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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The neighbourhood house as a social work agency Mellor, Sarah Llewellyn Bassett 1981

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T H E N E I G H B O U R H O O D H O U S E A S A S O C I A L W O R K A G E N C Y by S A R A H L L E W E L L Y N B A S S E T T M E L L O R B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1975 A THES I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUD IE S Schoo l o f C o m m u n i t y and Reg i ona l P l ann i n g We a c c e p t th is thes is as c o n f o r m i n g to the requ i r ed s tandard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BR IT I SH C O L U M B I A O c t o b e r 1981 © S a r a h L l e w e l l y n Ba s se t t M e l l o r , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C^ry^^yr^u^. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Qc'tdU^^ D C / i f f ) 4 DE-6 (2/79) i i A B S T R A C T Fou r o f Vancouver ' s e i gh t ne ighbourhood houses w e r e s tud ied t o d e t e r m i n e the ex ten t to w h i c h they are s oc i a l work agenc ie s and to a s c e r t a i n what types o f s oc i a l work each engages in . R e l a t e d quest ions addressed i nc lude the ro les of ne ighbourhood house vo l un t a r y boards o f d i r e c t o r s , the e f f e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f gove rnment fund ing o f ne ighbourhood house p rog rams , and the e x t en t to wh i ch houses have depa r ted f r o m t he i r h i s t o r i c ro les . The fou r houses s tud ied w e r e consc iou s l y chosen so as t o represent two w h i c h be long to the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n and t w o wh i ch a re independent, in that they be long d i r e c t l y t o the U n i t e d Way. A n o ld and a new house o f each t ype was s e l e c t e d so as to p rov ide a f u r t he r basis f o r v a l i d compar i son s Ne ighbourhood houses a re c l e a r l y s oc i a l work agenc ie s . P r o g r a m s o f t he ca sework and group work t ype a re p r edom ina te . T w o of the houses, in p a r t i c u l a r , a l so c a r r y out e x ten s i ve c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n wo rk . Vo l un tee r board member s p lay s i g n i f i c an t ro le s . H o w e v e r , the na tu re of t he i r ro les v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to length of tenure o f the d i r e c t o r , t he i r past or c u r r en t i n vo l v emen t in 'house p rog rams, and t he i r pe r cep t i on s of the purpose of v o l un tee r boards. G e n e r a l l y speak ing, the longer the d i r e c t o r ' s t e r m and the m o r e board member s p a r t i c i p a t e in house p rog rams, the less s i g n i f i c an t is t h e i r ro le in mak i n g i m p o r t a n t po l i c y , p r o g r a m m i n g , s t a f f i n g and budget dec i s ions . T w o of the fou r ne ighbourhood houses have depa r ted f r o m rb les p l a yed by the ea r l y s e t t l e m e n t houses. One reason fo r an i nc reased emphas i s on ca sework and group work p rog rams a t the expense o f c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on is ne ighbourhood house r e l i a n c e on gove rnment fund ing t o p rov i de d i r e c t s e r v i ce s to t a r ge t groups. The change in emphas i s of house p r o g r a m m i n g occu r s , not through e x e r c i s e of o ve r t gove rnment c o n t r o l but, in pa r t , because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c l y funded s e r v i ce s t akes t i m e and energy away f r o m c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on work. i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S P A G E A b s t r a c t i i C H A P T E R O N E I I n t roduct ion I Method 2 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Thes i s 3 C H A P T E R T W O : T H E L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 5 In t roduct ion 5 Soc i a l Work 6 Soc i a l S e r v i ce D e l i v e r y S y s t em 20 G o v e r n m e n t Fund ing of Soc i a l Se r v i ce s 23 Vo l un tee r Boa rd s 27 C H A P T E R T H R E E : H I S T O R Y 34 Int roducton 34 H i s t o r y o f Ne i ghbourhood Houses 34 H i s t o r y o f Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n 38 H i s t o r y of U n i t e d Way 43 C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s 46 South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House 47 K i w a s s a Ne i ghbourhood Se r v i ce s 48 L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House 49 C H A P T E R F O U R : P R O F I L E O F T H E F O U R N E I G H B O U R H O O D H O U S E S 51 In t roduct ion 51 Ne i ghbourhood House A t m o s p h e r e 52 House Purposes 54 C e d a r C o t t a g e 54 South Vancouve r 55 K i w a s s a 56 L i t t l e Moun ta i n 57 i v P A G E P r o g r a m m i n g 59 R e g u l a r R e c r e a t i o n P r o g r a m m i n g 59 C h i l d C a r e Se r v i ce s 61 C a s e w o r k 62 G roup Work - C h i l d r e n 64 G roup Work - A d u l t s 67 P r o g r a m s fo r Sen iors 67 M u l t i c u l t u r a l P r o g r a m m i n g 69 C l a s se s 71 S o c i a l E ven t s 71 C o m m u n i t y O r gan i z a t i on 72 Budget and S t a f f i n g 76 C o n t r a c t S e r v i ce s 82 Boa rd Func t i o n s 83 C e d a r C o t t a g e 84 South Vancouver 85 K i w a s s a 87 L i t t l e Moun ta i n 89 B o a r d / D i r e c t o r Re l a t i on sh i p s 90 P e r c e p t i o n of House S t rengths and Weaknesses 9 I C e d a r C o t t a g e 92 South Vancouve r 93 K i w a s s a 96 L i t t l e Moun ta i n 97 C H A P T E R F I V E : S Y N T H E S I S 101 House P r o g r a m m i n g 101 Vo l un tee r s 103 House V a r i a n c e f r o m H i s t o r i c Func t i on s 105 P o l i c y Imp l i ca t i on s 107 C H A P T E R SIX: C O N C L U S I O N S 109 V P A G E C h a p t e r T w o Foo tno te s 112 C h a p t e r Th ree Foo tno te s 119 C h a p t e r F o u r F o o t n o t e s 121 B i b l i o g r aphy j 22 Append i x ( In terv iew Schedules) 127 vi L IST O F T A B L E S P A G E T a b l e I: C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s 1980 O p e r a t i n g Budget 77 Tab l e II: South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House 1981 O p e r a t i n g Budget 78 T a b l e III: K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s 1980 Ope r a t i n g Budget 80 Tab l e IV: Summary : Ne ighbourhood House Budgets by Source 81 -1 -C H A P T E R O N E Introduction The purpose o f the thes is is to d e t e r m i n e the ex ten t t o w h i c h fou r Vancouve r ne ighbourhood houses, K i w a s s a , L i t t l e Moun ta i n , C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r , a re s oc i a l wo rk agenc ies , to a s c e r t a i n what t y p e or t ypes of soc i a l work each engages i n , and t o d raw p o l i c y o r i en ted conc lu s ions c o n c e r n i n g the f u n c t i o n i n g o f ne ighbourhood houses as s o c i a l work agenc ie s . D e f i n i t i o n s and the most w ide l y acknow ledged d iv i s ions of soc i a l work w i l l be pa r t of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w in C h a p t e r Two . R e l a t e d themes c o ve r ed inc lude the ro le s o f v o l un t a r y boards of d i r e c t o r s in agenc ies and the e f f e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f gove rnment p rov i s i on of s o c i a l s e r v i ce s and government fund ing of ne ighbourhood house p rog rams. Vancouver ' s f i r s t ne ighbourhood house, A l e x a n d r a House, opend in 1938. Today there a re e ight ne ighbourhood houses in the c i t y . L i s t e d in order of t he i r appearance as ne ighbourhood houses they inc lude A l e x a n d r a , now K i t s i l a n o (1938), Go rdon House in the West End (1942), C e d a r C o t t a g e (1963), K i w a s s a in the S t r a t hcona c o m m u n i t y (1966), South Vancouve r (1977), Mount P l e a s a n t (1978), and L i t t l e Moun ta i n in R i l e y P a r k (1979). E a c h house is governed by a vo l un tee r board of d i r e c t o r s . S ix o f Vancouve r ' s ne ighbourhood houses, i n c l ud i ng C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r , be long t o the Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c a t i o n (NSA) w h i c h p rov ide s t h e m w i t h c o m m o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i ce s . These inc lude a c coun t i n g , p a y r o l l , f i n a n c i a l p lann ing , budget ing a s s i s tance, personnel s c reen ing and r e f e r r a l , and o v e r a l l p l ann ing and deve lopment adv i c e . In r e t u r n , N S A takes 3 % o f each house's t o t a l budget t o pay fo r c o m p u t e r t i m e and the p r epa r a t i on of f i n a n c i a l s t a t emen t s by N SA ' s a c c o u n t a n t . N S A requ i re s a m i n i m u m leve l o f s t a f f i n g fo r its member houses w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m t w o t o t h r e e peop le , i n c l u idng the D i r e c t o r , depending on - 2 -the s i ze of the house's budget, the scope of i ts a c t i v i t i e s and how long i t has been a membe r o f N S A . M i n i m u m sa la ry l eve l s are e s tab l i shed f o r these s t a f f . C o r e budget requests f o r N S A houses t o both the C i t y of Vancouve r and to the U n i t e d Way, of w h i c h N S A is a member , a re channe led through N S A . The K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n ne ighbourhood houses a re independent in t h a t they do not be long to N S A . R a t h e r , they are m e m b e r agenc ie s of U n i t e d Way and r e c e i v e t he i r c o r e fund ing d i r e c t l y f r o m i t and f r o m the C i t y . A l t hough the four ne ighbourhood houses be ing s tud ied r e c e i v e t he i r co re budget money f r o m U n i t e d Way and the C i t y , they ob ta i n about 9 0 % of t he i r budget f r o m the senior leve l s of gove rnment , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s of H e a l t h and H u m a n Re sou rce s . These m i n i s t r i e s f i n ance p rog rams a i m e d at peop le w i t h s p e c i f i c needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H o w e v e r , each house p rov ide s p rog rams and events w h i c h gove rnment s ne i t he r do nor wou ld fund. E x a m i n a t i o n of the types of p rograms government s both do and do not fund prov ides some i n te re s t i n g ins ights into the nature of ne ighbourhood house p r o g r amming . Method As ment i oned above, C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r ne ighbourhood houses be long t o N S A , w h i l e K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n a re independent. C e d a r C o t t a g e is one of the c i t y ' s o r i g i na l houses wh i l e South Vancouve r is of more recen t o r i g i n . K i w a s s a dates back a long way , whereas L i t t l e Mounta in is the newest of Vancouve r ' s ne ighbourhood houses. B y s tudy ing two N S A houses and t w o independents, and by s e l e c t i n g both a new and long-es tab l i shed one of each t ype , i t is f e l t t he re w i l l be a v a l i d basis f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e ca se s tudy o f the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s and na tu re o f s e r v i ce s p r ov i ded by e a c h . - 3 -The p r i n c i p a l means o f da ta c o l l e c t i o n was s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , open-ended i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the d i r e c t o r s o f each o f the four ne ighbourhood houses, many o f t he i r f u l l - t i m e s t a f f , and most of t he i r board membe r s . No te s t a ken dur ing each i n t e r v i e w p rov i ded the d a t a for the thes i s . Open-ended i n t e r v i e w i n g is sub ject to man i pu l a t i o n by the i n t e r v i e w e r in both the order o f quest ions asked and the answers s e l e c t e d for ana ly s i s . H o w e v e r , i t a lso a l l ows the i n t e r v i e w e r to de l ve f u r the r when oppo r tun i t i e s present themse l ve s fo r a d d i t i o n a l , pe r t i nen t i n f o r m a t i o n and, thus, to f o r m a deeper unders tand ing of the subject under s tudy. The Append i x con ta in s the i n t e r v i e w schedules used and the B i b l i o g r aphy l i s ts t he peop le i n t e r v i e w e d . Organization of the Thesis The thes is is o r gan i zed into six chap te r s . C h a p t e r One, as is a l r eady apparent , ou t l i ne s the purpose of the thes is , p rov ides a b r i e f i n t r oduc t i on to n e i g h -bourhood houses, and in t roduces the method o f i n ve s t i ga t i on used. C h a p t e r T w o rev i ews the l i t e r a t u r e t o d e t e r m i n e what o ther s have found usefu l to say about the nature of soc i a l work , its d iv i s ions , a s sumpt ions and purposes; the m o t i v a t i o n s fo r vo l un tee r i ng and the ro les and func t i on s o f v o l u n t e e r boards o f d i r e c t o r s ; and the i m p l i c a t i o n s and e f f e c t s of gove rnment fund ing on s o c i a l and c o m m u n i t y agenc ie s . The t h i r d chap te r present s ummar i e s o f the h i s t o r i c a l e vo l u t i on o f ne i ghbour -hood houses in genera l and of N S A and U n i t e d Way, and s ummar i z e s the h i s to ry of each o f the fou r ne ighbourhood houses be ing s tud ied . These s ummar i e s w i l l p r ov i de a c o n t e x t f o r the i n t e r v i e w f ind ings and w i l l help t o d e t e r m i n e if t he re a re h i s t o r i c a l reasons for the nature o f the p r o g r a m m i n g done by each house. C h a p t e r F o u r uses the i n t e r v i e w f ind ings t o present a p r o f i l e o f e a c h ne ighbourhood house in t e r m s o f the f o l l o w i n g e l emen t s : a s ummary o f pe r cep t i on s - 4-of the purpose(s) of each house; a r e v i e w and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s e a ch o f f e r s in to one of the t h ree c a t e go r i e s of s oc i a l work p r a c t i c e ; an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the fund ing source and amount fo r each p r o g r a m ; a d i scuss ion o f the r e l a t i v e ro le s of the house d i r e c t o r s and the boards w i t h whom they work ; and a p re sen ta t i on o f board and s t a f f pe r cep t i on s conce rn i ng the s t rengths and weaknesses of each house as c o m p a r e d w i t h tha t house's purpose. C h a p t e r F i v e synthes i zes the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , h i s t o r i c a l s ummar i e s and i n t e r v i e w f ind ings so as to answer the f o l l o w i n g quest ions. What t ype o f soc ia l wo rk and o the r p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s do ne ighbourhood houses p rov i de ? D o vo l un tee r s p lay a s i g n i f i c an t ro le in ne ighbourhood house opera t i on s ? What do s t a f f and boa rd member s p e r c e i v e tha t ne ighbourhood houses bo th do and should do? Have ne ighbourhood houses depa r ted f r o m t he i r h i s t o r i c roots as both c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on agenc ies and p rov ide r s of s e r v i ce s ? What a re the p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the c u r r en t f u n c t i o n i n g of ne ighbourhood houses? C h a p t e r S ix s u m m a r i z e s the conc lu s ions as g leaned f r o m the answers to the quest ions posed. It a l so i nd i ca te s areas fo r f u r t he r s tudy wh i ch a r i se f r o m the thes is i nve s t i ga t i on s but wh i ch we re not the c e n t r a l f ocus . - 5 -C H A P T E R TWO T H E L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW Introduction G i v e n the as sumpt ion t ha t K iwa s s a , L i t t l e Moun ta i n , C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r ne ighbourhood houses a re ne ighbourhood based s oc i a l work agenc ie s i t was necessary to r e v i e w the l i t e r a t u r e for de f i n i t i o n s and typo log ie s of s oc i a l work . These, together w i t h the i deo l o g i c a l c u r r en t s w h i c h under score s oc i a l work p r a c t i c e , w i l l be s u m m a r i z e d be low. C o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on w i l l be d iscussed both as a d imens i on of s oc i a l work and as par t o f a broader c a t ego r y of i n te r ven t i on s at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l , i nc lud ing l o c a l i t y or c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p -ment , s oc i a l p lann ing and soc i a l a c t i o n . Many soc i a l wo rk i n s t i t u t i on s depend on gove rnment fund ing to ope ra te many of t he i r p rog rams. The e f f e c t s and i m p l i c a -t ions of th i s r e l i a n c e w i l l a l so be r e v i e w e d . F i n a l l y , s ince ne ighbourhood houses a re run by vo lun tee r boards of d i r e c t o r s , the m o t i v a t i o n s fo r v o l un t ee r i n g and the ro le of v o l un tee r boards, as p re sented in the l i t e r a t u r e , w i l l a l so be r e v i e w e d . The purpose of this c hap te r is to ga in an unders tand ing of the na tu re and i deo l og i ca l underpinnings of s oc i a l work and i t s va r i ous d iv i s ions , the e f f e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of gove rnment fund ing of soc i a l work a c t i v i t i e s and p rog rams, and the m o t i v a t i o n and ro les of those who se rve on vo l un tee r boards o f d i r e c t o r s . Th i s i nc reased unders tand ing w i l l p r ov i de a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t fo r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the h i s to r i e s s u m m a r i z e d in C h a t e r Th ree and the i n t e r v i e w f ind ings p re sented in C h a p t e r F ou r . -6-Social Work P o v e r t y and i ts a t t endan t cond i t i on s a re v i e w e d by many as the most pe r s i s -tent o f s o c i a l p r ob l ems . The a t t i t u d e tha t p o v e r t y is the resu l t of a f l a w in c h a r a c t e r and is thus e i t he r a persona l m i s f o r t une or s ometh ing deserved leads to the deve l opment o f c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i on s and w e l f a r e o r gan i za t i on s . The a t t i t u d e tha t i t is the consequence o f i n ju s t i ce t oward s a p a r t i c u l a r c la s s , r a ce or group of peop le re su l t s in e f f o r t s t o a l t e r the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y so as to r e d i s t r i b u t e re sources and oppo r tun i t i e s . " P h i l a n t h r o p y and s o c i a l r e f o r m are t w o o rgan i zed approaches t o dea l i ng w i t h s oc i a l p r o b l e m s " . ' T r a d i t i o n a l l y , s oc i a l work has been v i e w e d as c h a r i t y . H o w e v e r , now tha t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s o c i a l in surance ex i s t s " t he s k i l l and energy of s oc i a l wo rke r s c an be i nc rea s ing l y tu rned f r o m m e e t i n g the m i n i m u m subs i s tence needs of a segment of the popu la t i on to the con s i de ra t i on of wha teve r f a c t o r s impa i r persona l e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r any m e m b e r of the 2 popu l a t i on . " In her book Soc i a l Work; A n In t roduct ion E l i z a b e t h Ferguson quotes s eve ra l d e f i n i t i o n s o f s oc i a l wo rk . A c l a s s i c d e f i n i t i o n c a l l s i t " those processes w h i c h deve lop pe r sona l i t y through adjus tments consc iou s l y e f f e c t e d , i nd i v idua l by i n d i v i -3 dua l , b e t w e e n men and t he i r s oc i a l e n v i r onmen t . " A n o t h e r p r om inen t soc i a l wo rke r de f i ne s s o c i a l wo rk as " a process used by c e r t a i n human w e l f a r e agenc ie s to he lp ind iv idua l s cope more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t he i r p rob lems in soc i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . " S t i l l another p r a c t i t i o n e r c a l l s i t an a r t in wh i ch knowledge o f the s c i ence o f human r e l a t i on s and s k i l l in r e l a t i on sh i p s a r e used t o m o b i l i z e c a p a c i t i e s in the i nd i v i dua l and resources i n the c o m m u n i t y app rop r i a te for b e t t e ^ ad ju s tment be tween the c l i e n t and a l l or any pa r t o f his t o t a l env i r onment . The emphas i s o f a l l these de f i n i t i o n s is c l e a r l y on the ad ju s tment and change of the i nd i v idua l so as t o b e t t e r f i t in w i t h s o c i e t y . A n d r e w A r m i t a g e observes t h a t s o c i a l work or s o c i a l w e l f a r e p rograms ex i s t in we s te rn coun t r i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i ndu s t r i a l i sm , a f f l u e n c e , a c a p i t a l i s t - 7 -e c o n o m i c ideo logy, and a d e m o c r a c y based on un i ve r sa l f r anch i s e , i.e. a r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y . ^ They are a means of e x e r t i n g s o c i a l c o n t r o l in the f a c e of i nequ i t i e s . A r m i t a g e def ines s o c i a l c o n t r o l as " t h e process through w h i c h a g roup i n f l uences the behav iou r o f i ts member s t oward s c o n f o r m i t y w i t h i ts no rms. "^ It can be e x e r t e d through use o f c o e r c i o n , m a t e r i a l power or the man i pu l a t i on of the a b i l i t y to buy in the m a r k e t p l a c e , and s y m b o l i c power through in tang ib le s such as g a c c e p t a n c e and e s t e e m . Soc i a l work can be, in A r m i t a g e ' s v i e w , an i n s t rument of soc i a l c o n t r o l in that it works to r e d i s t r i b u t e money and goods f r o m the r i c h t o the poor who then f i nd the w e a l t h of the r i c h mo re a c c e p t a b l e because t hey a re no longer so bad ly o f f . In add i t i on , because they have mo re money the poor w i l l be m o r e hea l thy , t h e r e f o r e , be t t e r ab le to work . Con sequen t l y , they w i l l be ab le to earn more money w h i c h c on t r i bu te s t o the g r owth of the economy wh i ch f u r t he r en r i ches t he w e a l t h y . T h e r e f o r e , i t has been a rgued tha t ph i l an th ropy and s oc i a l wo rk a re in the best i n te res t s of the w e a l t h y because they ensure the ma i n tenance of the s oc i a l . 9 o rde r . C o m m u n i t i e s e x e r t s oc i a l c o n t r o l over re s ident s . They a l so p rov ide re s ident s oppo r tun i t i e s fo r soc i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i.e. they " s o c i a l i z e " peop le . A r m i t a g e de f ines s o c i a l i z a t i o n as the "process through wh i ch ind iv idua l s , th rough l ea rn ing , a cqu i r e the knowledge , va lues and behav iour pa t te rn s of the i r s o c i e t y and learn behav iou r app rop r i a t e to t he i r s o c i a l r o l e s . " ' ^ E d u c a t i o n p rog rams, debt counse l l i ng , day c a r e c en t r e s and r e c r e a t i o n p rog rams a re some examp le s o f p rograms w h i c h s o c i a l i z e peop le . Thus, soc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s c an p rov ide ways in wh i ch dev i an t , t r oub led or impove r i shed ind iv idua l s and the rest of the c o m m u n i t y c an c o - e x i s t w i t h the least d i s rupt ion to the e s tab l i shed way o f do ing t h i n g s . ' ' M u r r a y Ross, in a w ide l y used tex tbook on c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , is a l so c o n c e r n e d about the c o m m u n i t y but f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . - 8 -in c oun t r i e s in wh i ch i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u rban i z a t i on are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l advanced , the focus o f c o n c e r n is t he loss o f c o m m u n i t y as a mean i ng fu l f o r m o f s oc i a l and mo ra l a s s o c i a t i on . The urban c e n t e r is impe r sona l , l a ck i ng in cohes i on , an i n e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l un i t w h i c h p rov ides inadequate so i l f o r f u l l pe r s ona l i t y deve l opment . In m e t r o p o l i t a n cen t r e s t he re is l i t t l e sense o f be longj^g or f ee l i n g of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , or i n t i m a t e a s soc i a t i on w i t h o ther s . A r m i t a g e c r e d i t s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i t h bo th the a t t a i n m e n t o f phy s i c a l c o m f o r t and p ro spe r i t y and the d i s l o ca t i on of peop le w i t h a consequent b reakdown of s oc i a l pa t te rn s . H e charges tha t Canad i an e c o n o m i c g r owth is not p lanned w i t h a v i e w t o i ts s oc i a l e f f e c t s on peop le and t ha t many of the coun t r y ' s s o c i a l w e l f a r e po l i c i e s 13 a re a consequence of th i s i n a t t e n t i o n . It c an be argued tha t c o m m u n i t y s e r v i ce s such as ne ighbourhood houses compensa te for the d i s l o c a t i on of f a m i l y and c o m m u n i t y l i f e caused by u r b a n i z a t i o n . I ndu s t r i a l i z a t i on , u rban i z a t i on and high leve l s of i m m i g r a t i o n c r e a t e d the 14 s o c i a l cond i t i on s to w h i c h s oc i a l work was a response. Soc i a l work in N o r t h A m e r i c a began at the turn o f the cen tu r y and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c h a r i t i e s and the vo l un tee r i sm of, p r i m a r i l y , the m idd l e and upper c l a s s e s . ' ^ H o w e v e r , the g r owth in gove rnment , the r i se in un ion i sm, and the unemp loyment c r e a t e d by the Depres s ion a l l c o m b i n e d t o empha s i z e the p rob lems c r e a t e d by the s o c i a l o rder and the need for gove rnment i n t e r ven t i on to m o d i f y i t if n e c e s s a r y . ' ^ P s ychoana l y s i s , the i deo l og i ca l c u r r en t tha t eme rged be tween the F i r s t Wor l d War and the Depres s i on , had a pro found e f f e c t on s oc i a l work p r a c t i c e . P s y c h o a -n a l y t i c theo r i e s , o r i en ted t o w a r d the patho logy of the i nd i v i dua l , c a m e to d o m i n a t e s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . P e o p l e w e r e deemed respons ib le for t he i r own f a i l u r e s and weaknesses , just as they we re respons ib le f o r t he i r successes and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h . Ross w r o t e t ha t the " o b j e c t i v e s o f a l l s o c i a l work methods . . . a re s i m i l a r . A l l a re c once rned w i t h r e m o v a l o f b l ock s t o g r o w t h , re lease of p o t e n t i a -l i t i e s , f u l l use o f inner resources , deve l opment o f c a p a c i t y to manage one's own 18 l i f e , and a b i l i t y to f unc t i on as an i n t eg r a ted un i t . " -9-The t w o p r i n c i p a l a t t i t ude s w h i c h s oc i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r s have t owa rd s consumers of s oc i a l s e r v i ce s c an be s u m m a r i z e d as f o l l o w s . Some f e e l is t h a t the p rob lems of s o c i a l s e r v i c e c l i e n t s a re due t o t he i r persona l weaknesses and d e f e c t s and to c o m m u n i c a t i o n p rob lems in t he i r f a m i l i e s . C l i e n t s a re in some way s i ck and 19 must adjust t o e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c cond i t i on s t o get w e l l . The re is a p e r s p e c t i v e on soc i a l work wh i ch v i ews it as h igh ly i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . The c oncep t of i nd i v idua l and f a m i l y patho logy domina te s . . . the patho logy o f w ide r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c sy s tems is i gnored. The t h ree c o m m o n d i v i s i ons : ca sework , gjjjftup work and c o m m u n i t y work s t i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on i nd i v idua l pa tho log ie s . The o ther p r i n c i p a l a t t i t u d e is tha t s o c i a l w e l f a r e po l i c i e s must address the under l y ing causes o f p o v e r t y and lack of s k i l l s , i.e. the way s o c i e t y is s t r u c t u r e d t o d i s t r i bu te money, oppo r tun i t i e s and goods. C l o w a r d and P i v e n m a i n t a i n that to argue o the rw i se is to engage in " p s y cho l o g i c a l r e d u c t i o n i s m " wh i ch reduces p o v e r t y and i nequa l i t y to i nd i v idua l pa tho log ie s . A r m i t a g e w r i t e s tha t the re is a c o n f l i c t in wes te rn s o c i e t i e s be tween w e l f a r e va lues and e c o n o m i c deve lopment processes . " The va lues o f equa l i t y and equ i t y c o n f l i c t w i t h the propens i ty of Western s o c i e t i e s to c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n i nequa l i t y through such mechan i sms as i n he r i t ance , p r i v a t e 22 ownersh ip , and the re so lu t ion of s c a r c i t y through c o m p e t i t i v e b idd ing . " The e f f e c t s of these c o n f l i c t s a re ev ident in s oc i a l work p rog rams whose ob jec t i v e s a r e 23 unc l ea r l y de f i ned and wh i ch empha s i z e i nd i v idua l over c o m m u n i t y change. Whar f adds tha t s o c i e t y is s t r u c t u r e d so tha t nea r l y anyone can b e c o m e poor o r unemp loyed . T h e r e f o r e , p reven t i on and s oc i a l change should be the thrus t of s oc i a l 24 work . N o t a l l p r a c t i t i o n e r s a re caught up in e i t he r of these a t t i t u d e s . N i n a T o r e n , whose w r i t i n g on group work are r e f e r r e d to be low, says " The r e f o r m approach , by i t s e l f , is as one-s ided as the o r i e n t a t i o n t ha t c o n c e n t r a t e s upon the ad ju s tment o f the i nd i v idua l to e x i s t i n g s oc i a l and e c o n o m i c cond i t i on s . A r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bene f i t s a lway s en ta i l s i nd i v i dua l r ead ju s tment both on the pa r t o f those who are to ga in , and those who are t o lose by the new o rde r . On the o ther hand, a t t e m p t s t o - 10 -p roduce n o r m a t i v e change w i l l not have l a s t ing e f f e c t s if i nd i v idua l s lack the i n s t r umen ta l and r e l a t i o n a l assets needed to implement and sus ta in new ly a cqu i r ed a t t i t u d e s and pa t te rn s of behav i ou r . " The dominance o f c o n c e r n fo r i nd i v idua l f unc t i on i n g in we s t e r n s o c i e t i e s hav ing s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c i e s means t h a t most s oc i a l w e l f a r e p rog rams are in tended to 26 respond to i nd i v i dua l needs and t o demon s t r a t e a be l i e f in human p e r f e c t a b i l i t y . The t h ree major s oc i a l work methods a re ca sework , group work and c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ca sewo rk , the method most c once rned w i t h i nd i v i dua l pe r sona l i t y deve l opment , has dom ina ted . " S o c i a l c a sewo rk is d i r e c t e d t owa rd f o s t e r i n g and re lea s ing the ind iv iuda l ' s a b i l i t i e s and, if neces sary , a t t e m p t i n g t o 27 reduce e n v i r o n m e n t a l pressures on h i m . " It emphas i ze s work w i t h the f a m i l y to improve the ways in w h i c h f a m i l y membe r s get a long w i t h each o the r . The ro l e o f ca sework in s o c i a l i z a t i o n is made e x p l i c i t by Ferguson who says the f a m i l y has t remendous va lue as a s o c i a l i z i n g agent in that c h i l d r en learn t o subord inate personal wishes to those of t he i r f a m i l y and, e ven tua l l y , to those of s o c i e t y . She adds that no d e m o c r a c y can ex i s t i f peop le a re p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by s e l f -28 i n t e r e s t . A n o t h e r approach to ca sework is to v i e w the i nd i v idua l as the m a i n 29 t a r ge t of change through educa t i on and p sycho the rapy . Group work , the second method o f s oc i a l work , "uses group e x p e r i e n c e to help 30 ind iv idua l s imp rove t he i r soc ia l f u n c t i o n i n g . " To ren w r i t e s tha t group work deve loped as a soc i a l work method because most peop le f u n c t i o n in groups of some k ind be they at work , at school or when s o c i a l i z i n g . P e o p l e a re more l i k e l y t o change wh i l e in a group than they a re wo r k i n g a lone w i t h a c a s e w o r k e r . She adds tha t group work should not use the p s y cho the rapeu t i c methods o f ca sework , a l though this is not un i ve r sa l l y a c c e p t e d . Group work is f l e x i b l e in tha t i t can be 31 used in a v a r i e t y o f g roup set t ings . G roup work can be t r a c e d back to the ea r l y s e t t l e m e n t houses, the f o r e r u n -ners of today ' s ne ighbourhood houses, w h i c h w e r e c once rned p r i m a r i l y w i t h i m p r o v i n g urban s o c i a l c ond i t i on s . A l t h o u g h today used as a method o f r e so l v i ng - I I -per sona l and i n te rpe r sona l p rob lems , group work can a l so be used as a means o f t r a i n i n g peop le for d e m o c r a t i c a c t i o n and leadersh ip in tha t th rough it peop le can learn about c o l l e c t i v e dec i s i on mak i n g , c o o p e r a t i o n , c o n f l i c t and i n t r a - g roup r e l a t i on s . F o r peop le w i t h no c o n f i d e n c e in t he i r a b i l i t i e s , e.g. low i n come peop le , s o c i a l i z a t i o n and learn ing must p r e cede e f f o r t s at des i red i n s t i t u t i o n a l change. In o ther words, group work is not in tended as a sub s t i tu te for e i t he r ca sework or 32 c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , but r a the r as a l ink be tween the t w o . Benne and C u l b e r t cons ider the sma l l group to be a l ink be tween the i n d i v i -33 dual and the larger soc i a l s y s t em. It is a m e d i u m fo r i n f l uenc i n g i ts i nd i v idua l member s and the s o c i e t y of wh i ch it is a pa r t . E v e n a sma l l group is an o r gan i zed soc i a l s y s tem f r o m wh i ch i ts member s can learn the work ing s o f a larger s y s tem and, t h e r e f o r e , deve lop some of the s k i l l s necessary to mod i f y or change it if they so w i sh . C o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i on , the t h i r d p r i n c i p a l method of soc i a l work , is a f a i r l y r ecen t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t p ro fe s s i ona l o r g an i z a t i o n o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s was e s tab l i shed .in 1946. H o w e v e r , c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on p r a c t i c e has roots in the N o r t h A m e r i c a n urban r e f o r m m o v e m e n t . ^ By the ea r l y I920's i t s two p r i m a r y emphases we re to improve s oc i a l s e r v i c e p rog rams and to change s oc i a l r e l a t i on sh ip s . The f i r s t focused on p ro fe s s i ona l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of needs and the p rov i s i on o f q u a l i t y s e r v i ce s to mee t those needs wh i l e the second emphas i zed f o s t e r i n g the c a p a c i t y o f c o m m u n i t y groups t o f o r m and work e f f e c t i v e l y t o w a r d 35 des i red goals . C o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on p r a c t i t i o n e r s t r i e d to compen sa te for the i nc reas ing c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f dec i s i on mak i ng in the s oc i a l s e r v i ce s f i e l d . Today c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s im i l a r approaches such as c o m m u n i t y p lann ing , p lanned change, c o m m u n i t y work and c o m m u n i t y p r a c t i c e , a l l desc r ibe e f f o r t s a i m e d at " i n t e r v e n t i o n at the c o m m u n i t y l eve l o r i en ted t owa rd imp rov i ng or chang ing c o m m u n i t y i n s t i t u t i on s and so lv ing c o m m u n i t y p rob l ems . Th i s a c t i v i t y is p e r f o r m e d by p ro fe s s i ona l s f r o m many d i s c i p l i ne s . . . as w e l l as by c i t i z e n 36 vo l un tee r s in c i v i c a s soc ia t ions and s o c i a l a c t i o n groups. " Fe rguson de f ines c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n as t ha t pa r t of s oc i a l wo rk in w h i c h " a c t i v i t i e s a re d i r e c t e d t owa rd imp rov i ng the c o m m u n i t i e s in w h i c h people l i ve , 37 and the s e r v i ce s p r ov i ded fo r t h e m . . . ." F o r her, c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n c e n t r e s around a c o u n c i l o f s oc i a l agenc ies and is v e r y much a m a t t e r o f p r o f e s -s ionals d e t e r m i n i n g and a c t i n g upon p e r c e i v e d c o m m u n i t y needs. C o x says t ha t " c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on p r a c t i c e may be de f i ned as the d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t o f a p r a c t i t i o n e r t o i n f l uence the t i e s t ha t b ind ind iv idua l s i n to s m a l l groups, r e l a t e t w o or more groups, c onnec t two or more f o r m a l o r gan i za t i on s , (and) r e l a t e groups to 38 o r gan i za t i on s . " H e adds tha t he lp ing c o m m u n i t y groups b e t t e r r e l a t e t o each o the r and a c h i e v e t he i r goals is a c h i e f c o n c e r n o f c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ferguson emphas i ze s resu l t s w h i l e C o x p laces more i m p o r t a n c e on the process . The c once rn w i t h process is echoed by Ross who w r i t e s tha t " w h a t c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on as a consc ious process is d i r e c t e d at a ch i e v i n g is not s imp l y a new nursery , w a t e r s y s t em or housing p r o j e c t but more impo r t an t , an inc reased 39 c a p a c i t y to unde r take other c o o p e r a t i v e p ro jec t s in the c o m m u n i t y . " H e a l so speaks o f the p lann ing and i n teg ra t i on aspects of c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . B y p lann ing he means i den t i f y i n g a p r o b l e m , deve lop ing so lut ions , choos ing one and pursu ing i t us ing ag reed upon s t r a teg i e s . In tegrat ion is more impo r t an t but it can be f a c i l i t a t e d through p l a n n i n g . ^ G a r v i n and C o x s t ress enhanc ing w ide sp read p a r t i c i p a t i o n in de c i s i o n -mak i n g at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l , ob ta i n i ng m i n o r i t y r i ght s , 41 and secur ing changes in soc i a l i n s t i t u t i on s . E v e n Ferguson says t ha t " t h e a i m of c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on s oc i a l work is to render c o m m u n i t i e s more c apab l e of 42 t ak i ng e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n w i t h a m a x i m u m o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Whether or not bo th the consensus imp l i ed in the unde r tak i ng of c o o p e r a t i v e c o m m u n i t y p r o j e c t s and w idesp read p a r t i c i p a t i o n a re a ch i e vab l e depends on whethe r Canad i an s a re f a i r l y unan imous on bas ic va lues or whe the r the power - 13 -d i f f e r e n t i a l s that ex i s t c r e a t e c o n f l i c t i n g va lues . Because o f d i f f e r e n t pe r cep t i on s o f Canad i an s o c i e t y , c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on p r a c t i t i o n e r s have d i f f e r i n g approaches t o c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . A number o f w r i t e r s have dev i sed t ypo log i e s o f c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on wh i ch t a k e into a ccoun t w ide v a r i a t i o n s in p r a c t i t i o n e r s k i l l s , ro les and va lues , c o m m u n i t y needs, goa l s , arenas and methods . and B l a k e and Mou ton , C r o w f o o t and C h e s l e r , P e r l m a n and G u r i n , and Ross a l l put 43 f o r w a r d t ypo l og i e s . Bu t the most w i d e l y known and a c c e p t e d t ypo logy o f c o m m u n i t y work or o r gan i z a t i on is J a c k Ro thman ' s . R o t h m a n h igh l i ght s two themes o f s oc i a l work , t r e a t m e n t and r e f o r m . " O n e d i l e m m a in c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on is whethe r c o m m u n i t y i n t e r ven t i on should stress the de l i v e r y of se r v i ce s t o ind iv idua l s in need or the m o d i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l 44 cond i t i on s t ha t pred i spose some peop le to i nequ i ty or d y s f u n c t i o n . " C a s ewo r k and group work , w i t h t he i r emphas i s on t r e a t m e n t , has d o m i n a t e d s oc i a l work p r a c t i c e but c u r r en t s oc i a l cond i t i on s have s t rengthened the c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a -t i o n , r e f o r m theme of soc i a l work . R o t h m a n d i v ides c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n in to t h r ee c a t e go r i e s : l o c a l i t y or c o m m u n i t y deve l opment , s oc i a l p lann ing and s o c i a l a c t i o n . Ro thman ' s t ypo logy is w i de l y r e spec ted for the f o l l o w i n g reasons. It c l a r i f i e s c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . It ma t che s the s t r a teg i e s and t a c t i c s t o be emp loyed by p r a c t i t i o n e r s and res idents w i t h as sumpt ions about s o c i e t y and the d i v i s i on o f power w i t h i n i t . It emphas i ze s the impo r t ance o f va lues and as sumpt ions . B e c a u s e they a re i m p o r t a n t , s t r a teg i e s must be l i nked to s p e c i f i c 45 goals w h i c h , in t u r n , a re founded in a p a r t i c u l a r v a l ue o r i e n t a t i o n . Because of i t s d e t a i l and w idesp read a c c e p t a n c e , Ro thman ' s t ypo logy w i l l be used as a basis f o r f u r t he r d i scuss ion o f the c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on s t r e a m of s oc i a l wo rk . 