Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Byzantine communion chant for Easter in 14th-century manuscripts Loeschmann, Horst Bernhard 1982-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1982_A8 L64.pdf [ 5.58MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0095371.json
JSON-LD: 1.0095371+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0095371.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0095371+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0095371+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0095371+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0095371 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0095371.txt
Citation
1.0095371.ris

Full Text

THE B Y Z A N T I N E COMMUNION CHANT FOR IN 14TH-CENTURY  EASTER  MANUSCRIPTS  by  HORST BERNHARD LOESCHMANN B. Mus., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music)  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as  to the required  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1982 ©  Horst Bernhard  Loeschmann,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Misin  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  October 18,  1982  written  ABSTRACT  It i s only recently that the attention of musicologists has been directed to the study of Eastern church music as transmitted in 14th and 15th-century Byzantine manuscripts.  This constitutes a reversal of the  prejudices held by most pioneers in the d i s c i p l i n e , who believed that the musical oeuvre of the l a t e Byzantine empire was only a p a l l i d r e f l e c t i o n of a once magnificent s t y l e , and was, t h e r e f o r e , unworthy of d e t a i l e d examination.  In i t s support of the current reassessment of the l a t e Byzantine  musical s t y l e , t h i s study shows t h a t , in s p i t e of the d e c l i n i n g fortunes of the empire, the composers of that time fashioned a v i t a l and distinguished culmination to a millenium of l i t u r g i c a l  composition.  The t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d to a c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e e n t i t y w i t h i n the 14th-century r e p e r t o i r e :  the Easter Koinonikon, or Communion chant,  Euiua xPT-crxou, a hymn conveyed by at l e a s t fourteen manuscripts representing the works of some seven composers.  The eight settings considered here  comprise the e n t i r e 14th-century c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s chant that has survived the v i c i s s i t u d e s of time. The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s both h i s t o r i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l . Its r e s u l t s reveal a h i t h e r t o unsuspected degree of consanguinity among the musical materials of a l l seven composers, one which i s delineated by the establishment of three d i s t i n c t sub-groupings.  These, i n t u r n , f u r t h e r  emphasize the presence of a known thesaurus of musical elements. l a r i t y of various compositional procedures also becomes evident.  A simiThe most  iii.  s i g n i f i c a n t of these i s the use of a r e f r a i n that i s analagous to the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n which occurs in most other Communion hymns.  There a r e ,  n a t u r a l l y , a number of s t y l i s t i c differences that appear in the w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n during the course of the century,.and these r e f l e c t a gradual evolution of the composers' idiom.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to future studies  i s the development of a t e n t a t i v e chronology for these seven composers, since in many cases t h i s supersedes t h e i r c u r r e n t l y accepted d a t i n g . Most importantly, however, i s the f a c t that t h i s study focusses a t t e n t i o n and sheds new l i g h t on a neglected area of Byzantine music h i s t o r y , and i n d i c a t e s the need for continuing research in t h i s f i e l d .  iv.  T A B L E  O F  C O N T E N T S  Page ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  v  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  INTRODUCTION  1  SOURCE MATERIAL  6  TEXT  22  COMPOSERS  32  MUSIC  43  SUMMARY: A.  Changes  72  B.  Stasis  87  CONCLUSIONS  101  BIBLIOGRAPHY  105  V.  L I S T OF T A B L E S  Table I II  III IV V VI VII VIII IX  Page L i s t of Primary Manuscripts Consulted  4  Average Frequency of Text-Phrase Endings Coincident with Musical Cadences  23  Average Text-Element Repetition  24  E a r l i e s t MSS that Contain Any Koinonika by Each Composer  34  Ordering of Settings of Ewya xpi°"rou in MSS  39  Modal Assignment of Ecoya xpicnrou in Securely-Dated MSS  40  Length of Ewya xpi-°"rou Melodies  73  Interval Usage in Percentages Proportion of Music in Text and ''Re'frain-'  ,  76 98:  vi.  L I S T OF F I G U R E S  Figure  Page  1:  Refrain Repetition i n Gerasimos's Setting  2  Text P a r a l l e l i s m in G l y k e ' s  3  Changing Ambitus in Suya X P T - " ^  TevoaoQe  0  1  and £ooua  18  xP^ ^ov a  28 75  vi i .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I should l i k e t o express a deep sense o f o b l i g a t i o n t o a l l who have helped me i n t h i s research.  Dr. D i m i t r i Conomos spawned my i n t e r e s t  in Byzantine musicology, and has a s s i d u o u s l y nurtured i t through the course of a number o f y e a r s .  I am thankful t o him f o r suggesting t h i s t o p i c , and  f o r h i s encouragement and i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e during my t r a v a i l s o f a sometimes f o r b i d d i n g , o c c a s i o n a l l y even vexatious, t e r r i t o r y . I am g r e a t l y indebted.  To my parents  They have c o n s t a n t l y o f f e r e d t h e i r support t o my  academic endeavours, and have u n s t i n t i n g l y helped me i n innumerable ways. Above a l l , my w i f e , Diana, has a s s i s t e d i n c a l c u l a b l y a t a l l stages o f t h i s t h e s i s ; the e d i t i n g and t y p i n g o f the f i r s t d r a f t s i g n a l s but two major instances.  More importantly, though, her devotion and unceasing love were  an i n e s t i m a b l e support.  Without her t h i s t h e s i s would not.have m a t e r i a l i z e d .  To a l l the above, and t o many other f r i e n d s who o f f e r e d a mult i t u d e o f kindnesses, I can do no b e t t e r than to p r o f f e r the s a l u t a t i o n o f the Byzantine p o l y c h r o n i o n : A6£a  6ea>  xui 6o£aaowxi ae  OUTCQS.  A6§a 9eu xw euSoKiiaavxi ouxws ... ItoAAou vp\v x p o v o i  o f 6epcarovT£s xou Kupxou.  1.  INTRODUCTION  For the past two decades musical scholars have devoted increasing a t t e n t i o n to the vast amount of l i t u r g i c a l  music composed i n the f i n a l  century and a h a l f of the Byzantine Empire (1300-1450).  The pioneers  in the d i s c i p l i n e of Byzantine musicology generally eschewed t h i s  reper-  t o i r e , f o r they considered i t a v i t i a t e d and s u p e r f i c i a l r e f l e c t i o n of ' c l a s s i c a l ' Byzantine music and hymnographyJ  A reassessment of the pro-  digious musical output that manifests i t s e l f i n the d e c l i n i n g years of the Empire has gradually taken p l a c e , however, and has revealed t h i s period as c o n s t i t u t i n g a v i t a l and distinguished culmination of a millenium of liturgical  composition. The present study focusses on an example of one of the s i g n i f i c a n t  groups of chants f o r the Divine Liturgy i n the.East as transmitted by 14thcentury musical manuscripts — the Communion antiphon, Ztoucx. X P ^ T O U . The Communion hymn, or Koinonikon, comprises the l a r g e s t body of proper psalmody that i s used in the Mass of the Orthodox Church, and c o n s i s t s of a cycle of twenty-six t e x t s , each of which i s a l l o c a t e d to one or more occasions i n the l i t u r g i c a l year.  This c o l l e c t i o n r e f l e c t s a usage that  was f u l l y developed at l e a s t by the 11th century, but which c a n , i n f a c t , be traced back to the 9th century, as r e f l e c t i o n s of i t s existence can be  "*"Egon W e l l e s z d i s p a r a g e d t h i s r e p e r t o i r e a s " . . . t h e r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l c o l o r a t u r a s t y l e o f the fourteenth and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . " Such d e p r e c a t i o n i s n o t u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f most e a r l y scholars i n the f i e l d . Egon W e l l e s z , A H i s t o r y o f B y z a n t i n e Music a n d Hymnography, 2d e d . , r e v . ( O x f o r d : Clarendon Press, 1961), p. 23.  2.  seen i n the Patmos and Holy Cross t y p i k a .  As with many of the major  hymns i n the Byzantine R i t e , the Koinonikon i s used to cover a l i t u r g i c a l o  action.  A f t e r the Elevation=and f r a c t i o n o f the Consecrated G i f t s , the  p r i e s t intones the words "Holy things f o r the holy," and the congregation responds with the chant "One i s holy. . ." Following t h i s , the clergy 3 receive Communion while the choir sings the Communion antiphon.. The antiphon Etoua XPT-°"TOO i s used as the proper Koinonikon f o r Easter.  Its connection with t h i s feast i s c l e a r l y an o l d t r a d i t i o n , as i t  i s without exception s p e c i f i e d by a l l l i t u r g i c a l ordos from Constantinople. The text o f t h i s hymn i s one of only two non-scriptural Koinonika, and as 5 such the customary pendant A l l e l u i a i s omitted: Eooua xPT-0"rou  uexaAaBeTe  Trnyns a B a v a x o u  yetioaoQe  ("Partake of the body of Christ, taste the source of immortality")  It must also be noted:, however, that i n addition to the use of t h i s hymn f o r the Communion of the clergy a t Easter, i t also seems to have D i m i t r i Conomos, "Communion Chants i n Magna G r a e c i a and Byzantium," JAMS XXXIII (Summer 1980): 24-3; a l s o see idem, "Psalmody and the Communion C y c l e , " S t . V l a d i m i r ' s T h e o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 25 (1981): 4-7-48. The Typikon ( T U T T l K O V ) i s a l i t u r g i c a l book which c o n t a i n s t h e Rule f o r t h e S e r v i c e o f a l l L i t u r g i e s and O f f i c e s f o r the e n t i r e church y e a r . 3 Mother Mary and K a l l i s t o s Ware, The F e s t a l Menaion (London: and Faber, 1969), p. 80.  Faber  14.  Conomos, "Psalmody and t h e Communion C y c l e , " p. 113. The J e r u s a l e m ordo o f 1122, and the somewhat e a r l i e r P a l e s t i n i a n p r a c t i c e as r e f l e c t e d i n a Georgian l e c t i o n a r y , both c o n t r i b u t e unique e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n ( i b i d . , pp. 114—16). N e i t h e r o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s , h o w e v e r , i s c o n t a i n e d i n any o f the m u s i c a l MSS under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 5 The o t h e r n o n - s c r i p t u r a l Koinonikon i s t h e t r o p a r i o n T o u 6£lTTVOU OOU f o r Holy Thursday.  3.  been used r e g u l a r l y throughout the l i t u r g i c a l year during the Communion of the f a i t h f u l .  Currently t h i s i s s t i l l  common p r a c t i c e in the Greek and  S l a v i c churches, and on occasion Too Seiirvou aou i s also chanted for the same purpose.  This usage, which constitutes an unwritten convention, may  in a l l l i k e l i h o o d be dated to the 12th century.  L i t u r g i c a l documents up  to that time indicate that in both Eastern and Western r i t e s the Communion hymn was generally used during the people's Communion.  It was only sometime  during that century that the Koinonikon was transferred to i t s customary l o c a t i o n at the Communion of the c l e r g y ; as i f to compensate f o r t h i s , a t r a d i t i o n of using Exoya l i t u r g i e s evolved.  xPT- ^ a  0 U  f°  r  the Communion of the l a i t y during most  C e r t a i n l y t h i s p r a c t i c e i s eminently suited to theo-  l o g i c a l precepts, f o r , as Helen B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n has pointed out, every Sunday may be considered as a ' s m a l l ' Easter. A t o t a l of fourteen manuscripts have been u t i l i z e d as the primary source material f o r t h i s study.  A l l of these represent a new type of musical  codex that appears with increasing frequency during the 14th and 15th centuries.  These manuscripts, usually c a l l e d A k o l o u t h i a i , or Orders of  S e r v i c e , c o n s t i t u t e , as Kenneth Levy has noted, a f i r s t attempt to e s t a b l i s h in a s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n an anthology containing the bulk of the musical chants for the Byzantine r i t e . ^  In t h e i r contents these Akolouthiai sup-  planted the e a r l i e r books known as P s a l t i k o n and Asmatikon, the former of  Helen Liturgy Milos  of  the  B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , "The  Presanctified  Velimirovic  (London:  Gifts," Oxford  in  C o m m u n i o n Hymn o f  Studies  University  in  the  Byzantine  E a s t e r n Chant  Press,  1973),  p.  III,  64,  n.  ed. 37.  7 The f u n d a m e n t a l s t u d y b y K e n n e t h L e v y p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e g e n e s i s and c o n t e n t s o f t h i s c l a s s o f MS. S e e " A Hymn f o r T h u r s d a y i n H o l y W e e k , " JAMS X V I (Summer 1 9 6 3 ) : 154-57. See a l s o O l i v e r S t r u n k , "The A n t i p h o n s o f t h e O k t o e c h o s , " i n E s s a y s on M u s i c i n t h e B y z a n t i n e W o r l d (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n £ C o . , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 1 7 0 - 7 2 .  which contained extremely elaborate chants used only by s k i l l e d s o l o i s t s and the l a t t e r comprised a c o l l e c t i o n of melismatic choral chants.  Included  in these new Akolouthiai i s not only most of the proper and ordinary psalmody, but also some of the ordinary hymns for the services of Vespers, Matins, and 8 the three Divine L i t u r g i e s . The following 14th-century manuscripts which transmit the Koinonikon Eaiya x p x a x o u were consulted. TABLE I L i s t o f Primary M a n u s c r i p t s C o n s u l t e d  A.  Dated M a n u s c r i p t s from the 14-th Century Athens MS.  2458  1336  Athens MS. 2622 — 1341-ca. 1360 „ Ambrosiana MS.L. 36 sup. ( g r . 476) — 1 3 4 1 - c a . 1360 Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11 sup. ( g r . 665) — c a . 1360-1385 Koutloumousi MS. 4-57 — c a . 1360-1385 V a t o p e d i MS. 14-95 — ca. 1360-1385 ,, Vienna MS. t h e o l . g r . 185 — c a . 1385-1391 10  B.  Undated M a n u s c r i p t s from the 14th Century Athens MS. .2600 Athens MS. 904 Athens MS. 2454 Athens MS. 2411 S i n a i MS. 1294. S i n a i MS. 1462 Taphos MS. 425  The c o n t e n t s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y A k o l o u t h i a i ( i n t h i s c a s e , Vienna MS. t h e o l . g r . 185) a r e g i v e n i n C h r i s t i a n Hannick, "Etude sur l'&KoAouOia a a u a T i K f ) , " i n Jahrbuch der O e s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n B y z a n t i n i s t i k 19 (1970): 245-46. For purposes o f convenience t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g MS will h e r e a f t e r be c i t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as Ambrosiana MS. L. 36, and Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11.  """^Only A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 may b e p r e c i s e l y d a t e d b y i t s colophon. T h e f i v e f o l l o w i n g MSS a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y d a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f their p o l y c h r o n i a ( a c c l a m a t i o n s ) w h i c h r e f e r t o Anne o f Savoy ( r e i g n e d 1341 t o c a . 1360) o r A n d r o n i c u s IV ( r e i g n e d c a . 1360 t o 1 3 8 5 ) . See S t r u n k , "Antiphons of the Oktoechos," pp. 170-71.  "'""'"Hereafter c i t e d a s V i e n n a MS. 1 8 5 . T h i s MS is usually dated as c i t e d h e r e . See D i m i t r i E. Conomos, B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a of the Fourteenth and F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s . A Study of Late Byzantine Liturgical Chant ( T h e s s a l o n i k i : Patriarchal Institute for P a t r i s t i c Studies, 1974), p. 47 a n d p . 5 3 . But H a n n i c k s u g g e s t s 1379 t o 1391 i n s t e a d ( s e e H a n n i c k , " E t u d e , " p. 245). 12 T h e s e t h r e e A t h e n s MSS a r e s u m m a r i l y d a t e d a s m C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , p. 48. A t h e n s MS 9 0 4 , h o w e v e r , a l s o c o n t a i n s some 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c t h a t was a d d e d l a t e r b y a s e c o n d s c r i b e (see i b i d . , p. 4 8 , n. 30),  been  A t h e n s MS. 2 4 1 1 , Taphos a s s i g n e d to the 14th century by  MS. 4 2 5 , and t h e Conomos.  two  Sinai  MSS  have  6.  SOURCE MATERIAL  Some eight d i f f e r e n t musical s e t t i n g s of the Communion hymn E u u a  xpT-tfTou  are transmitted in 14th-century Byzantine musical manuscripts.  Most of the fourteen manuscripts consulted (see Table I) provide only a s i n g l e s e t t i n g of t h i s t e x t , but f i v e of the sources give m u l t i p l e v e r s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g seven composers are represented:  Ioannes Glykes; Konstantinos  Moschianos; Ioannes Kladas; P h i l i p Gavalos; Ioannes Doukas; Gerasimos hieromonachos; George Panaretos.  Each of these composers i s c r e d i t e d with  one s e t t i n g except f o r Kladas, to whom two are a s c r i b e d . The s e t t i n g of Iwua xPi-o"rou a t t r i b u t e d been by f a r the most popular v e r s i o n .  to Glykes seems to have  It appears at l e a s t once — sometimes  15 twice — in twelve  of the manuscripts that contain the Easter Communion  hymn (a t o t a l of fourteen i n s t a n c e s ) .  The verson by Moschianos i s a d i s t a n t  second with a t o t a l of f i v e example in four manuscripts.  Each of the r e -  maining composers i s represented in one, or o c c a s i o n a l l y two, manuscripts. Glykes's s e t t i n g i s in one respect somewhat problematical.  The  twelve manuscripts are in considerable disagreement about the modal  lt+  See  T a b l e V below.  The r e m a i n i n g two, Athens MS. o n l y a v e r s i o n by K l a d a s .  2411 and Athens MS.  904,  contain  7.  designation f o r the fourteen versions of t h i s hymn, as a t o t a l of four d i f f e r e n t modes are s p e c i f i e d ,  The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s as f o l l o w s :  Athens MS. 2458 f o l . 169 Ambrosiana MS. L. 36 f o l . 2 6 4 Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 2 8 5 16 Athens MS. 2600 f o l . 6 3 17 S i n a i MS. 1294 f o l . 1 6 7  v  r  1  Mode I P l a g a l . r e q u i r i n g an f start  v  r  Athens MS. 2622 f o l . 3 6 0 Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11 f o l . 261 V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 r  r  1  Mode I I I A u t h e n t i c , requiring a c_ o r p o s s i b l y an a s t a r t  v  S i n a i MS. 1462 f o l . 149 c o n t a i n s a double main s i g n a t u r e o f which t h e f i r s t group i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y legible. Most l i k e l y , however, i t denotes e i t h e r Mode I P l a g a l or Mode I I I A u t h e n t i c . The second group s p e c i f i e s the Nana mode (2Z ) that requires a s t a r t on c. Athens MS. 2454 f o l . 42 18 Taphos MS. 425 f o l . 1 5 2 r  Koutloumousi MS. 457 f o l .232 Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 2 6 8 r  16 most  likely.  The s i g n a t u r e i s i n d i s t i n c t  Mode I I P l a g a l , r e q u i r i n g a g_ s t a r t i- -  19  Nana mode ( 2 2 ), requiring a or a g start  i n the m i c r o f i l m , but t h i s seems  17 Although t h e s i g n a t u r e here i s reckoned from d_ t h e opening neume o f t h e hymn i s an a s c e n d i n g t h i r d , which compensates f o r the modal s i g n a t u r e and thus r e q u i r e s a s t a r t on f_. 18 The s i g n a t u r e i s n o t e n t i r e l y v i s i b l e i n t h e m i c r o f i l m b u t t h i s i s most p r o b a b l e . 19 The Nana (mesos t e t a r t o s . or Mode IV M e d i a l ) i s one o f two m e d i a l modes commonly used d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . I t i s p o l y v a l e n t and appears i n our r e p e r t o i r e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Mode I I I A u t h e n t i c (it , see S i n a i MS. 1462 f o l . 1 4 9 ) and Mode IV P l a g a l (If , see Koutloumousi MS. 457 f o l . 2 3 2 and Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 2 6 8 ) . C o n s t a n t i n F l o r o s has suggested ". . .dass der Mesos t e t a r t o s gewissermassen eine M i t t e l s t e l l u n g zwischen dem IV. a u t h e n t i s c h e n und dem IV. p l a g a l e n Echos einnimmt. und an b e i d e n t e i l h a t , ausserdem dass d e r I I I . a u t h e n t i s c h e und der IV. mediale Echos s i c h annahern oder gar i n mancher H i n s i c h t a n g l e i c h e n . . ." C o n s t a n t i n F l o r o s , "Die E n t z i f f e r u n g d e r K o n d a k a r i e n - N o t a t i o n ( I I ) , " i n Musik des Ostens IV, ed. Elmar A r r o and F r i t z Feldmann ( K a s s e l : Barenreiter Verlag, 1967), p. 26. r  v  r  8. On the basis of the preceding tabulation one would.* have to assume that at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t  p i t c h l e v e l s could be u t i l i z e d f o r the  of t h i s composition, two of which (f and cj predominate.  start  This assumption  seems to be v e r i f i e d by two 15th-century manuscripts, Athens MS. 2406 and I v i r o n MS. 1120, both of which provide two main signatures f o r t h i s hymn: Mode I Plagal (nx.fTX.a') and Nana (?z such double martyriai  As a r e s u l t of duplicate neumation  ).  in 14th and 15th-century manuscripts i n v a r i a b l y  indi-  cate progression from the.same p i t c h and seem to have only a confirmatory 21 function.  In t h i s case, however, the f o l l o w i n g neumes do not resolve the  dichotomy and merely provide the opening that i s common to a l l of our 14th22 century versions:£Vrs .  It seems probable then, that during the 14th century  both Mode I Plagal and Mode III f o r t h i s hymn.  Moreover, i t  Authentic (or the Nana) were customarily used  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s disagreement,  which r e s u l t e d in at l e a s t a bi-modal t r a d i t i o n ,  i s already evident in our  two e a r l i e s t sources (Athens MS. 2458 and the v i r t u a l l y  contemporaneous 23 Athens MS. 2622), and i s then continued throughout the 14th century. 20 R e s p e c t i v e l y , A t h e n s MS. 2406 ( ' 1 4 5 3 ' ) f o l . 289Y, and I v i r o n MS. 1120 ( ' 1 4 5 8 ' ) f o l . 5 8 3 . A l s o , a s was i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t S i n a i MS. 1462 c o n t a i n s t h e - i d e n t i c a l d o u b l e s i g n a t u r e . 21 See C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p p . 3 1 8 - 1 9 , who c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g example i n w h i c h t h e two d i f f e r e n t main s i g n a t u r e t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t n e u m e s i n d i c a t e a n i d e n t i c a l s t a r t o n d.: r  22 MS.  The o n l y 1294 r e f e r r e d t o  minor in n.  exception i s , 17 a b o v e .  of  course, the  opening in  Sinai  23 Although  The two v e r s i o n s i n V i e n n a MS. 185 .add s u p p o r t t o t h e y a r e i n Mode I P l a g a l a n d t h e N a n a t h e y r e q u i r e ,  this hypothesis. r e s p e c t i v e l y , an  f_ a n d a £ s t a r t . T h e u s e o f Mode I I P l a g a l i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 a n d T a p h o s M S . 