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Groundwater management in British Columbia Nicholls, Nadine Frances 1982

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GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by NADINE FRANCES NICHOLLS B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School o f Community and Regional P lann ing We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1982 (c) Nadine Frances N i c h o l l s , 1982 In p resen t ing t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requi rements fo r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t he r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex tens i ve copy ing o f t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s fo r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . School o f Community and Regional P lann ing The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mal l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 2 m z i i ABSTRACT Groundwater is a major source of potable water in British Columbia and is used extensively in many areas of the province. However, despite'the importance of the resource, groundwater development and use are subject to few constraints. Reliance on common law rights has contributed to the development of problems of overuse and contamination of the resource in some parts of British Columbia. The objectives of the thesis are to provide an overview study of groundwater and to develop a set of recommendations for improving the management of groundwater in British Columbia. Most of the inform-ation used in the thesis is from primary and secondary written material in the fields of law, economics, hydrogeology, and natural resources management. Some primary written and verbal material was obtained from the British Columbia Ministry of Environment staff. Several groundwater management and regulation schemes which have been recommended in the literature or adopted in other regions of western North America are reviewed and then assessed according to the criteria of feasibility, equity, effectiveness, and economic efficiency. The evaluation of these alternatives forms the basis of the recommendations for management of British Columbia's groundwater. The thesis recommends that, in areas where groundwater problems have developed or are likely to occur, clearly defined groundwater rights be established by the Comptroller of Water Rights. The Comptroller would conduct hearings into groundwater supply and demand, decide upon a collective withdrawal rate for each area, and then assign rights to i n d i v i d u a l users to pump water at s p e c i f i e d r a t e s . The t h e s i s f u r t he r recommends t h a t , once the a l l o c a t i o n o f r i g h t s has been made, the r i g h t s would be marke tab le . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER ONE : GROUNDWATER IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I. I n t roduc t i on 1 I I . Hydrogeology 2 A . The Water Table 2 B. Groundwater Occurrence 3 C. Sur face Water--Groundwater R e l a t i o n s h i p s 4 I I I . Groundwater Use i n B r i t i s h Columbia 5 IV. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangements 6 A. P r o v i n c i a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over Groundwater 6 B. The Water Management Branch 7 C. Local Governments 8 CHAPTER TWO : THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK I. I n t roduc t i on 12 I I . The Development o f Sur face Water Law 12 I I I . The Water Act 13 IV. Groundwater Law 14 V. Re la ted L e g i s l a t i o n 16 CHAPTER THREE GROUNDWATER ALLOCATION PROBLEMS I. I n t roduc t i on 20 I I . Phys i ca l Cons t r a i n t s on Groundwater Use 20 A . The E f f e c t s o f Land Use 21 V -B. Groundwater - -Sur face Water R e l a t i o n s h i p s 22 C. Groundwater Movement 23 D. Aqu i f e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 24 I I I . Groundwater and Economic E f f i c i e n c y 25 CHAPTER FOUR: GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES I. I n t roduc t i on 31 I I . A l t e r n a t i v e s 31 A . The Reasonable Use Doc t r i ne 32 B. C o r r e l a t i v e R ights 33 C. P r i o r A p p r o p r i a t i o n 34 D. A Market System 36 I I I . Eva lua t i on o f A l t e r n a t i v e s 37 A. The Reasonable Use Doc t r ine 39 B. C o r r e l a t i v e R ights 40 C. P r i o r A p p r o p r i a t i o n 42 D. A Market System 44 CHAPTER FIVE: A GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA I. Summary 49 I I . A Proposed Groundwater Management System 51 A . P reven ta t i ve Measures 51 B. The A l l o c a t i v e Mechanism 51 C. Other P r o v i s i o n s 53 I I I . Eva lua t i on o f the Proposal 55 IV. Conc lus ions and Recommendations 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 62 1 CHAPTER ONE  GROUNDWATER IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I. INTRODUCTION Groundwater i s a major source o f usab le water i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a s i g n i f i c a n t f ea tu re o f the p r o v i n c e ' s na tura l envi ronment. Desp i te i t s impor tance, however, groundwater has never been the sub jec t o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s use i s sub jec t to few c o n s t r a i n t s . Re l i ance on incomplete data and on common law r i g h t s to groundwater has con t r i bu ted to problems of overuse and contaminat ion o f the resource i n some areas o f the p r o v i n c e . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the t h e s i s are to prov ide an overv iew study of groundwater and to develop a set o f recommendations fo r improving the management o f groundwater i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A f t e r rev iew ing the bas i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , h y d r o l o g i c , and l e g a l f a c t o r s tha t a f f e c t groundwater supp l i es and use , the t h e s i s exp lo res some of the problems exper ienced by groundwater users i n B r i t i s h Columbia and attempts to e x p l a i n the under l y ing c a u s e s . Severa l o f the groundwater management and r e g u l a t i o n schemes desc r i bed i n the l i t e r a t u r e or used i n o ther reg ions are then rev iewed , and eva luated accord ing to four c r i t e r i a - - f e a s i b i l i t y , e q u i t y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and economic e f f i c i e n c y . F i n a l l y , the f i n d i n g s are used to develop a s t r a t e g y f o r managing B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's groundwater. The remainder of the f i r s t chapter prov ides the bas ic hyd ro log i c in fo rmat ion requ i red to app rec i a te the groundwater problems examined i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , desc r i bes the use of groundwater i n the p r o v i n c e , and o u t l i n e s the present a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sys tem. 2 I I . HYDROGEOLOGY1 A. The Water Table Much o f the r a i n and snow tha t f a l l s onto land f i l t e r s i n to porous ground. Some o f t h i s mo is tu re q u i c k l y evaporates or i s absorbed by p lan ts bu t , i f s o i l p o r o s i t y and mois tu re l e v e l s are s u f f i c i e n t , a major po r t i on o f the water con t inues to pe rco la te downward u n t i l i t i s stopped by an impermeable l a y e r . The s o i l pores above t h i s l a y e r then f i l l w i th wa te r , forming a zone of s a t u r a t i o n . The term 'groundwater ' r e f e r s to water i n t h i s zone. Water above t h i s zone i s s imp ly s o i l mo i s t u re . The upper boundary o f the zone o f s a t u r a t i o n i s known as the water t a b l e . I t i s best de f i ned as the su r face a long which the f l u i d pressure i n the pores o f an uncon f ined , porous medium i s equal to the atmospher ic p r e s s u r e . Th is su r face i s approximated by the water l e v e l i n a wel l which i s d r i l l e d or dug i n uncon f ined , sa tu ra ted m a t e r i a l . The water t a b l e remains a t a r e l a t i v e l y cons tant l e v e l i f the re i s a balance between the ra te o f i n f i l t r a t i o n (or recharge) and the r a t e o f d i scha rge at the ground s u r f a c e . I f d i scharge becomes excess i ve because of inc reased pumping o f water w e l l s , then the water t a b l e begins to d rop . In a d d i t i o n to the e f f e c t tha t pumping can have on the general water t a b l e , there i s a l o c a l i z e d e f f e c t at each we l l s i t e . When pumping beg ins , the water i n the a q u i f e r i s drawn down, forming a cone o f depress ion around the w e l l . The cone steepens near the w e l l , and becomes deeper as pumping i nc reases u n t i l the cone encounters a source of rep len ishment . I f w e l l s are c l o s e l y spaced , the cone o f depress ion a s s o c i a t e d w i th a very deep we l l may cause nearby sha l low w e l l s to become d r y . 3 B. Groundwater Occurrence Any geo log ic u n i t tha t l i e s below the water t a b l e and can hold and t ransmi t water i s r e f e r r e d to as an a q u i f e r . A q u i f e r s can c o n s i s t o f conso l i da ted bedrock or of unconso l ida ted ma te r i a l such as sand , g r a v e l , or c l a y . Most o f the groundwater used i n B r i t i s h Columbia comes from unconso l ida ted m a t e r i a l , but w e l l s can be d r i l l e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o 2 e i t h e r type of a q u i f e r . Water moves through c o n s o l i d a t e d bedrock i n th ree ways: through the f r a c t u r e s i n o therw ise impermeable igneous and metamorphic r o c k ; through the pores and f r a c t u r e s i n sedimentary r o c k ; and through the caves formed by the d i s s o l u t i o n o f l i m e s t o n e . In B r i t i s h Columbia , the water o c c u r r i n g i n rock u s u a l l y moves through j o i n t s and f r a c t u r e s , ra the r 3 than through pores and c a v e s . Wi th in the p r o v i n c e ' s coas ta l t rough ( e s p e c i a l l y on the Gu l f I s lands and the Saanich P e n i n s u l a ) , w e l l s are 4 o f ten d r i l l e d i n to bedrock. Only l i m i t e d water s to rage i s a v a i l b l e w i t h i n the network o f f r a c t u r e s , but high y i e l d s are p o s s i b l e i n areas where there are numerous, l a r g e , unclogged f r a c t u r e s . Unconso l ida ted rock i s ma te r i a l which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y become sedimentary r o c k , but which has not ye t become cemented t o g e t h e r . The amount o f water o c c u r r i n g in unconso l ida ted ma te r i a l depends to a l a rge degree on the coarseness o f the ma te r i a l . I f the a q u i f e r c o n s i s t s o f very f i n e - g r a i n e d m a t e r i a l , w e l l s can be d i f f i c u l t to cons t r uc t and may g ive low y i e l d s . The unconso l ida ted ma te r i a l i s o f ten very permeable, however, and can then produce high y i e l d w e l l s . Th is i s the case on the Fraser Lowland, where approx imate ly 25 percent o f the w e l l s d r i l l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia each year are l o c a t e d . The unconso l ida ted s u r f i c i a l 4 d e p o s i t s o f v the Lowland are more than 600 fee t t h i c k i n most p l a c e s , 5 and are ab le to support severa l l a r g e produc t ion we l l f i e l d s . An a q u i f e r i s always unde r l a i n by a r e l a t i v e l y impermeable l a y e r known as an a q u i c l u d e . I f an aqu ic lude a l s o l i e s above the a q u i f e r , then a con f ined water r e s e r v o i r i s formed. This water may be under c o n s i d e r -ab le p ressu re , caus ing i t to f low spontaneously from any we l l d r i l l e d i n t o i t . Such w e l l s are known as a r t e s i a n w e l l s . As water i s d ischarged from the a r t e s i a n w e l l s , the pressure i n the a q u i f e r d rops . An unconf ined a q u i f e r does not have an aqu i c l ude o v e r l y i n g i t , so the su r face o f the groundwater i s exposed to on l y atmospher ic p r e s s u r e . Rain and snowmelt can f i l t r a t e downward to feed i n t o , and r e p l e n i s h the unconf ined r e s e r v o i r . More complex groundwater c o n d i t i o n s o f t en e x i s t where geo log i c depos i t s are not homogeneous. In some a r e a s , uncon f ined , sa tu ra ted ma te r i a l i s found above the general water t a b l e . In such c a s e s , a semipermeable or impermeable l a y e r w i l l have i s o l a t e d some p e r c o l a t i n g wa te r , caus ing a perched water t a b l e to form. C. Sur face Water - Groundwater R e l a t i o n s h i p s The l e v e l o f water i n a l a k e , s t ream, or o ther body o f su r face water i s o f ten c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the water t a b l e . When the water t a b l e i s low, the su r face waters supply water to the a d j o i n i n g a q u i f e r s . Th is i n f l u e n t a c t i o n n a t u r a l l y recharges the groundwater r e s e r v o i r s . Conve rse l y , when the water t a b l e i s h igher than the l e v e l o f su r face wa te r , the ground-water w i l l recharge the l ake or stream wi th an e f f l u e n t f l o w . The r e s u l t : o f t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between su r face water and groundwater i s t ha t wi thdrawals o f groundwater can a f f e c t s u p p l i e s o f connected su r face wate r . 5 In some c a s e s , the e f f e c t on the su r f ace water may be n o t i c e a b l e s o o n - a f t e r the groundwater i s pumped, but i n o ther i n s t a n c e s , the impact might not be f e l t f o r many years . There i s a second groundwater -sur face water r e l a t i o n s h i p tha t groundwater users l i v i n g a long the coas t must take i n t o accoun t . Coasta l a q u i f e r s con ta i n a s a l t w a t e r - f r e s h water i n t e r f a c e tha t s lopes away from the sea as i t extends downward. Because f resh water i s l e s s dense than s a l t w a t e r , the two remain separa te except a t the i n t e r f a c e . The pressure o f the o v e r l y i n g f r esh water prevents the sa l twa te r from seeping i n t o the whole a q u i f e r and render ing the groundwater unusab le . However, i f the amount o f f r esh water i n the a q u i f e r i s reduced , then the s a l t w a t e r w i l l move f a r t h e r i n t o the a q u i f e r . The advancing seawater may then be drawn i n to coas ta l we l1s . I I I . GROUNDWATER USE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Groundwater i s the main source o f f r esh water on E a r t h , ^ and i s used f o r i n d i v i d u a l domest ic and i r r i g a t i o n purposes , and fo r community and i n d u s t r i a l water s u p p l i e s i n many c o u n t r i e s . I t i s o f ten more use fu l than su r face water because i t does not u s u a l l y r e q u i r e t reatment and i t s temperature and chemical content remain f a i r l y c o n s t a n t . ' ' In B r i t i s h Columbia , between 25 and 45 percent o f the domestic and mun ic ipa l water used by people l i v i n g ou t s i de the areas supp l i ed by g the Vancouver and Sooke water systems comes from underground s o u r c e s . Communities south o f the Fraser R ive r i n the Lower Main land r e l y on ground-9 water s u p p l i e s fo r 37 percent o f t h e i r t o t a l d a i l y requ i rements , w h i l e severa l o ther m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g North Cowichan, A l e r t Bay, and 6 Wi l l i ams Lake, depend almost e n t i r e l y on g r o u n d w a t e r M a n y G u l f I s l and r e s i d e n t s a l s o r e l y on groundwater fo r a l l t h e i r needs bu t , because both su r face and groundwater s u p p l i e s are l i m i t e d on most o f the I s l a n d s , water i s o f t en used s p a r i n g l y . ^ Other groundwater uses i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e i r r i g a t i o n ( i n the Keremeos and Cawston a r e a s , fo r example) , and commercial and i n d u s t r i a l purposes. In a d d i t i o n , the F raser V a l l e y Trout Hatchery near Abbots ford depends on the high q u a l i t y groundwater a v a i l a b l e i n the 12 a r e a . Demand fo r groundwater can be expected to cont inue to i nc rease as the popu la t ion grows and the p r o v i n c i a l economy expands. B r i t i s h Columbia has exper ienced a high ra te o f popu la t i on growth i n recen t decades, and s u b s t a n t i a l i nc reases a re expected to con t inue to occur i n 13 the coming y e a r s . The cor respond ing i nc rease i n demand fo r water w i l l put a great deal o f p ressure on the l i m i t e d s u p p l i e s o f water a v a i l a b l e i n the p r o v i n c e ' s populated a r e a s . IV. ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS A . P r o v i n c i a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over Groundwater B r i t i s h Columbia de r i ves i t s c h i e f power over groundwater from 14 s e c t i o n 109 o f the B r i t i s h North America A c t , whereby the prov inces are deemed to be the owners o f most o f the na tu ra l resources w i t h i n t h e i r boundar ies . Th is p r o p r i e t a r y power i s f u r t he red by the l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n tha t the prov inces de r i ve from s e c t i o n 92 o f the A c t . Th is s e c t i o n g ives the prov inces the power to pass l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i th s i x t e e n ca tego r i es o f sub jec t ma t te r . Among these c a t e g o r i e s are severa l under which groundwater l e g i s l a t i o n cou ld f a l l : "management and s a l e o f 7 the p u b l i c l a n d s " , " l o c a l works and u n d e r t a k i n g s " , "p roper ty and c i v i l r i g h t s " , and a l l "mat ters o f a merely l o c a l or p r i v a t e nature i n the prov ince . The federa l government has chosen to conduct research and to 16 adv i se the prov inces on some water management i s s u e s . Bu t , a l though the federa l government has j u r i s d i c t i o n over a number o f sub jec ts which might a f f e c t groundwater, i t cannot r e g u l a t e or manage a p r o v i n c e s ' s groundwater per s e . Thus, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's groundwater l i e s w i th the p r o v i n c i a l government. B. The Water Management Branch B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's groundwater comes under the d i r e c t i o n o f the Water Management Branch o f the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Envi ronment. The Groundwater Sec t i on o f the Branch i s r e s p o n s i b l e fo r c a r r y i n g out a wide range o f i nven to ry and assessment programs. In recen t y e a r s , the Sec t i on has monitored the e f f e c t s o f an i r r i g a t i o n we l l i n the Ardmore area o f S a a n i c h ; reviewed groundwater c o n d i t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l on seve ra l G u l f I s l a n d s ; s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f proposed developments, such as coal p r o j e c t s and p i p e l i n e s , on groundwater; reviewed the hyd ro log i c aspec ts o f environmental assessment r e p o r t s ; prepared hydrogeo log ica l maps o f severa l 17 s i t e s i n the p r o v i n c e ; and c a r r i e d out a range o f r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s . The Groundwater Sec t i on i s d i v i d e d i n t o an Eng ineer ing Un i t and an Inventory and Mapping U n i t . The Eng ineer ing Un i t handles r o u t i n e groundwater e n q u i r i e s from the p u b l i c , conducts groundwater assessment rev iews fo r o ther government a g e n c i e s , and s tud ies groundwater s u p p l i e s . The Un i t a l s o operates an obse rva t i on wel l network to moni tor changes 18 i n water l e v e l and water q u a l i t y . 8 The Inventory and Mapping Un i t i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i th e s t a b l i s h i n g an adequate data base. At the present t ime , the c h i e f source o f data i s the we l l record in fo rmat ion supp l i ed by the water we l l d r i l l e r s o f the p r o v i n c e . The we l l d r i l l e r s are not r equ i red by law to prov ide the M i n i s t r y w i th we l l i n f o r m a t i o n , so data c o l l e c t i o n depends on the 19 coopera t ion o f the we l l d r i l l e r s . The Inventory and Mapping Un i t i s a l s o prepar ing improved hydro-g e o l o g i c a l maps o f some a r e a s . The maps show the o c c u r r e n c e , d i r e c t i o n o f movement, q u a l i t y , and quan t i t y o f groundwater a v a i l a b l e i n the area and w i l l t he re fo re be use fu l f o r the management and p r o t e c t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e . In a d d i t i o n , the Un i t undertakes l i m i t e d s tud ies o f g roundwater -sur face 20 water i n t e r a c t i o n s . C. Local Governments The P r o v i n c i a l government has enacted l e g i s l a t i o n enab l ing m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , r eg iona l d i s t r i c t s , and the Is lands Trus t to i n d i r e c t l y 21 22 con t ro l groundwater use . The Mun ic ipa l Act and the I s lands Trus t Act g ive the l o c a l governments powers to r e g u l a t e development and thus c o n t r o l the number, and types o f we l l users i n a g iven a r e a . The Mun ic ipa l Act a l l ows each m u n i c i p a l i t y to prepare an o f f i c i a l 23 24 community p l a n . The p lan i s a c t u a l l y a p o l i c y document; zoning and 25 s u b d i v i s i o n by- laws are then used to implement the p l a n . Zoning by- laws c a n , i n t heo ry , p ro tec t groundwater s u p p l i e s by prevent ing p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy users o f water from l o c a t i n g in s e n s i t i v e groundwater areas and by r e s t r i c t i n g popu la t ion d e n s i t y . Fur ther p r o t e c t i o n i s prov ided by s e c t i o n 729 ( l ) ( e ) o f the Act which r e q u i r e s tha t s u b d i v i s i o n s which are dependent upon groundwater have proved sources o f potab le wate r . 9 The Mun ic ipa l Act and the I s lands Trus t Act g i ve a l l the zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n powers o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y to reg iona l d i s t r i c t s and the 26 Is lands T r u s t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The reg iona l d i s t r i c t s and the t r u s t begin 27 t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n o f land use by deve lop ing o f f i c i a l se t t lement p l a n s . In prepar ing a p l a n , the l o c a l government must cons ide r the s u i t a b i l i t y o f land fo r va r ious uses and the environmental consequences o f implementing 28 the p l a n . Cons ide ra t i on should a l s o be g iven to the prevent ion o f 29 p o l l u t i o n o f a i r , wa te r , and l a n d . The re fo re , the reg iona l d i s t r i c t s and the Is lands Trus t are requ i red to cons ide r groundwater to some degree i n t h e i r development p l a n s . 10 CHAPTER ONE  REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. Except where o therwise no ted , the i n fo rma t ion i n t h i s s e c t i o n was obta ined from S . N . Davis and R . J . M . Dewies t , Hydrogeology (New York : John Wi ley & Sons , 1966); R.A. Freeze and J . A . Che r r y , Groundwater (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1979) ; and F. Press and R. S i e v e r , Ear th (SanFranc i sco : W.H. Freeman & C o . , 1974) , chap. 7. 2 . B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Envi ronment, P r a c t i c a l In format ion on  Groundwater Development ( V i c t o r i a : Queens P r i n t e r , 1979), p. 6 . 3. I b i d . 4 . Idem, "Groundwater Resources i n B . C . : A Review" ( V i c t o r i a , 1977). 5 . I b i d . 6 . Press and S i e v e r , p. 239. 7. Mary B a r k e r , Water Resources and Re la ted Land Uses: S t r a i t o f Georgia  - -Puge t Sound Bas in (Ottawa: Department o f Environment, 1974) , p. 16. 8 . Telephone i n t e r v i e w w i th Mark Z u b e l l , Groundwater S e c t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Environment, V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 1982. 9. B a r k e r , p. 15. 10 . , In te rv iew w i th John Foweraker, Groundwater S e c t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Envi ronment, V i c t o r i a , January 1980. 11. B a r k e r , p. 15. 12. Foweraker, i n t e r v i e w . 13. B a r k e r , p. 17. 14. The B r i t i s h North America A c t , 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , chap. 3. 15. Subsect ions 5 , 10, 13, and 16. 16. In accordance w i th the Canada Water A c t , R . S . C . 1970, chap. 5 (1s t s u p p l . ) . 17. Foweraker, i n t e r v i e w . 18. Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch , Minutes o f Meet ings o f the Regional D i r e c t o r s , V i c t o r i a , Meet ing o f 6 November 1979; Groundwater Sec t i on 11 B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Environment, text of a talk given by Groundwater Section s t a f f , 18 March 1982. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid. 21. Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 290. 22. Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 208. 23. Sections 709-714. 24. Section 716. 25. Section 729. 26. Municipal Act, section 814 and Islands Trust Act, section 4(2](h). f 27. Municipal Act, sections 808-810. 28. Ibid., section 810(3). 29. Ibid. 12 CHAPTER TWO  THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK I. INTRODUCTION More than a century ago, i t was recogn ized tha t the common law d o c t r i n e o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s was inadequate to a l l o c a t e water i n the po ten-t i a l l y water d e f i c i e n t reg ions o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S ince tha t t i m e , a s e r i e s o f s t a t u t e s has been passed , p u t t i n g an end to most r i p a r i a n r i g h t s . However, groundwater has never been i n c l u d e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n and consequen t l y , B r i t i s h Columbia landowners s t i l l have common law r i g h t s to e x t r a c t any water unde r l y i ng t h e i r p r o p e r t y . An understanding o f t h i s l e g a l framework, and i t s e f f e c t on water a l l o c a t i o n and use i s r e q u i s i t e to any d i s c u s s i o n o f managment o f the resou rce . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s unders tand ing , t h i s chapter desc r i bes the l e g i s l a t i o n and cases tha t determine the l e g a l r i g h t s o f water users i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The chapter begins w i th a b r i e f , h i s t o r y o f the p r o v i n c e ' s su r face water l aw , then desc r i bes the cu r ren t Water A c t . The case law p e r t a i n i n g to groundwater use i s then d i s c u s s e d , and two s t a t u t e s which a f f e c t groundwater use are o u t l i n e d . I I . THE DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACE WATER LAW P r i o r to 1859, the common law doc t r i ne o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s was used to determine the r i g h t s o f a l l users o f f r esh su r face water i n the co lony tha t was l a t e r to become B r i t i s h Columbia . The r i p a r i a n d o c t r i n e gave every owner o f p roper ty ad jacen t to a stream the r i g h t to have the stream f low by i n i t s na tu ra l s t a t e and the r i g h t to reasonable use o f the water i n i t . The r i p a r i a n r i g h t to have the stream f low i n i t s na tu ra l s t a t e through one 's p roper ty was t he re fo re sub jec t to the r i g h t s o f o ther r i p a r i a n owners to the reasonable enjoyment o f the wa te r . Consequent ly , a l e g a l a c t i o n cou ld on l y l i e i f i t was f o r unreasonable and unauthor ized use o f the water i n the common s t r e a m . * Th is aspec t o f the r i p a r i a n doc t r i ne caused water users to have l i t t l e s e c u r i t y o f tenure i n areas where water was s c a r c e . One r i p a r i a n owner 's ' r e a s o n a b l e ' use o f water cou ld reduce a n o t h e r ' s supply a t any t ime . Fur ther d i f f i c u l t i e s i n water a l l o c a t i o n stemmed from the f a c t t ha t ' r e a s o n a b l e ' use r e f e r r e d on l y to use on the r i p a r i a n l a n d . Th is con -s t r a i n t prevented the water from being put to i t s best use i n some c a s e s . As the co lony deve loped, the r i p a r i a n d o c t r i n e was found to be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the dry i n t e r i o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y because o f the demand f o r water f o r s l u i c i n g and dredging i n the go ld f i e l d s . Water users needed s e c u r i t y o f tenure and the oppor tun i t y to use water on n o n - r i p a r i a n l a n d s . T h e r e f o r e , the doc t r i ne was g r a d u a l l y rep laced b y s t a t u t e s , beg inn ing w i th the Gold F i e l d s Ac t o f 1859 . 2 By 1914, B r i t i s h Columbia 3 had a d e t a i l e d Water Ac t which r e q u i r e d most users o f f r esh su r face water to ob ta in a l i c e n c e . The 1939 Water A c t , 4 which was b a s i c a l l y a reenac t -5 ment o f the 1914 Ac t has had few amendments to da te . The c u r r e n t Water  A c t , l i k e i t s p redecesso rs , dea ls on ly w i th su r face wate r . I I I . THE WATER ACT The Water Ac t vested a l l r i g h t s to the use o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's su r face water i n the Crown i n the r i g h t o f the p r o v i n c e , thus e l i m i n a t i n g most r i p a r i a n r i g h t s . The Crown i ssues l i c e n c e s which au tho r i ze the d i v e r s i o n and use o f water o r the o b s t r u c t i o n o f s t reams. R i p a r i a n owners are not r equ i r ed to have l i c e n c e s f o r domestic uses , but t h e i r use o f 8 water i s sub jec t to the r i g h t s o f any l i c e n s e e . Among l i c e n s e e s , precedence i s g e n e r a l l y determined by the date o f a p p l i c a t i o n f o r water r i g h t s . I f two l i c e n c e s became e f f e c t i v e on the same date then precedence i s acco rd ing to purpose. Th is system o f p r i o r i t y r i g h t g ives many users l i m i t e d s e c u r i t y o f f l o w s . J u n i o r l i c e n s e e s have no p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t s e n i o r l i c e n c e ho lders and can the re fo re l ose t h e i r s u p p l i e s i n dry y e a r s . The Crown w i l l on ly grant a water l i c e n c e i f there i s u n a l l o c a t e d water a v a i l a b l e a t the proposed po in t o f d i v e r s i o n and i f the a p p l i c a n t g can show tha t he i s ab le to put the water to ' b e n e f i c i a l u s e ' . In cases where r e l i a b l e i n fo rma t ion about the supply o f u n a l l o c a t e d water i s not a v a i l a b l e , o r where f lows are changeab le , the Compt ro l l e r o f Water R igh ts may e x e r c i s e the safeguard o f u n d e r - a l l o c a t i n g the s t r e a m f l o w . ^ IV. GROUNDWATER LAW A 1960 amendment to the Water A c t 1 1 p rov ided t h a t , upon proc lama-t i o n , groundwater cou ld be d e a l t w i th as su r face water i s . However, the amended s e c t i o n has not y e t been proc la imed i n f o r c e . Consequent ly , groundwater use i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s s t i l l governed by common law. T r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h common law d i s t i n g u i s h e d between groundwater l o c a t e d i n ' d e f i n e d and known' channels and p e r c o l a t i n g groundwater. The owners o f land o v e r l y i n g a ' d e f i n e d and known' channel o f groundwater had the same r i p a r i a n r i g h t s as d i d the owners o f land ad jacen t to su r face s t r e a m s . 