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Development of a built environment program for application and use in the B.C. secondary curriculum Davis, Susan Jacqueline 1981-12-31

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DEVELOPMENT OF A BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM FOR APPLICATION AND USE IN THE B.C. SECONDARY CURRICULUM by SUSAN JACQUELINE DAVIS B.Ed., The University of Victoria, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as confirming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 (c) Susan Jacqueline Davis, 1981 I In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Mrs. Susan Davis Department of Visual & Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place /•' Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April 4, 1981 E-6 (2/79) ii ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to develop an instructional program based upon the built environment for possible application to the British Columbia secondary school curriculum. In this study, the built environment is defined as the man-made buildings and structures that play a vital role in human activity. Educational programs related to the study of the built environment are well developed in Britain and the U.S.A. but little has been done to develop programs specifically for B.C. schools. The topic is deemed important and relevant for inclusion in the curriculum due to the important role man's en vironment plays in everyday life, human activities, heritage and culture. A built environment program was developed for pilot testing based upon the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art/curriculum and the stated desirable behavioral objectives in education. A series of "idea mat rices" was developed incorporating program objectives with the matrix content serving as a stimulus for program content. The educational program consisted of an activity workbook entitled "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" and containing a variety of study activity suggestions for classroom use. The content of the workbook emphasized sensory experience and awareness of the built environment, the study of the use of design and materials in built en vironment and development of critical appraisal and judgment skills by the individual. The activity workbook was evaluated by a six week situational testing program in three greater Vancouver area schools and involving grades 10-12 level classes. Evaluation procedures consisted of evaluator's observations, teacher and student questionnaires, and a quantitative test administered to two classes involved in the study program prior to, and following exposure i i i to the activity workbook. Results of situational testing revealed a highly positive teacher and student response in one test class as evidenced by the evaluator's observa tions, innovative output demonstrated by activity reports of students, teach er and student questionnaire response, and student reaction to the material. Implementation difficulties were identified with a second class which consis ted of slow learners and students with a poor academic performance history. This group appeared to have difficulty with verbal and written responses to the material and were somewhat resistant to it. Nevertheless, quantitative analysis indicated statistically significant increases in knowledge, compre hension and judgment skills related to the built environment in both classes exposed to the material. There was no statistically significant change in performance of the control group to which the quantitative test was adminis tered but which was not exposed to the study material. Strengths of the program included evidence of heightened individual awareness and interest in the built environment, development of critical judgment, innovative output in terms of results produced through study activ ities, and positive motivation towards the subject, particularly in the mod erate to fast learner test group. Problems associated with the program as tested, included difficulty experienced by some students with written mater ial in some sections of the workbook, need for vocabulary explanation or sim plification, and need for more complete instructions for teachers. In addition, difficulties in implementation were identified for slow learner groups. These concerns resulted in modification of the workbook content. The activity workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" is judged to have good potential for useful inclusion in the B.C. secondary curriculum with application to the study of art, social studies, architecture, and urban planning. Pilot testing of the program in B.C. schools over a one year trial period is recommended. V Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES viLIST OF FIGURES viiACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Why the built environment? 1 Conceptions of curriculum in art education 4 Education programs related to the built environment in effect in the U.S.A. and Britain 8 2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM PROGRAM 17 The basic components and relations of the program 17 Conceptions upon which the program is based 19 Intents (objectives) of the program 23 Translation of intents into means - planning of the program ., 25 Technical evaluation of the program 34 3. -FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM 9 Preparation 3Evaluation methodology . . . . 40 Objectives of the evaluationSpecifics of the pilot testing program 41 Results of the evaluation 5Evaluator's observations of the pilot testing program ... 51 Teacher response to the program - teacher questionnaires. . 54 Student reaction to the program - student questionnaires. . 57 Quantitative pre- and post-test results 59 vi Chapter Page 4. DISCUSSION 61 Synopsis of the evaluation findings 6Strengths of the program and satisfaction of objectives 61 Concerns about the program and suggested improvements. . . 66 Program analysis - critical evaluation of the program. . . 70 Potential for implementation of the program in the B.C. curriculum 81 5. CONCLUSION 90 BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 APPENDICES 97 I-Part A - The activity workbook, "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" as tested 98 Part B - Revisions of the workbook arising from testing 173 II-Format for technical evaluation of the program 201 Ill-Important points to consider when designing a for-ative evaluation of a program 208 IV-Results of teacher and student questionnaires 212 V-Details of the quantitative evaluation (pre- and post-tests) administered to test and control groups 235 Vl-Synopsis of evaluator's observations 244 List of Tables Table Page 1. Educational programs related to the study of the built environment in U.S. schools and educational institutions .... 9 2. Synopsis of ends-means relationships within the program 24 3. Visual-physical aspects of the built environment 26 4. Psycho-social aspects of the built environment 28 5. Economic-technical aspects of the built environment 30 6. Illustration of how the visual-physical matrix (table 3) was used to develop content and emphasis in the workbook .... 35 7. Fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches 42 8. Clusters of evaluation-guiding concerns 44 9. Details of classes participating in the pilot testing program . . 46 10. Timetable for pilot testing of workbook activities in school A . . 47 11. Timetable for pilot testing of workbook activities in school B . . 49 12. Statistical treatment of results from the pre- and post tests in the three schools 60 13. Concerns about the program arising from results of the pilot testing program 7 14. Behavioral objectives and G.L.O.'s arrayed in tabular form for evaluation of their correspondence with workbook contents and structure of the pre- and post-tests 73 viii List of Figures Figure Page 1. Components of the program used in evaluation 18 2. Program components diagrammed in an ends-means relationship ... 18 3. Ends-means diagram including the conceptual framework of the program ' 19 4. Graph used to determine readability of the workbook contents . . 38 ix Acknowledgements I should like to express my sincere appreciation for the help extended to me by a number of people in the preparation of this thesis and the work book material. In particular, the assistance and support provided by my ad visory committee is most appreciated. Dr. Graeme Chalmers gave supportive advice in selection of the topic and frequently provided assistance in the preparation of the workbook and offered suggestions for the pilot testing program. Dr. James Gray was particularly helpful with curriculim and evalua tion aspects of the program and Professor Abraham Rogatnick of the School of Architecture was very helpful with his special insight into architectural matters and concerns. In addition, Dr. Walter Werner provided considerable guidance in program evaluation methodology and curriculum concepts and kindly permitted me to use a number of his evaluation approaches jointly developed with Dr. D. Massey of the University of Alberta. I am also indebted to the teachers, students and administrators who participated in numerous ways in the pilot testing of the program. Unfortu nately, those individuals must remain anonymous for purposes of this presen tation. Their enthusiastic support and participation made the program possible and also enjoyable and instructive. Lastly, my deep appreciation is expressed to my husband, John, for his patience and support throughout the work as well as his assistance with typing of draft copies of the manuscript and statistical procedures. S.D. 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Why the Built Environment? Living creatures interact with their environment and are fundamentally influenced by it. Man is by no means exluded from this relationship and by his nature and intellect, has the means to alter or shape his environment by transforming natural or man-made objects into the built form. This built form is termed the built environment. Implicit in this relationship between man and his environment are the influences of human emotions, feelings and sensitivity, cultural heritage, social patterns, lifestyle, and the nature and variety of human activity. Man is, with few exceptions, not a solitary creature and therefore confines himself to social groupings which may be termed tribes, societies, ethnic groupings, etc., usually organized around some physical built arrange ment of structures such as camps, villages, towns, cities or large metro politan assemblages. As modern man is to a large extent an urban dweller, this urban setting plays a vital and constant role in his total lifestyle. The city and its structure is based upon man's activity and the physical and functional aspects of the city govern and in some cases, constrain man's activities. It is therefore apparent that the built environment is a parti cularly important feature in the life of man and it follows that the study of this environment is a particularly suitable topic for the education of our children. Furthermore, due to the urban setting of our lives and our ability to create and transform the built environment, it is particularly important for students to become aware of their surroundings and to realize that they have the potential to appraise, preserve, change, improve and create their built environment. The art teacher in a school system with a curriculum intended to meet the needs of society has a responsibility to educate students in aspects of 2 art considered relevant to the goals of the educational system and the curriculum objectives of that system. Adams (1977) points out that art teachers often have difficulty articulating and defending the role of art education in the study of the built environment. She feels that there is a common tendency for art teachers to retire to the security of the classroom or studio and concentrate on creating art products, developing craft skills or giving students experience with art materials. Adams points out that most art teachers appear concerned with developing "self-expression" or "self-awareness" in students but tend to forget that such qualities depend on the subjective response of the individual to the external world that he or she perceives. Chippindale and Ward (1979) argue that it is fitting for the teacher to become involved in the business of architectural interpretation. In their view, there is a great need to increase students' awareness of their surround ings and to make students understand those surroundings. The authors argue that much may be gained through the revelation of meanings through firsthand ' experience and that education of the senses should be a major task of the schools. Chippindale and Ward assert that teaching a child to be sensitive to his environment may lead him to form opinions, make judgments and do some thing positive as a result of his sensitivity. Thus, they maintain that interest and concern for built environment is an important attribute of citizenship and is therefore a very important aspect of education. This study is concerned with the role of the art teacher in the subject area where art, design and environmental education interests overlap. It suggests that there is a need for the curriculum to give serious considera tion to the development by students of critical skills and ability to make and explain judgments. The intent is to develop a program concerned with the built environment and art education for possible application within the B.C. Secondary School curriculum. 3 In addition to the important role the built environment plays in the lifestyle of man as outlined previously, the educational value of including the study of the built environment in either art or multidisciplinary curri culum may be expanded as follows. First, the study of the built environment allows teachers to examine the necessity for preservation of historical structures and to use those structures as examples of past art and archi tectural forms. The report of the Built Environment Education Center (1977) cites the following educational objectives of preservation activities: -to make students aware that the built environment is the result of a historical process and development which can be understood, even though not always logical and predictable. -to make students aware that the built environment has imbedded in its fabric the story of development, the history of the society who built it, and the history of the materials and technology used in its devel opment. -to make students aware that the character of a place is determined in part by the old buildings which tell its story. -to make students aware that old buildings and neighborhoods must be kept alive and vital in order to retain that link with the past upon which our personal and community identity depends. -to make students aware that old buildings can have new uses, and need not simply be torn down and replaced by new ones. Another useful educational function of the study of the built environ ment is illustrated by programs which use the city as a "learning laboratory" (Bulletin of Environmental Education, Jan. 1979; Macaulay, 1976; Schneider & Schneider, 1954). By this approach, the structure, function, appearance, social context, sensory impact, economic, historical, architectural and other aspects of the community can be integrated in a study program designed to emphasize these elements by interactive exposure to the city. Furthermore, aspects of the future of the built environment may be emphasized to illus trate the values of town planning, innovative architecture, artistic elements, creation of recreational, commercial or other environments, to emphasize the pleasing aspects of architecture and design, and to integrate structure, 4 function and beauty with urban planning. Eriksen and Smith (1978) provide an excellent rationale for the impor tance of art to the consideration of the built environment. They assert that the "built environment is an art form" and point out that McFee (1974a) maintains that we must "develop the capacity to use art as a humanizing force in improving the quality of life on earth". Erikson and Smith observe that there is a great potential for using the built environment to "help children understand and participate in the art process". They point out that the built environment is space divided into functional elements (build ings, parks, streets, gardens, etc.) and that we respond to elements of space and form with our feelings just as we respond to art objects. Erikson and Smith posit that one of the prime functions of education is that of "helping children learn how to see" and that built environmental education places a heavy stress on visual awareness and offers a rich choice of visual images. Furthermore, there is an opportunity for children to observe space, structure, shape, colour, form, scale,light and shadow, texture and function as well as the concepts of systems and wholes. Lastly, the approach emphasizes obser vation and notation of detail, awareness of environment, recording of infor mation, appraisal, criticism and the development of analytical thought. In the following pages current trends in curriculum thought and the underlying conceptions of the author are summarized and examples of existing built environmental education programs are reviewed. Detailed information is presented on the methods used by the author to develop a curriculum program for use in the B.C. Secondary School system based upon preparation, testing and evaluation of an activity workbook in three senior secondary schools. The effectiveness of the approach is examined in relationship to possible use of the material in the B.C. Secondary School .curriculum. Conceptions of Curriculum in Art Education There are a great many viewpoints on curriculum content in art education 5 and indeed the subject is controversial. It is evident that the nature of curriculum in the field has undergone significant change in recent years. In developing a curriculum package for possible incorporation in the B.C. art education curriculum, it is important that we examine curriculum trends and emphasis in order to ensure that what is proposed is relevant to existing orientations in the school system and contemporary thought in art education. Eisner and Vallance (1974) categorized five major perspectives of the nature and function of school curriculum as employed today or in the past: 1) Development of Cognitive Processes: child-oriented, deals with refinement of intellectual operations and sharpening of cognitive skills. 2) Curriculum as Technology: process oriented, deals with the techno logy by which knowledge is communicated and learning is facilitated. The presentation of material is stressed. 3) Self-actualization or Curriculum as Consummatory Experience: child-oriented, focus on content and the need to produce personally satisfying experiences for the learner. Stresses educational self-discovery and enrichment. 4) Social Reconstruction-relevance: stresses the role of education and curriculum content in a social context. Deals with social reform and analysis of the present and future needs of society. Societal needs rather than individual needs are stressed. 5) Academic Rationalism: stress is placed on the established disciplines of a classic nature which are thought!.to contain the properties necessary for stimulating intellectual growth and success in society. Eisner's and Vallance's classification of curriculum orientations is useful in that it allows us to visualize and examine trends in curriculum thought, either of a contemporary nature or of the past. While there is 6 considerable room for debate on the. appropriateness of the above classi-fication, it is fair to say that of the range of possible curriculum orientations, those which stress classic disciplines, emphasis on method and skill development and technology, have been replaced in modern usage by a . more holistic approach that stresses the individual and his development to full potential. Thus, the contemporary approach is highly child-oriented. Dorn (1978) observed that a major historical trend occurred in art education in the schools in the 1960's which saw the recognition of the art program as a body of "developmental activity" which included "creative involvement". Hurwitz and Madeja (1977) relate that irv the 1960's the art program in the schools had three major expectations (stated but not necessarily achieved): -the making of the art object (the art experience) -knowing about art objects and events (art history) -critical analysis of the art object (art appreciation) Today, art curriculum proponents stress the need for "aesthetics" and "aesthetic experience" (not necessarily defined) in art education and argue that this experience is essential to the development of skills which optimize human development (Broudy, 1977; Williams, 1977). A significant point in the current approach is that training the child to be more sensitive and critical of his surroundings is considered important and contributory to enabling the child to lead a more complete and enjoyable life. Aoki (1978) maintains that art curriculum must be centered on man-world relationships and should contain a search for meaning and critical assessment of fundamental interests, values, assumptions and implications for human societal action. Eisner (1973) stresses the need for recognition of the fact that educa tional values change with time and that things that appear important today may be trivial at a later date and vice versa. In the art field, trends, techniques and emphasis are highly influenced by cultural settings and values popular at the time. Eisner advocates development of a "clinical criticism" 7 based upon the philosophy that crlti.ci.sm can be defined as the ability to understand art in its historical and contemporary context with a sensitive eye and an ability to articulate and describe the qualities that constitute the work. Eisner's concepts have important applications to the development of curriculum content concerning art and the built environment. McFee (1974b) emphasizes the importance of integrating cultural, socie tal and human characteristics with the study of art education. She points out that we must recognize the differences in attitudes, response, apprecia tion of art objects and their meaning, and the meanings of art objects amongst subcultures. Similarly, cultural heritage and background of differ ent groups may serve as excellent stimuli to illustrate differing responses to art experiences in students. This suggests that for the teacher, an important aspect of the study of the built environment could be helping students understand the value of art in culture and the way it transmits values and attitudes as well as the richness of art forms of different cultures. Efland (1976) supports this view and maintains that an anthropolo gical approach to art was desirable with emphasis on examination of diverse cultures and their values. Jones (1979) and Mann (1979) point out the influence of past class structure of society on our current attitudes and that many of these attitudes are descended from class characteristics of earlier periods of history. This heritage is important in determining and understanding our present day attitudes and responses to art and the environment. In summary, the current perspective in art'education stresses a holistic approach toward development of highly child-oriented teaching methods designed to stress development of the student to full potential. It is considered desirable that students develop an ability to appraise and under stand art in its historical, contemporary and cultural context and be able to describe critically, the qualities that constitute the work. 8 Education Programs Related to the Built Environment  in Effect in the U.S.A. and Britain A broad spectrum of built environment programs for school children has been developed, most notably in the United Kingdom, but also in the U.S.A. No doubt the development of these programs stems from many factors, not the least of which is the recognition that environmental forms are the art forms that are experienced by students most frequently and that such forms have the capacity to affect the individual, and the individual in turn, has the capacity to affect the environment. In addition, there has been recognition of the need to address questions of urban renewal, numerical and social popu lation pressures, awareness of heritage buildings and preservation concerns, identification of the problems of large urban centers, and a growing awareness of the need to study man and his relationship to his environment. Chalmers (1981) provided a comprehensive bibliography of recent literature on built environment education as a source of ideas and potential approaches. While it is impossible to survey all existing and past programs in detail, the following discussion will illustrate the types of programs, variety, structure and approach taken. The report of the Built Environment Education Center (1978) provided an excellent overview of built environmental education programs in the U.S. teaching system. The nature of these programs is summarized in Table 1. In Britain there is a wealth of studies related to the built environment many of which center on the study and preservation of heritage structures which abound. For example, a comprehensive report on the significance and outcome of European Architecture and Heritage Year (1975) describes the study program at all educational levels related to the built environment. Many examples of programs developed by local education authority initiatives, national influences and program development authorities, special courses and programs, adult education conferences, exhibitions, award and competition Table I - Educational Programs Related to the Study of the Built Environment in U.S. Schools and Educational Institutions (after B.E.E.C. Report, April, 1978). Level Sponsoring Group Program Location & Date Program Content and Theme Preschool New Jersey School of Architecture " Architects-In-Schools. Program Schools Architecture/ Environmental Arts component of the Artists-In-Schools Program " Pennsylvania School System Higher School of Archi-Education tecture and Planning a College of Educa tion, U. of New Mexico Maryland Daycare Center, 1974 Kindergarten Glen Cove, Long I., New York U.S. Schools on a national basis 1976 Commencement Workshops in Pennsylvania Properties of space, size relationships, colours, functions of space Basic building techniques, spatial concepts, reconstruction of the classroom environment, planning the creation and function of neigh borhoods and circles, exploration of unusual spaces, interaction of man and environment Architects and environmental designers acted as resource people to teachers and students in projects dealing with awareness of personal space, space requirements, actual construction of school sites Design projects - "Snug-As-A-Bug-House", "Energy House", "Hide Away for Two", conducted as workshops for children New Mexico schools, Architecture, man and man-made relationships, public institu tions, community centers, 1977 Com mencement human growth and development needs. The School of Architecture and Planning serves as a center for in struction of graduate students and others from a variety of disciplines to work with schools and public institutions in the field of built environmental education National Endowment for the Humanities Temple University Social history, material culture, environmental studies, Philidelphia, Ame- architectural criticism, social geography, literature rican Studies Pro- and economics are explored in an interdisciplinary frame-gram work with emphasis on research and presentation techniques for use in community programs Table I (cont'd) Level Sponsering Group Program Location & Date Community U. of Kansas, Institu- Museum of Art tions University Museum and classroom in Lawrence, Kansas (current program Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences Please Touch Museum Philadelphia (current) The Learner Exchange, A Teacher Center Kansas City, Missouri (current program) National Organiz ations American Institute of Archi tects Environmental Educa tion Committee, Pub lications for elemen tary and secondary schools National Endowment for the Arts Funding of curriculum materials for schools & community use on a national basis Program Content and Theme The physical components and sensual elements of a city and other aspects of space are featured in a school participation program "Space: Inside/Outside". Class room museum exercises feature a portfolio of materials and follow-up exercises which encourages students to reflect on what is observed and the relationship of the experience to their own experience of their cities Handling, enjoying and learning from contact with objects from the arts and sciences A four-part series of workshops for teachers is designed to make the processes of the city more visible and accessible and to enable teachers to develop study programs for classroom use Publications of a series of teacher guides for class room application and activity of the Committee to act as a catalyst for local initiatives Grant support for the National Trust for Historic Preservation (curriculum, rennovation, restoration, adaptive re-use); U.S. Forest Service lesson plans in "Investigating Your Environment", including collection of information about liveability, functions, needs and problems of an urban community Table I (cont'd) Level Sponsoring Group Program Location & Date Local Groups CBT Architects of Reconstruction project & People Boston in S. Boston, Mass. Hoosuck Community North Adams, Mass., Resources Corp. 1975-76 Program Content and Theme Development and implementation of a procedure where the community was involved in the design process necessary for reconstruction of the city streets Project goal was to enhance the quality of community life through the use of design concepts. Re juvenation projects included involvement of the community and High School students in a public aware ness and historical research program 12 programs, educational broadcasting and affiliated European programs are described. The range of study themes include: -architectural and built environment themes -studies of historical context of specific groupings of buildings -early settlement, landscape and building form and function -plants, animals, homes and fine building -science, engineering of structures, organic and architectural design elements and function -art skills in relation to the built environment ( -interdisciplinary activities in the arts (costumes, painting, music, historical plays and sketches, recreation of the past) -recreation of existing and old buildings in model form from real life, old drawings, photographs, interviews -village and town architectural "trails" which serve to guide observers through specific examples of the built environment -study guides and brochure development for historical tours, tourism, and study of building elements; map preparation ' -questionnaires for public response to Heritage Year, preservation, function and use of heritage structures, architectural matters, urban planning -studies of problems of urban development and planning such as old villages lost in modern construction, population and social pressures, use of space, conservation and enhancement -preparation of films, slide shows, tapes and other media presentations on the built environment -planning housing estates (design, function, landscaping, green space, studies of community attitudes, selection of materials) -comparison of old and new building techniques (materials, function, design elements, types of uses for buildings) 13 -coordinated programs between architects and educators (eg. London "Front Door" project) with joint curriculum development for application to all grade levels In the British system, several techniques appear to have been commonly used in the incorporation of the built environment theme into education programs: Critical Appraisal, Buildings and Townscapes The purpose of this area of emphasis is to develop discriminatory skills and a critical approach to the study of the built environment in the indivi dual. Students are encouraged to articulate responses of a critical nature, perform comparisons, look at the pleasing and displeasing aspects of what they see, examine use of space and the functional aspects of built forms, and act as effective "critics" of what they perceive. This approach offers scope for examination of problems in architecture and planning and considers the future as well as past events. The intent implied by the approach is that students may be better prepared to play a part in shaping their environment following such exposure. Sensing the Environment This study area provides direct experience with what we see, hear, smell, touch and taste and how we organize and interpret these sensory stimuli. The study area is concerned with enlarging the students' capacity to respond and learn from their own experience. The sensory approach can be facilitated by the use of "games" or other devices which encourage exploratory activities and "scorekeeping" as children follow a "sensory walk" (an experience which con centrates on sensory information perceived by the individual as he or she moves through the built environment). Town Trails The town trail study approach uses a previously established "trail" or route through a selected portion of the built environment which has been 14 chosen to emphasize important aspects' of that environment such as aesthetic or historical features of interest. Students mayfollow trails devised by their teacher or may be encouraged to develop and describe their own trails. Evaluation of the method has indicated that it is highly desirable to design trails which elicit a critical response to townscape and deal not only with built form but with spatial qualities as well. Steeple Chasing In this approach, a central visual attraction such as a church steeple or prominent building is selected as a focal point and various spaces are examined in relationship to that object. The focal point is viewed from various vantage points and spatial relationships to adjacent buildings are noted. The technique utilizes an experiential device for the comparison of space and the assessment of townscape quality or lack thereof. The approach is applicable to the study of use of space, connections, network design, linking space and the analysis of spatial qualities. Space relationships may be studied by notation, annotated sketches, etc. and the results may be dis cussed in class. Trails leading to the central object may be prepared which explore a variety of spatial qualities. Annotated Sketches, Annotated Photographs, Slide Programs Annotated sketches and photographs provide a useful way of recording in formation and deepening the response and analytical approach to townscape appraisal. Use of drawing as a mode of analysis provides instruction in perception, recognition, organization and presentation of sensory stimuli and the execution and presentation of good photography has similar effects. Cap tions can be used to good effect in lending or altering meaning, emphasizing study features and bringing out interrelationships. Content may be detailed, comparison facilitated, and analysis encouraged by use of annotation of photo graphs and sketches. Similarly, slides provide good documentation of town scape, can be assembled according to specific themes, communicate ideas and 15 concepts, and can be combined with talks, tapes, or written material for presentation. Many other techniques may be employed in addition to those mentioned and combinations of approaches may be highly productive. Obviously, a great deal has been done in this field, particularly in Britain, with regard to the development of built environmental education programs that are highly diversified and may be applied to all educational levels, from pre-school to adult and community education programs. It is also apparent that many discip lines may be included in the study of the built environment and that art edu cation plays an important role in considerations of architecture, design, urban planning, historical trend analysis, cultural and social context, quality and beauty of environment, and preservation and conservation of heritage structures. Educational Programs Related to the Built Environment in British Columbia At present, the study of the built environment does not receive formal recognition in the B.C. school curriculum. Some aspects of the built environ ment may be considered in instructional materials used for Social Studies, Architecture, History, and aspects of Art. However, emphasis on the study of the built environment is slight and largely at the discretion and personal interest of the teacher. A major causative factor in this lack of focus on the built environment in our school system may be the lack of instructional material for teachers and students. Very few books, study guides or instruc tional packages exist on the subject that make reference to the B.C. environ ment and are designed for instructional purposes. Some excellent reference material is available on B.C. history, heritage buildings, architecture, community structure and planning; however, little practical instructional material exists to familiarize students and teachers with the topic and to illustrate how reference material may be utilized in support of a study of the built environment. One excellent Canadian book, The Teacher and the City, 16 (Symonds, 1971) provides detailed instructions for teachers interested in developing study materials related to the urban environment but there is little material available for students themselves. A major goal of this study is to address this lack of instructional material. The aim is prepara tion of a study program for use by both teachers and students in B.C. schools at the secondary level with specific examples drawn from B.C. urban and rural settings. 17 Chapter 2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM PROGRAM The Basic Content and Design of the Program If we were to investigate programs in actual use, we would find that regardless of how any one of us may wish to define the word "program", we would all be able to isolate some basic components. These components are: Intents: What are we to accomplish or achieve? Activities: How are we to accomplish the intents? Resource Materials: With what are we to achieve the intents? Evaluation: How do we appraise the quality and effectiveness of the program? The intents of a program may be defined as the purposes or goals of the program. The activities are the "how" of the program. Activities are what teachers and students and others participating in the program are supposed to be doing in order to achieve the intended outcomes. These activities commonly encompass teaching methodology, learning strategies, and classroom organi zation designed to bring about the planned goals. Resource materials constitute any material which has been selected for program participants to interact with including things such as textbooks, films, persons, situations or objects of some kind. Evaluation is concerned with how to acquire evidence about the successes of the program relative to achievement of its intents. These compo nents may be simply diagrammed as follows"'': W. Werner and T. Aoki, Programs for People. 1979 (pre-publication draft) 18 Figure 1 It is important to note the relationship among the four components in figure 1. There exists an "ends-means" relationship in any program. The "ends" of a program refer to our goals, intents, purposes or objectives and the reasons why the program is being developed. It is important to specify what we wish to accomplish and what outcomes are expected. The "means" of a program are represented by the activities and resource materials which are both instrumental to achieving the ends. The means are concerned with how we are going to accomplish our purposes and with what materials. In a sense, the means are a vehicle for getting the program to an anticipated destination. The diagram in figure 1 can therefore be modified as indicated below. Figure 2 19 This definition of a program as an end-means relationship can be further thought of as a plan. As a plan, a program is an organized scheme of ends-means relationships. As an experience, a program is the way in which the plan is actually worked out by the participants when using means to achieve certain ends. My focus throughout this program will be on plan and experience. Conceptions Upon Which the Program is Based The underlying conceptions of any program can be defined as the values, assumptions, beliefs, priorities, opinions or biases upon which the program is based (Werner and Aoki, 1979). The diversity of such conceptions may be as great as the differences among individuals engaged in developing a given program as each person will approach the topic in his or her particular way. These conceptions play a very important role in shaping the nature and char acter of any program. The ends-means diagram (figure 1) may thus be modified to include the conceptual framework under which the program is developed. Figure 3 In the introduction of this study report, various classifications of curriculum conceptions outlined by Eisner and Vallance (1974) were summarized. In order to understand better the nature of the program of study on the built environment proposed here, it is important to examine the conceptions of 20 curriculum held by the author while developing the program. Using the definitions of Eisner and Vallance (1974), it is possible to categorize my approach to program development in three ways: stress on devel opment of cognitive processes, curriculum as technology, and curriculum for purposes of social reconstruction and relevance. To illustrate this point, it is worthwhile to examine each of these conceptions as it applies to the program. Development of cognitive processes centers on the refinement of intellec tual processes so that they are sharpened and so that cognitive skills are developed which may be applied to any subject matter. Eisner and Vallance specified that this approach is process oriented in two says. Schooling is viewed as a means to provide the student with "a repertoire of essentially content independent cognitive skills applicable to a variety of situations". Secondly, emphasis is placed upon "understanding the process by which learning occurs in the classroom". This is envisioned as a child-centered approach and the cognitive skills are thought to grow with time and experience. It is very important to introduce students to the study of the built environment. This may be done in a gradual way, with stress placed upon devel opment of comprehension concepts and progressive assimilation of more complex concepts. A key objective of the program, as outlined in the Introduction, is to teach students to think about their environment in an analytical way, to form judgments, and to develop the ability to evaluate their surroundings. Development of such ability demands a gradual stepwise sequence in program content and complexity suited to the needs of the individual and his ability to refine cognitive processes. Curriculum as technology is concerned with the process by which learning jf occurs. The process is aimed at developing educational technology for the communication of knowledge and for the facilitation of learning. Emphasis is' placed upon effective packaging and presentation to make subject matter logical, clear and concise. The approach of systems analysis is evident here, with the 21 educational process defined as the means by which specific objectives of educa tion are met. Packaged education guidebooks, manuals, audio and video instruc tion programs, etc. which are highly structured can be thought of as good examples of educational curriculum with a technological conception. As there is a serious lack of instructional material available for both students and teachers with respect to the study of the built environment in the British Columbia setting, a major objective of this program has been to prepare an activity workbook for use in the schools, which could serve as an introduction and idea sourcebook suited to the B.C. environment. Such an activity guidebook can be viewed as a technological approach where there is an attempt to "package" the topic and distill, organize, and follow a logical ends-means process. I was conscious, however, of the dangers of such an approach; namely, creation of a rigid, highly structured program that left little room for innovation or expression of personal initiative. Thus, while the objective was to produce an activity workbook, my approach has been to treat the workbook more as a sourcebook for ideas and ways of approaching the study of the built environment rather than to restrict the users through adoption of a rigid format. Although technological methods (photography, sketching, use of notes, tape-recording, model construction) form a part of the content of the activities described in the program, the process concen trates upon recording the experiences of the individual for further analysis and communication rather than the technical aspects of the recording techniques themselves. In the social reconstruction-relevance philosophy, the role of education and curriculum within the social and political context of society is stressed. Often the needs of the individual are considered less important than those of society. Essentially, the education system may be envisioned as a means for societal change or improvement. The philosophy therefore is problem oriented or anticipatory in nature and the schools serve as a mechanism for achieving 22 perceived societal needs. Another view of this conception of curriculum held by some educators (Metcalf and Hunt, 1974) is that the demand that education be relevant to the needs of the individual as well as society. The philosophy is concerned with the "fit" between the individual and society and with equipping the individual to function well in a rapidly changing world. Fur-, thermore, the student may be regarded as the instrument for affecting change, i.e. the schools may motivate him to do something constructive for society. As stated in the Introduction, strong arguments can be raised for inclu ding the study of the built environment in school curriculum. These arguments can be classed as being based upon a social reconstruction-relevance philo sophy. It is evident that population growth, shortages of energy and raw materials, transportation problems, environmental degradation, preservation and concern for culture and heritage, as well as the role of the individual in addressing these problems are of considerable concern to all levels of society. Thus the program definitely contains social reconstructionist philosophies aimed at the development of critical judgment and awareness in the individual which are expected to better equip students for societal pressures and change and also to prepare them to intervene actively to shape environmental change and improvement. From the above, it is evident that several conceptions of curriculum underlie this program and that the strongest conception is of a social-recon-structionist nature with emphasis placed upon the benefits of the program for the individual and the preparation of that individual for the future. As Werner arid Aoki (1979) point out, a program is usually not based upon a single conception of curriculum and several viewpoints are often involved. Emphasis on the value of the program to the individual lends another funda mental criterion for the program development process; this is the importance placed upon individual experience, sensations and interaction with the built environment as a vehicle for learning. This stress on experiential aspects 23 of learning may be considered as a fourth underlying conception of the program. Development of the Program The structure of the program is based upon the elements outlined in table 2 which specifies the ends-means content of the program. Each of the major elements of the program development phase will be examined in the following pages while the evaluation phase of the program will be presented in a separate section. Intents (Objectives) of the Program  Broad Objectives Curriculum objectives in art education in the B.C. Secondary system today are governed by several broad goals termed "General Learning Outcomes" (G.L.O.'s). The most recent version of the G.L.O.'s specified four major learning outcomes as desirable in art education: -The student should demonstrate knowledge of, ability to apply, and consideration for: Imagery Elements and Principles of Design Historical and Contemporary Developments Reasoned Criticism -These four general learning outcomes should be carried out in conjunction with appropriate: -materials -tools and equipment -processes -vocabulary It follows then, that development of a program designed to acquaint teachers and students with the study of the built environment should take into account these G.L.O.'s and incorporate them as core objectives of the program. Specific Objectives Table 2- Synopsis of Ends-Means relationships within the program. Intents (Objectives) Activities (Means) Resource Materials (Means) Evaluation (Ends) -to satisfy the general learning outcomes of the British Columbia art curriculum -to develop program con tent based, in part, on Bloom's behavioral ob-jecti ves. -to utilize activity matrices to generate program content -provide a broad spectrum of study activities con cerned with various as pects of the built envir onment in a workbook form -structure the activities in order to maximize per sonal experience of the student and facilitate interest and enthusiasm -utilize the workbook in conjunction with supportive materials and experiences associated with the built environment (buildings, plans, architects, art materials and supplies, books, sketches, photo graphs, tape recorders) -perform the following types of formative eval uation: 1) Ends-means:--program analysis form 2) Situational: -pilot testing -pre- and post-test quantitative evaluation -teacher survey by questionnaire -student questionnaire -letters from teachers and principals -examination of teacher logs -participant observation 3) Summative: -report writing with the inclusion of the scope of the study, procedures, strengths, concerns, suggestions for improve ment. ro 25 My objectives in designed the program are: a) to. allow teachers and students to become better acquainted with the study of the built environment through personal experience. b) To provide a compendium of methods and approaches used elsewhere or that have been modified or specifically designed for use in the B.C. school system. c) To develop lessons related to the study of the built environment that incorporate holistic and critical orientations currently emphasized in art education. d) To generate ideas and approaches for the study of the built environ ment that may be incorporated into areas of the curriculum related to art education and affiliated subject areas. e) To illustrate how concepts and approaches may be modified, adapted or utilized by teachers and students to suit their own interests, situations, and conceptions of the built environment. f) Provide variety in approaches, content, and emphasis in the activity portion of the program suitable for stimulating the interest, parti cipation, innovation, and creativity in the individual student in such a way that the experiences are rewarding and meaningful. Translation of Intents into Means - Planning the Program I have chosen to generate ideas for development of a program of study on the built environment by utilizing an "idea matrix" approach based upon methods outlined in the State of Ohio Department of Education publication Planning Art Education in the Middle/Secondary Schools of Ohio (1977). The matrix approach allows compilation of a variety of educational activities in tabular form according to table headings which specify content and the theme of the program. I have accordingly prepared three matrices (tables 3, 4 and 5) which are designed to conform with the goals and general learning Table 3- Built Environment Study Matrix- Visual-Physical Activities STYLE/TYPES STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS -reading books about build ings -collecting examples of a wide range of different architectural plans and ideas -taking inventory on walks on the way to and from school -organizing the collect ion according to the type of building -extracting the main features of each type of building ' LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE TRANS FORMED TO CREATE • BUILDINGS -examining pla drawings and pared by arch planners -noting the me in planning, and proposing in built enyi -reading books how architect ners work ns, models, designs pre-itects and thods used designing changes ronment about about s and plan--examining plans, books, designs, etc. to note style & type of build ing -making notes on how styles change with time -relating the style to function of the build ing and how style and function change with time LEARNING HOW USE OF MATERIAL INFLUENCES BUILT ENVIR ONMENT -collect architects' & planners statements on how they select mater ial to suit the site or client -read about how use of material has changed with time and about possible choices of material -interview designers, architects, & planners to see how choice of material is influenced by style -observe how appropriate ness of style is influ enced by location &.: surroundings MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN -observing architects & planners at work to see how they work and util ize materials to gener ate ideas -observing the type of materials used for different built forms & recording this infor mation -comparing the finished building with the plan to see how choice of material influenced appearance •comparing similar struc tures built with differ ent materials •observing historical trends in use of mater ials -collecting examples of built forms (pictures, notes, sketches) that serve different func tions -observing how your senses function in different environments -relating appearance to function -discerning changes made in buildings for func tional purposes -discerning how function influences the type and appearance of the build ing -noting the priority that architects and planners place on functional as pects of design -learning how to recognize a culture's beliefs, hopes, attitudes, values as ex pressed in built form -discerning the design elements in structures -relating design to style, use of material and the function of the" structure -learning to see similarity and differences in built structures -observing how designs with similarity and difference are created -relating design to use & appropriateness in relation, to use, appearance & choice of location -practising with materials to investigate design use -testing structural proper ties and longevity of mat erials for design use -choosing materials to re flect appropriate beliefs and values -choosing appropriate mater ials for a specific design •consider how the struc tural properties of mat erial are considered in relation to the design o the finished structure •consider the durability of different materials in relation to life of the structure and its appearance -observe how building materials are chosen in relation to the function of the structure -comparing buildings for aptness of choice of mat erials in relation to function -considering choice and effectiveness of networks Table 3 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES LEARNING HOW PEOPLE PER CEIVE AND INTERPRET THE BUILT ' ENVIRON MENT LEARNING HOW TO CRITICALLY APPRAISE & JUDGE THE BUILT ENVIR ONMENT -collecting written mat erial and opinions -.on how people regard the importance of buildings and how they ascribe meaning to a particular location -studying how people re act to particular types of buildings and the atmosphere of the build ings -collecting criticial & historic comments that • illustrate how people appraise structures & what factors are used to make judgments -practising the evalu ation of existing or proposed buildings by means of a variety of techniques -comparing writings that place different social, cultural, or historic values on particular styles -discovering people's attitudes to particular styles of buildings -considering why styles may change wi th time -noting.how writers and the public evaluate a particular style of structure and what fact-, ors influence judgment -learning terms or lang uage associated with a given style -observing how.appraisal of a given style varies with culture, historical context or social group MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN -discovering how use of materials influences people's reactions and attitudes -looking at historical trends in use of mater ials in relation to the meaning and use of the structure -considering how modern, technology influences attitudes to materials --noting how aptness of choice of material is influenced by a variety of factors (cost, func tion, availability, con struction ease, durabil-. ity, appearance, locat-tign) learning to weigh a variety of factors in assessing aptness of choice of materials -noting how the function of a structure may change with time or remain the same according to people's perceptions of the use of the structure -noting how the cultural or social significance of a building designed for a specific function may change with time -relating the aptness of choice of design to func tion -assessing the efficiency of function of the struc ture and whether function-improvements are required -determining the suitabil ity of the structure for an alternate use to that for which it was designed -learning how people inter pret design concepts accor ding to their backgrounds and experience -noting that the surround ings of a building influ ence the impact of a design -observing how design elem ents affect the meaning & overall impact of the de sign -learning to judge the apt ness of design by weighing a variety of factors -appraising the skill with which materials and design elements are combined to produce the final design -evaluating the aptness of the design for theme, set ting, and relationship to surrounding structures Table 4- Built Environment Study Matrix- Psycho-Social Developmental Activities . STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS , STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING. HOW SOCIETY EXPRESSES . VALUES AND BELIEFS IN BUILT FORM LEARNING HOW SOCIETY EXPRESSES ALTERED BELIEFS AND VALUES IN BUILT FORM LEARNING HOW SOCIETY WORKS WITH TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -studying societal be liefs and values and learning how these are expressed in built form -comparing buildings of different cultures and identifying values and beliefs expressed -organizing an histor ical sequence of built forms of a culture -explaining altered form with time in terms of altered values -examining the publics' concept of the "ideal" building in an histor ical perspective -collecting examples of attempts to adapt mater ials to the "image" de sired in public places -studying examples of. buiIdings which use • modern technology (eg.