425 i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . It i s p o s s i b l e , however, that this r e f l e c t s a l o c a l v a r i a n t , a n d i n t h e c a s e of. A t h e n s MS. 2454 t h i s i s n o t an u n u s u a l d i v e r g e n c e from the consensus o f o t h e r MSS. Thus, f o r e x a m p l e , A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 i s t h e o n l y o n e o f n i n e 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y MSS w h i c h a s s i g n s t h e TTaAcaov ( " o l d " ) s e t t i n g o f TeOaaaGe t o M o d e I P l a g a l , i n s t e a d o f t o M o d e II P l a g a l . TstioaoQe i s t h e C o m m u n i o n v e r s e f o r t h e P r e s a n c t i f i e d " l i t u r g y .  9.  For the purposes of t h i s study preference has been given to the version in Athens MS. 2458 while other versions have been consulted when necessary. Athens MS. 2458 i s not only the e a r l i e s t Akolouthiai that can be dated prec i s e l y ('1336') but in most instances i t also seems to e s t a b l i s h or to follow 24 the modal designation of the majority of 14th-century manuscripts transmissions are seldom d i s t o r t e d by s c r i b a l e r r o r s .  and i t s  In a d d i t i o n , the  choice of Mode I Plagal i s in accordance with the e a r l i e s t musical sources 25 that transmit the Ecoua x P i ' a T 0 U  The t h i r t e e n remaining transmissions generally follow Athens MS. 2458 but they do d i s p l a y a number of melodic v a r i a n t s .  Such variants usually  c o n s t i t u t e only minor a l t e r a t i o n s to the melodic f a b r i c and comprise both f i g u r a l expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n .  C e r t a i n l y a cursory examination of these  changes supports the conclusion reached by D i m i t r i Conomos, who notes that . . . m e l o d i c ornamentation s h o u l d not be viewed as evidence e i t h e r f o r s t y l i s t i c development, or for chronological progression...?^  Thus in the following comparison of two excerpts from Athens MS. 2458 ( f o l . 169 ) and Vienna MS. 185 ( f o l . 2 8 5 ) , the l a t e r manuscript contains in one r  r  case a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and, in the other instance, an elaboration of our e a r l i e s t source.  24  FeuaaaOe, with  the  A t h e n s MS. 2458 a l s o c o n t a i n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h r e e s e t t i n g s of and i n each case t h e s e K o i n o n i k a agree i n t h e i r modal d e s i g n a t i o n majority of 14th-century sources. 25  26  Conomos,  "Psalmody and the  Conomos,  Byzantine  Trisagia  Communion C y c l e , " and  p.  C h e r o u b i k a , p.  116. 150.  10.  EXAMPLE 1  Somewhat more substantial differences also occur i n a few manuscripts but 27 the melodic o u t l i n e i s , nevertheless, always c l e a r l y sustained. There are in addition a few other discrepancies among the various sources that need to be dealt with here. i s , as we have seen, assigned to Mode II  The s e t t i n g in Athens MS. 2454 P l a g a l , but immediately preceding  the phrase imyns aGavaxou there i s found a medial signature of the Nana mode, as f o l l o w s : [uexaAaBexe]  TTnCyns]  None of the other 14th-century versions contains a medial signature at t h i s point and therefore the s t a r t i n g note of the new phrase — always an ison — i s n a t u r a l l y reckoned from the end of the preceding phrase.  In  t h i s i n s t a n c e , however, the medial signature seems to suggest a s t a r t i n g note a t h i r d higher (on c_), rather than the same p i t c h as the previous ending (a_).  There does not appear to be a r a t i o n a l explanation for the use  of t h i s s i g n a t u r e , and i t must be assumed that t h i s anomaly i s due to a  ' Such changes i n v a r i a b l y appear i n the music accompanying the phrase Trnyns aOavaxoU.  11.  scribal e r r o r /  0  Otherwise, i t could possibly mean that the Nana mode has  a s t a r t i n g note of a_ i n addition to the customary c, but t h i s i s highly unlikely. The f i r s t of the two versions of t h i s hymn in Vatopedi MS. 1495 ( f o l . 217 ) i s the only example i n the 14th-century r e p e r t o i r e which expands r  t h i s piece with a complete r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase imyns &8avaTou and i t s music.  However, a diastematic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the f i n a l phrase shows an  incongruity which i s again probably the r e s u l t of a s c r i b a l e r r o r .  The  f o l l o w i n g c o r r e c t i o n (marked by an a s t e r i s k ) r e s u l t s in the r i g h t f i n a l i s for t h i s version and accords with our other sources.  EXAMPLE  2  A f u r t h e r d i s t o r t i o n that must be a t t r i b u t e d to s c r i b a l e r r o r occurs in Sinai MS. 1294.  The i n i t i a l  c i t a t i o n of yevoaoQe i s given a  descending t h i r d on the second s y l l a b l e , as opposed to the customary 28 A ' q u e s t i o n a b l e m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e a l s o a p p e a r s i n A t h e n s MS. 2454 i n a number o f o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . In f a c t , Conomos, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of modal s i g n a t u r e s , c i t e s A t h e n s ' M S . 2 4 5 4 a s o n e o f t h e f e w MSS . . w h i c h c o n t a i n s i n e x p l i c a b l e m a r t y r i a i . See Conomos, B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , p. 320.  12.  descending f o u r t h .  This has been corrected i n order to achieve agreement  with the other v e r s i o n s .  EXAMPLE  3  The f i v e versions of Moschianos's arrangement demonstrate a s i m i l a r disagreement concerning modal designation. s p e c i f i e d here, Mode I Plagal and Mode II  Athens Vienna  However, only two modes are Plagal.  Mode I Plagal, requiring a d start  MS. 2622 f o l . 360 MS. 185 f o l . 285  r  A m b r o s i a n a MS. Q. 11 f o l . 261 V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 f o l . 217 V i e n n a MS. 185 f o l . 268*  v  v  1  Mode I I Plagal, r e q u i r i n g an e_ start  Once again a l l i n d i c a t i o n s seem to suggest that t h i s s e t t i n g by Moschianos was not r e s t r i c t e d to a s i n g l e mode.  Particularly  significant,  of course, i s the f a c t that Vienna MS. 185 contains both v e r s i o n s , one in each mode.  Moreover, i f we look to l a t e r manuscripts i t becomes apparent  that t h i s dichotomy remains unresolved, f o r a l l versions follow the t r a d i t i o n  13.  of u t i l i z i n g e i t h e r Mode I Plagal or Mode II  29  Plagal.  The verson in Athens  MS. 2622 i s the oldest at our disposal and i t has been used as our primary source. Aside from Vatopedi MS. 1495, the remaining examples follow Athens MS. 2622 quite c l o s e l y .  Vatopedi MS. 1495 once again s p e c i f i e s a r e p e t i t i o n  of the phrase •mryns aGavaxou with- i t s e n t i r e music, and also contains some more substantive deviations from our model.  The changes, however,  affect  only i n c i d e n t a l l y the melodic o u t l i n e of t h i s v e r s i o n .  This ambiguity in modal designation does not r e a l l y present a problem for the remaining versions of Swua xpiaxou, p a r t i c u l a r l y since most of them are found only in one or two manuscripts.  Two versions a t t r i b u t e d  to Kladas are contained i n the 14th-century r e p e r t o i r e , one of these being transmitted by two manuscripts: v  Athens  MS.  Athens  MS. 2411  29 natures  is,  "MS." 1 8 5 " f o l - . point medial  where  904  fol.  30  268  fol.  Mode I V P l a g a l , requiring a g s t a r t , and Nana  31  572  Mode I V  r  Plagal  . . . . . s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f two d i s t i n c t i v e main s i g two MSS, confirmed by the m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e s . Thus V i e n n a •r A *•» L. 285 (trg,') c o n t a i n s a m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e o f g " ..at t h e identical  It in  Vlatadon  signature  of  MS. 46  ('1591').fol.  109  r  (jry  ) gives  a  comparable  y'.  30  ~  ~  S i n c e t h i s Etoua X P melody appears anonymously i n Athens MS. 9 0 4 , t h e a t t r i b u t i o n h a s b e e n r e s t o r e d b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h A t h e n s MS. 2411 and l a t e r 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS. M o r e o v e r , due t o t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n of t h e m i c r o f i l m o f A t h e n s MS. 904 ( a l s o t h e M S ? ) , A t h e n s MS. 899 f o l . 149 v a n d A t h e n s MS. 2406 f o l . 287 were used t o r e s t o r e obscure or illegible i  a  T  0  U  r  passages. 31 A microfilm to the  Athens  D.  National  assistance.  of  this  MS w a s  copied  Library,  am p l e a s e d t o  and  I  this  unavailable  Conomos k i n d l y  Koinonikon  to  me,  from  but  the  on a r e c e n t  original  e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  for  MS this  trip in  14.  In t h i s case the explanation for the use of the double martyriai in Athens MS. 904 i s quite simple and may be found in Athens MS. 2411.  There the s c r i b e  has only w r i t t e n the signature for Mode IV Plagal but has added the r u b r i c ". . .KCU T p i x o s "  (= "and in Mode I I I " ) , i n d i c a t i n g that the piece belongs  not only to Mode IV P l a g a l .  The t r a n s i t i o n into the Nana form of Mode  III  i s shown by the medial signature *zz which appears a f t e r the "irdX.iv" (= " r e p e a t , " "again") ( l i n e 5 ) , and.precedes the r e p e t i t i o n of irrryns a8avaxou. Moreover, an examination of t h i s hymn shows that a modulation from Mode IV Plagal to the Nana mode has already occurred in l i n e 2, f o r immediately before the f i r s t appearance of the word irriYns, the s c r i b e has inserted a phthora r e q u i r i n g a modulation,to Mode III  Authentic.  This modulation, -  which i s evident from the musical context as w e l l , i s also s i g n i f i e d by the same phthora in Athens MS. 904, but where Athens MS. 2411 s p e c i f i e d a Nana medial signature a f t e r the irdXiv, Athens MS. 904 indicates a medial signature of Mode IV P l a g a l .  E X A M P L E 4>^-~  A  a  ~£ *V  See n .  ^ = 5 s - * —  »-iB  pft »' «Tj r m  32  m  f  m ,  m  0  LET Lf  f •f  m*  w sw •m  " W  ' IS U EA  m  i* L—X ~ \  m.  11  Tfrj  f  Is*,  -  m  m  77s  below.  A l t h o u g h t h i s s h o u l d p r e s u m a b l y be t r a n s c r i b e d as an o c t a v e , t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s , / i n d i c a t i o n s i n 1 4 t h a n d 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS t h a t t h e r e w a s a c e r t a i n amount o f c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r v a l s l a r g e r t h a n a s i x t h . The c o n t e x t i n t h i s c a s e seems t o s u g g e s t a s e v e n t h .  15.  It i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , of course, that the r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase wr\yf\s aSavaxou (as indicated by  TTOUV)  w i l l be in the i d e n t i c a l mode as that used 33  f o r i t s f i r s t c i t a t i o n (the modulation there being denoted by a phthora), and the two passages a r e , to a l l intents and purposes, the same.  The d i f -  ference between our two 14th-century sources seems to be that in the case of Athens MS. 904 Mode IV Plagal i s b r i e f l y r e i t e r a t e d by the irdAxv formula as well as being s p e c i f i e d by the following medial s i g n a t u r e , before the melody returns to the Nana mode f o r the r e p e t i t i o n of the irnYns phrase. In the case of Athens MS. 2411, however, the scribe retains the Nana mode by v i r t u e of the ascending seventh (see Example 4 and the caveat c i t e d t h e r e ) , and consequently prescribes the iTaAiv formula in that mode as well before s p e c i f y i n g the Nana medial signature that indicates a continuation in the Nana mode.  Both versions subsequently return to Mode IV Plagal and 34 end there with a f i n a l i s on a_. Another s e t t i n g of Zuua xP*°"rou by Kladas i s transmitted by our 14th-century manuscripts but appears only in one of our e a r l i e s t sources: Athens  MS. 2622 f o l .  417  V  I n f a c t t h e t w o 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS A t h e n s M S . 24-06) b o t h i n d i c a t e a p h t h o r a o n l y s p e c i f y a m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e f o r Mode I V P l a g a l  Mode I I I Authentic, q u i r i n g a n ' a_ start  re-  c o n s u l t e d ( A t h e n s MS. 899 and a f t e r TTaAiV a n d b o t h a l s o here.  I n A t h e n s M S . 24-11 l i n e 6 - t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n , i s m a r k e d b y a n a s t e r i s k i n l i n e 10 o f E x a m p l e 1 1 b e l o w , w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e e n t i r e hymn the s c r i b e has omitted t h e i s o n from the - f i g u r e T h i s r e s u l t s i n the remainder of the s e t t i n g b e i n g a tone too h i g h , and has been c o r r e c t e d by comparison w i t h Athens MS. 904.  16.  The remaining composers are a l l represented by a s i n g l e musical s e t t i n g of the Easter Koinonikon.  Gerasimos's s e t t i n g occurs in two 14th-  century manuscripts: Vatopedi  MS. 1495  fol.  217  V  Mode a . g_  Vienna  MS. 185  fol.  285  IV  Plagal,  start  requiring  .  V  Although the melody of t h i s s e t t i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n both manus c r i p t s , the version in Vatopedi MS. 1495 poses a rather unusual problem. Here the hymn i s not only somewhat longer than in Vienna MS. 185 (by approximately four l i n e s ) , but i t contains an e n t i r e l i n e of music without any t e x t or teretismata whatsoever.  The reasons for the use of t h i s expansion  w i l l be analyzed i n d e t a i l in the section on t e x t ; at t h i s point the explanation should s u f f i c e .  following  Due to the absence of the A l l e l u i a in the Easter  Koinonikon, the r e p e t i t i o n of e n t i r e t e x t phrases together with t h e i r accompanying music was commonly u t i l i z e d in order to f i t liturgical  action i t had to cover.  the hymn to the  The most frequently repeated phrase  was TiriYns aGavaxou yeuaaaSe and i t i s t h i s phrase which Vatopedi MS. 1495 repeats almost exactly a f t e r the customary iraAiv.  Vienna MS. 185, however,  omits t h i s r e p e t i t i o n and proceeds to another r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s text phrase (the conclusion of the hymn) with new music, which also concludes the version in Vatopedi MS. 1495.  Immediately preceding t h i s concluding phrase  i n Vatopedi MS. 1495, however, there occurs the aforementioned l i n e of t e x t l e s s music.  By comparing these two versions i t becomes evident that  the scribe of the Vatopedi manuscript has c l e v e r l y inserted .a second ending in order to expand t h i s hymn even f u r t h e r .  17.  This i r r e g u l a r i t y i n Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s perhaps most simply explained by reference to the following f i g u r e .  The word -rrdXiv ( l i n e s 7-8)  s i g n i f i e s the r e p e t i t i o n (in l i n e s 8-10) of the phrase Y£U0aa8e and i t s music (from l i n e s 5-7).  irnyris  aBavaxou  In l i n e 11 the s c r i b e has entered  the music previously used f o r udAiv ( f i g . A), followed by that used f o r TrriynLs] ( f i g . A ) but has omitted t h i s t e x t . 1  begins with a new ending for [yevoajoQe music ( f i g . hymn.  9)  f o r the phrase  TrnYns  The next texted l i n e ( l i n e 12)  ( f i g . E ) , and continues with new  aBavaxou ye-ooaoQe which concludes the  By c o n t r a s t , in Vienna MS. 185-only an abbreviated version i s s u p p l i e d ,  with the o r i g i n a l frnyn'...s aSavdxou ( f i g s . A and B, c f . with l i n e s 5-7 i n Vatopedi MS. 1495) being followed by yevaaoBe. (f.ig. E, c f . with l i n e 12 in Vatopedi MS. 1495), and continuing d i r e c t l y with the concluding material (fig.  e). On the basis of t h i s comparison the intentions of the s c r i b e in  Vatopedi MS. 1495 become c l e a r .  A f t e r the r e p e t i t i o n contained i n l i n e s  8-10 the singer had the option of yet f u r t h e r r e p e t i t i o n s .  If the  liturgical  action required a d d i t i o n a l music, he would continue with l i n e 11, adding to the untexted l i n e the text with which he was by now quite f a m i l i a r , v i z . , uaAiv  TrriYns.  He would then return to the top of the f o l i o ( l i n e 9) which  c o n s t i t u t e s the exact textual and musical sequel to l i n e 11 . (as well as l i n e 8 ) , and continue with l i n e 10. infinitum.  This procedure could be repeated ad  Moreover, whenever the singer approached the end of l i n e 10  he could a l s o e l e c t to s u b s t i t u t e f i g . E (the beginning of l i n e 12) f o r fig.  T ( l i n e 10) in [yeuaaJaGe and thereby draw the hymn to a close by  continuing with l i n e 12 et seq.  The reason f o r the t e x t omission in l i n e 11  thus becomes obvious, as the text required here would have been nonsensical  18.  with the ordinary sequence of l i n e s ( i . e . C0E...).  l i n e 11 TraAiv Trnyns l i n e 12  It would have confused both singers and future t r a n s c r i b e r s .  In  addition the t e x t l e s s l i n e provides the singer with an important v i s u a l cue for the a l t e r n a t e second ending of [yevaa]oQe  in the following  line  ( l i n e 12). FIGURE Refrain Vatopedi  Repetition  in  1 Gerasimos's  Setting  M S . 14-95  fol.  - 217  fol. 218 (line 9)  V  r  '  R JJ  M T  (line 1 0 )  M  yevoaoQe  a-0a-vd-TOU  (line 5) Music  (line 1 1 ) A  (=M)  .  B  A. NO  Text  [y£]xaAd(3£X£  (=T)  'wr\yr\-zr\-zr\ ••  (line 6) M  TEXT  a-  (line 7 ) r  [= TraAiv  Vienna  MS.  -A  T  Aiv  •  a8 £ - U E  ird-  vdxou  0  etc.  TTriYn  yevoaaQe  A'  irn-Yn-  185 Music  ]  d0a-  s  A-  yev-aa-aQe  .  -  T  Tm-yn-  ;(line 8 ) M  M  • (line 1 3 )  M  ©a-vd-Tou  '  HERE  E  -2ns  T  A'  (line 12  B  T  T  ^  A  Text Music  [y£xaAag£T£]  Text  yevoaoQe  E  n  0  ue  B  xnY -2n-2n-2ns •  otGavaTOU  . ^  Trnyris a0avax©u  yetiaaobe  •••  ||  M T  19.  Only one s e t t i n g of Ewua xptcfrou by Gavalos i s found i n the 14thcentury r e p e r t o i r e and i t Vatopedi  Vienna  i s transmitted by two manuscripts:  MS. 1495 f o l .  MS. 185  fol.  285  218  Mode IV quiring  r  Plagal, rea g_ start  V  The version in Vatopedi MS. 1495 seems to contain a number of s c r i b a l errors and f o r t h i s reason the s l i g h t l y l a t e r version from Vienna MS. 185 i s given precedence.  EXAMPLE  5  Ex. 5 0>) _ IT)  185  |  TOV  f  A  A  I I  I I  l\  1 %  ^  1  i  :r fLf tft TLTC£J GirCfr-TCT-f  [a-doQ  [vocrovj  The most readily-apparent error i s the f a c t that the Vatopedi s c r i b e supplies an i n c o r r e c t ending with a f i n a l i s on Vienna MS. ends c o r r e c t l y on  e_, whereas that in the  a_ (see Example 5a).  In a d d i t i o n , the major  portion of l i n e 4 in the Vatopedi. MS. ( i . e . following [d]6avaTou) c o n s i s t s  20.  of music that i s extraneous to the Vienna version and to the various 15th35 century manuscripts u t i l i z e d f o r comparative purposes (see Example 5b). This phrase contains what i s probably a f u r t h e r s c r i b a l e r r o r , for the succeeding l i n e 5, which corresponds to the music immediately a8avaxou in the Vienna v e r s i o n , i s a tone'too low.  following  Further support f o r  t h i s assumption may be found in the f i n a l musical phrase of t h i s hymn which i s an obvious r e p e t i t i o n of the opening phrase and which the Vatopedi s c r i b e begins a tone too low and then ends a t h i r d too low, as noted above (see Ex. 5a).  The 15th-century manuscripts that were consulted follow the model  of the Vienna MS. and t h i s was deemed to be the preferable version f o r our purposes. Doukas's s e t t i n g of Zwua xpi°"rou i s 14th-century  manuscript:  Vatopedi  MS. 1495  fol.  218  Mode IV  Plagal  The phrase  TiriYns  r  Once again t h i s version i s problematical. yevoaoQe  unica which appears in the  a  aGavdxou  ( i n l i n e s 3-5) i s repeated (in l i n e s 6-8) a f t e r the word  but a d i g i t a l  t r a n s c r i p t i o n r e s u l t s in the l a t t e r part of t h i s  TraAiv,  repetition  (beginning at l i n e 7) being a t h i r d lower than the o r i g i n a l c i t a t i o n .  3 5  Athens  Iviron  MS. 1120  phrase  but  remaining  it  is  from  marked  fol.  2406  585 . v  does n o t ,  as  fol.  288 ,  Only  the  is  the  V  Vat.  last  case  Barb.  MS  with  gr.  392  contains Vatopedi  a  fol.  206  V  suggestion  MS. 1 4 9 5 ,  and of  this  distort  the  material. 36  oxeia  MS.  Due  Most  the by  an  likely  unusual  the  error  figure  asterisk  in  is  ^s>  Example  due t o  the  near-the 5b.  omission  end  of  line  of 4.  an o l i g o n The  or  exact  an  *  location  21.  to i t s d i s t i n c t i v e contours, i t i s almost certain that this r e i t e r a t i o n constitutes not only a textual but also a musical p a r a l l e l and on this basis a correction has been effected.  Beginning with l i n e 7, on the s y l l a b l e  -va- of deavaxou, the rest of the hymn has been transposed up a t h i r d . The f i n a l i s of the text proper then becomes ending concludes on  d_ whereas the post-cadential  £ .  The one remaining example of Zwya XP*°" °U i s attributed to Panaretos T  and occurs i n only one manuscript:  K o u t l o u m o u s i MS. 457 f o l .  232  V  Model I I P l a g a l  Although this setting i s quite unproblematical, i t does pose a question with respect to medial signatures.  Immediately preceding the phrase Trnyns  aeavarou yeOaaa0e there appears, a signature f o r Mode I Authentic ( g ) which i s followed by an ison above TrnLYHs]. requires the note  This signature normally  a_ and the ison should merely confirm this pitch.  previous phrase, however, ends with an ascending f i f t h (from  e  The  to b_)  and i t i s a matter of conjecture whether the medial signature or the ison should take p r i o r i t y .  I t was a r b i t r a r i l y decided that precedence  should be  given to the medial signature, and as such this section begins, and eventually ends, in Mode I.  22.  T E X T  The text of the Easter Koinonikon has, f o r purposes of musical structure,  been divided by the Byzantine composers i n t o the  following  phrases: 1.  Euiya xP!- Tou  2.  yexaAaBexe  3.  -rrrpyris aSavaxou  4.  yevoaaBe  a  This text structure  of four phrases i s a determining f a c t o r in the melodic  organization of the hymn, for the phrase endings r e g u l a r l y coincide with cadence points in the music. study of the TevaaoBc, i t  As B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n has pointed out in her  i s common p r a c t i c e at t h i s time for major text 37  d i v i s i o n s to be marked by f u l l cadences.  Such cadences occur e i t h e r on  the l a s t text s y l l a b l e of a phrase (or s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r ) , or are what might be termed ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' cadences, in that a rhythmic elongation occurs on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of the succeeding word.' the following word i s the non-textual  In some instances where  term rraAiv or Xeye ( = " s a y ! " ) , such  ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' cadences may occur on e i t h e r or both of i t s s y l l a b l e s . present repertoire  The  shows a remarkable adherence to t h i s p r i n c i p l e as i s 38  demonstrated by these f i g u r e s . 37 Breslich-Erickson,  "Communion Hymn," p.  55.  38 These of  computations  a phrase; rather,  into  account.  are  unambiguous  not  based merely  phrase repetitions  on t h e have  initial  a l s o been  citation taken  23.  TABLE Average  Frequency  of  with  II  Text-Phrase Musical  Endings  Coincident  Cadences  phrase  1  100%  phrase  2  92%  phrase  3  77%  phrase  4  75%  An unusual feature of the Sajya xP "tou s e t t i n g , already alluded 10  39 to above,  i s the .extensive use of textual  phrase r e p e t i t i o n s .  