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Development of a built environment program for application and use in the B.C. secondary curriculum 1981

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DEVELOPMENT OF A BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM FOR APPLICATION AND USE IN THE B.C. SECONDARY CURRICULUM by SUSAN JACQUELINE DAVIS B.Ed. , The University of V ic tor ia , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as confirming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 (c) Susan Jacqueline Davis, 1981 I In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Mrs. Susan Davis Department of Visual & Performing Arts i n Education Faculty of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place /•' Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 4, 1981 E-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p an i n s t r u c t i o n a l program based upon the b u i l t e nvironment f o r p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n to the B r i t i s h Columbia s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t i s d e f i n e d as the man-made b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n human a c t i v i t y . E d u c a t i o n a l programs r e l a t e d t o the s t u d y o f t h e b u i l t e nvironment a r e w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n B r i t a i n and the U.S.A. but l i t t l e has been done t o d e v e l o p programs s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r B.C. s c h o o l s . The t o p i c i s deemed i m p o r t a n t and r e l e v a n t f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m due t o t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e man's en- vironment p l a y s i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , human a c t i v i t i e s , h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r e . A b u i l t environment program was d e v e l o p e d f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g based upon the Ge n e r a l L e a r n i n g Outcomes o f t h e B.C. s e c o n d a r y a r t / c u r r i c u l u m and t h e s t a t e d d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n e d u c a t i o n . A s e r i e s o f " i d e a mat- r i c e s " was d e v e l o p e d i n c o r p o r a t i n g program o b j e c t i v e s w i t h t h e m a t r i x c o n t e n t s e r v i n g as a s t i m u l u s f o r program c o n t e n t . The e d u c a t i o n a l program c o n s i s t e d o f an a c t i v i t y workbook e n t i t l e d " C l o s e E n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e B u i l t Environment" and c o n t a i n i n g a v a r i e t y o f s t u d y a c t i v i t y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m use. The c o n t e n t o f the workbook emphasized s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e and awareness o f t h e b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , the s t u d y o f the use o f d e s i g n and m a t e r i a l s i n b u i l t en- v i r o n m e n t and development o f c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l and judgment s k i l l s by the i n d i v i d u a l . The a c t i v i t y workbook was e v a l u a t e d by a s i x week s i t u a t i o n a l t e s t i n g program i n t h r e e g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a s c h o o l s and i n v o l v i n g g r a d e s 1 0 - 1 2 l e v e l c l a s s e s . E v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s c o n s i s t e d o f e v a l u a t o r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s , t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and a q u a n t i t a t i v e t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d t o two c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y program p r i o r t o , and f o l l o w i n g e x p o s u r e i i i to the act iv i ty workbook. Results of situational testing revealed a highly positive teacher and student response in one test class as evidenced by the evaluator's observa- t ions, innovative output demonstrated by act iv i ty reports of students, teach- er and student questionnaire response, and student reaction to the material. Implementation d i f f i c u l t i e s were identif ied with a second class which consis- ted of slow learners and students with a poor academic performance history. This group appeared to have d i f f i cu l ty with verbal and written responses to the material and were somewhat resistant to i t . Nevertheless, quantitative analysis indicated s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant increases in knowledge, compre- hension and judgment s k i l l s related to the buil t environment in both classes exposed to the material. There was no s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant change in performance of the control group to which the quantitative test was adminis- tered but which was not exposed to the study material. Strengths of the program included evidence of heightened individual awareness and interest in the bui l t environment, development of c r i t i c a l judgment, innovative output in terms of results produced through study act iv- i t i e s , and positive motivation towards the subject, part icularly in the mod- erate to fast learner test group. Problems associated with the program as tested, included d i f f i cu l ty experienced by some students with written mater- ial in some sections of the workbook, need for vocabulary explanation or sim- p l i f i c a t i o n , and need for more complete instructions for teachers. In addit ion, d i f f i c u l t i e s in implementation were identif ied for slow learner groups. These concerns resulted in modification of the workbook content. The act iv i ty workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" is judged to have good potential for useful inclusion in the B.C. secondary curriculum with application to the study of art , social studies, architecture, and urban planning. Pi lot testing of the program in B.C. schools over a one year t r i a l period is recommended. V Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Why the bui l t environment? 1 Conceptions of curriculum in art education 4 Education programs related to the bui l t environment in effect in the U.S.A. and Britain 8 2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM PROGRAM 17 The basic components and relations of the program 17 Conceptions upon which the program is based 19 Intents (objectives) of the program 23 Translation of intents into means - planning of the program ., 25 Technical evaluation of the program 34 3. -FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM 39 Preparation 39 Evaluation methodology . . . . 40 Objectives of the evaluation 40 Specifics of the pi lot testing program 41 Results of the evaluation 51 Evaluator's observations of the pi lot testing program . . . 51 Teacher response to the program - teacher questionnaires. . 54 Student reaction to the program - student questionnaires. . 57 Quantitative pre- and post-test results 59 vi Chapter Page 4. DISCUSSION 61 Synopsis of the evaluation findings 61 Strengths of the program and satisfaction of objectives 61 Concerns about the program and suggested improvements. . . 66 Program analysis - c r i t i c a l evaluation of the program. . . 70 Potential for implementation of the program in the B.C. curriculum 81 5. CONCLUSION 90 BIBLIOGRAPHY 94 APPENDICES 97 I-Part A - The act iv i ty workbook, "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" as tested 98 Part B - Revisions of the workbook arising from testing 173 II-Format for technical evaluation of the program 201 I l l-Important points to consider when designing a for- ative evaluation of a program 208 IV-Results of teacher and student questionnaires 212 V-Details of the quantitative evaluation (pre- and post-tests) administered to test and control groups 235 Vl-Synopsis of evaluator's observations 244 List of Tables Table Page 1. Educational programs related to the study of the bui l t environment in U.S. schools and educational institutions . . . . 9 2. Synopsis of ends-means relationships within the program 24 3. Visual-physical aspects of the bui l t environment 26 4. Psycho-social aspects of the bui l t environment 28 5. Economic-technical aspects of the bui l t environment 30 6. I l lustration of how the visual-physical matrix (table 3) was used to develop content and emphasis in the workbook . . . . 35 7. Fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches 42 8. Clusters of evaluation-guiding concerns 44 9. Details of classes participating in the p i lot testing program . . 46 10. Timetable for p i lot testing of workbook act iv i t ies in school A . . 47 11. Timetable for p i lot testing of workbook act iv i t ies in school B . . 49 12. Stat ist ical treatment of results from the pre- and post tests in the three schools 60 13. Concerns about the program arising from results of the p i lot testing program 67 14. Behavioral objectives and G.L .O. 's arrayed in tabular form for evaluation of their correspondence with workbook contents and structure of the pre- and post-tests 73 v i i i L is t of Figures Figure Page 1. Components of the program used in evaluation 18 2. Program components diagrammed in an ends-means relationship . . . 18 3. Ends-means diagram including the conceptual framework of the program ' 19 4. Graph used to determine readability of the workbook contents . . 38 ix Acknowledgements I should l ike to express my sincere appreciation for the help extended to me by a number of people in the preparation of this thesis and the work- book material. In part icular , the assistance and support provided by my ad- visory committee is most appreciated. Dr. Graeme Chalmers gave supportive advice in selection of the topic and frequently provided assistance in the preparation of the workbook and offered suggestions for the p i lot testing program. Dr. James Gray was part icular ly helpful with curriculim and evalua- tion aspects of the program and Professor Abraham Rogatnick of the School of Architecture was very helpful with his special insight into architectural matters and concerns. In addit ion, Dr. Walter Werner provided considerable guidance in program evaluation methodology and curriculum concepts and kindly permitted me to use a number of his evaluation approaches jo int ly developed with Dr. D. Massey of the University of Alberta. I am also indebted to the teachers, students and administrators who participated in numerous ways in the p i lot testing of the program. Unfortu- nately, those individuals must remain anonymous for purposes of this presen- tat ion. Their enthusiastic support and participation made the program possible and also enjoyable and instruct ive. Lastly, my deep appreciation is expressed to my husband, John, for his patience and support throughout the work as well as his assistance with typing of draft copies of the manuscript and s ta t is t ica l procedures. S.D. 1 C h a p t e r 1 INTRODUCTION Why the B u i l t Environment? L i v i n g c r e a t u r e s i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i r environment and a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t . Man i s by no means e x l u d e d from t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and by h i s n a t u r e and i n t e l l e c t , has the means t o a l t e r o r shape h i s environment by t r a n s f o r m i n g n a t u r a l o r man-made o b j e c t s i n t o the b u i l t form. T h i s b u i l t form i s termed the b u i l t environment. I m p l i c i t i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and h i s environment a r e the i n f l u e n c e s o f human emoti o n s , f e e l i n g s and s e n s i t i v i t y , c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , l i f e s t y l e , and the n a t u r e and v a r i e t y o f human a c t i v i t y . Man i s , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , not a s o l i t a r y c r e a t u r e and t h e r e f o r e c o n f i n e s h i m s e l f t o s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s which may be termed t r i b e s , s o c i e t i e s , e t h n i c g r o u p i n g s , e t c . , u s u a l l y o r g a n i z e d around some p h y s i c a l b u i l t a r r a n g e - ment o f s t r u c t u r e s such as camps, v i l l a g e s , towns, c i t i e s o r l a r g e metro- p o l i t a n assemblages. As modern man i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t an urban d w e l l e r , t h i s urban s e t t i n g p l a y s a v i t a l and c o n s t a n t r o l e i n h i s t o t a l l i f e s t y l e . The c i t y and i t s s t r u c t u r e i s based upon man's a c t i v i t y and the p h y s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the c i t y g o vern and i n some c a s e s , c o n s t r a i n man's a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e a p p a r e n t t h a t the b u i l t environment i s a p a r t i - c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e i n the l i f e o f man and i t f o l l o w s t h a t the s t u d y o f t h i s environment i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e t o p i c f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f our c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , due t o the urban s e t t i n g o f o u r l i v e s and our a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e and t r a n s f o r m the b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r s t u d e n t s t o become aware o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y have the p o t e n t i a l t o a p p r a i s e , p r e s e r v e , change, improve and c r e a t e t h e i r b u i l t environment. The a r t t e a c h e r i n a s c h o o l system w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m i n t e n d e d t o meet the needs o f s o c i e t y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e ducate s t u d e n t s i n a s p e c t s o f 2 art considered relevant to the goals of the educational system and the curriculum objectives of that system. Adams (1977) points out that art teachers often have d i f f i cu l ty art iculat ing and defending the role of art education in the study of the buil t environment. She feels that there is a common tendency for art teachers to retire to the security of the classroom or studio and concentrate on creating art products, developing craft s k i l l s or giving students experience with art materials. Adams points out that most art teachers appear concerned with developing "self-expression" or "sel f - awareness" in students but tend to forget that such quali t ies depend on the subjective response of the individual to the external world that he or she perceives. Chippindale and Ward (1979) argue that i t is f i t t ing for the teacher to become involved in the business of architectural interpretation. In their view, there is a great need to increase students' awareness of their surround- ings and to make students understand those surroundings. The authors argue that much may be gained through the revelation of meanings through firsthand ' experience and that education of the senses should be a major task of the schools. Chippindale and Ward assert that teaching a chi ld to be sensitive to his environment may lead him to form opinions, make judgments and do some- thing positive as a result of his sensi t iv i ty . Thus, they maintain that interest and concern for bui l t environment is an important attribute of cit izenship and is therefore a very important aspect of education. This study is concerned with the role of the art teacher in the subject area where art , design and environmental education interests overlap. It suggests that there is a need for the curriculum to give serious considera- tion to the development by students of c r i t i c a l s k i l l s and ab i l i ty to make and explain judgments. The intent is to develop a program concerned with the bui l t environment and art education for possible application within the B.C. Secondary School curriculum. 3 In addition to the important role the bui l t environment plays in the l i f es ty le of man as outlined previously, the educational value of including the study of the bui l t environment in either art or mult idiscipl inary c u r r i - culum may be expanded as follows. F i r s t , the study of the buil t environment allows teachers to examine the necessity for preservation of histor ical structures and to use those structures as examples of past art and archi - tectural forms. The report of the Built Environment Education Center (1977) cites the following educational objectives of preservation ac t i v i t i es : -to make students aware that the bui l t environment is the result of a histor ical process and development which can be understood, even though not always logical and predictable. -to make students aware that the bui l t environment has imbedded in i ts fabric the story of development, the history of the society who buil t i t , and the history of the materials and technology used in i ts devel- opment. -to make students aware that the character of a place is determined in part by the old buildings which te l l i ts story. -to make students aware that old buildings and neighborhoods must be kept alive and vi ta l in order to retain that l ink with the past upon which our personal and community identity depends. -to make students aware that old buildings can have new uses, and need not simply be torn down and replaced by new ones. Another useful educational function of the study of the bui l t environ- ment is i l lustrated by programs which use the c i ty as a "learning laboratory" (Bulletin of Environmental Education, Jan. 1979; Macaulay, 1976; Schneider & Schneider, 1954). By this approach, the structure, function, appearance, social context, sensory impact, economic, h i s t o r i c a l , architectural and other aspects of the community can be integrated in a study program designed to emphasize these elements by interactive exposure to the c i ty . Furthermore, aspects of the future of the bui l t environment may be emphasized to i l l u s - trate the values of town planning, innovative architecture, a r t i s t i c elements, creation of recreational, commercial or other environments, to emphasize the pleasing aspects of architecture and design, and to integrate structure, 4 function and beauty with urban planning. Eriksen and Smith (1978) provide an excellent rationale for the impor- tance of art to the consideration of the bui l t environment. They assert that the "built environment is an art form" and point out that McFee (1974a) maintains that we must "develop the capacity to use art as a humanizing force in improving the quality of l i f e on earth". Erikson and Smith observe that there is a great potential for using the bui l t environment to "help children understand and participate in the art process". They point out that the buil t environment is space divided into functional elements (build- ings, parks, streets, gardens, etc.) and that we respond to elements of space and form with our feelings just as we respond to art objects. Erikson and Smith posit that one of the prime functions of education is that of "helping children learn how to see" and that bui l t environmental education places a heavy stress on visual awareness and offers a r ich choice of visual images. Furthermore, there is an opportunity for children to observe space, structure, shape, colour, form, s c a l e , l i g h t and shadow, texture and function as well as the concepts of systems and wholes. Last ly, the approach emphasizes obser- vation and notation of d e t a i l , awareness of environment, recording of infor- mation, appraisal , cr i t ic ism and the development of analytical thought. In the following pages current trends in curriculum thought and the underlying conceptions of the author are summarized and examples of existing bui l t environmental education programs are reviewed. Detailed information is presented on the methods used by the author to develop a curriculum program for use in the B.C. Secondary School system based upon preparation, testing and evaluation of an act iv i ty workbook in three senior secondary schools. The effectiveness of the approach is examined in relationship to possible use of the material in the B.C. Secondary School .curriculum. Conceptions of Curriculum in Art Education There are a great many viewpoints on curriculum content in art education 5 and indeed the subject is controversial . It is evident that the nature of curriculum in the f i e ld has undergone signif icant change in recent years. In developing a curriculum package for possible incorporation in the B.C. art education curriculum, i t is important that we examine curriculum trends and emphasis in order to ensure that what is proposed is relevant to existing orientations in the school system and contemporary thought in art education. Eisner and Vallance (1974) categorized f ive major perspectives of the nature and function of school curriculum as employed today or in the past: 1) Development of Cognitive Processes: chi ld-or iented, deals with refinement of intel lectual operations and sharpening of cognitive s k i l l s . 2) Curriculum as Technology: process oriented, deals with the techno- logy by which knowledge is communicated and learning is fac i l i t a ted . The presentation of material is stressed. 3) Self -actual izat ion or Curriculum as Consummatory Experience: ch i ld - oriented, focus on content and the need to produce personally satisfying experiences for the learner. Stresses educational self-discovery and enrichment. 4) Social Reconstruction-relevance: stresses the role of education and curriculum content in a social context. Deals with social reform and analysis of the present and future needs of society. Societal needs rather than individual needs are stressed. 5) Academic Rationalism: stress is placed on the established discipl ines of a c lassic nature which are thought!.to contain the properties necessary for stimulating intel lectual growth and success in society. Eisner's and Vallance's c lass i f ica t ion of curriculum orientations is useful in that i t allows us to visual ize and examine trends in curriculum thought, either of a contemporary nature or of the past. While there is 6 considerable room for debate on the. appropriateness of the above c l a s s i - f i ca t ion , i t is fa i r to say that of the range of possible curriculum orientations, those which stress c lassic d isc ip l ines , emphasis on method and s k i l l development and technology, have been replaced in modern usage by a . more ho l is t ic approach that stresses the individual and his development to fu l l potential . Thus, the contemporary approach is highly chi ld-oriented. Dorn (1978) observed that a major histor ical trend occurred in art education in the schools in the 1960's which saw the recognition of the art program as a body of "developmental act ivi ty" which included "creative involvement". Hurwitz and Madeja (1977) relate that irv the 1960's the art program in the schools had three major expectations (stated but not necessarily achieved): -the making of the art object (the art experience) -knowing about art objects and events (art history) - c r i t i c a l analysis of the art object (art appreciation) Today, art curriculum proponents stress the need for "aesthetics" and "aesthetic experience" (not necessarily defined) in art education and argue that this experience is essential to the development of s k i l l s which optimize human development (Broudy, 1977; Williams, 1977). A signif icant point in the current approach is that training the chi ld to be more sensitive and c r i t i c a l of his surroundings is considered important and contributory to enabling the child to lead a more complete and enjoyable l i f e . Aoki (1978) maintains that art curriculum must be centered on man-world relationships and should contain a search for meaning and c r i t i c a l assessment of fundamental interests, values, assumptions and implications for human societal action. Eisner (1973) stresses the need for recognition of the fact that educa- tional values change with time and that things that appear important today may be t r i v i a l at a later date and vice versa. In the art f i e l d , trends, techniques and emphasis are highly influenced by cultural settings and values popular at the time. Eisner advocates development of a "c l in ica l cr i t ic ism" 7 based upon the philosophy that crlti.ci.sm can be defined as the ab i l i ty to understand art in i ts histor ical and contemporary context with a sensitive eye and an ab i l i ty to articulate and describe the quali t ies that constitute the work. Eisner 's concepts have important applications to the development of curriculum content concerning art and the bui l t environment. McFee (1974b) emphasizes the importance of integrating cu l tura l , socie- tal and human characteristics with the study of art education. She points out that we must recognize the differences in att i tudes, response, apprecia- tion of art objects and their meaning, and the meanings of art objects amongst subcultures. Simi lar ly , cultural heritage and background of d i f fer - ent groups may serve as excellent stimuli to i l lus t ra te di f fer ing responses to art experiences in students. This suggests that for the teacher, an important aspect of the study of the bui l t environment could be helping students understand the value of art in culture and the way i t transmits values and attitudes as well as the richness of art forms of different cultures. Efland (1976) supports this view and maintains that an anthropolo- gical approach to art was desirable with emphasis on examination of diverse cultures and their values. Jones (1979) and Mann (1979) point out the influence of past class structure of society on our current attitudes and that many of these attitudes are descended from class characteristics of ear l ier periods of history. This heritage is important in determining and understanding our present day attitudes and responses to art and the environment. In summary, the current perspective in art'education stresses a ho l is t ic approach toward development of highly child-oriented teaching methods designed to stress development of the student to fu l l potential . It is considered desirable that students develop an ab i l i t y to appraise and under- stand art in i ts h i s t o r i c a l , contemporary and cultural context and be able to describe c r i t i c a l l y , the quali t ies that constitute the work. 8 Education Programs Related to the Built Environment in Effect in the U.S.A. and Britain A broad spectrum of bui l t environment programs for school children has been developed, most notably in the United Kingdom, but also in the U.S.A. No doubt the development of these programs stems from many factors, not the least of which is the recognition that environmental forms are the art forms that are experienced by students most frequently and that such forms have the capacity to affect the individual , and the individual in turn, has the capacity to affect the environment. In addition, there has been recognition of the need to address questions of urban renewal, numerical and social popu- lation pressures, awareness of heritage buildings and preservation concerns, identi f icat ion of the problems of large urban centers, and a growing awareness of the need to study man and his relationship to his environment. Chalmers (1981) provided a comprehensive bibliography of recent l i terature on bui l t environment education as a source of ideas and potential approaches. While i t is impossible to survey a l l existing and past programs in de ta i l , the following discussion wi l l i l lust ra te the types of programs, variety, structure and approach taken. The report of the Buil t Environment Education Center (1978) provided an excellent overview of bui l t environmental education programs in the U.S. teaching system. The nature of these programs is summarized in Table 1. In Britain there is a wealth of studies related to the buil t environment many of which center on the study and preservation of heritage structures which abound. For example, a comprehensive report on the significance and outcome of European Architecture and Heritage Year (1975) describes the study program at a l l educational levels related to the bui l t environment. Many examples of programs developed by local education authority in i t i a t i ves , national influences and program development authorit ies, special courses and programs, adult education conferences, exhibit ions, award and competition Table I - Educational Programs Related to the Study of the Built Environment in U.S. Schools and Educational Institutions (after B.E.E.C. Report, Apri l , 1978). Level Sponsoring Group Program Location & Date Program Content and Theme Preschool New Jersey School of Architecture " Architects-In- Schools. Program Schools Architecture/ Environmental Arts component of the Artists-In-Schools Program " Pennsylvania School System Higher School of Archi- Education tecture and Planning a College of Educa- tion, U. of New Mexico Maryland Daycare Center, 1974 Kindergarten Glen Cove, Long I., New York U.S. Schools on a national basis 1976 Commencement Workshops in Pennsylvania Properties of space, size relationships, colours, functions of space Basic building techniques, spatial concepts, reconstruction of the classroom environment, planning the creation and function of neigh- borhoods and circles, exploration of unusual spaces, interaction of man and environment Architects and environmental designers acted as resource people to teachers and students in projects dealing with awareness of personal space, space requirements, actual construction of school sites Design projects - "Snug-As-A-Bug-House", "Energy House", "Hide Away for Two", conducted as workshops for children New Mexico schools, Architecture, man and man-made relationships, public institu- tions, community centers, 1977 Com- mencement human growth and development needs. The School of Architecture and Planning serves as a center for in- struction of graduate students and others from a variety of disciplines to work with schools and public institutions in the field of built environmental education National Endowment for the Humanities Temple University Social history, material