46 A m o n g the most s u c c i n c t de f i n i t i o n s o f l o c a l i t y or c o m m u n i t y deve l opment is tha t of P e r l m a n and G u r i n who c a l l i t the a t t e m p t " t o m o b i l i z e the peop le who a re a f f e c t e d by a c o m m u n i t y cond i t i on . . . in to groups and o r gan i z a t i on s to enab le - 1 4 -t h e m to t a ke a c t i on s on those s o c i a l p rob lems and issues w h i c h a f f e c t t h e m . " ^ Ferguson says t ha t " c o m m u n i t y deve l opment i nvo l ves the f a c i l i t a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n , and f o s t e r i n g o f processes of s o c i a l change in the d i r e c t i o n o f g r ea te r w e l l - b e i n g for the ind i v idua l s of the c o m m u n i t y . . . t i ed together by some c o m m u n i t y of 48 i n t e r e s t . " She adds tha t the " m o d e r n ph i losophy o f c o m m u n i t y deve l opment emphas i ze s s e l f - he l p and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by as la rge a segment of the c o m m u n i t y as 49 c an be a c h i e v e d . " R o t h m a n a l so acknowledges t he c e n t r a l i t y of w idesp read p a r t i c i p a t i o n to c o m m u n i t y deve lopment e f f o r t s . C o m m u n i t y deve lopment invo lves goa l d e t e r m i n a t i o n , use of d e m o c r a t i c p rocedures , v o l un tee r e f f o r t on the pa r t o f c o m m u n i t y member s , and the deve lopment of indigenous l e a d e r s . ^ Many r e f e r t o the deve l opment o f p r ob l em- so l v i n g sk i l l s in c o m m u n i t y groups who b e c o m e more capab le of wo rk i ng c o o p e r a t i v e l y to so l ve c o m m u n i t y p rob lems and to a c h i e v e c o m m u n i t y imp rovement s of mu tua l b e n e f i t . ^ ' P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i nvo l ves d e t e c t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f the p r o b l e m , c a r e f u l d iagnos is to d e t e r m i n e app rop r i a t e so lut ions and s t r a teg i e s , s e l e c t i on of the r i ght s t r a t eg i e s , and c o l l a -52 bora t i on to so lve the p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d using the s t r a tegy s e l e c t e d . R o t h m a n warns that c o m m u n i t y deve lopment , as a c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n me thod , is most app rop r i a te when the popu la t i on o f a c o m m u n i t y is homogeneous and when consensus a l r eady ex i s t s on the issues tha t r e a l l y m a t t e r to most of i t s re s ident s . H e adds tha t i t is t he most usefu l method to use when the o b j e c t i v e is 53 the enhancement o f c i v i c r e spons ib i l i t y and c o m p e t e n c e . O f cou r se c o m m u n i t y deve lopment has i t c r i t i c s . C l o w a r d and P i v e n note that it was he ra lded by s oc i a l wo rke r s as a means o f mov ing away f r o m the c l i e n t -chang ing o r i e n t a t i o n of ca sework and group work . H o w e v e r , they c a u t i o n t ha t the sh i f t f r o m w o r k i n g w i t h ind iv idua l s and t he i r f a m i l i e s t o wo r k i n g w i t h c o m m u n i t y groups does not nece s sa r i l y imp l y a s h i f t away f r o m the t r a d i t i o n a l s oc i a l w o r k e r -54 c l i e n t r e l a t i on sh ip o f d o m i n a t i o n and subord inat ion . - 15 -O the r s a re fa r more c r i t i c a l . T o t h e m c o m m u n i t y deve l opment has been used t o shore up m a i n s t r e a m va lues and e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i on s . It does not, in t h e i r v i e w , un i te a c o m m u n i t y but r a the r f r a gmen t s i t by i s o l a t i ng groups and issues. It c an a l so be v i e w e d by gove rnment s as a means o f ob ta i n i ng cheap, v o l u n t e e r if poss ib le, so lu t ions t o c ommun r f y p rob lems the reby avo id ing expend i tu re and • K M * 55 re spons ib i l t y . S oc i a l p lann ing , the second method in Ro thman ' s t ypo logy , is a t e c h n i c a l approach to so lv ing s o c i a l p r ob l ems . It emphas i ze s r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n and assumes tha t expe r t s must gu ide s oc i a l change by mak i ng use of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and by man i pu l a t i n g bu reauc rac i e s . Enhanc ing c o m m u n i t y c a p a c i t y t o so lve p rob lems and p r o m o t e change is secondary to s o c i a l p l ann ing e f f o r t s and c i t i z e n i n vo l vement va r i e s con s i de rab l y . Instead, the p lanner p rov i de se rv i ce s t o those needing t h e m . " ^ P e r l m a n and G u r i n de f i ne soc i a l p lann ing as " e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d i n t e g r a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n sy s tems of t he c o m m u n i t y w i t h other sy s tems of the l oca l c o m m u n i t y and/or w i t h e x t r a c o m -mun i t y a c t i o n sys tems, and e f f o r t s a i m e d at b r ing ing about r e f o rms in the^~ a t t i t u d e s , po l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s of la rge p r i v a t e and pub l i c agenc ies . . ." The emphas i s is on improv ing soc i a l s e r v i ce s . L a u f f e r w r i t e s t ha t : s oc i a l p lann ing a c t i v i t i e s a re d i r e c t e d toward s c r e a t i n g changes in s e r v i c e o r gan i za t i on s and in s e r v i c e sy s tems. In g ene r a l , they do not a i m t he i r e f f o r t s d i r e c t l y a t the a m e l i o r a t i o n or e r a d i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l p rob lems and soc i a l i l l s . Instead, they a t t e m p t t o dea l w i t h the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l p r ob l ems by a l t e r i n g the processes o f re source a l l o c a t i o n , s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , and p rog r am deve lopment in those sys tems ^ r r e n t l y or p o t e n t i a l l y cha rged w i t h supp ly ing app rop r i a t e s o c i a l p rov i s i on s . A c c o r d i n g t o L a u f f e r s o c i a l p lanners a re c once rned w i t h m o d i f y i n g , e l i m i n a t i n g o r c r e a t i n g p o l i c i e s , s e r v i ce s , p rog rams or re sources in soc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s . They may or may not be conce rned w i t h s t r u c t u r a l change. Soc i a l p lann ing e f f o r t s a re most app rop r i a t e when the ob jec t is r e so l u t i on o f a p r o b l e m w h i c h is f a i r l y r ou t ine 59 and amenab le to so lu t i on through a p p l i c a t i o n of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Soc i a l p lann ing a c t i v i t y began in C a n a d a w i t h lay s o c i a l p lann ing c o u n c i l s wh i ch were pa r t o f the vo l un tee r s e c t o r o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . T h e i r ro le was t o i den t i f y needs w h i c h cou l d be m e t by s o c i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s . Many s e r v i c e s we re p rov i ded by gove rnment agenc ies and r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n f r o m soc i a l c ounc i l s a l though the l a t t e r c o u l d not p l an f o r t h e m . O f t e n r e s e a r c h b ranches w e r e added to c ounc i l s to imp rove the q u a l i t y of t he i r p lann ing e va l ua t i on f unc t i on s . Many counc i l s p r epa red b r i e f s on such top i c s as housing and urban r e n e w a l . Today s o c i a l p lann ing e f f o r t s a t the f ede ra l and p r o v i n c i a l l eve l a re c a r r i e d out l a rge ly by s oc i a l wo rke r s and p lanners wo r k i n g fo r gove rnment d e p a r t m e n t s , ^ a l though at the l oca l l eve l t he r e a re more vo l un ta r y than gove rnment agenc ie s i nvo l ved in soc i a l s e r v i ce s d e l i v e r y . S oc i a l p l ann ing is a k i n t o what C h i n and Benne c a l l an " e m p i r i c a l - r a t i o n a l " approach to s oc i a l change ^ ' and C r o w f o o t and Che s l e r dub the " p r o f e s s i o n a l -62 t e c h n i c a l " app roach . The f i r s t assumes people a re r a t i ona l and w i l l a c t in t he i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t if they but know how that i n te re s t c an be s e r ved . Change proceeds through sys tems ana lys i s and app l i ed r e sea r ch . The work o f re sea rcher s is then l inked to tha t of f i e l d worke r s who i n co rpo ra te the new i n f o r m a t i o n and approaches into t he i r work , thereby d i s semina t i ng i t . The p r o f e s s i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l app roach v i ews s o c i e t y as c o m p l e x and f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d . C o m m u n i t i e s and o r gan i z a t i on s are based on t e c h n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y and b u r e a u c r a t i c au tho r i t y and a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by consensus, mo ra l ob l i ga t ions and e c o n o m i c i n te r -dependence . Peop l e b a s i c a l l y agree w i t h the management and dec i s ions o f the i r e l e c t e d and o the rw i se l e g i t i m a t e o f f i c i a l s . Whatever change does o c c u r is i n e v i t a b l e , t e c h n o -l o g i c a l l y based, i n c r e m e n t a l and c a r r i e d out by p ro fes s iona l s . Change ta rge t s i nc lude o r gan i za t i on s , s o c i a l ro les and the a t t i t ude s and sk i l l s of i nd i v idua l s . Soc i a l p l ann ing has i ts c r i t i c s . P l anne r s a re , fo r the most pa r t , emp l o yed by gove rnment o r gan i z a t i on s and have l i t t l e power t o e f f e c t r e a l change . F u r t h e r -more , these o r gan i z a t i on s , wh i ch p rov ide p lanners w i t h l e g i t i m a c y , s t a f f , - 17 -i n f o r m a t i o n and a paycheck , have more i n f l uence and c o n t r o l ove r t h e m than do 63 the r e c i p i en t s o f s oc i a l p lann ing p rog rams and i n te r ven t i on s . A l t h o u g h s oc i a l p lanners o f t e n have l i t t l e s tatus in gove rnment bu reauc rac i e s they cannot he lp but advance its o b j e c t i v e s . " F o r th is reason, p lann ing e f f o r t s may be b iased toward s the p rov i s i on o f s e r v i ce s and the e s tab l i s hment o f p rog rams a i m e d a t chang ing 64 i nd i v idua l s r a t he r than chang ing the bas i c s t r u c t u r a l a r r angement s o f s o c i e t y . " It is much eas ier and less r i s ky t o ho ld c lasses on inexpens ive food p r epa r a t i on than i t is to t r y to o b t a i n a l i v ab le s o c i a l a s s i s tance r a t e . The t h i r d method in Ro thman ' s typo logy of c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n is s o c i a l a c t i o n . It d i f f e r s s ub s t an t i a l l y f r o m bo th c o m m u n i t y deve lopment and s oc i a l p l a n -n ing in that i t assumes c o n f l i c t be tween d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t a l groups. The a i m of s o c i a l a c t i o n is s o c i a l change, i.e. the r ed i s t r i bu t i on o f power , re sources or de c i s i o n -mak i n g . It presupposes a d i sadvantaged popu la t i on that must o r gan i ze and f i nd a l l i e s to a c h i e v e th is r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . It is most app rop r i a t e l y used when the a i m is to e f f e c t long-range and c on t r o ve r s i a l i n s t i t u t i o na l and s t r u c t u r a l change. It is most e f f e c t i v e when the re ex i s t groups hos t i l e to each o ther whose in te res t s a re d i s s im i l a r and cannot be r e c o n c i l e d through d i s c u s s i o n . ^ A g a i n , C h i n and Benne and C r o w f o o t and Ches te r ou t l i ne approaches to p lanned change w h i c h a re i d e n t i c a l t o s o c i a l a c t i o n . C h i n and Benne ' s " p o w e r c o e r c i v e " a p p r o a c h ^ is based on amass ing p o l i t i c a l and/or e c o n o m i c power to b r i ng about a des i red change. It tends t o p o l a r i z e c o m m u n i t i e s as t hey l i ne up t o t a k e s ides. The " p o l i t i c a l " app roach o f C r o w f o o t and C h e s l e r ^ assumes the d i s t r i bu t i on o f power among groups is uneven, makes fo r c on t i nua l c o n f l i c t and c o m p e t i t i o n ove r re sou rce d i s t r i b u t i o n , and de te rm ine s s o c i e t a l f u n c t i o n i n g . It assumes tha t s t a te r egu l a to r y f unc t i on s a re f a u l t y , t ha t power is c o n c e n t r a t e d in the hands o f an e l i t e and tha t the a l l o c a t i o n o f resources is seen as unjust by those w i t h o u t power and just but d i f f i c u l t to m a i n t a i n by the e l i t e . E x i s t i n g laws, norms and s o c i a l i -z a t i o n processes work to m a i n t a i n e l i t e c o n t r o l and a re v i e w e d as oppress i ve by - 1 8 -those w i t h o u t powe r . Indiv iduals can have no i n f l uence unless they a re pa r t o f a group. A t h e m e apparent in the s oc i a l a c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e is c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l . The 1960's was a t i m e of s oc i a l upheava l as peop le demon s t r a t ed t o wre s t power ove r c o m m u n i t y i n s t i t u t i on s f r o m those who he ld i t . The demand for c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l was ra i sed in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the ope ra t i on of schools, s o c i a l agenc ies and w e l f a r e c ounc i l s and the c a r r y i n g out o f phy s i c a l and s o c i a l p lann ing for urban ne ighbour -hoods. The des i re fo r c o n t r o l ove r such i n s t i t u t i on s and processes ar i ses f r o m a f e e l i n g of power lessness on the pa r t o f c o m m u n i t y res idents or agency c l i e n t s who f e e l man i pu l a t ed or e x p l o i t e d . Bo th the t a r ge t and the t r i g ge r o f such c o m m u n i t y anger can be d i s t o r t i on s in resource a l l o c a t i o n c r e a t e d by power d i f f e r e n t i a l s , gaps be tween va lues p ro fes sed and those in use, and the dehuman i z i n g e f f e c t s o f b u r e a u -c r a c i e s on both worke r s and re s i den t s/c l i en t s . O f cour se , e f f o r t s to ga in c o n t r o l over a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i on or process do not, of themse l ve s , imp l y an i n t r i n s i c p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n taken depends e n t i r e l y on those invo lved and on 68 t he i r ana lys i s o f the issues. In t he i r c r i t i c i s m of s oc i a l a c t i o n N e i l G i l b e r t and Joseph E a t o n quest ion the 69 rep re senta t i venes s of s o c i a l a c t i v i s t s and the c o m m u n i t y groups they work w i t h . They argue t ha t a c t i v i s t s may s imp ly be a new e l i t e who a re no more d e m o c r a t i c or cogn i zan t o f r e a l c o m m u n i t y or s u b - c o m m u n i t y des i res than a re s oc i a l wo r ke r s wo r k i n g w i t h no c o m m u n i t y input. On a r e l a t e d note, L i s a P e a t t i e says t he re is the danger that the " c o m m u n i t y " w i t h whom a c t i v i s t s wo rk is an a r t i f a c t of the p roces s and has no e x i s t e n c e as a c o m m u n i t y , w i t h a c c e p t e d geograph ic and c o m m o n in te re s t boundar ies , beyond the p lann ing p r o c e s s . ^ A ser ious p r o b l e m for the su r v i va l o f s o c i a l a c t i o n e f f o r t s is ob ta i n i ng f u n d -ing. C o m m u n i t i e s f i nd i t d i f f i c u l t to ra i se money t o h i r e an o r g a n i z e r . The r e su l t i n g dependence on gove rnment fund ing puts soc i a l a c t i o n groups in the anomolous po s i t i on o f ' b i t i n g the hand that feeds ' . Fund ing for c o m m u n i t y - 1 9 -o r gan i ze r s and groups is f r e q u e n t l y r educed or c u t a l t o ge the r once go ve rnmen t o f f i c i a l l y r e a l i z e s the a i m is s o c i a l change o f some k i n d . ^ ' It is d i f f i c u l t f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i on s to respond t o or sponsor change e f f o r t s . E x i s t i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i on s cannot sponsor o r g a n i z a t i o n a l wo r k in l o w - i n c o m e areas because they cannot t o l e r a t e the c o n f l i c t , because they de f i ne the p rob lems o f l ow - i n come people f r o m out s ide r a the r than wo r k i n g w i t h the de f i n i t i o n s o f l ow - i n come peop le , because they s t a r t f r o m a po s i t i on above the poor and rea^h, down r a the r than s t a r t i n g w i t h a wo r k i n g r e spec t fo r l o w - i n c o m e peop le . B e f o r e leav ing the c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on s t r e a m of s oc i a l work and its t h ree ma jo r d i v i s ions , c o m m u n i t y deve l opment , s o c i a l p lann ing and s o c i a l a c t i o n , the themes c o m m o n to a l l should be ment i oned . Whar f ma i n t a i n s t ha t a l l t h r ee imp l y d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of soc i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e -ment of c o m m u n i t y i n vo l vement in p lann ing and manag ing s e r v i c e de l i v e r y , and the encouragement of s e l f - he l p and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . A l l tend t o be p r e v e n t i v e in seve ra l ways : c o m m u n i t y deve l opment p r a c t i t i o n e r s , p lanners and a c t i v i s t s i den t i f y and mon i t o r c o m m u n i t y p rob lems and s t a t i s t i c s ; they help to s t reng then c o m m u n i t y env i r onment s by chang ing pa t t e r n s of re l a t i on sh ip s among res idents and be tween t h e m and loca l i n s t i t u t i on s ; and they tend to i nc rease both peop le ' s p e r cep t i on s of t h e i r c ho i ce s and e f f i c a c y and t he i r a c t u a l c h o i c e s and e f f i c a c y 73 thereby reduc ing the f r u s t r a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n that can lead t o s o c i a l p rob lems . The conven t i ona l w i sdom has been tha t an agency should not do both casework and group work and c o m m u n i t y work because d i r e c t s e r v i c e t i m e wou ld d e t r a c t f r o m o r gan i z a t i on e f f o r t s . H o w e v e r , the conven t i ona l w i s dom is be ing Ik ques t ioned fo r s e ve r a l reasons. F i r s t o f a l l , t he re is a lack o f money f o r c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on wh i l e many d i r e c t s e r v i ce s a re v i r t u a l l y assured of annua l budgets . The f o r m e r c an " r i d e on the c o a t t a i l s " of the l a t t e r . Second ly , p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a g e n c y - c e n t e r e d , d i r e c t s e r v i c e may lead to i r r e l e v a n t and i nacce s s i b l e s e r v i ce s . F o r d i r e c t s e r v i ce s t o be e f f e c t i v e agency s t a f f should -20-i n t e r a c t w i t h o ther agenc ie s , m o b i l i z e c o m m u n i t y support f o r va r i ous des i red ends, i d e n t i f y unmet needs and deve lop p rog rams to m e e t t h e m . T h i r d l y , because c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n is p r e v e n t i v e i t c an a c t u a l l y help r educe the number o f peop le r equ i r i n g ca sework and group work s e r v i ce s . "It seems tha t d i r e c t s e r v i c e agenc ies c an de fend the r i ght t o and indeed assert the neces s i t y f o r i n vo l vemen t in l o c a l i t y deve l opment s oc i a l p lann ing and s oc i a l r e f o r m . The case can be advanced by c onnec t i n g c o m m u n i t y work w i t h p r e v e n t i o n . " ^ Whar f adds t ha t " w e may w e l l see a r e tu rn to the k ind o f gene r i c p r a c t i c e f o r m e r l y found in the ne ighbourhood houses (emphasis added), and in some r u r a l depa r tmen t s o f pub l i c w e l f a r e " . ^ Severa l author s empha s i z e the i m p o r t a n c e of o f f e r i n g p rog rams even wh i l e o r gan i z i ng , p lann ing or w h a t e v e r . I rv ing Sperge l notes that t y i ng a s e r v i c e p r o g r a m to a c o m m u n i t y change e f f o r t helps deve lop c o m p e t e n c e and a group sense as w e l l as mee t a n e e d . ^ Hagg s t r om notes the demon s t r a t i on e f f e c t o f p r ov i d i n g a s e r v i c e in c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h those a l r eady p rov i ded wh i ch a re con s i de red 78 inadequate. A comprehen s i ve s t a t emen t of the i m p o r t a n c e of p r o g r am deve l op -ment c omes f r o m Y e h e s k e l Ha sen fe l d who is quoted in f u l l be l ow. P r o g r a m deve lopment and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n is a c o m m o n and c r u c i a l task of c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on p r a c t i t i o n e r s . . . The re seems to be an i m p l i c i t a s sumpt ion t ha t , once the c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r has succe s s -f u l l y m o b i l i z e d a c t i o n groups or p lann ing task f o r c e s to g rapp le w i t h impo r tan t c o m m u n i t y issues, his f un c t i on is e s sen t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d . . . Y e t , the most c r i t i c a l e l emen t in any c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on a c t i v i t y is the eme r gence o f some idea and design f o r a p r o g r a m . . . the p r o g r am p rov ide s in v e r y c o n c r e t e t e rms , the outputs or s e r v i ce s des i red and needed by the c o m m u n i t y . . . the c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r has the dual ro l^aof a c t i o n m o b i l i z e r and p lanner , and o f o r gan i ze r and p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t e r . Social Service Delivery System The t r an s l a t i on of w e l f a r e va lues into w e l f a r e p rog rams requ i re s the e xe r c i s e o f power , among other th ings. A l t h o u g h o ther types o f o r gan i z a t i on s p rov ide s oc i a l s e r v i ce s , e.g. ph i l a n t h r op i c , c o o p e r a t i v e , and en t r ep reneu r i a l or c o r p o r a t e o r gan i za t i on s , the gove rnment i nc rea s ing l y holds a near monopo ly on the d e l i v e r y - 21 -o f w e l f a r e s e r v i ce s . In C a n a d a , s oc i a l w e l f a r e r e spon s i b i l i t y is shared by the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l g ove rnment s . Those who a d m i n i s t e r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p rog rams have s i g n i f i c an t power and i n f l uence . Many dec i s ions a re made by t h e m , not e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . The re is a l so i nc reas ing tens ion be tween the c e n t r a l p lann ing of s o c i a l s e r v i ce s a r i s i ng f r o m c o n c e r n over t h e i r q u a l i t y and un i v e r s a l i t y , and the l o ca l p lann ing of s e r v i ce s so t ha t they may be respons ive to the d i v e r s i t y of 80 Canad i an c o m m u n i t i e s . " A c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o w h o m ? " is a pe renn i a l d i l e m m a of s oc i a l work agenc ie s . R o t h m a n fee l s the tens ion be tween c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s oc i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y is caused by the dua l c once rn fo r e f f i c i e n c y and a c c o u n t -a b i l i t y . On the one hand t axpaye r s and gove rnment leaders a re c once rned by r i s ing cos t s , i n f l a t i o n and higher taxes , wh i l e on the other hand c l i e n t and res ident groups have a deep- seated m i s t ru s t of p ro fes s iona l s and gove rnment bu reauc r a c i e s . On the one hand, many go ve rnmen ta l and vo l un ta r y p rog rams c a l l f o r i nc reased c l i e n t and c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a po s i t i on t ha t encourages f l e x i b i l i t y , p l u r a l i sm and the p l ay i ng out o f p o l i t i c a l and i n te re s t g roup f o r c e s . On the other hand, there are pressures f o r ordgij l iness, p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l in the running o f p rog rams . The re is both the des i re and the p o t e n t i a l on the par t of res idents of Canad i an c i t i e s " t o imp rove soc i a l s e r v i c e de l i v e r y , t o ga in some degree o f 82 i n f l uence in c o n t r o l l i n g these se r v i ce s and to p rotes t against unjust c ond i t i on s . " The d e m o c r a t i c e t h i c of s oc i a l work supports the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f s oc i a l s e r v i ce s c l i e n t s in s e r v i c e p lann ing and de l i v e r y , yet agenc ie s and gove rnment depa r tmen t s have thus f a r shown themse l ve s i ncapab le o f or unw i l l i n g t o a c c o m m o d a t e p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . " O r g a n i z i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the poor is w e l l endorsed as an idea l but e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n invo lves the shar ing o f power . The readiness t o share powe r 83 is much less ev iden t than the p l a t i t ude s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " The f a t e o f the C o m m u n i t y Re sou r ce s Boards , e s tab l i shed by the N e w D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a f t e r i t s e l e c t i o n in 1972, is an e xamp l e o f the c l a s h be tween d e c e n -t r a l i z e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z e d a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r soc i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . - 22 -The Boards w e r e composed o f e l e c t e d c o m m u n i t y r ep re sen ta t i ve s and r e su l t ed in a degree of d e c e n t r a l i z e d dec i s i on mak i n g c once rn i n g use of d i s t r e t i o n a r y money a v a i l a b l e t o the R e s o u r c e s Boa rd s . They w e r e s omewha t s i m i l a r t o the w e l f a r e 84 counc i l s of the 1930's, 40's and 50's. H o w e v e r , they were d i s so lved in 1977 by the newly r e t u r ned Soc i a l C r e d i t g o ve rnmen t . F o r m a l o r gan i z a t i on s have been de sc r i bed by C o x as " p a t t e r n s of soc i a l i n t e r -a c t i on and shared pe r spec t i ve s tha t have been d e l i b e r a t e l y e s tab l i shed for c e r t a i n 85 purposes. " O r gan i z a t i o n s ex i s t to a c h i e v e c e r t a i n ob jec t i v e s . Increas ing ly , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and p ro fe s s i ona l i sm c h a r a c t e r i z e s oc i a l s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i on s as s e r v i ce s p r o l i f e r a t e and as the money spent on t h e m increases . " A g e n c i e s and p rog rams are subject to the hazards o f a l l bu reauc rac i e s in t he i r t endenc ie s t owa rd r i g i d i t y and t owa rd c o n c e r n w i t h the ma i n t enance of the o r g a n i -z a t i o n s omet imes at the expense of mee t i n g the needs they we re des igned to „86 se rve . " A r m i t a g e observes t ha t s oc i a l w e l f a r e agenc ies r ema i n r e a c t i v e to s oc i a l change ra the r than i n i t i a t i n g i t on the i r own . H e fee l s the r a p a c i t y of e c o n o m i c g rowth , w i t h i t s nega t i ve e f f e c t s and the po s s i b i l i t y o f its end, may re su l t in s oc i a l w e l f a r e agenc ies t a k i ng more i n i t i a t i v e and becom ing p r i m a r y r a the r than 87 secondary i n s t i t u t i on s , i.e. i n i t i a t i n g ra the r than r e a c t i n g to change. The above has been a b r i e f i n t r oduc t i on t o some issues in the d e l i v e r y o f s o c i a l work s e r v i ce s . Seve ra l w r i t e r s suggest f u tu re d i r e c t i o n s fo r s o c i a l work . Ferguson fee l s s oc i a l s e r v i ce s w i l l expand as the gove rnment assumes mo re r e spon -s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p rov i s i on and as v o l un t a r y a s soc ia t ions c on t i nue to f i l l in the gaps. She adds t ha t p r e v e n t i v e work w i l l b e come m o r e impo r t an t and that s oc i a l s e r v i ce s 88 w i l l be expanded to a reas o f a n t i c i p a t e d need be fo re t ha t need becomes a cu t e . Wharf th inks the h e r e t o f o r e d i s c r e t e areas o f s oc i a l wo rk p r a c t i c e , i .e. ca sework , group work and c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i l l me rge . H i s r e cen t book, C o m m u n i t y  Work in C a n a d a , inc ludes case s tud ies o f c h i l d c a r e wo rke r s and p r oba t i on o f f i c e r s - 2 3 -"who have expanded the i r r o l e t o i nc lude a c t i v i t i e s a i m e d at imp rov i ng ne i ghbou r -89 hood cond i t i on s . " A r m i t a g e be l i e ve s c u r r e n t pressures to r eo r gan i ze s oc i a l s e r v i ce s w i l l lead t o an emphas i s on the c oncep t o f c o m m u n i t y w i t h a r e su l t i n g i nc rease in the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s oc i a l s e r v i ce s as they a re l oca ted c lo se r to the 90 peop le who use t h e m . P e r l m a n and G u r i n p r e d i c t the i nc reas ing c o m p l e x i t y and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f soc i a l s e r v i ce s w i l l n ece s s i t a te a new b reed o f p ro fe s s i ona l s who p lan and o r gan i ze se rv i ce s and who i n co rpo ra te ideas f r o m educa t i on , hea l th and 91 urban p lann ing f i e l d s . Government Funding of Social Services P e r l m a n and G u r i n i den t i f y f i v e e l ement s necessary to the f unc t i on i ng of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . These inc lude a mandate or l e g i t i m a c y , consumers or c l i e n t s , personnel ( inc lud ing vo lunteer s ) , i n f o r m a t i o n and m a t e r i a l resources , and f i n a l l y 92 money . The g i v i ng or w i thho ld i ng of f i n a n c i a l support becomes , in p r a c t i c a l t e rms , an impo r t an t means of endors ing, i n v a l i d a t i n g , or chang ing the mandate of a s e r v i c e agency . M a i n t a i n i n g and inc reas ing the f l ow of funds to an o r g a n i z a -t i on is ther^fjore one of the p r i m a r y tasks i nvo l ved in p lann ing and o r g a n i z i n g . Ferguson says t ha t the p redominan t source o f funds fo r c o m m u n i t y s e r v i ce s r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l cond i t i on s under w h i c h c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n ope ra te s . B e f o r e the Depres s ion , most r e l i e f and soc i a l work was f i n anced by p r i v a t e donat ions . The Depres s ion r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d th i s s i t u a t i o n . Today , t a x money funds much s o c i a l wo r k a c t i v i t y . The w ide sp read a c c e p t a n c e o f g o ve rnmen t re spons ib i -l i t y for s o c i a l w e l f a r e is a r e vo l u t i ona r y depa r tu re f r o m the beginnings of s oc i a l work . Fe rguson sees an oppo r tun i t y f o r p r i v a t e agenc ies , now f r e e d o f much 94 r e spon s i b i l i t y , t o deve lop supp lementa ry and e x p e r i m e n t a l p rog rams . This is not to d im in i s h the i m p o r t a n c e o f such p rog rams. O n the c o n t r a r y , p r i v a t e agency p rog rams a re v i e w e d as impo r t an t t o the genera l w e l f a r e and they , -24-t oo , a re i n c rea s i ng l y funded by the gove rnment w i t h the re su l t t ha t p h i l a n t h r o p i c and p r i v a t e agenc ie s r e c e i v e larger and larger pe r cen tage s of t he i r ope ra t i n g budgets f r o m pub l i c money . In some cases, p rog rams a re a c t u a l l y t aken ove r by 95 the gove rnment . P r i v a t e agenc ie s can ob ta i n funds through pub l i c or gove rnment fund ing made a va i l ab l e through l e g i s l a t i v e or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n . Ob ta i n i n g gove rnment funds requ i res bo th con t i nued c o n t a c t w i t h e l e c t e d r ep re sen ta t i ve s and adm in i s t r a t o r s , and pub l i c r e l a t i on s work t o " s e l l " the va l ue of se r v i ce s t o c o m m u n i t y res idents in o rder to bu i l d l o ca l support . A n o t h e r source of fund ing is the g rant or s pec i a l p r o j e c t fund ing , f o r bo th of w h i c h the agency must submit an 96 a p p l i c a t i o n . A g e n c i e s b e c o m e s k i l l e d a t ob ta in i ng gove rnment funds. H o w e v e r , as they deve lop into larger s o c i a l agenc ies , w h i c h the i n c rea s i ng leve l o f g o v e r n -ment fund ing p e r m i t s , p r i v a t e agenc ies can b e c o m e l i ke bu reauc rac i e s wh i ch c o n t r i -97 butes to the " s epa ra t i on o f he lper f r o m he lped . " A g e n c i e s wh i ch a c c e p t gove rnment g rants a l l t oo o f t e n f ind t h e m to be i n s t rument s o f c o n t r o l . The i n c rea s i ng i n vo l vement o f the severa l leve l s of gove rnment in c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s has changed the f i n a n c i a l base of a lmos t a l l agenc ie s . W i t h th i s change in t he base o f support has c o m e the g r ea te r in se r t ion of gove rnment in the p o l i c y -mak i ng r e a l m and f ew agenc ies a re c o m p l e t e l y independent t o r^gike t he i r own po l i c y dec i s i ons so long as they share in gove rnment funds. A g e n c i e s a re s o m e t i m e s pres sured by gove rnment depa r tmen t s w i t h rega rd t o s e r v i c e s tandards , p r og r am q u a l i t y and agency f i s c a l r e spon s i b i l i t y . Wh i le th is is f a i r enough "on some occas ions ser ious c o n f l i c t s a r i se over the f undamen ta l c o n t r o l 99 o f the agency . " F o r e x a m p l e , the p ro spe r i t y o f the 1960's p e r m i t t e d gove rnment s to e x p e r i m e n t by h i r i n g f u l l t i m e c o m m u n i t y wo rke r s t o work w i t h c o m m u n i t y groups. Th i s was p a r t l y due to the soc i a l w e l f a r e ideals of d e m o c r a c y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s w h i c h w e r e beh ind t he d e m o n s t r a t i o n g rant s o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f the S e c r e t a r y of S t a te and the s o c i a l a c t i o n goals of the gove rnment funded -25 -C o m p a n y of Y o u n g Canad ian s . R e c i p i e n t s of these g rant s w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p rog rams a i m e d a t g i v i n g poor peop le a v o i c e in c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s . Some of the w o r k e r s h i r e d used the r e s u l t i n g spate o f p rog rams t o a g i t a t e for s o c i a l change and some we re qu i te s u cce s s f u l . H o w e v e r , t h r ea tened by such cha l l enge s to e x i s t i n g s e r v i ce s and s t r u c t u r e s , gove rnment depa r tmen t s cu t back or w i t h d r e w a l t o g e t h e r p r o g r am fund ing . A l m o s t none of these p rog rams ex i s t today. The i n vo l vement o f spec ia l i n te re s t groups o f t e n wo r ked so tha t r e f o r m d id not t a ke p l a c e and t he re were f ew if any changes made t o e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s . ' ^ " E v e n appa ren t l y secu re and independent sources o f fund ing may dry up if the p lanner appears t o t h r e a t e n en t r enched and powe r f u l i n s t i t u t i o n s . " ' ^ ' L a u f f e r adds t ha t p rog rams o r i g i n a l l y a i m e d at chang ing some aspect of the s oc i a l o rder b e c o m e p rog rams conce rned p r i m a r i l y w i t h he lp ing the i nd i v idua l adjust to tha t o rder to c on t i nue to . . 102 e x i s t . The re is w idespread r ecogn i t i on among p r a c t i t i o n e r s tha t the s p e c i f i c o r g an i z a t i o n s i t ua t i on sets both the oppo r tun i t i e s and con s t r a i n t s tha t gove rn the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s opera t i on s . One examp le is the conc lu s i on de r i ved f r o m the gove rnment f i n anced c o m m u n i t y a c t i o n e xpe r imen t s of the I960's tha t m i l i t a n t s oc i a l a c t i o n d i r e c t e d t owa rd chang ing the p o l i t i c a l power s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r^SjOrganization i ndependence and au tonomy on the pa r t o f the a c t i o n group. The re a re numerous t e s t imon i e s in the l i t e r a t u r e to the i m p o r t a n c e of a secure funding source fo r p r i v a t e , c o m m u n i t y i n t e r ven t i on e f f o r t s . Doug las B a r r , w r i t i n g about the r e s i d e n t - c o n t r o l l e d Regen t P a r k C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s C e n t r e in To ron to , says it is c r i t i c a l f o r such a c e n t r e t o have a s t ab le source of fund ing if i t 104 is to do any long-range p lann ing and avo id l u rch ing f r o m c r i s i s to c r i s i s . Because gove rnment s c on s t an t l y urge i nnova t i ve p rog rams t o look e l s ewhere f o r funds they cannot be con s ide red a s t ab le fund ing source. Dona l d K e a t i n g w r i t e s tha t " i t is not in the i n te re s t o f fund ing i n s t i t u t i on s to u n d e r w r i t e p rog rams a i m e d at chang ing cond i t i on s r a t he r than p rov i d i n g s e r v i ce s . . . P o l i t i c a n s a t e ve r y l e ve l o f gove rnment l i ke s e r v i c e groups and t he i r app roach because they m a i n t a i n the s ta tu s q u o . " ' ^ P e r l m a n and G u r i n , who documen ted a t h rea t to the con t i nued - 26 -e x i s t e n c e of H a v i l l a n d House, a To ron to ne ighbourhood house, c onc l uded tha t " c o n t r o l o f f i n a n c i a l re sources is c r i t i c a l to the e x i s t e n c e o f such an a g e n c y . " " ^ M o r r i s and Hess argue tha t c o m m u n i t y groups and agenc ie s can on ly be t r u l y independent and autonomous if they have a s e l f - g e n e r a t i n g and i n t e rna l l y c o n t r o l l e d fund ing source such as a l o ca l l y ope ra ted and c o n t r o l l e d business. There a re not many answers to the p r ob l em posed by the d i l e m m a of con t i nued e x i s t ence as a non - th rea ten ing d i r e c t s e r v i c e p r o g r am of the ca sework and group work t y p e or the c u t t i n g o f f o f funds f o r change o r i e n t e d c o m m u n i t y i n t e r ven t i on p rog rams . Sah le in suggests bo th c o n t r a c t i n g out of s e r v i ce s t r a d i -t i o n a l l y p rov i ded by the gove rnment to p r i v a t e agenc ie s and the deve lopment of a voucher s y s t em w h i c h wou ld enab le peop le t o go whe re they l i k ed t o get s e r v i c e s , be it to a f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , mun i c i p a l or p r i v a t e agency . These suggest ions address the p r o b l e m of qua l i t y r a the r than e x i s t ence . T r e c k e r suggests the banding toge the r o f p r i v a t e agenc ies and c o m m u n i t y groups to dev i se cohe ren t po l i c i e s of f i n a n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . " F i n a n c e c o m m i t t e e s of i nd i v idua l agenc ies must mee t w i t h t h e i r c oun te rpa r t s in t he i r f i e l d s o f s e r v i ce , and boards wh i ch he r e t o f o r e thought about only t he i r agency w i l l have to th ink more about f i e l d s of s e r v i c e and the • + ,,108 en t i r e c o m m u n i t y . " S i n ce the deve l opment o f the To ron to F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y in 1914, f a m i l y s e r v i c e agenc ies have done p r i m a r i l y i nd i v idua l and f a m i l y counse l l i n g (casework) and have been pa r t o f vo l un tee r s oc i a l s e r v i c e o r gan i z a t i on s gove rned by independent boards o f t ru s tees and supported by the U n i t e d Way. Ne ighbourhood houses. . . p rov ide such se r v i ce s . M o r e r e c e n t l y the re has been a t rend t owa rd s gove rnment c o n t r a c t u a l purchase o f s e r v i ce s f r o m vo l un t a r y agenc ies such as day c a r e and homemake r s e r v i ce s . In some c e n t r e s (e.g. Vancouver ) , the fanrj^ s e r v i c e agency (e.g. N S A ) has a s s i s ted the deve l opment o f such se r v i ce s . C l e a r l y agenc ies such as ne ighbourhood houses w i l l c on t i nue t o r e l y , in p a r t , on gove rnment fund ing for p rov i s i on o f s p e c i f c s e r v i ce s . - 27 -P a r t i a l l y because o f i nc reased gove rnment fund ing o f s oc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s Wharf argues for the i n t r oduc t i on of " p a r t i c i p a t o r y management schemes in to human s e r v i c e o r gan i z a t i on s (in order) to improve oppo r tun i t i e s fo r consumers and c i t i z e n s t o b e c o m e i nvo l ved in p lann ing , manag ing and d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s . " ' A r m i t a g e a l so d i s t ingu i shes be tween c i t i z e n and consumer p a r t i c i p a t i o n . L o c a l w e l f a r e counc i l s should be composed of not only consumers of s oc i a l s e r v i c e s but a l so o the r c o m m u n i t y res ident s , bus inessmen and pro fes s iona l s who work in the a r ea , e.g. schoo l p r i n c i p a l s . A con sumer of s e r v i ce s who c r i t i c i z e s t h e m and demands a v o i c e in t he i r d e l i v e r y is c o n f r o n t i n g an o r g an i z a t i o n popu la r l y be l i eved t o be do ing good. Th i s f a c t , c omb ined w i t h the i r s t i g m a t i z a t i o n , p resent s majo r ob s tac le s to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t he i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n if not c o m b i n e d w i t h tha t of I I I non-consumers . If s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r s canno t nor should make a l l dec i s ions , if re s idents are t o p lay mo re a c t i v e ro les in the deve lopment of t he i r c o m m u n i t i e s and in the p rov i s i on o f s oc i a l s e r v i ce s , then v o l u n t e e r i s m , i ts m o t i v a t i o n s and f unc t i on s should be b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d . Ne ighbourhood boards o f d i r e c t o r s a re made up e n t i r e l y of vo lun tee r s . Volunteer Boards Vo lun tee r s a re people«who do someth ing for o ther s , not fo r money or through c o e r c i o n , but because they want t o . A r e c e n t na t i ona l survey c o n d u c t e d by S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a r e vea l ed tha t 1 5 % o f Canada ' s wo r k i n g age popu la t i on spent an average t h r ee hours a week do ing some sort o f vo l un tee r work be tween Feb rua r y 1979 and F e b r u a r y 1980. C o n t r a r y to popu lar be l i e f they we re by no means a l l uppe r - i n come , m idd l e - a ged housewives . Most w o r k e d in s oc i a l w e l f a r e , re l i g i ous or 112 le i sure a c t i v i t y o r gan i za t i on s . Increas ing amount s o f le i sure t i m e , g r ea te r - 2 8 -numbers of the r e t i r e d , and a shor tage of jobs fo r younger peop le have a l l c o m b i n e d 113 to expand the vo l un tee r labour poo l . What m o t i v a t e s peop le t o v o l un tee r ? A b r a h a m Mas l ow ' s now f amou s h i e r a r chy o f needs serves as the basis f o r a genera l t heo ry o f m o t i v a t i o n . ' B r i e f l y , Mas low ' s needs h i e r a r chy says t ha t once phy s i o l og i ca l needs fo r food and she l te r , and s a f e t y needs fo r order , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and f a m i l i a r i t y a re s a t i s f i e d , then the need for love, a f f e c t i o n and a sense o f be long ing c o m e to the f o r e . This inc ludes f r i e n d l y r e l a t i on s w i t h peop le and a p l a c e w i t h i n at least one group. F o l l o w i n g these needs are the e s t e e m needs i nc lud ing those for s t reng th , a c h i e v e -ment , adequacy , ma s te r y , c o m p e t e n c e and c o n f i d e n c e . F i n a l l y , Mas l ow speaks o f an u l t i m a t e need for s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . D a v i d Sm i t h says " t he m o t i v a t i o n of i nd i v i dua l v o l un t a r y a c t i o n is d i s t ingu i shed gene ra l l y by the p rom inence of p s ych i c bene f i t s and a sense of p s y cho l og i c a l - ph i l o s oph i ca l m e a n i n g . " ' '** M i l l e r adds t ha t : Howeve r engross ing one's j ob , hobbies or s pec ta to r sports may be, ind iv idua l s w i t h a reasonab le amount of f r ee t i m e o f t e n lack a sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , lack the s t i m u l a t i o n tha t comes f r o m exchang ing ideas, and e xpe r i ence f r u s t r a t i o n in be ing unable to re so lve the m y r i a d of s o c i e t a l p rob lems a f f e c t i n g t h e m and t he i r f a m i l i e s . Men and women , young cyy^old and f r o m a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c leve l s , want a " p i e c e of the a c t i o n . C a u s e - o r i e n t e d groups a f f o r d l i k e - m i n d e d peop le a chance to mee t each o ther , work t oge the r , and make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o so l v ing c o m m u n i t y p rob l ems . " V o l u n t e e r i n g . . . o f f e r s a way for c i t i z e n s to b e c o m e t rue p a r t i c i p a n t s , not just spec ta to r s in the c o m m u n i t y ' s p r ob l em so lv ing t a s k s . " ' ' ^ O t h e r author s c i t e the ob l i ga t i on s of good c i t i z e n s h i p and the re spons ib i l i t y of the c i t i z e n to p rov ide 118 s e r v i c e to the c o m m u n i t y . Vo l un t ee r i sm enables peop le t o be pa r t o f an i d e n -119 t i f i a b l e , purpos ive group a c t i v i t y , to c r e a t e someth ing and f o l l o w it th rough. Vo l un t a r y a s soc ia t ions c o ve r a w ide range o f o r gan i za t i on s whose p r i m a r y purpose is to a c h i e v e some change or imp rovemen t in s oc i a l a r r angement s , i n s t i t u -t ions and re l a t i on sh ip s . P e r l m a n and G u r i n i den t i f y t w o o the r k inds o f c o m m u n i t y - 29 -o r gan i z a t i on s . These a re soc ia l s e r v i c e agenc ie s , and p lann ing and a l l o c a t i n g 120 agenc ie s . S o c i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s a r e f o r m a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o r gan i z a t i on s t ha t p r o v i de s p e c i f i c s e r v i ce s t o a p a r t i c u l a r popu l a t i on . P l ann i ng and a l l o c a t i n g o r gan i z a t i on s d e t e r m i n e how to o r g an i z e and dep loy re sources to dea l w i t h s oc i a l p rob lems . A c c o r d i n g to th i s t ypo logy ne ighbourhood houses a re both soc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s and v o l un t a r y a s soc i a t i on s . 