The primary  reason f o r t h i s must be sought in the absence of a concluding A l l e l u i a , which i s omitted both from t h i s hymn and from the only other Koinonikon, Too S E X T T V O U aou for Holy Thursday.  non-scriptural  Since the music of the  A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n often surpasses i n length that of the text verse proper, other means had to be u t i l i z e d to expand the music of t h i s hymn in order to cover the same l i t u r g i c a l  action.  A comparison with the other Communion  verses, moreover, reveals that the luiua xP*°"rou ">  s  o n e  of the shorter  texts,  40  whose length in no way compensates f o r the missing A l l e l u i a .  The problem  must have been compounded f u r t h e r due to the p o s i t i o n of the Easter feast as the culmination of the l i t u r g i c a l  y e a r , a fact which i n e v i t a b l y  would  have required the presence of additional c e l e b r a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y in the major churches, thereby necessitating ever more music. 39 40 Chants,"  pp.  See  p.  16  The t e x t s 245-48.  The s o l u t i o n , f o r the  above. of  a l l  Komonika  are  reproduced  in  Conomos,  "Communion  24. 3  majority of our composers, was inherent i n the text i t s e l f ,  and only the  e a r l i e s t example from our group, that a t t r i b u t e d to Glykes, contains — except f o r the transmission i n Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 — n o phrase r  r e p e t i t i o n whatsoever.  The s l i g h t l y l a t e r version by Moschianos i s also  r e t i c e n t about t h i s procedure and contains only a b r i e f r e i t e r a t i o n of the word  within the same musical phrase.  XP^TOU  Once a g a i n , however, the  Vatopedi s c r i b e (on f o l . 217 ) provides a T r a A i v r e p e t i t i o n of the t h i r d v  t e x t phrase. The following table demonstrates the frequency of phrase r e p e t i t i o n in t h i s repertoire, and f o r thxs:purpose the t e x t has been divided i n t o i t s f i v e elements.  The c a l c u l a t i o n s here are based on eleven examples,  since in three instances the r e p e t i t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c hymn i s varied subs t a n t i a l l y in different  sources, and therefore these have been counted  41 separately.  It must also be emphasized that the r a t i o n a l e behind t h i s  is the presence of a c l e a r and unambiguous r e p e t i t i o n of a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t unit of t e x t and i t s music. word  xpiorou  Thus, f o r example, the r e i t e r a t i o n of the  i n Moschianos's s e t t i n g mentioned above has not been included,  nor has the extension of the word  ye-yexaXd-iieTaAageTe  TABLE Average  XP  Eqjyq 9%  1 < J T 0  0%  ^  III  Text-Element  ysTaXaBexe 18%  in Panaretos's hymn.  Repetition  • : -TTTTYTIS  o/javavoo 73%  ycuQaaGe 36%  41 This a p p l i e s t o the s e t t i n g s o f the f o l l o w i n g composers as ; t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e s e MSS: G l y k e s i n A t h e n s M S . 2458 a n d V a t o p e d i MS. 1 4 9 5 ; M o s c h i a n o s i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 a n d V a t o p e d i MS. 1 4 9 5 ; G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 and Vienna MS. 1 8 5 .  25.  It becomes obvious from these figures that the text-phrase Trnyns  aGavdxou was the favoured vehicle of repetition u t i l i z e d by the 14th-  century composers of this hymn.  This phrase occurs not only in i t s normal  word order, but in some cases i t also consists of juxtaposed words, a 42 feature that i s quite common in the kalophonic repertoire.  Thus in  Gavalos (according to both of our sources) the order i s inverted as  Trnyns  aBavdxou. a9avaxou Trnyns yeCoaoQe, and in Kladas (according to Athens MS. 2622)  Trnyns  aOavdxou  Trnyns  [yeuaacGe]' i s used as the repetition which follows  the c i t a t i o n of the complete text.  What does not become apparent from the  preceding figures, however, i s that the word yevoaoQe often becomes a part of the repeated unit.  In f a c t , i n every instance that has been included 43  in these calculations  the repetition of yexxsaoBe occurs in conjunction  with the preceding phrase, as in Trnyns deavdxou yevoaode. Upon examining this repertoire one.becomes increasingly aware that this element (Trnyns aOavdxou yevoaoQe),  or on occasion i t s three  constituent words, functions in a manner analogous to the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n in other Koinonika.  It appears as a de facto r e f r a i n both by virtue of the  textual and musical elaboration accorded to i t , and because of i t s length in r e l a t i o n to the rest of the hymn.  Support for this supposition i s , of  "^Edward Vinson W i l l i a m s , "John Koukouzeles' Reform of Byzantine Chanting for Great Vespers i n the Fourteenth Century" (Ph.D. dissertation, Y a l e , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 266.  4-3  .  -*  In P a n a r e t o s ' s v e r s i o n the c o n c l u d i n g r e p e t i t i o n of ysvoaoBe constitutes what i s v i r t u a l l y a p o s t - c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a . Although it is a c t u a l l y an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the hymn, i t s b r e v i t y and s y l l a b i c setting have c a u s e d i t t o be d i s m i s s e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n here.  26.  course, evidenced by the figures adduced p r e v i o u s l y , but of greater  interest  here are the versions of Sciua XPICTOO transmitted by one s p e c i f i c manus c r i p t , Vatopedi MS. 1495.  Without exception, every example in t h i s  manuscript contains a r e p e t i t i o n of a l l or part of t h i s unit of t e x t , and even more importantly, the versions here are i n v a r i a b l y more highly developed than the same pieces in other 14th-century sources.  In the case of the  versions a t t r i b u t e d to Glykes and Moschianos, Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s the only source among a t o t a l of nineteen examples which s p e c i f i e s a r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase  TrTnyris  dBavaxou, and in the s e t t i n g by Gerasimos (see above, p. 1 6 ) ,  t h i s manuscript makes p r o v i s i o n for an i n d e f i n i t e number of r e p e t i t i o n s of the complete textual unit which i s not r e f l e c t e d even in the l a t e r Vienna MS. 185.  Presumably the elaboration of these passages in Vatopedi  i s due to reasons of l i t u r g i c a l expediency, but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y  MS. 1495 for  our purposes, i t becomes c l e a r that a s c r i b e , when required to expand t h i s hymn, i n v a r i a b l y developed the phrase Trnyns deavdxou yeuaaaee.  This • ;  development i s , by i t s very nature, c l o s e l y related to the approach taken by the composers of other Communion hymns, who generally u t i l i z e d the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n when confronted with a s i m i l a r task.  An examination of  other Koinonika, in fact, reveals that elements of the text verse are only infrequently repeated, and that the expansion of musical material occurs p r i m a r i l y in the A l l e l u i a .  44  See Conomos, "Communion C h a n t s , " p. 245 and B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , "Communion Hymn," p. 67. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y r e p e r t o i r e o f TeDOaaQe, s h o w s t h a t l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e e x a m p l e s r e p e a t a p h r a s e of the text. Such r e p e t i t i o n s , - however, are d i s p e r s e d throughout the t e x t and a r e n o t r e s e r v e d f o r any one p a r t i c u l a r s e g m e n t .  27.  B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ' s study o f f e r s a d d i t i o n a l  support f o r t h i s  suggested consanguinity between A l l e l u i a and the phrase -rrriYns aGav&rou 45 yeuaaaGe.  She draws attention to a version of TevoaoBe  by Glykes that  appears in two 15th-century manuscripts, which i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to 46 our Ewya xpiaxou a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s composer.  This c o r r e l a t i o n , however,  extends beyond musical i d e n t i t y to a close s i m i l a r i t y of text in comparable musical l o c a t i o n s .  distribution  The following j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these  t e x t s , taken from the previously mentioned manuscripts, shows t h i s  quite  c l e a r l y ; text d i s p o s i t i o n on i d e n t i c a l musical figures being indicated by beams l i n k i n g the two l i n e s  4 7  (see F i g . 2 on following page).  Here the  45 Breslich-Erickson,  "Communion Hymn,"  pp.  51-73.  46 Ibid., pp. 64ff. T h e MSS a r e A t h e n s M S . 24-56, a s s i g n s a 14-th-l5th century date, and S i n a i MS. 1 2 9 3 , which the early 15th century. 4-7  t o which she she places i n  ~ 10 101 T h e i n c i p i t s o f Zcoya XP' " -' r e p r o d u c e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n on p . 65 o f h e r s t u d y c o n t a i n a n i n e x p l i c a b l e e r r o r . The o p e n i n g o f SinaiMS. 1 2 9 3 i s a c t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t ? o f A t h e n s M S . 24-56, g i v e n immediately above; t h e s o l e d i f f e r e n c e i n these two sources b e i n g , a s she has n o t e d , t h a t a m o d a l s i g n a t u r e i s n o t p r o v i d e d i n A t h e n s M S . 24-56. It has proven i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e t h e i n c i p i t t h a t she has l a b e l l e d S i n a i MS. 1293 i n either of these sources. M o r e o v e r , t h e i n c i p i t t o t h e TevoaoBe setting i n A t h e n s M S . 24-56 c o n t a i n s w h a t i s w i t h o u t m u c h d o u b t . a s c r i b a l e r r o r which m u s t b e c o r r e c t e d ; t h e s e c o n d neume s h o u l d b e a n i s o n i n s t e a d o f a n a p o s t r o p h o s . M o s t l i k e l y t h e s c r i b e h a s h e r e c o p i e d f r o m h i s s o u r c e t h e s e c o n d neume o f the opening t h a t he was t o u s e s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r f o r h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e Euiya X P ' P ( i . e . a n a p o s t r o p h o s ) , b u t h a s t h e n c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e more c o m m o n i p o r r o i ( u s e d i n t h i s p l a c e i n t h e s e t t i n g s o f TevoaoBe in Sinai M S . 1 2 9 3 a n d Ewya X P T - C f T O U i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 , S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 , a n d A t h e n s MS. 8 9 9 ) i n s t e a d o f r e p e a t i n g t h e a p o s t r o p h o s a s r e q u i r e d b y h i s i n i t i a l use o f an a p o s t r o p h o s . As a r e s u l t , t h e melody, which i s i n a l l other r e s p e c t s i d e n t i c a l t o the v e r s i o n i n S i n a i MS. 1 2 9 3 , i s a tone t o o l o w . This suggestion of s c r i b a l error i s given credence by the opening of the Zwya X P 1 ° " T ° U s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 6 a n d S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 , w h i c h i n b o t h instances contains the following incipit consisting of successive apostrophoi, 5~'V?>cL>5'0--r ^'^ , Underneath, however, an alternate version has been added i n r e d i n k , 5 — ^ - o - T j . The s u b s i d i a r y neumes a r e o f c o u r s e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e o p e n i n g u t i l i z e d f o r TetioaoBe i n S i n a i MS. 1293 and l  T O U  5  FIGURE  Text  Texi-oa-oQe  Ken  \—<5e-X£  i l l Eco  —ya  I. XP  X  a  T  0  U  Parallelism  o—xi  Ypi-axo-s  I  I I  ye-xa  A a —3e  I  i n Glyk'es's  2  TetioaoQe  o KU-OI—o-os  I xe  .  a-AXn  a n d Zoouct  XPi-PTOU  x^—AAn-Aoti-'i-^a  za-AAn-Aoi3 —'i-a  ! J  I  I , I  Trn-yrjbsja—6a—va-xou  x  I , , I I a  Y  e _ £ 1 J  —aa-a0e  oo  29.  phrase Trrryris  deavdxou yeuaaoi9e i s equated unambiguously with the A l l e l u i a  r e f r a i n , even though this procedure i s not dictated by the s y l l a b i c a l i g n ment of the two verses.  Moreover, the correlation even extends to the  placement of the extraneous x'  in both instances.  1  versions of melodic migration between  Although no other such  EtLya xpio"rou and any other Koinonika  which u t i l i z e the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n are known to me, on the basis of the evidence cited above, i t seems reasonable to assume that the phrase TrrrYns  dGavdxou yeuaaaee f u l f i l l e d a role similar to that of the A l l e l u i a .  More-  over, as a substitute for the customary A l l e l u i a , the repetition of this phrase was eminently suited to the theological significance of the Easter feast, a fact which would scarcely have gone unnoticed by the composers or unappreciated by the l i s t e n e r s . Another feature of the texting practice in this repertoire i s what might be referred to as 'word extension', whereby a text-word i s prolonged by the repetition of i t s s y l l a b l e s .  This may be done by repeating 48  the previous s y l l a b l e (eg. ye-uexaAdgexe or Ye^yeuaaaeer},  or by repeating 49 a larger segment of the \text (eg. yexa-yexaAdgexe: or a0avd-0avdxou). t h e o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f E a i u a XPICTTOU c i t e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ( e x c l u d i n g t h e o p e n i n g l a b e l l e d ' S i n a i MS. 1 2 9 3 ' ) , and p e r m i t a c o r r e c t m e d i a l c a d e n c e on t h e o p e n i n g p i t c h a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t l i n e . Moreover, the controv e r s i a l s e c o n d neume i n S i n a i MS. 1293 ( a n i s o n ) i s a b n o r m a l l y l a r g e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s c r i b e h e r e may a l s o h a v e o r i g i n a l l y u s e d a n e r r o n e o u s apostrophos and l a t e r covered i t w i t h the i s o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t b o t h A t h e n s , - M S . 24-06 a n d S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 g i v e d o u b l e m a i n s i g n a tures f o r t h e i r Eooya XPT-CTOU t r a n s m i s s i o n s , n o t o n l y t h e N a n a s i g n a t u r e ( s e e p. 7 a b o v e ) , a n d t h a t A t h e n s MS. 899 a s s i g n s t h i s hymn t o Mode I P l a g a l a n d n o t t o Mode I I P l a g a l a s i n d i c a t e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n . 48 218 ),  The f o r m e r e x a m p l e i s f r o m G a v a l o s i n a n d the l a t t e r i s f r o m M o s c h i a n o s i n A t h e n s  217 ),  and the  r  ^The V  Vatopedi MS. 2622  MS. 1495 (fol. ( f o l . 360 ).  f i r s t example' i s from .Gerasimos i n Vatopedi'MS. 1 4 9 5 ( f o l . second i s  from  Panaretos  in  K o u t l o u m o u s i MS. 457  (fol.  232 ). v  30. The former method i s distinguished from the l a t t e r by i t s retention of a s p e c i f i c vowel or diphthong sound, and i s therefore related to the i n t e r c a l a t i o n of foreign l e t t e r s  in the texts of thekalophonic chants during 50  the 14th and 15th c e n t u r i e s . both non-textual  .  This extraneous m a t e r i a l , which comprises  l e t t e r s and the non-alphabetical l e t t e r s  'z' and  V ,  seems to have been used p r i m a r i l y as a means of supporting the t e x t s y l l a b l e s during the lengthy musical melismas.  As suggested by Conomos, t h e i r use  seems to have a dual purpose; being employed . . . ..in t h e t e x t s o f t h e hymns i n o r d e r t o facilitate the c h o i r ' s or s o l o i s t ' s d e l i v e r y of ornamental melismata and t o enhance the o t h e r w i s e d i s a g r e e a b l e sound of an extended v o w e l . '  The most common a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s procedure i s as f o l l o w s :  TTn-yn-xn-  52 X - x - x s a n d mi-Yn-zn-sn-ans. n  n  The non-alphabetical l e t t e r ' u ' func-  n  t i o n s i n - a s i m i l a r manner but seems to be r e s t r i c t e d any rate) to instances of minor r e p e t i t i o n , e . g . ,  (in our material  ye-ue-yexaXaftexe  at  and  53 yetioaods-ue.  An unusual foreign l e t t e r occurs in Moschianos's version  in Vatopedi  MS. 1495 ( f o l . 2 1 7 ) , where the word Trrry^s i s twice a l t e r e d to  become  V  Trnyn-Kn-Kns.  Although uncommon, t h i s i s only another means of pro-  longing the eta sound, and does not depart from the usage discussed previously.  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , of course, the extension of the t e x t , whether 50  A d e t a i l e d e x e g e s i s o f t h i s phenomenon i s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e , " I n t e r c a l a t e d L e t t e r s and M e a n i n g l e s s S y l l a b l e s , " i n Conomos, B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , pp. 261-86. I b i d . , p. 273. 52 v R e s p e c t i v e l y , f r o m P a n a r e t o s i n K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4-57 ( f o l . 2 3 2 ), and G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 ( f o l . 217 ). 5  1  v  53  v T h e s e o c c u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n K l a d a s i n A t h e n s MS. 904 ( f o l . 268 ), and G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 ( f o l . 2 1 7 ) . An u n u s u a l u s e o f t h i s letter o c c u r s i n K l a d a s ' s s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 ( f o l . 4 1 7 ) , v i z . , Zcoya-ue-acoya. Here t h e s y l l a b l e ' u e ' i s e q u i v a l e n t t o 'vat' (= " y e s " ) , a n d t h e interpolat i o n f u n c t i o n s as an a f f i r m a t i o n . v  v  31.  effected by the r e p e t i t i o n of s y l l a b l e s or larger segments of the word, and regardless of whether the s y l l a b i c r e p e t i t i o n i s a s s i s t e d by the i n s e r t i o n of foreign consonants, serves much the same purpose:  that of  accommodating the text to prolonged musical passages and thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r performance.  It must also be noted that the i n s e r t i o n of  foreign l e t t e r s was c l e a r l y the prerogative of the s c r i b e , who was usually also a s i n g e r .  P a r a l l e l versions, of G l y k e s ' s s e t t i n g (taken from Athens  MS. 2458 f o l . 169 and Vatopedi r  MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) demonr  strate this c l e a r l y : yetJ-aa-xa ye  X X £ _  Y£-X£u-aa-a6e e  Y  e u  aa-a0e  A feature that i s r e l a t e d to the preceding i n s e r t i o n of l e t t e r s i s the use of meaningless s y l l a b l e s or t e r e t i s m a t a .  foreign  They are  e n t i r e l y absent from the present body of chants and t h i s i s somewhat surp r i s i n g , for. lengthy t e r e t i s m a t i c passages are found from the 14th century on in other standard l i t u r g i c a l  chants such as the Trisagion and  54 Cheroubikon.  Conomos,  Byzantine T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , pp.  273-86.  32.  COMPOSERS  The composers of Zcoya XP "TOO in t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of 14th-century 10  manuscripts are generally i d e n t i f i e d by r u b r i c , and in the few instances in which chants appear anonymously, the a t t r i b u t i o n s have been restored by comparison with other versions.  55  L i t t l e i s known, however, about any of 56  these or other 14th and 15th-century  Byzantine composers.  Usually they are  simply names i n a manuscript, o c c a s i o n a l l y modified by t i t l e s such as 1  protopsaltes  1  or 'domestikos'; d e t a i l s about t h e i r l i v e s and places of 57  a c t i v i t y are generally unknown.  Even d e t a i l s about a composer's period  of a c t i v i t y are d i s t r e s s i n g l y l i m i t e d .  On occasion, they are provided by a  few t a n t a l i z i n g clues i n the contemporaneous 14th and 15th-century manus c r i p t s themselves, but require in most cases an extrapolation  based on a  composer's i n i t i a l appearance in a securely-dated source. A t r e a t i s e by the 15th-century  composer and t h e o r e t i c i a n Manuel  Chrysaphes provides the following order of composers:  Aneotes, Glykes,  T h i s was n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e s : Kladas's setting i n A t h e n s M S . 904- ( f o l . 2 6 8 ) ; G l y k e s ' s s e t t i n g s i n A t h e n s . M S . 2 6 0 0 (fol. 6 3 ) , S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 4 ( f o l . l&7 ), and S i n a i MS. 1462 ( f o l . 149 ). v  v  r  r  56 Ioannes K o u k o u z e l e s i s the o n l y e x c e p t i o n , and he has been e x s t u d i e d by W i l l i a m s , "John Koukouzeles' R e f o r m . " 57 v M i l o s V e l i m i r o v i c has produced a v e r y h e l p f u l l i s t of composers f r o m a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MS., i n " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s i n M S . A t h e n s 2 4 0 6 , " i n E s s a y s P r e s e n t e d t o Egon W e l l e s z , e d . Jack Westrup ( O x f o r d : Clarendon Press, 1966), pp. 7-18. See a l s o t h e p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s by A n d r i j a J a k o v l j e v i c , " D a v i d R a i d e s t i n o s , Monk a n d M u s i c i a n , " i n S t u d i e s i n E a s t e r n C h a n t I I I , ed. Milos V e l i m i r o v i c (London: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 91-97. The p r o t o p s a l t e s and lampadarios d i r e c t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the r i g h t and l e f t c h o i r s , w h e r e a s t h e p r i n c i p a l s i n g e r o f e a c h c h o i r was t e r m e d t h e d o m e s t i k o s . tensively  33.  Ethikos, Koukouzeles, K l a d a s . '  JO  Another l i s t i s contained in an introductory  note to Koutloumousi MS. 457 ( f o l . 1 ) and gives t h i s order: . . .the. . .protopsaltes Glykes and. . .his heirs and p u p i l s , Xenos Korones p r o t o p s a l t e s and Ioannes Papadopoulos Koukouzeles, the maistor. . . .^9  These at l e a s t provide us with a chronological ordering of the e a r l i e r composers, and when taken i n conjunction with the conclusions about the l i f e of Ioannes Koukouzeles reached by Edward Williams*^ would c l e a r l y suggest that a l l of the aforementioned composers (with the possible exception of Kladas) may be placed in the e a r l y 14th century. The remaining composers, however, can i n most cases only be dated approximately by a terminus ante quern of t h e i r a c t i v i t y as provided by the f i r s t appearance of t h e i r compositions in a datable manuscript.  Naturally  t h i s i s not an i n f a l l i b l e procedure since i t presupposes the absence of l a t e r additions to a manuscript.  The lack of c o d i c o l o g i c a l studies of A k o l o u t h i a i ,  however, has necessitated the recognition of the generally accepted date of a manuscript as the date of a l l of i t s p a r t s .  Since the twenty-eight examples  of Ewua XPT-OTOU that have been u t i l i z e d for t h i s study do not present s u f f i c i e n t data for such an endeavour, the following l i s t i s based on an index of a l l Koinonika from the 14th and 15th c e n t u r i e s .  A similar  58 A . P a p a d o p o u l o s - K e r a m e u s , " M a v o u r i A X P d 4 > n s - A a u T r a 6 a p x o s TOU B a a i A l K O U KArjpou," V i z a n t i s k i i V r e m o n n i k V I I I ( 1 9 0 1 ) : 536-37, cited in C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 74-. u a  ^-Conomos, ^Williams,  Byzantine  T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , p.  "John Koukouzeles' Reform," pp.  379  66. ff.  61 I w i s h t o t h a n k D i m i t r i C o n o m o s f o r a l l o w i n g me t h e u s e t h i s i n d e x , w h i c h he c o m p i l e d f o r h i s f o r t h c o m i n g p u b l i c a t i o n on t h e and S l a v i c K o i n o n i k a .  