Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Byzantine communion chant for Easter in 14th-century manuscripts 1982

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1982_A8 L64.pdf [ 5.58MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0095371.json
JSON-LD: 1.0095371+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0095371.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0095371+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0095371+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0095371+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0095371.ris

Full Text

THE BYZANTINE COMMUNION CHANT FOR EASTER IN 14TH-CENTURY MANUSCRIPTS by HORST BERNHARD LOESCHMANN B. Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1982 © H o r s t Bernhard Loeschmann, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of M i s i n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 18, 1982 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT It i s only recent ly that the at tent ion of musicologists has been directed to the study of Eastern church music as transmitted in 14th and 15th-century Byzantine manuscripts. This const i tutes a reversal of the prejudices held by most pioneers in the d i s c i p l i n e , who believed that the musical oeuvre of the la te Byzantine empire was only a p a l l i d re f l ec t i on of a once magnificent s t y l e , and was, therefore, unworthy of deta i led examina- t i o n . In i t s support of the current reassessment of the late Byzantine musical s t y l e , th is study shows that , in sp i te of the decl in ing fortunes of the empire, the composers of that time fashioned a v i t a l and dist inguished culmination to a mil lenium of l i t u r g i c a l composition. The thesis is l imi ted to a c lea r l y d iscern ib le ent i ty wi thin the 14th-century reper to i re : the Easter Koinonikon, or Communion chant, Euiua xPT-crxou, a hymn conveyed by at least fourteen manuscripts representing the works of some seven composers. The eight sett ings considered here comprise the ent i re 14th-century co l l ec t i on of th is chant that has survived the v ic i ss i tudes of time. The method of invest igat ion i s both h i s to r i ca l and a n a l y t i c a l . Its resu l ts reveal a h i therto unsuspected degree of consanguinity among the musical materials of a l l seven composers, one which i s del ineated by the establishment of three d i s t i n c t sub-groupings. These, in tu rn , fur ther emphasize the presence of a known thesaurus of musical elements. A s im i - l a r i t y of various compositional procedures also becomes evident. The most i i i . s i gn i f i can t of these i s the use of a re f ra in that i s analagous to the A l l e l u i a re f ra in which occurs in most other Communion hymns. There a re , na tu ra l l y , a number of s t y l i s t i c di f ferences that appear in the wri t ten t rad i t i on during the course of the century,.and these re f l ec t a gradual evolut ion of the composers' idiom. Of par t i cu la r in terest to future studies is the development of a tentat ive chronology for these seven composers, since in many cases th is supersedes the i r current ly accepted dat ing. Most important ly, however, i s the fact that th is study focusses at tent ion and sheds new l i gh t on a neglected area of Byzantine music h i s to ry , and indicates the need for continuing research in th is f i e l d . i v . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 SOURCE MATERIAL 6 TEXT 22 COMPOSERS 32 MUSIC 43 SUMMARY: A. Changes 72 B. Stas is 87 CONCLUSIONS 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 V. L I S T OF TABLES Table Page I L i s t of Primary Manuscripts Consulted 4 II Average Frequency of Text-Phrase Endings Coincident with Musical Cadences 23 III Average Text-Element Repeti t ion 24 IV Ea r l i es t MSS that Contain Any Koinonika by Each Composer 34 V Ordering of Sett ings of Ewya xpi°"rou in MSS 39 VI Modal Assignment of Ecoya xpicnrou in Securely-Dated MSS 40 VII Length of Ewya xpi-°"rou Melodies 73 VIII Interval Usage in Percentages , 76 IX Proportion of Music in Text and ''Re'frain-' 98: v i . L I S T OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 : Refrain Repeti t ion in Gerasimos's Sett ing 18 2 Text Para l le l i sm in Glyke's TevoaoQe and £ooua xP^a^ov 28 3 Changing Ambitus in Suya XPT- 0" 1^ 75 vi i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I should l i k e to express a deep sense of o b l i g a t i o n to a l l who have helped me in t h i s research. Dr. D i m i t r i Conomos spawned my i n t e r e s t i n Byzantine musicology, and has ass i d u o u s l y nurtured i t through the course of a number of years. I am thankful to him f o r suggesting t h i s t o p i c , and f o r h i s encouragement and i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e during my t r a v a i l s o f a sometimes f o r b i d d i n g , o c c a s i o n a l l y even vexatious, t e r r i t o r y . To my parents I am g r e a t l y indebted. They have c o n s t a n t l y o f f e r e d t h e i r support to my academic endeavours, and have u n s t i n t i n g l y helped me in innumerable ways. Above a l l , my wi f e , Diana, has a s s i s t e d i n c a l c u l a b l y a t a l l stages o f t h i s t h e s i s ; the e d i t i n g and typing of the f i r s t d r a f t s i g n a l s but two major instances. More importantly, though, her devotion and unceasing love were an inestimable support. Without her t h i s t h e s i s would not.have m a t e r i a l i z e d . To a l l the above, and to many other f r i e n d s who o f f e r e d a mul- t i t u d e of kindnesses, I can do no be t t e r than to p r o f f e r the s a l u t a t i o n of the Byzantine polychronion: A 6 £ a 6 e a > xui 6o£aaowxi ae OUTCQS. A6§a 9eu xw euSoKiiaavxi ouxws ... ItoAAou vp\v xpovoi of 6epcarovT£s xou Kupxou. 1. INTRODUCTION For the past two decades musical scholars have devoted increasing attent ion to the vast amount of l i t u r g i c a l music composed in the f i na l century and a hal f of the Byzantine Empire (1300-1450). The pioneers in the d i sc i p l i ne of Byzantine musicology general ly eschewed th is reper- t o i r e , for they considered i t a v i t i a ted and super f i c ia l re f l ec t ion of ' c l a s s i c a l ' Byzantine music and hymnographyJ A reassessment of the pro- digious musical output that manifests i t s e l f in the decl in ing years of the Empire has gradual ly taken p lace, however, and has revealed th is period as const i tu t ing a v i t a l and dist inguished culmination of a millenium of l i t u r g i c a l composition. The present study focusses on an example of one of the s ign i f i can t groups of chants for the Divine Li turgy in the.East as transmitted by 14th- century musical manuscripts — the Communion antiphon, Ztoucx. XP^TOU. The Communion hymn, or Koinonikon, comprises the largest body of proper psalmody that i s used in the Mass of the Orthodox Church, and consists of a cycle of twenty-six t ex t s , each of which i s a l located to one or more occasions in the l i t u r g i c a l year. This co l l ec t i on re f l ec ts a usage that was f u l l y developed at least by the 11th century, but which can, in f ac t , be traced back to the 9th century, as re f lec t ions of i t s existence can be "*"Egon W e l l e s z d i s p a r a g e d t h i s r e p e r t o i r e a s " . . . t h e r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l c o l o r a t u r a s t y l e o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h a n d f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . " S u c h d e p r e c a t i o n i s n o t u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f m o s t e a r l y s c h o l a r s i n t h e f i e l d . E g o n W e l l e s z , A H i s t o r y o f B y z a n t i n e M u s i c a n d H y m n o g r a p h y , 2 d e d . , r e v . ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 2 3 . 2. seen in the Patmos and Holy Cross typika. As with many of the major hymns in the Byzantine Rite, the Koinonikon i s used to o cover a l i t u r g i c a l action. After the Elevation=and fraction of the Consecrated G i f t s , the priest intones the words "Holy things for the holy," and the congregation responds with the chant "One is holy. . ." Following t h i s , the clergy 3 receive Communion while the choir sings the Communion antiphon.. The antiphon Etoua XPT-°"TOO i s used as the proper Koinonikon for Easter. Its connection with t h i s feast i s c l e a r l y an old t r a d i t i o n , as i t is without exception specified by a l l l i t u r g i c a l ordos from Constantinople. The text of th i s hymn i s one of only two non-scriptural Koinonika, and as 5 such the customary pendant A l l e l u i a i s omitted: Eooua xPT-0"rou u e x a A a B e T e Trnyns a B a v a x o u yetioaoQe ("Partake of the body of Christ, taste the source of immortality") It must also be noted:, however, that in addition to the use of this hymn for the Communion of the clergy at Easter, i t also seems to have D i m i t r i Conomos, "Communion Chants i n Magna Graecia and Byzantium," JAMS XXXIII (Summer 1980): 24-3; also see idem, "Psalmody and the Communion Cycle," St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 25 (1981): 4-7-48. The Typikon ( T U T T l K O V ) i s a l i t u r g i c a l book which contains the Rule f o r the Service of a l l L i t u r g i e s and Of f i c e s f o r the ent i r e church year. 3 Mother Mary and K a l l i s t o s Ware, The F e s t a l Menaion (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), p. 80. 14. Conomos, "Psalmody and the Communion Cycle," p. 113. The Jerusalem ordo of 1122, and the somewhat e a r l i e r P a l e s t i n i a n p r a c t i c e as r e f l e c t e d i n a Georgian l e c t i o n a r y , both contribute unique exceptions to t h i s p r e s c r i p t i o n ( i b i d . , pp. 114—16). Neither of these practices,however, i s contained i n any of the musical MSS under consideration. 5 The other non- s c r i p t u r a l Koinonikon i s the troparion T o u 6£lTTVOU OOU f o r Holy Thursday. 3. been used regular ly throughout the l i t u r g i c a l year during the Communion of the f a i t h f u l . Currently th is i s s t i l l common pract ice in the Greek and S lav ic churches, and on occasion Too Seiirvou aou is also chanted for the same purpose. This usage, which const i tutes an unwritten convention, may in a l l l i ke l i hood be dated to the 12th century. L i t u rg i ca l documents up to that time indicate that in both Eastern and Western r i t es the Communion hymn was general ly used during the people's Communion. It was only sometime during that century that the Koinonikon was transferred to i t s customary loca- t ion at the Communion of the c le rgy ; as i f to compensate for t h i s , a t r a d i - t ion of using Exoya x P T - a ^ 0 U f ° r the Communion of the l a i t y during most l i t u r g i e s evolved. Cer ta in ly th is pract ice i s eminently suited to theo- log ica l precepts, f o r , as Helen Bres l ich-Er ickson has pointed out, every Sunday may be considered as a ' sma l l ' Easter. A to ta l of fourteen manuscripts have been u t i l i z e d as the primary source material fo r th is study. A l l of these represent a new type of musical codex that appears with increasing frequency during the 14th and 15th centur ies. These manuscripts, usual ly ca l led Ako lou th ia i , or Orders of Serv ice, cons t i tu te , as Kenneth Levy has noted, a f i r s t attempt to es tab l ish in a s ing le co l l ec t i on an anthology containing the bulk of the musical chants for the Byzantine r i t e . ^ In the i r contents these Akolouthiai sup- planted the e a r l i e r books known as Psal t ikon and Asmatikon, the former of H e l e n B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " T h e C o m m u n i o n Hymn o f t h e B y z a n t i n e L i t u r g y o f t h e P r e s a n c t i f i e d G i f t s , " i n S t u d i e s i n E a s t e r n C h a n t I I I , e d . M i l o s V e l i m i r o v i c ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 6 4 , n . 3 7 . 7 T h e f u n d a m e n t a l s t u d y b y K e n n e t h L e v y p r o v i d e s a n e x c e l l e n t e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e g e n e s i s a n d c o n t e n t s o f t h i s c l a s s o f M S . S e e " A Hymn f o r T h u r s d a y i n H o l y W e e k , " J A M S X V I (Summer 1 9 6 3 ) : 1 5 4 - 5 7 . S e e a l s o O l i v e r S t r u n k , " T h e A n t i p h o n s o f t h e O k t o e c h o s , " i n E s s a y s o n M u s i c i n t h e B y z a n t i n e W o r l d (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n £ C o . , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 1 7 0 - 7 2 . which contained extremely elaborate chants used only by s k i l l e d so lo i s t s and the l a t te r comprised a co l l ec t i on of melismatic choral chants. Included in these new Akolouthiai is not only most of the proper and ordinary psalmody, but also some of the ordinary hymns for the services of Vespers, Mat ins, and 8 the three Divine L i t u rg ies . The fol lowing 14th-century manuscripts which transmit the Koinonikon Eaiya x p x a x o u were consulted. TABLE I L i s t of Primary Manuscripts Consulted A. Dated Manuscripts from the 14-th Century Athens MS. 2458 1336 Athens MS. 2622 — 1341-ca. 1360 „ Ambrosiana MS.L. 36 sup. (gr. 476) — 1 3 4 1 - c a . 1360 Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11 sup. (gr. 665) — ca. 1360-1385 Koutloumousi MS. 4-57 — ca. 1360-1385 Vatopedi MS. 14-95 — ca. 1360-1385 1 0 ,, Vienna MS. theol. gr. 185 — ca. 1385-1391 B. Undated Manuscripts from the 14th Century Athens MS. .2600 Athens MS. 904 Athens MS. 2454 Athens MS. 2411 S i n a i MS. 1294. S i n a i MS. 1462 Taphos MS. 425 The contents of a representative 14th-century Akolouthiai ( i n t h i s case, Vienna MS. th e o l . gr. 185) are given i n C h r i s t i a n Hannick, "Etude sur l'&KoAouOia aauaTiKf)," i n Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen B y z a n t i n i s t i k 19 (1970): 245-46. For purposes of convenience t h i s and the following MS w i l l hereafter be c i t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as Ambrosiana MS. L. 36, and Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11. " " "^Only A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 may b e p r e c i s e l y d a t e d b y i t s c o l o p h o n . T h e f i v e f o l l o w i n g MSS a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y d a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p o l y c h r o n i a ( a c c l a m a t i o n s ) w h i c h r e f e r t o A n n e o f S a v o y ( r e i g n e d 1 3 4 1 t o c a . 1 3 6 0 ) o r A n d r o n i c u s I V ( r e i g n e d c a . 1 3 6 0 t o 1 3 8 5 ) . S e e S t r u n k , " A n t i p h o n s o f t h e O k t o e c h o s , " p p . 1 7 0 - 7 1 . " ' " " ' " H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 . T h i s MS i s u s u a l l y d a t e d a s c i t e d h e r e . S e e D i m i t r i E . C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h a n d F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s . A S t u d y o f L a t e B y z a n t i n e L i t u r g i c a l C h a n t ( T h e s s a l o n i k i : P a t r i a r c h a l I n s t i t u t e f o r P a t r i s t i c S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 47 a n d p . 5 3 . B u t H a n n i c k s u g g e s t s 1 3 7 9 t o 1 3 9 1 i n s t e a d ( s e e H a n n i c k , " E t u d e , " p . 2 4 5 ) . 12 T h e s e t h r e e A t h e n s MSS a r e s u m m a r i l y d a t e d a s m C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 4 8 . A t h e n s MS 9 0 4 , h o w e v e r , a l s o c o n t a i n s some 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c t h a t w a s a d d e d l a t e r b y a s e c o n d s c r i b e ( s e e i b i d . , p . 4 8 , n . 3 0 ) , A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 , T a p h o s M S . 4 2 5 , a n d t h e t w o S i n a i MSS h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y b y C o n o m o s . 6. SOURCE MATERIAL Some eight d i f fe rent musical set t ings of the Communion hymn E u u a xpT-tfTou are transmitted in 14th-century Byzantine musical manuscripts. Most of the fourteen manuscripts consulted (see Table I) provide only a s ingle set t ing of th is tex t , but f i ve of the sources give mul t ip le vers ions. The fo l lowing seven composers are represented: Ioannes Glykes; Konstantinos Moschianos; Ioannes Kladas; Ph i l i p Gavalos; Ioannes Doukas; Gerasimos hieromonachos; George Panaretos. Each of these composers i s credi ted with one set t ing except for Kladas, to whom two are ascr ibed. The set t ing of Iwua xPi-o"rou at t r ibuted to Glykes seems to have been by far the most popular vers ion. It appears at least once — sometimes 15 twice — in twelve of the manuscripts that contain the Easter Communion hymn (a to ta l of fourteen instances). The verson by Moschianos i s a d is tant second with a tota l of f i ve example in four manuscripts. Each of the re- maining composers i s represented in one, or occasional ly two, manuscripts. Glykes's set t ing i s in one respect somewhat problemat ical . The twelve manuscripts are in considerable disagreement about the modal l t +See Table V below. The remaining two, Athens MS. 2411 and Athens MS. 904, contain only a version by Kladas. 7. designation for the fourteen versions of th is hymn, as a to ta l of four d i f ferent modes are spec i f i ed , The d i s t r i bu t i on i s as fo l lows: Athens MS. 2458 f o l . 169 Ambrosiana MS. L. 36 f o l . 264 v Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 285 r 1 Athens MS. 2600 f o l . 63 v S i n a i MS. 1294 f o l . 167 r 16 17 Mode I Plagal. r e q u i r i n g an f s t a r t Athens MS. 2622 f o l . 360 r Ambrosiana MS. Q. 11 f o l . 2611 Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 217 r Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 217 v Mode III Authentic, r e q u i r i n g a c_ or possibly an a s t a r t S i n a i MS. 1462 f o l . 149 contains a double main signa- ture of which the f i r s t group i s not completely l e g i b l e . Most l i k e l y , however, i t denotes e i t h e r Mode I Plagal or Mode III Authentic. The second group s p e c i f i e s the Nana mode (2Z ) that requires a s t a r t on c. Athens MS. 2454 f o l . 42 Taphos MS. 425 f o l . 152 r 18 Koutloumousi MS. 457 f o l . Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 268 r 232 Mode II Pl a g a l , r e - quiring a g_ s t a r t i - - 19 Nana mode (22 ), req u i r i n g a a g s t a r t or 16 The signature i s i n d i s t i n c t i n the microfilm, but t h i s seems most l i k e l y . 17 Although the signature here i s reckoned from d_ the opening neume of the hymn i s an ascending t h i r d , which compensates f o r the modal signature and thus requires a s t a r t on f_. 18 The signature i s not e n t i r e l y v i s i b l e i n the microfilm but t h i s i s most probable. 19 The Nana (mesos tetartos. or Mode IV Medial) i s one of two medial modes commonly used during t h i s period. It i s polyvalent and appears i n our r e p e r t o i r e i n conjunction with Mode III Authentic (it , see S i n a i MS. 1462 f o l . 149 r) and Mode IV Plagal (If , see Koutloumousi MS. 457 f o l . 232 v and Vienna MS. 185 f o l . 268 r). Constantin Floros has suggested ". . .dass der Mesos te t a r t o s gewissermassen eine M i t t e l s t e l l u n g zwischen dem IV. authentischen und dem IV. plagalen Echos einnimmt. und an beiden t e i l h a t , ausserdem dass der I I I . authentische und der IV. mediale Echos s i c h annahern oder gar i n mancher Hinsicht angleichen. . ." Constantin Floros, "Die Entzifferung der Kondakarien-Notation ( I I ) , " i n Musik des Ostens IV, ed. Elmar Arro and F r i t z Feldmann (Kassel: Barenreiter Verlag, 1967), p. 26. 8. On the basis of the preceding tabulat ion one would.* have to assume that at least three d i f fe rent p i tch leve ls could be u t i l i z e d for the s ta r t of th is composition, two of which (f and cj predominate. This assumption seems to be ve r i f i ed by two 15th-century manuscripts, Athens MS. 2406 and Iviron MS. 1120, both of which provide two main signatures for th is hymn: Mode I Plagal (nx.fTX.a') and Nana (?z ). As a resu l t of dupl icate neumation such double martyr iai in 14th and 15th-century manuscripts invar iab ly i n d i - cate progression from the.same pi tch and seem to have only a confirmatory 21 funct ion. In th is case, however, the fo l lowing neumes do not resolve the dichotomy and merely provide the opening that i s common to a l l of our 14th- 22 century versions :£Vrs . It seems probable then, that during the 14th century both Mode I Plagal and Mode III Authentic (or the Nana) were customari ly used for th is hymn. Moreover, i t i s in terest ing to note that th is disagreement, which resul ted in at least a bi-modal t r a d i t i o n , i s already evident in our two e a r l i e s t sources (Athens MS. 2458 and the v i r t u a l l y contemporaneous 23 Athens MS. 2622), and is then continued throughout the 14th century. 20 R e s p e c t i v e l y , A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 ( ' 1 4 5 3 ' ) f o l . 2 8 9 Y , a n d I v i r o n M S . 1 1 2 0 ( ' 1 4 5 8 ' ) f o l . 5 8 3 r . A l s o , a s w a s i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 c o n t a i n s t h e - i d e n t i c a l d o u b l e s i g n a t u r e . 2 1 S e e C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p p . 3 1 8 - 1 9 , who c i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e i n w h i c h t h e t w o d i f f e r e n t m a i n s i g n a t u r e t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t n e u m e s i n d i c a t e a n i d e n t i c a l s t a r t o n d.: 22 T h e o n l y m i n o r e x c e p t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e o p e n i n g i n S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 4 r e f e r r e d t o i n n . 17 a b o v e . 23 T h e t w o v e r s i o n s i n V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 . a d d s u p p o r t t o t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n Mode I P l a g a l a n d t h e N a n a t h e y r e q u i r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a n f_ a n d a £ s t a r t . T h e u s e o f Mode I I P l a g a l i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 a n d T a p h o s M S . 4 2 5 i s s o m e w h a t m o r e d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t s a l o c a l v a r i a n t , a n d i n t h e c a s e o f . A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 t h i s i s n o t a n u n u s u a l d i v e r g e n c e f r o m t h e c o n s e n s u s o f o t h e r M S S . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 i s t h e o n l y o n e o f n i n e 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y MSS w h i c h a s s i g n s t h e TTaAcaov ( " o l d " ) s e t t i n g o f TeOaaaGe t o Mode I P l a g a l , i n s t e a d o f t o Mode I I P l a g a l . TstioaoQe i s t h e C o m m u n i o n v e r s e f o r t h e P r e s a n c t i f i e d " l i t u r g y . 9. For the purposes of th is study preference has been given to the version in Athens MS. 2458 while other versions have been consulted when necessary. Athens MS. 2458 i s not only the e a r l i e s t Akolouthiai that can be dated pre- c i s e l y ( '1336') but in most instances i t a lso seems to es tab l ish or to fol low 24 the modal designation of the majority of 14th-century manuscripts and i t s transmissions are seldom d is tor ted by sc r iba l er rors . In add i t i on , the choice of Mode I Plagal i s in accordance with the e a r l i e s t musical sources 25 that transmit the Ecoua x P i - a T 0 U ' The th i r teen remaining transmissions general ly fo l low Athens MS. 2458 but they do d isplay a number of melodic var iants . Such var iants usual ly const i tute only minor a l te ra t ions to the melodic f a b r i c and comprise both f igura l expansion and contract ion. Cer ta in ly a cursory examination of these changes supports the conclusion reached by Dimi t r i Conomos, who notes that . . . m e l o d i c o r n a m e n t a t i o n s h o u l d n o t b e v i e w e d a s e v i d e n c e e i t h e r f o r s t y l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , o r f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n . . . ? ^ Thus in the fo l lowing comparison of two excerpts from Athens MS. 2458 ( f o l . 