1 ^ In o the r words the land owners cou ld use a ' r e a s o n a b l e ' amount o f groundwater f l ow ing i n de f i ned channe l s . In B r i t i s h Co lumbia , however, groundwater i s r a r e l y found i n ' d e f i n e d and known' c h a n n e l s , so the common law o f p e r c o l a t i n g groundwater has been a p p l i e d . A c c o r d i n g l y , every o c c u p i e r o f land has had the r i g h t to e x t r a c t as much groundwater as he w i s h e s , r ega rd less o f the e f f e c t h i s 13 a c t i o n s might have on o the r s u r f a c e o r groundwater u s e r s . Because no person owned the groundwater unde r l y i ng h i s p roper ty u n t i l he had i t i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , no l e g a l a c t i o n cou ld be brought f o r damages caused by a n o t h e r ' s use o f groundwater. Some Canadian cour t s have begun to depart from t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l statement o f the law and have sought to d e l i v e r judgments aimed a t more 14 equal r a t i o n i n g o f the r e s o u r c e . In 1975, the Manitoba Court o f Appeal dec ided tha t the common law r i g h t to withdraw groundwater must be made sub jec t to the laws o f nu isance and n e g l i g e n c e . In one o f the two m a j o r i t y judgments, Matas , J . A . , w i th whom Freedman, C . J . M . concu r red , s t a t e d tha t the common law i n Manitoba had been a f f e c t e d by the p r o v i n c e ' s Water R igh ts 15 Ac t and tha t the t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h cases shou ld t he re fo re not be f o l l o w e d . More r e c e n t l y , the Onta r io Cour t o f A p p e a l ^ agreed t h a t a p e r s o n ' s r i g h t to remove groundwater i s l i m i t e d by the laws o f nu isance and n e g l i -gence. At page 615, Howland, J . A . s t a t e d : " to conclude tha t those who a b s t r a c t p e r c o l a t i n g water have an unb r i d l ed l i c e n c e to wreak havoc on t h e i r neighbours would be harsh and e n t i r e l y out o f keeping w i th the law o f t o r t s as i t e x i s t s t oday . " The Ontar io Court had more freedom to depar t from the E n g l i s h common law than B r i t i s h Columbia would i n a s i m i l a r case because the Province of Ontario adopted English law as of 1792, while British Columbia received the law as i t stood in 1858.^ Between those 18 dates Acton v. Blundell, the English case which set out the traditional common law rules regarding groundwater, was decided. Therefore, i t is not entirely clear how a British Columbia court would decide a case i f one person's withdrawal of groundwater caused damages to his neighbour. Water users in this province probably have the right to withdraw as much groundwater as they wish, regardless of the consequences. If however, the British Columbia courts can distinguish the English cases and follow the decisions of the Manitoba and Ontario courts, then groundwater users in British Columbia will have rights which closely resemble those of riparian owners. Although this would give the water users more protection than they had under the traditional common law rules, the problems associated with uncertainty of flows would remain. A 'reasonable' groundwater user could s t i l l reduce his neighbour's supply at any time. V. RELATED LEGISLATION Although groundwater users must rely on case law i f disputes over the allocation of water arise, there are two provincial statutes that give users some protection against reductions in groundwater quality. Both the 19 20 Pollution Control Act and the Health Act contain sections designed to protect well users. The Pollution Control Act prohibits anyone from discharging, or permitting the discharge of any waste material into any water unless he 21 has a permit or the approval of the Director of Pollution Control. This r e s t r i c t i o n includes discharging p o l l u t i o n material into any ground-water within the province's j u r i s d i c t i o n . The regulations made under section 5 of the Health Act provide groundwater q u a l i t y guidelines, determine how f a r wells must be located from possible sources of contamination, and set well cleaning requirements. In addition, the regulations p r o h i b i t anyone from placing any animal or vegetable matter in or near a domestic water source, and from doing anything else which might render a water supply u n f i t f or domestic 22 purposes. 18 CHAPTER TWO REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. Embrey v. Owen (1851) 6 Exchequer Reports 352. 2 . The ord inance number i s u n a v a i l a b l e . The Ac t was proc la imed on 31 August 1859 by Governor Douglas and i s d i scussed i n R . E . C a i l , Land, Man and the Law: The D isposa l o f Crown Lands i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1871-1913 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1974). 3 . S ta tu tes o f B r i t i s h Columbi.a-1914, c h a p . r 8 1 . 4 . S ta tu tes o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1939, chap. 63 . 5 . R ichard Campbe l l , " B r i t i s h Columbia Water A p p r o p r i a t i o n : S ta tu te and P r a c t i c e " (a paper submi t ted f o r Law 501, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ) , 1972. 6 . Rev ised S ta tu tes o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 429. 7. There i s some disagreement over the i s s u e o f whether r i p a r i a n owners have r i g h t s to use water f o r domestic purposes o r whether they may use i t a t su f fe rance o n l y . Suppor t ing the l a t t e r view i s S c h i l l i n g e r and Ponderosa Trout Farm v . H. Wi l l i amson B lack top & Landscaping L t d . (1977) 4 B r i t i s h Columbia Law Reports 394. Campbell d i scusses t h i s i ssue i n more d e t a i l . 8 . Johnson v . Anderson (1937) 1 Dominion Law Reports 760. 9 . R. Campbe l l , P. Pea rse , and A . S c o t t , "Water A l l o c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia: An Economic Assessment o f P u b l i c P o l i c y , " U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 7 (1972) : 256. 10. I b i d . , p. 257. 11. S ta tu tes o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1960, chap. 6 0 , s e c t i o n s 2 - 4 . 12. S . G . M a u r i c e , e d . , Gale on Easements, 14th e d . (London: Sweet & Max-w e l l , 1972). 13. Acton v . B l u n d e l l (1843) 12 Meeson & Welsby 324; Chasemore v . R ichards (1859) 11 Eng l i sh Reports 140 (House o f L o r d s ) . 14. Penno v . Government o f Manitoba (1975) 64 Dominion Law Reports (3d) 256. 15. Rev ised S ta tu tes o f Manitoba 1954, chap. 289. 19 16. Pugliese et al v. National Capital Commission et a l , Beaver Under-ground Structures Ltd. et a l , Third P a r t i e s ; Dunn et al v. Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton et al (1977) 79 Dominion Law Reports (3d) 592. 17. Bora Laskin, The B r i t i s h T r a d i t i o n in Canadian Law (London: Stevens & Sons, 1969), p. 6. 18. (1843) 12 Meeson & Welsby 324. 19. Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 332. 20. Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 161. 21. Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia 1979, chap. 332, section 4. 22. In p a r t i c u l a r , see Regulations 41,;42, and 43. CHAPTER THREE GROUNDWATER ALLOCATION PROBLEMS I. INTRODUCTION In many parts of B r i t i s h Columbia, groundwater supplies exceed the demands of users and no a l l o c a t i v e mechanism i s necessary. In some areas, however, a r e l a t i v e l y small supply of groundwater must be d i s -t r i b u t e d among competing users. Two issues a r i s e in such cases: f i r s t , at what rate should the water be withdrawn and, second, what use should be made of the water (and by whom) at any point in time. Unless ground-water rights are defined in a manner that enables these issues to be resolved, a l l o c a t i o n problems are l i k e l y to a r i s e . There are several hydrogeologic and economic factors which a f f e c t groundwater a l l o c a t i o n and use, and which should be taken into account when devising a groundwater a l l o c a t i o n system. Chapter three discusses these factors and t h e i r implications for groundwater manage-ment, and relates them to groundwater a l l o c a t i o n problems which have arisen in B r i t i s h Columbia. II. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON GROUNDWATER USE The common law rule of groundwater ownership was developed at a time when technical knowledge of groundwater was very l i m i t e d . * When physical interdependence among well-owners was recognized, some American courts departed from the common law to re l y on new doctrines which 2 acknowledged t h i s interdependence. Since that time, there has been a s i g n i f i c a n t increase in s c i e n t i f i c knowledge regarding aquifers and groundwater. This improved understanding of hydrogeology has led to recognition of the f a c t that other physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ground-water have implications for i t s use and management. Several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which should be considered when choosing an e f f e c t i v e groundwater management system are discussed in the follow-ing sections. Some of the problems which have occurred in B r i t i s h Columbia because these factors have not been acknowledged are described. A. The Effects of Land Use Groundwater supplies are replenished by i n f i l t r a t i o n of r a i n -water, and are therefore a f f e c t e d by the condition of the overlying s o i l . The porosity of the s o i l i s l a r g e l y determined by natural f a c t o r s , but c e r t a i n land uses a f f e c t the a b i l i t y of rainwater to enter the s o i l . S treets, b u i l d i n g s , and parking l o t s impede recharge d i r e c t l y and through s o i l compaction.^ Other land uses a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of the water that eventually enters the underground r e s e r v o i r s . Waste disposal s i t e s and septic tanks pose obvious problems i f located near water wells, and pesticides 4 present in leaching waters can f i l t e r into groundwater supplies. F e r t i l i z e r s may increase n i t r a t e and phosphate l e v e l s in percolating water, and c l e a r c u t logging can lead to an increased flow of chemicals 5 through the s o i l . As water f i l t e r s through the ground, many of these contaminants are absorbed by the s o i l or attenuated in other ways.*' However, depending on the s o i l ' s water content, amount of r a i n f a l l , and s o i l type, leaching water may contain a variety of pollutants when they reach groundwater r e s e r v o i r s . The ab i l i ty of f i l t r a t ing water to carry pollutants into ground-water reservoirs is evident on Hornby Island, where most residents rely exclusively upon percolating groundwater for their domestic supplies. Because some of the water used and then discarded by residents finds i ts way into aquifers, detergents and other impurities have been found in well water.^ Widespread use of septic tanks may cause further quality o problems as development of the Island proceeds. The effects that certain land uses can have on the quantity and quality of available groundwater impede the success of groundwater manage-ment systems which consider the resource in isolat ion. Measures directed at controlling groundwater use cannot protect the resource i f factors which impair replenishment are ignored. B. Groundwater - Surface Water Relationships 9 Groundwater and surface water constitute one interrelated unit. Attempts to resolve water supply problems must therefore take into account the seawater-groundwater relationships described in chapter one, and the interdependency between groundwater and surface streams and lakes. The association between the water table and the level of water in a surface stream or lake makes i t possible for a new well to interfere not only with other wells, but also with surface water f l ows .^ When pumping lowers the water table below the level of an adjoining*:.- stream, the stream begins to supply water to the aqu i f e r .^ This relationship created problems for surface water users in;the Okanagan area several years ago. Licensed users of Kalamalka Lake water found that their water supplies were declining at a time when use of 12 nearby wells was increasing. The surface-groundwater relationship was 23 so s t rong tha t pumping o f un l i censed w e l l water was drawing down the lake and t h rea ten ing l i c e n s e e s ' r i g h t s . In tegra ted management o f groundwater and su r face water w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y necessary as demand f o r water grows. The Un i ted S ta tes Na t iona l Water Commission has s t a ted tha t i n t e g r a t e d management o f su r face and ground waters i s e s s e n t i a l , and tha t "no one s e r i o u s l y d i spu tes the 13 need f o r such con junc t i ve management." C. Groundwater Movement The s low ra te o f underground water movement enables groundwater r e s e r v o i r s to ma in ta in s u p p l i e s even dur ing dry seasons , but i t a l s o makes dep le t i on and p o l l u t i o n problems d i f f i c u l t to c o r r e c t . Problems u s u a l l y become ev iden t a f t e r seve ra l years o f overdraught ing o r con tam ina t i on , and 14 i t i s then too l a t e f o r qu ick s o l u t i o n s . The slow movement, and consequent s low ra te o f recharge cause groundwater to be a s tock ra the r than a f low o f water i f wi thdrawal ra tes 15 are h i g h . When heavy usage o c c u r s , the resource i s ' m i n e d ' , caus ing the water t a b l e to d e c l i n e u n t i l pumping i s reduced. A lowered water t a b l e 16 may g r a d u a l l y r i s e i f w i thdrawals are reduced , but i n some cases the 17 water t a b l e w i l l never comple te ly r e c o v e r . Water q u a l i t y problems are u s u a l l y more s e r i o u s than a lowered water t a b l e . I f s a l t w a t e r or p o l l u t a n t s en te r a r e s e r v o i r , w e l l s may have to be abandoned u n t i l the contaminants are d i s p e r s e d . Due to the slow movement o f groundwater, i t can be many y e a r s , o r decades, before w e l l s are usable a g a i n . ^ The pro longed e f f e c t s o f overdraught ing and contaminat ion i l l u s t r a t e the importance o f i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l problems. I f we l l -owners 24 wa i t u n t i l d e p l e t i o n and p o l l u t i o n problems a r i s e , they may be faced w i th the c o s t l y p rospect o f f i n d i n g new water s u p p l i e s . D. A q u i f e r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R e l i a b l e i n fo rma t ion about the amount o f water i n an a q u i f e r and p o s s i b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the supply i s impor tant to groundwater manage-ment. In o rder to ob ta in t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , hydrogeo log ic data on a q u i f e r boundar ies and c a p a c i t y , po in t s and ra tes o f recha rge , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i th su r face water are r e q u i r e d . However, because a q u i f e r s are l o c a t e d underground, t h i s data can be d i f f i c u l t to a c q u i r e . Without adequate i n fo rma t ion about a supply o f groundwater, the amount o f water which can be pumped on a sus ta i ned y i e l d b a s i s cannot be determined, nor can i n t e r - w e l l e f f e c t s be p r e d i c t e d . These d i f f i c u l t i e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n areas w i th complex bedrock geology and i n 19 coas ta l a r e a s . For example, i n 1973, a h igh y i e l d i r r i g a t i o n we l l was d r i l l e d i n the g r a n o d i o r i t e area o f the Saanich P e n i n s u l a . Complaints by o ther Saanich we l l u s e r s , o f reduced f lows l e d to t e s t s which revea led a complex f r a c t u r e d bedrock a q u i f e r system. The i n te rconnec ted and d iscon t inuous f r a c t u r e s had a l lowed the i r r i g a t i o n we l l to i n t e r f e r e w i th w e l l s more than 3000 f e e t away, wh i l e l e a v i n g some nearby w e l l s u n a f f e c t e d , a t the t ime o f d r i l l i n g , the data needed to p r e d i c t these impacts was not a v a i l a b l e . Hydrogeolog ic data are a l s o r equ i r ed i n the many c o a s t a l areas o f the P r o v i n c e , where s a l t w a t e r i n t r u s i o n i s a p o t e n t i a l problem. Approp r ia te data would a l l o w water managers to determine the groundwater l e v e l necessary to keep seawater out o f the a q u i f e r s and hence, the quan t i t y 25 of water that could s a f e l y be pumped. Monitoring of the water table would then allow preventative action to be taken before i n t r u s i o n occurs. The importance of r e l i a b l e hydrogeologic data should be considered when devising a groundwater management plan. Means of f a c i l i t a t i n g data c o l l e c t i o n should be incorporated into the plan and u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t data are a v a i l a b l e , f l e x i b i l i t y should be maintained so that water a l l o c a t i o n can be improved when better data are obtained. A r i g i d system which establishes f i x e d a l l o c a t i o n s i s inappropriate i f there i s uncertainty about the water supply. I I I . GROUNDWATER USE AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY The economic objective of groundwater management i s to a l l o c a t e the resource in an " e f f i c i e n t " manner, i . e . in a way that generates the greatest net benefit to society as a whole. With regard to a s p e c i f i c underground r e s e r v o i r , t h i s objective i s met when the marginal value of 21 using water i s equal f o r a l l uses. These marginal values are determined by taking into account a l l costs and b e n e f i t s , not j u s t marketable values. I f a s i n g l e groundwater user has control over an e n t i r e underground r e s e r v o i r , he may consider a l l costs and benefits and use the water e f f i c i e n t l y . However, groundwater resources are often used by a number of well-owners who pump water from a common source. Although the pumpers are interdependent, each user bases his pumping decisions on the costs and benefits he personally experiences. Unless countervailing laws e x i s t , the pumper tends to ignore both the monetary and intangible costs that his use imposes on his neighbours. These external costs may be e i t h e r increased pumping costs or the less q u a n t i f i a b l e costs associated with reduced water supplies. 