121 P e r l m a n and G u r i n ou t l i ne the f unc t i on s p e r f o r m e d by vo l un ta r y groups. F i r s t o f a l l , v o l un t a r y groups can r e d i s t r i b u t e and broaden the s o c i a l power base and the e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y . B y he lp ing l i m i t a r b i t r a r y use of power or e x p l o i t i v e p r a c t i c e s , they inc rease t o l e r a n c e fo r dev i ance . Second ly , they i nc rease people ' s s t a ke in the cu r r en t s oc i a l o rder by he ighten ing t he i r persona l s a t i s f a c t i o n . In other words they enhance soc i a l s t a b i l i t y , c o n t r o l and m o r a l e . T h i r d l y , v o l un t a r y a s soc ia t i on s help r e c r u i t and t r a i n leaders for h igher leve l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i n a l l y , they p r omo te a c lo se r f i t be tween the p r a c t i c e s of major soc i a l i n s t i t u t i on s and c o m m u n i t y cond i t i on s . By f a c i l i t a t i n g such a c comoda t i on s , indigenous o r gan i z a t i on s p r o t e c t the heterogeneity and c u l t u r a l Tightness o f the s o c i e t y and p rov i de a broader base fo r c u l t u r a l g r o w t h in many f i e l d s . B y f o s t e r i n g the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of subcu l tu res or l oca l s t y le s of l i f e , they furn i sh a b u f f e r to the c o n f o r m i t y demands of a mass s o c i e t y . By en la rg ing t o l e r a n c e for cerjtpjn f o rms of dev i ance , c o n s t r u c t i v e channe l s a re p rese rved for d i s sent. O f cour se , some vo l un t a r y groups a re s p e c i f i c a l l y change o r i e n t ed , e.g. pressure 123 groups. Bu t what e f f e c t does the o ve rwhe lm ing l y pub l i c p rov i s i on o f soc i a l s e r v i ce s have on v o l un tee r e f f o r t s ? Ferguson out l i ne s the lack o f dependence on 124 c e n t r a l i z e d i n i t i a t i v e s and d i r e c t i v e s in N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s past . Many l o ca l p rob lems w e r e o f t e n t a c k l e d and so l ved by l oca l vo l un tee r i n i t i a t i v e . H o w e v e r , as mo re s o c i a l s e r v i c e s c a m e to be a d m i n i s t e r e d by c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a c i e s s t a f f e d by t r a i ned p ro fe s s i ona l s , t he re seemed t o be l i t t l e l e f t f o r vo l un tee r s t o do beyond he lp ing out w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l p rog rams , and v o l u n t e e r i s m d e c l i n e d . Those who r e m a i n e d w o r k e d i nc rea s i ng l y under the d i r e c t i o n o f pa id p ro fe s s i ona l s . P a r t of t he - 3 0 -soc ia l s e r v i ce s p r o te s t of the 1960's was a back l a sh aga inst th i s t r end and the r e su l t i n g unrespons iveness o f agenc ie s to t he i r c l i e n t s , t he i r e l i t i s m , and the lack of pub l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d i r e c t i o n o f such agenc ie s . Vo l un tee r s i nc rea s i ng l y 125 looked to be i nc luded in s oc i a l s e r v i c e dec i s i o n -mak i n g . Con sequen t l y , the s t r u c t u r e of some o r gan i za t i on s , i nc lud ing c o m m u n i t y schools and hea l th c l i n i c s , was changed so as t o f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . L a y counc i l s , r e v i e w boards, and vo l un tee r boards p r o l i f e r a t e d in the l a te 1960's and e a r l y I970's. John C u l l and R i c h a r d Ha rdy point out t ha t i nc reas ing l y vo l un tee r s are not just r e s t r i c t e d t o v o l un t a r y a s soc ia t i ons . Soc i a l agenc ies do have vo l un tee r s who may also be c l i e n t s . These vo lun tee r s i n t e r p r e t the e f f e c t s o f po ve r t y and lack o f oppo r tun i t y t o p ro fes s iona l s , c o m m u n i t y leaders and p o l i t i c i a n s ; c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o needed s e r v i ce s ; i d e n t i f y and l o ca te those in need o f s e r v i ce s ; suggest ways in 126 w h i c h se r v i ce s c ou l d be imp roved ; and s ome t ime s demand the imp rovemen t s . C u l l and Ha rdy assert tha t many s oc i a l s e r v i ce s cou ld not be ma i n t a i ned at t he i r present leve l w i t hou t vo lun tee r s . They argue tha t " i n order to m a i n t a i n the cu r r en t leve l o f s e r v i ce s w i t hou t the i n teg ra l input of vo l un tee r s , the s oc i a l w e l f a r e budget w i t h i n th is c oun t r y (the U.S.) wou ld be i nc reased 127 a s t r o n o m i c a l l y . " A r m i t a g e cons ider s how to supp lement gove rnment p rov i ded soc i a l s e r v i ce s t o be the major issue c o n f r o n t i n g a l l o c a t i v e c o m m i t t e e s of the 128 U n i t e d Way and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of s oc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s . In 1973-1974, the money ra i sed by the U n i t e d Way and p r i v a t e campa igns was less than 1% o f g o v e r n -men t expend i tu re s for s oc i a l s e r v i ce s . A l t h o u g h the re is a vast d i s c repancy in the amount o f money pa id out , p r i v a t e agenc ies do compensa te fo r d e f i c i e n c i e s in 129 pub l i c p rog rams . A r m i t a g e r e f e r s to the Vancouver Che s t and C o u n c i l ' s P r i o r i t i e s Study o f 1964 and other s i m i l a r s tud ies w h i c h conc l uded tha t v o l u n t a r y o r gan i z a t i on s should des ign p rograms to supp lement gove rnment a c t i v i t i e s : (i) by suppor t ing s e r v i ce s not r e c e i v i n g gove rnment support , e.g. the r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g of Y M C A ' s , Y W C A ' s , Boys C l ub s , Ne i ghbourhood Houses, e t c . : (i i) by suppor t ing s e r v i ce s des igned - 3 1 -to i nc rease the respons iveness o f s e r v i c e s : and O i f ^ y p i onee r i ng new se r v i ce s t o p rev ious l y unserved p rob lems and popu la t i on s . G r e a t e r i n vo l vemen t in gove rnment dec i s on -mak i ng , t axpaye r s r e vo l t s , e t c . , 131 w i l l l i k e l y re su l t in mo re c i t i z e n s s i t t i n g on lay boards and mak i n g dec i s ions . " The C i t i z e n Boa rd is one of s oc i e t y ' s most impo r tan t i n s t rument s . It is used to d e t e r m i n e s o c i a l p o l i c y and is cha rged w i t h the re spons ib i l i t y f o r p rov id i ng a l l k inds 132 o f c o m m u n i t y s e r v i ce s . " E l s e w h e r e T r e c k e r w r i t e s t ha t " t h e board has a major ro le t o p lay in c o m m u n i t y p lann ing and in f o r m a l i z i n g p o l i c y r e l a t i on s be tween 133 agenc ie s . " Vo l un tee r boards set p o l i c y fo r an agency , r e v i e w and adopt budgets, r e v i e w majo r p rog rams , es tab l i sh job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and h i re sen ior s t a f f . T r e c k e r ou t l i ne s the s p e c i f i c dut ie s o f vo lun tee r s on p o l i c y - a d m i n i s t a t i v e boards as f o l l o w s . They i d e n t i f y l o ca l cond i t i on s and p rob lems requ i r i ng s oc i a l w e l f a r e se r v i ce s ; t hey i n i t i a t e and make po l i c y ; they c o n t r i b u t e s e r v i c e and adv i c e based on t he i r k n o w -ledge, sk i l l s and i n te re s t s ; they s o l i c i t pub l i c and vo l un ta r y support ; they i n t e r p r e t and speak for agency p rograms to l oca l re s ident s ; they repor t c o m m u n i t y r eac t i on s to p rog rams; and they c o l l a b o r a t e in c o m m u n i t y p lann ing a c t i v i t i e s so as t o m o d i f y or des ign s e r v i ce s to m e e t chang ing soc i a l cond i t i on s . Boards also have the r e spon -s i b i l i t y t o be a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t he expend i t u re o f funds, as sume some fund - r a i s i n g re spons i b i l i t i e s , r e l a t e t he i r agency ' s s e r v i ce s to the work of o ther agenc ie s so as to improve c o m m u n i t y cond i t i on s , c onduc t pe r i od i c agency eva lua t i on s and p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e d leadersh ip . T r e c k e r empha s i ze s the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f a po l i c y board t o the c o m m u n i t y i t bo th serves and represent s . A board should have a c l e a r p o l i c y and s t r a t egy f o r e s tab l i s h i ng c o m m u n i t y re l a t i on sh ip s . T o be sure, the f i r s t du ty o f a boa rd is t o see t h a t the work o f i t s agency is p rope r l y done. Bu t i t s u l t i m a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s as an agency depends in no sma l l measure on the c o o p e r a t i v e re l a t i on sh ip s i t e s tab l i shes w i t h o t h e i j ^ ^ agenc ies and upon the o v e r a l l c o m m u n i t y p lann ing tha t is t a k i n g p l a ce . - 32 -F i n a l l y , T r e c k e r presents s ix p o l i c y issues w h i c h ' h e f ee l s p o l i c y boards must 136 address. The f i r s t o f these is the issue o f agency c o n t r o l . B o t h agency c l i e n t s and wo rke r s want mo re say in agency p o l i c i e s . The second issue is tha t of respons ib le p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s sum ing boards want t o broaden i n vo l vement and de lega te some power and re spons ib i l i t y to c o m m u n i t y res idents and c l i e n t s , the quest ion is how to do so. A t h i r d issue is the f a c t tha t s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a v a i l -a b i l i t y and de l i v e r y is not p rope r l y o r gan i zed , genera l l y a v a i l a b l e or e f f i c i e n t l y d e l i v e r e d . T r e c k e r ment i on s that the ne ighbourhood c e n t r e or ne ighbourhood house c o n c e p t , as deve loped by the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t and Ne ighbourhood C e n t e r s , makes se r v i ce s mo re gene ra l l y a v a i l a b l e by d e c e n t r a l i z i n g t h e m by c o m m u n i t y . A f o u r t h po l i c y issue is the i nc reas ing i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c r u i t i n g vo l un tee r s and non -p ro fe s s i ona l s t o work in soc i a l s e r v i c e agenc ie s . F i n a n c i n g and budget ing is the f i f t h po l i c y issue wh i ch T r e c k e r fee l s p o l i c y boards must f a c e . B l o ck g rants and genera l support payment s on a per c a p i t a basis wou ld a l l ow agenc ie s g r ea te r f l e x i b i l i t y . A f i n a l p o l i c y issue is that of c e n t r a l p l ann ing . H e r e the issue is not the need fo r p lann ing , but r a the r the p lann ing un i t a r e a . The t rend is t owa rd r eg i ona l , s t a te (p rov inc ia l ) and f ede r a l p lann ing o f soc i a l s e r v i ce s into w h i c h the agency must f i t . The d i l e m m a is a f a m i l i a r one: a l l e ged economie s o f s ca l e and o rder l ines s on the one hand and d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s of c i t i z e n i n v o l v e -ment and a c c e s s i b i l i t y on the o ther . The most c o m m o n c r i t i c i s m s o f v o l un tee r po l i c y boards is tha t they are e l i t i s t , not r ep r e s en t a t i v e enough, too r e m o v e d f r o m the c l i e n t s of t he i r agenc ie s , too pa r o ch i a l and c on se r v a t i v e , and too medd le some in ope ra t i ona l dec i s i on s ins tead of s t i c k i n g t o p o l i c y dec i s i ons . F u r t h e r m o r e , Boards a re o f t e n accu sed o f 137 m e r e l y rubber s t amp ing s t a f f dec i s i ons . G o v e r n m e n t s "d i smi s s va r i ou s f o r m s of 138 vo l un t a r y a c t i o n as t r i v i a l e p h e m e r a l , non-es sent ia l or d i ve r s i ona r y . " But perhaps the g reates t p r ob l em f a c e d by boards is t he i r " i n a b i l i t y to un lock a s u f f i c e n t number o f new sources o f v i t a l i t y in t he i r agenc ies and in t he i r - 33 -c o m m u n i t y . It is the job o f the board t o awaken the c o m m u n i t y to i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r 139 cont inuous g r o w t h . " C o n v e r s e l y , perhaps the g reates t s t r eng th o f the board s y s tem is the vas t amount o f h igh ly m o t i v a t e d c i t i z e n energy w h i c h i t re leases and br ings t o bear on soc ie ty ' s p rob lems . " The men and women who g i ve o f t hemse l ve s to c o m m u n i t y p o l i c y mak i ng a re a r i c h r e s o u r c e . " ' ^ -34-C H A P T E R T H R E E  H I S T O R Y Introduction A s was ment i oned in C h a p t e r One the re a re e i gh t ne ighbourhood houses in Vancouve r . E a ch one o f f e r s a v a r i e t y o f p rog rams and se r v i ce s app rop r i a t e to t h e i r ne ighbourhood. S ix of these houses be long to the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n (NSA) , an u m b r e l l a o r g an i z a t i on of Vancouve r a rea ne ighbourhood houses, and two are " i ndependen t " in tha t they do not be long to N S A . A l l r e c e i v e more than ha l f t he i r c o r e fund ing f r o m the U n i t e d Way. In o rder to b e t t e r understand the cu r r en t f u n c t i o n i n g of ne ighbourhood houses it is impo r t an t to d e t e r m i n e t he i r h i s t o r i c a l roots as w e l l as those of t he i r two sponsor ing bodies, N S A and U n i t e d Way. F o r this reason, s u m m a r i z e d in th i s c hap te r a re the h i s to r ie s o f the ne ighbourhood house c oncep t in g e n e r a l , and o f N S A and U n i t e d Way. A l s o p r ov i ded a re b r i e f h i s t o r i e s o f the C e d a r C o t t a g e , South Vancouve r , K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Mounta in ne ighbourhood houses. H i s t o r y of Ne i ghbourhood Houses Ne ighbourhood houses, or s e t t l e m e n t houses as they used to be c a l l e d , a re amonq the o ldest o f the c o m m u n i t y o r i en ted soc ia l s e r v i c e agenc ies in N o r t h A m e r i c a . The f i r s t one, Ne ighbourhood G u i l d , opened in N e w Y o r k C i t y in 1886. The ea r l y ones we re c a l l e d ' s e t t l e m e n t houses ' because r e l a t i v e l y prosperous wo rke r s we re in tended to " s e t t l e " among the poor in order to b e t t e r understand t he i r needs . ' The next step was f o r s e t t l e m e n t worke r s to t r y to p rov i de p rog rams and s e r v i ce s t o m e e t those needs. They also sought to p resent these needs and the i r causes t o those ab le t o do someth ing about t h e m . - 35 -T h e r e f o r e , t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t w o r k e r s s o u g h t t o h e l p t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s o n t w o l e v e l s - f i r s t , b y p r o v i d i n g i m m e d i a t e s e r v i c e s , a n d s e c o n d , b y w o r k i n g t o r e f o r m t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e s l u m . R e f o r m a c t i v i t y s o m e t i m e s g o t t h e s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s i n t r o u b l e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r o - u n i o n s t a n c e o f m a n y o f t h e m a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y l o s t 3 t h e m d o n a t i o n s . M o r e o f t e n i t a c h i e v e d c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y a n d l e a d e r s h i p o f s e t t l e m e n t w o r k e r s c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e f o u n d i n g o f v a r i o u s r e f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e C o n s u m e r s L e a g u e , t h e W o m e n ' s T r a d e U n i o n L e a g u e , t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e A d v a n c e m e n t o f C o l o r e d P e o p l e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ^ J u d i t h T r o l a n d e r w r i t e s t h a t b a s i c t o t h e p r o g r a m m i n g o f m o s t s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s w e r e c l u b a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c l a s s e s , n u r s u r y s c h o o l s a n d d a y c a r e s , a n d l a r g e g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l a t t e r o f t e n i n v o l v i n g u n i t s o f n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e B o y S c o u t s . S h e n o t e s t h a t s e t t l e m e n t s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b r a n c h o f s o c i a l w o r k k n o w n a s g r o u p w o r k b u t t h a t a l l c a r r i e d o n c a s e w o r k a s w e l l . ^ H o w e v e r , i t w a s n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s s u p e r s e d e w h a t m a n y f e l t t o b e t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s - s o c i a l a c t i o n a n d s o c i a l r e f o r m . W h i l e r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c o m m o n t o v i r t u a l l y a l l s e t t l e -m e n t s , o c c u p i e d t h e b u l k o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t ' s s p a c e , a n u m b e r o f s e t t l e m e n t l e a d e r s r e g a r d e d s o c i a l a c t i o n a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o b e t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f t h e a g e n c y . D u r i n g t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a ( e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s ) , s e t t l e m e n t s h a d s e r v e d t h e c a u s e o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , f i r s t , b y a c t i n g a s a d v o c a t e s f o r t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , a n d s e c o n d l y , b y s e r v i n g a s d e m o n s t r a t i o n c e n t e r s i n t h e q u e s t t o f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . It w o u l d b e u s e f u l t o b r i e f l y e x a m i n e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e x t a n d t h r u s t o f s e t t l e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t s o f t h e t i m e o f t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n h e r e n t w e a k n e s s a n d i n f e r i o r i t y o f s o m e i n d i v i d u a l s w a s t h e c a u s e o f t h e i r s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c f a i l u r e . ^ I n s t e a d , s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e w o r k e r s d r e w o n l i b e r a l a n d r a d i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . " L i b e r a l i d e a s h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t i n b u i l d i n g s u p p o r t a m o n g t h e p r i v i l e g e d f o r t h e r i g h t o f t h e u n d e r c l a s s e s t o b e h e a r d i n t h e - 36 -counc i l s o f gove rnment and u l t i m a t e l y to reap some of the bene f i t s be s towed by g gove rnmen t . " R a d i c a l s wo r ked to o r g an i z e s oc i e t y ' s 'underdogs ' f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n to b r i ng about s o c i a l change, e.g. the e a r l y labour union m o v e m e n t . S e t t l e m e n t worke r s w e r e t y p i c a l l y m idd l e c la s s , educa ted peop le c r i t i c a l o f the inequ i t ie s they be l i e ved w e r e c r e a t e d by the soc i a l s y s t em. H o w e v e r , t he i r approach was p r a g m a t i c . They e schewed f i x e d p r i n c i p l e s and looked r a t h e r at the c o n t e x t of i nd i v i dua l a c t i o n as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o soc ie ty ' s s t r u c t u r e . They had no p r e - d e t e r m i n e d s chemes but responded to cond i t i on s as they found them. '* "* S e t t l e m e n t houses f l ou r i s hed in the I920's, a t i m e when ca sework and group work dom ina ted s oc i a l work . B o t h empha s i zed ind i v idua l c o n f o r m i t y to the dominant s oc i a l c la s s , i.e. the m i d d l e c l a s s . C o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on dur ing th is pe r iod was a imed l a rge ly at enhanc ing agenc ies o r i en ted t o w a r d persona l ad ju s tment . E x c e p t , perhaps, fo r the wo rke r s in the s e t t l e m e n t houses (emphasis added) . . . l i t t l e thought|Was g iven t o chang ing soc i a l i n s t i t u t i on s to mee t the needs of i nd i v idua l s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t wo rke r s ' e f f o r t s on s oc i a l r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s under -s co red t he i r be l i e f that soc i a l i n s t i t u t i on s should be changed t o a c c o m m o d a t e t hemse l ve s to peop le , not v i c e ve r sa . S e t t l e m e n t houses wo rked for l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m s at many leve l s . In the f i e l d o f educa t i o n , they wo rked f o r the deve l opment o f v o c a t i o n a l educa t i on and gu idance in the pub l i c schools , as w e l l as schoo l nurses, hot lunch p rog rams, an educa t i on for the r e t a rded and hand i capped. They urged . . . hous ing code imp rovemen t s , r e d u c t i o n o f conges t i on through c i t y p lann ing , and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f pub l i c schools in to neighbourhood soc i a l c en t r e s . . They o r gan i zed such groups as the Immigrant P r o t e c t i v e League to ease the immig r an t ' s ad ju s tment to the new w o r l d . S e t t l e m e n t worke r s fought fo r laws t o p r o t e c t e m p l o y e d women and abo l i sh c h i l d labour . . . They were ofterj ^nvo lved in m u n i c i p a l r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s , both at the ward and c i t y w ide l e v e l . In a word s e t t l e m e n t houses wo rked to a c h i e v e equal oppo r tun i t i e s fo r the e c o n o m i c a l l y dep r i v ed , the hand i capped, the uneduca ted , and those d i s c r i m i n a t e d 13 aga inst because o f t he i r r a ce , n a t i o n a l i t y or r e l i g i o n . S e t t l e m e n t houses a l so p rov i ded d i r e c t s e r v i ce s . - 37 -Wh i l e they we re lea rn ing and t each i n g others how to p a r t i c i p a t e in p r a c t i c a l ways in the shaping o f t he i r u rban env i r onment , the s e t t l e m e n t s . . . w e r e a l so s e r v i c e agenc ie s . When s p e c i f i c needs s eemed t oo press ing to be ignored, s e t t l e m e n t s t r i e d t o mee t t h e m t e m p o r a r i l y in a l o c a l , ne i ghbour -hood way meanwh i l e seek ing a w ide r , more adequatempermanent s o l u t i on . O f t e n they t r e a t e d s ymptoms wh i l e seek ing causes. A w ide a r r ay o f s e r v i ce s and p rograms were o f f e r e d by the ea r l y s e t t l e m e n t s i nc l ud ing k i n d e r g a r t e n , ch i l d ren ' s c lubs , r e c r e a t i o n p rog rams , n ight c lasses, pub l i c baths, a r t e xh i b i t s , i ndus t r i a l and h o m e m a k i n g workshops, l i b r a r i e s , p laygrounds, hea l t h c l i n i c s , consumer educa t i on , and r e c r e a t i o n fo r the hand icapped and the aged. The urban r e f o r m m o v e m e n t wo rked to enab le urban c o m m u n i t i e s t o dea l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t he i r p r ob l ems . The s e t t l e m e n t houses w e r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t ha t movemen t in tha t they sought to educa te and o r gan i z e peop le for p a r t i c i p a -t i o n in so l v ing c o m m u n i t y p r ob l ems and d e t e r m i n i n g f u t u r e c o m m u n i t y d i r e c t i o n s . ' ^ S e t t l e m e n t house worke r s sought and encouraged res ident i n vo l vement in house dec i s i ons so tha t the p rog rams and s e r v i ce s o f f e r e d and t he a c t i v i t i e s engaged in would be re levan t to people ' s needs and wants . "One t h e m e ran through both the s e r v i c e and r e f o r m e f f o r t s o f the s e t t l e m e n t s - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e m o c r a c y . " ' ^ Many vo lun tee r s worked at s e t t l e m e n t houses in a v a r i e t y of c a p a c i t i e s . The best of the houses f o s t e r ed con t i nua l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c o m m u n i t y 18 res idents and w i t h o ther agenc ie s . B e f o r e leav ing this sub ject some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s fo r ne ighbourhood houses o f be ing both r e f o r m and s e r v i c e agenc ies should be no ted . T ro l ande r w r i t e s t ha t The bas ic s e t t l e m e n t p r o g r am of c lubs , c las ses , and r e c r e a t i o n a l r equ i red a subs tant i a l i n ve s tment in bu i ld ing f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f . . . It was th i s bas i c p r o g r am anaj^iot the r e f o r m a c t i v i t i e s , wh i ch made s e t t l e m e n t budgets s ub s tan t i a l . I n i t i a l l y , e a c h s e t t l e m e n t house used to ra i se its own money. H o w e v e r , in 1913 the c i t y of C l e v e l a n d in the U n i t e d S ta tes began what c a m e to be known as the C o m m u n i t y Che s t s y s t e m . Many c h a r i t i e s j o i ned toge the r t o f o r m the C o m m u n i t y Che s t so tha t t he re c o u l d be one large fund d r i ve ins tead of many . The W e l f a r e F e d e r a t i o n was the agency e s tab l i shed to d i s t r i b u t e among i t s m e m b e r agenc ies t he funds ra i sed by the C h e s t . Th i s s y s t em caught hold r ap id l y and b e c a m e the fund 20 ra i s ing v e h i c l e in most A m e r i c a n and Canad i an c i t i e s . One re su l t o f this v e r y e f f i c i e n t means o f fund r a i s i ng was tha t r e c r e a t i o n a l and educa t i ona l a c t i v i t i e s , c o m m o n t o near l y a l l s e t t l e m e n t houses, c a m e t o dom ina te the houses ' space even wh i l e many s e t t l e m e n t leaders regarded soc i a l a c t i o n and r e f o r m a c t i v i t y t o be the agenc ie s ' mos t impo r t an t f u n c t i o n . T r o l ande r quotes L i l l i e P e c k , e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y of the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s in t he I920's as say ing " t h e f a c t tha t s e t t l e m e n t s have bu i l t up large i n s t i t u t i o na l equ ipment wh i ch t ake s the major par t o f t he i r budget l im i t s what they can put into 21 e x p e r i m e n t a l work , wh i ch is the i r ma jo r reason fo r be i ng . " T r o l ande r adds t ha t the s e t t l emen t s e s sen t i a l l y mor tgaged themse l ve s to la rge con t r i bu to r s who donated money fo r s p e c i f i c s e r v i ce s . By the I930's appa ren t l y many s e t t l e m e n t 22 houses had abandoned s o c i a l a c t i o n . A number o f reasons why this was the case have been put f o r w a r d . These inc lude the r i se o f p ro fe s s i ona l i sm among s oc i a l wo rke r s through the e s t ab l i s hmen t of soc i a l work schoo l s and p ro fe s s i ona l a s soc ia t ions , the i m p a c t of S igmund Freud ' s work wh i ch focussed a t t e n t i o n on p s y cho l og i c a l r a the r than s o c i a l p r ob l ems , the re su l tan t c o n c e n t r a t i o n on ca sework and group work by s oc i a l wo rke r s , and the a s soc i a t i on of s oc i a l work schools w i t h p r i v a t e un i ve r s i t i e s c o n t r o l l e d by w e a l t h y 23 and c o n s e r v a t i v e donors. History of Neighbourhood Services Association Vancouver was i n co rpo ra ted in 1886. B y 1911 its popu la t i on had t r i p l e d to 100,000. The c i t y ' s r ap id g r o w t h and the a f t e r m a t h of the F i r s t Wor ld War r e su l t ed in a sharp i nc rea se in the demand for va r i ou s s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . ^ By 1925 many - 39 -s oc i a l s e r v i c e and r e c r e a t i o n agenc ies had been e s tab l i shed in the c i t y such as the S a l v a t i on A r m y , Boy Scouts , G i r l Gu ide s and the Y M C A . The A l e x a n d r a Ne i ghbourhood House, Vancouver ' s f i r s t , opened i t s doors in 1938 at 1762 West 7 th in what had been an orphanage ope ra ted by the A l e x a n d r a 25 C o m m u n i t y A c t i v i t i e s S oc i e t y . A l e x a n d r a Ne ighbourhood House f unc t i oned as a s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e for K i t s i l a n o res ident s . In 1972, A l e x a n d r a House was so ld and t w o o ther bu i ld ings purchased on West 7th s ix b l ock s t o the west t o b e c o m e the K i t s i l a n o Ne ighbourhood House . Go rdon Ne i ghbourhood House in the West End began ope ra t i on in 1942. In 1963 what had been the C e d a r C o t t a g e Y o u t h C e n t r e expanded its a c t i v i t i e s to i nc lude f a m i l i e s and jo ined the A l e x a n d r a C o m m u n i t y A c t i v i t i e s Soc i e t y , to w h i c h both K i t s i l a n o and Go rdon House a l r eady be longed, as the C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood House. The A l e x a n d r a C o m m u n i t y A c t i v i t i e s S oc i e t y was a loosely s t r u c t u r e d u m b r e l l a g roup f o r t he K i t s i l a n o , Go rdon House and C e d a r C o t t a g e ne ighbourhood houses. A l t h o u g h member s of the S oc i e t y , e a ch house ope ra ted independent ly and app roached s epa ra te l y the t w o p r i n c i p a l fund ing sources, U n i t e d Way (then the C o m m u n i t y Ches t and C o u n c i l s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouve r A r e a ) and the C i t y of Vancouve r . In 1965 the Soc i e t y h i red a con su l t an t to r e v i e w its o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Toge the r w i t h c o m m i t t e e s of board member s o f each m e m b e r ne ighbourhood house the con su l t an t r e v i e w e d the Soc i e t y ' s purpose and f u n c t i o n , i ts per sonne l p o l i c y , f i n ance a r r angement s , and p rog rams and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . H e r e c o m m e n d e d r e o r g a n i -z a t i o n to c e n t r a l i z e a c coun t i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f unc t i on s and e s tab l i sh C i t y -w ide p r i o r i t i e s . Con sequent l y , the Soc i e t y b e c a m e the A l e x a n d r a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n ( A N S A ) in 1966 and h i r ed an E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r . B o t h the C i t y and U n i t e d Way suppor ted the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and, subsequent ly , dea l t w i t h on ly one annual fund ing request f r o m the S o c i e t y on beha l f o f e a c h ne ighbourhood house. - 4 0 -T w o changes b e c a m e apparent a lmos t i m m e d i a t e l y . A f t e r t he r eo r gan i z a t i on board membe r s tended t o be peop le who l i ved in the s ame c o m m u n i t y r a the r than the w e l l - t o - d o f r o m other c o m m u n i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , whereas p r io r to 1966 ne i g h -bourhood houses d id p r i m a r i l y ca sework and group work , a f t e r the r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n a l so b e c a m e i m p o r t a n t . Th i s was due to a change in p r e f e r e n c e among s o c i a l wo r ke r s fo r c o m m u n i t y o g a n i z a t i o n . A N S A q u i c k l y h i r e d a c o m m u n i t y worke r and a you th worke r to respond to needs of tenants of the Skeena T e r r a c e Hous ing P r o j e c t in the nor theas t par t of V ancouve r . These worke r s had o f f i c e space p rov ided by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Hous ing Management C o m m i s s i o n and la ter wo rked out of a t r a i l e r p rov i ded by A N S A . Soon t h e r e a f t e r the F r o g H o l l o w In fo rmat ion C e n t r e was e s tab l i shed in another t r a i l e r a t 1st and R e n f r e w near Skeena T e r r a c e . A t the same t i m e U n i t e d Way h i red f i v e s oc i a l p lanners in 1966 and 1967 to work in va r ious C i t y neighbourhoods as par t o f the L o c a l A r e a A p p r o a c h p r o g r a m . A c c o r d i n g to a 1965 press re lease the purpose o f this p r o g r am was to c o m b i n e h e a l t h , s oc i a l w e l f a r e , educa t i on and r e c r e a t i o n se r v i ce s in a c o n c e r t e d a t t a c k on s oc i a l p rob lems in s e l e c t e d a reas of Vancouve r . . . Emphas i s w i l l be on c oo rd i na ted and i n teg ra ted se r v i ce s in p l a c e o f f r a g m e n t e d u n i l a t e r a l s e r v i ce s . L o c a l p lann ing and s e l f - he l p w i l l be s t res sed. The U n i t e d Way s oc i a l p lanners wo rked w i t h ne ighbourhood A r e a C o u n c i l s e s tab l i shed in the m i d I960's by the C i t y and made up o f e l e c t e d l oca l c o m m u n i t y re s ident s . The p lanner s ' task was to work w i t h the A r e a C o u n c i l s to i d e n t i f y c o m m u n i t y needs, ass ign p r i o r i t i e s t o t h e m , and dev i se ways t o m e e t t h e m . L o c a l a r e a s e r v i c e t eams of s e r v i ce agency worke r s , whose job it was to c oo rd i n a t e pub l i c and p r i v a t e c o m m u n i t y se r v i ce s , w e r e a l so e s tab l i shed a t the same t i m e . Soc i a l p lanner s w e r e h i red by the C i t y ' s Soc i a l P l ann i n g D e p a r t m e n t to c oo rd i na te each s e r v i c e t e a m and t o ensure that i t w o r k e d w i t h the app rop r i a t e A r e a C o u n c i l 27 and U n i t e d Way s oc i a l p lanner . - 4 1 -U n i t e d Way and A N S A soon c o n f l i c t e d . E a c h was fund ing s o c i a l p l anner s and c o m m u n i t y wo r ke r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , whose f unc t i on s o ve r l apped con s i de r ab l y . A N S A f e l t i t was the a p p r o p r i a t e agency to sponsor th i s sort o f work . A f t e r d i scuss ion b e t w e e n the t w o and w i t h the Soc i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t i t was dec i ded the C i t y wou ld fund A N S A to do c o m m u n i t y deve lopment work in Vancouve r ne ighbour -hoods. U n i t e d Way t r an s f e r r ed t he i r s o c i a l p lanner f unc t i on s t o A N S A . A N S A , by this t i m e renamed the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n (NSA) , e s tab l i shed a C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t D e p a r t m e n t in 1968 w i t h i t s own B o a r d . The D e p a r t m e n t h i r ed f i f t e e n c o m m u n i t y deve l opment worke r s t ha t yea r , i nc lud ing the person s t i l l wo r k i n g at Skeena T e r r a c e , and p rov i ded s t a f f and c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on se r v i ce s to groups in nine Vancouve r c o m m u n i t i e s . It f u n c t i o n e d un t i l 1974 when its fund ing was ended f o l l o w i n g a C i t y C o u n c i l r e v i e w of i t s work . The r e v i e w was p r e c i p i t a t e d by the success o f the B r o a d w a y C i t i z e n s ' G r o u p , o r g an i z ed by an N S A c o m m u n i t y deve lopment wo r ke r , in ha l t i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of a sen ior c i t i z e n s h igh r i se on 7 th A v e n u e near the A r b u t u s r i g h t - o f - w a y . Enough people w e r e d i s tu rbed by the group 's success tha t C i t y C o u n c i l took a c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o newspaper accoun t s a t the t i m e c o m m u n i t y deve lopment wo rke r s we re accused of i nvent ing issues around wh i ch t o o r gan i ze peop le and of i n c i t i n g l o ca l anger whe re the re had been none. A p p a r e n t l y Soc i a l P l ann i n g D e p a r t m e n t s t a f f were f r equen t l y at odds w i t h the c o m m u n i t y deve lopment wo r ke r s and an adve r sa ry r e l a t i on sh ip e x i s t ed be tween the worke r s and res idents w i t h whom they wo rked and C i t y H a l l . A l t h ough the C i t y w i t h d r e w fund ing fo r N S A ' s C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t D e p a r t m e n t i t c o n t i n u e d f i n a n c i a l support t o N S A ' s ne ighbourhood houses. In the 1979-1980 f i s c a l y ea r N S A r e c e i v e d o n e - t h i r d o f i t s t o t a l budget f r o m the C i t y ' s 28 c i v i c g rant f und . In 1975 N S A p r o p e r t " on 7 th A v e n u e be tween G r a n v i l l e and B u r r a r d S t ree t s was so ld t o C h a r g e x f o r $1.25 m i l l i o n . Th i s money was used to endow the - 4 2 -A l e x a n d r a Founda t i on w h i c h has i t s own B o a r d . The i n te re s t f r o m the p r i n c i p a l is used to fund N S A ne ighbourhood house p rog rams and equ ipment purchaser s . One o f the A r e a C o u n c i l s w i t h w h o m an N S A c o m m u n i t y deve l opment w o r k e r had wo r ked was the F r a s e r v i e w - K i H a r n e y A r e a C o u n c i l . When c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p -ment fund ing was w i t h d r a w n the A r e a C o u n c i l and N S A d i scussed the C o u n c i l ' s c on t i nu i n g to f unc t i on as an N S A ne ighbourhood house w i t h the resu l t t ha t the South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood house, then the F r a s e r v i e w Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e , j o i ned N S A in the sp r ing o f 1976. N S A purchased a s t o r e f r on t bu i l d i ng on V i c t o r i a at 49th and the ne ighbourhood house m o v e d the re in N o v e m b e r 1977. When C i t y fund ing for i n f o rma t i on cen te s was d i s cont inued and the I n fo rmat ion C e n t r e a t 1st and R e n f r e w was c l o sed c o m m u n i t y re s ident s asked fo r and got a ne ighbourhood house. N S A bought a bu i ld ing at the ea s te rn end o f B roadway , and the F r o g H o l l o w Ne ighbourhood House opened i t s doors in F e b r u a r y 1977. In 1977 the C i t y bought a bu i ld ing at 535 Ea s t B r oadway w i t h Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m (NIP) funds. A f t e r ex ten s i ve renovat ions , pa id f o r by N S A , the Mount P l ea san t Ne ighbourhood House began ope ra t i on in the spr ing of 1978. B e f o r e leav ing N S A it should be noted tha t the A s s o c i a t i o n t r i e s , whe re poss ib le, to t r an s f e r fund ing r epon s i b i l i t y f o r i ts p rog rams to o the r agenc ie s or to gove rnment depa r tmen t s , thus f r ee i n g i t s resouces fo r o ther endeavours . In o the r words ne ighbourhood houses o f t e n de f i ne and o r gan i z e needed p rog rams, beg in t hem as p i l o t p r o j e c t s and, if they a re s ucce s s f u l , ob ta in outs ide fund ing t o enab le 29 t he i r c o n t i n u a t i o n . The above has p rov i ded a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f the evo l u t i on o f N S A and its m e m b e r houses. A s backg round t o the h i s t o r y o f the t w o independent ne i ghbou r -hood houses, K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n , U n i t e d Way 's h i s to ry w i l l be s u m m a r i z e d . - 4 3 -History of United Way A s noted above, many s oc i a l s e r v i c e , r e c r e a t i o n and w e l f a r e agenc ie s had been e s tab l i s hed in Vancouve r by 1925. A s t h e i r number i n c rea sed so d i d t he need fo r t he i r c o o r d i n a t i o n . The re su l t was the emergence of c o l l e c t i v e fund r a i s i ng 30 bodies or C o m m u n i t y Che s t s . P r i o r t o th i s each agency was c o n t i n u a l l y ho ld ing f und - r a i s i n g d r i ve s to the po int t h a t res idents and business peop le f e l t o v e r w h e l m e d by requests f o r donat ions . In 1929 the Vancouve r Boa rd o f T r ade and o ther s e r v i c e c lubs h i r ed a consu l tan t to s tudy the f e a s i b i l i t y and d e s i r e a b i l i t y of f ede r a t ed f u n d -31 ra i s i ng . H e conc l uded that such fund - ra i s i ng wou ld be both poss ib le and p r o f i t a b l e . Con sequen t l y , the Vancouve r C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s was f o r m e d in 1930 to ra i se funds c o l l e c t i v e l y f o r a number o f p r i v a t e agenc ie s . The C o u n c i l , in add i t i on to unde r tak i ng f e d e r a t e d fund ra i s i ng , w i shed to un i te agenc ies and t o i n teg ra te t he i r p rog rams w i t h pub l i c ones, whe re poss ib le . A t the same t i m e , the g row ing number of agency s t a f f and board member s saw a need fo r a more s y s t e m a t i c approach t o c o m m u n i t y w e l f a r e needs in order t o b e t t e r d e t e c t emerg i ng p rob lems , f i l l s e r v i c e gaps and p lan for f u tu re needs. The Vancouve r W e l f a r e F e d e r a t i o n was a l so f o r m e d in 1930 t o work t o w a r d th i s end . T w e n t y - e i g h t agenc ie s j o i ned the F e d e r a t i o n i nc lud ing the A l e x a n d r a N o n -S e c t a r i a n Orphanage, N S A ' s ances to r . The f i r s t c omb ined fund - ra i s i ng c ampa i gn o f the C o u n c i l and F e d e r a t i o n was he ld in 1931 and ra i sed a qua r te r o f a m i l l i o n do l l a r s . The C o u n c i l , F e d e r a t i o n and hundreds of vo l un tee r s were a c t i v e dur ing the t h i r t i e s in the d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f s oc i a l p rob lems and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f b r i e f s ou t l i n i n g t he i r s o l u t i on . In add i t i on , they exposed c h a r i t y r a c k e t s , had a schoo l d e n t a l c a r e p r o g r a m r e i n s t a t e d , and superv i sed p laygrounds in parks . In 1943 the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f the Vancouve r W e l f a r e F e d e r a t i o n r e c o m -mended the e s t ab l i s hmen t o f a t ru s t fund . The Vancouve r Founda t i on was i n c o r -- 44 -po r a t ed that same year w i t h an i n i t i a l endowment of $101,000. Today the Founda t i on has c l o s e to $70 m i l l i o n in endowment s and makes g rants to non -p r o f i t o r gan i za t i on s on an a p p l i c a t i o n bas is. A l t h o u g h the Vancouve r Founda t i on r ema in s independent o f the U n i t e d Way, i t con t i nues to make con t r i bu t i on s t owa rd U n i t e d Way's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e co s t s . In 1944 the F e d e r a t i o n b e c a m e the C o m m u n i t y Ches t and in 1946 a m a l g a -m a t e d w i t h the C o u n c i l o f Soc i a l A g e n c i e s t o become the C o m m u n i t y Che s t and C o u n c i l so t ha t s e r v i c e p lann ing and fund - ra i s i ng were i n teg ra ted w i t h i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s i t ua t i on w h i c h cont inues today . B y 1948 the re w e r e f o r t y - f o u r member agenc ie s . The C o m m u n i t y Che s t launched a con so l i da t i on d r i v e in the ea r l y I950's in response t o a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c ampa i gn appeals f r o m independent c h a r i t i e s . B y 1956 the C o m m u n i t y Ches t had a t o t a l o f s i x t y - f o u r m e m b e r agenc ies . Du r i ng the I950's the C o m m u n i t y Ches t was i n s t r u m e n t a l in the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f both p r i v a t e and pub l i c agenc ies des igned t o mee t the needs of wo r k i n g mothe r s and t he i r c h i l d r e n , those on soc i a l a s s i s tance, a l c o h o l i c s and drug add i c t s , and the c h r o n i c a l l y i l l and conva l e s c i n g , among others . The C o m m u n i t y I n fo rmat ion S e r v i c e was es tab l i shed and the Po i son C o n t r o l C e n t r e set up at Vancouver Gene r a l H o s p i t a l . A R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t was added t o the C o m m u n i t y Ches t w h i c h a l r eady had C a m p a i g n , Budget , P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s and Soc i a l P l ann i n g D e p a r t m e n t s . One of i ts ma jo r p ro jec t s c u l m i n a t e d in the A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t about wh i ch more w i l l be said be low. In 1959 the name changed aga in to the C o m m u n i t y Ches t and C o u n c i l s of the G r e a t e r Vancouve r A r e a in r e cogn i t i o n o f the Bu rnaby C o m m u n i t y C o u n c i l and, l a t e r , the R i c h m o n d and N o r t h Shore D i v i s i on s . The name changed ye t aga in in 1966 t o the U n i t e d C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouve r A r e a and l a te r to the U n i t e d Way of G r e a t e r Vancouve r . In 1977 i t a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h the U n i t e d Way o f the L o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y t o b e c o m e the U n i t e d Way o f the L o w e r Ma i n l and - 45 -or s imp l y the U n i t e d Way as i t is known today . A s of S ep tember 1981 the U n i t e d Way had e i g h t y - f o u r m e m b e r agenc ie s , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s in e i gh teen m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The U n i t e d Way D e m o n s t r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t ' D and D ) Fund , set up in 1968 t o g i ve sma l l s t a r t - up and p i l o t p r o j e c t g rant s to m e m b e r agenc ies and o the r s o c i e t i e s , has funded over t w o hundred f e a s i b i l i t y s tud ies and p i l o t p r o j ec t s . The Hea r ! H e a r ! p r o g r am of K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s , a p rog ram fo r deaf c h i l d r e n , r e c e i v e d its s t a r t - up money f r o m the U n i t e d Way D and D fund , as d id the South Vancouve r ne ighbourhood house fo r a f e a s i b i l i t y study o f a c o t t a g e c r a f t indust ry to be run by the house. The Hear ! Hea r ! p r og r am is now f u l l y funded by the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Resou rce s and the C i t y of Vancouve r . Mo re w i l l be sa id about bo th in C h a p t e r Fou r . U n i t e d Way con t i nues to press fo r soc i a l changes i t deems des i r ab le . A s an e x a m p l e , in the I970's the R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , now c a l l e d the Soc i a l P l ann i n g and Re sea r ch D e p a r t m e n t , or S P A R , ana l y zed the reasons fo r Vancouver ' s shor tage of r e n