169 r) and Vienna MS. 185 ( f o l . 285 r ) , the la te r manuscript contains in one case a s imp l i f i ca t i on and, in the other instance, an elaborat ion of our e a r l i e s t source. 2 4 A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 a l s o c o n t a i n s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h r e e s e t t i n g s o f FeuaaaOe, a n d i n e a c h c a s e t h e s e K o i n o n i k a a g r e e i n t h e i r m o d a l d e s i g n a t i o n w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y s o u r c e s . 25 C o n o m o s , " P s a l m o d y a n d t h e C o m m u n i o n C y c l e , " p . 1 1 6 . 26 C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 1 5 0 . 10. EXAMPLE 1 Somewhat more substant ia l di f ferences also occur in a few manuscripts but 27 the melodic out l ine i s , nevertheless, always c lea r l y sustained. There are in addi t ion a few other discrepancies among the various sources that need to be dealt with here. The set t ing in Athens MS. 2454 i s , as we have seen, assigned to Mode II P laga l , but immediately preceding the phrase imyns aGavaxou there i s found a medial signature of the Nana mode, as fo l lows : [uexaAaBexe] TTnCyns] None of the other 14th-century versions contains a medial signature at th is point and therefore the s ta r t ing note of the new phrase — always an ison — is natura l ly reckoned from the end of the preceding phrase. In th is instance, however, the medial signature seems to suggest a s tar t ing note a th i rd higher (on c_), rather than the same pi tch as the previous ending (a_). There does not appear to be a rat ional explanation for the use of th is s ignature, and i t must be assumed that th is anomaly i s due to a ' Such changes invariably appear i n the music accompanying the phrase Trnyns aOavaxoU. 11. sc r iba l e r r o r / 0 Otherwise, i t could possibly mean that the Nana mode has a s tar t ing note of a_ in addi t ion to the customary c, but th i s i s highly un l i ke ly . The f i r s t of the two versions of th is hymn in Vatopedi MS. 1495 ( f o l . 217 r) i s the only example in the 14th-century reperto i re which expands th is piece with a complete repet i t ion of the phrase imyns &8avaTou and i t s music. However, a diastematic t ranscr ip t ion of the f i na l phrase shows an incongruity which i s again probably the resu l t of a sc r iba l e r ror . The fo l lowing correct ion (marked by an as ter isk) resu l ts in the r igh t f i na l i s for th is version and accords with our other sources. E X A M P L E 2 A fur ther d i s to r t i on that must be at t r ibuted to sc r iba l error occurs in Sinai MS. 1294. The i n i t i a l c i t a t i on of yevoaoQe i s given a descending th i rd on the second s y l l a b l e , as opposed to the customary 28 A ' q u e s t i o n a b l e m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e a l s o a p p e a r s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 4 i n a n u m b e r o f o t h e r i n s t a n c e s . I n f a c t , C o n o m o s , i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f m o d a l s i g n a t u r e s , c i t e s A t h e n s ' M S . 2 4 5 4 a s o n e o f t h e f e w MSS . . w h i c h c o n t a i n s i n e x p l i c a b l e m a r t y r i a i . S e e C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 3 2 0 . 12. descending four th. This has been corrected in order to achieve agreement with the other vers ions. E X A M P L E 3 The f i ve versions of Moschianos's arrangement demonstrate a s im i la r disagreement concerning modal designat ion. However, only two modes are spec i f ied here, Mode I Plagal and Mode II P laga l . A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 f o l . 3 6 0 V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 8 5 r A m b r o s i a n a M S . Q . 1 1 f o l . 2 6 1 v V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 7 v V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 6 8 * 1 Mode I P l a g a l , r e q u i r i n g a d s t a r t Mode I I P l a g a l , r e q u i r i n g a n e_ s t a r t Once again a l l ind icat ions seem to suggest that th is set t ing by Moschianos was not res t r i c ted to a s ingle mode. Pa r t i cu l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , of course, is the fact that Vienna MS. 185 contains both vers ions, one in each mode. Moreover, i f we look to la te r manuscripts i t becomes apparent that th is dichotomy remains unresolved, for a l l versions fol low the t rad i t i on 13. 29 of u t i l i z i n g e i ther Mode I Plagal or Mode II P laga l . The verson in Athens MS. 2622 i s the oldest at our disposal and i t has been used as our primary source. Aside from Vatopedi MS. 1495, the remaining examples fo l low Athens MS. 2622 quite c lose l y . Vatopedi MS. 1495 once again spec i f ies a repet i t ion of the phrase •mryns aGavaxou with- i t s ent i re music, and also contains some more substantive deviat ions from our model. The changes, however, a f fect only inc iden ta l l y the melodic out l ine of th is vers ion. This ambiguity in modal designation does not r ea l l y present a problem for the remaining versions of Swua xpiaxou, pa r t i cu la r l y since most of them are found only in one or two manuscripts. Two versions at t r ibuted to Kladas are contained in the 14th-century reper to i re , one of these being transmitted by two manuscripts: v30 A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 f o l . 2 6 8 Mode I V P l a g a l , r e q u i r i n g a g s t a r t , a n d N a n a 31 A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 f o l . 5 7 2 r Mode I V P l a g a l 29 . . . . . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f t w o d i s t i n c t i v e m a i n s i g - n a t u r e s i s , i n t w o M S S , c o n f i r m e d b y t h e m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e s . T h u s V i e n n a • r A *•» L. "MS." 1 8 5 " f o l - . 2 8 5 ( t rg , ' ) c o n t a i n s a m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e o f g " ..at t h e i d e n t i c a l p o i n t w h e r e V l a t a d o n M S . 46 ( ' 1 5 9 1 ' ) . f o l . 1 0 9 r ( j ry ) g i v e s a c o m p a r a b l e m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e o f y ' . 30 ~ ~ S i n c e t h i s Etoua X P i a T 0 U m e l o d y a p p e a r s a n o n y m o u s l y i n A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 , t h e a t t r i b u t i o n h a s b e e n r e s t o r e d b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 a n d l a t e r 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y M S S . M o r e o v e r , d u e t o t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f t h e m i c r o f i l m o f A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 ( a l s o t h e M S ? ) , A t h e n s M S . 8 9 9 f o l . 1 4 9 r v a n d A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 f o l . 2 8 7 w e r e u s e d t o r e s t o r e o b s c u r e o r i l l e g i b l e p a s s a g e s . 3 1 A m i c r o f i l m o f t h i s MS w a s u n a v a i l a b l e t o m e , b u t o n a r e c e n t t r i p t o A t h e n s D . C o n o m o s k i n d l y c o p i e d t h i s K o i n o n i k o n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l MS i n t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , a n d I am p l e a s e d t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h i s a s s i s t a n c e . 14. In th is case the explanation for the use of the double martyr ia i in Athens MS. 904 is quite simple and may be found in Athens MS. 2411. There the scr ibe has only wr i t ten the signature for Mode IV Plagal but has added the rubr ic ". . .KCU T p i x o s " (= "and in Mode I I I " ) , ind icat ing that the piece belongs not only to Mode IV P laga l . The t rans i t i on into the Nana form of Mode III i s shown by the medial signature *zz which appears af ter the "irdX.iv" (= "repeat," "again") ( l ine 5 ) , and.precedes the repet i t ion of irrryns a8avaxou. Moreover, an examination of th is hymn shows that a modulation from Mode IV Plagal to the Nana mode has already occurred in l i ne 2, for immediately before the f i r s t appearance of the word irriYns, the scr ibe has inserted a phthora requir ing a modulation,to Mode III Authentic. This modulation, - which i s evident from the musical context as w e l l , i s also s i gn i f i ed by the same phthora in Athens MS. 904, but where Athens MS. 2411 spec i f ied a Nana medial signature af ter the irdXiv, Athens MS. 904 indicates a medial signature of Mode IV P laga l . E X A M P L E 4- a »-iB ^ = 5 s - * — A >^-~ " w sw • m m * W ~£ pft m m f m , m 0 f • f m i* ' IS U E- A I s * , m. - m f m *V »' «Tj r LET Lf L —X ~ \ 11 Tfrj 77s S e e n . 32 b e l o w . A l t h o u g h t h i s s h o u l d p r e s u m a b l y b e t r a n s c r i b e d a s a n o c t a v e , t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s , / i n d i c a t i o n s i n 1 4 t h a n d 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS t h a t t h e r e w a s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r v a l s l a r g e r t h a n a s i x t h . T h e c o n t e x t i n t h i s c a s e s e e m s t o s u g g e s t a s e v e n t h . 15. It i s se l f -ev iden t , of course, that the repet i t ion of the phrase wr\yf\s aSavaxou (as indicated by TTOUV) w i l l be in the ident ica l mode as that used 33 for i t s f i r s t c i t a t i on (the modulation there being denoted by a phthora), and the two passages are, to a l l intents and purposes, the same. The d i f - ference between our two 14th-century sources seems to be that in the case of Athens MS. 904 Mode IV Plagal i s b r i e f l y re i tera ted by the irdAxv formula as well as being spec i f ied by the fo l lowing medial s ignature, before the melody returns to the Nana mode for the repet i t ion of the irnYns phrase. In the case of Athens MS. 2411, however, the scr ibe retains the Nana mode by v i r tue of the ascending seventh (see Example 4 and the caveat c i ted there) , and consequently prescribes the iTaAiv formula in that mode as well before speci fy ing the Nana medial signature that indicates a continuation in the Nana mode. Both versions subsequently return to Mode IV Plagal and 34 end there with a f i na l i s on a_. Another set t ing of Zuua xP*°"rou by Kladas i s transmitted by our 14th-century manuscripts but appears only in one of our e a r l i e s t sources: A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 f o l . 4 1 7 V M o d e I I I A u t h e n t i c , r e - q u i r i n g a n ' a_ s t a r t I n f a c t t h e t w o 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS c o n s u l t e d ( A t h e n s M S . 8 9 9 a n d A t h e n s M S . 24-06) b o t h i n d i c a t e a p h t h o r a o n l y a f t e r TTaAiV a n d b o t h a l s o s p e c i f y a m e d i a l s i g n a t u r e f o r Mode I V P l a g a l h e r e . I n A t h e n s M S . 24-11 l i n e 6 - t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n , i s m a r k e d b y a n a s t e r i s k i n l i n e 10 o f E x a m p l e 1 1 b e l o w , w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e e n t i r e hymn - t h e s c r i b e h a s o m i t t e d t h e i s o n f r o m t h e - f i g u r e T h i s r e s u l t s i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e t t i n g b e i n g a t o n e t o o h i g h , a n d h a s b e e n c o r r e c t e d b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 . 16. The remaining composers are a l l represented by a s ing le musical set t ing of the Easter Koinonikon. Gerasimos's set t ing occurs in two 14th- century manuscripts: V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 7 V Mode I V P l a g a l , r e q u i r i n g a . g_ s t a r t . V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 8 5 V Although the melody of th is set t ing i s essen t ia l l y the same in both manu- s c r i p t s , the version in Vatopedi MS. 1495 poses a rather unusual problem. Here the hymn i s not only somewhat longer than in Vienna MS. 185 (by approxi- mately four l i n e s ) , but i t contains an ent i re l i ne of music without any text or teretismata whatsoever. The reasons for the use of th is expansion w i l l be analyzed in deta i l in the sect ion on tex t ; at th is point the fol lowing explanation should su f f i ce . Due to the absence of the A l l e l u i a in the Easter Koinonikon, the repet i t ion of ent i re text phrases together with the i r accompanying music was commonly u t i l i z e d in order to f i t the hymn to the l i t u r g i c a l act ion i t had to cover. The most frequently repeated phrase was TiriYns aGavaxou yeuaaaSe and i t i s th is phrase which Vatopedi MS. 1495 repeats almost exact ly a f ter the customary iraAiv. Vienna MS. 185, however, omits th is repet i t ion and proceeds to another repet i t ion of th is text phrase (the conclusion of the hymn) with new music, which also concludes the version in Vatopedi MS. 1495. Immediately preceding th is concluding phrase in Vatopedi MS. 1495, however, there occurs the aforementioned l i ne of tex t less music. By comparing these two versions i t becomes evident that the scr ibe of the Vatopedi manuscript has c lever ly inserted .a second ending in order to expand th is hymn even fur ther . 17. This i r r egu la r i t y in Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s perhaps most simply explained by reference to the fo l lowing f igu re . The word -rrdXiv ( l ines 7-8) s i g n i f i e s the repet i t ion ( in l ines 8-10) of the phrase irnyris aBavaxou Y£U0aa8e and i t s music (from l ines 5-7). In l i ne 11 the scr ibe has entered the music previously used for udAiv ( f i g . A), fol lowed by that used for TrriynLs] ( f i g . A 1 ) but has omitted th is text . The next texted l i ne ( l i ne 12) begins with a new ending for [yevoajoQe ( f i g . E ) , and continues with new music ( f i g . 9 ) for the phrase TrnYns aBavaxou ye-ooaoQe which concludes the hymn. By contrast , in Vienna MS. 185-only an abbreviated version i s suppl ied, with the o r ig ina l frnyn'...s aSavdxou ( f i gs . A and B, c f . with l ines 5-7 in Vatopedi MS. 1495) being followed by yevaaoBe. (f. ig. E, c f . with l i ne 12 in Vatopedi MS. 1495), and continuing d i r ec t l y with the concluding material ( f i g . e ) . On the basis of th is comparison the intent ions of the scr ibe in Vatopedi MS. 1495 become c lea r . Af ter the repet i t ion contained in l i nes 8-10 the singer had the option of yet fur ther repe t i t i ons . If the l i t u r g i c a l act ion required addi t ional music, he would continue with l i ne 11, adding to the untexted l i ne the text with which he was by now quite f a m i l i a r , v i z . , uaAiv TrriYns. He would then return to the top of the f o l i o ( l i ne 9) which const i tutes the exact textual and musical sequel to l i ne 11 . (as well as l i ne 8 ) , and continue with l i ne 10. This procedure could be repeated ad in f in i tum. Moreover, whenever the singer approached the end of l i ne 10 he could a lso e lec t to subst i tute f i g . E (the beginning of l i ne 12) for f i g . T ( l i ne 10) in [yeuaaJaGe and thereby draw the hymn to a close by continuing with l i ne 12 et seq. The reason for the text omission in l i ne 11 thus becomes obvious, as the text required here would have been nonsensical 18. with the ordinary sequence of l ines ( i . e . l i ne 11 TraAiv Trnyns l i ne 12 C 0 E . . . ) . I t would have confused both singers and future t ranscr ibers . In addit ion the tex t less l i ne provides the singer with an important v isual cue for the al ternate second ending of [yevaa]oQe in the fo l lowing l i ne ( l ine 12). F I G U R E 1 R e f r a i n R e p e t i t i o n i n G e r a s i m o s ' s S e t t i n g V a t o p e d i M S . 14-95 M u s i c (=M) T e x t ( = T ) M T M T M T f o l . - 2 1 7 V f o l . 2 1 8 r ( l i n e 9 ) ' R JJ ( l i n e 1 0 ) a-0a-vd-TOU yevoaoQe ( l i n e 5 ) ( l i n e 1 1 ) A . B A . A ' ' NO T E X T H E R E [y£]xaAd(3£X£ 'wr\yr\-zr\-zr\ •• [= TraAiv Tm-yn- ] (l i n e 6 ) ( l i n e 12 B E • 0 etc. -2ns a- a8 £ - U E TTriYns d0a- (l i n e 7 ) • (l i n e 1 3 ) r A - ©a-vd-Tou yev-aa-aQe ird- vdxou yevoaaQe ••• || ; ( l i n e 8 ) - A - . A ' Aiv irn-Yn- V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 M u s i c ^ A B T e x t [y£xaAag£T£] xnY n-2n-2n-2ns otGavaTOU M u s i c E 0 • . ̂ T e x t yevoaoQe ue Trnyris a0avax©u yetiaaobe M T M T M T M T 19. Only one set t ing of Ewua xptcfrou by Gavalos i s found in the 14th- century reperto i re and i t i s transmitted by two manuscripts: V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 8 r Mode I V P l a g a l , r e - q u i r i n g a g_ s t a r t V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 8 5 V The version in Vatopedi MS. 1495 seems to contain a number of sc r iba l errors and for th is reason the s l i g h t l y l a te r version from Vienna MS. 185 is given precedence. E X A M P L E 5 Ex. 5 0>) 185 [a-doQ _ IT) | f A A TOV I I I I l\ 1 % ^ 1 i :r fLf tft TLTC£J GirCfr-TCT-f [vocrovj The most readi ly-apparent error i s the fact that the Vatopedi scr ibe supplies an incorrect ending with a f i na l i s on e_, whereas that in the Vienna MS. ends cor rec t ly on a_ (see Example 5a). In add i t ion , the major portion of l i ne 4 in the Vatopedi. MS. ( i . e . fol lowing [d]6avaTou) consists 20. of music that i s extraneous to the Vienna version and to the various 15th- 35 century manuscripts u t i l i z e d for comparative purposes (see Example 5b). This phrase contains what i s probably a fur ther sc r iba l e r ro r , for the succeeding l ine 5, which corresponds to the music immediately fol lowing a8avaxou in the Vienna vers ion, i s a tone'too low. Further support for th is assumption may be found in the f i na l musical phrase of th is hymn which is an obvious repet i t ion of the opening phrase and which the Vatopedi scr ibe begins a tone too low and then ends a th i rd too low, as noted above (see Ex. 5a). The 15th-century manuscripts that were consulted fo l low the model of the Vienna MS. and th is was deemed to be the preferable version for our purposes. Doukas's set t ing of Zwua xpi°"rou i s a unica which appears in the 14th-century manuscript: V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 8 r Mode I V P l a g a l Once again th is version i s problemat ical . The phrase Tir iYns aGavdxou yevoaoQe ( in l ines 3-5) is repeated ( in l ines 6-8) a f ter the word T r a A i v , but a d i g i t a l t ranscr ip t ion resul ts in the l a t t e r part of th is repet i t ion (beginning at l i ne 7) being a th i rd lower than the or ig ina l c i t a t i o n . Due 3 5 A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 f o l . 2 8 8 V , V a t . B a r b . g r . 3 9 2 f o l . 2 0 6 V a n d I v i r o n M S . 1 1 2 0 f o l . 5 8 5 v . O n l y t h e l a s t MS c o n t a i n s a s u g g e s t i o n o f t h i s p h r a s e b u t i t d o e s n o t , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 , d i s t o r t t h e r e m a i n i n g m a t e r i a l . 36 * M o s t l i k e l y t h e e r r o r i s d u e t o t h e o m i s s i o n o f a n o l i g o n o r a n o x e i a f r o m t h e u n u s u a l f i g u r e ^ s > n e a r - t h e e n d o f l i n e 4 . T h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n i s m a r k e d b y a n a s t e r i s k i n E x a m p l e 5 b . 21. to its distinctive contours, i t is almost certain that this reiteration constitutes not only a textual but also a musical parallel and on this basis a correction has been effected. Beginning with line 7, on the syllable -va- of deavaxou, the rest of the hymn has been transposed up a third. The f i n a l i s of the text proper then becomes d_ whereas the post-cadential ending concludes on £ . The one remaining example of Zwya XP*°"T°U is attributed to Panaretos and occurs in only one manuscript: Koutloumousi MS. 457 f o l . 232 V Model I I P l a g a l Although this setting is quite unproblematical, i t does pose a question with respect to medial signatures. Immediately preceding the phrase Trnyns aeavarou yeOaaa0e there appears, a signature for Mode I Authentic ( g ) which is followed by an ison above TrnLYHs]. This signature normally requires the note a_ and the ison should merely confirm this pitch. The previous phrase, however, ends with an ascending f i f t h (from e to b_) and i t is a matter of conjecture whether the medial signature or the ison should take priority. It was arbitrarily decided that precedence should be given to the medial signature, and as such this section begins, and eventually ends, in Mode I. 22. T E X T The text of the Easter Koinonikon has, for purposes of musical s t ruc ture, been divided by the Byzantine composers into the fol lowing phrases: 1. Euiya xP!-aTou 2. yexaAaBexe 3. -rrrpyris aSavaxou 4. yevoaaBe This text structure of four phrases i s a determining factor in the melodic organizat ion of the hymn, for the phrase endings regular ly coincide with cadence points in the music. As Bres l ich-Er ickson has pointed out in her study of the TevaaoBc, i t i s common pract ice at th is time for major text 37 d iv is ions to be marked by f u l l cadences. Such cadences occur e i ther on the l as t text sy l l ab le of a phrase (or shor t ly thereaf te r ) , or are what might be termed 'progressive ' cadences, in that a rhythmic elongation occurs on the f i r s t sy l l ab le of the succeeding word.' In some instances where the fol lowing word i s the non-textual term rraAiv or Xeye ( = " s a y ! " ) , such 'progressive ' cadences may occur on e i ther or both of i t s s y l l a b l e s . The present repertoire shows a remarkable adherence to th is p r inc ip le as i s 38 demonstrated by these f igures . 37 B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 55. 38 T h e s e c o m p u t a t i o n s a r e n o t b a s e d m e r e l y o n t h e i n i t i a l c i t a t i o n o f a p h r a s e ; r a t h e r , u n a m b i g u o u s p h r a s e r e p e t i t i o n s h a v e a l s o b e e n t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . 23. T A B L E I I A v e r a g e F r e q u e n c y o f T e x t - P h r a s e E n d i n g s C o i n c i d e n t w i t h M u s i c a l C a d e n c e s p h r a s e 1 100% p h r a s e 2 92% p h r a s e 3 77% p h r a s e 4 75% An unusual feature of the Sajya xP 1 0"tou se t t i ng , already al luded 39 to above, i s the .extensive use of textual phrase repe t i t i ons . The primary reason for th is must be sought in the absence of a concluding A l l e l u i a , which is omitted both from th is hymn and from the only other non-scr iptural Koinonikon, Too S E X T T V O U aou for Holy Thursday. Since the music of the A l l e l u i a re f ra in often surpasses in length that of the text verse proper, other means had to be u t i l i z e d to expand the music of th is hymn in order to cover the same l i t u r g i c a l ac t ion . A comparison with the other Communion verses, moreover, reveals that the luiua xP*°"rou ">s o n e of the shorter t ex t s , 40 whose length in no way compensates for the missing A l l e l u i a . The problem must have been compounded further due to the posi t ion of the Easter feast as the culmination of the l i t u r g i c a l year , a fact which inevi tably would have required the presence of addi t ional celebrants, espec ia l l y in the major churches, thereby necessi tat ing ever more music. The so lu t i on , for the 39 S e e p . 