culture, environmental studies, Philidelphia, Ame- architectural criticism, social geography, literature rican Studies Pro- and economics are explored in an interdisciplinary frame- gram work with emphasis on research and presentation techniques for use in community programs Table I (cont'd) Level Sponsering Group Program Location & Date Community U. of Kansas, Institu- Museum of Art tions University Museum and classroom in Lawrence, Kansas (current program Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences Please Touch Museum Philadelphia (current) The Learner Exchange, A Teacher Center Kansas City, Missouri (current program) National Organiz- ations American Institute of Archi- tects Environmental Educa- tion Committee, Pub- lications for elemen- tary and secondary schools National Endowment for the Arts Funding of curriculum materials for schools & community use on a national basis Program Content and Theme The physical components and sensual elements of a city and other aspects of space are featured in a school participation program "Space: Inside/Outside". Class- room museum exercises feature a portfolio of materials and follow-up exercises which encourages students to reflect on what is observed and the relationship of the experience to their own experience of their cities Handling, enjoying and learning from contact with objects from the arts and sciences A four-part series of workshops for teachers is designed to make the processes of the city more visible and accessible and to enable teachers to develop study programs for classroom use Publications of a series of teacher guides for class- room application and activity of the Committee to act as a catalyst for local initiatives Grant support for the National Trust for Historic Preservation (curriculum, rennovation, restoration, adaptive re-use); U.S. Forest Service lesson plans in "Investigating Your Environment", including collection of information about liveability, functions, needs and problems of an urban community Table I (cont'd) Level Sponsoring Group Program Location & Date Local Groups CBT Architects of Reconstruction project & People Boston in S. Boston, Mass. Hoosuck Community North Adams, Mass., Resources Corp. 1975-76 Program Content and Theme Development and implementation of a procedure where the community was involved in the design process necessary for reconstruction of the city streets Project goal was to enhance the quality of community l i fe through the use of design concepts. Re- juvenation projects included involvement of the community and High School students in a public aware- ness and historical research program 12 programs, e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g and a f f i l i a t e d European programs a r e d e s c r i b e d . The range o f s t u d y themes i n c l u d e : - a r c h i t e c t u r a l and b u i l t environment themes - s t u d i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f s p e c i f i c g r o u p i n g s o f b u i l d i n g s - e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t , l a n d s c a p e and b u i l d i n g form and f u n c t i o n - p l a n t s , a n i m a l s , homes and f i n e b u i l d i n g - s c i e n c e , e n g i n e e r i n g o f s t r u c t u r e s , o r g a n i c and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n elements and f u n c t i o n - a r t s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n t o the b u i l t environment ( - i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r t s (costumes, p a i n t i n g , music, h i s t o r i c a l p l a y s and s k e t c h e s , r e c r e a t i o n o f the p a s t ) - r e c r e a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g and o l d b u i l d i n g s i n model form from r e a l l i f e , o l d d rawings, photographs, i n t e r v i e w s - v i l l a g e and town a r c h i t e c t u r a l " t r a i l s " which s e r v e t o g u i d e o b s e r v e r s t h r o u g h s p e c i f i c examples o f the b u i l t environment - s t u d y g u i d e s and b r o c h u r e development f o r h i s t o r i c a l t o u r s , t o u r i s m , and s t u d y o f b u i l d i n g elements; map p r e p a r a t i o n ' - q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r p u b l i c r e s p o n s e t o H e r i t a g e Year, p r e s e r v a t i o n , f u n c t i o n and use o f h e r i t a g e s t r u c t u r e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l m a t t e r s , urban p l a n n i n g - s t u d i e s o f problems o f urban development and p l a n n i n g such as o l d v i l l a g e s l o s t i n modern c o n s t r u c t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s , use o f space, c o n s e r v a t i o n and enhancement - p r e p a r a t i o n o f f i l m s , s l i d e shows, tapes and o t h e r media p r e s e n t a t i o n s on the b u i l t environment - p l a n n i n g h o u s i n g e s t a t e s ( d e s i g n , f u n c t i o n , l a n d s c a p i n g , green space, s t u d i e s o f community a t t i t u d e s , s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s ) -comparison o f o l d and new b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s ( m a t e r i a l s , f u n c t i o n , d e s i g n e l e m e n t s , t y p e s o f uses f o r b u i l d i n g s ) 13 -coordinated programs between architects and educators (eg. London "Front Door" project) with joint curriculum development for application to a l l grade levels In the Br i t ish system, several techniques appear to have been commonly used in the incorporation of the bui l t environment theme into education programs: Cr i t ica l Appraisal, Buildings and Townscapes The purpose of this area of emphasis is to develop discriminatory s k i l l s and a c r i t i c a l approach to the study of the buil t environment in the ind iv i - dual. Students are encouraged to art iculate responses of a c r i t i ca l nature, perform comparisons, look at the pleasing and displeasing aspects of what they see, examine use of space and the functional aspects of bui l t forms, and act as effective "c r i t i cs" of what they perceive. This approach offers scope for examination of problems in architecture and planning and considers the future as well as past events. The intent implied by the approach is that students may be better prepared to play a part in shaping their environment following such exposure. Sensing the Environment This study area provides direct experience with what we see, hear, smell, touch and taste and how we organize and interpret these sensory st imul i . The study area is concerned with enlarging the students' capacity to respond and learn from their own experience. The sensory approach can be fac i l i ta ted by the use of "games" or other devices which encourage exploratory act iv i t ies and "scorekeeping" as children follow a "sensory walk" (an experience which con- centrates on sensory information perceived by the individual as he or she moves through the buil t environment). Town Tra i ls The town t ra i l study approach uses a previously established " t ra i l " or route through a selected portion of the bui l t environment which has been 14 chosen to emphasize important aspects' of that environment such as aesthetic or historical features of interest. Students mayfollow t ra i l s devised by their teacher or may be encouraged to develop and describe their own t r a i l s . Evaluation of the method has indicated that i t is highly desirable to design t ra i l s which e l i c i t a c r i t i c a l response to townscape and deal not only with bui l t form but with spatial qual i t ies as well . Steeple Chasing In this approach, a central visual attraction such as a church steeple or prominent building is selected as a focal point and various spaces are examined in relationship to that object. The focal point is viewed from various vantage points and spatial relationships to adjacent buildings are noted. The technique u t i l i zes an experiential device for the comparison of space and the assessment of townscape quality or lack thereof. The approach is applicable to the study of use of space, connections, network design, l inking space and the analysis of spatial qual i t ies . Space relationships may be studied by notation, annotated sketches, etc. and the results may be d is - cussed in c lass. Tra i ls leading to the central object may be prepared which explore a variety of spatial qual i t ies. Annotated Sketches, Annotated Photographs, Slide Programs Annotated sketches and photographs provide a useful way of recording in - formation and deepening the response and analytical approach to townscape appraisal. Use of drawing as a mode of analysis provides instruction in perception, recognition, organization and presentation of sensory stimuli and the execution and presentation of good photography has similar effects. Cap- tions can be used to good effect in lending or altering meaning, emphasizing study features and bringing out interrelationships. Content may be detai led, comparison fac i l i t a ted , and analysis encouraged by use of annotation of photo- graphs and sketches. Simi lar ly , sl ides provide good documentation of town- scape, can be assembled according to specif ic themes, communicate ideas and 15 concepts, and can be combined with ta lks, tapes, or written material for presentation. Many other techniques may be employed in addition to those mentioned and combinations of approaches may be highly productive. Obviously, a great deal has been done in this f i e l d , part icular ly in Br i ta in , with regard to the development of built environmental education programs that are highly diversi f ied and may be applied to a l l educational levels , from pre-school to adult and community education programs. It is also apparent that many d isc ip - l ines may be included in the study of the buil t environment and that art edu- cation plays an important role in considerations of architecture, design, urban planning, historical trend analysis, cultural and social context, quality and beauty of environment, and preservation and conservation of heritage structures. Educational Programs Related to the B u i l t Environment in Br i t ish Columbia At present, the study of the bui l t environment does not receive formal recognition in the B.C. school curriculum. Some aspects of the bui l t environ- ment may be considered in instructional materials used for Social Studies, Architecture, History, and aspects of Art. However, emphasis on the study of the built environment is sl ight and largely at the discretion and personal interest of the teacher. A major causative factor in this lack of focus on the buil t environment in our school system may be the lack of instructional material for teachers and students. Very few books, study guides or instruc- tional packages exist on the subject that make reference to the B.C. environ- ment and are designed for instructional purposes. Some excellent reference material is available on B.C. history, heritage buildings, architecture, community structure and planning; however, l i t t l e practical instructional material exists to famil iarize students and teachers with the topic and to i l lust ra te how reference material may be ut i l i zed in support of a study of the buil t environment. One excellent Canadian book, The Teacher and the City , 16 (Symonds, 1971) provides detailed instructions for teachers interested in developing study materials related to the urban environment but there is l i t t l e material available for students themselves. A major goal of this study is to address this lack of instructional material. The aim is prepara- tion of a study program for use by both teachers and students in B.C. schools at the secondary level with specif ic examples drawn from B.C. urban and rural settings. 17 Chapter 2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE CURRICULUM PROGRAM The Basic Content and Design of the Program If we were to investigate programs in actual use, we would find that regardless of how any one of us may wish to define the word "program", we would a l l be able to isolate some basic components. These components are: Intents: What are we to accomplish or achieve? Act iv i t i es : How are we to accomplish the intents? Resource Materials: With what are we to achieve the intents? Evaluation: How do we appraise the quality and effectiveness of the program? The intents of a program may be defined as the purposes or goals of the program. The act iv i t ies are the "how" of the program. Act iv i t ies are what teachers and students and others participating in the program are supposed to be doing in order to achieve the intended outcomes. These act iv i t ies commonly encompass teaching methodology, learning strategies, and classroom organi- zation designed to bring about the planned goals. Resource materials constitute any material which has been selected for program participants to interact with including things such as textbooks, f i lms, persons, situations or objects of some kind. Evaluation is concerned with how to acquire evidence about the successes of the program relative to achievement of i ts intents. These compo- nents may be simply diagrammed as follows"'': W. Werner and T. Aoki, Programs for People. 1979 (pre-publication draft) 18 Figure 1 It is important to note the relationship among the four components in figure 1. There exists an "ends-means" relationship in any program. The "ends" of a program refer to our goals, intents, purposes or objectives and the reasons why the program is being developed. It is important to specify what we wish to accomplish and what outcomes are expected. The "means" of a program are represented by the act iv i t ies and resource materials which are both instrumental to achieving the ends. The means are concerned with how we are going to accomplish our purposes and with what materials. In a sense, the means are a vehicle for getting the program to an anticipated destination. The diagram in figure 1 can therefore be modified as indicated below. Figure 2 19 This def init ion of a program as an end-means relationship can be further thought of as a plan. As a plan, a program is an organized scheme of ends-means relationships. As an experience, a program is the way in which the plan is actually worked out by the participants when using means to achieve certain ends. My focus throughout this program wil l be on plan and experience. Conceptions Upon Which the Program is Based The underlying conceptions of any program can be defined as the values, assumptions, be l ie fs , p r io r i t i es , opinions or biases upon which the program is based (Werner and Aoki, 1979). The diversity of such conceptions may be as great as the differences among individuals engaged in developing a given program as each person wil l approach the topic in his or her particular way. These conceptions play a very important role in shaping the nature and char- acter of any program. The ends-means diagram (figure 1) may thus be modified to include the conceptual framework under which the program is developed. Figure 3 In the introduction of this study report, various c lassi f icat ions of curriculum conceptions outlined by Eisner and Vallance (1974) were summarized. In order to understand better the nature of the program of study on the buil t environment proposed here, i t is important to examine the conceptions of 20 curriculum held by the author while developing the program. Using the definit ions of Eisner and Vallance (1974), i t is possible to categorize my approach to program development in three ways: stress on devel- opment of cognitive processes, curriculum as technology, and curriculum for purposes of social reconstruction and relevance. To i l lust ra te this point, i t is worthwhile to examine each of these conceptions as i t applies to the program. Development of cognitive processes centers on the refinement of in te l lec- tual processes so that they are sharpened and so that cognitive s k i l l s are developed which may be applied to any subject matter. Eisner and Vallance specified that this approach is process oriented in two says. Schooling is viewed as a means to provide the student with "a repertoire of essential ly content independent cognitive s k i l l s applicable to a variety of situations". Secondly, emphasis is placed upon "understanding the process by which learning occurs in the classroom". This is envisioned as a child-centered approach and the cognitive s k i l l s are thought to grow with time and experience. It is very important to introduce students to the study of the buil t environment. This may be done in a gradual way, with stress placed upon devel- opment of comprehension concepts and progressive assimilation of more complex concepts. A key objective of the program, as outlined in the Introduction, is to teach students to think about their environment in an analytical way, to form judgments, and to develop the ab i l i ty to evaluate their surroundings. Development of such ab i l i t y demands a gradual stepwise sequence in program content and complexity suited to the needs of the individual and his ab i l i ty to refine cognitive processes. Curriculum as technology is concerned with the process by which learning jf occurs. The process is aimed at developing educational technology for the communication of knowledge and for the fac i l i ta t ion of learning. Emphasis is' placed upon effective packaging and presentation to make subject matter logical , clear and concise. The approach of systems analysis is evident here, with the 21 educational process defined as the means by which specif ic objectives of educa- tion are met. Packaged education guidebooks, manuals, audio and video instruc- tion programs, etc. which are highly structured can be thought of as good examples of educational curriculum with a technological conception. As there is a serious lack of instructional material available for both students and teachers with respect to the study of the bui l t environment in the Br i t ish Columbia sett ing, a major objective of this program has been to prepare an act iv i ty workbook for use in the schools, which could serve as an introduction and idea sourcebook suited to the B.C. environment. Such an act iv i ty guidebook can be viewed as a technological approach where there is an attempt to "package" the topic and d i s t i l l , organize, and follow a logical ends-means process. I was conscious, however, of the dangers of such an approach; namely, creation of a r i g i d , highly structured program that lef t l i t t l e room for innovation or expression of personal in i t i a t i ve . Thus, while the objective was to produce an act iv i ty workbook, my approach has been to treat the workbook more as a sourcebook for ideas and ways of approaching the study of the buil t environment rather than to rest r ic t the users through adoption of a r ig id format. Although technological methods (photography, sketching, use of notes, tape-recording, model construction) form a part of the content of the act iv i t ies described in the program, the process concen- trates upon recording the experiences of the individual for further analysis and communication rather than the technical aspects of the recording techniques themselves. In the social reconstruction-relevance philosophy, the role of education and curriculum within the social and po l i t ica l context of society is stressed. Often the needs of the individual are considered less important than those of society. Essent ia l ly , the education system may be envisioned as a means for societal change or improvement. The philosophy therefore is problem oriented or anticipatory in nature and the schools serve as a mechanism for achieving 22 perceived societal needs. Another view of this conception of curriculum held by some educators (Metcalf and Hunt, 1974) is that the demand that education be relevant to the needs of the individual as well as society. The philosophy is concerned with the "fit" between the individual and society and with equipping the individual to function well in a rapidly changing world. Fur-, thermore, the student may be regarded as the instrument for affecting change, i .e . the schools may motivate him to do something constructive for society. As stated in the Introduction, strong arguments can be raised for inclu- ding the study of the buil t environment in school curriculum. These arguments can be classed as being based upon a social reconstruction-relevance phi lo- sophy. It is evident that population growth, shortages of energy and raw materials, transportation problems, environmental degradation, preservation and concern for culture and heritage, as well as the role of the individual in addressing these problems are of considerable concern to a l l levels of society. Thus the program def ini tely contains social reconstructionist philosophies aimed at the development of c r i t i c a l judgment and awareness in the individual which are expected to better equip students for societal pressures and change and also to prepare them to intervene actively to shape environmental change and improvement. From the above, i t is evident that several conceptions of curriculum underlie this program and that the strongest conception is of a social-recon- structionist nature with emphasis placed upon the benefits of the program for the individual and the preparation of that individual for the future. As Werner arid Aoki (1979) point out, a program is usually not based upon a single conception of curriculum and several viewpoints are often involved. Emphasis on the value of the program to the individual lends another funda- mental cr i ter ion for the program development process; this is the importance placed upon individual experience, sensations and interaction with the buil t environment as a vehicle for learning. This stress on experiential aspects 23 of learning may be considered as a fourth underlying conception of the program. Development of the Program The structure of the program is based upon the elements outlined in table 2 which specifies the ends-means content of the program. Each of the major elements of the program development phase wil l be examined in the following pages while the evaluation phase of the program will be presented in a separate section. Intents (Objectives) of the Program Broad Objectives Curriculum objectives in art education in the B.C. Secondary system today are governed by several broad goals termed "General Learning Outcomes" (G .L .O. 's ) . The most recent version of the G.L .O. 's specified four major learning outcomes as desirable in art education: -The student should demonstrate knowledge of , ab i l i ty to apply, and consideration for: Imagery Elements and Principles of Design Historical and Contemporary Developments Reasoned Crit icism -These four general learning outcomes should be carried out in conjunction with appropriate: -materials -tools and equipment -processes -vocabulary It follows then, that development of a program designed to acquaint teachers and students with the study of the buil t environment should take into account these G.L .O. 's and incorporate them as core objectives of the program. Specif ic Objectives Table 2- Synopsis of Ends-Means relationships within the program. Intents (Objectives) Activit ies (Means) Resource Materials (Means) Evaluation (Ends) -to satisfy the general learning outcomes of the British Columbia art curriculum -to develop program con- tent based, in part, on Bloom's behavioral ob- jecti ves. -to uti l ize activity matrices to generate program content -provide a broad spectrum of study activit ies con- cerned with various as- pects of the built envir- onment in a workbook form -structure the activit ies in order to maximize per- sonal experience of the student and faci l i tate interest and enthusiasm -uti l ize the workbook in conjunction with supportive materials and experiences associated with the built environment (buildings, plans, architects, art materials and supplies, books, sketches, photo- graphs, tape recorders) -perform the following types of formative eval- uation: 1) Ends-means:- -program analysis form 2) Situational: -pi lot testing -pre- and post-test quantitative evaluation -teacher survey by questionnaire -student questionnaire -letters from teachers and principals -examination of teacher logs -participant observation 3) Summative: -report writing with the inclusion of the scope of the study, procedures, strengths, concerns, suggestions for improve- ment. ro 25 My objectives in designed the program are: a) to. allow teachers and students to become better acquainted with the study of the buil t environment through personal experience. b) To provide a compendium of methods and approaches used elsewhere or that have been modified or spec i f ica l ly designed for use in the B.C. school system. c) To develop lessons related to the study of the bui l t environment that incorporate hol is t ic and c r i t i c a l orientations currently emphasized in art education. d) To generate ideas and approaches for the study of the bui l t environ- ment that may be incorporated into areas of the curriculum related to art education and a f f i l i a ted subject areas. e) To i l lust ra te how concepts and approaches may be modified, adapted or ut i l ized by teachers and students to suit their own interests, situations, and conceptions of the buil t environment. f) Provide variety in approaches, content, and emphasis in the act iv i ty portion of the program suitable for stimulating the interest, par t i - cipat ion, innovation, and creat ivi ty in the individual student in such a way that the experiences are rewarding and meaningful. Translation of Intents into Means - Planning the Program I have chosen to generate ideas for development of a program of study on the buil t environment by u t i l i z ing an "idea matrix" approach based upon methods outlined in the State of Ohio Department of Education publication Planning Art Education in the Middle/Secondary Schools of Ohio (1977). The matrix approach allows compilation of a variety of educational act iv i t ies in tabular form according to table headings which specify content and the theme of the program. I have accordingly prepared three matrices (tables 3, 4 and 5) which are designed to conform with the goals and general learning Table 3- Built Environment Study Matrix- Visual-Physical Activities STYLE/TYPES STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS -reading books about build- ings -collecting examples of a wide range of different architectural plans and ideas -taking inventory on walks on the way to and from school -organizing the collect- ion according to the type of building -extracting the main features of each type of building ' LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE TRANS- FORMED TO CREATE • BUILDINGS -examining pla drawings and pared by arch planners -noting the me in planning, and proposing in built enyi -reading books how architect ners work ns, models, designs pre- itects and thods used designing changes ronment about about s and plan- -examining plans, books, designs, etc. to note style & type of build- ing -making notes on how styles change with time -relating the style to function of the build- ing and how style and function change with time LEARNING HOW USE OF MATERIAL INFLUENCES BUILT ENVIR- ONMENT -collect architects' & planners statements on how they select mater- ial to suit the site or client -read about how use of material has changed with time and about possible choices of material -interview designers, architects, & planners to see how choice of material is influenced by style -observe how appropriate- ness of style is influ- enced by location &.: surroundings MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN -observing architects & planners at work to see how they work and ut i l - ize materials to gener- ate ideas -observing the type of materials used for different built forms & recording this infor- mation -comparing the finished building with the plan to see how choice of material influenced appearance •comparing similar struc- tures built with differ- ent materials •observing historical trends in use of mater- ials -collecting examples of built forms (pictures, notes, sketches) that serve different func- tions -observing how your senses function in different environments -relating appearance to function -discerning changes made in buildings for func- tional purposes -discerning how function influences the type and appearance of the build- ing -noting the priority that architects and planners place on functional a s - pects of design -learning how to recognize a culture's beliefs, hopes, attitudes, values as ex- pressed in built form -discerning the design elements in structures -relating design to style, use of material and the function of the" structure -learning to see similarity and differences in built structures -observing how designs with similarity and difference are created -relating design to use & appropriateness in relation, to use, appearance & choice of location -practising with materials to investigate design use -testing structural proper- ties and longevity of mat- erials for design use -choosing materials to re- flect appropriate beliefs and values -choosing appropriate mater- ials for a specific design •consider how the struc- tural properties of mat- erial are considered in relation to the design o the finished structure •consider the durability of different materials in relation to l i fe of the structure and its appearance -observe how building materials are chosen in relation to the function of the structure -comparing buildings for aptness of choice of mat- erials in relation to function -considering choice and effectiveness of networks Table 3 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES LEARNING HOW PEOPLE PER- CEIVE AND INTERPRET THE BUILT ' ENVIRON- MENT LEARNING HOW TO CRITICALLY APPRAISE & JUDGE THE BUILT ENVIR- ONMENT -collecting written mat- erial and opinions -.on how people regard the importance of buildings and how they ascribe meaning to a particular location -studying how people re- act to particular types of buildings and the atmosphere of the build- ings -collecting cr i t ic ia l & historic comments that • illustrate how people appraise structures & what factors are used to make judgments -practising the evalu- ation of existing or proposed buildings by means of a variety of techniques -comparing writings that place different social, cultural, or historic values on particular styles -discovering people's attitudes to particular styles of buildings -considering why styles may change wi th time -noting.how writers and the public evaluate a particular style of structure and what fact-, ors influence judgment -learning terms or lang- uage associated with a given style -observing how.appraisal of a given style varies with culture, historical context or social group MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN -discovering how use of materials influences people's reactions and attitudes -looking at historical trends in use of mater- ials in relation to the meaning and use of the structure -considering how modern, technology influences attitudes to materials - -noting how aptness of choice of material is influenced by a variety of factors (cost, func- tion, availability, con- struction ease, durabil-. ity, appearance, locat- tign) learning to weigh a variety of factors in assessing aptness of choice of materials -noting how the function of a structure may change with time or remain the same according to people's perceptions of the use of the structure -noting how the cultural or social significance of a building designed for a specific function may change with time -relating the aptness of choice of design to func- tion -assessing the efficiency of function of the struc- ture and whether function- improvements are required -determining the suitabil- ity of the structure for an alternate use to that for which i t was designed -learning how people inter- pret design concepts accor- ding to their backgrounds and experience -noting that the surround- ings of a building influ- ence the impact of a design -observing how design elem- ents affect the meaning & overall impact of the de- sign -learning to judge the apt- ness of design by weighing a variety of factors -appraising the skill with which materials and design elements are combined to produce the final design -evaluating the aptness of the design for theme, set- ting, and relationship to surrounding structures Table 4- Built Environment Study Matrix- Psycho-Social Developmental Activities . STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS , STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING. HOW SOCIETY EXPRESSES . VALUES AND BELIEFS IN BUILT FORM LEARNING HOW SOCIETY EXPRESSES ALTERED BELIEFS AND VALUES IN BUILT FORM LEARNING HOW SOCIETY WORKS WITH TECHNOLOGY TO CREATE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -studying societal be- l iefs and values and learning how these are expressed in built form -comparing buildings of different cultures and identifying values and beliefs expressed -organizing an histor- ical sequence of built forms of a culture -explaining altered form with time in terms of altered values -examining the publics' concept of the "ideal" building in an histor- ical perspective -collecting examples of attempts to adapt mater- ials to the "image" de- sired in public places -studying examples of. buiIdings which use • modern technology (eg.