t a l housing, deve loped proposa ls t o p rov i de m o r e , and cont inues t o press f o r t he i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A r e cen t , ve ry thorough study of the r e a l i t i e s of l i v i ng on Soc i a l A s s i s t ance money aroused the w r a t h of the H u m a n Re sou rce s M i n i s t e r e ven as many s o c i a l s e r v i c e pro fes s iona l s judged it to be a c c u r a t e . In add i t i o n , U n i t e d Way has emba r ked on a p r o j e c t t o put on workshops f o r m e m b e r agency board member s and E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r s on a v a r i e t y o f t op i c s i nc lud ing key re spons ib i l i t i e s and func t i on s o f boards, p r ob l em so lv ing and dec i s i on mak i ng , and p lann ing and goa l s e t t i n g . T w o o f the ne ighbourhood houses be ing s tud ied , K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s and L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House, a r e U n i t e d Way agenc ies in t he i r own r i gh t r a the r than through N S A . T h e i r h i s to r i e s a re s u m m a r i z e d be low, a long w i t h those of the C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r ne ighbourhood houses. - 46 -Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood Services The C e d a r C o t t a g e ne ighbourhood house began as the C e d a r C o t t a g e Boys 32 C l u b in 1950. In 1951 i t had p r o g r a m m i n g fo r g i r l s as w e l l and was c a l l e d t he C e d a r C o t t a g e Y o u t h C l u b f o r the nex t nine yea r s . The C l u b , under the v o l un tee r d i r e c t o r s h i p o f l o ca l adu l t s , o f f e r e d s o f t b a l l , box ing , s occe r and c r a f t p rog rams t o l o ca l you th . In 1954, the Y o u t h C l u b j o i ned the U n i t e d Way, then the C o m m u n i t y Che s t and C o u n c i l s and h i red a s a l a r i ed E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t an t w i t h the re su l t an t funds. The Y o u t h C l u b had been ope ra t i ng out of a schoo l g ymna s i um as we l l as a s m a l l ad jacent bu i l d ing , both of wh i ch it r en ted f r o m the School B o a r d . H o w e v e r , in 1958 the Schoo l Boa rd r e c l a i m e d the g ym fo r its own use and the C l u b f a c e d the poss ib le c l o su re o f i ts only r ema i n i n g f a c i l i t y . Thus began discuss ions w i t h N S A , then A l e x a n d r a C o m m u n i t y A c t i v i t i e s ( A C A ) w i t h the resu l t that the C e d a r C o t t a g e Y o u t h C l u b jo ined A C A in I960, changed its name to the C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood House, and expanded its p rog rams to inc lude adu l t s . In the I960 Annua l R e p o r t the C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd P re s i den t desc r ibed ne ighbourhood houses as agenc ies w h i c h render s e r v i ce s fo r the who le f a m i l y , i nc lud ing group and ca se work s e r v i ce s by q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l wo rke r s . A Ne ighbourhood House, in short , is a p l a c e where f a m i l i e s and people of a l l ages c an gp^for fun , r e c r e a t i o n , educa t i on and help w i t h persona l or f a m i l y p rob lems . F o r the next nine year s C e d a r C o t t a g e con t i nued to p rov ide p r i m a r i l y r e c r e a -t i on p rog rams t o ne ighbourhood res ident s . H o w e v e r , w i t h the advent o f the G r a n d v i e w C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e nearby, now the C e d a r C o t t a g e C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , C e d a r C o t t a g e phased out i ts r e c r e a t i o n p rog rams and began p rov i d i ng s oc i a l work s e r v i ce s o f the group work t ype . E x a m p l e s of such p r o g r a m m i n g i nc lude out of s choo l day c a r e , the sen ior s p r o g r a m , and o u t r e a c h work w i t h l o ca l c h i l d r e n and teenager s . - 4 7 -South Vancouver Neighbourhood House In 1968 the F r a s e r v i e w A c t i o n C e n t r e , South Vancouve r Ne i ghbourhood House ' s f o r e runne r , was s t a r t ed as an i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e sponsored by the 34 F r a s e r v i e w A r e a S o c i e t y and funded by the C i t y o f Vancouve r . Th rough r e c e i p t o f va r i ous L o c a l I n i t i a t i ve P r o g r a m (LIP) g rant s the Soc i e t y was ab le to p r o v i de a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e for the area ' s sen iors and hand icapped as w e l l as va r i ou s you th p rog rams . The Soc i e t y ra i sed enough money t o buy a van in 1975 for the t r an spo r t a t i on s e r v i c e . Shor t l y t h e r e a f t e r the C i t y w i t h d r e w fund ing fo r a l l i n f o r -m a t i o n cen t r e s as noted above. Con sequent l y , in ea r l y 1976 the Soc i e t y approached N S A c o n c e r n i n g m e m b e r -ship as a ne ighbourhood house and was ab le t o h i r e a house D i r e c t o r . It a c t u a l l y jo ined N S A in the spr ing of 1976, became the F r a s e r v i e w Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e , and soon t h e r e a f t e r h i r ed a s e c r e t a r y , c o m m u n i t y wo r ke r and a t r an spo r t a t i on worke r who sho r t l y t h e r e a f t e r b e c a m e a vo lun tee r c o - o r d i n a t o r . The Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e ope ra ted out of a bu i ld ing at 42nd and V i c t o r i a as had the A c t i o n C e n t r e . The space inc luded a sma l l s t r ee t leve l a r e a and an a p a r t -ment upsta i r s wh i ch se rved as a seniors a c t i v i t y a rea and the base of opera t ions f o r bo th the day c a m p and the H E L P (seniors H o m e m a k e r s ) s e r v i ce s . The H o m e m a k e r seniors s e r v i ce s got underway through va r ious gove rnment s g rant s in 1976 as d id the f i r s t day c a m p in the summer o f 1977. M u l t i c u l t u r a l even ings we re he ld at the F r a s e r v i e w Boys and G i r l s C l u b due t o lack of space a t the Ne i ghbourhood C e n t r e . In 1978 the Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e moved into i ts p resent bu i l d i ng a t 49th and V i c t o r i a w h i c h had been purchased by N S A . A t t he s ame t i m e i t changed i t s name to the South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House for severa l reasons. F i r s t o f a l l , the t r an spo r t a t i on s e r v i c e now ex tended beyond F r a s e r v i e w to Sunset and K i H a r n e y . Second ly , the agency wanted to reach out to and se rve the Ea s t Indian c o m m u n i t y w h i c h at the t i m e was c o n c e n t r a t e d b e t w e e n F r a se r and M a i n s t r ee t s , not just in - 4 8 -F r a s e r v i e w . T h i r d l y , the Ne i gh tbou rhood House wanted t o d i s t ingu i sh i t s e l f f r o m and avo i d past and con fu s i ng a s soc i a t i on w i t h the A c t i o n C e n t r e . Kiwassa Neighbourhood Services K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s o r i g i n a t ed in 1949 when the K i w a s s a C l u b , the women ' s c oun te rpa r t t o the K i w a n i s , s t a r t e d a G i r l s C l u b in an o ld f i r e h a l l in 35 S t r a t h cona . The women taught sewing and cook i ng to l oca l g i r l s a f t e r s choo l . A t that t i m e the work was c o m p l e t e l y v o l un tee r ; the re w e r e no pa id s t a f f . The work of these women p roved so va l uab le to parent s that they asked the K i w a s s a C l u b t o p rov ide an a f t e r schoo l p r og r am fo r t h e i r sons as w e l l . E v e n t u a l l y , K i w a s s a b e c a m e K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s in 1966 and was ope ra ted j o i n t l y w i t h the N o r t h Shore Ne ighbourhood House, a U n i t e d Way agency tha t d id not be lonn t o N S A . The two houses shared an E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r un t i l 1970 when they pa r t ed a m i c a b l y and K i w a s s a h i r ed as i ts f i r s t f u l l - t i m e D i r e c t o r a person who had been A s s i s t an t D i r e c t o r at the N o r t h Shore. K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s con t i nues the t r a d i t i o n s t a r t e d by the K i w a s s a women of p rov i d i ng s e r v i ce s p r i m a r i l y to the c o m m u n i t y ' s c h i l d r e n . It has r e m a i n e d out s ide o f N S A and is a m e m b e r agency of U n i t e d Way. The K i w a s s a ne ighbourhood r e c e i v e d Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m money , a s ub s tan t i a l p o r t i o n o f w h i c h the N IP c o m m i t t e e dec ided to spend on d e m o l i t i o n o f the be loved though now inadequate f i r e h a l l and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a mo re su i t ab le bu i l d i ng fo r K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s on the same s i t e . The new bu i l d i ng was f i n i shed and o c cup i ed by l a te 1979. - 49 -Litt le Mountain Neighbourhood House A l t hough the newest o f Vancouver ' s ne ighbourhood houses, L i t t l e Moun ta i n has a 36 lengthy h i s t o r y beg inn ing w i t h the U n i t e d Way A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t ( A D P ) r e f e r r e d to above. A D P ope ra ted in the R i l e y Pa r k c o m m u n i t y f r o m 1964 u n t i l 1968, and had as i t s goals improv i ng c o m m u n i t y and f a m i l y l i f e , f o s t e r i n g a m o r e hea l thy c o m m u n i t y , he lp ing s o c i a l s e r v i c e c l i e n t s to f u n c t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y , and reduc ing c o m m u n i t y s o c i a l p r ob l ems . It wo r ked t owa rd these goa l s by b r ing ing res idents t oge the r around c o m m o n in te res t s and conce rn s , he lp ing t h e m d e t e r m i n e c o m m u n i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , needs and p rob l ems , and encourag ing t h e m t o p lan and deve lop app rop r i a t e c o m m u n i t y p rograms and se r v i ce s . A D P wo rke r s a lso c o l l a b o -r a t e d w i t h e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on s , f a c i l i t a t e d the e s t ab l i s hment o f a ne ighbourhood c o u n c i l , and brought toge the r p ro fes s iona l s a l r eady wo rk i ng in the c o m m u n i t y so as t o b e t t e r c o o r d i n a t e loca l s e r v i ce s . The as sumpt ions behind the A D P we re t w o f o l d : the i n teg ra t i on o f se r v i ce s to f a m i l i e s through one wo r ke r wou ld be mo re e f f e c t i v e than p rov i d i ng s e r v i ce s th rough d i f f e r e n t agenc ie s ; and v i e w i n g a c o m m u n i t y as t he focus o f e f f o r t s t o change soc i a l s e r v i c e de l i v e r y wou ld change c o m m u n i t y cond i t i on s w h i c h adve r se l y a f f e c t f a m i l y f unc t i on i n g . When the A D P ended it l e f t as a legacy the R e d Door , p r i m a r i l y a low cost housing r e g i s t r y . Bu t both agency worke r s in the c o m m u n i t y and res ident s w a n t e d more . T h e r e w e r e some p rob lems c e n t e r e d around the R i l e y P a r k C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , ope ra ted by the Vancouve r Boa rd of Pa r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . It was l o ca ted near the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Hous ing P r o j e c t and was the t u r f o f the " R i l e y P a r k Gang . " Many ag reed tha t as a gove rnment agency i t c ou l d not nor should f u l f i l l t he same f u n c t i o n as the A D P . H o w e v e r , e f f o r t s o f l oca l res idents to ob ta i n some sort o f ne ighbourhood house we re in va in un t i l t he advent o f the R i l e y P a r k Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m . The N IP C o m m i t t e e a l l o c a t e d $350,000 for - 5 0 -a Ne ighbourhood Hou se/You th C e n t r e and an add i t i ona l $100,000 fo r a s t o r e f r o n t l i b r a r y , a l l to be housed in the same bu i l d i ng . Th i s was app roved by C i t y C o u n c i l in 1978, subject to a s surance o f s u f f i c i e n t ope ra t i n g funds. M e a n w h i l e , in 1978 N S A ' s B oa rd put a m o r a t o r i u m on the a c c e p t a n c e o f add i t i ona l m e m b e r ne ighbourhood houses unless they w e r e f u l l y f unded . The doub l ing of the number o f membe r un i t s in just t w o year s had c r e a t e d f i n a n c i a l s t ra in s p a r t l y because the inc rease in N S A ' s U n i t e d Way a l l o c a t i o n was not qu i t e c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h the inc rease in membe r un i t s . B e f o r e a c c e p t i n g new units N S A wan ted t o ensure, as a m i n i m u m , tha t e x i s t i n g un i t s wou ld not s u f f e r c u t b a c k s in fund ing . In 1978 N S A r e c e i v e d a member sh i p request f r o m the L i t t l e M o u n t a i n Ne ighbourhood House Soc i e t y backed by a f i r m o f f e r o f $28,000 f r o m U n i t e d Way for its f i r s t year o f ope r a t i on . Thus began d i scuss ion among the t h ree agenc ies as to the advantages and d i sadvantages of a l l c o n c e r n e d should N S A a d m i t L i t t l e Moun ta i n . The resu l t was tha t L i t t l e Moun ta i n d id not j o i n N S A and is now a m e m b e r agency o f U n i t e d Way f r o m whom it r e c e i v e d i ts f i r s t yea r o f c o r e fund ing in 1979. The L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House moved into i t s own bu i l d ing , purchased in 1980 by the C i t y us ing the N IP money a l l o c a t e d , in la te Sep tember 1981. P r i o r t o t ha t i t ope ra ted out of a s t o r e f r on t o f f i c e w h i c h was a l so the l oca l C i t y P l ann i ng O f f i c e dur ing the N IP P r o g r a m . - 51 -C H A P T E R FOUR;  PROF ILE O F T H E F O U R NE IGHBOURHOOD HOUSES Introduction This c hap te r w i l l p resent da ta ga the red f r o m i n te r v i ews w i t h s t a f f and board member s o f the C e d a r C o t t a g e , South Vancouve r , K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n ne ighbourhood houses, f r o m the annual repo r t s , m inu te s and p r o g r a m l i t e r a t u r e of these houses, and f r o m v i s i t s t o e a c h . The i n t e r v i ews we re s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and open-ended so as to a l l ow m a x i m u m oppo r tun i t y to quest ion f u r t he r when peop le f e l t i n t r o s p e c t i v e , a n a l y t i c or loquacious and the oppo r tun i t y p re sented i t s e l f . In terv iews we re conduc ted in O c t o b e r , 1980; f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i ews of house d i r e c t o r s w e r e c a r r i e d out in Sep tember 1981. The data is p re sented so as t o prov ide p r o f i l e s of each house in te rms o f the f o l l o w i n g v a r i ab l e s : wha t s t a f f and board member s f ee l the purpose of t he i r house t o be; what p rog rams and se r v i ce s each o f f e r s and into wh i ch , if any, s oc i a l work c a t ego r y each f i t s ; who funds each s e r v i c e and p r o g r am and how much is a l l o c a t e d to i t ; what are the r e l a t i v e ro les o f the house d i r e c t o r s and the boards w i t h whom they work ; and what s t a f f and board member s see as the s t rengths and weaknesses of t he i r house. A c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and analys i s o f ne ighbourhood house p rog rams, s e r v i ce s and a c t i v i t i e s and a compa r i s on o f these both among the fou r ne ighbourhood houses be ing e xam ined and w i t h ne ighbourhood house p r o g r a m m i n g in the past w i l l enab le t h ree of the quest ions asked in C h a p t e r One t o be addressed in C h a p t e r F i v e . These a re : wha t types of s oc i a l work s e r v i ce s do ne ighbourhood houses p rov i de ? ; to what ex ten t a re ne ighbourhood houses s oc i a l work agenc ie s ? ; and have ne i ghbour -hood houses depa r t ed f r o m t he i r h i s t o r i c roots as bo th c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on agenc ies and p rov i de r s o f ca sework and group work s e r v i ce s ? A summary o f s t a f f and board v i ews on the purposes, s t rengths and weaknesses of t he i r r e s p e c t i v e - 52 -houses w i l l a l so help t o answer the above quest ions . E x a m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e ro les of the d i r e c t o r s and t h e i r boards w i l l he lp answer another quest ion addressed in C h a p a t e r F i v e , do vo l un tee r s p l ay a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in ne ighbourhood houses? F i n a l l y , d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r o g r a m budgets and t he i r sources w i l l he lp answer to wha t e x t e n t ne ighbourhood houses have depa r t ed f r o m h i s t o r i c p r a c t i c e o f do ing c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on work as w e l l as p rov i d i ng d i r e c t s e r v i c e , and w i l l a i d in c on s i de r a t i on o f the f i n a l quest ion addressed in C h a p t e r F i v e : what a re the p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the ways in wh i ch ne ighbourhood houses now f unc t i on ? H o w e v e r , b e f o r e r e v i e w i n g any of the above, it is impo r t an t t o b r i e f l y de s c r i be the a tmosphe re at e a c h ne ighbourhood house in o rde r to round out the p r o f i l e s p re sented be low and.make t h e m m o r e m e a n i n g f u l . Neighbourhood House Atmosphere It is hard to f i nd a qu ie t p l a c e at C e d a r C o t t a g e . Wa l k i n g in to what looks l i ke a c o n c r e t e ba r r ack s one f inds a c l u s t e r o f peop le , mos t l y teens, t a l k i n g a n i m a t e d l y w i t h the s e c r e t a r y and other s t a f f even w h i l e she eas i l y f i e l d s the many i ncoming phone c a l l s and one - l i ne , rap id f i r e quest ions tha t c o m e her way . In another r oom a la rge group of seniors a re e a t i n g a hot lunch and t a l k i n g among themse l ve s . Downs ta i r s , young p r e - s choo l e r s a re e x c i t e d l y p l a y i ng cha rades . In s t i l l another r o o m , member s of the A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m are l i s ten ing to the new N a t i v e O u t r e a c h Worke r de sc r i be va r ious p r o g r a m a ims and d i scuss ing how t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e agenc ies can help or make use of the p r o g r a m . Suddenly the Sunny H i l l v an pu l l s up and the group o f young peop le a t the f r o n t desk d i sperse i m m e d i a t e l y and go out s ide to help whee l the c h i l d r e n in . They spend the next t h r ee hours w i t h these hand i capped c h i l d r e n . The P re s i den t o f the B o a r d comes in t o have a qu i c k wo rd w i t h the D i r e c t o r , who has just f i n i s hed m e e t i n g w i t h the p r ie s t o f a l o ca l c hu r ch c once rn i n g the Po r tuguese P r o g r a m . F i n a l l y , the c h i l d r e n , the whee l cha i r s , - 53 -the peop le a t the desk and the seniors have l e f t and the re is a l u l l , but on ly t e m p o r a r i l y . In wa l k , in twos and th rees , men, women and c h i l d r e n c a r r y i n g dishes of f ood fo r a pot luck supper. F i n a l l y at 10:00 p.m. the bu i ld ing e m p t i e s , the l i ght s go out and the door is l o cked , hav ing been opened at 6:00 t ha t morn i ng . A t South Van the s to ry is m u c h the same. The sen iors , who have a l l a r r i v e d a t about 10:00 a.m., a re in the m idd l e o f an e x e r c i s e c lass , wh i l e in the r e c e p t i o n a rea seve ra l peop le w i t hou t umbre l l a s have ducked in f o r t e m p o r a r y she l te r and c o f f e e un t i l the ra in subsides. One takes the oppo r tun i t y to ask about r e c r e a t i o n p rog rams for her son. Up s ta i r s , the e thn i c wo r ke r is whee l i ng toy ca r s around on a t ab l e top as she demons t r a te s to a group o f Pun jab i women how not to make a l e f t hand t u r n . In another room the p r o g r am superv i sor is t a l k i n g t o a h igh schoo l s tudent i n t e re s ted in do ing vo lun tee r work a t the house. On th is n ight about t w e n t y peop le c o m e in around 7:00 t o p l ay b r i dge . The f o l l o w i n g even ing the house is f i l l e d w i t h the sme l l o f s a lmon and f re sh l y baked bannock as some ten na t i v e f a m i l i e s s e t t l e in f o r a m e a l and a qu i l t i n g sess ion a f t e r w a r d . When c a l l i n g the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne i ghbourhood House one is never sure who w i l l answer the phone, as the house makes i t a p o l i c y t o ensure that l oca l re s ident s w i t h a lack o f job e xpe r i ence or oppo r tun i t i e s have the change to learn o f f i c e s k i l l s . The re is a con s tan t s t r e a m o f peop le in and out of the house enqu i r i ng about p rograms, and hav ing a cup o f c o f f e e . The D i r e c t o r , who is rush ing to a m e e t i n g at the housing p r o j e c t conce rn i ng i ts r edeve l opmen t , never the les s stops to t a l k to a group of k ids who have c o m e in to f ind out when the new bu i l d i ng w i l l be open. A board m e m b e r c omes in w i t h an i t e m fo r the f o l l o w i n g evening ' s board m e e t i n g and the p r i n c i p a l o f Tupper schoo l phones t o enqu i re about the number o f peop le who have r eg i s t e red fo r the even ing c lasses t o be he ld at his s choo l . A s w i t h K i w a s s a , many of L i t t l e Mounta in ' s p rog rams t a k e p l a c e in o ther ne ighbourhood bu i ld ings . L i t t l e Mounta in ' s w i l l c on t i nue t o do so un t i l t he house moves to i ts new, la rger p remi se s in O c t o b e r 1981. - 54-In sho r t , ne ighbourhood houses a r e busy, noisy, l i v e l y p l a ce s . One is just a s l i k e l y to hear Ch i ne se or Po r tuguese or Pun jab i as Eng l i s h , and one w i l l p robab l y see peop le aged 5 t o 77 a l l in the bu i ld ing a t the same t i m e . The re is a c on s t an t , however , and t ha t is t ha t v i r t u a l l y anyone who wa lks in the door o f a ne ighbourhood house w i l l be w e l c o m e d and t a l k e d t o . House Purposes E a c h board and s t a f f membe r i n t e r v i e w e d was asked wha t they thought was the purpose and f u n c t i o n of t he i r ne ighbourhood house. C e d a r C o t t a g e C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd and s ta f f member s sa id the i r ne ighbourhood house should be a p l a c e for ne ighbourhood res idents to meet others , get he lp fo r a p r o b l e m , r e c e i v e a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , or s imp l y get i n f o r m a t i o n . It was v i e w e d as a p l ace for those f e e l i n g lonely and i so la ted or want ing t o t ake a m o r e a c t i v e ro le in the c o m m u n i t y . B o t h s t a f f and Boa rd member s p l a c e d more i m p o r t a n c e on p rog rams of a s oc i a l work or p r e v e n t i v e nature r a the r than on those tha t w e r e p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l , e.g. ne ighbourhood d inners . A l t h o u g h peop le men t i oned the d r op -in , i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l , and soc i a l f unc t i on s o f the house, mo re impo r t an t to many was the house mandate f r o m the Boa rd t o do g roup -o r i en ted s oc i a l work . A s a s t a f f m e m b e r noted C e d a r C o t t a g e is a s o c i a l work agency s t a f f e d by s oc i a l wo rke r s . A board m e m b e r sa id t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e be tween the ne ighbourhood house and the l oca l c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e was tha t the house t r i e s to unders tand why k ids m i sbehave and then works w i t h t h e m in an i n f o r m a l , i n d i r e c t way to r eve r se t h e i r behav iou r , w h i l e the a c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s imp l y k i c k s t h e m out as t r o u b l e -make r s . Y e t another person observed t ha t the ne ighbourhood house f unc t i on s to - 55-f i nd so lut ions t o peop le ' s p rob lems t ha t do not f i t in to the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f o the r agenc ie s and was thus more f l e x i b l e than most o the r s o c i a l work agenc ies . The re was a l so a g reement tha t the ne ighbourhood house should p r o m o t e i n te r - agency c o m m u n i c a t i o n and p r ob l em- so l v i n g . In o ther words, i t should t a ke the i n i t i a t i v e t o keep c o m m u n i t y agenc ies t a l k i n g w i t h e a c h other and wo rk i ng t o a c h i e v e c o m m o n l y ag reed upon goals, e.g. p rov i s i on o f more a f t e r s choo l and summer p rog rams f o r c h i l d r e n . South Vancouve r A t South Vancouve r both board and s t a f f member s noted tha t the house has b road ly c o n c e i v e d s oc i a l work and pure ly soc i a l f unc t i on s . To paraphrase the responses of about t w o - t h i r d s o f those i n t e r v i e w e d , the ne ighbourhood house is a p l a ce t ha t : p rov ides d i r e c t se r v i ce s t o peop le needing t h e m , e.g. seniors, those not ab le to get around on t h e i r own, people whose f i r s t language is not Eng l i sh , and others w i t h s p e c i f i c needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; becomes a f o c a l po in t fo r c o l l e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y a c t i o n to a c h i e v e ag reed upon goals; f o s te r s i n t e r - agency c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ; and prov ides a p l a ce fo r peop le t o m e e t each o ther s o c i a l l y at va r i ou s c o m m u n i t y event s . A s one person s t a ted i t , South Vancouve r p rov ide s the oppo r tun i t y f o r peop le in s i m i l a r s i t ua t i on s t o mee t each o ther and, i f so i n c l i n e d , work or p l ay toge the r t o b r i ng about m u t u a l goa l s . A n o t h e r sa id the ne ighbourhood house should f unc t i on as a s o c i a l p l a c e to w h i c h peop le c o m e to mee t o ther s , l i s ten to mus ic and t a l k , as w e l l as p r ov i d i n g se r v i ce s fo r peop le w i t h s p e c i f i c needs. Some Boa rd member s and many s t a f f a re a l i t t l e f r u s t r a t e d t ha t the soc i a l f un c t i on o f the ne ighbourhood house has lagged behind the p rov i s i on of s oc i a l wo rk •services. A s t a f f membe r sa id tha t s t a f f should not have to spend a l l t he i r t i m e counse l l i n g . H o w e v e r , t he re was a g reemen t t ha t in order t o e s tab l i sh c r e d i b i l i t y - 56 -and v i s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y i t was impo r t an t t o p rov i de s p e c i f i c s e r v i ce s t o demon s t r a t e to the c o m m u n i t y t ha t the ne ighbourhood house was more than a p l a c e that s imp l y t a l k e d about what i t wou ld l i ke t o be. In o ther words , o f f e r i n g s p e c i f i c p rog rams has a demons t r a t i on e f f e c t t h a t helps to e s tab l i sh the ne ighbourhood house as an e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y agency . The South Vancouve r p r o g r a m guide for f a l l 1981 has th i s to say about the ne ighbourhood house. What is South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House ? ... (it) p rov ides a v a r i e t y of p rog rams and se r v i ce s f o r peop le of a l l ages and wa l k s of l i f e ~ p r e - s choo l e r s , c h i l d r e n , teens, adu l t s , s ing le parent s , the hand icapped, e t hn i c groups and sen iors . We a i m to work w i t h res idents to make th i s c o m m u n i t y an even be t t e r p l a c e to l i ve . We are run by a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y (so we are not gove rnment ) . Our Boa rd of D i r e c t o r s a re e l e c t e d each yea r at our A n n u a l M e e t i n g in May . K iwa s s a The board and s t a f f member s of K i w a s s a most d e f i n i t e l y v i e w it as a p r i v a t e s oc i a l work agency . E v e n K iwas sa ' s name, K i w a s s a Ne i ghbourhood Se r v i ce s , not K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood House, is a c l u e to its emphas i s . T o paraphrase many board and s t a f f membe r s , the purpose o f K iwa s s a is t o assess the na tu re and ex ten t of the c o m m u n i t y ' s needs, dev i se p rograms and se r v i ce s t ha t w i l l work to a l l e v i a t e those needs, and to do so in a way tha t inc reases the a b i l i t y o f a person t o r e a l i z e t he i r p o t e n t i a l and to m a k e dec i s i ons fo r h imse l f or her se l f . The re is the expressed des i re t o imp rove the w e l f a r e and qua l i t y o f l i f e o f ne ighbourhood res idents and t o he lp peop le who have nowhere e l se to go. Many see these e f f o r t s as be ing app r op r i a t e l y c e n t e r e d on the c h i l d r e n of the c o m m u n i t y . A n o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y men t i oned f unc t i on o f the ne ighbourhood house is to b r i ng c o m m u n i t y o r gan i za t i on s together so as t o enhance the i r a b i l i t y to work c o l l e c t i v e l y to so l ve l oca l p rob lems , t a k e stands on l oca l issues, and p rov ide - 57 -se r v i ce s and p rog rams fo r c o m m u n i t y re s ident s w i t hou t d u p l i c a t i n g e x i s t i n g s e r v i ce s or imp ing i ng on each o ther ' s manda te . On a r e c e n t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m fo r membe r sh i p in the K i w a s s a Ne i ghbourhood Se r v i ce s S o c i e t y , a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y , the f o l l o w i n g ob jec t i v e s o f K i w a s s a we re l i s t e d . * to p rov ide s o c i a l , educa t i ona l and r e c r e a t i o n a l oppo r tun i t i e s to those who re s ide , a t t e n d schoo l or work in the a r e a . * to ope ra te a nursery s choo l . * to p rov i de oppo r tun i t i e s fo r i nd i v idua l s of a l l ages, races and c reeds to have expe r i ence s w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the i r s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . * to i m p r o v e ne ighbourhood hea l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i ce s through coope r a t i on w i t h o ther o r gan i za t i on s , through i n f l uenc i ng pub l i c op in ion . * to deve lop a sense of ne ighbour l iness among f a m i l i e s and groups in the c o m m u n i t y . _ L i t t l e Moun ta i n The L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House was unique among the fou r in tha t the most c o m m o n response to the ques t ion of the ne ighbourhood house's purpose was tha t it should be a p l a ce to w h i c h people cou ld c o m e to mee t o ther s in a r e l a xed , unp rog rammed a tmosphe re . D r o p - i n c e n t r e and i n f o r m a t i o n / r e f e r r a l c e n t r e were words f r equen t l y used to de sc r i be the i dea l . S t a t ed another way, many i n t e r v i e w e d hope the ne ighbourhood house w i l l b e c o m e a focus o f c o m m u n i t y i n i t i a t i v e , e.g. a p l a c e to wh i ch people go to t e a c h or learn s ometh ing , tha t c lubs use fo r t he i r meet ing s and a c t i v i t i e s , t h e a t r e groups fo r rehear sa l s , and tha t mus i c i an s rehear se and p lay in . One board member wants the house to have a p r i n t i n g press and dark room w h i c h cou l d be used t o put out a c o m m u n i t y newspaper . A n o t h e r env i sages workshops in w h i c h r e t i r e d t r ade smen cou l d t e a c h t he i r s k i l l s t o young peop le , the reby g i v i ng t h e m the c o n f i d e n c e and sk i l l s t o f i n d jobs and s tay out o f t r oub l e . A s t a f f person s ummed i t up by say ing t h a t the purpose o f the ne ighbourhood house was t o b e c o m e a p l a c e ne ighbourhood res ident s -58-wou ld use to o r g an i z e a c t i v i t i e s fo r t hemse l ve s in an i n f o r m a l way . A l l w a n t e d t he house to be a p l a c e in wh i ch peop le o f a l l ages, i ncomes and r a c i a l backgrounds wou ld be c o m f o r t a b l e . A b o u t one in s ix men t i oned tha t the ne ighbourhood house should fo s te r i n t e r -agency c o o p e r a t i o n and p lann ing so as to a c t as an i n t e r m e d i a r y be tween the g o v e r n -ment and the c o m m u n i t y . Some wan ted it t o be the focus o f a c t i v i t y a imed a t imp rov i ng the phy s i c a l c ond i t i o n of the c o m m u n i t y , i.e. con t i nu i ng the work t o a c h i e v e imp rovemen t s to parks , s t reet s and l o ca l f a c i l i t i e s s t a r t e d by the R i l e y Pa r k Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e in 1977. A b o u t one in fou r wan ted the ne ighbourhood house to work to change soc i a l c ond i t i on s tha t adver se l y a f f e c t c o m m u n i t y re s ident s . O f cour se , most want the ne ighbourhood house to p rov ide some se r v i ce s tha t mee t the needs o f p a r t i c u l a r groups o f peop le such as s ing le parent s , sen iors and peop le on low i ncomes . H o w e v e r , no one wanted the ne ighbourhood house to become p r i m a r i l y a s e r v i c e agency tha t only se rved those w i t h s p e c i f i c p rob lems or cond i t i on s . Seve ra l we re qu i te adamant t ha t L i t t l e Moun ta i n not b e c o m e a soc i a l work agency , or a " c heap b ranch of M H R " as one person put i t . What these s ame peop le env i sage is a p l a c e t ha t would be an i n t e r m e d i a r y be tween the poor and the s o c i a l l y i s o l a ted , and those that cou ld help t h e m to a c h i e v e the c o n f i d e n c e and knowledge to help themse l ve s and to i n i t i a t e c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t y , be it s o c i a l , s e r v i c e o r i en ted or p o l i t i c a l . L i t t l e Moun ta i n s t a f f and Boa rd member s made it c l e a r tha t they wanted t o e s tab l i sh an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the p e r c e i v e d s t r u c t u r e and i n f l e x i b i l i t y of the R i l e y P a r k C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e . Th i s is not to imp l y c r i t i c i s m of the C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , but r a the r t o empha s i z e tha t they want an a l t e r n a t i v e to the s t r u c t u r e d r e c r e a t i o n p rov i ded by the C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e w i t hou t go ing so fa r as to have s t r u c t u r e d soc i a l s e r v i ce s such as a re p rov i ded by the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou r ce s . The goa l o f most L i t t l e Moun ta i n s t a f f and board member s is to have a p l a c e t h a t w i l l se rve - 59 -as a focus fo r the c o m m u n i t y ' s s o c i a l l i f e and t ha t w i l l be the c a t a l y s t f o r ne ighbourhood advocacy as p r a c t i c e d by the N IP C o m m i t t e e . P r o g r a m m i n g o f ne ighbourhood house a c t i v i t i e s by ne ighbourhood res idents is pa r t of tha t g oa l . The f a l l 1981 Ne ighbourhood House News , put out by L i t t l e M o u n t a i n answers , the ques t ion 'what is L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House ? ' in th i s w a y . L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House is a p l a c e where neighbours o f a l l ages and backgrounds mee t t o get i n f o r m a t i o n , t o express conce rn s , t o p lan p rog rams and to get t o know each o the r . Toge the r we c an make this c o m m u n i t y an even b e t t e r p l a c e to l i v e . The ... House began in Augus t 1978 when a group of res idents f o r m e d a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y (so we are not gove rnment ) . Our Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s is e l e c t e d fo r a one yea r t e r m ... (and) meet s ... each month . The m e e t i n g is open to eve ryone . P r o g r a m m i n g What f o l l ows is a d i scuss ion and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p r o g r am o f f e r i n g s of each of the four ne ighbourhood houses. The i r p rog rams, s e r v i ce s and event s a re grouped both a c c o r d i n g to t he i r p r i m a r y emphas i s , i.e. c a sework , group work , c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n or someth ing e l se , and to the age group se rved by t h e m . It should be noted tha t r i gorous p r o g r am eva l ua t i on was not par t o f the re sea rch for th is thes i s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p rog rams , a l though heav i l y r e l i a n t on i n t e r v i ews w i t h board and s t a f f member s and on perusa l o f ne ighbourhood house l i t e r a t u r e , r ema in s the s ub jec t i ve impres s ion of the author . Regu l a r R e c r e a t i o n P r o g r a m m i n g B o t h the South Vancouve r and L i t t l e Moun ta i n houses o f f e r what cou ld be con s ide red s imp ly r e c r e a t i o n a l p rog rams fo r c h i l d r e n . South Vancouve r holds a w e e k l y Fun N i gh t , for wh i ch t he re is a f ee , a imed a t c h i l d r e n aged 8 to 14. It inc ludes games, out ings and var ious o ther a c t i v i t i e s . L i t t l e Moun ta i n has t w o a f t e r schoo l c r a f t p rog rams , one in each o f t w o loca l schoo l s , and week l y f l oo r and i c e - 6 0 -hockey sessions a t the R i l e y Pa r k C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , o f f e r e d at the request o f l o ca l k ids . The re has been a G y m N i g h t he ld a t a l o ca l schoo l as we l l as Sunday f i e l d t r i p s f o r ne ighbourhood k ids. In c oope r a t i on w i t h West S ide Y o u t h Se r v i ce s , L i t t l e Moun ta i n is s t a r t i n g an outdoor c l ub for those i n te re s ted in h i k i ng and canoe ing . In add i t i on to t h e i r regu la r p r o g r a m m i n g , a l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses have summer r e c r e a t i o n a l p rog rams f o r c h i l d r e n w h i c h a re f i nanced through var ious f e d e r a l g o ve rnment g rant s . These a re o f t e n run by o lder s tudents who are super -v i sed by ne ighbourhood house s t a f f . Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n owns and opera te s a s ummer c a m p near P o r t Moody to wh i ch ne ighbourhood house c h i l d r e n aged 6 to 12 may go fo r a 2 week sess ion for an $80 f e e . The re are some c a m p e r -ships a v a i l a b l e for those unable to a f f o r d the fee . K i w a s s a has a summer c a m p p r o g r am fo r deaf c h i l d r e n in i t s Hea r ! Hea r ! P r o g r a m wh i ch is mo re f u l l y de s c r i bed be low. There a re two spec i a l p rograms w i t h a c onnec t i on to C a m p W a l l a c e . The f i r s t is an e l even day c oun se l l o r - i n - t r a i n i n g p r og r am for those w i t h some c a m p expe r i ence who are i n te re s ted in becom ing c a m p counse l l o r s . The second is C e d a r C o t t a g e ' s L eade r sh i p P r o g r a m , o f f e r e d to sen ior high school s tudents who are i n t e re s ted in summer e m p l o y m e n t as c a m p counse l l o r s and p layground superv i sor s . The p rog r am teaches students t o p r og r am and i n s t ruc t outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. c anoe ing , rock c l i m b i n g and c amp i ng , and is p a r t i c u l a r l y appea l i ng to s tudents i n te re s ted in c a ree r s in soc i a l work or r e c r e a t i o n . C a m p Wa l l a ce h i re s counse l l o r s f r o m among Leade r sh i p P r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s . In add i t i o n , the s tudents do vo l un tee r work at the ne ighbourhood house. Th i s P r o g r a m is v e r y popu lar w i t h ne ighbourhood high schoo l s tudents . Whereas C e d a r C o t t a g e s t a f f used to empha s i z e the m o r e en joyab le a spect s of the P r o g r a m , such as weekend c a m p i n g t r i p s , to get r e c r u i t s , they now stress the vo l un tee r i n g wh i ch is equa l l y a par t of the P r o g r a m . H o w e v e r , even when t o l d they must o c ca s i ona l l y get up a t 5:30 on a - 6 1 -w i n t e r morn ing t o help out w i t h the B r e a k f a s t P r o g r a m the neighbourhood ' s s tudents s t i l l f l o c k to s ign up. Because of i ts popu l a r i t y , a more advanced p r o g r am has been e s tab l i shed for g rade 12 s tudents . C h i l d C a r e Se r v i ce s A l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses p rov ide c h i l d c a r e se r v i ce s o f some d e s c r i p t i o n , a l though South Van 's a re l i m i t e d t o the p rov i s i on of b a b y s i t t i n g fo r some of its p rog rams. The other houses also p rov ide th is s e r v i c e for some of t he i r p rog rams . C e d a r C o t t a g e holds morn ing and a f t e r noon Nu r se r y Schoo l sess ions f ou r days a week i n vo l v i ng mo re than one hundred and t e n c h i l d r e n , some of w h o m a re phy s i c a l l y hand icapped or have learn ing d i s ab i l i t i e s . C l o s e to two hundred and twen t y ch i l d r en f r o m ten d i f f e r e n t schools p a r t i c i p a t e d in f i v e o u t - o f - s c h o o l day c a r e groups, one at the ne ighbourhood house and one at each of fou r nearby schools. C e d a r C o t t a g e a l so has a B r e a k f a s t P r o g r a m for those c h i l d r e n whose parents , because o f work or some o ther reason, f i nd i t d i f f i c u l t t o get t h e i r c h i l d r e n to s choo l . Abou t t h i r t y c h i l d r e n get p i c k e d up at t he i r homes, fed b r e a k -fast at the ne ighbourhood house and dropped o f f at one o f f i v e schools . They a re t ran spor ted in the ne ighbourhood house van d r i v en by e i t h e r a s t a f f m e m b e r or a s tudent v o l un tee r . The re are fees fo r both the Nu r su ry Schoo l and the o u t - o f -schoo l day c a r e . H o w e v e r , the re a r e M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou r ce s ( M H R ) subs id ies a v a i l a b l e to those parent s ab le to demons t r a te through a means test tha t they are unable to a f f o r d par t or a l l of t he i r ch i l d ren ' s day c a r e co s t s . The L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House has a Day C a r e C e n t r e . The C e n t r e is t he a c h i e v e m e n t o f a f e w Boa rd member s who, w i t h s t a f f he lp , w o r k e d v e r y hard to b r i ng i t about . A l t h o u g h a f f i l i a t e d w i t h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , the Day C a r e C e n t r e is ope ra ted independent l y o f i t . It is the on ly dayca re , as o f O c t o b e r 1980, - 62 -to be both ' g l oba l l y funded ' by the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou rce s and ' i n t e g r a t e d ' . G l o b a l fund ing means t h a t M H R pays a l l the dayca re ' s ope ra t i n g cos t s not c o v e r e d by pa ren ta l fees , i nc lud ing s t a f f s a l a r i e s , suppl ies and subsidies t o low i n c o m e pa ren t s . I n teg ra ted means t h a t the dayca re a c c e p t s bo th s pec i a l needs c h i l d r e n , i.e. those who are l a te deve lopers , m i l d l y phy s i c a l l y hand icapped, or who have behav iou ra l p rob lems , speech or hear ing i m p a i r m e n t , or language p rob lems , as we l l as c h i l d r e n w i t h none of the above hand icaps . K i w a s s a has a P r e - S c h o o l fo r t h r ee and four year o lds , about hal f o f whom c o m e f r o m f a m i l i e s whose f i r s t language is not Eng l i sh . It should be emphas i zed tha t the P re - S choo l s , day eares and Nur su ry Schools o f the ne ighbourhood house p r o v i de c h i l d c a r e o f a h igh q u a l i t y . The w o r k e r s a l l have some t r a i n i n g and some have degrees in E d u c a t i o n , C h i l d Deve l opmen t or Soc ia l Work. They do deve l opmenta l work w i t h the c h i l d r e n , many of whom c o m e f r o m f a m i l i e s whose f i r s t language is not Eng l i s h and some of whom have s p e c i f i c deve l opmen ta l or behav i ou ra l p rob lems . F u r t h e r m o r e , because of the subsidies i nvo l ved , c h i l d c a r e is be ing made a v a i l a b l e , to f a m i l i e s who have no o ther s a t i s -f a c t o r y opt ions . Con sequent l y , the c h i l d c a re se r v i ce s cou ld be cons ide red s o c i a l work p rog rams o f the group work t ype , i.e. us ing group e x p e r i e n c e t o enhance per sona l deve l opment . Ca s ewo r k A l l four houses p rov ide se r v i ce s wh i ch are ca sework in nature in tha t they invo lve one - to -one work w i t h an adu l t or c h i l d t o o v e r c o m e b lock s t o tha t person ' s de ve l opmen t . S o m e t i m e s who l e f a m i l i e s a r e counse l l ed . A p r o g r a m w h i c h e p i t o m i z e s ca sework is the Spec i a l Se rv i ce s t o C h i l d r e n P r o g r a m wh i ch a l l but C e d a r C o t t a g e c o n t r a c t s epa ra te l y w i t h the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou r ce s t o p rov ide . C h i l d r e n deemed 'at r i sk ' , i .e. hav ing p rob lems a t - 6 3 -home or in s choo l , a re r e f e r r e d t o the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s p r o g r a m by M H R s o c i a l wo r ke r s . In add i t i o n , a sma l l number o f ' s pec i a l needs ' c h i l d r e n a re a c c e p t e d , i nc l ud ing some who are a u t i s t i c , r e t a r d e d , phy s i c a l l y hand icapped or e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u rbed . S t a f f a re h i r ed by each ne ighbourhood house and pa id by the hour to work a s p e c i f i e d number o f hours a week on a one - to -one bas is w i t h a c h i l d . T o quote f r o m a Sep tember 1979 R e p o r t to the Boa rd on the Spec i a l S e r v i ce s p r o g r a m at South Vancouve r In keep ing w i t h the goa l o f the ne ighbourhood house, the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s t e a m emphas i ze s w a r m t h , compas s i on and f r i end sh ip in wo r k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . A n i m p o r t a n t a spec t o f this is ' uncond i t i ona l po s i t i v e regard , ' i.e. a non - judgementa l a t t i t u d e . Coun se l l i n g and t h e r a p e u t i c processes a re i n teg ra ted in the c o n t e x t o f e ve r yday a c t i v i t i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . F un , e xe r c i s e and en r i ch i ng expe r i ence s a r e v i e w e d as pa r t of the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s process . The Spec i a l Se rv i ce s wo r ke r , the r e f e r r i n g s o c i a l wo r ke r , the ne ighbourhood house Spec i a l Se r v i ce s C o o r d i n a t o r , the parent(s) and, in many cases, the c h i l d , a l l d e t e r m i n e app rop r i a t e goals f o r the c h i l d . A l t hough t he re a re s l i ght v a r i a t i on s in s t y l e , L i t t l e Moun ta i n and K i w a s s a have the a t t i t u d e noted above. M o r e w i l l be sa id about t h i s p r o g r a m in the c o n t r a c t s e r v i ce s s e c t i o n be l ow . A l l f ou r houses o f f e r i nd i v idua l and f a m i l y counse l l i n g to those who want i t . Th i s can and has been on anyth ing f r o m how to adjust to l i v i n g in a s t range c u l t u r e , to how to f i nd a job, to how to get a long b e t t e r w i t h f a m i l y membe r s . Many of the peop le counse l l ed a r e new Canad ians . South Van has a F a m i l y O u t r e a c h Worke r , funded by M H R , who works w i t h those f a m i l i e s and inv idua l s who f e e l the need to be counse l l ed e i t he r in a sporad ic or ongoing fa sh ion . A l l but L i t t l e Moun ta i n s t a f f have done m a r i t a l c oun se l l i n g . C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Van each have a N a t i v e O u t r e a c h Worker whose job i t is to p rov i de a s s i s tance t o na t i v e f a m i l i e s and to represent n a t i v e c u l t u r e in the house. B y way o f background C e d a r C o t t a g e s t a f f i n i t i a t e d a N a t i v e Indian F a m i l y N i gh t in O c t o b e r 1980. It c a m e about because loca l M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou rce s - 6 4 -s t a f f a sked the ne ighbourhood house t o do some p r o g r a m m i n g fo r the c o m m u n i t y ' s many na t i ve f a m i l i e s in o rder to deve lop more n a t i v e f o s te r f a m i l i e s . C e d a r Co t t a ge ' s i n te re s t in the p r o g r am is t o p rov i de the v e h i c l e fo r a s o c i a l ne twork and support s y s t em for n a t i v e f a m i l i e s . C e d a r C o t t a g e then app l i ed for and r e c e i v e d a C a n a d a C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t G r a n t ' f o r a one yea r p r o j e c t , beg inn ing Janua r y 1981, c a l l e d N a t i v e Indian Ne ighbourhood and E m p l o y m e n t Se r v i ce s . T w o na t i v e s t a f f w e r e h i red who work w i t h the N a t i v e F a m i l y N i gh t , among o ther th ings . In ea r l y 1981 M H R approached C e d a r C o t t a g e rega rd ing the fund ing of a N a t i v e O u t r e a c h Worke r but C e d a r C o t t a g e was r e l u c t a n t t o t a ke on th i s a dd i t i o na l f un c t i on g iven its e x i s t i n g na t i v e p r o g r a m m i n g . The M i n i s t r y then approached South Vancouver w i t h the resu l t that bo th C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r now have one N a t i v e O u t r e a c h Worker each . The C e d a r C o t t a g e Worke r has o f f i c e space at both the Ken s i ng ton and C e d a r C o t t a g e M H R o f f i c e s . Group Work - C h i l d r e n A l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses o f f e r p rog rams of the group work t ype . These a re p rog rams w h i c h use group a c t i v i t i e s t o help ind iv idua l s f u n c t i o n m o r e e f f e c -t i v e l y in group set t ings , enhance t he i r persona l deve l opment and deve lop c i t i z e n -ship r e spon s i b i l i t y . C e d a r C o t t a g e has the C l u b Group P r o g r a m through wh i ch p rob lems o f soc i a l ad ju s tment a re addressed. It is f o r c h i l d r e n who have d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g a long w i t h others and a re f r equen t l y in t r oub l e . Some are r e f e r r e d by t eache r s or p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and many o f the r e f e r r a l s a re na t i v e c h i l d r e n . The p r o g r am depends, in pa r t , on c oope r a t i on be tween C e d a r C o t t a g e s t a f f and l oca l s choo l , p robat i on and p o l i c e s t a f f . Abou t two hundred c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e in the C l u b Groups wh i ch a re run out of the house, a t t h r ee l oca l schoo l s and a t C a m p W a l l a c e . Wh i l e the - 65 -a c t i v i t i e s engaged in a re v o l un t a r y and o f t e n o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l na tu re the ba s i c o b j e c t i v e o f the P r o g r a m , a c c o r d i n g to the C e d a r C o t t a g e 1980-81 A n n u a l R e p o r t " i s t o b r i ng about poss ib le changes in the re l a t i on sh ip s and behav iou r o f g roup membe r s . " S t a f f o f t e n counse l p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n and t he i r f a m i l i e s . South Vancouve r has Southtown w h i c h is funded by M H R and a i m e d a t teenaged you th who are not in schoo l nor wo r k i n g . It is l o c a t e d just down the s t r e e t f r o m the ne ighbourhood house in a s t o r e f r o n t A n n e x . A l t h o u g h the n e i g h -bourhood house w e l c o m e s t h e m it is not p rope r l y equipped and is o c c u p i e d by s en i o r s 'much o f the day. Southtown c a m e about because M H R , be ing impres sed by the work of the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s s t a f f , t o ld South Vancouve r and o the r l o ca l o r gan i za t i on s tha t it wou ld fund a p r o g r am to work w i t h those teenager s not be ing reached by e x i s t i n g agenc ie s and p rograms. In t u rn , some of the South Van Spec i a l Se rv i ces worke r s wan ted a p l ace to b r ing the c h i l d r e n they wo r ked w i t h t o ge the r for some group a c t i v i t i e s . South Vancouve r s u b m i t t e d a proposa l f o r Southtown and r e c e i v e d M H R fund ing . To quote ne ighbourhood house l i t e r a t u r e Southtown p rov ides a c a d e m i c t u t o r i n g , job search s k i l l s , oppo r tun i t i e s fo r e m p l o y m e n t , r e c r e a t i o n , coun se l l i n g , c a r p e n t r y and mechan i c s . The f ocu s is on even tua l r e tu rn to schoo l and a cqu i r i n g the a b i l i t y to f unc t i on succe s s fu l l y in the c o m m u n i t y . K i w a s s a has about t w e l v e Soc i a l D e v e l o p m e n t or a f t e r schoo l groups, each hav ing about ten c h i l d r e n aged 6 to 13. These groups a re run by high schoo l s tudents who a re , in t u rn , superv i sed by K i w a s s a s t a f f member s . The re a re a l so s ix S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t groups, each o f about e ight to t en c h i l d r e n who have t r oub le g e t t i n g a long w i t h t he i r peers , f a m i l i e s and t eache r s . The c h i l d r e n a re usua l ly r e f e r r e d by schoo l s t a f f and pub l i c hea l th nurses. P a r t i c i p a n t s in both the Soc i a l D e v e l o p m e n t and Soc i a l A d j u s t m e n t groups do c r a f t s , p lay games, cook and go on out ings . H o w e v e r , A d j u s t m e n t group leaders empha s i z e he lp ing the c h i l d t o b e t t e r under s tand h imse l f and get a long w i t h o the r s . T o w a r d th is end each c h i l d in an A d j u s t m e n t group draws up goals to work t o w a r d . -66-B o t h South Van and L i t t l e Moun ta i n o f f e r a p r o g r a m , in c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h F a m i l y S e r v i ce s o f G r e a t e r Vancouve r , c a l l e d K i d s f r o m D i v i d e d Homes . It is fo r c h i l d r e n whose pa rent s have s epa ra ted . C e d a r C o t t a g e hosts a week l y p r o g r am o f c r a f t s , mus ic and s o c i a l event s fo r w h e e l c h a i r p a t i en t s f r o m Sunny H i l l H o s p i t a l . A c c o r d i n g t o the house's Annua l R e p o r t each p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e s i nd i v i dua l a t t e n t i o n f r o m the m o m e n t they a r r i v e un t i l they a re e s c o r t e d back t o t he i r van . Such a t t e n t i o n is on ly made poss ib le through the c o m m i t m e n t o f many vo l un tee r s , both adu l t and t een . K iwas sa ' s Hea r ! Hea r ! P r o g r a m is bo th a s o c i a l ad ju s tment and r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m for hear ing impa i r ed c h i l d r e n and is the f i r s t o f its k i nd in C a n a d a . It was s t a r t e d through the i n i t i a t i v e and hard work o f a c o m m u n i t y re s ident and board member who has t h ree deaf c h i l d r e n . The P r o g r a m r e c e i v e d i n i t i a l fund ing as a demons t r a t i on p r o j e c t f r o m U n i t e d Way 's D e m o n s t r a t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t Fund and is now, a f t e r con s ide rab le e f f o r t , f u l l y funded by the M i n i s t r y of Human Re sou rce s . H i gh l y rega rded, the p rog r am rece i ve s r e f e r r a l s f r o m the Wes te rn Ins t i tute for the Dea f , the J e r i c h o Schoo l f o r the D e a f and the C h i l d r e n ' s D i a gno s t i c C e n t r e and has c h i l d r en f r o m a l l ove r Vancouver and even out s ide The C i t y . In add i t i on to group and r e c r e a t i o n a l work w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n the Hea r ! Hea r ! P r o g r a m runs a s ummer c a m p fo r deaf c h i l d r e n as men t i oned , holds a s ign language c lass fo r t he i r s ib l ings , and prov ides a support f un c t i on for t he i r pa rent s . South Van has s eve ra l p rog rams fo r c h i l d r en in groups i nc lud ing an a f t e r s choo l group at the ne ighbourhood house for wh i ch the re is a f ee , and a f t e r schoo l groups and teen groups at each of the t h ree housing p ro jec t s in the south Vancove r a r e a : C h a m p l a i n P l a c e , C u l l o d e n C o u r t and O r c h a r d P a r k . N o t enough is known about these group a c t i v i t i e s to say whethe r they a re p r i m a r i l y r e c r e a t i o n a l or m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d . F i n a l l y , both L i t t l e Moun ta i n and C e d a r C o t t a g e sponsor s ummer you th e m p l o y m e n t p r o j e c t s whose a i m is t o p repa re young peop le for f u l l t i m e e m p l o y m e n t and to he lp t h e m f i nd par t t i m e work in the c o m m u n i t y . - 67 -Group Work - A d u l t s In c oope r a t i on w i t h F a m i l y S e r v i ce s L i t t l e Moun ta i n , South Vancouve r and C e d a r C o t t a g e a l l o f f e r a cour se c a l l e d " P o s i t i v e P a r e n t i n g . " A p p a r e n t l y , the cou r se is i n tended as bo th i n s t r u c t i on and mu tua l support . L i t t l e Moun ta i n sponsors the M a i n s t r e a m S ing le P a r e n t s group w h i c h meet s w e e k l y a t the nearby C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e to hear t a l k s on and discuss t op i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n te res t to s ing le parent s . In that the group p rov ides a support f u n c t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i n g s ing le parents it is a p r o g r am of the group work t ype . In add i t i on , the Y W C A is sponsor ing t h r ee groups for s ing le parent s in the L i t t l e Moun ta i n a r e a . These are meant to be support groups for those f i nd ing themse l ve s in a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . The P a r e n t s and Tot s sessions at South Vancouve r enab le parent s to b r i ng t he i r young c h i l d r e n to the neighbourhood house, l i s ten t o speakers and d iscuss issues of mu tua l c o n c e r n w i t h t r a i n e d f a c i l i t a t o r s . The re is a f ee for th i s p r o g r am. Because K i w a s s a is l o ca ted in a heav i l y Ch i ne se c o m m u n i t y i t s w e e k l y Moms and Tots group is o r i en ted t o w a r d the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of new C a n a d i a n , p r i m a r i l y Ch ine se , mothe r s . Some wou ld cons ider the N a t i v e Indian F a m i l y N ight s at South Vancouve r and C e d a r C o t t a g e to be group work s oc i a l p rog rams . Othe r s wou ld cons ide r t h e m p r i m a r i l y s oc i a l f unc t i on s . The same is t rue o f the week l y F a m i l y N i g h t at C e d a r C o t t a g e at w h i c h v e r y inexpens ive d inners a re se r ved . There is o f t e n mus ic or o ther e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a t a l k , or a demon s t r a t i on . P r o g r ams f o r Sen iors A l l but K i w a s s a o f f e r p rograms for sen iors , a l though K i w a s s a does host an i n f o r m a l da i l y senior ' s d r op - i n . C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r both have - 68 -ex ten s i ve p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s f o r o lde r peop le . In f a c t , C e d a r C o t t a g e had the f i r s t A d u l t D a y C a r e P r o g r a m in Vancouve r . E v e r y day pens ioner s c o m e t o the ne ighbourhood house fo r a hot lunch, r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . O v e r one hundred peop le p a r t i c i p a t e . T r an spo r t a t i on to and f r o m the house fo r those unable to t r a v e l on the i r own is p r o v i ded . Sen iors have seve ra l a c t i v i t i e s to choose f r o m at South Vancouve r . Th ree days a week the house hosts Senior A c t i v i t y Days at w h i c h peop le can t a ke an e x e r -c i s e c lass , ea t a nu t r i t i ou s lunch, hear t a l k s , do c r a f t s , p lay ca rd s and o ther games, e t c . Bus t r ip s a round the L o w e r Ma in l and a re the c h o i c e the other t w o days of the week. A g a i n , t r an spo r t a t i on is p rov i ded to those need ing i t . D o c t o r s , s oc i a l wo rke r s , c l e r g y , f r i end s and r e l a t i v e s a l l r e f e r peop le to the A c t i v i t y Days . F i v e days a week the house also p rov ides a M e d i c a l T r an spo r t a t i o n S e r v i c e wh i ch t r a n -sports peop le t o docto r ' s appo i n tment s . Bo th C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r have c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h under the L ong T e r m C a r e P r o g r a m to p rov ide a H o m e m a k e r and Handyman s e r v i c e to pens ioners and o ther s who cannot c o m p l e t e l y c a r e for t hemse l ve s but who do not want to leave the i r homes. Worker s a re pa id an hour l y wage to p rov ide persona l c a r e , e.g. ba th ing ; homemake r s e r v i ce s , e.g. hou sec l ean -ing and cook i n g ; and handyman he lp , e.g. pa i n t i n g and l ight repa i r s , to those seniors not f u l l y ab le to he lp themse l ve s . C i t y H e a l t h units make r e f e r r a l s of sen iors r equ i r i ng th i s s e r v i c e t o the ne ighbourhood houses. A b o u t 30 s t a f f p r o v i de some 3,900 s e r v i c e hours a month to south Vancouve r a r e a seniors wh i l e about 50 H o m e m a k e r s at C e d a r C o t t a g e p rov i de 4,700 s e r v i c e hours per m o n t h . Mo re w i l l be sa id about the H o m e m a k e r s P r o g r a m in the c o n t r a c t s e r v i ce s s ec t i on be low. The L ong T e r m C a r e P r o g r a m also funds the A d u l t Day C a r e and the Seniors A c t i v i t y Days men t i oned above. L i t t l e M o u n t a i n has gone a d i f f e r e n t r ou te . It does not c o n t r a c t w i t h the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h . Instead, i t , t oge the r w i t h the loca l H e a l t h U n i t and F a m i l y - 69 -Se rv i ce s , has nu r tu red a sen iors c l ub c a l l e d the L i t t l e Moun ta i n L i v e Wi re s w h i c h has a loose a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the ne ighbourhood house. Toge the r w i t h the C a r e e r and C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n Se rv i ce s of the Vancouve r School Boa rd the ne ighbourhood house and the L i v e Wi res have o r gan i zed a ser ies o f courses for wh i ch there is a $3.00 fee c o v e r i n g anywhere f r o m four to e ight sessions. E x a m p l e s o f courses o f f e r e d inc lude f i tnes s , garden ing, a h i s to ry of Vancouve r and m e m o r y t r a i n i n g (for everyone! ) . Du r i ng the s ummer the ne ighbourhood house a l so has a H a n d y m a n s e r v i c e for those on f i x e d incomes who a re unable to do home repa i r s f o r t hemse l ve s . Th i s s e r v i c e is funded by a P r o v i n c i a l Y o u t h E m p l o y m e n t P r o g r a m grant . M u l t i c u l t u r a l P r o g r a m m i n g A l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses have p rograms or s e r v i ce s a imed p r i m a r i l y at those whose f i r s t language is not Eng l i sh . On F r i d a y s the C e d a r C o t t a g e house is f i l l e d w i t h Po r tugue se peop le . The e x t r e m e l y success fu l Po r tuguese P r o g r a m is one of the f ew p rog rams in Vancouve r to r e c e i v e fund ing f r o m the C i t y over and above its usual annual g rant to ne ighbourhood houses. In add i t i on , the P r o a r a m can now b i l l the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h under the L ong T e r m C a r e P r o g r a m fo r the t r an spo r -t a t i o n p rov ided for p a r t i c i p a n t s unable t o a r r i v e on t he i r own. The L i t t l e Moun ta i n house w i l l have the bene f i t o f a w o r k e r f r o m Immig rant Se r v i ce s wo r k i n g h a l f - t i m e out o f the new neighbourhood house bu i l d i ng . The house sponsors a Ch ine se C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n Group w h i c h meet s w e e k l y fo r Eng l i s h i n s t r u c t i on and an o r i e n t a t i o n to Canad i an c u l t u r e . In f a c t , a l l four houses ho ld e i t he r c i t i z e n s h i p c lasses or language c lasses or bo th . C e d a r C o t t a g e , South Vancouve r and L i t t l e Moun ta i n a l l o f f e r Eng l i sh c las ses f o r w h i c h b a b y s i t t i n g is p r o v i ded . A t C e d a r C o t t a g e some of the Nu r se r y Schoo l c h i l d r e n t a k e these c las ses as t w o out o f t h ree o f t hem c o m e f r o m - 7 0 -i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . Some of these c lasses go beyond s imp l e language i n s t r u c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , L i t t l e Mounta in ' s Eng l i s h c lasses i nc lude i n f o r m a t i o n about where to shop, how to f i nd a doc to r and where to f ind r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The c las s inc ludes v i s i t s to c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s . South Van a l so o f f e r s , fo r a f ee , a D r i v e r I n s t ruct ion c la s s f o r Pun jab i speak ing peop le wi sh ing t o ob ta in t he i r Lea rne r ' s P e r m i t . K i w a s s a and South Vancouve r bo th ho ld c i t i z e n s h i p c lasses . K iwas sa ' s are taught by an o lde r Ch ine se man who is h igh ly r e spec ted in the Ch i ne se c o m m u n i t y . South Van holds one c i t i z e n s h i p c las s e a ch for Ch ine se and Punjab i s fo r wh i ch p a r t i c i p a n t s pay a s m a l l f e e . A l l o f the above c o u l d be con s i de red group w o r k p rograms in tha t they help people adjust to and learn about a s t range c u l t u r e and its language. South Vancouve r holds month l y Ea s t Indian lunches w i t h modes t l y p r i c e d East Indian food p repa red by s t a f f and neighbourhood women . In add i t i on t o be ing a soc i a l e ven t , the lunches a f f o r d s o c i a l i z a t i o n to Canad i an c u l t u r e fo r East Indian women who f ind it d i f f i c u l t t o get out on t he i r own. South Vancouve r a l so hosts a y ea r l y Eas t Indian N i g h t o f food and e n t e r t a i n m e n t , a G reek N i g h t and an O k t o b e r f e s t . These event s , a l though hav ing an undercu r ren t of imp rov i n g c r o s s -c u l t u r a l r e l a t i on s in r a c i a l l y m i x e d Southeast Vancouve r , a re p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l . A s a re su l t o f e f f o r t s by South Van t o e s tab l i sh a business v en tu r e that w o u l d ra i se money for house p r o g r amming as we l l as p rov ide t r a i n i n g and e m p l o y m e n t oppo r tun i t i e s f o r those who f i nd i t d i f f i c u l t t o get work e l s ewhere , " Sami ' s 2 Samosas " c a m e about . I n i t i a l f und ing c a m e f r o m a C a n a d a C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t P r o j e c t g rant and subsequent ly through L E A P . Begun in D e c e m b e r 1980, the Samosa p r o j e c t , in add i t i on to s e l l i n g samosas in bulk to food supp l ie r s , c a t e r e r s and ind i v idua l s , p rov ides e m p l o y m e n t fo r Eas t Indian women who are o t h e r -w i se not e l i g i b l e for e m p l o y m e n t th rough c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , i n s u f f i c i e n t Eng l i s h or lack o f s k i l l s . - 7 1 -C la s se s A l l but K i w a s s a o f f e r c las ses of some so r t . P e o p l e can s ign up for c r o s s -coun t r y sk i ing and f i r s t a i d at C e d a r C o t t a g e ; Ea s t Indian cook i ng , Stop Smok ing , law c lasses or p r e - r e t i r e m e n t p lann ing a t South Vancouve r ; and as ser t i veness t r a i n -ing, c la s s 4 d r i ve r ' s l i c ence i n s t r u c t i o n , or fund ra i s i ng fo r n o n - p r o f i t o r gan i za t i on s at L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . In add i t i on , the Schoo l B oa rd and a l o ca l h igh school have wo rked w i t h L i t t l e Moun ta i n to make n ight c las ses a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y in a w ide v a r i e t y o f t op i c s i nc lud ing sma l l business ope ra t i on , d o - i t - y o u r s e l f r epa i r s , w o o d -wo rk i n g , pub l i c speak ing and Japanese c ook i n g . Soc i a l E ven t s O f cour se , e a ch house has i ts s oc i a l event s , some of w h i c h double as fund ra i ser s . C e d a r C o t t a g e has a w e e k l y p r o g r am c a l l e d " M o t h e r ' s B r eak " , fo r w h i c h baby s i t t i n g is p r ov i ded . It g i ves ne ighbourhood women a chance to go on out ings , have d iscuss ions or l i s ten t o a t a l k . O the r soc i a l f unc t i on s i nc lude the In ternat iona l P o t L u c k D inner and ho l iday F a m i l y D inne r s . Some double as fund ra i se r s such as the weekend P a n c a k e B r eak f a s t s , L a s Vegas N i gh t s , the F a l l B a z a a r , the " O r d e r o f Good C h e e r " banquet and dance and the Pub N i gh t s . South Vancouve r holds a mon th l y pot luck d inner , a C h r i s t m a s pa r t y , s eve ra l f o l k danc ing nights and sporad ic mus i c evenings at wh i ch l o ca l mus i c i an s a re i n v i t ed t o p l ay . The w i l d l y succes s fu l Good Ne ighbour D a y is an annual s ummer event wh i ch l i t e r a l l y thousands of peop le a t t e n d . R e c e n t l y , the house has s t a r t e d s o c i a l evenings f o r those aged 45 t o 60. L i t t l e Moun ta i n has a week l y pot luck d inner , c a l l e d C h a t and C h o w , wh i ch a t t r a c t s i nc rea s i ng numbers o f peop le as w e l l as a c o r e o f regu la r s . Th i s p r og r am v i r t u a l l y runs i t s e l f and requ i re s l i t t l e s t a f f t i m e . O f cour se t he re a re also spec i a l - 72 -event d inners such as the Thanksg i v ing and C h r i s t m a s d inners . The house sponsors a wh i s t c l ub . R e c e n t l y , t he re was a con te s t to d raw the ne ighbourhood house for c h i l d r e n in t h r ee age c a t e go r i e s . The t h i r d annual C r a f t M a r k e t and F a i r was he ld in August 1981 and se rved as a showcase for l o ca l c r a f t s , peop le , as w e l l as hav ing mus i c , danc ing f r o m d i f f e r e n t c oun t r i e s , f ood and games. Even K i w a s s a has some pure ly s oc i a l event s such as the Hang ing of the Greens at C h r i s t m a s , an event w h i c h has c o m e to mean a lot to ne ighbourhood re s ident s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c h i l d r e n , and the Wing D ing , a new event w h i c h is be ing r e p e a t e d . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n A s the l i t e r a t u r e s ta tes , one of the c h i e f conce rn s of c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on is the he lp ing of d i f f e r e n t groups in a c o m m u n i t y to work toge the r to a c h i e v e mutua l goa l s . A l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses fo s te r c o o p e r a t i v e work among the agenc ies of t he i r r e s pec t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . A l l but South Van p l ay leading ro les in t he i r l oca l A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m . F o r e xamp le , C e d a r C o t t a g e has been i n s t r umen ta l in e s tab l i sh ing and ma i n t a i n i n g the C e d a r C o t t a g e - K e n s i n g t o n A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m and the K i n g s w a y Management C o m m i t t e e . B o t h a re a s soc i a t i on s o f s oc i a l s e r v i c e and r e c r e a t i o n p ro fes s iona l s f r o m d i f f e r e n t agenc ies w o r k i n g in the c o m m u n i t y . The A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m invo lves p r i m a r i l y i n f o r m a t i o n shar ing and s t a f f deve lopment a c t i v i t i e s . Its a i m is to f o s t e r b e t t e r wo rk i ng r e l a t i on s among T e a m membe r s . The K i n g sway Managemen t C o m m i t t e e is mo re a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . It is made up o f r ep re sen ta t i ve s f r o m P r o b a t i o n , the P o l i c e , the C o m m u n i t y A c c o u n t a b i l i t y P a n e l , high schoo l s , C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e s t a f f , and C e d a r C o t t a g e s t a f f . It work s to i d e n t i f y p rob l ems , d e t e r m i n e so lu t ions , and app ly fo r and sponsor g r an t p rograms. F o r e x a m p l e , the Outdoo r R e c r e a t i o n Worke r who work s out o f the ne ighbourhood - 7 3 -house is t he d i r e c t resu l t o f the Management C o m m i t t e e ' s e f f o r t s . The C o m m i t t e e seeks to encourage and f o s te r an i n teg ra ted approach to you th p r o g r amming . F o r e xamp le , some p rog rams t a ke p l a c e at the C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e but a re a d m i n i s t e r e d by C e d a r C o t t a g e . T h e K i w a s s a D i r e c t o r cha i r s the S t r a t h cona A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m . The T e a m is a group o f s t a f f p ro fe s s i ona l s rep resent ing t w e n t y agenc ies a c t i v e in the S t r a t h cona and G r a n d v i e w c o m m u n i t i e s . Its f u n c t i on is to poo l resources and work c o o p e r a t i v e l y in order to respond e f f e c t i v e l y t o c o m m u n i t y needs. The T e a m rev iews a l l the c o m m u n i t y ' s g rant submiss ions and reaches a consensus on t h e m be fo re any a re f o r w a r d e d t o the app rop r i a te f oundat i on or gove rnment d e p a r t m e n t . G ran t s o f f i c e r s o f the M i n i s t r y of Human Re sou rce s mee t w i t h the T e a m to c o l l e c t i v e l y a t t a c h p r i o r i t i e s to g rant request s . In th i s way d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s and c o m p e t i t i v e an imos i t y a re avo ided as much as poss ib le . The A r e a Se r v i ce s T e a m also work s to change gove rnment po l i c i e s i t f ee l s adver se l y a f f e c t re s ident s . The N a t i v e Indian Y o u t h A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e is par t of the T e a m . It was asked to help work t owa rd the e s tab l i s hment o f a na t i v e s choo l . P a r t l y through the C o m m i t t e e ' s e f f o r t s , the schoo l has been approved in p r i n c i p l e and its f e a s i b i l i t y is now be ing t e s t e d . It w i l l l i k e l y open in Sep tember 1982. K i w a s s a Boa rd member s a lso p a r t i c p a t e in S e T a C o N a w h i c h is a " B o a r d of boards " . On i t s i t two rep re sen ta t i ve s o f each o f n ine S t r a t h cona agency boards. It was deve loped to be a s t rong c o m m u n i t y v o i c e . Because it is an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a -t i on tha t speaks f o r many agenc ies i t g ives the c o m m u n i t y the oppo r tun i t y t o c o m e toge the r on c o m m u n i t y conce rn s . F o r e x a m p l e , K i w a s s a superv i sed four U B C Soc i a l Work s tudents , one o f whom re sea rched the impac t s B .C. P l a c e is l i k e l y t o have on S t r a t h c o n a and the D o w n t o w n Ea s t s i de . Th i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t oge the r w i t h o the r f ind ings and v i ews , was p re sented at a Sunday m e e t i n g o f S e T a C o N a in J anua r y 1981 and t o Vancouve r C i t y C o u n c i l be fo re B.C. P l a c e o f f i c i a l s made t he i r own p re sen t a t i on t o the C i t y . S e T a C o N a a l so succe s s fu l l y opposed a m i n i - s t a d i u m - 7 4 -w h i c h the C i t y Boa rd o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n wan ted to l o ca te in S t r a t h cona . A t one t i m e the K i w a s s a Board ' s S o c i a l A c t i o n C o m m i t t e e was a c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y over succes s fu l e f f o r t s to stop t ra in s runn ing at n ight and wak i n g up ne ighbourhood res ident s . H o w e v e r , i t now r e fe r s such issues to S e T a C o N a . ( ' S eTaCoNa ' is the enunc i a t i on o f ' S t r a t h c o n a ' in Ch inese. ) L i k e w i s e , L i t t l e Moun ta i n makes a la rge e f f o r t to b r i ng c o m m u n i t y agenc ies and groups t o ge the r . A l t h o u g h R i l e y P a r k has no A r e a Se rv i ce s T e a m as y e t , the ne ighbourhood house is in f r equent c o n t a c t w i t h o ther c o m m u n i t y o r gan i za t i on s and is wo rk i ng t o e s tab l i sh a " N e t w o r k of A g e n c i e s " made up of s t a f f and vo l un tee r s f r o m loca l agenc ie s . The f i r s t m e e t i n g took p l a c e in Sep tember 1981. F u t u r e N e t w o r k p r o j e c t s i nc lude vo l un tee r t r a i n i ng and r e c r u i t m e n t , j o i n t p u b l i c i t y , a c o m m u n i t y news l e t t e r and expand ing the r o l e o f the c o m m u n i t y vans. W i t h a f ew excep t i on s , C e d a r C o t t a g e does no r e a l c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n work apar t f r o m its i n vo l vement w i t h the A r e a Se rv i ce s T e a m and K i n g sway Management C o m m i t t e e . The except i on s i nc lude the f o l l o w i n g . In 1977, C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd member s wo rked w i t h Se l k i r k Schoo l to m o b i l i z e l o ca l support and succe s s fu l l y lobb ied C i t y H a l l to ob ta i n a pedes t r i an a c t i v a t e d t r a f f i c l ight at 22nd and V i c t o r i a . O c c a s i o n a l l y , l o ca l schools ask C e d a r C o t t a g e for help in s e t t i n g up a p r o g r a m . One schoo l wan ted to have an out o f schoo l day c a r e ; another wan ted t o e s tab l i sh its own B r e a k f a s t P r o g r a m . B o t h we re g iven i n f o r m a t i o n by the ne i ghbour -hood house but both ended up hav ing t he i r needs m e t through an expans ion or ad ju s t -men t o f e x i s t i n g C e d a r C o t t a g e p rog rams. South Vancouve r tends t o a c t in c o n c e r t w i t h o ther agenc ies p r o v i d i n g c o m p a r a b l e s e r v i ce s when i t sees a need to change the s t r u c t u r e o f a s e r v i c e to b e t t e r se rve c o m m u n i t y res idents . F o r e xamp le , the ne ighbourhood was i n s t r umen ta l in f o r m i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o m m u n i t y T r an spo r t a t i o n Se r v i ce s ( A C T S ) in response t o what s t a f f saw as the bung led p r o v i n c i a l gove rnment t a keove r o f t r an spo r t a t i on s e r v i ce s through the L i o n s C l u b . T w e l v e groups a l r eady - 7 5 -p rov i d i n g such s e r v i ce s throughout the L o w e r Ma i n l and j o i ned A C T S and re fu sed t o g i ve the gove rnment needed i n f o r m a t i o n un t i l i t me t w i t h t he i r r ep re sen ta t i v e s . A C T S f i n a l l y r e a ched an ag reement w i t h the L i on s as t o the areas t o be se rved by e a c h . South Vancouve r has good r e l a t i on s w i t h o ther c o m m u n i t y agenc ie s , groups and p ro fe s s i ona l s . Seve ra l peop le men t i oned that when the ne ighbourhood house s o l i c i t s l e t t e r s o f support to a c company grant requests the responses a re i n va r i ab l y c o m p l i m e n t a r y . The re a re t w o groups wh i ch have an a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the L i t t l e Moun ta i n house but w h i c h ope ra te at a rms length f r o m it so as to enab le lobby ing a c t i v i t y . N e i t h e r want s to j e o p a r d i z e the a c t i v i t i e s of the house. F o r e x a m p l e , the L i v e Wi re s have an a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the C o u n c i l of Senior C o m m u n i t y O r gan i z a t i o n s ( C O S C O ) w h i c h works on behal f o f seniors groups to a t t e m p t to mee t seniors needs. L i t t l e Moun ta i n is a l so o r gan i z i ng a workshop wh i ch is meant t o be both a c e l e b r a t i o n of the R i l e y Pa r k Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m and a chance to r e - g e n e r a t e i n te re s t in ne ighbourhood issues. A n e xamp l e o f house leadersh ip in th is a r ea is i ts p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the c o m m i t t e e wh i ch is wo r k i n g w i t h the C i t y and the p r o v i n ce on a c o m p l e t e r e -de s i gn of the R i l e y P a r k Hous ing P r o j e c t . The m a j o r i t y of peop le on the C o m m i t t e e a re house s t a f f or Boa rd member s , tenants and peop le in the L i v e W i re s . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a l so hosts a month l y C o m m u n i t y F o r u m on t op i c s o f c o n c e r n t o R i l e y Pa r k res idents such as the e f f o r t t o get a 25th A v e n u e bus l ine or a d i s c u s -s ion o f the G u a r a n t e e d Annua l Income for N e e d (GA IN ) r a te s . T o the ex ten t these F o r u m s br ing t oge the r peop le of s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s and v i ews , they c an a c t t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m u n i t y change e f f o r t s . O f the four ne ighbourhood houses e xam ined , K i w a s s a has gone the fu r thes t in a c o m m i t m e n t t o c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n work . A t i t s June 1981 m e e t i n g the Boa rd con s i de red t h r ee opt ions . One was to expand so as to t a k e on add i t i ona l s e r v i ce s . Th i s op t i on was r e j e c t e d because the Boa rd d id not want to see K i w a s s a - 76 -b e c o m e an i n f l e x i b l e e m p i r e out of t ouch w i t h the c o m m u n i t y it se rves . A n o t h e r opt ion was to e s tab l i s h a C h i l d Gu i dance C e n t r e or C l i n i c at the ne ighbourhood house. The Boa rd has made a l ong - te rm c o m m i t m e n t to th i s g oa l . Bu t most i m p o r -t a n t l y , the Boa rd s t rong l y endorsed the t h i r d opt ion - t o use the p rov i s i on o f s e r v i ce s as a mechan i sm for c o m m u n i t y deve l opment . Th i s means t ha t house boa rd member s and s t a f f w i l l work t owa rd the deve l opment o f s e r v i ce s but w i l l a l so work w i t h those res idents des i r ing t hem t o w a r d the e s t ab l i s hment , nu r t u r ance and s t reng then ing of a lay s t r u c t u r e to t a ke over t he i r management once in p l a c e . A s an e xamp le , K i w a s s a was r e c e n t l y approached to help put t oge the r a p r o v i n c i a l o r g an i z a t i o n o f pa rent s of deaf c h i l d r e n . K i w a s s a he lped the parent s i nvo lved get a g rant fo r a found ing c o n f e r e n c e f r o m the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as pa r t o f the p rog rams and grants set up for the In ternat iona l Y e a r o f D i s ab l ed P e o p l e . A n o t h e r long t e r m c o m m u n i t y deve lopment p r o j e c t w i t h wh i ch K i w a s s a is he lp ing is the e s tab l i shment o f p rog rams f o r c h i l d r e n at the C h i m o and G r a n d v i e w housing p r o j e c t s . The impetus fo r th i s work c a m e f r o m Spec i a l Se rv i ce s t o C h i l d r e n worke r s ' d i scuss ions w i t h the parents in these p r o j ec t s . Budget and Staffing C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s emp loyed about n i n e t y - t h r e e peop le in 1980. Fou r of these s t a f f pos i t ions we re funded by the U n i t e d Way g rant t o N S A and are what N S A c a l l s c o re s t a f f . They are those of the D i r e c t o r , two P r o g r a m m e r s and a S e c r e t a r y . A n add i t i ona l t w e n t y - t h r e e peop le w e r e e m p l o y e d as f u l l - t i m e s t a f f a t C e d a r C o t t a g e on var ious p r o j ec t s . T h e r e were about f i f t e e n p a r t - t i m e summer p rog ram worke r s and f i f t y peop le wo r k i n g on an hour ly bas is under c o n t r a c t w i t h the H o m e m a k e r p r o g r am in 1979. - 7 7 -The total budget from all sources for 1980 was about $839,000. The table below summarizes the house budget by program. It also indicates from what source the program's money came and how many people were employed. Table I Cedar Cottage Neighbourhood Services 1980 Operating Budget 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Program Nursery School Homemakers Adult Day Care After School Day Care Portuguese Worker Outdoor Recreation Worker Summer Programs All Other Programs and Services Budget $ l 3 , 4 9 o ! 8 , 9 9 3 ' 461,707 77,008 39,342 77,252 9,822 10,250 7,695 1,359 31,605 1,997 21,321 17,269 59,933 $839,043 Source Staff parent fees MHR^ubsidy LTC,£ Min. of Health LTC, Min. of Health parent fees MHR subsidy City of Vancouver Vancouver Foundation federal grants user fees City of Vancouver misc. grants and subsidies rentals and misc. revenue recovery from projects United Way via NSA 3 (I PT) 50 (hourly) 6 12 I I 15 4 PT core I. 2. estimates Long Term Care Prograr As will be summarized in Table 4 below, 8 1 % of the Cedar Cottage budget comes from government sources. Most of this amount comes from the provincial ministries of Health and Human Resources for on-going services. Private donations from the United Way and the Vancouver Foundation comprise 8 % of the house budget. User fees, primarily paid by parents of children in the Day Care and Nursery School, account for 6 % . Rentals of house space and project recovery account for 3 % and 2 % , respectively. South Vancouver Neighbourhood House employs about 80 people and has a budget slightly over one million dollars for the 1981 calendar year. There are three - 78 -c o r e s t a f f , i .e. the D i r e c t o r , P r o g r a m Superv i sor and S e c r e t a r y . O f the r e m a i n i n g seven ty - seven s t a f f , t w e n t y - f i v e a re a l so f u l l - t i m e , two are p a r t - t i m e , and f i f t y work on a c o n t r a c t bas is th rough e i t h e r the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h L o n g T e r m C a r e H o m e m a k e r / H a n d y m a n p r o g r a m or the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n R e s o u r c e s Spec i a l Se rv i ce s t o C h i l d r e n p r o g r a m . To g i ve some idea o f how fast South Vancouve r has g rown, its budget fo r the p rev ious 1978-1979, f i s c a l yea r was $389,551. D u r i n g tha t yea r , i t s s t a f f c o m p l e m e n t was f i f t y - e i g h t . O f its one m i l l i o n plus budget 9 6 % comes f r o m gove rnment sources , p r i m a r i l y the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h and M H R . Abou t 10% of th i s amount c omes f r o m the U rban T ran s i t A u t h o r i t y . The r ema in i n g 4 % o f the t o t a l budget comes f r o m p r i v a t e sources, c h i e f l y the U n i t e d Way. Tab l e 2 be low s ummar i z e s the fund ing a m o u n t and source for South Van p rog rams . Table II South Vancouver Neighbourhood House 1981 Operating Budget P r o g r a m Budget Source 1. Southtown 2. Spec i a l Se r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n 3. H o m e m a k e r s 4. A d u l t Day C a r e 5. N a t i v e Indian Se r v i ce s 6. T r an spo r t a t i o n Se r v i ce s 7. Samosa P r o j e c t 8. A l l O the r P r o g r ams and Se r v i ce s T o t a l $ 156,648 168,000 457 ,000 85,897 25,000 105,000 18,000 37,565 34,795 600 $ l , 0 8 8 , 5 0 5 2 M H R M H R L T C , M i n . o f H e a l t h L T C , M i n . o f H e a l t h M H R U rban T ran s i t A u t h o r i t y f e d e r a l g rant U n i t e d Way v i a N S A C i t y o f Vancouve r r en ta l s 1. L o n g T e r m C a r e P r o g r a m 2. The re was a $17,562 s h o r t f a l l above th i s amount wh i ch was r e c o v e r e d through a v a r i e t y of means i nc l ud ing use o f a 1980 surplus and fund ra i s i ng of $3,500. K iwas sa ' s o pe r a t i n g budget fo r c a l enda r y ea r 1980 was about $390,194 of w h i c h c l o se to 8 2 % was p rov i ded by the pub l i c s e c t o r . N e a r l y a l l o f th i s - 79 -gove rnment money c a m e f r o m the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f H u m a n Re sou rce s and pa i d fo r the M a c D o n a l d Schoo l S oc i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n p r o g r a m , and much of the Hea r ! Hea r ! p r o g r a m . Money r e c e i v e d f r o m the C i t y of Vancouve r a l so went t owa rd the Hea r ! Hea r ! p r o g r a m . The U n i t e d Way grant and the K i w a s s a C l u b donat ion accoun t f o r 1 3 % of K iwas sa ' s t o t a l budget and pa id for the Soc i a l A d j u s t m e n t and Soc i a l D e v e l o p m e n t groups, the i nd i v idua l and f a m i l y counse l l i ng done by K i w a s s a s t a f f , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the ne ighbourhood house in o ther c o m m u n i t y o r gan i za t i on s . The r ema in i n g 5 % is a c c o u n t e d fo r by user fees , p r i v a t e donat ions and m i s ce l l aneous i n come . R e f e r t o T a b l e 3 be low f o r a more d e t a i l e d b reakdown. A b o u t f o r t y peop le wo rked at K i w a s s a in 1980. S ix of t h e m had f u l l - t i m e pe rmanen t pos i t ions i nc lud ing the D i r e c t o r , the Sec re t a r y/Bookkeepe r , the Hea r ! Hear ! , a f t e r schoo l p rog rams and Spec i a l Se r v i ce s Coo rd i n a t o r s , and an A s s i s t an t Spec i a l Se rv i ce s C o o r d i n a t o r . Ten people had t e m p o r a r y summer jobs funded by va r i ou s gove rnment grants and t w e n t y - f o u r wo r ked on a c o n t r a c t bas is w i t h the Spec i a l Se rv i ce s P r o g r a m . - 8 0 -Toble III Kiwassa Neighbourhood Services 1980 Operating Budget P r o g r a m 1. P r e - S c h o o l 2. H e a r ! Hea r ! P r o g r a m 3. M a c D o n a l d Schoo l P r o g r a m 4. Spec i a l Se r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n 5. A l l O the r P r o g r ams and Se r v i ce s T o t a l Budget $ 4 , 4 0 0 1 2,400 29 ,680 14,451 1,818 2,025 7,925 94 248,701 16,000 5,000 44 ,000 13,700 $390,194 Source parent fees M H R subs id ies M H R C i t y of Vancouve r user fees C K N W Orphans Fund and p r i v a t e donat ion M H R user fees M H R C i t y of Vancouve r K i w a s s a C l u b U n i t e d Way r en t a l s , c on su l t i n g fees , m i s ce l l aneous I. inc ludes some user fees pa id for the C i t i z e n s h i p c las ses . L i t t l e Mounta in ' s 1980 ope ra t i ng budget was $271,635 of w h i c h about $241,755, or 8 9 % , c a m e f r o m the m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f ede r a l gove rnment s . N e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s of th i s amount is p rov ided by the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou r ce s fo r the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n p r o g r am and the Day C a r e C e n t r e . The year round you th p r o g r a m m i n g is l a rge ly funded by the Vancouve r c i v i c g r an t . The summer you th p rograms are pa id for by a j o i n t C i t y / p r o v i n c i a l g rant as is another s ummer p r o j e c t w h i c h p rov ides a home repa i r s e r v i c e t o those on low i ncomes . U n i t e d Way p rov ided $28,000 or 10.3% o f L i t t l e Mounta in ' s 1980 budget L i t t l e Moun ta i n e m p l o y e d t h i r t y - f i v e peop le as of O c t o b e r 1980. N i n e of these peop le he ld f u l l - t i m e jobs i nc lud ing the D i r e c t o r ; S e c r e t a r y ; Y o u t h , A d u l t and F a m i l y P r o g r ams and Spec i a l Se r v i ce s Coo rd i na t o r s ; the Day C a r e C o o r d i n a t o r ; and t h r ee o ther D a y C a r e s t a f f . Ten wo r ked on summer g rant p r o j ec t s , one worked p a r t - t i m e and f i f t e e n w e r e e m p l o y e d on a c o n t r a c t basis f o r the Spec i a l Se rv i ce s t o - 8 1 -C h i l d r e n P r o g r a m . The U n i t e d Way g ran t pays the sa l a r i e s of the D i r e c t o r and S e c r e t a r y . T a b l e 4 be low s u m m a r i z e s the budgets and t he i r sources fo r each of the f ou r ne ighbourhood houses. Table IV Summary: Neighbourhood House Budgets By Source (% in parentheses) Source C e d a r C o t t a g e (1980) South Vancouver (1981) K i w a s s a (1980) L i t t l e M o u n t a i n (1980) A l l Houses C o m b i n e d P r i v a t e F u n d i n g ' $ 70,183 (8%) $ 37 ,565 (3%) $ 51,025 (13%) $ 28 ,000 (10%) $ 186,773 (7%) G o v e r n m e n t Fund ing T O T A L 676,079 (81%) 1,050,340 (96%) 319,157 (82%) 241 ,755 (89%) 2,287,331 (88%) P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l ; M u n i c i p a l 634,652 (76%) 41 ,427 (5%) 1,015,545 (93%) 34,795 (3%) 288,706 (74%) 30,451 (8%) 221 ,775 (81%) 20 ,000 (7%) 2 ,160 ,658 (83%) 126,673 (5%) U se r Fee s 54,191 (6%) see 3 be low 6,312 (2%) 60,503 unde r s ta ted ; see 3) (2%) T O T A L B U D G E T $ 8 3 9 , 0 4 3 2 $1 ,088 ,505 $ 3 9 0 , I 9 4 4 $271,635 $2 ,589 ,377 1. inc ludes U n i t e d Way, Vancouve r Foundat i on s and donat ions . 