-geodesic dome) -studying examples of built environment that reflect different val ues and beliefs by style adopted -noting how style changes with time as societal values change -observing how changes in values of a culture influence style -noting how technolog ical developments in fluence style -exploring the use of natural shapes in the buiIt environment -illustrating how tech nology allows wider var iation in style and type -collecting examples of new styles of buildings -identifying materials used to fashion the built environment and noting historical trends in use of mat erials -relating use of mater ials to beliefs and values -noting how societal beliefs and attitudes are reflected in choice of building materials -noting how environment and climate influence choice of materials -examining how new tech nology influences use and choice of materials -observing how technol ogy permits new uses for traditional materials -comparing how different societies' use of new materials is influenced by degree of technolog ical advancement. -comparing built forms used for different func tions (religion, trade, finance, entertainment, housing, transportation) -relating function to societal values and needs (eg.- value of time and efficiency) -identifying changes in function that reflect altered beliefs and values (eg.-industrial site to housing, church to community center) -noting trends in behavior and population density related to urbanization -observing the effect of new technology on specif ic functions and how tech nology changes the nature of the city -studying peoples' attitudes to functional improvements in the built environment -identifying different solu tions to designing and arr anging public buildings -studying how design express es beliefs and values (eg.-church design) -establishing what priority designers attach to express^ ion of beliefs and values -studying buildings that.have been redesigned as a result of altered beliefs and values -studying art of different cultures and how that art is expressed in building design -relating design developments to availability of new tech nology (eg.-flying buttress, structural steel, concrete) -observing the influence of technology and new methods on design and choice of de sign elements -observing how architects keep abreast of new design areas and experiment to discover new designs Table 4 (cont.) .STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL- FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING -observing that differ-HOW SOCIETY ent social groups and ASSESSES cultures attribute diff-THE BUILT erent meaning to certain ENVIRON- images MENT -studying buildings from different societies that have similar meaning to people from different cultures -collecting peoples' re actions to a new or his toric building -observing how the pub lic, through consump tion, accepts or rejects new building forms -determining which cri teria are employed by people to form judgments of buildings -distinguishing those styles of building that are interpreted by the public as advocating social change or trad itional values -assessing peoples' reactions to different styles and types of bui 1 di rigs -observing how peoples', opinions of style and aesthetic quality may be influenced by the presence or absence of certain-themes (eg.-strength, solidarity, warmth, tranquility, beauty, patriotism) -determining peoples' att itudes to use of materials -identifying what proper ties of materials are con sidered important and how those properties are priorized (eg.- is appear ance of a building most important?) -discovering what materials symbolize tradition, her itage, beauty, wisdom, solidarity, emotion,•etc. -noting the publics' re sponse to introduction of new materials or abandon ment of.traditional mater ials -assessing how the pub lics' reaction is re flected by the way that the environment controls or influences human be havior (observation of people .in public places, exhibitions, transit systems, etc.) -assessing the publics' reaction to functional aspects of the built en vironment and what sig nificance is attached to efficiency, saving of time, etc. -noting and recording- the criteria that people use to make judgments about functional aspects of the built-environment and how important functional as pects of • a. building are in comparison to aesthetics, atmosphere, etc -relating human behavior to the design elements and resultant atmosphere in a building -accounting for some of the ways society understands or fails to understand, the design of buildings of its time t -learning what factors are important in assessing the aptness of design of public buildings , -observing how various seg ments of a given society evaluate the design elements of a building and how cul tural and age differences within society may influence judgments ro to Table 5- Built Environment Study Matrix- Economic-Technical Activities STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM " PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS -studying economic and .technical aspects of buildings familiar to the students -collecting reference material on familiar buildings -considering what econ-onmic and technical factors were important during planning of the building -documenting how style in fluences cost and choice of materials -noting how style changes with time and with the availability of technol ogy -evaluating the cost of different materials and the economics of build-ing with specific mater ials -evaluating strength and structural properties of different materials -experimenting with diff erent materials to dis cover their properties -relating the function of a building to economic and technical considera tions (efficiency, cost effectiveness, technical limitations, durability, future use) -comparing buildings design-for similar functions for economic and technical suitability -using models to experi ment with different design options and vis ualize economic and tech nical factors -experimenting with differ ent design options and performing economic comp arisons of cost effective ness of each design -studying different build ings to learn how techni cal factors influence design LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE USED TO TRANSFORM MATERIALS INTO BUILT ENVIRON MENT -observing architects and planners at work to study how they con sider economic and technical factors of a building plan -comparing different buildings where tech nical or economic factors may or may not have constrained planning --experimenting with diff erent styles of building to satisfy a. particular need (eg.-what style of house might be most ener gy efficient?) -relating style to.econom ic and technical consider ations of the time (eg.-wood construction where wood is cheap and avail able) -considering the advantages • and disadvantages of use of a'variety of materials in construction of various types of buildings -practising with different tools and materials to discover their advantages • and limitations -relating the pros and cons of specific properties of a given material (strength, durability, appearance, cost, finish, versatility) evaluating the functional properties of different materials (eg.-plastic for lightness and durability; steel for strength and width of span; concrete & ashphalt for road surfaces) comparing different func tions of similar forms (eg.-windmill for electric power generation, water pumping, grain milling) considering cost effective ness of structures in rela tion to function -selecting materials to produce desired design effects (eg.-texture, colour, harmony, light penetration, economy, durability, contrast) -experimenting with models, drawings, plans, etc. to design efficient, cost-effective structures that satisfy specific design objectives -experimenting with design possibilities where one or several design elements are most important (eg-aesthetics, cost, function) CO o Table 5 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN ASSESSING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN TECHNI CAL AND . ECONOMIC TERMS JUDGING BUILDINGS & PERFORMING A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -developing a vocabulary of technical and econom ic terms'to describe buildings -learning to. visualize the technical arid econom ic considerations that were involved in plan ning a building -performing technical and economic assessments of buildings familiar to the student by consid ering a variety of factors •discovering the publics' reaction to economic and technical aspects of diff erent styles of buildings (observations, interviews, questionnai res) assessing how well style of a building suits factors such as location, site properties, adjacent structures, efficiency of design function, cost effectiveness -explaining the ways economic and technical factors contribute to assessment of the built form (cost-benefit anal ysis, time required for construction, availabil ity of materials, tech nical benefits of mater ials vs_. cost) -assessing choice of materials vs_. durability and alternate use of the structure; aesthetics -considering the success with which a building satisfies economic and technical assessment criteria -establishing criteria with which to perform appraisals and ensuring that the criteria are up to date -evaluating the architect or planner's choice of material in terms of -establishing if the choice of building style is appropriate within econom ic and technical constraints economic (cost, availab ility, construction ease) or technical (structural properties, durability, maintenance, function, aesthetics) considerations -assessing how well a structure performs its intended function -studying a variety of functional aspects of buildings (access, safety, efficiency, cost of supporting the function conducted in the building) -comparing different buildings performing the same function for economic and technical properties -deciding how well a structure serves its intended function in relation to cost, tech nology available or alternate approaches -examining alternate functions for a given structure as an alter native to demolition -explaining how choice of • design arid design elements introduces technical and economic constraints on the design -relating design of a- build ing to choice of materials, function and economic and technical considerations -evaluating the overall effectiveness of the design in relation to economic and technical considerations -deciding if the organization of design elements is suit able in relation to techni cal considerations (place ment of entryways, windows, entry of light, mood, colour atmosphere, energy conser vation, safety, etc.) 32 outcomes of B.C. secondary art curriculum. The three matrices are based upon specific approaches which could be applied to the study of the built environ ment: Table 3 - Visual-Physical Aspects of the Built Environment Concentrates on the appearance of the built environment, materials used to construct buildings and structures, relationship of function to design and choice of materials, design concepts in relation to appearance, trends in visual-physical properties. Table 4 - Psycho-Social Aspects of the Built Environment These activities deal with how people relate to the built environment, their attitudes, reactions, cultural heritage and background in relation to their perception, beliefs and values of society, interaction of the built environment with society. Table 5 - Technical-Economic Aspects of the Built Environment Relating technical and economic aspects of the built environment could provide meaningful instruction in the relationships of cost, design, function, choice of materials, style, alternate use of structures, energy concerns, etc., and the benefits of such considerations to society and business. The matrix is a useful planning tool as it sets out a great choice of activities and concepts for potential incorporation into a program and allows the material to be arranged according to themes, topics or subject areas, thus facilitating organization of the program. The content of tables 3, 4 and 5 is diverse and one could develop a com plete program around the content of any one matrix or develop similar matrices with different emphasis depending upon one's interest and orientation. I have chosen to develop a program of study for B.C. schools around table 3, the visual-physical aspects of the built environment. This choice appears appro-33 priate considering the nature of my art education orientation. It should be pointed out that the matrices presented here are not mutually exclusive and some overlap in content occurs. It is hoped that tables 4 and 5, while not chosen here for program development purposes, may be useful to others wishing to develop their own programs or may serve as a stimulus for people to develop their own planning matrices. In developing a program on the study of the built environment for appli cation to the B.C. school system, I felt it was appropriate to develop the program in a practical way that would lend itself to evaluation. As there was little in the way of study material available for use in such a program, I felt it was highly appropriate to prepare, for trial testing in the classroom, an activity workbook based upon the previously mentioned broad and specific objectives. This workbook appears as Appendix I and its content is based upon activities described in the visual-physical matrix provided in table 3. The workbook is entitled "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" and is organized in four major chapters, each containing a variety of activities. The organization of the workbook reflects the content of the visual-physical matrix (table 3) as follows: Headings from the matrix Workbook Chapter Workbook Chapter Title Discovering ideas from 1 Sensory experience; dis-personal observations covery and description Learning how ideas are 2 Experiencing the built transformed to create environment buildings Learning how use of mat-. 3 Influence of design and erial influences built materials environment Learning how people per- 4A Critical Appraisal ceive and interpret the built environment Learning how to critic- 4B More experience with ally appraise and judge appraisal techniques the built environment 34 Drawing from research and published examples of built environment study activities in the literature, particularly material developed and tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A., I assembled a compendium of study activities for incorporation in the workbook. The matrix acted as a rouch planning and organizational chart for the compilation of the workbook. Table 6 shows how the content of the visual-physical matrix was used to develop content and emphasis in the workbook. Portions of table 6 are cross-referenced to pages in the workbook. Technical Evaluation of the Program An important part of the development of any program is the technical basis upon which it is developed. D. Massey and W. Werner (W. Werner -personal communication) have constructed a "program analysis form" which facilitates analysis of technical aspects of any program by the unit develops er(s). They maintain that three essential components of any unit are the intents (ends), and content (means) and the method (means). Technical analysis asks a number of questions of the unit developer. With regard to intents, it is important to specify what is intended by the developer and to articulate the rationale for the unit. Specifically, one must ask why the unit was developed and what justification exists for it. Learning objectives are important also, and the developer must be aware of the knowledge areas, skills, and attitudes that are desired outcomes for the students making use of the unit. In addition, there must be a clear idea of the content of the unit with regard to subject matter,, display materials utilized if appropriate, and the emphasis on various aspects of the content. Lastly, it is most important to ascertain how the content is to be used to attain the intentjs of the unit. Appendix II summarizes the author's technical evaluation of the program and is a detailed analysis of the workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" according to the "program analysis" approach of Massey and Table 6- Use of the concepts in the visual-physical study matrix (table 3) in development of the workbook contents. The.headings of this table correspond with the headings in the matrix. The body of the table indicates how the concepts were developed into activities described in the workbook and where those activities are located in the workbook. STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIALS FUNCTION DESIGN DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS (use of the senses) LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE TRANS FORMED TO CREATE BUILDINGS LEARNING HOW USE OF MATERIALS INFLUENCES BUILT ENVIR ONMENT -The Sensory Walk-noting how places and your perception of those places change as you walk through them, (workbook p.4 ) -Serial Vision- focus ing on a distant build ing and experiencing the changing and emer ging view of the build ing as you draw nearer to it. (workbook p. 15 ) -Analysing the Look  and Use of Space- ex amining a space, anal ysing it and redesign ing that space, (workbook p. 34 ) -Describing Your Envir onment- looking at parts of interesting buildings and describing what you see. Seeking information from various sources, (workbook p. 7 ) -Steeplechasing- a focal point on the horizon is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. The appearance of the focal point is examined in relation to other buildings at each van tage point, (workbook p. 12 ) -Network Space- noting how different types of networks are structured and examining the effect iveness of network systems. (workbook p. 36 ) -Building a Critical Vo cabulary- exploring ways of using and building vo cabulary through visual observations, (workbook p. 9 ) -Experiencing a Building  From all Sides- a study of a building from all sides allows observation of order, variety, sim ilarity and difference, use of materials and design. Appearance in relation to adjacent structures may be consid ered, (workbook p. 17 ) -Home Improvements Game-examining and proposing how materials may be used to improve your home or neighbourhood surroundings, (workbook p. 43 ) -Open Space Activity-sensing places by con centrating upon open spaces one at a time, (workbook p. 3 ) -Shopping Area Activit.y-using a shopping area as a place to practice sen sing the environment, (workbook p. 5 ) -The Town Trail- a planned walk through an urban area along a selected route allows the student to focus on numerous top ics related to the study of the built environment (function, design, aesthet ics, human behavior, etc.) (workbook p. 20 ) •The Town Trail-(see listing under "function") -Network Space- noting the function of networks as systems (workbook p. 36 ) -Creating Symbols for Use  in Networks- noting how symbols illustrate func tion of space; designing symbols.(workbook p. 37 ) -Shared Space Activities-examining the properties and constraints of shared space; designing shared space, (workbook p. 33) -Analysing the Look and Use  of Space- exploring visual properties of space and considering design concepts (workbook p. 34 ) Table 6 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIALS FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING HOW -Four Factor Building PEOPLE PER-CIEVE AND INTERPRET THE BUILT ENVIRON MENT LEARNING HOW TO CRITIC ALLY APPRAISE AND JUDGE THE BUILT ENVIRON MENT Analysis- studying con text, routes, interface and grouping factors to help appraise built forms using a checklist and scoring system, (workbook p. 46 ) -Building Impact Eval  uation- assessing the impact of a building by means of a set of established evaluation criteria, (workbook p. 62 ) -The Dating Game- ex perience with a method for checking the dates of construction of build ings and for relating style and type to his torical perspective and attitudes, (workbook p. 39 ) -Annotated Sketches-•use of annotated sketches or photographs to illustrate aspects of building style (workbook p. 66 ) -Slide Program- use of an illustrated program to describe building styles and types and facilitate appraisal. (workbook p. 67 ) -Appraising Proposals-learning to appraise -proposals of architects and planners and consid er the appropriateness of the choice of materials proposed, (workbook p.60 ) -Annotated Sketches, and Slide Program (see" under "style/types)- use of the methods to illustrate advantages or disadvan tages of use of different materials in construction and form judgments. -Appraising Proposals-appraising functional aspects of proposals (workbook p. 60 ) -Infill, Commercial-examining possible sol utions to the design of corner commercial build ing sites from a functional perspective, (workbook p. 58 ) -Annotated Photoqraphs-use of annotated photo graphs to illustrate functional strengths and weaknesses of buildings and use of space, (workbook p. 66 ) Appraising Proposals-evaluating peoples' reaction to proposals and design concepts, (workbook p. 60 ) Infill, House Fronts-examining the design of house fronts (workbook p. 57 ) -Urban Evaluation Sheet-use of a structured evalu ation method during a sensory walk to aid in the evaluation of design con cepts, (workbook p. 64 ) -Four Factor Building  Analysis- evaluating the appropriateness of design in relation to four key appraisal factors, (workbook p. 46 ) -Appraising Proposals- par ticipating the the appraisal of proposals and learning to perform an appraisal, (workbook p.60 ) 37 Werner. One aspect of the analysis that required more follow-up was the read ability aspect of the workbook. As a considerable amount of new material for students unfamiliar with architecture or vocabulary related to descriptions of buildings was contained in the workbook, I felt it important to conduct a readability test on portions of the book to test readability aspects. Fry (1977) provided a rapid method for determination of readability based upon a sample analysis of sections of the unit being tested. Fry's method involves determination of the average number of sentences and average number of syllables in several selected one hundred word passages of the unit and the use of a graph (figure 4) to estimate readability according to grade level equivalent. Fry reports this method to be accurate within one grade level using a variety of data from U.S. schools and that it correlates closely with other readability estimation methods. Analysis of three passages selected from pages 4, 33, and 67 of the workbook by the Fry method yielded a readabil ity level of approximately grade 9. Thus the workbook should not have been expected to pose difficulty for the intended student test groups (grade 11, 12) assuming that the readability method was applicable to B.C. schools. Figure 4 reveals one interesting feature of the workbook's written material; sentences are of short to moderate length yet long words are used, thus placing the readability score somewhat off the plotted curve. This could suggest that long and possibly complex words could pose some difficulty for students and that difficulty of this sort should be closely watched for during pilot testing of the program. The following sections provides information on evaluation methods and results of pilot testing of the program. 38 Average no. syllables /100 words short words ,on9 words o Figure 4 Graph for determining readability level of written material (after Fry, 1977). Average number of sentences per 100 words and average number of syllables per 100 words are determined by averaging results from analysis of three or more representative passages in the material being examined. The results from analysis of the workbook material are illustrated in the figure. 39 Chapter 3 FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM Following preparation of the workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment: and review and revision of the book in consultation with my grad uate studies committee, I implemented a pilot testing program in three local schools and devised an evaluation methodology with which to assess the appro priateness of the material for use in British Columbia secondary schools. This section of the study report describes the evaluation procedures used and the results of that evaluation. The format used for systematic evaluation of the program was similar to that suggested by Werner (personal communication) as summarized in Appendix III. Preparation The Program to be Evaluated The activity workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" was prepared during the Spring and Summer of 1980 and tested in B.C. secondary schools during the period Sept. 15, 1980 to Oct. 27, 1980. The intent was to select two secondary schools for pilot testing purposes and to provide those schools with copies of the workbook for classroom and field use during a period of approximately six weeks' duration. In preparation for this evaluation, it was necessary to find cooperative teachers interested in participating in the trial testing, to obtain permission for the pilot testing from the principals of the selected schools, and also to determine what time allotments were available in each school for testing purposes. Qnce the available time allot ments were known, it was then necessary to work out a flexible timetable of study activities chosen from the workbook for testing in each school in order for the author as evaluator to be available as a participant observer in the process. 40 Evaluation Methodology Several evaluation procedures were adopted in order to provide a thorough assessment of the program. Procedures included use of teacher and student questionnaires (Appendix IV) administered to each group engaged in the pilot testing program at the completion of the six-week trial period, teacher inter views conducted by the evaluator with the two teachers using the workbook, interviews with students during classroom and field activities, personal observation by the evaluator during those activities (Appendix V) and solici tation of comments on the workbook by teachers at schools where testing was taking place who were not themselves directly involved in the trial testing program. In addition to the above qualitative evaluation techniques, a quantita tive evaluation scheme was devised which consisted of a written test (Appen dix VI) administered to each student engaged in the program. This test, which involved responses to .questions concerning the built environment (mostly slides presented during the test administration), was given to each student twice: once at the beginning of the trial period before the student had seen the workbook or participated in any of its activities, and again at completion of the six week trial period following exposure to the material. In order to provide a control for possible change in overall awareness of the built envir onment among the student population during the six week trial period, it was necessary to add a third school group to the testing program. This group received the quantitative test (termed pre- and post-tests) at both the start and finish of the six week trial period but did not see the workbook or engage in any study of the built environment. Objectives of the Evaluation The intent of the activity workbook, "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" was to assemble a program of study which would satisfy both 41 the general learning outcomes of both the British Columbia secondary school art curriculum (p. 23 ) and the specific objectives (p.25 ) of this report. The evaluation therefore, is directed at ascertaining if these objectives (ends) of the program have been achieved. Furthermore, the formative eval uation provides information on the strengths, weaknesses, organization and concerns of a program and is therefore a means for improving such a program. It was hoped, therefore, that the trial testing program would provide useful information on the overall suitability of the activity workbook for use in British Columbia secondary schools and would also lead to improvement in the workbook content and format. Questions of Concern to the Evaluator In conducting a thorough evaluation of any program, it is exceedingly important that the evaluator be familiar with the process of evaluation and the underlying concepts, assumptions and approaches available. Table 7 lists fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches and was instruc tive in developing the previously described evaluation approach. Implications for evaluating a program developed on an "ends-means" basis as described earlier are included in table 7. Table 8 lists guiding concerns for evaluators described as "clusters" of concerns. These concerns will be referred to later during discussion of the results of the evaluation and the overall success of the program. Specifics of the Pilot Testing Program  Schools and Test Groups Two schools were chosen for trial testing of the workbook, one independent school located in the Vancouver School District (termed school "A") and a sec ond public school in the School District of Richmond (termed school "B"). For purposes of providing a control group for the quantitative testing portion of the evaluation, a third public school (school "C") was chosen in the District Table 7 Fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches (after w. Werner, Personal Communication) Factor Ends-Means Evaluation Situational Evaluation Critical Evaluation Purpose of Evaluative Research Assumptions about Pro grams Indicators of a Pro gram' s worth Social Re lationship of Evalua tor to Pro gram Partic ipants Outcomes for Program Im provement Appropriate Form of Data To increase control (eg. predict ability, specificity, certainty, precision, speed, efficiency) of system variables such as inputs, and,outputs., . Programs viewed as ends-means re lations. Program weaknesses view ed as technical problems. Comparative costs; increased student scores; efficiency and certainty in achieving precise and predictable ends. Expert monitors system components; dominance and control; acting upon or for; producer/consumer; hierarchical and unidirectional (from the top down) Application of compensatory means for rectifying deficien cies . Precise discrepancy figures; numerical scores, clear-cut methods, operational definitions. To understand meaning, rele vance, perceptions of parti cipants Programs viewed as multiple meanings and realities. Weakness viewed as problems of understanding and rele vance. Relevance and meaningful-ness to participants Participant; consensus of understanding; interdepen dent; acting with; cdr-active, mutual, emergent, situation al. Program relevance and mean-ingfulness is understood and enhanced. Meanings found in conversa tion, transcripts, case stud ies, situation descriptions, multiple viewpoints. To uncover hidden and basic be liefs, interests, and relations, Programs viewed as reflections of fundamental perspectives and relations. Program weaknesses viewed as communications prob lems . Clarified and justified premises increased self-reflection. Posing questions; free and open communication; dialogical; act ing with; honest. Program perspective is identi fied, clarified, justified, or changed. Foundations uncovered (assump tions, values, beliefs, and world views) which were taken for granted. Table 7 (cont.) Factor Ends-Means Evaluation Situational Evaluation Critical Evaluation Methods for Systems analysis; cost/benefit Interviews; participant obser- Questioning dialogue; dialectics Data Defin- analysis; pre-post testing; vation; ethnographies; open- and multiple perspectives. Em-ing & Collect- forced-choice questionnaires; ended questionnaires. Emphasis phasis upon self-reflection ing specifying and monitoring per- upon mutual understanding and and change, formance indicators. Emphasis communication, upon techniques, standardiz ation, and reductionism. Table 8 Clusters of evaluation-guiding concerns (after W. Werner, personal communication) Cluster 1 v Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Are the means effective and eff icient in achieving the ends? Are the means cost effective? What are the outcomes? (in terms of measurable student achievement scores, retention rates, training level, perfor mance outcomes). What is the cost per unit (student/materials/teacher) as compared to other programs-or to provincial costs? Can we predict with any degree of accuracy, the effect the pro gram will have on subsequent achievement/attendance? How many people/resources are participating? How is each re source being used? Is there a correlation between means and ends? Can we make pre dictive inferences on causality? Is the program relevant to student /parent/community concerns, needs, i nterests? Why do various groups approve or disapprove? What is the impact upon student self-image, community involvement, classroom interaction? What are the percieved unintended outcomes? What is the school "climate" for students? What are the sociological/psycho logical implications of the program •for the child? What is the student's attitude? (indifferent, enthusiastic, sus picious, etc.) What questions exist about the pro gram on the part of administrators and significant other parties? What are the underlying assumptions about 'knowledge', 'learning1,'rele vance' , 'worthwhileness'? What is the implied image of the stu dent or teacher? What is the program's value position? Are the intents and emphasis worthwhile What (whose) interests are served through!.the program? What are the long-term implications for our plans? te What are the root metaphors (theories, models, logics) which guide our think ing and acting? What is the bias of the resource mater ials? What structures legitimize (perpetuate) these values and assumptions? What is the supporting world-view? Table 8 (cont.) Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 What valid generalization con cerning effectiveness can be made for all schools? Can we articulate a program mod el which describes its inputs, throughputs (efforts, money, re sources, structures) and outputs? How are inputs organized to achieve operational goals? What are the principal means used directly to achieve goals? How do we know these means are actually enacted? With what frequency and intensity are they enacted?- How are means linked to each other to achieve goals and outcomes? Is the program built upon what students bring with them to school? (eg.-cultural, home, skill, value backgrounds) What are the views and interpretations of various groups? cn 46 of West Vancouver. Choice of schools was determined largely by availability of cooperative teachers who were known to the author to be interested in using the workbook. Geographic location of the schools was another consider ation; that is, they had to be reasonably accessible to the author for purposes of participating in the evaluation process. Characteristics of the test groups participating in the trial test program are summarized below: Table 9 Details of classes participating in the pilot testing program. School Type of Class Grade Composition No. of Students A Architecture 10, 11, 12 9 B Art (applied design) 11, 12 21 C Art (applied design) 11, 12 7 Testing of the program consisted of each class receiving the workbook and thereafter engaging in activities described in the workbook within their regularly scheduled class periods for the duration of the six week test period. Timetables for groups A and B are provided in tables 10 and 11. Schools A and B differed slightly in timetable format. School A employed a seven-day cycle with five one-hour classes spread over the seven days. School B employed a five-day cycle with three one-hour classes spread over the five days. Teachers of both schools A and B were enthusiastic about testing the material with their classes. The teacher at school A is very interested in architecture and photography-. Environmental and applied design attract the teacher at school B. Instructions given to Teachers An initial meeting was held with each teacher from the three schools once written or verbal permission to proceed had been obtained from the school 47 Table 10 Timetable for pilot testing of workbook activities in school A. Date Time Activity or Involvement Mon. Sept. 8 Fri. Sept. 12 Sun. Sept. 14 Tues. Sept. 16 Wed. Sept. 17 Fri. Sept. 19 Tues. Sept. 23 Thurs. Sept. 25 Fri. Sept. 26 Tues. Sept. 30 Thurs. Oct. 2 Mon. Oct. 6 Tues. Oct. 7 Thurs. Oct. 9 Tues.Oct. 14 Thurs. Oct. 16 — Workbook given to teacher for review and lesson planning 09:45 Met with teacher, principal to discuss plans and obtain permission to proceed — Met with teacher to discuss testing pro cedures, timetable, scheduling of pre test, evaluation methods to be used 09:35 Pre-test completed by class 12:20 Students introduced to book and Open Space Activities 08:50 Shopping Center Activity-field trip to Dunbar area 12:20 Steeplechasing field trip to U.B.C. cam pus, clock tower area 09:30 Class work period to review Shopping Center and Steeplechasing activities and work on reports 11:50 As above 08:35 Class introduced to Four Factor Analysis 13:30 Field trip to Granville Island Public Market to do Four Factor Analysis 10:00 Work period in class on Four Factor Analysis 11:50 Steeplechasing assignment due, collected. Work period as above. 08:35 Work period, Four Factor Analysis. Students using questions from workbook in write-ups 14:20 Class completing Four Factor Analysis 09:35 Steeplechasing results handed out and put on display, in school work .period.: ; ^ Fri. Oct. 17 11:50 Work period 48 Table 10 (cont.) Date Time Activity or Involvement Tues. Oct. 21 08:35 Four Factor Analysis assignment due. Intro duction to Infill activities Thur. Oct. 23 14:20 Post-test administered to class. Mon. Oct. 27 10:00 (Teacher continuing to use workbook beyond testing period) Infill activities Tues. Oct. 28 11:50 Infill activities Thur. Oct. 30 08:35 Infill activities Table 11 Timetable for pilot testing of workbook activities in school B 49 Date Time Activity or Involvement Sun. Sept. 7 — Workbook and pre-tests given to teacher for review and lesson planning Fri. Sept. 12 11:00 Met with teacher to discuss timetable, eval uation methodology, lesson planning. Per mission from principal obtained by teacher (he was ill and could not meet with us) Thur. Sept. 18 13:00 Class completed pretest. Teacher discussed format of assignments and instructed class that results were to be kept in a book and submitted at completion of the six week trial period. Fri. Sept. 19 13:00 Class engaged in Open Space Activities on an. individual basis (each to choose some open space, draw, photograph, record impressions) Tues. Sept. 23 13:00 Class working on Open Space project Thur. Sept. 25 13:00 Introduction to the Sensory Walk. Class went off in small groups or pairs to perform the activity (Evaluator with one group) Fri. Sept. 26 13:00 Field trip to perform Shopping' Center Activ ity (small groups or pairs). Evaluator went with one group to local mall. Tues. Sept. 30 13:00 Critique of the three exercises(Open Space, Sensory Walk, Shopping Center) in class. Thur. Oct. 2 13:00 Work period in class. Fri. Oct. 3 13:00 Introduction to Steeplechasing and Serial Vision activities in class. Class dispersed in pairs or small groups to perform field work. Evaluator accompanied one group. Tues. Oct. 7 13:00 Critique of students' books and findings in class. Town Trail activity introduced. Thur. Oct. 9 13:00 Class work periodion assignments. Discuss ion of different kinds of space and how space affects us Tues. Oct. 14 13:00 Discussion of properties of space and intro duction of Guiding by Cards-cards to be used for exploring personal space. Field trip to Granville Island planned. 50 Table 11 (cont.) Date Time Activity or Involvement Thur. Oct. 16 Fri. Oct. 17 Tues. Oct. 21 Thur. Oct. 23 Fri. Oct. 24 Unscheduled 13:00 Field trip cancelled (bus not available). Class work period. Making directional cards. 13:00 Class work period making and designing cards 13:00 Work period and completion of assignments 13:00 As above 13:00 Class completed post-test Field trip to Granville Island to be done at later date 51 principals. Copies of the workbook were provided to the teachers and details of the evaluation procedures involved were discussed. Examples of the evalua tion material were provided to the teachers. Teachers were instructed that they were free to choose any of the intro ductory activities (titled "getting started" in the workbook) provided in the workbook within the six week period. Teachers were to consider their choices and respond with a timetable for purposes of information for the evaluator (tables 10, 11). The teachers were instructed that the evaluator would be frequently present during the trial period and would observe the classes during instruction, execution of classroom activities, and during some field trips. The evaluator would serve mainly as an observer and would not partici pate in instructional activities except to provide clarification if some instruction for an activity was unclear. No resource materials beside the workbook were provided to any class or teacher. Results of the Evaluation  Evaluator's Observations of the Pilot Testing Program Detailed observations of the six-week pilot testing program at schools A and B are presented in Appendix VI. Teachers at both schools relied on the material in the workbook to a considerable extent for purposes of introducing and explaining the activities. Instructions appeared clear, understandable and prompted few disruptive or confusing questions from the classes. It appeared therefore, that students understood the material being introduced. Differences were evident between schools A and B with regard to the organization of the field activities. In the case of school A, the teacher was obviously enthusiastic and participated in all field trips. An open rapport and dialogue between teacher and students was evident and students did not appear hesitant to ask questions, seek clarification, or express opinions. In the case of school B, however, the teacher introduced the material 52 and then sent the class out to perform the field work without participating in any field activities. Students from school B seemed hesitant and confused while engaging in the field activities or used the opportunity to engage in their own interests not related to school work. In the presence of the evaluator, some small groups of students from school B took an interest in the material once a rapport with the evaluator had been established. Many students from the school seemed shy and lacked confidence in their drawing skills and sketching ability. Some seemed reluctant to perform certain tasks in the "Shopping Center Activity" such as making observations in shops or public places where they might attract the attention of others. Students from both schools appeared to like working in small groups or in pairs. They interacted well, discussed the activities and consulted each other on methods and answers to written questions posed in the activity. Teamwork appeared to assist students in gaining confidence during fieldwork as many students had probably had little or no opportunity to work outside and in a largely unsupervised mode prior to this testing program. Follow-up activities, deadlines for reporting results, method of repor ting, and time spent on activities varied between schools A and B. In both cases a single lesson was insufficient for the completion of many activities and extra classroom sessions were required for completion (see timetables -tables 10, 11). In the case ofi school A, students were given specific dead lines to hand in reports, drawings, sketches, etc. following each major acti vity. These deadlines were set within the six week trial period and marks were deducted for late assignment. Students from school A spent many hours on classroom and home completion of such assignments and produced excellent work with obvious interest, dedication and innovation (Appendix VII). In this case, there was time allowed for follow-up activities such as discussion of findings, points of view, impressions, etc. following field trips. School B students however, were not given specific deadlines for reporting 53 findings from a given activity during the trial period, but rather were required to submit a sketchbook covering the results of selected activities at the conclusion of the trial period. Although critique sessions were est ablished for this class during the trial, many students did not finish assign ments and were not prepared for such sessions. In many instances, school B students did not return to the classroom for the critique sessions following an activity. The teacher was not successful in enforcing any discipline or structure with this regard. In both schools the cost of engaging in the program appeared minimal as study activities took place within reasonable proximity to the school. School B's study sites were all within walking distance of the school and were prob ably very familiar to all students. A major planned excursion to Granville Island did not take place during the trial testing due to bus transportation difficulties. School A went further afield - to U.B.C. campus, Granville Island market and to Dunbar Street. Cost was minimized by use of the student's own vehicles for transportation. Materials used by both schools for reporting and illustrating findings were straightforward and inexpensive: sketching and drawing materials, and drafting supplies. In the case of school A, a considerable amount of photographic work was done along with photographic developing. Activities did not appear to demand a great deal of preparation time by the teacher. Time organization and planning for activities appeared parti cularly important. The teacher at school A used the workbook as an introduc tion to a year's class in architecture. The teacher at school B appeared to have more difficulty relating the material to the subject area familiar to her: that is, applied design and design concepts with emphasis on the produc tion of hand-made products. During the testing period, there appeared to be no attempt to relate natural and man-made design concepts observable in the environment to the work normally produced in the classroom. 54 Some areas needing improvement in the workbook and in implementation of the workbook activities became obvious as a direct result of these pilot testing observations. The workbook could be considerably improved by the inclusion of better introductory material for the teacher. The forward of the workbook should more thoroughly explain why the study of the built envir onment is important and relevant and how the teacher may use the book to familiarize students with the subject. The introduction should contain the underlying, conceptions of the program and its broad and specific objectives. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to explain more fully to teachers how the book could be used or adapted to suit a specific requirement or interest. Notes on introducing lessons would be helpful, as would instructions on teacher participation in field trips, trip organization, follow-up activities and student reporting as well as time scheduling requirements. Observations indicated that a number of students had difficulty with making written responses to some questions contained in the workbook's acti vities. Simplification and clarification of questions in the "Four Factor Analysis", "Steeplechasing", and "Open Space Activities'" appear warranted. Some new vocabulary also appears to present a problem. Teacher Responses to the Program - Teacher Questionnaires Questionnaires completed by teachers at the schools involved in pilot testing "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" appear in Appendix IV. Comments are included from teachers at schools A and B who engaged in pilot testing as well as from the teacher at school C who had an opportunity to review the workbook but did not use the material in the classroom. The teacher at school A provided a highly positive evaluation of the material. She felt the unit served as a worthwhile introduction to a course of study on the built environment, was appropriate to grades 10 to 12, and that it focussed on experience and involvement of the individual. This teacher's opinion was that the unit could be altered to suit almost any grade 55 level and that the existing activities accommodate students of varying interests and abilities ("open enough, yet directed"). School A's teacher felt the overall strength of the unit was: "the way the book made the students become actively involved with built environment - this is an excellent 'ground' or base for further studies in the built environment. Any student is capable of participating and getting something positive from a book of this type." With regard to concerns and suggested areas for improvement, teacher A felt that vocabulary in the book often produced difficulty and that a clearer introduction to new words should be provided. She also suggested provision of review questions and vocabulary review at the end of each chapter. This teacher felt that illustrations and photographs could be improved and be made "more exciting". She reported difficulty on the part of students with specific questions in some activities and suggested that they be made more specific and direct. This teacher apparently experienced time-related prob lems imposed by the pilot testing regime. There appeared insufficient time available to do a thorough job on all activities and she felt that activities could have been "scaled down" to lessen the activity load and provide more time for a wider variety of activities. The teacher at school B was less enthusiastic about the workbook than teacher A. She appeared uncomfortable with the rigidity and structure imposed by the pilot testing program and found the six weeks of continuous use of the material excessive. Teacher B described the unit as "lacking producing acti vities" and she appeared to desire more classroom time for making things and doing manual projects more in keeping with the traditional activities of an art class. She felt there was a general lack of introductory activity to bring the students' awareness to a level where the activities would have meaning. In her opinion, the students were resisting having to participate in the unit based upon their expectations of what should go on in an art class and that they therefore found it "meaningless and boring". This teacher seemed 56 unenthusiastic about the architectural and sociological orientations of the workbook and experienced difficulty in integrating the concepts into an art class. It appeared that she wished for more concentration on principles and elements of design and their relationship to art. On the positive side, this teacher considered the topic important and the lessons to be "clearly laid out and explained". Teacher B, in contrast to teacher A, felt that the book was too structured and that it did not encourage flexibility. She suggested the following improvements: addition of introductory material, a chapter on how to use the book, emphasis on flexibility, a chapter on elements and principles of design, incorporation of design concepts in activities throughout the book, a "para digm for critical evaluation", and stress on exercises that encourage visual rather than verbal responses. The teacher at school C, while reviewing and commenting on the workbook, did not use the material with her class that participated as a control group for quantitative testing. This teacher felt the material was more signifi cant for general art classes at the grade 11 or 12 level or for senior geo graphy classes rather than art students interested in working mainly with their hands. Concerns expressed by the teacher included potential difficul ties with vocabulary and lack of information on the historical background of architecture. The "stress on observing one's surroundings" was considered to be the overall strength of the workbook. Teacher C reported resentment on the part of her students to being used as a control group. They felt insulted and that their time was being wasted. Generally, teacher C's assessment of the workbook is positive but lacks detail due to lack of opportunity to use and test the material in the classroom. Teachers A and B obviously differ in their reaction to the material. Their comments indicate considerable differences in the orientation, attitude and characteristics of the classes they worked with. Teacher A is very inter-57 ested in using the material as an introductory unit in architecture with a group of keen, competitive, positively motivated and enthusiastic students. She described the capabilities of this group as varying from "very able" to "slower learners". Teacher B's interests were in the classroom applications of art concepts and elements and principles of design. She was working with a class containing "an unusually high percentage of potential and returned dropouts". This -teacher reported that about 50% of the students in the class had had "little or no success in school to this point". Furthermore, she felt the students tended to have very fixed expectations of what should happen in an art class and reported that "most of these particular students are not com fortable with reading and with words in general". These characteristics of the class were not made known to the evaluator at the start of the six week testing period and the teacher did not appear to have full knowledge of the limitations of her students at the onset of the program. Examination of results produced=by students from both schools A and B reflect obvious differences (Appendix VII). Students from school A provided detailed, innovative reports and projects while those from school B were incomplete, unavailable or lacking in detail or innovation. It could be concluded that school A was highly successful in employing the material while school B had considerably less success. It could be argued, however, that considering the characteristics of the groups-, comparison of the two is not directly possible and that group B's effort was a success for them in terms of their capabilities. Student Reaction to the Program - Student Questionnaires Student response for groups A and B is summarized in Appendix IV. In general, students from school A reacted very positively, responding that the material was interesting, important, worthwhile and valuable, reasonably clearly presented, instructive and that it broadened their knowledge of the 58 built environment. Positiye features of the program for this group appeared toibe interactions with the written material, class and group discussions, opportunity to express personal opinions and discover answers for themselves, listening to others and participating in group projects-. Field trips and field activities appear to have been a high point for this group with almost unanimous praise for that element of the program. Students felt their aware ness, interest, observation skills and ability to concentrate on elements and properties of buildings improved greatly. Students at school A expressed difficulty with written responses to questions posed in some of the activities and also the organization of some question material. Difficulty may have occurred for some groups with written instructions in the activities tested. Overall, the students appeared to desire more time to do the projects or alternately, less emphasis on "long, hard projects". Some expressed a desire to do more projects of a shorter duration. Their reactions give the impression of wanting to do more detailed work of greater variety without the time pressure imposed by the six week trial testing format. One or two students appeared to have difficulty relat ing the material to the subject matter of their course (architecture). They appeared impatient to address the subject in more depth. Students from school B were far less articulate or constructive in expressing their reactions. They appear to have used the questionnaire as an opportunity to protest having to do the unit or to comment negatively on education in general. The consensus appears to have been that the unit was difficult, boring, confusing, too long, not worthwhile and that it did not teach them anything new. Students appeared to feel they learned the most from working individually, discovering answers for themselves, expressing opinions and working with the written material. They expressed difficulty in under standing written material, becoming interested in the topic or, in particular, seeing why they had to learn the material as part of an art class. Terse 59 comments given by students indicate dislike or difficulty with written mat erial and written responses, some insecurity regarding group or fieldwork participation, comprehension and self-expression. Quantitative Pre- and Post-test Results Results of the pre- and post-tests administered to schools A, B and C are summarized in table 12 in order to provide a quantitative indication of change in knowledge and ability related to built environment concepts and understanding. The range of class scores for both groups A and B shifted to wards elevated scores on the post-test in comparison to the pre-test perfor mance. A non-parametric method of statistical analysis was selected for the results of quantitative testing. This approach was thought preferable to para metric methods as the data were probably not normally distributed, sample size was small and because judgment was exercised in grading of the quantitative tests. Scores for each individual student in a given test group were analysed by Wilcoxon's Signed Rank Test (Steel and Torrie, 1960). In this test, a T value computed on the basis of the ranked differences of less frequent sign betweem pre- and post-test scores for a given test group is used to determine acceptance or rejection of the statistical hypothesis. Small T values, below the critical value of T specified by Wilcoxon's procedure, allow rejection of the null hypothesis (post test scores were not higher than pre-test .scores). Analysis revealed a significant difference (p = 0.005) between pre- and post-test scores for groups A and B and allowed acceptance of the alternate hypoth esis (one-tailed test) that exposure to "Close Encounters with the Built En vironment" improved student perception, knowledge, comprehension, analytical and evaluation skills related to the built environment. These skill areas were incorporated into the testing design (Appendix V). It is interesting that group B, while indicating a generally negative reaction to the program as ex pressed in teacher comments, student comments, and quality of completed . 60 projects, showed a significant improvement in test score performance. This might indicate that the other evaluation methods somehow were not as effect ive in assessing the impact of the material on group B as was the quantita tive testing. The control group showed no statistically significant change in perfor mance over the six week period, indicating no major change in overall aware ness of built environment in the student population had occurred during the testing period. Table 12 Statistical analysis of pre- and post quantitative test results using a non-parametric method. Scores for each individual student in a given test group were analysed by Wilcoxon's Signed Rank Test (Steel and Torrie, 1960). Sig nificant differences between scores for a given group are indicated by an asterisk. "NS" denotes no significant difference. The level of significance for a given comparison is indicated in brackets. The "T value" is the sum of the ranked differences of less frequent sign between pre- and post-test scores of a given group according to Wilcoxon's procedure. The number of observations for a given group (number of students tested) = n. Group Pre-test Scores Post-test Scores T value Significance A range = 17.0 - 35.0 range = 31.5 - 40.5 0 ' * (0.005) n = 15 n = 15 B range = 6.0 - 27.0 range = 21.0 - 37.5 1 * (0.005) n = 15 n = 15 C range = 16.0 - 35.0 range = 9.0 - 40.5 61 NS (0.05) n = 17 n = 17 CHAPTER 4 61 Synopsis of Evaluation Findings Strengths of the Program and Satisfaction Of Objectives As a result of pilot testing and evaluation of the applicability of "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" to the B.C. secondary curricu lum, a number of strengths of the program have been identified. The most important beneficial aspect of the program from a student's point of view appears to have been greatly heightened individual awareness of man's built environment and increased .appreciation of architectural form and detail. The students from school A appeared greatly impressed with this aspect of the program and felt that they had benefitted from increased environmental aware ness. Furthermore, they appeared to enjoy the opportunity to voice opinions, make judgments and propose alternate schemes for modification of the built environment. The students from group A and all teachers involved felt that the topic was important, relevant and worthwhile. Added advantages of the program appeared to be the way it prompted group discussion and debate, encouraged teamwork both in field activities and in problem-solving, and provided students with the opportunity to engage in field activities and to manifest their own creativity and innovation in reporting their findings. There was generally great enthusiasm for field studies arid the positive benefits of such"involvement was evidenced by the way many students from group A spent considerable time and effort, including home study time, on completion of high quality reports and products. In many in stances students from that group expressed a desire to have more time to devote to such activities. The overall response of two of the three teachers involved in the pilot testing was highly supportive, particularly in the case of the teacher from school A, who felt the material was well organized, flexible and clearly 62 explained. The material appeared to be easily adapted by both pilot study teachers with relatively little preparation time or necessity to consult other reference material. Generally, classroom introduction sessions for a given activity followed the format and content of the workbook. Quantitative testing revealed a significant increase in performance in knowledge and skill areas related to the built environment for both test groups A and B. Interestingly, the largest increase in test performance when pre- and post-test class scores were compared occurred with group B. The response of that group to other evaluation techniques indicated a generally negative reaction to the material. In assessing the overall effectiveness of the program, it is important to ascertain if the broad and specific objectives (intents, ends) of the program, as set out in Chapter 2 (p. 23), have been satisfied. The broad objectives of the program, which conform to the general learning outcomes of the B.C. secon dary art curriculum specify that the student should demonstrate knowledge of, ability to apply and consideration for: imagery, elements and principles of design, historical and contemporary developments, and reasoned criticism. In addition, there is a requirement that the learning outcomes be carried out in conjunction with appropriate materials, tools, and equipment, processes and vocabulary. While assessment of attainment of these objectives is largely qualitative, it seems reasonable to conclude that the performance of group A in the pilot testing and the quantitative improvement of both groups A and B on the pre-and post-tests (based upon specific behavioral objectives) suggest attainment of the program's objectives. Student enthusiasm and recognition of increased awareness of the built environment and evidence of production of excellent reports, sketches, and design suggestions (group A) suggest that use of know ledge gained, consideration and application of imagery and elements and prin ciples of design took place. Furthermore, there is evidence that appropriate 63 tools,! materials, and processes were employed to produce responses to the study material. The study of buildings and built forms, by its nature, focusses the student's attention on historical and contemporary trends in building and facilitates design, function and appearance and is therefore a specific component of the workbook design. In addition, the material is very much oriented to the development of reasoned criticism and judgment which is an important goal of the study. Students appeared enthusiastic about the opportunity to express opinions and to make judgments. Moreover, they pro duced innovative design suggestions when asked to evaluate existing built environments and to suggest improvements. It may also be argued that the specific objectives of the program (p.25 ) have been achieved. Both teachers and students involved appear to have bene fitted through personal experience with the built environment. Students demonstrated elevated skills and knowledge through quantitative testing. Other specific objectives related to the content, methodology, critical orientation and flexibility of the material have also been incorporated into the program design and the content of the workbook provides evidence of those objectives having been met. To further examine whether the program meets the expected objectives, i.e. the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum and accepted behavioral objectives in art education, there follows an overall assessment of the program's effectiveness at satisfying program objectives. Both workbook content and emphasis as well as the findings of the pre- and post-test to an assessment were related to how well the material satisfied program objectives as set out in a table of specifications for the program. To facilitate such an evaluation, the pre- and post-test was specifically designed to encompass desired behavioural objectives in art education (see Appendix V). These behaviours have been described by Bloom et al (1971) and Wilson (1971) and include perception, knowledge, comprehension, analysis, 64 evaluation, appreciation and some production behavior. The intent is to develop a table of specifications for the program based upon the above behavioral objectives and the B.C. General Learning Outcomes. Desirable behaviors in art education have been defined by Wilson (1971) as follows: 1) Perception: The process by which an individual transforms received sensory qualities : into the world as he knows it. In art education, it refers to a refining of the senses, to the development of the ability to view objects and events in ways which go beyond customary perception and mere recognition. 2) Knowledge: encompasses the behaviors of remembering, recalling, and recognizing those things which are present during an original learn ing experience (often highly verbal in art education). For purposes of evaluating knowledge of the built environment, three knowledge areas can be specified: knowledge of terms (ability to remember definitions which distinguish one built form from another), knowledge of classification (recognition of built forms belonging to specific styles, periods, cultures, geographical locations and their distin guishing features), and knowledge of criteria (the standards by which the aesthetic, functional or other qualities of the built environment may be evaluated). 3) Comprehension: refers to responses to works of art which indicate that an individual has an understanding of the literal, symbolic or allegorical messages in the built form. The individual must be able to translate (to verbally describe the built form), to interpret (to be able to describe and also be able to reorder, rearrange, and to assess what is essential or irrelevant). 4) Analysis: refers to a dissection of the subject matter into its constituent parts, a detection of the relationship between the parts, and a determination of the relationships of the parts to the whole. 65 Analysis of elements is an item by item accounting of the various aspects of the built form. Analysis of the relationship of parts involves the determination of some of the major connections among aspects of the built form. Analysis of relationships of parts to the whole is the reaching of a conclusion about the content of the object and a determination of how the various aspects and their relation ships fuse to form the content. 5) Evaluation: is concerned with making reasoned critical judgments about the aesthetic quality and values of the built form. Empirical evaluations are made on the basis of how well something serves the function it was designed for. For example, a house can be judged to have high aesthetic merit based upon appearance but to be of poor functional usefulness based upon interior design considerations. Systematic evaluation (Pepper, 1945) provides four criteria for art evaluation: - coherence and relatedness within the work of art. - fusion and vividness of one's experiences with the work of art. - degree to which the work of art represents the norm. - amount of pleasure or pain generated from the art form. 6) Production: refers to the putting together of artistic aspects to "form a work of art. Production involves skill (primarily the exper tise with which the student controls art media) and creativity (ability to create with imagination and skill) in working with the subject matter and tools and materials provided. The above behaviors, as well as the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. Secondary Art Curriculum, were arrayed in a table of specifications (table 23) with the behavioral objectives forming the upper portion of the table and the G.L.O.'s forming the vertical axis of the table. Entries in the body of the table indicate where content areas of the workbook and sections of the pre- and 66 post-test satisfy the specifications in the table margins. These relation ships therefore serve to illustrate how the program content is directed towards desirable objectives and furthermore show that improvement of perfor mance by test groups A and B on the pre- arid post-test demonstrates improved knowledge of the built environment which also corresponds with the behavioral objectives and learning outcomes desired for the program. Concerns About the Program and Suggested Improvements Concerns about the program arising from the results of pilot testing and evaluation are summarized in table 13. Major concerns identified include difficulty with vocabulary, some questions contained in the activities, and the need for an expanded introductory section providing more detail and explan atory material. Needs identified for the introductory section included provi sion of more detail on the importance and relevance of built environment, instructions for teachers on the introduction, use, and choice of activities, student reporting suggestions and pitfalls of failing to provide follow-up activities, time organization and planning suggestions, and the potential versatility of the material for special interest groups and course emphasis. As a result of these concerns, modifications were made to a number of sections of "Close Encounters with the Built Environment". The modified pages appear in Appendix lb and are cross-referenced to the original version to facilitate comparison. It is hoped that these modifications will improve the usefulness, clarity and versatility of the workbook material. A major concern of the pilot testing program was the disparity between the response of schools A and B. In school A, response was enthusiastic, the teacher was highly supportive and excellent results were produced. In school B, however, the teacher was quite critical and had difficulty adapting the material to her design interests moreover, the class proved generally unres ponsive and uninterested in the material. A major factor in the poor response of the B group may have been the academic background and readiness of this Table 13 Synopses of concerns and suggestions for improvement arising from pilot testing of the workbook. Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Evaluator's Observations Introduction of the work book needs improvement & expansion. Identified need for teacher involvement in field activ ities. Some study questions in the workbook appear difficult for the students. Some vocabulary appears to cause difficulty. Lack of guidance on use of the work book, time scheduling, introductory and follow-up activities, reporting by students. Teachers have difficulty adapting material to their subject area or interests. Some teachers may not recognize this need. Some students may not be ready for unsupervised field activities. Questions may be unclear, lacking in specificity, confusing or redundant. Vocabulary is unfamiliar to the stu dents and possibly the teacher. New vocabulary is not clearly defined. Provide detailed instructions on lesson introductions, use of the book, planning for field trips, organization of time, methods and options for student reporting, use of deadlines. Provide more information on the importance and relevance of the subject of built environment for'a variety of dis ciplines and illustrate applications of the material for different subject areas and interests. Stress importance and need for teacher involvement in in troductory section of the workbook. Propose gradual expos ure to unsupervised activities once students gain exper ience and confidence. Revise questions in order to simplify and clarify them. Simplify vocabulary, provide definitions, provide vocabu lary drills or a vocabulary review section in each activ ity. Teacher Vocabulary difficulties See above See above Questionn aires Study question difficulties See above See above The readability of some Concern about vocabulary, use of Application of readability testing to the material and sections may be questionable. language and new concepts. comparison of results to expectations for the grade level. Table 13 (cont.) Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Teacher Questionn aires (cont.) Too rigid and too structured (teacher B). Not easily applied to art classes interested in manual product production (teacher B). Not enough content related to elements and principles of design (teacher B). Material not easily adaptable to a class lacking written or descriptive abil-ity. Teacher had difficulty seeing potential applications. Lack of visible applications to design concept teaching. Lack of class readi ness for a unit of this type. Specific interests of the teacher and the expectations of the class. Inclusion of more visual material and "producing activit ies". Provision of better introductory material to show potential applications for different interest groups. Better introductory material and illustration of poten tial applications. Suggestion of potential pitfalls.for classes lacking in readiness or suitability. Stress on the need for teacher participation and adaptation to suit the needs of the class. Stress the book's applicability for discovering natural and man-made design concepts through personal experience. Emphasize the need for the teacher to adapt or modify the material to suit the needs of the class and the subject being taught. Student Questionn-ai res Questions difficult to an swer or understand. Lack of sufficient time (class A). Lack of interest, motivation at school B. See evaluator's observations. May relate to pilot testing format. Insufficient time allowed for com pletion of an activity. Student expectations different from material presented. See evaluator's observations Time may be less of a problem in ordinary classroom time format. Estimates of time required for specific activities including planning, introduction, field work and reporting would be beneficial. A broader mix of "shorter" and "long er" activities might be helpful. Need to stress importance of teacher attempting to relate the material to the subject matter of the classroom and illustrate how study of the built environment has applica tion to art classes. Table 13 (cont.) Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Student Lack of interest, motivation Questionn- at school B. airs (cont.) Poor performance of group B in field situations High proportion of students with very poor school records, lack of skill with written material. Teacher un familiar with the nature of the group at the start of pilot testing. Students lacked readiness, maturity for such activities performed with out supervision. Activities may be inappropriate for "slow learners" as structured. Considerable adaptation may be required to suit the needs of such groups. Introductory remarks should provide guidance for teachers on this matter. Teacher invovement with a group such as this seems essen tial to provide guidance, explain activities and ensure participation. Some students appear to need reassurance as indicated in their comments. Quantitative Marked improvement in per-Evaluation (pre- and post-tests) riarKea improvement in per formance in both groups A & B, yet other evaluation in dicators suggest little positive response from group B. Other evaluation methods did not ad equately assess the response of group Quantitative evaluation methods were not comparable with other evaluation techniques. The students in group B may have understood the material and gained something from it yet were unable or unwilling to illustrate this in the questionnaires or through pro duction of sketchbooks summarizing their findings. The structure of the pre- and post-test which was largely forced choice from multiple choice options in response to visual material may have been more suitable for group B than other means of expression. If this is so, revision of the workbook for a group such as this could involve sub stitution of multiple choice answers to question material rather than written descriptive responses. 70 class for such material. As reported earlier, the class had a large propor tion of returned or potential dropouts and many had a very poor record of school accomplishments. These qualities of the students appeared largely unknown to the teacher at the start of the testing program, hence no special measures were taken to accommodate to the needs of such a group. In particu lar, the group appeared totally unprepared for unsupervised field activities and chose the opportunity to pursue their own interests. Although choice of such a group might have been unfortunate from the perspective of evaluation of an average class, the results may be considered useful in terms of judging the applicability of the workbook material for classes of a similar nature. In my opinion, the workbook material, as currently modified, is largely unsuit able for such a group and introductory remarks inserted in the revised work book reflect that concern. In addition, with modification to include more visual material and less requirements for written responses (as suggested by teacher B) the workbook could be adapted to suit the needs of slow learner groups and those more adept at providing visual responses. Use of the material with such a group would require careful and patient introduction of the material by the teacher and active participation in all aspects of the program to provide supervision, direction and follow-up activities. Program Analysis - Critical Evaluation of the Program Program analysis is concerned with a critical evaluation of the technical aspects of the program. The process is similar to that used by an editorial critic who teases out embedded assumptions and values within the material to reveal the author's perspective. Munby (1979), in discussing critical evalua tion of curriculum, addresses the question "of what should a curriculum criticism consist?" (p. 246). His approach consists of a number of elements including describing the connectives and discontinuities within and among various materials, activities, goals and the rationale; analysing logical con sistencies and inconsistencies within the developer's arguments; assessing the 71 strength of evidence provided in support of the varied claims and conclusions made; making explicit the knowledge and demands placed on the teacher; check ing readability, clarity, and format, and portraying some picture of the quality of the classroom experience that teachers and students encounter. In the second chapter is this report, the underlying conceptions of the program were addressed and were defined as development of cognitive processes, curriculum technology and social reconstruction (based on definitions by Eisner and Vallance, 1974). Provision of such a focus on the underlying con ceptions of the program allows for definition of a critical method that ques tions the developer's viewpoint in selecting, editing and unifying various ideas and material in the format of curriculum, which in turn is translated into classroom thinking and activities. Werner (1979) addresses the significance of program criticism, making three main points. First, and most important, he states that program criticism seeks to uncover the deep underlying perspectives and assumptions contained in the curriculum. Secondly, he feels it is important to discover the underlying relationships between the program and its social context. Lastly, Werner asserts that criticism must seek to identify the possible implications that the program's perspectives and relations have for the classroom. Werner (1979) also addresses the limitations of criticism. He relates that there is no standard fixed formula or procedure to follow and no fixed format for reporting or time requirement for analysis. In Werner's view, curriculum criticism offers a tool for reaching the "roots" of curriculum analysis and for illuminating the important elements of the program under evaluation. Following the above viewpoints, a critical evaluation of the program was conducted by the author from an editorial critical perspective. Intents The rationale, goals and objectives of the program were specified and 72 appear to relate well to one another. A significant volume of literature on the built environment (chapter 1) supports the belief that the subject matter is important and meaningful for students. Results of quantitative testing indicate that all students involved in the pilot testing program achieved the goals established. Some may have achieved more than the established goals. The qualitative evaluation illustrated student and teacher reactions and pro vided guidance on some areas of the program that must be strengthened to im prove likelihood of goal attainment for all students. Students should find the goals and objectives suitable for their interests and abilities as those goals are sufficiently broad to enable teachers to adapt the material to their own class's interests, ability and environment. Thus, the teacher is free to establish more specific goals to suit a local situation. If students achieve the goals and objectives of the program the intents of the program will be met. What is important is ensuring that increased environmental awareness and development of critical judgment of that environ ment will provide students with lasting skills and sensitivity that will pro vide an ongoing experience throughout their lives. In addition, the external constraints on the objectives (G.L.O.'s of the B.C. art curriculum) and the behavioral objectives of the program design (table 14) appear to have been satisfied. Content ' The content of the program is organized and sequenced appropriately into a compendium of built environment activities. Each chapter has an explanatory introduction and table of contents. The workbook itself has a table of con tents. An appropriate introduction for teachers, a glossary, and revised question content will be added to the workbook. Content emphasis within the book centers on the provision of written and visual material to stimulate the students. With regard to clarity of the material, some necessary modifications in Table 14- The relationship between the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum (vertical axis) and the behavioral objectives in art education specified by Wilson and Bloom (horizontal axis) arranged in a table of specifications. Pertinent content of the workbook related to the specifications is indicated in the body of the table (no brackets) while sections of the pre- and post-test pertaining to the specifications appear in brackets in the body of the table. Unit 1- Sensing, experiencing, discovery and description Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials Processes Vocabulary Meaning of a built form (1B-1,2,3,4) Perceiving meaning through the senses (1A-1,2,3,4,5) Critical words skil1-following directions creativity & ski 11-writing, sketching, photography, paint ing, 3-D form CO Table 14 (cont.) Unit II-Experiencing the Built Environment Behavioral Objectives Perception Knowledge Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Experiencing the Built Environment, Serial Vision, Steeple Chasing, Observing from all sides, Town Trai Is similarity, order, variety differences, changes, rela tionships, comparisons of buildings, contrasts to surroundings Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools & equipment Processes experiencing likes & dislikes related to the built environment mapping, photography, sketching, painting, 3-0 form, camera skills following directions Vocabulary diversity of vocab ulary used in unit re concepts of space, space relationships (II A- 1-14)  Table 14 (cont.) Unit III- Part A- Influence of Design and Materials Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Behavioral Objectives Knowledge • Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Personal space, defin- Observing, interpret ing space with objects, ing, space concepts, shared space, look and use of space, network space, symbols shared space, objects in space (III A 1-5, III B 1-11) Redesigning the look and use of space Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools & equipment Developing better network systems, designing storage systems Processes Vocabulary Personal space, shared space Mapping, tracing, designing symbols, sketching, photog raphy, silk screen, 3-D form, textiles Table 14 (cont.) Unit III Part B- Influence of tesign and Materials Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools I equipment Processes Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Game approach, Working with material and de-Factors involved in the building process sign, Houses Game (planning), Home Improvements Dating Game-tracing and classifying buildings, historical features, signs Adaptation of building material to use, climate, historical and aesthetic use of material Analysis of elements in the design process (space, access, func tion, light) Critical evaluation of home plans Evaluation and suggestions for improvement of neigh bourhoods, cities, homes Mapwork, checklists, 3-D models, sketch ing, photography; slide series, reports. Vocabulary Semi-detached, duplex, detached Table 14 (cont.) Unit IV- Critical Appraisal Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Design proposals of architects and planners Elements and principles of design Learning to appraise the built environment Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools and equipment Processes Vocabulary Aptness of choice of materials for construction Aptness of design approach Context, routes, inter face, grouping, proposals Checklists, scoring systems, class discussion, debate Mapwork, photography, 3-D models, written reports Design solutions for space, groupings, routes, context, building parts (IV A-l, IV B- 12*' IV C- 1,2) —1 Table 14 (cont.) Unit IV (part II)- More Experience with Appraisal Techniques Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools and equipment Appraisal techniques Appraising buildings, building impact evaluation, descriptive techniques Urban evaluation sheets, building impact score sheets, criteria use (V A 1-3, V B 1-3) Use of word evaluation sheet to critically des cribe the built environment Processes Appraisal processes Annotated photographs, sketches, slides, written reports Vocabulary 79 question format and directions were identified as a result of the evaluation. Readability testing indicated a grade 9 level of difficulty. Most of the content is based upon material recently described and tested elsewhere, hence the content reflects current thought and modern perspectives. Some photo graphs in the workbook depict modern buildings that will, in time, become dated. It is important to consider also, whether the material is free from bias of any kind; i.e., ethnic, religious, political, sex roles, multicultural, regional or occupational, bias. All the photographs in the book illustrate B.C. localities, however, there is obvious emphasis on the urban rather than the rural setting as a result of the subject matter. No particular bias isi evident in the material with regard to religion, political viewpoint, sex roles, culture or occupation. Many of the activities described in the book were adapted from approaches developed and tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A. Hence, the material is probably universal in application to Western society. Methodology "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" offers a variety of student and teacher strategies suggested for opener, developmental and closure lessons. The book offers a mix of content transmission and activities involving inquiry discovery and experience rather than just content transmission. The methodol ogy is consistent with the objectives. The forward of the book offers sugges tions of flexibility. Different teaching and learning styles are encouraged and should not be hindered by. the material. Creativity and innovation are encouraged on the part of students. In recording and illustrating their dis coveries, students are directed to work with a variety of materials to express their reactions and recommendations. Student involvement in decision-making is encouraged. There are stated goals in the book but these goals may be adapted or modified based on indivi-80 dual needs and interests. Ideally, there should be mutual adaptation on the part of students and teachers whereby the group works together to develop individual study activities and an approach suited to the need and environ ment of the group. The workbook material allows for individualized pacing of the material rather than group pacing. As much of the work can be done individually or in teams, students can proceed at their own pace to a considerable extent. It is evident that the need for an organized approach to field work is very impor tant so that students are adequately prepared for the experience and engage in follow-up activities. The book encourages open-ended responses from students that are not restrictive. Students are free to express their own opinions and feelings and are encouraged to do so. As the study area is broad and encom passes a variety of subject matter in art and architecture (planning, func tional aspects of buildings, materials and construction methods, ethnic and social considerations, historical perspectives), students are free to concen trate on aspects of the built environment that are of interest to them. Hence, there is a broad range of experience and expression available for students to explore. Evaluation Evaluation methodologies were chosen to form a broad assessment of the material. Teacher surveys, student questionnaires, evaluator1s observations, quantitative testing and examination of student output were employed. Evalua tion methodology provided for examination of mastery of the material by the students. Measures of what the students learned from the program were assessed in relationship to prior knowledge. Progress and reactions of students and teachers were monitored through participant observation to evaluate their response to the material and questioning procedures. Use of behavioral and general learning outcomes provided criteria to assess learner performance against a desired standard of mastery. Students were encouraged to engage in 81 self-evaluation and express opinions about the material. It is felt that the use of a broad array of evaluation methods, of both a quantitative and quali tative nature, have led to a thorough evaluation of the program. Potential for Implementation of the Program in the B.C. Curriculum In simple terms, implementation is the process of introducing a particu lar change in the curriculum. In this case, we are considering the introduc tion of a built environment program in the art education curriculum for B.C. secondary schools. Thus, implementation is concerned with the implications and consequences of change within the existing system. Fullan (1979) visual ized five components of implementation: structure/organization, materials, role/behavior, knowledge/understanding, and internalization (commitment). Structure or organizational changes might take the form of some funda mental deviation in the classroom environment or in the teaching methods as a result of altered student groupings, independent work, team teaching approaches or some change that alters the existing pattern of events and associations. "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" offers the opportunity for group, team, or individual experiences in the built environment with the option of considerable field study. Thus, from the standpoint of the program, the pro posed introduction of such material in the art curriculum which tends to be highly studio-oriented, would present the possibility of considerable change in organizational, groupings and traditional practice. Another component of the implementation process deals with the use of materials. If we consider implementation as change, then a deviation can only occur through the introduction of new materials or a fundamental change in the way traditional materials are used or interrelated. The built environment program that I have developed is a compendium of study activities, many of which have been developed and tested elsewhere. These materials have been adapted for use and evaluated in the B.C. secondary school system. If we 82 consider the program itself as a material resource, then introduction of the new workbook into the curriculum constitutes an opportunity through intro duction of new material. From this perspective, it is important to understand that there is at present no study material of this type specifically developed for use in the B.C. school system other than the proposed program. A second source of study material is the built and natural environment that surrounds us. In other words, the subject matter itself constitutes an untapped material resource for study in the school system. Implementation of a program such as I propose would act to focus the attention of students and teachers on the natural and man-made environment and tend to broaden art horizons beyond traditional studio-related activities. In many instances, sources of inspiration for creativity in art activities could result from ob servation of design elements, natural forms, interrelationships, and textural and aesthetic qualities of natural and man-made forms and features. Also important in the implementation process are human behavior and role phenomena. Implementation can only be said to have occurred if some change takes place in the behaviour of the people involved in the education process. Such change could be in the form of altered instructional behavior'on the part of teachers, in the way the teacher prepares for instruction (teaching strate gies) and the way the students behave in response to the new material or system. The role of the teacher and student could undergo some fundamental alteration through implementation. The built environment program encourages flexible planning to suit the needs, interests and abilities of the students and teacher. In addition, flex ibility is present in choice of study activity and emphasis to suit different geographic locations and emphasis on subject matter. A key strength of the program is that it encourages mutual program development between the student and teacher. This emphasis is definitely a major change in the traditional role of the teacher as transmitter of information and student as passive 83 receiver. Much dialogue and use of questioning is encouraged in the program. Outside resource people such as architects, planners, developers and designers are encouraged to participate in the program through interaction with the students. The program therefore introduces change through a more collabora tive program development process between teacher and students and takes advan tage of external resource persons. Knowledge and understanding constitute a fourth dimension of implementa tion. Here, we are concerned with whether the teacher and student understand the intents, assumptions, philosophical objectives and benefits of the program and the methods necessary to implement and use the program. If the parties involved fail to see the relevance of the material or have difficulty working with it, change will not take place. The introduction of the workbook attempts to illustrate the relevance and importance of the study of the built environment from a personal point of view. Its objective is to demonstrate that heightened environmental awareness and development of critical appraisal abilities are of value to the individual in daily life. Activities within the workbook assume no prior knowledge of the subject and are arranged in a graded manner to encourage gradual accumu lation of. knowledge and familiarity with the subject. An extremely important component of the program is its emphasis on personal experience as a vehicle for learning and as a stimulant for further enquiry. Student response to this aspect of the program, as evidenced through a variety of evaluation techniques (Appendix I), was extremely enthusiastic, indicating that there was understand ing of the intents and benefits of the process and enthusiasm to do more. Finally, a very important aspect of implementation is commitment (or internalization)' on behalf of the participants. If individuals are enthusias tic and motivated positively towards the intents of the program there is a much improved possibility of successful implementation. However, as Fullan (1979) points out, there is often commitment to an objective that is not necessarily 84 the innovation connected with the program. An example of such an occurrence appears to have occurred during pilot testing of this program. The teacher at school B, while initially highly enthusiastic about the material, had diffi culty applying it or producing any significant results from her class. Her comments (Appendix IV) suggest that'she originally believed the material to be directly applicable to a studio class of slow learners accustomed to producing traditional art products with their hands. Her comments indicate resistance to the material when it failed to directly facilitate producing activities in the classroom environment related to elements and principles of design. This teacher therefore appeared to expect a different outcome from the use of the material than that for which it was designed. Fullan (1979) states that there are two potential approaches to visual izing implementation of a program. The first, he terms the "degree of imple mentation" or "fidelity approach" which involves carefully defining or speci fying a change in such a clear and precise way and then providing maximum encouragement for people to use it. Alternately, he describes the "mutual adaptation" approach in which the innovation is externally defined in a fairly general way and then implemented and adapted by the users to suit their speci fic circumstances, interests and abilities. Once this formative process has occurred, the innovation is then .carefully evaluated and defined in the con text of its use. Fullen points out that the mutualistic approach is "closer to the realities of curriculum change" and therefore implies the method to be the more practical of the two approaches. Certainly, a mutual adaptation approach as discussed earlier, has been taken in developing a flexible program in "Close Encounters with the Built Environment". Fullen (1979) lists nine factors which he reports have been consistently found to relate to whether or not implementation takes place: pre-history, distinction between content and role change, clarity of goals/means, in-service training linked to implementation problems, meetings, local materials, adminis-85 trative support, overload of changes, and time-line for implementation. Each of these factors will be examined as they relate to the program in question. Pre-history relates to the scepticism that can develop on the part of teachers from their experiences with past implementation failures. There may be reluctance to accept any new innovation arising from external sources. A major benefit from the standpoint of introduction of built environment pro gram material is that it has been introduced successfully elsewhere, notably in the U.S.A. and Britain. Thus, it may be possible to "sell" the program to the sceptics on the basis of proven success in other locations. Role change definition and role identification are important determinants of successful implementation. Fullen tells us that-it is particularly impor tant to be aware of all the potential role change and behavioral changes that will accompany implementation and to exercise proper planning in anticipating and defining these changes. In some cases, old roles and behaviors must be abandoned and new roles taken up in order to implement the program. Coupled with altered roles, is the human trait that tends to make people suspicious and fearful of change. Usually, any change is viewed negatively if a deviation from accustomed tasks, roles or behavior is likely to occur as it disrupts the familiar and introduces unknown elements. Certainly, adoption of the mutual adaptation approach where teachers and students work closely in developing and modifying material from "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" might be viewed as disruptive or threatening to some teachers and students if it led to a major change in roles. Perhaps evidence of such a reaction is apparent in the response of test group B during pilot testing of the program. I do not believe that the material or the approach is particularly diver gent from current curriculum emphasis in the B.C. schools. Certainly, the general learning outcomes of the.B.C. art curriculum encourage development of critical thought processes and "reasoned criticism" on the part of the indivi dual, as well as development of imagery, design concept understanding, and 86 historical and contemporary awareness - all major concerns of the program content. What is different from traditional approaches to art is the stress on field activities and team and small group involvement in project comple tion. Also, the topic is considerably broader than traditional art subject matter and embraces architecture, urban design and planning, historical considerations and sociological concepts. Argyle (1967) posits that society in general tends to resist change of any sort and McFee (1974 a,b) discusses the relationship of art, culture and environment in terms of societal context. Art education however, perhaps more than most curriculum areas, is a field in which students and teachers share a critical awareness of the development of their art form. In art, development of a critical approach is considered essential (Eisner, 1973), hence the emphasis on development of building appraisal techniques and critical judgment which forms a cornerstone of the program should not represent a major change in concept from that advocated by writers in art education. Indeed, many authors would agree that the teacher's role is to stimulate awareness and development of criticism in the student. Another important factor in successful implementation of a program is the necessity for clearly establishing the goals and objectives of the program and the means by which such goals may be achieved. This area is addressed in the introduction to the workbook which specifies why the study of the built envir onment is important and how it can benefit the individual. Furthermore, as a result of deficiencies in this area identified through the pilot testing pro gram, revised versions of the book (Appendix I-b) provide more detail on the objectives of the program. Suggested reading material in the program biblio graphy should aid teachers in seeing the benefits of the program and in apply ing the material to their own interests and situations. Fullen (1979) cites in-service training as an important asset to success ful program implementation. He advocates the use of "workshops" for teachers 87 to address specific problems of implementation. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), also cites studies which indicated that "concrete, on-going, and teacher specific" training which allows teachers to try new techniques and seek guidance and assistance as needed proved a highly effec tive tool for successful implementation (ERIC 1980, p. 2). Findings indicate that involvement of all levels of staff, including school principals in "staff support" activities, prove particularly useful and that external pre-imple-mentation training was ineffective. The findings suggest that in-house exper tise and guidance was more readily accepted and deemed useful than the periodic help of external consultants. In the case of implementation of a built environment program, it would be useful to develop a team approach to implementation among teachers of related disciplines in a given school or district. In this approach, teachers from the fields of art, social studies, history and architecture and design could work together to discuss implementation strategies and share their exper iences. It would likely be highly beneficial to have an individual familiar with the material available to assist the others as required. Ideally, this resource person should be someone known to the group and not considered an "outsider". Thus, development of specialization in the subject within a school district and availability of a district resource person could improve chances of successful implementation. Adoption of this approach would facili tate the use of regular program meetings as advocated by Fullan (1979) providing the pitfalls of such meetings degenerating into "record keeping" or "project administration" as indicated by the Educational Resource Information Center (1980) are avoided. Use of local materials has also proven important in the implementation process. A study done by the Rand Corporation and described by Berman and McLaughlin (1977) indicates that teachers are more likely to make use of a program that they gained experience and familiarity with by working with the 88 material and adapting it to their own needs than an externally imposed pro gram. For this reason, internal flexibility and potential for innovation and adaptation of the program materials are major elements of the program. Administrative support is essential to any program where people are accountable to higher authority. The administrator provides approval and support for the program. Obviously, implementation of the program is not possible without full administrative support and interest. Lawrence (1974) reports that program implementation proves to be more successful with direct involvement of local supervisors and administrators than with attempts by outside personnel. To attempt to enlist the support of administrators and curriculum author ities, I propose to submit a.copy of the program and the results of the pilot testing to the Department of Education's Curriculum Department. I also intend to publish results in popular journals and periodicals and circulate the material to authoritative groups and associations such as the B.C. Art Teach er's Association, American Institute of Architects, Group for Environmental Education, and Bulletin of Environmental Education. In addition, circulation of complementary copies of the workbook to local school districts may prove helpful, as would presentation of findings at symposia and conferences. Time frames for the implementation process have also proven crucial for successful implementation. Gross et al (1970) describe case studies where teachers who were initially enthusiastic about a new program, gradually became disenchanted with it and cynical about chances of success. He relates that this reaction came about due to frustrations which arose with time as the teachers attempted to implement the new material. Fullan (1979, p. 48) tells us that "almost invariably people's expectations for the time to implement a curriculum are too short". Challenges raised by the implementation process for the teacher may lead to "overload" problems that teachers cannot cope with. The important thing here is that the implementation process must consider the 89 potential effects of time frame and overload problems and develop contingency plans and effective strategies to deal with them. In Fullan's view, the key to success lies in developing a strategy which assigns priority to one's activities and a time frame that is realistic and specific. Careful consider ation of the various problems and pitfalls of implementation described here could aid successful implementation of a built environment program in the B.C. curriculum. \ V CHAPTER 5 90 Cdriclusion Evidence presented indicates that the program has demonstrated merit and potential for application to the B.C. secondary curriculum. Results of a variety of evaluation techniques indicate positive response on the part of teachers and students to the material with heightened environmental awareness, evidence of development of critical thinking and judgment, positive motivation towards the subject matter, production of innovative results, growth in know ledge, comprehension and vocabulary and enjoyment of individual and teamwork participation, particularly during field work. Encouraging results have been obtained with one highly motivated class of moderate to high ability. Results with a class of slow learners, returned students and potential drop-outs were less encouraging yet growth in all evaluation areas was indicated for the group on the basis of quantitative testing. Pilot testing revealed some concerns about.the program which were addressed through modification and expansion of some areas of the program. The program appears to be implementable, provided implementation criteria can be satisfied. Trial implementation on a one-year basis has been suggested for a larger scale evaluation of the material than possible in this program. In support of the program, a number of sources in the literature can be cited to illustrate successful use of the subject matter elsewhere. Chapter I summarizes built environment study programs, in place in the school systems of other countries, notably the U.S.A. and Great Britain. Concern for, and interest in the subject of built environment, has led to the publication of a number of works, periodicals, and books on the subject as summarized in biblio graphies such as that of Chalmers (1981). Obviously, many influential educa tors and specialists believe the material and subject matter to be important and relevant to the modern curriculum. 91 An important strength of the program is that it increased environmental awareness and gave students the opportunity to voice opinions, make judgments and propose alternate schemes for the built environment. Increased individual awareness is viewed as essential by Halprin (1978) who stresses the importance of individual participation in the shaping of our cities. Halprin (p. 221) states that "the art of cities is the art of creative assemblage and change requiring the constant and energetic input of all its citizens". His message is that individual awareness of surroundings and desire to become involved with improving those surroundings is essential if the potential of the human environment is to be fully realized. Hilda Symonds (1971) believes that the school system is an essential element in addressing the matter of societal need for built environmental awareness. She advocates inclusion of urban education in the school system as early as possible in the educational process. McFee and Degge (1980) stress the importance of the urban environment and its quality as a place in which to live and point out that the need for an optimized urban environment increases as population rises and resources become scarce. McFee and Degge (p. 10) state that "the quality of the environment depends on the people's ability to use their design, sensitivity, their social responsibility and their ecological concerns together to solve environmental problems". Lynch (1960. p. 120) stresses the importance of individual awareness by stating: "Education in seeing will be quite as important as reshaping of what is seen. Indeed, they together form a circular, or hopefully a spiral process: visual education impelling the citizen to act upon his visual world, and this action causing him to see even more acutely. A highly developed art of urban design is linked to the creation of a critical and attentive audience. If art and audience grow together, then our cities will be a source of daily enjoyment to millions of their inhabitants." Fabstein and Kantrowitz (1978, p. 2) discuss the benefits of increased aware ness, stating that "being more aware opens up opportunities for action, for 92 understanding places and being aware of them". A major strength of the program, as indicated by student comments and enthusiasm, was that it provided opportunity for students to voice opinions, make judgments, and propose alternative schemes for modification of the built environment. Added advantages of the program appeared to be the way it promo ted group discussion and debate, encouraged teamwork in field activities and problem solving and provided students with the opportunity to use their own creativity and innovation in reporting findings. In support of such activi ties, Symonds (1971, p. 6) states: "The place in our society where all men meet is in the school. Only if the dialogue can begin there, is there some reasonable ground for hoping that in adult life there will be a widespread understanding of the city." Mumford (1961) supports this point of view, advocating greater public participation in the dialogue related to urban development. McFee and Degge (1980) discuss the importance of teachers and students participating in the process of making thoughful judgments about the quality of the built environ ment as it affects our experiences. Lynch (1960) cautions us that cities support large numbers of individuals with widely diverse backgrounds and ethnic and cultural differences. In his view, in forming judgments arid proposing modifications to the built environment we should try to concentrate on the physical image and allow meaning to develop on an individualistic basis rather than from some directed scheme. Teacher A, in particular, felt that the material tested was well organ ized, flexible and clearly explained. The material appeared to be easily adapted by both pilot study teachers with relatively little preparation or necessity to consult other reference material. Activities in the book appeared to be most successful with average and above average students who are able to verbalize and write responses at the applied grade level. Less success can be expected with students whose ability is of the level of test group B, i.e. 93 students unable to express themselves in verbal or written form. More visual experiences and "hands on" activities and teacher participation will be needed for success with such groups. The teacher is an essential factor in successful application and imple mentation of a program of study on the built environment. First it is essen tial that the teacher understand and believe in the value of the material for the students. Symonds (1971) posits that it is fashionable to consider the city as a hideous place and to advocate the joys of the unspoilt natural environment. She reminds us that we must face reality and recognize that cities are a basic element of human life and that it is therefore incumbent on the teacher to attempt to prepare students to deal with this way of life and to work to improve it. Symonds feels that the teacher must awaken the awareness in students of the actual life of the city. She feels that only through such awareness, gained through training and experience, will the stu dent come and see and understand cities and their complex construction, systems and sociological characteristics. Finally, it is the investigator's belief that the study of the urban environment is an important one worthy of inclusion in the curriculum. Fur thermore, the program described here has been shown to have potential for implementation in the B.C. curriculum on a trial basis. As population grows, shortages of natural resources and inexpensive energy occur, and as further urbanization takes place, there will be an ever-increasing need for the educa tional system to address the needs of students in relation to the built envi ronment. The students of today will shape tomorrow's environment. It is our responsibility to ensure that they have the intellectual tools and knowledge in order to meet such a challenge. Bib!iography 94 Adams, E. Art and environment. Bulletin of Environmental Education, October 1977, 3-8. Aoki, T. (Ed.). Curriculum evaluation in a new key. Vancouver: Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, U.B.C, 1.978. p. 2. A monograph of papers presented at the College and University Faculty Association Symposium, Annual Conference of the National Council of the Social Stud ies, Cincinnati, November 1977, p. 2. Argyle, M. The social psychology of social change. In T. Burns and S.B. Saul (Eds.), Social theory and economic change. London: Tavestock Publications, 1967. Berman, P. & McLaughlin, M.W. Federal programs supporting educational change, Vol. VIII: Implementing and sustaining innovations. Santa Monica, Calif ornia: Rand Corporation, 1978. Bloom, B., Hastings, J.T., & Madaus, G.F. Handbook on formative and summative  evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1971. Broudy, H.S. How basic is aesthetic education or is Rt the fourth R? Language  Arts, 1977, 54, 631-637. i Built Environment Education Center. The role of preservation in BEE. The  BEEC Report,December 1977, 5-8. Built Environment Education Center. BEE: a growing field, a field for growth. The BEEC Report, April 1978 5-8. Built Environment Education Center. Art and the built environment project-notes on the exhibition. The BEEC Report, October 1979, 3-9. Chalmers, F.G. Ideas for built environment education: A transatlantic annota ted bibliography of useful books and periodicals (1970-80). Vancouver, B.C.: Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, The Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia, January 1981, 1-12. Chippindale, F. & Ward, C. A concluding word. Built Environmental Educations April 1979, 27. Dorn, CM. The new eclecticism/or art is anything you can get away with. Art  Education, December 1978, 6-9. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). On educational management- research action brief. Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, University of Oregon, No. 11, April 1980. Efland, A. The school art style: A functional analysis. Studies in Art Ed  ucation, 1976, ]]_ (2), 37-44. Eisner, E.W. Research on teaching the visual arts. In R.M.W. Travers (Ed.) Second handbook of research on teaching. New York: Rand McNally College Publishing Ltd., 1973, 1196-1209. 95 Eisner, E.W. & Vallance, E. Five conceptions in curriculum: their roots and implications for curriculum planning. In E.W. Eisner & E. Vallance (Eds.) Conflicting conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. Eriksen, A & Smith, V. Art and the built environment. Art Education, September 1978, 4-6. • "* Fabstein, J. & Kantrowitz, M. People in places. Experiencing, using and changing the built environment. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1978. Fry, E. A readability formula that saves time. Journal of Reading, 1977, 21 (3), 242-252. Fullan,M. Conceptualizing problems of curriculum implementation. In W. Werner (Ed.) Curriculum Canada- perceptions, practices, prospects. Vancouver, B.C.: Canadian Assoc. for Curriculum Studies and Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of British Columbia, July 1979, 40-50. Gross, N. Giaquinta, J.B., & Bernstein, M. Failure to implement a major org^ anizational innovation. In M.B. Miles & W.W. Charters (Eds.), Learning  in social settings: new readings on the social psychology of education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1970. Halprin, L. Cities. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1978. Heritage Education Group, Civic Trust. Education and Heritage. London: 17 Carleton House Terrace, 1976. Hurwitz, A. & Madeja, S.S. The joyous vision. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1977. Jones, L. A taste of class. Architectural Review. February 1979, 165, 73-79. Lawrence, G. Patterns of effective inservice education: A state of the art  summary of research on materials and procedures for changing teacher  behaviors in inservice education. Tallahasee, Florida: Florida State Dept. of Education, 1974. Lynch, K. The image of the city. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1960. McFee, J.K. New directions in art education. Art Education, November 1974 (a), 27, 10-15. McFee, J.K. Society, art and education. In G. Hardiman & T. Zemich (Eds.) Curricular considerations for visual arts education. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes, 1974 (b), 79-80. McFee, J.K. & R.M. Degge. Art, culture and environment- A catalyst for  teaching. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1980. Macaulay, D. Underground. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976. 96 Mann, D.A. Architecture, aesthetics and pluralism: Theories of taste as a determinant of architectural standards. Studies in Art Education, 1979, 20, 15-29. Massey, D. & Werner, W. Canadian content kits: an assessment. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta, 1977 (study done under contract to Alberta Dept. of Education). Metcalf, L.E. & Hunt, M.P. Relevance and the curriculum. In E.W. Eisner & E. Vallance (Eds.) Conflicting conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. Mumford, L. The city in history. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961, 117. Munby, H. Philosophy for children: An example of curriculum review and criticism. Curriculum Inquiry, 1979, 9_ (3), 229-249. Pepper, S. The basis of criticism in the arts. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1945. Schneider, H. & Schneider, N. Let's look under the city. New York: Scott, 1954. State of Ohio, Department of Education. Planning art education in the middle  secondary schools of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: State Department of Educa tion, 1977. Steel, R.D.G. & Torrie, J.H. Principles and procedures of statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1960. Symonds, H. The teacher and the city. Toronto, Ontario: Methuen, 1971. Werner, W. Editorial criticism in curricular analysis. Curriculum Inquiry, 1980, 10 (2), 143-154. Werner, W. & Aoki, T. Programs for people. Vancouver, B.C. and Edmonton, Alberta: University of British Columbia Center for the Study of Curric ulum and Instruction and University of Alberta, Department of Secondary Education, 1979 (pre-publication draft). Williams, R.M. Why children should draw- the surprizing link between art and learning. Saturday Review, September 3, 1977, 11-16. Wilson, B.G. Evaluation of learning in art education. In B. Bloom, J.T. Hastings, & G.F. Madaus (Eds.) Handbook on formative and summative  evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1971. 97 Appendix I Part A- The activity workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" as tested in the pilot testing program. Part B- Revisions to the workbook arising from the findings of the pilot testing program. Only pages where revisions occur or new pages added to the original are included. Page numbers correspond to the original test version wherever possible. (Note- an Ilk x 14 inch format was used for the workbook. Pages have been reduced to 8h x 11 inch format for inclusion here.) CLOSE ENCOUNTERS with the BUILT ENVIRONMENT by: Susan J.- Davis Faculty of Education Graduate Studies University of British Columbia (c) Susan J. Davis Introduction This book deals with the built environment and your relation ship to it. The built environment is the man-made environment which surrounds you in everyday life- your house, neighbour hood, city, streets, paths or any structural forms. This book is to be-used, not just to be read. It will enable you to get involved in places, to.be aware of places, to understand how people experience those places and form judgments about them. The activities in this book are for your enjoyment as well as to help you become aware of the built environment and how it affects you as a person. Each of the activities in the book offers a pathway into a • significant aspect of how we experience, use, design, organize, or evaluate the built environment. Out of this awareness it is possible for us to decide how we might wish to change or modify the built environment. Each chapter introduces an issue through a set of experiences or study approaches. The ideas are yours to use, change or expand as you wish. You may work individually, in small groups, or as a class on most projects. Many different activities are offered in, order to give you a choice and allow selection of those activities that suit your surroundings, opportunities, interests or available time. You are not expected to complete all activities and may select those in any part of the book as you wish. At the beginning of each chapter a list of the activities in the chapter is presented. In most chapters these activities are grouped under headings entitled "getting started", "ex panding horizons" or "doing more". While none of the headings suggests that the activities under it are more difficult or complex than any other, those entitled "getting started" may be expected to provide a logical starting point for activities within the chapter. Some activities are designed for class use in the immediate surroundings of the school. Others involve field work and can be expected to require more time, field trips or after class study. No activity in the book assumes prior expertise and extensive preparation. If you can sketch, take photographs, make notes, follow directions, build models or write descriptive material you have all the skills required. Process, experience, aware ness, and desire for action are important, not any desired product. The book and its activities are yours to use and enjoy. The practical benefits of learning more about experiencing, describing and appraising'your built environment will be of lasting value for you in years to come. Contents Chapter Page Acknowledgments iii 1 Sensory Experience- Discovery and Description ... 2 Open Space Activities 3 The Sensory Walk 4 Shopping Center Activities 5 Guiding by Cards 6 Describing Your Environment 7 Building a Critical Vocabulary 9 2 Experiencing the Built Environment 10 Steeplechasing • 12 Serial Vision 15 Experiencing a Building from all Sides 17 The Town Trail 20 3 Influence of Design and Materials 29 A-Personal Space 31 Defining Personal Space with Objects 32 Shared Space Activities 33 Analysing the Look and Use of Space 34 Network Spaces 36 Symbols 7 B-The Dating Game 39 The Houses Game 41 The Improvements Game •' 43 Chapter Page 4 Critical Appraisal 45 A- The Four Factor Building Appraisal 46 Infill 5Evaluating Proposals 60 B- More Experience with Appraisal Techniques 61 Building Impact Evaluation 62 Urban Evaluation Sheet 4 Annotated Photographs 6 SI ide Program .' 67 5 References, Sources of Ideas 8 O o Acknowledgments The author is grateful for permission received from a number, of sources to reproduce material, photographs or illustrations Many of the activities contained herein have been taken or ad apted from articles in the Education Unit of the Town Planning Association's publication Bulletin of Environmental Education published by Russell Press, 45 Gamble St., Nottingham, NG7-4ET England. The Town and Country Planning Association may be con tacted at 17 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y-5AS. The author is extremely appreciative for permission to use this material extended by the Town and Country Planning Association and to the authors of articles in the Association's bulletin, BEE, who developed and tested many of these ideas and concepts. I am also appreciative of permission given by authors J.K. McFee and R.M. Oegge and publishers Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. of Dubuque, Iowa, for permission to use concepts and questions adapted from Art, Culture and Environment, A Catalyst for  Teaching. Illustrations of houses used on page 39 are reproduced by permission of the Western Educational Development Group, University of British Columbia. Photographs of the Bentall and Dominion buildings in Vancouver, B.C. (page 9) are reproduced with permission from pages 7 and 12 of H. Kalman and J. Roaf's Exploring Vancouver 2. University of B.C. Press. (J. Roaf, photographer). Illustrations .of houses appearing on page 57 are reproduced from pages 147, 148 and 152 of Home Design and  Decor- Select Home Designs with Permission from Planners Plus Enterprises Ltd, Vancouver, B.C. All other illustrations or photo graphs in the text are by the author. 1 am most appreciative of the patient help, advice and support extended by my graduate studies committee consisting of Dr. G. Chalmers (supervisor), and Dr. J. Gray of the Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Univer sity of British Columbia, and Prof. A. Rogatnick of the School of Architecture, University of British Columbia. Support for publication of this work was extended by Canada Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and by the British Columbia Heritage Trust. The author is most appreciative of this assistance. The views expressed in this book are entirely those of the author and no responsibility for them should be attributed to the Canada Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation or to the British Columbia Heritage-Trust. 1 Your Senses The environment surrounds us and we constantly interact with it. The environment gives us. information about who and what we are and how we relate to our external surr oundings. You can find out more about yourself and others by discovering and describing the environment about you through the use of your senses. Your senses bring you a great deal of information about your surroundings. Places are experienced through your hearing, touch, sight, sense of smell and taste. As your body moves through space you may receive a changing im pression of that space through information coming from your senses. A large amount of this information comes through your eyes. You distinguish light and shade, colour shape, texture and form a variety of mental impressions through visual images. The two eyes allow us to judge dis tance, orient ourselves in space and examine relationships between objects. Our eyes also allow us to observe the activities of people and living and moving objects. Our ears, sense of touch, taste and smell provide other information. The ears detect a range of sound, from loud to soft,.low pitched to high. Sounds tell us about the size of a place, what is happening there, and also provide infor mation on the nature of the place. For example, think about the sounds you associate with the seashore or deep forest.and the different sounds of a crowded street at rush hour. Touching ob jects can give you a variety of impressions. Imagine cold, hard rock or marble, soft green grass, wet snow, polished hardwood. Touching gives us sensations of heat, cold, pressure, pain and pleasure and may enrich or confirm what we see or hear. Our sense of smell also tells us about the nature of a place and what is going on there. Taste is important too. Licking a gluey stamp may be unpleasant, while savoring an ice cream sundae may be a pleasur able experience which you wish to prolong. The brain is our computer that receives information from the senses, interprets it, and governs our reactions to sensory infor mation. It is through this action of the senses and our intellect that we form impressions of our environment and react to those impressions. 2 1. Sensory Experience - Discovery and Description Concentrating on your sensory experiences will enable you to better describe the built environment. A group of activ ities follow which will allow you to discover your environ ment through the use of your senses: GETTING STARTED: Open Space Activity- sensing places by concentrating upon open spaces and their properties by using your senses one at a time will help you become aware of your perceptions. The Sensory Halk- noticing how places and your percep tions of those places change as you walk through them while concentrating upon your sensory impressions. Shopping Area Activities- using a shopping area as a place to practice sensing the built environment. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Guiding by Cards- using "fun cards" to help you sense the built environment through a structured approach. DOING MORE: Describing Your Environment- looking at parts of interest ing buildings and describing what you see. Exploring other parts of those buildings and seeking information in order describe them through various sources. Building a Critical Vocabulary- exploring ways of using and building vocabulary through visual observation. O co 3 Open Space Activites (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, TL, 7-8) Choose a large open space such as a park, field, play ground or parking lot and enter it. Stop somewhere and look around. Concentrate on each of your senses in forming an impression of the space: Eyes: What do you see? How is this space used and how does its design reflect this use? Notice light, shadow, textures, the tapestry of lights, colours. Record your impressions: Ears: Close your eyes and concentrate on the sounds around you. What different sounds can you hear? What sounds are most noticable? What sounds are attractive or unattractive? Are there near sounds, distant sounds, musical sounds or birdsongs? Smell and Taste: Turn and inhale facing in different direc tions. What smells do you detect? Flowers, automobiles,industry, cooking? Can you also taste things in the air? How do you feel about these sensations? Touch: Examine the ground around you and at your feet. Reach down and touch it. If an object is nearby, reach out and touch it. How does it feel? Motion through Space: Choose an interesting object and walk to wards it. How does your impression of the space change as you move? Does the object appear different as you get nearer to it? Stop at the object and explore it carefully using all your senses. Record your impressions: The Sensory Walk (after Bulletin Find an interesting area that has a variety of buildings such as a city or residential block. If possible, choose an area with which you are generally familiar. Then choose a direction to move in that is least predictable. Follow any change of direction that occurs to you along the way. As you move, try to relax and concentrate on your surround ings using all your senses. Try to experience the walk with all your senses-touch, look, listen, smell and think about the sensations. As you move, begin to concentrate upon all the environment about you. Examine sky, clouds, trees, signs, buildings and the perimeters of buildings and other struc tures overhead as well as things beside you and at your feet. Record your impressions in a notebook. Does the place please you? Have you noticed things that you overlooked before? Are some of the sensations surprizing or interesting? Is today's weather influencing your impression of the place? Take an area and walk very fast through it, finishing the section at a run. How did your perception of the place change according to the rate you moved through it? Try moving through the same area moving very slowly and concentrating on all your senses. Do you notice a difference? Record your findings.. Are you tempted to change direction? Why? 4 of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72, 7-8) Halt at an intersection or place where there is a lot of activity. Note the different directions, speeds and features of moving objects such as cars, trucks, people, animals. Is there a rhythm or special pace of the activities? What do your senses tell you about the moving objects? Imagine yourself as one of the people.you are observing. How would it feel to be that person dressed the way he or she appears? Turn your attention to the architecture around you. Pick out one or two details that are attractive and study them carefully. Pretend that you have to reproduce a sketch of those details from memory at the finish of the walk and try to memorize each feature. At the end of your walk, think about your impression Of the place. Do you feel different about it now? Did you discover things you had overlooked before? Were you aware of new sensations and feel ings? In your notebook, make a checklist of your new impressions and try to compare them to your feelings about the place before you started the sensory walk. O cn Shopping Center Activiti Select a local shopping center or community store complex as a study site. Try to find a place where there is a variety of shops and different types of activities and choose a time when people are actively doing things there. Stand in an in teresting spot and look around you. Examine colour, light and shade, movement and details of the buildings. Record your sensations: Concentrate on-a group of shops that attracts your attention. Examine this group carefully, noting details of the architect ure, shape and character of the buildings. Choose a shop that you would normally never enter and imagine you have business there. Enter the shop and study its interior carefully."Are there things about the shop that you did not visualize from outside? • • Return to the street and examine the people going about their business in the area. Imagine that you are one of those people and follow along behind the person for a time, trying to put yourself in the person's role. How would it feel to be that person? What might they be thinking about? Follow someone S (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72_, 8) into a shop and imagine that you are that person going about the same business. Think about how that activity influences how you might behave and why you are in the shop. Record your actions while imagining that you are the other person: Return to the street and look at the human activity around you.• How is the shopping center or store complex suited to the bus iness people have there? Is the design and layout convenient for people? Is the atmosphere pleasant? Does the place appeal to the senses? Think about how you would design the area to make it a convenient and attractive place to be. Suggest what features are attractive and functional in the place and how it might be improved (use notes and sketches): Guiding by Cards (from Bulletin of Environmental Education. April 1977, 7|_, 9-10, with illustrations from that source) Make up a series of cards on light cardboard similar to the ones shown here. They should be small enough so that you can easily carry them round and work with them. The idea is that a group of cards serves as a random guide to a sensory walk for you or your study group by providing directions and in structions to be followed during the walk. If you wish, you may make up other kinds of cards to add to those illustrated. For example, you might wish to add cards which specify starting the walk at different times of day, role-playing cards or any thing that strikes your imagination. You could have an "ob serve something expensive" or an "observe something old" card. Try variations on the theme to add enjoyment. Select a partner and an appropriate study site to test the cards. Shuffle the cards and turn one over and proceed with the activity indicated on the card. When satisfied, proceed to the next card and develop the game as you go. Try to think of ways to improve the exercise and if necessary, make more cards to add to the deck. At the end of the activity write a short report on the experience including any observations made at the direction of the cards. Include comments on the usefulness of the method and how it could be improved for use by others. 6 Describing Your Environment It is very useful to be able to describe buildings and their features clearly. Follow the directions indicated: WINDOWS- Architects use names for various parts of windows. Can you find names for the parts in dictionaries and texts? Draw or place a photograph of an interesting window below and name the parts: DOORWAYS- give you an impression of the type of building you are entering. What impression do these doorways give you? What function would you expect these buildings to serve? _^ FACADES- Architectural decorations are used to give character to buildings. Can you find out the names of the parts of these facades? On a separate page, describe or draw parts of the decorative detail that strikes you. ROOFLINES- may be flat, pitched or mansard and form the covers or lids of the buildings to keep out the elements. What type of rooflines are illustrated above? Do you think these rooflines are suitable for the wet British Columbia climate? How does the roofline influence the appearance of the building? Can rooflines be enhanced or decorated for artistic purposes? Draw a series of rooflines that capture your interest. What type of style are they? Can you look up names for the various styles? Think about how the style influences the appearance of the building. Develop an investigative eye by finding information on archi tecture in books such as dictionaries of architecture and construction. Books on cities and art may also be useful sources (see the references at the end of this section for suggestions). Building a Critical Vocabulary A great variety of words may be used.to say something about an interesting building. You may wish to consider words such as: line, colour, mass, volume, space, contrast, rhythm, balance, light, scale, proportion, symmetry, variety, unity, enrichment, decoration, enhancement, accent, expansion, con traction, enclosure, mystery, focal point, definition or in tricacy. Some words are quite descriptive and carry special meaning: vital, dominant, exciting, bold, vivid, modern, contemporary, powerful, simple, uniform, positive, complementary, convin cing, honest, old, inviting, solid, harmonious, comfortable, elegant, restored, renovated, historic. Find words that describe each building illustrated here from the listings above: Bentall- Dominion- Find new words to describe both buildings and list them on a separate page. The two buildings have both similarities and contrasts. List words which illustrate these similarities and contrasts- Similarities: Contrasts: Dominion Practice this approach on buildings or places of interest. John Roaf (c) John Roaf Experiencing the Built Think about the tremendous variety of places that you have visited and experienced during your lifetime. What do you really remember about them? When you went to school or work recently how much notice did you take of your surroundings? When you think about it you will realize just how much we take for granted the details of things in the environment , around us. Unless we are specifically looking for something much of our time may be spent on preoccupation with inner thoughts. How many of us are really good observers? People are exceedingly complex organisms. Our experience of a place may take many forms. We may respond to the place and situation on the basis of what we see, .feel or hear. Alternate ly, our response may be in relation to an experience we have in that place and its special meaning to us as individuals. If the experience is pleasant then we may have a-good feeling about the place. If the experience is unpleasant we may dis like or even dread the recollection of the situation. Our reactions to people, places and situations are largely governed by our past experience and the way'in which we have learned to react to life. Through experience, we learn to Environment judge people and situations based upon inner feelings. The strength and nature of those feelings is very much a personal thing and each of us differs in our reaction to a given sit uation. .Our individual lifestyles, likes, d.islikes, choice of job and environment are a product of our experience and of our culture. We tend to be comfortable in familiar surroundings and ill at ease in situations new to us. Each human society tends to reflect these characteristics and each period in the history of man has its special features. By focussing on your experience, you can become much more aware of your own reactions to a situation. In addition, it is useful to try and understand how others react to the.same situ ation. The groups of activities which follow will help you to focus on your experiences, preference and dislike for places. 11 You can examine your own experiences of the built environ ment and the ways in which you perceive things through the use of the following activities: GETTING STARTED: Steeplechasing- a focal point on the horizon such as a church steeple, high building, water tower or other structure is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. The appearance of the object will be examined in relation to other buildings from each vantage point. Serial Vision- in this activity you will focus on a distant building and experience the changing and emer ging view of the building as you draw closer to it. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Experiencing a Building From All Sides- this activity involves a close encounter with a built form, a study of the different appearance and nature of the build ing as viewed from all sides and observation of sim ilarity, differences, order and variety. DOING MORE: The Town Trail- the town trail is a planned route through an urban area which may be walked. The trail may be indic ated by markers or routes on a map and provides a basis for experiencing the urban environment, practising descrip tion of that environment or experimenting with the method. Steepiechasing (adaptedfromM Few places do not have some tall building, church steeple, tower or other object that is visible on the skyline. The objective of this activity is to choose such a structure and observe its appearance in relation to other buildings and objects from different vantage points surrounding it. Once you have chosen a suitable focal point, proceed as follows: 1) Acquire a map of the streets surrounding the focal point. A tourist guide map with a large scale is ideal if available. If you cannot obtain a suitable map draw one to approximate scale. 2) Hove around the focal point at a suitable distance stopping at appropriate places to observe the focal point. When you stop for observation record your location on the map. 3) Draw or photograph a selected number of views from your observation points. Try to select locations where you get a different perspective of the focal point in relation to other buildings or structures. 4) Make notes on how the focal point looks from each observation point. How does your location influence the way the structure looks? How do you feel about 12 etin of Environmental Education, Dec. 1976, 68, 6-10) the focal point when you view it from different locations? Would your impression of the structure be different if you only viewed it from one spot? How does the structure compare and contrast with surrounding buildings? Make notes on the design elements of the steeple, tower or structure. How do they influence its' appearance? Are there things about it you had not noticed before? Present your findings in the form of a written report or oral report to the class. I 13 15 Serial Vision (adapted from CuUen, G. The Concise Townscape, p. 9) When you walk from one end of a space to another your im pression of the object at the end of that space changes as you approach it. Imagine that you are walking down a long street with your eyes closed. Every once in a while you open your eyes and look down the street in the direction that you are moving. What you experience is a series of changing views of the street and the process may be term ed "serial vision". Your perspective of the objects at the end of the street changes as you approach them. In other words you are experiencing an "emerging view". Select a long straight street, preferably with a building or interesting object at the end. Walk down the street and make observations periodically of your surroundings and of your perspective of the end of the street. Take pictures or make sketches as you move from stop to stop. How does the emerging view change and what details become apparent? Next, try the activity on a long curving street. How does the curved view contrast with the straight view? Arrange your photographs or illustrate the process with cut frames as shown on the follow ing pages. 16 cut frames illustrate emerging view i—• 17 Experiencing a building from all sides (questions modified from McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst  for Teaching, 1977, p. 117- 122) This activity involves getting familiar with a prominent building or structure from all sides and experiencing the building in relation to its surroundings. Select a building or structure that is interesting to you, preferably one with some striking architectural features or historical significance. If possible, obtain a large scale map of the area which clearly shows the streets surrounding the building (tourist guide maps are often good). Hove around the building, stopping to observe it from all sides. Take pictures, make sketches and make notes on your impress ion of the building from each observation point. Move away from the building a short distance and observe it in relation to surrounding buildings. Repeat this procedure from several vantage points around the building. Record the location of the observation points on your map. Study the example of observation of the Hotel Vancouver in Vancouver, B.C. illustrated on the facing page. Note how your photographs or sketches can be arranged to show the features of the building from different sides and its re lationship to adjacent buildings. Try this procedure with your material. Through your experience you can observe a great deal about the design features of the building. At several observation points ask youself the following questions: LOOKING FOR SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCES- Shape and Form: What shapes appear most alike? What makes them most alike? How are shapes within the building different and why? How does the overall shape of the building differ from surround ing structures or is it similar? 119 Colour: Note the colour of the building you are experiencing. Why is it this colour? Does the material used for construction influence the colour? How does the colour compare to adjacent buildings? Do you find the colour(s) of the building pleasing or would you like to change them to some other colour scheme? Consider the texture of the surface of the building. Are there varying textures of parts of the building and how are they similar of different? Do surfaces of the building gleam or reflect light? Are there dull surfaces? Why do you think the architect chose those sur faces? Do you like the effect? LOOKING FOR ORDER AND VARIETY-Things can be organized by colour, shape, line, texture and size to give order. What order do you observe? Variety adds a difference to the way a group of things is order ed. What variety do you observe in your buildings features? Looking at adjacent buildings in comparison to the one that you are observing, what buildings or surrounding street objects (eg.