16 a b o v e . 4 0 T h e t e x t s o f a l l K o m o n i k a a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n C o n o m o s , " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p p . 2 4 5 - 4 8 . 3 24. majority of our composers, was inherent in the text i t s e l f , and only the ea r l i es t example from our group, that a t t r ibuted to Glykes, contains — except for the transmission in Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 217 r — n o phrase repet i t ion whatsoever. The s l i g h t l y la te r version by Moschianos is also re t icent about th is procedure and contains only a br ie f re i te ra t ion of the word XP^TOU wi thin the same musical phrase. Once again, however, the Vatopedi scr ibe (on f o l . 217 v) provides a T r a A i v repet i t ion of the th i rd text phrase. The fol lowing table demonstrates the frequency of phrase repe t i - t ion in th is repertoire, and for thxs:purpose the text has been divided into i t s f i ve elements. The ca lcu la t ions here are based on eleven examples, since in three instances the repet i t ion in a spec i f i c hymn i s varied sub- s t a n t i a l l y in d i f fe rent sources, and therefore these have been counted 41 separately. It must also be emphasized that the rat ionale behind th is is the presence of a c lear and unambiguous repet i t ion of a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t unit of text and i t s music. Thus, for example, the re i te ra t ion of the word x p i o r o u in Moschianos's set t ing mentioned above has not been included, nor has the extension of the word y e - y e x a X d - i i e T a A a g e T e in Panaretos's hymn. T A B L E I I I A v e r a g e T e x t - E l e m e n t R e p e t i t i o n Eqjyq X P 1 < J T 0 ^ y s T a X a B e x e • : -TTTTYTIS o/javavoo y cuQaaGe 9% 0% 18% 73% 36% 4 1 T h i s a p p l i e s t o t h e s e t t i n g s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p o s e r s a s ; t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e s e M S S : G l y k e s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 a n d V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ; M o s c h i a n o s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 a n d V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ; G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 a n d V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 . 25. It becomes obvious from these figures that the text-phrase Trnyns aGavdxou was the favoured vehicle of repetition utilized by the 14th- century composers of this hymn. This phrase occurs not only in its normal word order, but in some cases i t also consists of juxtaposed words, a 42 feature that is quite common in the kalophonic repertoire. Thus in Gavalos (according to both of our sources) the order is inverted as Trnyns aBavdxou. a9avaxou Trnyns yeCoaoQe, and in Kladas (according to Athens MS. 2622) Trnyns aOavdxou Trnyns [yeuaacGe]' is used as the repetition which follows the citation of the complete text. What does not become apparent from the preceding figures, however, is that the word yevoaoQe often becomes a part of the repeated unit. In fact,in every instance that has been included 43 in these calculations the repetition of yexxsaoBe occurs in conjunction with the preceding phrase, as in Trnyns deavdxou yevoaode. Upon examining this repertoire one.becomes increasingly aware that this element (Trnyns aOavdxou yevoaoQe), or on occasion its three constituent words, functions in a manner analogous to the Alleluia refrain in other Koinonika. It appears as a de facto refrain both by virtue of the textual and musical elaboration accorded to i t , and because of its length in relation to the rest of the hymn. Support for this supposition i s , of " ^ E d w a r d V i n s o n W i l l i a m s , " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m o f B y z a n t i n e C h a n t i n g f o r G r e a t V e s p e r s i n t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Y a l e , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 2 6 6 . 4-3 . -* I n P a n a r e t o s ' s v e r s i o n t h e c o n c l u d i n g r e p e t i t i o n o f ysvoaoBe c o n s t i t u t e s w h a t i s v i r t u a l l y a p o s t - c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a . A l t h o u g h i t i s a c t u a l l y a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e h y m n , i t s b r e v i t y a n d s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g h a v e c a u s e d i t t o b e d i s m i s s e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e . 26. course, evidenced by the f igures adduced prev ious ly , but of greater in terest here are the versions of Sciua XPICTOO transmitted by one spec i f i c manu- s c r i p t , Vatopedi MS. 1495. Without except ion, every example in th is manuscript contains a repet i t ion of a l l or part of th is unit of tex t , and even more important ly, the versions here are invar iab ly more highly developed than the same pieces in other 14th-century sources. In the case of the versions at t r ibuted to Glykes and Moschianos, Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s the only source among a to ta l of nineteen examples which spec i f ies a repet i t ion of the phrase TrTnyris dBavaxou, and in the set t ing by Gerasimos (see above, p. 16) , th is manuscript makes provis ion for an inde f in i te number of repet i t ions of the complete textual unit which i s not re f lec ted even in the la te r Vienna MS. 185. Presumably the elaborat ion of these passages in Vatopedi MS. 1495 is due to reasons of l i t u r g i c a l expediency, but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y for our purposes, i t becomes c lear that a sc r i be , when required to expand th is hymn, invar iab ly developed the phrase Trnyns deavdxou yeuaaaee. This • ; development i s , by i t s very nature, c lose ly related to the approach taken by the composers of other Communion hymns, who general ly u t i l i z e d the A l l e l u i a re f ra in when confronted with a s im i la r task. An examination of other Koinonika, in fact , reveals that elements of the text verse are only infrequent ly repeated, and that the expansion of musical material occurs 44 pr imar i ly in the A l l e l u i a . S e e C o n o m o s , " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p . 2 4 5 a n d B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 6 7 . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y r e p e r t o i r e o f TeDOaaQe, s h o w s t h a t l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e e x a m p l e s r e p e a t a p h r a s e o f t h e t e x t . S u c h r e p e t i t i o n s , - h o w e v e r , a r e d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t a n d a r e n o t r e s e r v e d f o r a n y o n e p a r t i c u l a r s e g m e n t . 27. B res l i ch -Er ickson 's study of fers addi t ional support for th is suggested consanguinity between A l l e l u i a and the phrase -rrriYns aGav&rou 45 yeuaaaGe. She draws at tent ion to a version of TevoaoBe by Glykes that appears in two 15th-century manuscripts, which is v i r t u a l l y iden t i ca l to 46 our Ewya xpiaxou at t r ibuted to th is composer. This co r re l a t i on , however, extends beyond musical ident i ty to a close s i m i l a r i t y of text d i s t r i bu t ion in comparable musical locat ions . The fol lowing juxtaposi t ion of these tex ts , taken from the previously mentioned manuscripts, shows th is quite c l e a r l y ; text d ispos i t ion on ident ica l musical f igures being indicated by beams l ink ing the two l i n e s 4 7 (see F ig . 2 on fol lowing page). Here the 4 5 B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p p . 5 1 - 7 3 . 4 6 I b i d . , p p . 6 4 f f . T h e MSS a r e A t h e n s M S . 2 4 - 5 6 , t o w h i c h s h e a s s i g n s a 1 4 - t h - l 5 t h c e n t u r y d a t e , a n d S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 , w h i c h s h e p l a c e s i n t h e e a r l y 1 5 t h c e n t u r y . 4-7 ~ T h e i n c i p i t s o f Zcoya XP' 1 0 " 1 0 1 - ' r e p r o d u c e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n o n p . 65 o f h e r s t u d y c o n t a i n a n i n e x p l i c a b l e e r r o r . T h e o p e n i n g o f S i n a i - M S . 1 2 9 3 i s a c t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t ? o f A t h e n s M S . 2 4 - 5 6 , g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y a b o v e ; t h e s o l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e t w o s o u r c e s b e i n g , a s s h e h a s n o t e d , t h a t a m o d a l s i g n a t u r e i s n o t p r o v i d e d i n A t h e n s M S . 24-56 . I t h a s p r o v e n i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e t h e i n c i p i t t h a t s h e h a s l a b e l l e d S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e s o u r c e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e i n c i p i t t o t h e TevoaoBe s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s M S . 24-56 c o n t a i n s w h a t i s w i t h o u t m u c h d o u b t . a s c r i b a l e r r o r w h i c h m u s t b e c o r r e c t e d ; t h e s e c o n d neume s h o u l d b e a n i s o n i n s t e a d o f a n a p o s t r o p h o s . M o s t l i k e l y t h e s c r i b e h a s h e r e c o p i e d f r o m h i s s o u r c e t h e s e c o n d neume o f t h e o p e n i n g t h a t h e w a s t o u s e s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r f o r h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e Euiya X P ' l P T O U ( i . e . a n a p o s t r o p h o s ) , b u t h a s t h e n c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e m o r e common i p o r r o i ( u s e d i n t h i s p l a c e i n t h e s e t t i n g s o f TevoaoBe i n S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 a n d Ewya XPT -CfTOU i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 , S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 , a n d A t h e n s M S . 8 9 9 ) i n s t e a d o f r e p e a t i n g t h e a p o s t r o p h o s a s r e q u i r e d b y h i s i n i t i a l u s e o f a n a p o s t r o p h o s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e m e l o d y , w h i c h i s i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e v e r s i o n i n S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 , i s a t o n e t o o l o w . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f s c r i b a l e r r o r i s g i v e n c r e d e n c e b y t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Zwya XP1°"T°U s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 6 a n d S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 , w h i c h i n b o t h i n s t a n c e s c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c i p i t c o n s i s t i n g o f s u c c e s s i v e a p o s t r o p h o i , 5 ~ ' V ? > c L > 5 ' 0 - - r 5 ^ ' ^ , U n d e r n e a t h , h o w e v e r , a n a l t e r n a t e v e r s i o n h a s b e e n a d d e d i n r e d i n k , 5 — ^ - o - T j . T h e s u b s i d i a r y n e u m e s a r e o f c o u r s e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e o p e n i n g u t i l i z e d f o r TetioaoBe i n S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 a n d F I G U R E 2 T e x t P a r a l l e l i s m i n G l y k ' e s ' s TetioaoQe a n d Zoouct XPi-PTOU Texi-oa-oQe Ken \—<5e-X£ o — x i Y p i - a x o - s o K U - O I — o - o s . a-AXn z a - A A n - A o i 3 — ' i - a x ^ — A A n - A o t i - ' i - ^ a i l l I. I I I I I ! J I I , I I , , I I Eco — y a X P X a T 0 U y e - x a A a —3e x e T r n - y r j b s j a — 6 a — v a - x o u x a Y e _ £ 1 J — a a - a 0 e oo 29. phrase Trrryris deavdxou yeuaaoi9e is equated unambiguously with the Alleluia refrain, even though this procedure is not dictated by the syllabic align- ment of the two verses. Moreover, the correlation even extends to the placement of the extraneous 1x' in both instances. Although no other such versions of melodic migration between EtLya xpio"rou and any other Koinonika which u t i l i z e the Alleluia refrain are known to me, on the basis of the evidence cited above, i t seems reasonable to assume that the phrase TrrrYns dGavdxou yeuaaaee f u l f i l l e d a role similar to that of the Alleluia. More- over, as a substitute for the customary A l l e l u i a , the repetition of this phrase was eminently suited to the theological significance of the Easter feast, a fact which would scarcely have gone unnoticed by the composers or unappreciated by the listeners. Another feature of the texting practice in this repertoire is what might be referred to as 'word extension', whereby a text-word is prolonged by the repetition of i t s syllables. This may be done by repeating 48 the previous syllable (eg. ye-uexaAdgexe or Ye^yeuaaaeer}, or by repeating 49 a larger segment of the \text (eg. yexa-yexaAdgexe: or a0avd-0avdxou). t h e o t h e r v e r s i o n s o f Ea iua XPICTTOU c i t e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ( e x c l u d i n g t h e o p e n i n g l a b e l l e d ' S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 ' ) , a n d p e r m i t a c o r r e c t m e d i a l c a d e n c e o n t h e o p e n i n g p i t c h a t t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t l i n e . M o r e o v e r , t h e c o n t r o - v e r s i a l s e c o n d neume i n S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 3 ( a n i s o n ) i s a b n o r m a l l y l a r g e , s u g - g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s c r i b e h e r e may a l s o h a v e o r i g i n a l l y u s e d a n e r r o n e o u s a p o s t r o p h o s a n d l a t e r c o v e r e d i t w i t h t h e i s o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t b o t h A t h e n s , - M S . 24-06 a n d S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 g i v e d o u b l e m a i n s i g n a - t u r e s f o r t h e i r Eooya XPT-CTOU t r a n s m i s s i o n s , n o t o n l y t h e N a n a s i g n a t u r e ( s e e p . 7 a b o v e ) , a n d t h a t A t h e n s M S . 8 9 9 a s s i g n s t h i s hymn t o Mode I P l a g a l a n d n o t t o Mode I I P l a g a l a s i n d i c a t e d b y B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n . 48 T h e f o r m e r e x a m p l e i s f r o m G a v a l o s i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ( f o l . 2 1 8 r ) , a n d the l a t t e r i s f r o m M o s c h i a n o s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( f o l . 3 6 0 ) . ^ T h e f i r s t example' i s from .Gerasimos i n Vatopedi'MS. 1 4 9 5 ( f o l . 2 1 7 V ) , a n d t h e s e c o n d i s f r o m P a n a r e t o s i n K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4 5 7 ( f o l . 2 3 2 v ) . 30. The former method i s dist inguished from the l a t t e r by i t s retent ion of a spec i f i c vowel or diphthong sound, and i s therefore related to the in te r - ca la t ion of foreign le t te rs in the texts of thekalophonic chants during 50 the 14th and 15th centur ies. . This extraneous mater ia l , which comprises both non-textual le t te rs and the non-alphabetical l e t te rs 'z' and V , seems to have been used pr imar i ly as a means of supporting the text sy l lab les during the lengthy musical melismas. As suggested by Conomos, the i r use seems to have a dual purpose; being employed . . . . . i n t h e t e x t s o f t h e h y m n s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c h o i r ' s o r s o l o i s t ' s d e l i v e r y o f o r n a m e n t a l m e l i s m a t a a n d t o e n h a n c e t h e o t h e r w i s e d i s a g r e e a b l e s o u n d o f a n e x t e n d e d v o w e l . ' The most common appl icat ion of th is procedure is as fo l lows: TTn-yn-xn- 52 X n - x n - x n s a n d mi-Yn-zn-sn-ans. The non-alphabetical l e t t e r ' u ' func- t ions in-a s im i la r manner but seems to be res t r i c ted (in our material at any rate) to instances of minor repe t i t i on , e . g . , y e - u e - y e x a X a f t e x e and 53 yetioaods-ue. An unusual foreign l e t t e r occurs in Moschianos's version in Vatopedi MS. 1495 ( f o l . 217 V ) , where the word Trrry^s i s twice al tered to become T r n y n - K n - K n s . Although uncommon, th is is only another means of pro- longing the eta sound, and does not depart from the usage discussed pre- v ious ly . In the f i na l ana lys i s , of course, the extension of the tex t , whether 50 A d e t a i l e d e x e g e s i s o f t h i s p h e n o m e n o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e , " I n t e r c a l a t e d L e t t e r s a n d M e a n i n g l e s s S y l l a b l e s , " i n C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p p . 2 6 1 - 8 6 . 5 1 I b i d . , p . 2 7 3 . 52 v R e s p e c t i v e l y , f r o m P a n a r e t o s i n K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4-57 ( f o l . 2 3 2 ) , a n d G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ( f o l . 2 1 7 v ) . 53 v T h e s e o c c u r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n K l a d a s i n A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 ( f o l . 2 6 8 ) , a n d G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ( f o l . 2 1 7 v ) . A n u n u s u a l u s e o f t h i s l e t t e r o c c u r s i n K l a d a s ' s s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( f o l . 4 1 7 v ) , v i z . , Z c o y a - u e - a c o y a . H e r e t h e s y l l a b l e ' u e ' i s e q u i v a l e n t t o ' v a t ' (= " y e s " ) , a n d t h e i n t e r p o l a - t i o n f u n c t i o n s a s a n a f f i r m a t i o n . 31. effected by the repet i t ion of sy l l ab les or larger segments of the word, and regardless of whether the s y l l a b i c repet i t ion i s ass is ted by the inser t ion of foreign consonants, serves much the same purpose: that of accommodating the text to prolonged musical passages and thereby f a c i l i - ta t ing the i r performance. It must also be noted that the inser t ion of foreign le t te rs was c lea r l y the prerogative of the sc r ibe , who was usual ly also a s inger. Para l l e l versions, of Glykes's set t ing (taken from Athens MS. 2458 f o l . 169 r and Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 217 r , respect ive ly) demon- st rate th is c l e a r l y : yetJ-aa-xa Y£-X£u-aa-a6e ye X £ _X e Y e u aa-a0e A feature that i s re lated to the preceding inser t ion of foreign l e t te rs is the use of meaningless sy l lab les or teret ismata. They are en t i re l y absent from the present body of chants and th is i s somewhat sur- p r i s i n g , for. lengthy teret ismat ic passages are found from the 14th century on in other standard l i t u r g i c a l chants such as the Tr isagion and 54 Cheroubikon. C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p p . 2 7 3 - 8 6 . 32. COMPOSERS The composers of Zcoya XP 1 0"TOO in th is co l l ec t i on of 14th-century manuscripts are general ly i den t i f i ed by rub r i c , and in the few instances in which chants appear anonymously, the a t t r ibu t ions have been restored by 55 comparison with other vers ions. L i t t l e i s known, however, about any of 56 these or other 14th and 15th-century Byzantine composers. Usually they are simply names in a manuscript, occasional ly modified by t i t l e s such as 1 protopsa l tes 1 or 'domest ikos' ; de ta i l s about the i r l i ves and places of 57 a c t i v i t y are general ly unknown. Even de ta i l s about a composer's period of a c t i v i t y are d i s t ress ing ly l im i ted . On occasion, they are provided by a few tan ta l i z i ng clues in the contemporaneous 14th and 15th-century manu- sc r ip t s themselves, but require in most cases an extrapolat ion based on a composer's i n i t i a l appearance in a securely-dated source. A t rea t i se by the 15th-century composer and theoret ic ian Manuel Chrysaphes provides the fo l lowing order of composers: Aneotes, Glykes, T h i s w a s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e s : K l a d a s ' s s e t t i n g i n A t h e n s M S . 904- ( f o l . 2 6 8 v ) ; G l y k e s ' s s e t t i n g s i n A t h e n s . M S . 2 6 0 0 ( f o l . 6 3 v ) , S i n a i M S . 1 2 9 4 ( f o l . l&7r), a n d S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 2 ( f o l . 1 4 9 r ) . 56 I o a n n e s K o u k o u z e l e s i s t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n , a n d h e h a s b e e n e x - t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d b y W i l l i a m s , " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m . " 57 v M i l o s V e l i m i r o v i c h a s p r o d u c e d a v e r y h e l p f u l l i s t o f c o m p o s e r s f r o m a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MS., i n " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s i n M S . A t h e n s 2 4 0 6 , " i n E s s a y s P r e s e n t e d t o E g o n W e l l e s z , e d . J a c k W e s t r u p ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 7 - 1 8 . S e e a l s o t h e p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s b y A n d r i j a J a k o v l j e v i c , " D a v i d R a i d e s t i n o s , Monk a n d M u s i c i a n , " i n S t u d i e s i n E a s t e r n C h a n t I I I , e d . M i l o s V e l i m i r o v i c ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 9 1 - 9 7 . T h e p r o t o p s a l t e s a n d l a m p a d a r i o s d i r e c t e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e r i g h t a n d l e f t c h o i r s , w h e r e a s t h e p r i n c i p a l s i n g e r o f e a c h c h o i r w a s t e r m e d t h e d o m e s t i k o s . 33. Ethikos, Koukouzeles, K ladas. ' J O Another l i s t i s contained in an introductory note to Koutloumousi MS. 457 ( f o l . 1 ) and gives th is order: . . . t h e . . . p r o t o p s a l t e s G l y k e s a n d . . . h i s h e i r s a n d p u p i l s , X e n o s K o r o n e s p r o t o p s a l t e s a n d I o a n n e s P a p a d o p o u l o s K o u k o u z e l e s , t h e m a i s t o r . . . .^9 These at least provide us with a chronological ordering of the e a r l i e r com- posers, and when taken in conjunction with the conclusions about the l i f e of Ioannes Koukouzeles reached by Edward Wi l l iams*^ would c l ea r l y suggest that a l l of the aforementioned composers (with the possible exception of Kladas) may be placed in the ear ly 14th century. The remaining composers, however, can in most cases only be dated approximately by a terminus ante quern of the i r a c t i v i t y as provided by the f i r s t appearance of the i r compositions in a datable manuscript. Natural ly th is i s not an i n f a l l i b l e procedure since i t presupposes the absence of la te r addit ions to a manuscript. The lack of codico logica l studies of Ako lou th ia i , however, has necessitated the recognit ion of the general ly accepted date of a manuscript as the date of a l l of i t s par ts . Since the twenty-eight examples of Ewua XPT-OTOU that have been u t i l i z e d for th is study do not present su f f i c i en t data for such an endeavour, the fol lowing l i s t is based on an index of a l l Koinonika from the 14th and 15th centur ies. A s im i la r 58 A . P a p a d o p o u l o s - K e r a m e u s , " M a v o u r i A XP u a d4>ns -AauTra6apxos TOU B a a i A l K O U K A r j p o u , " V i z a n t i s k i i V r e m o n n i k V I I I ( 1 9 0 1 ) : 5 3 6 - 3 7 , c i t e d i n C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 74-. ^ - C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 6 6 . ^ W i l l i a m s , " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p p . 3 7 9 f f . 