2. inc ludes r e n t a l i n come , p r o j e c t r e c o v e r y and m i s ce l l aneous revenue. 3. South Van cha rges fees f o r some of its p rog rams. U n f o r t u n a t e l y these have been bu r i ed in agg regated f i gu re s . 4. inc ludes r e n t a l i n come, con su l t i n g fees and m i s ce l l aneou s . - 8 2 -Contract Services A s was men t i oned above, the fund ing o f the Spec i a l S e r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n and the H o m e m a k e r s P r o g r ams wa r r an t mo re d e t a i l e d d i scuss ion because they a c coun t fo r large po r t i on s o f ne ighbourhood house budgets and because gove rnment m i n i s t r i e s c o n t r a c t w i t h the houses t o p rov ide the se r v i ce s . Beg inn ing w i t h the f o r m e r , the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou rce s a l l o c a t e s an annual sum to the sponsor ing agency , in th i s ca se a ne ighbourhood house, based on so many hours of s e r v i ce s per month at a nego t i a t ed hour ly r a te o f pay. This r a te inc ludes the sa la ry and bene f i t s pa id t o the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s wo r ke r plus an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e fee w h i c h pays fo r the sa la ry o f the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s C o o r d i n a t o r and for o ther costs of adm in i s t e r i n g the p r o g r a m . The four ne ighbourhood houses w h i c h p rov ide the s e r v i c e in Vancouve r a l l banded toge the r be fo re the cu r r en t budget year to t r y to a ch i e ve a unit r a t e of $12.00 per hour. O f th is f i gu re , $9.70 was t o be pa id to the wo r ke r . A s o f this w r i t i n g , two of the houses be ing s tud ied have s e t t l e d w i t h the M i n i s t r y , K i w a s s a for an e f f e c t i v e r a te of $ l2.00/hour and L i t t l e Moun ta i n fo r $1 1.75. South Van has thus fa r been unable to nego t i a te a new budget and it is h igh ly l i k e l y tha t i ts Spec i a l Se r v i ce s P r o g r a m w i l l be phased out in O c t o b e r 1981. A l l peop le i n t e r v i e w e d on th is t op i c sa id the reason for the v a r i a t i o n in the unit r a t e nego t i a t ed was tha t t he re are f i v e M H R regions in Vancouve r , each of whose reg iona l manager s are autonomous . F u r t h e r m o r e , as one person sa id , the boards of the four houses i nvo l ved d id not pass mot ion s t o c o l l e c t i v e l y nego t i a te a set p r i c e and d id not agree tha t should one M H R manager s e t t l e be l ow the set p r i c e than no house wou ld c a r r y the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s P r o g r a m . H a d they done so, in th i s person 's op in ion , the o u t c o m e might have been d i f f e r e n t , i.e., South Van may have con t i nued t o p r o v i d e the p r o g r am desp i te the apparent r e c a l c i t r a n c e of i t s M H R reg iona l manager . In teres t ing ly enough, the board o f the one house t ha t was ab le t o nego t i a te the $12.00 hour ly r a t e , K i w a s s a , made a f i r m c o m m i t m e n t t o not - 8 3 -s e t t l e f o r a d i m e less desp i te the t r e p i d a t i o n o f ha l f of i t s Spec i a l Se r v i ce s wo rke r s who r i s ked a poss ib le loss o f t he i r jobs. The H o m e m a k e r P r o g r a m is nego t i a ted in a s i m i l a r manner in t ha t the revenue to i t s sponsor ing agency, i.e. the ne ighbourhood house, is based on the number o f hours o f s e r v i c e . The number o f hours is based on the number o f r e f e r r a l s t o the ne ighbourhood house f r o m the C i t y H e a l t h U n i t s w h i c h is, in t u r n , based on the number o f assessments done by the H e a l t h U n i t s . L o n g T e r m C a r e has t o l d the Un i t s t o reduce t he i r r e f e r r a l s . The un i t r a t e nego t i a ted by South Van w i t h Long T e r m C a r e is $9.67/hour. Wages pa id to the wo rke r s v a r y f r o m $5.00 to $6.50 per hour, e x c l u s i v e o f bene f i t s , depending on the budget s u b m i t t e d and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e costs i n cu r red wh i ch drop as the number o f hours inc reases . The number o f hours nego t i a ted is the issue because i t de te rm ine s the budget l e v e l . Fo r e xamp le , South Van wou ld i dea l l y l i k e about 4,100 hours a month , w h i c h they asked f o r . They r e c e i v e d budget c l e a r a n c e f o r 3,900 hours. B oa rd F u n c t i o n s The l i t e r a t u r e h igh l ights the i m p o r t a n c e o f vo l un tee r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the d i r e c t i n g and p r o g r a m m i n g o f ne ighbourhood houses. The re a re s i g n i f i c an t v a r i a -t i ons in the d e f i n i t i o n and ro les of and the i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on vo l un tee r s . Some houses de f i ne a v o l un tee r as someone who does s ometh ing fo r noth ing ; o ther s cons ide r t h a t a person who r e c e i v e s an hono r a r i um or a s m a l l f e e is a v o l un tee r . Some houses make heavy use o f vo l un tee r s ; o ther s s c a r c e l y use t h e m . F o r e x a m p l e , C e d a r C o t t a g e ' s Hand i capped P r o g r a m cou l d qu i te l i t e r a l l y not con t i nue w i t hou t the large number o f vo l un tee r s needed for o n e - t o - o n e work w i t h each p a r t i c i p a n t . A t the oppos i te e x t r e m e , K i w a s s a s c a r c e l y makes use o f vo l un tee r s due t o an a lmo s t uns ta ted v i e w tha t the high q u a l i t y of i t s p rog rams wou l d s u f f e r . Some o f the houses have U B C s tudent interns who o f t e n b e c o m e invo lved in - 8 4 -p r o g r a m m i n g on a s t a f f l eve l ye t they a re not p a i d . A r e they vo l un tee r s or a r e they s imp l y f u l f i l l i n g cou r se ob l i ga t i on s or bo th ? There is one type of v o l un tee r w h i c h a l l ne ighbourhood houses share, however , and tha t is the person who serves on the Boa rd of D i r e c t o r s . T o d e t e r m i n e whethe r or not vo l un tee r s p lay impo r t an t ro les in the four ne ighbourhood houses s tud ied it was dec i ded to focus on the board member s - who they are, how they c a m e to be i n vo l ved w i t h the i r ne ighbourhood house, what they p e r c e i v e they do, what they a c t u a l l y do, and how they get a long w i t h t he i r D i r e c t o r . Boa rd and s t a f f membe r s w e r e asked quest ions conce rn i ng the c ompo s i t i o n of t he i r r e s p e c t i v e boards, the t ype of dec i sons boards made, what each thought was the r o l e of the board , and how each c h a r a c t e r i z e d the i n t e r r e l a t i on sh i p be tween and the r e l a t i v e ro les o f the house D i r e c t o r and its B o a r d . B e l o w are the responses p re sented by ne ighbourhood house. C e d a r C o t t a g e A s of Sep tember 1981 there w e r e f i f t e e n peop le on the C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd o f Management . C e d a r C o t t a g e is unique in tha t a l l of i t s Boa rd m e m b e r s have been or a re invo lved in at least one o f the house's p rograms and events and a l l l i ve in the C e d a r C o t t a g e c o m m u n i t y . N e a r l y a l l have put in ex ten s i ve hours v o l u n t e e r -ing a t the ne ighbourhood house beyond t he i r c o n t r i b u t i o n as board member s . F o r e x a m p l e , one person cooks fo r s o c i a l and fund - ra i s i ng event s , one o r gan i zed weekend f u r n i t u r e mak i ng sessions a t the house, and another , who was the f i r s t p o l i c e o f f i c e r ass igned to the C o m m u n i t y P o l i c e T e a m o f f i c e l oca ted in the house, used to t a ke ne ighbourhood c h i l d r e n on weekend h i k i ng t r i p s . Some d r i v e both seniors and c h i l d r e n . A s to t h e i r r o l e member s o f the board tended to v i e w themse l ve s as g i v i ng a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n t o s t a f f in t he i r c a p a c i t y as c o m m u n i t y re s ident s f a m i l i a r w i t h - 8 5 -l o ca l needs. They see themse l ve s as suppor t ing s t a f f in e f f o r t s to respond t o those needs. M e m b e r s o f o the r ne ighbourhood house boards p l a c e d more emphas i s on t he i r p o l i c y and dec i s i on -mak i ng ro les w h i l e C e d a r C o t t a g e boa rd membe r s s t ressed t he i r r e spons ib l i t y to represent the c o m m u n i t y and be a l i a i son be tween it and t he ne ighbourhood house. Seve ra l C e d a r C o t t a g e boa rd m e m b e r s sa id they had the r e spon s i b i l i t y of t r y i n g to i n vo l ve new peop le in ne ighbourhood house p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s . Membe r s o f o ther boards seemed much m o r e conver san t w i t h t he i r house 's budget and its p o l i c y issues but board member s at C e d a r C o t t a g e knew mo re about the a c t u a l p rog rams o f f e r e d . A l t hough a l l C e d a r C o t t a g e board member s we re ve r y c o m p l i m e n t a r y about ne ighbourhood house s t a f f and p r o g r a m m i n g th ree sa id they f e l t t he B o a r d , i t s e l f , was weak . One was of the op in ion tha t board member s ne i the r kept t hemse l ve s i n f o rmed nor we re i n f o r m e d s u f f i c i e n t l y to make good dec i s ions . In teres t ing ly enough, a l though seve ra l s t a f f member s ment i oned an annual board/s ta f f workshop to discuss ne ighbourhood house goals and p ro jec t s none o f the board membe r s ment i oned this workshop. Some people f e l t the C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd was a s t rong one tha t made its own dec i s i on and was in no way a " rubber s t a m p " body. O the r s f e l t i t was not t ha t s t rong , should be more d y n a m i c , and should seek more i n f l uence on and i n vo l vement in dec i s ions conce rn i ng ne ighbourhood house p o l i c y and p r o g r a m m i n g . South Vancouve r A s o f O c t o b e r 1980, t he re w e r e n i ne teen peop le on the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s a t South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House. Many l i ve in the a r e a ; o f those who do not most d id a t one t i m e . A t least f ou r o f t h e m we re i n vo l ved w i t h the F r a s e r v i e w A r e a S o c i e t y b e f o r e i t b e c a m e t he Ne ighbourhood House in 1977. Mos t do not p a r t i c i p a t e in house a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a f ew s i g n i f i c an t e x cep t i on s . One was - 86 -i n s t r umen ta l in e s tab l i sh ing the P a r e n t s and To t s group w h i c h meet s t w i c e a week a t the house. A n o t h e r a lway s vo l un tee r s to work on p repa ra t i on for s pec i a l event s . Y e t another is a f a i t h f u l v o l un tee r a t the Senior A c t i v i t y Days and is P re s i den t o f the F r i endsh ip C l u b wh i ch ra i ses funds fo r sen iors a c t i v i t i e s . One of the youngest membe r s cont inues t o do odd jobs around the house as he has done f o r the past f e w year s . A s to the ro le p e r f o r m e d th i s by th is Boa rd , member s saw themse l ve s as s e t t i n g b road goals and p o l i c y f o r the da i l y ope ra t i on of the ne ighbourhood house, mak i ng budget, fund ing and p r o g r a m m i n g dec i s i ons g i v i ng d i r e c t i o n and superv i s ion to the s t a f f , a c t i n g as a l ia i son be tween the c o m m u n i t y and the s t a f f in o rder tha t house p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t c o m m u n i t y needs and i n te re s t s , and gene ra l l y ove r see ing house a f f a i r s . Bo th s t a f f and board member s m a k e a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to r e c r u i t people to se rve on the board who a re know legeab le about the a rea and who possess p ro fe s s i ona l sk i l l s tha t enab le t h e m to understand and make a c o n t r i -but ion to its ope r a t i on . A m o n g the occupa t i on s r ep re sen ted on the board a re two lawyers , a t e a che r , a business manager , a l i f e insurance company p re s i den t , a c o n t r a c t o r , a bus d r i v e r , a c h e m i c a l eng ineer , a banker and an a c c o u n t a n t . In a d d i t i o n , a ser ious and succes s fu l e f f o r t is be ing made to r e c r u i t peop le o f v a r y i n g ages, e t hn i c backgrounds and i ncome leve l s . The re a re c u r r e n t l y peop le r ep r e s en t -ing two of the c o m m u n i t y ' s t h ree housing p r o j e c t s . Seve ra l board member s men t i oned tha t the board was conve r san t w i t h house f i nance s . Indeed, th i s seems t o be the case as most knew the s i z e of the budget . A s one board membe r sa id w i t h a s t a f f approach ing e i gh ty and a budget we l l over ha l f a m i l l i o n do l l a r s , (now over one m i l l i o n ) , the Boa rd should be a c t i v e , c once rned and s k i l l e d so t h a t the ne ighbourhood house is run l i ke a business. In f a c t , many sa id tha t keep ing t r a c k o f house f i nances was the m a i n board f u n c t i o n . P a r t i c u -l a r l y w e l l i n f o r m e d on nea r l y e ve r y a spec t o f the f unc t i on i ng o f the ne ighbourhood house is the P r e s i den t who goes in to the house seve ra l t i m e s a week . T o - 87 -pa raphrase h i m , no p rog ram is under taken or majo r dec i s i on made w i t hou t hav ing been thorough ly d iscussed and vo ted on by the boa rd . K i w a s s a The Boa rd of D i r e c t o r s of K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s had n ineteen m e m b e r s as of O c t o b e r 1980. Of these n i ne teen on ly four l i ve in the ne ighbourhood w h i l e one o ther person l i ves in nearby G r andv i ew -Wood l and and a lmos t none p a r t i c i p a t e in house p rog rams or event s . The lack o f c o m m u n i t y res idents on the board makes K i w a s s a an anoma ly among Vancouve r ne ighbourhood houses. H o w e v e r , the re a re h i s t o r i c reasons fo r th i s deve l opment . A s men t i oned in C h a p t e r Th ree , K i w a s s a s t a r t ed as a vo l un tee r p r o j e c t o f the K i w a s s a C l u b , the women ' s b ranch of the K i w a n i s . T ie s w i t h K i w a s s a have r ema ined s t rong and t he re a re t w o C l u b membe r s on the house's board . The C l u b cont inues to donate an annual $5,000 to K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s wh i ch is a s m a l l amoun t c o m p a r e d w i t h K iwas sa ' s o ve r a l l budget, but represents a con s i de rab le e f f o r t f o r the women of the C l u b and is a w a r m l y a p p r e c i a t e d dona t i on . A n o t h e r reason for the lack o f l o ca l res idents on the board is the p reponde r -ance of K iwas sa ' s p r o g r amming devoted t o a f t e r schoo l p rog rams . A t r a d i t i o n of c oope r a t i on w i t h these p rog rams on the pa r t o f the c o m m u n i t y ' s s choo l p r i n c i pa l s has e vo l ved so that today , t o be p r i n c i p a l of Seymour , M a c D o n a l d , S t r a t h c o n a , or B r i t a n n i a schools is to be on the K i w a s s a B o a r d . It " c o m e s w i t h the j o b " as seve ra l p r i n c i p a l s s a i d . Those t r a n s f e r r e d to o ther schools outs ide the a rea be f o r e t he i r board t e r m s exp i r e have, for the most pa r t , become so i nvo l ved at K i w a s s a t ha t they stay on as in the case of the cu r r en t P re s i den t , Pa s t P r e s i den t and V i c e -P r e s i den t . The board ' s T rea su re r was the manager o f the R o y a l Bank ' s f i r s t C o m m u n i t y B r a n c h on Has t i ng s S t ree t and K i w a s s a was one o f about f i f t e e n l oca l agenc ie s who sna tched h im up because o f his f a c i l i t y w i t h budgets and -88-c o m p u t e r i z e d a c c o u n t i n g sy s tems. H e cont inues to se rve as T rea su re r even though he has s i nce had a job t r an s f e r to a b ranch on the N o r t h Shore. A s an independent ne ighbourhood house w h i c h cannot re l y on N S A t o do i t s a c c o u n t i n g and p a y r o l l K i w a s s a f inds th is person i nva luab le . K iwas sa ' s f ou r l o ca l Boa rd member s are a l l a c t i v e in o ther l o ca l o r gan i z a t i on s i nc lud ing the S t r a t h cona C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , S e T a C o N a , the N IP P l ann i n g C o m m i t t e e , and o t he r s . One o f t h e m is l a r ge l y respons ib le fo r the H e a r ! H e a r ! p r o g r a m . De sp i t e the s k i l l s and interest of c u r r e n t member s and the l o ng - t ime a s soc i a t i on w i t h the house o f many , near l y a l l want t o have mo re c o m m u n i t y res idents and parent s of p r o g r am p a r t i c i p a n t s on the boa rd . A coup l e of peop le in p a r t i c u l a r f e l t s t rong ly tha t t he re w e r e too many out s ider s mak i n g p o l i c y dec i s i on s a f f e c t i n g c o m m u n i t y re s ident s . A ve r y rea l e f f o r t is be ing made t o w a r d this end w i t h the resu l t that two board member s just beg inn ing t he i r t e rms a re parent s of c h i l d r e n in the Hea r ! Hea r ! and P r e - S c h o o l P r og r ams , r e s p e c t i v e l y . It has long been d i f f i c u l t to a t t r a c t l oca l res idents to se rve on the K i w a s s a B o a r d . The re a re a l a rge number o f agenc ie s in the c o m m u n i t y and a sma l l popu l a t i on o f res idents on w h i c h t o d raw. Many of these res idents have low incomes and t h e r e f o r e have l i t t l e t i m e or energy l e f t to do vo l un tee r work when wo rk i n g just to feed t h e i r f a m i l i e s takes up so m u c h . R e c r u i t m e n t of mo re l oca l res idents to the board rema in s a s t a ted p r i o r i t y at K i w a s s a . The consensus of K i w a s s a boa rd member s was t h a t t h e i r m a i n r e spon s i b i l i t i e s w e r e to manage the house f i nance s and t o make a l l majo r and many m ino r p o l i c y dec i s i on s . R e g a r d i n g i ts ro le t o represent the c o m m u n i t y , a l l a d m i t t e d t ha t the board was weakened in th is regard by the lack of res ident board member s . Some f e l t tha t t he re was a r ea l danger t ha t the board cou ld b e c o m e p a t r o n i z i n g and non -a c c o u n t a b l e t o the ne ighbourhood, i f th i s s i t u a t i on con t i nued , and a coup le f e l t th i s was a l r eady the ca se . - 89 -A n i nd i c a t i o n o f bo th the ser iousness w i t h w h i c h the board takes i ts f i n a n c i a l r e spon s i b i l i t i e s and the regard i t has f o r K i w a s s a s t a f f is i t s p o l i c y and c o m m i t -ment to b r i ng s t a f f s a l a r i e s up to c o m p a r a b l e leve l s pa id fo r s i m i l a r work e l s ewhe re . The re has been a 4 0 % inc rease in s t a f f sa la r ie s in the past two yea r s w i t h no a t t endan t c u t b a c k in s e r v i ce s p r o v i ded . L i t t l e Moun ta i n F i f t e e n peop le served on the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s as of O c t o b e r ' 1980. O f these f i f t e e n , a l l but t w o l i ve in the ne i ghbour -hood. Most we re member s o f the Ne ighbourhood Improvement P r o g r a m C o m m i t t e e , a c o m m i t t e e o f l oca l res idents who wo rked w i t h Vancouve r C i t y P l ann i n g s t a f f to d e t e r m i n e how nea r l y two m i l l i o n do l l a r s should be spent in the c o m m u n i t y . Four j o i ned the N IP C o m m i t t e e s p e c i f i c a l l y to make the ne i ghbou r -hood house a r e a l i t y . Th ree o f t h e m had been on the L i t t l e Moun ta i n C o m m u n i t y Re sou rce s A d v i s o r y Boa rd when it e x i s t e d . T w o others had be longed t o the R i l e y P a r k A r e a C o u n c i l , s t a r t ed up by N S A ' s C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t D e p a r t m e n t wh i ch was a c t i v e in the ea r l y 1970's. A n o t h e r m e m b e r had been on the Boa rd o f the R i l e y P a r k C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , and ye t another was i n s t r umen ta l in g e t t i n g the Thunderb i rd Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e fo r na t i ve f a m i l i e s underway. Most of the o ther board member s have a h i s to ry o f c o m m u n i t y and vo l un tee r i n v o l v e m e n t . Ob ta i n i n g a ne ighbourhood house fo r t he i r c o m m u n i t y was a goa l f o r many and most c u r r e n t member s have wo rked to b r ing i t about . Some of the board membe r s we re r e c r u i t e d or a re v a l uab l e because of t h e i r p ro fe s s i ona l t a l e n t s . The C h a i r m a n is a s o c i a l w o r k e r . A n o t h e r m e m b e r is a l o ca l business man and another has a business downtown . B o t h of these peop le have con s i de rab le o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and are s k i l l e d p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s . A n o t h e r has had con s i de rab le e x p e r i e n c e as a v o l un tee r manager and bookkeeper f o r --90-gove rnment g r an t p r o j e c t s . Y e t ano the r , who has s i nce had to res ign due to work pressures, is a l awyer and was d e l i b e r a t e l y sought as such . G e n e r a l l y speak ing, the L i t t l e Moun ta i n board and s t a f f have d e l i b e r a t e l y not chosen t o seek p ro fes s iona l s l i v i n g outs ide the c o m m u n i t y to se rve on the board a l though th is p r a c t i c e may change in the f u t u r e . R e c e n t l y , t w o new board member s we re e l e c t e d , one of whom is i nvo l ved in the M a i n s t r e a m group. The o the r l ives in the housing p r o j e c t . Rega rd i n g the func t i on s o f the L i t t l e Moun ta i n B o a r d , membe r s men t i oned t ha t mak i ng f i s c a l , budget, po l i c y and p r o g r amming dec i s ions were t he i r most impo r tan t f unc t i on s . T w o men t i oned a t t end i ng on beha l f of the ne ighbourhood house a workshop on A c c o u n t i n g P r a c t i c e s fo r N o n - P r o f i t O r gan i z a t i o n s he ld at 3 S imon F r a s e r . Because L i t t l e Mounta in is such a r e c e n t l y e s tab l i shed ne i ghbou r -hood house board member s have also been i nvo l ved in d r a f t i n g a C o n s t i t u t i o n , w r i t i n g a s t a t emen t of goals f o r the house, and e s tab l i sh ing per sonne l p r a c t i c e s f o r i ts s t a f f . H o w e v e r , as many noted, the board is i n i t i a t i n g less and r e a c t i n g more as the ne ighbourhood house grows and mo re of i t s f unc t i on i ng becomes r ou t i ne . Some member s a re t a k i n g a b i t of we l l - de se r ved rest f r o m the t remendous amount of work necessary to keep the house f unc t i on i ng in i t s ea r l y days. Con sequent l y , m o r e p rog r am suggest ions are now i n i t i a t e d by s t a f f . F o r e xamp le , i t was i n i t i a l p o l i c y t o o f f e r on ly those p rog rams w h i c h had expres s l y been asked fo r by c o m m u n i t y res ident s . H o w e v e r , d i scuss ion on whether or not L i t t l e Moun ta i n should b e c o m e invo l ved in the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Re sou r ce s Spec i a l Se rv i ce s t o C h i l d r e n p r o g r a m was i n i t i a t e d by s t a f f . The f i n a l dec i s i on was, o f cour se , made by the board . B o a r d / D i r e c t o r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd member s were unan imous ly c o m p l i m e n t a r y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s , the i n i t i a t i v e and the ded i c a t i on of t he i r r e s p e c t i v e d i r e c t o r s . Many ment i oned the b r ead th of knowledge o f the ne ighbourhood each d i r e c t o r has. Some - 9 1 -men t i oned the s k i l l of t he d i r e c t o r s in ob ta i n i ng money fo r house p rog rams and the va l ue o f t he i r p o l i t i c a l c onnec t i on s . H o w e v e r , a l though nea r l y e ve r y board membe r f e l t the d i r e c t o r s wo r ked c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r boards , the s t y l e o f th i s wo r k i n g r e l a t i on sh ip va r i e s con s i de rab l y among houses. F o r e xamp le , one d i r e c t o r w i l l not , even when pressed, i nd i ca te an op in ion or r e c o m m e n d a t i o n c once rn i n g an issue. The house f o r w h i c h th i s person is the d i r e c t o r made a v e r y impo r t an t po l i c y dec i s i on in m id - 1980 , and aga in this yea r . Mo re than ha l f t he board member s w e r e not sure, even months a f t e r the f i r s t dec i s i on , wha t was the d i r e c t o r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n on the m a t t e r . Th i s d i r e c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e is tha t his r e c o m m e n d a t i o n is i m m a t e r i a l . If a s t rong d i ve r gance of op in ion ex i t s b e tween board and d i r e c t o r , than the l a t t e r should re s i gn . H e c l e a r l y v i ews the board as his boss and s t ressed that i t wou ld be i napp rop r i a te fo r the board to bend to the wishes of the d i r e c t o r on impo r t an t p o l i c y m a t t e r s and, indeed, on any m a t t e r s . In another house the d i r e c t o r is t ru s ted to make dec i s ions , some of wh i ch are not r e f e r r e d to the boa rd , wh i ch are in the best i n te res t s of the ne ighbourhood house. One board m e m b e r a t this house observed tha t i t was easy f o r the d i r e c t o r t o present i n f o r m a t i o n in such a way as t o get the dec i s i on he want s . Th i s person d id not mean th i s as a c r i t i c i s m . The d i r e c t o r , h imse l f , f e l t tha t a t one t i m e he was leading d i scuss ion too much but that th i s was now less o f a p r o b l e m because present board member s discuss and quest ion mo re . Perceptions of House Strengths and Weaknesses It is not enough to e xam ine the nature of p rog rams and se r v i ce s o f f e r e d by each ne ighbourhood house. It is a l so necessary to r e v i e w board and s t a f f m e m b e r c oncep t i on s o f the s t ren th s and weaknesses of each house as th i s w i l l p rov ide f u r t he r c l ue s t o the natu re of the work done by each house. -92-Boa rd board and s t a f f membe r s w e r e asked what , in t he i r op in ion , t h e i r i neighbourhood house d id p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l , what they took s pec i a l p r i de in f r o m t he i r a s s oc i a t i on w i t h the house. C o n v e r s e l y , t hey we re asked what was not w o r k -ing as e f f e c t i v e l y as i t c o u l d , what needed to be improved and what was not be ing done tha t should be. B e l o w are the responses o r gan i zed by ne ighbourhood house. C e d a r C o t t a g e When asked what C e d a r C o t t a g e d id w e l l , a l l board and s t a f f member s men t i oned the e x c e l l e n c e o f the p rog rams , the d e d i c a t i o n of the s t a f f , the c o o p e r a t i o n be tween the board and s t a f f , and the homey, f r i e nd l y and casua l a tmosphere of the ne ighbourhood house as i t s g rea te s t s t rengths . Many m e n t i o n e d s p e c i f i c p rog rams . A f e w noted t ha t C e d a r C o t t a g e is v e r y succes s fu l in a t t r a c t i n g peop le f r o m d i f f e r e n t e t hn i c backgrounds .to p a r t i c i p a t e in house p rog rams . A s one board membe r put i t , " t h e r e a r e no m i n o r i t y groups he re . " S eve ra l men t i oned the va lue of the p r e v e n t i v e work C e d a r C o t t a g e does. A s one m e m b e r sa id , the n e i a h -bourhood house sees peop le be fo re they become s t a t i s t i c s . F o r e x a m p l e , the p re sence of the C o m m u n i t y T e a m P o l i c e in the ne ighbourhood house bu i ld ings helps de te r j u ven i l e c r i m e as does the Leade r sh i p P r o g r a m . S ta f f we re p a r t i c u l a r l y p roud of the key r o l e p l a yed by C e d a r C o t t a g e in f o s t e r i n g i n te r - agency c o m m u n i -c a t i o n through its c h a i r i n g of the A r e a S e r v i c e T e a m and its i n vo l vemen t in the K i n g s w a y Management C o m m i t t e e . Isolated but s t rong l y f e l t conce rn s i nc l uded the f o l l o w i n g : the need to have m o r e peop le on s t a f f who cou ld speak languages o the r than Eng l i s h ; the op in ion t ha t the ne ighbourhood house should i nvo l ve i t se l f more in wo rk i ng to improve the neighbourhood ' s phy s i ca l f a c i l i t i e s now tha t the C i t y P l ann i ng D e p a r t m e n t sponsored c a p i t a l i m p r o v e m e n t p rog rams are w ind ing down; and the des i re to have m o r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween ne ighbourhood houses such as o c c u r r e d at the r e c e n t I - 9 3 -N S A o r gan i zed and sponsored workshop on O c t o b e r 5, 1980 w h i c h i n vo l ved N S A ne ighbourhood house s t a f f and B o a r d o f Managemen t m e m b e r s in d i sucss ion groups w i t h membe r s of the N S A Boa rd o f Gove rno r s . It was c l e a r t h a t C e d a r C o t t a g e board and s t a f f membe r s a re gene ra l l y p leased w i t h house d i r e c t i o n and p r i o r i t i e s as a s o c i a l work agency . C r i t i c i s m s w e r e c o n f i n e d t o the w i sh t ha t e x i s t i n g p rog rams c o u l d be expanded t o r e a c h m o r e peop le , not a l t e r e d in t he i r approach or bas i c as sumpt ions . F u r t h e r m o r e , t he re is consensus among s t a f f and board member s as to app rop r i a te f u tu re d i r e c t i o n s . The re s u r f aced some f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h be ing at the m e r c y o f gove rnment fund ing p o l i c i e s . A s r e v i e w e d above, the p r o v i n c i a l g o ve rnment p rov ide s the vast m a j o r i t y o f ne ighbourhood house fund ing . Th i s f r u s t r a t i o n focused on the e x t en t of p r o g r a m m i n g a l l o w e d under e x i s t i n g leve l s of fund ing , not on its t ype . South Vancouve r A t South Van , the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t wh i ch eve ryone is p a r t i c u a r l y proud of is the rap id g r owth o f and the g rea t v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m m i n g and a c t i v i t y at the ne i g h -borhood house. S p e c i f i c house v i r t ue s men t i oned i nc luded its agress iveness , i n i t i a -t i v e and independence. When asked what ne ighbourhood house a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y no tewor thy board member s tended to l ist va r i ou s p rog rams and se r v i ce s . One c r e d i t s the m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m i n g w i t h he lp ing to a l l e v i a t e f u r t h e r ou tb reak s o f v i o l e n c e t o w a r d and haras sment o f Ea s t Indian c o m m u n i t y re s ident s as o c c u r r e d in the m i d 1970's. Southtown was spoken o f as be ing an e x c e l l e n t way to r educe de l i nquency among teens and to help t h e m to f i nd t he i r way . The Seniors P r o g r a m was f e l t t o be the most a c t i v e and the longest runn ing in t he C i t y . The se t h r e e p rog rams a l l he lp respond t o wha t one boa rd membe r t e r m e d , the neighbourhood ' s mos t press ing p rob l ems - the t r e a t m e n t o f and - 9 4 -a t t i t u d e t o w a r d the e l d e r l y , r a c i s m , and j u ven i l e de l i nquency . S t a f f membe r s a l so men t i oned the c o o p e r a t i o n o f ne ighbourhood agenc ie s w i t h e a c h o the r . B o t h board and s ta f f membe r s men t i oned tha t South Vancouve r is v e r y f i r m in its nego t i a t i on s w i t h gove rnment agenc ies over c o n t r a c t s e r v i ce s . A s one board m e m b e r put i t , the ne ighbourhood house refuses to be c o w e d by the demands of fund ing agenc ie s if they are thought to be unreasonable, even if th i s means los ing the fund ing w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , may happen as of O c t o b e r 1981 w i t h the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s P r o g r a m as ou t l i ned above. The la rge and inc reas ing number o f vo l un tee r s is a source o f p r i de fo r a l l . A r e a s of c o n c e r n men t i oned by both s t a f f and board member s at South Vancouve r i nc lude the rap id g r owth o f the ne ighbourhood house, the need fo r m o r e vo l un tee r s , the house's dependence on gove rnment fund ing , the d e s i r a b i l i t y of hav ing mo re s imp ly s o c i a l p rog rams and events , the wish for more res ident i n i t i a t e d p rog rams, and the need for more space. The rap id g r owth of the ne ighbourhood house's p rog rams , s t a f f and budget is bo th a source of p r ide and a source o f c o n c e r n . T o paraphrase a s t a f f membe r , the g r owth has o c c u r r e d w i t hou t the bene f i t of much f o re s i gh t . It was gene ra l l y ag reed tha t it was t i m e to stop " f l y i n g by the seat o f the p a n t s " and to s t a r t d e v e -loping o v e r a l l goals so as not to lose s ight o f what both s t a f f and Boa rd member s want the ne ighbourhood house to be, i.e. a focus fo r c o m m u n i t y s o c i a l l i f e and c o m m u n i t y i m p r o v e m e n t e f f o r t s , not on ly a p rov i de r of se r v i ce s to t a r ge t groups, as impo r t an t as t h a t is. M o r e than ha l f the peop le i n t e r v i e w e d ment i oned a need to i nc rease the a l r eady large number o f vo lun tee r s a t the ne ighbourhood house. Boa rd m e m b e r s we re more conce rned about t he i r numbers and what they cou ld do whereas s t a f f , f i t t i n g l y , w e r e mo re c once rned w i t h how to b r ing about an i nc rea se . S t a f f gene ra l l y ag reed t ha t a s t ronger , m o r e s y s t e m a t i c v o l un tee r p r o g r a m r i ght th rough f r o m r e c r u i t m e n t to t r a i n i ng t o p l a c e m e n t t o e v a l u a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d . S t a f f w e r e - 95 -particuarly concerned that volunteers become more involved in the actual programming, e.g. initiating and running programs, as opposed to helping out with existing programs or special events. Another area of concern to many is the house's dependence on government funding. Much of its rapid growth is accounted for by the number of government funded contractual services, e.g. the Special Services to Children program. This concern ranges from a philosophical objection to the neighbourhood house having to scrounge funds for social services which it is felt the government should automa-tically pay for, to the fact that the government only funds programs or services for people with specific problems, not those for "normal" people. It is also felt that the government will not fund programs of a preventive nature. Perhaps the most frustrating example of this for South Vancouver was their inability for a time to find a permanent source of funding for their worker in charge of ethnic programming, especially that involving East Indian families, despite the fact that the south Vancouver community is close to three-fourths non-white. The neighbour-hood house would like to have an independent source of funding and is working hard to develop projects that will generate revenue which it can spend as the board sees fit, as well as provide employment and training opportunities for local residents. The Samosa Project is an example of efforts in this direction. Several people mentioned that they would like the neighbourhood house to become more of a social drop-in sort of place, with emphasis on programs such as bridge nights, a coffee shop, a singles club, and the like. Of course, the lack of staff to do the necessary organizing and preparation is the constraint. That is why many want to have more volunteer initiated and run programs. Staff realize that althouqh there are plenty of them around, they are all too busy carrying out specific programs for which funding is already earmarked, to undertake the efforts needed to make the above mentioned programs a reality. -96-Kiwasso. It is ev iden t t h a t bo th s t a f f and board member s a t K i w a s s a t a k e cons ide rab le p r i de in the high q u a l i t y o f t h e i r p rog rams . T i m e a f t e r t i m e board m e m b e r s ment i oned tha t K i w a s s a has the re spec t o f peop le in the c o m m u n i t y who m a k e use of i t s s e r v i ce s , o f p ro fes s iona l s in r e l a t ed f i e l d s , and of funding agenc ie s . Th i s p r i de seems j u s t i f i e d as ev i denced by the f a c t t ha t K i w a s s a is c o n t i n u a l l y app roached to expand i t s e x i s t i n g s e r v i ce s and to t a ke on new ones. Many boa rd member s a t t r i b u t e t he qua l i t y of the s e r v i ce s p rov i ded at K i w a s s a t o the c o m p e t -ence and e x t r e m e d e d i c a t i o n of the s t a f f and t o the ongoing t r a i n i n a and s u p e r v i -s ion they r e c e i v e . Most s t a f f member s c i t e d the support they g i ve to each o ther and the autonomy each has as reasons fo r the qua l i t y of t he i r work . S t a f f m e m b e r s we re also ve r y c o m p l i m e n t a r y of the i n vo l vement and c o m p e t e n c e of the boa rd . A n o t h e r a spect of the f unc t i on i ng of K i w a s s a wh i ch was f r equen t l y men t i oned by those i n t e r v i e w e d is the leadersh ip ro le the ne ighbourhood house p lays in bo th the A r e a Se rv i ce s T e a m , w h i c h the D i r e c t o r cha i r s , and S e T a C o N a . On the c r i t i c a l s ide near l y everyone men t i oned as a weakness the lack of l oca l res idents on the board and i t s p reponderance o f p ro fes s iona l s who e i t h e r work in the c o m m u n i t y or used to . Severa l board member s r e g r e t t e d tha t t he re was l i t t l e l e f t f o r vo l un tee r s to do at K i w a s s a other than se rve on the boa rd . A f e w sa id they would l i k e to see more s o c i a l events he ld at the ne ighbourhood house such as the roast f o r a depa r t i ng bank manager who is s t i l l on the K i w a s s a B o a r d . A coup le of board member s had mo re ser ious c r i t i c i s m of the ne ighbourhood house. They f ee l tha t K i w a s s a syphons money away f r o m o the r c o m m u n i t y agenc ie s and f a c i l i t i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y R a y C a m , S t r a t h cona C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e , M c L e a n Pa r k and the C a r n e g i e C e n t r e . These s ame peop le w e r e a l so c o n c e r n e d by the house's dependence on gove rnment g rant s w h i c h , in t he i r v i e w , causes i t to back away f r o m t a k i n g stands on c o n t r o v e r s i a l issues. They f e l t tha t the - 97 -gove rnment was us ing K i w a s s a and o ther agenc ies l i ke i t t o pay less fo r s e r v i ce s w h i c h gove rnment should p rov i de . L i t t l e Moun ta i n F o r e m o s t among the s t rengths of L i t t l e Moun ta i n men t i oned by both board and s t a f f member s , is the degree o f progress t ha t has been made in such a short t i m e . F o r e xamp le , one person was p a r t i c u l a r l y proud of the f a c t t ha t U n i t e d Way had a c c e p t e d the ne ighbourhood house as a m e m b e r agency a f t e r only one yea r of o p e r a t i o n . L i t t l e Moun ta i n has a lso won the re spec t and support of the M i n i s t r y of H u m a n Resou rce s and the C i t y P l ann i ng and Soc ia l P l ann i ng depa r tmen t s . Bo th s t a f f and board member s noted the a b i l i t y of the ne ighbourhood house to respond to the sma l l requests and p rob lems peop le have, the responses to w h i c h have an i m p o r t a n c e to peop le c o m p l e t e l y out of p ropo r t i on to the sma l l amount of t i m e spent on t h e m . S t a f f a re p a r t i c u a r l y p leased w i t h the way in w h i c h they have been ab le to respond qu i c k l y to peop le suggest ions and requests fo r s p e c i f i c p rog rams and event s , even wh i l e ope ra t i ng under an e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d budget . The des i red f unc t i on o f L i t t l e Moun ta i n as an i n f o r m a l ga the r i ng p l a c e and i n f o r m a t i o n c lea r i ng -house is a l r eady become w e l l e s t ab l i s hed , even in i t s t e m p o r a r y , c r a m p e d qua r te r s . P e o p l e a re c on t i nua l l y wa l k i n g in o f f the s t r ee t to make enqu i r i e s . Some con t i nue to drop by, many b e c o m e p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a f ew have b e c o m e h igh ly va lued vo l un tee r s . A s w i t h the o ther ne ighbourhood houses, L i t t l e Moun ta i n peop le men t i oned s p e c i f i c p rog rams and a c h i e v e m e n t s w h i c h they w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p roud of i n c l u d -ing the Day C a r e C e n t r e , Spec i a l Se r v i ce s to C h i l d r e n and the C h a t and C h o w p rog rams . One person observed t ha t a l though the D a y C a r e C e n t r e and, t o a lesser e x t e n t , the Spec i a l Se r v i ce s t o C h i l d r e n p r o g r am represent sub s tan t i a l a c h i e v e -ment s they do not a f f e c t peop le as t ang ib l y in r e l a t i o n t o the money spent as do - 98 -the ve r y succes s fu l ne ighbourhood c l e a n - u p days, the w e e k l y C h