of Byzantine  34.  chronology has been attempted by both B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n based on t h e i r respective r e p e r t o i r e s , additional  62  and W i l l i a m s ,  but in view of the accumulation  63 of  information here, i t becomes c l e a r that in some cases t h e i r dating  must be advanced considerably. The f o l l o w i n g i s a t e n t a t i v e chronology of our 14th-century composers, together with an i n d i c a t i o n of the e a r l i e s t manuscript  that  contains any of each composer's Koinonika.  TABLE Earliest  1336  MSS t h a t  (Athens  1341-ca.l360  Contain  Any  IV K o i n o n i k a by  MS. 2458)  (Athens  Each Composer  Glykes Panaretos  MS. 2622)  Moschianos Kladas Gavalas Gerasimos  ca.1360-1385  (Vatopedi-.MS.  1495)  Doukas  Ioannes Glykes's p o s i t i o n as a protopsaltes  i s attested to by  numerous sources, and, as Conomos has pointed out, whenever a rubic refers to  TOU TTPOOTOU IJJ&A.TOU  to G l y k e s . ^ 62  simply  there i s l i t t l e doubt that the reference  is  According to Milos Velimirovic*, he may have been associated  Breslich-Erickson,  ^Williams,  "Communion Hymn," p.  "John Koukouzeles'  Reform,"  p.  54. 146  and p.  215.  64 Conomos, B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , p. 416. BreslichE r i c k s o n ( i n "Communion H y m n , " p. 54) d a t e s G l y k e s t o c a . 1 4 0 0 , and W i l l i a m s ( i n " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p. 215) s u g g e s t s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the 15th century. B a s e d on t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d by C h r y s a p h e s ' s t r e a t i s e and K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 457 ( s e e p . 33 a b o v e ) , h o w e v e r , a s w e l l a s G l y k e s ' s a p p e a r a n c e i n A t h e n s MS. 2 4 5 8 , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t he must h a v e l i v e d a t t h e beginning of the 14th century at the very latest.  35.  with the choir of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople  but in view of the con-  clusions reached by Christos P a t r i n e l i s , i t seems more l i k e l y that Glykes was a member of the 'Royal C l e r g y ' .  6 6  It i s also possible that t h i s  composer may be i d e n t i f i e d with Ioannes XIII Glykes, P a t r i a r c h of Constantinople from 1315-1319, who i s known to have been "a lover and promoter of arts and 67 letters," above.  and such an a s s o c i a t i o n c e r t a i n l y f i t s with the dating suggested  Nothing whatsoever i s revealed about George Panaretos by our sources.  Velimirovic' has noted that t h i s i s a family name from Constantinople, and that 68 i t may also have been the name of-a monastery. In the case of Moschianos i t i s also possible that t h i s may be e i t h e r a family name or the name of a 69 monastery.  In our r e p e r t o i r e he i s on one occasion simply referred to as  Konstantinos Aaoauvaicrou (Athens MS. 2622 f o l . 3 6 0 ) , and elsewhere as v  Velimirovic,  "Byzantine  C o m p o s e r s , " p.  12.  66 C h r i s t o s P a t r i n e l i s , " P r o t o p s a l t a e , L a m p a d a r a i i , and D o m e s t i k o i of the Great Church during the post-Byzantine Period (14-53-1821)," in Studies i n E a s t e r n Chant III, ed. Milos V e l i m i r o v i c (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y "Press, 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 145-4-7. On t h e b a s i s o f a p a s s a g e i n P s e u d o - K o d i n o s ( J . V e r p e a u x , P s e u d o - K o d i n o s , T r a i t e d e s o f f i c e s , P a r i s , 1 9 6 6 , p . 2 6 5 , l i n e 20 f f . , quoted i n i b i d . , p.. 1 4 5 ) , P a t r i n e l i s h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n B y z a n t i n e t i m e t h e positions of p r o t o p s a l t e s and lampadarios did not e x i s t i n the Great Church. He p r o p o s e s t h a t a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e o f f i c e s must be t o s i n g e r s o f p a r o c h i a l o r p r o v i n c i a l c h u r c h e s , o r t o members o f t h e ' R o y a l C l e r g y ' , i . e . t h e ^ p a l a t i n e choirs. Conomos,  Byzantine  Trisagia  and  Cheroubika,  pp.  65-66.  68  setting  by  • V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p. 1 3 . O n l y a IIoTripiov P a n a r e t o s a p p e a r s i n A t h e n s MS. 2458 ( f o l . 1 7 0 ) , but two slightly r  l a t e r MSS ( b o t h d a t e d 1 3 4 0 - c a . 1 3 6 0 ) 2622 f o l . 3 5 9 and A m b r o s i a n a MS. L. v  on F e r i a l Wednesdays and f o r u s e d on o r d i n a r y S u n d a y s a n d 69 •Velimirovic,  contain 36 f o l .  a n Aiveixe m e l o d y ( A t h e n s M S . 264 ). The f o r m e r t e x t i s u s e d  f e a s t s of the Mother on F o r e f e a s t s .  "Byzantine  r  of  Composers," p.  God; the  13.  latter  is  36.  Konstantinos.Moschianos.^ the 'lampadarios  1  Ioannes Kladas i s often i d e n t i f i e d merely as  or Ioannes lampadarios, and, judging from the amount of  his music transmitted by 14th and 15th-century manuscripts, he must have been one of the most.prominent composers of the f i r s t h a l f of the 14th He i s thought to have been a member of the ' i m p e r i a l '  century.^  choir or clergy  in  72  Constantinople but l i t t l e else i s known about him. Gavalos i s the name 73 of a Cretan family and the only information provided about Philip- i s that 74 he was a domestikos.  At l e a s t two composers with the surname Gerasimos  are found in the 14th and 15th-century r e p e r t o i r e of Koinonika.  The composer  of the Easter hymn under consideration here (in Vatopedi MS. 1495 and Vienna MS. 185) i s r e f e r r e d to as Gerasimos hiermonachos, but a comparison of a l l ° V l a t a d o n M S . 46 ( ' 1 5 9 1 ' ' ) f o l . 1 0 9 i s the only source which r e f e r s t o t h i s composer a s M o s c h i a n o s d o m e s t i k o s , b u t i t seems l i k e l y that the s c r i b e there has confused K o n s t a n t i n o s w i t h George Moschianos domestikos, see V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p. 1 5 . Williams ("John Koukouzeles' R e f o r m , " p. 146) dates Moschianos t o the l a t e 14th c e n t u r y / f i r s t h a l f of the 1 5 t h c e n t u r y , a c k n o w l e d g i n g , h o w e v e r , on p. 1 4 6 , n . 5 , t h i s composer's p r e s e n c e i n A t h e n s MS. 2 6 2 2 . B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ("Communion Hymn," p. 54) suggests a mid-fourteenth century date f o r a Gerontios[.?.] Moschianos. 7  r  71 Conomos, B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a and C h e r o u b i k a , p. 1 4 6 , n o t e s t h a t the term lampadarios i n v a r i a b l y r e f e r s to Kladas. L a t e r , however, i n Athens MS. 2406 t h i s a p p e l l a t i o n i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y composer M a n u e l C h r y s a p h e s , s e e V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p. 10 a n d p. 1 6 . When " t h e l a m p a d a r i o s " i s u s e d i n i s o l a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i t r e f e r s o n l y t o K l a d a s . 72  ~ I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s s e t t i n g o f Itoua X P " " ^ A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 a l s o c o n t a i n s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f IToxfipiov, Axveixe, a n d E x s uvnuoauvov ( t h e C o m m u n i o n f o r f e a s t s o f t h e B a p t i s t ) b y K l a d a s , a n d h i s name a p p e a r s c o n s i s - f t e n t l y throughout the remainder of the 14th century. C l e a r l y , t h e n , he must have been b o r n c o n s i d e r a b l y e a r l i e r than the end o f the 14th century/beginning o f the 15th c e n t u r y as proposed by W i l l i a m s ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p. 215). See a l s o B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , "Communion Hymn," p. 54. 1 0  73 74  Velimirovic,  "Byzantine  C o m p o s e r s , " p.  1  13.  r A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( f o l . 4 1 8 ) c o n t a i n s o n l y a TeuaaaGe b y P h i l i p G a v a l o s , b u t he t h e n a p p e a r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 and A m b r o s i a n a MS. Q. 1 1 , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e d a t e d c a . 1 3 6 0 - 1 3 8 5 . Williams places him i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the 15th c e n t u r y ("John K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p. 215), and B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n s u g g e s t s "by 1 4 5 3 " ("Communion Hymn," p. 5 4 ) . Both assignments are obviously far too late.  37.  Koinonikon melodies a t t r i b u t e d . t o the name 'Gerasimos' reveals that our composer i s the person elsewhere i d e n t i f i e d as Gerasimos. hiermonachos of 75  Halkeopoulos (from Thessalonika).  Ioannes Doukas was a domestikos of  Unfortunately, t h e Ecoya.XPICTOU s e t t i n g b y G e r a s i m o s h i e r o monachos i s o n l y t r a n s m i t t e d i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 and V i e n n a MS. 1 8 5 . V a t o p e d i MS. 14-95, h o w e v e r , a l s o c o n t a i n s a TeuaaaBe ( f o L 2 1 9 ) and a Floxripiov ( f o l . 1 9 8 ) by Gerasimos hieromonachos, and i n b o t h cases the c o m p o s e r o f t h e same hymns i s i d e n t i f i e d , e l s e w h e r e a s G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s o f H a l k e o p o u l o s ; t h e f o r m e r o c c u r s i n A t h e n s MS. 2406 ( f o l . 2 1 6 ) , and t h e l a t t e r i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 ( f o l . 4 0 4 ) and A t h e n s MS. 2406 ( f o l . 254 ). In f a c t , a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p e l l a t i o n s a r e u s e d f o r t h i s same c o m p o s e r i n v a r i o u s MSS: Gerasimos hieromonachos of Halkeopoulos (to which i s added " f r o m t h e c i t y o f T h e s s a l o n i c a " i n A t h e n s MS. 2406 f o l . 2 5 4 ) ; G e r a s i m o s o f Halkeopoulos.;. H a l k e o p o u l o s ; Gerasimos hieromonachos; Gerasimos .monachos; G e r a s i m o s d y i o p X T l K o v (= " o f t h e H o l y M o u n t a i n " ) o r G e r a s i m o s a y i o p i T O U ( b o t h o c c u r o n l y i n S i n a i MS. 1 5 2 7 ) ; G e r a s i m o s . A t e r m i n u s a n t e quern f o r t h i s composer i s p r o v i d e d by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f h i s works i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 (1341-ca. 1360). A Gerasimos from the monastery of Xanthopoulos also occurs in our sources. Xanthopoulos, as V e l i m i r o v i c has noted ("Byzantine Composers," p . 1 2 ) i s t h e name o f a m o n a s t e r y i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e a n d t h a t o f a f a m i l y associated with it. From the 15th c e n t u r y on t h i s composer o c c u r s m a i n l y i n S i n a i MSS ( b u t a l s o i n V a t . B a r b . g r . M S . 3 0 0 a n d V l a t a d o n M S . 4 6 ) , a n d i s r e f e r r e d toas Gerasimos of Xanthopoulos, Xanthopoulos,.Gerasimos, and, i n one m a n u s c r i p t ( V l a t a d o n MS. 4 6 ) , a s G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s f r o m t h e monastery of Xanthopoulos. The a n o m a l o u s d e s i g n a t i o n o f 'hieromonachos' f o r t h i s c o m p o s e r i n V l a t a d o n MS. 46 ( ' 1 5 9 1 ' ) i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a s c r i b a l error. S e e m i n g l y t h e s c r i b e o f t h i s l a t e MS- h a s s i m p l y s w i t c h e d t h e a p p e l l a t i o n ' h i e r o m o n a c h o s ' between t h e two c o m p o s e r s , s i n c e he has r e f e r r e d to the former as Gerasimos of H a l k e o p o u l o s and has o m i t t e d the r i g h t f u l t i t l e o f ' h i e r o m o n a c h o s - ' , w h i c h he h a s , i n s t e a d , added h e r e . It becomes c l e a r t h e n , t h a t o n l y t h e G e r a s i m o s f r o m H a l k e o p o u l o s was a p r i e s t - m o n k , a n d t h i s lends a d d i t i o n a l support to our p r e v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n about the composer of the Euya X P - " melody i n our r e p e r t o i r e . A further d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s with the p r a c t i c e , i n a n u m b e r o f S i n a i MSS ( e s p e c i a l l y S i n a i M S . 1 5 3 2 a n d S i n a i M S . 1463), of i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y r e f e r r i n g to both .composers simply as Gerasimos. On t h e b a s i s o f m e l o d i c c o m p a r i s o n s i t h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n p o s s i b l e t o ascertain w h i c h c o m p o s e r t h e s c r i b e was r e f e r r i n g t o . In t h e c a s e o f one v e r s i o n , t h a t i n S i n a i MS. 1463 ( f o l . 2 5 5 ) and S i n a i MS. 1552 ( f o l . 519 ), however, n o o t h e r c o p i e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by o u r s o u r c e s . Without, i n t e r a l i a a stylistic a n a l y s i s that would.be inappropriate to t h i s paper, i t i s therefore impossible t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f t h e two composers t h e s c r i b e had i n m i n d . Williams ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p. 146) s u g g e s t s t h a t G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s be dated t o the l a t e 14th c e n t u r y / f i r s t h a l f of the 15th century, and B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ("Communion Hymn," p. 54) s a y s o n l y "by 1 4 5 3 . " Both of these estimates are c l e a r l y too late. v  v  v  v  v  v  1  0  1 0 0  r  r  38.  Hagia Sophia in Constantinople; he also had the t i t l e of  1  laosynaktos  1 / u  and his Ewua XPIOTOU melody in Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s one of only a few Koinonika a t t r i b u t e d to h i m .  7 7  The above dating of composers of t h i s Koinonikon may be v e r i f i e d by yet another means.  In her study, B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n draws a t t e n t i o n to  the way in which the order of the composers of the reOqaa0e text in each 78 manuscript r e f l e c t s the composers' dating.  Only in the case of composers  that are more or less contemporary with one another does the order become inconsistent.  The following table (see p. 39) demonstrates that in our  r e p e r t o i r e the manuscripts with multiple versions of Ecoua XPT-CTOO  similarly  r e f l e c t the chronology of t h e i r composers. Having established a t e n t a t i v e chronological ordering of our r e p e r t o i r e i t now becomes apparent that there e x i s t s not only a c o r r e l a t i o n between chronology and modal usage, but also a chronological order to the modal assignment of a composer's work which i s transmitted, in a number of manuscripts.  This seems to c l a r i f y the seemingly haphazard choice of modes  of Glykes's and Moschianos's settings of Ewua x P T o u (see pp. 7, 8, and 12 t a  above). The following table (see page 40) takes into account only those manuscripts that can be securely dated, and shows c l e a r l y t h i s progression in the course of the 14th century. 76 Velimirovic,  " B y z a n t i n e Composers," p. 12.  77 Doukas' K o i n o n i k a seem t o appear o n l y i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495, and the dates o f t h i s MS agree w i t h the e a r l i e r d a t i n g suggested by W i l l i a m s , i . e . , the l a t e 14th c e n t u r y (not the f i r s t h a l f o f the 15th c e n t u r y ) . See W i l l i a m s , "John Koukouzeles' Reform," p. 146. 78 B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , "Communion Hymn," pp. 54-55.  TABLE V Ordering Athens MS. 2622 Glykes  of  Settings  Ambrosiana  Ecouq X P i ° ~ o Q T  Q.ll  Vatopedi MS. 1495  #1.  #1.  . MS.  #1.  of  i n MSS Koutloumousi MS. 457  #2.  #1.  Panaretos #2.  Kladas #3. III  #1.  #3.  #2.  #4  #2.  Moschianos  (Mode  Vienna MS. 185  #2.  #4.  79  80  Auth.) #6.  '  #5.  Gavalos #4.  #6.  Gerasimos #5. Doukas 79 In  V i e n n a MS. 185  v e r s i o n by Glykes  some s e v e n t e e n  folios  separate  Moschianos's version  (#2.)  and the  (#3.).  80 Moschianos  I n A t h e n s MS. 2622 and t h a t by K l a d a s .  there  are  fifty-seven  intervening  folios  between  the  version  by  second  TABLE VI Modal Assignment of_ -Eu^a ypyoyoy  Glykes  Athens 2458 '1336'  L.36  I PI.  I PI.  Athens 2622 1341-ca.l360 I l l Auth.  Q.ll  i n S e c u r e l y - D a t e d MSS  Vat. 1495 ca. 1360 - 1385  I I I Auth.  I l l Auth.  Kout. 457  Vienna Vienna 185-81 185 ca.1385-1391  Nana  Nana  I  PI.  II PI. O l PI.)  Panaretos Moschianos  I PI.  Kladas  Ill  I I PI.  II PI.  I I PI.  I PI.  Auth.  Gavalos  IV P I .  IV PI.  Gerasimos  IV P I .  IV PI.  Doukas  IV P I .  81 The s i x s e t t i n g s o f t h i s hymn seem t o form two d i s c r e t e u n i t s i n t h i s MS (see n. 79 above), and have t h e r e f o r e been c i t e d i n t h i s manner. See a l s o n. 83.  o  41.  At the beginning o f the century composers seem t o have favoured Mode I Plagal f o r t h e i r s e t t i n g s o f E w u a  XPICTOU,  and as noted above (see  p. 9) t h i s c h o i c e agrees with the e a r l i e s t musical sources o f t h i s hymn. I f we consider, f o r example, the e a r l i e s t manuscripts which c o n t a i n the s e t t i n g s by Glykes and Moschianos, and which probably t r a n s m i t these hymns most f a i t h f u l l y , we f i n d t h a t Mode I Plagal i s s p e c i f i e d i n both i n s t a n c e s . The compositions o f such composers as Gavalos and Gerasimos, however, show that by mid-century Mode IV Plagal had superseded Mode I Plagal as the most popular c h o i c e o f mode f o r t h i s hymn, and t h i s t r e n d i s confirmed i n the work o f the l a t e r Ioannes Doukas. Another s e t t i n g o f t h i s t e x t by Kladas, which appears t o have been the more popular o f h i s two v e r s i o n s , does not appear i n the preceding t a b l e s i n c e i t occurs only i n manuscripts which 82  cannot be p r e c i s e l y dated;  however, i t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h i s t r e n d with i t s  use o f Mode IV P l a g a l . The preceding t a b l e a l s o demonstrates t h a t there seems t o be a c h r o n o l o g i c a l order t o the s e l e c t i o n o f the s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t modes f o r Glykes's and Moschianos's s e t t i n g s .  In the case o f the former  composer,  s u c c e s s i v e manuscripts show t h a t there i s a p r o g r e s s i o n from Mode I Plagal through Mode I I I A u t h e n t i c t o the Nana mode, and with the l a t t e r composer there i s i n evidence a trend from Mode I Plagal t o Mode II P l a g a l .  I t must  be noted, however, t h a t t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n extends only t o the f i r s t s e c t i o n  2  A t h e n s MS.  904 ( f o l .  2 6 8 ) and Athens MS. V  2411 ( f o l .  572 ). r  42.  in Vienna MS. 185 since i n both instances the second group r e v e r t s , f o r some 83 i n e x p l i c a b l e reason, to the older usage of Mode I P l a g a l . Continuing i n a s i m i l a r vein i t seems possible to u t i l i z e t h i s information to extrapolate a somewhat more precise dating of those manuscripts which are merely assigned to the 14th century.  Having established that  Kladas l i v e d before 1341 (see Table IV) and that by the t h i r d quarter of the century (ca. 1360-1385) there was a d e f i n i t e trend towards u t i l i z i n g Mode IV Plagal f o r s e t t i n g s of t h i s Koinonikon (see Table V I ) , i t does not seem unreasonable to propose that both Athens MS. 904 and Athens MS. 2411 must have been w r i t t e n post ca. 1360. S i m i l a r l y , i t seems that both Athens MS. 2600 and S i n a i MS. 1294 might, on the basis of t h e i r i n c l u s i o n of Glykes's Ewua XPIOTOU melody i n Mode I P l a g a l , conceivably be dated between 1336 and ca. 1360. N a t u r a l l y t h i s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t data upon which to propose the dating of an e n t i r e manuscript,  but i t does suggest an avenue which,  with the accumulation of enough information, might allow such manuscripts to be placed w i t h i n a more s p e c i f i c chronological context. the  scribes  written group this  by  examination  of  this  two  (fols. hymn,  Thursday 285[?] ). on  fol.  of  St.  different r  It of  is  this  268  r  _  v  in  a  by  attributed  occur  scribe  earlier  The  modal  B (fols.  whereas  a  different  other  than  those  versions  Easter. of  (Hannick,  of  scribe  devoted  A who  section  of of  the  V  r  least  is  This in  scheme—possibly  he  (p.  plausible was  2),  Easter  this  actually  latter  for  these  octoechal text fond  was  second  282 r  for  G l y k e s and  contains the  the  of  for  Holy  responsible  portion  intimates  explanation  particularly,  This  (fols.  Liturgy  which  was  this  that  MS  Koinonika  at  (?)-*-was  u s e d on  also  on  is  that  in  his  each  of  pre-  Easter, other  Sundays-  scribe  section  the  Moschianos  possibility  used  to  V I ) were  designation  T h e s s a l o n i c a , where  utilized  regards  Cheroubika of  MS - t h a t  the  in  Table  p. .245). modal  to of  (see  laJua X P ^ ^ t o u by  233V-276 ),  been  earliest  Koinonikon  versions  r  above  A less which  MS  conclusions  sections  "Etude.,",  the  261 -276 ).  have  modal noted  the  and the  a s s i g n m e n t a t  originated-^-may As was  a  (fols.  Hannick'.s  t h e s e , tvjo  retains  to  two  within  sumably  occasions.  scribes  Saturday,  MS.  that  section  John Chrysostom  written  Christian  which  r  and E a s t e r  majority  of  MS-, r e v e a l s  285 -286 ),  occurs  v  the  An  the  included MS.  43.  M U S I C  It seems appropriate to begin by considering the three settings of Ecoua xPT-tfToO by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos as a group.  Glykes  and Panaretos — a s was noted above — a r e the e a r l i e s t composers represented in our r e p e r t o i r e , and the choice of mode in Moschianos s s e t t i n g suggests 1  a chronological proximity to t h e i r two v e r s i o n s .  Moreover, as w i l l become  apparent in the following s e c t i o n , a l l three Koinonika embody s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r a l procedures, and u t i l i z e much the same musical m a t e r i a l .  The complete  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s appear in Examples 6, 7, and 8, and in each case the c o n s t i tuent phrases have been v e r t i c a l l y  aligned so that t h e i r  interrelationship  becomes obvious. The opening of G l y k e s ' s composition consists of a s i n g l e phrase immediately repeated (Example 6, phrase A, l i n e s 1 and 2 ) , the focus of which i s f i g u r e a.  This phrase d i s c l o s e s the f i r s t t e x t - u n i t (Euiya XPICTOU),  and i s r e s t r i c t e d to the lower tetrachord of the mode, d-f_ ( a j .  In the other  two settings theopening i s very s i m i l a r , and in each case f i g u r e a plays a determining r o l e .  Panaretos also uses an opening which spans the i n t e r v a l  of a t h i r d , but only sets the f i r s t word of the text to i t , manner:  Ew-xw-ya.  in the following  Moschianos u t i l i z e s much the same opening which, however,  has been expanded s l i g h t l y by the lower a u x i l i a r y n o t e £ , and which, in i t s r e p e t i t i o n (phrase A ' ) , shows a f u r t h e r increase in range by the consistent  44.  EXAMPLE  6 -  (a) (b)  G l y k e s , A t h e n s MS.'" 2 4 5 8 , f o l . 1 6 9 ( T r g " ) G l y k e s ( e x c e r p t ) , V a t . ' M S . 1 4 9 5 , f o l . 2 1 7 (r~* [ t r a n s p o s e d down a f i f t h ] r  ;  r  )  46.  EXAMPLE 8 —  (a) Moschianos, Athens MS/.2622, f o l . 360 (TT q ) (b) Moschianos ( e x c e r p t ) , V a t . MS. 1495, f o l . 