26 In B r i t i s h Co lumbia , groundwater users are not prevented from us ing water i n amounts, o r i n ways which generate ex te rna l c o s t s . As a r e s u l t , we l l -owners have no p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t reduc t ions i n the q u a n t i t y o r q u a l i t y o f groundwater caused by o ther u s e r s ' w i t hd rawa l s . The f o l l o w i n g cases i l l u s t r a t e some o f the problems which a r i s e when s i g n i f i c a n t 22 ex te rna l cos t s e x i s t . In 1969, a Surrey landowner d r i l l e d an a r t e s i a n we l l which even-t u a l l y y i e l d e d 300 g a l l o n s per minute. In the weeks f o l l o w i n g the d r i l l i n g , seve ra l nearby we l l owners complained to the Water Resources Se rv i ce o f s e v e r e l y reduced water l e v e l s . Because there are no r e s t r i c t i o n s on groundwater w i t h d r a w a l s , the a r t e s i a n user was a l l o w i n g water to f low f r e e l y from h i s we l l i n t o a d i t c h . The o ther we l l -owners had no r i g h t s to cont inuous groundwater s u p p l i e s and t he re fo re were fo rced to e i t h e r i n c u r a d d i t i o n a l pumping cos ts o r use l e s s wa te r . In a second c a s e , the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch 's F raser V a l l e y Trout Hatchery near Abbo ts fo rd was competing w i th the town o f Sumas f o r groundwater s u p p l i e s . The Hatchery depends on groundwater, r a t h e r than su r face water because o f the fo rmer ' s h igh q u a l i t y and r e l a t i v e l y cons tan t temperature and chemical con ten t . Sumas a l s o r e l i e s h e a v i l y on groundwater and , i n 1972, completed a new, h i g h - y i e l d we l l about 1200 f e e t nor th o f the Ha tche ry ' s we l l f i e l d . At tha t t i m e , the p r o v i n c i a l government was expanding the Hatchery and there was concern over making such an i n v e s t -ment w i thout an assured water supp l y . The Hatchery expansion was completed i n 1977 a t a c o s t o f about 23 $7 m i l l i o n . By 1978, a q u i f e r t e s t s showed reduced water l e v e l s and i n 1979, p lans were made to improve the Ha tche ry ' s pumping f a c i l i t i e s . As the water needs of Sumas residents increase, a new water source w i l l be required. Until then, however, the aquifer w i l l be "mined" and the Hatchery w i l l incur increased extraction costs. In both the Surrey and the Sumas cases, owners of hig h - y i e l d wells imposed costs on other groundwater users. The existence of such external costs a f f e c t s a l l o c a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y i n two ways: groundwater users tend to withdraw more groundwater than they would i f these costs were taken into account, and future water supplies are insecure. The tendency to withdraw excessive amounts of groundwater i s a r e s u l t of the pumper's a b i l i t y to pass some of the withdrawal costs on to his neighbours, while r e a l i z i n g the benefits himself. He perceives the net benefits of pumping to be greater than they are from a so c i a l perspective. In the Surrey case, the artesian well-owner's marginal pumping costs were n e g l i g i b l e so he had no incentive to r e f r a i n from wasting water. The costs that he imposed on other well-owners did not reduce his private net ben e f i t s . In the Sumas case, the town's decision to use groundwater rather than surface water was based on the r e l a t i v e costs of obtaining water. The costs incurred by the Hatchery when the water table declined did not need to be taken into account. I f the town was required to i n t e r n a l i z e these costs, i t may have developed an a l t e r n a t i v e .water supply. A second source of economic i n e f f i c i e n c y i s the i n s e c u r i t y that groundwater users experience when other pumpers are free to generate external costs. Each well-owner i s only e n t i t l e d to the groundwater that he pumps; he has no rights to the water l e f t i n the ground. Because he knows that other pumpers may lower the water ta b l e , he i s uncertain about future water supplies. Consequently, the well-owner has an incentive to use the water while he can, ignoring the future value of the resource and the s o c i a l l y optimal rate of withdrawal. The existence of external costs and the associated i n s e c u r i t y can also lead to i n e f f i c i e n t use of resources other than water. The threat of new, deeper wells being d r i l l e d by future neighbours may cause a land-owner to over-invest i n pumping equipment when he d r i l l s his w e l l . As a r e s u l t , expenditures on w e l l - d r i l l i n g , pumps, and energy may exceed those necessary under an e f f i c i e n t system. In add i t i o n , landowners who depend on groundwater supplies may not be able to develop t h e i r property without some sec u r i t y of supply. It i s evident from the foregoing discussion that the economic e f f i c i e n c y of groundwater use could be improved by the introduction of measures which reduce the incentive to overdraught and provide water users with security of supply. However, because the s o c i a l l y optimal mix of water uses w i l l change over time, the e f f i c i e n c y objective also requires that water rights be transferable. As economic conditions change, the values of some water uses w i l l increase r e l a t i v e to others. Transfers to the new, higher-valued uses should be permitted i n order to maintain e f f i c i e n c y . Under the present B r i t i s h Columbia system, rights to ground-water use are appurtenant to the overlying land and are only transferred when the land i s sol d . 29 CHAPTER THREE REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. A . R . Bosch , "Water Law--Groundwater--A F i l t e r f o r a Muddy I s s u e ? " , Cre igh ton Law Review 12 (1978) : 434. 2 . Some o f these doc t r i nes are d i scussed i n chapter f o u r . 3 . L . E . Mack, Groundwater Management i n Development o f a Na t iona l Pol i c y on Water. A repo r t prepared fo r the Nat iona l Water Commission ( A r l i n g t o n , V i r g i n a : Na t iona l Water Commission, 1971) , p. 56; Press and S i eve r , p. 240. 4 . Press and S i e v e r , pp. 242-43. 5 . 0 . Slaymaker and L .M. L a v k u l i c k , A Review o f Land Use--Water Q u a l i t y  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a Proposed Method fo r t h e i r Study (Vancouver: Westwater Research Cen t re , 1978) , p. 5 . 6 . I b i d . , p. 6 . 7. A . O . Lubkowski , "A P lann ing S t ra tegy f o r Water Supply w i t h i n Vaca t ion Areas o f the Gul f I s l a n d s " (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1972) , p. 98. 8 . I b i d . , p. 99. 9 . G . L . Widman, "Groundwater- -Hydro logy and the Problem o f Competing Well Owners," i n Fourteenth Rocky ; Mountain Minera l Law I n s t i t u t e (New York : Matthew B inder & C o . , 1968) , pp. 527-30. 10. R.A. Young and J . D . B redehoe f t , " D i g i t a l Computer S imu la t i on For S o l v i n g Management Problems o f Con junc t i ve Groundwater and Sur face Water Sys tems, " Water Resources Research 8 (1972) : 535. 11 . Widman, p. 527. 12 . Foweraker, i n t e r v i e w . 13. Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater: An Overv iew. A repo r t to Congress (Washington: Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , 1977) , p. 28 . 14. Press and S i e v e r , p. 243. 15. I b i d . , p. 238. 16. Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater: An Overv iew, p. 18. 17. E. L i v i n g s t o n , "Groundwater as a Water Resource i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , " i n Seventeenth B r i t i s h Columbia Natura l Resources Conference, ( V i c t o r i a : B . C . N . R . C . , 1967) . 30 18. Un i ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater, An Overv iew, p. 18. 19. The Kingswood w e l l , y i e l d i n g 300 ga l l ons per minu te : Foweraker, i n t e r v i e w . 20 . Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater, An Overv iew, p. 31 . 21 . Campbel l , Pearse and S c o t t , p. 250. 22 . The in fo rmat ion about these cases i s from Foweraker, i n t e r v i e w . 23 . Recent t e s t s , however, show tha t the water t a b l e has r e c o v e r e d : Zube l1 , i n t e r v i e w . 24. Young and Bredehoe f t , p. 535. 25 . Campbel l , Pearse and S c o t t , p. 252. CHAPTER FOUR GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES I. INTRODUCTION Almost every prov ince and s t a t e i n western North America has in t roduced some form of groundwater con t ro l l e g i s l a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , there are a number o f d i f f e r e n t groundwater r e g u l a t i o n and management systems i n e f f e c t . A rev iew o f some o f these sys tems, and o f s t r a t e g i e s recommended i n the l i t e r a t u r e should prov ide some guidance i n the development o f a groundwater management s t r a t e g y fo r B r i t i s h Columbia . This chapter examines severa l o f the groundwater management and r e g u l a t i o n schemes which have been recommended or adopted i n o ther j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In order to assess t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y fo r B r i t i s h Columbia the a l t e r n a t i v e s are eva lua ted accord ing t o : (1) f e a s i b i l i t y , g iven the p r o v i n c e ' s cu r ren t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l systems; (2) equ i t y among groundwater u s e r s ; (3) e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c o n t r o l l i n g the phys i ca l problems desc r ibed i n chapter t h r e e ; and (4) economic e f f i c i e n c y . I I . ALTERNATIVES The laws governing groundwater use i n North America are based on four l e g a l d o c t r i n e s : (1) the common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownersh ip ; (2) the doc t r i ne o f reasonab le use ; (3) the c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s d o c t r i n e ; and (4) the p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n r u l e . The common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownership a l l ows owners o f land o v e r l y i n g a groundwater r e s e r v o i r to make un l im i t ed wi thdrawals o f wa te r , r ega rd less o f any damage they may cause to t h e i r ne ighbours ' water s u p p l i e s . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i th the r u l e has caused most prov inces and s ta tes in western North America to r e l y i ns tead on the more r e s t r i c t i v e d o c t r i n e s . In areas which have adopted the reasonab le use r u l e , a groundwater user may a f f e c t h i s ne ighbour ' s water supply i f h i s use i s ' r e a s o n a b l e ' . The c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s d o c t r i n e a l s o a l l ows the landowner to make reasonable use of the wate r , but l i m i t s the amount he may withdraw to h is c o r r e l a t i v e sha re . Many western s t a tes now employ the f ou r t h d o c t r i n e , p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n , and have adopted p r i o r i t y l i c e n s i n g systems to a l l o c a t e groundwater. The common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownership i s c u r r e n t l y i n e f f e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia and has been desc r ibed in chapter two. The remainder o f t h i s s e c t i o n desc r i bes the d o c t r i n e s o f reasonab le use , c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s , and p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n , and d i s c u s s e s the v a r i a t i o n s and complementary p r o v i s i o n s which have been in t roduced i n o ther western prov inces and s t a t e s . A l so d i scussed i s the recommendation of severa l authors tha t a p r i c i n g mechanism be used to a l l o c a t e groundwater. A. The Reasonable Use Doc t r i ne The reasonab le use d o c t r i n e l i m i t s a landowner 's use o f groundwater to ' reasonab le and b e n e f i c i a l ' use bu t , l i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l common law r u l e , i t does not r e q u i r e the landowner to cons ide r the e f f e c t s h i s use of water may have on h is ne ighbou rs . * I f groundwater use i s ' reasonab le and b e n e f i c i a l 1 to the u s e r ' s l a n d , then an a f f e c t e d neighbour cannot ma in ta in an a c t i o n f o r damages even i f h i s water supply i s d e p l e t e d . Determinat ion o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a reasonab le use of groundwater can be a d i f f i c u l t ma t te r . Consequent ly , cou r t s have held t ha t almost a l l uses on o v e r l y i n g land - domes t i c , i r r i g a t i o n , and manufactur ing - have 3 economic or s o c i a l va lue and are t h e r e f o r e r easonab le . The reasonable use d o c t r i n e i s i n e f f e c t i n Manitoba and O n t a r i o , and i n severa l o f the eas tern and midwestern s t a tes which do not have 4 groundwater a p p r o p r i a t i o n s t a t u t e s . Some s ta tes have supplemented the d o c t r i n e w i th o ther water management p r o v i s i o n s . A r i z o n a , f o r example, 5 uses the reasonab le use r u l e to a l l o c a t e p e r c o l a t i n g groundwater, but r e q u i r e s tha t no t i ces o f i n t e n t to d r i l l w e l l s be f i l e d w i th government a g e n c i e s , and a l l ows c r i t i c a l groundwater areas to be d e s i g n a t e d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l areas has a l i m i t e d e f f e c t on groundwater use i n A r i z o n a , however, because c r i t i c a l areas are narrowly de f ined as areas not having s u f f i c i e n t groundwater to prov ide i r r i g a t i o n o f c u l t i v a t e d land 7 Wiscons in cou r t s have adopted a v a r i a t i o n of the reasonab le use d o c t r i n e and may f i n d a groundwater user l i a b l e f o r damages i f h i s use causes unreasonable harm to o ther users by lower ing the water t a b l e or g reduc ing a r t e s i a n p ressu re . Th is more r e s t r i c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f reasonab le use was adopted i n order to p ro tec t smal l users who have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the water t a b l e and who are l e a s t ab le to bear the cos t s o f 9 deepening w e l l s . In l o o k i n g beyond the reasonableness of the use on the land to the e f f e c t on the water t a b l e , Wiscons in cou r t s are moving c l o s e r to the c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s d o c t r i n e . B. C o r r e l a t i v e R igh ts C a l i f o r n i a has adopted the p r i n c i p l e o f c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s as a means o f s o l v i n g groundwater a l l o c a t i o n problems. Th is p r i n c i p l e evolved from the common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownership in a s e r i e s o f l e g a l cases t ha t began i n 1 9 0 2 . 