-telephone poles, fences) appear most orderly? What building designs or street features appear most varied? Think about how an architect or planner could use order and var iety to make buildings and streets interesting. The Town Trail (adapted from Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 16-17) The town trail provides a way of enjoying and experiencing the built environment. It involves a planned route through an urban area that may be walked and is designed to bring out features of the area for the observer. The route may be illustrated on a guide map or brochure or be marked by signs or posts where town trails have been prepared for use by visitors to the community. Such a trail can have many uses. It can be used to guide people past points of interest for tourism purposes or be organized to illustrate specific features such as shopping areas, historic buildings, house types, architectural features, industry, ethnic community content or landscape detail. Alternately, the town trail can be used to illustrate urban features such as road and rapid transit systems, urban renewal, problems (traffic flow, decay, reconstruction needs) or almost anything that the designer of the trail wishes. Use of a town trail will enable you to develop interest and have enjoyable and useful experiences in the built environ ment. Through the use of the town trail you can examine the processes that shape our urban environment and develop a critical eye for evaluating that environment. Preparation and Planning: Think of an interesting topic or theme and write down what your objectives are in designing such a trail. What do you hope to achieve and who would use such a trail? Oo you wish to study a particular type of build ing, architectural feature, urban problem or historical theme? Once you have established these objectives, go out and find examples in the urban environment to illustrate your ideas. In planning a town trail you should try to be practical and consider both the objectives of the trail as well as the comfort and needs of the users. Can you design a trail that clearly illustrates your point? Are most of the points of interest along the way fairly close together so that the distance walked is not excessive? Is the trail safe for users and not likely to cause discomfort and hardship? ro 21 Presentation of Your Town Trail: As well as carefully plan ning your trail's route, it is most important that you con sider how you intend to communicate ideas and information to the users of the trail. A written guide to the trail with illustrations that add something to the text is very useful. This guide should not just provide a description of what the user sees, but should convey your message, suggest ideas or ways of looking at things that are informative and stimulat ing to the user. Check that your material is accurate, clear and well thought out. Directions and maps should be clear so that the user is not confused by the route. If buildings are to be entered, the hours that they are open to the public should be specified as well as any entry fees. It is useful to tell the user how long it will take to walk the trail and approximately how far he or she will have to walk. Any special features such as safety considerations, rest stops or transportation needs should be mentioned. Possible Topics for Trail Design: -barriers (fences, doors, walls, hedges, banks) -advertising (signs, posters, billboards, window displays storefronts) -enclosure of space, activities -construction methods and materials -gardens -degeneration and decay -conversion of form or function -urban housing types -natural form vs. artificial form -human activities What other ideas for a theme can you think of? Record your choice of a theme here: What are the objectives of your town trail? An Example- The Trounce-Bastion Walk, Victoria, B.C. This example illustrates how you can focus on the use of space as a topic for a town trail. The Trounce Alley-Bastion Square complex in Victoria, B.C. provides a good area for the study of space utilization in a setting of restored historic buildings, narrow steets, courtyards, quaint shops, and boutiques. Objectives: To show to the user of the trail how built space may be divided and manipulated, compare private vs_ public space, internal space vs_ external space and illustrate the effect of space upon atmos phere and function of a place. Length of Trail: 6 blocks Time for Completion of Trail: one hour The Route: The route to be followed is illustrated on the adjacent map. The trail can be easily accom plished by walking and follows sidewalks and city streets through a pleasant and interesting area. Shops, small restaurants and places to sit and rest are common throughout the area. 22 23 Examples of the Content of the Trail Srochure The illustrations here show different types of space encountered on the trail. The explanatory brochure accompanying the trail would show pictures such as those together with a map and information such as: 1-Trounce Alley 1) Anticipated Space (Mystery): The beginning of the walk is exciting as you do not know what people, places, sights experiences or spaces lie around the corner. You therefore anticipate an encounter with the space beyond. 2) Enclosed Space: This narrow pedestrian pathway provides an atmosphere of quiet away from the busy vehicle traffic. Squares and courtyards would provide similar quiet space. 3) Projection and Recession: Architectural features which project outwards into space and inwards provide contrast, variety and mood to the use of space. Consider the bay window and the recessed arched entranceway. 4) Private Space: People seek out and require private space for reasons of comfort, security, convenience, shade, shelter and relief from the outside world. The inviting restaurant provides a promise of such things. ro Douglas St. ex o c c Broad Government Langley Bastion Square ' 5) Public and Private Space: Here, the public walkway con trasts with the private space within the buildings. One can move from private to public space or vice versa or pass through the area. In the summer the area outside of the restaurant becomes attractive for public dining, showing that people will forego enclosed space for outdoor enjoy ment. 6) Interesting Continental Threshold: This appealing and friend ly entrance invites people to move from external to internal space. The technique is therefore both visually attractive and also useful to the merchant for enticing customers. cn 7) Formal Threshold: The formal entrance offers a feeling of grandeur and opulance and tells us something about the space within. Such an entrance might attract some customers and deter others who felt the shop was too expensive for them. 8) The Pedestrian 'Way: Pedestrian walks link or join space to gether as well as providing comfort and safety to people. Here the alley, dedicated only to pedestrian traffic, provides access to the buildings as well as a link to the vehicular traffic at either end. 9) Separation of Pedestrian and Vehicular Space: The alley opens onto a busy street with vehicular traffic and thus joins space with a different function. Barriers (10) separate the space-no 2- Bastion Square 2 1) Anticipated Space (Mystery): The approach to the second portion of the trail is exciting as you have to antic ipate what is unseen beyond the corner of the Bank. 2) Barriers: The striped posts mark the boundaries of space serving different functions. They prevent cars from enter ing pedestrian space and provide a message about the func tion of enclosed space. 3) Street Furniture: Trees, benches and other appealing and useful objects add decoration to the space and improve its function for human activity. 4) Planters: Add visual attraction, contrast of living ys_ non-living things and act as a form of barrier to separate private space of the restaurant from the public walkway. The restaurant sign identifies what type of space lies within the building and tells us what type of food 1s offered there. 27 5) Closed Space: A break in the line of the street is created by this enclosed space. The eye is drawn into the space and the lamp standards provide a sense of progression. 5 6) Enclosed Space: The arrangement of the streets and buildings plus the privacy of the planters provides an enclosed and attractive entrance for this restaurant. 7) Pedestrian Way-Movement and Dividers: Efficient pedestrian movement is important in a busy city. Here street lights, trees, and brick patterns in the pavement help to separate the pedes trian traffic into a two-way flow. t—i OO 8) Vantage Point: The vantage point is a space set aside and des igned to provide an unimpeded view of the space beyond. A barrier is provided for safety reasons. The vantage point allows the viewer to observe open space from enclosed urban space. 9) Change in Levels: Changes in level provide relief from the continuity of flat spaces. The feeling of height provides exhilaration and emergence. Level changes can be used to make open space interesting. 10) Textural Properties of Space: Texture of bricks, paving stones, concrete, grass, and other materials can be used to add interest to space. A textured surface pleasing to the eye is far more appealing than an expanse of asphalt. Texture of flat places can be used to link the buildings which rise vertically from the flat space to appealing properties in that space. 28 ro CO 29 3. Influence of Design and Materials Your environment is composed of both natural and man-made objects. The built environment consists of man-made objects crafted with the use of materials such as wood, concrete, steel, brick or masonary according to the technology of the time, function of the structure, customs and fashion at the time of construction, cost and other considerations. Build ings and man-made structures can be categorized according to their function- ie^. as dwellings, businesses, transport ation systems, storage areas, recreational areas, etc. The attitudes that people have in regard to built structures^ varies with the function, atmosphere, appearance, and sig nificance and meaning of the structure in relation to the culture and experience of the individual. The designer of built structures is faced with the task of considering many factors such as size, function, choice of materials, location, durability, cost, appearance, relation ship to other structures and systems. Use of space is a basic element of the design task as a building is essentially a man-made structure which partitions, divides or alters.' natural space in some way. The physical features of a place are important both to the function of that place as well as its appearance. Size and form are important in relation to the number of people using a place, how much time they spend there and the nature of the activities they engage in there. Surfaces offer a combination of colours, shapes and textures and often have a major effect on the sound of a place due to reflective or absorptive pro perties. The kinds of sounds one hears and the differences in sounds inside and outside the structure are important design features related to space and choice of materials. Maintenance and durabi1ity are important in choice of building materials and-influence repair needs, life of the building, appearance, value, and health and sanitation concerns. Designs-which con sider 1 ight and ai_r entry to the structure are also important in human comfort, temperature control and economy, and health considerations. Amount of light, colour, sources of light, aesthetic effects of light patterns and use of light are im portant design considerations. Openings in structures provide access and choice in number, size and location is important, both to access but to the overall appearance of the building and its function and atmosphere. The following activities will help you to learn how design and use of materials influence the built environment: Part A- Activities for relating how people are influenced by design and use of space in the built environment. GETTING STARTED: Personal Space Activities- examining the properties of personal space and that of others in different roles, professions, and activities. Defining Personal Space with Objects- seeing how well objects serve people in providing and communicating personal space. Shared Space Activities- designing and symbolizing space. Analysing the Look and Use of Space- analysing and redesigning a space. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Network Spaces- tracing the nature and effectiveness of network systems. DOING MORE: Creating Symbols for use in Networks- designing and collecting graphics and examining networks for use in the environment and school setting. 30 Part 8- Working with material and design to examine the planning, function and durability of the built environment: Dating Game- establishing when in time certain materials and styles were in use in the built environment. Tracing styles, building designs, lettering and other historical content. The Houses Game- planning the layout of a small group of houses with the consideration of important design elements; construction of a model. The Improvements Game- examining and proposing improve ments that could be incorporated into your own neigh bourhood or commercial area. 31 Personal Space (concepts and questions adapted from McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst for Teaching, 1977, 219) Have you ever walked upon a deserted beach or broad meadow and had the feeling that the space all around you was yours? When you have been packed tightly into a crowd did you experience a feeling of being squeezed into a small place with others pressing in upon you? You relate to the space around you in a personal way and if you think about it you will realize that this "personal space" is portable for you carry it about with you and it shrinks or swells according to your surroundings. Try the following activities to experiment with personal space: Find a small space somewhere in your home or school environ ment ( a closet, table top, underside of a table or chair, or the space behind a door would be adequate). Think of things to do. What kinds of things can you do in that space? What things does the small space prevent you from doing? If you were to redesign the space to enable you to do one of the things you currently cannot, how much bigger and how much different would you make the space? How much space do you need to put on your coat? Your shoes? Paint a picture? Eat your lunch? Climb on a bus? Can you measure and describe space needs for these activities? Do you feel differently when you enter the school hallway when it is crowded after coming in from a large playing field? Look at the people about you and in pictures, films and different types of activity. What do you think about their personal space in each case? How does personal space vary with the activity and the role of the in dividual? Take several interesting examples from your observations and analyse them in written form comparing and contrasting them where appro priate. - ,• pm ^wam ^wo®® • $ Defining Personal Spac (concepts and questions adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 224), Objects can be used to define personal space and set. it apart. For example, what might you do if you-wished to reserve a whole seat on a bus or train for yourself? How would you keep a whole work table to yourself? How would you prevent your lunch from getting mixed up with a lot of others? Objects not only define personal space but they may also indicate function and ownership. Consider the furniture in the room around you. What function does each object suggest? Some objects denote ownership or rights to personal or private space. Consider your desk, house, room, car etc. Public buildings often have a mix of public'space with appropriate furniture and private office space for staff. » With Objects You can look at objects in terms of their function, meaning, appearance and potential for change or other use. A checklist can be established for each object as .follows: Social Function- does the object clearly communicate its intended use? Meaning- could you change the way we use the object to make it function better? Visual Properties- is the object attractive and does it improve people's personal space? Information- is there a way of altering the appearance,of the object so that it provides more information about its function or is more appealing? Go out and look for some objects in your environment. Examine, them in private and public areas such as homes, parks, theatres, res taurants and gas stations. List the objects and for each go through the checklist above listing, responses. Record the objects you have observed here: • 33 Shared Space Activities (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 227-228) You can design and construct an individual storage system that will be a part of a shared storage system structure assembled for use by your class. Proceed as follows: Design Criteria: What are the space needs of the class; of each student? When is the space needed during the day's activities? Is the storage long term or short term in nature? What items are being stored and do they have any special storage requirements? How much space is available and where is it located? Is the proposed location (s) practical and functional? Design Elements: What materials do you propose to use? How will the completed project look? Are you considering a modular design with stacking elements? Are there ways of improving the appearance and function of the design? What will it cost for the project and are there less ex pensive methods of construction? How much time will the project take to carry out? Is the proposed method strong and safe? — Construction: Once you have finalized the choice of design, proceed to prepare detailed plans, cost estimates and obtain the necessary materials. Decide on a work schedule and how the task is to be carried out using people's time efficiently. Try to divide the labour so that a complementary approach is taken- ie. some people cut lumber, some smooth boards, others paint and finish. Evaluation: During construction and at completion of the project, carry out an evaluation of the project. Did it meet the design criteria? Is 1t functional and visually pleasing? Were there problems that you did not consider? How does the space allocated for individual use relate to the space used by the entire class? Does the project tell you something about efficient use of sDace? Analysing the Look and (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 228-229) Space use is a very important facet of the design of things which are part of our built environment.In assembling design concepts youmust try to envision how space will be used, how groupings of space will look, together and how people will re act to the design. The appearance of a space is important as it tells us what activities can go on there. In addition, the way a place looks also determines our feelings about it and a designer should be conscious of the attitudes of ,the user. You can learn more about the attitudes you have, as well as those of your classmates by participating in a class dis cussion group. Proceed as follows: Divide up into discussion groups. Ideally, each group should have about six people in it. Elect a discussion leader whose job is to keep the discussion going, make sure all people participate, and stop some people from dominating the dis cussion. Elect a recorder who will write down the results of the discussion for later presentation to the class. The objective is to discuss how areas of your school or class room look and function and attempt to see how people's attit udes are similar or different. Go through the following guiding questions or adapt them to your situation.(All participants Use of Space should record their own responses here and accept, reject or modify points of view that come out in the discussion). How is your room similar, different, or. in any way special in comparison to other classrooms in the school? How do you feel about the design of the room? Is it well de signed or could it be improved? How could it be improved? Does the material used in the room (carpet, flooring, seating, wall covering etc.) limit what you can do in the room? •Is the room so functional in design that it is uninteresting? If you could make the room look more interesting, how would you do it? 35 Examine the features of the room with regard to materials used and make any recommendations you feel would improve the appearance of the room. Look at the lighting and window arrangement in the class room. Is the lighting arrangement and the availability of natural light well designed? Could the floor level be broken up into more functional space for different activities? Should the seating area and furniture be changed or re arranged? • What colours are present in the room? How does the colour scheme affect the feeling you get in the room? Would you alter the colour scheme? In the space below draw a diagram of how you would redesign the room to make it more pleasant or functional. Consider the design objectives of the room and the feelings of other users in your planning. Meet together as an entire class following the discussion group sessions. Each group's reporter should present a brief report of the findings. Notice how groups other than your own may differ according to the way their discussion developed. Compare your own responses recorded here to those of your own group and the other groups'. What do you conclude about personal attitudes and feelings towards the built environment? _ 36 Network Spaces (adapted from Mc As you move about in the built environment you make use of stairways, hallways, footpaths, streets and other structures designed to get you from one place to another. These devices are termed "networks" and their effectiveness depends upon how well the space alloted for the network allows for the desired pattern of movement and use. You may examine the network concept through the following activities: Networks in the Classroom Environment: Divide into groups and start by making a large scale map of the classroom on a big piece of paper. On the map, indicate all the paths which are used to enter and leave the room. Act out the daily use of these routes to become familiar with the ways you get to doors, blackboard, teacher's desk, books, storage areas, etc. Think about what happens when the entire class moves at one time. Where are the congested areas in your network? What areas are not used much of the time? Can you think of a better arrangement that would prevent con gestion and improve use of space in your network? and Degge, 1977, 232-233) Network Spaces Within and Around the School: Try to obtain a floor plan of the school and surrounding grounds, possibly from the janitor, District SchooKBoard or planning office. If a plan is not available, draw one to approximate scale. Obtain a map of the surrounding community-enlargements can be made using an overhead projector with the image directed onto a large piece of paper. From the school, floor plan, lo cate and mark the spaces in the school that are used by all . the students (gymnasium, cafeteria or lunch room, library). Using a felt pen, indicate on the map the routes students in your class follow to move to different places in the school during the day. Draw the paths followed by several individuals ' and then make tours along those routes to study what those individuals experience in one day.Where do traffic jams occur? What is going on in the halls, besides people moving from one place to another? What happens in the heaviest traffic areas? Does the traffic in different areas vary with different times of the day? CO 37 Is there enough light on the routes? Is there space for people to stop and talk or do they interfere with traffic flow? What effect would changing the times people use spaces, the way people behave, and the atmosphere of the spaces do to make the process of getting from one place to another a more pleasant experience? Study traffic flow patterns in your school grounds and on the approaches to the school using the maps you have ob tained. Do you feel the networks around the school are well planned? Can you suggest improvements?(assume you are a member of a planning team given the task of designing the layout of the network serving the school area). Write a report on your approach to the problem and include any dia grams that are helpful. Symbols (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 233) Symbols and signs which provide information are a very impor tant means of informing people about the location and function of different parts of a building or assemblage of buildings. Every day you encounter many symbols which make it easier for you to share network spaces with many other people. To make yourself more aware of this, collect pictures, make drawings and observe symbols and signs as you travel about. Observe road and highway signs. How do they tell people what road they are on and where they are going? What kind of symbols tell motorists about important safety matters? What symbols indicate a park or playground; a railway crossing; a steep hill? (draw) What kind of symbols are used, other than words, to indicate on shop signs what a shop sells? How are different rooms in the school marked? Examine the school office, gymnasium, different classrooms. What techniques are used to make symbols noticable and obvious at a distance? How are signs placed so that they are still visible when a space is full of people? Can you locate examples of poorly designed signs or symbols in your school or local environment? Describe and identify the problem: . Examine advertising material in magazines and store displays. How are symbols used effectively and what qualities of shape, colour, texture and design do they have? 38 Experiment with creating your own symbols and signs which use symbols. How would you indicate a gymnasium, tennis court, ski touring trail, seafood restaurant, pet shop, farm implement supplier or any other activity that interests you? (try differ ent media, two and three-dimensional designs) 39 The Dating Game (adapted from B.C with illustratio You can discover a lot of interesting things about the his torical trends of the area in which you live by conducting a walking tour and observing trends in appearance and con struction methods according to the age of the buildings. For example, you might notice old wooden stores with false fronts among brick or stone buildings of a later period. Alternately, you might see residential streets with large Z\ storey wooden houses that are quite different from near by single storey, 2 bedroom houses of a more recent period. It might be apparant that there has been a shift in the location of the commercial and retail center of the area with time or a trend towards movement of shopping centers into the suburbs. Understanding such trends will involve you in consideration of many factors such as changes in construction materials and technology, the fashion of different time periods, popu lation trends, the advent of transportation systems, economic factors, changing land use patterns, population density and availability of services. Trends in urban development could well be related to world events and immigration patterns. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present, 1974, p. 67-69, is from that source) In order to study this aspect of the built environment it is important to be able to assign dates of construction to the buildings observed. Information on the age of structures may be obtained from a number of sources. Some heritage buildings are identified with dated name plaques or are described in brochures on city architecture. Interviews with owners and residents can provide additional information. City or mun icipal hall records and planning offices may be cooperative. Good reference books are often available which describe trends in local architecture and general categories of construction. Local museums may have displays or archival material. The style of architecture is often an excellent indicator of the age of a structure. For example, house styles in B.C. have changed from the Victorian form (turrets, dormer windows) of the late 1800's: o Lettering on buildings, often found on cornerstones or above the entrance, can be a useful indicator of age according to the type of lettering employed. By accurately dating one building you may obtain clues as to the age of adjacent ones. Once you have assembled sufficient background material and references, proceed to organize a walking tour of your study area. Obtain a map or prepare one for the walking tour and work out a coding system for the building types you will ob serve. For example, if the walk was through a residential area with some of the house types illustrated on the facing page, you might use a code such as: California Bungalow - CB 20's-30's Romanticism - R International Style - I Split Level Ranch - SLR 40 As you move through the area, record the code on your map so that you obtain a plan of the house types on the street and the approximate age based on the style and any other information you can obtain. For each major type of house observed, note the construction details, materials used, ornate decorations, spacing of buildings, shape and dimen sions, and any other special features. What trends are apparant in the study area with time? Why do you think changes occurred? How did altered technology change the frequency of use of different construction materials and materials used to finish exteriors? Prepare a report on your findings, including maps illustra ting your walking tour and the age of structures you obser ved. Describe the features of the buildings and the materials used in construction and provide sketches or photographs to illustrate your report. Speculate on why built form changes in different time periods and what factors have influenced changes in your study area. 41 The Houses Game (from Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 17-20, with house model and evaluation form from that source) ~" In this activity you will have an opportunity to design your own'arrangement of a group of houses and consider both the functional requirements of the arrangement anci the most attrac tive design you can-devise. Proceed by taking an 8*5 x 14 " piece of paper and tracing the pattern for 12 houses on the paper using the pattern shown here. Cut out the model of each house and fold it as indicated in the diagram to leave a back garden on each dwelling. You now have 12 houses, one of which is to be designated a grocery store and identified in some way (colour, label or sign, etc.). Take another 8*5 x 14 " piece of paper to represent the land upon which the houses are to be arranged. A piece of stiff cardboard or poster board would be excellent. Assemble glue, felt pens, pencil crayons, painting materials or other suitable items with which to complete your model. Your task is to design a model of the arrangement of the.12 buildings which is interesting, attractive, convenient and inexpensive to construct. A number of design considerations are listed on this page which must be taken into account in your model. Experiment with a number of different arrangements before deciding oh a finaj layout and consider the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement. back garden ^cut Slot-B slot-A H ouse Pattern Design Considerations: Access- Each house must have suitable footpath and road access and there shouTd be room to park cars closeby. Traffic should not cause problems of noise, safety or interfere with privacy. House orientation- Sunshine is desirable in back gardens and people will wish to use their gardens for recreation; A southern exposure will maximize entry of sunlight. Privacy in home and garden is required. Open space- space for recreation, landscaping and children's play should be considered and indicated on the model. Consider noise, safety and appearance of the area. Convenience- People will wish to visit each other and have easy access to the grocery store and their homes. Visitors from outside the area will require access and parking. Delivery vehicles will require access to the area, particularly to the store. ro 42 Once you have carefully selected your design, proceed to complete the model by gluing down the houses on the site. Prior to positioning the houses, make sure all the roads, paths, open spaces etc. are drawn in and identified in some way. Use any techniques you wish to enhance the appearance of your model and the clarity with which it illustrates the elements of your design. Evaluation: You may evaluate your own design or those of other members of the class using the evaluation form shown on this page. In evaluating designs, ask yourself how well the design satisfys the design considerations. Is the layout convenient? Is it practical and does it make best use of the site? Does the design look expensive to construct? Has privacy, noise, traffic flow, access, safety been accounted for? Is the design attrac tive and would you like to live in the area? How might the design be improved? Class evaluations of designs could be done in open discuss ion or by ballot. In the case of a ballot, someone will have to count the ballots and fill in the number of people respond ing to each of the boxes on the evaluation form. Evaluation Form: attractive convenient inexpensive very fairly in between fairly . very unattractive inconvenient expensive Other Activities: You may wish to devise other activites based on this idea. Some things that could be done are: -designs that make use of different types of houses such as single (detached), semi-detached (duplex) or condominium-type housing. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each, -experimenting with housing density Variations and the problems and opportunity posed by such developments, -designing for special needs of people- the old, family needs, young people without children,.single parents, handicapped people -designing for special environments- heavy snow conditions,strong prevailing winds, periodic flooding, hot dry conditions. CO 43 The Improvements Gam The objective of this activity is to allow you to experiment with planning for improvement of an area familiar to you and consider alternatives for future use of parts of that area. Proceed by walking individually.or in small groups around an area close to your school. Select a study area of only a few blocks in size so as not to make the project unmanagable. As you tour the area, concentrate on sites that are suitable for replanning such as derelect buildings, unused vacant lots, places that are not being actively utilized or industrial sites that could be relocated elsewhere. Record details of your observations by photography, sketches, notes or other appropriate means and locate each site's position on a map. Identify each site by means of a number for future reference. Think about possible alternate use of each site that you have observed. As a guide to alternate use, you should decide on a theme for your redevelopment plans. For example, do you wish to redevelop the area as a residential area with facilities for people such as more recreation area, playgrounds, activity centers, etc? If so, your redevelopment plans would concentrate on creating housing, leisure, local shopping and network space such as streets, paths or transit systems. (modified from Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 21-26) As an.aid to developing your plans for the area you may wish to use a checklist such as the one shown below: Redevelopment Checklist Theme: To improve the quality of the residential area adjacent to the school by providing more leisure facilities and activities for local residents. Site Number Present Use and Condition. Alternate Possible Use 1 Vacant level lot; covered with wild grass 2 Abandoned corner grocery store 3 Parking lot; currently not fully used Playground and fitness circuit Activity center for young people Partial conversion to green space area and foot and bicycle path linking Marine Drive and Keith Road When you have completed your survey and developed your ideas for alternate use of the area, meet with a small group of students and present your findings and suggestions. Consider any ideas they may have and try to achieve a consensus on a redevelopment scheme for the area. Prepare maps and diagrams to illustrate your plans and appoint a group spokesperson to present the findings to the class. Oiscuss the findings and the approach taken in class. If you wish, you may expand this activity into a class pro ject which is designed to produce a land use plan for the area surrounding the school. Proceed as follows: Discuss, as a class, the theme for desirable land use in the area around the school. If the area is residential you may wish to enhance its residential qualities to make the area a more pleasant and interesting place in which to live. If the area is largely commercial it may be desirable to try to create more green space, recreational opportunity or to generally enhance the appearance of the area. Alternately, you might wish to improve transportation systems in the area and devise a scheme that is least disruptive to established areas of the community. Once you have decided on a class theme, proceed to investigate the area in small study groups as indicated on the facing page. The area around the school should be divided among the groups so as to produce a complete study of the entire surrounding area. Each group should finalize its recommendations and the group spokesperson should present them to the class. A map of the area surrounding the school can be drawn on the blackboard or on a large piece of paper and the recommendations of the study groups can be displayed on this map. The class 44 should consider and debate the recommendations and decide on an overall land redevelopment scheme for the area. Once a con sensus is reached, if desired a model can be prepared which incorporates the suggested changes for visual examination and discussion purposes. Such a model could be presented to local planners and designers for their consideration. They might be willing to address the class and discuss the municipal planning process. 45 4. Critical Appraisal Becoming more aware of places deepens our understanding of ourselves and our environment. Understanding however, is only a part of the potential that you have within you and it is possible to go much farther and move towards positive action to create, modify or influence the nature of your built envir onment. Activities in the previous sections of this book were directed towards developing an understanding of what factors make a place work well and feel right. In considering how a place works and feels, you examined many factors such as function, materials used in construction, aesthetics, atmosphere, economics, structural form, use of space, networks, etc. In order to critically appraise the built environment and to use this appraisal to bring about change, it is necessary for you to examine the process of appraisal. The group of activ ities included here therefore deals with practical ways of appraising the built environment and will help you practice the technique. GETTING STARTED: The Four F.actor Building Appraisal- Context, routes, interface, and grouping factors help you to appraise built environment through a checklist and scale system. InfiII- You will observe spaces between buildings and experiment with the design of possible solutions to fil1 in the space. Infill- House Fronts- This activity involves the exam ination of residential house fronts and the appraisal of how well they relate to each other and to factors such as climate, topography and function. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Infill- Commercial- Examining possible solutions for corner sites being used as commercial offices and eval uating the appropriateness of design. Appraising Proposals- Learning to appraise proposals and schemes of designers, architects and developers and examining the proposal review process. 46 The Four Factor Building Appraisal (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 3-8 utilizing J. Bishop's "CRIG Analysis") An example of an appraisal -technique called the "four factor building appraisal" is' provided in the following pages. This approach allows you to focus on four key elements of building appraisal-context, routes, interface and grouping by using a series of checklist questions and a numerical rating scheme that allows you to assign a score to the factor being appraised. To proceed, select any building or group of buildings that is of interest to you. You could appraise a house, your school, a commercial building, a housing complex, the corner store br the old gas station down the street. Carefully read through the examples that follow to be sure that you understand the check list process. Then go out and observe the building(s) of your choice and conduct your'appraisal using the checklist questions and making notes, drawings, taking photographs, etc. to supple ment your appraisal of each of the four factors described in the checklists. For each question in the checklists, assign a numerical score from 1 to 7 (1= highly appropriate, 7 = highly inappropriate) and then calculate the average, score for the factor by adding up all the individual scores for each factor and dividing by the number of questions answered. To assign an overall score for the project as a whole based upon the four factor anal ysis, add up the average scores for the four factors and divide by four. Prepare a report on your appraisal using the following format: 1) Description of building(s) appraised with supportive illustrations (photographs, sketches, maps, diagrams). 2) Appraisal of the building(s) according to the four factor analysis using the checklists with responses to each question completed and a numerical score for each question provided. 3) A paragraph describing the success or lack of success with which each factor is achieved or satisfied (see the example of the appraisal of the Vancouver Law Courts which follows).. 4) Analysis of numerical ratings by computation of average scores for each factor of the appraisal and computation of the overall score for the building(s). 5) Concluding comments based upon your overall appraisal of the building(s). i—> 47 FACTOR 1 - CONTEXT: Context is the setting in which the building is placed. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by asking yourself how well the building(s) suit the context.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) What is the general pattern of the surrounding area; is it streets, squares, crescents, winding roads? ' Score-2) What is the scale of the development; size of lots, shape, height, bulk of building, height vs_ width of streets? Score 3} What is the form of the building? Is it consistent, varied, are materials basic, are windows and doors suitable, etc? Score-4) How do public and private areas relate to each other? Score-5) What are the land uses in the area adjoining the building? Score;-6) What is the topography of the site? Consider slope, contours, views in and out of the site. Score 7) What are the environmental factors of. importance? Consider orientation, exposure, sun, wind, rain, humidity, daylight. Score 8) What is the existing vegetation surrounding the building(s)? Score 9) How do people use the building(s) in relation to the surround ing structures? '  ; Score Total Score Average (Total / 9) Write a paragraph describing the success or failure or the strong points or deficiencies of the way in which the building(s) suit the context of the surrounding area. 48 FACTOR 2 - ROUTES: Routes are the paths or passageways for traffic that allow the building to relate to its context. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by asking yourself how appropriate the routes are to link the building to its surroundings and how functional they are.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) What routes, pathways, streets and passageways are provided to and around the building? Score 2) What are the flow patterns of traffic or people? Are there busy periods, quiet periods, one-way flows, regular move ment patterns, traffic jams? Score 5) Are all the routes easily understood by newcomers, visitors, service people? Score 6) How are the routes marked? Are markings clear and easily observed? Score 7) Do the routes effectively link the building to the surround ing buildings? Score 3) Where are the nodes (meeting points) for traffic around the building and what, if anything, happens there? Score 4) Do all the routes make sense? Are they coherent and con venient? Score Total Score _ Average (Total / 7) _ Write a paragraph describing the way in which the routes in and around the building(s) relate the building to its context and the success with which the routes accomplish that purpose. 800 Robson St. Food Fair Crerra/Theatre Exhibition ' Meeting Ftooms Tourist Inforrnation Parking Level P2 49 FACTOR 3 - INTERFACE: A building .is essentially an enclosure that separates an interior private space from an exterior public space. Interface is the crucial meeting place where .the inside of the building connects with the outside. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by deciding how well the build ing satisfies the problems related to interface.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) Does the exterior of the building explain its interior function(s)? (Shop windows explain, nature of shop within). Score __ 2) How does the inside of the building connect with the out side of the building? Are the connections appropriate and functional? Score 3) Are the entrances and exits accessible or are there diff icult entry ways or exits? ^ Score 4) Are.the various openings related to thoughtful planning of the interior? Consider entry of light, view, privacy needs, noise, heat, glare, atmosphere, etc. ~ . Score 5) What ideas, themes, or concepts are evident inside and outside the building? \ ' Score 6) Are there unexpected features inside the building which are not evident from the outside?^ _ • Score 7) What clues indicate the presence of public and private space? Score 8) Have the designers addressed the problem of interface well in their design of this building? Has" its full potential been realized? .. Score Total Score Average (Total / 8) . Write a paragraph describing how well the design of your building has addressed the problems of interface. What are the strengths and weak nesses of'the design? How might it be improved or changed? FACTOR 4 - GROUPING: Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Grouping of the parts gives both meaning and variety to the building. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by concentrating on the sub divisions of the building's form and deciding on the appro priateness of the designer's choice of groupings.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) How is the building made up? Are subdivisions apparant and if so, what are they? Score _ 2) Do the subdivided parts of the building relate clearly to their function? Is use by any social group apparant? Score _ 3) Is it clear what the various subdivisions of the building might mean to people? Do some sections have a very obvious function? Score 50 4) Are the various parts of the building planned carefully in relation to one another and to the characteristics of the site? Score _ 5) Is there sufficient relationship between the parts of the building for it to appear as one unified structure? Does enough variation exist to provide interest? Score Total Score _ Average (Total / 5) _ In a paragraph, discuss the subdivision of your building into identifiable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. Is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? 51 AN EXAMPLE OF FOUR FACTOR ANALYSIS - THE VANCOUVER LAW COURTS The following is a series of notes compiled tin each of the four factors used,in the appraisal of the Vancouver. B.C. Law Court structure. These notes illustrate the kind of information that can be assembled for appraisal purposes for use in com pletion of the checklist process. Background: The Law Courts, opened in September of 1979, were designed by famous architect Mr. Arthur Erickson. The seven story structure, which took three years to construct, accomodates 35 courtrooms plus appropriate related facilites, including 13 civil, 11 criminal, 3 appeal, 3 assize courts, 3 motion chambers and 2 courts designed for complex commercial legal cases. Factor 1 - Context: The site of the structure is the new Robson Square complex located in the heart of downtown Vancouver. Four busy commercial streets- Howe, Smithe, Nelson and Hornby surround the complex. A covered office walkway bridge connects the Law Courts to Robson Square by passing over Smithe Street. Instead of tall, narrow buildings rising vertically from the sidewalk, the architect has used an angled geometric stucture for the building and has'prov-ided a considerable number of pedestrian walkways, grassy areas, trees, shrubs and water as well as seating areas. The Robson Square facility which connects to the Law Courts is a "people place" with gardens, private and public space, roller rinks, restaurants, an information center and a theatre complex. Other uses of surrounding land are mixed. The Law Courts are central to the city core with hotels, commer cial office buildings, shops and restaurants located in buildings which are mostly in the 30-50 year age category and of mixed architectural features. Adjacent buildings such as the Hotel Vancouver and the old courthouse provide an interesting contrast with their unique and attractive architecture. The structure of the Law Court facility is so designed that different views of the'surrounding buildings and of the structure' itself are apparant from each level. The building, with its ample public space, allows access from adjacent streets and buildings and allows recrea tional and leisure time activity for the public as well as serving its intended function as a legal facility. Scores: (following completion of checklist on context)-4,2,1,1,2,2,3,2,2 Total= 19, Average* 2^1 52 Factor 2 - Routes: The major entrance of the Law Courts is on the corner of Smithe and Hornby Streets. Service and parking entrances are located off the street on lower levels with entry from Smithe and Howe Streets. Pedestrian routes are tree-lined sidewalks that surround the building. The raised office-bridge structure over Smithe street facilitates movement to and from Robson Square without presenting a barrier to automobile traffic. Pedestrian traffic generally moves well about the building with little obvious congestion at any time. Due to the legal nature of the building's function, public access to much of the interior is restricted. Routes, services and function of space is generally well labelled and identifyable. Scores: (following completion of checklist on routes)-3,2,2,4,4,3,3 Total= 21, Average* 3J) 53 Scores:(from completion of checklist on interface) 6,4,3,2,1,2,2,3 Total* 23 Average* 2.9 Factor 3 - Interface: The Law Court structure is composed of glass panel roofing supported by tubular steel framework with floors and walls of textured concrete. There are a number of entrances, walkways, levels and the layout varies with each floor. Use of a glass roof substitutes for the need for large windows on the upper floors with several levels opening onto a high, glass enclosed space with ample natural light. Entry into some parts of the building is restricted due to security measures and passage through the building can be confusing due to presence of public and private restricted space. The function of the structure is in no way apparant from its outside appearance. It is unlike any traditional structure used for legal purposes. Large commercial signs are not apparant but rather dignified black block letters provide directions and in formation on the function of parts of the building. The interior design is consistent with the futuristic appearance of the ex terior. The harsh and angular lines of the roof, entry ways and pathways is softened by extensive use of foliage. Public space on the exterior of the structure is generally well coordinated with public space within. Private space within the building is well separated from public space. Factor 4 - Groupings: Viewed from the Howe and Hornby Street sides, the Law Courts have an all glass apex roofline. The glass expanse is broken by angular steel reinforcing structures and the geometric repetitive pattern of those structures adds variety to the design. Trees planted along the periphery of the building help break up the glass expanses. The main entrance area provides the most interesting geometric groupings of design elements. Interior stepped levels climb vertically and expand to the outside of the structure to form a cohesive element in the design. The Smithe Street side of the building serves as a conn ector to the Robson Square area. This bridge joins the Law Courts and the Robson Square area in a unique way which makes the two parts a cohesive whole. Interior function is not obvious from exterior appearance however, public space and private space is generally readily Identifyable. Score: (following completion of checklist on groupings)-4,4.3,1,2 Total* 14, Average- 2.8 Overall Rating of the Vancouver Law Courts: Scores on the four factors* 2.1,3.0. 2.9.2.8 Average- 2.7  Synopsis: An extemely interesting structure that combines public space and interest with an important community and government function in a unique and creative way. To the visitor, function and routes of access may be somewhat obscure, however the uniqueness and versatility of the design which 1s appealing proves to be a significant factor in the appraisal. 55 Infill (after Bulletin of Environmental Education. May 1977, 73, 17-21,witil house plans and corner site illustrations from that source) Consider the situation where there is a group of structures with a gap or space between them such as a vacant lot, building under demolition, etc. that requires the design of a new structure to occupy the vacant space. The challenge facing a designer or planner is to decide on the appropriate use and appearance of the new structure that is to fill that space. This activity will give you a chance to appraise the potential of such a space in the context of its surroundings and to try out your ideas for designing an appropriate structure to occupy the space. Proceed as follows: Find an appropriate site for your "infill activity" by walking around an area that interests you and locating a vacant lot, unused building set amongst other functional buildings, a parking lot or other such site. If you wish, you could work with such areas as town squares, gardens, apartment or condominium complexes or any situation where you intend to consider the design of a structure occupying space among other structures. Identify your site and describe it by making sketches and notes and note particularly the context of the site. What is the function, appearance, and form of adjacent buildings? What constraints and advantages does the context pose for your design? Decide on how you will proceed for your infill activity. List the objectives of your design and its properties. Describe how the infill structure will relate to the context of the other adjacent buildings or structures. In evaluating your proposed design, use the four factor building appraisal describedin the preceeding activity. To assist you in this project, make use of photographs, maps, diagrams, sketches or models which allow you to experiment with different structures inserted in the gap to visualize appearance and function. Once you are satisfied, select an appropriate infill structure and describe or illustrate it in any way that is suitable as if you were a planner or architect faced with the task of presenting a building proposal for con sideration. Class discussion and presentation of proposals would be useful as an end-point for your project. Examples of infill activities follow which should be helpful. Infill- House Plans: The examples shown illustrate the possible solutions for inserting a new house between other houses. Here design and placement are important. Constraints include distance between houses, distance from the streets (setback), and factors such as parking and access. Here the house fronts are arranged in Une and the new house inust relate well .with the adjacent houses. Here design ts radically different from the other houses and space for off-street parking is created. 