2 1 7 (try [ t r a n s p o s e d down a second] A  V  T h i s s i g n i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h e omission;pf p a r t o f t h e melody.  >;>  )  47.  use of the £.  Both phrases A and A' nevertheless c l e a r l y remain in this  lower region of the mode, and once again comprise the entire f i r s t phrase of the  text, i . e . Ewya XPI°"TOU.  A l l three versions show a considerable augmentation of range in phrase B.  In essence, the very r e s t r i c t e d ambitus of phrase A i s here  extended upwards and eventually revolves around the note a^, with only an occasional excursion up to b_ and c_.  Even Moschianos, who develops the upper  range most consistently, does not venture beyond c_. i t i s possible to see this phrase as constituting  In his version, however,  a shift —  albeit brief  —  to the upper tetrachord of Mode I Plagal ( i . e . a_-d_), whereas the e a r l i e r settings by Glykes and Panaretos show this s h i f t only i n c i p i e n t l y , in e f f e c t an expansion in range of phrase A.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident by the  fact that in most instances phrase B in Glykes and Panaretos begins from and returns to the lower tetrachord of the mode, while this occurs less frequently in Moschianos. indication  Glykes's original use of phrase B actually gives every  of being merely a development  of phrase A (see l i n e 3 in which  this phrase only spans a t h i r d from e-aj, and i t i s only after successive versions that the character of the phrase becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y well defined and i t s identity c l a r i f i e d (see l i n e 7).  In addition, figure b often functions  as the closing element of phrase B both here (cf. lines 3, 5, and. 7) and' in the other two versions; thus i t s use in l i n e 3 adds support to our i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of this l i n e with phrase B. The texting of phrase B at i t s i n i t i a l appearance i s quite similar in a l l three versions and shows evidence of a change that seems to constitute a progression from Glykes through Moschianos.  Glykes begins this phrase  with the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of y e T a A a B e x e whereas Panaretos, who does not repeat  48.  phrase A as the other two composers do, sets the i n i t i a l c i t a t i o n of the word  XP^O-TOU  to phrase B.  Moschianos begins with a r e p e t i t i o n  of t h i s  word, and reaches the apogee of the phrase with the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of yexaXaBete.  Example 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the f i r s t use of phrases A and B in a l l  three versions and allows the various s i m i l a r i t i e s of the openings to become readily  apparent.  EXAMPLE  'see  n.  84  9  below  A f t e r having thus expanded the compass of the melody i n phrase B, both Glykes (Example 6, l i n e 4) and Panaretos (Example 7, l i n e 2) return to phrase A before proceeding to a middle section which consists of phrase B; the l a t t e r uses t h i s return to the  lower tetrachord f o r his  initial  s e t t i n g of yeLxaXaBexe]., and the former uses i t for the continuation t h i s word.  of  This r e p e t i t i o n does not occur in Moschianos, who continues  d i r e c t l y with phrase B.  Transposed to  Mode I  Plagal for  ease of  comparison.  49.  In a l l three settings a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y may be observed between the various versions of phrase B.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  evident,  of course, i n the general ambitus and contours of the phrase, as well as in the use of figures b and c.  Also noteworthy, however, i s the unusually  consistent placement of the pelaston within the melodies.  This neume occurs  85 somewhat infrequently  i n 14th-century manuscripts,  and i t i s here reserved  not only f o r the same musical f i g u r e , but i n v a r i a b l y f o r the same p i t c h (i.e. bj.  In Glykes's s e t t i n g the pelaston i s used as the peak of phrase  B i n l i n e 7, and occurs i n the word  A l l other manuscripts which  yevoacQe.  transmit Glykes's hymn use a pelaston at t h i s p o i n t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of whatever other differences i n modal assignment or notation they may transmit. In Moschianos's s e t t i n g the pelaston i s used at the i d e n t i c a l place i n the text but occurs only i n Vatopedi MS. 1495 and Vienna MS. 185 and not i n our model from Athens MS. 2622. the word  aOavdxou,  Moreover, at the same place i n phrase B, at  Vatopedi MS. 1495 adds an additional pelaston ( c f . Example  8b, l i n e s 6' and 5 ' ) .  Panaretos also uses the pelaston only i n phrase B,  but u t i l i z e s i t f o r both the words  aGavdxou  and x p i c r x o u ( c f . Example 7,  87 l i n e s 6 and 1 ) .  It i s d i f f i c u l t to deduce the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s  remarkably consistent usage of the p e l a s t o n , but i t does serve to emphasize 8 5  8  use  Sinai  an a d d i t i o n a l  note to  6  Hannick,  M S . 1462  255.  r  In  M S . 1294  e_ ( s e e E x a m p l e  p.  ( f o l . 149 )  pelaston.  g_, a n d i n S i n a i  the note  "Etude,"  it  a n d S i n a i M S . 1294  S i n a i M S . 1462 i s used during  it  occurs  ( f o l . 167 ) r  t o aGavdxou  the post-cadential  both on the  formula  21).  87 Although i n line 1 the pelaston e q u i v a l e n t , by v i r t u e o f t h e use of,Mode II note b as i t i s used i n l i n e 6.  o c c u r s o n a c_, t h i s n o t e i s Plagal in this section, to the  50.  the s i m i l a r i t y of phrase B in a l l three versions and might conceivably indicate a common o r i g i n or at l e a s t the existence of a s i m i l a r model u t i l i z e d by a l l three composers. Of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e than these various f e a t u r e s , however, i s the s i m i l a r i t y in o v e r a l l structure that i s revealed by a l l three s e t t i n g s . A f t e r a middle section that i s devoted to phrase B, a l l three composers eventually return to phrase A and i t s lower area of the mode, thereby giving t h e i r compositions the semblance of a large t r i p a r t i t e form.  In each case  the l a s t element of t h i s structure constitutes an amalgamation of the two phrases and t h e i r respective regions of the mode, so that the scheme appears as A + B + (A + B ) .  This r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y obvious in Glykes's  hymn where i t i s highlighted by the v i r t u a l l y exact r e i t e r a t i o n of f i g u r e a (see Example 6, l i n e s 6, 7, and 8) and f i g u r e b (see Example 6, l i n e 7 ) . Panaretos i s s i m i l a r l y unequivocal about the return to phrase A and B (see Example 7, f i g u r e a in l i n e s 6 and 7, and figures c and b in l i n e 7) and although Moschianos obscures f i g u r e s a and b somewhat through embellishment, they are s t i l l  d i s t i n c t i v e enough to permit t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Example 8, f i g u r e a in l i n e 7 and compare t h i s with l i n e 2 ) .  (see  It i s of  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t that t h i s reappearance of phrase A, and i t s subsequent combination with phrase B, i s relegated to much the same place i n the t e x t of a l l three v e r s i o n s .  Panaretos and Glykes both associate t h i s r e c a p i t u l a -  t i o n with the music which separates Trnyfis and deavatou,. and return to  it  again for the music which accompanies or immediately precedes the l a s t word, yeOoaoQe. word.  Moschianos applies i t only to the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of t h i s l a s t  51.  It should also be noted that in a l l three versions the lower tetrachord i s u t i l i z e d for the f i n a l cadence.  Glykes makes d i r e c t use  here of the opening f i g u r e a , and Panaretos follows t h i s procedure, a l b e i t through a lengthening of the f i g u r e .  Moschianos does not revert to the  opening f i g u r e but merely returns to t h i s area of the mode by circumscribing the f i n a l i s d and i t s upper neighbouring tone. The o v e r a l l form that emerges in a l l three versions then i s a very simple one that i s constructed with a minimum of musical m a t e r i a l s . The use of only two phrases underlines the s i m i l a r i t y of these e a r l y settings of laiua  XPI°TOU  and segregates them, quite c l e a r l y from the more elaborate  structures of the l a t e r 14th-century composers. Examples 6 and 8 also reproduce a number of p a r a l l e l musical phrases from the l a t t e r section of Glykes's and Moschianos's settings as found in Vatopedi MS. 1495.  This manuscript, i t w i l l be remembered, contains  a r e p e t i t i o n in both settings of the phrase O c c a s i o n a l l y , Vatopedi  Tnyyns  dSavdxou and i t s music.  MS. 1495 i s s l i g h t l y more elaborate than our models  of Glykes's and Moschianos's settings from Athens MS. 2458 and Athens MS. 2622 ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and i t i s g r a t i f y i n g to observe that Vatopedi MS. 1495 i n v a r i a b l y supports our d i v i s i o n of the phraseology ( e . g . compare l i n e  5  from Athens MS. 2458 and l i n e 5' from Vatopedi MS. 1495 in Glykes' hymn). In Vatopedi MS. 1495 the word TraAiv i s , i n both instances, used to introduce the r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase Tnryns aQavdxou and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the manner in which t h i s word i s set to music.  It i s not merely given an  a r b i t r a r y musical f i g u r e ; rather i t comprises an integral part of the structure and f u l f i l s the musical l o g i c of i t s context.  Consider, for  example, the ending of the musical phrase which follows the word dSavdxou  52.  in Glykes's hymn (as given in Athens MS. 2458, l i n e 7) and which cadences on c_ immediately p r i o r to the leap of a f i f t h to £ that begins the word yetioaoQe. At the i d e n t i c a l l o c a t i o n in Vatopedi MS. 1495 ( l i n e 7')  the  notes of t h i s f i f t h are f i l l e d i n , a musical elaboration which i s also f u l f i l l e d by the word -ndXw at the equivalent point in l i n e 7.  A comparison  of l i n e s 6 and 6' of Moschianos's s e t t i n g from Vatopedi MS. 1495 (Example 8a) shows that much the same procedure i s followed there. The text s e t t i n g i s quite s i m i l a r i n a l l of these three versions by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos.  It amounts to a decidedly conserva-  t i v e treatment that i s b a s i c a l l y s y l l a b i c or neumatic and i s only i n f r e quently expanded into melismas.  The longest melisma i s i n v a r i a b l y w r i t t e n  under the second s y l l a b l e of TnrYns, and in Moschianos's and G l y k e s ' s hymns the f i r s t , and the f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s of yeOoaoQe ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) are also prolonged.  In g e n e r a l , however, i t appears that a maximum e f f o r t has been  made to preserve the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y  of the text by according to most words  a s y l l a b i c or neumatic musical s e t t i n g .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n  the composers' treatment of the words awua and TrriYns, the former opening the hymn and the l a t t e r beginning the second major s e c t i o n .  The word  Tnryris i s always set to two successive notes of the same p i t c h , and t h i s gives i t a somewhat h e r a l d i c q u a l i t y .  Panaretos and Moschianos both delay  the f i n a l consonant of t h i s word by the use of i n t e r c a l a t e d material but t h i s only obviates the lengthy unsupported melisma on the f i n a l that occurs i n Glykes's s e t t i n g in Athens MS. 2458.  syllable  A s i m i l a r procedure i s  u t i l i z e d f o r the word acoya. Only in Panaretos's hymn are the two s y l l a b l e s of t h i s word not set to successive notes.  Instead, he introduces a r e p e t i -  t i o n of the opening vowel by using the i n t e r c a l a t e d s y l l a b l e 'xw'  after  53.  an intervening upper neighbouring tone, but this i s at most a minor departure from the nature of the opening used by the other two composers. The two works by Kladas —  one in Mode III Authentic, the other in  Mode IV Plagal (hereafter, respectively, Kladas r and Kladas A) — comprise a second category for the Easter Communion hymn.  Chronologically, and to  some extent s t y l i s t i c a l l y , they show a connection with the preceding three versions, whereas the choice of mode suggests. —  at least i n one case  a link with the remaining settings in Mode IV Plagal..  —  In f a c t , a close  examination reveals that they exhibit a f a r greater s i m i l a r i t y to one another than to either the e a r l i e r or l a t e r settings, and w i l l therefore be treated independently. The two hymns are reproduced in Examples 10 and 11, and their i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , as well as t h e i r divergence from the e a r l i e r settings, is immediately apparent.  It i s evident that the structure here has been  expanded somewhat, and both works are now constructed with three musical phrases rather than two as had been u t i l i z e d by the e a r l i e r composers. Within each version the f i r s t two phrases (A and B) are decidedly s i m i l a r ; occupying much the same tessitura and displaying l i k e contours.  Their  distinctiveness, however, i s manifested by the generally d i s s i m i l a r opening or closing notes, and by the correlation of some s i g n i f i c a n t musical elements. Compare, f o r instance, figure e which dominates the cadence of most examples of phrase B in Example 10, but i s not present in phrase A.  Similarly, in  Example 11, the descending motion of phrase A i s usually i n i t i a t e d by a combination of figures f and g, whereas this descent i s generally avoided in phrase B by the use of figure h.  Phrase C, on the other hand, i s in  54.  EXAMPLE 10 —  K l a d a s , A t h e n s MS. 2622, f o l . 417  (f " ")  55.  56.  both versions completely at variance with the two preceding phrases and forms an e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  group.  The following Example 12 contains the f i r s t l i n e of a l l  three  phrases, and t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n h i g h l i g h t s an astonishing s i m i l a r i t y  between  both of Kladas's s e t t i n g s .  identical  Not only are the three phrases v i r t u a l l y  in both settings but t h e i r i n i t i a l  appearance occurs at equivalent points  in the t e x t , i . e . each phrase coincides with one of the f i r s t three text divisions.  It i s s c a r c e l y an exaggeration, then, to suggest that both hymns  are fashioned from the same m a t e r i a l s , f o r although some differences are evident, the degree of i d e n t i t y  i s f a r too great to permit i t to be sum-  marily dismissed. The two hymns are o r i g i n a l l y assigned to d i f f e r e n t modes that s t a r t a second apart, and Example 12 shows that phrase A in each version i s a t r a n s p o s i t i o n , by an i n t e r v a l of a second, of i t s companion.  In Kladas  r the opening phrase i s longer, and i s more highly developed by v i r t u e  of  i t s two d i s t i n c t upward curves (cf. phrase A " and A' i n Example 12), but t h i s only shows the s l i g h t divergence in compositional approach that i s also apparent elsewhere in t h i s s e t t i n g .  This d i s s i m i l t u d e i s revealed, i n  p a r t i c u l a r , by the unusual and extended melisma on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of Ecoya, as well as by the r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s e n t i r e word, a feature which occurs in no other 14th^century example.  More than twice as much music i s a c t u a l l y  devoted to the f i r s t phrase of the t e x t in Kladas r than in Kladas A, and a s i m i l a r change of proportions i s also evident i n the second phrase. A modulation to Mode IV Authentic, which i s v e r i f i e d by the  inter-  polation of a medial signature of that mode, occurs at the beginning of phrase B in Kladas r and r e s u l t s in t h i s version acquiring the same p i t c h  EXAMPLE 12  58.  level as Kladas A.  This phrase, together with the second unit of text, i s  again given a more extensive musical treatment in the former hymn, occurring there three times, and only once in Kladas A.  At i t s f i r s t repetition in  Kladas r this phrase i s preceded by a medial signature of the Nana mode, a signature that i s somewhat puzzling for i t s context suggests that i t must be reckoned from 9_ and not i t s customary c_.  Moreover, except f o r the somewhat  lower tessitura in i t s central part, this phrase i s equivalent to the previous one, which had been introduced with the signature of Mode IV Authentic. In Kladas r the beginning of phrase C i s introduced by the word Xeye which i s set to a musical fragment that i s similar to the intonation po  formula for the Nana mode (Mode IV Medial), signature of this mode.  and i t i s followed by a medial  The use of the word Xiye  at this point i s rather  unusual, for ostensibly i t does not mark either a musical or textual repet i t i o n , and i s set to the identical figure that i s used s l i g h t l y later f o r the  word TT&AXV which introduces a .'repetition of the phrase rrriYris a6avdxou.  Although the word X£ye may s i g n i f y an unnotated and as yet unrecognized r e i t e r a t i o n of previous material, i t s most apparent role i s that i t acts as an abstract of the opening of the succeeding phrase.  After the repetition  of phrase C there occurs a b r i e f musical phrase (Example 10, l i n e 8) that i s our f i r s t indication of the practice of word inversion —  in this case, word g  elision —  that became increasingly popular among the composers of this era.  See and  Signatures  World,  p.  the of  formulae  the  24- e x a m p l e s  89  See  p.  25  of  Byzantine '#10  Mode  Modes,"  and #11,  above.  IV  and  Plagal in p.  in  Essays 33.  Oliver on  Strunk,  Music  in  the  "Intonations Byzantine  59.  It i s obvious, however, that the phrase TrriYns yetfoaoBe i s merely a paraphrase that conveys the idea of the complete phrase in a somewhat more succinct but equally i n t e l l i g i b l e and possibly more emphatic manner. A phthora of Mode III  Authentic marks the beginning of phrase C  in Kladas A but t h i s only confirms a t r a n s p o s i t i o n that i s evident from the music i t s e l f .  The r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s textual and musical unit i s introduced  by the word irdAxv (Example 11, l i n e 7 ) , and as was the case in our three e a r l i e r s e t t i n g s , t h i s word i s set to an organic part of the phraseology of t h i s hymn.  In Example 4 above (p.. 14), we noted the divergent approach  taken by the two scribes of Athens MS. 2411 and Athens MS. 904 f o r the s e t t i n g of the word TrdAxv, but Example 12 reveals that the l a t t e r , in e f f e c t , substitutes phrase B where the former uses phrase C.  Preceding the r e i t e r a -  t i o n of TTriYns deavdxou the s c r i b e in Athens MS. 2411 also i n t e r p o l a t e s a signature of the Nana mode (zz),  whereas Athens MS. 904 u t i l i z e s a martyriai  of Mode IV P l a g a l . In the three e a r l y versions of Zwya  XP'LOTOU  we observed in each  case the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of phrase A towards the close of the hymn, and t h i s feature resulted in a l l settings acquiring the appearance of a t r i p a r t i t e structure.  A s i m i l a r tendency appears in the examples by Kladas, but the  symmetrical scheme i s no longer v i s i b l e .  Kladas r uses a phrase (Example  10, l i n e 7) that i s reminiscent, both by i t s t e s s i t u r a and i t s use of f i g u r e d , of phrase A (see e s p e c i a l l y l i n e 3).  As in our e a r l i e r s e t t i n g s , t h i s i s  then followed by the remaining phrases:  the ending only of phrase B, and  the TrdAxv r e p e t i t i o n of phrase C in i t s e n t i r e t y .  In a d d i t i o n , the conclusion  of t h i s hymn u t i l i z e s a portion of phrase A ' , as does the post-cadential material.  However, i n s p i t e of t h i s , a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t  form r e s u l t s  60.  and the r e i t e r a t i o n of material from phrase A seems p r a c t i c a l l y to i t .  The difference in form i s caused mainly by the  incidental  disproportionately  greater amount of musical emphasis placed on the f i r s t two phrases (A and B) and t h e i r music, an imbalance which i s furthered by the b r e v i t y of phrase C. Kladas A demonstrates a rather complex structure i n which a great deal of a l t e r n a t i o n of phrases B and C takes p l a c e , and in which phrase A plays a s i g n i f i c a n t , i f i n t e r m i t t e n t , r o l e .  The r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of phrase  A i s a c t u a l l y considerably more d i s t i n c t i v e here than in the former Kladas example, and i t occurs with the word a9av&Tou (Example 11, l i n e s 7 and 12), a placement that i s analagous to that i n Glykes's and Panaretos's v e r s i o n s . Moreover, as was the case with our e a r l i e r s e t t i n g s , phrase A i s immediately followed by phrases B and C (see Example 11, l i n e 12, since t h i s omits the •ndXxv phrase that follows i n l i n e 7).  In Kladas r, however, the reappearance  of phrase A i s set to the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of yevoaaQe and t h i s usage i s s i m i l a r to Moschianos's v e r s i o n , as well as the second occurrence of the phrase in Glykes's and Panaretos's hymns. A completely d i f f e r e n t two works.  approach to t e x t s e t t i n g i s seen in Kladas's  In Kladas r, except for a few instances — notably the lengthy  melismas on Eto-ua, and that which occurs at the i n i t i a l  use of yetioaoQe  —  the preference i s f o r a r e p e t i t i o n of words, or o c c a s i o n a l l y parts of words, rather than lengthy, unsupported melismas.  Again there seems to be a maximum  emphasis on the comprehensibility of the text and the remaining melismas generally occur on the l a s t or penultimate s y l l a b l e s of a word, thereby ensuring that the nature of the word has been c l e a r l y expressed, e . g . , yeTaAd-gexe or a0avd-xou.  In Kladas A, however, t e x t words, are not repeated — b a r r i n g ,  61.  of course, the r e p e t i t i o n associated with the -ndXiv — and t h i s requires the more frequent use of the lengthy melismas, e s p e c i a l l y since i t i s the longer of the two hymns.  Since most of the text receives a n e u m a t i c / s y l l a b i c  s e t t i n g t h i s does not a f f e c t i t s i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y  to any great extent, and  the longest melisma occupies a f a m i l i a r place on the second s y l l a b l e of Tiryyns.  Only in the word yetioaoBe  are a l l of the s y l l a b l e s widely dispersed  by the i n s e r t i o n of melismatic passages. The s e t t i n g of the words Ewua and Trnyns i s also subtly a l t e r e d in the two s e t t i n g s .  In Kladas r the f i r s t words i s — as we have already  seen — subjected to a lengthy melisma, but the word Trnyns i s set s y l l a b i cally.  Both s y l l a b l e s of t h i s word are i n i t i a l l y set to two i d e n t i c a l notes,  but when the word i s r e i t e r a t e d the repeated p i t c h of the second s y l l a b l e i s presaged by both lower and upper neighbouring tones.  The second r e p e t i t i o n  is yet again d i f f e r e n t and there the second s y l l a b l e i s set a t h i r d higher than the f i r s t .  