1 0 Under the c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s r u l e , a l l owners o f land o v e r l y i n g a common supply o f p e r c o l a t i n g groundwater** have co-equal r i g h t s to the r easonab le , b e n e f i c i a l use o f the water on or i n connec t ion 12 w i th t h e i r l a n d s . When demand exceeds s u p p l y , each water user i s e n t i t l e d to a reasonab le share o f the water and can app ly to the cou r t s 13 to have the r e s p e c t i v e r i g h t s o f the co-equal users de termined. C o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s are not based on use or l o s t by nonuse, so one landowner cannot gain p r i o r i t y merely by a p p r o p r i a t i n g the water before 14 h is ne ighbours . Each landowner has an equal r i g h t to h i s reasonab le 15 sha re , r ega rd less o f when he commenced use . The r i g h t to reasonab le use on the o v e r l y i n g . l a n d i s paramount to any a p p r o p r i a t i o n fo r d i s t a n t use bu t , a f t e r these reasonab le needs have been met, any su rp lus groundwater may be put to b e n e f i c i a l use on other 16 l a n d s . A r i g h t to con t inue us ing water on d i s t a n t lands may l a t e r be acqu i red by p r e s c r i p t i o n . * ^ There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f ground and 18 su r face water r i g h t s when the waters c o n s t i t u t e a common supply ( i . e . when the groundwater e i t h e r f lows from the stream or feeds i t ) . The r u l e o f reasonable use i s used to coo rd ina te the va r i ous r i g h t s i n such c a s e s . C. P r i o r A p p r o p r i a t i o n A l b e r t a , O n t a r i o , and many o f the western s t a tes have adopted groundwater l i c e n c e systems under the p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e . The p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e g ives a p r i o r i t y r i g h t to the f i r s t person who ob ta ins a l i c e n c e to use groundwater f o r a con t i nuous , b e n e f i c i a l 19 purpose. 35 A landowner acqu i res an a p p r o p r i a t i v e r i g h t by f i r s t app l y i ng to the r e s p o n s i b l e government agency fo r a l i c e n c e to pump water a t a s p e c i f i e d r a t e . In most c a s e s , the l i c e n c e i s i ssued i f there i s s u f f i c i e n t ground-water a v a i l a b l e . I f a groundwater shor tage develops at some l a t e r d a t e , p r i o r i t y among users i s determined p r i m a r i l y by the dates o f the l i c e n c e s , and second l y , by the type o f water u s e . A l i c e n s e e can l o s e h is p r i o r i t y r i g h t s by d i s c o n t i n u i n g h is use o f water f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t leng th o f t ime 7® There i s a cons i de rab le amount o f v a r i a t i o n i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i c e n c e systems among the va r i ous a p p r o p r i a t i o n s ta tes and p r o v i n c e s . Some j u r i s d i c t i o n s r e q u i r e tha t l i c e n c e s be obta ined by a l l but smal l domest ic users wh i l e o thers operate l i c e n c e systems on l y i n problem a r e a s . In some a r e a s , l i c e n c e s are i ssued whenever groundwater i s a v a i l a b l e , but a few s t a t e s t r y to prevent l ong- run d e p l e t i o n o f underground r e s e r v o i r s . The A l b e r t a government passed l e g i s l a t i o n i n 1971, r e q u i r i n g a l l but s m a l l - s c a l e domest ic users to ob ta i n l i c e n c e s to use groundwater. P rospec t i ve groundwater users must p rov ide t e c h n i c a l i n fo rma t ion p e r t a i n i n g to the a q u i f e r and the proposed wel 1 , .and-.demonstrate a need fo r the 21 wate r . Ontar io has a l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n program whereby l i c e n c e s are requ i red on l y f o r w i thdrawals o f 10,000 g a l l o n s or more per day . 22 Smal le r w e l l s are sub jec t to the reasonab le use r u l e . Several s t a t es t r y to avo id severe a q u i f e r d e p l e t i o n by d e s i g n a t i n g c r i t i c a l areas when problems o f wel l i n t e r f e r e n c e or water t a b l e d e c l i n e become e v i d e n t . In the c r i t i c a l a r e a s , groundwater use i s more c l o s e l y r e g u l a t e d . In Montana, fo r example, we l l l i c e n c e s are requ i red in c o n t r o l l e d areas f o r w e l l s o f a l l s i z e s . Outs ide these a r e a s , l i c e n c e s are needed on l y 23 fo r w i thdrawals exceeding 100 g a l l o n s per minu te . And i n Oregon, the S ta te Engineer can prevent f u r t h e r a p p r o p r i a t i o n s and reduce l i c e n s e e s ' 24 wi thdrawals i n c r i t i c a l a r e a s . Nebraska has a v a r i e t y o f p r o v i s i o n s fo r managing, groundwater use . The Natura l Resources D i s t r i c t s may des igna te c r i t i c a l areas i n which groundwater use can be regu la ted through cutbacks i n p r o d u c t i o n , 25 r e f u s a l s fo r l i c e n c e s , and any other r e s t r i c t i o n s deemed necessa ry . The s t a t e recogn izes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ground and su r face waters by p l a c i n g w e l l s w i t h i n f i f t y fee t o f a stream bank under the stream 26 a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e . In n o n c r i t i c a l areas away from s t reams, l i c e n c e s are not requ i red and groundwater c o n f l i c t s are reso l ved by the cou r t s through a p p l i c a t i o n o f the P r e f e r e n t i a l Use S ta tu te which favours 27 domest ic u s e r s , and then a g r i c u l t u r a l users, over o t h e r s . Some a p p r o p r i a t i o n s t a t e s are a t tempt ing to prevent d e p l e t i o n o f underground r e s e r v o i r s by ba lanc ing recharge and wi thdrawal r a t e s . Idaho a l l ows the .department o f water resources to ad jus t pumpage ra tes i n 28 accordance w i th a ' s a f e y i e l d ' concep t . North Dakota a l s o p lans to manage a q u i f e r s on a sus ta ined y i e l d bas i s and has requ i red water meters on higher, y i e l d w e l l s s i nce 1975 i n order to c o r r e l a t e pumpage w i th e f f e c t s 29 on a q u i f e r s . D. A Market System Severa l authors have recommended tha t market systems be e s t a b l i s h e d 30 to r a t i o n water by p r i c e . The o b j e c t i v e o f these proposa ls i s to a l l o w water r i g h t s to move toward t h e i r h ighes t and best uses by removing the cu r ren t r e s t r i c t i o n s on t r a n s f e r s . A compe t i t i ve market i n water r i g h t s would t h e o r e t i c a l l y lead to an e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n o f water resources over t i m e . Markets i n water r i g h t s e x i s t to some extent w i t h i n o ther ground-water a l l o c a t i o n sys tems. The groundwater r i g h t s he ld under the common law, reasonable use , and l i c e n s i n g systems are appurtenant to the land and are bought and so ld as par t o f the l a n d . Under the c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s system, purchasers o f land ga in an oppo r tun i t y to o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s . However, market systems are unique i n tha t they a l l o w water r i g h t s to be so ld independent ly o f l a n d . The d e t a i l s o f the va r i ous market models v a r y , but a l l i n v o l v e compe t i t i ve markets i n which c l e a r l y de f ined r i g h t s are bought and so ld a t market p r i c e s . Purchasers r e c e i v e r i g h t s to use c e r t a i n amounts o f wa te r , but do not purchase ac tua l q u a n t i t i e s o f water . The p r i c e pa id f o r a water r i g h t i s determined by supply and demand and w i l l vary among a r e a s , and over t ime . In reg ions where water i s p l e n t i f u l , p r i c e s would approach z e r o . When demand exceeds s u p p l y , p r i c e s would r i s e , d i s cou rag ing waste fu l use of wa te r . For most purposes, su r face water i s a pe r f ec t s u b s t i t u t e f o r groundwater. The re fo re , i f an e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n o f water resources i s to be a c h i e v e d , i t i s necessary to i n c l u d e both groundwater and su r face water i n a water r i g h t s market . I f su r face water r i g h t s were not marketed, su r face water s u p p l i e s might be overused r e l a t i v e to groundwater s u p p l i e s . I I I . EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES The preceding rev iew o f groundwater management systems has revea led a d i v e r s e group o f measures f o r a l l o c a t i n g , and i n some cases conserv ing groundwater. In order to assess the s u i t a b i l i t y o f these systems fo r B r i t i s h Columbia, the four a l t e r n a t i v e s are eva luated accord ing to the c r i t e r i a o f f e a s i b i l i t y , e q u i t y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and economic e f f i c i e n c y . F e a s i b i l i t y r e f e r s to the ease w i th which the va r i ous measures cou ld be incorpora ted i n t o B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l systems, as o u t l i n e d i n chapters one and two. A f e a s i b l e system can be in t roduced through the l e g i s l a t u r e or the cou r t s and , once i n p l a c e , w i l l operate wi thout excess i ve a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s . The equ i t y c r i t e r i a dea ls w i th the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos t s and bene f i t s among e x i s t i n g groundwater u s e r s , and among d i f f e r e n t genera t ions o f u s e r s . Judgments about the equ i t y o f any d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos ts and b e n e f i t s w i l l v a r y , depending on one 's va lues and i n t e r e s t s . However, i n t h i s t h e s i s , equ i t y i s assessed accord ing to (1) whether the cos t s o f reduc ing groundwater l e v e l s are d i s t r i b u t e d f a i r l y among e x i s t i n g u s e r s , and (2) whether groundwater s u p p l i e s can be conserved fo r the b e n e f i t o f f u tu re g e n e r a t i o n s . In assess i ng the equ i t y among e x i s t i n g u s e r s , p re ference was g iven to systems which spread cos t s among a l a rge number o f p a r t i e s ra the r than p l a c i n g an undue burden on on ly a few w e l l - o w n e r s . Fur thermore, i t was cons idered f a i r to ignore leng th o f p r i o r use when reduc t ions i n use are r e q u i r e d . Al though some may cons ide r tha t p r i o r i t y gained by use i s f a i r , i t i s not c l e a r tha t ' j u n i o r ' users are be t te r ab le to bear the cos t s o f water r e d u c t i o n s . E f f e c t i v e n e s s i s measured by each sys tem's a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e the groundwater problems which stem from phys i ca l c o n s t r a i n t s on groundwater use As d i scussed i n chapter t h r e e , these c o n s t r a i n t s make i t necessary f o r a 39 system to acknowledge both land-water and su r face water-groundwater r e l a t i o n s h i p s , prevent severe problems from d e v e l o p i n g , and be f l e x i b l e enough to operate wi thout complete hydrogeo log ic d a t a . F i n a l l y , economic e f f i c i e n c y i s assessed accord ing to whether the systems can remove the i n c e n t i v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l users to pump more ground-water than i s s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l , p rov ide wel lowners w i th some s e c u r i t y o f supp l y , and a l l o w groundwater r i g h t s to be t r a n s f e r r e d among u s e r s . A . The Reasonable Use Doc t r i ne The reasonab le use d o c t r i n e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the present common law r u l e and would pose few f e a s i b i l i t y problems. B r i t i s h Columbia cour t s may in t roduce t h i s d o c t r i n e by f o l l o w i n g the recen t d e c i s i o n s o f the Manitoba and Ontar io Courts o f A p p e a l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the p r o v i n c i a l government can pass l e g i s l a t i o n l i m i t i n g groundwater use to reasonab le and b e n e f i c i a l use . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownership and the reasonab le use d o c t r i n e would a l l o w a smooth t r a n s i t i o n from one system to the o t h e r . The reasonable use d o c t r i n e i s more e q u i t a b l e than the cu r ren t common law r u l e because i t g ives waste fu l or ' un reasonab le ' uses o f water the lowest p r i o r i t y . However, i f a l l competing uses are ' r e a s o n a b l e ' , then the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos ts and bene f i t s i s not cons idered by the c o u r t s . In a d d i t i o n , there are no p r o v i s i o n s f o r conserv ing groundwater f o r f u tu re u s e r s . The reasonab le use d o c t r i n e would be no more e f f e c t i v e than the common law i n d e a l i n g w i th most o f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i th the phys i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f groundwater. A p o s s i b l e excep t ion i s tha t the t h rea t o f l ega l a c t i o n f o r ' un reasonab le ' use may encourage some groundwater users to 40 r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s before severe d e p l e t i o n problems deve lop . The doc t r i ne would do l i t t l e to improve the economic e f f i c i e n c y o f groundwater use . L i ke the t r a d i t i o n a l common law , the d o c t r i n e o f reasonab le use con ta ins the element o f ' c a p t u r e ' , so r i g h t s are i n s e c u r e . The i n c e n t i v e to overdraught i s somewhat reduced because wel l -owners are d iscouraged from wast ing or making ' un reasonab le ' use o f groundwater. However, because the cour t s look on ly a t the reasonableness o f the i n d i v i d u a l u s e s , d e p l e t i o n o f the groundwater supply i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e . The cour ts do not cons ide r whether a reasonab le use i s e f f i c i e n t , nor cou ld such a de te rmina t ion be made wi thout s tudy ing a l l competing u s e s . B. C o r r e l a t i v e R igh ts A system o f c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s cou ld be e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia by l e g i s l a t i o n which l i m i t s a landowner 's use o f groundwater to h is c o r r e l a t i v e s h a r e . T r a n s i t i o n from the present system would be g r a d u a l , however, because i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s would be determined as a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s are made by the c o u r t s . The cour t a d j u d i c a t i o n s would probably be d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y because o f the need to weigh the t e c h n i c a l ev idence as we l l as the i n t e r e s t s o f the va r i ous w e l l - o w n e r s . In a d d i t i o n , there cou ld be a s i g n i f i c a n t per iod o f t ime between the a p p l i c a t i o n fo r a d j u d i c a t i o n and the ac tua l a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n . The c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s system i s the on l y a l t e r n a t i v e reviewed here which r equ i r es tha t equ i t y be cons idered whenever a p a r t i c u l a r a l l o c a t i o n i s de termined. When the demand f o r groundwater exceeds the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y , the cour t s cons ide r the reasonable needs o f the va r i ous p a r t i e s and the o v e r a l l e q u i t i e s , , and then dec ide upon a f a i r method o f reduc ing the c o l l e c t i v e r a te o f pumping. However, such d e c i s i o n s may f a i l to take i n t o account the