r i v e d s h o r t l y a f t e r I d i d .  A l l a n was l a t e .  Debbie  f a i l e d to attend, and Harry, committed to Project Teach t o n i g h t , was unable to come.  When I asked about Warren, A l l a n answered.  He sensed  our committee was j u s t not suited to Warren and that the f i r s t meeting had l i t t l e to do with his nonattendance. The recently c l a s s i f i e d concepts and major understandings were reviewed, a.nd two were c l a r i f i e d .  1  A good discussion and some compromise took place as we continued s o r t i n g the media and projects for drawing and p a i n t i n g .  Deciding  upon the sequence and choosing appropriate media and projects took much of our time.  In choosing s u i t a b l e media and projects two ideas guided us. F i r s t , we assumed that primary teachers were not following a coordinated program and could not be r e l i e d upon to teach s p e c i f i c media and projects by grade three.  Second, because so many students take no a r t  beyond grade seven our program would have to cover basic media and projects by the end of elementary s c h o o l . As such, our range of media and projects was open-ended.  We con-  cluded that any future primary program could necessitate a re-assessment of the intermediate  curriculum.  From o u r - l i s t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , we then chose a range of media and projects for which schools should be expected to provide equipment and materials.  This l i s t was further refined as we selected a number that  could be covered in four weeks.  F i n a l l y , we considered my proposed  graded order. In deciding upon t h i s graded sequence we discussed necessary leadup s k i l l s , and the d e x t e r i t y and i n t e r e s t s of students at each grade level.  Decisions were based on our past classroom experiences.  Uncommitted media and projects were l e f t for possible use in the enrichment s e c t i o n . Although much of t h i s meeting involved choosing and sequencing media and p r o j e c t s , the decision-making process was e f f i c i e n t . f e l t that having a small group made the c l a s s i f y i n g much e a s i e r . more teachers need to be involved.  Dave But,  A l l a n was the one who f e l t that  others must experience a process s i m i l a r to the one the committee was going through in developing the program.  Teachers would then thoroughly  understand the curriculum. If everyone cannot be involved to that extent then what we produce  must be p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r .  Dave f e l t that including lessons could  help make the guide s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y .  He suggested having ' s t r a n g e r s '  react to what we had created and proposed bringing at l e a s t two of his s t a f f members next week. tunities  I was s t i l l  concerned about providing oppor-  for leading teachers through the guide as they planned a l e s -  son or series of lessons. "If ish."  we continue at t h i s same pace," Dave s a i d , "we w i l l  Neil and A l l a n agreed.  spend more time.  never f i n -  To t h i s extent they appeared w i l l i n g  to  But, Dave did not want an e n t i r e day to work on the  curriculum, because the content was 'too heavy'.  Our choices included  having more meetings, longer meetings, or more defined components presented.  Because members were involved and learning so much, I c o n s i d - ^  ered further meetings. Our present committee i s e n t h u s i a s t i c but t h e i r preparation time at home is apparently l i m i t e d .  If we had started development without  my roughly planned components the workload would have been excessive and discouraging. There are a few teachers i n the d i s t r i c t who are capable in a r t , but they have not come to any of the meetings.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I am  thinking of Debbie and Ross. February 20, Friday The night school classes that Ross Rosser teaches have been on the same day as each of our meetings.  I promised Ross a copy of what we  have prepared so far and encouraged him to j o i n us i f p o s s i b l e . February 24, Tuesday Jack Farmer, p r i n c i p a l of Rock H i l l School, apologized for not sending s t a f f members to our meetings.  His s t a f f i s involved in  producing a musical with t h e i r c l a s s e s . Mr. Farmer asked me to give his s t a f f some i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e i r new pottery wheel.  How would innovative schools f i n d assistance?  Secondary teachers are a p o s s i b i l i t y , but they cannot be expected to spend hours of t h e i r own time guiding e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s or a s t a f f . February 25, Wednesday A l l a n , N e i l , and Dave attended today.  No one had done homework.  The rough drafts of a t i t l e page and introduction were discussed. A few minor changes were made.  Fine points i n meaning and sentence  structure were adjusted on other explanatory pages that I had d r a f t e d . Once a g a i n , examples of projects that w i l l teach the major understandings were seen as being needed.  Examples need to be given to  explain some statements in the concepts s e c t i o n . The vocabulary l i s t s were adjusted once more to match the media and projects that we had s h i f t e d .  Every s h i f t in one caused movement  in the other. F i n a l l y , the l a s t of the major understandings was grouped! had been a long demanding chore.  This  So many required d e f i n i n g , discussion  about how they could be taught, and consideration of the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n at each grade l e v e l . A l l said that they had p r o f i t e d by t h e i r involvement.  Each of us  sensed a f e e l i n g of accomplishment! At l e a s t one more meeting i s needed.  Sample lessons need to be  organized, support texts determined, and workshops planned. Strong signals indicate that committee members have had enough, want to f i n a l i z e the planning booklet, and want me to prepare a sample booklet of a r t ideas.  Much of the workload has already f a l l e n to me.  A pattern has been established in which I d r a f t p o s s i b i l i t i e s and they adapt, d e l e t e , and add. February 26, Thursday On my way to school I gave Ross a copy of our work to date.  At  the same time I asked him to o u t l i n e some ideas on the topic of texture.  He said he would see what he could do. Somehow he w i l l  be i n v o l v e d .  March 11, Wednesday Today's meeting was c a n c e l l e d . basketball team.  A l l a n had a p r a c t i c e with his  Dave had arranged a s t a f f meeting, and, considering  he i s the p r i n c i p a l , I was surprised i t occurred today.  When I phoned  Neil to c a n c e l t h e meeting, he t o l d me that he had forgotten about  it  anyway. In some ways i t would have been so much easier to have been given s i x afternoons. Price does not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y  interested.  March 19, Thursday Dave and Neil were l a t e for our 3:30 s t a r t . Elementary A t h l e t i c Council meeting. district  A l l a n attended an  Price was asked to come, but his  s t a f f meeting had been moved from Wednesday to today.  To help teachers e a s i l y define unfamiliar terms Dave suggested a glossary as part of the guide.  As a s o l u t i o n we decided to copy and  include the glossary from Emphasis A r t .  For me, the decision was a  good one, as I anticipated the job of sorting through a stack of books. Price approved my request for support texts e a r l i e r in the noon.  I brought numerous books for c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  after-  After hearing my  reasons, Dave and Neil approved using Emphasis Art and Art in Depth.  Sound in philosophy, they are e a s i l y read, c o l o u r f u l , sturdy,- and, as a bonus, they i n t e r s e c t our own curriculum. We then tackled the idea handbook.  After some time we agreed  that i t should be linked to the planning handbook and provide ideas that w i l l teach the assigned vocabulary, concepts, media, and so on. Dave suggested providing a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s in our own printed material when the idea handbook refers to the support t e x t s .  In t h i s  way, teachers w i l l not be l o s t when the textbooks are u n a v a i l a b l e . With those guidelines I was asked to o u t l i n e a possible idea handbook. As the end of the meeting approached, we discussed a l t e r n a t i v e ways of finding contact time with teachers.  Our ideas included using  professional days, s t a f f meetings, evening meetings, after-school workshops, and e a r l y dismissal for i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , groups of s c h o o l s , and the d i s t r i c t .  Daytime workshops i n v o l v i n g a l i m i t e d number of  teachers r e g i s t e r i n g on a ' f i r s t - c o m e ' basis were also suggested. A f i n a l idea proposed a form through which teachers could contribute i d e as to the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s and p r o j e c t s . Whatever we do, a survey determining what teachers want in the way of i n - s e r v i c e must be taken. March 20, Friday A few random thoughts have been bashing through my mind concerning yesterday's conversation with P r i c e .  He gave the very d i s t i n c t impres-  sion that he wanted to postpone any workshops.  I am not sure why, but  an afternoon involving e a r l y dismissal for teachers from grade one to eight i s being planned for introducing the math curriculum p r o j e c t . Price and his committee have taken two years to get t h i s project ready.  Perhaps he wants to avoid d i v e r t i n g a t t e n t i o n .  Then, there i s the  p o s s i b i l i t y that he does not appreciate our speedy e f f o r t . We have been given no release time as other projects were, and Price has attended only one meeting.  Now a chance to involve teachers  through i n - s e r v i c e s i t u a t i o n s looks a l i t t l e d i s t a n t .  Have we been  neglected? March 22, Sunday Many hours have been spent t h i s weekend t r y i n g to create a s t r u c ture that r e l a t e s the planning handbook to the idea handbook.  A num-  bering system that correlates the media and projects and concepts and major understandings to the idea handbook appears most p r a c t i c a l . March 24, Tuesday Dave asked me to introduce the art curriculum to his s t a f f Ridgeview Elementary between 1:15 and 2:50 on A p r i l 3.  at  I suggested  that he do t h a t , but he i n s i s t e d . Dave i s e n t h u s i a s t i c .  I wish he would s t a r t taking on some of the  load. A p r i l 3, Friday An introduction to the art curriculum was given to Dave's s t a f f , t h i s afternoon.  The e n t i r e e f f o r t was a rush: s o r t i n g pages, planning  for the substitute teacher, getting some lunch, loading the car with art samples, p r o j e c t o r ; and papers, and a r r i v i n g on time.  Then I had  to unload, unpack, and set up! The e n t i r e s t a f f from kindergarten to grade seven was joined by the teachers and the aide from the a u t i s t i c and retarded c l a s s e s .  The  program applied to only a few, but the others were happy f o have had an opportunity  to  participate.  40  May 8, Friday A memorandum was sent to a l l members of the Curriculum Advisory Committee requesting t h e i r attendance at a meeting on May 20. The meeting w i l l consider approving three l o c a l l y developed curriculum m a t e r i a l s .  The Intermediate Core Sequential Art Program w i l l  be included. May 20, Wednesday The presentation for the a r t program was given to the Curriculum Advisory Committee at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e .  Price had copies made for  the committee members. Following my explanation, committee members voiced these concerns: a) How much material has been taken from other sources? b) What are the f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ? c) Do we need an a r t consultant to carry t h i s project through? d) Where w i l l the money for the texts be found? e) Who w i l l lead the workshops? f) How w i l l i t be implemented? g) If schools that do not have k i l n s are given one, w i l l those schools that bought t h e i r own be compensated? The questioning was r i g o r o u s .  Further concern was expressed over the  number of programs being implemented and the q u a l i t y of such implementation. The response from the Curriculum Advisory Committee was very p o s i tive.  Ted Hamber f e l t that the program was long overdue.  The profes-  sional look was noted by Cynthia Quadra, while the senior secondary p r i n c i p a l said the curriculum was well done.  Harold Gordon, another  p r i n c i p a l , commented that the guide and the presentation were in great-  er d e t a i l and were better organized than most projects they received. The committee passed the art program for school board consideration.  At the end of the meeting the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n thanked  both the art curriculum committee for t h e i r contribution to art educat i o n i n the d i s t r i c t and me f o r giving a thorough explanation; more complete than usual. Had I talked too long?  I did want them to understand!  In answering questions I avoided confirming any need for an art consultant.  Without one interested teachers would have unrestricted  access to involvement and there would be a more t y p i c a l look at the factors a f f e c t i n g art curriculum implementation. Tonight I am excited and p l e a s e d , although a l i t t l e amazed at the ease with which'the art curriculum was. approved. May 21, Thursday My p r i n c i p a l and a fellow teacher separately passed along comments made to them t h i s morning and l a s t night by Harold Gordon. thought that the a r t curriculum presentation was e x c e l l e n t .  Harold This made  me e x c e p t i o n a l l y d e l i g h t e d , as Harold i s very c r i t i c a l and extremely demanding. May 26, Tuesday The Intermediate Art Program was approved as a l o c a l l y developed course at l a s t n i g h t ' s meeting of the Board of School Trustees. June 25, Thursday Before dismissal for the summer, I phoned Price and reminded him to order the resource texts and to have copies of the a r t guide made for September.  I was assured that t h i s would be done.  42 CHAPTER 4 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART CURRICULUM As September of 1981 approached and I r e f l e c t e d upon the developmental phase, I r e a l i z e d that tremendous amounts of time and energy were going to be needed on my part i f implementation was going to occur to any extent. The committee that developed the curriculum had i n i t a l l l y been small.  Although t h e i r i n s i g h t , e f f o r t , and guidance given through the  spring of 1981 had been e s s e n t i a l to the development of the curriculum, they had f a i l e d to permanently assume any of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Be-  cause of t h e i r presumed inadequacies and other commitments, they were content to remain a c t i v e at the committee l e v e l .  So, with a small  group that would not or could not a s s i s t in the curriculum implementat i o n process, I looked to others.  Through the f a l l I r e l i e d upon P r i c e ,  the supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n , and attempted to involve Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser. September 10, Thursday School has started with the usual sense of excitement and a n t i c i p a tion.  I phoned P r i c e .  The resource texts have not a r r i v e d , and the  curriculum guides have not been p r i n t e d . I was sure that the guides would have been printed over the summer and ready by now.  Keen and enthused before I c a l l e d , I was somewhat  disappointed afterward.  My hopes had been for an e a r l y s t a r t before  teachers committed themselves to teams, c l u b s , and so on. September 21, Monday Expecting that the texts must be in by now I phoned P r i c e , but he was already on the phone.  So, I asked to have my c a l l returned.  He  43  did not return my c a l l . September 22, Tuesday Today I phoned P r i c e , but he was on the phone again. September 23, Wednesday Price a r r i v e d at the school. productive.  Our conversation was f r i e n d l y and  I sensed that he was being very supportive.  Price w i l l d i s t r i b u t e a memorandum to schools advising that I am prepared to introduce the program within f o r t y - f i v e minutes e i t h e r at s t a f f meetings or a f t e r s c h o o l .  I t o l d Price that I preferred not be-  ing at the end of a s t a f f meeting when everyone wants to go home. These introductions w i l l  be followed by a workshop s e r i e s .  If  by then teachers have not received an introduction an evening to provide an introduction w i l l be arranged. Workshops w i l l  be organized at several locations and on various  days to accommodate teachers with other commitments. workshops teachers w i l l  Through these  become f a m i l i a r with and somewhat s k i l l e d in  the content of each of the four areas: drawing, p a i n t i n g ,  printmaking,  and c l a y . I promised Price a l i s t of materials for the art supply k i t s . w i l l order most of the supplies from d i s t r i c t money, and I w i l l l o c a l l y for the drawing k i t and be reimbursed from d i s t r i c t  He  buy  petty cash.  These k i t s for drawing, printmaking, and s i l k s c r e e n i n g w i l l  provide  supplies and equipment for those teachers who are in schools that do not have some or a l l of what i s needed.  The drawing k i t w i l l contain sam-  ples of a l l the drawing media for the four grades and w i l l  be useful  in  making both teachers and students aware of the t o t a l range in the program.  Those teachers with upper grades could a c t u a l l y have t h e i r classes  44 use and share the materials in an exploratory lesson. Some supplies w i l l  be found within the d i s t r i c t .  squares for printmaking w i l l  Plexiglass  be r e q u i s i t i o n e d from maintenance.  is c e r t a i n that Maple Creek School w i l l  loan brayers.  Price  Workshops w i l l  use the a r t supply k i t s and supplies l e f t from a workshop held in 1979. The guides have not been p r i n t e d . rived. staffs.  Neither of the texts has a r -  I d e f i n i t e l y want both before introducing the program to school While the texts create i n t e r e s t and provide d i r e c t i o n , the  guides are simply e s s e n t i a l to any explanation. the guides w i l l  According to P r i c e ,  be made.  When I t o l d Price that I had seen a sale of binders s u i t a b l e for the guide and offered to get f i f t y , he gave no response. Price promised to think of anyone who could help.  He suggested  John Penny, p r i n c i p a l of J . A . Macdonald, Debbie Arnold's s c h o o l . I phoned Debbie at 3:30.  Although she gave the impression of  being hesitant about providing h e l p , she did sound pleased that I had phoned.  We agreed to meet tomorrow at her school to review what has  been done and to see where she can help. September 24, Thursday Debbie and I reviewed the program. art program was in a binder. valued and encourage her.  At my expense her copy of the  I had hoped t h i s would make her feel  She was pleased with the binder but sensed  I had a reason. I do not want Debbie to feel i s o l a t e d but need her involvement. C e r t a i n l y , negative feelings must be avoided.  When I gave her a free  choice of developing and presenting any aspect of the program, she preferred drawing and c o l o u r .  She was w i l l i n g to plan a workshop!  45 However, Debbie explained that the French course she i s teaching required considerable planning, and, as a r e s u l t , she would be unable to do anything until later in October. Even so, we talked about the best way of arranging a workshop and considered sharing the planning and presentation of an area such as drawing.  I thought that such a cooperative e f f o r t would not only i n -  volve Debbie but keep her from being overwhelmed. During our conversation one major problem resurfaced.  On her part,  Debbie wanted r e l i e f time for any workshop planning or presentation.  In  addition, she expected to see teachers released from their classes to attend any i n - s e r v i c e .  Debbie said that she would not personally come  to an evening meeting and doubted that too many others would either. Then, Debbie was, by her own admission,  not hard pressed for ideas.  Although I agreed with her and promised to push Price yet again, I do not expect a positive reaction i n this d i r e c t i o n .  Nevertheless,  the problem of finding time for preparation and presentation has to be solved! Just one or two in-service sessions i s inadequate, especially during the evening.  Such b r i e f contact with only a few teachers who, i n  fact, want ideas to survive their next week's lessons can not pass on the idea that projects and a c t i v i t i e s are vehicles capable of teaching concepts, knowledge, and s k i l l s as well as values and attitudes. Even though Debbie seemed interested, she appeared disappointed that the idea handbook was not already overflowing.  I f Debbie was  looking for a package of the newest-and-1atest ideas then others must not have a glimmer of possible goals. A principals' meeting was held this morning, and the art curricu-  lum was discussed.  That pleases me!  I had gone to see P r i c e .  Following my v i s i t with Debbie,  He had gone home for the day.  The superin-  tendent and the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n saw me and mentioned the p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting.  They said that the program was well received and  Price was enthused.  Both thanked me for the work done.  Their 'thank you' has made me feel great tonight and leads me to think that we are o f f to a great s t a r t !  Having both the superintendent  and the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n aware and supportive gives the even more of an o f f i c i a l  project  sanction.  The ease with which the project passed the Curriculum Advisory Committee and the Board of School Trustees s t i l l  surprises me.  September 25, Friday If schools have not had an introduction by October 20 an evening should be arranged to introduce the guide and have teachers plan a l e s son. Then we w i l l  be ready to o f f e r four workshops covering the content  related to drawing, p a i n t i n g , printmaking, and c l a y . If teachers are not released from c l a s s e s , we w i l l  need to know  preferred days and times for out-of-school i n - s e r v i c e . September 27, Sunday Planning takes place even on the weekend!  I have l i s t e d what i s  needed for the a r t supply k i t s and t r i e d to note any resources that would provide support. September 28, Monday When I phoned P r i c e today I got through r i g h t away! I reminded him to be sure that the numbers l i n k i n g the assigned media and concepts to the idea handbook c l e a r l y show in the copies of  47  the guide. When we discussed preparation time for Debbie, Price s a i d , think about  "I'll  it."  Pushing somewhat, I again asked, "Is there any chance that teachers can be released during the daytime?" To t h i s Price r e p l i e d that the substitute budget was 'shot a l l h e l l ' and that releasing teachers during the day was 'a toughie".  to "We  would," he s a i d , "have everyone knocking at our door." Then a torrent of a l t e r n a t i v e s came tumbling through the telephone. Professional days can be used by s t a f f s .  The a r t curriculum presenta-  t i o n could be part or a l l of an intermediate professional day.  An art  day for a l l elementary grades could include using the resource package offered by the University of V i c t o r i a . One promising i d e a , the f a l l conference, has been c a n c e l l e d . I sensed a gap i n commitment today.  A tremendous amount of time  and energy has been given to t h i s project so f a r . lease time i s asked for a l t e r n a t i v e s are put  Now that some r e -  forward!  In the spring of 1980 Price promised substitute teacher time for preparing an a r t curriculum. l a r s o f f my chalkboard.  At that time, he bounced figures and d o l -  I should know better than to l e t people write  promises on a chalkboard! Obviously, i f funds are used by the f a l l held early in the year.  then workshops need to be  Or, an allotment needs to be made for  individ-  ual programs. September 29, Tuesday Price phoned.  Waterside Elementary School requested that I out-  l i n e the program at t h e i r s t a f f meeting on Monday, October 5.  Price  was away when the request was made, and his secretary did not think to c a l l me. In any event, my p r i n c i p a l w i l l  not l e t me go.  We also have a  s t a f f meeting Monday, and Ted wants me there to j o i n the discussion oh 'clubs in the s c h o o l . 1  Although I am disappointed, I do think that Price is more baffled over the s i t u a t i o n .  He sounded so happy when I f i r s t spoke with him.  