- geodesic dome) -studying examples of built environment that reflect different val- ues and beliefs by style adopted -noting how style changes with time as societal values change -observing how changes in values of a culture influence style -noting how technolog- ical developments in- fluence style -exploring the use of natural shapes in the buiIt environment -illustrating how tech- nology allows wider var- iation in style and type -collecting examples of new styles of buildings -identifying materials used to fashion the built environment and noting historical trends in use of mat- erials -relating use of mater- ials to beliefs and values -noting how societal beliefs and attitudes are reflected in choice of building materials -noting how environment and climate influence choice of materials -examining how new tech- nology influences use and choice of materials -observing how technol- ogy permits new uses for traditional materials -comparing how different societies' use of new materials is influenced by degree of technolog- ical advancement. -comparing built forms used for different func- tions (religion, trade, finance, entertainment, housing, transportation) -relating function to societal values and needs (eg.- value of time and efficiency) -identifying changes in function that reflect altered beliefs and values (eg.-industrial site to housing, church to community center) -noting trends in behavior and population density related to urbanization -observing the effect of new technology on specif- ic functions and how tech- nology changes the nature of the city -studying peoples' attitudes to functional improvements in the built environment -identifying different solu- tions to designing and arr- anging public buildings -studying how design express- es beliefs and values (eg.- church design) -establishing what priority designers attach to express^ ion of beliefs and values -studying buildings that.have been redesigned as a result of altered beliefs and values -studying art of different cultures and how that art is expressed in building design -relating design developments to availability of new tech- nology (eg.-flying buttress, structural steel, concrete) -observing the influence of technology and new methods on design and choice of de- sign elements -observing how architects keep abreast of new design areas and experiment to discover new designs Table 4 (cont.) .STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL- FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING -observing that differ- HOW SOCIETY ent social groups and ASSESSES cultures attribute diff- THE BUILT erent meaning to certain ENVIRON- images MENT -studying buildings from different societies that have similar meaning to people from different cultures -collecting peoples' re- actions to a new or his- toric building -observing how the pub- l i c , through consump- tion, accepts or rejects new building forms -determining which cr i - teria are employed by people to form judgments of buildings -distinguishing those styles of building that are interpreted by the public as advocating social change or trad- itional values -assessing peoples' reactions to different styles and types of bui 1 di rigs -observing how peoples', opinions of style and aesthetic quality may be influenced by the presence or absence of certain-themes (eg.- strength, solidarity, warmth, tranquility, beauty, patriotism) -determining peoples' att- itudes to use of materials -identifying what proper- ties of materials are con- sidered important and how those properties are priorized (eg.- is appear- ance of a building most important?) -discovering what materials symbolize tradition, her- itage, beauty, wisdom, solidarity, emotion,•etc. -noting the publics' re- sponse to introduction of new materials or abandon- ment of.traditional mater- ials -assessing how the pub- l ics' reaction is re- flected by the way that the environment controls or influences human be- havior (observation of people .in public places, exhibitions, transit systems, etc.) -assessing the publics' reaction to functional aspects of the built en- vironment and what sig- nificance is attached to efficiency, saving of time, etc. -noting and recording- the criteria that people use to make judgments about functional aspects of the built-environment and how important functional as- pects of • a. building are in comparison to aesthetics, atmosphere, e t c -relating human behavior to the design elements and resultant atmosphere in a building -accounting for some of the ways society understands or fails to understand, the design of buildings of its time t -learning what factors are important in assessing the aptness of design of public buildings , -observing how various seg- ments of a given society evaluate the design elements of a building and how cul- tural and age differences within society may influence judgments ro to Table 5- Built Environment Study Matrix- Economic-Technical Activities STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM " PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS -studying economic and .technical aspects of buildings familiar to the students -collecting reference material on familiar buildings -considering what econ- onmic and technical factors were important during planning of the building -documenting how style in- fluences cost and choice of materials -noting how style changes with time and with the availability of technol- ogy -evaluating the cost of different materials and the economics of build- ing with specific mater- ials -evaluating strength and structural properties of different materials -experimenting with diff- erent materials to dis- cover their properties -relating the function of a building to economic and technical considera- tions (efficiency, cost effectiveness, technical limitations, durability, future use) -comparing buildings design- for similar functions for economic and technical suitability -using models to experi- ment with different design options and vis- ualize economic and tech- nical factors -experimenting with differ- ent design options and performing economic comp- arisons of cost effective- ness of each design -studying different build- ings to learn how techni- cal factors influence design LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE USED TO TRANSFORM MATERIALS INTO BUILT ENVIRON- MENT -observing architects and planners at work to study how they con- sider economic and technical factors of a building plan -comparing different buildings where tech- nical or economic factors may or may not have constrained planning - -experimenting with diff- erent styles of building to satisfy a. particular need (eg.-what style of house might be most ener- gy efficient?) -relating style to.econom- ic and technical consider- ations of the time (eg.- wood construction where wood is cheap and avail- able) -considering the advantages • and disadvantages of use of a'variety of materials in construction of various types of buildings -practising with different tools and materials to discover their advantages • and limitations -relating the pros and cons of specific properties of a given material (strength, durability, appearance, cost, f inish, versatility) evaluating the functional properties of different materials (eg.-plastic for lightness and durability; steel for strength and width of span; concrete & ashphalt for road surfaces) comparing different func- tions of similar forms (eg.-windmill for electric power generation, water pumping, grain milling) considering cost effective- ness of structures in rela- tion to function -selecting materials to produce desired design effects (eg.-texture, colour, harmony, light penetration, economy, durability, contrast) -experimenting with models, drawings, plans, etc. to design efficient, cost- effective structures that satisfy specific design objectives -experimenting with design possibilities where one or several design elements are most important (eg- aesthetics, cost, function) CO o Table 5 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIAL FUNCTION DESIGN ASSESSING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN TECHNI- CAL AND . ECONOMIC TERMS JUDGING BUILDINGS & PERFORMING A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT -developing a vocabulary of technical and econom- ic terms'to describe buildings -learning to. visualize the technical arid econom- ic considerations that were involved in plan- ning a building -performing technical and economic assessments of buildings familiar to the student by consid- ering a variety of factors •discovering the publics' reaction to economic and technical aspects of diff- erent styles of buildings (observations, interviews, questionnai res) assessing how well style of a building suits factors such as location, site properties, adjacent structures, efficiency of design function, cost effectiveness -explaining the ways economic and technical factors contribute to assessment of the built form (cost-benefit anal- ysis, time required for construction, availabil- ity of materials, tech- nical benefits of mater- ials vs_. cost) -assessing choice of materials vs_. durability and alternate use of the structure; aesthetics -considering the success with which a building satisfies economic and technical assessment criteria -establishing criteria with which to perform appraisals and ensuring that the criteria are up to date -evaluating the architect or planner's choice of material in terms of -establishing i f the choice of building style is appropriate within econom- ic and technical constraints economic (cost, availab- i l i t y , construction ease) or technical (structural properties, durability, maintenance, function, aesthetics) considerations -assessing how well a structure performs its intended function -studying a variety of functional aspects of buildings (access, safety, efficiency, cost of supporting the function conducted in the building) -comparing different buildings performing the same function for economic and technical properties -deciding how well a structure serves its intended function in relation to cost, tech- nology available or alternate approaches -examining alternate functions for a given structure as an alter- native to demolition -explaining how choice of • design arid design elements introduces technical and economic constraints on the design -relating design of a- build- ing to choice of materials, function and economic and technical considerations -evaluating the overall effectiveness of the design in relation to economic and technical considerations -deciding i f the organization of design elements is suit- able in relation to techni- cal considerations (place- ment of entryways, windows, entry of l ight, mood, colour atmosphere, energy conser- vation, safety, etc.) 32 outcomes of B.C. secondary art curriculum. The three matrices are based upon speci f ic approaches which could be applied to the study of the buil t environ- ment: Table 3 - Visual-Physical Aspects of the Buil t Environment Concentrates on the appearance of the buil t environment, materials used to construct buildings and structures, relationship of function to design and choice of materials, design concepts in relation to appearance, trends in visual-physical properties. Table 4 - Psycho-Social Aspects of the Built Environment These act iv i t ies deal with how people relate to the bui l t environment, their att itudes, reactions, cultural heritage and background in relation to their perception, beliefs and values of society, interaction of the buil t environment with society. Table 5 - Technical-Economic Aspects of the Built Environment Relating technical and economic aspects of the buil t environment could provide meaningful instruction in the relationships of cost, design, function, choice of materials, s ty le , alternate use of structures, energy concerns, e tc . , and the benefits of such considerations to society and business. The matrix is a useful planning tool as i t sets out a great choice of ac t iv i t ies and concepts for potential incorporation into a program and allows the material to be arranged according to themes, topics or subject areas, thus fac i l i t a t ing organization of the program. The content of tables 3, 4 and 5 is diverse and one could develop a com- plete program around the content of any one matrix or develop similar matrices with different emphasis depending upon one's interest and orientation. I have chosen to develop a program of study for B.C. schools around table 3, the visual-physical aspects of the built environment. This choice appears appro- 33 priate considering the nature of my art education orientation. It should be pointed out that the matrices presented here are not mutually exclusive and some overlap in content occurs. It is hoped that tables 4 and 5 , while not chosen here for program development purposes, may be useful to others wishing to develop their own programs or may serve as a stimulus for people to develop their own planning matrices. In developing a program on the study of the bui l t environment for appl i - cation to the B.C. school system, I fe l t i t was appropriate to develop the program in a practical way that would lend i t s e l f to evaluation. As there was l i t t l e in the way of study material available for use in such a program, I fe l t i t was highly appropriate to prepare, for t r ia l testing in the classroom, an act iv i ty workbook based upon the previously mentioned broad and specif ic objectives. This workbook appears as Appendix I and i ts content is based upon act iv i t ies described in the visual-physical matrix provided in table 3 . The workbook is entit led "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" and is organized in four major chapters, each containing a variety of ac t i v i t i es . The organization of the workbook ref lects the content of the visual-physical matrix (table 3) as follows: Headings from the matrix Workbook Chapter Workbook Chapter T i t l e Discovering ideas from 1 Sensory experience; d is - personal observations covery and description Learning how ideas are 2 Experiencing the bui l t transformed to create environment buildings Learning how use of mat-. 3 Influence of design and erial influences buil t materials environment Learning how people per- 4A Cr i t ica l Appraisal ceive and interpret the built environment Learning how to c r i t i c - 4B More experience with a l ly appraise and judge appraisal techniques the buil t environment 34 Drawing from research and published examples of bui l t environment study act iv i t ies in the l i terature , part icular ly material developed and tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A. , I assembled a compendium of study act iv i t ies for incorporation in the workbook. The matrix acted as a rouch planning and organizational chart for the compilation of the workbook. Table 6 shows how the content of the visual-physical matrix was used to develop content and emphasis in the workbook. Portions of table 6 are cross-referenced to pages in the workbook. Technical Evaluation of the Program An important part of the development of any program is the technical basis upon which i t is developed. D. Massey and W. Werner (W. Werner - personal communication) have constructed a "program analysis form" which fac i l i ta tes analysis of technical aspects of any program by the unit develops er(s) . They maintain that three essential components of any unit are the intents (ends), and content (means) and the method (means). Technical analysis asks a number of questions of the unit developer. With regard to intents, i t is important to specify what is intended by the developer and to art iculate the rationale for the unit. Spec i f ica l ly , one must ask why the unit was developed and what just i f ica t ion exists for i t . Learning objectives are important a lso, and the developer must be aware of the knowledge areas, s k i l l s , and attitudes that are desired outcomes for the students making use of the unit. In addition, there must be a clear idea of the content of the unit with regard to subject matter,, display materials ut i l ized i f appropriate, and the emphasis on various aspects of the content. Lastly, i t is most important to ascertain how the content is to be used to attain the intentjs of the unit. Appendix II summarizes the author's technical evaluation of the program and is a detailed analysis of the workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" according to the "program analysis" approach of Massey and Table 6- Use of the concepts in the visual-physical study matrix (table 3) in development of the workbook contents. The.headings of this table correspond with the headings in the matrix. The body of the table indicates how the concepts were developed into activities described in the workbook and where those activities are located in the workbook. STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIALS FUNCTION DESIGN DISCOVERING IDEAS FROM PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS (use of the senses) LEARNING HOW IDEAS ARE TRANS- FORMED TO CREATE BUILDINGS LEARNING HOW USE OF MATERIALS INFLUENCES BUILT ENVIR- ONMENT -The Sensory Walk- noting how places and your perception of those places change as you walk through them, (workbook p.4 ) -Serial Vision- focus- ing on a distant build- ing and experiencing the changing and emer- ging view of the build- ing as you draw nearer to i t . (workbook p. 15 ) -Analysing the Look and Use of Space- ex- amining a space, anal- ysing it and redesign- ing that space, (workbook p. 34 ) -Describing Your Envir- onment- looking at parts of interesting buildings and describing what you see. Seeking information from various sources, (workbook p. 7 ) -Steeplechasing- a focal point on the horizon is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. The appearance of the focal point is examined in relation to other buildings at each van- tage point, (workbook p. 12 ) -Network Space- noting how different types of networks are structured and examining the effect- iveness of network systems. (workbook p. 36 ) -Building a Critical Vo- cabulary- exploring ways of using and building vo- cabulary through visual observations, (workbook p. 9 ) -Experiencing a Building From all Sides- a study of a building from all sides allows observation of order, variety, sim- i larity and difference, use of materials and design. Appearance in relation to adjacent structures may be consid- ered, (workbook p. 17 ) -Home Improvements Game- examining and proposing how materials may be used to improve your home or neighbourhood surroundings, (workbook p. 43 ) -Open Space Activity- sensing places by con- centrating upon open spaces one at a time, (workbook p. 3 ) -Shopping Area Activit.y- using a shopping area as a place to practice sen- sing the environment, (workbook p. 5 ) -The Town Trail- a planned walk through an urban area along a selected route allows the student to focus on numerous top- ics related to the study of the built environment (function, design, aesthet- ics, human behavior, etc.) (workbook p. 20 ) •The Town Trail-(see listing under "function") -Network Space- noting the function of networks as systems (workbook p. 36 ) -Creating Symbols for Use in Networks- noting how symbols illustrate func- tion of space; designing symbols.(workbook p. 37 ) -Shared Space Activities- examining the properties and constraints of shared space; designing shared space, (workbook p. 33) -Analysing the Look and Use of Space- exploring visual properties of space and considering design concepts (workbook p. 34 ) Table 6 (cont.) STUDY APPROACH BUILDINGS STYLE/TYPES MATERIALS FUNCTION DESIGN LEARNING HOW -Four Factor Building PEOPLE PER- CIEVE AND INTERPRET THE BUILT ENVIRON- MENT LEARNING HOW TO CRITIC- ALLY APPRAISE AND JUDGE THE BUILT ENVIRON- MENT Analysis- studying con- text, routes, interface and grouping factors to help appraise built forms using a checklist and scoring system, (workbook p. 46 ) -Building Impact Eval- uation- assessing the impact of a building by means of a set of established evaluation criteria, (workbook p. 62 ) -The Dating Game- ex- perience with a method for checking the dates of construction of build- ings and for relating style and type to his- torical perspective and attitudes, (workbook p. 39 ) -Annotated Sketches-•use of annotated sketches or photographs to illustrate aspects of building style (workbook p. 66 ) -Slide Program- use of an illustrated program to describe building styles and types and facilitate appraisal. (workbook p. 67 ) -Appraising Proposals- learning to appraise - proposals of architects and planners and consid- er the appropriateness of the choice of materials proposed, (workbook p.60 ) -Annotated Sketches, and Slide Program (see" under "style/types)- use of the methods to illustrate advantages or disadvan- tages of use of different materials in construction and form judgments. -Appraising Proposals- appraising functional aspects of proposals (workbook p. 60 ) - In f i l l , Commercial- examining possible sol- utions to the design of corner commercial build- ing sites from a functional perspective, (workbook p. 58 ) -Annotated Photoqraphs- use of annotated photo- graphs to illustrate functional strengths and weaknesses of buildings and use of space, (workbook p. 66 ) Appraising Proposals- evaluating peoples' reaction to proposals and design concepts, (workbook p. 60 ) In f i l l , House Fronts- examining the design of house fronts (workbook p. 57 ) -Urban Evaluation Sheet- use of a structured evalu- ation method during a sensory walk to aid in the evaluation of design con- cepts, (workbook p. 64 ) -Four Factor Building Analysis- evaluating the appropriateness of design in relation to four key appraisal factors, (workbook p. 46 ) -Appraising Proposals- par- ticipating the the appraisal of proposals and learning to perform an appraisal, (workbook p.60 ) 37 Werner. One aspect of the analysis that required more follow-up was the read- ab i l i t y aspect of the workbook. As a considerable amount of new material for students unfamiliar with architecture or vocabulary related to descriptions of buildings was contained in the workbook, I f e l t i t important to conduct a readabil i ty test on portions of the book to test readabil i ty aspects. Fry (1977) provided a rapid method for determination of readabil i ty based upon a sample analysis of sections of the unit being tested. Fry's method involves determination of the average number of sentences and average number of syl lables in several selected one hundred word passages of the unit and the use of a graph (figure 4) to estimate readabil i ty according to grade level equivalent. Fry reports this method to be accurate within one grade level using a variety of data from U.S. schools and that i t correlates closely with other readabil i ty estimation methods. Analysis of three passages selected from pages 4, 33, and 67 of the workbook by the Fry method yielded a readabil- i ty level of approximately grade 9. Thus the workbook should not have been expected to pose d i f f i c u l t y for the intended student test groups (grade 11, 12) assuming that the readabil i ty method was applicable to B.C. schools. Figure 4 reveals one interesting feature of the workbook's written material ; sentences are of short to moderate length yet long words are used, thus placing the readabil i ty score somewhat of f the plotted curve. This could suggest that long and possibly complex words could pose some d i f f i c u l t y for students and that d i f f i c u l t y of th is sort should be closely watched for during p i lo t testing of the program. The following sections provides information on evaluation methods and results of p i lo t testing of the program. 38 Average no. syl lables / 1 0 0 words short words , o n9 words o F igu re 4 Graph f o r de te rm in ing r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l ( a f t e r F r y , 1977). Average number o f sentences per 1 0 0 words and average number o f s y l l a b l e s per 1 0 0 words a re determined by ave rag ing r e s u l t s from a n a l y s i s o f th ree o r more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e passages i n the m a t e r i a l being examined. The r e s u l t s from a n a l y s i s o f the workbook m a t e r i a l a re i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f i g u r e . 39 Chapter 3 FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM Following preparation of the workbook "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment: and review and revision of the book in consultation with my grad- uate studies committee, I implemented a pi lot testing program in three local schools and devised an evaluation methodology with which to assess the appro- priateness of the material for use in Br i t ish Columbia secondary schools. This section of the study report describes the evaluation procedures used and the results of that evaluation. The format used for systematic evaluation of the program was similar to that suggested by Werner (personal communication) as summarized in Appendix III. Preparation The Program to be Evaluated The act iv i ty workbook "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment" was prepared during the Spring and Summer of 1980 and tested in B.C. secondary schools during the period Sept. 15, 1980 to Oct. 27, 1980. The intent was to select two secondary schools for p i lot testing purposes and to provide those schools with copies of the workbook for classroom and f i e ld use during a period of approximately six weeks' duration. In preparation for this evaluation, i t was necessary to find cooperative teachers interested in participating in the t r ia l testing, to obtain permission for the pi lot testing from the principals of the selected schools, and also to determine what time allotments were available in each school for testing purposes. Qnce the available time a l lo t - ments were known, i t was then necessary to work out a f lex ib le timetable of study act iv i t ies chosen from the workbook for testing in each school in order for the author as evaluator to be available as a participant observer in the process. 