needs o f f u tu re g e n e r a t i o n s . C o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s would probably be more e f f e c t i v e than e i t h e r the abso lu te ownership r u l e or the reasonab le use d o c t r i n e . The system would be very f l e x i b l e because the a l l o c a t i o n s are not f i x e d fo r a s p e c i f i c l eng th o f t ime . As more complete a q u i f e r i n fo rma t ion became a v a i l a b l e , the a l l o c a t i o n s cou ld be improved i n order to prevent problems from d e v e l o p i n g . However, i n some cases the system would not be ab le to r e s o l v e problems before they became seve re , because a l l o c a t i o n s by the cour t are on l y made a f t e r the need fo r a change i n usage pa t te rns becomes e v i d e n t . In a d d i t i o n , c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s would be d i f f i c u l t to coo rd ina te w i th B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's su r face water l i c e n s i n g system. Unless the c o l l e c t i v e ra te o f pumping were se t at a ' s a f e y i e l d ' l e v e l and su r face water had not been o v e r a l l o c a t e d , c o n f l i c t s would probably occur among u s e r s . A c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s system would do more to promote economic e f f i c i e n c y than the abso lu te ownership and reasonable use d o c t r i n e s . Under t h i s sys tem, a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s are made by the c o u r t s , ra the r than by i n d i v i d u a l we l l - owne rs . Th is p r a c t i c e has the e f f e c t o f r e g u l a t i n g both the c o l l e c t i v e r a t e o f wi thdrawal and the amount o f groundwater pumped by each u s e r . The re fo re , the number o f i n e f f i c i e n c y problems r e l a t e d to the ex i s t ence of ex te rna l cos t s would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced . C o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s o f f e r the groundwater user more s e c u r i t y o f supply than e i t h e r the abso lu te ownership or the reasonab le use d o c t r i n e . Complete s e c u r i t y o f supply i s not ensured (because the c o r r e l a t i v e shares may be ad jus ted from time to t i m e ) , but the b e n e f i c i a l user i s u s u a l l y c e r t a i n to r e c e i v e a share o f the a v a i l a b l e groundwater s u p p l y . And, 42 because no user can dep le te the r e s e r v o i r , each wel l -owner i s assured tha t a f u t u r e supply w i l l e x i s t to be sha red . Nonuse o f groundwater does not reduce one 's f u tu re c o r r e l a t i v e r i g h t s and t h e r e f o r e , new users are r e a d i l y accommodated. R ights cou ld be e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d to d i f f e r e n t uses as u s e r s ' needs change and as new users appear , because t r a n s f e r s o f r i g h t s take p lace a u t o m a t i c a l l y whenever a r e a l l o c a t i o n i s made. However, a r e a l l o c a t i o n may not r e s u l t i n ' h igher and b e t t e r ' uses o f water i n an economic sense . C. P r i o r A p p r o p r i a t i o n A p r i o r i t y l i c e n s i n g system fo r su r face waters has operated i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r many y e a r s . The system cou ld r e a d i l y be extended to groundwater i f the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f the Water Act were p roc la imed . I n t roduc t i on o f a groundwater l i c e n s i n g program would e n t a i l c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , but i t would probably not c rea te any a d d i t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i f the program were phased- in area by a r e a , i n manageable u n i t s . The equ i t y o f p r i o r i t y l i c e n s i n g systems i s mixed. When phys i ca l c o n d i t i o n s reduce the groundwater supply to the po in t where a l l needs cannot be met, the j u n i o r l i c e n s e e s bear most o f the cos t s o f the water sho r tage . A more e q u i t a b l e system might r e q u i r e a l l l i c e n s e e s to reduce t h e i r wi thdrawal ra tes by the same amount. However, a l i c e n s i n g system cou ld improve the i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos ts and b e n e f i t s . I f the t o t a l l i c e n s e d wi thdrawals from a p a r t i c u l a r r e s e r v o i r are l i m i t e d to the ' s a f e y i e l d ' , then the water supply w i l l not be dep le ted by e x i s t i n g u s e r s . A l i c e n s i n g system would be an e f f e c t i v e means o f d e a l i n g w i th some 43 groundwater problems. I t would f a c i l i t a t e j o i n t management o f ground and su r face wa te rs , and prov ide water resource agencies w i th more in fo rma-t i o n about groundwater use . I f l i c e n c e s s p e c i f i e d withdrawal r a t e s , were i ssued on l y when a sa fe y i e l d cou ld be expec ted , and were reviewed p e r i o d i c a l l y , most we l1 - i n t e r f e rence problems cou ld be a v o i d e d . However, hydrogeolog ic i n fo rmat ion i s needed i n order to determine the sa fe y i e l d o f an a q u i f e r and to p r e d i c t p o s s i b l e w e l l - i n t e r f e r e n c e problems. I f a q u i f e r i n fo rma t ion i s i ncomp le te , there i s a r i s k tha t too many l i c e n c e s w i l l be i s s u e d , and the water t a b l e w i l l be drawn down. Because the a l l o c a t i o n o f water i s f i x e d f o r the du ra t i on o f the l i c e n c e s , overdraught problems cannot r e a d i l y be c o r r e c t e d . A p r i o r i t y l i c e n s i n g system would be o f l i m i t e d va lue i n improving the e f f i c i e n c y o f groundwater use . L icences s p e c i f y wi thdrawal r a tes and can t he re fo re con t ro l some o f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i th ex te rna l cos t s i f the water supply has not been overa l1oca ted . L icences a l s o p rov ide sen io r l i c e n s e e s wi th s e c u r i t y o f tenure and w i th a great deal o f p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t phys i ca l u n c e r t a i n t y . However, j u n i o r l i c e n s e e s ' r i g h t s are l e s s secu re . When a l l demand cannot be met, ho lders o f sen io r r i g h t s have p r i o r i t y over j u n i o r u s e r s , a l though the l a t t e r may be ab le to put the water to h ighe r -va lued u s e s . Even i f the sen io r users made the best use o f the groundwater when l i c e n c e s were o r i g i n a l l y i s s u e d , economic changes may have a l t e r e d the r e l a t i v e va lues o f the va r i ous u s e s . Th is problem may be compounded i f l i c e n c e s a l s o g ive pre ference to c e r t a i n purposes, l e a v i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t water f o r o ther u s e s . L i c e n s i n g systems do not u s u a l l y a l l o w r i g h t s to be t r a n s f e r r e d among users un less the land on which the water i s used i s a l s o t r a n s f e r r e d . 44 L icences are g e n e r a l l y appurtenant to the land and are not the personal p roper ty o f the l i c e n s e e . To some e x t e n t , t h i s f ea tu re impedes the t r a n s f e r o f r i g h t s to h igher and be t te r uses . D. A Market System Al though market systems i n water r i g h t s ( independent o f markets i n land) have been d i scussed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , they have not been adopted by any of the North American prov inces and s ta tes reviewed here . Hence, i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a market i n water r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia would i n v o l v e some f e a s i b i l i t y problems. F i r s t , an e f f e c t i v e market system requ i r es tha t r i g h t s be c l e a r l y 31 d e f i n e d . Th is task i s compl ica ted by the ' f l o w ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f water 32 and by the f a c t tha t the same u n i t o f water can be used many t i m e s . In a d d i t i o n , the e x e r c i s e o f r i g h t s to use groundwater can a f f e c t the q u a l i t y as we l l as the quan t i t y o f the remain ing wa te r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the po in t o f d i v e r s i o n can be changed. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s make i t d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a ' r i g h t ' . In the f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i o n , i t has been assumed tha t a water r i g h t a l l ows the ho lder to withdraw a p a r t i c u l a r amount o f water each day , and tha t w i t h i n each des ignated a r e a , r i g h t s can be bought and s o l d f r e e l y . I t was f u r t h e r assumed tha t when a r i g h t i s s o l d , the new holder can move the po in t o f d i v e r s i o n i f he so d e s i r e s . T r a n s i t i o n to such a market system cou ld be e f f e c t e d by f i r s t g ran t i ng a l l su r face water l i c e n s e e s and a l l we l l -owners marketable r i g h t s to use water at cu r ren t ra tes o r , where d e p l e t i o n problems have a r i s e n , a t reduced r a t e s . R ights to any remain ing water would then need to be so ld by the p r o v i n c i a l government. Once i n p l a c e , the market system would r e q u i r e l i t t l e government i n t e r v e n t i o n . The equ i t y o f a market system i n water r i g h t s i s dependent upon an acceptance o f the present d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h . I f the f a i r n e s s o f the l a t t e r i s accep ted , then a market system i s an e q u i t a b l e means o f a l l o c a t i n g water i n the shor t r u n . However, equ i t y among genera t ions o f water users depends on the c o l l e c t i v e r a t e o f wi thdrawal f o r which r i g h t s are i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . I t would be p o s s i b l e to conserve groundwater f o r f u tu re u s e r s , but conse rva t i on i s not an inheren t f ea tu re o f the market system. I f water r i g h t s have been c l e a r l y de f ined and t r a n s i t i o n has been made from the present system, then a market system cou ld deal e f f e c t i v e l y w i th some groundwater problems. J o i n t a l l o c a t i o n o f ground and su r face waters would be p o s s i b l e , and more in fo rmat ion about water use would be a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , most w e l l - i n t e r f e r e n c e problems cou ld be avoided i f r i g h t s were i n i t i a l l y s o l d on l y f o r w i thdrawals which balanced recharge r a t e s . However, a great amount o f hydrogeo log ic data would be r equ i r ed to ach ieve t h i s ba lance . Some w e l 1 - i n t e r f e r e n c e problems cou ld s t i l l occur when purchasers o f water r i g h t s change the po in ts o f d i v e r s i o n . New, or l a r g e r cones o f depress ion cou ld form, adve rse l y a f f e c t i n g the y i e l d s o f nearby w e l l s . Fur thermore, i n areas where hydrogeo log ic i n fo rma t ion i s i ncomp le te , i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t too many r i g h t s would be e s t a b l i s h e d and tha t excess i ve wi thdrawals would be made. A market system i s be t te r ab le to deal w i th t h i s problem than a l i c e n s i n g sys tem, however. When i t becomes apparent tha t wi thdrawals should be reduced, the government can purchase the r i g h t s o f some users and remove them from the market . P r i c i n g systems are proposed p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y to encourage e f f i c i e n t water use and would probably be r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s r e g a r d . R ights would be comple te ly t r a n s f e r a b l e , a l l o w i n g g rea te r f l e x i b i l i t y than i s p o s s i b l e under o ther a l l o c a t i o n sys tems. In a d d i t i o n , water users would have a great deal o f s e c u r i t y because they cou ld on l y l o s e t h e i r r i g h t s by s e l l i n g them. New users would a l s o be accommodated under a p r i c i n g system because as demand inc reases p r i c e s would a l s o i n c r e a s e , g i v i n g each user an i n c e n t i v e to make more e f f i c i e n t use o f water so tha t he cou ld s e l l par t o f h i s r i g h t . Thus, water resources would c o n t i n u a l l y be r e a l l o c a t e d to h ighe r -va lued u s e s . However, one d isadvantage o f market systems i s tha t the va lue o f water i s determined s o l e l y by the p r i c e users are w i l l i n g to pay f o r r i g h t s . Th is emphasis on p r i c e may r e s u l t i n an u n d e r a l l o c a t i o n o f water to uses which generate nonmonetary b e n e f i t s . 47 CHAPTER FOUR REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. R .C . Thomas, "Water Law--Groundwater R igh ts i n M i s s o u r i - - A Need fo r C l a r i f i c a t i o n , " M i ssou r i Law Review 37 (1972) : 360. 2 . Bosch , p. 435 . 3 . R . E . C l a r k , "A r i zona Groundwater Law: The Need fo r L e g i s l a t i o n , " A r i zona Law Review 16 (1974) : 808. 4 . Idem, "The Role o f S ta te L e g i s l a t i o n i n Groundwater Management," Cre ighton Law Review 10 (1977) : 473 . 5 . However, the p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n method i s used to a l l o c a t e the water i n underground s t reams: W.A. Hutchins Se lec ted Problems i n  the Law o f Water R igh ts i n the West (Washington: U .S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1942) , p. 182. 6 . C l a r k , "A r i zona Groundwater Law," p. 801. 7 . Idem, "The Role o f S ta te L e g i s l a t i o n , " p. 475 . 8 . Bosch , p. 436. 9. I b i d . , p. 437. 10 . Hu t ch ins , p. 192; T . S . Veeman, "Water P o l i c y and Water I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Northern I n d i a : The Case o f Groundwater R i g h t s , " Natura l Resources  Journal 18 (1978) : 583. 11 . Groundwater i n de f ined channels i s sub jec t to p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n : H u t c h i n s , p. 188. 12 . Veeman, p. 584. 13 . Hu t ch ins , p. 188; Veeman, p. 584. 14. H u t c h i n s , p. 194. 15 . I b i d . 16 . I b i d . , p. 195. 17. I b i d . , p. 199. 18 . I b i d . , pp. 101-203. 19. Thomas, p. 361. 48 20. H u t c h i n s , p. 183. 2 1 . "Workshop on Ground Water L e g i s l a t i o n and R e g u l a t i o n , Quebec C i t y , November 4 - 5 , 1976. " (Ot tawa: 1977) 22 . I b i d . , p. 9 . 23 . C l a r k , "The Role o f S ta te L e g i s l a t i o n , " p. 477. 24. S ta te o f Oregon, Rules and Regu la t ions o f the S ta te Engineer (Salem: O f f i c e o f S ta te Eng ineer , 1975) . 25 . R . E . C la rk and A . Arguedas, J r . , "Developments i n Groundwater Law," Nebraska Law Review 57 (1978) : 287. 26 . Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater: An Overv iew, p. 38. 27. T .T . U h l i n g , "Groundwater Pre ferences i n Nebraska , " Nebraska Law  Review 59 (1980) : 832. 28. C l a r k , "The Role o f S ta te L e g i s l a t i o n , " p. 483. The term "sa fe y i e l d ' r e f e r s to " the amount o f n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g groundwater tha t can be withdrawn on a sus ta ined y i e l d b a s i s , economica l l y and l e g a l l y , w i thout impar ing the na t i ve groundwater q u a l i t y or c r e a t i n g an undes i rab le e f f e c t such as environmental damage." : C.W. F e t t e r , J r . , App l i ed Hydrogeology (Columbus: Char les E. M e r r i l l , 1980) , p. 385. 29 . Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , Groundwater: An Overv iew, p. 42 . 30 . See , fo r example, E . F . Renshaw, "The Management o f Groundwater R e s e r v o i r s , " Journal o f Farm Economics 45 (1963) : 285-95; D.D. Johnson, "An Optimal S ta te Water Law: F ixed Water R ights and F l e x i b l e Market P r i c e s , " V i r g i n i a Law Review 57 (1971) : 345-74; R . S . Harnsberger , J . C . Oe l t jen- and L .K . F i s c h e r , "Groundwater: From Windmi l l s to Comprehensive P u b l i c Management," Nebraska Law Review 52 (1972) ; 179-292; and J . C . Oe l t j en and L .K . F i s c h e r , " A l l o c a t i o n o f R igh ts to Water: P r e f e r e n c e s , P r i o r i t i e s , and the Role o f the Marke t , " Nebraska Law Review 57 (1978) : 245-82. 