a t and C h o w and the Thank sg i v i ng D inner s . Th i s person f e l t these events we re the hear t o f the ne ighbourhood house and co r re sponded most c l o s e l y w i t h the Boa rd and s t a f f i d e a l . A s w i t h a l l new o rgan i za t i on s , L i t t l e Moun ta i n has had some g row ing pains and both boa rd and s t a f f f r e e l y a cknow ledge t ha t t he re is much r oom fo r i m p r o v e m e n t . The a r e a need ing the most work , as ment i oned by the g rea te s t number of peop le i n t e r v i e w e d , is t he a c h i e v e m e n t o f an app rop r i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e of management . Mee t i n g s of the board have tended to be long and un focused , a l though th i s had improved as of O c t o b e r 1980. A g r ea t dea l of t i m e has been spent on goa l and po l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n at the expense o f deve lop ing a way of wo r k i n g , l ines of r epo r t i n g , and the f o r m a l i z e d a spect s o f board/s ta f f r e l a t i on s . S e ve r a l suggested t ha t the board ' s C o m m i t t e e s t r u c t u r e needed to be m o d i f i e d . E x a m p l e s of the ways in wh i ch i t was not wo rk i ng as e f f e c t i v e l y as i t c ou l d we re the tendency of some C o m m i t t e e s to make dec i sons wh i ch a re a c t e d upon b e f o r e d i scuss ion and r a t i f i c a t i o n by t he boa rd as a who l e , the lack of an a c t i v e p r o g r amming c o m m i t t e e w i t h wh i ch s t a f f can work and wh i ch m igh t t a k e over some of the p r o g r a m m i n g re spons i b i l i t i e s , and the lack of a t a b l e o f f i c e r s t r u c t u r e . Many men t i oned the need for add i t i ona l v o l un tee r s and the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f mo re w idesp read i n vo l vemen t o f c o m m u n i t y res idents in p r o g r a m m i n g dec i s i ons and p o l i c y mak i n g for the ne ighbourhood house. A s w i t h South Vancouve r , L i t t l e Moun ta i n board membe r s see the need fo r m o r e vo l un tee r s as a means of t a k i ng some of the load o f f t hemse l ve s and the g r e a t l y o ve rwo r ked s t a f f and o f mov i ng c l o se r t o the ideal o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d and d e t e r m i n e d p r o g r a m m i n g . S t a f f , unde r -s tandab ly , had more s p e c i f i c suggest ions on how to i nc rease vo l un tee r i n vo l vemen t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These i nc luded mo re s y s t e m a t i c r e c r u i t m e n t , o r i e n t a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , e v a l u a t i o n , and r ewa rd i n g of v o l un tee r s . Seve ra l men t i oned tha t L i t t l e - 99 -Moun ta i n should improve i t s pub l i c r e l a t i on s a c t i v i t y so as t o b e t t e r i n f o r m both Soc i e t y membe r s and c o m m u n i t y res idents of ne ighbourhood house p rog rams, event s and needs, and to a t t r a c t m o r e p a r t i c i p a n t s and vo l un tee r s . The s tag ing o f a la rge event was one suggest ion as to how to b r i ng this about . The annual C r a f t F a i r and M a r k e t is a c comp l i s h i n g th i s o b j e c t i v e . Some board member s were c once rned about d u p l i c a t i o n o f p rog rams o f f e r e d by the R i l e y P a r k C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e . S t a f f we re not w o r r i e d by th i s t rend because they share an a t t i t u d e he ld by o ther ne ighbourhood house s t a f f tha t what looks l i ke a r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m , such as a hockey n ight , may , in f a c t , be a v e h i c l e for o ther work w i t h c h i l d r e n such as t e a ch i n g t h e m how to get a long w i t h each other and to work toge the r t owa rd some c o m m o n ends. B o t h s t a f f and board member s expressed c once rn tha t the e t hn i c ou t r each f unc t i on of the ne ighbourhood house was t a k i ng mo re t i m e to become e s tab l i s hed than had been a n t i c i p a t e d , p a r t l y due to fund ing d i f f i c u l t i e s . Con sequen t l y , many of the m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r og r am splanned s imp l y a re not t a k i ng p l a c e . H o w e v e r , now tha t Immigrant Se r v i ce s is p rov id i ng a h a l f - t i m e worke r to be based in the new bu i ld ing it is a n t i c i p a t e d that m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m i n g e f f o r t s w i l l r e c e i v e a b i g boost. There we re a f ew d i sag reement s among the s t a f f as to the f u tu re d i r e c t i o n fo r L i t t l e Moun t a i n . Some wou ld l i ke t o see present s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s c u r t a i l e d and more s o c i a l event s , courses and d i scuss ion groups he l d , whereas o ther wou ld l i ke t o m o v e in the d i r e c t i o n of the s oc i a l ad ju s tment groups he ld at K i w a s s a . S t i l l o ther s wou ld l i ke to see the ne ighbourhood house become the focus o f non -pa r t i s an p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a i m e d at b r ing ing about s o c i a l change, e.g. changes in gove rnment w e l f a r e po l i c y or in ne ighbourhood a m e n i t i e s , se r v i ce s and r ep re sen t a t i on . Th i s s eeming lack o f a g reement cou ld c r e a t e p rob lems l a te r if not d i scussed and re so l ved . - 1 0 0 -H a v i n g p re sen ted the i n t e r v i e w f ind ings , i t is now t i m e to a n a l y z e t h e m in l ight o f ins ights ga ined f r o m the l i t e r a t u r e and f r o m ind i v idua l house h i s to r i e s . C h a p t e r F i v e w i l l a t t e m p t such an ana ly s i s . - 101 -C H A P T E R F I V E  S Y N T H E S I S In C h a p t e r One f i v e quest ions w e r e a sked. These a r e : - What t ype o f s oc i a l work and o the r p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s do ne i g h -bourhood houses p rov i de ? - What do s t a f f and board member s p e r c e i v e the f unc t i on o f the ne i g h -bourhood house t o be? - Do vo lun tee r s p l ay a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in ne ighbourhood house opera t i on s ? - H a v e ne ighbourhood houses depa r ted f r o m the i r h i s t o r i c roots as both c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n agenc ies and p rov ide r s of s o c i a l wo rk s e r v i c e s of the ca sework and group work t ype ? - What are the po l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c u r r en t f u n c t i o n i n g of n e i g h -bourhood houses? Th i s c hap te r w i l l a t t e m p t to answer these quest ions by ana l y z i n g the i n t e r v i e w responses and c o m p a r i n g t hem w i t h themes runn ing through the l i t e r a t u r e . Where app rop r i a te the ana lys i s w i l l i n co rpo ra te ins ights ga ined f r o m the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u -t i on of ne ighbourhood houses and of the i r sponsor ing agenc ies in Vancouve r . House P r o g r a m m i n g T h e f i r s t ques t ion asks what t ype o f se r v i ce s and p rog rams ne ighbourhood houses p rov i de and imp l i e s tha t a s t a t emen t about what t ype o f agency they a re w i l l be made. T o answer th i s quest ion a c ompa r i s on o f what those invo lved in ne i g h -bourhood houses th ink they should be w i t h what they a c t u a l l y do must be made . The s t a t ed purposes o f th ree o f the fou r houses, p a r t i c u l a r l y K i w a s s a and C e d a r C o t t a g e , empha s i z e t he i r c o m m i t m e n t to the p rov i s i on o f qua l i t y s oc i a l work p rog rams to t a r ge t groups, e.g. s ing le pa rent s , the hand icapped and c h i l d r e n a t r i sk . On l y one, L i t t l e Moun ta i n , p l ace s g r ea te r i m p o r t a n c e on the house's ro le as a sort o f o r gan i c ne ighbourhood f o c a l po int wh i ch res idents make use o f to o r gan i ze a c t i v i t e s f o r t hemse l ve s as opposed t o r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c s oc i a l wo rk s e r v i ce s t ha t - 102 -have been o r g an i z ed and are a d m i n i s t e r e d by someone e l se . In a d d i t i o n , a l l houses p ro fes sed a c o m m i t m e n t to f o s t e r i n g i n t e r - agency c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n t o w a r d c o m m o n l y ag reed upon goals . Bu t on ly K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n i n t e r v i w e e s went beyond th is s t a t e m e n t to express the v i e w tha t an add i t i ona l focus o f house a c t i v i t y should be on enab l ing c o m m u n i t y res idents to a c t on t h e i r own beha l f to i n i t i a t e , t ake re spons ib i l i t y f o r and e ven tua l l y manage programs and se r v i ce s on t he i r own, be they s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l or s oc i a l work in na tu re . Th i s is not to say t ha t the o ther t w o houses do not have such a focus , s imp ly t ha t i t was not e x p l i c i t y s t a t ed by most o f those i n t e r v i e w e d . Tu rn i ng now to s p e c i f i c house p r o g r am and a c t i v i t i e s , i t is c l e a r t ha t the m a j o r i t y o f p rog rams at a l l houses, but most p a r t i c u l a r l y at C e d a r C o t t a g e and K i w a s s a , a re s o c i a l work in nature . U s ing the d e f i n i t i o n o f soc i a l work suppl ied by Mu r r a y Ross, th i s means tha t the bulk of ne ighbourhood house p rog rams seek t o r e m o v e imped iment s to i nd i v idua l g r owth , to re lease i nd i v idua l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and to enab le people to manage the i r l ives mo re e f f e c t i v e l y . Th i s d e f i n i t i o n is mos t a p p l i c a b l e to the ca sework and group work s t r eams o f soc i a l work , the f o r m e r empha s i z i n g i nd i v idua l pe r sona l i t y deve l opment , the l a t t e r focus ing mo re on s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g or r e l a t i n g to o ther s . C l e a r l y , most ne ighbourhood house p rog rams are of the group work t ype . F u r t h e r m o r e , the p rog rams seem to m i r r o r the e vo l u t i o n o f group work h i gh l i gh ted in l i t e r a t u r e . Whereas group work p rograms in past year s empha s i z ed the p l a c e of the person in and his r e spons ib i l i t i e s to s o c i e t y , they now tend to c o n c e n t r a t e on the persona l deve l opment o f an i nd i v idua l in r e l a t i o n to a g roup. C o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , soc i a l work ' s t h i r d a r e a , seeks to do one or bo th o f t w o th ings . It can seek to improve the q u a l i t y of s oc i a l s e r v i ce s and t o ensure t ha t they are a v a i l a b l e to those in need o f t h e m . It c an a l so seek to enhance the a b i l i t y o f i nd i v idua l s and c o m m u n i t y groups to work e f f e c t i v e l y t o b r ing about des i red ends. The f o r m e r p l a ce s more i m p o r t a n c e on the a c h i e v e m e n t o f resu l t s wh i l e the - 103 -\ l a t t e r focuses mo re on process and the deve l opment o f group e f f i c a c y . C o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n w h i c h uses both approaches resu l t s in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s e r v i ce gaps, the p rov i s i on o f needed s e r v i ce s , and the f o s t e r i n g o f s e l f - h e l p , v o l u n t e e r i s m and the deve l opment o f group e f f i c a c y . C e d a r C o t t a g e and South Vancouve r tend to p l a c e more i m p o r t a n c e on i d en t i f y i n g s e r v i c e gaps and deve lop ing q u a l i t y p rog rams to f i l l in these gaps, i.e. a ch i e v i n g resu l t s , wh i l e K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n seem to be more i n te re s ted in he lp ing groups t o help themse l ve s . Th i s is not to say tha t the f o r m e r houses assume on ly they can p rov ide qua l i t y s e r v i ce s and the l a t t e r p l a c e no i m p o r t a n c e on resu l t s - qu i t e the c o n t r a r y . To f u r t he r i l l u s t r a t e the po in t , when a l oca l schoo l app roached C e d a r C o t t a g e to e s tab l i sh its own ou t - o f - s choo l day c a r e the house gave i t i n f o r m a t i o n but ended up ev anding i t s e x i s t i n g p r o g r am to m e e t the school ' s needs. When K i w a s s a was approached to help set up an o r g a n i z a t i o n for the parent s of deaf c h i l d r en i t he lped the i n i t i a l group ob ta i n a g rant and gave t h e m a d v i c e on how to o r gan i ze a found ing c o n f e r e n c e ; i t d id not do the o r gan i z i n g for t h e m . To s u m m a r i z e the above and answer the quest ion ne ighbourhood houses a re p r edom inan t l y s oc i a l work agenc ies w h i c h empha s i z e the p rov i s i on o f h igh q u a l i t y p rog rams of the ca sework and group work t ype . H o w e v e r , two of t h e m , K i w a s s a and L i t t l e Moun ta i n , equa l l y empha s i z e the f o s t e r i n g o f c o m m u n i t y e f f i c a c y t o deve lop p rograms and a c h i e v e des i red ends. A l l f ou r do c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on s oc i a l work but the l a t t e r c o n c e n t r a t e mo re on process than on re su l t s . Vo l un tee r s The second quest ion asks whethe r or not vo l un tee r s p l a y an impo r t an t pa r t in ne ighbourhood house ope ra t i on s . A s s t a ted e a r l i e r , i t was dec i ded t o focus on boards of d i r e c t o r s , th i s be ing the vo l un tee r group wh i ch a l l houses had in c o m m o n . - 1 0 4 -One measu re o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f the boards was the degree t o w h i c h they m a k e i m p o r t a n t dec i s ions , i.e. p o l i c y , s t a f f i n g and budget dec i s ions . A n o t h e r measure is t h e i r knowledge o f day to day house opera t i on s . S t i l l another i nd i ca to r is t h e i r knowledge of p r o g r a m fund ing and c o n t e n t . On a l l counts the K i w a s s a Boa rd appears to be the most a c t i v e l y i nvo l ved and i n f l u e n t i a l in d e t e r m i n i n g house d i r e c t i o n . The C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd seemed the least i nvo l ved , w i t h South Van and L i t t l e Moun ta i n be ing in the m idd l e o f th i s c o n t i n u u m . A r e c e n t e x a m p l e w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s the above po in t is the c o n t r a s t i n g c onduc t of the boards of K i w a s s a and South Van , both of wh i ch were f a c e d w i t h the r e s i gna -t i on of l ong - t ime D i r e c t o r s and the h i r i n g o f new ones. South Van s t a f f v e t t e d a l l t he cand ida te s and d rew up the short l ist f r o m w h i c h the board made i t s c h o i c e . The only i n vo l vement K i w a s s a board member s a l l owed the i r s t a f f was to ask t h e m in ve ry genera l t e rms what qua l i t i e s the D i r e c t o r should have. O t h e r w i s e , the board d id e ve r y t h i n g f r o m w r i t i n g the job ad, to d r aw ing up a l ist o f i n t e r v i e w quest ions, t o conduc t i n g the i n te r v i ews , t o mak ing the f i n a l dec i s i o n . Hav i n g sa id a l l o f the above, C e d a r C o t t a g e , more than any o ther house, has the most non-board vo l un tee r i n vo l vement in p rog rams whereas K i w a s s a has the leas t . A s the l i t e r a t u r e says, people l i ke to be part of an i d e n t i f i a b l e , purpos ive group a c t i v i t y , t o be ab le to c r e a t e someth ing and f o l l o w i t th rough to i t s c onc l u s i on . Why one house fo s te r s t remendous board i n vo l vement but next to no o the r k inds o f v o l u n t e e r i n g , w h i l e another house is v i r t u a l l y the po l a r oppo s i t e , and the r ema i n i n g two w i t h both a c t i v e boards and r e l a t i v e l y large numbers of v o l u n -teer s is not c o m p l e t e l y under s tood. One reason for th is phenomenon m igh t be the lack of s t a f f t u rnove r . The longer the D i r e c t o r and c o r e s t a f f a re t he re the m o r e board membe r s c o m e to t ru s t t h e m and to de l ega te dec i s i on mak i ng to t h e m . F u r t h e r m o r e , board member s d rawn f r o m among the ranks o f p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s tend t o be s e l f - s e l e c t i n g and " s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s ta tu s quo. " A s one C e d a r C o t t a g e board membe r sa id , the - 105 -D i r e c t o r is C e d a r C o t t a g e . The re i n l ies a p r o b l e m . Should t he C e d a r C o t t a g e D i r e c t o r change it is not c l e a r t h a t the present board cou ld run the house on its own. The cu r r en t D i r e c t o r has been t he re about t w e n t y yea r s and knows m o r e about the agency than anyone e l se . Th i s makes fo r v e r y high qua l i t y p rograms but not, i t is s u b m i t t e d , f o r s t rong boards. On the other hand, the K i w a s s a D i r e c t o r r e c e n t l y res igned, in pa r t , because o f the c o n v i c t i o n t ha t a person who rema in s an agency d i r e c t o r fo r m o r e than about f i v e yea r s begins to t a ke th ings f o r g r an ted and qu i te eas i l y s l ips into the c o n v i c t i o n t ha t he u l t i m a t e l y knows what is best fo r the agency . Th i s is not to imp l y c r i t i c i s m or support f o r e i t h e r app roach . It is s imp l y to say tha t the l a t t e r s i t ua t i on w i l l l i k e l y lead to a weake r board tha t tends to ag ree and i den t i f y w i t h the D i r e c t o r . Such a s i t u a t i o n tends t o resu l t in w a r m , f r i e nd l y s t a f f /board r e l a t i on s but does not f o s te r the deve lopment o f indigenous leaders . To s u m m a r i z e , vo lun tee r board member s a re impor tan t to the f unc t i on i n g of ne ighbourhood houses. But t he i r impo r t ance is governed, in pa r t , by the length of tenure of the D i r e c t o r and o ther c o re s t a f f , by the nature o f t h e i r past i n vo l vement in house a c t i v i t i e s , and by t he i r p e r c e p t i o n of the purposes of t he i r boa rd . House V a r i a n c e f r o m H i s t o r i c F u n c t i o n s A n o t h e r quest ion to be addressed is whe the r or not ne ighbourhood houses in Vancouve r have depa r ted f r o m the f unc t i on s they p e r f o r m e d in the past . To answer this ques t i on , i t is f i r s t o f a l l necessary to b r i e f l y r e v i e w just what those f unc t i on s w e r e . It is a l so necessary to assess the e f f e c t s of i nc rea s i ng leve l s o f gove rnment fund ing of ne ighbourhood houses, but , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t he i r i n c r e a s -ina tendency t o p rov i de s e r v i ce s through c o n t r a c t u a l a r r angement s . F i n a l l y , e x a m i n a t i o n o f ne ighbourhood house expend i tu re s not e a r m a r k e d fo r a s p e c i f i c - 106 -p r o g r am, i.e. the use they make o f t he i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y funds, w i l l he lp t o answer the ques t i on . F i r s t of a l l , the ea r l y s e t t l e m e n t houses wo rked to b r ing about s o c i a l and l eg i s l a t i ve r e f o r m s in add i t i on to p rov i d i n g d i r e c t s e r v i ce s . It was f e l t t ha t wh i l e i t was impo r t an t to i n te r vene at the l eve l o f the i nd i v idua l to a l l e v i a t e in wha teve r s m a l l way poss ib le per sona l d i s t res s , lonel iness and i n e f f e c t i v ene s s , i t was a l so impo r t an t to a t t e m p t to change those cond i t i on s wh i ch caused th is d i s t ress and a l i e n a t i o n . Mo reove r , i t was impo r t an t t o do so in such a way as to enab le the educa t i on and nu r tu r i ng of ind iv idua l s , wo r k i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y , to b r i ng about such changes w i t h m i n i m a l p ro fe s s i ona l i n t e r v e n t i o n . Bu t as s oc i a l p rob lems b e c o m e more c o m p l e x ; as c o m m u n i t i e s b e c o m e la rger , mo re f r a g m e n t e d and m o r e anonymous; and as p u b l i c l y funded soc i a l work p rog rams i nc rease t he re is g rea t pressure for agenc ie s , such as ne ighbourhood houses, to a c c e p t and a c t i v e l y seek such fund ing . It enables t hem to p rov i de se r v i ce s to peop le who m igh t not o t he rw i s e r e c e i v e t h e m . D a y c a r e is a good e xamp l e . W i thout the p rov i s i on o f gove rnment subs idies, some wo rk i n g pa rent s s imp l y cou ld not a f f o r d dayca re for t he i r c h i l d r e n . I r on i ca l l y , C e d a r C o t t a g e cove r s the s h o r t f a l l in M H R subsidies w i t h both i t s own ope ra t i ng money and i n come f r o m t rus t a ccoun t s . It does so because t he re is no o ther agency or g o v e r n -ment depa r tmen t that w i l l t a ke up the s l a c k . Bu t what a re the e f f e c t s o f i nc rea s ing l y p u b l i c l y funded s o c i a l work p rog rams ? F i r s t o f a l l , p rog rams ob ta i n a r e l a t i v e l y secu re source of fund ing p rov i ded the agency c o m p l i e s w i t h gove rnment regu la t i on s . Second ly , s e r v i ce s b e c o m e d e c e n t r a l i z e d and, many wou ld argue, b e t t e r , because they a re mo re eas i l y adapted to l o ca l c ond i t i on s and because those who de l i v e r t h e m l i k e l y have more c o n t a c t w i t h and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o c l i e n t s . A t h i r d resu l t is tha t the agenc ies w h i c h r e c e i v e gove rnment fund ing b e c o m e , t hemse l ve s , m i n i but g row ing bu reauc r a c i e s . Severa l D i r e c t o r s men t i oned be ing f r u s t r a t e d by the amount o f - 107 -t i m e needed t o nego t i a t e and adm in i s t e r i nc rea s i ng l y la rge budgets at the expense of agency p lann ing and c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n work . T h e K i w a s s a Boa rd has dec ided t w o year s in a row not t o expand because they do not want to c r e a t e an e m p i r e w h i c h loses t ouch w i t h the c o m m u n i t y and its amb i t i o n s . L o o k i n g a t the use neighbourhood houses make of t he i r d i s c r e t i o n a r y money, i.e. money not des ignated fo r a s p e c i f i c p r o g r am, i t becomes apparent t h a t a l l the s oc i a l and c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n work a re funded f r o m th i s source . T y i n g a l l of the above t oge the r leads to the f o l l o w i n g conc lu s ions . Ne ighbourhood houses do not need gove rnment money t o su rv i ve . H o w e v e r , some of the se r v i ce s they p rov ide do'. A c c e p t a n c e of pub l i c money to fund s oc i a l work s e r v i ce s can change the na tu re o f what ne ighbourhood houses do, not because o f any ove r t c o n t r o l e xe r c i s ed but because adm in i s t e r i n g these se r v i ce s t akes t i m e and energy away f r o m those a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have been i n t r i n s i c to ne ighbourhood houses in the past , name ly a ba l ance be tween p rov i s i on of s e r v i ce s to t a r ge t groups and c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on work w h i c h enables c o m m u n i t y res idents to a c t on the i r own beha l f . To f i n a l l y answer the ques t ion , i t is apparent tha t ne ighbourhood houses have depa r ted f r o m the i r h i s t o r i c roots t o the ex ten t tha t they a c c e p t i nc reas ing amounts of money for d i r e c t s e r v i c e p rov i s i on . Policy Implications The f i n a l quest ion to be addressed a re the po l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s inherent in the cu r r en t f unc t i on i n g o f ne ighbourhood houses. Should they con t i nue t o be funded e i t he r p r i v a t e l y or p u b l i c l y or both? Is a c o m m u n i t y b e t t e r o f f for hav ing a n e i g h -bourhood house? On what should t he i r f u t u re e f f o r t s be focused? C l e a r l y , ne ighbourhood houses do much t o c r e a t e a sense o f c o m m u n i t y in o the rw i se f r a g m e n t e d urban c o m m u n i t i e s . Some work t o deve lop l oca l l eader sh ip . A l t h o u g h c o m p a r a t i v e p r o g r a m eva l ua t i on and co s t i n g we re not a pa r t o f th i s thes i s - 1 0 8 -i n v e s t i g a t i o n , da ta ob ta i ned f r o m the i n t e r v i ews ; the d e d i c a t i o n , c a l i b e r and low tu rnover o f the s t a f f ; and the qua l i t y of the p rog rams i n d i c a t e d by t he i r ever i nc reas ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n ra te s a l l suggest t ha t ne ighbourhood house p rog rams a r e super ior to and cheaper than those o f a c o m p a r a b l e nature p rov i ded by the pub l i c s e c t o r . H o w e v e r , t he re are conce rn s . Increas ing ly large, pub l i c l y p rov ided budgets make fo r e i t h e r top -heavy a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (wh ich d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n t r i e s to avo id) or ove r -bu rdened a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . One so lu t ion is to f o l l o w the e x a m p l e of K i w a s s a w h i c h has consc iou s l y chosen to c u r t a i l the leve l of i ts s e r v i c e p rov i s i on to tha t deemed manageab le and acce s s i b l e by l oca l re s ident s . A n o t h e r is to adopt the s tance of L i t t l e Moun ta i n and South Van wh i ch is b a s i c a l l y to barga in c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h gove rnment m i n i s t r i e s when nego t i a t i n g c o n t r a c t u a l s e r v i ce s . Severa l agenc ies s tand ing f i r m fo r a g i ven unit r a te and re fu s ing to p rov ide the s e r v i c e should tha t r a te not be pa id is c e r t a i n l y more e f f e c t i v e than houses barga in ing and s e t t l i n g i nd i v i dua l l y w i t h the gove rnmen t . A s one D i r e c t o r no ted , the m in i s t r i e s want to p rov ide the se r v i ce s and ne ighbourhood houses a re a l o g i ca l v e h i c l e through w h i c h t o do so. In some neighbourhoods, they are the on ly v e h i c l e . These c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c omb ined w i t h the c o n s t i t u e n c y many houses have c r e a t e d by v i r t u e of the qua l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t he i r a c t i v i t i e s , cou ld w e l l c o m b i n e to g i ve t h e m leverage when nego t i a t i n g w i t h gove rnmen t . Ne ighbourhood houses cou ld poss ib ly make savings on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e charges for gove rnment sponsored s e r v i ce s and use these savings for o ther purposes. - 109 -C H A P T E R SIX  CONCLUSIONS Th i s c hap te r w i l l s u m m a r i z e the conc lu s i on s of the thes i s , suggest some p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s , and i nd i ca te a reas fo r f u r t he r r e sea r ch . The e v i dence in th i s thes i s shows tha t ne ighbourhood houses a r e s o c i a l work agenc ie s w i t h ca sework and group work s oc i a l work a c t i v i t i e s d om ina t i n g t he i r p rog rams . H o w e v e r , two of the houses, in p a r t i c u l a r , a l so i nvo l ve themse l ve s in ex ten s i ve c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on work . Vo l un tee r board member s p l ay s i g n i f i c an t ro le s in the runn ing of a l l f ou r ne ighbourhood houses. H o w e v e r , the natu re of th i s r o l e seems t o va r y a c c o r d i n g t o the length o f tenure o f the house D i r e c t o r and o the r co re s t a f f , the past or cu r r en t i n vo l vement o f i nd i v idua l boa rd membe r s in house p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s , and the i r pe r cep t i on s o f the purpose of a vo l un tee r board . G e n e r a l l y speak ing, the longer the house has had the same D i r e c t o r and the m o r e board member s a re , themse l ve s , p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s , the less s i g n i f i c an t is the r o l e o f the boa rd in mak i ng impo r t an t po l i c y , p r o g r a m m i n g , s t a f f i n g and budget dec i s i ons . A t least two o f the four ne ighbourhood houses s tud ied have depa r ted f r o m the func t i on s o f ne ighbourhood houses of t he past , g i ven t h a t pas t houses, in add i t i on t o p rov i d i ng d i r e c t s e r v i ce s to t a r ge t groups, a lso worked to b r ing about s oc i a l and l eg i s l a t i ve r e f o r m s tha t wou ld change those cond i t i on s tha t nece s s i t a t ed the se r v i ce s in the f i r s t p l a c e . One reason for the inc reased emphas i s on the prov i s i on o f ca sework and group work se rv i ce s and p rog rams and the de -emphas i s of c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z a t i on is the r e l i a n c e on p r o v i n c i a l gove rnment funds to p rov ide d i r e c t s e r v i ce s . A l t h o u g h ne ighbourhood houses do not need these funds to su r v i ve , c l e a r l y some o f t he i r p r o g r a m do. The a c c e p t a n c e o f pub l i c money changes the emphas i s o f ne ighbourhood house p rog rams , not through the e xe r c i s e o f o ve r t c o n t r o l on the pa r t o f the fund ing m i n i s t r y , but because a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these - 110 — p u b l i c l y funded se r v i ce s takes t i m e and energy away f r o m those a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h have been i n t r i n s i c to ne ighbourhood houses o f the past , name l y c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i -z a t i o n work w h i c h enables c o m m u n i t y res idents to a c t on t he i r own beha l f . Tu rn ing now to the po l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the thesis i t seems c l e a r t h a t n e i g h -bourhood houses do under take a c t i v i t i e s o f g rea t va lue in urban c o m m u n i t i e s . A l t h o u g h c o m p a r a t i v e p r og rm eva l ua t i on and co s t i ng were beyond the scope o f the thes i s , the da ta c o l l e c t e d f r o m p r og r am l i t e r a t u r e , s t a f f i n t e r v i ews and o b s e r v a -t ions a l l suggest t h a t p rograms p r o v i ded by ne ighbourhood houses may be bo th less c o s t l y and o f a h igher qua l i t y than c o m p a r a b l e ones p rov i ded by the pub l i c s e c t o r . If ne ighbourhood houses a re to con t i nue to p rov ide s e r v i ce s to t a r ge t groups, then i t appears tha t they should nego t i a te c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h the r e l e van t g o v e r n -ment m i n i s t r y in o rder to help ensure t ha t t he i r s e r v i ce s are not underva lued . In some c o m m u n i t i e s , ne ighbourhood houses a re the only l og i ca l v e h i c l e fo r s e r v i c e de l i v e r y . The des i re of the gove rnment to make c e r t a i n s e r v i ce s a v a i l a b l e c omb ined w i t h the c on s t i t uency the ne ighbourhood houses have e s tab l i shed by v i r t u e of the qua l i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y and v i s i b i l i t y of t he i r p r o g r a m m i n g a l l c o m b i n e t o g i ve t h e m con s i de rab le p o t e n t i a l leverage i f nego t i a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y w i t h the gove rnment on the r a te s fo r s e r v i ce s p rov i ded . Hav i n g sa id the above, the pe r cen tage o f ne ighbourhood house fund ing w h i c h c omes f r o m pub l i c sources is nonethe less a source o f c o n c e r n as i t appears to be d e f l e c t i n g some of the houses f r o m doing long range p l ann ing , and c o m m u n i t y o r g an i z a t i o n work, and engag ing in s oc i a l f unc t i on s , wh i ch a re a l so an impo r t an t pa r t of t he i r r o l e . Pe rhaps r e l i a n c e on g rant s , as tenuous as they a re , m i a h t be p r e f e r a b l e to s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t s w i t h gove rnment m i n i s t r i e s w h i c h resu l t in g o v e r n -ment regu la t i ons and onerous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e du t i e s . A r e a s of f u r t he r re sea rch suggested by th is thes is i nc lude the f o l l o w i n g . A r i gorous p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n c o m p a r i n g a ne ighbourhood house p r o g r am w i t h a c o m p a r a b l e one p rov i ded by e i t he r the gove rnment or another agency wou ld be - I l l -w o r t h w h i l e . The f o r m e r compa r i s on wou ld help d e t e r m i n e whethe r or not s e r v i c e s w h i c h a re c o n t r a c t e d for by the gove rnment to p r i v a t e , d e c e n t r a l i z e d agenc ies a re o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y than c o m p a r a b l e gove rnment s e r v i ce s . The l a t t e r wou l d help e s tab l i sh c r i t e r i a for p r o g r a m d e l i v e r y . One c r i t e r i o n o f p r o g r a m e f f e c t i v ene s s wh i ch cou ld be s ing led out as an a r e a of s epa ra te i n ve s t i g a t i on is the leve l o f c o m m u n i t y awareness of ne ighbourhood house a c t i v i t i e s . A n as sumpt ion was made above t ha t t he re is con s i de rab le l oca l awareness o f ne ighbourhood houses and t he i r a c t i v i t i e s . It wou ld be u se fu l to d e t e r m i n e whethe r or not this is the case . It wou ld be more impo r t an t to d e t e r -m ine i f ne ighbourhood house p rog rams and a c t i v i t i e s a re known about by peop le v who e i t he r need or want to make use of t h e m . A nega t i ve answer to e i t he r o f these quest ions has i ts own p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . A n o t h e r avenue of enqu i ry to pursue wou ld be whethe r or not ne ighbourhood houses c o n t r i b u t e to the deve lopment of a p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y at the loca l l e v e l . D o they serve as a t r a i n i n g ground for p o t e n t i a l leaders who then b e c o m e a c t i v e in t he i r c o m m u n i t i e s in o ther c a p a c i t i e s ? Th i s enqu i ry examined, s k e t c h i l y the i n vo l vement of board member s in o ther o r gan i z a t i on s . H o w e v e r , a much more exhau s t i ve p i e c e of re sea rch might be a u se fu l endeavour to d e t e r m i n e whethe r or not ne ighbourhood houses help to fo s te r c i v i c re spons ib i l i t y and i n vo l v emen t . A n o t h e r ques t ion posed at the beg inn ing of th i s work but not pursued in the re sea rch is whethe r ne ighbourhood houses are f o r ce s of change in a c o m m u n i t y . D o they f o s t e r change or do they c o n t r i b u t e to c o m m u n i t y s t a b i l i t y and a ma i n t enance o f the s ta tus quo? Who goes to the ne ighbourhood house? Why do they go? A r e they changed in some way through t he i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in house a c t i v i t i e s ? Is t h i s persona l change, if i t o c cu r s , a cause o f c o m m u n i t y changes? A user survey s t r u c t u r e d so as t o answer these quest ions and t o d e t e r m i n e the leve l of i n v o l v e -ment of p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s in house dec i s i on mak i n g as i t v a r i e d f r o m house to house wou ld be an impo r t an t p i e c e o f r e s ea r ch . - 1 1 2 -C H A P T E R T W O F O O T N O T E S 1. R o b e r t P e r l m a n and A r n o l d G u r i n . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n and S o c i a l  P l a n n i n g . N e w Y o r k : John W i l ey and Sons and the C o u n c i l f o r S oc i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , 1972. p. 27. 2. E l i z a b e t h A . Fe rgu son . Soc i a l Work: A n I n t roduct ion . P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . B . L i p p i n c o t t Company , 1963, p. 5. 3. Ibid.; M a r y R i c h m o n d i n ; p. 3. 4. Ibid.; H e l e n H a r r i s P e r l m a n i n ; p. 7. 5. Ibid.; Sw i thun B o w e r s i n ; p. 7. 6. A n d r e w A r m i t a g e . Soc i a l W e l f a r e in C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1975, p. I. 7. Ibid., p. 45. 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid., p. I. 10. Ibid., p. 44. 11. Ibid. 12. Mu r r a y Ross . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theo r y in P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e . 2nd ed . N e w Y o r k : Ha rpe r and R o w Pub l i sher s , 1967, pp. 4 - 5 . 13. A r m i t a g e , o p . c i t . 14. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op . c i t . 15. C h a r l e s D. G a r v i n and F r e d M . C o x . " A H i s t o r y of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z i n g S ince the C i v i l War w i t h Spec i a l R e f e r e n c e t o Oppressed C o m m u n i t i e s . " In S t r a teg i e s  of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed. E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino is : F .E. P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. 16. Ibid., p. 65. 17. Ibid., p. 59. 18. Ross , op. c i t . , p. 62. 19. R i c h a r d A . C l o w a r d and F r a n c e s F o x P i v e n . " N o t e s T o w a r d s a R a d i c a l S o c i a l Work . " In R a d i c a l Soc i a l Work. E d i t e d by R o y B a i l e y and M i k e B r a k e . N e w Y o r k : Pan theon Books , 1975; B r i a n Whar f . C o m m u n i t y Work in C a n a d a . To ron to : M c C l e l l a n d and S t ewa r t , 1979, p. 20. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . , p. I. 20 . P e t e r L e o n a r d . " Towa rd s a P a r a d i g m fo r R a d i c a l P r a c t i c e . " In R a d i c a l S o c i a l  Work . E d i t e d by R o y B a i l e y and M i k e B r a k e . N e w Y o r k : Pan theon Books , T975~, p. 50. — 113 — 21. C l o w a r d and P i v e n , op. c i t . 22. A r m i t a g e , op .c i t . , p. 13. 23. Ibid. 24. Whar f , op .c i t . , p. 264. 25. N i n a T o r e n . S o c i a l Work: The C a s e o f a S e m i - P r o f e s s i o n . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972, pp. 18-19. 26. Ibid. 27. Fe r gu son , op.c i t . , p. 9. 28. Ibid. 29. K e n n e t h D. Benne . "The C u r r e n t S ta te o f P l anned Chang i ng in Per sons , G roups , C o m m u n i t i e s and Soc i e t i e s . " In The P l ann i ng of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W in s ton , 1976. 30. Fe rguson , op. c i t . , p. 532. 31. To ren , op. c i t . 32. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . To ren , op. c i t . 33. Benne, op. c i t ; Samuel A . C u l b e r t . " Con sc i ou sne s s -Ra i s i n g : A F i v e S tage Mode l f o r S oc i a l and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a n g e " . In The P l ann i ng of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton , 1976. 34. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . 35. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . 36. J a c k R o t h m a n . " P a r t One : I n t roduc t i on . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y  O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979, p. 3. 37. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . , p. 18. 38. C o x , op. c i t . , p. 198. 39. Ross , op. c i t . , p. 49. 40. Ibid. 41. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . 42. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . p. 562. 43. R o b e r t E. B l a k e and Jane S ryg ley M o u t o n . " S t r a t eg i e s of C o n s u l t a t i o n . " In The  P l ann i n g o f Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton, 1976, p. 66. - 1 1 4 -J a m e s E. C r o w f o o t and Ma r k A . C h e s l e r . " C o n t e m p o r a r y P e r s p e c t i v e s on P l anned Soc i a l Change : A C o m p a r i s o n . " In The P l ann i n g o f Change . 3rd ed. E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Win s ton , 1976. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . Ross , op. c i t . , p. 23. 44. J a c k R o t h m a n . " P a r t One : O v e r v i e w : I n t roduc t i on . " In S t r a teg i e s of  C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . E d i t e d by F r e d M . Cox e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i s he r s , 1979, p. 4. 45. Whar f , op. c i t . , pp. 243 -248 . 46. R o t h m a n p r e f e r s the word l o c a l i t y deve l opment because it h igh l ights tha t t he re is a geograph ic base to th i s k ind o f c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Bu t he a c k n o w -ledges the t e r m c o m m u n i t y deve lopment whch w i l l be used throughout the r ema inde r of th i s paper as i t is fa r more f a m i l i a r t o p r a c t i t i o n e r s and w r i t e r s a l i k e . 47. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 60. 48. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . , p. 561. 49. Ibid., p. 565. 50. R o t h m a n , (a), op. c i t . 51. A c o m m u n i t y can be e i t he r a geograph ic e n t i t y or people un i ted around a c o m m o n in te res t or c o n d i t i o n . 52. W i l l i a m W. B i d d e l and L ou r e i de B i d d l e . " I n tent ion and O u t c o m e . " In S t r a teg i e s  of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed. E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l i no i s : F .E. P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. p. 354; R o b e r t R. C h i n and K e n n e t h D. Benne. " Some Gene ra l S t r a teg ie s fo r E f f e c t i n g Changes in H u m a n Sy s tems . " In The P l ann i n g of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton , 1976. pp. 22 -45 ; Ross , op. c i t ; Wharf , op_. c i t . , p. 270. 53. R o t h m a n , (a), op. c i t . ; J a c k R o t h m a n (b) " T h r e e Mode l s o f C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . The i r M i x i n g and Phas ing . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y  O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino i s : F.E. P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979, pp. 25-45. 54. C l o w a r d and P i v e n , op. c i t . 55. M a r j o r i e M a y o . " C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t : A R a d i c a l A l t e r n a t i v e . " In R a d i c a l  Soc i a l Work. E d i t e d by R o y B a i l e y and M i k e B r a k e . N e w Y o r k : Pan theon Books , 1975. pp. . 56. R o t h m a n , op. c i t . , (b). 57. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , pp. 6 0 - 61 . - 1 1 5 -58. A r m a n d L a u f f e r . " S o c i a l P l ann i ng in the U n i t e d S ta te s : A n O v e r v i e w and Some P r e d i c t i o n s . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino i s : F.E. P e a c o c k Pub l i s he r s , 1979. p. 295. 59. R o t h m a n , op. c i t . (b) 60. A r m i t a g e . op. c i t . 61. C h i n and Benne, op. c i t . 62. C r o w f o o t and C h e s l e r , op. c i t . 63. C l o w a r d and P i v e n , op. c i t . ; L a u f f e r , op. c i t . , p. 298. 64. L a u f f e r , op. c i t . , p. 298. 65. R o t h m a n , op. c i t . (a) and (b) 66. C h i n and Benne, op. c i t . 67. C r o w f o o t and C h e s l e r , op. c i t . 68. K e n n e t h Benne, War ren G . Bennis and Robe r t C h i n . " P l a n n e d Change in A m e r i c a " . In The P l ann ing of Change . 3rd ed. E d . by War ren G . Bennis e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i neha r t and Winston, 1976; H o w a r d Buchb inde r . " C o m m u n i t y C o n t r o l : Gene ra l R e m a r k s . " in P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y fo r  C a n a d a . E d i t e d by G e r r y Hunnius . M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Rose Books , Our G e n e r a t i o n Press , 1971. pp. 59-77; G e r r y Hunnius , " S t r a t eg i e s fo r Change : P r o b l e m s and P o s s i b i l i t i e s " . In P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y for C a n a d a . E d i t e d by G e r r y Hunnius . M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Ro se Books , Our Gene r a t i o n Pres s , 1971, pp. 73-76. Joan Kuyek . " C o m m u n i t y C o n t r o l . " In P a t r i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y for  C a n a d a . E d i t e d by G e r r y Hunnius . M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Rose Books , Ou r G e n e r a t i o n P res s , 1971. pp. 59 -77 . 69. N e i l G i l b e r t and Joseph W. E a t o n . "Who Speaks for the P o o r ? " In The P l ann i n g  of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i neha r t and Wins ton, 1976, pp. 245 -251 . 70. L i s a P e a t t i e . " D r a m a and A d v o c a c y P l ann i n g . " In The P l ann i n g of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s . e t . a l . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W in s ton , 1976, pp. 251-259. 