40 Evaluation Methodology Several evaluation procedures were adopted in order to provide a thorough assessment of the program. Procedures included use of teacher and student questionnaires (Appendix IV) administered to each group engaged in the p i lo t testing program at the completion of the six-week t r ia l period, teacher inter- views conducted by the evaluator with the two teachers using the workbook, interviews with students during classroom and f ie ld a c t i v i t i e s , personal observation by the evaluator during those act iv i t ies (Appendix V) and s o l i c i - tation of comments on the workbook by teachers at schools where testing was taking place who were not themselves direct ly involved in the t r i a l testing program. In addition to the above qualitative evaluation techniques, a quantita- tive evaluation scheme was devised which consisted of a written test (Appen- dix VI) administered to each student engaged in the program. This test , which involved responses to .questions concerning the bui l t environment (mostly slides presented during the test administration), was given to each student twice: once at the beginning of the t r i a l period before the student had seen the workbook or participated in any of i ts a c t i v i t i e s , and again at completion of the six week t r ia l period following exposure to the material. In order to provide a control for possible change in overall awareness of the bui l t envir- onment among the student population during the six week t r i a l period, i t was necessary to add a third school group to the testing program. This group received the quantitative test (termed pre- and post-tests) at both the start and f in ish of the six week t r i a l period but did not see the workbook or engage in any study of the bui l t environment. Objectives of the Evaluation The intent of the act iv i ty workbook, "Close Encounters with the Bui l t Environment" was to assemble a program of study which would satisfy both 41 the general learning outcomes of both the Br i t ish Columbia secondary school art curriculum (p. 23 ) and the speci f ic objectives (p.25 ) of this report. The evaluation therefore, is directed at ascertaining i f these objectives (ends) of the program have been achieved. Furthermore, the formative eval- uation provides information on the strengths, weaknesses, organization and concerns of a program and i s therefore a means for improving such a program. It was hoped, therefore, that the t r i a l testing program would provide useful information on the overall su i tab i l i ty of the act iv i ty workbook for use in Br i t ish Columbia secondary schools and would also lead to improvement in the workbook content and format. Questions of Concern to the Evaluator In conducting a thorough evaluation of any program, i t is exceedingly important that the evaluator be famil iar with the process of evaluation and the underlying concepts, assumptions and approaches available. Table 7 l i s t s fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches and was instruc- tive in developing the previously described evaluation approach. Implications for evaluating a program developed on an "ends-means" basis as described ear l ier are included in table 7. Table 8 l i s t s guiding concerns for evaluators described as "clusters" of concerns. These concerns wil l be referred to later during discussion of the results of the evaluation and the overall success of the program. Specif ics of the Pi lot Testing Program Schools and Test Groups Two schools were chosen for t r i a l testing of the workbook, one independent school located in the Vancouver School Distr ic t (termed school "A") and a sec- ond public school in the School D is t r ic t of Richmond (termed school "B"). For purposes of providing a control group for the quantitative testing portion of the evaluation, a third public school (school "C") was chosen in the Distr ic t Table 7 Fundamental concepts and implications of evaluation approaches (after w. Werner, Personal Communication) Factor Ends-Means Evaluation Situational Evaluation Cr i t ica l Evaluation Purpose of Evaluative Research Assumptions about Pro- grams Indicators of a Pro- gram' s worth Social Re- lationship of Evalua- tor to Pro- gram Partic- ipants Outcomes for Program Im- provement Appropriate Form of Data To increase control (eg. predict- a b i l i t y , spec i f i c i t y , certainty, precision, speed, eff iciency) of system variables such as inputs, and,outputs., . Programs viewed as ends-means re- lat ions. Program weaknesses view- ed as technical problems. Comparative costs; increased student scores; eff iciency and certainty in achieving precise and predictable ends. Expert monitors system components; dominance and control; acting upon or for ; producer/consumer; hierarchical and unidirectional (from the top down) Application of compensatory means for rectifying def ic ien- cies . Precise discrepancy f igures; numerical scores, clear-cut methods, operational definit ions. To understand meaning, rele- vance, perceptions of parti- cipants Programs viewed as multiple meanings and rea l i t i es . Weakness viewed as problems of understanding and rele- vance. Relevance and meaningful- ness to participants Participant; consensus of understanding; interdepen- dent; acting with; cdr -active, mutual, emergent, situation- a l . Program relevance and mean- ingfulness is understood and enhanced. Meanings found in conversa- t ion , transcripts, case stud- ies , situation descriptions, multiple viewpoints. To uncover hidden and basic be- l i e f s , interests, and relations, Programs viewed as reflections of fundamental perspectives and relations. Program weaknesses viewed as communications prob- lems . Clar i f ied and just i f ied premises increased se l f - re f lec t ion . Posing questions; free and open communication; d ia log ica l ; act- ing with; honest. Program perspective is ident i - f i ed , c l a r i f i e d , j u s t i f i e d , or changed. Foundations uncovered (assump- t ions, values, be l ie fs , and world views) which were taken for granted. Table 7 (cont.) Factor Ends-Means Evaluation Situational Evaluation Cr i t ical Evaluation Methods for Systems analysis; cost/benefit Interviews; participant obser- Questioning dialogue; dialect ics Data Defin- analysis; pre-post testing; vation; ethnographies; open- and multiple perspectives. Em- ing & Collect- forced-choice questionnaires; ended questionnaires. Emphasis phasis upon se l f - re f lect ion ing specifying and monitoring per- upon mutual understanding and and change, formance indicators. Emphasis communication, upon techniques, standardiz- at ion, and reductionism. Table 8 Clusters of evaluation-guiding concerns (after W. Werner, personal communication) Cluster 1 v Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Are the means effective and eff- icient in achieving the ends? Are the means cost effective? What are the outcomes? (in terms of measurable student achievement scores, retention rates, training leve l , perfor- mance outcomes). What is the cost per unit (student/materials/teacher) as compared to other programs- or to provincial costs? Can we predict with any degree of accuracy, the effect the pro- gram wil l have on subsequent achievement/attendance? How many people/resources are participating? How is each re- source being used? Is there a correlation between means and ends? Can we make pre- dictive inferences on causality? Is the program relevant to student /parent/community concerns, needs, i nterests? Why do various groups approve or disapprove? What is the impact upon student self-image, community involvement, classroom interaction? What are the percieved unintended outcomes? What is the school "climate" for students? What are the sociological/psycho- logical implications of the program •for the child? What is the student's attitude? ( indifferent, enthusiastic, sus- picious, etc.) What questions exist about the pro- gram on the part of administrators and signif icant other parties? What are the underlying assumptions about 'knowledge', ' l ea rn ing 1 , ' r e l e - vance' , 'worthwhileness'? What is the implied image of the stu- dent or teacher? What is the program's value position? Are the intents and emphasis worthwhile What (whose) interests are served through!.the program? What are the long-term implications for our plans? te What are the root metaphors (theories, models, logics) which guide our think- ing and acting? What is the bias of the resource mater- ials? What structures legitimize (perpetuate) these values and assumptions? What is the supporting world-view? Table 8 (cont.) Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 What v a l i d generalization con- cerning effectiveness can be made for a l l schools? Can we ar t i c u l a t e a program mod- el which describes i t s inputs, throughputs ( e f f o r t s , money, re- sources, structures) and outputs? How are inputs organized to achieve operational goals? What are the principal means used d i r e c t l y to achieve goals? How do we know these means are actually enacted? With what frequency and intensity are they enacted?- How are means linked to each other to achieve goals and outcomes? Is the program b u i l t upon what students bring with them to school? (eg.-cultural, home, s k i l l , value backgrounds) What are the views and interpretations of various groups? cn 46 of West Vancouver. Choice of schools was determined largely by ava i lab i l i ty of cooperative teachers who were known to the author to be interested in using the workbook. Geographic location of the schools was another consider- ation; that i s , they had to be reasonably accessible to the author for purposes of participating in the evaluation process. Characteristics of the test groups participating in the t r i a l test program are summarized below: Table 9 Details of classes participating in the pi lot testing program. School Type of Class Grade Composition No. of Students A Architecture 10, 11, 12 19 B Art (applied design) 11, 12 21 C Art (applied design) 11, 12 17 Testing of the program consisted of each class receiving the workbook and thereafter engaging in act iv i t ies described in the workbook within their regularly scheduled class periods for the duration of the six week test period. Timetables for groups A and B are provided in tables 10 and 11. Schools A and B differed s l ight ly in timetable format. School A employed a seven-day cycle with f ive one-hour classes spread over the seven days. School B employed a five-day cycle with three one-hour classes spread over the f ive days. Teachers of both schools A and B were enthusiastic about testing the material with their classes. The teacher at school A is very interested in architecture and photography-. Environmental and applied design attract the teacher at school B. Instructions given to Teachers An i n i t i a l meeting was held with each teacher from the three schools once written or verbal permission to proceed had been obtained from the school 47 Table 10 Timetable for pi lot testing of workbook act iv i t ies in school A. Date Time Activi ty or Involvement Mon. Sept. 8 F r i . Sept. 12 Sun. Sept. 14 Tues. Sept. 16 Wed. Sept. 17 F r i . Sept. 19 Tues. Sept. 23 Thurs. Sept. 25 F r i . Sept. 26 Tues. Sept. 30 Thurs. Oct. 2 Mon. Oct. 6 Tues. Oct. 7 Thurs. Oct. 9 Tues.Oct. 14 Thurs. Oct. 16 — Workbook given to teacher for review and lesson planning 09:45 Met with teacher, principal to discuss plans and obtain permission to proceed — Met with teacher to discuss testing pro- cedures, timetable, scheduling of pre- test , evaluation methods to be used 09:35 Pre-test completed by class 12:20 Students introduced to book and Open Space Act iv i t ies 08:50 Shopping Center Ac t iv i t y - f i e ld t r ip to Dunbar area 12:20 Steeplechasing f i e ld t r ip to U.B.C. cam- pus, clock tower area 09:30 Class work period to review Shopping Center and Steeplechasing ac t iv i t ies and work on reports 11:50 As above 08:35 Class introduced to Four Factor Analysis 13:30 Field t r ip to Granville Island Public Market to do Four Factor Analysis 10:00 Work period in class on Four Factor Analysis 11:50 Steeplechasing assignment due, col lected. Work period as above. 08:35 Work period, Four Factor Analysis. Students using questions from workbook in write-ups 14:20 Class completing Four Factor Analysis 09:35 Steeplechasing results handed out and put on display, in school work .period.: ; ^ F r i . Oct. 17 11:50 Work period 48 Table 10 (cont.) Date Time Act iv i ty or Involvement Tues. Oct. 21 08:35 Four Factor Analysis assignment due. Intro- duction to In f i l l act iv i t ies Thur. Oct. 23 14:20 Post-test administered to c lass. Mon. Oct. 27 10:00 (Teacher continuing to use workbook beyond testing period) In f i l l ac t iv i t ies Tues. Oct. 28 11:50 In f i l l act iv i t ies Thur. Oct. 30 08:35 In f i l l ac t iv i t ies Table 11 Timetable for p i lot testing of workbook act iv i t ies in school B 49 Date Time Act iv i ty or Involvement Sun. Sept. 7 — Workbook and pre-tests given to teacher for review and lesson planning F r i . Sept. 12 11:00 Met with teacher to discuss timetable, eval- uation methodology, lesson planning. Per- mission from principal obtained by teacher (he was i l l and could not meet with us) Thur. Sept. 18 13:00 Class completed pretest. Teacher discussed format of assignments and instructed class that results were to be kept in a book and submitted at completion of the six week t r ia l period. F r i . Sept. 19 13:00 Class engaged in Open Space Act iv i t ies on an. individual basis (each to choose some open space, draw, photograph, record impressions) Tues. Sept. 23 13:00 Class working on Open Space project Thur. Sept. 25 13:00 Introduction to the Sensory Walk. Class went off in small groups or pairs to perform the act iv i ty (Evaluator with one group) F r i . Sept. 26 13:00 Field t r ip to perform Shopping' Center Activ- i ty (small groups or pairs) . Evaluator went with one group to local mall. Tues. Sept. 30 13:00 Critique of the three exercises(Open Space, Sensory Walk, Shopping Center) in c lass. Thur. Oct. 2 13:00 Work period in c lass. F r i . Oct. 3 13:00 Introduction to Steeplechasing and Serial Vision act iv i t ies in c lass. Class dispersed in pairs or small groups to perform f i e ld work. Evaluator accompanied one group. Tues. Oct. 7 13:00 Critique of students' books and findings in c lass. Town Trai l act iv i ty introduced. Thur. Oct. 9 13:00 Class work periodion assignments. Discuss- ion of different kinds of space and how space affects us Tues. Oct. 14 13:00 Discussion of properties of space and intro- duction of Guiding by Cards-cards to be used for exploring personal space. Field tr ip to Granville Island planned. 50 Table 11 (cont.) Date Time Activi ty or Involvement Thur. Oct. 16 F r i . Oct. 17 Tues. Oct. 21 Thur. Oct. 23 F r i . Oct. 24 Unscheduled 13:00 Field t r ip cancelled (bus not available). Class work period. Making directional cards. 13:00 Class work period making and designing cards 13:00 Work period and completion of assignments 13:00 As above 13:00 Class completed post-test Field t r ip to Granville Island to be done at later date 51 p r i n c i p a l s . C o p i e s o f the workbook were p r o v i d e d t o the t e a c h e r s and d e t a i l s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d were d i s c u s s e d . Examples o f the e v a l u a - t i o n m a t e r i a l were p r o v i d e d t o t h e t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e y were f r e e t o choose any o f the i n t r o - d u c t o r y a c t i v i t i e s ( t i t l e d " g e t t i n g s t a r t e d " i n t h e workbook) p r o v i d e d i n t h e workbook w i t h i n t he s i x week p e r i o d . T e a c h e r s were t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r c h o i c e s and respond w i t h a t i m e t a b l e f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the e v a l u a t o r ( t a b l e s 1 0 , 1 1 ) . The t e a c h e r s were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t he e v a l u a t o r would be f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e t r i a l p e r i o d and would o b s e r v e t h e c l a s s e s d u r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , e x e c u t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s , and d u r i n g some f i e l d t r i p s . The e v a l u a t o r would s e r v e m a i n l y as an o b s e r v e r and would n o t p a r t i c i - pate i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e x c e p t t o p r o v i d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f some i n s t r u c t i o n f o r an a c t i v i t y was u n c l e a r . No r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s b e s i d e t h e workbook were p r o v i d e d t o any c l a s s o r t e a c h e r . R e s u l t s o f t h e E v a l u a t i o n E v a l u a t o r ' s O b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e P i l o t T e s t i n g Program D e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the six-week p i l o t t e s t i n g program a t s c h o o l s A and B a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix V I . T e a c h e r s a t both s c h o o l s r e l i e d on t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e workbook t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t f o r pu r p o s e s o f i n t r o d u c i n g and e x p l a i n i n g t he a c t i v i t i e s . I n s t r u c t i o n s appeared c l e a r , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and prompted few d i s r u p t i v e o r c o n f u s i n g q u e s t i o n s from t he c l a s s e s . I t appeared t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d t he m a t e r i a l b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d . D i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t between s c h o o l s A and B w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s . In t h e c a s e o f s c h o o l A, t h e t e a c h e r was o b v i o u s l y e n t h u s i a s t i c and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l f i e l d t r i p s . An open r a p p o r t and d i a l o g u e between t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s was e v i d e n t and s t u d e n t s d i d n o t appear h e s i t a n t t o ask q u e s t i o n s , seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n , o r e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s . In t h e c a s e o f s c h o o l B, however, the t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e m a t e r i a l 52 and then sent the class out to perform the f i e l d work without participating in any f i e ld ac t iv i t i es . Students from school B seemed hesitant and confused while engaging in the f i e l d ac t iv i t ies or used the opportunity to engage in their own interests not related to school work. In the presence of the evaluator, some small groups of students from school B took an interest in the material once a rapport with the evaluator had been established. Many students from the school seemed shy and lacked confidence in their drawing s k i l l s and sketching ab i l i t y . Some seemed reluctant to perform certain tasks in the "Shopping Center Act ivi ty" such as making observations in shops or public places where they might attract the attention of others. Students from both schools appeared to l ike working in small groups or in pairs. They interacted wel l , discussed the act iv i t ies and consulted each other on methods and answers to written questions posed in the act iv i ty . Teamwork appeared to assist students in gaining confidence during fieldwork as many students had probably had l i t t l e or no opportunity to work outside and in a largely unsupervised mode prior to this testing program. Follow-up a c t i v i t i e s , deadlines for reporting resul ts , method of repor- t ing, and time spent on act iv i t ies varied between schools A and B. In both cases a single lesson was insuff icient for the completion of many act iv i t ies and extra classroom sessions were required for completion (see timetables - tables 10, 11). In the case ofi school A, students were given specif ic dead- lines to hand in reports, drawings, sketches, etc. following each major a c t i - v i ty . These deadlines were set within the six week t r ia l period and marks were deducted for late assignment. Students from school A spent many hours on classroom and home completion of such assignments and produced excellent work with obvious interest, dedication and innovation (Appendix VII). In this case, there was time allowed for follow-up act iv i t ies such as discussion of f indings, points of view, impressions, etc. following f i e l d t r ips . School B students however, were not given specif ic deadlines for reporting 53 findings from a given act iv i ty during the t r i a l period, but rather were required to submit a sketchbook covering the results of selected act iv i t ies at the conclusion of the t r ia l period. Although crit ique sessions were est- ablished for this class during the t r i a l , many students did not f in ish assign- ments and were not prepared for such sessions. In many instances, school B students did not return to the classroom for the cri t ique sessions following an act iv i ty . The teacher was not successful in enforcing any d isc ip l ine or structure with this regard. In both schools the cost of engaging in the program appeared minimal as study act iv i t ies took place within reasonable proximity to the school. School B's study sites were a l l within walking distance of the school and were prob- ably very familiar to a l l students. A major planned excursion to Granville Island did not take place during the t r i a l testing due to bus transportation d i f f i c u l t i e s . School A went further af ie ld - to U.B.C. campus, Granville Island market and to Dunbar Street. Cost was minimized by use of the student's own vehicles for transportation. Materials used by both schools for reporting and i l lust ra t ing findings were straightforward and inexpensive: sketching and drawing materials, and drafting supplies. In the case of school A, a considerable amount of photographic work was done along with photographic developing. Act iv i t ies did not appear to demand a great deal of preparation time by the teacher. Time organization and planning for act iv i t ies appeared par t i - cularly important. The teacher at school A used the workbook as an introduc- tion to a year's class in architecture. The teacher at school B appeared to have more d i f f i cu l ty relating the material to the subject area familiar to her: that i s , applied design and design concepts with emphasis on the produc- tion of hand-made products. During the testing period, there appeared to be no attempt to relate natural and man-made design concepts observable in the environment to the work normally produced in the classroom. 54 Some areas needing improvement in the workbook and in implementation of the workbook act iv i t ies became obvious as a direct result of these p i lot testing observations. The workbook could be considerably improved by the inclusion of better introductory material for the teacher. The forward of the workbook should more thoroughly explain why the study of the bui l t envir- onment is important and relevant and how the teacher may use the book to famil iarize students with the subject. The introduction should contain the underlying, conceptions of the program and i ts broad and speci f ic objectives. Furthermore, i t would be beneficial to explain more fu l l y to teachers how the book could be used or adapted to suit a specif ic requirement or interest. Notes on introducing lessons would be helpful , as would instructions on teacher participation in f i e ld t r i p s , t r ip organization, follow-up act iv i t ies and student reporting as well as time scheduling requirements. Observations indicated that a number of students had d i f f i cu l ty with making written responses to some questions contained in the workbook's a c t i - v i t i es . Simplif ication and c la r i f i ca t ion of questions in the "Four Factor Analysis", "Steeplechasing", and "Open Space Activities'" appear warranted. Some new vocabulary also appears to present a problem. Teacher Responses to the Program - Teacher Questionnaires Questionnaires completed by teachers at the schools involved in p i lo t testing "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment" appear in Appendix IV. Comments are included from teachers at schools A and B who engaged in pi lot testing as well as from the teacher at school C who had an opportunity to review the workbook but did not use the material in the classroom. The teacher at school A provided a highly positive evaluation of the material. She fe l t the unit served as a worthwhile introduction to a course of study on the bui l t environment, was appropriate to grades 10 to 12, and that i t focussed on experience and involvement of the individual . This teacher's opinion was that the unit could be altered to suit almost any grade 55 level and that the existing ac t iv i t ies accommodate students of varying interests and ab i l i t i es ("open enough, yet directed"). School A's teacher fe l t the overall strength of the unit was: "the way the book made the students become actively involved with bui l t environment - this is an excellent 'ground' or base for further studies in the buil t environment. Any student is capable of participating and getting something positive from a book of this type." With regard to concerns and suggested areas for improvement, teacher A fe l t that vocabulary in the book often produced d i f f i cu l ty and that a clearer introduction to new words should be provided. She also suggested provision of review questions and vocabulary review at the end of each chapter. This teacher fe l t that i l lustrat ions and photographs could be improved and be made "more excit ing". She reported d i f f i cu l ty on the part of students with speci f ic questions in some act iv i t ies and suggested that they be made more specif ic and direct . This teacher apparently experienced time-related prob- lems imposed by the pi lot testing regime. There appeared insuff icient time available to do a thorough job on a l l act iv i t ies and she fe l t that act iv i t ies could have been "scaled down" to lessen the act iv i ty load and provide more time for a wider variety of ac t iv i t i es . The teacher at school B was less enthusiastic about the workbook than teacher A. She appeared uncomfortable with the r ig id i ty and structure imposed by the p i lot testing program and found the six weeks of continuous use of the material excessive. Teacher B described the unit as "lacking producing a c t i - v i t ies" and she appeared to desire more classroom time for making things and doing manual projects more in keeping with the tradit ional act iv i t ies of an art c lass. She fe l t there was a general lack of introductory act iv i ty to bring the students' awareness to a level where the act iv i t ies would have meaning. In her opinion, the students were resist ing having to participate in the unit based upon their expectations of what should go on in an art class and that they therefore found i t "meaningless and boring". This teacher seemed 56 unenthusiastic about the architectural and sociological orientations of the workbook and experienced d i f f i cu l ty in integrating the concepts into an art class. It appeared that she wished for more concentration on principles and elements of design and their relationship to art . On the positive side, this teacher considered the topic important and the lessons to be "clearly la id out and explained". Teacher B, in contrast to teacher A, fe l t that the book was too structured and that i t did not encourage f l e x i b i l i t y . She suggested the following improvements: addition of introductory material, a chapter on how to use the book, emphasis on f l e x i b i l i t y , a chapter on elements and principles of design, incorporation of design concepts in ac t iv i t ies throughout the book, a "para- digm for c r i t i c a l evaluation", and stress on exercises that encourage visual rather than verbal responses. The teacher at school C, while reviewing and commenting on the workbook, did not use the material with her class that participated as a control group for quantitative testing. This teacher fe l t the material was more s i g n i f i - cant for general art classes at the grade 11 or 12 level or for senior geo- graphy classes rather than art students interested in working mainly with their hands. Concerns expressed by the teacher included potential d i f f i c u l - t ies with vocabulary and lack of information on the historical background of architecture. The "stress on observing one's surroundings" was considered to be the overall strength of the workbook. Teacher C reported resentment on the part of her students to being used as a control group. They fe l t insulted and that their time was being wasted. Generally, teacher C's assessment of the workbook is positive but lacks detail due to lack of opportunity to use and test the material in the classroom. Teachers A and B obviously d i f fer in their reaction to the material. Their comments indicate considerable differences in the orientation, attitude and characteristics of the classes they worked with. Teacher A is very inter- 57 ested in using the material as an introductory unit in architecture with a group of keen, competitive, posit ively motivated and enthusiastic students. She described the capabi l i t ies of this group as varying from "very able" to "slower learners". Teacher B's interests were in the classroom applications of art concepts and elements and principles of design. She was working with a class containing "an unusually high percentage of potential and returned dropouts". This -teacher reported that about 50% of the students in the class had had " l i t t l e or no success in school to this point". Furthermore, she fe l t the students tended to have very fixed expectations of what should happen in an art class and reported that "most of these particular students are not com- fortable with reading and with words in general". These characteristics of the class were not made known to the evaluator at the start of the six week testing period and the teacher did not appear to have fu l l knowledge of the limitations of her students at the onset of the program. Examination of results produced=by students from both schools A and B ref lect obvious differences (Appendix VII). Students from school A provided detai led, innovative reports and projects while those from school B were incomplete, unavailable or lacking in detail or innovation. It could be concluded that school A was highly successful in employing the material while school B had considerably less success. It could be argued, however, that considering the characteristics of the groups-, comparison of the two is not direct ly possible and that group B's effort was a success for them in terms of their capabi l i t ies . Student Reaction to the Program - Student Questionnaires Student response for groups A and B is summarized in Appendix IV. In general, students from school A reacted very posi t ively , responding that the material was interesting, important, worthwhile and valuable, reasonably clearly presented, instructive and that i t broadened their knowledge of the 58 bui l t environment. Positiye features of the program for this group appeared toibe interactions with the written material, class and group discussions, opportunity to express personal opinions and discover answers for themselves, l istening to others and participating in group projects-. Field tr ips and f ie ld act iv i t ies appear to have been a high point for this group with almost unanimous praise for that element of the program. Students fe l t their aware- ness, interest, observation s k i l l s and ab i l i t y to concentrate on elements and properties of buildings improved greatly. Students at school A expressed d i f f i cu l ty with written responses to questions posed in some of the ac t iv i t ies and also the organization of some question material. D i f f icu l ty may have occurred for some groups with written instructions in the act iv i t ies tested. Overal l , the students appeared to desire more time to do the projects or alternately, less emphasis on "long, hard projects". Some expressed a desire to do more projects of a shorter duration. Their reactions give the impression of wanting to do more detailed work of greater variety without the time pressure imposed by the six week t r ia l testing format. One or two students appeared to have d i f f i cu l ty re lat - ing the material to the subject matter of their course (architecture). They appeared impatient to address the subject in more depth. Students from school B were far less art iculate or constructive in expressing their reactions. They appear to have used the questionnaire as an opportunity to protest having to do the unit or to comment negatively on education in general. The consensus appears to have been that the unit was d i f f i c u l t , boring, confusing, too long, not worthwhile and that i t did not teach them anything new. Students appeared to feel they learned the most from working individual ly , discovering answers for themselves, expressing opinions and working with the written material. They expressed d i f f i cu l ty in under- standing written material, becoming interested in the topic or , in part icular , seeing why they had to learn the material as part of an art c lass. Terse 59 comments given by students indicate d is l ike or d i f f i cu l ty with written mat- erial and written responses, some insecurity regarding group or fieldwork part ic ipat ion, comprehension and self-expression. Quantitative Pre- and Post-test Results Results of the pre- and post-tests administered to schools A, B and C are summarized in table 12 in order to provide a quantitative indication of change in knowledge and ab i l i ty related to bui l t environment concepts and understanding. The range of class scores for both groups A and B shifted to- wards elevated scores on the post-test in comparison to the pre-test perfor- mance. A non-parametric method of s ta t is t ica l analysis was selected for the results of quantitative testing. This approach was thought preferable to para- metric methods as the data were probably not normally distr ibuted, sample size was small and because judgment was exercised in grading of the quantitative tests. Scores for each individual student in a given test group were analysed by Wilcoxon's Signed Rank Test (Steel and Torr ie , 1960). In this test , a T value computed on the basis of the ranked differences of less frequent sign betweem pre- and post-test scores for a given test group is used to determine acceptance or rejection of the s ta t is t ica l hypothesis. Small T values, below the c r i t i ca l value of T specified by Wilcoxon's procedure, allow rejection of the null hypothesis (post test scores were not higher than pre-test .scores). Analysis revealed a signif icant difference (p = 0.005) between pre- and post- test scores for groups A and B and allowed acceptance of the alternate hypoth- esis (one-tailed test) that exposure to "Close Encounters with the Built En- vironment" improved student perception, knowledge, comprehension, analytical and evaluation s k i l l s related to the bui l t environment. These s k i l l areas were incorporated into the testing design (Appendix V). It is interesting that group B, while indicating a generally negative reaction to the program as ex- pressed in teacher comments, student comments, and quality of completed . 