His memorandum had generated some i n t e r e s t . Future planning w i l l have to consider the fact that Monday i s a popular day for s t a f f meetings. September 30, Wednesday Some n i b s , pen holders, a r t gum and kneaded e r a s e r s , and a v a r i e t y of pencils were bought for the drawing k i t .  After the t r i p into town,  I cast a p l a s t e r block to hold a container of India ink. are for the drawing  These material  kit.  Tonight I cut and mounted samples of paper for a fold-out  display  that should demonstrate the v a r i e t y of papers a v a i l a b l e for use.. October 13, Tuesday Things are slow - too slow! see P r i c e .  Nothing seems to be happening.  I must  Maintaining momentum requires a constant i n t e r e s t and a w i l l  ingness to constantly ask others what they are doing. curriculum guide must be ready soon.  Copies of the  Where are the guides to the Ohio  program? October 15, Thursday I phoned Price to plan the workshop s e r i e s . day.  He i s away u n t i l Mon-  October 19, Monday Price phoned j u s t as classes were to begin. get to c l a s s , the dialogue was one-sided.  Because I wanted to  He wanted to know i f  I had  been t o l d that the Newton School s t a f f wanted an introduction to the program on Wednesday, October 21.  I had not and w i l l  go.  The presentation i s two days away! What did Price think I did at 8:30? In the afternoon I c a l l e d P r i c e to see i f copies of the guide were a v a i l a b l e for Newton School. the f i r s t time I've  " Y e s , " Price said and then added, "That's  been able to say t h a t . "  Don't I know i t !  I wonder what P r i c e thought I was going to take  to the meeting? Neither of the support texts i s i n .  They were ordered in June and  reordered on September 30. This implementation e f f o r t c e r t a i n l y requires time and perseverence. I am not pleased about constantly phoning in an e f f o r t to see what i s happening.  There i s a need for a budget of some type or a way to d i -  r e c t l y order s u p p l i e s .  A d i s t r i c t supply centre might help.  October 20, Tuesday During my spare Price and I had a productive Neither of the support texts i s i n .  talk.  P r i c e t o l d me that he never  ordered the Ohio art guides and the resource k i t l a s t January.  I could  hardly believe him! There i s no money l e f t for binders.  Duo-tang covers w i l l  have to  do. The curriculum guides have not been copied y e t , but P r i c e w i l l them done.  get  50 I passed along the l i s t of supplies to be ordered.  To make order-  ing e a s i e r , s u p p l i e r s ' addresses were included. No other schools have requested an i n t r o d u c t i o n , but Price was sure Waterside Elementary would be planning for another one. sensed any negative response in the schools.  He had not  That was not s u r p r i s i n g  to me as no one has seen the guide y e t ! Although report cards could i n t e r f e r e , he thought that November 9 was a possible s t a r t i n g date for the i n - s e r v i c e .  Places and times  required a survey of teacher preferences before mapping.  Price prom-  ised to have the survey f i n i s h e d before October 30. In addition to the e a r l i e r memorandum on September 25, a l i s t has been c i r c u l a t e d to p r i n c i p a l s suggesting possible resource persons for the professional development component of s t a f f meetings. l i s t e d as a resource person for  My name was  art.  The receipts for the drawing supplies were given to P r i c e .  The  drawing k i t i s ready, and Price w i l l have s i l k s c r e e n frames made in the senior secondary s c h o o l ' s workshop. October 21, Wednesday This was a hectic day! tion.  Newton School had asked for an introduc-  After I gathered c h a r t s , booklets, and samples of student work  l a s t night and during today's spare, I checked that I had everything. The dismissal b e l l had barely stopped by the time 1/ 'was out to the c a r . The keys were in my classroom! roof,' I went for the keys. unloaded, and went i n . school's secretary.  P i l i n g some of the a r t samples on the  F i n a l l y , I arrived at Newton School, calmly  Don Johnson immediately asked me to phone my  I did and was t o l d that the artwork l e f t on the  c a r ' s roof had been found scattered across the parking l o t .  0ne:'df the  51  teachers would bring the work - t i r e t r a c k s , g r a v e l , and dust! The program took f o r t y minutes to run through, and I a c t u a l l y f e l t as though I had run through i t .  The time a v a i l a b l e barely allowed for  an explanation and d e f i n i t e l y l e f t no time to have teachers prepare a lesson with the guide.  With one exception, the s t a f f was receptive  and asked a few questions.  Jean commented that more workshops were need-  ed, as she had forgotten much of what she had learned from the i n - s e r v i c e in the spring of" 1)979. October 22, Thursday Tentative dates for the i n - s e r v i c e could be four consecutive Tuesdays from November 10.  Anything l a t e r than December 1 might s t a r t con-  f l i c t i n g with Christmas. October 28, Wednesday I did not see P r i c e , but he l e f t the supply l i s t in my tray in the school o f f i c e .  An attached note said that everything had been ordered.  Great! Some time ago I was asked to make two presentations - one primary, the other intermediate - at a f i n e arts professional day in a neighbouring d i s t r i c t .  Even though there has been ample time, dozens of hours  have been used making sure that everything i s packed and that I have enough ideas to share.  Planning for the day, October 30, has organzied  my thoughts and w i l l d e f i n i t e l y help with my part of the i n - s e r v i c e for our d i s t r i c t ' s  program.  November 5, Thursday Since October 20 I have not heard from P r i c e , and I need some time with him to arrange for s u p p l i e s , t e x t s , and i n - s e r v i c e . pends upon sporadic contact with P r i c e !  Everything de-  How do I make d i r e c t contact  52 with the intermediate teachers? gress.  If  Delays in communication impede pro-  I had time to v i s i t other teachers I could make contact,  develop communication, and share ideas.  Perhaps some of t h i s could  be done over my lunch hour; an impractical thought when distances between schools are considered. This week the teachers' a s s o c i a t i o n has been involved in annual contract negotiations with the school board.  Teachers have been unhap-  py about the fact that they are expected to spend time sponsoring e x t r a curricular a c t i v i t i e s .  Among teachers an a t t i t u d e i s developing against  spending time beyond the regular school day. November 8, Sunday The crux for implementation i s teacher involvement. November 9, Monday I phoned P r i c e , but he was busy.  He returned my c a l l .  The art curriculum guides have not been copied. was s e t , they w i l l be done.  Although no date  I have heard t h i s before!  How can I get him  moving? The survey to determine teacher preferences for workshop times and places has not been done.  The promise was October 30.  Three weeks have  been l o s t ! Some supplies are i n . Does anyone - P r i c e e s p e c i a l l y - r e a l l y care?  If questions were  not asked and pushes' were not given the implementation process would s i t l i k e a neglected car and r u s t . I am always the one who phones, prods, and asks, or so i t seems. Information i s never volunteered!  53 November 10, Tuesday At today's meeting of the l o c a l teachers' a s s o c i a t i o n a work-to-rule motion was passed in reaction to an impasse i n contract  negotiations.  There i s a sense of intense animosity between the teachers and the board. The r e s t r i c t i o n s that were passed t a k e ' e f f e c t on Monday, November 16.  The ones that most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the implementation of our art  curriculum  follow:  Members of the a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l no longer undertake the  following  activities: 5. Screening new t e x t s , records, f i l m s , and other m a t e r i a l s . 11. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n , presenting, and attending workshops and c l i n i c s and a c t i v i t y meets outside assigned class time. 17.  V i s i t i n g other classrooms to observe and improve  20.  P a r t i c i p a t i n g in Pro-D a c t i v i t i e s .  Even implementation within schools hours is doubtful.  instruction.  Just how long  t h i s work-to-rule s i t u a t i o n w i l l l a s t i s u n c e r t a i n , but, i f the impasse continues, e s c a l a t i o n through further action i s planned for Monday, November 23. P r i c e ' s f a i l u r e to get the booklets ready and the survey completed is discouraging.  He seems to lack any genuine i n t e r e s t .  I cannot see how he was able to order the a r t supplies but unable to buy the binders for the guides. As I presently see the s i t u a t i o n , the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s in working through a person who f o r g e t s , i s busy, or i s preoccupied with other p r i orities.  For P r i c e , the preoccupation i s introducing personal computers  into classrooms.  The-coordinator of a project needs to have some au^  t h o r i t y , some autonomy.  November 17, Tuesday Regular communication between Price and myself and r e l i a b l e f o l l o w up on commitments are needed. plans are not kept on t r a c k .  Others can not be e f f e c t i v e l y involved  if  To date, most intermediate teachers proba-  bly do not even know that a new art curriculum e x i s t s . On my p a r t , p r i o r i t i e s include phoning Price about p r i n t i n g the guide, ensuring that the guides are d i s t r i b u t e d to teachers, and l o c a t ing the support texts and making teachers aware of t h e i r existence. The p o s s i b i l i t y now e x i s t s that many teachers w i l l not receive an introduction to the program.  Is the guide s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y ?  If i t  is  not, how can i t be adapted further to give a cloudless explanation? Teachers must know the basic i n t e n t : a) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary b) the core program involves four months of the school year c) the curriculum i s f l e x i b l e , adaptable d) the curriculum outlines what vocabulary, media, p r o j e c t s , and concepts are to be taught e) the core program i s designed to provide some understanding as to what art and a r t i s t s are about f) the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s , and s t a r t i n g points i s dependent upon t h e i r active  participation  g) input toward r e v i s i o n w i l l be required in September 1982. Teachers, though, at l e a s t need to have a copy of the program! November 18, Wednesday Price phoned t h i s morning.  Although the texts have not a r r i v e d ,  some supplies are at the d i s t r i c t We discussed the guides.  office.  Imagine what w i l l  be made and d i s t r i b u t e d  55 November 23, Monday The work-to-rule  has been l i f t e d .  November 25, Wednesday Price arrived at the school with s i l k s c r e e n squeegees and a c r y l i c paint for screening.  He seemed so pleased.  If teachers knew they were  to teach s i l k s c r e e i n g thfey would have these supplies to borrow. November 26, Thursday Price was at the school again.  Today he was concerned.  He  thought that the a t t i t u d e generated by the work-to-rule might r e s u l t a poor response to evening workshops.  in  He suggested that Cynthia Quadra  arrange an intermediate professional day for January. With:December l o s t , an arrangement for January i s the only p r a c t i cal a l t e r n a t i v e .  Waiting for guides and materials has backed me against  the*Christmas holiday.  Christmas concerts and other a c t i v i t i e s  preclude  involvement. December 1, Tuesday I have never been reimbursed for the money spent on drawing suppi i e s . December 3, Thursday Brayers, p r i n t i n g i n k , and conte crayons arrived with P r i c e .  Six  copies of Emphasis Art have a r r i v e d , and one hundred copies of the art curriculum are ready!  A l l of t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e .  Even though Christmas holidays s t a r t two weeks from tomorrow will start distributing  I  guides and v i s i t i n g p r i n c i p a l s of some schools.  Supplementary sheets for the idea handbook can be d i s t r i b u t e d . Along with a c t u a l l y having a guide, receiving idea pages should help develop awareness.  56  Last A p r i l 14, the mathematics curriculum project was explained to a l l elementary and grade eight teachers.  These teachers were released  one hour early to attend a meeting in the gymnasium at Waterside Elementary.  They were handed a guide i n a binder, given a l e c t u r e , and provid-  an opportunity  to ask questions within small groups.  b l e , teachers started l e a v i n g . the mathematics project.  As soon as possi'-  Nothing more has ever been heard of  Art i s not going to vanish l i k e some spectre  in the dark! Price t o l d me that he has been out creating support in the schools. December 8, Tuesday Students always want to see me when I try to leave e a r l y . one of Murphy's Laws?  Is  Following d i s m i s s a l , I went to the d i s t r i c t  f i c e to f i n d the guides and the support t e x t s .  coloured paper for a cover.  of-  Because P r i c e was not  there, Harry helped me f i n d what I wanted, and I l e f t a note. guides a c t u a l l y were copied and s t a p l e d .  this  Stapled!  The  S t a p l e d , with a green  From binder to duo-tang to a sheet of paper.  At l e a s t I had the guides. Although I had made a hurried attempt to reach p r i n c i p a l s  before  they l e f t , r a t t l i n g the doors at Ridgeview Elementary was a useless effort.  Hard-working R o i l y Speaker was s t i l l  at Poplar Lane School, how-  ever, and when he guessed the number of teachers teaching art I gave him eight guides and one copy of Emphasis A r t . On my way.home i  stripped at'Newton School', but Don, the p r i n c i p a l ,  was gone. Taking the guides to each school should not only assure t h e i r  arri-  val but give me a chance to see what i s happening and what i n d i v i d u a l s are t h i n k i n g .  57  December 9, Wednesday I again missed finding Don at Newton School.  Because the Newton  School s t a f f was introduced to the program e a r l i e r , I l e f t one text and two more guides. December 11, Friday At Maple Creek School I spoke with the p r i n c i p a l , Glenn M a r t i n . Glenn did not know who taught t h e i r own art e i t h e r and guessed at needing nine guides.  His secretary understood what I s a i d .  I hopehhe'did.  Copies of Emphasis Art are only being l e f t with schools that make some commitment to the program. school w i l l  When the other copies a r r i v e every  have a copy.  December 12, Saturday As part of his coursework, A l l a n presented a summary of the developmental phase of the curriculum to his graduate classmates.  He t o l d  Robert from Debbie's school to give a copy of the guide to two p r i n c i p a l s , John Penny and Nancy Murphy. they w i l l  A l l a n asked iRobert to t e l l  them that  get further copies when I v i s i t and introduce the program.  Now that i s a supportive committee member! I was concerned about A l l a n presenting the guide to his class and mentioning i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to my own graduate work.  I anticipated the  development of tremendous resistance to any implementation e f f o r t s teachers f e l t they were being used.  if  A l l a n promised not to mention t h i s  relationship. December 14, Monday Crawford Creek School, although several miles away, i s  relatively  close to my own s c h o o l , so I was able to e a s i l y get there a f t e r s c h o o l . Five guides were l e f t with Guy Watson, the p r i n c i p a l .  Guy was i n t e r e s t -  58 ed and said that he wanted me to speak to his s t a f f in January. Because t h i s school i s close and the s t a f f i s f a m i l i a r to me, communication should be e a s i e r . December 17, Thursday If Price wanted a professional day for the intermediate teachers then a l i t t l e information should be a v a i l a b l e now. With that in mind, I asked. sure what was happening.  Price r e p l i e d vaguely.  He was not  He would have to see.  January 4, 1982, Monday Firmly convinced that Price must be r e l i e d upon far l e s s , I am determined to assert some authority that I do not l e g i t i m a t e l y have. After having guided the development without P r i c e , waited for  texts  that only arrived i n p a r t , persisted in asking for the guides, and expected workshops that never m a t e r i a l i z e d , I am f i n a l l y going to c i r cumvent both Price and his approval as much as p o s s i b l e . As soon as possible following d i s m i s s a l , I l e f t to d i s t r i b u t e more guides. Six guides were l e f t with Mr. Duncan at Waterside Elementary.  He  recognized the booklet as the one the committee had prepared l a s t year. Unsure as to who taught a r t , he f e l t s i x would be enough. Mr. Farmer was pleased to see seven copies and promised to d i s t r i bute them at Thursday's s t a f f meeting.  Although Mr. Farmer wanted i n -  service for his s t a f f , he said that primary teachers needed to be i n c l u d ed. from.  He was curious about where the money for the textbooks was coming His comment reminded me of the meeting with the Curriculum A d v i -  sory Committee when i t approved the program.  59 January 5, Tuesday To see the curriculum project vaporize a l l I have to do i s s i t and watch. will  So, with a frustrated sense of vigor a series of workshops  be planned.  I had o r i g i n a l l y wanted to survey teachers about con-  venient days, times, and special areas of i n t e r e s t , but that attempt was s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d e a r l i e r , and I am not about to wait another month.  Even  then the survey may not be done. As such, eight workshops of one and one-half hours w i l l printmaking and c l a y .  focus upon  As Debbie has already been promised an opportun-  i t y to d i r e c t a workshop on drawing and c o l o u r , painting.and drawing w i l l be l e f t u n t i l a response to t h i s set i s seen, needs are c l a r i f i e d as '. teachers are met at workshops, and Debbie and I can d e t a i l her r o l e . Teachers of grades s i x and seven w i l l one week and Thursday of the next. day of the second w i l l  have sessions on Tuesday of  Thursday of the f i r s t week and Tues-  be assigned for grade four and f i v e teachers.  Afternoon and evening sessions on the same day w i l l  be i d e n t i c a l .  In  t h i s way those with either afternoon or evening commitments or Thursday or Tuesday o b l i g a t i o n s w i l l be able to take in at l e a s t one meeting.  In  theory t h i s seems to provide an opportunity for most teachers, and i t c e r t a i n l y avoids waiting for a survey. For the idea handbook, which ws often referred to as the handbook of a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s , and s t a r t i n g p o i n t s , several pages on g l a z i n g , wedging,rarid s t e n c i l l i n g have been typed and copied.  They w i l l  be d i s -  tributed with announcements on the workshops. January 6, Wednesday Preparing and typing the three pages for the idea handbook has taken many hours during the past week.  I find i t d i f f i c u l t to know exactly  how printed l i n e s w i l l  r e l a t e to i l l u s t r a t i o n s  e i t h e r in process or done.  u n t i l the typing i s  Having s e c r e t a r i a l time for t h i s would be  helpful in one way but d i f f i c u l t to e f f i c i e n t l y organize when f i r s t  out-  l i n i n g ideas. January 9, Saturday Poplar Lane School i s completing a self-assessment t h i s y e a r , and l i k e Rock H i l l Elementary i s producing a musical.  Are these enough d i -  versions f o r those teachers? January 11, Monday The remaining support texts have not a r r i v e d . Announcements for the workshops have been typed - by me!  I was con  cerned that the rough copies might never be typed at the d i s t r i c t so I did them.  office  Typing s t a f f needs to be a c c e s s i b l e and, for t h i s , would  have been u s e f u l .  Because of time l i m i t a t i o n s , the announcements are  factual and not eye-catching.  If t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n takes place one  week p r i o r to the day of each workshop teachers should have ample notice and not  forget.  January 12, Tuesday As u s u a l , P r i c e a r r i v e d while I was teaching, and the resultant con versation was f r e n e t i c .  A c t i v e l y t a l k i n g to my c l a s s , I h a l t e d , turned,  and l i s t e n e d while P r i c e took two paces into the room and s a i d , "The s i l k s c r e e n frames are ready, but I did not bring them as the bases are being c u t . "  As hurriedly as he roared i n , he started backing out.  "Wait. Wait j u s t a minute," I said rummaging through papers. Fortunately, the papers were not in the a r t room, and, with my c l a s s d e l i g h t e d l y l i s t e n i n g rather than working, I explained what I want ed.  Then I gave him the workshop announcements, the pages on g l a z i n g ,  61  wedging, and s t e n c i l l i n g , and enough guides for the two schools yet without them.  I asked about the promised intermediate professional day  but received a vague and"confusing answer in which Cynthia Quadra, the coordinator of elementary i n s t r u c t i o n , was now planning another professional day on the topic of 'recent brain r e s e a r c h ' .  In other words,  'no'. As he l e f t , Price promised to arrange for a school in which to hold the workshops, to see Debbie about providing her with release time, and to get my request as s t r a i g h t as he could. After having said e a r l i e r that I would avoid P r i c e , I have again r e l i e d upon him to complete c r i t i c a l jobs.  Have I done the r i g h t thing?  Better y e t , why did I* ask him? Price w i l l d i s t r i b u t e the l a s t of the guides.  Getting to these two  most d i s t a n t schools i n the snow has not appealed to me.  Even though  A l l a n , through Robert, t o l d the p r i n c i p a l s of these schools that they would not get t h e i r guides u n t i l I had given an i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  I am not  prepared to w a i t . A copy of Emphasis Art  has been sent to Dave'.s s c h o o l , Ridgeview  Elementary, v i a the d i s t r i c t ' s  i n t e r - s c h o o l mail s e r v i c e .  his s t a f f have shown previous  interest.  Both Dave and  January 13, Wednesday Ross Rosser was asked to o u t l i n e some ideas on the topic of  texture.  Even though he did not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development of the program, the idea handbook has the potential  to involve both Ross and his ideas now.  January 15, Friday Because several questions needed answering, I phoned Price on my spare.  "Have any of the workshop information and ideas pages been d i s -  62 ributed?" I asked, "Has a school been arranged?" Price r e p l i e d smoothly, "The schools have been very busy." Nothing has been done, and I cannot help but wonder i f Price has become annoyed with my i n i t i a t i v e or simply  forgotten.  January 17, Sunday The idea that talented art students should be given some special opportunities and recognition reached a dead end 1/ast year with the secondary a r t teachers.  I have been thinking that the idea could be used  to promote awareness of elementary art and i n t e r e s t in the program. January  18, Monday  Even though I intend to phone i n d i v i d u a l s during my spare or the noon hour I a m i n v a r i a b l y d i s t r a c t e d by chores and students and forget. Somehow I remembered to phone Debbie a f t e r s c h o o l , but she had l e f t . January 19, Tuesday Once again I phoned P r i c e . mined about the workshops!  I was becoming persistent and deter-  In answer to my questioning, he's'aid, "The  schools have been very busy, and both the notices and the workshops w i l l have to be one'week l a t e .  The s i l k s c r e e n frames are ready, and the bases  are being c u t . " I t o l d P r i c e that because my s c h o o l ' s s k i i n g schedule has changed my class would not return u n t i l after f i v e o ' c l o c k and the afternoon workshop on Thursday, January 28, would have to be c a n c e l l e d .  The an-  nouncements d i s t r i b u t e d by P r i c e w i l l be chased with another c a n c e l l i n g that session.  A n t i c i p a t i n g my rush between the time we return from s k i -  ing and the 6:30 s t a r t ,  I almost cancelled the evening session as w e l l .  January 22, Friday Debbie returned my c a l l at 3:15, but t h i s time I had l e f t s c h o o l .  63 January 25, Monday Debbie phoned t h i s morning, but I was teaching. I wonder where tomorrow's workshop i s being held? I phoned P r i c e and was not only t o l d where the workshop would be but that he would come!  I wonder where he thought I was going to go?  January 26, Tuesday This was a demanding day.  