6 1 I w i s h t o t h a n k D i m i t r i C o n o m o s f o r a l l o w i n g me t h e u s e o f t h i s i n d e x , w h i c h h e c o m p i l e d f o r h i s f o r t h c o m i n g p u b l i c a t i o n o n t h e B y z a n t i n e a n d S l a v i c K o i n o n i k a . 34. 62 63 chronology has been attempted by both Bres l ich-Er ickson and Wi l l iams, based on the i r respective reper to i res , but in view of the accumulation of addi t ional information here, i t becomes c lear that in some cases the i r dating must be advanced considerably. The fo l lowing is a tentat ive chronology of our 14th-century composers, together with an ind ica t ion of the e a r l i e s t manuscript that contains any of each composer's Koinonika. T A B L E I V E a r l i e s t MSS t h a t C o n t a i n A n y K o i n o n i k a b y E a c h C o m p o s e r 1 3 3 6 ( A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 ) G l y k e s P a n a r e t o s 1 3 4 1 - c a . l 3 6 0 ( A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ) M o s c h i a n o s K l a d a s G a v a l a s G e r a s i m o s c a . 1 3 6 0 - 1 3 8 5 ( V a t o p e d i - . M S . 1 4 9 5 ) D o u k a s Ioannes Glykes's posi t ion as a protopsaltes i s attested to by numerous sources, and, as Conomos has pointed out, whenever a rubic simply refers to TOU TTPOOTOU IJJ&A.TOU there i s l i t t l e doubt that the reference is to G l y k e s . ^ According to Milos Velimirovic*, he may have been associated 62 B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 . ^ W i l l i a m s , " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 1 4 6 a n d p . 2 1 5 . 6 4 C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 4 1 6 . B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ( i n " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 ) d a t e s G l y k e s t o c a . 1 4 0 0 , a n d W i l l i a m s ( i n " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 2 1 5 ) s u g g e s t s t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y . B a s e d o n t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d b y C h r y s a p h e s ' s t r e a t i s e a n d K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4 5 7 ( s e e p . 33 a b o v e ) , h o w e v e r , a s w e l l a s G l y k e s ' s a p p e a r a n c e i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 , i t b e c o m e s c l e a r t h a t h e m u s t h a v e l i v e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y a t t h e v e r y l a t e s t . 35. with the choir of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople but in view of the con- clusions reached by Christos P a t r i n e l i s , i t seems more l i k e l y that Glykes was a member of the 'Royal C l e r g y ' . 6 6 It i s also possible that th is composer may be i den t i f i ed with Ioannes XIII Glykes, Patr iarch of Constantinople from 1315-1319, who i s known to have been "a lover and promoter of arts and 67 l e t t e r s , " and such an associat ion cer ta in ly f i t s with the dating suggested above. Nothing whatsoever i s revealed about George Panaretos by our sources. Vel imirovic' has noted that th is is a family name from Constantinople, and that 68 i t may also have been the name of-a monastery. In the case of Moschianos i t i s a lso possible that th is may be e i ther a family name or the name of a 69 monastery. In our reperto i re he i s on one occasion simply referred to as Konstantinos Aaoauvaicrou (Athens MS. 2622 f o l . 360 v ) , and elsewhere as V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 2 . 6 6 C h r i s t o s P a t r i n e l i s , " P r o t o p s a l t a e , L a m p a d a r a i i , a n d D o m e s t i k o i o f t h e G r e a t C h u r c h d u r i n g t h e p o s t - B y z a n t i n e P e r i o d ( 1 4 - 5 3 - 1 8 2 1 ) , " i n S t u d i e s i n E a s t e r n C h a n t I I I , e d . M i l o s V e l i m i r o v i c ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y " P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 1 4 5 - 4 - 7 . On t h e b a s i s o f a p a s s a g e i n P s e u d o - K o d i n o s ( J . V e r p e a u x , P s e u d o - K o d i n o s , T r a i t e d e s o f f i c e s , P a r i s , 1 9 6 6 , p . 2 6 5 , l i n e 20 f f . , q u o t e d i n i b i d . , p . . 1 4 5 ) , P a t r i n e l i s h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n B y z a n t i n e t i m e t h e p o s i t i o n s o f p r o t o p s a l t e s a n d l a m p a d a r i o s d i d n o t e x i s t i n t h e G r e a t C h u r c h . He p r o p o s e s t h a t a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e o f f i c e s m u s t b e t o s i n g e r s o f p a r o c h i a l o r p r o - v i n c i a l c h u r c h e s , o r t o m e m b e r s o f t h e ' R o y a l C l e r g y ' , i . e . t h e ^ p a l a t i n e c h o i r s . C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p p . 6 5 - 6 6 . 68 • V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 3 . O n l y a I I o T r i p i o v s e t t i n g b y P a n a r e t o s a p p e a r s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 ( f o l . 1 7 0 r ) , b u t t w o s l i g h t l y l a t e r MSS ( b o t h d a t e d 1 3 4 0 - c a . 1 3 6 0 ) c o n t a i n a n Aiveixe m e l o d y ( A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 f o l . 3 5 9 v a n d A m b r o s i a n a M S . L . 36 f o l . 2 6 4 r ) . T h e f o r m e r t e x t i s u s e d o n F e r i a l W e d n e s d a y s a n d f o r f e a s t s o f t h e M o t h e r o f G o d ; t h e l a t t e r i s u s e d o n o r d i n a r y S u n d a y s a n d o n F o r e f e a s t s . 6 9 • V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 3 . 36. Konstant inos.Moschianos.^ Ioannes Kladas i s often i den t i f i ed merely as the ' lampadarios 1 or Ioannes lampadarios, and, judging from the amount of his music transmitted by 14th and 15th-century manuscripts, he must have been one of the most.prominent composers of the f i r s t hal f of the 14th cen tu ry . ^ He is thought to have been a member of the ' imper ia l ' choir or clergy in 72 Constantinople but l i t t l e else i s known about him. Gavalos i s the name 73 of a Cretan family and the only information provided about Phi l ip- i s that 74 he was a domestikos. At least two composers with the surname Gerasimos are found in the 14th and 15th-century reperto i re of Koinonika. The composer of the Easter hymn under considerat ion here ( in Vatopedi MS. 1495 and Vienna MS. 185) is referred to as Gerasimos hiermonachos, but a comparison of a l l 7 ° V l a t a d o n M S . 46 ( ' 1 5 9 1 ' ' ) f o l . 1 0 9 r i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e w h i c h r e f e r s t o t h i s c o m p o s e r a s M o s c h i a n o s d o m e s t i k o s , b u t i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s c r i b e t h e r e h a s c o n f u s e d K o n s t a n t i n o s w i t h G e o r g e M o s c h i a n o s d o m e s t i k o s , s e e V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 5 . W i l l i a m s ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 1 4 6 ) d a t e s M o s c h i a n o s t o t h e l a t e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y / f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y , a c k n o w l e d g i n g , h o w e v e r , o n p . 1 4 6 , n . 5 , t h i s c o m p o s e r ' s p r e s e n c e i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 . B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ( " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 ) s u g g e s t s a m i d - f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y d a t e f o r a G e r o n t i o s [ . ? . ] M o s c h i a n o s . 7 1 C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 1 4 6 , n o t e s t h a t t h e t e r m l a m p a d a r i o s i n v a r i a b l y r e f e r s t o K l a d a s . L a t e r , h o w e v e r , i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 t h i s a p p e l l a t i o n i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r M a n u e l C h r y s a p h e s , s e e V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 0 a n d p . 1 6 . When " t h e l a m p a d a r i o s " i s u s e d i n i s o l a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i t r e f e r s o n l y t o K l a d a s . 72 ~ I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s s e t t i n g o f Itoua X P 1 0 " " 1 ^ A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 a l s o c o n t a i n s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f IToxfipiov, Axveixe, a n d E x s uvnuoauvov ( t h e C o m m u n i o n f o r f e a s t s o f t h e B a p t i s t ) b y K l a d a s , a n d h i s name a p p e a r s c o n s i s - f t e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y . C l e a r l y , t h e n , h e m u s t h a v e b e e n b o r n c o n s i d e r a b l y e a r l i e r t h a n t h e e n d o f t h e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y / b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y a s p r o p o s e d b y W i l l i a m s ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 2 1 5 ) . S e e a l s o B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 . 73 V e l i m i r o v i c , " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 3 . 7 4 r A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( f o l . 4 1 8 ) c o n t a i n s o n l y a TeuaaaGe b y P h i l i p G a v a l o s , b u t h e t h e n a p p e a r s m o r e f r e q u e n t l y i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 a n d A m b r o s i a n a M S . Q . 1 1 , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e d a t e d c a . 1 3 6 0 - 1 3 8 5 . W i l l i a m s p l a c e s h i m i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 2 1 5 ) , a n d B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n s u g g e s t s " b y 1 4 5 3 " ( " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 ) . B o t h a s s i g n m e n t s a r e o b v i o u s l y f a r t o o l a t e . 37. Koinonikon melodies a t t r ibu ted. to the name 'Gerasimos' reveals that our composer is the person elsewhere iden t i f i ed as Gerasimos. hiermonachos of 75 Halkeopoulos (from Thessalonika). Ioannes Doukas was a domestikos of U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e E c o y a . X P I C T O U s e t t i n g b y G e r a s i m o s h i e r o - m o n a c h o s i s o n l y t r a n s m i t t e d i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 a n d V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 . V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 - 9 5 , h o w e v e r , a l s o c o n t a i n s a T e u a a a B e ( f o L 2 1 9 v ) a n d a F l o x r i p i o v ( f o l . 1 9 8 v ) b y G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s , a n d i n b o t h c a s e s t h e c o m p o s e r o f t h e s a m e h y m n s i s i d e n t i f i e d , e l s e w h e r e a s G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s o f H a l k e o p o u l o s ; t h e f o r m e r o c c u r s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 ( f o l . 2 1 6 v ) , a n d t h e l a t t e r i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( f o l . 4 0 4 v ) a n d A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 ( f o l . 2 5 4 v ) . I n f a c t , a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p e l l a t i o n s a r e u s e d f o r t h i s s a m e c o m p o s e r i n v a r i o u s M S S : G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s o f H a l k e o p o u l o s ( t o w h i c h i s a d d e d " f r o m t h e c i t y o f T h e s s a l o n i c a " i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 f o l . 2 5 4 v ) ; G e r a s i m o s o f H a l k e o p o u l o s . ; . H a l k e o p o u l o s ; G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s ; G e r a s i m o s . m o n a c h o s ; G e r a s i m o s d y i o p X T l K o v (= " o f t h e H o l y M o u n t a i n " ) o r G e r a s i m o s a y i o p i T O U ( b o t h o c c u r o n l y i n S i n a i M S . 1 5 2 7 ) ; G e r a s i m o s . A t e r m i n u s a n t e quern f o r t h i s c o m p o s e r i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f h i s w o r k s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ( 1 3 4 1 - c a . 1 3 6 0 ) . A G e r a s i m o s f r o m t h e m o n a s t e r y o f X a n t h o p o u l o s a l s o o c c u r s i n o u r s o u r c e s . X a n t h o p o u l o s , a s V e l i m i r o v i c h a s n o t e d ( " B y z a n t i n e C o m p o s e r s , " p . 1 2 ) i s t h e name o f a m o n a s t e r y i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e a n d t h a t o f a f a m i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . F r o m t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y o n t h i s c o m p o s e r o c c u r s m a i n l y i n S i n a i MSS ( b u t a l s o i n V a t . B a r b . g r . M S . 3 0 0 a n d V l a t a d o n M S . 4 6 ) , a n d i s r e f e r r e d t o a s G e r a s i m o s o f X a n t h o p o u l o s , X a n t h o p o u l o s , . G e r a s i m o s , a n d , i n o n e m a n u s c r i p t ( V l a t a d o n M S . 4 6 ) , a s G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s f r o m t h e m o n a s t e r y o f X a n t h o p o u l o s . T h e a n o m a l o u s d e s i g n a t i o n o f ' h i e r o m o n a c h o s ' f o r t h i s c o m p o s e r i n V l a t a d o n M S . 4 6 ( ' 1 5 9 1 ' ) i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y a s c r i b a l e r r o r . S e e m i n g l y t h e s c r i b e o f t h i s l a t e MS- h a s s i m p l y s w i t c h e d t h e a p p e l l a - t i o n ' h i e r o m o n a c h o s ' b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o m p o s e r s , s i n c e h e h a s r e f e r r e d t o t h e f o r m e r a s G e r a s i m o s o f H a l k e o p o u l o s a n d h a s o m i t t e d t h e r i g h t f u l t i t l e o f ' h i e r o m o n a c h o s - ' , w h i c h h e h a s , i n s t e a d , a d d e d h e r e . I t b e c o m e s c l e a r t h e n , t h a t o n l y t h e G e r a s i m o s f r o m H a l k e o p o u l o s was a p r i e s t - m o n k , a n d t h i s l e n d s a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t t o o u r p r e v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t t h e c o m p o s e r o f t h e E u y a X P 1 - 0 " 1 0 0 m e l o d y i n o u r r e p e r t o i r e . A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e , i n a n u m b e r o f S i n a i MSS ( e s p e c i a l l y S i n a i M S . 1 5 3 2 a n d S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 3 ) , o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y r e f e r r i n g t o b o t h . c o m p o s e r s s i m p l y a s G e r a s i m o s . On t h e b a s i s o f m e l o d i c c o m p a r i s o n s i t h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n w h i c h c o m p o s e r t h e s c r i b e w a s r e f e r r i n g t o . I n t h e c a s e o f o n e v e r s i o n , t h a t i n S i n a i M S . 1 4 6 3 ( f o l . 2 5 5 r ) a n d S i n a i M S . 1 5 5 2 ( f o l . 5 1 9 r ) , h o w e v e r , n o o t h e r c o p i e s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by o u r s o u r c e s . W i t h o u t , i n t e r a l i a a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s t h a t w o u l d . b e i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s p a p e r , i t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h o f t h e t w o c o m p o s e r s t h e s c r i b e h a d i n m i n d . W i l l i a m s ( " J o h n K o u k o u z e l e s ' R e f o r m , " p . 1 4 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t G e r a s i m o s h i e r o m o n a c h o s b e d a t e d t o t h e l a t e 1 4 t h c e n t u r y / f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y , a n d B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n ( " C o m m u n i o n H y m n , " p . 5 4 ) s a y s o n l y " b y 1 4 5 3 . " B o t h o f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e c l e a r l y t o o l a t e . 38. Hagia Sophia in Constantinople; he also had the t i t l e of 1 l a o s y n a k t o s 1 / u and his Ewua XPIOTOU melody in Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s one of only a few Koinonika at t r ibuted to h i m . 7 7 The above dating of composers of th is Koinonikon may be ve r i f i ed by yet another means. In her study, Bres l ich-Er ickson draws at tent ion to the way in which the order of the composers of the reOqaa0e text in each 78 manuscript re f l ec ts the composers' dat ing. Only in the case of composers that are more or less contemporary with one another does the order become inconsis tent . The fol lowing table (see p. 39) demonstrates that in our reperto i re the manuscripts with mult ip le versions of Ecoua XPT-CTOO s im i l a r l y r e f l ec t the chronology of t he i r composers. Having establ ished a tentat ive chronological ordering of our reper to i re i t now becomes apparent that there ex is ts not only a cor re la t ion between chronology and modal usage, but also a chronological order to the modal assignment of a composer's work which is transmitted, in a number of manuscripts. This seems to c l a r i f y the seemingly haphazard choice of modes of Glykes's and Moschianos's set t ings of Ewua x P t a T o u (see pp. 7, 8, and 12 above). The fol lowing table (see page 40) takes into account only those manuscripts that can be securely dated, and shows c lea r l y th is progression in the course of the 14th century. 7 6 V e l i m i r o v i c , "Byzantine Composers," p. 12. 77 Doukas' Koinonika seem to appear only i n Vatopedi MS. 1495, and the dates of t h i s MS agree with the e a r l i e r dating suggested by Williams, i . e . , the l a t e 14th century (not the f i r s t h a l f of the 15th century). See Williams, "John Koukouzeles' Reform," p. 146. 78 Breslich-Erickson, "Communion Hymn," pp. 54-55. T A B L E V O r d e r i n g o f S e t t i n g s o f Ecouq X P i ° ~ T o Q i n MSS A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 #2. #3. 80 A m b r o s i a n a . M S . Q . l l V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4 5 7 #1 . #2. # 1 . #2. #4. #6. ' #4 . #5 . # 1 . # 2 . V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 # 1 . #3. #2. #4 #5 . #6 . 79 G l y k e s #1 . P a n a r e t o s M o s c h i a n o s K l a d a s ( M o d e I I I A u t h . ) G a v a l o s G e r a s i m o s D o u k a s 79 I n V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 some s e v e n t e e n f o l i o s s e p a r a t e M o s c h i a n o s ' s v e r s i o n (#2.) a n d t h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n b y G l y k e s (#3.). 80 I n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 t h e r e a r e f i f t y - s e v e n i n t e r v e n i n g f o l i o s b e t w e e n t h e v e r s i o n b y M o s c h i a n o s a n d t h a t b y K l a d a s . TABLE VI Modal Assignment of_ -Eu^a ypyoyoy in Securely-Dated MSS Athens 2458 '1336' Glykes I PI. Panaretos Moschianos Kladas Gavalos Gerasimos Doukas L.36 Athens 2622 Q.ll 1341-ca.l360 I PI. I l l Auth. I PI. I l l Auth. Vat. 1495 Kout. 457 Vienna 185 Vienna 185-81 ca. 1360 - 1385 III Auth. I l l Auth. Nana II PI. ca.1385-1391 Nana I PI. II PI. IV PI. IV PI. IV PI. II PI. O l PI.) II PI. I PI. IV PI. IV PI. 81 The six settings of t h i s hymn seem to form two d i s c r e t e units i n t h i s MS (see n. 79 above), and have therefore been c i t e d i n t h i s manner. See also n. 83. o 41. At the beginning of the century composers seem to have favoured Mode I Plagal f o r t h e i r s e t t i n g s o f E w u a XPICTOU, and as noted above (see p. 9) t h i s choice agrees with the e a r l i e s t musical sources of t h i s hymn. If we consider, f o r example, the e a r l i e s t manuscripts which contain the s e t t i n g s by Glykes and Moschianos, and which probably transmit these hymns most f a i t h f u l l y , we f i n d that Mode I Plagal i s s p e c i f i e d i n both instances. The compositions of such composers as Gavalos and Gerasimos, however, show that by mid-century Mode IV Plagal had superseded Mode I Plagal as the most popular choice o f mode f o r t h i s hymn, and t h i s trend i s confirmed i n the work of the l a t e r Ioannes Doukas. Another s e t t i n g of t h i s t e x t by Kladas, which appears to have been the more popular of h i s two ve r s i o n s , does not appear i n the preceding t a b l e s i n c e i t occurs only i n manuscripts which 82 cannot be p r e c i s e l y dated; however, i t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h i s trend with i t s use of Mode IV P l a g a l . The preceding t a b l e a l s o demonstrates that there seems to be a chr o n o l o g i c a l order to the s e l e c t i o n of the several d i f f e r e n t modes f o r Glykes's and Moschianos's s e t t i n g s . In the case of the former composer, successive manuscripts show that there i s a progression from Mode I Plagal through Mode III Authentic to the Nana mode, and with the l a t t e r composer there i s in evidence a trend from Mode I Plagal to Mode II P l a g a l . I t must be noted, however, that t h i s progression extends only to the f i r s t s e c t i o n 2Athens MS. 904 ( f o l . 268 V) and Athens MS. 2411 ( f o l . 572 r). 42. in Vienna MS. 185 since in both instances the second group reverts, for some 83 inexplicable reason, to the older usage of Mode I Plagal. Continuing in a similar vein i t seems possible to u t i l i z e t his information to extrapolate a somewhat more precise dating of those manuscripts which are merely assigned to the 14th century. Having established that Kladas l i v e d before 1341 (see Table IV) and that by the t h i r d quarter of the century (ca. 1360-1385) there was a def i n i t e trend towards u t i l i z i n g Mode IV Plagal for settings of this Koinonikon (see Table VI), i t does not seem unreasonable to propose that both Athens MS. 904 and Athens MS. 2411 must have been written post ca. 1360. S i m i l a r l y , i t seems that both Athens MS. 2600 and Sinai MS. 1294 might, on the basis of th e i r inclusion of Glykes's Ewua XPIOTOU melody in Mode I Plagal, conceivably be dated between 1336 and ca. 1360. Naturally this i s i n s u f f i c i e n t data upon which to propose the dating of an entire manuscript, but i t does suggest an avenue which, with the accumulation of enough information, might allow such manuscripts to be placed within a more sp e c i f i c chronological context. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n H a n n i c k ' . s c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e g a r d s t o t h e s c r i b e s o f t h i s M S - , r e v e a l s t h a t t h e s e , tv jo s e c t i o n s ( s e e T a b l e V I ) w e r e w r i t t e n b y t w o d i f f e r e n t s c r i b e s ( H a n n i c k , " E t u d e . , " , p . . 2 4 5 ) . T h i s s e c o n d g r o u p ( f o l s . 2 8 5 r - 2 8 6 r ) , w h i c h r e t a i n s t h e e a r l i e s t m o d a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h i s h y m n , o c c u r s i n a s e c t i o n o f t h e MS d e v o t e d t o C h e r o u b i k a o f H o l y T h u r s d a y a n d E a s t e r S a t u r d a y , a n d t h e K o i n o n i k o n o f E a s t e r ( f o l s . 2 8 2 r - 2 8 5 [ ? ] v ) . I t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o s c r i b e A who i s a c t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s M S . T h e t w o v e r s i o n s o f l a J u a X P ^ ^ t o u b y G l y k e s a n d M o s c h i a n o s o n f o l . 2 6 8 r _ v o c c u r w i t h i n a s e c t i o n o f t h e MS - t h a t c o n t a i n s t h e L i t u r g y o f S t . J o h n C h r y s o s t o m ( f o l s . 2 3 3 V - 2 7 6 V ) , t h e l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f w h i c h w a s w r i t t e n b y s c r i b e B ( f o l s . 