60 projects, showed a signif icant improvement in test score performance. This might indicate that the other evaluation methods somehow were not as effect- ive in assessing the impact of the material on group B as was the quantita- tive testing. The control group showed no s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant change in perfor- mance over the six week period, indicating no major change in overall aware- ness of bui l t environment in the student population had occurred during the testing period. Table 12 Stat ist ical analysis of pre- and post quantitative test results using a non- parametric method. Scores for each individual student in a given test group were analysed by Wilcoxon's Signed Rank Test (Steel and Torr ie , 1960). Sig- nif icant differences between scores for a given group are indicated by an asterisk. "NS" denotes no signif icant difference. The level of significance for a given comparison is indicated in brackets. The "T value" is the sum of the ranked differences of less frequent sign between pre- and post-test scores of a given group according to Wilcoxon's procedure. The number of observations for a given group (number of students tested) = n. Group Pre-test Scores Post-test Scores T value Significance A range = 17.0 - 35.0 range = 31.5 - 40.5 0 ' * (0.005) n = 15 n = 15 B range = 6.0 - 27.0 range = 21.0 - 37.5 1 * (0.005) n = 15 n = 15 C range = 16.0 - 35.0 range = 9.0 - 40.5 61 NS (0.05) n = 17 n = 17 CHAPTER 4 61 S y n o p s i s o f E v a l u a t i o n F i n d i n g s S t r e n g t h s o f the Program and S a t i s f a c t i o n Of O b j e c t i v e s As a r e s u l t o f p i l o t t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f " C l o s e E n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e B u i l t E n v i ronment" t o t h e B.C. s e c o n d a r y c u r r i c u - lum, a number o f s t r e n g t h s o f the program have been i d e n t i f i e d . The most i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i c i a l a s p e c t o f t h e program f r o m a s t u d e n t ' s p o i n t o f view a p p e a r s to have been g r e a t l y h e i g h t e n e d i n d i v i d u a l awareness o f man's b u i l t e n vironment and i n c r e a s e d . a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and d e t a i l . The s t u d e n t s from s c h o o l A appeared g r e a t l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e program and f e l t t h a t t h e y had b e n e f i t t e d from i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l aware- n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y appeared t o e n j o y the o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e o p i n i o n s , make judgments and propose a l t e r n a t e schemes f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . The s t u d e n t s from group A and a l l t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d f e l t t h a t t h e t o p i c was i m p o r t a n t , r e l e v a n t and w o r t h w h i l e . Added ad v a n t a g e s o f the program appeared t o be t h e way i t prompted group d i s c u s s i o n and d e b a t e , encouraged teamwork both i n f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s and i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o engage i n f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s and t o m a n i f e s t t h e i r own c r e a t i v i t y and i n n o v a t i o n i n r e p o r t i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s . T h e r e was g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m f o r f i e l d s t u d i e s arid t h e p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s o f s u c h " i n v o l v e m e n t was e v i d e n c e d by t h e way many s t u d e n t s from group A s p e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t , i n c l u d i n g home s t u d y t i m e , on c o m p l e t i o n o f h i g h q u a l i t y r e p o r t s and p r o d u c t s . In many i n - s t a n c e s s t u d e n t s f r o m t h a t group e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o have more t i m e t o d e v o t e t o such a c t i v i t i e s . The o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e o f two o f t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the p i l o t t e s t i n g was h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f the t e a c h e r from s c h o o l A, who f e l t t h e m a t e r i a l was w e l l o r g a n i z e d , f l e x i b l e and c l e a r l y 62 explained. The material appeared to be easily adapted by both pi lot study teachers with relat ively l i t t l e preparation time or necessity to consult other reference material. Generally, classroom introduction sessions for a given act iv i ty followed the format and content of the workbook. Quantitative testing revealed a signif icant increase in performance in knowledge and s k i l l areas related to the bui l t environment for both test groups A and B. Interestingly, the largest increase in test performance when pre- and post-test class scores were compared occurred with group B. The response of that group to other evaluation techniques indicated a generally negative reaction to the material. In assessing the overall effectiveness of the program, i t is important to ascertain i f the broad and speci f ic objectives (intents, ends) of the program, as set out in Chapter 2 (p. 23), have been sat is f ied . The broad objectives of the program, which conform to the general learning outcomes of the B.C. secon- dary art curriculum specify that the student should demonstrate knowledge of , ab i l i ty to apply and consideration for: imagery, elements and principles of design, historical and contemporary developments, and reasoned cr i t ic ism. In addition, there is a requirement that the learning outcomes be carried out in conjunction with appropriate materials, tools, and equipment, processes and vocabulary. While assessment of attainment of these objectives is largely qual i tat ive, i t seems reasonable to conclude that the performance of group A in the pi lot testing and the quantitative improvement of both groups A and B on the pre- and post-tests (based upon specif ic behavioral objectives) suggest attainment of the program's objectives. Student enthusiasm and recognition of increased awareness of the bui l t environment and evidence of production of excellent reports, sketches, and design suggestions (group A) suggest that use of know- ledge gained, consideration and application of imagery and elements and prin- ciples of design took place. Furthermore, there is evidence that appropriate 63 t o o l s , ! m a t e r i a l s , and p r o c e s s e s were employed t o produce r e s p o n s e s t o the s t u d y m a t e r i a l . The s t u d y o f b u i l d i n g s and b u i l t forms, by i t s n a t u r e , f o c u s s e s the s t u d e n t ' s a t t e n t i o n on h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary t r e n d s i n b u i l d i n g and f a c i l i t a t e s d e s i g n , f u n c t i o n and appearance and i s t h e r e f o r e a s p e c i f i c component o f the workbook d e s i g n . In a d d i t i o n , t he m a t e r i a l i s v e r y much o r i e n t e d t o the development o f reasoned c r i t i c i s m and judgment which i s an i m p o r t a n t goal o f the study. S t u d e n t s appeared e n t h u s i a s t i c about the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s and t o make judgments. Moreover, th e y p r o - duced i n n o v a t i v e d e s i g n s u g g e s t i o n s when asked t o e v a l u a t e e x i s t i n g b u i l t e nvironments and t o sugg e s t improvements. I t may a l s o be argued t h a t t he s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f the program (p.25 ) have been a c h i e v e d . Both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d appear t o have bene- f i t t e d t hrough p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the b u i l t environment. S t u d e n t s demonstrated e l e v a t e d s k i l l s and knowledge thr o u g h q u a n t i t a t i v e t e s t i n g . O ther s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t e d to the c o n t e n t , methodology, c r i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y o f the m a t e r i a l have a l s o been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the program d e s i g n and the c o n t e n t o f the workbook p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f tho s e o b j e c t i v e s h a v i n g been met. To f u r t h e r examine whether the program meets the expe c t e d o b j e c t i v e s , i . e . the General L e a r n i n g Outcomes o f the B.C. secondary a r t c u r r i c u l u m and a c c e p t e d b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o l l o w s an o v e r a l l assessment o f the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t s a t i s f y i n g program o b j e c t i v e s . Both workbook c o n t e n t and emphasis as w e l l as t h e f i n d i n g s o f the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t t o an assessment were r e l a t e d to how w e l l t he m a t e r i a l s a t i s f i e d program o b j e c t i v e s as s e t out i n a t a b l e o f s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the program. To f a c i l i t a t e such an e v a l u a t i o n , t he p r e - and p o s t - t e s t was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o encompass d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n a r t e d u c a t i o n (see Appendix V ) . These b e h a v i o u r s have been d e s c r i b e d by Bloom e t a l (1971) and W i l s o n (1971) and i n c l u d e p e r c e p t i o n , knowledge, comprehension, a n a l y s i s , 64 evaluation, appreciation and some production behavior. The intent is to develop a table of specifications for the program based upon the above behavioral objectives and the B.C. General Learning Outcomes. Desirable behaviors in art education have been defined by Wilson (1971) as follows: 1) Perception: The process by which an individual transforms received sensory qualit ies : into the world as he knows i t . In art education, i t refers to a refining of the senses, to the development of the ab i l i t y to view objects and events in ways which go beyond customary perception and mere recognition. 2) Knowledge: encompasses the behaviors of remembering, reca l l ing , and recognizing those things which are present during an original learn- ing experience (often highly verbal in art education). For purposes of evaluating knowledge of the bui l t environment, three knowledge areas can be specif ied: knowledge of terms (abi l i ty to remember definit ions which distinguish one bui l t form from another), knowledge of c lass i f icat ion (recognition of bui l t forms belonging to specif ic sty les, periods, cultures, geographical locations and their d i s t i n - guishing features), and knowledge of c r i te r ia (the standards by which the aesthetic, functional or other qualit ies of the bui l t environment may be evaluated). 3) Comprehension: refers to responses to works of art which indicate that an individual has an understanding of the l i t e r a l , symbolic or al legorical messages in the bui l t form. The individual must be able to translate (to verbally describe the bui l t form), to interpret (to be able to describe and also be able to reorder, rearrange, and to assess what is essential or irrelevant) . 4) Analysis: refers to a dissection of the subject matter into i ts constituent parts, a detection of the relationship between the parts, and a determination of the relationships of the parts to the whole. 65 Analysis of elements is an item by item accounting of the various aspects of the bui l t form. Analysis of the relationship of parts involves the determination of some of the major connections among aspects of the bui l t form. Analysis of relationships of parts to the whole is the reaching of a conclusion about the content of the object and a determination of how the various aspects and their re lat ion- ships fuse to form the content. 5) Evaluation: is concerned with making reasoned c r i t i c a l judgments about the aesthetic quality and values of the bui l t form. Empirical evaluations are made on the basis of how well something serves the function i t was designed for. For example, a house can be judged to have high aesthetic merit based upon appearance but to be of poor functional usefulness based upon inter ior design considerations. Systematic evaluation (Pepper, 1945) provides four c r i te r ia for art evaluation: - coherence and relatedness within the work of art. - fusion and vividness of one's experiences with the work of art . - degree to which the work of art represents the norm. - amount of pleasure or pain generated from the art form. 6) Production: refers to the putting together of a r t i s t i c aspects to "form a work of art . Production involves s k i l l (primarily the exper- t ise with which the student controls art media) and creat ivi ty (abi l i ty to create with imagination and s k i l l ) in working with the subject matter and tools and materials provided. The above behaviors, as well as the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. Secondary Art Curriculum, were arrayed in a table of specifications (table 23) with the behavioral objectives forming the upper portion of the table and the G.L .O. 's forming the vert ical axis of the table. Entries in the body of the table indicate where content areas of the workbook and sections of the pre- and 66 post-test satisfy the specifications in the table margins. These re lat ion- ships therefore serve to i l lust ra te how the program content is directed towards desirable objectives and furthermore show that improvement of perfor- mance by test groups A and B on the pre- arid post-test demonstrates improved knowledge of the bui l t environment which also corresponds with the behavioral objectives and learning outcomes desired for the program. Concerns About the Program and Suggested Improvements Concerns about the program arising from the results of p i lot testing and evaluation are summarized in table 13. Major concerns identif ied include d i f f i cu l ty with vocabulary, some questions contained in the a c t i v i t i e s , and the need for an expanded introductory section providing more detail and explan- atory material. Needs identif ied for the introductory section included provi- sion of more detail on the importance and relevance of bui l t environment, instructions for teachers on the introduction, use, and choice of a c t i v i t i e s , student reporting suggestions and p i t f a l l s of fa i l ing to provide follow-up a c t i v i t i e s , time organization and planning suggestions, and the potential versat i l i ty of the material for special interest groups and course emphasis. As a result of these concerns, modifications were made to a number of sections of "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment". The modified pages appear in Appendix lb and are cross-referenced to the original version to fac i l i ta te comparison. It is hoped that these modifications wil l improve the usefulness, c lar i ty and versat i l i ty of the workbook material. A major concern of the pi lot testing program was the disparity between the response of schools A and B. In school A, response was enthusiastic, the teacher was highly supportive and excellent results were produced. In school B, however, the teacher was quite c r i t i c a l and had d i f f i cu l ty adapting the material to her design interests moreover, the class proved generally unres- ponsive and uninterested in the material. A major factor in the poor response of the B group may have been the academic background and readiness of this Table 13 Synopses of concerns and suggestions for improvement arising from pilot testing of the workbook. Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Evaluator's Observations Introduction of the work- book needs improvement & expansion. Identified need for teacher involvement in field activ- i t ies. Some study questions in the workbook appear diff icult for the students. Some vocabulary appears to cause diff iculty. Lack of guidance on use of the work- book, time scheduling, introductory and follow-up activities, reporting by students. Teachers have difficulty adapting material to their subject area or interests. Some teachers may not recognize this need. Some students may not be ready for unsupervised field activities. Questions may be unclear, lacking in specificity, confusing or redundant. Vocabulary is unfamiliar to the stu- dents and possibly the teacher. New vocabulary is not clearly defined. Provide detailed instructions on lesson introductions, use of the book, planning for field trips, organization of time, methods and options for student reporting, use of deadlines. Provide more information on the importance and relevance of the subject of built environment for'a variety of dis- ciplines and illustrate applications of the material for different subject areas and interests. Stress importance and need for teacher involvement in in- troductory section of the workbook. Propose gradual expos- ure to unsupervised activities once students gain exper- ience and confidence. Revise questions in order to simplify and clarify them. Simplify vocabulary, provide definitions, provide vocabu- lary dr i l ls or a vocabulary review section in each activ- ity. Teacher Vocabulary difficulties See above See above Questionn- aires Study question difficulties See above See above The readability of some Concern about vocabulary, use of Application of readability testing to the material and sections may be questionable. language and new concepts. comparison of results to expectations for the grade level. Table 13 (cont.) Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Teacher Questionn- aires (cont.) Too rigid and too structured (teacher B). Not easily applied to art classes interested in manual product production (teacher B). Not enough content related to elements and principles of design (teacher B). Material not easily adaptable to a class lacking written or descriptive abil-ity. Teacher had difficulty seeing potential applications. Lack of visible applications to design concept teaching. Lack of class readi- ness for a unit of this type. Specific interests of the teacher and the expectations of the class. Inclusion of more visual material and "producing activit- ies". Provision of better introductory material to show potential applications for different interest groups. Better introductory material and illustration of poten- tial applications. Suggestion of potential pit fal ls. for classes lacking in readiness or suitability. Stress on the need for teacher participation and adaptation to suit the needs of the class. Stress the book's applicability for discovering natural and man-made design concepts through personal experience. Emphasize the need for the teacher to adapt or modify the material to suit the needs of the class and the subject being taught. Student Questionn- ai res Questions diff icult to an- swer or understand. Lack of sufficient time (class A). Lack of interest, motivation at school B. See evaluator's observations. May relate to pilot testing format. Insufficient time allowed for com- pletion of an activity. Student expectations different from material presented. See evaluator's observations Time may be less of a problem in ordinary classroom time format. Estimates of time required for specific activities including planning, introduction, field work and reporting would be beneficial. A broader mix of "shorter" and "long- er" activities might be helpful. Need to stress importance of teacher attempting to relate the material to the subject matter of the classroom and illustrate how study of the built environment has applica- tion to art classes. Table 13 (cont.) Source Concern Probable Cause(s) Suggestions for Improvement Student Lack of interest, motivation Questionn- at school B. airs (cont.) Poor performance of group B in field situations High proportion of students with very poor school records, lack of skil l with written material. Teacher un- familiar with the nature of the group at the start of pilot testing. Students lacked readiness, maturity for such activities performed with- out supervision. Activities may be inappropriate for "slow learners" as structured. Considerable adaptation may be required to suit the needs of such groups. Introductory remarks should provide guidance for teachers on this matter. Teacher invovement with a group such as this seems essen- tial to provide guidance, explain activities and ensure participation. Some students appear to need reassurance as indicated in their comments. Quantitative Marked improvement in per- Evaluation (pre- and post-tests) r i a r K e a improvement i n per- formance in both groups A & B, yet other evaluation in- dicators suggest l i t t le positive response from group B. Other evaluation methods did not ad- equately assess the response of group Quantitative evaluation methods were not comparable with other evaluation techniques. The students in group B may have understood the material and gained something from it yet were unable or unwilling to illustrate this in the questionnaires or through pro- duction of sketchbooks summarizing their findings. The structure of the pre- and post-test which was largely forced choice from multiple choice options in response to visual material may have been more suitable for group B than other means of expression. If this is so, revision of the workbook for a group such as this could involve sub- stitution of multiple choice answers to question material rather than written descriptive responses. 70 class for such material. As reported ear l ie r , the class had a large propor- tion of returned or potential dropouts and many had a very poor record of school accomplishments. These qual i t ies of the students appeared largely unknown to the teacher at the start of the testing program, hence no special measures were taken to accommodate to the needs of such a group. In particu- la r , the group appeared total ly unprepared for unsupervised f ie ld act iv i t ies and chose the opportunity to pursue their own interests. Although choice of such a group might have been unfortunate from the perspective of evaluation of an average c lass , the results may be considered useful in terms of judging the appl icabi l i ty of the workbook material for classes of a similar nature. In my opinion, the workbook material, as currently modified, is largely unsuit- able for such a group and introductory remarks inserted in the revised work- book ref lect that concern. In addition, with modification to include more visual material and less requirements for written responses (as suggested by teacher B) the workbook could be adapted to suit the needs of slow learner groups and those more adept at providing visual responses. Use of the material with such a group would require careful and patient introduction of the material by the teacher and active participation in a l l aspects of the program to provide supervision, direction and follow-up ac t iv i t i es . Program Analysis - Cr i t ica l Evaluation of the Program Program analysis is concerned with a c r i t i c a l evaluation of the technical aspects of the program. The process is similar to that used by an editorial c r i t i c who teases out embedded assumptions and values within the material to reveal the author's perspective. Munby (1979), in discussing c r i t i ca l evalua- tion of curriculum, addresses the question "of what should a curriculum cr i t ic ism consist?" (p. 246). His approach consists of a number of elements including describing the connectives and discontinuit ies within and among various materials, a c t i v i t i e s , goals and the rationale; analysing logical con- sistencies and inconsistencies within the developer's arguments; assessing the 71 strength of evidence provided in support of the varied claims and conclusions made; making expl ic i t the knowledge and demands placed on the teacher; check- ing readabi l i ty, c l a r i t y , and format, and portraying some picture of the quality of the classroom experience that teachers and students encounter. In the second chapter is this report, the underlying conceptions of the program were addressed and were defined as development of cognitive processes, curriculum technology and social reconstruction (based on definit ions by Eisner and Vallance, 1974). Provision of such a focus on the underlying con- ceptions of the program allows for def init ion of a c r i t i c a l method that ques- tions the developer's viewpoint in select ing, editing and unifying various ideas and material in the format of curriculum, which in turn is translated into classroom thinking and ac t iv i t i es . Werner (1979) addresses the significance of program cr i t i c ism, making three main points. F i r s t , and most important, he states that program cr i t ic ism seeks to uncover the deep underlying perspectives and assumptions contained in the curriculum. Secondly, he feels i t is important to discover the underlying relationships between the program and i ts social context. Last ly, Werner asserts that cr i t ic ism must seek to identify the possible implications that the program's perspectives and relations have for the classroom. Werner (1979) also addresses the l imitations of c r i t ic ism. He relates that there is no standard fixed formula or procedure to follow and no fixed format for reporting or time requirement for analysis. In Werner's view, curriculum cr i t ic ism offers a tool for reaching the "roots" of curriculum analysis and for illuminating the important elements of the program under evaluation. Following the above viewpoints, a c r i t i c a l evaluation of the program was conducted by the author from an editorial c r i t i ca l perspective. Intents The rationale, goals and objectives of the program were specified and 72 appear to relate well to one another. A signif icant volume of l i terature on the bui l t environment (chapter 1) supports the bel ief that the subject matter is important and meaningful for students. Results of quantitative testing indicate that a l l students involved in the p i lot testing program achieved the goals established. Some may have achieved more than the established goals. The qualitative evaluation i l lustrated student and teacher reactions and pro- vided guidance on some areas of the program that must be strengthened to im- prove l ikel ihood of goal attainment for a l l students. Students should find the goals and objectives suitable for their interests and ab i l i t i es as those goals are suf f ic ient ly broad to enable teachers to adapt the material to their own c lass 's interests, ab i l i ty and environment. Thus, the teacher is free to establish more specif ic goals to suit a local situation. If students achieve the goals and objectives of the program the intents of the program wil l be met. What is important is ensuring that increased environmental awareness and development of c r i t i c a l judgment of that environ- ment wil l provide students with lasting s k i l l s and sensi t iv i ty that wil l pro- vide an ongoing experience throughout their l ives . In addit ion, the external constraints on the objectives (G.L.O. 