Although everything was well planned,  a l l of my work and time-consuming preparation over the past two weeks ended with more than enough exercise loading and unloading the car and balancing bundles and boxes into the basement art room of the j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l .  Then I found the classroom door locked!  found Jack, the a r t teacher. and I talked and shared ideas.  Finally, I  Before I arranged what I had brought, Jack With c h a r t s , samples, and work areas  ready, I waited through the l a t e afternoon.  And I waited!  With the  evening attendance e q u a l l i n g that of the afternoon, reading the newspaper was the h i g h l i g h t .  No one came.  P r i c e never a r r i v e d , and .'he'had  promised. January 28, Thursday After a long cold day on the ski h i l l our classes returned to the school at 5:10.  By 6:30 I was hungry but again unpacked in the art room  ten miles away.  Although the afternoon session had been c a n c e l l e d , the  j a n i t o r told.me that one person had a r r i v e d . worse.  The evening turnout was  Frustrated and discouraged by a dismal response, annoyed that  Price had never come, inwardly angry about not d i r e c t l y d i s t r i b u t i n g  the  handouts, I became p a r t i c u l a r l y disgruntled when I remembered that the s i l k - s c r e e n frames had never been f i n i s h e d ! Tonight the secretary of Maple Creek Elementary School and I had  64  what was for me an enlightening t a l k .  At Maple Creek School one copy  of both the announcements and the handouts were r e c e i v e d , and, to her knowledge, no attention was drawn to the posted announcements.  I had  assumed that each teacher would be sent a copy of a l l the papers, but in t h i s s c h o o l , at l e a s t , that did not happen. Had t h i s happened elsewhere? distributing  Who got what?  A d i f f e r e n t way of  information i s needed.  January 29, Friday I needed to discuss what had been happening with someone who had an objective perspective of the d i s t r i c t . pal.  I chose Ted, my own p r i n c i -  In confidence, I shared some f r u s t r a t i o n s , while he recommended  a l t e r n a t i v e s for making teacher contact.  Ted's f i r s t suggestion was  using the Intermediate Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n as a v e h i c l e .  Overall,  though, he thought that I should ignore the supervisory s t a f f .  Partic-  u l a r l y , he thought that P r i c e should be confronted with the f a i l u r e s , the problems, the inadequacies, and the reasons for my annoyance.  Price,  Ted f e l t , had good intentions but f a i l e d to see that much happened unless the project had a high p r o f i l e .  We discussed the problem of accommodat-  ing both primary and intermediate s t a f f on professional days. been the source of Mr. Farmer's reluctance in involving the a r t program. ent.  This had  intermediate  Ted thought that the problem was an excuse and non-exist-  Schools can be combined f o r a professional day with primary and  intermediate d i v i s i o n s handled separately.  In his o p i n i o n , Ted f e l t that  inter-school communication was l a c k i n g . January 30, Saturday Since yesterday's conversation with Ted I have discovered that the Intermediate Teachers' Association i s defunct.  Ted suggested that I d i s t r i b u t e any information on my own. was the same idea I had been approaching.  This  Yes, although I f e l t that  the heading of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e provided a u t h e n t i c i t y , future bution w i l l not r e l y upon the d i s t i c t o f f i c e .  The need for  communication outweighs the benefit of t h i s implied  distri-  effective  authority.  January 31, Sunday Reportrxards are due into the school o f f i c e tommorrow and on my part they are not getting t h e i r usual a t t e n t i o n .  Gathering marks and  assignments on Friday and preparing for the idea sheets and workshops have prevented me from getting around to preparing a second notice for t h i s week's workshops. February 2, Tuesday A f t e r l a s t week my keenness has diminished somewhat. of o b l i g a t i o n I look toward today's workshop. there seems to be j u s t as much to haul.  As a matter  For t h i s set on clay  Even though I am becoming used  to the r o u t i n e , the planning and preparation are j u s t as demanding: plan the s e s s i o n , gather and make examples, pick and pack supplies and equipment, find resource m a t e r i a l s , and continue to teach!  Then l o a d , unload,  unpack, s o r t ! Today I did not s o r t .  I arn a slow learner!  In that s t a t e , I sat  in the basement a r t room and read the newspaper during the afternoon session. still  A f t e r I ate dinner and time had eaten into the evening,I was  unpacked and resigned to being ignored when a lone, l a t e i n d i v i d -  ual was heard asking for d i r e c t i o n s in the hallway. Archie Thomas strode i n , and I was s u r p r i s e d . feel l i k e unpacking, I d i d .  Although I did not  Archie had heard about the workshop a c c i -  d e n t a l l y as he talked with Price j u s t a few days e a r l i e r .  Even though  66  t i r e d and tempted to stay home with his feet up on t h i s winter Archie had come.  night  He f e l t that anyone who put time into planning a  workshop should be given support.  I think he was as amazed that no one  had come l a s t week or tonight as I was that his school had not been informed.  As we explored clay and talked I was astonished to learn  that the guides, handouts, and workshop information had not been d i s t r i b u t e d at his s c h o o l , J . A . Macdonald.  Open to i d e a s , fascinated  with the clay and i t s p o t e n t i a l , Archie thoroughly enjoyed himself. I gave Archie one of the support texts for his school and asked that he share i t once he had read through i t . the guides.  As w e l l , I suggested he f i n d  Before l e a v i n g , he said he saw a need for his school to  have a professional day in  artv  Price had promised to t e l l  Debbie that she could have some r e -  lease time to prepare a workshop on drawing and c o l o u r .  However,  Archie said that to his knowledge Debbie had never been t o l d .  Debbie,  Archie added, had a t i r i n g class t h i s year and t r u l y needed such time to organize her thoughts, p a r t i c u l a r l y as she was not used to speaking to a d u l t s . February 3, Wednesday Today I am puzzled and t i r e d but much wiser a f t e r t a l k i n g with Archie.  Has Price d i s t r i b u t e d the guides to those l a s t two schools?  If he has where are they? The drawing k i t that I retrieved from Newton Elementary t h i s  after-  noon looked untouched even though the p r i n c i p a l relayed the message that the s t a f f was f a m i l i a r with most items except the bamboo pens, scratchboard, and conte crayon. Following my v i s i t to Newton School I found Price in the  district  67  office.  He asked me about the attendance at the workshops.  to P r i c e , we s t i l l  needed to send the survey on i t s way.  According  In t h i s way,  we would see what teachers wanted and when they wanted i t .  He implied  that the poor turnout was caused by a lack of p r i o r i n q u i r y .  The sur-  vey Price promised by October 30 flashed through my mind, but the thought remained unspoken.  The opportunity to confront him as Ted had  suggested was there, but I did not.  P r i c e had no comprehension of the  e f f o r t I had expended and the f r u s t r a t i o n  I was f e e l i n g .  I proposed sending a questionnaire to determine the reasons f o r the poor attendance.  Sending the questionnaire through the teachers' a s s o c i -  ation s t a f f representatives would guarantee a r e t u r n .  But, P r i c e ,  lengthy c o n s i d e r a t i o n , said that i f more than one p r i n c i p a l f e l l  after  into  the same trap as John Penny, A r c h i e ' s p r i n c i p a l , t h i s approach might be seen as ' s p y i n g ' .  A f t e r some time we agreed that I would send P r i c e a  copy of my questionnaire so that he could d i s t r i b u t e  i t with his own.  The rest of our discussion b r i e f l y touched many t o p i c s .  Along with  his suggestion of planning multi-school professional days, P r i c e again mentioned having an intermediate professional day! sent to the l a s t two schools.  The guides had been  Oh y e s , the s i l k - s c r e e n frames were ready  at the high s c h o o l , but P r i c e forgot to pick them up.  After using my  s c h o o l ' s paper for the past y e a r , I b l u n t l y asked P r i c e for a package. Unable to f i n d an excuse, Price looked around the empty o f f i c e to see who was watching and found a package in a cupboard. R e a l i t y f i n a l l y found a i r when I asked i f the overdue copies of Emphasis Art  had a r r i v e d .  Only s i x copies were ever ordered!  Those,  as P r i c e reminded me, were f o r those schools that made a commitment. "Could we order s i x more of each?" I prompted.  68  " Y e s , " said P r i c e . Tonight I have been mulling over t h i s afternoon's t a l k with P r i c e . Our conversation was c e r t a i n l y the most d i r e c t one we have ever'~had. Perhaps the tone was a r e s u l t of my f r u s t r a t i o n and Ted's encouragement to become more outspoken.  Where have those other guides gone?  We d i s -  cussed so much that I forgot to ask about my e s s e n t i a l question, Debbie's release time. February 4, Thursday This was the day/of the l a s t two workshops.  After school and on my  way into town, I took the drawing k i t to the p r i n c i p a l of Crawford Creek School, Guy Watson.  Guy had asked to borrow the k i t .  He wanted to  sit  and t a l k , but I t o l d him that I had to get into town for the workshops. "What workshops?" he asked. To make an ugly story s h o r t , but nevertheless ugly, Guy had shelved a l l the information.  Neither he nor his s t a f f knew anything.  The attendance at both sessions was zero. Tonight I saw A l l a n . He asked, "Why do you continue to work through P r i c e ? " Why do I?  I have t r i e d avoiding him, but in some way he becomes  entangled. February 5,"Friday The day was q u i e t , but the night on the ski h i l l was l i v e l y . chance, I met Debbie and Neil i n the lodge.  By  As Debbie and I discussed  her drawing and colour workshop, she t o l d me that she would not consider a workshop before her marriage in A p r i l .  She was far more d e f i n i t e a-  bout r e c e i v i n g release time than before.  Price had not told her about  the promised time.  According to Debbie, Archie had not found the guides  69  in the s c h o o l , but he did enjoy working with the c l a y . After speaking with Debbie, I saw N e i l . cancelled afternoon workshop.  Neil had come to the  He wanted to know where I had been!  Neil  said that he would l i k e to observe some of my art c l a s s e s . February 6, Saturday I am slowly c l a r i f y i n g my next step.  My continuing f r u s t r a t i o n  with  Price and the f a i l u r e of the workshops require reassessment and, in r e sponse, a probable new d i r e c t i o n .  D i s t r i c t workshops are past, and, at  t h i s time, I do not feel obligated to plan s i m i l a r ones.  I f other work-  shops are held schools w i l l need to make a request, provide a guaranteed attendance, and'use a professional day. Involvement and commitment can be developed in many ways.  An ex-  p l o r a t i o n of these other ways is needed to accomplish my i n i t i a l  intent:  make contact with teachers, determine further d i r e c t i o n through  informal  d i s c u s s i o n , and generate d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , c u r i o s i t y , and enthusiasm. Although f a c e - t o - f a c e communication in workshop s i t u a t i o n s would help prevent b a r r i e r s , the route I am planning to explore w i l l into some.  l i k e l y bump  B a r r i e r s may be met in introducing the program's content and  s t r u c t u r e , having teachers plan lessons with the guide, and developing competency with s k i l l s and processes.  But, I s t i l l  expect my i n i t i a l  intent to be pursuable through other aspects of i n - s e r v i c e . e d u c a t i o n . Furthering education while in service involves more than workshops, one band on the spectrum of i n - s e r v i c e education.  The idea handbook  i s designed to encourage continuing development of and involvement in the a r t curriculum.  The page t i t l e d A c t i v i t i e s , P r o j e c t s , S t a r t i n g  Points (see Appendix page 151) i s the a c t i v e and e s s e n t i a l in t h i s .  This i s one route I am planning to t r a v e l .  ingredient  70 Other solutions are needed, though, to accomplish what the workshops., were intended to do.  Teachers need to be shown samples of high-  q u a l i t y c h i l d r e n ' s art work; the p o t e n t i a l .  Within teachers t h i s  might develop some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r present p r a c t i c e s .  Teach-  ers need to be encouraged to explore new ideas in t h e i r classrooms. This might promote new a t t i t u d e s ; a natural acceptance of teacher growth and experimentation.  They need to see what others are doing with the  program and develop a c u r i o s i t y toward't.t.  Teachers must see t h e i r s t u -  dents working s u c c e s s f u l l y and, in the process, feel successful thems e l v e s ; a renewed enthusiasm. tial  fun w i t h i n motivational  service education w i l l  There i s a need to a n t i c i p a t e the potenapproaches.  be explored.  Other ways of providing i n -  If teachers are not going to at-  tend workshops, for whatever reason, I w i l l  not l e t them ignore the a r t  curriculum! February 7, Sunday I have been f l i p p i n g pages through and reading parts of every art book I haveiin an e f f o r t to l i s t samples that can r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the a r t curriculum, be produced in quantity, and s t i l l Let an idea incubate in my mind!  be of high q u a l i t y .  Here are seven p o s s i b i l i t i e s :  a) a: s i 1 k-screen p r i n t b) a cut-card block p r i n t ' c) a sample of tag s t e n c i l l i n g d) cut c l a y shapes - medallion, zipper g r i p p e r , key chain e) a protective cardboard mask!.for s t e n c i l l e d greeting cards f) an India ink storage'Container g) a drape construction clay dish Beyond using samples, s l i d e s , c h a r t s , f i l m s t r i p s , cassette tapes,  and frequent additions to the idea handbook can be used. to prowl then scrounge and dig for anything u s e f u l . begin to share.  I now need  I hope teachers  To t h i s end, the sheet f o r sharing ideas - A c t i v i t i e s ,  P r o j e c t s , S t a r t i n g Points - w i l l  be pushed p e r s i s t e n t l y .  February 8, Monday Today unfolded with my enthusiasm renewed.  My new d i r e c t i o n r e -  quired neither Price nor a budget. As I was s h u f f l i n g through f i l e s in the school o f f i c e Ted stopped to t a l k .  He summarized the l a s t p r i n c i p a l ' s meeting at which Price  raised the topic of the a r t curriculum.  I can only surmise the meet-  i n g ' s tone, but P r i c e ' s comments must have been rather d e f i n i t e and strongly s t a t e d .  As b r i e f l y t o l d to me by Ted, P r i c e , in reference to  me, b a s i c a l l y s a i d , "Release time w i l l  be provided for him so that he  can provide schools with help and advice on the a r t curriculum. there i s no substitute money a v a i l a b l e then I w i l l  If  take over his  classes so he can be r e l e a s e d . " That segment of the meeting must have been l i v e l y . His s i n c e r i t y i s appreciated, but I do not expect anything to happen as a r e s u l t . February 9, Tuesday Because of the uncertainty over who received the sheets on g l a z i n g , wedging, and s t e n c i l l i n g , duplicates have been made.  These (see Appendi  pages 164, 168, 169, 157) and a page describing the a r t supply k i t s , the resource t e x t s , and the idea network (see Appendix page 176) w i l l be dis t r i b u t e d tomorrow. A l e t t e r describing my proposal for talented grade seven a r t s t u dents was sent to Cynthia Quadra.  February 10, Wednesday I distributed  the stapled idea packets by placing them in schools'  trays at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . t r i b u t e them to teachers.  A covering note asked p r i n c i p a l s to d i s -  I had to t r u s t somebody!  I held back on the  packets for two schools - Maple Creek Elementary and Waterside Elementary.  Delivering them personally gave me the excuse to v i s i t  schools and the opportunity happening.  the  to develop a conversation and see what was  Consequently, I discovered that Glenn M a r t i n , p r i n c i p a l  of  Maple Creek School, passed the guides to a l l teachers "from grade one up.  They are sharing as a r e s u l t ! While in the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e I l e f t the questionnaire about work-  shop attendance. • ' P r i c e w i l l proofread i t and add the questionnaire  to  his own survey. February 11, Thursday Our school had a dance t o n i g h t , but because there were so many par ents and teachers s u p e r v i s i n g , I was able to spend some time working in the art room.  I r o l l e d clay and cut medallions, zipper g r i p p e r s , and  key chains. One week has passed since Price so zealously spoke at the p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting.  Even s o , he has said nothing to me.  son for doing what he did?  What was his rea-  Does he want to be involved i n  or does he feel some g u i l t about not providing open support.  everything Perhaps  he wants others to feel he i s responsible for t h e ' a c t i v i t y t a k i n g  place  February 16, Tuesday A l e t t e r from Cynthia Quadra a r r i v e d .  She expressed her e x c i t e -  ment over the a r t enrichment idea and i n v i t e d me to the next meeting of the enrichment teachers.  73 I phoned P r i c e .  The questionnaire was f i n e .  Early l a s t  fall  Price promised me a l i s t of teachers and the grades to which they taught a r t . me the  I never received i t .  Today, he said that he would send  list.  February 17, Wednesday Wednesday i s a convenient day to d i s t r i b u t e idea additions to teachers.  The weekend gives me a chance to gather my thoughts.  i s used for typing.  Monday  Tuesday involves copying and s t a p l i n g .  In today's packet of ideas I included f i v e pages of clay projects (see Appendix pages 161, 163, 165, 166, 167) and a copy of the sheet for sharing ideas. With my excuse in hand, I v i s i t e d R o i l y Speaker, p r i n c i p a l of the d i s t r i c t ' s second largest elementary s c h o o l , Poplar Lane.  R o i l y thought  that a few teachers could be using the guide, but he was uncertain that anyone was.  I was dumbfounded when he said that elementary teachers  were not subject oriented l i k e secondary teachers and could not be expected to do too much.  What an enlightening thought!  I considered i f  the l o g i c could be applied to mathematics and science as w e l l . February 24, Wednesday A sheet for sharing i d e a s , a glazed medallion, and a covering l e t ter (see Appendix page 177) were enclosed in envelopes' and sent to a l l grade f i v e and seven teachers. March 9, Monday For three days l a s t week the B.C. Winter Games used the schools. Many teachers were involved with the Winter Games, so to avoid a c o n f l i c t I made no e f f o r t to promote the a r t curriculum. I phoned Price and asked his secretary to have him c a l l me.  74 Having considered sending the questionnaire on my own, I had Ted proofread the questionnaire for contentious statements. March 10, Wednesday Again I c a l l e d P r i c e .  I wanted to discuss the support t e x t s , the  questionnaire's d i s t r i b u t i o n date, and the need for more copy paper. Because Price did not phone and the questionnaire had to be sent before teachers forgot about the workshops, I put questionnaires into school t r a y s . pill  Grade four teachers were given a sample p l a s t e r encased  b o t t l e for d i s t r i b u t i n g  India ink (see Appendix page 178).  March 15, Monday Price returned l a s t Tuesday's c a l l and t o l d the school secretary that he would be i n a l l day i f  I wanted to c a l l him.  March 16, Tuesday Paper was s t i l l  needed, but the need to discuss the questionnaire  was past - given to Price on February 10 and d i s t r i b u t e d on March 10. When I f i n a l l y found time during the day to phone, Price assumed that I wanted to discuss the questionnaire, and, before I could explain what I had done, he promised to have i t out by the week's end. I responded, "It  was sent out l a s t week.  Five weeks since the  workshops had been a long enough w a i t , and I was concerned that teachers might forget that we even had January." A pause was followed by a b r i e f conversation in which Price did not sound pleased. at the d i s t r i c t  The copy paper w i l l  be put into the s c h o o l ' s tray  office.  March 17, Wednesday I am determined to stop using so much of the school's paper supply and to use the better q u a l i t y , heavier d i s t r i c t  paper.  The d i s t r i c t  must have that much of a commitment. sult,  No paper a r r i v e d today.  As a r e -  I decided not to send idea packets to the schools.  March 22, Monday The paper has not a r r i v e d . March 25, Thursday Several sets of questionnaires have been returned.  The return  from Poplar Lane Elementary was small in comparison to the s t a f f ' s  size.  Would R o l l y ' s e a r l i e r opinion that elementary teachers were not subject oriented be related? School.  Twelve questionnaires came back/from Maple Creek  I sent n i n e , the same as the number of guides I l e f t .  They  must be short guides! March 30, Tuesday Paper a r r i v e d today!  Great!  I am not sure how long I could have  lasted before I gave i n to myself. March 31, Wednesday Another idea packet with a fourth sheet f o r sharing ideas was placed in school trays t h i s afternoon.  The media sheets with the numbers now  c l e a r l y printed were included.  The covering l e t t e r (see Appendix page  179) encouraged using the Idea Network, suggested ordering a few s p e c i f i c supply items, and promoted two f i l m s t r i p s and accompanying tapes on c l a y . The second page (see Appendix 180) offered to loan three items f o r motivating c h i l d r e n in a r t . This afternoon was busy.  This was the day on which I was asked to  share my ideas for encouraging talented art students.  The Committee for  the G i f t e d and Talented agreed to take advantage of a propitious opportunity.  The Emily Carr College of Art Outreach Program w i l l be in our  area in two weeks.  One student - preferably from grade seven - w i l l  76  be s e n t f r o m e a c h s c h o o l .  P a y m e n t w i l l be t h e s c h o o l ' s  T h i s i s a most p o s i t i v e response!  responsibility.  Ecstasy!  A p r i l 13, T u e s d a y The E a s t e r h o l i d a y has d e l a y e d a c t i v i t y s l i g h t l y .  Idea s h e e t s were  n o t s e n t t o s c h o o l s b e f o r e t h e b r e a k as I f e l t t h e y w o u l d be i g n o r e d . A p r i l 15,  Thursday  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h a v e b e e n r e t u r n e d f r o m a l l s c h o o l s e x c e p t J.A. Macdonald Elementary,  D e b b i e and A r c h i e ' s s c h o o l .  I n a s m u c h as t h e M a c d o n -  a l d s t a f f was a p p a r e n t l y u n a w a r e o f t h e w o r k s h o p s , I do n o t e x p e c t  any  reply. I have never been g i v e n the s c h o o l - b y - s c h o o l breakdown l i s t i n g t h o s e i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g t h e i r own a r t , b u t t h e r e a r e five intermediate teachers. aware o f the workshops. School.  O f t h e f o r t y s u r v e y s r e t u r n e d 58% w e r e un-  T h a t e x c l u d e s t h e t e a c h e r s a t J.A.  The s u r v e y summary ( s e e T a b l e 2) i n d i c a t e s s e v e r a l  reasons f o r non-attendance  fifty-  Macdonald frequent  f o r t h o s e who w e r e a w a r e : i n c o n v e n i e n t  time,  i n s u f f i c i e n t n o t i c e , p r i o r i t y i n p l a n n i n g i n a n o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a , and commitments to teams, meetings,  and c l u b s .  O f t h o s e who m e n t i o n e d  other  r e a s o n s , one c o n s i d e r e d t h e t o p i c s u n s u i t a b l e f o r a g r a d e 3/4 s p l i t , had a t t e n d e d a p r e v i o u s w o r k s h o p h e l d by me i n 1979, a n d , o f t h o s e one had a t w o - y e a r  c o u r s e on c l a y as a  two two,  background.  A p r i l 19, Monday B r u c e Thompson o f P o p l a r L a n e E l e m e n t a r y  has r e q u e s t e d t h e f i l m -  s t r i p s and a c c o m p a n y i n g t a p e s on c l a y f o r t h e f i r s t week i n May.  He a l -  so w a n t e d t o know a b o u t s i l k s c r e e n i n g i n k and w i l l come t o my s c h o o l Wednesday f o r the s i l k s c r e e n i n g package.  I am p l e a s e d w i t h t h i s  r e s p o n s e t o t h e n u m e r o u s i d e a s h e e t s and c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s .  