2 6 1 r - 2 7 6 r ) . T h i s i n t i m a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e e a r l i e r m o d a l a s s i g n m e n t a t l e a s t i n T h e s s a l o n i c a , w h e r e t h i s MS p r e - s u m a b l y o r i g i n a t e d - ^ - m a y h a v e b e e n u t i l i z e d f o r t h e s e K o i n o n i k a a t E a s t e r , w h e r e a s a d i f f e r e n t m o d a l s c h e m e — p o s s i b l y o c t o e c h a l ( ? ) - * - w a s u s e d o n o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . A s w a s n o t e d a b o v e ( p . 2 ) , t h i s t e x t w a s a l s o u s e d o n S u n d a y s - o t h e r t h a n E a s t e r . A l e s s p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t e a c h s c r i b e i n c l u d e d t h o s e v e r s i o n s o f w h i c h h e w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y , f o n d i n h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e M S . 43. M U S I C It seems appropriate to begin by considering the three sett ings of Ecoua xPT-tfToO by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos as a group. Glykes and Panaretos — a s was noted above — a r e the e a r l i e s t composers represented in our reper to i re , and the choice of mode in Moschianos 1s set t ing suggests a chronological proximity to the i r two versions. Moreover, as w i l l become apparent in the fo l lowing sec t ion , a l l three Koinonika embody s im i la r s t ruc- tural procedures, and u t i l i z e much the same musical mater ia l . The complete t ranscr ip t ions appear in Examples 6, 7, and 8, and in each case the cons t i - tuent phrases have been v e r t i c a l l y al igned so that the i r in te r re la t ionsh ip becomes obvious. The opening of Glykes 's composition consists of a s ing le phrase immediately repeated (Example 6, phrase A, l ines 1 and 2 ) , the focus of which is f igure a. This phrase d isc loses the f i r s t tex t -un i t (Euiya XPICTOU), and is res t r i c ted to the lower tetrachord of the mode, d-f_ (a j . In the other two sett ings theopening is very s i m i l a r , and in each case f igure a plays a determining ro le . Panaretos also uses an opening which spans the in terva l of a t h i r d , but only sets the f i r s t word of the text to i t , in the fol lowing manner: Ew-xw-ya. Moschianos u t i l i z e s much the same opening which, however, has been expanded s l i g h t l y by the lower aux i l i a r y no te£, and which, in i t s repet i t ion (phrase A ' ) , shows a further increase in range by the consistent 44. E X A M P L E 6 - ( a ) G l y k e s , A t h e n s MS. ' " 2 4 5 8 , f o l . 1 6 9 r ( T r g " ) ( b ) G l y k e s ( e x c e r p t ) , V a t . ' ; M S . 1 4 9 5 , f o l . 2 1 7 r (r~* ) [ t r a n s p o s e d down a f i f t h ]  46. EXAMPLE 8 — (a) Moschianos, Athens MS/.2622, f o l . 360 (TT q ) A >;> (b) Moschianos ( e x c e r p t ) , Vat. MS. 1495, f o l . 217 V (try ) [transposed down a second] This s i g n i s used t o i n d i c a t e the omission;pf part of the melody. 47. use of the £. Both phrases A and A' nevertheless clearly remain in this lower region of the mode, and once again comprise the entire f i r s t phrase of the text, i.e. Ewya XPI°"TOU. A l l three versions show a considerable augmentation of range in phrase B. In essence, the very restricted ambitus of phrase A is here extended upwards and eventually revolves around the note â , with only an occasional excursion up to b_ and c_. Even Moschianos, who develops the upper range most consistently, does not venture beyond c_. In his version, however, i t is possible to see this phrase as constituting a shift — albeit brief — to the upper tetrachord of Mode I Plagal (i.e. a_-d_), whereas the earlier settings by Glykes and Panaretos show this shift only incipiently, in effect an expansion in range of phrase A. This is particularly evident by the fact that in most instances phrase B in Glykes and Panaretos begins from and returns to the lower tetrachord of the mode, while this occurs less frequently in Moschianos. Glykes's original use of phrase B actually gives every indication of being merely a development of phrase A (see line 3 in which this phrase only spans a third from e-aj, and i t is only after successive versions that the character of the phrase becomes sufficiently well defined and its identity c l a r i f i e d (see line 7). In addition, figure b often functions as the closing element of phrase B both here (cf. lines 3, 5, and. 7) and' in the other two versions; thus its use in line 3 adds support to our identification of this line with phrase B. The texting of phrase B at its i n i t i a l appearance is quite similar in a l l three versions and shows evidence of a change that seems to constitute a progression from Glykes through Moschianos. Glykes begins this phrase with the f i r s t syllable of yeTaAaBexe whereas Panaretos, who does not repeat 48. phrase A as the other two composers do, sets the i n i t i a l c i t a t i on of the word XP^O-TOU to phrase B. Moschianos begins with a repet i t ion of th is word, and reaches the apogee of the phrase with the f i r s t sy l l ab le of yexaXaBete. Example 9 i l l u s t r a t e s the f i r s t use of phrases A and B in a l l three versions and allows the various s i m i l a r i t i e s of the openings to become read i ly apparent. E X A M P L E 9 ' s e e n . 84 b e l o w After having thus expanded the compass of the melody in phrase B, both Glykes (Example 6, l i ne 4) and Panaretos (Example 7, l i ne 2) return to phrase A before proceeding to a middle sect ion which consists of phrase B; the l a t t e r uses th is return to the lower tetrachord for his i n i t i a l set t ing of yeLxaXaBexe]., and the former uses i t for the continuation of th is word. This repet i t ion does not occur in Moschianos, who continues d i r ec t l y with phrase B. T r a n s p o s e d t o Mode I P l a g a l f o r e a s e o f c o m p a r i s o n . 49. In a l l three set t ings a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y may be observed between the various versions of phrase B. This i s pa r t i cu l a r l y evident, of course, in the general ambitus and contours of the phrase, as well as in the use of f igures b and c. Also noteworthy, however, i s the unusually consistent placement of the pelaston within the melodies. This neume occurs 85 somewhat infrequently in 14th-century manuscripts, and i t i s here reserved not only for the same musical f i gu re , but invar iab ly for the same pi tch ( i . e . b j . In Glykes's set t ing the pelaston i s used as the peak of phrase B in l ine 7, and occurs in the word yevoacQe. A l l other manuscripts which transmit Glykes's hymn use a pelaston at th is point , i r respect ive of whatever other di f ferences in modal assignment or notation they may transmit. In Moschianos's set t ing the pelaston is used at the ident ica l place in the text but occurs only in Vatopedi MS. 1495 and Vienna MS. 185 and not in our model from Athens MS. 2622. Moreover, at the same place in phrase B, at the word a O a v d x o u , Vatopedi MS. 1495 adds an addi t ional pelaston (cf . Example 8b, l ines 6' and 5 ' ) . Panaretos also uses the pelaston only in phrase B, but u t i l i z e s i t for both the words aGavdxou and xp i c rxou (cf . Example 7, 87 l i nes 6 and 1). It i s d i f f i c u l t to deduce the s ign i f i cance of th is remarkably consistent usage of the pelaston, but i t does serve to emphasize 8 5 H a n n i c k , " E t u d e , " p . 2 5 5 . 8 6 S i n a i M S . 1462 ( f o l . 1 4 9 r ) a n d S i n a i M S . 1294 ( f o l . 1 6 7 r ) b o t h u s e a n a d d i t i o n a l p e l a s t o n . I n S i n a i M S . 1462 i t o c c u r s t o aGavdxou o n t h e n o t e g_, a n d i n S i n a i M S . 1294 i t i s u s e d d u r i n g t h e p o s t - c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a t o t h e n o t e e_ ( s e e E x a m p l e 2 1 ) . 8 7 A l t h o u g h i n l i n e 1 t h e p e l a s t o n o c c u r s o n a c_, t h i s n o t e i s e q u i v a l e n t , b y v i r t u e o f t h e u s e o f , M o d e I I P l a g a l i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t o t h e n o t e b a s i t i s u s e d i n l i n e 6 . 50. the s i m i l a r i t y of phrase B in a l l three versions and might conceivably indicate a common or ig in or at least the existence of a s imi lar model u t i l i z e d by a l l three composers. Of greater s ign i f icance than these various features, however, i s the s i m i l a r i t y in overal l structure that i s revealed by a l l three se t t ings . Af ter a middle sect ion that is devoted to phrase B, a l l three composers eventual ly return to phrase A and i t s lower area of the mode, thereby giv ing the i r compositions the semblance of a large t r i p a r t i t e form. In each case the las t element of th is structure const i tutes an amalgamation of the two phrases and the i r respective regions of the mode, so that the scheme appears as A + B + (A + B) . This recap i tu la t ion i s espec ia l l y obvious in Glykes 's hymn where i t i s highl ighted by the v i r t u a l l y exact re i te ra t ion of f igure a (see Example 6, l ines 6, 7, and 8) and f igure b (see Example 6, l i ne 7) . Panaretos i s s im i l a r l y unequivocal about the return to phrase A and B (see Example 7, f igure a in l ines 6 and 7, and f igures c and b in l i ne 7) and although Moschianos obscures f igures a and b somewhat through embellishment, they are s t i l l d i s t i nc t i ve enough to permit the i r i den t i f i ca t i on (see Example 8, f igure a in l i ne 7 and compare th is with l i ne 2) . It i s of par t i cu la r in terest that th is reappearance of phrase A, and i t s subsequent combination with phrase B, i s relegated to much the same place in the text of a l l three versions. Panaretos and Glykes both associate th is recap i tu la - t ion with the music which separates Trnyfis and deavatou,. and return to i t again for the music which accompanies or immediately precedes the las t word, yeOoaoQe. Moschianos appl ies i t only to the f i r s t sy l l ab le of th is l as t word. 51. It should also be noted that in a l l three versions the lower tetrachord is u t i l i z e d for the f i na l cadence. Glykes makes d i rec t use here of the opening f igure a , and Panaretos fol lows th is procedure, a l be i t through a lengthening of the f igure . Moschianos does not revert to the opening f igure but merely returns to th is area of the mode by circumscribing the f i na l i s d and i t s upper neighbouring tone. The overa l l form that emerges in a l l three versions then i s a very simple one that i s constructed with a minimum of musical mater ia ls . The use of only two phrases underlines the s i m i l a r i t y of these ear ly set t ings of laiua X P I ° T O U and segregates them, quite c lea r l y from the more elaborate structures of the la te r 14th-century composers. Examples 6 and 8 also reproduce a number of pa ra l l e l musical phrases from the l a t t e r sect ion of Glykes's and Moschianos's set t ings as found in Vatopedi MS. 1495. This manuscript, i t w i l l be remembered, contains a repet i t ion in both sett ings of the phrase Tnyyns dSavdxou and i t s music. Occasional ly , Vatopedi MS. 1495 i s s l i g h t l y more elaborate than our models of Glykes 's and Moschianos's set t ings from Athens MS. 2458 and Athens MS. 2622 ( respec t i ve ly ) , and i t i s g ra t i f y ing to observe that Vatopedi MS. 1495 invar iab ly supports our d i v i s i on of the phraseology (e.g. compare l i ne 5 from Athens MS. 2458 and l i ne 5' from Vatopedi MS. 1495 in Glykes' hymn). In Vatopedi MS. 1495 the word TraAiv i s , in both instances, used to introduce the repet i t ion of the phrase Tnryns aQavdxou and i t i s in terest ing to note the manner in which th is word i s set to music. It i s not merely given an arb i t ra ry musical f i gu re ; rather i t comprises an integral part of the structure and f u l f i l s the musical log ic of i t s context. Consider, for example, the ending of the musical phrase which fol lows the word dSavdxou 52. in Glykes's hymn (as given in Athens MS. 2458, l i ne 7) and which cadences on c_ immediately p r io r to the leap of a f i f t h to £ that begins the word yetioaoQe. At the ident ica l locat ion in Vatopedi MS. 1495 ( l i ne 7') the notes of th is f i f t h are f i l l e d i n , a musical elaborat ion which is also f u l f i l l e d by the word -ndXw at the equivalent point in l i ne 7. A comparison of l i nes 6 and 6' of Moschianos's set t ing from Vatopedi MS. 1495 (Example 8a) shows that much the same procedure i s followed there. The text set t ing is quite s im i l a r in a l l of these three versions by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos. It amounts to a decidedly conserva- t i ve treatment that is bas ica l l y s y l l a b i c or neumatic and i s only i n f re - quently expanded into melismas. The longest melisma i s invar iab ly wr i t ten under the second sy l l ab le of TnrYns, and in Moschianos's and Glykes 's hymns the f i r s t , and the f i r s t two sy l lab les of yeOoaoQe ( respect ive ly) are also prolonged. In general , however, i t appears that a maximum e f fo r t has been made to preserve the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of the text by according to most words a s y l l a b i c or neumatic musical se t t i ng . This i s pa r t i cu la r l y evident in the composers' treatment of the words awua and TrriYns, the former opening the hymn and the l a t t e r beginning the second major sect ion. The word Tnryris is always set to two successive notes of the same p i t c h , and th is gives i t a somewhat herald ic qua l i t y . Panaretos and Moschianos both delay the f i na l consonant of th is word by the use of in tercalated material but th is only obviates the lengthy unsupported melisma on the f i n a l sy l l ab le that occurs in Glykes's set t ing in Athens MS. 2458. A s im i la r procedure i s u t i l i z e d for the word acoya. Only in Panaretos's hymn are the two sy l lab les of th is word not set to successive notes. Instead, he introduces a repe t i - t ion of the opening vowel by using the in tercalated sy l l ab le 'xw' a f ter 53. an intervening upper neighbouring tone, but this is at most a minor departure from the nature of the opening used by the other two composers. The two works by Kladas — one in Mode III Authentic, the other in Mode IV Plagal (hereafter, respectively, Kladas r and Kladas A) — comprise a second category for the Easter Communion hymn. Chronologically, and to some extent s t y l i s t i c a l l y , they show a connection with the preceding three versions, whereas the choice of mode suggests. — at least in one case — a link with the remaining settings in Mode IV Plagal.. In fact, a close examination reveals that they exhibit a far greater similarity to one another than to either the earlier or later settings, and will therefore be treated independently. The two hymns are reproduced in Examples 10 and 11, and their interrelationship, as well as their divergence from the earlier settings, is immediately apparent. It is evident that the structure here has been expanded somewhat, and both works are now constructed with three musical phrases rather than two as had been utilized by the earlier composers. Within each version the f i r s t two phrases (A and B) are decidedly similar; occupying much the same tessitura and displaying like contours. Their distinctiveness, however, is manifested by the generally dissimilar opening or closing notes, and by the correlation of some significant musical elements. Compare, for instance, figure e which dominates the cadence of most examples of phrase B in Example 10, but is not present in phrase A. Similarly, in Example 11, the descending motion of phrase A is usually initiated by a combination of figures f and g, whereas this descent is generally avoided in phrase B by the use of figure h. Phrase C, on the other hand, is in 54. EXAMPLE 10 — Kladas, A t h e n s MS. 2622, f o l . 417 ( f " " ) 55. 56. both versions completely at variance with the two preceding phrases and forms an eas i l y i den t i f i ab le group. The fol lowing Example 12 contains the f i r s t l i ne of a l l three phrases, and th is juxtaposi t ion h ighl ights an astonishing s i m i l a r i t y between both of Kladas's se t t ings . Not only are the three phrases v i r t u a l l y ident ica l in both set t ings but the i r i n i t i a l appearance occurs at equivalent points in the tex t , i . e . each phrase coincides with one of the f i r s t three text d i v i s i ons . It i s scarcely an exaggeration, then, to suggest that both hymns are fashioned from the same mater ia ls , for although some di f ferences are evident, the degree of ident i ty i s fa r too great to permit i t to be sum- mari ly dismissed. The two hymns are o r i g i n a l l y assigned to d i f ferent modes that s tar t a second apart , and Example 12 shows that phrase A in each version i s a t ranspos i t ion , by an in terva l of a second, of i t s companion. In Kladas r the opening phrase is longer, and i s more highly developed by v i r tue of i t s two d i s t i nc t upward curves (cf . phrase A" and A' in Example 12), but th is only shows the s l i gh t divergence in compositional approach that i s also apparent elsewhere in th is se t t i ng . This d iss imi l tude i s revealed, in pa r t i cu l a r , by the unusual and extended melisma on the f i r s t s y l l ab l e of Ecoya, as well as by the repet i t ion of th is ent i re word, a feature which occurs in no other 14th^century example. More than twice as much music i s ac tua l ly devoted to the f i r s t phrase of the text in Kladas r than in Kladas A, and a s im i la r change of proportions is also evident in the second phrase. A modulation to Mode IV Authent ic, which i s ve r i f i ed by the in te r - polat ion of a medial signature of that mode, occurs at the beginning of phrase B in Kladas r and resu l ts in th is version acquir ing the same pi tch EXAMPLE 12 58. level as Kladas A. This phrase, together with the second unit of text, is again given a more extensive musical treatment in the former hymn, occurring there three times, and only once in Kladas A. At its f i r s t repetition in Kladas r this phrase is preceded by a medial signature of the Nana mode, a signature that is somewhat puzzling for its context suggests that i t must be reckoned from 9_ and not its customary c_. Moreover, except for the somewhat lower tessitura in its central part, this phrase is equivalent to the pre- vious one, which had been introduced with the signature of Mode IV Authentic. In Kladas r the beginning of phrase C is introduced by the word Xeye which is set to a musical fragment that is similar to the intonation po formula for the Nana mode (Mode IV Medial), and i t is followed by a medial signature of this mode. The use of the word Xiye at this point is rather unusual, for ostensibly i t does not mark either a musical or textual repe- t i t i o n , and is set to the identical figure that is used slightly later for the word TT&AXV which introduces a .'repetition of the phrase rrriYris a6avdxou. Although the word X£ye may signify an unnotated and as yet unrecognized reiteration of previous material, i t s most apparent role is that i t acts as an abstract of the opening of the succeeding phrase. After the repetition of phrase C there occurs a brief musical phrase (Example 10, line 8) that is our f i r s t indication of the practice of word inversion — in this case, word g elision — that became increasingly popular among the composers of this era. S e e t h e f o r m u l a e o f Mode IV P l a g a l i n O l i v e r S t r u n k , " I n t o n a t i o n s a n d S i g n a t u r e s o f t h e B y z a n t i n e M o d e s , " i n E s s a y s o n M u s i c i n t h e B y z a n t i n e W o r l d , p . 24- e x a m p l e s '#10 a n d # 1 1 , a n d p . 3 3 . 89 S e e p . 2 5 a b o v e . 59. It i s obvious, however, that the phrase TrriYns yetfoaoBe i s merely a para- phrase that conveys the idea of the complete phrase in a somewhat more succinct but equal ly i n t e l l i g i b l e and possibly more emphatic manner. A phthora of Mode III Authentic marks the beginning of phrase C in Kladas A but th is only confirms a t ransposi t ion that i s evident from the music i t s e l f . The repet i t ion of th is textual and musical unit i s introduced by the word irdAxv (Example 11, l i ne 7 ) , and as was the case in our three e a r l i e r se t t ings , th is word i s set to an organic part of the phraseology of th is hymn. In Example 4 above (p.. 14), we noted the divergent approach taken by the two scr ibes of Athens MS. 2411 and Athens MS. 904 for the set t ing of the word TrdAxv, but Example 12 reveals that the l a t t e r , in e f fec t , subst i tutes phrase B where the former uses phrase C. Preceding the r e i t e r a - t ion of TTriYns deavdxou the scr ibe in Athens MS. 2411 also interpolates a signature of the Nana mode (zz), whereas Athens MS. 904 u t i l i z e s a martyr iai of Mode IV P laga l . In the three ear ly versions of Zwya X P ' L O T O U we observed in each case the recap i tu la t ion of phrase A towards the close of the hymn, and th is feature resulted in a l l sett ings acquir ing the appearance of a t r i p a r t i t e s t ructure. A s im i la r tendency appears in the examples by Kladas, but the symmetrical scheme is no longer v i s i b l e . Kladas r uses a phrase (Example 10, l i ne 7) that i s reminiscent, both by i t s tess i tu ra and i t s use of f igure d, of phrase A (see espec ia l l y l i ne 3). As in our e a r l i e r se t t i ngs , th is i s then followed by the remaining phrases: the ending only of phrase B, and the TrdAxv repet i t ion of phrase C in i t s en t i re ty . In add i t i on , the conclusion of th is hymn u t i l i z e s a port ion of phrase A ' , as does the post-cadent ial mater ia l . However, in sp i te of t h i s , a substant ia l l y d i f fe rent form resu l ts 60. and the re i te ra t ion of material from phrase A seems p rac t i ca l l y inc idental to i t . The di f ference in form is caused mainly by the d isproport ionate ly greater amount of musical emphasis placed on the f i r s t two phrases (A and B) and the i r music, an imbalance which i s furthered by the brevi ty of phrase C. Kladas A demonstrates a rather complex structure in which a great deal of a l ternat ion of phrases B and C takes p lace, and in which phrase A plays a s i g n i f i c a n t , i f in termi t tent , r o l e . The recap i tu la t ion of phrase A is ac tua l ly considerably more d i s t i nc t i ve here than in the former Kladas example, and i t occurs with the word a9av&Tou (Example 11, l ines 7 and 12), a placement that i s analagous to that in Glykes's and Panaretos's vers ions. Moreover, as was the case with our e a r l i e r se t t i ngs , phrase A i s immediately followed by phrases B and C (see Example 11, l i ne 12, since th is omits the •ndXxv phrase that fol lows in l i ne 7). In Kladas r, however, the reappearance of phrase A is set to the f i r s t sy l l ab le of yevoaaQe and th is usage is s im i l a r to Moschianos's vers ion , as well as the second occurrence of the phrase in Glykes's and Panaretos's hymns. A completely d i f ferent approach to text set t ing i s seen in Kladas's two works. In Kladas r, except for a few instances — notably the lengthy melismas on Eto-ua, and that which occurs at the i n i t i a l use of yetioaoQe — the preference i s for a repet i t ion of words, or occasional ly parts of words, rather than lengthy, unsupported melismas. Again there seems to be a maximum emphasis on the comprehensibi l i ty of the text and the remaining melismas general ly occur on the las t or penultimate sy l l ab les of a word, thereby ensuring that the nature of the word has been c l ea r l y expressed, e . g . , yeTaAd-gexe or a0avd-xou. In Kladas A, however, text words, are not repeated — barr ing, 61. of course, the repet i t ion associated with the -ndXiv — and th is requires the more frequent use of the lengthy melismas, espec ia l l y since i t i s the longer of the two hymns. Since most of the text receives a neumat ic /sy l labic set t ing th is does not a f fec t i t s i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y to any great extent, and the longest melisma occupies a fami l i a r place on the second sy l l ab le of Tiryyns. Only in the word yetioaoBe are a l l of the sy l lab les widely dispersed by the inser t ion of melismatic passages. The set t ing of the words Ewua and Trnyns i s also subt ly a l tered in the two se t t ings . In Kladas r the f i r s t words i s — as we have already seen — subjected to a lengthy melisma, but the word Trnyns i s set s y l l a b i - c a l l y . Both sy l l ab les of th is word are i n i t i a l l y set to two ident ica l notes, but when the word i s re i tera ted the repeated pi tch of the second sy l l ab l e is presaged by both lower and upper neighbouring tones. The second repet i t ion is yet again d i f fe rent and there the second sy l l ab le i s set a th i rd higher than the f i r s t . A l so , in contrast to both Kladas A and the e a r l i e r versions discussed above, only a moderate melisma i s wr i t ten to the second sy l l ab le of -rrnYns, and th is occurs so le ly at i t s second c i t a t i o n . Except for the i n i t i a l use of Tnyyns, Kladas A also continues the pract ice of set t ing both sy l l ab les of the two words to successive notes of the same p i t ch . It i s poss ib le , though, that in the former instance the unusual d ispos i t ion of the sy l l ab le yris i s pr imar i ly meant to s ign i f y the placement of the sigma consonant, in a manner analagous to TrnYn-xns which occurs frequently in our reper to i re . In that case the scr ibe would have assumed that the two vowels of Trnyns would be sung in the customary manner to the two consecutive notes at the beginning of the phrase, s im i l a r l y to that which he notated for the repet i t ion of the word in l i ne 8 (Example 11). 