's of the B.C. art curriculum) and the behavioral objectives of the program design (table 14) appear to have been sat is f ied. Content ' The content of the program is organized and sequenced appropriately into a compendium of bui l t environment ac t i v i t i es . Each chapter has an explanatory introduction and table of contents. The workbook i t s e l f has a table of con- tents. An appropriate introduction for teachers, a glossary, and revised question content wi l l be added to the workbook. Content emphasis within the book centers on the provision of written and visual material to stimulate the students. With regard to c la r i ty of the material, some necessary modifications in Table 14- The relationship between the General Learning Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum (vertical axis) and the behavioral objectives in art education specified by Wilson and Bloom (horizontal axis) arranged in a table of specifications. Pertinent content of the workbook related to the specifications is indicated in the body of the table (no brackets) while sections of the pre- and post-test pertaining to the specifications appear in brackets in the body of the table. Unit 1- Sensing, experiencing, discovery and description Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials Processes Vocabulary Meaning of a built form (1B-1,2,3,4) Perceiving meaning through the senses (1A-1,2,3,4,5) Critical words skil1-following directions creativity & ski 11- writing, sketching, photography, paint- ing, 3-D form CO Table 14 (cont.) Unit II-Experiencing the Built Environment Behavioral Objectives Perception Knowledge Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Experiencing the Built Environment, Serial Vision, Steeple Chasing, Observing from all sides, Town Trai Is similarity, order, variety differences, changes, rela- tionships, comparisons of buildings, contrasts to surroundings Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools & equipment Processes experiencing likes & dislikes related to the built environment mapping, photography, sketching, painting, 3-0 form, camera skil ls following directions Vocabulary diversity of vocab- ulary used in unit re concepts of space, space relationships (II A- 1-14) Table 14 (cont.) Unit III- Part A- Influence of Design and Materials Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Behavioral Objectives Knowledge • Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Personal space, defin- Observing, interpret- ing space with objects, ing, space concepts, shared space, look and use of space, network space, symbols shared space, objects in space (III A 1-5, III B 1-11) Redesigning the look and use of space Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools & equipment Developing better network systems, designing storage systems Processes Vocabulary Personal space, shared space Mapping, tracing, designing symbols, sketching, photog- raphy, silk screen, 3-D form, textiles Table 14 (cont.) Unit III Part B- Influence of tesign and Materials Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools I equipment Processes Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Game approach, Working with material and de- Factors involved in the building process sign, Houses Game (planning), Home Improvements Dating Game-tracing and classifying buildings, historical features, signs Adaptation of building material to use, climate, historical and aesthetic use of material Analysis of elements in the design process (space, access, func- tion, light) Critical evaluation of home plans Evaluation and suggestions for improvement of neigh- bourhoods, ci t ies, homes Mapwork, checklists, 3-D models, sketch- ing, photography; slide series, reports. Vocabulary Semi-detached, duplex, detached Table 14 (cont.) Unit IV- Critical Appraisal Learning Outcomes Imagery Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Design proposals of architects and planners Elements and principles of design Learning to appraise the built environment Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools and equipment Processes Vocabulary Aptness of choice of materials for construction Aptness of design approach Context, routes, inter- face, grouping, proposals Checklists, scoring systems, class discussion, debate Mapwork, photography, 3-D models, written reports Design solutions for space, groupings, routes, context, building parts (IV A - l , IV B- 12*' IV C- 1,2) —1 Table 14 (cont.) Unit IV (part II)- More Experience with Appraisal Techniques Perception Knowledge Behavioral Objectives Comprehension Analysis Evaluation Production Learning Outcomes Imagery Elements and principles of design Historical and contemporary development Reasoned criticism in conjunction with: Materials, tools and equipment Appraisal techniques Appraising buildings, building impact evaluation, descriptive techniques Urban evaluation sheets, building impact score sheets, criteria use (V A 1-3, V B 1-3) Use of word evaluation sheet to cri t ical ly des- cribe the built environment Processes Appraisal processes Annotated photographs, sketches, slides, written reports Vocabulary 79 question format and directions were identif ied as a result of the evaluation. Readability testing indicated a grade 9 level of d i f f i c u l t y . Most of the content is based upon material recently described and tested elsewhere, hence the content ref lects current thought and modern perspectives. Some photo- graphs in the workbook depict modern buildings that w i l l , in time, become dated. It is important to consider a lso, whether the material is free from bias of any kind; i . e . , ethnic, re l ig ious, p o l i t i c a l , sex roles, mult icul tural , regional or occupational, bias. Al l the photographs in the book i l lust ra te B.C. l o c a l i t i e s , however, there is obvious emphasis on the urban rather than the rural setting as a result of the subject matter. No particular bias isi evident in the material with regard to re l ig ion , po l i t ica l viewpoint, sex roles, culture or occupation. Many of the act iv i t ies described in the book were adapted from approaches developed and tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A. Hence, the material is probably universal in application to Western society. Methodology "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment" offers a variety of student and teacher strategies suggested for opener, developmental and closure lessons. The book offers a mix of content transmission and act iv i t ies involving inquiry discovery and experience rather than just content transmission. The methodol- ogy is consistent with the objectives. The forward of the book offers sugges- tions of f l e x i b i l i t y . Different teaching and learning styles are encouraged and should not be hindered by. the material. Creativity and innovation are encouraged on the part of students. In recording and i l lust ra t ing their d is - coveries, students are directed to work with a variety of materials to express their reactions and recommendations. Student involvement in decision-making is encouraged. There are stated goals in the book but these goals may be adapted or modified based on ind iv i - 80 dual needs and interests. Ideally, there should be mutual adaptation on the part of students and teachers whereby the group works together to develop individual study act iv i t ies and an approach suited to the need and environ- ment of the group. The workbook material allows for individualized pacing of the material rather than group pacing. As much of the work can be done individually or in teams, students can proceed at their own pace to a considerable extent. It is evident that the need for an organized approach to f i e ld work is very impor- tant so that students are adequately prepared for the experience and engage in follow-up ac t iv i t i es . The book encourages open-ended responses from students that are not rest r ic t ive . Students are free to express their own opinions and feelings and are encouraged to do so. As the study area is broad and encom- passes a variety of subject matter in art and architecture (planning, func- tional aspects of buildings, materials and construction methods, ethnic and social considerations, historical perspectives), students are free to concen- trate on aspects of the bui l t environment that are of interest to them. Hence, there is a broad range of experience and expression available for students to explore. Evaluation Evaluation methodologies were chosen to form a broad assessment of the material. Teacher surveys, student questionnaires, evaluator 1s observations, quantitative testing and examination of student output were employed. Evalua- tion methodology provided for examination of mastery of the material by the students. Measures of what the students learned from the program were assessed in relationship to prior knowledge. Progress and reactions of students and teachers were monitored through participant observation to evaluate their response to the material and questioning procedures. Use of behavioral and general learning outcomes provided cr i te r ia to assess learner performance against a desired standard of mastery. Students were encouraged to engage in 81 self-evaluation and express opinions about the material. It is f e l t that the use of a broad array of evaluation methods, of both a quantitative and qual i - tative nature, have led to a thorough evaluation of the program. Potential for Implementation of the Program in the B.C. Curriculum In simple terms, implementation is the process of introducing a particu- lar change in the curriculum. In this case, we are considering the introduc- tion of a bui l t environment program in the art education curriculum for B.C. secondary schools. Thus, implementation is concerned with the implications and consequences of change within the existing system. Fullan (1979) v isua l - ized five components of implementation: structure/organization, materials, role/behavior, knowledge/understanding, and internalization (commitment). Structure or organizational changes might take the form of some funda- mental deviation in the classroom environment or in the teaching methods as a result of altered student groupings, independent work, team teaching approaches or some change that alters the existing pattern of events and associations. "Close Encounters with the Bui l t Environment" offers the opportunity for group, team, or individual experiences in the bui l t environment with the option of considerable f i e ld study. Thus, from the standpoint of the program, the pro- posed introduction of such material in the art curriculum which tends to be highly studio-oriented, would present the possib i l i ty of considerable change in organizational, groupings and traditional practice. Another component of the implementation process deals with the use of materials. If we consider implementation as change, then a deviation can only occur through the introduction of new materials or a fundamental change in the way traditional materials are used or interrelated. The buil t environment program that I have developed is a compendium of study a c t i v i t i e s , many of which have been developed and tested elsewhere. These materials have been adapted for use and evaluated in the B.C. secondary school system. If we 82 consider the program i t s e l f as a material resource, then introduction of the new workbook into the curriculum constitutes an opportunity through intro- duction of new material. From this perspective, i t is important to understand that there is at present no study material of this type speci f ica l ly developed for use in the B.C. school system other than the proposed program. A second source of study material is the buil t and natural environment that surrounds us. In other words, the subject matter i t s e l f constitutes an untapped material resource for study in the school system. Implementation of a program such as I propose would act to focus the attention of students and teachers on the natural and man-made environment and tend to broaden art horizons beyond traditional studio-related a c t i v i t i e s . In many instances, sources of inspiration for creat iv i ty in art ac t iv i t ies could result from ob- servation of design elements, natural forms, interrelat ionships, and textural and aesthetic quali t ies of natural and man-made forms and features. Also important in the implementation process are human behavior and role phenomena. Implementation can only be said to have occurred i f some change takes place in the behaviour of the people involved in the education process. Such change could be in the form of altered instructional behavior'on the part of teachers, in the way the teacher prepares for instruction (teaching strate- gies) and the way the students behave in response to the new material or system. The role of the teacher and student could undergo some fundamental alteration through implementation. The bui l t environment program encourages f lex ib le planning to suit the needs, interests and ab i l i t i es of the students and teacher. In addition, f lex- i b i l i t y is present in choice of study act iv i ty and emphasis to suit different geographic locations and emphasis on subject matter. A key strength of the program is that i t encourages mutual program development between the student and teacher. This emphasis is def ini te ly a major change in the tradit ional role of the teacher as transmitter of information and student as passive 83 receiver. Much dialogue and use of questioning is encouraged in the program. Outside resource people such as architects, planners, developers and designers are encouraged to participate in the program through interaction with the students. The program therefore introduces change through a more collabora- t ive program development process between teacher and students and takes advan- tage of external resource persons. Knowledge and understanding constitute a fourth dimension of implementa- t ion. Here, we are concerned with whether the teacher and student understand the intents, assumptions, philosophical objectives and benefits of the program and the methods necessary to implement and use the program. If the parties involved fa i l to see the relevance of the material or have d i f f i cu l ty working with i t , change wil l not take place. The introduction of the workbook attempts to i l lust ra te the relevance and importance of the study of the bui l t environment from a personal point of view. Its objective is to demonstrate that heightened environmental awareness and development of c r i t i c a l appraisal ab i l i t i es are of value to the individual in daily l i f e . Act iv i t ies within the workbook assume no prior knowledge of the subject and are arranged in a graded manner to encourage gradual accumu- lation of. knowledge and fami l iar i ty with the subject. An extremely important component of the program is i ts emphasis on personal experience as a vehicle for learning and as a stimulant for further enquiry. Student response to this aspect of the program, as evidenced through a variety of evaluation techniques (Appendix I), was extremely enthusiastic, indicating that there was understand- ing of the intents and benefits of the process and enthusiasm to do more. F ina l ly , a very important aspect of implementation is commitment (or internalization)' on behalf of the participants. If individuals are enthusias- t ic and motivated posit ively towards the intents of the program there is a much improved possib i l i ty of successful implementation. However, as Fullan (1979) points out, there is often commitment to an objective that is not necessarily 84 the innovation connected with the program. An example of such an occurrence appears to have occurred during p i lot testing of this program. The teacher at school B, while i n i t i a l l y highly enthusiastic about the material, had d i f f i - culty applying i t or producing any signif icant results from her c lass. Her comments (Appendix IV) suggest that'she or ig inal ly believed the material to be direct ly applicable to a studio class of slow learners accustomed to producing traditional art products with their hands. Her comments indicate resistance to the material when i t fa i led to direct ly fac i l i t a te producing act iv i t ies in the classroom environment related to elements and principles of design. This teacher therefore appeared to expect a different outcome from the use of the material than that for which i t was designed. Fullan (1979) states that there are two potential approaches to v isua l - izing implementation of a program. The f i r s t , he terms the "degree of imple- mentation" or " f ide l i ty approach" which involves careful ly defining or speci- fying a change in such a clear and precise way and then providing maximum encouragement for people to use i t . Alternately, he describes the "mutual adaptation" approach in which the innovation is externally defined in a f a i r l y general way and then implemented and adapted by the users to suit their speci- f i c circumstances, interests and a b i l i t i e s . Once this formative process has occurred, the innovation is then .carefully evaluated and defined in the con- text of i ts use. Fullen points out that the mutualistic approach is "closer to the rea l i t ies of curriculum change" and therefore implies the method to be the more practical of the two approaches. Certainly, a mutual adaptation approach as discussed ear l ie r , has been taken in developing a f lex ib le program in "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment". Fullen (1979) l i s t s nine factors which he reports have been consistently found to relate to whether or not implementation takes place: pre-history, dist inct ion between content and role change, c la r i ty of goals/means, in-service training linked to implementation problems, meetings, local materials, adminis- 85 trative support, overload of changes, and time-line for implementation. Each of these factors wil l be examined as they relate to the program in question. Pre-history relates to the scepticism that can develop on the part of teachers from their experiences with past implementation fa i lures . There may be reluctance to accept any new innovation arising from external sources. A major benefit from the standpoint of introduction of bui l t environment pro- gram material is that i t has been introduced successfully elsewhere, notably in the U.S.A. and Br i ta in . Thus, i t may be possible to "se l l " the program to the sceptics on the basis of proven success in other locations. Role change definit ion and role identi f icat ion are important determinants of successful implementation. Fullen te l l s us that- i t is part icular ly impor- tant to be aware of a l l the potential role change and behavioral changes that wil l accompany implementation and to exercise proper planning in anticipating and defining these changes. In some cases, old roles and behaviors must be abandoned and new roles taken up in order to implement the program. Coupled with altered roles, is the human t ra i t that tends to make people suspicious and fearful of change. Usually, any change is viewed negatively i f a deviation from accustomed tasks, roles or behavior is l ike ly to occur as i t disrupts the familiar and introduces unknown elements. Certainly, adoption of the mutual adaptation approach where teachers and students work closely in developing and modifying material from "Close Encounters with the Buil t Environment" might be viewed as disruptive or threatening to some teachers and students i f i t led to a major change in roles. Perhaps evidence of such a reaction is apparent in the response of test group B during p i lot testing of the program. I do not believe that the material or the approach is part icularly diver- gent from current curriculum emphasis in the B.C. schools. Certainly, the general learning outcomes of the.B.C. art curriculum encourage development of c r i t i ca l thought processes and "reasoned cr i t ic ism" on the part of the ind iv i - dual, as well as development of imagery, design concept understanding, and 86 historical and contemporary awareness - a l l major concerns of the program content. What is different from tradit ional approaches to art is the stress on f i e l d ac t iv i t ies and team and small group involvement in project comple- t ion. Also, the topic is considerably broader than tradit ional art subject matter and embraces architecture, urban design and planning, historical considerations and sociological concepts. Argyle (1967) posits that society in general tends to resist change of any sort and McFee (1974 a,b) discusses the relationship of art , culture and environment in terms of societal context. Art education however, perhaps more than most curriculum areas, is a f i e ld in which students and teachers share a c r i t i c a l awareness of the development of their art form. In ar t , development of a c r i t i ca l approach is considered essential (Eisner, 1973), hence the emphasis on development of building appraisal techniques and c r i t i c a l judgment which forms a cornerstone of the program should not represent a major change in concept from that advocated by writers in art education. Indeed, many authors would agree that the teacher's role is to stimulate awareness and development of cr i t ic ism in the student. Another important factor in successful implementation of a program is the necessity for clearly establishing the goals and objectives of the program and the means by which such goals may be achieved. This area is addressed in the introduction to the workbook which specif ies why the study of the bui l t envir- onment is important and how i t can benefit the individual. Furthermore, as a result of deficiencies in this area identif ied through the p i lot testing pro- gram, revised versions of the book (Appendix I-b) provide more detail on the objectives of the program. Suggested reading material in the program b ib l io - graphy should aid teachers in seeing the benefits of the program and in apply- ing the material to their own interests and situations. Fullen (1979) cites in-service training as an important asset to success- ful program implementation. He advocates the use of "workshops" for teachers 87 to address speci f ic problems of implementation. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), also cites studies which indicated that "concrete, on-going, and teacher specif ic" training which allows teachers to try new techniques and seek guidance and assistance as needed proved a highly effec- tive tool for successful implementation (ERIC 1980, p. 2). Findings indicate that involvement of a l l levels of s ta f f , including school principals in "staff support" a c t i v i t i e s , prove part icular ly useful and that external pre-imple- mentation training was ineffect ive. The findings suggest that in-house exper- t ise and guidance was more readily accepted and deemed useful than the periodic help of external consultants. In the case of implementation of a buil t environment program, i t would be useful to develop a team approach to implementation among teachers of related discipl ines in a given school or d i s t r i c t . In this approach, teachers from the f ie lds of art , social studies, history and architecture and design could work together to discuss implementation strategies and share their exper- iences. It would l ike ly be highly beneficial to have an individual familiar with the material available to assist the others as required. Ideally, this resource person should be someone known to the group and not considered an "outsider". Thus, development of specialization in the subject within a school d i s t r i c t and ava i lab i l i ty of a d i s t r i c t resource person could improve chances of successful implementation. Adoption of this approach would f a c i l i - tate the use of regular program meetings as advocated by Fullan (1979) providing the p i t f a l l s of such meetings degenerating into "record keeping" or "project administration" as indicated by the Educational Resource Information Center (1980) are avoided. Use of local materials has also proven important in the implementation process. A study done by the Rand Corporation and described by Berman and McLaughlin (1977) indicates that teachers are more l ike ly to make use of a program that they gained experience and famil iar i ty with by working with the 88 material and adapting i t to their own needs than an externally imposed pro- gram. For this reason, internal f l e x i b i l i t y and potential for innovation and adaptation of the program materials are major elements of the program. Administrative support is essential to any program where people are accountable to higher authority. The administrator provides approval and support for the program. Obviously, implementation of the program is not possible without fu l l administrative support and interest. Lawrence (1974) reports that program implementation proves to be more successful with direct involvement of local supervisors and administrators than with attempts by outside personnel. To attempt to enl ist the support of administrators and curriculum author- i t i e s , I propose to submit a.copy of the program and the results of the pi lot testing to the Department of Education's Curriculum Department. I also intend to publish results in popular journals and periodicals and circulate the material to authoritative groups and associations such as the B.C. Art Teach- er 's Association, American Institute of Architects, Group for Environmental Education, and Bulletin of Environmental Education. In addit ion, circulat ion of complementary copies of the workbook to local school d is t r ic ts may prove helpful , as would presentation of findings at symposia and conferences. Time frames for the implementation process have also proven crucial for successful implementation. Gross et al (1970) describe case studies where teachers who were i n i t i a l l y enthusiastic about a new program, gradually became disenchanted with i t and cynical about chances of success. He relates that th is reaction came about due to frustrations which arose with time as the teachers attempted to implement the new material. Fullan (1979, p. 48) t e l l s us that "almost invariably people's expectations for the time to implement a curriculum are too short". Challenges raised by the implementation process for the teacher may lead to "overload" problems that teachers cannot cope with. The important thing here is that the implementation process must consider the 89 potential effects of time frame and overload problems and develop contingency plans and effective strategies to deal with them. In Fullan's view, the key to success l ies in developing a strategy which assigns pr ior i ty to one's ac t iv i t ies and a time frame that is rea l i s t i c and speci f ic . Careful consider- ation of the various problems and p i t f a l l s of implementation described here could aid successful implementation of a bui l t environment program in the B.C. curriculum. \ V CHAPTER 5 90 Cdriclusion Evidence presented indicates that the program has demonstrated merit and potential for application to the B.C. secondary curriculum. Results of a variety of evaluation techniques indicate positive response on the part of teachers and students to the material with heightened environmental awareness, evidence of development of c r i t i ca l thinking and judgment, positive motivation towards the subject matter, production of innovative resul ts , growth in know- ledge, comprehension and vocabulary and enjoyment of individual and teamwork part icipat ion, part icularly during f i e ld work. Encouraging results have been obtained with one highly motivated class of moderate to high ab i l i t y . Results with a class of slow learners, returned students and potential drop-outs were less encouraging yet growth in a l l evaluation areas was indicated for the group on the basis of quantitative testing. Pi lot testing revealed some concerns about.the program which were addressed through modification and expansion of some areas of the program. The program appears to be implementable, provided implementation cr i te r ia can be sat is f ied . Tr ia l implementation on a one-year basis has been suggested for a larger scale evaluation of the material than possible in this program. In support of the program, a number of sources in the l i terature can be cited to i l lust ra te successful use of the subject matter elsewhere. Chapter I summarizes bui l t environment study programs, in place in the school systems of other countries, notably the U.S.A. and Great Br i ta in . Concern for , and interest in the subject of bui l t environment, has led to the publication of a number of works, periodicals, and books on the subject as summarized in b ib l io - graphies such as that of Chalmers (1981). Obviously, many inf luential educa- tors and special ists believe the material and subject matter to be important and relevant to the modern curriculum. 