A l s o , i n contrast to both Kladas A and the e a r l i e r versions  discussed above, only a moderate melisma i s w r i t t e n to the second s y l l a b l e of -rrnYns, and t h i s occurs s o l e l y at i t s second c i t a t i o n . initial  use of  Tnyyns,  Except f o r the  Kladas A also continues the p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g both  s y l l a b l e s of the two words to successive notes of the same p i t c h .  It  is  p o s s i b l e , though, that in the former instance the unusual d i s p o s i t i o n of the s y l l a b l e  yris  i s p r i m a r i l y meant to s i g n i f y the placement of the sigma  consonant, in a manner analagous to TrnYn-xns which occurs frequently i n our repertoire.  In that case the s c r i b e would have assumed that the two vowels  of Trnyns would be sung i n the customary manner to the two consecutive notes at the beginning of the phrase, s i m i l a r l y to that which he notated for the r e p e t i t i o n of the word in l i n e 8 (Example 11).  62.  EXAMPLE 13 —  G a v a l o s , V i e n n a MS. 1 8 5 ,  fol.  284  V  (7T <5"  63.  64.  EXAMPLE 1 5 — D o u k a s , Vat. MS. 1495, f o l . 2 1 8  P  (TT3  )  65.  The openings of the remaining settings in Mode IV Plagal by Gavalos, Gerasimos, and Doukas immediately suggest a s i m i l a r i t y between these three v e r s i o n s , and t h i s i s v e r i f i e d by a c l o s e r examination of the complete hymns.  Example 16 shows the f i r s t use of phrases A and B, and there the r e -  l a t i o n s h i p becomes r e a d i l y apparent.  (The complete settings are contained  in Examples 13, 14, and 15).  EXAMPLE  Phrase.A GCLUZIOS L  fJ-st  line)  J  J  16  I  (  '  -  J  f2 /UOC  i  Gerasimos  Phmsc B C i s t  f  i  ^  -  C7)  n ''^ f  e  yUOC  (7)  line)  Gavalos \<x.  _a  Gerasimos  fie,  Te,  (7\  A  fit.. ToC •  Gerasimos (3rd Une)  t  A  m Mi.  Aoi  ^  Doukas TCC  XOL  pe.  t  e  66.  The unique o u t l i n e of the opening phrase — displayed most c l e a r l y in the examples by Gavalos and Doukas — suggests that the hymn may have acquired not only a common modal usage but also a standard opening by the l a t t e r part of the 14th century, i . e . post-Kladas.  In i t s most basic form  t h i s opening comprises the notes £-a_-c_-a_-a_ and t h i s may also be seen i n 90 other Koinonika.  Moreover, the s i m i l a r i t y  c l e a r l y extends also to phrase  B, and in both cases i s associated with the i d e n t i c a l  text phrases. A  s i m i l a r approach to phrase C in Gavalos i s also taken by Doukas i n phrase D but by t h i s point a divergence i n text s e t t i n g has occurred, as i s seen in Example 17. EXAMPLE 17  PhrascC -i P /\ (?) Gavalos  —I—  Doukas tfa ' F  m  era  In s p i t e of t h i s obvious use of the same musical material a l l three versions show a number of unique features.  Returning once again to  the opening, i t can be observed that the r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s phrase A ( l i n e 90 T h i s o p e n i n g i s v a g u e l y s i m i l a r t o t h e Mode IV. P l a g a l o p e n i n g o f t h e 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y AiveiTE melody p r o v i d e d b y Conomos, "Communion C h a n t s , " p . 2 5 6 . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t w o 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y e x a m p l e s o f TevoaoQe i n t h i s m o d e t h a t a r e known t o m e , b o t h u t i l i z e a n o p e n i n g t h a t i s c l e a r l y b a s e d on t h a t found i n Example 16. The s e t t i n g s b y Gerasimos and R a i d e s t i n o s — a composer w h o m a k e s a f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e s a m e MS a s G e r a s i m o s , i . e . A t h e n s M S . 2622 — c o n t a i n o p e n i n g s t h a t a r e somewhat more o r n a t e t h a n t h o s e illustrated h e r e , b u t whose s i m i l a r o u t l i n e s a r e e a s i l y v i s i b l e . (Gerasimos i n Vatopedi MS. 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 9 - 2 2 0 - a n d R a i d e s t i n o s i n A t h e n s M S . 2622 f o l . 4 1 9 : ) v  r  r  67.  2 in a l l three versions) i s subtly varied by each composer.  Only in Gerasimos  does the phrase now ascend to the o r i g i n a l c_, whereas both Gavalos and Doukas l i m i t i t s upward movement to b_.  A comparison with phrase A in l i n e  3 of Gavalos's s e t t i n g (Example 13) c l a r i f i e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i n e 2 — both here and in Doukas's hymn — w i t h l i n e 1.  The presence there of  f i g u r e i within the standard opening formula reveals that i n l i n e 2 we are dealing with a simiiiar, a l b e i t s l i g h t , v a r i a t i o n of phrase A that i s chara c t e r i z e d by the omission of the c_ and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of f i g u r e i which i n i t i a t e s the phrase's descent.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, f i g u r e i also occurs  in Kladas r (Example 10, l i n e 1, phrase A ' ) where i t f u l f i l s function.  a similar  In that case, however, i t i s merely a r e p e t i t i o n of phrase A  and in no way a l t e r s the contours of the opening phrase.  Another minor  d i f f e r e n c e between these three settings i s that Gavalos sets the f i r s t s y l l a b l e of uexaXdpexe to a second r e p e t i t i o n of phrase A , whereas the two other composers only repeat t h i s phrase once and u t i l i z e i t s o l e l y for the f i r s t text u n i t . The congruity of phrase B in a l l three versions has already been shown in Example 16 but various differences in i t s use may also be observed. Gavalos i n i t i a l l y employs t h i s phrase only f o r the remainder of [ye]xaXdS£T£ and then proceeds to phrase C for the subsequent t e x t .  Conversely, both  Gerasimos and Doukas l a v i s h a great deal of attention on t h i s phrase. the former version i t  In  i s o r i g i n a l l y repeated four times and used only f o r a  number of r e i t e r a t i o n s of the word yexaXdftexe (Example 14, l i n e s 2 - 6 ) , while the l a t t e r composer immediately reuses t h i s musical phrase for the e n t i r e middle section of the .text, v i z . , yexaXdftexe TrriYns aGavdxou (Example .15, l i n e s 2-4).  68.  A f t e r phrase B the approach of the three composers diverges substantially.  Phrase C in Doukas's s e t t i n g i s v i r t u a l l y  the same as phrase  D of Gavalos's v e r s i o n , but Gavalos set t h i s to the word aQavdxou rather than to yeuaaaGe as set by Doukas.  Moreover, i t i s only at the second un-  texted occurrence of phrase D (Example 13, l i n e 5) that i t s s i m i l a r i t y  to  Doukas's phrase C r e a l l y becomes evident, f o r i t s i n i t i a l appearance in l i n e 4 conveys at most an a f f i n i t y based on t e s s i t u r a and contours.  Phrase C  in Gavalos, however, i s equivalent to the t h i r d phrase used by Gerasimos but once again they are used for d i f f e r e n t purposes in the t e x t .  EXAMPLE 18 Phrase C*  Oerasimos Gerasimos V  71^  Jjr)  In Gavalos the phrase i s set to the word Trnyns (Example 13, l i n e s 3 and 6 ) , whereas Gerasimos uses i t as the musical adjunct of the d i r e c t i o n s and TrdAxv (Example 14, l i n e s 4 and 8 ) .  It  Xeye  i s only l a t e r in the hymn that  t h i s phrase also serves as a r e i t e r a t i o n of the word Trnyris and subsequently, aQavdxou (Example 14, l i n e s 13 and 14).  This once again demonstrates that  the words rrdAxv and Xeye are set to an integral  part of the hymn's  structure.  69.  Gerasimos extends his hymn yet further by the introduction of two a d d i t i o n a l phrases, which bear no resemblance to any of the material in the s e t t i n g s of Gavalos and Doukas.  Phrase D i s e s s e n t i a l l y a lengthy melisma  to the word Trnyns but i t s most i n t e r e s t i n g feature i s that i t concludes with the c i t a t i o n of an abbreviated version of phrase A.  This i s followed by  phrase E which i s repeated f o r the f i r s t s e t t i n g of the two words deavdxou and ye-CaaoQz,  Snd' functions" as a cadential figure of t h i s s e c t i o n .  It i s obvious that these three versions d i s p l a y somewhat more elaborate structures than our e a r l i e r settings but in s p i t e of t h i s a number of s i g n i f i c a n t features are held in common.  As was the case with  the majority of the previous s e t t i n g s , a r e i t e r a t i o n of the opening phrase A occurs towards the end of these examples. l a t i o n i s v i s i b l e to the word yetioaoBe  The most d i s t i n c t i v e r e c a p i t u -  in l i n e 8 of Gavalos's version  (Example 13), for here i t consists of a v i r t u a l l y exact r e p e t i t i o n of l i n e 1.  This r e p e t i t i o n i s preceded by a r e i t e r a t i o n of phrases B and C to the  t e x t of dQav&Tou and mryns, analagous to a Bogen form.  a n  d r e s u l t s in a symmetrical structure that i s  This sequence also shows once again the p r a c t i c e  of text e l i s i o n and i t occurs here i n the same manner as in Kladas r. Doukas u t i l i z e s a form that i s scarcely more complex although i t s are somewhat d i f f e r e n t .  proportions  The expansive middle s e c t i o n , which comprises phrase  B and the two middle units of the t e x t , has been alluded to above, and i s followed by a b r i e f s e t t i n g of yetioaoBe  in phrase C.  This f i n a l word i s  immediately repeated but by music that reverts to phrase A (see Example 15, l i n e 5 ) , and a f t e r t h i s the e n t i r e l a t t e r h a l f of the text recurs to the music that had been u t i l i z e d p r e v i o u s l y , i . e . phrases B and C.  Only in  the case of phrase C does t h i s c o n s t i t u t e an exact r e p e t i t i o n of the foregoing  70.  music.  The versions of phrase B are c l e a r l y related to the o r i g i n a l example  in line 2, but show signs of embellishment and v a r i a t i o n .  Also s i g n i f i c a n t ,  however, i s that this repetition i s introduced by a TrdAiv unit that evidences the same integration into the phraseology that had been observed in previous examples.  Here i t f u l f i l s the ascent from g_ to d with which phrase B  begins. The setting by Gerasimos demonstrates the most complex and protracted structure of our group.  We have noted above the manner in which a  compact r e i t e r a t i o n of phrase A functions here as a closing figure to phrase D and i s then followed by i t s c o r o l l a r y , phrase E.  Subsequently, however,  a somewhat more concise setting of the l a s t two text phrases i s appended, and these constitute a curious amalgamation of the previous musical material. The word  a e a v d t o u i s set to a b r i e f fragment that resembles phrase C which  had e a r l i e r been employed for A e y e , T T & A I V , and Trrryris, and the word y e u a a a O e contains a r e i t e r a t i o n of phrase B which reverts once again to phrase A for i t s conclusion.  It i s clear that Gerasimos has u t i l i z e d . h i s o r i g i n a l  musical material to the utmost, but has returned, invariably, to the opening phrase in a manner that seems to have been customary f o r most composers of this hymn.  Moreover, in agreement with a l l but one of the preceding versions,  this recapitulation occurs in proximity to the word ye-OoaoBe. The text setting of these three Koinonika shows some major changes from a l l  previous examples.  P a r t i c u l a r l y obvious i s a trend towards a  melismatic — o c c a s i o n a l l y neumatic —  treatment of the text, in contrast  to the e a r l i e r hymns which generally evince a syllabic-neumatic text setting. Although Gerasimos i s usually somewhat more conservative in this respect with a considerably greater amount of s y l l a b l i c usage — t h e r e i s a marked  —  71.  tendency, e s p e c i a l l y in the versions by Gavalos and Doukas, in favour of lengthier melismas for each text s y l l a b l e .  Such melismatic passages intrude  i n c r e a s i n g l y upon the f o r t h r i g h t exposition of the t e x t , but seldom a f f e c t i t s l u c i d i t y , and never show an expansion into the unrestrained melismas that c o n s t i t u t e a feature of the kalophonic repertory.  It i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to  note that the s y l l a b l e s of the two introductory words of each s e c t i o n , Zwya and Trnyns» are now seldom set to successive notes of the same p i t c h as had been -the case in most e a r l i e r versions of t h i s hymn.  In f a c t , only  the f i r s t s e t t i n g of the word Trnyns in Gerasimos's s e t t i n g receives t h i s treatment, and even at i t s second occurrence there the s y l l a b l e s of t h i s word are separated.  Gerasimos and Doukas, however, s t i l l  r e t a i n the longest  melismatic passage for the l a t t e r s y l l a b l e of Trnyns, and in Gerasimos's version t h i s i s a very expansive m e l i s m a t h a t i s supported by the i n t e r c a l a t i o n of non-textual vowels.  A l l three settings also separate the two  s y l l a b l e s of acoua by the i n s e r t i o n of melismas of varying length.  ;  Gerasimos,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , u t i l i z e s a lengthy melismatic passage at t h i s p o i n t , and in t h i s he seems to be following a p r a c t i c e that was f i r s t observed i n Kladas r.  72.  SUMMARY  A.  Changes With a t o t a l of only eight settings of the proper Koinonikon for  Easter i t  i s n a t u r a l l y impossible to a r r i v e at any d e f i n i t i v e  about the development of t h i s hymn during the 14th century.  conclusions Nevertheless,  a number of o v e r a l l trends become v i s i b l e and these w i l l be dealt with in this section. The most obvious change in our repertoire of  EaJya X P I C T O U  i s that  the dimensions of the settings are progressively expanded in the course of the century.  In the following table (see f o l l o w i n g page) two c r i t e r i a were  u t i l i z e d in order to e s t a b l i s h the length of the eight v e r s i o n s :  a note  count of the e n t i r e hymn (excluding the post-cadential formulae), and an enumeration of the number of l i n e s devoted to the piece in<a s p e c i f i c manu91 script.  The c a l c u l a t i o n s are based on the models that have been used  throughout t h i s  study.  """"Each o f t h e s e m e t h o d s i s s o m e w h a t p r o b l e m a t i c a l , b u t t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n t h e y produce a r e a s o n a b l e measurement of t h e ^ l e n g t h o f the hymns. A simple count of a l l the notes t h a t the s c r i b e has w r i t t e n does not take i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c h e i r o n o m i a t h a t w e r e f r e q u e n t l y a d d e d , a n d w h i c h , i n some c a s e s , seem t o d e n o t e an u n w r i t t e n p r a c t i c e o f m e l o d i c e l a b o r a t i o n ( s e e Conomos, T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p. 367 a n d p p . 351 f f . ) . In t h a t sense a n o t e count i s a t b e s t a r e l a t i v e gauge o f l e n g t h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a l i n e c o u n t d e p e n d s o n t h e s c r i b e ' s c a l l i g r a p h y a n d e v e n t h e s i z e o f h i s MS f o r its accuracy. The i m p r e c i s i o n o f t h i s method i s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e two v e r s i o n s o f K l a d a s i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 and A t h e n s MS. 2 4 1 1 . The t w e l v e l i n e s u t i l i z e d by t h e s c r i b e i n A t h e n s MS. 2622 s u g g e s t t h a t K l a d a s Y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r t h a n K l a d a s A, w h i c h i s f i t t e d i n t o 9 1 / 4 l i n e s i n A t h e n s M S . 2411. In a c t u a l f a c t , however, a note count r e v e a l s t h a t the l a t t e r example ' i s ' , s l i g h t l y , l o n g e r . ( . C l e a r l y '-an • e n u m e r a t i o n " o f - l i n e s " i s o n l y ; a n a c c e p t a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e l e n g t h o f a h y m n i f we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y o n e s c r i b e a n d one s p e c i f i c MS. :  >  73.  TABLE, Length  of  V.II  Etoyq XPIQ~TQU M e l o d i e s  NOTE C O U N T  S t S n s  HS. 2*58)  Panaretos (Koutlouraousi Moschianos ( A t h e n s MS. Kladas  l  a  d  a  457)  2622)  r  (Athens  K  MS.  s  MS.  2622)  MS. 2411)  Gavalos (Vienna  MS.  Gerasimos (Vatopedi  LINES  1 1 5 )  5  (140)  7  129  (136)  6  223  (237)  12  b  )  i  184  185)  <  3  '  138  U  264  9 3  m  •'  9  9  1  1  /  2  1/4 /  4  (164)  324  MS. 1495)  Gerasimos ( V i e n n a MS. Doukas (Vatopedi  1  (246) *  A  (Athens  1  9 2  185)  MS.  1495)  (333) or , 402 ( 4 1 1 ) " "  14  244  (254)  10  156  (166)  7  g  This table reveals that the length of our settings increases gradual from the e a r l i e s t group of composers (Glykes, Moschianos, and Panaretos) to  92  93 p.  81  The b r a c k e t e d  The  figures  presence of  include  the  a post-cadential  post-cadential  figure  is  phrase.  uncertain  here  (see  ff.). 94  The s e c o n d s e t o f f i g u r e s t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t complete r e p e t i t i o n of the second h a l f of the text that the a l t e r n a t e ending.  the a d d i t i o n of a i s made p o s s i b l e b y  74.  the t h i r d group (Gavalos, and Doukas).  The version by Gerasimos, although  i t is not the l a t e s t example, surpasses a l l the others and stands as the culmination of t h i s progression.  S i m i l a r l y , the two hymns by Kladas occupy  an intermediate p o s i t i o n in the chronological order of the r e p e r t o i r e , but t h e i r length suggests a placement between the l a t e s t group of settings and Gerasimos's v e r s i o n .  Conversely, of course, i t i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g  that the l a s t example — the s e t t i n g by Doukas which occurs only in one of the l a t e s t manuscripts, Vatopedi 1495 — does not continue the expansion evidenced by the e a r l i e r hymn of Gerasimos's,:but reverts to a more concise musical  format. Another facet of the changing dimensions of our r e p e r t o r i e i s the  i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r ambitus encompassed by the d i f f e r e n t  examples.  The f o l -  lowing Figure provides f i r s t the t o t a l range of each hymn, and then the span of each section of the melody.  Whenever an obvious s h i f t in t e r r i t u r a occurs  w i t h i n a section t h i s has been noted.  Once again i t becomes evident that  there e x i s t s a c l e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between chronology and the ambitus of a melody.  Thus, for example, the melody of our e a r l i e s t hymn by Glykes spans  the i n t e r v a l o f . a seventh whereas the l a s t s e t t i n g by Doukas encompasses a range that has been expanded to an eleventh.  A necessary adjunct to t h i s  c r i t e r i a , however, i s the s h i f t in t e s s i t u r a within the sections of a hymn. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the l a t t e r part of the f i g u r e , f o r i t places the increased range of the pieces within t h e i r context.  This i s  particularly  necessary since a c o r o l l a r y of the expanding ambitus i s the changes in t e s s i t u r a that become more pronounced during the course of the century. At i t s most extreme t h i s can be observed.by comparing the hymns of Glykes and Doukas.  In the former case the e n t i r e melody b a s i c a l l y remains w i t h i n the  FIGURE 3 Changing Ambitus i n Itouq XPT-CTOU TOTAll  2.U1/10C fU\UGE\  VJtTHitJ  SECTIONS  JffLCTTOV  /USTOcXk/SST^  OlSol.W.TO'O  ^ITH^  -ytVCTOLGdt.  Panaretos 9  IF  V\osch\anD5  Kladas r  2fc LutTKXoi/isTe ,, ' MtraHL~ 1  Kladas A  g_ . P  T»  A _ * -  & aval os  7rrjjfj<; OerasmioS  1+95  r^r;  V  *  d(jBa.l/tt,ToV 7Tr)tfs  7 im  fx—i  7£y - acccrde> Doukas 1*35 Org)  A ^tv/rxcrdt, ir\d. postOC&ttl'OCJTOV  cad'er>tia\  76.  f i f t h from d-a_ and on occasion i s b r i e f l y expanded by one note in each d i r e c tion.  The s e t t i n g by Doukas, on the other hand, shows a number of  definite  t r a n s p o s i t i o n s , the most obvious of which may be seen by comparing the opening phrase with the i n i t i a l c i t a t i o n of yetiaaaGe:. The melodies of our examples also reveal that the use of i n c r e a s i n g l y larger i n t e r v a l s becomes commonplace as the 14th century advances.  In the  e a r l i e s t group of settings the melody progresses mainly by conjunct  motion  and, to a l e s s e r extent, by the i n t e r v a l of a t h i r d .  The largest  those of a fourth and a f i f t h , are used rather i n f r e q u e n t l y . may be seen in Table V I I I , the i n t e r v a l  TABLE Interval  1  VIII  Usage i n  Percentages  3rd  4th  5th  Glykes  86%  11%  2%  1%  Panaretos  86%  10%  ' 2%  2%  Moschianos  90%  9%  1% ; 4%  9 5  Kladas  T  85%  11%  Kladas  A  86%  9%  84%  14%  88%  8%  2%  2%  90%  7%  1%  2%  78%  19%  1%  1%  Gavalos Gerasimos (Vatopedi  MS.  Gerasimos ( V i e n n a MS. Doukas  1495)  185)  In f a c t , as  of a f i f t h does not even occur in two  2nd  INTERVALS:  intervals,  3.5%  6th  7th  1%  8th  .5%  2%  1%  95  tion  • • • . None o f t h e p 6 s t - e a d e n t i a T " m a t " e r i a l h a s b e e n - t a k e n ' i n t o when, a r r i v i n g a t ' - t h e s e f i g u r e s . " - ~ V  considera-  V  96 as  The c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n one r e p e t i t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e s e c o n d e n d i n g .  of  the  latter  section  77.  s e t t i n g s , those of Moschianos and Kladas r.  The l a t e r settings c o n s i s t e n t l y  employ the f i f t h , and in two versions even exceed that to u t i l i z e the i n t e r v a l s of a seventh"and an octave.  On the whole, however, the propor-  tionate use of most i n t e r v a l s remains reasonably constant throughout our repertoire.  The majority of movement i s always:'by conjunct i n t e r v a l  (an  average of 86% of the melody), and the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i r d s also remains much the same (an average of 11%).  It i s only the actual use of i n c r e a s i n g l y  larger i n t e r v a l s in the l a t e r settings of Eoiya xpiorou that constitutes a difference in the i n t e r v a l l i e u t i l i z a t i o n of our r e p e r t o i r e .  The r e l a t i v e  use of most i n t e r v a l s , on the o t h e r h a n d , does not.change to any appreciable degree. In conjunction with the increasing length of the Etoya  XPT-PTOU"  during the 14th century some major change in form are also evident.  The  e a r l i e s t settings by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos are quite simple s t r u c t u r e s , arranged with a minimum of m a t e r i a l s .  Two compact phrases were deemed  s u f f i c i e n t f o r the e n t i r e hymn by these composers.  The l a t e r v e r s i o n s ,  however, evidence a form that',becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y complex.  Not only do the  composers now u t i l i z e additional phrases, but they combine them in considerably more complicated ways.  The culmination of t h i s trend i s c l e a r l y shown by  the s e t t i n g of Gerasimos. A necessary c o r o l l a r y of the burgeoning complexity and extended ambitus of the melodies i s the need f o r a more careful organization of the material.  C l e a r l y there existed a danger of the settings becoming e s s e n t i a l l y  rhapsodic and somewhat formless.  In order to counteract t h i s the l a t e r  composers devote greater a t t e n t i o n to i n t e r n a l cadences and u t i l i z e more sequential passages in the construction of t h e i r melodies.  The profusion of  78.  cadences i s obviously imperative i f a semblance of order i s to be r e t a i n e d , and an examination of our r e p e r t o i r e shows that composers from Kladas on i n c r e a s i n g l y subdivide t h e i r expanded melodic flow by the regular i n s e r t i o n of medial cadences.  