3 1 . Oe l t j en and F i s c h e r , pp. 269-70. 32 . I b i d . , p. 274. CHAPTER FIVE A GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA I. SUMMARY Groundwater i s p l e n t i f u l i n most par ts o f B r i t i s h Columbia and meets a s i g n i f i c a n t po r t i on o f the p r o v i n c e ' s f r esh water needs. However because present laws a l l o w landowners to make un l im i ted groundwater w i t hd rawa ls , supply problems have a r i s e n i n some areas o f the p r o v i n c e . As the popu la t i on i nc reases and demand f o r water grows, these problems are l i k e l y to become more seve re . A number o f groundwater problems which have occur red i n B r i t i s h Columbia were reviewed i n chapter t h r e e . Severa l problems stem from the phys i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a q u i f e r s : c e r t a i n land uses can e i t h e r impede recharge or reduce the q u a l i t y o f p e r c o l a t i n g water ; excess i ve withdrawal o f su r face water can cause the water t a b l e to d rop ; sa l twa te r may enter coas ta l a q u i f e r s i f the water t a b l e d e c l i n e s ; q u a l i t y and quan t i t y problems may be very long- te rm because groundwater moves s l o w l y ; and , because data i s d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n , d e c i s i o n s about a l l o c a t i o n and use are o f ten made wi thout complete hydrogeo log ic i n f o r m a t i o n . A second se t o f groundwater problems r e s u l t s from the economic behaviour o f we l l -owners pumping from a common a q u i f e r . Pumpers tend to over -use groundwater because they do not exper ience a l l o f the cos t s a s s o c i a t e d w i th t h e i r use o f the wate r . In a d d i t i o n , they have l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to economize i n t h e i r use o f water because the b e n e f i t s o f reduced consumption by one user may accrue to o ther u s e r s . From the d i s c u s s i o n o f these problems, a se t o f c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e groundwater management schemes was deve loped. The phys i ca l problems i n d i c a t e d a need f o r a management system which a) cons ide rs the e f f e c t o f land use on groundwater s u p p l i e s ; b) coo rd ina tes management o f su r face water and groundwater; c) a v o i d s , r a the r than j u s t r e a c t s to problems; and d) ma in ta ins f l e x i b i l i t y when hydrogeo log ic in fo rmat ion i s i ncomp le te . The economic problems revea led the importance of e) removing the i n c e n t i v e to overdraught ; f ) p rov i d i ng some s e c u r i t y o f supp l y ; and g) a l l o w i n g groundwater r i g h t s to be t r a n s f e r r e d among u s e r s . In a d d i t i o n to these c r i t e r i a , the f e a s i b i l i t y and equ i t y o f implementing the va r i ous systems i n B r i t i s h Columbia were c o n s i d e r e d . The e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e systems i n chapter four showed tha t none o f the systems meets a l l o f the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . Each system has both advantages and d e f i c i e n c e s , and i nvo l ves some compromise between fea tu res such as equ i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y . The a l t e r n a t i v e s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f groundwater management i n North America to d a t e , and t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n d i c a t e the degree o f d i f f i c u l t y inheren t i n managing the r e s o u r c e . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n desc r i bes the w r i t e r ' s proposal fo r managing groundwater i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s an attempt to combine, and expand upon the more success fu l f ea tu res o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s reviewed i n chapter f o u r . The proposal meets the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a to a l a r g e ex tent but r e q u i r e s tha t some t r a d e o f f s be made among the c r i t e r i a . I I . A PROPOSED GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A. P reven ta t i ve Measures In many areas o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , groundwater i s not a sca rce resource and major changes to the a l l o c a t i o n mechanism are unnecessary . However, some p reven ta t i ve measures should be taken in order to avo id f u tu re groundwater problems. The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n fo rmat ion about a q u i f e r s and about groundwater use i s an important f a c t o r i n a v o i d i n g a q u i f e r d e p l e t i o n and w e l l - i n t e r f e r e n c e . The q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f data a v a i l a b l e to the Water Management Branch cou ld be improved by r e q u i r i n g w e l 1 - d r i l 1 e r s to ob ta i n l i c e n c e s , and to f i l e data w i th the Water Management Board a f t e r d r i l l i n g w e l l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to r e p l a c e the common law r u l e o f abso lu te ownership w i t h the reasonab le use d o c t r i n e , i n order to d iscourage waste . The B r i t i s h Columbia cou r t s may make t h i s change o f t h e i r own a c c o r d , or i t can be l e g i s l a t e d . B. The A l l o c a t i o n Mechanism In areas where groundwater shor tages have o c c u r r e d , or appear l i k e l y to deve lop , c l e a r l y de f ined groundwater r i g h t s should be e s t a b l i s h e d and a l l o c a t e d among the w e l l - o w n e r s . Under the proposed sys tem, the c o l l e c t i v e r a t e o f wi thdrawal and the i n i t i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f r i g h t s would be determined by the Compt ro l le r o f Water R i g h t s . The water r i g h t s would then be marke tab le . The process would begin when the L ieu tenan t -Gov .e rno r - i n -Counc i l procla imed a c r i t i c a l groundwater a r e a . Such a proc lamat ion cou ld o r i g i n a t e from e i t h e r requests by we l l -owners or adv i ce from the M i n i s t r y o f Environment. Use o f groundwater i n the area:wou ld then be sub jec t to 52 r e g u l a t i o n . The Compt ro l le r o f Water R igh ts would conduct a groundwater a l l o c a t i o n hear ing to hear the ev idence o f we l l -owners l i v i n g i n the des ignated a r e a , and the submiss ions o f any o ther a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s . Evidence p e r t a i n i n g to changes i n the l e v e l and q u a l i t y o f we l l wa te r , or i n landowners ' water requi rements would supplement the t e c h n i c a l data supp l i ed by the Groundwater S e c t i o n , and thus add to the C o m p t r o l l e r ' s knowledge o f the demand-supply ba lance . In a r r i v i n g a t a d e c i s i o n , the Compt ro l le r would f i r s t dec ide upon the c o l l e c t i v e wi thdrawal r a t e . In many c a s e s , t h i s r a te would probably approximate the ' s a f e y i e l d ' l e v e l i n order to conserve ground-water over the long term. A f t e r the c o l l e c t i v e withdrawal ra te has been e s t a b l i s h e d , the Compt ro l le r can a l l o c a t e the groundwater among the we l l - owne rs . In areas where shor tages have not ye t deve loped, a l l users who appear to be making non-wastefu l use o f water would be g iven r i g h t s to use groundwater a t cu r ren t r a t e s . Wel l -owners who had been wast ing water ( i . e . pumping water but not us ing i t ) would r e c e i v e r i g h t s to a reduced share o f the water s u p p l y . The r i g h t s to any remain ing wi thdrawals would be r e t a i n e d by the government f o r f u tu re s a l e . In areas where groundwater problems a l r eady e x i s t and the c o l l e c t i v e withdrawal r a te must be reduced, we l l -owners cannot ma in ta in t h e i r cu r ren t l e v e l s o f use . In many c a s e s , the most e q u i t a b l e approach may be to f i r s t d i s a l l o w any waste fu l w i t hd rawa ls , and then have a l l non-domestic users reduce t h e i r pumping by the same percentage. P r i o r i t y f o r domestic water use ( d r i n k i n g , b a t h i n g , and bas ic household uses) i s a s tandard fea tu re o f water l e g i s l a t i o n and should be extended to the p r o v i n c e ' s groundwater. In some c a s e s , however, most (or a l l ) we l l -owners may be us ing water on l y f o r domestic purposes. Under such c i r cums tances , a l l domestic users should be r e s t r i c t e d to the same l e v e l o f pumping. Once the i n i t i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f r i g h t s has been made, groundwater r i g h t s would be f r e e l y t r a n s f e r a b l e . Water users who wish to pump more water than they have been a l l o c a t e d would be ab le to ren t or purchase r i g h t s from other users i n the a r e a , w i thout r e n t i n g or buying more l a n d . The C o m p t r o l l e r ' s approval would on ly be requ i red i f a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the po in t o f wi thdrawal was to o c c u r . I f a p rospec t i ve buye r ' s t o t a l r i g h t s ( a f t e r the t r a n s a c t i o n ) would exceed a s p e c i f i e d l e v e l and i f he intended to change the l o c a t i o n o f the we l l when he purchased the r i g h t s , then the approval o f the Compt ro l le r would be r e q u i r e d . Without t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n , one user cou ld purchase the r i g h t s o f severa l p a r t i e s and pump the e n t i r e share from one w e l l . The new cone of depress ion c rea ted by h is a c t i o n s cou ld adve rse l y a f f e c t h i s ne ighbours ' w e l l s . C. Other P r o v i s i o n s Holders o f groundwater r i g h t s would be charged annual fees which would vary accord ing to the ra te o f wi thdrawal a l lowed under each r i g h t . However, the app rop r i a t e 1evel f o r these charges can on l y be determined a f t e r f u r t h e r s tudy . The fees cou ld be se t j u s t high enough to cover the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e cos t s o f the sys tem, or they cou ld be r a i s e d to i n c l u d e some economic r e n t . The h igher fees would prov ide added b e n e f i t s by i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f the va lue o f the water and d i scou rag ing the ho ld ing of unused r i g h t s fo r s p e c u l a t i v e purposes. In some c a s e s , the water supply may be overes t imated and as a 54 r e s u l t , too many r i g h t s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . Unless c o r r e c t e d , t h i s s i t u a t i o n cou ld lead to a lower ing o f the water t a b l e . Under such c i r cums tances , the Compt ro l le r would r e q u i r e each groundwater user to reduce h is wi thdrawal r a te by a c e r t a i n percentage. These a c r o s s - t h e -board cutbacks would leave the r e l a t i v e va lues o f the va r i ous u s e r s ' r i g h t s i n t a c t and should be accep tab le to ho lders o f r i g h t s i f the r i s k o f cutbacks i s we l l - known. The system desc r i bed above dea ls on ly w i th groundwater a l l o c a t i o n s among u s e r s , and over t ime . The d i s c u s s i o n o f groundwater problems i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n chapter th ree showed tha t i t i s a l s o necessary i to cons ide r the e f f e c t s o f land use and su r face water use on groundwater s u p p l i e s . The Hea l th Act r e g u l a t i o n s prov ide some p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t land uses which may reduce groundwater q u a l i t y (see chapter two) . In a d d i t i o n , the Mun ic ipa l Act and the I s lands Trus t Act g ive l o c a l governments l i m i t e d con t ro l over groundwater u s e . However, i n areas where groundwater i s sub jec t to r e g u l a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n o f the resource cou ld be e f f e c t e d by s t reng then ing the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f the l a t t e r s t a t u t e s . The re fo re , r eg iona l d i s t r i c t s and the I s lands Trus t should be requ i red to c o n s u l t the Groundwater Sec t i on when p repar ing O f f i c i a l Set t lement P l a n s . In a d d i t i o n , they should be requ i red to ob ta i n c e r t i f i c a t i o n from the Compt ro l le r tha t proposed developments w i l l not have s i g n i f i c a n t adverse e f f e c t s on groundwater s u p p l i e s . From the po in t o f view o f groundwater management, su r face water and groundwater should be sub jec t to the same a l l o c a t i o n measures. However, a great deal more study would be requ i red to determine what changes to the su r face water l i c e n s i n g system are war ran ted . 55 Assuming tha t the present su r face water a l l o c a t i o n system w i l l be r e t a i n e d , a c e r t a i n amount o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between groundwater and su r face water usesrwould be p o s s i b l e . In s i t u a t i o n s where c o n f l i c t s are occu r r i ng between su r face water and groundwater u s e r s , the Compt ro l le r cou ld f i r s t d i v i d e the water supply i n t o su r face water and groundwater sha res . The two a l l o c a t i o n systems cou ld then be a p p l i e d . The c o l l e c t i v e r a te o f wel l -pumping would be l i m i t e d to the groundwater share o f the water supp l y , and su r face water l i c e n s e e s cou ld use on l y the su r face water sha re . I I I . EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSAL The proposed groundwater management system s a t i s f i e s the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a o f f e a s i b i l i t y , e q u i t y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and e f f i c i e n c y to a l a r g e e x t e n t . The proposal would i n v o l v e c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , and possibleYpr.obTernssih e s t a b l i s h i n g the i n i t i a l r i g h t s . However, no new department or agency would be r e q u i r e d , nor would the cou r t s be c a l l e d upon to a l l o c a t e the r i g h t s . The Compt ro l le r o f Water R igh ts has t e c h n i c a l support s t a f f who can gather and present the necessary hydrogeo log ic i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , r i g h t s would be in t roduced g r a d u a l l y (area by area) as a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s are made. This phas ing - i n o f the system would prevent some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems from d e v e l o p i n g . Once the proposed system had been implemented, i t would f u n c t i o n wi thout any s i g n i f i c a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s . The Groundwater Sec t i on would cont inue to moni tor groundwater s u p p l i e s , and the Compt ro l le r would sometimes need to order pumping cutbacks.. In o ther r e s p e c t s , however, the groundwater users themselves would operate the system through t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s . The proposed system would prov ide an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos t s and b e n e f i t s among groundwater u s e r s . I f , when an i n i t i a l a l l o c a t i o n i s made, a reduc t i on i n the c o l l e c t i v e withdrawal r a t e i s necessa ry , then most users would be expected to lower t h e i r pumping r a t e s . And, i f d e p l e t i o n problems develop a f t e r r i g h t s are a l l o c a t e d , then a l l w e l l -owners share i n the cu tback . Thus, i n e i t h e r s i t u a t i o n , the burden o f reduced wi thdrawals i s spread among many u s e r s . An e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f cos t s and b e n e f i t s among d i f f e r e n t genera t ions of wel l -owners cou ld a l s o be a c h i e v e d . The Compt ro l le r cou ld set the c o l l e c t i v e withdrawal r a tes a t ' s a f e y i e l d ' l e v e l s i n order to conserve groundwater fo r f u tu re u s e r s . I f these l e v e l s were l a t e r exceeded, then the p r o v i s i o n f o r the government to cutback groundwater r i g h t s would a l l o w the demand-supply balance to be r e e s t a b l i s h e d . The proposed system would be capable o f r e s o l v i n g many o f the problems which stem from phys i ca l c o n s t r a i n t s on groundwater use . The cu r ren t Hea l th Act r e g u l a t i o n s , supplemented by more s t r i n g e n t land use p lann ing requi rements under the Mun ic ipa l and Is lands Trus t A c t s , p rov ide some p r o t e c t i o n aga ins t land uses which can adve rse l y a f f e c t groundwater s u p p l i e s . The system a l s o a l l ows groundwater and su r face water use to be coord ina ted by having the Compt ro l le r determine the c o l l e c t i v e usage ra tes o f both water s o u r c e s . The proposal i nc ludes r e g u l a t i o n o f the t o t a l w i thdrawals from an a q u i f e r and thus prevents major overdraught problems from o c c u r r i n g . The system i s a l s o f l e x i b l e enough to operate wi thout complete a q u i f e r i n fo rmat ion because the government can p e r i o d i c a l l y ad jus t the c o l l e c t i v e r a t e o f wi thdrawal by o rde r i ng cutbacks or by s e l l i n g r e t a i ned r i g h t s . 