62. EXAMPLE 13 — G a v a l o s , V i e n n a MS. 1 8 5 , f o l . 2 8 4 V (7T <5" 63. 64. EXAMPLE 1 5 — D o u k a s , Vat. MS. 1495, f o l . 2 1 8 P (TT3 ) 65. The openings of the remaining set t ings in Mode IV Plagal by Gavalos, Gerasimos, and Doukas immediately suggest a s i m i l a r i t y between these three vers ions, and th is i s ve r i f i ed by a c loser examination of the complete hymns. Example 16 shows the f i r s t use of phrases A and B, and there the re- la t ionsh ip becomes read i ly apparent. (The complete set t ings are contained in Examples 13, 14, and 15). E X A M P L E 16 Phrase.A f J - s t l i n e ) ( I GCLUZIOS L J J ' - J f2 /UOC Gerasimos i f i ^ - n ' ' ^ f e t e C7) yUOC Gavalos Phmsc B C i s t l i n e ) Gerasimos Gerasimos (3rd Une) Doukas fit.. ToC (7) \<x. fie, _ a A Te, (7\ • t A m Mi. Aoi ^ TCC XOL pe. 66. The unique out l ine of the opening phrase — displayed most c l ea r l y in the examples by Gavalos and Doukas — suggests that the hymn may have acquired not only a common modal usage but also a standard opening by the l a t t e r part of the 14th century, i . e . post-Kladas. In i t s most basic form th is opening comprises the notes £-a_-c_-a_-a_ and th is may also be seen in 90 other Koinonika. Moreover, the s i m i l a r i t y c lea r l y extends also to phrase B, and in both cases i s associated with the ident ica l text phrases. A s im i la r approach to phrase C in Gavalos i s also taken by Doukas in phrase D but by th is point a divergence in text set t ing has occurred, as i s seen in Example 17. PhrascC -i P /\ (?) Gavalos Doukas tfa ' F — I — E X A M P L E 17 m era In sp i te of th is obvious use of the same musical material a l l three versions show a number of unique features. Returning once again to the opening, i t can be observed that the repet i t ion of th is phrase A ( l i ne 90 T h i s o p e n i n g i s v a g u e l y s i m i l a r t o t h e Mode IV . P l a g a l o p e n i n g o f t h e 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y A i v e i T E m e l o d y p r o v i d e d b y C o n o m o s , " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p . 2 5 6 . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t w o 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y e x a m p l e s o f TevoaoQe i n t h i s mode t h a t a r e k n o w n t o m e , b o t h u t i l i z e a n o p e n i n g t h a t i s c l e a r l y b a s e d o n t h a t f o u n d i n E x a m p l e 1 6 . T h e s e t t i n g s b y G e r a s i m o s a n d R a i d e s t i n o s — a c o m p o s e r who m a k e s a f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e same MS a s G e r a s i m o s , i . e . A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 — c o n t a i n o p e n i n g s t h a t a r e s o m e w h a t m o r e o r n a t e t h a n t h o s e i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e , b u t w h o s e s i m i l a r o u t l i n e s a r e e a s i l y v i s i b l e . ( G e r a s i m o s i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 9 v - 2 2 0 r - a n d R a i d e s t i n o s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 f o l . 4 1 9 r : ) 67. 2 in a l l three versions) is subtly varied by each composer. Only in Gerasimos does the phrase now ascend to the o r ig ina l c_, whereas both Gavalos and Doukas l im i t i t s upward movement to b_. A comparison with phrase A in l i ne 3 of Gavalos's set t ing (Example 13) c l a r i f i e s the re la t ionsh ip of l i ne 2 — both here and in Doukas's hymn — w i t h l ine 1. The presence there of f igure i wi th in the standard opening formula reveals that in l i ne 2 we are dealing with a s imi i iar , a l be i t s l i g h t , var ia t ion of phrase A that i s char- acter ized by the omission of the c_ and the subst i tu t ion of f igure i which i n i t i a t e s the phrase's descent. In terest ing ly enough, f igure i also occurs in Kladas r (Example 10, l i ne 1, phrase A ' ) where i t f u l f i l s a s im i la r funct ion. In that case, however, i t i s merely a repet i t ion of phrase A and in no way a l te rs the contours of the opening phrase. Another minor d i f ference between these three set t ings i s that Gavalos sets the f i r s t sy l l ab le of uexaXdpexe to a second repet i t ion of phrase A, whereas the two other composers only repeat th is phrase once and u t i l i z e i t so le ly for the f i r s t text un i t . The congruity of phrase B in a l l three versions has already been shown in Example 16 but various di f ferences in i t s use may also be observed. Gavalos i n i t i a l l y employs th is phrase only for the remainder of [ye]xaXdS£T£ and then proceeds to phrase C for the subsequent text . Conversely, both Gerasimos and Doukas lav ish a great deal of at tent ion on th is phrase. In the former version i t is o r i g i n a l l y repeated four times and used only for a number of re i te ra t ions of the word yexaXdftexe (Example 14, l ines 2-6) , while the l a t t e r composer immediately reuses th is musical phrase for the ent i re middle sect ion of the .text, v i z . , yexaXdftexe TrriYns aGavdxou (Example .15, l ines 2-4). 68. Af ter phrase B the approach of the three composers diverges sub- s t a n t i a l l y . Phrase C in Doukas's set t ing i s v i r t u a l l y the same as phrase D of Gavalos's vers ion, but Gavalos set th is to the word aQavdxou rather than to yeuaaaGe as set by Doukas. Moreover, i t i s only at the second un- texted occurrence of phrase D (Example 13, l i ne 5) that i t s s i m i l a r i t y to Doukas's phrase C rea l l y becomes evident, for i t s i n i t i a l appearance in l i ne 4 conveys at most an a f f i n i t y based on tess i tu ra and contours. Phrase C in Gavalos, however, is equivalent to the th i rd phrase used by Gerasimos but once again they are used for d i f fe rent purposes in the text . EXAMPLE 18 Phrase C* Oerasimos Gerasimos V Jjr) 71^ In Gavalos the phrase i s set to the word Trnyns (Example 13, l ines 3 and 6) , whereas Gerasimos uses i t as the musical adjunct of the d i rect ions Xeye and TrdAxv (Example 14, l ines 4 and 8) . It i s only la te r in the hymn that th is phrase also serves as a re i te ra t ion of the word Trnyris and subsequently, aQavdxou (Example 14, l ines 13 and 14). This once again demonstrates that the words rrdAxv and Xeye are set to an integral part of the hymn's s t ructure. 69. Gerasimos extends his hymn yet fur ther by the introduct ion of two addi t ional phrases, which bear no resemblance to any of the material in the set t ings of Gavalos and Doukas. Phrase D i s essen t ia l l y a lengthy melisma to the word Trnyns but i t s most in terest ing feature i s that i t concludes with the c i t a t i on of an abbreviated version of phrase A. This i s followed by phrase E which i s repeated for the f i r s t set t ing of the two words deavdxou and ye-CaaoQz, Snd' functions" as a cadential f igure of th is sect ion. It i s obvious that these three versions d isplay somewhat more elaborate structures than our e a r l i e r sett ings but in sp i te of th is a number of s i gn i f i can t features are held in common. As was the case with the majority of the previous se t t ings , a re i te ra t ion of the opening phrase A occurs towards the end of these examples. The most d i s t i nc t i ve recapi tu- la t ion i s v i s i b l e to the word yetioaoBe in l i ne 8 of Gavalos's version (Example 13), for here i t consists of a v i r t u a l l y exact repet i t ion of l i ne 1. This repet i t ion i s preceded by a re i te ra t ion of phrases B and C to the text of dQav&Tou and mryns, a n d resu l ts in a symmetrical structure that i s analagous to a Bogen form. This sequence also shows once again the pract ice of text e l i s i o n and i t occurs here in the same manner as in Kladas r. Doukas u t i l i z e s a form that i s scarcely more complex although i t s proportions are somewhat d i f fe ren t . The expansive middle sec t ion , which comprises phrase B and the two middle units of the tex t , has been al luded to above, and is followed by a b r ie f set t ing of yetioaoBe in phrase C. This f i na l word i s immediately repeated but by music that reverts to phrase A (see Example 15, l i ne 5 ) , and af ter th is the ent i re l a t t e r hal f of the text recurs to the music that had been u t i l i z e d prev ious ly , i . e . phrases B and C. Only in the case of phrase C does th is const i tu te an exact repet i t ion of the foregoing 70. music. The versions of phrase B are clearly related to the original example in line 2, but show signs of embellishment and variation. Also significant, however, is that this repetition is introduced by a TrdAiv unit that evidences the same integration into the phraseology that had been observed in previous examples. Here i t f u l f i l s the ascent from g_ to d with which phrase B begins. The setting by Gerasimos demonstrates the most complex and pro- tracted structure of our group. We have noted above the manner in which a compact reiteration of phrase A functions here as a closing figure to phrase D and is then followed by its corollary, phrase E. Subsequently, however, a somewhat more concise setting of the last two text phrases is appended, and these constitute a curious amalgamation of the previous musical material. The word a e a v d t o u is set to a brief fragment that resembles phrase C which had earlier been employed for A e y e , TT&AIV, and Trrryris, and the word yeuaaaOe contains a reiteration of phrase B which reverts once again to phrase A for its conclusion. It is clear that Gerasimos has utilized.his original musical material to the utmost, but has returned, invariably, to the opening phrase in a manner that seems to have been customary for most composers of this hymn. Moreover, in agreement with a l l but one of the preceding versions, this recapitulation occurs in proximity to the word ye-OoaoBe. The text setting of these three Koinonika shows some major changes from a l l previous examples. Particularly obvious is a trend towards a melismatic — o c c a s i o n a l l y neumatic — treatment of the text, in contrast to the earlier hymns which generally evince a syllabic-neumatic text setting. Although Gerasimos is usually somewhat more conservative in this respect — with a considerably greater amount of syllablic usage — t h e r e is a marked 71. tendency, espec ia l l y in the versions by Gavalos and Doukas, in favour of lengthier melismas for each text s y l l a b l e . Such melismatic passages intrude increasingly upon the for thr igh t exposi t ion of the tex t , but seldom af fect i t s l u c i d i t y , and never show an expansion into the unrestrained melismas that const i tu te a feature of the kalophonic repertory. It i s also in terest ing to note that the sy l l ab les of the two introductory words of each sec t ion , Zwya and Trnyns» are now seldom set to successive notes of the same pi tch as had been -the case in most e a r l i e r versions of th is hymn. In f ac t , only the f i r s t set t ing of the word Trnyns in Gerasimos's set t ing receives th is treatment, and even at i t s second occurrence there the sy l l ab les of th is word are separated. Gerasimos and Doukas, however, s t i l l re ta in the longest melismatic passage for the l a t t e r sy l l ab le of Trnyns, and in Gerasimos's version th is i s a very expansive mel ismathat is supported by the i n te rca la - t ion of non-textual vowels. A l l three sett ings also separate the two ; sy l l ab les of acoua by the inser t ion of melismas of varying length. Gerasimos, in pa r t i cu la r , u t i l i z e s a lengthy melismatic passage at th is po int , and in th is he seems to be fo l lowing a pract ice that was f i r s t observed in Kladas r. 72. SUMMARY A. Changes With a tota l of only eight set t ings of the proper Koinonikon for Easter i t i s natura l ly impossible to ar r ive at any de f i n i t i ve conclusions about the development of th is hymn during the 14th century. Nevertheless, a number of overal l trends become v i s i b l e and these w i l l be dealt with in th is sect ion. The most obvious change in our reperto i re of EaJya XPICTOU i s that the dimensions of the set t ings are progressively expanded in the course of the century. In the fo l lowing table (see fo l lowing page) two c r i t e r i a were u t i l i z e d in order to es tab l ish the length of the eight vers ions: a note count of the ent i re hymn (excluding the post-cadent ial formulae), and an enumeration of the number of l ines devoted to the piece in<a spec i f i c manu- 91 s c r i p t . The ca lcu la t ions are based on the models that have been used throughout th is study. " " " "Each o f t h e s e m e t h o d s i s s o m e w h a t p r o b l e m a t i c a l , b u t t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n t h e y p r o d u c e a r e a s o n a b l e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e ^ l e n g t h o f t h e h y m n s . A s i m p l e c o u n t o f a l l t h e n o t e s t h a t t h e s c r i b e h a s w r i t t e n d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c h e i r o n o m i a t h a t w e r e f r e q u e n t l y a d d e d , a n d w h i c h , i n some c a s e s , s e e m t o d e n o t e a n u n w r i t t e n p r a c t i c e o f m e l o d i c e l a b o r a t i o n ( s e e C o n o m o s , T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 3 6 7 a n d p p . 3 5 1 f f . ) . I n t h a t s e n s e a n o t e c o u n t i s a t b e s t a r e l a t i v e g a u g e o f l e n g t h . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a l i n e c o u n t d e p e n d s o n t h e s c r i b e ' s c a l l i g r a p h y a n d e v e n t h e s i z e o f h i s MS f o r i t s a c c u r a c y . T h e i m p r e c i s i o n o f t h i s m e t h o d i s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t h e t w o v e r s i o n s o f K l a d a s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 a n d A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 . T h e t w e l v e l i n e s u t i l i z e d b y t h e s c r i b e i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 s u g g e s t t h a t K l a d a s Y i s c o n s i d e r - a b l y l o n g e r t h a n K l a d a s A, w h i c h i s f i t t e d i n t o 9 1 / 4 l i n e s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 . I n a c t u a l f a c t , h o w e v e r , a n o t e c o u n t r e v e a l s t h a t t h e l a t t e r e x a m p l e ' i s ' , s l i g h t l y , l o n g e r . : ( . C l e a r l y '-an • e n u m e r a t i o n " o f - l i n e s " i s o n l y ; a n a c c e p t a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e l e n g t h o f a hymn i f we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y o n e s c r i b e a n d > o n e s p e c i f i c M S . 73. T A B L E , V . I I L e n g t h o f Etoyq XPIQ~TQU M e l o d i e s NOTE C O U N T 9 2 ' L I N E S StSns HS. 2*58) 1 1 3 < 1 1 5 ) 5 1 / 2 P a n a r e t o s ( K o u t l o u r a o u s i M S . 4 5 7 ) M o s c h i a n o s ( A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ) K l a d a s r ( A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 ) G a v a l o s ( V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 ) G e r a s i m o s ( V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 ) D o u k a s ( V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ) 1 3 8 ( 1 4 0 ) 7 1 2 9 ( 1 3 6 ) 6 2 2 3 ( 2 3 7 ) 12 K l a d a s A ( 2 4 6 ) 2 6 4 9 3 •' 9 1 / 4 ( A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 ) U * b ) i m 9 1 / 4 1 8 4 ( 1 6 4 ) G e r a s i m o s 3 2 4 ( 3 3 3 ) o r , 4 0 2 ( 4 1 1 ) " " 1 4 ( V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 )  g 2 4 4 ( 2 5 4 ) 10 1 5 6 ( 1 6 6 ) 7 This table reveals that the length of our sett ings increases gradual from the e a r l i e s t group of composers (Glykes, Moschianos, and Panaretos) to 92 T h e b r a c k e t e d f i g u r e s i n c l u d e t h e p o s t - c a d e n t i a l p h r a s e . 93 T h e p r e s e n c e o f a p o s t - c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e i s u n c e r t a i n h e r e ( s e e p . 8 1 f f . ) . 94 T h e s e c o n d s e t o f f i g u r e s t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e a d d i t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t e x t t h a t i s made p o s s i b l e b y t h e a l t e r n a t e e n d i n g . 74. the th i rd group (Gavalos, and Doukas). The version by Gerasimos, although i t is not the la tes t example, surpasses a l l the others and stands as the culmination of th is progression. S i m i l a r l y , the two hymns by Kladas occupy an intermediate pos i t ion in the chronological order of the reper to i re , but the i r length suggests a placement between the la tes t group of sett ings and Gerasimos's vers ion. Conversely, of course, i t i s somewhat surpr is ing that the l as t example — the set t ing by Doukas which occurs only in one of the la tes t manuscripts, Vatopedi 1495 — does not continue the expansion evidenced by the e a r l i e r hymn of Gerasimos's,:but reverts to a more concise musical format. Another facet of the changing dimensions of our repertor ie i s the increasingly larger ambitus encompassed by the d i f ferent examples. The f o l - lowing Figure provides f i r s t the to ta l range of each hymn, and then the span of each sect ion of the melody. Whenever an obvious sh i f t in t e r r i t u ra occurs wi thin a sect ion th is has been noted. Once again i t becomes evident that there ex is ts a c lear cor re la t ion between chronology and the ambitus of a melody. Thus, for example, the melody of our e a r l i e s t hymn by Glykes spans the in terval o f .a seventh whereas the las t set t ing by Doukas encompasses a range that has been expanded to an eleventh. A necessary adjunct to th is c r i t e r i a , however, i s the sh i f t in tess i tu ra within the sections of a hymn. This is i l l u s t r a t e d in the l a t t e r part of the f i gu re , for i t places the increased range of the pieces within the i r context. This is pa r t i cu la r l y necessary since a coro l la ry of the expanding ambitus i s the changes in tess i tu ra that become more pronounced during the course of the century. At i t s most extreme th is can be observed.by comparing the hymns of Glykes and Doukas. In the former case the ent i re melody bas ica l l y remains wi thin the FIGURE 3 Changing Ambitus i n Itouq XPT-CTOU TOTAll fU\UGE\ Panaretos V\osch\anD5 Kladas r & aval os 9 Kladas A g_ . OerasmioS V * 1+95 r̂ r; Doukas 1*35 Org) VJtTHitJ SECTIONS 2.U1/10C JffLCTTOV /USTOcXk/SST^ ^ITH^ OlSol.W.TO'O -ytVCTOLGdt. LutTKXoi/isTe ,, 1 ' MtraHL~ IF 2fc P T» A _ * - 7rrjjfj<; d(jBa.l/tt,ToV 7Tr)tfs im fx—i 7 7£y - acccrde> A OC&ttl'OCJTOV ^tv/rxcrdt, ir\d. post- cad'er>tia\ 76. f i f t h from d-a_ and on occasion i s b r i e f l y expanded by one note in each d i rec - t i o n . The set t ing by Doukas, on the other hand, shows a number of de f in i te t ranspos i t ions , the most obvious of which may be seen by comparing the opening phrase with the i n i t i a l c i t a t i on of yetiaaaGe:. The melodies of our examples also reveal that the use of increasingly larger in terva ls becomes commonplace as the 14th century advances. In the e a r l i e s t group of set t ings the melody progresses mainly by conjunct motion and, to a lesser extent, by the in terva l of a t h i r d . The largest i n t e r v a l s , those of a fourth and a f i f t h , are used rather inf requent ly . In f ac t , as may be seen in Table V I I I , the in terval of a f i f t h does not even occur in two T A B L E 1 V I I I I n t e r v a l U s a g e i n P e r c e n t a g e s 5 t h 6 t h 7 t h 8 t h 1% 2% 1% . 5 % 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% I N T E R V A L S : 9 5 G l y k e s P a n a r e t o s M o s c h i a n o s K l a d a s T K l a d a s A G a v a l o s G e r a s i m o s ( V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 ) G e r a s i m o s ( V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 ) D o u k a s 2 n d 3 r d 4 t h 86% 11% 2% 86% 10% ' 2% 90% 9% 1% 85% 11% ; 4% 86% 9% 3 . 5 % 84% 14% 88% 8% 2% 90% 7% 1% 78% 19% 1% 95 • • • . N o n e o f t h e p 6 s t - e a d e n t i a T " m a t " e r i a l h a s b e e n - t a k e n ' i n t o considera- t i o n when , a r r i v i n g a t ' - t h e s e f i g u r e s . " V - ~ V 96 T h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n o n e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r s e c t i o n a s p r o v i d e d b y t h e s e c o n d e n d i n g . 