91 An important strength of the program is that i t increased environmental awareness and gave students the opportunity to voice opinions, make judgments and propose alternate schemes for the buil t environment. Increased individual awareness is viewed as essential by Halprin (1978) who stresses the importance of individual participation in the shaping of our c i t i e s . Halprin (p. 221) states that "the art of c i t ies is the art of creative assemblage and change requiring the constant and energetic input of a l l i ts c i t izens". His message is that individual awareness of surroundings and desire to become involved with improving those surroundings is essential i f the potential of the human environment is to be fu l ly real ized. Hilda Symonds (1971) believes that the school system is an essential element in addressing the matter of societal need for bui l t environmental awareness. She advocates inclusion of urban education in the school system as early as possible in the educational process. McFee and Degge (1980) stress the importance of the urban environment and i ts quality as a place in which to l ive and point out that the need for an optimized urban environment increases as population r ises and resources become scarce. McFee and Degge (p. 10) state that "the quality of the environment depends on the people's ab i l i t y to use their design, sens i t iv i ty , their social responsibi l i ty and their ecological concerns together to solve environmental problems". Lynch (1960. p. 120) stresses the importance of individual awareness by stating: "Education in seeing wil l be quite as important as reshaping of what is seen. Indeed, they together form a c i rcu la r , or hopefully a spiral process: visual education impelling the ci t izen to act upon his visual world, and this action causing him to see even more acutely. A highly developed art of urban design is linked to the creation of a c r i t i c a l and attentive audience. If art and audience grow together, then our c i t ies wil l be a source of daily enjoyment to mill ions of their inhabitants." Fabstein and Kantrowitz (1978, p. 2) discuss the benefits of increased aware- ness, stating that "being more aware opens up opportunities for act ion, for 92 understanding places and being aware of them". A major strength of the program, as indicated by student comments and enthusiasm, was that i t provided opportunity for students to voice opinions, make judgments, and propose alternative schemes for modification of the bui l t environment. Added advantages of the program appeared to be the way i t promo- ted group discussion and debate, encouraged teamwork in f i e ld act iv i t ies and problem solving and provided students with the opportunity to use their own creat ivi ty and innovation in reporting findings. In support of such a c t i v i - t i e s , Symonds (1971, p. 6) states: "The place in our society where a l l men meet is in the school. Only i f the dialogue can begin there, is there some reasonable ground for hoping that in adult l i f e there wil l be a widespread understanding of the c i ty . " Mumford (1961) supports this point of view, advocating greater public participation in the dialogue related to urban development. McFee and Degge (1980) discuss the importance of teachers and students participating in the process of making thoughful judgments about the quality of the bui l t environ- ment as i t affects our experiences. Lynch (1960) cautions us that c i t ies support large numbers of individuals with widely diverse backgrounds and ethnic and cultural differences. In his view, in forming judgments arid proposing modifications to the buil t environment we should try to concentrate on the physical image and allow meaning to develop on an indiv idual is t ic basis rather than from some directed scheme. Teacher A, in part icular , fe l t that the material tested was well organ- ized, f lexible and clearly explained. The material appeared to be easily adapted by both pi lot study teachers with relat ively l i t t l e preparation or necessity to consult other reference material. Act iv i t ies in the book appeared to be most successful with average and above average students who are able to verbalize and write responses at the applied grade level . Less success can be expected with students whose ab i l i ty is of the level of test group B, i .e . 93 students unable to express themselves in verbal or written form. More visual experiences and "hands on" ac t iv i t ies and teacher participation wi l l be needed for success with such groups. The teacher is an essential factor in successful application and imple- mentation of a program of study on the buil t environment. F i rst i t is essen- t ia l that the teacher understand and believe in the value of the material for the students. Symonds (1971) posits that i t is fashionable to consider the ci ty as a hideous place and to advocate the joys of the unspoilt natural environment. She reminds us that we must face real i ty and recognize that c i t i es are a basic element of human l i f e and that i t is therefore incumbent on the teacher to attempt to prepare students to deal with this way of l i f e and to work to improve i t . Symonds feels that the teacher must awaken the awareness in students of the actual l i f e of the c i ty . She feels that only through such awareness, gained through training and experience, wil l the stu- dent come and see and understand c i t i es and their complex construction, systems and sociological character ist ics. F ina l ly , i t is the investigator's belief that the study of the urban environment is an important one worthy of inclusion in the curriculum. Fur- thermore, the program described here has been shown to have potential for implementation in the B.C. curriculum on a t r i a l basis. As population grows, shortages of natural resources and inexpensive energy occur, and as further urbanization takes place, there wil l be an ever-increasing need for the educa- tional system to address the needs of students in relation to the buil t envi- ronment. The students of today wil l shape tomorrow's environment. It is our responsibi l i ty to ensure that they have the intel lectual tools and knowledge in order to meet such a challenge. Bib!iography 94 Adams, E. Art and environment. Bulletin of Environmental Education, October 1977, 3-8. Aoki, T. (Ed.). Curriculum evaluation in a new key. Vancouver: Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, U . B . C , 1.978. p. 2. A monograph of papers presented at the College and University Faculty Association Symposium, Annual Conference of the National Council of the Social Stud- ies , Cincinnati , November 1977, p. 2. Argyle, M. The social psychology of social change. In T. Burns and S.B. Saul (Eds.) , Social theory and economic change. London: Tavestock Publications, 1967. Berman, P. & McLaughlin, M.W. Federal programs supporting educational change, Vol. VIII: Implementing and sustaining innovations. Santa Monica, Ca l i f - ornia: Rand Corporation, 1978. Bloom, B. , Hastings, J . T . , & Madaus, G.F. Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw Hi l l Book Company, 1971. Broudy, H.S. How basic is aesthetic education or is Rt the fourth R? Language Ar ts , 1977, 54, 631-637. i Built Environment Education Center. The role of preservation in BEE. The BEEC Report,December 1977, 5-8. Built Environment Education Center. BEE: a growing f i e l d , a f i e l d for growth. The BEEC Report, April 1978 5-8. Built Environment Education Center. Art and the bui l t environment project- notes on the exhibition. The BEEC Report, October 1979, 3-9. Chalmers, F.G. Ideas for bui l t environment education: A transatlantic annota- ted bibliography of useful books and periodicals (1970-80). Vancouver, B.C.: Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, The Faculty of Education, The University of Bri t ish Columbia, January 1981, 1-12. Chippindale, F. & Ward, C. A concluding word. Bui l t Environmental Educations April 1979, 27. Dorn, C M . The new eclecticism/or art is anything you can get away with. Art Education, December 1978, 6-9. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). On educational management- research action brief . Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, University of Oregon, No. 11, April 1980. Efland, A. The school art sty le: A functional analysis. Studies in Art Ed- ucation, 1976, ]]_ (2), 37-44. Eisner, E.W. Research on teaching the visual arts. In R.M.W. Travers (Ed.) Second handbook of research on teaching. New York: Rand McNally College Publishing L t d . , 1973, 1196-1209. 95 Eisner, E.W. & Vallance, E. Five conceptions in curriculum: their roots and implications for curriculum planning. In E.W. Eisner & E. Vallance (Eds.) Confl ict ing conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. Eriksen, A & Smith, V. Art and the bui l t environment. Art Education, September 1978, 4-6. • "* Fabstein, J . & Kantrowitz, M. People in places. Experiencing, using and changing the bui l t environment. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice Ha l l , 1978. Fry, E. A readabil i ty formula that saves time. Journal of Reading, 1977, 21 (3), 242-252. Fullan,M. Conceptualizing problems of curriculum implementation. In W. Werner (Ed.) Curriculum Canada- perceptions, pract ices, prospects. Vancouver, B.C. : Canadian Assoc. for Curriculum Studies and Center for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Br i t ish Columbia, July 1979, 40-50. Gross, N. Giaquinta, J . B . , & Bernstein, M. Failure to implement a major org^ anizational innovation. In M.B. Miles & W.W. Charters (Eds. ) , Learning in social sett ings: new readings on the social psychology of education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1970. Halprin, L. C i t i e s . Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1978. Heritage Education Group, C iv ic Trust. Education and Heritage. London: 17 Carleton House Terrace, 1976. Hurwitz, A. & Madeja, S.S. The joyous v is ion. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1977. Jones, L. A taste of c lass . Architectural Review. February 1979, 165, 73-79. Lawrence, G. Patterns of effective inservice education: A state of the art summary of research on materials and procedures for changing teacher behaviors in inservice education. Tallahasee, F lor ida: Florida State Dept. of Education, 1974. Lynch, K. The image of the c i t y . Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1960. McFee, J .K . New directions in art education. Art Education, November 1974 (a), 27, 10-15. McFee, J .K . Society, art and education. In G. Hardiman & T. Zemich (Eds.) Curricular considerations for visual arts education. Champaign, I l l i n o i s : St ipes, 1974 (b), 79-80. McFee, J .K . & R.M. Degge. Ar t , culture and environment- A catalyst for teaching. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co . , 1980. Macaulay, D. Underground. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , 1976. 96 Mann, D.A. Architecture, aesthetics and pluralism: Theories of taste as a determinant of architectural standards. Studies in Art Education, 1979, 20, 15-29. Massey, D. & Werner, W. Canadian content k i ts : an assessment. Edmonton, Alberta: The University of Alberta, 1977 (study done under contract to Alberta Dept. of Education). Metcalf, L.E. & Hunt, M.P. Relevance and the curriculum. In E.W. Eisner & E. Vallance (Eds.) Confl icting conceptions of curriculum. Berkeley: McCutchan, 1974. Mumford, L. The ci ty in history. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961, 117. Munby, H. Philosophy for children: An example of curriculum review and cr i t ic ism. Curriculum Inquiry, 1979, 9_ (3), 229-249. Pepper, S. The basis of cr i t ic ism in the arts. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1945. Schneider, H. & Schneider, N. Let's look under the c i ty . New York: Scott, 1954. State of Ohio, Department of Education. Planning art education in the middle secondary schools of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: State Department of Educa- t ion, 1977. Steel , R.D.G. & Torr ie , J .H . Principles and procedures of s ta t i s t i cs . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1960. Symonds, H. The teacher and the c i ty . Toronto, Ontario: Methuen, 1971. Werner, W. Editorial cr i t ic ism in curricular analysis. Curriculum Inquiry, 1980, 10 (2), 143-154. Werner, W. & Aoki, T. Programs for people. Vancouver, B.C. and Edmonton, Alberta: University of Br i t ish Columbia Center for the Study of Curr ic- ulum and Instruction and University of Alberta, Department of Secondary Education, 1979 (pre-publication draft) . Williams, R.M. Why children should draw- the surprizing link between art and learning. Saturday Review, September 3, 1977, 11-16. Wilson, B.G. Evaluation of learning in art education. In B. Bloom, J . T . Hastings, & G.F. Madaus (Eds.) Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1971. 97 Appendix I Part A- The act iv i ty workbook "Close Encounters with the Built Environment" as tested in the pi lot testing program. Part B- Revisions to the workbook arising from the findings of the pi lot testing program. Only pages where revisions occur or new pages added to the original are included. Page numbers correspond to the original test version wherever possible. (Note- an Ilk x 14 inch format was used for the workbook. Pages have been reduced to 8h x 11 inch format for inclusion here.) C L O S E E N C O U N T E R S with the BUILT E N V I R O N M E N T by: Susan J . - Davis Facul ty of Educat ion Graduate Studies Unive rs i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (c) Susan J . D avis Introduction This book deals with the built environment and your relation- ship to it . The built environment is the man-made environment which surrounds you in everyday l i fe - your house, neighbour- hood, ci ty, streets, paths or any structural forms. This book is to be-used, not just to be read. It will enable you to get involved in places, to.be aware of places, to understand how people experience those places and form judgments about them. The activities in this book are for your enjoyment as well as to help you become aware of the built environment and how it affects you as a person. Each of the activities in the book offers a pathway into a • significant aspect of how we experience, use, design, organize, or evaluate the built environment. Out of this awareness it is possible for us to decide how we might wish to change or modify the built environment. Each chapter introduces an issue through a set of experiences or study approaches. The ideas are yours to use, change or expand as you wish. You may work individually, in small groups, or as a class on most projects. Many different activities are offered in, order to give you a choice and allow selection of those activities that suit your surroundings, opportunities, interests or available time. You are not expected to complete all activities and may select those in any part of the book as you wish. At the beginning of each chapter a l is t of the activities in the chapter is presented. In most chapters these activities are grouped under headings entitled "getting started", "ex- panding horizons" or "doing more". While none of the headings suggests that the activities under it are more difficult or complex than any other, those entitled "getting started" may be expected to provide a logical starting point for activities within the chapter. Some activities are designed for class use in the immediate surroundings of the school. Others involve field work and can be expected to require more time, field trips or after class study. No activity in the book assumes prior expertise and extensive preparation. If you can sketch, take photographs, make notes, follow directions, build models or write descriptive material you have all the skills required. Process, experience, aware- ness, and desire for action are important, not any desired product. The book and its activities are yours to use and enjoy. The practical benefits of learning more about experiencing, describing and appraising'your built environment will be of lasting value for you in years to come. Contents Chapter Page Acknowledgments i i i 1 Sensory Experience- Discovery and Description . . . 2 Open Space Activities 3 The Sensory Walk 4 Shopping Center Activities 5 Guiding by Cards 6 Describing Your Environment 7 Building a Critical Vocabulary 9 2 Experiencing the Built Environment 10 Steeplechasing • 12 Serial Vision 15 Experiencing a Building from all Sides 17 The Town Trail 20 3 Influence of Design and Materials 29 A-Personal Space 31 Defining Personal Space with Objects 32 Shared Space Activities 33 Analysing the Look and Use of Space 34 Network Spaces 36 Symbols 37 B-The Dating Game 39 The Houses Game 41 The Improvements Game •' 43 Chapter Page 4 Critical Appraisal 45 A- The Four Factor Building Appraisal 46 Infill 55 Evaluating Proposals 60 B- More Experience with Appraisal Techniques 61 Building Impact Evaluation 62 Urban Evaluation Sheet 64 Annotated Photographs 66 SI ide Program .' 67 5 References, Sources of Ideas 68 O o A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s The author is grateful for permission received from a number, of sources to reproduce material, photographs or illustrations Many of the activities contained herein have been taken or ad- apted from articles in the Education Unit of the Town Planning Association's publication Bulletin of Environmental Education published by Russell Press, 45 Gamble St. , Nottingham, NG7-4ET England. The Town and Country Planning Association may be con- tacted at 17 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y-5AS. The author is extremely appreciative for permission to use this material extended by the Town and Country Planning Association and to the authors of articles in the Association's bulletin, BEE, who developed and tested many of these ideas and concepts. I am also appreciative of permission given by authors J.K. McFee and R.M. Oegge and publishers Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. of Dubuque, Iowa, for permission to use concepts and questions adapted from Art, Culture and Environment, A Catalyst for Teaching. Illustrations of houses used on page 39 are reproduced by permission of the Western Educational Development Group, University of British Columbia. Photographs of the Bentall and Dominion buildings in Vancouver, B.C. (page 9) are reproduced with permission from pages 7 and 12 of H. Kalman and J . Roaf's Exploring Vancouver 2. University of B.C. Press. (J. Roaf, photographer). Illustrations .of houses appearing on page 57 are reproduced from pages 147, 148 and 152 of Home Design and Decor- Select Home Designs with Permission from Planners Plus Enterprises Ltd, Vancouver, B.C. All other illustrations or photo- graphs in the text are by the author. 1 am most appreciative of the patient help, advice and support extended by my graduate studies committee consisting of Dr. G. Chalmers (supervisor), and Dr. J . Gray of the Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Univer- sity of British Columbia, and Prof. A. Rogatnick of the School of Architecture, University of British Columbia. Support for publication of this work was extended by Canada Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and by the British Columbia Heritage Trust. The author is most appreciative of this assistance. The views expressed in this book are entirely those of the author and no responsibility for them should be attributed to the Canada Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation or to the British Columbia Heritage-Trust. 1 Y o u r S e n s e s The environment surrounds us and we constantly interact with i t . The environment gives us. information about who and what we are and how we relate to our external surr- oundings. You can find out more about yourself and others by discovering and describing the environment about you through the use of your senses. Your senses bring you a great deal of information about your surroundings. Places are experienced through your hearing, touch, sight, sense of smell and taste. As your body moves through space you may receive a changing im- pression of that space through information coming from your senses. A large amount of this information comes through your eyes. You distinguish light and shade, colour shape, texture and form a variety of mental impressions through visual images. The two eyes allow us to judge dis- tance, orient ourselves in space and examine relationships between objects. Our eyes also allow us to observe the activities of people and living and moving objects. Our ears, sense of touch, taste and smell provide other information. The ears detect a range of sound, from loud to soft,.low pitched to high. Sounds tell us about the size of a place, what is happening there, and also provide infor- mation on the nature of the place. For example, think about the sounds you associate with the seashore or deep forest.and the different sounds of a crowded street at rush hour. Touching ob- jects can give you a variety of impressions. Imagine cold, hard rock or marble, soft green grass, wet snow, polished hardwood. Touching gives us sensations of heat, cold, pressure, pain and pleasure and may enrich or confirm what we see or hear. Our sense of smell also tells us about the nature of a place and what is going on there. Taste is important too. Licking a gluey stamp may be unpleasant, while savoring an ice cream sundae may be a pleasur- able experience which you wish to prolong. The brain is our computer that receives information from the senses, interprets i t , and governs our reactions to sensory infor- mation. It is through this action of the senses and our intellect that we form impressions of our environment and react to those impressions. 2 1. S e n s o r y E x p e r i e n c e - D i s c o v e r y a n d D e s c r i p t i o n Concentrating on your sensory experiences will enable you to better describe the built environment. A group of activ- ities follow which will allow you to discover your environ- ment through the use of your senses: GETTING STARTED: Open Space Activity- sensing places by concentrating upon open spaces and their properties by using your senses one at a time will help you become aware of your perceptions. The Sensory Halk- noticing how places and your percep- tions of those places change as you walk through them while concentrating upon your sensory impressions. Shopping Area Activities- using a shopping area as a place to practice sensing the built environment. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Guiding by Cards- using "fun cards" to help you sense the built environment through a structured approach. DOING MORE: Describing Your Environment- looking at parts of interest- ing buildings and describing what you see. Exploring other parts of those buildings and seeking information in order describe them through various sources. Building a Critical Vocabulary- exploring ways of using and building vocabulary through visual observation. O co 3 O p e n S p a c e A c t i v i t e s (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, TL, 7-8) Choose a large open space such as a park, f ie ld , play- ground or parking lot and enter i t . Stop somewhere and look around. Concentrate on each of your senses in forming an impression of the space: Eyes: What do you see? How is this space used and how does its design reflect this use? Notice light, shadow, textures, the tapestry of lights, colours. Record your impressions: Ears: Close your eyes and concentrate on the sounds around you. What different sounds can you hear? What sounds are most noticable? What sounds are attractive or unattractive? Are there near sounds, distant sounds, musical sounds or birdsongs? Smell and Taste: Turn and inhale facing in different direc- tions. What smells do you detect? Flowers, automobiles,industry, cooking? Can you also taste things in the air? How do you feel about these sensations? Touch: Examine the ground around you and at your feet. Reach down and touch i t . If an object is nearby, reach out and touch i t . How does it feel? Motion through Space: Choose an interesting object and walk to- wards i t . How does your impression of the space change as you move? Does the object appear different as you get nearer to it? Stop at the object and explore i t carefully using all your senses. Record your impressions: T h e S e n s o r y W a l k (after Bulletin Find an interesting area that has a variety of buildings such as a city or residential block. If possible, choose an area with which you are generally familiar. Then choose a direction to move in that is least predictable. Follow any change of direction that occurs to you along the way. As you move, try to relax and concentrate on your surround- ings using all your senses. Try to experience the walk with all your senses-touch, look, l isten, smell and think about the sensations. As you move, begin to concentrate upon all the environment about you. Examine sky, clouds, trees, signs, buildings and the perimeters of buildings and other struc- tures overhead as well as things beside you and at your feet. Record your impressions in a notebook. Does the place please you? Have you noticed things that you overlooked before? Are some of the sensations surprizing or interesting? Is today's weather influencing your impression of the place? Take an area and walk very fast through i t , finishing the section at a run. How did your perception of the place change according to the rate you moved through it? Try moving through the same area moving very slowly and concentrating on all your senses. Do you notice a difference? Record your findings.. Are you tempted to change direction? Why? 4 of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72, 7-8) Halt at an intersection or place where there is a lot of activity. Note the different directions, speeds and features of moving objects such as cars, trucks, people, animals. Is there a rhythm or special pace of the activities? What do your senses tell you about the moving objects? Imagine yourself as one of the people.you are observing. How would it feel to be that person dressed the way he or she appears? Turn your attention to the architecture around you. Pick out one or two details that are attractive and study them carefully. Pretend that you have to reproduce a sketch of those details from memory at the finish of the walk and try to memorize each feature. At the end of your walk, think about your impression Of the place. Do you feel different about i t now? Did you discover things you had overlooked before? Were you aware of new sensations and feel- ings? In your notebook, make a checklist of your new impressions and try to compare them to your feelings about the place before you started the sensory walk. O cn S h o p p i n g C e n t e r A c t i v i t i Select a local shopping center or community store complex as a study site. Try to find a place where there is a variety of shops and different types of activities and choose a time when people are actively doing things there. Stand in an in- teresting spot and look around you. Examine colour, light and shade, movement and details of the buildings. Record your sensations: Concentrate on-a group of shops that attracts your attention. Examine this group carefully, noting details of the architect- ure, shape and character of the buildings. Choose a shop that you would normally never enter and imagine you have business there. Enter the shop and study its interior carefully."Are there things about the shop that you did not visualize from outside? • • Return to the street and examine the people going about their business in the area. Imagine that you are one of those people and follow along behind the person for a time, trying to put yourself in the person's role. How would it feel to be that person? What might they be thinking about? Follow someone S (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72_, 8) into a shop and imagine that you are that person going about the same business. Think about how that activity influences how you might behave and why you are in the shop. Record your actions while imagining that you are the other person: Return to the street and look at the human activity around you.• How is the shopping center or store complex suited to the bus- iness people have there? Is the design and layout convenient for people? Is the atmosphere pleasant? Does the place appeal to the senses? Think about how you would design the area to make i t a convenient and attractive place to be. Suggest what features are attractive and functional in the place and how it might be improved (use notes and sketches): G u i d i n g b y C a r d s (from Bulletin of Environmental Education. April 1977, 7|_, 9-10, with illustrations from that source) Make up a series of cards on light cardboard similar to the ones shown here. They should be small enough so that you can easily carry them round and work with them. The idea is that a group of cards serves as a random guide to a sensory walk for you or your study group by providing directions and in- structions to be followed during the walk. If you wish, you may make up other kinds of cards to add to those illustrated. For example, you might wish to add cards which specify starting the walk at different times of day, role-playing cards or any- thing that strikes your imagination. You could have an "ob- serve something expensive" or an "observe something old" card. Try variations on the theme to add enjoyment. Select a partner and an appropriate study site to test the cards. Shuffle the cards and turn one over and proceed with the activity indicated on the card. When satisfied, proceed to the next card and develop the game as you go. Try to think of ways to improve the exercise and if necessary, make more cards to add to the deck. At the end of the activity write a short report on the experience including any observations made at the direction of the cards. Include comments on the usefulness of the method and how it could be improved for use by others. 