57 In a d d i t i o n , the proposed requirements t ha t w e l l - d r i l l e r s f i l e we l l d a t a , and tha t owners o f h i g h - y i e l d w e l l s r e g i s t e r w i th the WMB w i l l f a c i l i t a t e data c o l l e c t i o n . The e f f i c i e n c y o f groundwater use would improve i f the proposed system were implemented. Regu la t ion o f c o l l e c t i v e withdrawal ra tes would reduce the i n c e n t i v e to overdraught and thereby e l i m i n a t e some ex te rna l c o s t s . The proposal would a l s o prov ide groundwater users w i th g rea te r s e c u r i t y o f supply than they now e x p e r i e n c e , because r i g h t s would on l y be l o s t by users who chose to s e l l them. Economic e f f i c i e n c y would be f u r t h e r improved by the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f groundwater r i g h t s . The i n i t i a l a l l o c a t i o n s would probably not a l l o c a t e water to i t s h ighes t and best u s e s . However, because r i g h t s would be f r e e l y t r a n s f e r a b l e , t h i s approach w i l l not r e s t r i c t a l l o c a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y over t ime . Users can buy and s e l l r i g h t s as t h e i r needs change and as new uses deve lop . Thus, the r i g h t s would g r a d u a l l y be t r a n s f e r r e d to h igher and be t te r u s e s . The proposed changes i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia 's groundwater law would a l l ow a l l o c a t i o n problems such as those d i scussed i n chapter th ree to be r e s o l v e d . In the Surrey c a s e , i f the system had been i n p lace before the l a r g e a r t e s i a n we l l was d r i l l e d , then the owner o f the we l l cou ld on ly have withdrawn water a t such a high r a t e i f he had purchased the r i g h t s o f severa l o ther w e l l - o w n e r s . The l a t t e r would on ly have l o s t t h e i r groundwater s u p p l i e s i f they chose to s e l l t h e i r r i g h t s . I f the proposed system were in t roduced a f t e r w e l l - i n t e r f e r e n c e problems had deve loped , then a l l we l l -owners would have rece i ved r i g h t s to some w i t hd rawa ls . I f , as i n the Sur rey c a s e , one user was wast ing wa te r , he would not r e c e i v e r i g h t s to the same p ropo r t i on o f h i s cu r ren t use as would o t h e r , b e n e f i c i a l u s e r s . In the Trout Hatchery c a s e , the proposed system would have a l lowed the Hatchery to buy the r i g h t s fo r any a d d i t i o n a l groundwater i t needed fo r i t s expans ion . The Hatchery would f i r s t have purchased any su rp lus r i g h t s held by the government. I f a d d i t i o n a l r i g h t s were needed, the Hatchery cou ld have t r i e d to purchase them from Sumas. I f an a l t e r n a t i v e water supply fo r the town cou ld have been developed a t a cos t l e s s than the p r i c e the Hatchery was w i l l i n g to pay f o r the water r i g h t s , then Sumas would probably have so ld r i g h t s to the Hatchery . The t r a n s f e r -a b i l i t y o f the r i g h t s would a l l o w the par ty which valued the groundwater most h i g h l y to use the a v a i l a b l e supp l y . The proposal d i scussed above meets the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a i n many r e s p e c t s . However, there are a number o f i ssues which are not d e a l t w i th i n the e v a l u a t i o n . Some i ssues cannot be reso l ved wi thout f u r t he r s tudy , wh i le o thers r e q u i r e very s u b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s best made at a p o l i t i c a l 1evel . A c r i t i c a l ques t ion which remains to be answered i s : a t what r a te should groundwater be used? A q u i f e r s can be managed on a ' s a f e y i e l d 1 b a s i s , or users can be permi t ted to dep le te the water supply over a s p e c i f i e d t ime p e r i o d . At i ssue i s the extent to which cu r ren t groundwater users should be favoured over f u tu re u s e r s . Future resource use bene f i t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d i s c o u n t e d , but there are s t rong counter arguments fo r resource c o n s e r v a t i o n . The second ou ts tand ing i s sue i s whether i t i s app rop r i a te to a l l o w the ope ra t i on o f a market based on p r i v a t e ownership o f water r i g h t s , g iven tha t the resource i s e s s e n t i a l to l i f e . There may be a p u b l i c preference fo r e x c l u s i v e government r e g u l a t i o n o f use o f a l l water r i g h t s . However, i f market ope ra t i on i s accep ted , then i t i s important tha t safeguards be designed to ensure tha t the market f unc t i ons as i n tended . In p a r t i c u l a r , measures d i r e c t e d a t p revent ion o f monopoly con t ro l over groundwater may be necessa ry . The proposed system does not deal w i th the a l l o c a t i o n problems c rea ted by na tura l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the water t a b l e . In some c a s e s , the amount o f water which can s a f e l y be pumped w i l l vary from season to season , or year to y e a r . Fur ther study i s needed to determine whether r i g h t s to the average amount o f water should be i s s u e d , or whether a more c o n s e r v a t i v e approach i s war ran ted . F i n a l l y , the i s sue o f enforcement has not been add ressed . The eva lua t i ons of the a l t e r n a t i v e systems, and o f the proposal c o n t a i n the i m p l i c i t assumption tha t once a system i s implemented, i t s r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s w i l l be fo l l owed by a l l groundwater u s e r s . However, t h i s i s not a r e a l i s t i c assumption and consequen t l y , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f va r i ous c o n t r o l s , f i n e s , and i n c e n t i v e s should be a s s e s s e d . IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The in fo rmat ion presented i n t h i s t h e s i s comprises an overv iew o f groundwater use , problems, and management a l t e r n a t i v e s . From the f i r s t th rees chapters o f the t h e s i s , i t i s ev ident tha t there are groundwater problems i n B r i t i s h Columbia which are not d e a l t w i th by the cu r ren t l aws . I t i s a l s o c l e a r from the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e sys tems, tha t success -fu l programs o f groundwater management are very d i f f i c u l t to d e v i s e , and tha t none o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s f u l f i l l s a l l o f the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . 60 The groundwater management system described in t h i s chapter i s suggested as a means of improving the use and protection of groundwater in B r i t i s h Columbia. Although the discussion of the proposal indicates a need for further study into several issues, there i s s u f f i c i e n t information in the thesis to recommend that the following changes be made to B r i t i s h Columbia's water law: 1. that wel1-dril1ers be required to obtain licences and to f i l e well data with the Water Management Branch; 2. that in areas where groundwater i s abundant, well-owners r e t a i n common law rights but that the reasonable use doctrine replace the doctrine of absolute ownership; and 3. that regional d i s t r i c t s and the Islands Trust be required to consult the Groundwater Section when preparing O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans, and to obtain c e r t i f i c a t i o n from the Comptroller of Water Rights that proposed developments w i l l not have s i g n i f i c a n t adverse e f f e c t s on groundwater supplies. It i s further recommended that the groundwater a l l o c a t i o n mechanism and the associated provisions described in t h i s chapter be considered as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the current system, but that the following studies f i r s t be c a r r i e d out: 1. A study to determine whether, and at what rate groundwater res e r v o i r s should be depleted. A major part of t h i s study would focus on the consequences of depletion, and the objective would be to e s t a b l i s h guidelines for the Comptroller to follow when determining the c o l l e c t -ive withdrawal rate. 2. A rev iew o f p o s s i b l e methods o f m in im iz ing market imper fec t i ons and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , p revent ing monopoly con t ro l o f water r i g h t s . 3. A study of the a l t e r n a t i v e means o f d e a l i n g w i th f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the water t a b l e from a water a l l o c a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e . The o b j e c t i v e o f the study would be to set g u i d e l i n e s which can be used to e s t a b l i s h the quan t i t y o f water a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l o c a t i o n . 4. A rev iew of methods of en fo rc i ng a l l o c a t i o n dec is ions , i n c l u d i n g a survey o f meter ing a l t e r n a t i v e s and an a n a l y s i s o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f va r ious f i n e s and i n c e n t i v e s . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r k e r , Mary. Water Resources and Re la ted Land Uses: S t r a i t o f Georg ia - -Puge t Sound B a s i n . Ottawa: Department o f Environment, 1974. Bosch , A . R . "Water Law--Groundwater--A F i l t e r fo r a Muddy I ssue?" Cre igh ton Law Review 12 (1978) : 431-45. B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Environment. "Groundwater Committee Report and Recommendations;" [V ic tor ia ] : 1975. . "Groundwater Resources i n B . C . : A Review." [V ic tor ia ] : 1977 . . P r a c t i c a l In format ion on Groundwater Development. V i c t o r i a : Queens P r i n t e r , 1979. C a i l , Robert E. Land, Man and the Law: The Disposa l o f Crown Lands i n  B r i t i s h Columbia , 1871-1913. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1974. Campbe l l , R i c h a r d . " B r i t i s h Columbia Water A p p r o p r i a t i o n : S ta tu te and P r a c t i c e . " A paper submit ted fo r Law 501, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1972. , Pea rse , P . , arid S c o t t , A . "Water A l l o c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia: An Economic Assessment o f P u b l i c P o l i c y . " U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 7 (1972) : 247-92. Caponera, D.A. and A l h e r i t i e r e , D. " P r i n c i p l e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ground water Law.;"' Natura l Resources Journal 18 (1978) : 589-619. C i r i a c y - W a n t r u p , S . V . and B i s h o p , R .C . " 'Common-Property ' as a Concept i n Natura l Resources P o l i c y . " Natura l Resources Journa l 15 (1975) 713-27. C l a r k , R . E . "A r i zona Groundwater Law: The Need fo r L e g i s l a t i o n . " A r i zona Law Review 16 (1974) : 799-819. . "The Role o f S ta te L e g i s l a t i o n i n Groundwater Management." Cre igh ton Law Review 10 (1977) : 469-87. and Arguedas, A . , J r . "Developments i n Groundwater Law." Nebraska Law Review 57 (1978) : 283-94. D a v i s , S . N . and DeWiest, R . J . M . Hydrogeology. New York : John Wi ley & Sons, 1966. F e t t e r , C.W. , J r . App l i ed Hydrogeology., Columbus: Char les E. M e r r i l l , 1980. 63 Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A. Groundwater. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-H a l l , 1979. Harnsberger, R.S., Oeltjen, J.C. and Fischer, L.K. "Groundwater: from Windmills to Comprehensive Public Management." Nebraska Law Review 52 (1972): 179-292. Hietbrink, P.D. "Nebraska Well Interference Problems: A Proposal." Nebraska Law Review 56 (1977): 565-98. Hutchins, W.A. Selected Problems in the Law of Water Rights in the West. Washington: U.S. Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1942. Johnson, D.D. "An Optimal State Water Law: Fixed Water Rights and F l e x i b l e Market Prices." V i r g i n i a Law Review 57 (1971): 345-74. Livingston, E. "Groundwater as a Water Resource i n B r i t i s h Columbia." In Seventeenth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 17-27. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1967. Lubkowski, A.O. "A Planning Strategy for Water Supply within Vacation Areas of the Gulf Islands." M.A. t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. Mack, L.E. Groundwater Management in Development of a National Policy on  Water. A report prepared for the National Water Commission. Arlington, V i r g i n i a : National Water Commission, 1971. Maclean, H.A. " H i s t o r i c Development of Water L e g i s l a t i o n in B.C." In Eighth B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 243-47. V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1955. Maurice, S.G., ed. Gale on Easements 14th ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell 1972. Oeltjen, J.C. and Fischer, L.K. "Al l o c a t i o n of Rights to Water: Prefer-ences, P r i o r i t i e s , and the Role of the Market." Nebraska Law  Review 57 (1978): 245-82. Press, F. and Siever, R. Earth. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1974. Reid, A.D. "Groundwater at Common Law." In Water Law i n Canada: The  A t l a n t i c Provinces, pp. 405-422. Edited by G.V. LaForest and Associates. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1973. Slaymaker, 0. and Lavkulich, L.M. A Review of Land Use--Water Quality  I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a proposed Method for t h e i r Study. Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, 1978. 64 Smi th , S . C . and C a s t l e , E . N . , e d s . Economics and P u b l i c P o l i c y i n Water Resource Development. Ames: Iowa S ta te U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Snyder , S . E . "Groundwater Management: A Proposal For Texas . " Texas  Law Review 51 (1973) : 289-317 Swainson, N . A . , ed . Managing the Water Environment. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1976. Thomas, R .C . "Water Law--Groundwater R ights i n M i s s o u r i - - A Need f o r C l a r i f i c a t i o n . " M issou r i Law Review 37 (1972) : 357-68. U h l i n g , T .T . "Groundwater Pre ferences i n Nebraska . " Nebraska Law  Review 59 (1980) : 831-57. Uni ted S ta tes Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l . Groundwater: An Overv iew. A repo r t to Congress . Washington: Compt ro l le r G e n e r a l , 1977. Veeman, T . S . "Water P o l i c y and Water I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Northern I n d i a : The Case o f Groundwater R i g h t s . " Natura l Resources Journa l 18 (1978) : 569-87. Widman, G . L . "Groundwater-Hydrology and the Problem o f Competing Well Owners." Fourteenth Rocky Mountain Minera l Law I n s t i t u t e , pp. 523-44. New York : Matthew Bender & C o . , 1968. Young, R.A. and Bredehoef t , J . D . " D i g i t a l Computer S imu la t i on For S o l v i n g Management Problems o f Con junc t i ve Groundwater and Sur face Water Sys tems. " Water Resources Research 8 (1972) : 533-56. 

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