on  first  TABLE II  FACTORS AFFECTING  WORKSHOP  ATTENDANCE  As support f o r t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e a r t program seven workshops were r e c e n t l y arranged. To f a c i l i t a t e p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e workshops and i n - s e r v i c e we would a p p r e c i a t e t h e time you might spend answering the f o l l o w i n g questionaire. More than one answer may be t i c k e d .  **********  23  **********  I WAS NOT AWARE OF THE ART WORKSHOPS, (no f u r t h e r  **********  questions)  **********  I WAS AWARE OF THE WORKSHOPS BUT...  3  the time was i n c o n v e n i e n t  and I would p r e f e r  the l o c a t i o n was i n c o n v e n i e n t  and I would p r e f e r  4  I had i n s u f f i c i e n t  2  I was not i n t e r e s t e d  6  I g i v e p r i o r i t y to p l a n n i n g i n o t h e r  notice  areas  I have not seen the guide and d i d n ' t know what t o expect  2  I use another  a r t program  I had a meeting/team/club I had r e p o r t  cards  I would have p r e f e r r e d another  1  2 1  3  workshop l e a d e r  I forgot •I had no energy  left  I w i l l a t t e n d workshops o n l y d u r i n g s c h o o l hours other  78 A p r i l 20, Tuesday I had j u s t worked my way into a combination chair/desk at the meeting fo>'ther.arts display when Nancy Murphy, p r i n c i p a l of Snow V a l ley Elementary, sat on the edge of the adjoining c h a i r .  She asked me  to consider discussing the art program and explaining the operation of her s c h o o l ' s k i l n during a professional day in l a t e May. l e t her make the arrangements through Ted and the d i s t r i c t  I agreed to office.  A p r i l 21, Wednesday Before Bruce took the s i l k s c r e e n i n g package I showed him how to stretch and set up a screen and work through the process. district  Because the  frames had no bases, I loaned him my frames.  We also discussed  c l a y , the k i l n , and related procedures and equipment.  Bruce appreciated  the help and l e f t happily loaded down with the equipment.  Apparently he  has been reading his guide! When the clay medallions - zipper g r i p p e r s , key chains - were sent I purposely neglected to mention the need for nichrome wire in the glaze firing.  I have been waiting for someone to h i t the problem and c a l l -  entrapment!  Neil phoned today.  l i o n s were glazed.  He couldlnot understand how the medal-  After explaining the procedure, I assured him that  some wire would be taken from my supplies and sent through the school mail s e r v i c e .  For encouragement, I included a metal key chain that can  be attached to one of his c l a y shapes. Idea packets were l e f t in school trays at the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e .  The  pages included twelve possible s t e n c i l l i n g projects and a l i s t of art suppliers (see Appendix pages 158, 174).  A l l grade seven teachers were  given a sample cardboard mask that is useful in protecting greeting cards during the s t e n c i l l i n g process.  And, every school e n r o l l i n g grade seven  was sent a f i v e - c o l o u r poster to demonstrate the potential  of the sten-  c i l l i n g process. May 3, Monday The Snow Valley Workshop was confirmed for May 21. May 5, Wednesday Even though four copies of the page headed A c t i v i t i e s ,  Projects,  S t a r t i n g Points have been sent, teachers have not shared i d e a s .  In an  e f f o r t to make the communication process even e a s i e r , a f i f t h copy of t h i s page was folded and stuffed into a return-addressed envelope. Every teacher was given one in today's packet. clearer!  Ten motivational  My i n t e n t could be no  s t a r t i n g points were outlined and added to a  l i s t that described f i f t e e n items - k i t s , v i s u a l s , pieces of equipment a v a i l a b l e for loan.(see Appendix page 181). Other than Bruce, no one has borrowed anything. ignored!  But, I w i l l not be  Every time new pages a r r i v e teachers must dig and f i n d t h e i r  a r t guide.  I hope!  I f they do not read i t ,  ing dusted  frequently.  t h e i r guide i s at l e a s t be-  I a c c i d e n t a l l y met Price as I f i n i s h e d my d i s t r i b u t i o n .  I told  him that Bruce had been out to the school borrowing equipment, but that I was not sure how he was doing. Concerned, Price s a i d , "There's not enough time for  follow-up.  Teachers need to be changed through teaching methods and s t y l e s , not con tent.  There are a few exceptions, such as i n d u s t r i a l  education and a r t .  He shared some of his thoughts on curriculum implementation and the use of professional days.  From his viewpoint, professional days have  not always been used p r o f i t a b l y ,  and d i s t r i c t  over two or three of the a l l o t e d f i v e days.  s t a f f should have control For implementation of a pro  80  gram, P r i c e proposed one-hour presentations that could be used as the professional development component of s t a f f meetings.  As our d i s c u s -  sion ended Price related disappointment about the push the a r t c u r r i c u lum had been given and admitted that he had not done too much. I said nothing.  Stunned,  When I spoke, I asked Price what he thought would hap-  pen to the a r t curriculum next year.  In r e p l y , he t o l d me that the  Curriculum Advisory Committee had met two weeks ago to make decisions about future curriculum p r o j e c t s .  I asked him i f art had been s p e c i f -  i c a l l y , considered. Price s a i d , "No, i t was lumped with math and science.  English  was not i n c l u d e d . " S t a f f representatives on the committee were asked to report  to  s t a f f s and return with input. The text Art in Depth has not a r r i v e d , and the recently promised extra copies of Emphasis Art were not ordered. Tonight I have been thinking about Price and some of his comments. If his proposed one-hour professional development components involved any s t u d i o / l a b o r a t o r y work the time l i m i t of one hour might not j u s t i f y the e f f o r t expended in preparation and the movement of supplies and equipment.  Price has many promising ideas l i k e t h i s one, but he i s too  busy to know what i s happening with a r t in the schools.  As a r e s u l t , a  gap e x i s t s in my o r i g i n a l intent of adding feedback channelled through Price to comments made by teachers and p r i n c i p a l s and of modifying the d i r e c t i o n of the implementation process by considering t h i s composite reaction. A perplexing incident occurred t h i s afternoon as I was sorting the packets for schools.  John Penny passed by.  He had j u s t emptied his  school's t r a y but n e i t h e r acknowledged me nor waited f o r the m a t e r i a l . I f e e l he does not approve o f what i s happening. May 10, Monday Curious to see the progress Bruce Thompson was making, I chose some samples o f paper s u i t a b l e f o r s i l k s c r e e n i n g and,  i n an attempt to see  him before he l e f t , l e f t i n a hurry a t three o ' c l o c k . Bruce was more than happy to have the paper and to share h i s e f f o r t s with c l a y .  He and  his c l a s s had had a few problems working with c l a y , but most had been solved.  We t a l k e d about the remaining d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Because Bruce was determined that I should have a cup o f tea or c o f f e e , we t a l k e d about s t e n c i l l i n g and si 1kscreening i n the s t a f f room. The c l a y work had kept him busy and prevented si 1kscreening from s t a r t ing.  There had been problems with s t e n c i l l i n g , and, as the s t o r y un-  f o l d e d , I saw that the wrong brushes and paper had been used.  Bruce  thought that the p a i n t had been too t h i c k , but that was the o n l y thing that had been r i g h t !  As we t a l k e d , Bruce recommended the l i n o c u t t e r s  he had been using and wanted me to see them. Having seen the c u t t e r s we descended the s t a i r s again and d i s c u s s e d g l a z e , s p e c i f i c a l l y the glaze Bruce had stored i n the stockroom.  In the process o f i n s p e c t i n g  the glaze I d i s c o v e r e d more a p p r o p r i a t e s t e n c i l l i n g brushes on a s h e l f and commented that i n a school t h i s s i z e o t h e r , l a r g e r hog h a i r brushes must be cached. Tonight I have been wondering i f the idea sheet on s t e n c i l l i n g i s clearly written.  In t r y i n g to read i t as though I was a n o v i c e , the  r e l e v a n t brushes and paper are s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d , but the manner.]'.': in which to'make the brush s t r o k e s needs to be c l a r i f i e d .  Bruce genu-  i n e l y a p p r e c i a t e d the chance to share and to d i s c u s s d i f f i c u l t i e s . With-  82  out  help,  problems remain, teachers and students become f r u s t r a t e d ,  simple solutions remain unknown.  Bruce i s t r y i n g to do a good j o b , but  the support a v a i l a b l e to him i s sporadic and happenstance. May 13, Thursday Like l i g h t n i n g more success has pierced the dark.  When the f i f t h  copy of the idea sharing page was sent on May 5 I was determined to get a reaction and to make communication as easy as p o s s i b l e . suggestions a r r i v e d !  Today two  Debbie sent an idea that I had encouraged her to  share when we met l a s t September. with mosaics would be u s e f u l .  And, Patsy Freeman thought a project  Am I pleased; a l i t t l e smug too!  Neither  idea d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s to the core part of the art program, but that i s irrelevant.  The response, the involvement, and the sharing a t t i t u d e are  more important. May 19, Wednesday At a planning meeting for the arts d i s p l a y I saw Debbie.  She had  only recently r e a l i z e d that her idea for the handbook had not been sent to me.  Perhaps my prompting was needed.  While buying groceries S h i r l e y Parkinson and I met.  A staffmate  of  Bruce, she too had been t r y i n g the s t e n c i l l i n g project with grade seven and had been having t r o u b l e .  Her students had been painting the cut-card  shapes in because the paint was too t h i c k !  S h i r l e y has enjoyed the idea  sheets, and, although she has not used them a l l , some have been u s e f u l . Her s c h o o l , Poplar Lane, has only recently started i t s self-assessment. Jane Daniels from Crawford Creek Elementary asked about borrowing the circus/monster make-up k i t . I am puzzled as to why so much a c t i v i t y would take place so l a t e in the year.  And, so suddenly!  83 May 20, Thursday John Penny phoned Ted, my p r i n c i p a l , to see i f I would present the a r t curriculum on the morning of June 21. has asked me to phone John. yet!  Ted agreed to release me and  John has not handed his s t a f f the guides  The fact that his s t a f f has seen neither the guides nor the idea  packets might explain the consistent lack of response from his school and his avoidance of me.  June 21 i s a l a t e date, but at l e a s t I have  been given a chance to present the program. My planning for John Penny's s c h o o l , J . A . Macdonald, s'hould be helped by tomorrow's response to my f i r s t f u l l - d a y workshop with a school s t a f f . May 21, Friday Shortly a f t e r the school j a n i t o r watched me unpack, the Snow V a l ley s t a f f and I started with an introduction to the core program and the supporting m a t e r i a l s . joyed themselves.  The day moved q u i c k l y , and the teachers en-  Although the clay was ' s h o r t ' , and we had  difficulty  making c o i l s and throwing the clay into sheets, two d i s t i n c t blocks of time made the morning worthwhile. The s t a f f had e s p e c i a l l y wanted me to explain how to operate the school's k i l n which had arrived a year ago but had only recently been connected by the e l e c t r i c i a n .  No one knew what to do with the k i l n .  Though, now that i t was operable, Caroline was gathering her nerve to try.  Methodically;, I explained the p a r t s , the related s u p p l i e s , and the  f i r i n g sequence.  As I concluded, I suggested they t r y using the k i l n  before my explanation was forgotten and learn from experience.  The  s t a f f was excited and a p p r e c i a t i v e . The excitement followed through the rest of the morning as we ex-  84 plored c l a y .  As I would with a group of youngsters, I introduced vo-  cabulary, processes, and s k i l l s .  By dipping p r o j e c t s , andrpouring and  brushing g l a z e , teachers glazed bisqueware that I had made i n the preceding weeks.  While teachers worked with c l a y , I stopped them and de-  monstrated three or four projects and, where p o s s i b l e , suggested adaptations for the primary teachers.  With these i r r e g u l a r  interruptions,  we worked through the morning. The only man on s t a f f was Harry.  When he succeeded in making a  tube vase, he was the subject of some good-natured kidding by'the younger teachers.  Even s o , Harry was obviously happy with his  project,  and, l i k e so many othersj he soon had i t drying with the glazed bisqueware and Egyptian paste projects on a side t a b l e .  Success!  In many  ways these teachers reacted l i k e my students. Nancy Murphy, the p r i n c i p a l , was neatly s e t t l e d on the f l o o r wedging - not banging as Nancy thought - a block of c l a y .  She was f a s c i n a t -  ed with the c l a y ' s q u a l i t i e s and found making something far more d i f f i c u l t than she had imagined.  Several wanted Nancy to order more c l a y ,  and Caroline had to assert h e r s e l f in defending the remains of the c l a y that she had ordered for her c l a s s . been spent. used.  The budget, as Nancy t o l d us, had  However, some money in the s c h o o l ' s own account could be  Without an opportunity to t r y clay with c h i l d r e n , newly"learned  s k i l l s would be l o s t and the morning's buildup would be followed with immediate discouragement - d i s a s t e r . What did the day achieve?  Everyone knew more.  Teachers had come  to be f a m i l i a r with t h e i r k i l n , the q u a l i t i e s of c l a y , and many p r o j e c t s . Skills::and vocabulary from the core program were taught in context. teachers had been successful in some way.  Most  Some of the supporting r e -  85 source materials had been introduced, and, as a r e s u l t , several teachers wanted to borrow the Fantastic Packing Crate, the clown/monster make-up k i t , and the pottery c h a r t s . t i o n answered.  A primary teacher needed a ques-  Packaged papier mache arrived without i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  and she did not know what to do with the pulp. swers met questions.  Throughout the day an-  In the end, the teachers were appreciative of the  encounter with c l a y , and I was appreciative of t h e i r enthusiasm and sense of fun!  Just before I l e f t , Roseanne stated that we should meet  once a week as a c l a s s , because the pottery classes offered through the night school program were always f u l l . The preparation for the clay workshop with the Snow Valley School s t a f f consumed a tremendous amount of my time.  Working during my spare  period, a f t e r s c h o o l , and through evenings has made me t i r e d .  Examples*  s u p p l i e s , equipment, and support materials need to be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t ed.  Preparation always seems to involve gathering, s o r t i n g , packing,  and re-checking to see that nothing has been forgotten.  F i n a l l y , plan-  ning i s required for both the workshop o u t l i n e and the classes l e f t with a s u b s t i t u t e teacher.  When the day i s over everything must be un-  packed and assigned i t s usual place in my classroom. May 22, Saturday In the past several weeks there has been so much unexpected r e sponse that I am astounded.  Persistence has to be the key!  May 23, Sunday I am not interested in preparing ' f o r ' t h e workshop at J . A . Macdonald School, but I w i l l . school week.  The t w e n t y - f i r s t i s the Monday' .:in the l a s t f u l l  Without the workshop everything w i l l  -  be h e c t i c .  John Pen-  ny has probably been caught with one remaining professional development  86  day and needs to f i l l the time. days would f a c i l i t a t e  Some advance planning of professional  implementation  efforts.  Now that some momentum i s developing d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n away from me i s my next g o a l .  Others need to be involved.  P e r s i s t e n t delays and  roadblocks have precluded involving Debbie and Ross.  Myr: f r u s t r a t i o n 7  and occasional sense of discouragement might only have been more intense for them.  Then again, others, working as a team, might have provided  support and more aggressiveness.  Perhaps time to build momentum i s need-  ed before others can be involved. Since speaking with S h i r l e y Parkinson I have been considering the thought that working with someone who i s also w i l l i n g to r i s k and share successes with you i s h e l p f u l .  Apparently S h i r l e y and Ross have been  doing that. May 25, Tuesday Ross Rosser has not forgotten about theaart program.and t o l d methat he wfould'outline be p a r t l y  ideas over the summer.  Maybe then the program w i l l  his.  At noon John Penny c a l l e d to arrange the half-day on June 21.  Ten-  t a t i v e l y , we w i l l introduce the a r t curriculum i n one hour and work through one of the media areas in two hours.  The s t a f f w i l l choose the  media area. May 26, Wednesday More idea packets were placed in school trays today. the ideas sent from Patsy Freeman and Debbie Arnold. thanked Patsy and Debbie for t h e i r contribution  They included  The covering l e t t e r  and urged other teachers  to share, (see Appendix pages 171, 172) May 31, Monday The secretary of Maple Creek School spoke to me today.  The p r i n c i -  pal there had the e n t i r e s t a f f sharing the intermediate art guides. However, a f t e r I had spoken with her several months ago, she took the job upon h e r s e l f and gathered'the guides together and r e - d i s t r i b u t e d them to intermediate teachers only.  Binders were provided.  She said  that she hoped teachers were properly placing the additional sheets. In any event, the guides w i l l be c o l l e c t e d and checked during the summer. June 1, Tuesday Bruce c a l l e d .  He asked i f he could come out to the school to be  shown how to operate the pyrometer on the k i l n . zled about the many d i f f e r e n t school's k i l n .  As w e l l , he was puz-  cones that were on the s h e l f near his  His confidence with c l a y , he t o l d me, was greater,  and he wanted to s t a r t s i l k s c r e e i n g .  The d i s t r i c t arts d i s p l a y i s tak-  ing place in mid-June and he expects to have some work ready for then. June 4, Friday The clown/monster make-up k i t was returned with a note from Jane Daniels that asked me to v i s i t her class and make up one of her students "When'you haVeitime," she added.  Yes, that i s the d i f f i c u l t  part.  How nice to be valued, but how do I get the time to drive there, do t h i s and r e t u r n .  There i s f r u s t r a t i o n  for both of us.  June 21, Monday The lead-up to today's workshop at Macdonald Elementary has been exhausting. l a t e date.  I honestly do not know why I was asked to come at such a Better y e t , why did I say I would?  After having backed the car down the steepest of a l l e y s to a basement door, a procession of teachers helped pack in m a t e r i a l s . i c a l s i t u a t i o n was very awkward.  The phys-  With t h e i r school destroyed by f i r e  in February, 1982, two classes were being accommodated in a large basement room.  Upon e n t e r i n g , I saw, to the l e f t , teachers gathered around  low tables and perched on chairs meant for much younger people, d i r e c t l y ahead, rows of desks that f i l l e d much of the room, and, to the f a r r i g h t , a narrow, curving counter that segregated one corner. the l e f t , I l i t e r a l l y  Moving to  stacked and balanced much of what I had brought  across a table and in f r o n t of the s t a f f . The a r t guides had never been d i s t r i b u t e d by John Penny, the p r i n cipal.  As a consequence, most of an hour was used in s o r t i n g and add-  ing a l l of the idea packets sent during the year.  With that done, a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the program was g i v e n , and motivational resource materials were shown.  approaches and  The reasons for the art program were r e -  viewed and expectations were o u t l i n e d .  The teachers were both aston-  ished and impressed with the percentage of students in t h e i r area that take no a r t past elementary school.  F i n a l l y , I was careful to stress  that t h i s was t h e i r program, our program, and r e v i s i o n in September woul ask f o r t h e i r  input.  Debbie, in seeing her reproduced i d e a , thought that i t had been f a i t h f u l l y copied, but i t had l o s t something in the r e - w r i t i n g .  Helen  suggested that I provide a l i s t of suppliers with t h e i r addresses.  Al-  ready done, that page had been given to teachers in A p r i l , but John was unable to f i n d the s e t .  Archie had neither shared the copy of Emphasis  Art that I had given him in e a r l y February nor t r i e d any clay p r o j e c t s . Although the f i r e had destroyed the s c h o o l ' s k i l n , Archie was i n the secondary school and should have been able to use the k i l n there. Following coffee and a f t e r an overview of the printmaking aspect of the program that was i l l u s t r a t e d with student examples, the time was  eleven o ' c l o c k .  With f o r t y - f i v e minutes remaining, teachers were g i v -  en an opportunity to explore printmaking processes, but many were content tovview s l i d e s and watch others.  After my prompting, a few t r i e d  a p r o j e c t , but most wanted to see the processes demonstrated as they were unfamiliar with them. By 11:55 s t a f f members had most e f f i c i e n t l y  loaded my c a r , and I  had started the twenty mile t r i p back and expected to make classes that started at 12:30.  I l e f t the s t a f f wanting more.  The morning had pro-  vided too l i t t l e time, and several teachers said that they should have planned to have me for the afternoon,as w e l l .  As I slumped into my  seat for the return t r i p , I f e l t l i k e a gopher that had been caught in a p r a i r i e windstorm! I have been considering what happened t h i s morning.  The ruinous  f i r e that destroyed t h e i r school has t h i s s t a f f operating in two l o c a tions without some a r t s u p p l i e s .  When several teachers r e a l i z e d that  the Printmaker's Box had been a v a i l a b l e for loan and that they could have used the much needed s u p p l i e s , they were annoyed that they had not known.  But, because John had not d i s t r i b u t e d the idea packets, the  s t a f f was unaware and did without. June 22, Tuesday I a c c i d e n t a l l y met Price today in the board o f f i c e .  In the past  two weeks he has f i n a l l y taken his survey to determine curriculum ests of teachers.  inter-  The t a l l y shows that teachers want, among other  t h i n g s , a primary art program developed.  The Curriculum Advisory Com-  mittee has decided to continue current programs in the f a l l . i n g , Price said that we w i l l  In conclud-  have to look at r e v i s i o n of the art program  t h i s coming f a l l as grades f i v e and s i x are weak.  90  I have been thinking about P r i c e ' s l a s t comment t h i s afternoon.  I  knew r e v i s i o n of the a r t program was expected - in f a c t , b u i l t into the process I have been advocating.  But, f o r Price to suddenly know so much  about the program and i t s weaknesses was a shock! June 25, Friday With a smile across her f a c e , Anne Peterson from Macdonald School s a i d , "Everyone enjoyed the morning, even i f you thought you were on a treadmill!" June 30, Wednesday Two school years of planning and e f f o r t were invested in t h i s study.  field  Although recounted h i g h l i g h t s of the project described the char-  acter of the work and what was done and how i t was done, the vast amounts of time, energy, and stamina that were required can only be suggested. But, what was learned from the experience?  What can be abstracted?  The  next chapter, in attempting to summarize what has already been revealed in the previous chapters, may be, in p a r t , only redundant and s u p e r f i cial.  In s p i t e of t h i s , such a summary w i l l draw together seeming unre-  lated incidents and w i l l act as a reminder of what i s important to cons i d e r when planning future development and implementation projects in intermediate grade a r t .  91 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Reflections With ends not c l a r i f i e d at the outset, t h i s f i e l d study proceeded to see how and in what ways the phases of development and implementation would be affected and changed.  