71. Dona ld K e a t i n g . The P o w e r to M a k e It Happen . T o r o n t o : G r e e n T r e e Pub l i s h i ng Company , 1975. 72. War ren C . H a g g s t r o m , "The T a c t i c s of O r g a n i z a t i o n B u i l d i n g . " In S t r a teg i e s o f  C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed. E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino is : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979, pp. 446-461. 73 Whar f , op. c i t . pp. 260 -261 ; 270. 74. Ibid., pp. 257-259. 75. Ibid., p. 259. 76. Ibid., p. 257. - 1 1 6 -77. I rv ing A Spe rge l . " O r g a n i z i n g the L o c a l C o m m u n i t y : The S o c i a l S t a b i l i t y A p p r o a c h . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd e d . ^ E d . t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l i no i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i s he r s , 1979. pp. 391 -400 . 78. H a g g s t r o m , op. c i t . 79. Y e h e s k e l H a s e n f e l d . " P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t . " In S t r a t eg i e s o f Commun i ty . O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I ta sca, l l lmo . s : F .b . P e a c o c k Pub l i s he r s , 1976. pp. 138-159; p. 138. 80. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . 81. R o t h m a n , op. c i t . (a) p. 15. 82. Whar f , op. c i t . , p. 267. 83. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . , p. 49. 84. Ibid. 85. F r e d M . C o x . " I n t r oduc t i on t o P a r t T w o : A r e n a s . " In S t r a t eg i e s o f C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I tasca, I l l ino i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. p. 197. 86. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 2. 87. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . 88. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . 89. Whar f , op. c i t . 90. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . 91. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 2. 92. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , o £ 1 c h v PP- 161-162. 93. Ibid. 94. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . 95. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . 96. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . 97. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . , p. 48. 98. t - w u i g h R. T r e c k e r . C i t i z e n Boa rd s a t Work : N e w C h a l l e n g e s t o E f f e c t i v e A c t i o n . N e w Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n P res s , 1970, p. 48. 99. Ibid., p. 213. 100. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . , p. 161; M a y o op. c i t . ; Whar f , o p ^ c i t . 101. L a u f f e r , op. c i t . , pp.298-299. - 1 1 7 -102. Ibid. 103. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 76. 104. Doug las B a r r . " T h e Regen t P a r k C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s U n i t : Pa r t ne r sh i p C a n Work. " In C o m m u n i t y Work in C a n a d a . E d i t e d by B r i a n Wharf . To r on to : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979. p. 40. 105. K e a t i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 223-224. 106. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 167. 107. D a v i d Mo r r i s and K a r l Hess. Ne ighbourhood P o w e r : The N e w L o c a l i s m . I n s t i tu te f o r P o l i c y Study Ser ies . Bo s ton , Mas sachuse t t s : B e a c o n P re s s , 1975. 108. W i l l i a m J . Sah le in . A Ne ighbourhood So lut ion to the Soc i a l Se r v i ce s D i l e m m a . L e x i n g t o n , Massachuset t s : L e x i n g t o n Books , D.C. H e a t h and Company , 1973. 109. T r e c k e r , op. c i t . , p. 272. I 10. Wharf , op. c i t . , p. 261. I I I . A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . I 12. Vancouve r Sun, August 22, 1981. I 13. Ruby S i l l s M i l l e r . " The Fu tu re of Vo l un t a r y A c t i o n . " In V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n  E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i o n . E d i t e d by John G . C u l l and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l ino i s : C h a r l e s C . Thomas , Pub l i s he r , 1974. 114. A b r a h a m Mas l ow. M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . N e w Y o r k : Ha rpe r and R o w , 1954. 115. D a v i d H o r t a n S m i t h . " R e s e a r c h and C o m m u n i c a t i o n Needs in Vo l un t a r y A c t i o n . " In V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i on . E d i t e d by John G . C u l l and and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l ino i s : C h a r l e s C . Thomas , Pub l i s he r , 1974, p. 180. 116. M i l l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 188-190. 117. Ibid., pp. 191-192. 118. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , P. 76. 119. H i l d a H u b b e l l . " The Mean ing o f P l ann i n g in C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . " In V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i o n . E d i t e d by John G . C u l l and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l ino is : C h a r l e s C . Thomas , Pub l i s he r , 1974. p. 89; T r e c k e r , op. c i t . , p. 181. 120. P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . 121. Ibid., pp. 90-92. 122. Ibid, p. 92. - 1 1 8 -123. S m i t h , op. c i t . , p. 180. 124. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . 125. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . ; M i l l e r , op. c i t . 126. John G . C u l l and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . " O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r V°17^7n n A. c^ c n- , Q ' n E  V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i o n . E d i t e d by John G . C u l l and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l ino i s ? C h a r l e s L . Thomas , Pub l . sher , 1974; A r m a n d L a u f f e r and Sarah G o r o d e z k y . Vo l un tee r s . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977. 127. C u l l and H a r d y , op. c i t . , p. 15. 128. A r m i t a g e , op. c i t . , p. 55. 129. Fe rgu son , op. c i t . , p. 568; T r e c k e r , op. c i t . 130. Ibid. 131. M i l l e r , op. c i t . 132. T r e c k e r , op. c i t . , p. 17. 133. Ibid., p. 181. 134. Ibid., p. 21 ; pp. 36-37. 135. Ibid., p. 171. 136. Ibid. 137. Ibid. 138. S m i t h , op. c i t . , p. 180. 139. T r e c k e r , op. c i t . , p. 180. 140. Ibid, p. 251. - 1 1 9 -C H A P T E R T H R E E F O O T N O T E S 1. J u d i t h A n n T r o l ande r . S e t t l e m e n t Houses and the G r e a t Depres s i on . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a te U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1975, p. 18. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid., p. 20. 4. Ibid., p. 25. 5. Ibid., pp. 26-28. 6. Ibid., p. 29. 7. H a r o l d R. Johnson and John E. T r o p m a n . "The Set t ing s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e " . In S t ra teg ie s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , e t . a l . I ta sca, I l l i no i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i s he r s , 1979. 8. C h a r l e s D. G a r v i n and F r e d M . C o x . " A H i s t o r y of C o m m u n i t y O r gan i z i n g S ince t he C i v i l War w i t h Spec i a l Reference t o Oppressed C o m m u n i t i e s " . In S t r a t e g i e s  o f C o m m u n i t y O r g i n a z a t i o n . 5rd ed. E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , et a l . I tasca, I l l ino is : F .E. P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979, p. 50. 9. Ibid., pp. 49-50. 10. Ibid., p. 50. I I. Ibid., p. 64. 12. Ibid., pp. 53-54. 13. R o b e r t P e r l m a n and A r n o l d G u r i n . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n and Soc i a l  P l ann i n g . N e w Y o r k : John W i l ey and Sons and The C o u n c i l f o r Soc ia l Work E d u c a t i o n , 1972, p. 27. 14. Ibid. 15. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . , P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . 16. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . , p. 54; P e r l m a n and G u r i n , op. c i t . , p. 27; P a u l R u t h e r f o r d . Sav ing the Canad i an C i t y : The F i r s t Phase 1880-1920. Ser ies on the Soc i a l H i s t o r y of Canada , M i c h a e l B l i s s , ed . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of To ron to Pres s , 1974. 17. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . , p. 54. 18. Johnson and T r o p m a n , op. c i t . , p. 220. 19. T r o l ande r , op. c i t . , p. 26. 20. Ibid., pp. 26-27. 21. Ibid., p. 29. 22. Ibid. - 1 2 0 -23. Ibid., p. 30. 24. U n i t e d Way. A n n u a l R e p o r t 1979-1980. 25. The i n f o r m a t i o n on the A l e x a n d r a C o m m u n i t y A c t i v i t i e s S o c i e t y , the A l e x a n d r a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n , the Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n , the U n i t e d Way s oc i a l p lanners and the N S A C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t D e p a r t m e n t was ob ta ined f r o m f r o m a May , 1980 i n t e r v i e w w i t h E l m e r H e l m , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f N S A e x c e p t where noted o the rw i s e . 26. B r i a n Whar f , ed . C o m m u n i t y Work in C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979, p.~ST. 27. Ibid., pp. 53-54. 28. Ne i ghbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n . Annua l R e p o r t 1979-1980. 29. N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and Ne ighbourhood C e n t e r s . S tandards fo r  Ne i ghbourhood C e n t e r s , new Y o r k : N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of S e t t l e m e n t s and Ne ighbourhood C e n t r e s , 1973. 1979-1980 A n n u a l Repo r t of the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n . 30. G a r v i n and C o x , op. c i t . , p. 61. 31. The i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s to ry of U n i t e d Way was ob ta ined f r o m the i r 1979-1980 Annua l R e p o r t unless o the rw i se no ted . Th i s " 50 th A n n i v e r s a r y " r epo r t c on ta i n s a f a i r l y e x ten s i ve h i s to ry of U n i t e d Way and o f s oc i a l s e r v i ce s in Vancouve r . 32. The h i s to ry o f C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s was a s sembled through i n t e r v i ews w i t h the D i r e c t o r and o ther s t a f f and board member s , and f r o m read ing a 1962 paper by a Soc io logy and An th ropo l ogy s tudent and m a t e r i a l p repa red by the ne ighbourhood house. 33. P a t B u c k l e y . " The Expand ing R o l e o f C e d a r C o t t a g e Soc i a l A g e n c y as it A t t e m p t s to Mee t Some Soc ia l Needs o f th i s U rban A r e a . " Unpub l i shed paper . M a r c h 1962, p. 20. 34. The i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s to ry o f the South Vancouve r Ne ighbourhood House comes f r o m i n t e r v i ews w i t h house s t a f f and board member s . 35. The h i s to ry o f K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s was g a the red in d iscuss ions w i t h i t s E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , another s t a f f per son, t h ree Boa rd member s and an exp l ana t i on on the back of s t a t i one r y showing the o ld f i r e h a l l bu i l d i ng in wh i ch i t used t o ope r a t e . 36. The h i s to ry of the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House was g a the red f r o m discuss ions w i t h a Boa rd m e m b e r and l oca l p lanners , a 1979 R e p o r t to the C o u n c i l , a U n i t e d C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s o f G r e a t e r Vancouve r repo r t on the A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t , and the author ' s per sona l e xpe r i ence in the R i l e y P a r k c o m m u n i t y as c oo rd i n a t o r o f a soc i a l needs survey and observer o f the N IP p lann ing . 37. M i nu t e s o f a May , 1979 spec i a l m e e t i n g of the N S A Boa rd o f Gove rno r s at w h i c h r ep re sen ta t i v e s o f L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House and U n i t e d Way w e r e p re sent . - 121 -C H A P T E R F O U R F O O T N O T E S 1. The C a n a d a C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t p r o j e c t grants a re funded by the F e d e r a l E m p l o y m e n t and Immig ra t i on D e p a r t m e n t as pa r t of the I n te rnat iona l Y e a r o f D i s ab led Per sons . T o quote f r o m a Sep tember 22, 1981 ad in the Vancouve r Sun The C a n a d a C o m m u n i t y Deve l opmen t P r o j e c t s p r o g r a m is des igned to support l o ca l o r gan i za t i on s in t he deve lopment and management of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l c r e a t e e m p l o y m e n t oppo r tun i t i e s in s p e c i f i c , i d e n t i -f i e d types o f a c t i v i t y gene ra l l y suppor t i ve o f b roader na t i ona l p r i o r i t i e s such as: - energy con se r va t i on - f i s he r i e s - t ou r i sm deve l opment - c o m m u n i t y r e s t o r a t i on and deve l opment - e n v i r o n m e n t a l c on se r va t i on and r e c l a m a t i o n - de ve l opmen t of l o ca l resources - non -p ro f i t housing and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - n a t i v e e m p l o y m e n t . 2. A samosa is a b lend o f vege tab le s and sp ices wh i ch is wrapped in a th in pas t ry and l i gh t l y f r i e d u n t i l c r i s p . 3. This workshop was a t t ended p r i m a r i l y by non -p ro f i t agency s t a f f who sa id t he i r Boards we re ne i the r i n te re s ted in nor c o m p e t e n t enough to handle the i n t r i c a c i e s of agency f i nance s . These Boards tended to s imp ly " rubber s t a m p " f i n a n c i a l r e commenda t i on s o f the s t a f f , a s i t ua t i on w i t h w h i c h s t a f f p resent we re not c o m f o r t a b l e . - 122 -B I B L I O G R A P H Y A r m i t a g e , A n d r e w . Soc i a l W e l f a r e in C a n a d a : Ideals and R e a l i t i e s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1975. Ba r r , Doug las . "The Regen t P a r k C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s U n i t : P a r t n e r s h i p C a n Work. " In C o m m u n i t y Work in C a n a d a . E d i t e d by B r i a n Whar f . To r on to : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979. pp. 27-49. Benne, K e n n e t h D. 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C r o w f o o t , J a m e s E. and C h e s l e r , Ma r k A . " C o n t e m p o r a r y P e r s p e c t i v e s on P l anned Soc i a l Change : A C o m p a r i s o n . " In The P l ann i ng o f Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , K e n n e t h D. Benne, R o b e r t C h i n , and K e n n e t h E. C o r e y . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Win s ton , 1976. pp. 108-204. - 123 -C u l b e r t , Samue l R. "Consc iousnes s R a i s i n g : A F i v e S tage Mode l f o r S o c i a l and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Change . " In The P l ann i n g of Change . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by Warren G . Benn i s , K e n n e t h D. Benne, R o b e r t C h i n , and K e n n e t h E. C o r e y . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton, 1976. pp. 231-244. C u l l , John G . and H a r d y , R i c h a r d E. " O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Vo l un t a r y A c t i o n . " In V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i o n . 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Ne ighbourhood P o w e r : The N e w L o c a l i s m . Ins t i tute for P o l i c y Study Ser ies . Bo s ton , Massachussets : Beacon P res s , 1975. N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of S e t t l emen t s and Ne ighbourhood C e n t e r s . Standards f o r Ne ighbourhood C e n t e r s . N e w Y o r k : N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of S e t t l e m e n t s and Ne ighbourhood Cen te r s , 1973. P e a t t i e , L i s a R. " D r a m a and A d v o c a c y P l a n n i n g . " In The P l ann i n g of Change . 3rd ed. E d i t e d by War ren G . Benn i s , K e n n e t h D. Benne, R o b e r t C h i n and K e n n e t h E . C o r e y . N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton, 1976. pp. 25 I -259. P e r l m a n , Robe r t and G u r i n , A r n o l d . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n and Soc i a l P l a n n i n g . N e w Y o r k : John W i l ey and Sons and the C o u n c i l f o r S oc i a l Work E d u c a t i o n , 1972. Repo , M a r j a l e n a . " The F a l l a c y o f C o m m u n i t y C o n t r o l . " In P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y for C a n a d a . E d i t e d by G e r r y Hunnius . M o n t r e a l : B l a c k Ro se Book s : O u r G e n e r a t i o n P re s s , 1971. pp.59-77. Ross, M u r r a y G . C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory , P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e . 2nd ed . N e w Y o r k : Ha rpe r and R o w Pub l i she r s , 1967. R o t h m a n , J a c k . " P a r t One: O v e r v i e w : I n t roduc t i on . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y  O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , John L. E r l i c h , J a c k R o t h m a n and John E. T r o p m a n . I tasca, I l l ino is : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. pp. 3-22. R o t h m a n , J a c k . " T h r e e Mode l s o f C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , T h e i r M i x i n g and Pha s i ng . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o x , John L. E r l i c h , J a c k R o t h m a n and John E. T r o p m a n , I tasca, I l l ino i s : F .E . P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. pp. 25-45 R u t h e r f o r d , P a u l , ed . Sav ing the Canad i an C i t y : The F i r s t Pha se 1880 - 1920. Ser ies on the Soc ia l H i s t o r y o f C a n a d a , M i c h a e l B l i s s , ed . To ron to : U n i v e r s i t y of To r on to P res s , 1974. - 125 -Sah le in , W i l l i a m J . A Ne ighbourhood So lu t i on t o the Soc i a l Se r v i ce s D i l e m m a . L e x i n g t o n , Massachusset s : L e x i n g t o n Books , D.C. H e a t h and Company , 1973. Se lander , A u d r e y ; M i t c h e l l , M a r a a r e t ; and Pu rdy , Doug las . " T h e R e d Door : A R e p o r t on Ne ighbourhood S e r v i c e s " . A r e a Deve l opmen t P r o j e c t . U n i t e d C o m m u n i t y Se r v i ce s o f the G r e a t e r Vancouve r A r e a . June 1968. S m i t h , D a v i d H o r t o n . " R e s e a r c h and C o m m u n i c a t i o n Needs in V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n . " In V o l u n t e e r i s m : A n E m e r g i n g P r o f e s s i o n . E d i t e d by John G . C u l l and R i c h a r d E. H a r d y . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l ino i s : C h a r l e s C . Thomas , Pub l i s he r , 1974. pp. I I 1-188. Sperge l , I rv ing A . " O r g a n i z i n g the L o c a l C o m m u n i t y : The S o c i a l - S t a b i l i t y A p p r o a c h . " In S t r a teg i e s of C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . 3rd ed . E d i t e d by F r e d M . C o , John L. E r l i c h , J a c k R o t h m a n and John E. T r o p m a n . I tasca, I l l ino is : F .E. P e a c o c k Pub l i she r s , 1979. pp. 391-400. To ren , N i n a . S o c i a l Work: The C a s e o f a S e m i - P r o f e s s i o n . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a I i f o r n i a : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972. T r e c k e r , H a r l e i g h B. C i t i z e n Boards at Work: N e w Cha l l enge s to E f f e c t i v e  A c t i o n . N e w Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n Press , 1970. T r o l ande r , J u d i t h A n n . S e t t l e m e n t Houses and the G r e a t Depre s s i on . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a te U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1975. Whar f , B r i a n , ed . C o m m u n i t y Work in C a n a d a . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1979. - 126 -O T H E R S O U R C E S A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n 1979-1980 1978-1979 1977-1978 A n n u a l Repo r t o f the U n i t e d Way of the L o w e r Ma i n l and , 1979. P a m p h l e t on the A l e x a n d r a Founda t i on , no da te . P u t out by the Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n . M i nu te s of the meet i ng s of the N S A Boa rd o f Gove rno r s f r o m Janua r y 1979 to O c t o b e r 1980. M i nu te s o f the meet ing s of the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s f r o m Janua ry 1979 to O c t o b e r 1980. M i nu te s of the meet i ng s of the K i w a s s a Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s f r o m Janua ry 1977 to O c t o b e r 1980. M i nu te s of the C e d a r C o t t a g e Boa rd o f Management f r o m Janua r y 1978 to O c t o b e r 1980. Interv iews w i t h : E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of Ne i ghbourhood Se r v i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n A s s i s t an t to the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of N S A Depu t y D i r e c t o r for A g e n c y Ope ra t i on s , U n i t e d Way o f the L o w e r Ma in l and D i r e c t o r of the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House 5 c oo rd i n a t i n g s t a f f a t L i t t l e Moun ta i n 14 member s of the L i t t l e Moun ta i n Boa rd of D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r of the South Vancouver Ne ighbourhood House 7 c oo rd i na t i n g s t a f f at South Vancouve r 12 member s o f the South Vancouve r Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r of K i w a s s a Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s 7 c oo rd i na t i n g s t a f f at K i w a s s a 18 membe r s o f the K i w a s s a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s D i r e c t o r o f C e d a r C o t t a g e Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s 5 c oo rd i na t i n g s t a f f at C e d a r C o t t a g e 10 member s of the Boa rd of Management o f C e d a r C o t t a g e P re s i den t of the Canad i an A s s o c i a t i o n of Ne ighbourhood Se r v i ce s P r o g r a m and m i s ce l l aneous l i t e r a t u r e f r o m each o f the four ne ighbourhood houses. R e p o r t to C o u n c i l o f Sep tember 1978 on The L i t t l e Moun ta i n Ne ighbourhood House - 127 -APPENDIX INTERVIEW S C H E D U L E  F O R NE IGHBOURHOOD HOUSE D IRECTORS Introduction: My name is Sarah M e l l o r and I a m c u r r e n t l y f i n i sh ing a Ma s te r s thesis a t the U B C P l ann i n g S choo l . I a m look ing a t whethe r or not t he re a re d i f f e r e n c e s in the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and vo lun tee r r e c r u i t m e n t be tween those ne ighbourhood houses w h i c h a re membe r s o f the Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n and those wh i ch be long d i r e c t l y to the U n i t e d Way. I wou ld g r ea t l y a p p r e c i a t e your answer ing the f o l l o w i n g quest ions and I thank you in advance fo r your t i m e . I w i l l a lso be t a l k i n g to the D i r e c t o r s , o the r s t a f f , Boa rd member s and some other vo lun tee r s at th i s and at t h ree other ne ighbourhood houses in Vancouve r . I nc identa l l y , if any th ing I ask you is w r i t t e n down somewhere p lease r e f e r me t o i t and I w i l l save you t i m e . I'd l i ke to s t a r t by ask ing you some quest ions about the Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s here and about some of the other vo l un tee r s . 1) H o w are Boa rd member s r e c r u i t e d ? 2) What is the compo s i t i o n of the Boa rd ? Who do Boa rd member s tend to be? l ong - t ime res idents of the a rea ? p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s ? p ro fes s iona l s in the soc i a l s e r v i ce s f i e l d ? business peop le ? 3) H o w o f t e n does the Boa rd m e e t ? 4) What sorts o f i t ems f r equen t l y appear on the i r agendas? Who sets the agendas? 5) Is the Boa rd broken down in to S u b - C o m m i t t e e s ? If so, what are they, wha t is t he i r f u n c t i o n and how o f t e n do they m e e t ? 6) A r e S u b - C o m m i t t e e s e x p e c t e d to g i ve po l i c y d i r e c t i o n or c l a r i f i c a t i o n or do they mo re o f t e n i m p l e m e n t Boa rd dec i s ions or work on spec i a l p r o j e c t s ? 7) Is the Boa rd c a l l e d upon to make po l i c y dec i s i ons and i nd i ca te fu tu re d i r e c t i o n s f o r the ne ighbourhood house or does i t tend t o hear progress repor t s of the day - t o -day f u n c t i o n i n g o f the ne ighbourhood house? 8) H o w c l o s e l y do you work w i t h the Boa rd ? What i t ems wou ld you tend to discuss w i t h Boa rd member s and what i t ems do you usua l ly discuss w i t h s t a f f ? 9) Do Boa rd member s and s t a f f ever ser ious ly d i sagree on someth ing ? If so, wou ld you say th i s happened f r e q u e n t l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , or hard ly e ve r ? Would you g i ve me some recen t examp le s and t e l l me how the d i s ag reement was re so l ved? 10) H o w do you de f i ne a v o l un tee r ? - 128 -11) A b o u t how many vo l un tee r s are there at the ne ighbourhood house, not i n c l ud i ng B o a r d membe r s ? Abou t how many hours do they put in a mon th ? I understand tha t a l l ne ighbourhood houses put in th ree year report s to the U n i t e d Way w h i c h c o ve r , among o the r th ings , the number o f v o l un tee r s and t he i r hours o f s e r v i c e . M a y b e I should just look at th i s . 12) What sort o f th ings do vo lun tee r s do? D o any lead p rograms or superv i se o ther s ? 13) A r e vo l un tee r s an impo r t an t pa r t of the a c t i v i t i e s of the ne ighbourhood house or cou ld it f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the ex i s t i n g s t a f f ? 14) What is the a p p r o x i m a t e r a t i o o f vo l un tee r s to s t a f f ? How has this changed over the year s ? 15) H o w does the ne ighbourhood house r e c r u i t vo l un tee r s ? 16) A r e the re job de sc r i p t i on s for vo l un tee r s ? 17) A r e p o t e n t i a l v o l un tee r s s c reened? 18) Is t he re any k ind o f t r a i n i n g p r og r am or o r i e n t a t i o n for vo lun tee r s ? 19) Is the work o f vo lun tee r s e va l ua ted in any way ? If so, how is th i s done? 20) A r e there C I P , V IP, Y I P vo l un tee r s here? 21) What k ind o f turnover is t he re among vo lun tee r s ? Do you have any idea what the average length of s tay fo r a vo l un tee r is? 22) A r e vo l un tee r s r e w a r d e d in any f o r m a l or s y m b o l i c way ? 23) Where do ideas for p rograms c o m e f r o m ? Who is respons ib le for i m p l e m e n t -ing these ideas? C a n you g i ve me a r e cen t e xamp le ? N o w if you don ' t m ind I'd l i ke to ask you some quest ions about your se l f and the ro le of the D i r e c t o r at th i s ne ighbourhood house. 24) H o w long have you been in this job? 25) What a t t r a c t e d you to i t . What sort of work had you done be fo re ? 26) H o w we re your r e c r u i t e d or how d id you f i nd out about the job? 27) Who i n t e r v i e w e d you? Do you know who had the f i n a l say in s e l e c t i n g you? 28) What do you spend your work t i m e doing? H o w is your work week d i v ided up? 29) A r e t he re regu la r s t a f f meet i ng s ? Wh ich s t a f f a re i nvo l ved? 30) Do you hold regu lar meet ing s w i t h i nd i v idua l s t a f f membe r s ? If so, a re these oppo r tun i t i e s f o r e va l ua t i on o f s t a f f w o r k ? 31) When the re a r e d i s ag reement s on po l i c y or p r o g r a m i t ems how a re these dea l t w i t h ? C a n you g i ve me a r e cen t e x a m p l e ? - 129 -32) Do s t a f f membe r s repo r t t h e i r work to you on a regu la r bas is ? 33) When you have a p r ob l em r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the neighbourhood house whom do you most f r e q u e n t l y go to o ther than a f r i e n d fo r a d v i c e ? 34) Whose e va l ua t i on o f your work is most impo r t an t t o you? 35) D o you f e e l c o n n e c t e d to o ther ne ighbourhood houses? If so, w h i c h ones and in what way ? Do you mee t w i t h the D i r e c t o r s and s t a f f of o ther ne i ghbour -hood houses in e i t he r a f o r m a l or an i n f o r m a l way ? 36) What do you see as the purpose o f th is ne ighbourhood house? What a re you t r y i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h your work here? 37) A s s um ing tha t you prov ide leadersh ip to the Boa rd in what d i r e c t i o n s are you t r y i n g to lead t h e m ? 38) What do you th ink the ne ighbourhood house does w e l l ? What do you, pe r sona l l y , f e e l a g rea t dea l of s a t i s f a c t i o n about ? 39) In what a reas do you f e e l there cou ld be i m p r o v e m e n t ? N o w I have some quest ions about how the ne ighbourhood house v i ews i t s e l f in r e l a t i on to the c o m m u n i t y . 40) Do you or the rest of your s t a f f or the Boa rd see your se lves as a c t i n g as advoca te s fo r c o m m u n i t y conce rn s ? If so, wou ld you p lease e l a b o r a t e ? 41) Does th is ne ighbourhood house engage in what you would c a l l c o m m u n i t y o rnan i z i ng or a d v o c a c y ? Is t he re much lobby ing to change gove rnment p o l i c y wh i ch r e ce i ve s d i r e c t i o n or encou ragement f r o m the neighbourhood house? If so, can you g i ve me an e xamp le ? 42) Has the ne ighbourhood house ever go t ten into t roub le w i t h its fund ing sources, s p e c i f i c a l l y the c i t y , N S A , or U n i t e d Way, because o f any of i t s a c t i v i t i e s ? If so, what was the issue and what was the o u t c o m e ? We ' re a lmos t f i n i shed now. I just have a f ew f i n a l quest ions about your r e l a t i on sh ip w i t h N S A / U n i t e d Way. 43) H o w does N S A / U n i t e d Way p a r t i c i p a t e in the running o f th i s house? 44) H o w wou ld you c h a r a c t e r i z e the r e l a t i on sh i p w i t h N S A / U n i t e d Way? 45) In your op in ion , what a re the most impo r t an t bene f i t s de r i ved f r o m m e m b e r -ship in N S A / U n i t e d Way? 46) A r e there any s i g n i f i c an t p rob lems w i t h be long ing to N S A / U n i t e d Way? Do you f e e l t he ne ighbourhood house is c on s t r a i ned in any impo r t an t ways by e i t h e r ? If so, p lease e x p l a i n . T H A T ' S IT. IS T H E R E A N Y T H I N G Y O U W O U L D L I K E T O A D D O R E M P H A S I Z E ? T H A N K S ! - 130 -INTERVIEW S C H E D U L E  F O R NE IGHBOURHOOD HOUSE S T A F F (Other Than D i r e c t o r s ) Introduction: My name is Sarah M e l l o r and I a m c u r r e n t l y f i n i s h i ng a Ma s t e r s thes i s at the U B C P l ann i n g S choo l . I a m look ing at whe the r or not t he re are d i f f e r e n c e s in the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and vo l un tee r r e c r u i t m e n t be tween those ne ighbourhood houses w h i c h a re membe r s o f the Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n and those wh i ch be long d i r e c t l y to the U n i t e d Way. I wou ld g r ea t l y a p p r e c i a t e your answer ing the f o l l o w i n g quest ions and I thank you in advance fo r your t i m e . I w i l l a lso be t a l k i n g to the D i r e c t o r s , o ther s t a f f , Boa rd member s and some other vo l un tee r s at th i s and at th ree o ther ne ighbourhood houses in Vancouve r . I nc identa l l y , i f any th i ng I ask you is w r i t t e n down s omewhe re p lease r e f e r m e to i t and I w i l l save you t i m e . B e f o r e we s t a r t I'm not sure I know e x a c t l y what you do here. Would you de sc r i be your job to me and what you spend you work t i m e do ing. I'd l i ke to s ta r t by ask ing you some quest ions about the Boa rd of D i r e c t o r s here and the o ther vo l un tee r s at the neighbourhood house. 1) Do you have any c o n t a c t w i t h the Boa rd o f D i r e c t o r s ? If so, in what way ? Do you a t t e n d Boa rd meet ing s ? Do you submit w r i t t e n repor t s to t hem? D o y o u ta l k to i nd i v i dua l B oa rd member s on an i n f o r m a l , ca sua l bas i s ? O r a re most o f your deal ings w i t h the Boa rd th rouah the D i r e c t o r ? 2) Do you work w i t h any S u b - C o m m i t t e e s o f the Boa rd ? 3) What do you see as the f unc t i on o f the ne ighbourhood house Boa rd ? 4) What do you see as the f unc t i on of the s t a f f ? 5) H o w wou ld you de f i ne a v o l un tee r ? 6) A b o u t how many vo l un tee r s a re t h e r e a t the ne ighbourhood house? 7) What sorts o f th ings do they do? 8) What is the r a t i o of s t a f f to vo l un tee r s and how has tha t changed over the yea r s ? 9) H o w does the ne ighbourhood house r e c r u i t vo l un tee r s ? 10) Is t he re a t r a i n i n g p r o g r am or an o r i e n t a t i o n for new vo lun tee r s ? 11) Is the work o f v o l un tee r s e v a l u a t e d in any way ? If so, how? 12) A r e vo l un tee r s r ewa rded in any f o r m a l or s y m b o l i c way ? - 131 -13) What k ind o f tu rnove r is t he r e among vo l un tee r s ? 14) A r e vo l un tee r s an impo r t an t pa r t o f the work o f the ne ighbourhood house or c ou l d i t f u n c t i o n qu i t e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the ex i s t i n g s t a f f ? 15) Where do the ideas fo r new prog rams c o m e f r o m ? Us ing the e xamp l e of a s p e c i f i c p r o g r am can you desc r i be how it c a m e in to be ing . Who was i nvo l ved ? Who made the f i n a l dec i s i on to go ahead w i t h i t ? N o w I have some quest ions about how you v i e w the ne ighbourhod house in r e l a t i o n to the c o m m u n i t y . 16) Do you, as a s t a f f person here, see yourse l f as an advoca te for c o m m u n i t y conce rn s ? 17) Does th is ne ighbourhood house engage in what you wou ld c a l l c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z i n g or c o m m u n i t y a d v o c a c y ? Is t he re much lobby ing or work t o change gove rnment p o l i c y w h i c h r e c e i v e s d i r e c t i o n or encou ragement f r o m the ne ighbourhood house? If so, wou ld you g i ve me an e x a m p l e ? 18) Ha s any k ind o f c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z i ng or c o m m u n i t y advocacy ever go t ten th i s ne ighbourhood house in to t roub le w i t h any of the p r i n c i p a l fund ing agenc ie s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the C i t y , N S A or U n i t e d Way? Do you know of o ther ne ighbourhood houses w h i c h have go t t en into t roub le because of th i s k ind o f a c t i v i t y ? If ye s to e i t he r , wou ld you g i ve m e an e x a m p l e and t e l l m e what the o u t c o m e was. N o w if you don 't m ind I'd l i ke to ask you some quest ions about your se l f and your ro le here. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28; 29 H o w long have you been wo r k i n g here? What a t t r a c t e d you to this job? What sort o f work had you done be fo re ? H o w were your r e c r u i t e d or how d i d you f i n d out about the job? Who i n t e r v i e w e d you? Do you know who had the f i na l say in s e l e c t i n g you? Do you superv i se anyone? If so, how many peop le ? Who do you work most f r equen t l y w i t h ? Who do you repor t to ? When you have a quest ion or p r ob l em r e l a t ed to your job who do you most f r equen t l y go to fo r adv i ce ? A r e t he re regu la r s t a f f meet ing s here ? H o w invo l ved do you f e e l in the dec i s i ons w h i c h are made a t th is ne ighbour -hood house? H a v e t he re been d i s ag reement s on po l i c y or p r o g r a m issues among the s t a f f or b e tween the s t a f f and the D i r e c t o r ? If so, wou ld you g i ve me a r e c e n t e x a m p l e and t e l l me how the d i s ag reement was r e so l ved . Whose op in ion and e va l ua t i on o f your work means the most to you? - 132 -30) What do you see as the purpose o f th i s ne ighbourhood house? What are you t r y i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h your work here? 31) What do you th ink the ne ighbourhood house does w e l l ? What do you, pe r sona l l y , f ee l s a t i s f a c t i o n about ? 32) In what a reas do you f e e l t he r e cou ld be i m p r o v e m e n t ? We ' re a lmos t f i n i shed now. I just have a f e w f i n a l quest ions about how th i s ne ighbourhood house gets a long w i t h N S A / U n i t e d Way. 33) H o w would you say the ne ighbourhood house got a long w i t h N S A / U n i t e d Way? 34) In your op in ion , wha t a re the most impo r t an t bene f i t s de r i ved f r o m m e m b e r -ship in N S A / U n i t e d Way? 35) A r e the re any s i g n i f i c an t p rob lems w i t h be long ing to N S A / U n i t e d Way? Does N S A / U n i t e d Way con s t r a i n the ne ighbourhood house in any impo r t an t ways ? If so, p lease e x p l a i n . That ' s i t ! Is t he re any th i ng you wou ld l i k e to add or empha s i ze ? T H A N K S V E R Y M U C H F O R Y O U R A N S W E R S A N D Y O U R T I M E . - 1 3 3 -INTERVIEW S C H E D U L E F O R NE IGHBOURHOOD HOUSE B O A R D MEMBERS Introduction: My name is Sarah M e l l o r and I a m c u r r e n t l y f i n i sh ing a Ma s t e r s thesis a t the U B C P l a n n i n g S choo l . I a m look ing a t whethe r or not t he re a re d i f f e r e n c e s in the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and vo l un tee r r e c r u i t m e n t be tween those ne ighbourhood houses w h i c h a re membe r s of the Ne ighbourhood Se rv i ce s A s s o c i a t i o n and those w h i c h be long d i r e c t l y to the U n i t e d Way. I wou ld g r ea t l y a p p r e c i a t e your an swer ing the f o l l o w i n g quest ions and I thank you in advance fo r your t i m e . 1 w i l l a lso be t a l k i n g to o the r board member s , o ther vo lun tee r s , and to the s t a f f a t th i s and at t h ree o ther ne ighbourhood houses in Vancouve r . I nc identa l l y , if any th i ng I ask you is w r i t t e n down somewhere p lease r e f e r me to i t and I w i l l save you t i m e . 1) H o w long have you been a board membe r at th is ne ighbourhood house? 2) D i d you have any pr io r connec t i on w i t h the neighbourhood house? as a p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t ? i nvo lved in s e t t i n g i t up? 3) What made you dec ide to run for e l e c t i o n ? D i d someone approach you or nomina te you? If so, who? 4) A r e you on the Boa rd because o f any agency or o r gan i z a t i on ? 5) H o w o f t e n does the Boa rd m e e t ? 6) What sorts o f i t ems a re o f t e n on your agenda? 7) Is the Boa rd c a l l e d upon to m a k e po l i c y dec i s i ons or i nd i ca te f u t u re d i r e c t i o n s fo r the ne ighbourhood house? Does it mo re o f t e n hear repor t s f r o m the s t a f f ? 8) H o w c l o s e l y does the ne ighbourhood house D i r e c t o r work w i t h the B o a r d ? Do you f e e l he looks t o the Boa rd fo r adv i c e and p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n ? 9) A r e the re ever any major d i sag reement s be tween the Boa rd and the D i r e c t o r ? If so, wha t ? H o w were they reso lved? 10) Does the D i r e c t o r a t t e n d a l l Boa rd meet ing s ? 11) Is the Boa rd broken down into S u b - C o m m i t t e e s ? If so, wha t a re they, what do they do and how o f t e n do they m e e t ? A r e they a c t i v e or i n a c t i v e ? Do they c a r r y out impo r t an t work or does th is o c c u r in o ther f o rms such as Boa rd meet i ng s , S oc i t y meet ing s or s t a f f meet i ng s ? Do S u b - C o m m i t t e e s tend t o g i v e po l i c y d i r e c t i o n to the Boa rd or do they tend to i m p l e m e n t dec i s ions w h i c h have a l r eady been made ? Do they tend t o work on s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s ? If the answer is yes t o any o f these quest ions c an you g i ve me some examp le s . 12) Do you f e e l the D i r e c t o r should r epo r t his a c t i v i t i e s to the Boa rd ? Does he? - 1 3 4 -13) Do N S A or U n i t e d Way s t a f f ever a t t e n d any of your Boa rd meet ing s ? If so, how o f t e n and in what c a p a c i t y ? 14) When you f i r s t b e c a m e a Boa rd member d id N S A or U n i t e d Way or the ne ighbourhood house hold an o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r am fo r you or g i ve you any l i t e r a t u r e ? 15) Do other ne ighbourhood house s t a f f e ve r a t t e n d Boa rd meet ing s or does the D i r e c t o r usua l ly repo r t on the work of the s t a f f ? 16) Who do you f e e l the Boa rd is u l t i m a t e l y respons ib le to? 17) What do you see as the f unc t i on o f the ne ighbourhood house s t a f f ? N o w I have some quest ions about the work of o ther vo lun tee r s at the ne ighbourhood house. 18) H o w wou ld you de f i ne a vo l un tee r ? 19) A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many vo lun tee r s are the re at the ne ighbourhood house? Abou t how many hours a month do these vo l un tee r s put in? 20) What sorts of th ings do the vo lun tee r s do? 21) H o w are the vo lun tee r s r e c r u i t e d ? 22) A r e the re t r a i n i n g programs for vo lun tee r s ? Do they have an o r i e n t a t i o n to the work o f the ne ighbourhood house and of the Boa rd ? 23) A r e vo l un tee r s e va l ua ted in any way? 24) What k ind of tu rnover is t he re among vo lun tee r s ? 25) A r e vo l un tee r s r ewa rded in any f o r m a l or s ymbo l i c way ? 26) A r e vo l un tee r s an impo r t an t par t of the work of the ne ighbourhood house or cou ld it f u n c t i o n qu i te e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the ex i s t i n g s t a f f ? 27) I wan t to i n t e r v i e w a f e w of the other vo l un tee r s here. Who do you th ink I should ta l k to ? 28) H o w is the dec i s i on made to run or go a f t e r a new p rog r am? C a n you p lease de sc r i bed the steps i nvo l ved in a r ecen t dec i s i on to hold a new p r o g r am? Who was i nvo l ved in the dec i s i on ? Who made the f i n a l dec i s i on ? I have a f e w m o r e quest ions on you and your r o l e at the ne ighbourhood house. 29) Do you f e e l c o n n e c t e d in any way to o ther ne ighbourhood houses? Do you m e e t e i t h e r f o r m a l l y or i n f o r m a l l y w i t h Boa rd membe r s or s t a f f at o ther ne ighbourhood houses? 30) When you have a p r o b l e m r e l a t e d to the f unc t i on i n g of the ne ighbourhood house who do you most f r e q u e n t l y go t o fo r a d v i c e o t h e r than a f r i e nd ? 31) What do you see as the p r i m a r y purpose of th i s ne ighbourhood house? What a re you , pe r sona l l y , t r y i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h here? - 135 -32) What do you f e e l t he ne ighbourhood house does w e l l ? What do you f e e l a g rea t s a t i s f a c t i o n about ? 33) In what a reas do you f e e l t he re cou ld be i m p r o v e m e n t ? N o w I have some quest ions as t o how the ne ighbourhood house v i ews i t s e l f in r e l a t i o n to the c o m m u n i t y . 34) Does th is ne ighbourhood house engage in wha t you wou ld c a l l c o m m u n i t y o rgan i z i ng ? If so, wou ld you g i ve me an e x a m p l e . Is t he r e much lobby ing or work to change gove rnment p o l i c y wh i ch r e c e i v e s d i r e c t i o n or encou ragement f r o m the ne ighbourhood house? 35) Do you see your se l f or the Boa rd as an advoca te for c o m m u n i t y concern s ? 36) Ha s any k ind of c o m m u n i t y o r gan i z i ng or c o m m u n i t y advocacy ever go t ten th i s ne ighbourhood house in t roub le w i t h any of i t s fund ing sources , p a r t i c u -l a r l y the C i t y of Vancouve r , N S A or U n i t e d Way? If so, wou ld you p lease e l abo r a t e ? What was the o u t c o m e ? We ' re a lmos t f i n i shed now. I just have a f e w more quest ions about the ne ighbour -hood house's r e l a t i on sh ip w i t h the N S A / U n i t e d Way. 37) H o w wou ld you say the neighbourhood house got a long w i t h N S A / U n i t e d Way? 38) In your op in ion , what a re the most impo r t an t bene f i t s de r i ved f r o m m e m b e r -ship in N S A / U n i t e d Way? 39) A r e there any s i g n i f i c an t p rob lems w i t h be long ing to N S A / U n i t e d Way? Does N S A / U n i t e d Way member sh i p c on s t r a i n the ne ighbourhood house in any impo r t an t ways ? If so, p lease e x p l a i n . That ' s i t ! Would you l i ke to add t o empha s i z e any th ing ? T H A N K Y O U V E R Y M U C H F O R Y O U A N S W E R S A N D Y O U R T I M E . 

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