57 Infill- Residential House Fronts Consider the three residential dwellings illustrated and how well these houses would relate to each other if placed side by side. Look at the scale, design and the context in relation to the others and the appropriateness of the house design for a flat, moderately treed West Coast street. Sample 1 A non-basement bungalow, often described as a "West Coast Rancher". The size and proportion of the house relates well to Sample 2, as does the variety in roof levels and texture of stone decorative features and shake roof. The design suits the lot topography and the climate. Sample 2 te A non-basement bungalow with a Colonial design influence. Size, proportion, textural detail (brick, cedar shakes), relate well to Sample 1. The style suits the house size and topography and is appropriate for the local climate. r^tJrft Sample 3 This two storey Spanish design house is larger and more grand than Samples 1 and 2. Variety is evident in the roof line and tile work and the arches add interest. The design differs from samples 1 and 2. cn oo Infill- Commercial Use of Corner Site The following examples give alternatives for use of a corner site being used for commercial offices. Each solution should be examined and evaluated by the class through group discussion -infill Corner A corner site with a three-storey block which occupies most of the corner. The angled lower storey responds to pedestrian movement. This block appears solid from.the exterior but has an internal courtyard which allows light in and provides green space. Here the office block occupies the upper two floors and the lower floor allows seating, meetings, displays, etc. Putting the same volume into Ziggurat form, stepping back, a building twice as high. provides terraces, loses space. Alternating projection of Vertical emphasis, slit windows, facades. Interesting, expen- use of fins for effect. sive. 59 1930's International Modern style, horizontal emphasis. 1970's ecology style, trees, grass and greenspace. Office space is almost entirely lost. Activity: Explore your city, town or village for a possible corner infill site. Consider alternate designs for the site using drawings, sketches or models to illustrate alternatives. Evaluate each alternative. Recommend the plan that pleases you best. Locate 4 or 5 corner sites in your town or city that have commer cial office buildings. Photograph, sketch and record details of the sites in note form. Evaluate each site. How have the building designers dealt with corner space? Can you list advantages and disadvantages of each design? How might you improve the design? Report on your findings in written form using illustrations to make your points. Alternately, present an oral report to the class on your investigation and evaluation. I!M_!S_I CT) O Evaluating Proposals "Proposals" are designs submitted by architects, designers and developers to local authorities for planning purposes and in order to receive permisssion to proceed with the project in keeping with the regulations and wishes of local government. Every municipality has a planning office and such offices are open to the public. Often plans for major developments are outlined in newspapers and public meetings are sometimes held where developers present their plans and illustrate them by the use of drawings, maps, models or planning portfolios. You can gain experience in the evaluation of proposals by carrying out the following activity. Evaluation of proposals may be a useful exercise for you to gain experience that is advantagous to you in business or community life. Proceed as follows: -Visit a planning office and talk with the planning officer to find out how the planning procedure works. Find out how a proposal goes through the development, review and accept-tance, modification and acceptance or rejection phases. -Have your teacher arrange for a planner or developer to visit the school and give an informal talk on the planning and review process. It may be possible to review a "case historyof a development familiar.to you. 60 -Try to obtain copies of proposal documents that have been through the review process. Study and appraise these documents and conduct a role-playing activity in the classroom where some students take the role of developers presenting a proposal and others act as municipal officials and general public reviewing the proposals. -Attend public hearings where proposals are reviewed. Watch the process and be aware of the arguments made by both the proponent and the reviewers. Check to see if the outcome is what the developer had in mind. If possible, talk to the people involved after the hearing to get their personal points of view. -Follow newspaper articles on the progress of major development ^schemes and clip and keep a file.of these articles for reference purposes. Note if and how the proposal was modified with time. -In evaluating proposals, be aware of all the things that you have learned about the built environment-pedestrian and vehicle movement, convenience, use of space, appearance, function, net work systems and efficiency, noise, crowding and density, dura bility of materials, future use options, context, etc. 61 More Experience With Appraisal Techniques Environmental education is concerned with teaching you the evaluation of environmental quality. You must learn to ex ercise discrimination and judgment in relation to planning and architecture in order to make informed judgments about your environment and the way it affects your life. Environ mental education is meaningless unless it provides you with these opportunities along with environmental-knowledge and skills. In your everyday lives you. constantly use spaces such as homes, shopping centers, sports arenas, theatres, schools,' public buildings, etc. By applying your knowledge of the built environment, it is possible for you to work towards influencing the quality and function of these built forms and to have a say in the way things are done in your community and work environment. You will be asked to participate and vote on many issues that will affect the nature of your surroundings in future. Often public referendums are held on major development schemes or there is opportunity to participate in the proposal review process. It is important that you participate and be know-ledgable about development alternatives in your town or comm unity and make use of the skills that you have acquired through these activities. Another application of knowledge of the built environment relates to your own private lives. At some time in your future you will be concerned with buying, renting or leasing real estate for the personal use of yourself and.your family. By being aware of environmental issues and by being discriminating you have the potential to make the best possible choice of personal environ ment, to modify that environment to suit your needs and to realize the maximal potential and value of that environment. In this last section of the book you will have further opportun ity to practise evaluation and judgement in relation to the built environment and to explore further techniques of evaluation: GETTING STARTED: Building Impact Evaluation- Assessing buildings by making use of a set of criteria. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Urban Evaluation Sheet- Using an "urban word evaluation sheet" during a sensory walk to form judgments. DOING MORE: Annotated Photographs- exploring a technique which uses annotated photographs to record and illustrate judgments of the environment. Slide Program- an evaluation technique that uses slides, tapes • and written material to form judgments. Building Impact Evaluation New development in our cities, towns, villages or commun ities often leads to construction of buildings of modern design beside older forms of architecture. With time, there is a tendancy for new forms of buildings to replace older, traditional forms. (after Bulletin of Environmental Education. Dec. 1976, 68, 20-26 with building assessment score sheet modified after that source) In this activity you will practice using an evaluation tech nique that is based upon a set of established criteria. The class should choose several buildings in the area that are worthy of assessment. You may choose examples of both modern buildings and traditional buildings. Try to choose locations where the building being assessed has other build ings close by so that its context is easily examined. Proceed to examine each building you have selected in turn and for each building, complete the appropriate section of the evaluation sheet given on the following page. Note that you must assign a score for the way each building satisfies the criteria listed. Record details of buildings by photos or notes. In the classroom, add up and compare totals and calculate a class total for each building (sum of total scores divided by the number of students completing assessment sheets). Display the scores along with photographs or drawings that illustrate each building and discuss the relative merits of each building and its weaknesses. Were the criteria useful or would you wish to change them to suit your own assessment scheme? 164 0> BUILDING ASSESSMENT SCORE SHEET . Assessor's Name- , " . . Class or Group-Date- : — Instructions- Assign each buildinga number and record the. number and location of each building in Table 1. Assess each, building according to the criteria in Table 2 and assign a score for each criterion from a range of 0 to 10 according to the way in which the building satisfies the criterion (0 = very poor, 10 = excellent). Table ,1 Identification and Location Building Number Building Location Building Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table 2 Assessment According to Criteria Criterion Building Number 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 Impact of building on the street Size and scale t Relationship of building to surroundings Choice of materials, textures, colours Standard of design of details Value of external space made by building Enjoyment of living or working there Use of site and site possibilities General appearance of the building Resistance to weather and climate Totals-Urban Evaluation Sheet A useful technique for recording your impressions and for appraising the built environment involves the use of the "urban evaluation sheet" given on the following page. The method is derived from a research publication dealing with the comparative environmental assessment of four U.S. cities (Lowenthal and Ri el, 1972) and may be applied to your own activities. To use the evaluation sheet, select a short stretch of road that has interesting features worthy of evaluation. Proceed as a class or group to conduct a sensory walk (Part 1) that takes you through the area. Concentrate on recording your impressions on the evaluation sheet as you move. Instruct ions for the use of the evaluation sheet are provided at the top of the sheet. The completed urban evaluation sheet will allow you to con struct a profile of the area you have chosen for your sensory walk. Making a class set of these profiles will allow you to compare impressions with those of your classmates. This tech nique could be adapted for use in a number of built environ ment activities as you wish. O Keefe Ranch- early town center, Vernon, B.C. 166' URBAN EVALUATION SHEET Name of Evaluator- 5 Class or Group-Location- Time and Date- • Have you been here before?(circle): often , sometimes never Instructions- Below are 23 pairs of words, each separated by five lines. As you walk, consider each pair of words and place an "X" on the line that best suits your assessment of the place. For example, if you feel the place is highly artificial, you might place your "X" on the line closest to the word artificial: natural __ __ artificial contrast uniform people things ugly beautiful smelly fresh vertical horizontal ordered ___ ___ chaotic moving ._ motionless smooth rough poor' ricopen _ __ closed in boring interesting old new quiet _ noisy vivid ; . drab Pleasant unpleasant business use __ living use clean . dirty full empty rural ___ urban near views far views like dislike dark ___ ___ light How do you feel today? Did your mood affect your assessment? Circle the five words on this list that best apply to the location assessed. Write a paragraph describing your sensory walk and the impressions you ob tained there. Use five words that are not on the list to describe the place. If you were trying to compare or assess particular types of places could you modify this technique to design a more relevant assessment sheet? (urban evaluation sheet modified from Bulletin of Environmental Education Dec. 1976, 68, 26) 1 : — 66 Annotated Photographs (concept after Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 20; Oct. 1979, 102, 2"Tj — Photographs are very useful as they allow you to record factual infor mation about the built environment and analyse that information or com pare one place with another. Different photographic techniques may be used to reveal detail, concentrate on specific aspects of buildings or record the context of a building. You can make notes directly on photographs as a part of your appraisal process. This procedure is called "annotated photography". Analysing a photograph in this way will help you to note details of the building and form judgments. To practice the technique, obtain a large photograph of a street scene in your town, city or village. If it is hard to obtain such a picture, find one in a magazine that is suitable for practice purposes. Paste the picture on a piece of white paper leaving borders around the picture to provide space for your notations. If you have a photocopier available, make two or three copies of the picture and its margin to produce a final copy for annotation. Proceed to examine details of the picture and eval uate its contents by writing critical comments on the margin of the picture with a fine felt pen or dark ink. Observe the example given here. Use this technique to strengthen your analysis of other activities you may wish to pursue in the study of the built environment. 67 Slide Program (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 22} You may present a slide and tape show describing some aspect or experience of the built environment that interests you and that you would like to communicate to others. Slides are a very useful tool as they enable you to present a serial visual rep resentation of what you have observed. Presentation of slides can be assisted by tape recorded comments which stress the message of the presentation. Proceed as follows: Preparation- Choose a topic related to the study of the built environment that interests you. You may choose to use some of the activities in this book or invent new ones. Try to select a topic that will allow evaluation of some aspect of the built environment and critical appraisal. Investigation- Locate a study area and a suitable large scale map of the area or make a sketch map to suit your project. Carry out your investigation according to the objectives of the study being careful to note details of buildings, spaces, street features, traffic and pedestrian-movement, vegetation, slopes and other features suitable for the topic you have chosen. Make notes or sketches to assist your analysis. Photography- Obtain a camera and suitable slide film and.choose a series of viewpoints around your subject for photographic purposes. Be sure to select sites that will illustrate the message you are attempting to convey. Photographs taken from both distance'and close-upmay be useful. As you take each picture, make a note of its number on the roll of film and use a tape recorder to record the content of the picture and any critical comments about it that you wish to make. Record the picture number on your map for future reference. Try to concentrate on only important features that illustrate your point of view. Interpretation- Project your developed slides and try to arrange them in a sequence that illustrates the point of your presentation. Listen to the tape recorded comments on each picture and review any notes or supportive material that you have. Write down important interpretive comments that you wish to make in your presentation and think about how those points can be integrated with the slide show. Presentation- Assemble your presentation with the slides in an ordered sequence and a tape recorded narrative to go with the slides. Make sure that the audience knows the purpose and object ives of the study at the beginning and why you did it. Operate the slide projector in time with the recorded narrative. Present conclusions and evaluation comments at the end of the show. Be aware that a few good slides and a clear, concise message is much better than a cluttered confusing presentation. References, Sources of Part [ - Discovering and describing the built environment  through your senses. Open space activity; the sensory walk; shopping center activities; guiding by cards: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Sensing the environment. Bulletin of Environmental  Education, April 1977, 72_, 7-9. Farbstein, J. and Kantrowitz, M. People in Places. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. Describing your environment; building a critical  vocabulary: Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, February 1979, 94, 7. Harris, CM. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. Kalman, H. Exploring Vancouver 2. Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press, 1978. Ideas 68 Part II-- Experiencing the built environment. Steeplechasing: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education December 1976, 68, 6-10. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, June 1979, 98, 8-12. Serial Vision: Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education December 1976, 68, 8-10. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, June 1979, 98, 8-12. Experiencing a building from all sides: McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A  Catalyst for Teaching. Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977, 116-122. The town trail: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978, 83, 16-17. Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. 69 Part III -Learning how design and materials influence the built  environment. Personal space activities; defining personal space with objects; shared space; look and use of space; networks; symbols: r McFee, J.K. and Oegge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A  Catalyst for Teaching. Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977, 219-233. Dating game: Vancouver Environment Education Project. B.C. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present (tentative trial edition). Vancouver B.C.: University of British Columbia (Holdsworth, D. and Bailey, P.), 1974. Houses game; home improvements game: ' Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. A primary experience. Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 12-27. Part IV - Appraisal and judgment of the built environment-Four factor building analysis: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Appraising buildings. Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 3-13. . • Infill: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Appraising buildings. Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 17-21. Part IV b - More techniques. Building impact evaluation; urban evaluation sheet: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education, December 1976, 68, 24, 26. Lowenthal, D. and Riel, M. Environmental Assessment: A Comparative  Analysis of Four-Cities. American Geographical Association, 1972. Annotated photographs: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 20-21. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, October 1979, 102, 20-21. Slide Program; Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978, 83, 22. Additional References: Balaban, R.C. and-A.I. St. Clair. The Mystery Tour - Exploring  the Designed Environment with Children. Washington, D.C: * The Preservation Press of the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1976. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Types of Land Use. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2078. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Fieldwork in an Urban  Setting. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2079. British Tourist Authority. Town Trails and Urban Walks, 2nd-ed. London: 64 St. James's Street, SW1A-1NF, 1976. Chalmers, F.G. Practical Suggestions for Environmental Design  Education. Victoria: CS/SCEA, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, booklet No. 5, 1979. Chalmers, F.G.; Moorcroft, F. and R. Virginillo. Greek and .Roman Buildings. Vancouver: Western Education Development Group, University of B.C., 1979. City of Vancouver. Granville Vancouver as a Pedestrian Transit-way. Design study prepared by architects Bain, Burrough and Hanson, 14 September, 1973. Dixon, G. Our Built Environment. .Richmond, B.C.: School District Mo. 38 (Richmond) British Columbia, 1979. 70 Halprin, L. Cities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1978. ' • King.S. "A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture." Master's dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1970. Lynch, K. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960. Leicestershire County Council. The Local Tradition. Leicestershire, England: Council Planning Subcommittee, 1975. Pratt, J.H.; Pratt, J.; Moore, S.B.;.and W.T. Moore. Environmental Encounter: Experiences in Decision- Making for the Built and Natural Environment. -Dallas, Texas: Reverchon Press, 1979. Sarnoff, H. Design Games: Playing for Keeps with Personal and Environmental Design Decisions. William Kaufman Inc., 1979. Wurman, R.S.; Brunner, H. and N. Donovan. A Guide to Guide books. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Planning and Evaluation, 1973. Other Sources of Information: Architect's Book Center- Philadelphia Chapter, AIA, 17 th and Sanson Streets, Philadelphia, PA- 19103, U.S.A. Canadian Society for Education Through Art. c/o Dr. M. Travis, . Division of Publications, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 100, Victoria, B.C. V8W-2Y2. 71 Center for City Building Education Programs- 235 S. Westgate Ave., Los Angeles, California 90049, U.S.A". Educational Futures, Inc. 2118 Spruce St., Philadelphia, PA 19103, U.S.A. National Trust for Historic Preservation- 1789 Massachussetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A. Town and Country Planning Association, Educational Unit- 17 Carleton House Terrace, London, SWI, England. Vision, Inc.- 678 Massachussetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A. Western Education Development Group- University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T-1W5. Maps and Guidebooks: British Columbia Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Small Business Development, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. (Refer also, to local tourism and information centers). Appendix I-B Revised pages of the workbook prepared in accordance with the findings of pilot testing. Contents Chapter __L Acknowledgments 1 Comments for Teachers ii Introduction vi1. Sensory Experience- Discovery and Description 2 Open Space Activities 3 The Sensory Walk 4 Shopping Center Activities 5 Guiding by Cards 6 Describing Your Environment 7 Building a Critical Vocabulary 9 2. Experiencing the Built Environment 10 Steeplechasing 12 Serial Vision 5 Experiencing a Building from all Sides 17 The Town Trail 20 3. Influence of Design and Materials 29 A-Personal Space 31 Defining Personal Space with Objects 32 Shared Space Activities 33 Analysing the Look and Use of Space 34 Network Spaces 36 Symbols 7 Chapter Page B-The Dating Game 39 The Houses Game 41 The Improvements Game 43 4. Critical Appraisal 5 A-The Four Factor Building Appraisal 46 Infill 5Evaluating Proposals 60 B-More Experience with Appraisal Techniques 61 Building Impact Evaluation 62 Urban Evaluation Sheet 4 Annotated Photographs 6 Slide Program 67 5. References, Sources of Ideas 68 6. Glossary of Terms 72 Acknowledgments The author is grateful for permission received from a number of sources to reproduce material, photographs or illustrations. Many of the activities contained herein have been taken or ad apted from articles in the Education Unit of the Town Planning Association's publication Bulletin of Environmental Education published by Russell Press, 45 Gamble St., Nottingham, NG7-4ET, England. The Town and Country Planning Association may be con tacted at 17 Carleton House Terrace, London, SW1Y-5AS. The author is extremely appreciative for permission to use this material extended by the Town and Country Planning Association and to the authors of articles in the Association's Bulletin, BEE, who developed and tested many of these ideas and concepts. I am also appreciative of permission given by authors J.K. McFee and R.M. Degge and publishers Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. of Dubuque, Iowa, for permission to use concepts and questions adapted from Art, Culture and Environment, A Catalyst for  Teaching. Illustrations of houses used on page 39 are reproduced by permission of the Western Educational Development Group, University of British Columbia. Photographs of the Bentall and Dominion buildings in Vancouver, B.C. (page 9) are reproduced with permission from pages 7 and 12 of H. Kalman and J. Roaf's Exploring Vancouver 2, University of B.C. Press. All other photographs in the text are by the author. I am most appreciative of the patient help, advice and support extended by my graduate studies Committee consisting of Dr. G. Chalmers (supervisor), and Dr. J. Gray of.the Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Univer sity of British Columbia, and Prof. A. Rogatnick of the School of Architecture, University of British Columbia. Support for publication of this work was extended by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and by Heritage Trust. The author is most appreciative of this assistance. The views ex pressed in this book are entirely those of the author and no responsibility for them should be attributed to the Central Mortagage and Housing Corporation or to Heritage Trust. Comments for Teachers This book deals with the built environment and your relation ship to it. The built environment is the man-made environment which surrounds you in everyday life- your house, neighbour hood, city, streets and paths or any structural forms. The book is to be used, not just to be read. It will enable your students to get involved in places, to be aware of places, to understand how people experience those places and form judg ments about them. The activities in this book are for enjoy ment as well as to help students become aware of the built en vironment and how it affects them as people. Living creatures interact with their environment and are fund amentally influenced by it. Man is by no means excluded from this relationship and by his nature and intellect, has the means to alter or shape his environment by transforming natu ral or man-made objects into the built form. Implicit in this relationship between man and his built environment are the in fluence of human emotions, feelings and sensitivity, cultural heritage, social patterns, lifestyle and the nature and variety of human activity. Man is, with few exceptions, not a solitary creature and there fore confines himself to social groupings which may be termed tribes, societies, ethnic groupings, etc., organized around some physical built arrangement of structures such as camps, villages, towns, cities or large metropolitan assemblages. As modern man is, to a large extent, an urban dweller, this urban setting plays a vital and constant role in his total lifestyle. The city and its structure is based upon man's activities and interests and the physical and function al aspects of the city govern and in some cases constrain man's activ ities. It is therefore apparant that the built environment is a partic ularly important feature in the life of man and it follows that the study of this environment is a highly suitable topic for education. Fur thermore, due to the urban setting of our lives and our ability to cre ate and transform built environment, it is important for students to become aware of their surroundings and to realize that they have the po tential to appraise, preserve, change and improve their urban environ ment. This book is concerned with providing the opportunity for students to experience the built environment for themselves. It does not concentrate on the traditional classroom experience but is based upon the premise that learning does not take place in a vacuum and is greatly facilitated by making the student aware of the external world of ideas, events, peo ple and objects. Chippindale and Ward (1979 ) argue that it is fitting for the teacher to become involved in the business of architectural in terpretation. In their view, there is a great need to "open pupils' eyes to the visual aspects of their habitat and make it under standable".Their point is that there is much to be gained through the education of the senses and revelation of mean ings and that such objectives should be a major task of the schools. Teaching a student to be sensitive to his or her environment may lead to the formation of opinions, judgments, or positive action as a result of such sensitivity. Inter est and concern for the built environment is an important attribute of citizenship and is therefore highly relevant for education. In addition , study of the built environment has application to a variety of subject areas- art, social studies, history, architecture, city planning, design and other interests. It is therefore multi-disciplinary in character and can be ad apted by the teacher to suit a variety of needs, programs and situations. Study of the built environment allows the teacher to examine historical buildings and examine the nec essity for preservation of heritage structures, past art and design forms, historical use of building materials and the interests and values of the past. Alternate use of older buildings may be studied and the pros and cons of replace ment or rennovation examined. Some innovative programs have used the city as a learning laboratory (B.E.E.C., April 1978, HaCaulay, 1976, Schneider, 1954) in which the structure, function, appearance, social context, sensory impact. iii economic, historical, architectural and other aspects of the community can be integrated in a study program designed to emphasize those element's by interactive exposure to the city. Furthermore, aspects of the future of the built environment may be emphasized to illustrate the relevance of town planning, innovative architecture, artistic elements, creation of functional and pleasing environments and to integrate structure, func tion and beauty with urban planning. Art is Important in the consideration of the built environment. Ericksen and Smith (1978) assert that "the built environment is an art form". McFee (1974) maintains that we must "develop the capacity to use art as a humanizing force in improving the quality of life on earth". McFee's point is that a pleasant and stimulating urban environment can do a lot to improve the nature of modern life and the often impersonal nature of our surroundings. Ericksen and Smith suggest that there is great potential for using the built environment to help children understand and take part in the art process. They observed that the built environment Is space divided into functional elements (buildings, parks, streets, gardens) and that we respond to elements of space and form with our feelings just as we do to art objects. They feel that one of the prime functions of education is helping students "learn how to see" and that built environ mental education places heavy stress on visual awareness and personal meaning for the individual. This workbook is based upon several conceptions of curriculum orientation. A key objective of the approach is to teach students to think about their environment in an analytical way. The material follows a cognitive H-1 developmental process of learning- sensing, experiencing, organ izing, analysing and evaluating. Each chapter introduces an issue through a set of experiences or study tasks. The approach is flexible in order to allow you to select an activity or area of emphasis suitable to your circumstances, area of interest and the capabilities of your class. For a given chapter, activities are divided into three groups entitled "getting started", "expanding horizons", and "doing more". The book is intended to be a compend ium of possible means.for the study of the built environment rather than a definitive and structured set of instructional mat erial. You may well wish to adapt some of the material to suit the interests and needs of your class. Consultation of some of the reference material listed in the book should be helpful in develop ing ideas and approaches. This material has been successfully tested and evaluated in sev eral British Columbia high schools (Davis, 1981) and results of that evaluation indicate several factors are important to success ful introduction and use of the material. First, it is most impor tant that both the teacher and the students understand the reasons why the study of the built environment is important and worthwhile. Introductory lessons should place emphasis on how the built envir onment plays an important part in the daily life of people. Such things as population growth, crowding, pressures of city life, function of buildings and city transportation systems, quality of the urban experience, historical, cultural and aesthetic consider ations, and the need for evaluation and good planning should be recognized as important concerns in the study of the built environ ment. Alternately, students of art and design may wish to use the material to observe natural and man-made design concepts and study various elements of design such as texture, shape, colour, form and size and space relationships. Thus, the study of the built en vironment can serve as a stimulus for a variety of subject matter which varies from social and cultural considerations to art, design, architecture, historical trends and planning activities. This workbook has been developed to conform with the General Learn ing Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum and also with the objective of satisfying a number of behavioral objectives in the learning process. Things to look for 1n evaluating progress of your students are increased perception (transformation of sensory infor mation into meaningful concepts about the built environment), growth in knowledge (definitions that distinguish one built form from another, architectural styles, historical groupings, geographical considerations, relationship'of form and function, and knowledge of criteria by which built environment may be evaluated and judged) and also comprehension. Comprehension includes full understanding of the meaning and function of the built form and the development of a student's ability to verbally describe and discuss the qualities and strengths and weak nesses of a design. Also important, is analysis, behavioral responses which involve the dissection of the subject matter into its con stituent parts, detection of relationships among the parts and a determination of the relationships of the parts to the whole. Evaluation is a very important behavioral objective of the program and involves development of capacity in the student to make reasoned judgments and perform critical evaluation of the built form in relation to aesthetics, functional suitability, design concepts, or any criteria you may wish to establish for the material. Production activities involved in the work are varied and flexible. Production could involve creation of models, plans, architectural drawings, creation of designs, sketching and descriptive writing, slide and tape presentations, illustra tive brochures and town trail route development or other activ ities designed to encourage expression and innovation on the part of the student. Where do I start? At the outset, it is important for you to determine the readiness of your class for this material. Readiness should be judged in two areas- familiarity with built environment concepts and city structure and function and readiness to engage in field activities and unstructured small group activities. If the class is new to the subject area, it may be best to start the group on personal space activities (see table of contents), and proceed to explore v a gradually widening array of situations- immediate surroundings, local neighbourhood settings familiar to the students, and finally more distant field excursions to interesting places removed from the school location. Don't just turn your class loose on their own in unsupervised activities until you are convinced that they are comfortable and mature enough to handle such responsibility. You may find it very useful to prepare an overview of the program before you start which maps out your course of action and the means by which you are going to achieve specific goals you have establish ed for the study program. Ask yourself: What do I want to accomplish or achieve? How am I going to achieve such objectives? What events or behavior on the part of students will tell me if I am being succ essful? What problems might I encounter and how could I deal with them as they arise? What resource materials, time, budget and facil ities are required? What methods do I wish to use for encouraging enthusiasm and productivity on the part of the students and for en suring assignments and follow-up activities are completed? Evaluation techniques that you plan to use must be carefully consid ered. Experience with pilot testing of the material has indicated that it is best to evaluate student's work at the completion of each assignment. Follow-up activities and class discussion of findings are particularly important, especially following a field trip. Also, it has been demonstrated that it is important for the teacher to vi specify due dates for reporting each activity and to consider the time requirements for completion of projects. Marks could be given for content, originality, practicality, comprehension, knowledge, use of extra reference material, neatness and skill with materials, and for class participation in discussion and teamwork situations. Hints for Field Trip Organization This program can involve considerable field trip activities if the teacher chooses to select such activities. Pilot testing of the material has identified some important considerations for success ful field trip implementation: 1) Plan a field trip with the class by setting out the objectives and approach on'the blackboard. Make sure everyone knows the purpose of the trip and what will occur. Have the students record the trip's objectives and steps to be followed. 2) Assemble all the materials required for the trip and make sure each student has the materials at the start of the trip. Con sider methods of transportation, schedules, access to buildings, time available, recording materials required, instructional information and brochures, etc. Good maps may be particularly helpful for some activities. 3) Consider what means of recording information will be used by . the students (notebooks, sketchbooks, cameras, etc.). Would a standardized format be helpful? 4) Be sure to take careful note of the time required for the trip and for reporting on the results of the trip. Followup class discussions at the completion of a trip are particularly important, preferably when the experience is fresh in the minds of the students. Considerable work may be involved in process ing the information gathered on a trip. Allow classroom time or home study time for completion. 5) If students are ready for unsupervised activities, ensure that they choose realistic and practical topics that have a good possibility of success- some students may wish to tackle very ambitious and challenging topics that will prove frustrating for them. 6) Enjoy, the experience with your class. It is most important that you participate in field activities and.be available to give ad vice and support as required. Try to maintain a dialogue with the students and challenge them to look at the built environment from a variety of perspectives. 7) Choice of study location is very important. Select interesting and stimulating places for study. Students respond very positively to field activities and their enthusiasm and interest can be turned to advantage if you select a good study site. References (see also, reference list at the back of the book) Built Environment Education Center (B.E.E.C.). A growing field-a field for growth. Report of the Built Environment Ed  ucation Center, Philadelphia, PA: B.E.E.C., No. 3, April, 1978, pp. 5-8. Chippindale, F. and Ward, C. A concluding word. Built Environ mental Education. April 1979, p. 27. Davis, S.J. Development of a built environment program for  application and use in the B.C. secondary curriculum. Master of Arts Dissertation, Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Vancouver, B.C.: The University of British Columbia, May, 1981. Eriksen, A. and Smith, V. Art and the built environment. Art  Education, September, 1978, pp. 4-6. McFee, J.K. Society, art and education. In Hardiman and Zemich (Eds.) Curricular considerations for visual arts educa  tion. Stipes, 1974, pp. 79-80. MaCaulay, D. Underground. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976. Schneider, H. and Schneider, N. Let's look under the city. New York: Scott, 1954. 1. Sensory Experience- Discovery and Description Concentrating on your sensory experiences will enable you to better describe the built environment. A group of activ ities follow which will allow you to discover your environ ment through the use of your senses: GETTING STARTED: Open Space Activity- sensing places by concentrating upon open spaces and their properties by using your senses one at a time will help you become aware of your perceptions. The Sensory Walk- noticing how places and your percep tions of those places change as you walk through them while concentrating upon your sensory impressions. Shopping Area Activities- using a shopping area as a place to practice sensing the built environment. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Guiding by Cards- using "fun cards" to help you sense the built environment through a structured approach. DOING MORE: Describing Your Environment- looking at parts of interest ing buildings and describing what you see. Exploring other parts of those buildings and seeking information in order describe them through various sources. Building a Critical Vocabulary- exploring ways of using and building vocabulary through visual observation. 3 Open Space Activites (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72, 7-8) Choose a large open space such as a park, field, play ground or parking lot and enter it. Stop somewhere and look around. Concentrate on each of your senses in forming an impression of the space: Eyes: What do you see? How is this space used and how does its design reflect this use? Notice light, shadow, textures, the tapestry of lights, colours. Record your impressions: Ears: Close your eyes and concentrate on the sounds around you. What different sounds can you hear? What sounds are most noticable? What sounds are attractive or unattractive? Are there near sounds, distant sounds, musical sounds or birdsongs? Touch: Examine the ground around you and at your feet. Reach down and touch it. If an object is nearby, reach out and touch it. How does it feel? Motion through Space: Choose an interesting object and walk to wards it. How does your impression of the space change as you move? Does the object appear different as you get nearer to it? Stop at the object and explore it carefully using all your senses. Record your impressions: Smell and Taste: Turn and inhale facing in different direc tions. What smells do you detect? Flowers, automobiles.industry, cooking? Can you also taste things in the air? How do you feel about these sensations? Steeplechasing Few places do not have some tall building, church steeple, tower or other object that is visible on the skyline. The objective of this activity is to choose such a structure and observe its app earance in relation to other buildings and objects from different vantage points surrounding it. Once you have chosen a suitable focal point, proceed as follows: 1) Acquire a map of the streets surrounding the focal point. A tourist guide map with a large scale may be ideal. If you cannot obtain a suitable map, draw one to approxi mate scale. 2) Move around the focal point in the surrounding streets, stopping at appropriate places to observe the focal point. When you stop record your location on the map (use a num bering system to record locations- see following page). 3) Draw or photograph the focal point from each observation point. Try to select locations where you get a different perspective of the focal point in relation to other build ings or structures. 4) Make notes on how the focal point looks from each observa tion point. Use the following questions to guide your note taking (not all have to be answered at each observation point). How does your location influence the way the struc ture looks? How do you feel about the focal point when you look at it in relation to other buildings? Is your impress ion of the focal point different than when you viewed it 12 from other spots? How does the structure compare and contrast with other buildings? What design elements are visible on the structure? How do they influence its appearance? Are there things about the focal point you had not noticed before? Do you like the structure? Does it look like an inviting place to visit? Arrange your photographs or sketches around the map and use the number code to indicate the location of each observation point as illustrated on the following pages. On a separate page, list your observation point numbers and under each number, write a few impor tant comments about each observation location by consulting your notes. Write a conclusion about the focal point you have observed, including comments on its appearance, your impressions of it, things you became aware of and your reaction to the experience. You may wish to discuss your findings with others in class. CO The Town Trail (adapted from Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 16-17) The town trail provides a way of enjoying and experiencing the built environment. It involves a planned route through an urban area that may be walked and is designed to bring out features of the area for the observer. The route may be illustrated on a guide map or brochure or be marked by signs or posts where town trails have been prepared for use by visitors to the community. Such a trail can have many uses. It can be used to guide people past points of interest for tourism purposes or be organized to illustrate specific features such as shopping areas, historic buildings, house types, architectural features, industry, ethnic community content or landscape detail. Alternately, the town trail can be used to illustrate urban features such as road and rapid transit systems, urban renewal, problems (traffic flow, decay, reconstruction needs) or almost anything that the designer of the trail wishes. Use of a town trail will enable you to develop interest and have enjoyable and useful experiences in the built environ ment. Through the use of the town trail you can examine the processes that shape our urban environment and develop a critical eye for evaluating that environment. Town trails are fun- they contain adventure, surprize and entertainment. DESIGNING A TOWN TRAIL-Preparation and Planning: Think of an interesting topic or theme and write down what your objectives are in designing such a trail. What do you hope to achieve and who would use such a trail? Do you wish to study a particular type of build ing, architectural feature, urban problem or historical theme? Once you have established these objectives, go out and find examples in the urban environment to illustrate your ideas. In planning a town trail you should try to be practical and consider both the objectives of the trail as well as the comfort and needs of the users. Can you design a trail that clearly illustrates your point? Are most of the points of interest along the way fairly close together so that the distance walked is not excessive? Is the trail safe for users and not likely to cause discomfort and hardship? Presentation of Your Town Trail: As well as carefully plan ning your trail's route, it is most important that you con sider how you intend to communicate ideas and information to the users of the trail. A written guide to the trail with illustrations that add something to the text is very useful. This guide should not just provide a description of what the user sees, but should convey your message, suggest ideas or ways of looking at things that are informative and stimulat ing to the user. Check that your material is accurate, clear and well thought out. Directions and maps should be clear so that the user is not confused by the route. If buildings are to be entered, the hours that they are open to the public should be specified as well as any entry fees. It is useful to tell the user how long it will take to walk the trail and approximately how far he or she will have to walk. Any special features such as safety considerations, rest stops or transportation needs should be mentioned. Try to make your trail exciting and interesting for the user. Can you introduce adventure, surprize or fun into the trail directions? Possible Topics for Trail Design: -barriers (fences, doors, walls, hedges, banks) -advertising (signs, posters, billboards, window displays, storefronts) -enclosure of space, activities -construction methods and materials -gardens -degeneration and decay -conversion of form or function -urban housing types -natural form vs. artificial form -human activities What other ideas for a theme can you think of? Record your choice of a theme here: What are the objectives of your town trail? CO 36 NetWOrk SpaCeS (adapted from McFee and As you move about in the built environment you make use of stairways, hallways, footpaths, streets and other structures designed to get you from one place to another. These devices form "networks" of circulation and communication and their effectiveness depends upon how well the space alloted for the network allows for the desired pattern of movement and use. You may examine the network concept through the following activities: Networks in the Classroom Environment- Divide into groups and start by making a large scale map of the classroom on a big piece of paper. On the map, indicate all the paths which are used to enter and leave the room. Act out the daily use of these routes to become aware of the ways you get to doors, blackboard, teacher's desk, books, storage areas, etc. Think about what happens when the entire class moves at once. Where are the congested areas in your network? What areas are not used much of the time? Can you think of a better arrangement that would prevent con gestion and improve the use of space in your network? Degge, 1977, 232-233) Network Spaces Within and Around the School- Try to obtain a floor plan of the school and surrounding grounds. If a plan is not available, draw one to approximate scale. Obtain a map of the surrounding commun ity. Enlargements of maps can be made using an overhead projector with the image directed onto a large piece of paper. From the school floor plan, locate and mare' the spaces in the school that are used by all the students (halls, gymnasium, lunch room, library, etc.). Using a felt pen, indicate on the map the routes students in your class follow to move to different places in the school during the day. Draw the paths followed by several individuals and then make tours along those routes to study what those individuals experience in their travels. Where do traffic jams occur? What is going on in the halls, besides people moving from one place to another? What happens in the heaviest traffic areas? Does the traffic in different areas vary with different times of the day? ' Are some routes not used as much as they could be? CO 39 The Dating Game (adapted from B_ with illustrati You can discover a lot of interesting things about the his torical trends of the area in which you live by conducting a walking tour and observing trends in appearance and con struction methods according to the age of the buildings. For example, you might notice old wooden stores with false fronts among brick or stone buildings of a later period. Alternately, you might see residential streets with large 2H storey wooden houses that are quite different from nearby single storey, 2 bedroom houses of a more recent period. It might be apparant that there has been a shift in the location of the commercial or retail center of the area with time or a trend towards movement of shopping centers into the suburbs. Understanding such trends will involve you in consideration of many factors such as changes in construction materials and technology, the fashion of different time periods, popu lation trends, the advent of transportation systems, econom ic factors, changing land use patterns, population density and availability of services. Trends in urban development could well be related to world events and immigration pat terns. In order to study this aspect of the built environment it is important to be able to assign dates of construction to the buildings observed. Information on the age of structures may be obtained from a number of sources. Some buildings have C. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present, 1974, p. 67-69 ons from that source) their dates of construction carved onto the facade near the roof, over the main door or on a cornerstone. Some heritage buildings have been identified with dated name plaques or are described in brochures on city architecture. Interviews with owners and resi dents can provide additional information. City or municipal hall records and planning offices may be cooperative. Good reference books are often available which describe local architecture and general categories of construction. Local museums may have displays or archival material, including old photographs and articles that can be dated. The style of architecture is often an excellent indicator of the age of a structure. For example, house styles 1n B.C. tend to follow the trends shown below: !T_H Victorian- late 1800's Ontario Cottages 1920-30 s romanticism _ LUJ iD] I ra California Bungalows LOSSES 1940 s International Style 1950s Split Level Ranch ) • CO CO 45 4. Critical Appraisal Becoming more aware of places deepens your understanding of yourself and your environment. Understanding however, is only a part of the potential that you have within you and it is possible to go much farther and move towards positive action to create, modify or influence the nature of your built envir onment. Activities in the previous sections of this book were direc ted towards developing an understanding of what factors make a place work well and feel right. In considering how a place works and feels, you examined many factors such as function, materials used in construction, aesthetics, atmosphere, econ omics, structural form, use of space, network systems, etc. In order to critically appraise the built environment and to use this appraisal to bring about change, it is necessary for you to examine the process of appraisal. The group of activ ities included here deals with practical ways of appraising the built environment and will help you practice the tech nique. GETTING STARTED: The Four Factor Building Appraisal- Context, routes, inter face, and grouping factors help you to appraise built envir onment through a checklist and scale system. Infill- You will observe spaces between buildings and exper iment with the design of possible solutions to fill in the space. Infill- House Fronts- This activity involves the examination of residential house fronts and the appraisal of how well they relate to each other and to factors such as climate, top ography and function. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Infill- Corners- Examining the uses of corner sites and eval uating the appropriateness of design. Appraising Proposals- Learning to appraise proposals and the schemes of designers, architects and developers and examining the proposal review process. 47 FACTOR 1- CONTEXT: (the binding's setting) (Complete the response for each question shown below and assign a score from the choices below by asking yourself how well the building suits the context) Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) How does the building suit the pattern of the surrounding streets? "~  Score -2) How does the scale of the building suit the site it sits upon? Score = 3) How does the scale of the building suit the scale of surrounding buildings? Score = 4) How does the scale suit the character of the neighbour- . hood? Score = 5) Do the public and private areas relate well to one an other? •  Score -6) Do the land uses adjacent to the building seem to fit harmoneously with the building? Score = 7) Does the type of building and its intended use fit well with the type and uses of adjacent buildings? . Score 8) Does the appearance of the building fit in well with the type of buildings surrounding it? Score = 9) Is the scale of the building suitable for its purpose on the site? Score = Average Score (total/9) = Write a paragraph describing the context, including any-comments or concerns that you may have about the way the building suits or fails to suit the context of the surrounding area. FACTOR 2- ROUTES: (routes are the traffic paths or passageways that allow the building to relate to its context) (Complete the response for each question shown below and assign a score from the choice shown below by asking your self ____pj2pj_ijt_a_^ link the building to its surroundings and how functional the routes are.) Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) Are sufficient routes, pathways, streets and passageways provided to and around the building? Score -2) What are the flow patterns of traffic or people? Are there busy periods, quiet periods, one-way flows, regular movement patterns, traffic jams? Are the routes arranged to consider these factors? Score ; 3) Where are the nodes (meeting points) for traffic around the building and what happens there? Score -4) Do are the routes make sense? Are they understandable and convenient? ;  Score ; 48 5) Are all the routes easily understood by newcomers, visitors, service people? . . —_ Score -6) How well are the routes marked? Are the markings clear and easily understood? _ Score • 7) How effectively do the routes link the building to the surround ing buildings or structures? . Score Average Score (total /7) Write a paragraph describing the way in which the routes in and around the building(s) relate the building to Its context and the success with which the routes accomplish that purpose. 800 Robson St. Food Fair Cinema/Theatre Exhibition ' Meeting Rooms Tourist Information Parking Level P2 49 FACTOR 3- INTERFACE: (A building is essentially an enclosure that separates an interior private space from exterior public space. The interface, is the crucial meeting place where the inside of the building connects with the outside.) (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by deciding how well the build ing satisfies the problems related to interface.) Score highly appropriate- 12 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) How clearly or effectively does the exterior of the build ing indicate its interior function(s)? Score -2) How effectively does the inside of the building connect with the outside of the building? Are the connections appropriate and functional? Score -3) Are the exits and entrances easily accessible? Score = 4) Are the various openings related to thoughful planning of the interior? (Consider entry of light, view, privacy, noise, heat, glare, atmosphere, etc.) Score = 5) Are the exitways appropriate from a safety point of view? ] Score = 6) When you move from the exterior of the building to the inter ior by means of the main entrance, is the experience pleasant, interesting, or special in any way? Score = 7) Are the clues to what is public and what is private space clear to the visitor? Score -8) Have the designers, in your opinion, handled the problem of interface well in their design of this building? Score -Average Score (total/8) = Write a paragraph describing how well the design of the building has addressed the problem of interface. What are the strengths and concerns that you have about the design? How might it be'im proved or changed? FACTOR 4- GROUPING: (Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Grouping of the parts gives both form and mean ing as well as variety to the building.) (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by concentrating on the subdivisions of the building's form and deciding on the appropriateness of the designer's choice of group ings. ) •Score highly appropriate- 12 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) Concentrate on the subdivision of the building's parts as viewed from the outside. What parts are evident? Do the parts integrate well with each other and form an effective and pleasing appearance? Score -2) Do the subdivided parts of the building appear to have a specific function? Is the function of each part easy to identify? Score = 3) Is it clear what various subdivisions of the building might mean to visitors? Would a visitor know where to go on entering the building? Score -4) Are the various parts of the building planned carefully in relation to one another and to the characteristics of the site? Score ; 50 5) Is there sufficient relationship between the parts of the building for it to appear as one unified structure? Score -6) Does enough variation exist in the structural parts and groupings to provide interest and variety? Score -Average Score (total/6) • In a paragraph, discuss the subdivision of your building into identifiable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. Is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? 57 Infill- Possible solutions to house placement 1-Consider each of the following examples. In each one, a different solution is shown for the problem of placing a house or houses on the center lot. Give reasons why each of the following examples would or would not work. A. C. X 1 [S3 X : X X D. E ! 1 X iixi! E. F. G. 2-Choose a design which would best be placed on the infill lot shown below. Discuss your infill lot plan in a paragraph, giving reasons for your choice of design and location. Evaluating Proposals "Proposals" are designs submitted by architects, designers and developers to local authorities for planning purposes and in order to receive permission to proceed with the project in keeping with the wishes and regulations of local government. Every municipality has a planning office and such offices are open to the public. Often plans for major developments are outlined in newspapers and public meetings are sometimes held where developers present their plans and illustrate them by the use of drawings, maps, models or planning portfolios. Evaluation of proposals may be a useful exercise for you to gain experience that is advantageous to you in business or community life. You can gain experience in the evaluation of proposals by carrying out the following activity: -Visit a planning office and talk with the planning officer to find out how the planning procedure works. Find out how a proposal goes through the development, review and accept ance, modification and acceptance, or rejection phases. -Have your teacher arrange for a planner or developer to visit the school and give an informal talk on the planning and review process. It may be possible to review a "case history" of a development familiar to you. 60 -Try to obtain copies of proposal documents that have been through the review process. Study and appraise these documents and conduce a role-playing activity in the classroom where some students take the role of developers presenting a proposal and others act as municipal officials and general public review ing the proposals. -Attend public hearings where proposals are reviewed. Watch the process and be aware of the arguments made by both the proponent and the reviewers. Check to see if the outcome is what the devel oper had in mind. If possible, talk to the people involved after the hearing to get their personal points of view. -Follow newspaper articles on the progress of major development schemes and clip and keep a file of these articles for reference purposes. Note if and how the proposal was modified with time and for what reasons. -In evaluating proposals, be aware of all the things that you have learned about the built environment- pedestrian and vehicle move ment,convenience, use of space, appearance, function, network sys tems and efficiency, noise, crowding and density, durability of materials, future use options, context, etc. Building Impact Evaluation 62 New development in our cities, towns, villages or commun ities often leads to construction of buildings of modern design beside older forms of architecture. With time, there is a tendency for new forms of buildings to replace older forms. In this activity you will practice using an evaluation technique that is based upon a set of established criteria. You should choose several buildings in an area that appear worthy of assessment. Examples of both modern buildings and older build ings should be selected, preferably in a location where the two types are located close together so that building context is easy to examine in relation to the surrounding built environment. Proceed to examine each building you have selected in turn and, for each building, complete the appropriate section of the evalu ation sheet provided on the following page. Note that you must assign a score for the way each building satisfies the criteria listed. Record details of buildings by photographs or notes. In the classroom, add up and compare totals and calculate a class total for each building (sum of total scores on each assessment sheet divided by the number of students completing assessment sheets). Display the scores along with photographs or drawings that illustrate each building and discuss the relative merits of each building and its weaknesses. Were the criteria useful or do you wish to change them to suit your own assessment scheme? I—1 Slide Program; Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978. 83, 22. Additional References: Balaban, R.C. and A.I. St. Clair. The Mystery Tour- Exploring  the Designed Environment with Children. Washington, D.C.r The Preservation Press of the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1976. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Types of Land Use. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2078. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Fieldwork in ah Urban  Setting. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, N. 2079. British Tourist Authority. Town Trails and Urban Walks, 2nd Ed. London: 64 St. James's St., SW1A-1NF, 1976. Chalmers, F.G. Ideas for Built Environment Education: A  Transatlantic Annotated Bibliography of Useful Books  and Periodicals (1970-80). Vancouver, B.C.: Dept. of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Ed ucation, The University of B.C., January, 1981, 1-12. Chalmers, F.G. Practical Suggestions for Environmental Design  Education. Victoria, B.C.: CS/SCEA, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, booklet No. 5, 1979. Chalmers, F.G., Moorcroft, F. and R. Virginillo. Greek and  Roman Buildings. Vancouver, B.C.: Western Education Development Group, University of B.C., 1979. City of Vancouver. Granville Vancouver as a Pedestrian Transit- way. Design study prepared by architects Bain, Burrough and Hanson, September 14, 1973. 70 Dixon, G. Our Built Environment. Richmond, B.C.: School District No. 38, Richmond British Columbia, 1979. Halprin, L. Cities. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1978. King, S. "A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture." Master's dissertation, The University of B.C., 1970. Lynch, K. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960. . Leicestershire County Council. The Local Tradition. Leicestershire, England: Council Planning Subcommittee, 1975. Pratt, J.H.; Pratt, J.; Moore, S.8.; and W.T. Moore. Environmental  Encounter: Experiences in Decision-making for the Built and  Natural Environment. Dallas, Texas: Reverchon Press, 1979. Sarnoff, H. Design Games: Playing for Keeps with Personal and  Environmental Design Decisions. William Kaufman Inc., 1979. Wurman, R.S.; Brunner, H. and N. Donovan. A Guide to Guidebooks. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Planning and Evaluation, 1973. Other Sources of Information: Architect's Book Center- Philadelphia Chapter, AIA, 17th and Sanson Streets, Philadelphia, PA.- 19103, U.S.A. Canadian Society for Education Through Art. c/o Dr. M. Travis, Division of Publications, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 100, Victoria, B.C., V8W-2Y2. Glossary of Terms Annotate- to add notes; usually critical or explanatory comments. Anticipated space- the space which one expects to experience before fully encountering it. Appraisal- an evaluation or estimate of something's value, cost, usefulness, qualities, etc. Barrier- any obstruction or object serving to separate or limit space, ie.- fence, wall, hedge, bank, etc. Bungalow- a one-storey frame house or summer cottage, often surrounded by a veranda. Closed space- space completely closed off by walls, build ings, etc., ie.- a room, a courtyard. Condominium- a form of real estate ownership of a multiple family residential dwelling. Each occupant has full own ership of his apartment and partial ownership of all common elements of the structure such as halls, elevators, grounds, etc. Context- the setting in which a building is placed, ie.- its surroundings (other buildings, etc.) Design- to assemble and compose elements that are drawn or constructed as scale models in order to indicate the form of a building or other object that can be created from this composition. The composition of the final object is called the design. Parmer- a structure projecting from a sloping roof, usually housing a window or ventilation opening. 72 Exterior space- space outside of structures, usually uncovered (external space). Facade- the exterior face of a building which is the architect ural front. Sometimes the facade is distinguished from the other sides by elaboration of architectural or ornamental details. Floor plan- a drawing taken above the floor of a building as if one were looking directly down at the structure from above. The floor plan shows diagrammatically, the walls of the building, its doors and windows and the arrangement of its spaces. Four factor building appraisal- use of four important factors (context, routes, interface, groupings - see definitions) to appraise built environment through a checklist and scale system. Function- the natural, proper or characteristic action or purpose of an. object or the way man' uses that object. Functional- serving a function or use. Functional ism- a philosophy of architectural design, emerging in the 20 th century, asserting that the form of a building should fit its function, reveal its structure, and express the nature of the material. Grouping- composition of the elements of a building into groups which form recognizable units. Impression- the general influence or feeling one has in response to first contact with a building or structure. 73 Infil1- a term used to describe the process of designing appropriate structures to fill in a space or spaces between buildings or the space in a corner of a block of buildings. Good use of the site and compatability with existing buildings are important. Interface- the critical transitional place where the out side of a building meets the inside. Internal space- inside space contained within a structure. Mansard roof- a roof having a double slope on all four sides; the lower slope being much steeper. Network- an interconnected structure where elements of the structure cross each other or are attached to each other. In the context of the city, networks include streets, paths, railway systems, communication systems, drainage and supply systems, freeways. Open space- in urban planning, the designation given to parks, recreational and natural areas and other land not occupied by buildings or structures. Perimeter- the external boundary of a body or figure. Perspective- the technique of representing solid objects upon a flat plane; the appearance of objects or scenes as determined by their relative distance and positions. Pitched roof- a roof having one or more surfaces with a pitch greater than 10 degrees; a roof having two slopes that meet at a central ridge. Population density- the average number of people per unit of area (usually'per square kilometer). Private space- personal space, usually used for reasons of com fort, quiet, security, convenience or shelter. Projection- in masonry, stones that are set forward of the gen eral wall surface to provide a rugged or rustic appearance; any component member or part which juts out from a building. Proposal- an offer to perform the work described in a contract or set of'specifications for a specified price. A construction proposal would usually have a full set of drawings and details of how the structure would be built. Public space- an area within a building to which there is free access by the public, such as the entrance foyer or lobby. In some areas, public space may be a piece of land of a structure legally designated for public use. Recess- any shallow depression in a surface; a shallow depression in a floor. Redevelopment- to develop again in some new way. Route- the course or way which is to be travelled. Semi-detached houses- duplex or fourplex housing with several family dwellings contained in the same structure. Serial vision- focusing on a distant building or object and exper iencing the changing view of the object as you draw closer to it. Single houses- detached houses that stand alone from one another. Steeplechasinq- a technique for studying the built environment which a church steeple or high object is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. Street furniture- a term given to benches, signs, lights, fixtures, and receptacles provided as part of the design of a street right-of-way. Structural form- a form resulting from a choice of construc tion method. Texture- the tactile and visual quality of a surface other than its colour. Threshold- the plank, stone or piece of timber which lies under a door; the sill of a door; entrance or beginning point. Town trial- a planned route through an urban area which may be walked. The trail may be indicated by markers or by routes on a map. It provides a planned means of experi encing the built environment and for guiding the walker to specific points of interest. Traffic flow- the flow or movement of pedestrians and vehicles along a route (street, path, entranceway, corridors inside buildings). Urban renewal- the improvement of a deteriorated or under utilized area of a city such as a "slum or old industrial site. Generally, urban renewal is achieved through city, provincial or federal programs which specify clearance and redevelopment of the area, rehabilitation of relative ly sound structures and conservation measures to arrest the spread of deterioration. 74 Vantage point- a position that gives a person advantage for observing a situation or place. • Vehicular space- space designated for vehicular traffic such as roads, highways, driveways, parking areas. Visua1.- something perceived or understood by vision; an imaqe that forms a mental picture. o o 201 Appendix II Technical evaluation of the program according to the format developed by Massey and Werner. This evaluation was conducted by the author prior to pilot testing of the workbook to identify strengths and concerns about the program for further consideration. The format provides an organized method for examining details of the intents, content, methodology and structure of the workbook. 202 Technical Analysis of the Program- Program Analysis (after format of D. Massey and W. Werner- unpublished) Unit: Close Encounters with the Built Environment Grade Level: 11, 12 Analyst: Susan J. Davis 1.0 Intents 1.1,Completeness: (Is there a complete and explicit statement of intents? Knowledge objectives - concepts and generalizations? Skill objectives? Value objectives?) Intents and general objectives are specified. Specific objectives in clude knowledge, behavioral objectives (Bloom, Wilson). Skill and value objectives are based upon the general learning outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum. 1.2 Clarity: (Are the intents clearly stated and easy to understand? Are ° they kept within the teacher's view at all times?) The objectives of the book should be stated in the forward of the book. The intents of each activity should be stated. 1.3 Scope: (Is the scope of the unit of sufficient breadth? Is it too gen eral or too narrow?) The scope of the unit appears of sufficient breadth for a workbook. It is not intended to be a di fi ni ti ye text on the subject of built environ ment or art or architectural concepts. Certainly there are other sources and handbooks which could be used by teachers and students to complement the workbook. Few however, are written with the B.C. built environment in mind. 1.4 Appropriateness: (Are the intents appropriate to student grade level and to a range of student interests and abilities?) The intents appear appropriate for senior high school students. Back ground material was largely selected from similar grade level programs developed in Great Britain. The approach has been successfully tested in Great Britain. All activities in, the book are broken into three levels-"getting started,"expanding horizons1',and"doing more". Activities i take the students through areas that are familiar to them. Considerable emphasis is placed on making conscious natural processes- sensing, ex periencing, working with materials and analysing and evaluating. , 1.5 Realism: (Are the intents achievable within the time and resource constraints?) Most activities are capable of completion within given school periods. Some take longer than others and extra time is likely required for the reporting of field projects. Teachers must be conscious of this require ment and plan accordingly. Suggestions for organization of time should 203 be incorporated in the introduction of the workbook. Since many of the activities are field oriented, a scheme involving a planning session, a field trip and follow-up session(s) in class would be a general pattern for organization of time. 1.6 Internal Consistency: (Are the objectives consistent with the rationale?) Yes- the objectives of the program (to provide students with the means of concentrating on sensing, experiencing, analysing and appraising the built environment) are consistent with the rationale that they will ben efit from the experience through increased awareness and ability to ex ercise critical judgment. 1.7 Provincial Consistency: (Are the intents consistent with the provincial guidelines?) The general learning outcomes of the B.C. art curriculum form the specif ic objectives' of; the program: and. of ..the evaluation methodology. Related subject area objectives (Social Studies, Architecture, Sociology) were not used directly in preparation of all of the activities but certainly are probably applicable to some degree. 1.8 Inter-unit Consistency: (Is there sequential consistency with prior and subsequent units- concepts, topics, skills, attitudes? Does it have con tinuity?) The workbook follows cognitive development stages- sensing, experiencing, analysing and evaluating. Within every activity and in each chapter three levels of familiarity are presented- "getting started", ^'expanding hori zons" and "doing more". Activities are arranged in the order of cognitive developmental stages. 1.9 External Consistency: (Are the intents consistent with related literature?) Recent trends in art education thought are incorporated in the book. The concept of developing awareness and critical judgment is fundamental in current thinking. Emphasis on flexibility and the unique :nature of the individual, his culture, background, experience and personal mean ing of interaction with the environment are incorporated. 2.0 Content 2.10 Bias/Stereotypes: (Is there evidence of bias- ethnic, religious, pol itical, sex roles, multicultural, regional, occupational?) All the photographs in the book illustrate B.C. locations. The source material was adapted from programs tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A. The activities are probably universal in application, at least to Western society. There is emphasis placed upon urban rather than rural settings. 2.20 Accuracy: (Are there misstatements or omissions? Is there evidence of inaccuracy?) None at this time. 204 2.30 Currency: (Does the content have currency and futurity? Are the styles, examples, and expressions dated?) Content is recent- activities were adapted in many cases from recently published literature sources. Some photographs in the workbook depicting "modern" buildings will become dated with time. 2.40 Congruency: (Does the content match the stated objectives? Are the objectives developed?) Content follows stated objectives of the workbook. The general learning outcomes of the B.C. art curriculum were considered when incorporating and adapting activities. 2.50 Readibility: (Is the level of reading difficulty - vocabulary, style of presentation, sentence structure - appropriate for student differences and preparedness?) A number of new concepts are included in the workbook and a considerable amount of new vocabulary that is unfamiliar to the students may be incor porated. A readibility test appears warrented. Explanatory sections on vocabulary might improve the workbook. 2.60 Interest: (Is it interesting, attractive, meaningful and relevant to students? Does it start from their experience?) The workbook attempts to provide both written and visual material to stimulate the students. Many illustrations will be well known to B.C. students. Students are aware in a general way and concerned about their environment, hence the material should be of interest. Field trips and group activities provide relief from highly structured classroom work and are likely to promote interest and enthusiasm. As awareness of the properties and features of built environment increases through intro ductory activities in the workbook, interest and desire to do more should result. 2.70 Organization: (Is the content well organized? Are the ideas clearly stated? Is it easy to understand? Is there sequencing? Is there a table of contents? Summary charts? Advanced organizers? Does the format keep intents visible to teachers?) Content is organized and sequenced appropriately. Each chapter has an explanatory introduction and table of contents. The workbook itself has a table of contents. The general introduction could be strengthened to provide more guidance for teachers and clarify intents and objectives. Generally, material and directions should be easy to understand. 2.80 Variety: (Are a variety of resources suggested? Are different materials provided? Is a bibliography of sources provided to facilitate further teacher planning?) A large reference list is provided and indexed by chapter. Citations within the chapter of listed references are made. Use of different materials, methods, choice of study locations provides variety of con tent. 205 3.40 Flexibility: (Are alternatives suggested for different teaching styles and learning styles? Accomodation of different interests and choices?) The workbook is designed to be flexible and to allow for different teaching and learning styles as well as innovation. The use of a question and answer format in some activities may be quite structured and impose some restraint on flexibility. 3.50 Creativity: (Is creativity encouraged?) Creativity and individual action is encouraged wherever possible. In recording and illustrating their discoveries, students are encouraged to work with a variety of materials to express their reactions and recommendations. Field trip formats are often sufficiently flexible to allow students to develop their own approach to study design and em phasis. 3.60 Student Involvement: (Is student decision-making encouraged? Are students involved in the formulation of goals and selection of content? Do stu dents have choices in the unit? Does it incorporate the experiences they bring to the classroom? Are they interested?) Student decision-making is certainly encouraged, especially in the sections on analysing information and evaluation. The purpose of the exercise is to teach students to form critical judgments based on per sonal experience and knowledge. There is opportunity for students to select goals and study emphasis and to modify activities to meet the needs of their study design. 3.70 Individualization: (Does it allow for individualized pacing- rates of speed and output, rather than group pacing? Must all students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way?) The workbook allows.for individualized pacing rather than group pacing. Students are encouraged to work individually or in small groups in many activities. The teacher must have a well developed organizational 'plan, particularly where field trips are involved so that introductory and follow-up activities are properly conducted. The evaluation methodology imposes some structure on use of the workbook by confining pilot testing to an intensive six week period. 3.80 Open-endedness: (Does it encourage a variety of student responses rather than restricting responses? Is it divergent rather than convergent?) Both the activities and subject matter can be described as open-ended. The study of the built environment encompasses many subject areas- art, architecture, planning, functional aspects of buildings, materials and construction methods, ethnic and social considerations, historical per spectives, etc. The activities should serve to illustrate this variety and allow students a broad range of expression relative to their own interests and experience. 3.90 Evaluation: (Do evaluation strategies accommodate student differences? Matched with intents rather than content? Do students have opportunity for self and group evaluation?) 206 2.90 Significance: (Is it worthwhile for students to pursue? Can the time allotted to the unit be justified?) The book deals with the built environment and our relationship to it. It therefore deals with subject matter common to the lives of all people. Awareness of, and development of critical appraisal techniques related to the built environment should be helpful from both the stand point of the individual and of the community. 2.10 Depth: (Is it treated in sufficient depth and detail rather than in survey fashion? Is it covered adequately? Is it comprehensive?) The workbook is intended to be a compendium of a variety of ways from which to approach the study of the built environment. It is not intend ed to be a comprehensive work on the subject but rather an activity guide which stimulates innovation and the desire to do more and explore related fields. Emphasis on city planning and social studies and other topics could form the basis of similar workbooks. 2.11 Redundancy: (Is the content new rather than redundant to students?) While buildings and man's built environment are extremely familiar to all students, their familiarity may be quite superficial. The workbook concentrates upon making students aware of built forms, their proper ties and features, materials used in construction, use of space, net work systems and a variety of considerations designed to increase awareness and analysis of the appropriateness and complexities of the subject. It is expected that most students will find that focussing on these areas greatly increases awareness and critical appraisal of the built environment. 3.0 Methodology 3.10 Variety: (Are a variety of student and teacher strategies suggested for opener, developmental, and closure lessons?) Each chapter contains introductory material and three levels of famil iarity are provided to offer a natural progression through the material. There is opportunity for individual, group or class projects conducted in the classroom, immediate area around the school or further afield. A variety of methodology is offered and teachers and students are en couraged to innovate to suit their own circumstances. 3.20 Emphasis: (Is the intended emphasis upon transmission of content, stu dent activities- inquiry, discovery, experiential, or both?) The book offers a mix of content transmission and activities involving inquiry, discovery and experience. The use of personal inquiry and judgment encourages development of critical appraisal skills. Emphasis is upon personal discovery and experience rather than content transmiss ion. 3.30 Consistency: (Does the methodology match the objectives?) Methodology is designed to match the objectives. 207 Evaluation methodologies were chosen to form a broad assessment of the material- teacher surveys, student questionnaires, evaluator observation, quantitative testing, examination of student output. A number of activities within the workbook encourage self evaluation and classroom evaluation of results through open discussion and verbal or written presentation of findings. Working in small teams and groups encourages discussion and evaluation of findings and approach taken. 208 Appendix III Important points to consider when designing a formative evaluation of a program (from W. Werner, personal communication). 209 DESIGNING FORMATIVE EVALUATION There are no formulae for evaluation planning. It requires creativity and work because no two evaluations are the same. 1.0 Negotiation (eg. developers, administrators, etc.) 1.1 What program is to be evaluated?(eg.- master plan; classroom program; discrepancy between master plan and classroom program; etc.) 1.2 What purposes are to be served? (eg.-goal and roles of evaluation) 1.3. What questions are of concern? 1.4 What parameters are necessary? (eg.-time lines, finances, access to information, etc.) 1.5 Who is to be involved, and when? 2.0 Proposal (indicate scope and sequence of study and the contract) 2.1 Problems, questions, purposes of the study; 2.2 Methodology for data collecting, analysis and reporting; 2.3 Personnel needed or involved; 2.4 Budget (specify items such as time, secretarial, travel, computor, mailing, hiring help, etc.); 2.5 Time lines for procedures and submission of reports; 3.0 Data Collection (method) 3.1 Ends-means data 3.1.1 Qualitative analysis of documents, special techniques and instrum ents a) Ends: kinds (knowledge, attitudes, values, skills), balance, clarity, levels, specification (specific-general; teacher-student), consistency. b) Means: readability, kinds of activities (opener, develop mental, closure), balance, clarity, redundancy*,' levels of questions, instructions. c) Organization: linkages between activities, transitions, cum ulative building or development, sequential logic, focus mechanisms. d) Consistencies: internal (is there consistency between and among the intents, resources, and strategies? Carry through?); external (congruency with master plan? with current practice and research? significance of the program?); inter-program or unit (logical and 210 . sequential consistency among the programs for var ious grades, etc, "3.1.2 Quantitative analysis of outcomes (testing and measurement) 3.2 Situational Data (pilot testing) 3.2.1 Questionnaire (usually all participants) a) teachers b) students c) administrators, consultants, parents 3.2.2 Interviews (selected participants) a) teachers b) students c) other groups 3.2.3 Teacher.diaries (all participants) 3.2.4 Observations (selected situations) 3.3 Critical Data 3.3.1 Images of groups (ethnic, sex, minorities, etc.) 3.3.2 Images of students (freedom, involvement, etc.) 4.0 Report Writing 4.1 Format 4.1.1 Scope of the study; purposes; procedures 4.1.2 Strengths 4.1.3 Concerns- concerns raised by teachers, students; concerns about internal consistency, inter-program consistency, ex ternal consistency. 4.1.4 Suggestions for consideration 4.1.5 Appendices, special reports and data 4.2 Approach . 4.2.1 Ego involvement (question posing) 4.2.2 Ease of reading (tables, lists, points, brevity) 211 5.0 Discussion 5.1 Copies for everyone 5.2 Brief overview of findings: 5.2.1 Start with and stress strengths 5.2.2 Interpret summary charts or points 5.2.3 Raise concerns/recommendations as questions which lead into discussion 5.3 Discussion re revisions 5.3.1 Be sure concrete examples are available to support claims 5.3.2 Determine where action is needed- where do we go from here? (specify directions, roles, times, etc.) 212 Appendix IV Results of teacher and student questionnaires administered at completion of the six week pilot program period. Teacher responses are reproduced verbatum as hand written on evaluation questionnaires. Student responses represent a compilation of individual responses on a single questionnaire form for each group with number of students responding in each category shown numerically on the questionnaire form. Responses of a written nature from the students are summarized by listing all individual responses to a given question by a test group. V 213 Teacher Questionnaire This survey is to obtain your view of the Built Environment curriculum unit being tested in your classroom. As you are piloting the unit, make notations on the following questions as they apply to the unit's objectives, content and teaching-learning strategies. Your comments will be treated confidentially. Unit Title: Built Environment Grade Level: 10 to 12 School: A Characteristics of the Class (eg. -reluctant readers, more able learners, etc.): Keen, competitive students who want to do well in the course. Their ability  varies from very able students to slower learners- but all have interest in  the course. 1) Comment on the significance of the unit. Can time alloted to the unit 'be ; justified? Is the content" worthwhile for the students to pursue? This unit is an excellent introduction to a year course on studying one's  built environment. The content is definitely worthwhile for student's aware  ness is definitely increased through the various activities. The course is  designed to make all actively involved- not just passive observers. 2) Comment on the appropriateness of the unit. Is it appropriate to the grade level? Does it accomodate students of varying abilities and inter ests? It is appropriate to this grade level (10 to 12). The vocabulary is reason  ably easy to understand. The activities encourage the students to become  completely aware of their environment which is, in my opinion, of vital im  portance to everyone. This unit could be altered to suit almost any grade  level. The unit does accomodate the students' varying abilities and interests- open enough, yet directed. 3) What is your overall assessment of the unit? The overall assessment of the unit is good. However, more time could have been allowed- so much to learn! 214 4) Please complete the following questions by placing an "x" on the response that best fits your assessment: Objectives Are they explicit and complete? Are they clearly stated and easy to follow? Are they suited to your time and resource restaints? Are they developed satisfactorily throughout the unit? Content Is there evidence of bias (ethnic, sex roles, stereo types)? Are there mistatements or omissions of fact? Is the content dated rather than current? Does it match stated objectives? Is the readibility appropriate (vocabulary, sen tence structure)? Is.it well organized and easy to follow? Are a variety of resource materials provided or suggested? Is it treated in sufficient depth rather than in survey fashion? Is the content new rather than redundant to students? Teacher-learning Strategies Is variety provided (opener, developmental, closure)? Are they suited to the objectives? Are there alternatives for different teaching-learning styles? The unit is: satisfactory/unsatisfactory x sometimes confusing 215. Do they encourage creativity: *  Do they encourage a variety of student responses? x  Do they facilitate enquiry rather than rote learning? x  Do evaluation activities suit the objectives? x  Do evaluation activities accommodate student differences? x  Do students have opportunity for self and group evaluation?  5. Comment on how long it took you to teach the unit. We were given six weeks, however, as stated earlier, more time could have been spent on the unit. It offered.enough variety to have more time spent on it yet each activity progressed nicely from one to another. 6. Did you require help from someone (eg. consultant, development team member, fellow teacher) to clarify some aspect of the unit? Yes, help was required x No 7. Comment on the involvement of the student in the unit. Do students become -c actively involved and interested? Do they perceive it as relevant, attractive and meaningful? Does the unit build on the student's own . experiences? Is it student or content oriented? Is there enough variety? Is student decision-making encouraged and choice accommodated? Does it allow for individualized pacing, or must all students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way? All students became actively involved in the unit - they all seemed to want to do well and put a good deal of effort into their assignments. Yes, the students did perceive the unit to be relevant and meaningful. They continually made com ments about how they were now aware of their built environment and had learned basic skills in how to evaluate their environment. It does build on a student's own experiences - the activities were directed and specific about the aims of each area but allowed for personal expression. The entire unit was based on student decision-making.-.they were evaluated on their efforts on each project but not whether it was wrong or right. It definitely encouraged individual thinking. Students had to work at the same time but hot the same way. 216 8) Comment an any additional aspects which you feel would be helpful to the person revising this unit. Suggested areas for comment could in clude selected aspects from the following: completeness, clarity, scope, realism, internal consistency, bias, accuracy, currency, readability, interest, organization, variety, depth, redundancy, flexibility, creat ivity, sequence, individualization, open-endedness. For the amount of time allotted, it would perhaps have been better to have  the individual units scaled down (lessen the activity load). Therefore, more  of the activities could have been done. The exercises could have included  more objective questioning- maybe a "vocabulary" review at the end of each  sub-unit (activity). The questions could have been more specific and direct-the students sometimes found them difficult to understand. 9) What in your opinion, is the overall strength of this unit? The overall strength was the way the book made the students become actively  involved with exploring their built environment. This is an excellent "ground" or base for further studies in the built environment. Any student is capable  of participating and getting something positive from a book of this type. 10) What in your opinion, is the overall weakness of this unit? Vocabulary- a clearer introduction to new words. Illustrations and photo  graphs could have been more exciting. 217 11) Do you recommend that this unit be produced for classroom use and distributed throughout the entire province? (check one) (a) without revisions (c) with major revisions (b) x with minor revisions (d) not recommended If you checked (b) or (c), what specific suggestions for improvement do you recommend? Review questions and vocabulary at the end of each section. 218 Teacher Questionnaire This survey is to obtain your view of the Built Environment curriculum unit being tested in your classroom. As you are piloting the unit, make notations on the following questions as they apply to the unit's objectives, content and teaching-learning strategies. Your comments will be treated confidentially. Unit Title: Built Environment Grade Level: 11 School: B Characteristics of the class (eg.- reluctant readers, more able learners, etc.) The class has an unusually high percentage of potential and returned dropouts. Many of them (about 50 %) have had little or no success in school to this point. The students were fairly new to me when this project began. 1) Comment on the significance of the unit. Can time allotted to the unit be justified? Is the content worthwhile for the students to pursue? Content is important and a great deal of time should be spent on learning about  the environment. I am, however, unhappy with the structure that the testing  imposed. The students found five continuous weeks too much. I would normally  have integrated this information with "producing" activities — 2) Comment on the appropriateness of the unit. Is it appropriate to the grade level? Does it accomodate students of varying abilities and inter ests? The language was sometimes too technical and often too dry. There is a general  lack of introductory work to raise student's (and teacher's) awareness to the  level where exercises would have some meaning. 3) What is your overall assessment of the unit? 219 4) Please complete the following questions by placing an "x" on the response that best fits your assessment: .\\The unit is: Objectives • " satisfactory/unsatisfactory Are they explicit and complete? (lack intro. exercises) x Are they clearly stated and easy to follow? x ; Are they suited to your time and resource restaints? x Are they developed satisfactorily throughout the unit? Content Is there evidence of bias (ethnic, sex roles, stereo types)? (slanted towards architecture rather than design .' r _x concepts) Are there mistatements or omissions of fact? __x ___ Is the content dated rather than current? Does it match stated objectives? Is the readibility appropriate (vocabulary, sen tence structure)? Is it well organized and easy to follow? Are a variety of resource materials provided or suggested? (often necessary to find and use extra resources) Is it treated in sufficient depth rather than in survey fashion? Is the content new rather than redundant to students? Teacher-learning Strategies Is variety provided (opener, developmental, closure)? (more making activities could be included) Are they suited to the objectives? Are there alternatives for different teaching-learning styles? (highly structured in traditional way) 220 Do they encourage creativity: (fairly directive) x Do they encourage a variety of student responses? x  Do they facilitate enquiry rather than rote learning? x Do evaluation activities suit the objectives? x  Do evaluation activities accommodate student differences? x  Do students have opportunity for self and group evaluation?  5. Comment on how long it took you to"teach the unit. Five weeks 6. Did you require help from someone (eg. consultant, development team member, fellow teacher) to clarify some aspect of the unit? x Yes, help was required No 7. Comment on the involvement of the student in the unit. Do students become actively involved and interested? Do they perceive it as relevant, attractive and meaningful? Does the unit build on the student's own experiences? Is it student or content oriented? Is there enough variety? Is student decision-making encouraged and choice accommodated? Does it allow for individualized pacing, or must all students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way? The students found the unit meaningless and boring (according to their  responses). However, what I think they were opposed to was the fact that  thev had to do the unit. Also, they came into the class with 10 years'  worth of expectations about what one does in an art class. Most of these  particular students are not comfortable with reading and with words in  general. The work book might have been more successful if it had been  more visual in its approach. It is very wordy.  221 8) Comment on any additional aspects which you feel would be helpful to the person revising this unit. Suggested areas for comment could in clude selected aspects from the following: completeness, clarity, scope, realism, internal consistency, bias, accuracy, currency, read ability, interest, organization, variety, depth, redundancy, flexi bility, creativity, sequence, individualization, open-endedness. My first (and strongest suggestion) is that the book be set up in such a way that it encourages integration with other activities. I also feel that its architectural and sociological emphasis is too strong for an art class. There is very little information on elements and principles of design and how they are used in our surroundings. Introductory exercises in communication and response to stimuli would also be helpful. Critical evaluation should receive further clarification and guidance. __. 9) What in your opinion, is the overall strength of this unit? The general topic is important and the lessons are clearly laid out and explained. • .  