The process of implementation has been  slow and must, out of n e c e s s i t y , be considered an on-going a c t i v i t y i n corporating r e v i s i o n , continuing teacher i n - p u t , and response to changing c o n d i t i o n s . Teacher input o c c a s i o n a l l y appeared in the form of questions d i r e c t ed toward the sequencing of content.  The problem of sequencing content -  concepts, major understandings, media, and projects - has been j u s t t h a t ; a problem.  Even a f t e r the o r i g i n a l committee resolved the problem of  sequencing, others asked about having to teach what was o u t l i n e d .  My  answer u s u a l l y reminded teachers that t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n had been asked f o r and was s t i l l expected. 'pilot'  Then I stated that the a r t program was a  project in which p a r t i c i p a t i o n was voluntary.  Further, as a way  of ensuring that a broad range of media and projects would be covered in the intermediate grades, the media and projects had been divided into four graded groups.  This did not mean that students were imcapable..of  using"the media or.making the projects that had been assigned to other grades.  Rather, with the program f o l l o w e d , c h i l d r e n would have covered  the content by grade seven.  However, i f a teacher was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n -  terested or talented in an area covered in a l a t e r grade the content could be taught. ly.  But, they were cautioned to do t h i s choosing s e l e c t i v e -  Having an idea well taught was preferable to not having i t  at a l l in a l a t e r grade.  taught  1  92  Communication with classroom teachers was one of my greatest problems.  Staff meetings, workshops, and i n - s e r v i c e should have been used  to explain the intent of the art program, to encourage teacher c o n t r i butions, and to measure teachers' needs.  However, only four  staffs  were met w i t h , and, of those, two were seen i n the l a s t f i v e weeks of the school year.  So many teachers knew nothing of the workshops, the  guide, and the resources that I frequently wondered about the d i s c r e t i o n of p r i n c i p a l s to inform teachers in a routine manner or to a c t u a l l y withhold information.  I often wondered who a c t u a l l y knew of the  o r i g i n a l curriculum development committee. Because not a l l teachers received an introduction to the art program, pages that made the guide more s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y were d i s t r i b u t e d . One page o u t l i n i n g reasons f o r the program's existence was never made. However, such a page would have informed those who did not receive an introduction and would have acted as a reminder for those who d i d . In s p i t e of communication problems, I remained v i s i b l e and a v a i l a b l e , but not i n t e r f e r i n g .  In t h i s manner, I persisted and gained a meas-  ure of recognition and acceptance for the art program.  Accurately meas-  uring the success of the program has been a dilemma involving  specificity.  At t h i s time I can say that in the l i g h t of the b a r r i e r s encountered, I am pleased with the extent of teacher response to the curriculum.  Al-  though unable to know what a l l teachers have done, I sense that the program has had an impact upon teacher i n t e r e s t , thought, and a c t i o n . Though teachers and students control the extent to which a program i s implemented, the Curriculum Advisory Committee, the board of school t r u s t e e s , the superintendent, and the d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n support.  They provided the required p o l i t i c a l consent.  provided  In theory,  the community should have been considered.  But, toward t h i s non-  c o n t r o v e r s i a l subject a r e a , however, no community reaction was ever given. P r i c e , though, as the supervisor responsible for curriculum development, was the most i n f l u e n t i a l  f a c t o r in the project.  The r e l a -  tionship between the supervisor and the project coordinator, l i k e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the coordinator and the teachers, had to be based upon t r u s t and confidence.  But, P r i c e ' s involvement, although d e s i r -  a b l e , was, in f a c t , sporadic and unpredictable.  Even when he strongly  t o l d the d i s t r i c t ' s p r i n c i p a l s that he would e i t h e r provide me with the necessary release time or take over my classes himself, nothing happened.  In the end, release time was not provided f o r the developmental  phase.  The e n t i r e implementation process received two days so that  I could meet with three s t a f f s .  The r e l a t i v e l y small amount of r e -  lease time placed tremendous demands upon my own time and energy. One person cannot carry the e n t i r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and teach f u l l time.  When the project proceeds to the implementation phase a leader-  ship, committee composed of several teachers needs to share responsib i l i t y for planning and leading in-depth continuing i n - s e r v i c e . I had expected to involve Debbie Arnold and Ross Rosser in t h i s way, but when Debbie's nonexistent release time was combined with my i n a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y organize and maintain a schedule, her p a r t i c i p a t i o n was precluded.  Ross was diverted by his commitment to teach  a special c l a s s with several behavioral problems.  His best promise  was to prepare ideas f o r the handbook over the summer of 1982. When P r i c e ' s lack of support was confirmed to be a continuing r e a l i t y , and the workshops were i n e f f e c t i v e , I became determined to  94 prevent teachers from ignoring the a r t curriculum.  Frequent d i s t r i -  bution of idea packets kept the a r t program a l i v e and, in the end, prompted three teachers to begin s h a r i n g , several teachers to use ideas and borrow s u p p l i e s , and two schools to request i n - s e r v i c e and workshops.  Packets that were d i s t r i b u t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n in the idea  handbook were p r i m a r i l y intended to develop an awareness of the program and to encourage teachers to begin a sharing process.  Sharing  was seen as another way of involving more teachers in the development of the program. ment.  I feel that such involvement develops commit-  As w e l l , idea packets, selected because they provided support  and related to media and p r o j e c t s , provided teachers with a l t e r n a t i v e s . One inadequately r e a l i z e d goal was the creation of sample lessons c o r r e l a t i n g projects and media with content. Dave asked for lesson plans several times. assumed to be my job.  As the program developed Their creation was q u i e t l y  But, f o r me, the chore of o u t l i n i n g them was  not only a time consuming one but second in p r i o r i t y to developing an awareness of the curriculum and e l i c i t i n g teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Sev-  eral sample lessons that followed the lesson planning sheet (see Appendix page 116) were d r a f t e d , but only one r e a l i z e d p r i n t .  Introductions  to' the program were o r i g i n a l l y conceived to include an opportunity  to  plan a lesson or a series of lessons using the guide, but f i r s t - t i m e meetings always lacked the time to get that done.  In the f u t u r e , such  lessons need to be d i s t r i b u t e d . Other ways of providing teachers with an in service education still  need to be explored.  For example, small s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  kits  could be taken home by teachers so that a project or medium could be explored on a week night or over the weekend.  95  The l a s t two i n - s e r v i c e sessions involved both primary and i n t e r mediate s t a f f members.  Primary teachers were often more open i n t h e i r  enthusiasm and, on occasion, asked about the development of a primary a r t program.  When P r i c e ' s survey was completed in June, primary teach-  ers had ranked art high on t h e i r l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s f o r future c u r r i culum development.  If the i n t e r e s t was not prompted by the intermedi-  ate program, i t was c e r t a i n l y i n t e n s i f i e d by i t . A curriculum that i s not only designed to be adapted by teachers but c o n t i n u a l l y added to and modified i s not only r e a l i s t i c but e x c i t ing and capable of involving teachers.  The realism of such a c u r r i c u -  lum i s based upon the concept that change does not wait over several years f o r a curriculum to be r e v i s e d .  Change i s a continuous process.  I n d i v i d u a l l y and as a group our conceptions and knowledge w i l l change over time.  As a r e s u l t , we need to have s t r a t e g i e s that allow f o r  modification and adaptation.  Other factors - f a c i l i t i e s , funding,  a t t i t u d e s - a l s o change and need to be considered.  The development  and implementation of an art curriculum cannot s t a r t and stop then years l a t e r s t a r t again. Conclusions This f i e l d study did not y i e l d q u a n t i f i a b l e data on which to base conclusions.  It d i d , however, provide experiences, impressions, and  problematic s i t u a t i o n s that led to c l e a r e r ideas or useful conclusions about what we are t o l d should be done r e l a t i v e to what a c t u a l l y was or is.  Some of the conclusions that f o l l o w , then, also carry the weight  of recommendations. Because curriculum development and curriculum implementation cannot be considered s e p a r a t e l y , t h i s f i e l d study developed an art program en-  compassing both elements. program.  The intention was not to create a perfect  Rather, the curriculum acted as a c a t a l y s t that allowed the  factors a f f e c t i n g i t s development and implementation to be i d e n t i f i e d and observed.  Based upon sixteen months of involvement, many conclu-  sions have been made about those factors and the extent to which each made an impact.  Individuals and groups are central f a c t o r s , and taking  theory i n t o p r a c t i c e means that there w i l l be i n t e r a c t i o n s between theory - the planned for - and i n d i v i d u a l s and groups - the unexpected. What appears to be so c l e a r in theory i n e v i t a b l y requires responsive adaptation in p r a c t i c e . Of the i n d i v i d u a l s who exert tremendous influence upon theory in process, the supervisor responsible for curriculum i s one of the most important.  Senior administrators have the authority to provide impetus  to change and can do so with a c t i v e support.  However, even when com-  mittees and teachers make commitments and expend time, the supervisor u l t i m a t e l y decides what w i l l be promoted and to what extent i t w i l l be emphasized.  Personal p r i o r i t i e s play a part in these d e c i s i o n s .  Fur-  t h e r , the supervisor may want to be involved i n every p r o j e c t , but, in r e a l i t y , i s unable to provide s p e c i f i c guidance i n a l l subject areas. When such i s the case, the supervisor must defer to others and r e l i n quish some a u t h o r i t y .  When working with i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, a super-  v i s o r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p must not suggest manipulation as that w i l l create resentment and lessen commitment.  Evidence i n t h i s study suggests that  i f these points are not considered implementation e f f o r t s w i l l verely hindered but not stopped.  be se-  Many negative f a c t o r s , including a  s u p e r v i s o r , can be adjusted t o , although support i s obviously preferred. There i s reason to believe that when a supervisor f a i l s to provide  open and continuing support and to f a c i l i t a t e a program in which others are taking a leadership r o l e , those i n d i v i d u a l s feel used and become d i s couraged and d i s i l l u s i o n e d . a f f e c t implementation.  Their diminished enthusiasm w i l l  ultimately  Moreover, others cannot be r e a l i s t i c a l l y  involved  when plans are not kept on track. When curriculum development and implementation r e l y upon a committee of classroom teachers, reading and planning may not be done between meetings.  If p a r t i c i p a n t s are neither prepared in a r t nor knowledgeable  about art program development should not be a long process. Implementation  involves teaching teachers.  Evidence in the records  of t h i s study suggest that teachers need to be motivated and taught in a manner that i s s i m i l a r to that used in any teaching s i t u a t i o n of Inherent in t h i s teaching i s the need f o r success.  quality.  For program imple--  mentors, i n - s e r v i c e provides an opportunity to begin changing b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s and to develop the same knowledge and s k i l l s in teachers that the program requires of c h i l d r e n .  In-service makes teachers aware  of the program's potential and provides for curriculum  articulation.  However, the concept of i n - s e r v i c e i s not s o l e l y r e s t r i c t e d to workshops. In a broader d e f i n i t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e i s the education of the teacher while the teacher i s in s e r v i c e , and, as such, may involve answering a question over the telephone or v i s i t i n g with a teacher outside of school hours. These contacts provide opportunities that have tremendous value in r e solving concerns relevant to classroom p r a c t i c e and in providing encouragement.  The scope of i n - s e r v i c e education needs f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n .  In-service most frequently involves the use of professional days or s t a f f meetings.  But, professional days do not follow a long-range  plan and are frequently used toward the y e a r ' s end.  As a r e s u l t of  98  t h i s study observations noted that present practices do not consider d i s t r i c t curriculum implementation needs and do not coordinate i n d i v i d ual s c h o o l ' s i n - s e r v i c e plans. In-service involves contact time which i s e s s e n t i a l for communication.  effective  Teachers and p r i n c i p a l s need to know what the curriculum  i n v o l v e s , how i t a f f e c t s them, and how i t can improve what they are doing.  Because teachers and p r i n c i p a l s cannot be handed a guide and be ex-  pected to understand the program and use i t e f f e c t i v e l y ,  opportunities  for planning with and t r y i n g the program need to be provided. t i o n , the guide must be as s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y as p o s s i b l e .  In a d d i -  Even with a  s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y guide, personal contact provides the best guidance. When contact between those with expertise and teachers who are making an e f f o r t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t , processes may not be understood. students become confused and f r u s t r a t e d in t h e i r attempts.  Teachers and As a r e s u l t ,  when beginning, teachers need the guidance and approval of a coordinator/ team or a f e l l o w teacher with whom both problems and successes can be shared. problems.  Teachers want leadership and help with technical and planning Success creates continued i n t e r e s t .  Success c e r t a i n l y makes  a coordinator want to generate better r e s u l t s . This success requires that teachers use good q u a l i t y materials and have s u f f i c i e n t equipment in t h e i r c l a s s e s .  Teachers cannot be assumed  capable of 'making-do' with second-rate, homemade, home-found s u p p l i e s . Time that i s unnecessarily used in gathering t h i s type of material i s only followed with f r u s t r a t i o n  in both teachers and students as those  materials f a i l to adequately perform.  Teachers and students who expe-  rience t h i s kind of f a i l u r e and discouragement resent f u r t h e r i n v o l v e ment.  Even when i n i t i a l student/teacher success i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y high in q u a l i t y , encouragement for i t must be given because the success i s a s t a r t i n g point.  Teacher confidence and competence are a r e s u l t of par-  t i c i p a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n .  Opportunities to see and a c t u a l l y t r y the  a r t processes and projects provides teachers with a base to which content can be r e l a t e d , personal s k i l l s , an understanding of l i m i t a t i o n s and poss i b i l i t i e s , and strengthened chances for classroom success. content can lead to a r t i s t r y  S k i l l in  in teaching.  In t h i s study perseverence came to be seen as the obvious key to communication when t r y i n g to change teachers.  If f a m i l i a r with numer-  ous, previous and s u p e r f i c i a l l y implemented e f f o r t s , teachers need to be convinced that the new program i s determined and sincere in i t s  intent.  A program r e s u l t i n g from extensive teacher e f f o r t cannot be p r i n t e d , b r i e f l y introduced, and ignored.  Perseverence in exploring the broader  d e f i n i t i o n of i n - s e r v i c e encourages teacher e f f o r t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and sharing.  R i s k - t a k i n g with other teachers and sharing of successes and  f a i l u r e s between colleagues appears to provide mutual support.  Change  in i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l occur before groups are changed. Curriculum implementation i s an on-going a c t i v i t y .  Teachers are  h i r e d , more teachers see the need to be i n v o l v e d , and others have prev i o u s l y diverted a t t e n t i o n and energy a v a i l a b l e .  Teachers whose ener-  gies were drained by extra r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or a demanding class in one p a r t i c u l a r year need to be given opportunities to p a r t i c i p a t e in other years.  When implementation uses a curriculum that was designed to be  frequently reassessed and to involve teachers on a continuing b a s i s , change i s b u i l t into the program. If implementation i s viewed as a short-term process success may  100  not be given enough time to evolve.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , so that several  i n d i v i d u a l s can take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the program, takes time and perseverence.  Individual  teachers may need to be s p e c i f i c a l l y asked to par-  t i c i p a t e , given preparation time, and made to feel valued.  Although the  time that i s required for teachers and coordinators i s a c r i t i c a l  factor  in implementation success, breaking through an administrative b a r r i e r order to make contact with teachers i s more d e c i s i v e . volves b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , p r i o r i t i e s , and values.  in  This b a r r i e r i n -  Any attempt to im-  plement an a r t curriculum must consider these elements.  Some of these  a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s can only be accommodated. Recommendations Recommendations must consider conclusions in r e l a t i o n to the theore t i c a l and, at the same time, consider factors leading to present success and weakness.  When making recommendations, acknowledgement must be  given to the f a c t that we never know enough to p r e d i c t , only enough to suggest that new d i r e c t i o n s be followed or that present actions be maintained.  Recommendations, then, can only- be used as a guide for other  d i s t r i c t s and d i f f e r e n t times, as decisions must recognize other goals and people.  Nevertheless, future action depends upon what we have  learned from past experiences, and recommendations can a l e r t us to potent i a l p i t f a l l s and act as steppingstones to success.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s  f i e l d study, what can be abstracted? P r i o r to curriculum development those involved should understand and follow the l o c a l d i s t r i c t ' s p o l i c y regarding curriculum development. The project coordinator should obtain from the l o c a l curriculum advisory committee a w r i t t e n commitment for s e c r e t a r i a l help and release time needed in the curriculum's development.  Then, in developing a c u r r i c u -  101  lum, a group composed of volunteers must guide decisions by consensus. If capable teachers are to be involved they must be r e l i e v e d of classroom r e s p o n s i b i l i t y during the day or compensated for time used beyond t h e i r regular teaching assignment.  Rough drafts of some curriculum components  and a s e l e c t i o n of a p p l i c a b l e resources w i l l  provide d i r e c t i o n , save i n -  experienced committee members many hours of work, avoid f a t i g u e , and f a cilitate  discussion.  When a curriculum project i s presented to a d i s t r i c t ' s  curriculum  advisory committe and the l o c a l board of school t r u s t e e s , i t must be accompanied by a w r i t t e n implementation plan.  Such a plan should c l e a r l y  specify the a n t i c i p a t e d budget, a petty cash allotment, the amount of release time or method of providing compensation for the coordinator/ team and teachers, the assistance required f o r typing and copying, the authority/autonomy  of the coordinator/team, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the  i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d , the i n - s e r v i c e schedule, pivotal d e a d l i n e s , and the program's status in the d i s t r i c t .  Both the curriculum and the im-  plementation plan need to be approved.  Approving a curriculum while neg-  l e c t i n g to simultaneously approve an implementation plan w i l l create a s u p e r f i c i a l commitment, differences of o p i n i o n , broken promises, unclear d i r e c t i o n , and s h i f t in p r a c t i c e caused by the personal p r i o r i t i e s  of  senior administrators and p r i n c i p a l s . Personal p r i o r i t i e s  of senior administrators and p r i n c i p a l s must  not i n t e r f e r e with communication.  Because teachers i n t e r p r e t a c u r r i c u -  lum, they must be able to make i n t e l l i g e n t  choices about i t by having  a c l e a r understanding of the program's i n t e n t and content.  With t h i s  mind, a curriculum's coordinator must ensure that communication with teachers i s as d i r e c t as p o s s i b l e .  Every teacher must be informed by  in  102 r e c e i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l copies of any printed m a t e r i a l .  To t h i s end, p r i n -  c i p a l s must a c t u a l l y give teachers the information intended for them. Further, although p r i n c i p a l s and supervisors need to have t h e i r  position  respected, they must not act as unnecessary intermediaries between the project coordinator/team and the teachers.  Such action w i l l only delay  communication and the implementation process.  Personal v a l u e s , b e l i e f s ,  and p r i o r i t i e s must be superseded by professionalism so that the potent i a l of each subject area i s given a chance to be r e a l i z e d .  In t h i s  l i g h t , the supervisor of i n s t r u c t i o n must provide open, sustained supp o r t , r e l i a b l e f o l l o w - u p , and guidance that w i l l  f a c i l i t a t e the actions  of a coordinator/team. To permit d i r e c t communication some authority/autonomy must be g i ven to the coordinator of the program.  As w e l l , time during the day must  be provided for. the coordinator so that d a i l y assistance and encouragement, personal contact with teachers, and follow-up can be given.  Time  i s also required f o r reading, t h i n k i n g , planning, and organizing.  Teach-  ers must also be r e l i e v e d of classroom r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so that attendance at i n - s e r v i c e sessions i s p o s s i b l e .  If that i s not possible they  should be compensated for time spent beyond the regular school day. An expanded d e f i n i t i o n of i n - s e r v i c e needs to be explored. Regardless of the form that i n - s e r v i c e takes, both teachers and p r i n c i p a l s need to be p a r t i c i p a n t s .  If i n - s e r v i c e takes place outside school hours  then actual teacher commitments to attend should precede f i n a l  planning.  When personal contact i s used to provide i n - s e r v i c e education for a new curriculum, several c l o s e l y scheduled meetings should be arranged, because planning lessons with the guide in the f i r s t i n - s e r v i c e meeting is d i f f i c u l t .  The f i r s t session can provide an overview of the program,  reasons for i t s e x i s t e n c e , and the program's i n t e n t s .  This takes time,  and, by teacher request, the introduction i s usually accompanied with a ' p r a c t i c a l ' product-oriented workshop.  After teachers have had an  opportunity to consider what was o r i g i n a l l y discussed, a second i n - s e r v i c e meeting should involve a b r i e f review of the f i r s t meeting and an opportunity to plan a lesson or series of lessons.  