In addition i t can be observed that the melodies  are f u r t h e r organized throughout the 14th century by the growing use of successively more complex sequences.  EXAMPLE 19  The e a r l i e r composers favoured sequential passages that comprise simple two ' and three note groups which only subtly expand the melodic f a b r i c of the hymn.  A representative of the most common procedure may be seen above in  the example taken from Moschinaos's s e t t i n g .  When compared to the l a t e r  examples — e s p e c i a l l y those from Kladas A and Doukas — i t becomes obvious that not only the length of the sequences but also t h e i r nature has been somewhat a l t e r e d .  In addition to extending the melody they now c o n s t i t u t e  a very e f f e c t i v e means of regulating i t s progression.  79.  Most of the Koinonika of our r e p e r t o i r e conclude with some type of post-cadential phrase, which i s appended to the music u t i l i z e d f o r the text verse proper.  The function of t h i s appendage i s not f u l l y understood  but i t seems l i k e l y that i t was some sort of cue for the domestikos, . . . i n f o r m i n g h i m t h a t t h e c h a n t was c o m p l e t e d , a n d p o s s i b l y g i v i n g him a note f o r h i s exclamation i n v i t i n g the people to approach and r e c e i v e the E u c h a r i s t .  The f o l l o w i n g example i l l u s t r a t e s these post-cadential formulae from the s e t t i n g s of Ewua  XP^°"TOU  that were used as the models f o r t h i s study.  The e a r l i e s t hymns by Glykes and Panaretos employ the i d e n t i c a l ascending f i g u r e that c o n s i s t s merely of the i n t e r v a l of a t h i r d followed by that of a second.  Gradually, however, the post-cadential phrase becomes  longer and more complex.  The a n a l y t i c a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of our r e p e r t o i r e  show, in f a c t , that in conjunction with these developments, the post-cadential  formulae are i n c r e a s i n g l y fashioned from s i g n i f i c a n t musical elements  present in e a r l i e r phrases of the hymn.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in  the Koinonika by Gavalos and Doukas ( r e s p e c t i v e l y , Examples 13 and 15). In the l a t t e r case, f o r i n s t a n c e , the descending f i g u r e from £ to £ (see Example 20) had previously functioned as .the connection between two c i t a t i o n s of yeCaaaOe (Example 15, l i n e 5 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , in Gavalos's  hymn the beginning of the post-cadential phrase had occurred in an i d e n t i c a l manner to the word Trnyns(Example 13, l i n e 6 ) , and the l a t t e r part of the formula i s an amalgamation of material previously used in l i n e s 2 and 3 (see Example 13).  Conomos,  "Communion C h a n t s , "  p.  254.  80.  EXAMPLE 20  Glykes  Panaretos fl  (7)  Moschianos 4"  Kladas ^f,  r" Kladas X $r  7Tb  QsrasiMos tig (Vienna ify)  Doukas  A V 7Th  77Z-  See n . 9 8 .  cussed below  This bracketed i n n. 101.  addition  reflects  the 15th-century  usage  dis-  81.  Except for our two e a r l i e s t settings by Glykes and Panaretos, most subsequent composers support the post-cadential f i g u r e with the f o l l o w 99  ing l e t t e r s :  &  (= superposition of omikron ' o ' and upsilon 'u.'  y y e , and sometimes followed by e l e t t e r s , and i t  1 0 0  ), e,  . Kladas A omits these extraneous  i s a c t u a l l y uncertain whether the appended phrase  illustrated  in Example 20 i s intended to be a post-cadential formula or the f i n a l phrase of the hymn.  In Athens MS. 2411 the s e t t i n g appears devoid of both text  and l e t t e r s , but i n l a t e r manuscripts the s y l l a b l e s [y]eO-aa-a0£ are repeated to the l a s t three notes of t h i s p h r a s e . ^  If the evidence of the l a t e r  sources i s accepted, then t h i s Koinonikon (Kladas A) would be the only version i n our r e p e r t o i r e that dispenses with the post-cadential  formula.  In most of our versions a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between the music of the t e x t verse and the post-cadential material by the use of an unambiguous cadence at the conclusion of the texted music.  Only i n Moschianos  and Kladas r i s t h i s d i v i s i o n somewhat obscured and there a d i v i d i n g  line  based on the musical context has been proposed in Example 20. When a Koinonikon i s repeated i n d i f f e r e n t manuscripts the l a t e r s e t t i n g s also generally show an expansion of the post-cadential m a t e r i a l . 99 B.A. van Groningen, Short Manual of (Leyden: A . W . S y t h o f f , 1 9 6 3 ) , "p". 4 4 , f i g .  rev.  Greek Paleography, 9.  3d e d . ,  ^ G a v a l o s ' s s e t t i n g i n V i e n n a MS. 185 f o l . 2 8 5 provides a rather unusual a l t e r n a t i v e but i n other 14th and 15th-century v e r s i o n s of this hymn t h a t w e r e c o n s u l t e d ( V a t o p e d i M S . 1495 f o l . 2 l 8 , B a r b . g r . M S . 293 f o l . 2 0 6 , I v i r o n M S . 1 1 2 0 f o l . 2 8 5 ) t h e m o r e common u s a g e d i s c u s s e d h e r e i s u t i l i z e d . 1 0  V  r  v  v  " " A t h e n s MS. 904 i s c o m p l e t e l y i l l e g i b l e a t t h i s p o i n t a n d was t h u s useless in clarifying this situation. T h e f o l l o w i n g 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS w e r e therefore consulted: A t h e n s MS. 899 f o l . 1 4 9 (dated to the f i r s t h a l f of t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y ) ; A t h e n s MS. 2406 f o l . 2 8 7 - 2 8 8 ( d a t e d 1 4 5 3 ) ; A t h e n s MS. 2837 fol. 203 (dated 1457). I n a l l c a s e s t h e w o r d yetioaoQe, m i n u s . i t s i n i t i a l cons o n a n t , i s r e p e a t e d a t . t h e e n d o f . t h e hymn a n d t h e e x t r a n e o u s l e t t e r s t h a t seem t o i n d i c a t e p o s t - c a d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l do n o t a p p e a r a t a l l . 1  0 1  r  v  v  r  82.  Example 21 i l l u s t r a t e s the progressive augmentation of the endings in Glykes's hymn, and the major changes that occur between Athens MS. 2458, Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 , and Sinai MS. 1462 or Sinai MS. 1294 become r e a d i l y r  apparent. EXAMPLE 21  T r a n s p o s e d down a s e c o n d .  In one respect, however, a l l l a t e r versions follow the e a r l i e s t example in Athens MS. 2458, as the extraneous l e t t e r s are always omitted from the post-, cadential phrase of Glykes's hymn, even in the. two l a t e ; S i n a i manuscripts. The expansion of the endings n a t u r a l l y magnifies t h e i r . r e l a t i o n s h i p important s t r u c t u r a l  to  elements of the hymn, i n much the same manner as was  observed above in Gavalos's and Doukas's Koinonika.  Consider, for example,  83.  the prominent use in the Sinai manuscripts and in Athens MS. 2406 of  figure  a , a figure which constitutes a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of phrase A in Glykes's s e t t i n g (see Example 6 ) .  The mid-15th century Athens MS. 2406 also c o n t a i n s ,  in a d d i t i o n , a unique s y l l a b i c r e p e t i t i o n of the f i n a l word ye-CaaoQe at the conclusion of t h i s purported post-cadential phrase.  This i s analagous 102  to the procedure r e f l e c t e d i n 15th-century sources of Kladas A,  and once  again r a i s e s the question of whether t h i s appendage should be considered as being a^post-cadential phrase or an, organic part of the Koinonikon. Another p o s s i b i l i t y , however, i s that in c e r t a i n cases when the extraneous l e t t e r s were omitted the s y l l a b l e s of the f i n a l text word were s u b s t i t u t e d , and functioned in a manner s i m i l a r to the post-cadential formula.  Certainly  t h i s would account for the unusual usage i n Athens MS. 2406, the 15thcentury versions of Kladas A, and the decidedly s i m i l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of the 103 repeated yeO*aaaee in Panaretos's Koinonikon. A rather curious feature which emerges from the post-cadential phrases i l l u s t r a t e d in Example 20, i s t h a t , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the mode selected by each composer, the model versions of a l l eight Koinonika end on the note £.  Glykes's and Moschianos's hymns are the only examples in our r e p e r t o i r e  that receive various ( l a t e r ? ) t r a n s p o s i t i o n s and in those instances the f i n a l note of the post-cadential formula i s usually transposed by an equiva-104 lent degree. 102  See  103  c  See  The settings of n.  Glykes's chant that are transmitted by  101.  Example  7.  104 See f o r example t h e e n d i n g s o f G M S . 2 6 2 2 , A m b r o s i a n a M S . Q. 1 1 , V a t o p e d i ' M S . MS. 4 5 7 , V i e n n a MS. 185 f o l . 2 6 8 , i n E x a m p l e s e t t i n g i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 , (Mode r  r  l y k e s ' s versions in Athens 1495 f o l . 2 1 7 , K o u t l o u m o u s i 21. However, G l y k e s ' s III Authentic), which is the v  84.  the two Sinai manuscripts  do not end on £ even though both are in the  'standard' mode, ( i . e . Mode I Plagal).  Instead, they contain a rhythmic  elongation on £ that i s produced by a kratema on the f i n a l note of the b r i e f ascending figure that follows the conclusion of the text.  This  short figure spans the interval of a fourth and occurs i n a l l post-cadential material that i s added to the numerous recensions of Glykes's hymn. In most settings this r i s i n g passage constitutes the entire post-cadential phrase; in others i t comprises only the opening of this appended matter. It i s quite possible then that this ascending figure (see figure k in Example 21) is the nucleus of the p o s t s c r i p t , and that the remaining material  i s merely  an embellishment provided by each scribe. Moreover, i f this hypothesis i s compared to the post-cadential phrases in the rest of our repertoire (see Example 20) i t becomes apparent that an abstract of f i g u r e k i s u t i l i z e d f o r the end of this phrase in the majority of Koinonika.  The exceptions are the hymns by Gavalos and Doukas,  and possibly Kladas A.  In these cases figure j seems to have been sub-  s t i t u t e d f o r figure k.  This figure i s marked by the prominent use of an  e n c i r c l i n g motion of at least two intervals of a f i f t h , from £-d_-£. In both Gavalos's setting and i n Kladas A this alternation of f i f t h s begins on the f i n a l i s of Mode IV Plagal (£) a f t e r the conclusion of the text, and o n l y e x a m p l e t h a t h a s b e e n ' e x p a n d e d b y a TT&AlV r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e Trr)YTJs aSavctSou, c o n t a i n s a l e n g t h y p o s t - c a d e n t i a l p h r a s e w h i c h b e g i n s s i m i l a r l y to the other transposed versions that s t a r t fromc_, but eventually a l s o e n d s o n t h e n o t e g_. The n u c l e u s o f t h e p h r a s e ( s e e E x a m p l e 2 1 ) , t h o u g h , e n d s o n ci, a n d t h i s c o d i c i l t h e r e f o r e seems e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e o t h e r transposed s e t t i n g s d i s c u s s e d above. 'These a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  i n E x a m p l e 21.  85.  i n s t a n t l y encompasses the leap of a f i f t h to d before returning to £ at the end.  Doukas's hymn provides an unconventional ending f o r the text  verse on d — a f i f t h higher than the customary f i n a l i s of t h i s mode on £ . Most l i k e l y the composer has here merely delayed the standard f i n a l i s on £ u n t i l the superposed l e t t e r s  ' o ' and ' u ' of the post-cadential phrase and  has then commenced the e n c i r c l i n g f i f t h s of f i g u r e j with the subsequent extraneous  letters.^  6  The reason for t h i s change i n post-cadential phrases, r e f l e c t e d by the presence of f i g u r e j , i s uncertain.  It seems s i g n i f i c a n t , however,  that in Gavalos and Doukas the f i n a l note i s approached from above and never from below, as was the case i n a l l the other e n d i n g s . ^  7  P o s s i b l y then t h i s  material i s r e l a t e d to the t e s s i t u r a of the preceding music, for in both Doukas's hymn and Kladas A the word yeOaaaGe, or a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of it,  i s set to the upper r e g i s t e r of the mode ( r e s p e c t i v e l y , Example 15 and  Example 11).  In Gavalos (Example 13) the word yedaaaGe has a c t u a l l y been  transposed to the lower t e s s i t u r a but a major part of the central section of the hymn i s set in the higher range.  emendation  to  This the  Conversely, Gerasimos u t i l i z e s the  i d i o s y n c r a c y , i f a c c e p t e d , c e r t a i n l y adds support d i g i t a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s hymn ( s e e a b o v e , p .  Kladas A c o n s t i t u t e s a minor e x c e p t i o n by v i r t u e of f i g u r e that incorporates the lower neighbouring note f, but t h i s be a r e s u l t of the amalgamation of both f o r m u l a e . Or i t may r e f l v a r i a n t usage that i s a s s o c i a t e d with the r e p e t i t i o n of the t e x t yedaaaGe t o t h e f i n a l n o t e s o f t h i s e n d i n g .  for our 21).  a :closing may s i m p l y ect a word  86.  older post-cadential formula and there the f i n a l word yedaaaGe comprises a conscious r e i t e r a t i o n of previous music i n the lower area of Mode IV Plagal (see Example 14).  It seems p l a u s i b l e then that t h i s variant post-cadential  ending was devised by l a t e r composers in order to r e l a t e i t to the musical s t y l e and higher t e s s i t u r a used towards the end of t h e i r Koinonika.  In  that respect, of course, i t served a function analagous to that of the e a r l i e r formula. The evolving r e l a t i o n s h i p between text and music that i s evinced by our r e p e r t o i r e has been alluded to p e r i o d i c a l l y throughout t h i s study. The most obvious change, the growing use of lengthier neumatic and m e l i s matic passages, generates within i t s e l f an equally important development concerning the actual placement of these passages.  In a l l eight versions  the majority of text s y l l a b l e s i n v a r i a b l y receive a s y l l a b i c treatment. Composers from Kladas on, however, begin to write melismas not only between the various words of the text but interspersed among the s y l l a b l e s of the words.  Occasionally such embellishments become quite s i z e a b l e , giving  r i s e to s i t u a t i o n s where the s y l l a b l e s of a word are separated by twenty or more notes.  An e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s may be seen i n the lengthy  melismatic passages that occur between the two s y l l a b l e s of the  initial  word Iwua in the settings of Gerasimos and Kladas (see Kladas r in Example 10, and Gerasimos in Example 14).  A s i m i l a r procedure i s displayed by the  i n t e r c a l a t i o n of melismas or neumatic sections within the word Trnyns in Kladas A (Example 11, l i n e 3 ) , and Gavalos and Gerasimos ( r e s p e c t i v e l y , Example 13, l i n e 3, and Example 14, l i n e 13).  This shows evidence of a  considerable change when compared to the e a r l i e s t settings o f Ewya f o r there  XP^PTOUJ  the opening words of the two sections generally receive a s y l l a b i c  87.  treatment.  In f a c t , melismas do not occur within any words in the e a r l i e s t  versions of this hymn.  In conjunction with this development there i s also  a tendency, by composers from Kladas on, to accord a neumatic treatment to more ' i n t e r i o r ' s y l l a b l e s than had previously been the case.  Thus, f o r  example, in both Gavalos's and Doukas's Koinonika (see respectively Examples 13 and 15) the number of neumatic passages within the text words i s nearly as great as the number of s y l l a b l e s that receive a s y l l a b i c treatment.  It  becomes evident then that the e a r l i e r emphasis on the clear enunciation of the text was gradually superseded by a growing interest in musical elaboration and  B.  embellishment.  Stasis In contrast to the numerous changes that were discussed in the  preceding pages, this c o l l e c t i o n of Communion chants also displays a number of stable elements.  Perhaps the most interesting c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s melodic  s t a b i l i t y ; the degree of melodic migration that i s evident amongst the d i f ferent settings of Ewya x P  i a T  ou .  The analytical transcriptions used in the course of this study to i l l u s t r a t e the eight examples of our hymn are based on the premise that the composers used only a limited amount of musical material in the construction of their works, such material, then being repeated with various modifications.  Inherent in this supposition therefore i s a compositional technique  that u t i l i z e s similar melodic phrases f o r diverse sections of the text. Such melodic r e p e t i t i o n within a Koinonikon i s seldom verbatim.  Instead  i t seems to r e s u l t from the selection of a basic model phrase that undergoes  88.  subsequent a l t e r n a t i o n s and permutations during the exposition of the complete melody.  N a t u r a l l y , such r e i t e r a t i o n r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t  •  gradations  of i d e n t i t y between musical phrases, but i t also occurs to varying degrees throughout the examples of our r e p e r t o i r e .  In the e a r l i e s t settings a  greater number of r e p e t i t i o n s are obviously necessary due to the use of only two basic musical phrases f o r the e n t i r e hymn.  Later t h i s  procedure  becomes somewhat less apparent by v i r t u e of the increased number of phrases that are used to construct these s e t t i n g s . In addition to the recurrence of musical phrases w i t h i n each Koinonikon, however, we have also observed an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of hymns — based on the use of a number of s i m i l a r phrases — w i t h i n the three groups that were e s t a b l i s h e d .  None of t h i s , however, prepares us for the s u r -  p r i s i n g amount of melodic s i m i l a r i t y betweeen a l l eight versions of t h i s hymn. The following examples i l l u s t r a t e the s i m i l a r i t y between various musical phrases taken from the e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e .  In general the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s more pronounced i n phrases that are u t i l i z e d for i d e n t i c a l sections of the t e x t , but on occasion the musical resemblance also extends to the use of d i f f e r e n t text elements.  The majority of the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e s , however,  have already been i d e n t i f i e d and are not considered here. It must be noted, though, that such musical s i m i l a r i t y seldom c o n s t i t u t e s unpremeditated copying of another composer's work.  In f a c t , the  suggested consanguinity i s manifested f o r the most part by the use of equivalent contours, the d i s p o s i t i o n of text s y l l a b l e s on the same or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d notes, and the u t i l i z a t i o n of uniform musical f i g u r e s .  Moreover, in  89: some cases the correspondence does not even depend on the same pitch levels and whenever this became apparent such phrases were transposed f o r ease of comparison.  For the purpose of these comparisons, musical phrases that  only contain partial text words have also been included.  Where composers  u t i l i z e such fragments, i t i s generally i n the guise of an introduction to 109 a complete c i t a t i o n of the word, e.g. ye-yeTaXdBexe.  Such preceding  s y l l a b l e s , however, often receive an entire musical phrase of t h e i r own and are thus s i g n i f i c a n t in this context. Probably the greatest uniformity occurs in the setting of the word yeTaAdBexe.  Examples 22 and 23 reveal that two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t  schemes are employed f o r the major occurrence of this word i n a l l  eight  versions of this hymn. The word Trnyns i s used in the same manner in f i v e of the Koinonika (see Example 24).  Gerasimos actually u t i l i z e s t h i s word as an occasion f o r  a somewhat extended melisma, but' the outlines of this elaboration agree with the basic form of the phrase as used by e a r l i e r c o m p o s e r s . ^ 108  Interestingly  The d i r e e t i o n ' . a n d t h e d e g r e e o f ' t r a n s p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e original have always been i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: T R + 5, i . e . . t h e p h r a s e h a s b e e n t r a n s p o s e d down b y t h e i n t e r v a l o f a f i f t h . In a d d i t i o n , the a f f i n i t y between m u s i c a l phrases i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e t a i n e d f o r a l l occurrences of a s p e c i f i c t e x t element i n each s e t t i n g . This has been e x p r e s s e d b y t h e u s e o f t w o n u m e r a l s b e n e a t h t h e c o m p o s e r ' s n a m e , e . g . [2/3J. The l a t t e r r e f e r s t o t h e t o t a l number o f c i t a t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i f i c t e x t p h r a s e , and the former i n d i c a t e s the p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d . b y the phrase under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i . e . 2/3; the second of three r e p e t i t i o n s . I t d o e s n o t mean t h a t two out o f t h r e e c i t a t i o n s o f t h i s p h r a s e f o l l o w the i l l u s t r a t e d p r o c e d u r e .  109 The o n l y e x c e p t i o n o c c u r s m P a n a r e t o s ' s e t t i n g . There t h e . composer r e p e a t s the middle p a r t of the word w i t h o u t , however, reiterating i t s b e g i n n i n g , v i z . , dGavd-Gavdxou. "'""^See t h e t e x t p u n c t u a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t t h a t h a s been i n s e r t e d i n our t r a n s c r i p t i o n s by the use of short v e r t i c a l l i n e s . In a d d i t i o n , G a v a l o s a c c o r d s t h i s p h r a s e a .somewhat r e s t r a i n e d t r e a t m e n t , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e s t o f the group i s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on the similarity of contours. In view of the h i g h t e s s i t u r a o f t h i s phrase i n the o r i g i n a l , though,  it  is  scarcely surprising  that  it  extends  no  further  than  g_.  EXAMPLE 22  91.  EXAMPLE 23  Moschianos A »  ' Ml  Toe  A /2c  \tf Xoc  n Kladas r TMSTTCC^XOC  r" CH3/3]  _  A_ Toc  Kladas A  A  "TT  Gavalos  —XAft, A  I  92.  E X A M P L E 2i±  Moschianos TTr/  Panaretos Cli-2/z]  t i / i ] TR  f 1  Kladas  A  TTfe  TR. + 3  S e r a si mo5 ^& C x or  , _,  z/3 3  TR t 1 Kladas  r  To.  m  Kittle  **  93.  enough, both here and in the other examples, the greatest s i m i l a r i t y n e c e s s a r i l y between contemporaneous composers.  i s not  In f a c t , the c l o s e s t r e l a -  tionship may on occasion be seen between the e a r l i e s t and the l a t e s t composers. In Kladas r the second occurrence of the word Trnyns i s set to a phrase that bears a likeness to the beginning of the phrase i l l u s t r a t e d  in Example 24.  However, the long melisma which t h i s composer sets to the i n i t i a l  syllable  of the word Ewya i s f a r more c l o s e l y related to the phrase used elsewhere for  the word Trnyns.  Example 25 i l l u s t r a t e s  the decidedly s i m i l a r treatment of the  word deav&xou in a l l eight versions of Ewua xP*°"tou. Only Kladas r presents a rather d i f f e r e n t approach.  