10) What in your opinion, is the overall weakness of this unit? While the book allows for individual adaptation, it is structured to such  a degree that it does not encourage flexibility. Some teachers would find it too constrictive. I would also have appreciated a little more humour. The tone is very serious 222 11) Do you recommend that this unit be produced for classroom use and distributed throughout the entire province? (check one) ^ without revisions ^ with major revisions ^ x with minor revisions •(d)— not recomnlencled If you checked (b) or (c), what specific suggestions for improvement do you recommend? 1) An introductory unit. 2) A chapter on how to use the book emphasizing flexibility. 3) Inclusion of a chapter on elements and principles of design and activities dispersed throughout the book which relate back to it.  4) A paradigm for critical evaluation. 5) More visual exercises (exercises that encourage visual rather than  verbal response). Perhaps the suggestions (for revison) would be seen as major. I call them minor because they do not alter the essence of the book. 223 Teacher Questionnaire This survey is to obtain your view of the Built Environment curriculum unit being tested in your classroom. As you are piloting the unit, make notations on the following questions as they apply to the unit's objectives, content and teaching-learning strategies. Your comments will be treated confidentially. Unit Title: Built Environment Grade Level: 11, 12 School:_ r, (Control Group Teacher) Characteristics of the class (eg.- reluctant readers, more able learners, etc.) Grade 11/12 AD (Ceramics). Students are interested in working with their hands. 1) Comment on the significance of the unit. Can time allotted to the unit be justified? Is the content worthwhile for the students to pursue? Unit is more significant for a general Art 11 or 12 or senior Geography. 2) Comment on the appropriateness of the unit. Is it appropriate to the grade level? Does it accomodate students of varying abilities and inter ests? Appropriate to grade level. Accomodates students of varying abilities and interests. 3) What is your overall assessment of the unit? 224 4) Please complete the following questions by placing an "x" on the response that best fits your assessment: Objectives Are they explicit and complete? Are they clearly stated and easy to follow? Are they suited to your time and resource restaints? Are they developed satisfactorily throughout the unit? Content - '," Is there evidence of bias (ethnic, sex roles, stereo types)? The unit is: satisfactory/unsatisfactory _x • x Are there mistatements or omissions of fact? (historical background x of architecture) Is the content dated rather than current? _x • __ Does it match stated objectives? _x • _ Is the readibility appropriate (vocabulary, sen tence structure)? (too advanced) Is it well organized and easy to follow? Are a variety of resource materials provided or suggested? Is it treated in sufficient depth rather than in survey fashion? Is the content new rather than redundant to students? Teacher-learning Strategies Is variety provided (opener, developmental, closure)? Are they suited to the objectives? Are there alternatives for different teaching-learning styles? 225^ Do they encourage creativity: Do they encourage a variety of student responses? Do they facilitate enquiry rather than rote learning? Do evaluation activities suit the objectives? Do evaluation activities accommodate student differences? Do students have opportunity for self and group evaluation? 5. Comment on how long it took you to*teach the unit. Control group  6. Did you require help from someone (eg. consultant, development team member, fellow teacher) to clarify some aspect of the unit? t Yes, help was required No 7. Comment on the involvement of the student in the unit. Do students become c actively involved and interested? Do they perceive it as relevant, attractive and meaningful? Does the unit build on the student's own experiences? Is it student or content oriented? Is there enough variety? Is student decision-making encouraged and choice accommodated? Does it allow for individualized pacing, or must all students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way? Control Group - students were not interested. For them the unit was not relevant, attractive or meaningful. The students felt they were being unfairly used. As a teacher, I realize the need for a control group in such an endeavor. But frankly, I felt sorry for the students who seemed to get only a feeling of stupidity from being a control group. 226 8) Comment an any additional aspects which you feel would be helpful to the person revising this unit. Suggested areas for comment could in clude selected aspects from the following: completeness, clarity, scope, realism, internal consistency, bias, accuracy, currency, readability, interest, organization, variety, depth, redundancy, flexibility, creat ivity, sequence, individualization, open-endedness. The unit itself seems to be quite good. One point I wonder about is the  overall• vocabulary. I wonder if words and phrases such as "texture, tapestry  of lights, facade, and the vocabulary listed on page 9 is understandable to  a high school student? . 9) What in your opinion, is the overall strength of this unit? The stress oh observing one's surroundings. 10) What in your opinion, is the overall weakness of this unit? Overall vocabulary should be simpler. 227 11) Do you recommend that this unit be produced for classroom use and distributed throughout the entire province? (check one) (a) without revisions (c) with major revisions (b) x with minor revisions (d) not recommended If you checked (b) or (c), what specific suggestions for improvement do you recommend? This question seems to assume that this unit in some form should be a  mandatory part of the curriculum. (Improvements- as mentioned, vocabulary). 228 Student Responses School A Your Reaction Please tell us how you feel about the things you did during the unit on Built Environment. There are no right or wrong answers. Your reaction will help us to revise the unit. 1) I think this unit was (place a check mark along the line) Easy to understand Interesting Important to learn Too long Moving too fast Worthwhile and valuable What else? 2 6 3 5 0 3 8 3 2 0 1 6 7 2 0 0 1 7 6 2 3 3 5 5 0 4 9 3 0 0 Hard to understand Boring Not important to learn Too short Moving too slowly Not very worthwhile or valuable "Very worthwhile and enjoyable." "Should be longer." "The questions were very vague and difficult to understand." "Quite interesting." 2) While doing this unit I (place a check mark along the line) Often discussed it at home or with friends Seldom felt confused Often asked questions Learned things I never knew before broadened my know ledge about built environment CM 2 1 7 4 5 7 0 3 1 2 5 5 3 1 9 4 3 0 0 5 5 5 1 0 Seldom discussed it at home or with friends Often felt confused Seldom asked questions Learned things I already knew before Did not broaden my knowledge about built environment What else? "I was very pleased with the work I was doing and I was enjoying the unit." "I'd like to know the costs of buildings and things" "Learned to control my hand at drawing and painting." "Find difficulties in answering the questions." "I learned to examine buildings." Student Responses- School A (cont.) 3) I learned most in this unit by (Check as many as you wish) _2 Taking notes. 10 Reading the books. 12 Listening to the teacher. _1 Watching the pictures and listening to the tapes. 11 Having class discussions. 14 Doing group projects. _1 Having simulations or debates. __7 Doing the written exercises and writing answers to questions. 2 Having the teacher ask me questions. 4 Working by myself. _9 Listening to what other students have to say. _1 Asking resource people for their opinions. 0 Working in the library. _1 Being given the answers to the problems by the teacher. 10 Expressing my own opinion. _2 Disagreeing with the teacher or other students. _7 Finding out answers for myself. __8 Asking questions. What else? "Doing the projects in the unit. Doing field trips." "Asking opinions of people." "Field trips." "Studying buildings." 4) I found it hard in this unit to (Check as many as you wish) - 3 Understand the books and articles. 10 Answer the assigned questions. _1 Watch the films or filmstrips. _6__ Work by myself on the assignments. __1 Work with others on the group projects. Student Responses- School A (cont.) 230 4 Find information to answer the questions. 2 Become interested in the topic. 5 Make sense out of the assignments. 0 Ask questions. 4 Follow the instructions on handouts. 0 Remember what I read in the assigned readings. 6 Figure out why we had to learn this material. What else? "We already knew some of it." "Hard to make the answers complete." "Hand in projects because there was a lot of work to do." "Use the exercises." "Wording hard to understand in questions and exercises." "Understand the questions asked." 5) What I liked best about the unit was "It was fun to do while at the same time taught us important things such as environmental awareness." "The field trips, architecture, some Vancouver history." "The field trips and going to places to learn more." "It helped me to be aware of any buildings around me." "Field trips." "The selection of study areas-Granville Island was very good." "The trip to U.B.C. and Granville Island." "Going on the field trips to observe and take notes for projects." "As far as the built environment is concerned, I think I have learned something." "That it helped me become more aware of the buildings around me." "The field trip to Granville Island and really looking at each building." "Being able to go on a field trip and look at a building in a very different manner than I would normally. You get a very much more objective view." "That I take a closer look at all buildings I see now." "That the unit wasn't too long and didn't take much time to do any one assignment." "The field trips to interesting architectural places." 6) What I liked least about the unit was "Trying to figure out what the questions meant." "The fact that why we had to learn the information that seemed to have nothing to do with architecture." "The amount of time allowed for the unit." "The repetitive or vague questions assigned for each assignment." 231 Student Responses- School A (cont.) "The questions." "The repetitive nature of the questions and the way they were presented." "It was very brief.". "Doing some of the questions- they were hard to answer." "The amount of time to do such projects." "Doing the assignments of the U.B.C. tower." "Some of the questions asked." "I liked the entire unit." "Some of the stupid questions-eg.-How do' the people go from the inside tothe outside." "Nothing. I felt the whole unit was interesting and enjoy able." 7) What I would like to change in this unit is "I think there should be more simple projects which can be done to learn, instead of only a few long, hard pro jects. I think more field trips would be a good idea, since the field trips we did take were very enjoyable." "Some of the questions need more time, 2-4 hours in the area." "Nothing." "The form of the questions and the wording of some of the questions." "To make it a little bit shorter." "If it were to be used in schools, the time allotted should be shorter." "To spread assignments out- more time, more explicit questions." "More field trips." "The way the questions are phrased and arranged." "Making the instructions simpler and easier to understand." "The way the questions were asked." "The number of assignments in such a short period of time." "More time and more learning of technical drawing." "The assignments- eg. the Clock Tower. What does this have to do with architecture, other than appreciating it? Unique buildings should have been recognized, rather than tall, slim, boney structures." "The Steeplechasing- there were- too many angles involved." 232 Student Responses School B Your Reaction Please tell us how you feel about things you did during the unit on Built Environment. There are no right or wrong answers. Your reaction will help us to revise the unit. 1) I think this unit was (place a check mark along the line) Easy to understand _6 _1 _5 _2 _2 Hard to understand Interesting _0 _2 _3 _3 _6 Boring Important to learn _1 _0 _6 _2 _5 Not important to learn Too long 11 _2 _2 _0 _0 Too short Moving too fast _2 _2 _4 _0 _5 Moving too slowly Worthwhile and 0 _0 _4 _4 . _6 Not very worthwhile valuable or valuable What else? (place a check mark along the line) 2) While doing this unit I Often discussed it at home or with 1 friends Seldom felt 6 confused Often asked 3 questions Learned things I _3_ never knew before Broadened my know- ' ledge about built 0 environment What else? "I liked to "Nothing." 1 1 CM 2 2 1 3 2 0 0 5 1 2 1 1 discuss the unit." Seldom discussed it at home or with friends Often felt confused Seldom asked questions Learned things I already knew before Did not broaden my know ledge about built envir onment 3) I learned most in this unit by (check as many as you wish) 3 Taking notes _1 Reading the books 6 Listening to the teacher Student Responses- School B (cont.) 4 Watching the pictures and listening to the tapes. _3 Having class discussions. 0 Having simulations or debates. _9 Doing the written exercises and writing answers to questions. _1 Having the teacher ask me questions. 8 Working by myself. 3 Listening to what other students have to say. 4 Asking resource people their opinions. 4 Working in the library. _2 Being given the answers to the problems by the teacher. __7 Expressing my own opinion. _1 Disagreeing with the teacher or. with other students. 10 Finding out answers for myself. _7 Asking questions. 4) I found it hard in this unit to (Check as many as you wish) 6 Understand the books and articles. 5 Answer the assigned questions. 3 Watch the films or filmstrips. 2 Listen to the tapes. 1 Work by myself on the assignments.-2 Work with others on the group projects. 3 Find information to answer the questions. 9 Become interested in the topic. 6 Make sense out of the assignments. 1 Ask questions. 3 Follow the instructions on handouts. 4 Remember what I read in the assigned readings. 234 Student Responses- School B (cont.) 13 Figure out why we had to learn this material. What else? "I didn't understand." "The questions were useless." 5) What I liked best about the unit was "Thinking things out myself." "Nothing." (3) "Working and talking with other people." "No." "I didn't really like it." (2) "Walking by myself and noticing things that I wouldn't of if I was with someone." "Open space activity." "Open space." "Work outside." "Going outside." "Gave us free time." "It had a few interesting points." 6) What I liked least about the unit was "It was hard to understand at first." "Some of the stuff didn't make sense." "Everything." (3) "Writing these papers."' "The handouts." "Deadline." "Talking about it with other people- I couldn't get into it." "That there was so much writing." "All." "Doing it myself." "Writing the assignments out." 7) What I would like to change in this unit is "I don't know." "Stupid questions." "That it should have been a group thing." "All." "Everything." (3) "That we be able to do it all our selfs." "Everything but open space activity." "These papers." "Almost everything." "Some of the topics." To be able to go other places that I am not familiar with." Appendix V Details of the quantitative evaluation (pre- and post-tests) administered to the pilot test groups and the control group. Objectives of the Pre-,and Post-Test of the Curriculum Workbook 236 General -The objectives of the test correspond with the objectives.of the workbook. -Questions used in the pre-and post-test correspond with specifications (page 25). Content of Parts of the Pre and Post Test I Perception- Learning to perceive and respond to aspects of the built environment. ".' A. Learning to recognize and describe the subject elements of the built environment. EhLearning to go beyond the recognition of the subject matter to the perception and description of formal qualities and expressive content. Testing mastery of the combined effect of the subject matter and the specific visual form that characterizes a particular built form. II Knowledge- Testing knowledge about the built environment by remembering, recalling or recognizing those things which are present during an original learning situation. _ A.Terms- to remember definitions of terms which distinguish one built form from another. III Comprehension- Achieving an understanding of the literal, symbolic and allegorical message of the built form. AJTranslation- Learning to translate (verbally describe) built form. B.Interpretation- Learning to be able to verbally interpret and also to re-order, rearrange, and assess what is irrelevant. IV Analysis- Ability to dissect the built form into its constituent parts and detect relationships among the parts and the relationship of the parts to the whole. A. Analysis of Elements- Accounting for elements of the built form item by item. 237 :: B. Analysis of Relationships- Ability to determine some of the major connections among aspects of the built form. C. Analysis of Relationships of Parts to the Whole- Ability to reach a conclusion about the expressive content of the work and explicate how various aspects and their relationships fuse to form the expressive content. V Evaluation- Making a reasoned critical judgment about the aesthetic quality and value of the built form. A. Empirical Evaluation- ability to recognize how well something serves a function B. Systemic Evaluation- ability to see coherence and relationships within the built form: -fusion and vividness of one's experience with the built form -degree to which the built form represents the norm -amount of pleasure or pain generated from the built form Administration and Structure of the Pre^ and Post-test Based upon the above content, a quantitative test was developed which incorporated behavioral objectives and content areas related to the study of the built environment. The test consisted of a mixture of forced-choice and written responses to visual material presented to the study groups according to a set time schedule (§0 minutes total). Visual material used to stimulate responses was a set of slides and large format illustrations depicting build ings, design concepts, interrelationships of the built form and building parts and features. The test was scored out of a total of 50 points and results were analysed on the basis of class response as described in Chapter III of this report. The following pages provide details of the test format and content. Pre and Post Summative Test for a Unit of Curriculum 238 on the Built Environment (time- 60 minutes) Date: _______ Name: School: Instructions: darken the circle that best answers the question. I Perception: A. Look at the pictures and answer the following: 1) Which picture shows rapid sequential movement (a) (b) (c) (d) in space? 0 0 0 0 2) Which picture shows skillfully directed object movement in space? 0 0 0 0 3) Which picture shows floating directed movement in space? 0 0 0 0 4) Which picture shows rhythmic expressive movement in space? 0 0 0 0 5) The arrangements in this slide have been designed to give a person a feeling of calm, tranquility or serenity. What do you see in the picture that gives you this feeling? (choose one) a) shape of house 0 b) pool of waterc) all the elements in the picture 0 d) don't know 0 B. Look at the picture and answer the following: 1) Doorways give you the impression of the style of building you are entering. What style of building does this doorway suggest to you? a) Greek 0 b) Roman • 0 c) Baroqued) Moderne) don't know 0 2) what evidence suggests the architectural style present? a) height of door 0 c) shape of the door 0 b) door decoration 0 d) colour 0 e) don't know 0 239 3) In what building might you find this door? a) house 0 b) storec) warehoused) library 0 e) don't knowII Knowledge: A. Terms ) 1) When you walk from one end of a street to another your impression of the object at the end of the street changes as you approach it. What you experience is a series of changing views of the object. What could that process be termed? a) focal point 0 b) tunnel visionc) serial vision 0 d) vantage pointe) don't know2) This picture of the U.S.S.R. Pavilion illustrates a site that might be used in the: a) steep!echasing game b) horse racing game c) Pavilion seeker's game d) tower tolling game e) don't know 0 0 0 0 0 3) This picture shows:, a) vehicular space 0 b) clustered spacec) private space 0 d) enclosed spacee) don't know4) This picture shows public and private space. The architect has created this situation by: a) making the pathways out of brick 0 b) changing the surface levels 0 c) creating barriers 0 d) adding a waterfalle) both b and c5) The architect's use of stairs, bridge, mirrors help direct us to the entrance of this Japanese Pavilion at Expo 70. These factors make us look forward to: a) enclosed space 0 b) anticipated space 0 c) private space 0 d) vehicular space 0 f) don't know - 0 240 6) The following picture illustrates: a) open space 0 b) closed spacec) shared space 0 d) personal space 0 e) both b and d7) Functionally, the railings in the picture were used to create: a) stair structure 0 b) aesthetics 0 c) architectural line 0 d) barriers 0 e) don't know • 0 Texture is used to give surface quality, variety and order to Which picture shows: (a) (b) (c) (!d) 8) metal surface? 0 0 0 0 9) clay surface? 0 0 0 0 10) wood surface? 0 0 0 0 11) lacquered surface? 0 0 0 0 (don't know) 0 0 0 0 12) This picture shows space arranged in different ways. Which picture shows rearranged space? (a) (b) (c) (don't know) 0 0 0 v 0 13) This playgrOund picture is composed of elements that both define and subdivide space. What are some of these elements? 14) To what extent has the designer or architect met the needs of the children who will be using this space? (answer in a few words) Ill Comprehension: A. Translation People occupy different spaces in their working environment. Which pictures suggest the following things about working spaces? 1) indoor, closed, limited feelings (a) (b) (c)Wdon't know) 0 0 0 0 0 2) outdoor, flexible feeling 0 0 0 0; 0 241 (a) (b) (c)(d)(don't know) 3) mobile, but confining 0 0 0 o 0 4) indoor, stimulating feeling 0 0 0 Q 0 5) Express which category of work space you would like to work in for a living if you had a choice of indoor, closed limited space; outdoor, flexible space; mobile, but confined space; indoor, stimulating space. Give a substantial reason for your choice of work environment: B. Interpretation You can look at an object in terms of its function, meaning, .(appearance, or potential for change. Answer the questions below and give a reason to support your answer. 1) Does the letter box clearly communicate its intended use? .  2) Could you change the way we use the letter box to make it function better? 3) Is the letter box attractive and does its intended use (storage of mail) improve people's relationships with one another?. 4) Is there a way of altering the appearance of the letter box so it provides more information about its function? c2 , _ — , — • • • • .. . • • • - • The appearance of space is important as it tells us what activities can go on there. In addition, the,way a place looks also determines our feelings about it and an architect or a designer should be conscious of the attitudes of the user. 5) How does the appearance of the outside space of this building give us information about the country it represents? 6) How does the building and structure make you feel? Explain in a few words: 242 7) Graphics and signs can organize or tell us about the use of space. What do these graphics tell you about the country that the building represents? Networks such as paths, roads, stairways, streets allow for a desired pattern of movement and use. Which pictures show networks suited for: 8) rapid movement, flexible (a) (b) (0(d)(don't know) 9) slow movement 0 0 0 0 0 10) rapid movement, inflexible 0 0 0 0 0 1.1) product movement 0 0 0 0 0-IV Analysis A. Analysis of Elements 1) Context is the setting in which the building is placed. Write a few words describing the success or failure or the strong points or deficiencies of the way the building (center) suits the context of the surrounding area. B. Analysis of Relationships 1) Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Discuss the subdivision of this building into identi fiable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. 2) To what extent is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? - C. Analysis of Relationships of Parts to the Whole 1) Each of these trademarks illustrated is composed of a bare minimum of visual elements. In every symbol but one, the elements are identical or are derived from a single basic shape. Which one is different? top left 0 top rightcenter left 0 center rightbottom left 0 bottom right243 2) Explain how the symbol that you chose is different from the others. V Evaluation A. Empirical Evaluation Write a short answer for the following questions: 1) How does the British Pavilion portray elements of British industry and technology? 2) What skills are apparent in British industry and technology and what might the country be proud of judging from the building's appearance? 3) How well does the building convey the message the designer had in mind and why? " B. Systemic Evaluation 1) Give your overall feelings of pleasure and displeasure with your personal bedroom in two or three sentences. 2) How would you rate your room on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = highly pleasurable, 10 = very unpleasant). 3) If you had the opportunity, what would you do to change your room to improve it? 244 Appendix VI Completed formative evaluation sheets resulting from the author's observation of groups from schools A and B engaged in activities described in the workbook. Each activity is identified by title, date of commencement of the activity (some took several periods) and details are provided on the strengths of the activity and concerns of the evaluator. Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) 245 Title of Activity: Open Space Activity (students went individually to various open spaces) Workbook Page: Evaluator: Date: Wed. Sept. 17. 1980 Time: 12:20  Class: ' ' ' Grade: 10. 11. 12 School: A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse interest in the students? The class used the workbook exactly 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? As above 3) Are they related to, or do they use information from the workbook? Yes Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes .2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for materials, plans, or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Used notebooks, pens, pencils. Chose individual open space 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? 4) What are some of the student responses? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of teacher and workbook clear? Not enough information was provided on the purpose of the activity. The instructions were clear and posed no problems. 246 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? No questions were asked as instructions were clear 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Attitude appeared satisfactory 4) What distractive or obstructive questions are there? None Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students had no difficulty working independently. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Appears well designed for individuals. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Students selected a variety of open spaces. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Positive and keen to discuss their own findings. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Yes - good rapport in class discussions. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? The students had obviously chosen a variety of interesting open spaces for study. This suggests interest and innovation was present. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Activity required 45 minutes. 247 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? Yes 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further activities in the workbook? Yes - they appear positive about the subject matter. 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related activity is being performed outside the classroom? (students) Some rechecked space for accuracy 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved with the activity expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, pictures, maps, models, etc.) None 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Several alternatives were discussed - Memorial Park, Lighthouse Park, back:gardens, a parking lot, the soccer field. 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the activity? (or both?) Yes - as indicated by the follow-up discussions arid finished products. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc. None 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was extensive preparation required? No'.extensive preparation - about 15 minutes. General Comments: Students appeared to enjoy working in the open spaces. Some thought the activity a "bit corny". Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: Shopping Center Activity (follow-up lesson) 248 Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: 10,11,12 A Fri. Sept. 19, 1980 08:50 Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Interest aroused by review of existing and proposed Granville St. designs. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Proposed rennovation of the 4000 block, Dunbar St. and a field trip to the area. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Material from both parts 1 and 4 of the workbook with reference to eval uating and redesigning the built environment. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat erials, plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Buildings in the Dunbar area were chosen for study. Materials included notebooks, pencils, paper, light cardboard. 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? Yes. 4) What are some of the student responses? Some felt the activity increased their awareness of local buildings. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Instructions were clear and the intent of the activity was evident. They drew plans of the existing block, made an overlay of drafting paper and then redesigned the block on the overlay. Yes. 249 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Intelligent, thoughtful questions asked. 3) How do the students respond?" (attitude) They displayed a positive attitude and appeared to enjoy the activity. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students worked individually and did rough maps and drawings, notes, etc. in class time. Detailed drawings of existing and redesigned structures-done as homework. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Works well for both individuals and groups. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Good students were adept at grasping the intent of the lesson and using materials to produce interesting and attractive designs for the area. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) The activity promoted considerable discussion among the students. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher accompanied the students to the site. She' was keen to help the students and answer their questions. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes - students were interested and motivated. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Students put considerable private time into completion of the designs. 250 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? Sufficient for introduction and acquisition of information but more time was required for completion of the project. 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional activ ities? Yes- they were positive about doing more activities. 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the class room? Yes- extremely well done designs with obvious investment of time. 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, maps, pictures, models, etc.) Architectural drawings were displayed on the bulletin board. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Materials available included notebooks, drawing paper, drafting supplies. 3) : What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc.? Students used their own cars for transportation on the field trip. Cost of the materials supplied by the school was minimal. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was ex tensive preparation required? Extensive preparation was not required beyond researching the introduc tory material and choice of study location. 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc tion portions of the activity? Students felt that they had become more aware of buildings and enjoyed the preparation of alternate building designs. General Comments The group produced ah.extremely well done set of drawings and innovative alternative building designs. Motivation was high and the students ob viously became interested and involved in the activity. Awareness of design elements and buildings appeared to increase. 251 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: Steep!echasing ; Workbook Page: 12 Evaluator: S. Davis Date: . Sept. 23, 1980 Time: 1:00-3:00 PM Class: Grade: ' 10,11,12 School: A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Instructions were clear- the students were obviously eager to begin the trip. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Discussion of the use of a high object (U.B.C. Clock Tower) in relation to other buildings. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Used the introduction from the activity and workbook questions. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Planning included preparation of maps of the U.B.C. campus, a question, sheet, sketchbooks. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat erials, plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? Yes- interested in the campus buildings and architecture although not familiar with the campus. 4) What are some of the student responses? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Instructions were clear. The students were to use seven questions from the workbook and observe the tower from eight locations. 252 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? The students asked for the questions to be repeated as they did not come prepared with typed lists of questions. 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Positive attitude. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions are there? None Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students worked in pairs - one sketched each vantage point, one answered questions. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Activity could work with either individuals or groups. The pair system probably saved some time. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) See above. The activity appeared to increase awareness of buildings arid their relationship to one another. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) See above. The pairing system promoted discussion among peers. Good class discussion followed the activity. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) There was good interaction with the teacher. Students were not afraid to ask questions. They were encouraged to give positive or negative res ponses with substantive reasons to back up their judgments. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes - the students enjoyed the study location. Some had never been on the U.B.C. campus. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Yes - an additional hour was required to do final drawings, compile answers to questions and prepare a summary paragraph. Some needed to spend additional time on their own. 253 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? Sufficient time was available for the field trip and data gathering but not for follow-up completion activities. 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional activ ities? Two boys said they appreciated working out of the classroom and having the opportunity to think for themselves and form opinions and judgments. 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the class room? Patrick and Andrew felt they had become more aware of high points in the city. 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved expressed interest? A social studies teacher visiting the school expressed interest. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, maps, pictures, models, etc.) Architectural drawings and building designs displayed on the bulletin' board. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Buildings used included the Sedewick Library, Brock Hall, Law Building, Buchanan Building, Physics, Architecture, light posts, street furniture. 9) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc.? Maps were free from U.B.C. Transportation was by student and teacher ve hicles. Materials costs were minimal. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was ex tensive preparation required? Approximately one half hour preparation plus the field trip. 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc tion portions of the activity? Students felt they would have liked more time for this activity. General Comments The questions for this activity may require revision. It may be preferable to have questions answered at the end of the activity- all seven questions are too many or appear repetitive if used at each station of observation. 254 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: Four factor analysis -' Evaluator: S. Davis Het ?, iqan 1:30 - 3:00 p.m. (r.nmmpnrpmpnt) 10^ IK 12 —' A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse interest in the students? Yes 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Introductory class discussion of the four factors and explanation 3) Are they related to, or do they use information from the workbook? All the basics of the lesson were taken from the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for materials, plans, or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Granville Island Public Market chosen for study location. 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? Yes - enjoyed the opportunity to study the area. 4) What are some of the student responses? Very excited about going to the Public Market. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of teacher and workbook clear? All appeared clearly understood by the students. Workbook Page: Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: 255 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Some of the questions in the book appeared difficult for the students. They appear to require simplification. 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Very keen; interested. 4) What distractive of obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Worked as a group in the Granville Island Boardroom to review and answer the workbook questions and complete data sheets. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Could work well for either individuals or groups. Group completion of the questions was probably best as some questions appeared difficult. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Granville Island Public Market was a good choice of location. It is full of interesting activities and also a good example of public markets in the Province. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Students were extremely keen, anxious to help one another and partici pate in group discussion. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher conducted an instructive and enjoyable field trip. The stu dents talked freely with the teacher and asked questions of content. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes- the students were guided by good instruction, knew what they were doing and responded positively- in all, a feeling of success. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Follow-up questions were explored in class after the field trip. 256 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time.apportioned for this activity? Yes- the teacher planned several blocks of time for completion of the lesson. 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional activ ities? Yes. 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the class room? Students came prepared to class with assignments done. Assignments were handed in on schedule (mark penalty specified for late assignments). 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, maps, pictures, models, etc.) Four Factor Analysis projects were displayed in the school art gallery. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Write-ups on the project were scored out of 100 (25 marks/factor) 9) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc.? Students used own transportation. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was ex tensive preparation required? One half hour. 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc tion portions of the activity? Very successful- good rapport with teacher and team mates and feedback. General Comments Workbook questions require simplification. Teacher interest and partici pation appears essential to assist students and provide explanation. A detailed lesson introduction appears important to introduce concepts. 257 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: Shopping Center Activity Workbook Page: 5 Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Sept. 5, 1980 Time: 11:00 AM Class: Grade: 11,12 School: B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Instructions clear- students told to read questions carefully. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Teacher reviewed the questions with the class- discussion followed. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Yes- direct application of the workbook. Field trip to local mall utilized. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes, copies of the workbook and notebooks used. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat erials, plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? The book asks basic questions in a manner that appears clear to the students. 3) Do students respond positively to the use of,materials? Fairly- some seemed shy and hesitant to sketch in a public place. They appear uneasy about doing activities outside of the classroom. 4) What are some of the student responses? Appear quiet and shy. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Students were asked to answer the questions in the workbook, draw a group of stores as they are, and consider how they could be redesigned. 258 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? None 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Fairly well - hesitant until they become involved in the activity. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Appear to require guiding questions. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? The students worked in small groups and were asked to submit individual project reports (reports due at the end of the six week trial period). 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Students hesitant to enter shops and record information by sketching. Working outside the shops appeared less traumatic for them. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Students have to converse and discuss their findings and study approach. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Teacher did not accompany students on the field trip. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Students did not bother to return to class to discuss findings. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Absolutely - time is needed for discussion of the activities. 259 Formative. Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? Not in this case - the teacher did not allow time for a follow-up discussion. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further activities in the workbook? Not sure of attitudes - may lack motivation. 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related activity is being performed outside the classroom? (students) 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved with the activity expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, pictures, maps, models, etc.) Students were instructed to bring in pictures of store fronts (not done). 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the activity? (or both?) 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc. Nil - field trip took place within walking distance of the school. 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was extensive preparation required? Nil. General Comments: In this case the response by the students was not particularly encouraging. Teacher preparation and participating was not adequate - the teacher must accompany the class and work with them for the project to be successful. The book itself therefore may not be sufficient for total motivation. 260 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: The Sensory Walk Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: Sept. 24, 1980 1:00 PM 11,12 B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Students were asked to look for an area outside that was familiar to 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Used the workbook contents and instructions on sketching and recording. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Exactly as given in the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes- field trip to nearby Minoru Park, Richmond 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat erials, plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? The book provides specific questions to guide the students. 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? Yes- they needed more specific individual help with sketching techniques and texture rubbing methods. 4) What are some of the student responses? Wondered how you "can smell air"? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Students instructed to draw a sketch map at each stop they made, label location on a map, take a texture rubbing, record signs, smells, sounds, visual images. Instructions clear. Texture rubbing a good idea. them. 261 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Some asked what was meant by a sketch map? 3) How do students respond (attitude)? Positive attitude- enjoyed working outside in the park. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions were there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are the students able to work independehdently? This group appears to need direct supervision and guidance and help with the exercises. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Worked in groups of two individuals per group. This appeared to be a good arrangement. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between the students and the materials? (examples) The guiding questions definitely help orient the students and organize their approach to the activity. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) It is evident that working in pairs facilitates discussion of the mater ial and encourages group resolution of answers to the workbook questions. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher did not accompany the class on the field trip. The students appeared glad the evaluator was present and felt they needed someone to provide guidance and clarify approaches to the activity. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? There was no direct follow-up after the field trip. Lesson was inadequate ly concluded. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Product was to be a compendium of all activities handed in at completion of the six week trial period. 262 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? No - requires an extra period. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further activities in the workbook? 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related activity is being performed outside the classroom? (students) Some students stated that they would like to go on other field trips (down to the city). 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved with the activity expressed interest? A Social Studies teacher expressed interest in the workbook. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, pictures, maps, models, etc.) None. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? The projects were to be evaluated at the end of the 6-week trial period Materials used included notebooks, sketching materials, cameras. 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the activity? (or both?) Fair - attitudes difficult to assess with this group. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc. Nil. 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was extensive preparation required? Nil. General Comments: The activity would definitely have benefitted from more teacher partici pation in the field trip. Also, there was no follow-up discussion of findings following the field trip. The use of texture rubbings in the activity appeared a good idea. Information from the specific senses cou be recorded at each study site and itemized on the sketch map. 263 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) Title of Activity: Steeplechasing or Serial Vision (choice given to students) Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: Oct. 4, 1980 1:00 PM 11, 12 B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? The activities appear to arouse more interest than shown previously by the group. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Used one period to discuss the book and review the instructions for the activities. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Direct use of the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Students go off on their own in small groups to do the field work,, draw and photograph. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat erials, plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Students must be organized for the field trip and have the proper equip ment assembled. , < 3) Do students respond positively to the use of materials? More positive attitude to the activities than in previous cases. 4) What are some of the student responses? One student elected to go to Seattle and study the Space Needle as a Steeplechasing activity- i_e.' choice of a distant study location. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Appeared very clear. 264 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? (Teacher did not accompany group on field trips) 3) , How do the students respond? (attitude) The evaluator's group seemed more keen than before. More discussion took place and more positive questions were asked than on previous trips. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions are there? Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? The students appeared to like to work in pairs and discuss the material. Reports, however, were to be individually prepared. 2) Is the activity well designed for individuals or groups? Groups or pairs. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Working in pairs stimulated interaction and discussion. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Students appeared to like the evaluator to be with them and discuss the material, respond to questions, etc. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? My group appeared positive. I was unable to observe other groups. 2) Is it necessary to extend activity to another art period or to independent work? Yes, a work period was required. 265 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been sufficient time apportioned for this activity? Extra art periods were required to complete the work. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further activities in the workbook? Fair response (not all appear enthusiastic). 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related activity is being performed outside the classroom? (students) 6) Have other students or teachers not directly involved with the activity expressed interest? Other teachers in the school appeared curious as to which projects were going on. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the activity, magazines, articles, pictures, maps, models, etc.) No material displayed. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Notebooks, cameras, sketching materials were employed. Reporting at the end of the 6 week trial period. 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the activity? (or both?) Fair - some students appeared apathetic. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, field trips, etc. None - project within walking distance of the school. 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this activity and was extensive preparation required? None. The field trip would have been more successful with teacher participation and guidance. General Comments: Teacher participation and guidance would have greatly improved this project. A more appealing landmark in an exciting area would have stimulated student interest and participation. 

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