Subsequent meetings  can then provide chances to explore the potential of the media and proj e c t s , to r e l a t e the media and projects to the content, and to develop s k i l l s and an understanding of the content. In-service can be extended beyond professional days by providing continuous a s s i s t a n c e .  Unfortunately, some d i s t r i c t s may have few or  no persons capable of providing t h i s leadership help.  However, i f  in-  d i v i d u a l s - the coordinator or a team - are a v a i l a b l e they must be provided with time or these i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l become exhausted, t h e i r continuing i n t e r e s t w i l l be f r a c t u r e d , and teacher use of the program w i l l not be f a c i l i t a t e d .  When implementation i s f i r s t attempted,  full-  time leadership could be i d e a l , but a f u l l - t i m e coordinator/team i s not n e c e s s a r i l y needed i f a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of time that i s free of c l a s s room planning and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s provided. In encouraging professional i n - s e r v i c e education, both p r i n c i p a l s and supervisors need to provide open and genuine support and show continued i n t e r e s t by f a c i l i t a t i n g  teacher requests f o r q u a l i t y s u p p l i e s ,  references, and audio-visual resources. f u l i n t h i s respect.  A district  l i b r a r y would be use  P a r t i c u l a r l y , p r i n c i p a l s must r e f e r teachers to  others when they, themselves, are unsure of what to do. School d i s t r i c t s attempting to implement curriculum projects must have a d i s t r i c t  l e v e l strategy that provides each curriculum implementa-  104  t i o n project with a block of time for intense and undiverted  attention  followed by less intense long-term a c t i v i t y that encourages s h a r i n g , experimentation, and r i s k - t a k i n g .  Although p a r t i c i p a t i o n should be v o l -  untary, a commitment on the part of teachers and schools should be encouraged.  A coordinated d i s t r i c t  i n d i v i d u a l schools to d i s t r i c t  plan should at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y  implementation commitments.  link  Additionally,  in planning professional days, schools need to share resource persons and programs. Workshops should be held e i t h e r in a classroom s p e c i f i c a l l y designed or modified for workshops and d i s t r i c t use o r , i f a p p l i c a b l e , i n the a r t room of the workshop leader.  The preparation and planning of workshops  requires a considerable amount of time, but when the transporation of equipment and supplies i s d i f f i c u l t and the actual l o c a t i o n i s p h y s i c a l l y inadequate, the i n - s e r v i c e session becomes less rewarding f o r everyone and impact i s l o s t . P r i o r to any implementation p r o j e c t , guides and materials need to be ready.  Teachers should be t o l d of the reasons that led to the change and  what the curriculum expects of them.  P r i n c i p a l s should encourage teach-  ers to use the curriculum and arrange for teachers to v i s i t other a r t classes. In c o n c l u s i o n , when an a r t curriculum i s o r i g i n a l l y created not a l l teachers w i l l  be involved in i t s development.  However, an art program  that expects continuing teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n through s h a r i n g , adaptation, and reassessment provides opportunities for teacher involvement, decision making, and commitment.  105 References Ben-Peretz, M. The concept of curriculum p o t e n t i a l . Curriculum Theory Network, 1975, 5_(1), 151-159. Brugelmann, H. Changes in a curriculum on the way from i t s quthor to the c h i l d : experiences from the analysis and t e s t i n g of four CIEL c u r r i c u l a . Western European Education, 1979, J J _ ( l - 2 ) , 98-115. Cay, D. F. Curriculum: design for l e a r n i n g . Indianapolis: H. W. Sams, 1966. D o l l , R. C. Curriculum improvement. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1978. Edwards, R., & Wright, W. J . Variables a f f e c t i n g the successful i n t r o duction of an innovative program in a e s t h e t i c s . Paper presented f o r the annual meeting of the American Psychological A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D . 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C : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966. Mackenzie, G. N. C u r r i c u l a r change: p a r t i c i p a n t s , power, and processes. In M. B. Miles ( E d . ) , Innovation in education. New York; Teachers College Press, 1964. Mahan, J . M . , & G i l l , F. J . How to get new programs into elementary schools ( V o l . 1). Englewood C l i f f s : Educational Technology P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972. Michael i s , J . U . , Grossman, R. H . , & S c o t t , L. F. New designs for e l e mentary curriculum and i n s t r u c t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. M i e l , A. Changing the curriculum. New York; Appleton-Century^Crofts, 1946,  106 M o f f i t , J . C. In-service education for teachers. Washington, D . C : Center f o r Applied Research in Education, 1963. Orlikow, L. Frustration and h o s t i l i t y - A teacher's view of school change. The Manitoba Teacher, May-June 1967, 46_, 26-28. R i c h e r t , R. Cooperative curriculum b u i l d i n g . Arbos, September-October 1966, 3, 18-20. Rogers, E. M. Diffusions of innovations. New York: The Free P r e s s , 1962. W i l e s , K. Contrasts in strategies of change. In R. R. Leeper ( E d . ) , Strategy f o r curriculum change. Washington, D . C : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1965.  107 Bibliography of uncited material Alexander, N. Simple weaving. New York: Taplinger, 1969. Anderson, W. H. Art learning s i t u a t i o n s for elementary education. Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth, 1965. B a l l , F. C , & Lovoos, J . Making pottery without a wheel. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1965. B r i d e , K. W. Time f o r change. Alberta Teachers' Association Magazine, 1967, 47, 17-21. C o l l i e r , G. Form, space, and v i s i o n (2nd e d . ) . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967. C o r n i a , I. E . , Stubbs, C . B . , & Winters, M. B. Art i s elementary. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. M i n i s t r y of Education, Science and Technology. Curriculum planning 1979. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. Davies, W. Three dimensional a c t i v i t i e s f o r the primary classroom. L o c a l l y printed manuscript. (Available from S.D. #11, Courtenay, 607 Cumberland Road, Courtenay, B . C . , V9N 7G5) Drake, K. Simple Pottery. New York: Watson-Gupti11, 1966. E f l a n d , A. Planning a r t education in the middle/secondary schools of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: State of Ohio Department of Education, 1977. Garner, B. S. Canada's Monsters. Hamilton: Potlatch P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1976. H a s t i e , R., & Schmidt, C. Encounter with a r t . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Haysom, J . T . , & Sutton, C. R. M o t i v a t i o n : a neglected component in models for curriculum improvement. Curriculum Theory Network, 1973-74, 4^1), 23-45. Hine, F. D., et a l . The aesthetic eye p r o j e c t . Final report. Washington, D . C : National Endowment of the Humanities, 1976. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 133 286) Hubbard, G . , & Rouse, M. J . A r t : choosing and expressing. Westchester, I l l i n o i s : B e n e f i c , 1977. Hunt Manufacturing Co. Speedball textbook (2nd e d . ) . C. Stoner & H. Frankenfield ( E d s . ) . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Author, 1972. Linderman, E. W., & Herberholz, D. W. Developing a r t i s t i c and perceptual awareness (2nd e d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1969. Linderman, M. M. Art in the elementary school (2nd e d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa:  108 Wm. C. Brown, 1979. Mort, P. R. Studies in educational innovation from the I n s t i t u t e of Adminstrative Research: an overview. In M. B. Miles ( E d . ) , Innovation in Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 1964. 0'Hani on, J . Three models for the curriculum development process. Curriculum Theory Network, 1973-74, 4 ( 1 ) , 64-71. Ryburn, W. M . , & Forge, K. B. P r i n c i p l e s of teaching. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948. Sayegh, A. Ingredients for successful a r t programs. Educational Leaders h i p , 1981, 38(7), pp. 581; 588. S c h u l t z , L. T. Colorado: studio a r t . 1976, 55(3), 74-76.  National Elementary P r i n c i p a l ,  Sevigny, M. J . Triangulated i n q u i r y : an a l t e r n a t i v e methodology f o r the study of classroom l i f e . Review of Research in Visual Arts Education, 1978, 8, 1-16. Simmons, R. Printmaking step-by-step. Don M i l l s , Ont.: C o l l i e r Macmillan, 1977. Smith, E. W., & Krouse, S. W., J r . The educator's encyclopedia. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1961. Stake, R. Evaluating the arts in education: a responsive approach. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l , 1975. Tri-County Goal Development Project Multnomah County Intermediate Educat i o n D i s t r i c t . Course goals in a r t , K-12. P o r t l a n d , O r e . : Commercial Educational D i s t r i b u t i n g S e r v i c e s , 1974. Wachowiak, F . , & Hodge, D. Art in depth. Scranton, Penn.: International Textbook, 1970. Wachowiak, F . , & Ramsay, T. Emphasis a r t . Scranton, Penn.: International Textbook, 1965. Werner, W., & A o k i , T. Programs for people. Book in preparation, 1979. Wolf, T. H . , & S e i d l e r , N. The magic of c o l o r . New York: Odyssey, 1964.  APPENDIX A A core sequential a r t  program  no  A CORE SEQUENTIAL ART PROGRAM This guide to intermediate grade art i s in two parts - a bookl e t that should help in planning art experiences and a booklet with suggestions for a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s , and s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . This project began in January, 1981, when a l l interested teachers of the d i s t r i c t were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in planning a sequential core art curriculum. What you have could be considered a f i r s t d r a f t , as i t i s expected that i t w i l l be continuously adjusted and expanded. A l l suggestions and contributions to t h i s end are requested. It i s hoped that t h i s guide w i l l be helpful to you, and that i t w i l l not be seen as another burden. With t h i s in mind brevity has guided i t s planning. If further c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed, feel free to ask.  Ill  ^IHTICSIIS <£S-TO"IIXn>XE A.  PLANNING ART EXPERIENCES  Selected from Planning School* oh Ohio. B.  A/it Education In the.  filddlz/Secondany  T H I S SEQUENTIAL CORE ART PROGRAM  1. Four Areas to Explore 2. The Structure - Using i t to Plan a Lesson C.  MEDIA IN THE AREAS OF:  1. Drawing 2. Painting 3. Printmaking 4. Clay D.  STARTING POINTS  1. Motivational approaches 2. Idea builders 3. Subjects, Themes and Projects E.  VOCABULARY  F.  CONCEPTS AND MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS - WHAT TO TEACH  G.  CHECKPOINTS  H.  REFERENCE BOOKS  I.  GLOSSARY  J.  A HANDBOOK OF A : T I V I T I E S , PROJECTS, AND STARTING POINTS  112  In  perspective:  Planning Art Education in the Middle/Secondary Schools of Ohio, r e l a t e s the aims and goals of art education to the aims of general education. In a d d i t i o n , the charts on pages 7,43, and 60 place the present focus of our own curriculum - personal development through expression - into perspect i v e by i l l u s t r a t i n g i t as part of a more comprehensive program. Other aspects of t h i s larger program should eventually become part of our own programs. Further, the charts l o g i c a l l y expand the aims and goals into possible general a c t i v i t i e s . Copies of t h i s guide are a v a i l a b l e for l o a n .  113  Four areas have been chosen as the basis for t h i s core a r t program for the intermediate grades.  They i n c l u d e : drav/ing painting printmaking clay.  If each of these i s presented for three to four weeks (6 to 8 lessons) every year from grades 4 through 7, a sequential  art  program can be p o s s i b l e . Such a program provides a sequence of common and valuable experiences without r e s t r i c t i n g any teacher from developing other a r t experiences. For many students grade 7 is t h e i r l a s t contact with a r t . a r e s u l t , t h e i r a r t education terminates with t h i s year.  As  By the  time these youngsters leave elementary school we should be able to say with confidence that they have some understanding as to what a r t and a r t i s t s are about, and that they have had opportunities  to  explore basic a r t media. Although projects and media from an e a r l i e r grade(s) may be repeated, i t  i s hoped that those for a l a t e r grade(s) would be a -  voided so that youngsters have something special to a n t i c i p a t e each year.  114  To date, t h i s core a r t program f o r the intermediate grades has focused on f o s t e r i n g personal development through expression. In doing so: a) media, concepts, major understandings, and vocabulary have been assigned to s p e c i f i c grades, b) s u b j e c t s , themes, and motivational approaches have been suggested, but, as with p r o j e c t s , they have been l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the teacher, keeping i n mind the  interests  of the c h i l d r e n , c) s k i l l s have not been i d e n t i f i e d , because i t i s assumed that they w i l l grow n a t u r a l l y out of successful work with media and p r o j e c t s , d) materials have not been l i s t e d , because such l i s t s w i l l depend upon the projects chosen by the teacher, e) checkpoints have been provided as a guide in ensuring a balanced a r t program, f ) a c t i v i t i e s , p r o j e c t s , and s t a r t i n g points are o u t l i n e d and numbered in the accompanying handbook and are c o r r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c media, concepts, and major understandings.  PLANNING LESSONS WITH THIS GUIDE: 1, SELECT ONE OF THE MEDIA THAT IS ASSIGNED TO YOUR GRADE FOR YOUR CURRENT UNIT OF DRAWING, PAINTING, OR PRINTMAKING: 2, CHOOSE A CONTENT EMPHASIS: SUBJECT OR THEME - OF INTEREST TO YOUR STUDENTS - ENSURE A BALANCE AMONG OBSERVATION, IMAGINATION, AND MEMORY MEDIUM PRODUCT FUNCTION DESIGN STYLE 3,  CONSIDER SUGGESTIONS IN THE HANDBOOK OF ACTIVITIES:  4, DECIDE UPON APPROPRIATE CONCEPTS AND MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS: 5, REVIEW THE VOCABULARY AND SELECT A MANAGEABLE LIST: 6, DECIDE UPON A MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH: 7, REVIEW THE CHECKPOINTS: 8, GATHER THE SUPPLIES AND TACKLE THE PROJECT.  PLANNING CLAY LESSONS WITH THIS GUIDE: 1, SELECT ONE OF THE PROJECTS THAT IS ASSIGNED TO YOUR GRADE: 2, FOR MODELLING CHOOSE A SUBJECT OR THEME, FOR FUNCTIONAL, DESIGN, AND PRODUCT PROJECTS PREPARE TO DEMONSTRATE, SHOW AN EXAMPLE, AND SUGGEST POSSIBLE USES^ EXPLORING THE MEDIUM IS AN EXCELLENT WAY TO START WHEN STUDENTS HAVE LITTLE EXPERIENCE: 3,  TO 8:  As ABOVE:  9, CHECK THAT YOUR SINK ( I F YOU'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO HAVE ONE!) HAS A TRAP, OR PROVIDE SEVERAL BUCKETS.  Lesson Planning CORE  AREA  MEDIUM I  SUBJECT  I  THEME  CONCEPTS  VOCABULARY  MOTIVATION  CHECKPOINTS GATHER  SUPPLIES  117  Lesson Planning CORE  AREA  MEDIUM  Drawing 4 Indian ink I nib see:100,103  SUBJECT  I THEME  Weeds, thistles, branches,  CONCEPTS  Each  berries  medium  has  characteristics  unique  and  possibilities. Lines can Contour and  show  direction.  lines show shapes.  see: 103, 106 VOCABULARY  Line Sketch Indian ink Converging Overlapping  MOTIVATION  GATHER  SUPPLIES  lines  Still life New  CHECKPOINTS  lines  materials I tools  edges  118  DRAWN IG  CORE  •  ENRICHMENT  DRAWING - primary or HB 100 CRAYON 105 INDIAN INK AND NIB 110 BALL POINT PEN IIS  ink and twigs paint and brush  Ul  OIL PASTEL PAINT AND BRUSH PENCIL CRAYONS INDIAN INK AND STICKS OR TWIGS  felt pens 2-B pencil  14b  PAINT AND RAGS 2-B PENCIL DRAWING CHALK FELT PEN  OIL PASTEL CHARCOAL CHARCOAL PENCIL LETTERING PENS INK AND BRUSH OR PAINT AND BRUSH  l-as ISO  135 IWO  ISO 155  lloO  i¥5  4-B pencil string  no  conte crayon scratchboard 4-B pencil  195 l9(,  171  llo5  ns l*>  181 185  190  197  PAINTING CORE  ENRICHMENT  TEMPERA PAINT FINGER PAINT  Zoo X05  marbling  TEMPERA PAINT CRAYON/PASTEL RESIST  ZZ5 X30  spot  TEMPERA/INDIAN  XSV  tissue  275  watercolour a c r y l i c paint crepe paper dye  INK  TEMPERA/dry brush or POWDER PAINT  painting  paper  215  XI0  X<?0 X<?/ xqx  PRINTMAKING CORE  ENRICHMENT  VEGETABLE PRINTS FOUND OBJECT PRINTS STYROFOAM BLOCK  CRUSHED PAPER PRINTS STRING BLOCK  CUT CARD BLOCK  3oo 3oS  310  3zs 330  350 351  "7t  TAG STENCIL  •37fe;377  SILK SCREENING  monoprints leaves  315 3dO  320 3xi  monoprints sandpaper p r i n t s  cut f e l t block c u t inner tube block (rubber b l o c k ) engraving on p l a s t i c  312.  1inoleum block aluminum block  395  310 311  CLAY CORE  PINCH POT DRAPE DISH OVER A HUMP MOULD  MODELLING COIL POT  PINCH POT MODELLING COIL CONSTRUCTION - f r e e standing GLAZING  SLAB CONSTRUCTION COIL CONSTRUCTION on p l a s t e r mould GLAZING  ENRICHMENT  ¥oo/¥oi ¥05  ¥0<0  ¥zS ¥30  ¥50 ¥55 ¥bO  ¥7S ¥gO ¥XO  glazing model 1ing  glazing mosaics c u t c l a y shapes  double pinch pot mosaics  model 1ing cut c l a y shapes glazed t i l e s double pinch pot pinch and c o i l in combination drape on a card tube  ¥10 HT-I  ¥w  ¥i>5 ' ¥%l  ¥95 ¥¥b We •4<o5  ¥<rr ¥9?  The time spent i n g e t t i n g the a r t l e s s o n s t a r t e d i s c r i t i c a l to the success of the p r o j e c t . The m o t i v a t i o n should be l i v e l y , i n t e r e s t i n g , and thorough. As w e l l , i t should p r o vide each y o u n g s t e r with a r i c h background of knowledge and ideas. Work on the p r o j e c t can begin when the youngsters are i n t e r e s t e d , eager to s t a r t , and c o n f i d e n t t h a t they can s u c c e s s f u l l y c r e a t e something. There are many r e s o u r c e s t h a t can be used i n b u i l d ing a background o f knowledge, i n g e n e r a t i n g i d e a s , and i n developing enthusiasm. 1. 2. 3. •4. 5. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17., 18. 19. -20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.  read a s t o r y s t a r t a s t o r y and have i t f i n i s h e d as a p i c t u r e work from a t i t l e a poem a play s t a r t with c r e a t i v e drama a taped s t o r y taped sounds music radio television a movie/film slides a filmstrip t o p i c a l p i c t u r e s ( b u l l e t i n board d i s p l a y ) an outdoor s k e t c h i n g t r i p o b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a hobby c o l l e c t i o n microscopes/magnifiying glasses s t i l l l i f e - i n d i v i d u a l / g r o u p / c l a s s arrangement d e s c r i b e a hidden p a i n t i n g a study of r e p r o d u c t i o n s examples of o t h e r s t u d e n t s ' work a field trip a recalled experience/person/event/thing v i s i t by a s p e c i a l person/posed people pets brought to c l a s s mounted animals a new p r o c e s s / m a t e r i a l s / t o o l s i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new d e s i g n element or c o m p o s i t i o n principle 31. a d i s c u s s i o n - perhaps developed on the blackboard 0  125  TTTTOJEJ^y  IBTEJIEILiID>IEai  PEOPLE:  ANIMALS:  Mom and Dad Grandma and Grandpa friends a special friend my f a m i l y - b r o t h e r s / s i s t e r s myself  (at  people i n a crowd t r a i n engineer sky d i v e r scuba d i v e r ambulance d r i v e r artist musician rock group pilot dancer o l d person doctor clown i n a c i r c u s acrobat a giant portraits:  from a model from memory (Mom) self-portrait (mirror) a friend what I look l i k e when t h i n k i n g dressed up f o r Hallowe'en my t e a c h e r someone s p e c i a l my pet and me  home or i n t h e i r  habitat)  pets:  cats dogs rabbits birds farm animals j u n g l e animals w i l d animals (zoo) animals t h a t stampede f i s h i n the sea f i s h in our aquarium b i r d s - w i l d or caged s p i d e r s and t h e i r webs a bug's eye view ( b i r d ' s eye) (worm's eye) bugs and i n s e c t s - a very f u z z y one or a very long one a f a v o r i t e animal monsters dragons mythical c r e a t u r e s whales/dolphins endangered animals abominable snowman bigfoot t h i n g s t h a t c a n : crawl swim slide jump imaginary animals t h a t can do s p e c i a l t h i n g s or t h a t l i v e i n strange places  EVENTS: the  hunt  the f i s h i n g t r i p a rescue an a c c i d e n t a stampede a fight a b a l l game a hockey game a disaster a parade a r e c a l l e d experience - a memory of summer the f l o o d our t r a i n t r i p the race the t r a c k meet the Christmas c o n c e r t the parade a battle a shipwreck fun i n the snow a tremendous storm tobogganing/ski ing/sledding  PLACES AND FIELD TRIPS: the playground the swimming pool the lake the c o t t a g e (summer c a b i n ) the farm " our t r e e f o r t our snow f o r t a greenhouse grandpa's basement (shed) church where Mom/Dad works a construction s i t e the museum an h i s t o r i c a l s i t e a ghost town a haunted house ( o l d house) the graveyard the h o s p i t a l a cave a haunted (creepy) lane 'docks/wharves my room a room I l i k e (a p l a c e I l i k e ) a canyon a good p l a c e to f i s h a good p l a c e to swim a mountain a view from a mountain a bridge a tunnel the t r a i n s t a t i o n the a i r p o r t undersea o u t e r space an imaginary world the c i r c u s the c a r races the i c e c a r n i v a l our s c o u t / g u i d e camping t r i p the zoo the f o r e s t (a view through the t r e e s ) a r c t i c scene (cool c o l o u r s )  127  THEMES:  THINGS:  trains airplanes kites boats/ships b i c y c l e races sports/games musical instruments winter snow flowers/gardens dreams w i s h e s / a wish come t r u e space/space ships carnival/circus fall fair transportation t r a n s p o r t a t i o n over the y e a r s p r i m i t i v e masks fishing fish water s p o r t s old things pollution a view through a window a game I enjoy hats seasons d i s a s t e r s - earthquakes (colours) volcanoes (sounds) typhoons (smells) hurricanes floods fires weather - wind rain snow hail sun thunder  Anything and e v e r y t h i n g from t h e i r l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e s . flowers weeds thistles dandelions blackberries branches f r u i t and vegetables (cross-section) sea forms fish birds/nests o l d houses faces hands machinery baskets grasses trees mosses fungi bicycles o l d c l o c k s and watches motorcycle insects leaves shells textured things small p l a n t forms  128  OBSERVATION Pencil  HB-2B-6B  Pencil  crayon  Charcoal  pencil  Felt  pens  Ball  point  pen  Wax crayons Z  Oil  <  pastel  Conte  Q  Drawing  chalk  Charcoal Paint Indian  ink-nib  -lettering  nib  -twig  Tempera Powder  paint  Watercolour Finger  paint  PAINTING  Aery 1 i c Tempera/Ink Spot  painting  Resi s t s Marbling Tissue  paper  Crepe paper dye  IMAGINATION  MEMORY  OBSERVATION  IMAGINATION  MEMORY  Rubbing Monoprint Leaves Vegetables Found o b j e c t s Crushed paper Styrofoam  PRINTMAKING /  GRAPHICS  String Cardboard Rubber Linoleum Cut  Felt  Sandpaper 1i tho Aluminum Stenci1 Silk  screen  Plastic  -  130  Collage -  cloth  .  paper  Chalk Crayon Paint  Ball  - brush -  fingers  -  Q-tips  noint  pen  F e l t pens Indian  ink  Mosaics Murals Felt hO  Oi1  pastel  Penci1 Scratchboard Rubbings Cut paper Paper t e a r i n g Votive  board  T i s s u e paper Transparencies Photomontage Encaustic Monoprints Styrofoam p r i n t Card block  FUNCTIONAL PINCH single double HOLLOW CARVED DRAPE - FORM/MOLD boulder hump c l a y hump. p l a s t e r hump cardboard tube newspaper sag mold vermiculite  COIL free  standing  inside  form  outside  form  SLAB free  standina  shaoed card cut card form Animal Figure/Bust Mask Mosaics Tiles Cut c l a y shapes  form  MODELLED  PURE DESIGN  DRAWING  m  n>>  PAINTING  1 ine sketch cartoon contour 1ine gum e r a s e r converging l i n e s overlapping l i n e s shape i n d i a n ink texture portrait  primary c o l o u r s warm c o l o u r s cool c o l o u r s tone (value) intensity palette wash powder p a i n t tempera p a i n t  mass drawing g e s t u r e drawing landscape still life calligraphic line continuous l i n e hatching cross-hatching stippling p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e space(shape) o p e n / c l o s e d space(shapes) pastels  c o l o u r wheel primary/secondary colours tints/shades opaque/transparent p o i n t i 1 1 ism texture foreground middleground background resist  wash drawing l i n e a r composition calligraphic/contour lines focal point perspective proportion g e o m e t r i c / f r e e shapes 2-B p e n c i l drawing chalk  primary/secondary/intermediate (or t e r t i a r y ) c o l o u r s neutral colours refraction/prism spectrum matte mat board c a n v a s / s o l v e n t / o i l paints  horizon l i n e vanishing point f o r e - s h o r t e n i ng contour/cal1igraphic/tonal 1 ines ground charcoal stump kneaded e r a s e r 4-B p e n c i l charcoal pencil scratchboard  hue value/intensity monochromatic/analogous/ complementary c o l o u r s hard edge scumble fresco a c r y l i c paints opaque/transparent/trans lucent  133  PRINTMAKING  brayer printing ink/inking slab p r i n t i n g block or p l a t e r e l i e f block found o b j e c t s monoprint styrofoam incising/engraving designs/patterns  wedging/kneading greenware bi squeware kiln/firebrick pottery pinch pot branch pot texture model 1 i n g / s c u l p t i n g / c a r v i ng glaze firing  rubbings s t r i n g block overprint/underprint 1 ithograph  model 1 i n g / s c u l p t i n g / c a r v i n g relief c o i l pot coi 1 s welding si i p scoring/slipping ki1n/cone p l a s t e r bat l e a t h e r hard glazeware  r e l i e f block cardboard b l o c k o v e r p r i n t / u n d e r p r i nt wood block x-acto knife engraving  slab p o t / s l a b construction ki1n/pyrometer stilts ki 1n f u r n i t u r e ceramics p o t t e r ' s wheel/throwing a pot  s t e n c i l / s t e n c i l brush s i l k screen p r i n t i n g (serigraphy) graphics squeegee l i n o l e u m block aluminum block etching silhouette cal1igraphy/lettering  mass/form mould p l a s t e r of P a r i s throwing a p o t / g r o g k i l n / k i l n wash earthenware/stoneware/ porcelain terra-cotta engobe foot  SB  cm  CLAY  134  The concepts and major understandings found on the f o l l o w i n g are  intended to guide the teacher  in t h i s  sequential  core art  in i d e n t i f y i n g  program.  