77. se t t ings , those of Moschianos and Kladas r. The la te r set t ings consis tent ly employ the f i f t h , and in two versions even exceed that to u t i l i z e the in terva ls of a seventh"and an octave. On the whole, however, the propor- t ionate use of most in terva ls remains reasonably constant throughout our reper to i re . The majority of movement i s always:'by conjunct in terva l (an average of 86% of the melody), and the u t i l i z a t i o n of th i rds also remains much the same (an average of 11%). It i s only the actual use of increasingly larger in terva ls in the la te r set t ings of Eoiya xpiorou that const i tutes a di f ference in the in terval l i e u t i l i z a t i o n of our reper to i re . The re la t i ve use of most i n t e r va l s , on the o therhand, does not.change to any appreciable degree. In conjunction with the increasing length of the Etoya X P T - P T O U " during the 14th century some major change in form are also evident. The e a r l i e s t set t ings by Glykes, Panaretos, and Moschianos are quite simple s t ruc- tu res , arranged with a minimum of mater ia ls . Two compact phrases were deemed su f f i c i en t for the ent i re hymn by these composers. The la te r vers ions, however, evidence a form that',becomes increasingly complex. Not only do the composers now u t i l i z e addi t ional phrases, but they combine them in considerably more complicated ways. The culmination of th is trend i s c l ea r l y shown by the set t ing of Gerasimos. A necessary coro l la ry of the burgeoning complexity and extended ambitus of the melodies i s the need for a more careful organizat ion of the mater ia l . C lear ly there existed a danger of the set t ings becoming essen t ia l l y rhapsodic and somewhat formless. In order to counteract th is the la te r composers devote greater at tent ion to internal cadences and u t i l i z e more sequential passages in the construct ion of the i r melodies. The profusion of 78. cadences i s obviously imperative i f a semblance of order i s to be re ta ined, and an examination of our reperto i re shows that composers from Kladas on increasingly subdivide the i r expanded melodic flow by the regular inser - t ion of medial cadences. In addit ion i t can be observed that the melodies are further organized throughout the 14th century by the growing use of successively more complex sequences. EXAMPLE 19 The e a r l i e r composers favoured sequential passages that comprise simple two ' and three note groups which only subt ly expand the melodic fabr ic of the hymn. A representative of the most common procedure may be seen above in the example taken from Moschinaos's se t t i ng . When compared to the la te r examples — espec ia l l y those from Kladas A and Doukas — i t becomes obvious that not only the length of the sequences but also the i r nature has been somewhat a l te red . In addi t ion to extending the melody they now const i tute a very e f fec t i ve means of regulat ing i t s progression. 79. Most of the Koinonika of our reperto i re conclude with some type of post-cadent ial phrase, which i s appended to the music u t i l i z e d fo r the text verse proper. The funct ion of th is appendage i s not f u l l y understood but i t seems l i k e l y that i t was some sort of cue for the domestikos, . . . i n f o r m i n g h i m t h a t t h e c h a n t w a s c o m p l e t e d , a n d p o s s i b l y g i v i n g h i m a n o t e f o r h i s e x c l a m a t i o n i n - v i t i n g t h e p e o p l e t o a p p r o a c h a n d r e c e i v e t h e E u c h a r i s t . The fol lowing example i l l u s t r a t e s these post-cadential formulae from the set t ings of Ewua XP^°"TOU that were used as the models for th is study. The e a r l i e s t hymns by Glykes and Panaretos employ the ident ica l ascending f igure that consists merely of the in terva l of a th i rd followed by that of a second. Gradual ly, however, the post-cadent ial phrase becomes longer and more complex. The ana ly t ica l t ranscr ip t ions of our reperto i re show, in f ac t , that in conjunction with these developments, the post-caden- t i a l formulae are increasingly fashioned from s ign i f i can t musical elements present in e a r l i e r phrases of the hymn. This is pa r t i cu la r l y evident in the Koinonika by Gavalos and Doukas ( respect ive ly , Examples 13 and 15). In the l a t t e r case, for instance, the descending f igure from £ to £ (see Example 20) had previously functioned as .the connection between two c i ta t ions of yeCaaaOe (Example 15, l i ne 5) . S i m i l a r l y , in Gavalos's hymn the beginning of the post-cadent ial phrase had occurred in an ident ica l manner to the word Trnyns(Example 13, l i ne 6 ) , and the l a t t e r part of the formula i s an amalgamation of material previously used in l ines 2 and 3 (see Example 13). C o n o m o s , " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p . 2 5 4 . 80. E X A M P L E 20 Glykes Panaretos fl (7) Moschianos 4 " Kladas f̂, r " Kladas X $r 7 T b QsrasiMos tig (Vienna ify) Doukas A V - 7Th 77Z- S e e n . 9 8 . T h i s b r a c k e t e d a d d i t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y u s a g e d i s - c u s s e d b e l o w i n n . 1 0 1 . 81. Except for our two e a r l i e s t sett ings by Glykes and Panaretos, most subsequent composers support the post-cadent ial f igure with the fo l low- 99 ing l e t t e r s : & (= superposit ion of omikron ' o ' and upsi lon 'u.' ), e, yye, and sometimes followed by e 1 0 0 . Kladas A omits these extraneous l e t t e r s , and i t i s ac tua l ly uncertain whether the appended phrase i l l u s t r a t e d in Example 20 i s intended to be a post-cadent ial formula or the f i n a l phrase of the hymn. In Athens MS. 2411 the set t ing appears devoid of both text and l e t t e r s , but in la te r manuscripts the sy l lab les [y]eO-aa-a0£ are repeated to the l as t three notes of th is p h r a s e . ^ If the evidence of the la te r sources is accepted, then th is Koinonikon (Kladas A) would be the only version in our reperto i re that dispenses with the post-cadent ial formula. In most of our versions a c lear d i s t i nc t i on i s made between the music of the text verse and the post-cadent ial material by the use of an unambiguous cadence at the conclusion of the texted music. Only in Moschianos and Kladas r is th is d i v i s i on somewhat obscured and there a d iv id ing l i ne based on the musical context has been proposed in Example 20. When a Koinonikon is repeated in d i f fe rent manuscripts the la te r set t ings also general ly show an expansion of the post-cadent ial mater ia l . 99 B . A . v a n G r o n i n g e n , S h o r t M a n u a l o f G r e e k P a l e o g r a p h y , 3d e d . , r e v . ( L e y d e n : A . W . S y t h o f f , 1 9 6 3 ) , "p". 4 4 , f i g . 9 . 1 0 ^ G a v a l o s ' s s e t t i n g i n V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 8 5 V p r o v i d e s a r a t h e r u n u s u a l a l t e r n a t i v e b u t i n o t h e r 1 4 t h a n d 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y v e r s i o n s o f t h i s hymn t h a t w e r e c o n s u l t e d ( V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 l 8 r , B a r b . g r . M S . 2 9 3 f o l . 2 0 6 v , I v i r o n M S . 1 1 2 0 f o l . 2 8 5 v ) t h e m o r e common u s a g e d i s c u s s e d h e r e i s u t i l i z e d . " 1 " 0 1 A t h e n s M S . 9 0 4 i s c o m p l e t e l y i l l e g i b l e a t t h i s p o i n t a n d w a s t h u s u s e l e s s i n c l a r i f y i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y MSS w e r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s u l t e d : A t h e n s M S . 8 9 9 f o l . 1 4 9 r ( d a t e d t o t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y ) ; A t h e n s M S . 2 4 0 6 f o l . 2 8 7 v - 2 8 8 r ( d a t e d 1 4 5 3 ) ; A t h e n s M S . 2 8 3 7 f o l . 2 0 3 v ( d a t e d 1 4 5 7 ) . I n a l l c a s e s t h e w o r d yetioaoQe, m i n u s . i t s i n i t i a l c o n - s o n a n t , i s r e p e a t e d a t . t h e e n d o f . t h e hymn a n d t h e e x t r a n e o u s l e t t e r s t h a t s e e m t o i n d i c a t e p o s t - c a d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l d o n o t a p p e a r a t a l l . 82. Example 21 i l l u s t r a t e s the progressive augmentation of the endings in Glykes's hymn, and the major changes that occur between Athens MS. 2458, Vatopedi MS. 1495 f o l . 217 r , and Sinai MS. 1462 or Sinai MS. 1294 become read i ly apparent. EXAMPLE 21 T r a n s p o s e d down a s e c o n d . In one respect, however, a l l la te r versions fo l low the e a r l i e s t example in Athens MS. 2458, as the extraneous le t te rs are always omitted from the post-, cadential phrase of Glykes's hymn, even in the. two l a te ;S ina i manuscripts. The expansion of the endings natura l ly magnifies the i r . re la t ionship to important s t ructura l elements of the hymn, in much the same manner as was observed above in Gavalos's and Doukas's Koinonika. Consider, for example, 83. the prominent use in the Sinai manuscripts and in Athens MS. 2406 of f igure a , a f igure which const i tutes a d is t ingu ish ing feature of phrase A in Glykes's set t ing (see Example 6) . The mid-15th century Athens MS. 2406 also contains, in add i t ion , a unique sy l l ab i c repet i t ion of the f i na l word ye-CaaoQe at the conclusion of th is purported post-cadent ial phrase. This i s analagous 102 to the procedure re f lec ted in 15th-century sources of Kladas A, and once again ra ises the question of whether th is appendage should be considered as being a^post-cadential phrase or an, organic part of the Koinonikon. Another p o s s i b i l i t y , however, i s that in cer ta in cases when the extraneous l e t te rs were omitted the sy l lab les of the f i na l text word were subst i tu ted, and functioned in a manner s im i la r to the post-cadent ial formula. Certa in ly th is would account for the unusual usage in Athens MS. 2406, the 15th- century versions of Kladas A, and the decidedly s im i la r appl icat ion of the 103 repeated yeO*aaaee in Panaretos's Koinonikon. A rather curious feature which emerges from the post-cadent ial phrases i l l u s t r a t e d in Example 20, i s that , i r respect ive of the mode selected by each composer, the model versions of a l l eight Koinonika end on the note £. Glykes's and Moschianos's hymns are the only examples in our reperto i re that receive various ( la ter?) t ransposi t ions and in those instances the f i na l note of the post-cadent ial formula i s usual ly transposed by an equiva-- 104 lent degree. The set t ings of Glykes's chant that are transmitted by 1 0 2 S e e n . 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 c S e e E x a m p l e 7 . 1 0 4 S e e f o r e x a m p l e t h e e n d i n g s o f G l y k e s ' s v e r s i o n s i n A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 , A m b r o s i a n a M S . Q. 1 1 , V a t o p e d i ' M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 7 v , K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4 5 7 , V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 f o l . 2 6 8 r , i n E x a m p l e 2 1 . H o w e v e r , G l y k e s ' s s e t t i n g i n V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 f o l . 2 1 7 r , ( M o d e I I I A u t h e n t i c ) , w h i c h i s t h e 84. the two Sinai manuscripts do not end on £ even though both are in the 'standard' mode, (i.e. Mode I Plagal). Instead, they contain a rhythmic elongation on £ that is produced by a kratema on the final note of the brief ascending figure that follows the conclusion of the text. This short figure spans the interval of a fourth and occurs in a l l post-cadential material that is added to the numerous recensions of Glykes's hymn. In most settings this rising passage constitutes the entire post-cadential phrase; in others i t comprises only the opening of this appended matter. It is quite possible then that this ascending figure (see figure k in Example 21) is the nucleus of the postscript, and that the remaining material is merely an embellishment provided by each scribe. Moreover, i f this hypothesis is compared to the post-cadential phrases in the rest of our repertoire (see Example 20) i t becomes apparent that an abstract of figure k is utilized for the end of this phrase in the majority of Koinonika. The exceptions are the hymns by Gavalos and Doukas, and possibly Kladas A. In these cases figure j seems to have been sub- stituted for figure k. This figure is marked by the prominent use of an encircling motion of at least two intervals of a f i f t h , from £-d_-£. In both Gavalos's setting and in Kladas A this alternation of fi f t h s begins on the f i n a l i s of Mode IV Plagal (£) after the conclusion of the text, and o n l y examp le t h a t h a s been ' expanded b y a TT&AlV r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e Trr)YTJs aSavctSou, c o n t a i n s a l e n g t h y p o s t - c a d e n t i a l p h r a s e w h i c h b e g i n s s i m i l a r l y t o t h e o t h e r t r a n s p o s e d v e r s i o n s t h a t s t a r t f r o m c _ , b u t e v e n t u a l l y a l s o ends on t h e n o t e g_. The n u c l e u s o f t h e p h r a s e ( s e e Examp le 21), t h o u g h , ends on ci, and t h i s c o d i c i l t h e r e f o r e seems e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e o t h e r t r a n s p o s e d s e t t i n g s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . 'These a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Examp le 21. 85. ins tant ly encompasses the leap of a f i f t h to d before returning to £ at the end. Doukas's hymn provides an unconventional ending for the text verse on d — a f i f t h higher than the customary f i na l i s of th is mode on £. Most l i k e l y the composer has here merely delayed the standard f i na l is on £ un t i l the superposed le t te rs ' o ' and ' u ' of the post-cadent ial phrase and has then commenced the enc i rc l i ng f i f t h s of f igure j with the subsequent extraneous l e t t e r s . ^ 6 The reason for th is change in post-cadential phrases, re f lec ted by the presence of f igure j , i s uncertain. It seems s i g n i f i c a n t , however, that in Gavalos and Doukas the f i na l note i s approached from above and never from below, as was the case in a l l the other e n d i n g s . ^ 7 Possibly then th is material i s re lated to the tess i tu ra of the preceding music, for in both Doukas's hymn and Kladas A the word yeOaaaGe, or a s ign i f i can t port ion of i t , i s set to the upper reg is te r of the mode ( respect ive ly , Example 15 and Example 11). In Gavalos (Example 13) the word yedaaaGe has ac tua l ly been transposed to the lower tess i tu ra but a major part of the central sect ion of the hymn i s set in the higher range. Conversely, Gerasimos u t i l i z e s the T h i s i d i o s y n c r a c y , i f a c c e p t e d , c e r t a i n l y a d d s s u p p o r t f o r o u r e m e n d a t i o n t o t h e d i g i t a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s hymn ( s e e a b o v e , p . 21). K l a d a s A c o n s t i t u t e s a m i n o r e x c e p t i o n b y v i r t u e o f a : c l o s i n g f i g u r e t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e l o w e r n e i g h b o u r i n g n o t e f , b u t t h i s may s i m p l y b e a r e s u l t o f t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f b o t h f o r m u l a e . O r i t may r e f l e c t a v a r i a n t u s a g e t h a t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t e x t w o r d yedaaaGe t o t h e f i n a l n o t e s o f t h i s e n d i n g . 86. older post-cadential formula and there the f i na l word yedaaaGe comprises a conscious re i te ra t ion of previous music in the lower area of Mode IV Plagal (see Example 14). It seems p laus ib le then that th is var iant post-cadent ial ending was devised by la te r composers in order to re la te i t to the musical s ty le and higher tess i tu ra used towards the end of the i r Koinonika. In that respect, of course, i t served a function analagous to that of the e a r l i e r formula. The evolving re la t ionsh ip between text and music that i s evinced by our reperto i re has been al luded to pe r iod ica l l y throughout th is study. The most obvious change, the growing use of lengthier neumatic and mel is - matic passages, generates within i t s e l f an equal ly important development concerning the actual placement of these passages. In a l l eight versions the majority of text sy l l ab les invar iab ly receive a sy l l ab i c treatment. Composers from Kladas on, however, begin to wri te melismas not only between the various words of the text but interspersed among the sy l l ab les of the words. Occasional ly such embellishments become quite s i zeab le , giv ing r i se to s i tuat ions where the sy l lab les of a word are separated by twenty or more notes. An excel lent example of th is may be seen in the lengthy melismatic passages that occur between the two sy l lab les of the i n i t i a l word Iwua in the set t ings of Gerasimos and Kladas (see Kladas r in Example 10, and Gerasimos in Example 14). A s im i la r procedure i s displayed by the in te rca la t ion of melismas or neumatic sections within the word Trnyns in Kladas A (Example 11, l i ne 3 ) , and Gavalos and Gerasimos ( respect ive ly , Example 13, l i ne 3, and Example 14, l i ne 13). This shows evidence of a considerable change when compared to the e a r l i e s t set t ings of Ewya X P ^ P T O U J for there the opening words of the two sections general ly receive a s y l l a b i c 87. treatment. In fact, melismas do not occur within any words in the earliest versions of this hymn. In conjunction with this development there is also a tendency, by composers from Kladas on, to accord a neumatic treatment to more 'interior' syllables than had previously been the case. Thus, for example, in both Gavalos's and Doukas's Koinonika (see respectively Examples 13 and 15) the number of neumatic passages within the text words is nearly as great as the number of syllables that receive a syllabic treatment. It becomes evident then that the earlier emphasis on the clear enunciation of the text was gradually superseded by a growing interest in musical elabora- tion and embellishment. B. Stasis In contrast to the numerous changes that were discussed in the preceding pages, this collection of Communion chants also displays a number of stable elements. Perhaps the most interesting characteristic is melodic st a b i l i t y ; the degree of melodic migration that is evident amongst the dif- ferent settings of Ewya x P i a Tou . The analytical transcriptions used in the course of this study to illustrate the eight examples of our hymn are based on the premise that the composers used only a limited amount of musical material in the construc- tion of their works, such material, then being repeated with various modifica- tions. Inherent in this supposition therefore is a compositional technique that utilizes similar melodic phrases for diverse sections of the text. Such melodic repetition within a Koinonikon is seldom verbatim. Instead i t seems to result from the selection of a basic model phrase that undergoes 88. subsequent a l ternat ions and permutations during the exposi t ion of the com- • plete melody. Natura l ly , such re i te ra t ion resu l ts in d i f ferent gradations of ident i ty between musical phrases, but i t also occurs to varying degrees throughout the examples of our reper to i re . In the e a r l i e s t sett ings a greater number of repet i t ions are obviously necessary due to the use of only two basic musical phrases for the ent i re hymn. Later th is procedure becomes somewhat less apparent by v i r tue of the increased number of phrases that are used to construct these se t t ings . In addit ion to the recurrence of musical phrases within each Koinonikon, however, we have also observed an in te r re la t ionsh ip of hymns — based on the use of a number of s im i la r phrases — w i t h i n the three groups that were estab l ished. None of t h i s , however, prepares us for the sur- p r i s ing amount of melodic s i m i l a r i t y betweeen a l l eight versions of th is hymn. The fo l lowing examples i l l u s t r a t e the s i m i l a r i t y between various musical phrases taken from the ent i re reper to i re . In general the re la t ionship i s more pronounced in phrases that are u t i l i z e d for ident ica l sect ions of the tex t , but on occasion the musical resemblance also extends to the use of d i f fe rent text elements. The majority of the l a t t e r instances, however, have already been iden t i f i ed and are not considered here. It must be noted, though, that such musical s i m i l a r i t y seldom const i tutes unpremeditated copying of another composer's work. In f ac t , the suggested consanguinity i s manifested for the most part by the use of equiva- lent contours, the d ispos i t ion of text sy l l ab les on the same or c lose ly re lated notes, and the u t i l i z a t i o n of uniform musical f igures . Moreover, in 89: some cases the correspondence does not even depend on the same pitch levels and whenever this became apparent such phrases were transposed for ease of comparison. For the purpose of these comparisons, musical phrases that only contain partial text words have also been included. Where composers ut i l i z e such fragments, i t is generally in the guise of an introduction to 109 a complete citation of the word, e.g. ye-yeTaXdBexe. Such preceding syllables, however, often receive an entire musical phrase of their own and are thus significant in this context. Probably the greatest uniformity occurs in the setting of the word yeTaAdBexe. Examples 22 and 23 reveal that two slightly different schemes are employed for the major occurrence of this word in a l l eight versions of this hymn. The word Trnyns is used in the same manner in five of the Koinonika (see Example 24). Gerasimos actually utilizes this word as an occasion for a somewhat extended melisma, but' the outlines of this elaboration agree with the basic form of the phrase as used by earlier composers.^ Interestingly 108 T h e d i r e e t i o n ' . a n d t h e d e g r e e o f ' t r a n s p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l h a v e a l w a y s b e e n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : TR + 5, i . e . . t h e p h r a s e h a s b e e n t r a n s p o s e d d o w n b y t h e i n t e r v a l o f a f i f t h . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a f f i n i t y b e t w e e n m u s i c a l p h r a s e s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e t a i n e d f o r a l l o c c u r r e n c e s o f a s p e c i f i c t e x t e l e m e n t i n e a c h s e t t i n g . T h i s h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d b y t h e u s e o f t w o n u m e r a l s b e n e a t h t h e c o m p o s e r ' s n a m e , e . g . [2/3J. T h e l a t t e r r e f e r s t o t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c i t a t i o n s o f t h e s p e c i f i c t e x t p h r a s e , a n d t h e f o r m e r i n d i c a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d . b y t h e p h r a s e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i . e . 2/3; t h e s e c o n d o f t h r e e r e p e t i t i o n s . I t d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t w o o u t o f t h r e e c i t a t i o n s o f t h i s p h r a s e f o l l o w t h e i l l u s t r a t e d p r o c e d u r e . 