There the phrase, which i s r e s t r i c t e d to a  high t e s s i t u r a , i s analagous to the development of a portion of Doukas's phrase, and thus a c e r t a i n resemblance i s e s t a b l i s h e d . the musical s i m i l a r i t y  However, besides  of a l l settings of t h i s word, the d i s p o s i t i o n of text  s y l l a b l e s i s also c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .  Except in Panaretos's and Gavalos's  hymns, the f i r s t three s y l l a b l e s are set s y l l a b i c a l l y , and i f a short melisma i s used w i t h i n the word, i t occurs to the penultimate  syllable,  i.e.  otGava-xou.  The most obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s yevaaode  are shown in Examples 26 and 27.  in the s e t t i n g of the f i n a l word The use of. e i t h e r of the two forms  i s c l e a r l y independent of the chronology, as both examples occur throughout the e n t i r e r e p e r t o i r e .  alternately  In Example 27 the preceding phrase from  Gerasimos's hymn has also been added for comparative purposes since i t and the music u t i l i z e d for yevaaoQe are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and occur in succession.  immediate  94.  EXAMPLE 25  A  Glykes  A  Panaretos C l +2./Z]  Moschianos  Kladas  11-/2-1 Gerasi  mos  Cl t X  31  Doukas  0.(*lV2.1 _A  C3/33  3? A_  rov  C1/2.J TR f 5  The n o t e s w i t h a downward s t e m , a n d t h a t w i t h t h e t h e V a t o p e d i v e r s i o n ( f o l . 217 ) o f t h i s hymn. v  pelaston  ( v ) , are  from  EXAMPLE 26  EXAMPLE 27  96.  Example 28 i l l u s t r a t e s the beginning of the f i n a l setting of yeCaaaBe  in Gerasimos's  hymn, which i s here revealed as being identical to  the middle portion of the phrase used by Kladas (Kladas A) f o r the same word.  EXAMPLE 28 Kkdas  A*  r elf crcif^i  I  Gerasi mos A . vC3/3J  7&y  In addition to the musical s i m i l a r i t i e s that occur at identical " points in the text, i t must be kept in mind that most of these phrases are also u t i l i z e d i n a modified form f o r various other text words.  Thus the  musical likeness i s even more substantial than that established by the preceding examples.  Moreover, this resemblance  not only crosses modal  boundaries but i t occurs at various levels of transposition within the d i f ferent modes.  The inescapable conclusion seems to be that the composers of  those Koinonika used, f o r the most part, a thesaurus of standard melodic formulae in the construction of t h e i r works. evidence adduced in the preceding paragraphs explanation.  Certainly the weight of the lends credence to no other  This procedure, however, never devolves into slavish copying;  rather i t permits the composer's inspiration to be exercised within certain established  parameters.  In his study of the 13th-century repertory of Koinonika Conomos suggested that i t i s quite conceivable  97.  . . .that the o r i g i n a l melodic f a b r i c of was a s i n g l e s y l l a b i c c h a n t s u i t a b l e f o r  t h i s psalmody congregational  use.111  It i s not possible at t h i s juncture to suggest that the 14th-century of Ewua xPT-crtou allow the same conclusion.  In f a c t , due to the  scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , we do not seek to propose t h i s . analysis has concentrated on various s p e c i f i c and r e a d i l y  settings  different  Rather, our  identifiable  s i m i l a r i t i e s on a more immediate s c a l e , and has not considered t h e i r r a m i f i c a tions in a macroscopic sense. do so.  To a large extent i t would be premature to  Not only have we dealt with a very l i m i t e d r e p e r t o i r e but i t seems  that our 14th-century composers had a somewhat more subjective conception of t h e i r task than did those of the previous century.  This increasing i n d i v i -  dualism, c l e a r l y concomitant with the i n t r o d u c t i o n s the Akolouthia in the 112  e a r l y 14th century, governs many facets of t h i s type of manuscript. Nevertheless, s u f f i c i e n t evidence has been brought to l i g h t to permit us to q u a l i f y the above statement and to suggest instead that t h i s  similarity  between the phrases of a l l eight s e t t i n g s , . . . i s more t h a n m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f b o r r o w i n g ; surely i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f common o r i g i n a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e r e t e n t i o n of a strong melodic-.tradition."'^ ^  A number of s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l features are u t i l i z e d c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout t h i s r e p e r t o i r e of Communion hymns.  It was suggested previously  that the second h a l f of the text verse (Trnyns deavdxou yevaaoQe) seems to  "'""''"'"Conomos,  "Communion C h a n t s , " p.  253.  112 Byzantine  S e e L e v y , " A Hymn f o r T h u r s d a y , " p p . 1 5 5 - 5 6 T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 37 a n d p . 4 4 . 113  Conomos,  "Communion C h a n t s , " p.  255.  and Conomos,  98.  function in a manner analagous to the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n i n other Koinonika. One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n i s that i t receives the bulk of the musical a t t e n t i o n .  invariably  The following table shows t h a t ,  114  with the exception of Kladas r,  t h i s purported r e f r a i n of Ecoua xpt°"tou  also receives a more elaborate musical treatment than the rest of the t e x t . In f a c t ,  in some cases the proportion of musical material  i s overwhelmingly  Proportion  of  Music  in  IX Text  and  'Refrain'  ,115  TEXT A t h e n s MS. 2458 V a t o p e d i . M S . 1 4 9 5 (TrdXlv) K o u t l o u m o u s i MS. 457 A t h e n s MS. 2622  Panaretos Moschianos Kladas T Kladas A Gavalos  V a t o p e d i , M S . 1 4 9 5 (TrdXiv) A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 -(TTCtXlv) A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 (TrdXiv) V i e n n a MS. 185 MS. 1495 Vatopedi  Gerasimos  Vatopedi•  M S . 1 4 9 5 (TfdXlV)  V i e n n a MS. 185 Vatopedi MS.  Doukas  'refrain'  greater. TABLE  Glykes  in the  1 4 9 5 (TTdXlV)  1  38% 27% 46%  REFRAIN'  116  62% 73% 54% 59% 71% 46% 81% 64% 68%  41% 29% 54% 19% 36% 32% 35% 28% 48% 33%  72% 52% 67%  1 1 7  114 the 106  possibility below.  of  T h e u n u s u a l u s e h e r e o f t h e w o r d Xeye s u g g e s t s , further unnotated repetitions of this r e f r a i n ,  however, see note  115 The p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h i s t a b l e a r e b a s e d on a n o t e count of both s e c t i o n s of the hymns. Moreover, t h i s table contains not only the m o d e l v e r s i o n s o f o u r hymn b u t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h o s e i n V a t o p e d i ; ; M S . 1 4 9 5 . In t h i s m a n u s c r i p t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e two s e c t i o n s a r e somewhat different due t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e r e f r a i n . Both here and i n other e x a m p l e s w h e r e t h i s r e p e t i t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e w o r d TrdXiv o r Xeye, these words have been i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n the table.  been  taken  into  "^The post-cadential account here.  material  (actual  or  presumed)  has  not  99.  Further support f o r t h i s suggested functionrof the phrase Trnyns  aeav&xou yeOaaaOe i s also evidenced by t h e u s e o f the words Xiye and -rrdAiv, two terms that are always associated with musical and/or textual  repetition.  In her study of the Koinonikon, TeOaaa0e, B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n noted that these d i r e c t i o n s occur p r i m a r i l y i n the A l l e l i a r e f r a i n .  118  S i m i l a r l y , i n our  c o l l e c t i o n of chants the two words c o n s i s t e n t l y appear in conjunction with t h i s l a t t e r phrase of the text and the only exception may be seen i n 119 Gerasimos's hymn. Even the s e t t i n g of the f i r s t word of t h i s phrase, Trnyns, implies the presence of a r e f r a i n .  Invariably a long melisma i s w r i t t e n to the  second s y l l a b l e of the word and with a few exceptions t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s the most extensive musical e f f u s i o n of the e n t i r e Koinonikon.  Only i n Kladas  r and in Gavalos's hymn does the word Trnyns generally receive a s y l l a b i c treatment, but even in the former case a moderate melismatic passage i s used f o r the f i r s t r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s word.  Such consistent musical em-  bellishment of the opening of t h i s s e c t i o n gives i t an improvisatory nature t h a t i s in c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the conservative text s e t t i n g usually 117  . .. T h i s second s e t o f f i g u r e s takes, i n t o account one a d d i t i o n a l r e p e t i t i o n o f the ' r e f r a i n ' as p r o v i d e d by t h e second ending i n t h i s manuscript. 118 Breslich-Erickson, "Communion Hymn," pp. 68-70. 119 In a d d i t i o n t o a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e r e f r a i n , Gerasimos uses t h e s e terms t o s p e c i f y a r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e phrase yeTa-ueTaAdfteTe.. The usage h e r e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , - s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e two words were used i n t e r changeably. I n V i e n n a MS. 185 t h e s c r i b e has used t h e word TrdA.lV t o i n t r o duce t h i s r e p e t i t i o n , whereas i n V a t o p e d i MS. 1495 the' word Aeye has been s u b s t i t u t e d a t t h e i d e n t i c a l p l a c e . Moreover, e l s e w h e r e . i n our r e p e r t o i r e t h e two words a r e g e n e r a l l y s e t t o s i m i l a r o r i d e n t i c a l m u s i c a l f i g u r e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e unique placement o f t h e word Aeye b e f o r e t h e r e f r a i n i n K l a d a s I" i s u n c l e a r , s i n c e o s t e n s i b l y i t does n o t d e s i g n a t e a m e l o d i c o r textual repetition. Moreover, i t i s m u s i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h e word TTdAiV used i n t h e r e f r a i n .  100.  employed elsewhere in the hymn.  Moreover, t h i s rhapsodic character not  only delineates our ' r e f r a i n ' from the preceding text but i s equivalent to the nature of most A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n s i n other Koinonika. One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g features of the design of a l l Koinonika in our r e p e r t o i r e i s the consistent r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the opening phrase of music towards the end of the chant.  This has been commented on  throughout the study and need only be mentioned b r i e f l y here. every case where t h i s r e i t e r a t i o n of the i n i t i a l  In nearly  phrase occurs, i t  associated with the f i n a l word of the t e x t , yevoaoQe.  is  Only in Kladas A  i s . t h i s word not set to a r e p e t i t i o n of the f i r s t phrase; instead the preceding word aQavmrou i s used.  The reason for the reappearance of t h i s  melodic material i s not r e a d i l y apparent.  It i s p o s s i b l e , of course, that  i t formed part of the t r a d i t i o n that was associated with the composition of t h i s Koinonikon.  In any case, i t provided the composer with a means  of f u l f i l l trig an elementary musical law, that of symmetry.  101.  CONCLUSIONS  This a n a l y t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l examination of the 14th-century Byzantine r e p e r t o i r e of Communion chant melodies f o r Easter allows a number of important conclusions. One aspect of t h i s study, which was undertaken as an i n v e s t i gation a n c i l l a r y to the main i n q u i r y , may conceivably have the greatest ramifications.  It  i s an excursus which o f f e r s by i t s r e s u l t s a t e n t a t i v e  redating of some seven Byzantine composers, based on the appearance of any of t h e i r Koinonika s e t t i n g s in the e a r l i e s t securely-dated A k o l o u t h i a i . At the very l e a s t t h i s chronology should f u r n i s h future studies of l a t e Byzantine hymnography with a more secure basis than has h i t h e r t o been the case. Equally s i g n i f i c a n t , but of a more immediate a p p l i c a t i o n to the Byzantine composers' s e t t i n g s of the antiphon  Eooya  c l u s i o n s reached with respect to the ' r e f r a i n . 1  XPICTOU, are the con-  From the evidence adduced  i n the course of t h i s study i t becomes c l e a r that the l a t t e r h a l f of our text i s equivalent to the musical and textual function performed by the A l l e l u i a r e f r a i n in other Communion chants.  C e r t a i n l y t h i s i s supported  by the meaning of the t e x t - p h r a s e , as i t i s eminently suited to serve as a unique Easter replacement of the more t r a d i t i o n a l A l l e l u i a .  Moreover, the  protracted musical development that i s associated with t h i s phrase permits no other l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , f o r i t follows the procedure used in the r e f r a i n of a l l other Koinonika.  102.  The eight musical settings that comprise our r e p e r t o i r e have been organized into three separate groups involving contemporaneous composers, thus providing a s p e c i f i c context f o r a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of comp o s i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y during the 14th century.  Within each of the groups a  close r e l a t i o n s h i p of music, text s e t t i n g , and structure i s evident.  In  f a c t , some of these f e a t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s t r u c t u r a l and musical ones, remain reasonably consistent in a l l of the composers' works.  It  was noted, for instance, that a musical r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s generally a l l o cated to the f i n a l word of the t e x t .  Only in one instance i s t h i s sup-  planted by a musical r e i t e r a t i o n that occurs on the penultimate word.  In  a d d i t i o n , the u t i l i z a t i o n of s i m i l a r musical phrases by most composers suggests the existence of a thesaurus of musical material as the basis of the compositional process.  Each composer n a t u r a l l y l e f t his own imprint  on the s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of such material but the musical consanguinity leaves l i t t l e doubt about the v e r a c i t y of such a c o n c l u s i o n . A number of f e a t u r e s , however, are used c o n s i s t e n t l y only within each of the three groups.  Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t of these i s the  use of standard openings by the f i r s t and l a s t groups of composers; one in Mode I Plagal and the other in Mode IV P l a g a l .  Such standard openings are  not merely reserved f o r the Easter Koinonikon but receive a wider a p p l i c a t i o n in the chants of the 14th century.  Text s e t t i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y  the  musical r o l e performed by s p e c i f i c text words, also remains reasonably constant within each group.  It becomes obvious, f o r example, that the e a r l y  composers have an equally conservative a t t i t u d e towards text s e t t i n g , and that the l a t e r composers a l l favour a somewhat more expansive neumatic and melismatic approach.  Even the use of post-cadential formulae seems to  103.  be determined by the c o n t i g u i t y of composers, f o r the nucleus of t h i s appendage r e f l e c t s both an e a r l y and l a t e usage. More important, though, i s a progressive develpment of most features of t h i s r e p e r t o i r e in the course of the 14th century.  Immediately  apparent i s the change in modal assignment of t h i s hymn as the century progresses, the o u t l i n e s of which are best i l l u s t r a t e d by the e a r l i e s t and l a t e s t groups.  Without exception the l a t e r composers s u b s t i t u t e Mode IV  Plagal where Mode I Plagal was used for the e a r l i e s t settings of t h i s t e x t . Aside from t h i s overt innovation, there i s also evidence of a progression in modal assignment during the 14th century that encompasses Mode III the Nana, and Mode II P l a g a l .  Authentic,  A gradual expansion of the o v e r a l l dimen-  sions of the eight versions i s also revealed.  This includes such elements  as the length of the s e t t i n g s , the increasing ambitus of the music, and the more frequent use of larger i n t e r v a l s in the melodies.  Once a g a i n , t h i s  change also a f f e c t s the post-cadential m a t e r i a l , which gradually becomes longer and more complex.  The l a t t e r t r a i t i s shown e s p e c i a l l y by i t s grow^  ing i n t e g r a t i o n into the musical f a b r i c of the s e t t i n g s , f o r the repeti-? t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t musical elements becomes f a r more apparent i n these appendages to the l a t e r hymns.  In conjunction with these developments the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between text and music also undergoes various a l t e r a t i o n s . This i s a somewhat more subtle evolution and i s revealed both by the l a t e r composers' greater i n t e r e s t in neumatic and melismatic t e x t s e t t i n g , and, e s p e c i a l l y , by the increasing use of words.  such  passages within  Although t h i s p r a c t i c e connotes a decrease i n textual  the  text  intelligibility,  i t seems, conversely, to be evidence of a greater concern with musical elaboration.  I n e v i t a b l y , t h i s concern i s also r e f l e c t e d in the increasing  104. structural  complexity of the s e t t i n g s .  As the century progresses the com-  posers are l e s s w i l l i n g to r e s t r i c t themselves to only a minimum of musical phrases f o r t h e i r settings and instead prefer a greater number of phrases, combining them in more complicated ways.  The e a r l i e r use of simple and  symmetrical form i s abrogated i n favour of gradually more i n t r i c a t e tures.  struc-  In s p i t e of t h i s a careful organization of the musical material  i s retained by a l l composers and the hymns never degenerate i n t o unconsidered musical e f f u s i o n s . In many respects the conclusions reached in the course of t h i s inquiry are n e c e s s a r i l y of a preliminary nature.  The musical idiom of the  l a t e Byzantine composers i s only gradually being understood and many lacunae s t i l l e x i s t in our knowledge of the 14th-century Byzantine musical s t y l e . Various questions have been recognized, addressed, and, in some instances, resolved.  More importantly, however, a number of s i g n i f i c a n t avenues  for future research have been adumbrated.  105  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Beck, Hans-George. Kirche und theologische L i t e r a t u r im byzantinischen Reich. Munich: Beck, 1959. B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , Helen. "The Communion Hymn of the Byzantine Liturgy of the P r e s a n c t i f i e d G i f t s . " In Studies in Eastern Chant I I I , pp. 51-73. Edited by Milos V e l i m i r o v i c . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Conomos, D i m i t r i E. Byzantine T r i s a g i a and Cheroubika of the Fourteenth and F i f t e e n t h Centures. A Study of Late Byzantine L i t u r g i c a l Chant. T h e s s a l o n i k i : P a t r i a r c h a l I n s t i t u t e f o r P a t r i s t i c Studi 1974. . "Communion Chants in Magna Graecia and Byzantium." Journal of the American Musicological Society XXXIII (Summer 1980): 241-263. ~ 'Psalmody and the Communion C y c l e . " S t . Theological Quarterly 25 (1981): 35-62, 95T122. Devai, G.  Vladimir's  "The Musical Study of Koukouzeles i n a 14th Century Manuscript. Acta Antigua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae VI (Budapest, 1958) 213-235.  F l o r o s , Constantin. "Die Entzifferung der Kondakarien-Notation ( I I ) . " In Musik des Ostens, v o l . 4 , pp. 12-44. Edited by Elmar Arro and F r i t z Feldmann. Kassel: B a r e n r e i t e r - V e r l a g , 1967. Haas, Max.  Byzantinische und Slavische Notation. 1973.  Koln:  Arno Volk-Verlag  Hannick, C h r i s t i a n . "Etude sur 1 'dKoAouexa aauaTiKfi." Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen B y z a n t i n i s t i k 19'(1970); 243-260. H a r r i s , Simon. "The Communion Chants i n Thirteenth-Century Byzantine Musical Manuscripts." In Studies in Eastern Chant I I , pp. 51-67 Edited by Milos V e l i m i r o v i c , London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971.  106.  Laurent, V. "La Chronologie des Patriarches de Constantinople de l a premiere moitie du Xive s i e c l e (1294-1350)." Revue des Etudes Byzantines VII (1949): 145-155. Levy, Kenneth. "A Hymn for Thursday in Holy Week." Journal of the American Musi col ogical -Society XVI (Summer 1963): 127-175. —. "The Byzantine Communion Cycle and i t s S l a v i c Counterpart." In Actes du X l l e Congres International d'Etudes Byzantines, Ochride 1961 I I , pp. 571-574. Belgrade: 1964. —  —. "The Music of the Byzantine R i t e . " In The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , v o l . 3, pp. 553-566. Edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan & C o . , 1980.  Mary, Mother, and Ware, K a l l i s t o s . Faber, 1969.  The Festal Menaion.  London:  Faber and  P a t r i n e l i s , C h r i s t o s . " P r o t o p s a l t a e , Lampadarii, and Domestikoi of the Great Church during the post-Byzantine Period (1453-1821)." In Studies in Eastern Chant I I I , pp. 141-170. Edited by Milos Velimirovic". London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Raasted, Jorgen. Intonation Formulas and Modal Signatures in Byzantine Musical Manuscripts. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, Se>ie subsidia VII. Copenhagen: 1966. Strunk, O l i v e r . "Intonations and Signatures of the Byzantine Modes." In Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, pp. 19-36. New York: W.W. Norton & C o . , 1977. . "The Antiphons of the Oktoechos." In Essays on Music i n the Byzantine World, pp. 165-190. New York: W.W. Norton & C o . , 1977. . "The Byzantine Office at Hagia Sophia." In Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, pp. 112-150. New York: W.W. Norton & C o . , 1977. van Groningen, B.A. Short Manual of Greek Paleography. Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1963.  3 d . e d . , rev.  Velimirovic", M i l o s . "Byzantine Composers in the MS. Athens 2406." In Essays Presented to* Egon Wellesz, pp. 7-18. Edited by Jack Westrup. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.  107. Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church, Penguin Books, 1980.  rev. e d . , Harmondsworth, Middlesex:  Wellesz, Egon. A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.  2d e d . , rev.  W i l l i a m s , Edward Vinson. "John Koukouzeles' Reform of Byzantine Chanting for Great Vespers in the Fourteenth Century." Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e , 1968. — —. "The Kalophonic T r a d i t i o n and Chants f o r the Polyeleos Psalm 134." In Studies in Eastern Chant IV, pp. 228241. Edited by Milos V e l i m i r o v i c . Crestwood, New York: S t . V l a d i m i r ' s Seminary Press, 1979. •——— . "The Treatment of Text i n the Kalophonic Chanting of Psalm 2 . " In Studies in Eastern Chant I I , pp. 173-193. Edited by Milos Velimirovic*. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Germany 17 31
United States 13 7
China 9 32
Romania 3 1
Russia 2 1
Italy 1 3
Canada 1 0
Japan 1 1
City Views Downloads
Unknown 19 44
Shenzhen 9 32
Ashburn 8 1
Iași 3 0
Terlizzi 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Follansbee 1 0
Mountain View 1 2
Saint Petersburg 1 0
Burbank 1 0
San Jose 1 0
Tokyo 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095371/manifest

Comment

Related Items