If  pages  what should be taught  students begin t h i s  program in  grade 4 and c o n t i n u e through grade 7 , we should be a b l e to say a t end o f grade 7 t h a t the youngsters have been exposed to a l l and have had o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to use many of them in c r e a t i n g  of the  ideas  artwork.  In most i n s t a n c e s the concepts and major understandings w i l l c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l e s s o n s or d i s c u s s e d when i n d i v i d u a l  the  be i n -  c h i l d r e n need d i -  rection. If  the students you teach have not had experiences with the  l i s t e d f o r the p r e v i o u s g r a d e ( s ) ,  you w i l l  ideas  need to cover some of those  ideas before t e a c h i n g the ones f o r your own grade. Review and c o n t i n u i n g d i s c u s s i o n of much of the v o c a b u l a r y and many of the concepts and major i s encouraged a n d , i n f a c t ,  understandings taught in e a r l i e r  unavoidable in many s i t u a t i o n s .  grades  135  ORGANIZATIONAL CONCEPTS DRAWING * PAINTING * PERSPECTIVE * TREATMENT OF SUBJECT* DESIGN ELEMENTS LINE * SHAPE/SPACE/FORM * TEXTURE * TONE COLOUR * C0MP0SITI0N*/UNITY THROUGH INTERACTION MAJOR PRINCIPLES BALANCE EMPHASIS PROPORTION REPETITION RHYTHM MINOR PRINCIPLES ALTERNATION CONTRAST RADIATION SEQUENCE SYMMETRY PARALLELISM TRANSITION  None of these elements can be considered alone, as they work together. For example, when a l i n e curves around u n t i l almost closed i t creates a shape. When several l i n e s are drawn para l l e l to one another (hatching) they begin to create texture. These concepts can help us discuss complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s more e a s i l y . We j u s t need to remember that in a r t - in our case c h i l d r e n ' s art - the product and process are complex, and a l ways changing and i n t e r a c t ing. The elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design are used as guidelines for arranging space. Those concepts followed by an a s t e r i s k have been used to head the following pages. Some of the others w i l l be found within those pages. A l l of them have been presented as a means of providing a perspective.  136  LINE and SHAPE  Lines show d i r e c t i o n :  curved di agonal hori zontal vertical. Shape occupies a two-dimensional area and i s d e f i n e d by an o u t l i n e . Contour l i n e s show the edges and shapes of o b j e c t s .  Line q u a l i t i e s  -•  include: light/dark, blurred/exact, thick/thin, static/dynamic, straight/curved, b r o k e n / c o n t i nuous. Shapes may be p o s i t i v e or negative ( i e . o b j e c t i s p o s i t i v e , w h i l e the area around i t i s n e g a t i v e ) . Hatching and c r o s s - h a t c h i n g can be used to c r e a t e tone and t e x t u r e .  103 320  Line c a n : c r e a t e t e x t u r e d e f i n e space (shapes) indicate direction suggest movement record a c t i o n . Line communicates: emotion sensation ideas. Shape can be: geometric undefined ( f r e e or amorphous).  "7t  326  300  176  Line can move i n two ways: ( a . ) mechanical ( i e . only an o u t l i n e ; not t h i c k or t h i n ) , (b.) spontaneous ( i e . an i n f i n i t e l i n e ; a l i n e of movement).  t  0  137  SPACE and FORM  Two-dimensional space has width and height covers an area or s u r f a c e ) .  (ie.  it  Open space in a r t i s l i m i t l e s s . Closed space i s l i m i t e d ( i e . shapes are made by c l o s i n g space and forms are made by f i l l i n g space). B a s i c geometric forms i n c l u d e : cube sphere pyramid c y l i nder cone.  Form d e f i n e s t h r e - d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . Form can be: geometric undefined ( f r e e or amorphous). Form is a mass and had volume. I l l u s i o n o f mass can be c r e a t e d on a two-dimensional surface.  138  DRAWING  Drawing i s a v i s u a l response recorded on a s u r f a c e with a graphic medium. Every medium has unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and p o s s i -  bilities. Drawing can be used f o r :  106  communication decoration self-expression. Drawings can be done on a v a r i e t y of s u r f a c e s . Drawing can be used to e n r i c h l e i s u r e t i m e .  Gesture drawing can be used to show the p o s i t i o n , movement, and f e e l i n g s o f a p e r s o n . Drawing technique depends upon: understanding the medium c o n t r o l of l i n e q u a l i t y use o f : 1 i g h t shadow texture.  -  Drawing can be used f o r :  illustrating composing a p i c t u r e drawing from: memory imagi nation observation e x p r e s s i n g an understanding of the environment.  Drawing technique depends upon: s k i l l e d use of p e r spective techniques. Anatomical p r i n c i p l e s are u s e f u l i n f i g u r e drawing. They i n c l u d e : p r o p o r t i o n musculature foreshortening skeletal structure.  104  TEXTURE  Texture i s the s u r f a c e q u a l i t y of anything touched and/ or seen ( v i s u a l / t a c t i l e ) . Visual  t e x t u r e i s an i l l u s i o n .  Texture a. b. c. d.  ) ) ) )  can be developed w i t h : l i n e through hatching or c r o s s - h a t c h i n g shape ( i e . numerous small shapes) form ( i e . bumps on c l a y ) c o l o u r ( i e . c o l o u r s dry brushed i n l a y e r s or a rubber cement r e s i s t ) e. ) s t i p p l i n g f . ) media and paper ( s u r f a c e worked on) ( i e . rubbing) .  Texture  "7t  can be developed by u s i n g :  highlights shadows.  301  245 345 245  140  PERSPECTIVE  *7f  Perspective  i s achieved through:  overlapping.  105  Perspective  i s achieved through:  p o s i t i o n in the composition.  126  Perspective  i s achieved  through:  Perspective  i s achieved through:  use of  detail.  colour foreshortening 1ight and shadow one-point perspective two-point p e r s p e c t i v e . A e r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s based on the idea that o b j e c t s u s u a l l y appear b l u e r , g r e y e r , and l i g h t e r as they get f u r t h e r away. Three-dimensional q u a l i t i e s can be c r e a t e d by using h i g h l i g h t s and shadows.  126  141  PAINTING  P a i n t i n g can be used f o r :  communication decoration self-expression • colour experimentation. Drawing techniques are necessary i n p a i n t i n g .  Painting  can have: sensory emotional psychological  effects.  142  • COLOUR  The primary c o l o u r s are r e d , y e l l o w , and b l u e . Value (tone) i s the l i g h t n e s s or darkness of a c o l o u r . Colours can be considered to be warm or c o o l .  Colours can be c l a s s i f i e d as primary and secondary. The primary c o l o u r s are r e d , y e l l o w , and b l u e . The primary c o l o u r s are used to make the secondary col o u r s . The secondary c o l o u r s are orange, g r e e n , and v i o l e t . T i n t s are l i g h t e r values of a c o l o u r made by adding whi t e . Shades are darker values of a c o l o u r made by adding black.  >  245 ,  Colour can be c l a s s i f i e d as p r i m a r y , secondary, i n t e r m e d i a t e ( t e r t i a r y ) , and neutral ( b l a c k , w h i t e , and g r e y ) . The primary c o l o u r s are used to make a l l secondary and i n t e r m e d i a t e ( t e r t i a r y ) c o l o u r s . Intermediate c o l o u r s are combinations of primary and secondary c o l o u r s ( i e . r e d - o r a n g e , blue-green). R e f r a c t i o n occurs when l i g h t passes through a prism and separates i n t o c o l o u r s of the spectrum. White l i g h t i s made up of the wave lengths of every c o l o u r of the spectrum, (above two - s c i e n c e core) Colour has value and i n t e n s i t y . Hue i s the name f o r a c o l o u r or n o n - c o l o u r ( b l a c k / w h i t e ) in the c o l o u r spectrum. B r i g h t c o l o u r s appear to advance and d u l l c o l o u r s appear to r e c e d e . A monochromatic c o l o u r scheme c o n s i s t s of gradations of one c o l o u r - t i n t s and shades. An analogous c o l o u r scheme c o n s i s t s of three to seven a d j a c e n t c o l o u r s on the c o l o u r wheel. A complementary c o l o u r scheme c o n s i s t s of two c o l o u r s d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e one another on the c o l o u r wheel.  470 275 275  143  COMPOSITION  -  Space i s a r r a n g e d : f o r m a l l y (symmetrically) informally (asymmetrically). Symmetry provides a design with a sense of s t a b i l i t y or b a l a n c e .  230  R e a l i s t i c forms l o c a t e d i n the lower h a l f of a p i c t u r e appear s l i g h t l y h e a v i e r and nearer to the viewer than when placed i n the upper h a l f of a p i c t u r e . I n t e r e s t can be c r e a t e d through v a r i e t y by c o n t r a s t w i t h : dark to l i g h t „ strength against d e l i c a c y line quality s m a l l , medium, l a r g e shapes ( r e l a t i v e s i z e s ) complex areas opposed to simple areas broken edges ( l i n e s ) t h a t allow the eye to complete the edge ( l i n e ) .  470  When a shadow i s drawn or painted detached from an o b j e c t , the o b j e c t appears to be suspended.  270 351  TREATMENT OF SUBJECT  Composition forms i n c l u d e :  still-life f i g u r e study i n t e r i o r scenes e x t e r i o r scenes ( l a n d s c a p e ) . S t i l l - l i f e compositions i n c l u d e n o n - l i v i n g o b j e c t s . Figure compositions are dominated by l i v i n g s u b j e c t s .  Treatment of s u b j e c t r e f e r s to the ways images and ideas are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o v i s u a l work ( i e . r e a l i s t i c , abstract, s u r r e a l i s t i c , non-objective). R e a l i s t i c compositions are exact l i t e r a l interpretat i o n s of the s u b j e c t (exact c o l o u r , d e t a i l , form, proportion). A b s t r a c t a r t does not have a l i f e - l i k e exactness and has a s u b j e c t which has been: a) s i m p l i f i e d , b) d i s t o r t e d , c) e x a g g e r a t e d , or d) r e p e a t e d . S u r r e a l i s t i c a r t i s created from the subconscious or a fantasy. N o n - o b j e c t i v e a r t does not r e f e r to m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s .  127  125 345  275  190  TEACHER  DIMENSION 2-D  plan/organize  3-D  motivate gu i de  IDEA SOURCE  evaluate  observation  display  imagination memory  PAPER TYPES blotter  PROJECT TIME s h o r t term 1-2  da.  long term  wk.  2-4  bristol  board  cartridoe eellophane  PROJECT SIZE  construction  small  6x6/3x12  large  18x24/24x36  drug bond finger  paint  foil  PAPER SHAPE rectangle  kraft/butcher  square  maniila  circle  newsprint  strip  pulpboard  polygon  si 1ver/gold  mural  sugar grey tag - c o l o u r e d  STUDENTS tag -  manilla  individual tissue class/group tracing PERIOD 2-60  min./week  •  watercolour  Wachowiak, F . , & Ramsay, T . Emphasis: A r t , b c r a n t o n , s y l v a n i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Textbook, 1965. Wachowiak, F . , & Hodge, D. A r t i n d e p t h , v a n i a : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Textbook, 1965.  A l e x a n d e r , M. Simple weaving.  bcranton,  New York: T a p l i n g e r ,  Penn-  Pennsyl  1969.  B a l l , F . C . , & L o v o o s , J . Making p o t t e r y without a wheel. New York: Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d , 1965. H e r b e r h o l z , D . , & H e r b e r h o l z , B. A c h i l d ' s p u r s u i t Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C . Brown, 1969.  of  art.  Linderman, E.W. I n v i t a t i o n to v i s i o n . Dubuque, Wm. C . Brown, 1967.  Iowa:  Lindermann, M-.M. A r t in the elementary Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1974.  Dubuque,  school.  147  Rather than c r e a t e a g l o s s a r y i t was decided to r e f e r teachers to g l o s s a r i e s i n the support t e x t s : Emphasis A r t Art i n Depth  ACTIVITIES PROJECTS STARTING POINTS  149  THE  ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS AND STARTING POINTS OUTLINED IN THIS  HANDBOOK ARE CATEGORIZED A S : MOTIVATIONAL  .  STARTING POINTS  1 -  DRAWING  100  PAINTING  200  PRINTMAKING  300  CLAY  400  **************************** PICTURE MAKING POSTER MAKING /  500 LETTERING  600  RELIEF PROJECTS  700  CARVING / MODELLING /  800  CONSTRUCTING WEAVING /  STITCHERY  900  CRAFTS MOBILES /  1000 STABILES  1100  DIORAMAS  FREQUENT REFERENCES ARE MADE TO  EmphtxAii  1200  KnX.  THESE ARE HIGHLY RECOMMENDED AS SOURCE BOOKS.  and M X  In  Vzpth.  99  150  It w i l l be possible to add further sheets numerically i f t h i s handbook i s kept i n a binder. General information pages GI may be grouped at the very end or placed i n d i v i d u a l l y . The numbering system described on the previous page has been subdivided f u r t h e r . In each area suggestions are grouped so that each grade can have up to twenty-five related p r o j e c t s , a c t i v i t i e s , or s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . A c t i v i t i e s ending in these numbers are matched to these s p e c i f i c grades: grade grade grade grade  4 5 6 7  0-24 25-49 50-74 75-98  Those numbers ending i n 99 have been assigned to general i n f o r mation pages and are for teachers of a l l grades. (As a r e s u l t , grade 7 has only twenty-four p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ) In t h i s way, for example, sheet 143 refers to drawing (100) in grade f i v e (43). Number 475 refers to clay (400) i n grade seven (75).  A l l of our i n d i v i d u a l programs w i l l be improved and the usefulness of t h i s curriculum w i l l be increased i f we share own own ideas and those we have seen. The next few pages, t i t l e d A c t i v i t i e s , P r o j e c t s , S t a r t i n g P o i n t s , are one facet of the IDEA NETWORK. They may prove useful in outl i n i n g ideas that are to be shared. When submitted, ideas w i l l be assigned a number. This number may r e l a t e the outlined suggestion to the core areas and concepts. Your a c t i v i t y , p r o j e c t , or s t a r t i n g point w i l l then be typed, c o p i e d , c r e d i t ed to you, and d i s t r i b u t e d to other teachers.  SPECIAL NOTE: One of the intents of t h i s handbook has been to improve the q u a l i t y of a r t programs through sharing among teachers. Unfortunately, many publ i s h e d ideas from p e r i o d i c a l s , t e x t s , and so on are not a v a i l a b l e in quant i t i e s that can be shared among a l l of a d i s t r i c t ' s teachers. As a r e s u l t , we have found i t useful to reproduce many items for which we cannot claim credit. In t h i s e d i t i o n , these a r t i c l e s have been omitted.  ACTIVITIES, SEQUENTIAL  PROJECTS, CORE  STARTING POINTS ART PROGRAM  PLEASE CONSIDER SHARING IDEAS THAT YOU HAVE FOUND USEFUL YOUR OWN ART CLASSES.  IN  EITHER ATTACH A MASTER THAT CAN BE USED FOR COPYING OR OUTLINE YOUR IDEAS HERE. AREA OF  GRADE  MEDIUM RELATED CONCEPTS / MAJOR  UNDERSTANDINGS  CREDIT: NAME SCHOOL  TELEPHONE  ACTIVITIES, SEQUENTIAL  PROJECTS, STARTING POINTS CORE ART PROGRAM  PLEASE CONSIDER SHARING IDEAS THAT YOU HAVE FOUND USEFUL IN YOUR OWN ART CLASSES. EITHER ATTACH A MASTER THAT CAN BE USED FOR COPYING OR OUTLINE YOUR IDEAS HERE. AREA OF  GRADE  MEDIUM RELATED CONCEPTS / MAJOR UNDERSTANDINGS  CREDIT: NAME SCHOOL  TELEPHONE  CREATING A PICTURE FROM A DESCRIPTION  A p i c t u r e , s e l e c t e d because a teacher l i k e s i t and knows c h i l d r e n would a l s o , can provide a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r p i c t u r e making i n a v a r i e t y of media. Keeping t h i s p h o t o , r e p r o d u c t i o n of a p a i n t i n g or drawing unnamed and hidden adds to the excitement and motivation. A c a r e f u l l y planned d e s c r i p t i o n can be used to i n t r o d u c e vocabulary such as f o r e g r o u n d , middleground and background. Proport i o n , c o m p o s i t i o n , c o l o u r , t o n e , t e x t u r e , s h a p e s , and forms can a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . B u t , t h i s depends upon the grade. Several d e s c r i p t i o n s can be g i v e n ; beginning with the l a r g e shapes and ending with any i n t e r e s t i n g or important d e t a i l s . Throughout the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n the c h i l d r e n can l i s t e n and imagine T h e n , as the p i c t u r e i s d e s c r i b e d a second t i m e , they can sketch t h e i r ideas on a p o s t c a r d s i z e p i e c e of paper. Some youngsters may want to make s e v e r a l p l a n s . When a sketch i s f i n i s h e d a f u l l s i z e d p i c t u r e can be s t a r t e d . P a i n t , drawing c h a l k , p e n c i l c r a y o n s , and c o l l a g e m a t e r i a l are a few of the media t h a t can be used with t h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t . When the p r o j e c t s are f i n i s h e d the p i c t u r e c r i b e d can be shown and d i s c u s s e d .  t h a t was d e s -  STARTING POMS  28  DINOSAUR SLIDES This Calgary's pictures, p r i n t s or  29  s e t of s l i d e s i l l u s t r a t e s the outdoor d i s p l a y on St. George's Island. Supplemented with books and, these c o u l d be used to s t a r t d r a w i n g s , p a i n t i n g s , clay modelling p r o j e c t s . '  MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Students enjoy posing f o r drawing l e s s o n s i f they have musical instruments to h o l d . A trumpet, g u i t a r , saxophone, banjo . . . are o n l y a few p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c o u r s e . From these drawings o t h e r p r o j e c t s can be developed and used to teach about c o l o u r , c o m p o s i t i o n , p e r s p e c t i v e and so on.  30  MONSTER DAY  CIRCUS DAY  S e l e c t e d students c o u l d be made up and pose f o r the c l a s s , or everyone c o u l d become a monster f o r a day. With make-up fake b l o o d , s c a r wax, clown w h i t e , and grease s t i c k s - the e f f e c t s can become q u i t e gruesome. The same approach c o u l d be taken f o r a c i r c u s theme. P o s t e r s , b a l l o o n s , s l i d e s , and music c o u l d be added. Red, w h i t e , and blue bunting can sometimes be found. Popcorn c o u l d f i n i s h . o f f the day as wel1 as y o u .  31 j  TOYS T h i s c o u l d prove to be an e x c i t i n g s t i l l l i f e . Have e v e r y one in the c l a s s b r i n g at l e a s t one of t h e i r f a v o r i t e t o y s . Create a s t i l l l i f e and unpack the a r t s u p p l i e s .  STARTING POINTS 32  BOULDER CREATURE Many animals have strange h a b i t s and l i v e i n very unique p l a c e s . Several animals - about which we know very l i t t l e - h i b e r n a t e through the w i n t e r i n s i d e b o u l d e r s . We are unsure as to j u s t how they make t h e i r way i n s i d e , but with s p e c i a l ray equipment we can see t h e i r shapes huddled i n s i d e . As w e l l , we can hear t h e i r b r e a t h i n g and d e t e c t t h e i r body heat. As a matter o f f a c t , boulders are o f t e n seen near creeks with l i t t l e snow on them in the winter. It would appear t h a t the body heat of these c r e a t u r e s i s j u s t high enough t h a t i t melts the s u r f a c e snow. I've brought i n t h i s boulder today to show you what I am t a l k ing about. Inside i s one of those c r e a t u r e s - s l e e p i n g , q u i e t l y r e s t i n g and w a i t i n g f o r s p r i n g . We c o u l d break i t open with a sledge hammer, but i n doing so we would k i l l the animal i n s i d e . I wonder what he looks l i k e ?  33  A LONG INSECT OR BUG Long i n s e c t s or bugs can be c r e a t e d on s t r i p s of adding machine t a p e , 8" by 36" s t r i p s of p a p e r , or oddly cut shapes of paper t h a t , as a c l a s s t o t a l , f i t together i n t o a mural. A d i s c u s s i o n of i n s e c t and bug c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be i l l u s t r a t e d in columns on the c h a l k b o a r d . Headings might i n c l u d e : e y e s , s n o u t s , l e g s , knees, f e e t , e a r s , a n t e n n a e . . . .  |  34 |  THE VISITING LEPRECHAUN A teacher f r i e n d of many years used to i n s p i r e her c l a s s by a r r a n g i n g two c h a i r s w h i l e the c l a s s was o u t . With paper on the c h i l d r e n ' s desks and p e n c i l s r e a d y , she would i n t r o d u c e , converse w i t h , and d e s c r i b e her leprechaun f r i e n d s i t t i n g beside her. The leprechaun was c o n v e n i e n t l y i n v i s i b l e , of c o u r s e .  35  AN OLD BROOM T h i s Halloween idea i s s i m i l a r to the one above. An o l d broom - perhaps helped i n i t s aging - i s s u r p r i s i n g l y found propped up i n the room one morning. Who l e f t i t and why? What d i d the person look l i k e ? Where does the person l i v e and w i l l a r e t u r n t r i p be made to pick i t up?  TOO  EmphaM-Li  knX  page 64  101  102  103 1  104 '  CONTOUR LINE DRAWING - A drawing of t h i s type u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s close, careful observation. It i s used to r e c o r d the edges of o b j e c t s and to d e f i n e shapes. A good p r o j e c t i n v o l v e s the use o f pen and i n d i a n ink or p e n c i l . A s e l e c t i o n of p l a n t m a t e r i a l - weeds, g r a s s e s , seed pods - can be used e i t h e r by p l a c i n g a small c o l l e c t i o n in f r o n t of each c h i l d or in an arrangement f o r a small group (the c h i l d r e n can go o u t s i d e to c o l l e c t the m a t e r i a l ) . Compare contour l i n e s to what would be seen i f there was no c o l o u r in the c o m i c s . C a r t r i d g e - p a p e r works very well - 9x12 or s m a l l e r . GESTURE DRAWING - A drawing of t h i s type uses a c a l l i g r a p h i c (sketchy) l i n e and f r e q u e n t l y d o e s n ' t i n v o l v e much e r a s i n g . It i s used to r e c o r d the p o s i t i o n , movement, or f e e l i n g s of a p e r s o n . Large sheets o f newsprint and p a s t e l ( c r a y o n , c h a r c o a l , p a i n t and brush) can be used. A demonstration and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s type o f l i n e can be f o l l o w e d by s e l e c t i n g a c l a s s member f o r p o s i n g . If students ignore the f a c e other than i t s shape and o u t l i n e , they f e e l more s u c c e s s f u l . Sev e r a l o f these drawings can be done in a p e r i o d . Pose the s u b j e c t so t h a t some a c t i o n i s e v i d e n t and t h a t there are some p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s p a c e s .  TAG STENCIL 1.  MATERIALS: m a n i l l a tag a n d / o r pulp board (other cards as w e l l ) tempera p a i n t (powder p a i n t w i l l do) or p a s t e l s or crayons x - a c t o knives hog h a i r b r i s t l e brushes or s t e n c i l 'brushes c o n s t r u c t i o n paper c u t t i n g boards a n d / o r newspaper'  2. TOPICS: can be s i m p l e :  fruit animal initials o r complex: p o s t e r s with several  3.  R  stencils  (one f o r each  colour)  PROCESS: the idea can be planned in p e n c i l on the m a n i l l a tag tabs need to be l e f t attached to the c e n t r e s of l e t t e r s and o t h e r shapes c u t with an x - a c t o k n i f e e n s u r i n g c l e a n l y cut edges and use o f newspaper or a c u t t i n g board a.) pastel or crayon approach  b.)  - oil  p a s t e l can be t r a c e d around the edge of the s t e n c i l and smeared with a paper towel stub toward the c e n t r e  paint  approach  the  - use t h i c k tempera p a i n t from the b o t t l e - d i p the end of the hog h a i r brush i n t o the p a i n t and remove any excess on some paper towel - w i t h the brush held v e r t i c a l l y apply p a i n t evenly and l i g h t l y - s e v e r a l l i g h t coats of p a i n t can c r e a t e a much b e t t e r r e s u l t than one heavy coat - the r e s u l t should be a s o f t , t e x t u r a l one ( i t can be h e l p f u l to show students the wrong way to do t h i s and to remind them t h a t i f we want a s o l i d heavy e f f e c t we should look f o r another approach such as s i l k s c r e e n i n g ) 4.  