109 T h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n o c c u r s m P a n a r e t o s ' s e t t i n g . T h e r e t h e . c o m p o s e r r e p e a t s t h e m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e w o r d w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r , r e i t e r a t i n g i t s b e g i n n i n g , v i z . , dGavd-Gavdxou. " ' " " ^ S e e t h e t e x t p u n c t u a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t t h a t h a s b e e n i n s e r t e d i n o u r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s b y t h e u s e o f s h o r t v e r t i c a l l i n e s . I n a d d i t i o n , G a v a l o s a c c o r d s t h i s p h r a s e a . s o m e w h a t r e s t r a i n e d t r e a t m e n t , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o u p i s b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f c o n t o u r s . I n v i e w o f t h e h i g h t e s s i t u r a o f t h i s p h r a s e i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h o u g h , i t i s s c a r c e l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t e x t e n d s n o f u r t h e r t h a n g_. EXAMPLE 22 91. EXAMPLE 23 Moschianos A » Kladas r r " C H 3 / 3 ] Kladas A A "TT Gavalos ' A Ml Toe Xoc n \tf /2c TMSTTCC^XOC _ A _ —X- Toc Aft, A I 92. E X A M P L E 2i± Moschianos Panaretos C l i - 2 / z ] t i / i ] T R f 1 Kladas A TTfe TR. + 3 S e r a si mo5 ^& , _, C x o r z / 3 3 TR t 1 Kladas r TTr/ To. m Kittle ** 93. enough, both here and in the other examples, the greatest s i m i l a r i t y i s not necessar i ly between contemporaneous composers. In f ac t , the c losest r e l a - t ionship may on occasion be seen between the e a r l i e s t and the la tes t composers. In Kladas r the second occurrence of the word Trnyns i s set to a phrase that bears a l ikeness to the beginning of the phrase i l l u s t r a t e d in Example 24. However, the long melisma which th is composer sets to the i n i t i a l sy l l ab le of the word Ewya i s far more c lose ly related to the phrase used elsewhere for the word Trnyns. Example 25 i l l u s t r a t e s the decidedly s im i la r treatment of the word deav&xou in a l l eight versions of Ewua xP*°"tou. Only Kladas r presents a rather d i f fe rent approach. There the phrase, which i s res t r i c ted to a high t e s s i t u r a , i s analagous to the development of a port ion of Doukas's phrase, and thus a cer ta in resemblance i s establ ished. However, besides the musical s i m i l a r i t y of a l l set t ings of th is word, the d ispos i t ion of text sy l l ab les is also c lose ly re la ted. Except in Panaretos's and Gavalos's hymns, the f i r s t three sy l lab les are set s y l l a b i c a l l y , and i f a short melisma i s used within the word, i t occurs to the penultimate s y l l a b l e , i . e . otGava-xou. The most obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s in the set t ing of the f i na l word yevaaode are shown in Examples 26 and 27. The use of. e i ther of the two forms is c l ea r l y independent of the chronology, as both examples occur a l ternate ly throughout the ent i re reper to i re . In Example 27 the preceding phrase from Gerasimos's hymn has also been added for comparative purposes since i t and the music u t i l i z e d for yevaaoQe are c lose ly re la ted , and occur in immediate succession. 94. EXAMPLE 25 Glykes A A Panaretos C l +2./Z] Moschianos Kladas 11-/2-1 Gerasi mos C l t X 31 Doukas 0.(*lV2.1 C3/33 _A A_ 3? rov C1/2.J TR f 5 The n o t e s w i t h a downward s t e m , and t h a t w i t h t h e p e l a s t o n ( v ) , a r e f r o m t h e V a t o p e d i v e r s i o n ( f o l . 217 v) o f t h i s hymn. EXAMPLE 26 EXAMPLE 27 96. Example 28 illustrates the beginning of the final setting of yeCaaaBe in Gerasimos's hymn, which is here revealed as being identical to the middle portion of the phrase used by Kladas (Kladas A) for the same word. EXAMPLE 28 Kkdas A* Gerasi mos A . v- I r elf crcif^i C 3 / 3 J 7&y In addition to the musical similarities that occur at identical " points in the text, i t must be kept in mind that most of these phrases are also utilized in a modified form for various other text words. Thus the musical likeness is even more substantial than that established by the preceding examples. Moreover, this resemblance not only crosses modal boundaries but i t occurs at various levels of transposition within the dif- ferent modes. The inescapable conclusion seems to be that the composers of those Koinonika used, for the most part, a thesaurus of standard melodic formulae in the construction of their works. Certainly the weight of the evidence adduced in the preceding paragraphs lends credence to no other explanation. This procedure, however, never devolves into slavish copying; rather i t permits the composer's inspiration to be exercised within certain established parameters. In his study of the 13th-century repertory of Koinonika Conomos suggested that i t is quite conceivable 97. . . . t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l m e l o d i c f a b r i c o f t h i s p s a l m o d y w a s a s i n g l e s y l l a b i c c h a n t s u i t a b l e f o r c o n g r e g a t i o n a l use.111 It i s not possible at th is juncture to suggest that the 14th-century sett ings of Ewua xPT-crtou allow the same conclusion. In f ac t , due to the d i f fe rent scope of th is inves t iga t ion , we do not seek to propose t h i s . Rather, our analysis has concentrated on various spec i f i c and read i ly i den t i f i ab le s i m i l a r i t i e s on a more immediate sca le , and has not considered the i r rami f ica- t ions in a macroscopic sense. To a large extent i t would be premature to do so. Not only have we dealt with a very l imi ted reperto i re but i t seems that our 14th-century composers had a somewhat more subject ive conception of the i r task than did those of the previous century. This increasing i n d i v i - dualism, c lea r l y concomitant with the i n t r o d u c t i o n s the Akolouthia in the 112 ear ly 14th century, governs many facets of th is type of manuscript. Nevertheless, su f f i c i en t evidence has been brought to l i gh t to permit us to qua l i fy the above statement and to suggest instead that th is s i m i l a r i t y between the phrases of a l l eight se t t i ngs , . . . i s m o r e t h a n m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f b o r r o w i n g ; s u r e l y i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f common o r i g i n a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e r e t e n t i o n o f a s t r o n g m e l o d i c - . t r a d i t i o n . " ' ^ ^ A number of s i gn i f i can t s t ructura l features are u t i l i z e d consis tent ly throughout th is reperto i re of Communion hymns. It was suggested previously that the second hal f of the text verse (Trnyns deavdxou yevaaoQe) seems to " '"" ' '" '"Conomos, " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p . 2 5 3 . 1 1 2 S e e L e v y , " A Hymn f o r T h u r s d a y , " p p . 1 5 5 - 5 6 a n d C o n o m o s , B y z a n t i n e T r i s a g i a a n d C h e r o u b i k a , p . 37 a n d p . 4 4 . 1 1 3 C o n o m o s , " C o m m u n i o n C h a n t s , " p . 2 5 5 . 98. function in a manner analagous to the A l l e l u i a re f ra in in other Koinonika. One of the charac te r i s t i cs of th is A l l e l u i a re f ra in i s that i t invar iab ly receives the bulk of the musical a t tent ion. The fol lowing table shows that, 114 with the exception of Kladas r, th i s purported re f ra in of Ecoua xpt°"tou also receives a more elaborate musical treatment than the rest of the tex t . In f ac t , in some cases the proportion of musical material in the ' r e f r a i n ' is overwhelmingly greater. T A B L E I X P r o p o r t i o n o f M u s i c i n T e x t a n d ' R e f r a i n ' ,115 T E X T G l y k e s A t h e n s M S . 2 4 5 8 38% V a t o p e d i . M S . 1 4 9 5 (TrdXlv) 27% P a n a r e t o s K o u t l o u m o u s i M S . 4 5 7 46% M o s c h i a n o s A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 41% V a t o p e d i , M S . 1 4 9 5 (TrdXiv) 29% K l a d a s T A t h e n s M S . 2 6 2 2 -(TTCtXlv) 54% K l a d a s A A t h e n s M S . 2 4 1 1 (TrdXiv) 19% G a v a l o s V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 36% V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 32% G e r a s i m o s V a t o p e d i • M S . 1 4 9 5 (TfdXlV) 35% 28% V i e n n a M S . 1 8 5 48% D o u k a s V a t o p e d i M S . 1 4 9 5 (TTdXlV) 33% 1 R E F R A I N ' 62% 73% 54% 59% 71% 46% 81% 64% 68% 7 2 % 1 1 7 52% 67% 116 1 1 4 T h e u n u s u a l u s e h e r e o f t h e w o r d Xeye s u g g e s t s , h o w e v e r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r u n n o t a t e d r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h i s r e f r a i n , s e e n o t e 1 0 6 b e l o w . 1 1 5 T h e p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h i s t a b l e a r e b a s e d o n a n o t e c o u n t o f b o t h s e c t i o n s o f t h e h y m n s . M o r e o v e r , t h i s t a b l e c o n t a i n s n o t o n l y t h e m o d e l v e r s i o n s o f o u r hymn b u t a l s o r e f l e c t s t h o s e i n V a t o p e d i ; ; M S . 1 4 9 5 . I n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e t w o s e c t i o n s a r e s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t d u e t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e p e t i t i o n i n t h e r e f r a i n . B o t h h e r e a n d i n o t h e r e x a m p l e s w h e r e t h i s r e p e t i t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e w o r d TrdXiv o r Xeye, t h e s e w o r d s h a v e b e e n i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n t h e t a b l e . " ^ T h e p o s t - c a d e n t i a l m a t e r i a l ( a c t u a l o r p r e s u m e d ) h a s n o t b e e n t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t h e r e . 99. Further support for th is suggested functionrof the phrase Trnyns aeav&xou yeOaaaOe i s also evidenced by theuseof the words Xiye and -rrdAiv, two terms that are always associated with musical and/or textual repe t i t i on . In her study of the Koinonikon, TeOaaa0e, Bres l ich-Er ickson noted that these 118 d i rect ions occur pr imar i ly in the A l l e l i a r e f r a i n . S i m i l a r l y , in our co l l ec t i on of chants the two words consis tent ly appear in conjunction with th is l a t t e r phrase of the text and the only exception may be seen in 119 Gerasimos's hymn. Even the set t ing of the f i r s t word of th is phrase, Trnyns, implies the presence of a r e f r a i n . Invariably a long melisma i s wr i t ten to the second sy l l ab le of the word and with a few exceptions th is const i tutes the most extensive musical ef fusion of the ent i re Koinonikon. Only in Kladas r and in Gavalos's hymn does the word Trnyns general ly receive a s y l l a b i c treatment, but even in the former case a moderate melismatic passage is used for the f i r s t repet i t ion of th is word. Such consistent musical em- bell ishment of the opening of th is sect ion gives i t an improvisatory nature that i s in cont rad is t inc t ion to the conservative text set t ing usual ly 117 . . . This second set of f i g u r e s takes, i n t o account one a d d i t i o n a l r e p e t i t i o n of the ' r e f r a i n ' as provided by the second ending i n t h i s manuscript. 118 B r e s l i c h - E r i c k s o n , "Communion Hymn," pp. 68-70. 119 In a d d i t i o n t o a r e p e t i t i o n of the r e f r a i n , Gerasimos uses these terms t o s p e c i f y a r e i t e r a t i o n of the phrase yeTa-ueTaAdfteTe.. The usage here, i n c i d e n t a l l y , - suggests t h a t these two words were used i n t e r - changeably. In Vienna MS. 185 the s c r i b e has used the word TrdA.lV t o i n t r o - duce t h i s r e p e t i t i o n , whereas i n Vatopedi MS. 1495 the' word Aeye has been s u b s t i t u t e d at the i d e n t i c a l p lace. Moreover, elsewhere.in our r e p e r t o i r e the two words are g e n e r a l l y set t o s i m i l a r or i d e n t i c a l m u sical f i g u r e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the unique placement of the word Aeye before the r e f r a i n i n Kladas I" i s u n c l e a r , s i n c e o s t e n s i b l y i t does not designate a melodic or t e x t u a l r e p e t i t i o n . Moreover, i t i s m u s i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o the word TTdAiV used i n the r e f r a i n . 100. employed elsewhere in the hymn. Moreover, th is rhapsodic character not only del ineates our ' r e f r a i n ' from the preceding text but is equivalent to the nature of most A l l e l u i a re f ra ins in other Koinonika. One of the most in terest ing features of the design of a l l Koinonika in our reperto i re is the consistent recap i tu la t ion of the opening phrase of music towards the end of the chant. This has been commented on throughout the study and need only be mentioned b r i e f l y here. In nearly every case where th is re i te ra t ion of the i n i t i a l phrase occurs, i t i s associated with the f i na l word of the tex t , yevoaoQe. Only in Kladas A is . th is word not set to a repet i t ion of the f i r s t phrase; instead the preceding word aQavmrou is used. The reason for the reappearance of th is melodic material i s not read i ly apparent. It i s poss ib le , of course, that i t formed part of the t rad i t i on that was associated with the composition of th is Koinonikon. In any case, i t provided the composer with a means of f u l f i l l trig an elementary musical law, that of symmetry. 101. CONCLUSIONS This ana ly t ica l and h i s to r i ca l examination of the 14th-century Byzantine reperto i re of Communion chant melodies for Easter allows a number of important conclusions. One aspect of th is study, which was undertaken as an i n v e s t i - gation anc i l l a r y to the main inqu i ry , may conceivably have the greatest rami f i ca t ions . It i s an excursus which of fers by i t s resu l ts a tentat ive redating of some seven Byzantine composers, based on the appearance of any of the i r Koinonika set t ings in the e a r l i e s t securely-dated Ako louth ia i . At the very least th is chronology should furnish future studies of la te Byzantine hymnography with a more secure basis than has hi therto been the case. Equally s i g n i f i c a n t , but of a more immediate appl icat ion to the Byzantine composers' set t ings of the antiphon Eooya XPICTOU, are the con- c lusions reached with respect to the ' r e f r a i n 1 . From the evidence adduced in the course of th is study i t becomes c lear that the l a t t e r hal f of our text is equivalent to the musical and textual function performed by the A l l e l u i a re f ra in in other Communion chants. Cer ta in ly th is i s supported by the meaning of the text-phrase, as i t i s eminently suited to serve as a unique Easter replacement of the more t rad i t i ona l A l l e l u i a . Moreover, the protracted musical development that i s associated with th is phrase permits no other log ica l conclus ion, for i t fol lows the procedure used in the re f ra in of a l l other Koinonika. 102. The eight musical sett ings that comprise our reperto i re have been organized into three separate groups involv ing contemporaneous com- posers, thus providing a spec i f i c context fo r a s t y l i s t i c analysis of com- posi t ional a c t i v i t y during the 14th century. Within each of the groups a close re la t ionsh ip of music, text se t t i ng , and structure is evident. In f ac t , some of these features, pa r t i cu la r l y the st ructura l and musical ones, remain reasonably consistent in a l l of the composers' works. It was noted, for instance, that a musical recap i tu la t ion i s general ly a l l o - cated to the f i na l word of the text . Only in one instance i s th is sup- planted by a musical re i te ra t ion that occurs on the penultimate word. In add i t i on , the u t i l i z a t i o n of s im i l a r musical phrases by most composers suggests the existence of a thesaurus of musical material as the basis of the compositional process. Each composer natura l ly l e f t his own imprint on the spec i f i c app l icat ion of such material but the musical consanguinity leaves l i t t l e doubt about the veraci ty of such a conclusion. A number of features, however, are used cons is tent ly only within each of the three groups. Probably the most s ign i f i can t of these i s the use of standard openings by the f i r s t and las t groups of composers; one in Mode I Plagal and the other in Mode IV P laga l . Such standard openings are not merely reserved for the Easter Koinonikon but receive a wider app l icat ion in the chants of the 14th century. Text se t t i ng , and pa r t i cu la r l y the musical ro le performed by spec i f i c text words, also remains reasonably con- stant within each group. It becomes obvious, for example, that the ear ly composers have an equal ly conservative at t i tude towards text se t t i ng , and that the la te r composers a l l favour a somewhat more expansive neumatic and melismatic approach. Even the use of post-cadent ial formulae seems to 103. be determined by the cont igui ty of composers, for the nucleus of th is appendage re f l ec ts both an ear ly and la te usage. More important, though, i s a progressive develpment of most features of th is reperto i re in the course of the 14th century. Immediately apparent is the change in modal assignment of th is hymn as the century pro- gresses, the out l ines of which are best i l l u s t r a t e d by the e a r l i e s t and la tes t groups. Without exception the la te r composers subst i tute Mode IV Plagal where Mode I Plagal was used for the e a r l i e s t set t ings of th is tex t . Aside from th is overt innovat ion, there i s also evidence of a progression in modal assignment during the 14th century that encompasses Mode III Authent ic, the Nana, and Mode II P laga l . A gradual expansion of the overa l l dimen- sions of the eight versions i s also revealed. This includes such elements as the length of the se t t ings , the increasing ambitus of the music, and the more frequent use of larger in terva ls in the melodies. Once again, th is change also af fects the post-cadent ial mate r ia l , which gradual ly becomes longer and more complex. The l a t t e r t r a i t i s shown espec ia l l y by i t s grow^ ing integrat ion into the musical fabr i c of the se t t i ngs , for the repeti-? t ion of s i gn i f i can t musical elements becomes far more apparent in these appendages to the l a te r hymns. In conjunction with these developments the re la t ionsh ip between text and music also undergoes various a l te ra t i ons . This i s a somewhat more subtle evolut ion and i s revealed both by the la te r composers' greater in terest in neumatic and melismatic text se t t i ng , and, espec ia l l y , by the increasing use of such passages within the text words. Although th is pract ice connotes a decrease in textual i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y , i t seems, conversely, to be evidence of a greater concern with musical e laborat ion. Inev i tab ly , th is concern i s also re f lec ted in the increasing 104. s t ructura l complexity of the se t t ings . As the century progresses the com- posers are less w i l l i n g to r e s t r i c t themselves to only a minimum of musical phrases for the i r set t ings and instead prefer a greater number of phrases, combining them in more complicated ways. The e a r l i e r use of simple and symmetrical form i s abrogated in favour of gradually more i n t r i ca te s t ruc- tures. In sp i te of th is a careful organizat ion of the musical material i s retained by a l l composers and the hymns never degenerate into uncon- sidered musical e f fus ions. In many respects the conclusions reached in the course of th is inquiry are necessar i ly of a prel iminary nature. The musical idiom of the la te Byzantine composers is only gradually being understood and many lacunae s t i l l ex is t in our knowledge of the 14th-century Byzantine musical s t y l e . Various questions have been recognized, addressed, and, in some instances, resolved. More importantly, however, a number of s i gn i f i can t avenues for future research have been adumbrated. 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beck, Hans-George. Kirche und theologische L i te ra tur im byzantinischen Reich. Munich: Beck, 1959. Bres l i ch -Er i ckson , Helen. "The Communion Hymn of the Byzantine Li turgy of the Presanct i f ied G i f t s . " In Studies in Eastern Chant I I I , pp. 51-73. Edited by Milos Ve l im i rov ic . London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1973. Conomos, Dimit r i E. Byzantine Tr isag ia and Cheroubika of the Fourteenth and Fi f teenth Centures. A Study of Late Byzantine L i t u rg i ca l Chant. Thessalon ik i : Patr iarchal Inst i tu te for P a t r i s t i c Studi 1974. . "Communion Chants in Magna Graecia and Byzantium." Journal of the American Musicological Society XXXIII (Summer 1980): 241-263. ~ 'Psalmody and the Communion Cyc le . " St . V lad imi r 's Theological Quarterly 25 (1981): 35-62, 95T122. Devai, G. "The Musical Study of Koukouzeles in a 14th Century Manuscript. Acta Antigua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae VI (Budapest, 1958) 213-235. F lo ros , Constantin. "Die Entzi f ferung der Kondakarien-Notation ( I I ) . " In Musik des Ostens, v o l . 4 , pp. 12-44. Edited by Elmar Arro and F r i t z Feldmann. Kassel : Barenre i ter -Ver lag, 1967. Haas, Max. Byzantinische und Slavische Notation. Koln: Arno Volk-Verlag 1973. Hannick, Ch r i s t i an . "Etude sur 1 'dKoAouexa aauaTiKfi." Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen Byzant in is t ik 19'(1970); 243-260. Har r i s , Simon. "The Communion Chants in Thirteenth-Century Byzantine Musical Manuscripts." In Studies in Eastern Chant I I , pp. 51-67 Edited by Milos Ve l im i rov ic , London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1971. 106. Laurent, V. "La Chronologie des Patr iarches de Constantinople de la premiere moit ie du Xive s i ec le (1294-1350)." Revue des Etudes Byzantines VII (1949): 145-155. Levy, Kenneth. "A Hymn for Thursday in Holy Week." Journal of the American Musi col ogical -Society XVI (Summer 1963): 127-175. —. "The Byzantine Communion Cycle and i t s S lav ic Counterpart." In Actes du X l l e Congres International d'Etudes Byzantines, Ochride 1961 I I , pp. 571-574. Belgrade: 1964. — —. "The Music of the Byzantine R i t e . " In The New Grove Dic t ionary, v o l . 3, pp. 553-566. Edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan & Co . , 1980. Mary, Mother, and Ware, K a l l i s t o s . The Festal Menaion. London: Faber and Faber, 1969. P a t r i n e l i s , Chr is tos. "Protopsal tae, Lampadarii, and Domestikoi of the Great Church during the post-Byzantine Period (1453-1821)." In Studies in Eastern Chant I I I , pp. 141-170. Edited by Milos Velimirovic". London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1973. Raasted, Jorgen. Intonation Formulas and Modal Signatures in Byzantine Musical Manuscripts. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, Se>ie subsidia VII . Copenhagen: 1966. Strunk, O l i ve r . "Intonations and Signatures of the Byzantine Modes." In Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, pp. 19-36. New York: W.W. Norton & Co . , 1977. . "The Antiphons of the Oktoechos." In Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, pp. 165-190. New York: W.W. Norton & Co . , 1977. . "The Byzantine Off ice at Hagia Sophia." In Essays on Music in the Byzantine World, pp. 112-150. New York: W.W. Norton & Co . , 1977. van Groningen, B.A. Short Manual of Greek Paleography. 3d .ed. , rev. Leyden: A.W. Sythoff , 1963. Velimirovic", M i los . "Byzantine Composers in the MS. Athens 2406." In Essays Presented to* Egon Wel lesz, pp. 7-18. Edited by Jack Westrup. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966. 107. Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church, rev. e d . , Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1980. Wel lesz, Egon. A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography. 2d e d . , rev. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961. Wi l l iams, Edward Vinson. "John Koukouzeles' Reform of Byzantine Chanting for Great Vespers in the Fourteenth Century." Ph.D. d i sse r ta t i on , Ya le , 1968. — — . "The Kalophonic Tradi t ion and Chants for the Polyeleos Psalm 134." In Studies in Eastern Chant IV, pp. 228- 241. Edited by Milos Ve l im i rov ic . Crestwood, New York: St . V lad imi r 's Seminary Press, 1979. •——— . "The Treatment of Text in the Kalophonic Chanting of Psalm 2 . " In Studies in Eastern Chant I I , pp. 173-193. Edited by Milos Velimirovic*. London: Oxford Univers i ty Press, 1971.

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 2 0
Germany 2 11
Russia 1 0
Japan 1 1
City Views Downloads
Unknown 3 14
Tokyo 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items