VARIATIONS: Both the p o s i t i v e and negative parts of the s t e n c i l can be used. S t e n c i l brushes can be bought but # 1 2 hog h a i r brushes work almost as w e l l . If they are not s t i f f enough they can be wrapped t i g h t l y with an e l a s t i c band. ' If s e v e r a l c o l o u r s are being used and the c o l o u r s are c l o s e then several s t e n c i l s should be c u t . Draw the i d e a on newsprint and tape i t to the top l e f t c o r n e r of the m a n i l l a t a g . With carbon paper t r a c e the parts t h a t are to be r e d . Then tape the newsprint to another p i e c e of tag and t r a c e those parts t h a t are a second c o l o u r . Do t h i s f o r each c o l o u r .  158  STENCILS -  ,377  MAtJILLA TAG 4-. Pos4ers - see # 6 0 0  1. Silhouettes - usin<j a variety of p a p e r Could  Several  colours c a n be stencilled from  include:  one stencil  apple / p e a r  separated.  •trees  Several  face (profile)  i f spaces  are we4l  s+encils c a n allow f o r an  assembly  line.  "train / car 5. Banner / Handing Fun f e l t /cffHon/  /Plactmat/Jotejiag bvrlap  Colonial -textile silk screening ink.  Z. G r e e t i n g C o r d s  Acrylic- paint.  Stxjges+ buying "He- envelopes before cu/rting the paper  (o. C r e s t / Personal  Plan on newsprint and +mce  making protecting guides FLAP  BASt  v/Hh carbon  -pvlpboord base, rcard flap -masking Tape.  li'^h -Hie stencil.  paper  manilla too sheets'  onto the  - \)&J\ou> areas  on one- sheet, blue on another....  ihe.se. will k&ep the- left- side of the card dean and a-  Coat-erf-Arms  7. t.  Personal Hog Booklet  Cover  For science, social studies, English.  3. T - S h i r f - Pentel Pyeino Itastels  Own  lettering and designs.  T-shirt c a n be stretched over a,n iS'x zv-* piece of pu'pboard. Slide a IT." x id * piece o f n e w s p r i n t under fhe T-shirt to keep the pulpboord One  stencil  Be  sure  can b e used.  wi+fi s c r a p  paper.  -firmly near -the. area being  coloured f o avoid Sliding. Iron  over  bnoion  newsprint  paper.  Exfra  or broutti paper can  be put under -me shirt to keep •me oil pasfels from stamina the pulpboard.  Design  10. Pi'ctvre-  re-useable. o r more  t h e entire- T-shirt is  protected Press  9. 6order  11.  Mural -^roup project. Each child could  have several stencils  which could be repeated in clusters or in combination  wiih others.  iz. Book plate Stvdent initials in a sty/ijed design for placing inside "Hie cover o f a iavori-fe book.  159  160  400  PINCHPOT wedge the c l a y and form i n t o a b a l l t h a t can e a s i l y be h e l d i n one hand r e s t your arms a c r o s s your l a p as you s i t and hold t h e , c l a y between your knees hold the c l a y i n one hand and push the thumb o f other hand i n t o the c e n t r e  the  w i t h the c l a y b a l l now held sideways push again and p u l l some c l a y toward the opening turn the b a l l s l i g h t l y and push and p u l l some more c l a y toward the opening t u r n , p u s h , and p u l l work to the bottom and to the s i d e u n t i l . the c l a y i s about 1/4 to 3/8 inch t h i c k the youngsters can be shown the t h i c k n e s s as a d i s t a n c e between your f i n g e r s (they can t r y to estimate the d i s t a n c e with t h e i r eyes closed - a real challenge) you are working a " p o t t e r y wheel" - o f s o r t s c o n t i n u e t u r n i n g the b a l l and p u l l i n g small amounts o f c l a y toward the s u r f a c e each p u l l should s t a r t with the thumb at the c e n t r e i n the bottom as t h i s w i l l c r e a t e a smooth surface e v e n t u a l l y your thumb won't reach the bottom, but you w i l l have a smooth s u r f a c e and the proper t h i c k n e s s anyway! if  the height o f the pot becomes awkward, c u t some away with a wire - s i t the pot on a square o f newspaper, hold a needle l e v e l , have pot turned the opening can be wide or narrow to form a branch pot when you have b a s i c a l l y completed your work, p l a c e three or f o u r f i n g e r s i n s i d e the pot ( i f it has a l a r g e opening) and t e x t u r e the o u t s i d e i n some way - a v o i d drawing - see Hating Pott&uj Without a Wheel h a n d b u i l t p o t t e r y can be very d i f f i c u l t to smooth f o r c h i l d r e n and t e x t u r i n g helps improve the appearance plop f i r m l y but c a r e f u l l y onto a pad o f newspaper to c r e a t e a f l a t bottom use a needle' to s c r a t c h 1/4 i n c h i n i t i a l s . i n t o the bottom  161  162  405  DRAPE DISH OVER A HUMP MOULD wedge the  clay  s l a b the c l a y out i n t o a sheet approximately 1/4 to 3/8 inch t h i c k t h i s can be done by: a) using two wooden s l a t s made o f plywood o r hardboard and a r o l l i n g p i n o r dowel of s i m i l a r t h i c k n e s s put even but not e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e on the c l a y and r o l l out as you would pastry turn the c l a y f r e q u e n t l y or i t tends to gather newspaper as the paper gets damp and d i s i n t e n r a t e s  b) throwing the c l a y at an angle onto a canvas covered t a b l e or pad of newspaper with the f o l d e d s i d e f a c i n g the d i r e c t i o n of the throw  drape t h i s c l a y over a c l e a n but d r y and f a i r l y smooth boulder ( i f i t i s not so smooth i t can be covered w i t h s t r i p s o f damo paper t o w e l l i n g and smoothedjand t r i m edges with a cork and needle form three b a l l s o f s o f t c l a y making sure they a r e equal in s i z e place these on the bottom so t h a t a f l a t s u r f a c e can r e s t on a l l three but s t i l l c l e a r the bottom g r i p each b a l l f i r m l y between your thumb and f i r s t two f i n g e r s press and t w i s t each b a l l with a g e n t l e firmness i n t o position smear and smooth the edges of each b a l l onto the base be c a r e f u l not to smooth the edges to the rock loosen the d i s h from the boulder and r e p l a c e remove the d i s h from the boulder o n l y when i t i s f i r m l e a t h e r -hard stage smooth rough edges and s u r f a c e s at the l e a t h e r hard stage or e a r l i e r with a damp sponge, index f i n g e r (sandpaper i f d r y - do o u t s i d e - dust problem!) CAUTION: i f the c l a y i s l e f t on the boulder too long i t w i l l crack a s . t h e c l a y s h r i n k s  163  D R A P E  D I S H  1. Candy / Soap  2.  Pickle.  Dish - boulder  hump  Dish-boulder/plaster/ clay hump  GLAZING Some g l a z e s are s a f e f o r food c o n t a i n e r s , w h i l e others are If t h i s i s a p p l i c a b l e to your work check to see which type g l a z e i t i s before you buy or before you use i t . There are three b a s i c ways of a p p l y i n g g l a z e f o r children: 1.  not. of  elementary  BRUSHING - Apply 3 c o a t s i n 3 d i r e c t i o n s w i t h a s q u i r r e l h a i r brush (#8 to #12). - Allow each coat to dry before a p p l y i n g the next. - To p a i n t s t r a i g h t edges hold and draw the brush p a r a l l e l to the edge being p a i n t e d . If the brush i s kept i n from the edge s l i g h t l y then a s l i g h t p r e s s u r e w i l l e a s e ' t h e brush and the g l a z e toward the edge.  2.  POURING - Apply one coat o n l y . - Although t h i s i s the best way to g l a z e e n c l o s e d c o n t a i n e r s , i t can be widely used. - Pour the g l a z e i n t o the c o n t a i n e r , and pour out by t u r n i n g the c o n t a i n e r upside-down. - To a v o i d d r i p s turn the pot i n a complete c i r c l e . In o t h e r words, t w i s t your hand around so t h a t your elbow moves upward.  3.  DIPPING  '  •  - Apply one coat o n i y . - T h i s works w e l l i f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of g l a z e are available. - Simply d i p the o b j e c t i n t o the g l a z e , and allow excess g l a z e to d r i p back i n t o the p a i l of g l a z e .  Avoid l e a v i n g excess g l a z e i n the bottom of the c o n t a i n e r s as i t can cause problems i n the f i r i n g ( i e . b u b b l i n g ) . If the g l a z e tends to peel away d u r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n wet the p i e c e before c o n t i n u i n g .  CUT  CLAY SHAPES  1. Placjues - -Fish I birds /animals /cars.-.  2.  Pebble, Mosaic Panel - textures  3. Medallions - pendanf /Ripper  grab  drinking sfraW to make hole.  •templates pre-cut •from ice-cream lids for regular shapes  77/e  es  Wall Hangings / M obi It  lo. Mosaic  4  Tile Hot  Tray -grov+edj glued to plywood base  5. Free-s-hndinp Tile Pillar -C&merrf- blocks  7 Wind Chimes - thm clay  6. Flower Pof - single or duster  SL46  CONSTRUCTION  1. Boy, -cut MH-h a cardboard -template  d- Cut Card Form - corrugated cardboard - bnwn paper -hps. on edg  * cardboard • dampens and is removed  168  HEDGING To a v o i d breakage during the greenware must not only be dry but f r e e of a i r p o c k e t s .  it  firing,  To remove the a i r c l a y i s wedged by e i t h e r or throwing i t onto a hard s u r f a c e . 1.  clay  kneading  KNEADING - Kneading i s u s e f u l f o r l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of c l a y . - Take the c l a y and shape i t i n t o a b l o c k . - Stand above the c l a y and almost s t r a i g h t e n your arms. - With f i n g e r s to the top and the heels of both hands j u s t below c e n t r e lean down on the h e e l s of both hands. - L i f t your hands p u l l i n g the c l a y upward a t the same time. - G i v e . t h e block of c l a y a 1/4 turn and lean down again. - L i f t , turn, lean. - Get a rhythm and c a r r y on. - The c l a y w i l l develop the' rough shape of a cone.  2.  THROWING - T h i s approach i s more u s e f u l with c h i l d r e n as they are probably not u s i n g l a r g e amounts of c l a y . - Wedging the c l a y t h i s way i s b e t t e r d o n e o n the f l o o r as i t i s q u i e t e r (unless someone i s under y o u ! ) than on a desk top and f a s t e r because of the firm f l o o r . - Assuming students are on t h e i r knees they need to throw the c l a y from no higher than c h e s t h e i g h t . - Firm throws should d i r e c t a new s u r f a c e to the f l o o r each time. - In t h i s way the c l a y i s kept i n rough block form. - A l l o w i n g the c l a y to f l a t t e n w i l l probably mean t h a t a i r w i l l be trapped when i t i s put back i n t o a b l o c k . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i f c h i l d r e n f o l d the c l a y .  Wedging can be done on a pad of newspaper. Care must be taken to see t h a t the newspaper d o e s n ' t become damp^, d i s i n t e g r a t e and s t i c k to the c l a y . If the pad i s turned f r e q u e n t l y or the outer sheet i s removed then t h i s u s u a l l y d o e s n ' t happen.  CHECK FOR AIR To check f o r a i r c l a y i s c u t with a w i r e , a p i e c e o f s t r o n g or a piece of f i s h i n g l i n e . Wire c u t t e r s can be bought or made with two thread spools and a length of w i r e . A t h i r d o p t i o n i s to set up a c l a y t a b l e with a wire permanently strung. T h i s works b e t t e r as no one ends up s e a r c h i n g f o r a c l a y c u t t e r t h a t i s i n v a r i a b l y under papers or in a pocket. If c u t c l a y i s put back together i t must be re-wedged or the cut will persist. thread,  DRIED CLAY CAN B E REUSED I F I T IS CLEAN OF PLASTER, PAPER, AND DIRT. 1. T H E CLAY MUST B E THOROUGHLY DRY AMD BROKEN INTO SMALL P I E C E S A HAMMER IS USEFUL (GREAT THERAPY!), 2. L I N E A P A I L WITH A P L A S T I C BAG (THE ONE THE CLAY CAME I N ) . 3. F I L L THE P A I L WITH CLAY P I E C E S . 4. ADD WATER U N T I L I T COMES J U S T TO THE TOP OF THE CLAY. DUST AND SMALLER P I E C E S CAN TOP IT OFF AND SOAK UP THE EXCESS WATER, 5. ALLOW I T TO S I T FOR SEVERAL DAYS. 6. POUR OFF ANY EXCESS WATER. 7. PULL OUT T H E BAG AND F L I P I T UPSIDE-DOWN ONTO A) A P L A S T I C SHEET B) A CANVAS COVERED T A B L E OR BOARD C) A PLASTER SLAB COVERED WITH A P I E C E OF CANVAS. 8. F L I P THE CLAY OCCASIONALLY TO EVEN OUT THE DRYING PROCESS. 9. B E CAREFUL NOT TO OVERDO I T OR YOU'LL B E BACK AT S T E P ONE. SOMETIMES A P I E C E OF P L A S T I C CAN BE DRAPED OVER THE CLAY HEAP TO KEEP THE TOP FROM DRYING OUT TOO FAST. 10. WHEN T H E CLAY IS READY, STORE IN P L A S T I C BAGS OR A P L A S T I C GARBAGE P A I L . You MIGHT L I K E TO WEDGE I T BY KNEADING BEFORE STORAGE. KNEADING ALLOWS MORE TO B E DONE AT ONCE AND IS MUCH EASIER AND QUIETER.  171  SNAKE MOSAIC The Eastern Mosaics of the emperors (early Christian and Byzantine art)are of interest to children. They find the jewels especially interesting. This a c t i v i t y can be related to the unit on snakes for SPIL grade 4. This a c t i v i t y seemed well suited to a group of bloodthirsty, snake-crazy grade fours. The snakes were drawn on large, medium, and small sized papers. Each child drew a snake, cut i t out, and then used torn or cut paper to make mosaic pattern effects on the snake's btdy. Each child's snake was then glued to a backdrop called "The Snake P i t " . The project was simple and easy to set up, and i t seemed a f a i r l y effective exercise, especially as an introduction to mosaic work. Many snake pictures show exceptional pattern effects that children can model or adapt. Having the mosaic area snail makes the mosaic experience something that can be finished in a couple of periods rather than something that seems to go on forever. WLth. thanki to:  Patsy Freeman  Crawford Creek  Elementary  172  ROYALTY  The theme f o r t h i s p r o j e c t i s r o y a l t y . It can be used to teach the use o f s p a c e , and c o n t r a s t ( d a r k / l i g h t and d u l l / b r i g h t colours). Students b r i n g k i n g s , queens, and j a c k s from a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t card d e c k s . O b s e r v a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d to note the d i f f e r e n c e in d e s i g n . • Take l a r g e m a n i l l a paper and block out the  •  Do t h i s  fairly  spacing.  lightly.  • Think b i g . • T h i s i s an important  step.  Then draw i n d e t a i l s o f f a c e , h a i r , crown, and c l o a k . C a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n o f the cards w i l l g i v e good ideas f o r d e t a i l . Colour in with p e n c i l crayon ( p a i n t i n g i s p o s s i b l e but u s u a l l y with less successful r e s u l t s ) . Encourage l o t s o f c o l o u r , remind about d a r k / l i g h t and d u l l / bright colour contrasts. Discourage copying of the c a r d s . The r e s u l t s should be f a n t a s t i c .  Debbie Arnold J . A . Macdonald Elementary  173  METHODS paper drawn  thread  open mesh g o d ' s eye card loom Hungarian  loom  spool finger slot  weaving  loom  T-D loom card weaving box loom inkle  loom  twine rug s a l i s h loom  PROJECTS belt  knitting/shop,  guitar  strap  book marker  rug  coin  scarf  skipping  hot pad  bracelet  placemat  book  tea  picture  wall  cozy hanging  bag  purse/purse rope  carrier  ART SUPPLIERS and PROJECTS FOR MATERIALS THEY SUPPLY  Behnsen Graphic S u p p l i e s 1016 Richards S t r e e t Vancouver V6B 3B9  o  S t e n c i l l i n g grade 7 - dyeing p a s t e l s S i l k s c r e e i n g grade 7 - t e x t i l e ink f o r T-shirts - nylon screen f a b r i c Printmaking a l l grades - r i c e paper - t e x t i l e ink grade 7 - l i n o l e u m s u p p l i e s General s u p p l i e s - double s i d e d masking tape  Greenbarn P o t t e r y Supply L t d . 2982 - 164th S t r e e t Surrey V4B 4Z5 Coast Ceramics L t d . 2U31 west 41st Vancouver V6M 1X7 King S a l e s L t d . 136 S h o r t i n g Road Agincourt, Ontario MIS 4J3 Central Stores School D i s t r i c t No.33 8880 S. Young S t r e e t Chil1iwack V2P 4P5  Si I k s c r e e n i n g grade 7 - Derivan a c r y l i c  General s u p p l i e s - white b l o t t e r (chilliwack)  paint  paper  Lewi s c r a f t 40 Commander B l v d . Scarborough, O n t a r i o MIS 3S2  S i l k s c r e e n i n g grade 7 - squeegees General c r a f t s u p p l i e s General s u p p l i e s - i n s t a n t p a p i e r mache  W i l l o x Graphic S u p p l i e s 1310 E . Hastings Vancouver V5L I S3 (Ocaldo p a i n t s . . . . )  All  Anthes u f f i c e Products 341 Heart Lake Road S. Brampton, O n t a r i o L6W 3K8 (Reeves p a i n t s )  A l l t g r a d e s - bamboo brushes - p r i n t i n g ink - water s o l u b l e Printmaking - grade 7 - l i n o l e u m s u p p l i e s A l l grades - l i q u i d p a i n t - i n d i a n i n k , charcoal - a v a r i e t y OT papers ( t r a c i n g , block p r i n t i n g , scraper board,tissue) - fluorescent paint  grades - bamboo brushes - p r i n t i n g ink - water s o l u b l e Printmaking - grade 7 - l i n o l e u m s u p p l i e s General s u p p l i e s - i n s t a n t p a p i e r mache - a v a r i e t y o f papers (parchment, m e t a l l i c , t i s s u e , watercolour)  APPENDIX B Covering l e t t e r s addressed  to intermediate art teache  176  ART SUPPLY KITS 1.  DRAWING KIT for  2.  PRINTMAKER'5 BOX  if  3.  T h i s k i t c o n t a i n s samples o f the recommended drawing media the core i n t e r m e d i a t e program. It i s a v a i l a b l e to a l l s c h o o l s f o r a 2 week l o a n .  T h i s box c o n t a i n s : 3 brayers 3 p l e x i g l a s s sheets 3 tubes o f p r i n t i n g ink These m a t e r i a l s are f o r those s c h o o l s without p r i n t i n g s u p p l i e s . It i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a 2 week l o a n , but e x t e n s i o n s are p o s s i b l e no one i s w a i t i n g .  SILKSCREENER'S  PACKAGE  This kit  c o n t a i n s : 3 squeegees 3 screens 3 c o l o u r s of a c r y l i c p a i n t You need: newsprint X - a c t o knives c o n s t r u c t i o n paperThese m a t e r i a l s are f o r grade 7 teachers in those s c h o o l s w i t h o u t the s c r e e n i n g s u p p l i e s . The package i s a v a i l a b l e op a 2 week l o a n , but e x t e n s i o n s are p o s s i b l e i f no one i s w a i t i n g .  TEXTS 1.  Emphasis A r t  2. A r t  in  Depth  These books are a v a i l a b l e received copies.  for  loan i f your school has not  yet  GUIDE TO THE CURRICULUM Every i n t e r m e d i a t e t e a c h e r o f a r t should now have one. It w i l l be p e r i o d i c a l l y added t o .  IDEA NETWORK We can share ideas with each o t h e r sheet headed k c A l v i t i t b , P f i o j z c t i , Sttwting  by o u t l i n i n g  them on the  Volwtf,.  WORKSHOPS Seven have a l r e a d y  been o f f e r e d  on printmaking  and c l a y work.  FURTHER? Let us know what would prove to be u s e f u l  to y o u .  A GIFT FOR YOU.  1  IT  ISN'T  BUT, IT  TOO O F T E N T H A T  WE W E R E N ' T  SURE J U S T  COULD B E A MEDALLION  KEY R I N G . YOUR  THEN A G A I N ,  STUDENTS  A  IN  FREE GIFT ARRIVES HOW Y O U WOULD WANT  OR A  PENDANT.  TO U S E T H I S .  SERVE AS A  ZIPPER  GRADES 5 AND 7  MIGHT L I K E  TO MAKE  THE T R A I L D I S T R I C T ' S  ENRICHMENT  AFTER  ART  IT  ALL, AS  A  GRIPPER. ONE.  S U G G E S T I O N S A R E FOUND  CORE SEQUENTIAL  ATTACHED,  P E R H A P S YOU COULD U S E  COULD  T H I S AND MANY OTHER  IT  W I T H NO S T R I N G S  IN  PROGRAM UNDER  YOUR C O P Y  OF  W6.  WOULD YOU CONSIDER SHARING AN IDEA? THE IDEA NEM)RK CAN WORK. A  S H E E T HAS B E E N ATTACHED  WHEN Y O U R  IDEA  IS  TO  DISTRIBUTED  H E L P Y O U DO J U S T YOU'LL  BE GIVEN  THATFULL  CREDIT.  FURTHER? LET  US  KNOW WHAT WOULD  H E L P YOU A S  YOU U S E T H E  CURRICULUM.  TEXTS E M P H A S I S A R T AND A R T IN D E P T H I F YOUR SCHOOL D O E S N ' T H A V E A C O P Y YET, A  FEW A R E A V A I L A B L E  FOR  LOAN,  TO:  TEACHERS OF ART  FROM:  CRAIG  IN  GRADES 4 AND  5  HORSLAND  A HELPFUL IDEA FOR TEACHERS OF GRADE H AND 5 ART ALONG WITH T H I S NOTE CONTAINER. CONTAINERS AND  E A S Y TO  IT -  YOU  SHOULD  EMBEDDED STORE AND  IN  PLASTER OF  IDEAL.  PUSH  PILL  THE  PLASTIC  PLASTER  STORE PARIS  INDIA -  ENCASED INK.  ARE VERY  PILL  THESE STABLE  DISTRIBUTE.  TUPPERWARE CUPS A R E IN  RECEIVE A  C A N B E A G R E A T WAY T O  WHEN  PARTLY  CONTAINER.  FILLED  WITH  PLASTER  ART GUIDE REPLACEMENT YOUR O R I G I N A L G U I D E PAGES, THE IN  WAS U N F O R T U N A T E L Y  REPLACEMENTS ARE  NUMBERS R E F E R TO A C T I V I T I E S , T H E SECOND S E C T I O N ,  THERE  4 THE  T H A T YOU M I G H T  NUMBER  HOWEVER,  YOUR  I F YOU WERE  (#105)  FIND USEFUL.  I N T H E E V E N T T H A T YOU D O N ' T  WANT T O C H A N G E  NUMBERS O N SOME  PROJECTS, AND STARTING  FOR EXAMPLE,  CRAYON DRAWING TO GRADE AN A C T I V I T Y  MISSING  ATTACHED.  QUITE  WOULD  POINTS  TEACHING R E F E R YOU T O  T H E SUGGESTION(s) A R E KNOW WHAT T O D O OR  F R O M WHAT Y O U U S U A L L Y D O . IDEAS  MIGHT B E BETTER.  SOME O F T H E M T H R O U G H  T H E IDEA  WOULD  YOU L I K E  TO SHARE  NETWORK?  THE IDEA NETWORK ALL  O F OUR I N D I V I D U A L  ON T H E A T T A C H E D MANY  PROGRAMS C A N B E IMPROVED  SHEET.  THE TIME  S P E N T WOULD  B Y SHARING  IDEAS  B E APPRECIATED BY  COLLEAGUES..  ORDERING SUPPLIES? Kneaded e r a s e r s can be u s e f u l when drawing w i t h B type p e n c i l s or c h a r c o a l . They are gray o r blue c o l o u r e d e r a s e r s that are s t r e t c h e d or kneaded to make them a c t i v e . Teachers o f a r t to grades 4 and 5 might c o n s i d e r o r d e r i n g p i l l c o n t a i n e r s to make i n d i a ink r e s e r v o i r s . -They range from 54 to 1 Oct each depending upon the drug s t o r e .  plastic in p r i c e  ART SUPPLY KITS THESE ARE S T I L L A V A I L A B L E .  JUST A  REMINDER!  A-V SUPPORT INTRODUCE  C L A Y WORK T O Y O U R C L A S S W I T H TWO F I L M S T R I P S :  THEY ARE ACCOMPANIED RESPECTIVELY.  ElemzntA  o^  VotX.QJx.ij:  Hand  Vottoxtj  BuiZding  Te.ckniqu.zi  B Y TWO C A S S E T T E T A P E S O F 8 A N D  9  MINUTES  130  WANT SOMETHING DIFFERENT FOR GETTING THE IDEAS GOING? YOU  MIGHT LIKE TO BORROW SOME OF THESE PIECES OF EQUIPMENT,  THE FANTASTIC PACKING CRATE This a u t h e n t i c l o o k i n g packing c r a t e - measuring 17 x 31 x 16 can a r r i v e at your classroom door and provide a l o t of imagination s t r e t c h i n g as you and your c l a s s d i s c u s s i t s c o n t e n t s . It appears to have come from B r a z i l v i a P a r i s and Montreal to y o u . In a d d i t i o n , i t c o n t a i n s a l i v e specimen and i s s e c u r e l y padlocked and bound with rope. What p i c t u r e s a starting point!  could be p a i n t e d ,  drawn, or coloured with t h i s  as  A PICTURE BOX This box c o n t a i n s a p i c t u r e of one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g and n i c e s t persons i n the w o r l d . C h i l d r e n are s i t t i n g , ready to go with p e n c i l and paper (or p a i n t , p e n c i l c r a y o n s . . . ) , as you t e l l them that each w i l l get a chance to see t h i s p i c t u r e f o r j u s t a few moments. Then they must q u i e t l y r e t u r n to t h e i r desk without t e l l i n g anyone what they saw and begin t h e i r work. The c h a l l e n g e f o r them i s to make the most a c c u r a t e drawing they can by remembering what was seen. JUST WHO DID THEY SEE?  GIOVANNI AND THE GIANT This i s a commercially prepared c a s s e t t e tape. Originally designed as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , i t can be used to develop many ideas f o r artwork. It might be b e t t e r s u i t e d f o r grades 4 and 5, but you might l i k e to l i s t e n to i t and then d e c i d e .  THE IDEA NETWORK Yet another sheet t i t l e d ACTIVITIES, PROJECTS, STARTING POINTS has been a t t a c h e d . The time you take from your busy day i s much a p p r e c i a t e d .  181  *********************************** The attached sheets can be i n s e r t e d the Core Sequential Art Guide. The f o l l o w i n g 1.  materials  i n t o your copy of  are a v a i l a b l e  for  the a s k i n g :  Make-up f o r clowns and monsters, c i r c u s p o s t e r s , and r e d , w h i t e , and blue  bunting.  2.  Ten s l i d e s of d i n o s a u r s .  3.  Two excel 1ent  4.  S i l k s c r e e n e r ' s package with squeegees, s c r e e n s , and  texts about elementary  school  paint.  5. One heavy  boulder.  6.  Canada's Monsters with more s t o r i e s .  7.  Drawing  8.  The f a n t a s t i c packing c r a t e from " B r a z i l v i a Montreal with a l i v e specimen". F i l m s t r i p s and tapes f o r i n t r o d u c i n g p o t t e r y  9.  art.  kit  with samples of the recommended drawing  media.  P a r i s and to your  kids. 10.  Giovanni and the Giant tape f o r  11.  Printmaker's  12.  Reinhold A r t V i s u a l s on s u r f a c e and  13.  F i l m s t r i p s on Canadian a r t i s t s :  Pellan Carr Mi 1 ne Krieghoff West Coast A r t i s t s  14.  Charts  pottery.  15.  A p i c t u r e box c o n t a i n i n g a r e f l e c t i v e the n i c e s t persons i n the w o r l d ! f o r p o r t r a i t drawing.  for  Box with b r a y e r s ,  teaching  hand-built  motivation. p l e x i g l a s s , and  ink.  perception.  image of one of Great m o t i v a t i o n  

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