6 D e s c r i b i n g Y o u r E n v i r o n m e n t It is very useful to be able to describe buildings and their features clearly. Follow the directions indicated: WINDOWS- Architects use names for various parts of windows. Can you find names for the parts in dictionaries and texts? Draw or place a photograph of an interesting window below and name the parts: DOORWAYS- give you an impression of the type of building you are entering. What impression do these doorways give you? What function would you expect these buildings to serve? _ ^ FACADES- Architectural decorations are used to give character to buildings. Can you find out the names of the parts of these facades? On a separate page, describe or draw parts of the decorative detail that strikes you. ROOFLINES- may be f lat , pitched or mansard and form the covers or lids of the buildings to keep out the elements. What type of rooflines are illustrated above? Do you think these rooflines are suitable for the wet British Columbia climate? How does the roofline influence the appearance of the building? Can rooflines be enhanced or decorated for art ist ic purposes? Draw a series of rooflines that capture your interest. What type of style are they? Can you look up names for the various styles? Think about how the style influences the appearance of the building. Develop an investigative eye by finding information on archi- tecture in books such as dictionaries of architecture and construction. Books on cities and art may also be useful sources (see the references at the end of this section for suggestions). B u i l d i n g a C r i t i c a l V o c a b u l a r y A great variety of words may be used.to say something about an interesting building. You may wish to consider words such as: l ine, colour, mass, volume, space, contrast, rhythm, balance, l ight, scale, proportion, symmetry, variety, unity, enrichment, decoration, enhancement, accent, expansion, con- traction, enclosure, mystery, focal point, definition or in- tricacy. Some words are quite descriptive and carry special meaning: v i ta l , dominant, exciting, bold, vivid, modern, contemporary, powerful, simple, uniform, positive, complementary, convin- cing, honest, old, inviting, solid, harmonious, comfortable, elegant, restored, renovated, historic. Find words that describe each building illustrated here from the listings above: Bentall- Dominion- Find new words to describe both buildings and l is t them on a separate page. The two buildings have both similarities and contrasts. List words which illustrate these similarities and contrasts- Similarities: Contrasts: Dominion Practice this approach on buildings or places of interest. John Roaf (c) John Roaf E x p e r i e n c i n g t h e B u i l t Think about the tremendous variety of places that you have visited and experienced during your lifetime. What do you really remember about them? When you went to school or work recently how much notice did you take of your surroundings? When you think about it you will realize just how much we take for granted the details of things in the environment , around us. Unless we are specifically looking for something much of our time may be spent on preoccupation with inner thoughts. How many of us are really good observers? People are exceedingly complex organisms. Our experience of a place may take many forms. We may respond to the place and situation on the basis of what we see, .feel or hear. Alternate- ly, our response may be in relation to an experience we have in that place and its special meaning to us as individuals. If the experience is pleasant then we may have a-good feeling about the place. If the experience is unpleasant we may dis- like or even dread the recollection of the situation. Our reactions to people, places and situations are largely governed by our past experience and the way'in which we have learned to react to l i fe . Through experience, we learn to E n v i r o n m e n t judge people and situations based upon inner feelings. The strength and nature of those feelings is very much a personal thing and each of us differs in our reaction to a given s i t - uation. .Our individual lifestyles, likes, d.islikes, choice of job and environment are a product of our experience and of our culture. We tend to be comfortable in familiar surroundings and i l l at ease in situations new to us. Each human society tends to reflect these characteristics and each period in the history of man has its special features. By focussing on your experience, you can become much more aware of your own reactions to a situation. In addition, i t is useful to try and understand how others react to the.same situ- ation. The groups of activities which follow will help you to focus on your experiences, preference and dislike for places. 11 You can examine your own experiences of the built environ- ment and the ways in which you perceive things through the use of the following activities: GETTING STARTED: Steeplechasing- a focal point on the horizon such as a church steeple, high building, water tower or other structure is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. The appearance of the object will be examined in relation to other buildings from each vantage point. Serial Vision- in this activity you will focus on a distant building and experience the changing and emer- ging view of the building as you draw closer to i t . EXPANDING HORIZONS: Experiencing a Building From All Sides- this activity involves a close encounter with a built form, a study of the different appearance and nature of the build- ing as viewed from all sides and observation of sim- i lar i ty , differences, order and variety. DOING MORE: The Town Trai l - the town trai l is a planned route through an urban area which may be walked. The trail may be indic- ated by markers or routes on a map and provides a basis for experiencing the urban environment, practising descrip- tion of that environment or experimenting with the method. S t e e p i e c h a s i n g (adaptedfromM Few places do not have some tall building, church steeple, tower or other object that is visible on the skyline. The objective of this activity is to choose such a structure and observe its appearance in relation to other buildings and objects from different vantage points surrounding i t . Once you have chosen a suitable focal point, proceed as follows: 1) Acquire a map of the streets surrounding the focal point. A tourist guide map with a large scale is ideal i f available. If you cannot obtain a suitable map draw one to approximate scale. 2) Hove around the focal point at a suitable distance stopping at appropriate places to observe the focal point. When you stop for observation record your location on the map. 3) Draw or photograph a selected number of views from your observation points. Try to select locations where you get a different perspective of the focal point in relation to other buildings or structures. 4) Make notes on how the focal point looks from each observation point. How does your location influence the way the structure looks? How do you feel about 12 etin of Environmental Education, Dec. 1976, 68, 6-10) the focal point when you view it from different locations? Would your impression of the structure be different i f you only viewed i t from one spot? How does the structure compare and contrast with surrounding buildings? Make notes on the design elements of the steeple, tower or structure. How do they influence i ts ' appearance? Are there things about i t you had not noticed before? Present your findings in the form of a written report or oral report to the class. I 13  15 S e r i a l V i s i o n (adapted from CuUen, G. The Concise Townscape, p. 9) When you walk from one end of a space to another your im- pression of the object at the end of that space changes as you approach i t . Imagine that you are walking down a long street with your eyes closed. Every once in a while you open your eyes and look down the street in the direction that you are moving. What you experience is a series of changing views of the street and the process may be term- ed "serial vision". Your perspective of the objects at the end of the street changes as you approach them. In other words you are experiencing an "emerging view". Select a long straight street, preferably with a building or interesting object at the end. Walk down the street and make observations periodically of your surroundings and of your perspective of the end of the street. Take pictures or make sketches as you move from stop to stop. How does the emerging view change and what details become apparent? Next, try the activity on a long curving street. How does the curved view contrast with the straight view? Arrange your photographs or illustrate the process with cut frames as shown on the follow- ing pages. 16 c u t f r a m e s i l l u s t r a t e e m e r g i n g v i e w i—• 17 E x p e r i e n c i n g a b u i l d i n g f r o m a l l s i d e s (questions modified from McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst for Teaching, 1977, p. 117- 122) This activity involves getting familiar with a prominent building or structure from all sides and experiencing the building in relation to its surroundings. Select a building or structure that is interesting to you, preferably one with some striking architectural features or historical significance. If possible, obtain a large scale map of the area which clearly shows the streets surrounding the building (tourist guide maps are often good). Hove around the building, stopping to observe i t from all sides. Take pictures, make sketches and make notes on your impress- ion of the building from each observation point. Move away from the building a short distance and observe i t in relation to surrounding buildings. Repeat this procedure from several vantage points around the building. Record the location of the observation points on your map. Study the example of observation of the Hotel Vancouver in Vancouver, B.C. illustrated on the facing page. Note how your photographs or sketches can be arranged to show the features of the building from different sides and its re- lationship to adjacent buildings. Try this procedure with your material. Through your experience you can observe a great deal about the design features of the building. At several observation points ask youself the following questions: LOOKING FOR SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCES- Shape and Form: What shapes appear most alike? What makes them most alike? How are shapes within the building different and why? How does the overall shape of the building differ from surround- ing structures or is i t similar? 119 Colour: Note the colour of the building you are experiencing. Why is i t this colour? Does the material used for construction influence the colour? How does the colour compare to adjacent buildings? Do you find the colour(s) of the building pleasing or would you like to change them to some other colour scheme? Consider the texture of the surface of the building. Are there varying textures of parts of the building and how are they similar of different? Do surfaces of the building gleam or reflect light? Are there dull surfaces? Why do you think the architect chose those sur- faces? Do you like the effect? LOOKING FOR ORDER AND VARIETY- Things can be organized by colour, shape, l ine, texture and size to give order. What order do you observe? Variety adds a difference to the way a group of things is order- ed. What variety do you observe in your buildings features? Looking at adjacent buildings in comparison to the one that you are observing, what buildings or surrounding street objects (eg.- telephone poles, fences) appear most orderly? What building designs or street features appear most varied? Think about how an architect or planner could use order and var- iety to make buildings and streets interesting. T h e T o w n T r a i l (adapted from Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 16-17) The town trail provides a way of enjoying and experiencing the built environment. It involves a planned route through an urban area that may be walked and is designed to bring out features of the area for the observer. The route may be illustrated on a guide map or brochure or be marked by signs or posts where town trails have been prepared for use by visitors to the community. Such a trai l can have many uses. It can be used to guide people past points of interest for tourism purposes or be organized to illustrate specific features such as shopping areas, historic buildings, house types, architectural features, industry, ethnic community content or landscape detail. Alternately, the town trail can be used to illustrate urban features such as road and rapid transit systems, urban renewal, problems (traffic flow, decay, reconstruction needs) or almost anything that the designer of the trail wishes. Use of a town trail will enable you to develop interest and have enjoyable and useful experiences in the built environ- ment. Through the use of the town trail you can examine the processes that shape our urban environment and develop a crit ical eye for evaluating that environment. Preparation and Planning: Think of an interesting topic or theme and write down what your objectives are in designing such a t ra i l . What do you hope to achieve and who would use such a trai l? Oo you wish to study a particular type of build- ing, architectural feature, urban problem or historical theme? Once you have established these objectives, go out and find examples in the urban environment to illustrate your ideas. In planning a town trail you should try to be practical and consider both the objectives of the trail as well as the comfort and needs of the users. Can you design a trail that clearly illustrates your point? Are most of the points of interest along the way fair ly close together so that the distance walked is not excessive? Is the trail safe for users and not likely to cause discomfort and hardship? r o 21 Presentation of Your Town Trai l : As well as carefully plan- ning your t ra i l 's route, i t is most important that you con- sider how you intend to communicate ideas and information to the users of the t ra i l . A written guide to the trail with illustrations that add something to the text is very useful. This guide should not just provide a description of what the user sees, but should convey your message, suggest ideas or ways of looking at things that are informative and stimulat- ing to the user. Check that your material is accurate, clear and well thought out. Directions and maps should be clear so that the user is not confused by the route. If buildings are to be entered, the hours that they are open to the public should be specified as well as any entry fees. It is useful to tell the user how long it will take to walk the trai l and approximately how far he or she will have to walk. Any special features such as safety considerations, rest stops or transportation needs should be mentioned. Possible Topics for Trail Design: -barriers (fences, doors, walls, hedges, banks) -advertising (signs, posters, billboards, window displays storefronts) -enclosure of space, activities -construction methods and materials -gardens -degeneration and decay -conversion of form or function -urban housing types -natural form vs. ar t i f ic ia l form -human activities What other ideas for a theme can you think of? Record your choice of a theme here: What are the objectives of your town trail? An Example- The Trounce-Bastion Walk, Victoria, B.C. This example illustrates how you can focus on the use of space as a topic for a town t ra i l . The Trounce Alley- Bastion Square complex in Victoria, B.C. provides a good area for the study of space utilization in a setting of restored historic buildings, narrow steets, courtyards, quaint shops, and boutiques. Objectives: To show to the user of the trail how built space may be divided and manipulated, compare private vs_ public space, internal space vs_ external space and illustrate the effect of space upon atmos- phere and function of a place. Length of Trai l : 6 blocks Time for Completion of Trai l : o n e hour The Route: The route to be followed is illustrated on the adjacent map. The trail can be easily accom- plished by walking and follows sidewalks and city streets through a pleasant and interesting area. Shops, small restaurants and places to sit and rest are common throughout the area. 22 23 Examples of the Content of the Trail Srochure The illustrations here show different types of space encountered on the t ra i l . The explanatory brochure accompanying the trail would show pictures such as those together with a map and information such as: 1-Trounce Alley 1) Anticipated Space (Mystery): The beginning of the walk is exciting as you do not know what people, places, sights experiences or spaces l ie around the corner. You therefore anticipate an encounter with the space beyond. 2) Enclosed Space: This narrow pedestrian pathway provides an atmosphere of quiet away from the busy vehicle traff ic. Squares and courtyards would provide similar quiet space. 3) Projection and Recession: Architectural features which project outwards into space and inwards provide contrast, variety and mood to the use of space. Consider the bay window and the recessed arched entranceway. 4) Private Space: People seek out and require private space for reasons of comfort, security, convenience, shade, shelter and relief from the outside world. The inviting restaurant provides a promise of such things. ro Douglas St. ex o c c Broad Government Langley Bastion Square ' 5) Public and Private Space: Here, the public walkway con- trasts with the private space within the buildings. One can move from private to public space or vice versa or pass through the area. In the summer the area outside of the restaurant becomes attractive for public dining, showing that people will forego enclosed space for outdoor enjoy- ment. 6) Interesting Continental Threshold: This appealing and friend- ly entrance invites people to move from external to internal space. The technique is therefore both visually attractive and also useful to the merchant for enticing customers. c n 7) Formal Threshold: The formal entrance offers a feeling of grandeur and opulance and tells us something about the space within. Such an entrance might attract some customers and deter others who felt the shop was too expensive for them. 8) The Pedestrian 'Way: Pedestrian walks link or join space to- gether as well as providing comfort and safety to people. Here the alley, dedicated only to pedestrian t raf f ic , provides access to the buildings as well as a link to the vehicular traffic at either end. 9) Separation of Pedestrian and Vehicular Space: The alley opens onto a busy street with vehicular traffic and thus joins space with a different function. Barriers (10) separate the space- no 2- Bastion Square 2 1) Anticipated Space (Mystery): The approach to the second portion of the trail is exciting as you have to antic- ipate what is unseen beyond the corner of the Bank. 2) Barriers: The striped posts mark the boundaries of space serving different functions. They prevent cars from enter- ing pedestrian space and provide a message about the func- tion of enclosed space. 3) Street Furniture: Trees, benches and other appealing and useful objects add decoration to the space and improve its function for human activity. 4) Planters: Add visual attraction, contrast of living ys_ non-living things and act as a form of barrier to separate private space of the restaurant from the public walkway. The restaurant sign identifies what type of space lies within the building and tells us what type of food 1s offered there. 27 5) Closed Space: A break in the line of the street is created by this enclosed space. The eye is drawn into the space and the lamp standards provide a sense of progression. 5 6) Enclosed Space: The arrangement of the streets and buildings plus the privacy of the planters provides an enclosed and attractive entrance for this restaurant. 7) Pedestrian Way-Movement and Dividers: Efficient pedestrian movement is important in a busy city. Here street lights, trees, and brick patterns in the pavement help to separate the pedes- trian traff ic into a two-way flow. t—i OO 8) Vantage Point: The vantage point is a space set aside and des- igned to provide an unimpeded view of the space beyond. A barrier is provided for safety reasons. The vantage point allows the viewer to observe open space from enclosed urban space. 9) Change in Levels: Changes in level provide relief from the continuity of f lat spaces. The feeling of height provides exhilaration and emergence. Level changes can be used to make open space interesting. 10) Textural Properties of Space: Texture of bricks, paving stones, concrete, grass, and other materials can be used to add interest to space. A textured surface pleasing to the eye is far more appealing than an expanse of asphalt. Texture of flat places can be used to link the buildings which rise vertically from the flat space to appealing properties in that space. 28 ro C O 29 3 . I n f l u e n c e o f D e s i g n a n d M a t e r i a l s Your environment is composed of both natural and man-made objects. The built environment consists of man-made objects crafted with the use of materials such as wood, concrete, steel, brick or masonary according to the technology of the time, function of the structure, customs and fashion at the time of construction, cost and other considerations. Build- ings and man-made structures can be categorized according to their function- ie .̂ as dwellings, businesses, transport- ation systems, storage areas, recreational areas, etc. The attitudes that people have in regard to built structures^ varies with the function, atmosphere, appearance, and sig- nificance and meaning of the structure in relation to the culture and experience of the individual. The designer of built structures is faced with the task of considering many factors such as size, function, choice of materials, location, durability, cost, appearance, relation- ship to other structures and systems. Use of space is a basic element of the design task as a building is essentially a man-made structure which partitions, divides or alters.' natural space in some way. The physical features of a place are important both to the function of that place as well as its appearance. Size and form are important in relation to the number of people using a place, how much time they spend there and the nature of the activities they engage in there. Surfaces offer a combination of colours, shapes and textures and often have a major effect on the sound of a place due to reflective or absorptive pro- perties. The kinds of sounds one hears and the differences in sounds inside and outside the structure are important design features related to space and choice of materials. Maintenance and durabi1ity are important in choice of building materials and-influence repair needs, l i fe of the building, appearance, value, and health and sanitation concerns. Designs-which con- sider 1 ight and ai_r entry to the structure are also important in human comfort, temperature control and economy, and health considerations. Amount of l ight, colour, sources of light, aesthetic effects of light patterns and use of light are im- portant design considerations. Openings in structures provide access and choice in number, size and location is important, both to access but to the overall appearance of the building and its function and atmosphere. The following activities will help you to learn how design and use of materials influence the built environment: Part A- Activities for relating how people are influenced by design and use of space in the built environment. GETTING STARTED: Personal Space Activities- examining the properties of personal space and that of others in different roles, professions, and activit ies. Defining Personal Space with Objects- seeing how well objects serve people in providing and communicating personal space. Shared Space Activities- designing and symbolizing space. Analysing the Look and Use of Space- analysing and redesigning a space. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Network Spaces- tracing the nature and effectiveness of network systems. DOING MORE: Creating Symbols for use in Networks- designing and collecting graphics and examining networks for use in the environment and school setting. 30 Part 8- Working with material and design to examine the planning, function and durability of the built environment: Dating Game- establishing when in time certain materials and styles were in use in the built environment. Tracing styles, building designs, lettering and other historical content. The Houses Game- planning the layout of a small group of houses with the consideration of important design elements; construction of a model. The Improvements Game- examining and proposing improve- ments that could be incorporated into your own neigh- bourhood or commercial area. 31 P e r s o n a l S p a c e (concepts and questions adapted from McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst for Teaching, 1977, 219) Have you ever walked upon a deserted beach or broad meadow and had the feeling that the space all around you was yours? When you have been packed tightly into a crowd did you experience a feeling of being squeezed into a small place with others pressing in upon you? You relate to the space around you in a personal way and if you think about it you will realize that this "personal space" is portable for you carry i t about with you and it shrinks or swells according to your surroundings. Try the following activities to experiment with personal space: Find a small space somewhere in your home or school environ- ment ( a closet, table top, underside of a table or chair, or the space behind a door would be adequate). Think of things to do. What kinds of things can you do in that space? What things does the small space prevent you from doing? If you were to redesign the space to enable you to do one of the things you currently cannot, how much bigger and how much different would you make the space? How much space do you need to put on your coat? Your shoes? Paint a picture? Eat your lunch? Climb on a bus? Can you measure and describe space needs for these activities? Do you feel differently when you enter the school hallway when i t is crowded after coming in from a large playing field? Look at the people about you and in pictures, films and different types of activity. What do you think about their personal space in each case? How does personal space vary with the activity and the role of the in- dividual? Take several interesting examples from your observations and analyse them in written form comparing and contrasting them where appro- priate. - ,• p m ^wam ^wo®® • $ D e f i n i n g P e r s o n a l S p a c (concepts and questions adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 224), Objects can be used to define personal space and set. i t apart. For example, what might you do i f you-wished to reserve a whole seat on a bus or train for yourself? How would you keep a whole work table to yourself? How would you prevent your lunch from getting mixed up with a lot of others? Objects not only define personal space but they may also indicate function and ownership. Consider the furniture in the room around you. What function does each object suggest? Some objects denote ownership or rights to personal or private space. Consider your desk, house, room, car etc. Public buildings often have a mix of public'space with appropriate furniture and private office space for staff. » W i t h O b j e c t s You can look at objects in terms of their function, meaning, appearance and potential for change or other use. A checklist can be established for each object as .follows: Social Function- does the object clearly communicate its intended use? Meaning- could you change the way we use the object to make it function better? Visual Properties- is the object attractive and does i t improve people's personal space? Information- is there a way of altering the appearance,of the object so that i t provides more information about its function or is more appealing? Go out and look for some objects in your environment. Examine, them in private and public areas such as homes, parks, theatres, res- taurants and gas stations. List the objects and for each go through the checklist above listing, responses. Record the objects you have observed here: • 33 S h a r e d S p a c e A c t i v i t i e s (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 227-228) You can design and construct an individual storage system that will be a part of a shared storage system structure assembled for use by your class. Proceed as follows: Design Criteria: What are the space needs of the class; of each student? When is the space needed during the day's activities? Is the storage long term or short term in nature? What items are being stored and do they have any special storage requirements? How much space is available and where is it located? Is the proposed location (s) practical and functional? Design Elements: What materials do you propose to use? How will the completed project look? Are you considering a modular design with stacking elements? Are there ways of improving the appearance and function of the design? What will it cost for the project and are there less ex- pensive methods of construction? How much time will the project take to carry out? Is the proposed method strong and safe? — Construction: Once you have finalized the choice of design, proceed to prepare detailed plans, cost estimates and obtain the necessary materials. Decide on a work schedule and how the task is to be carried out using people's time efficiently. Try to divide the labour so that a complementary approach is taken- ie. some people cut lumber, some smooth boards, others paint and finish. Evaluation: During construction and at completion of the project, carry out an evaluation of the project. Did i t meet the design criteria? Is 1t functional and visually pleasing? Were there problems that you did not consider? How does the space allocated for individual use relate to the space used by the entire class? Does the project tell you something about efficient use of sDace? A n a l y s i n g t h e L o o k a n d (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 228-229) Space use is a very important facet of the design of things which are part of our built environment.In assembling design concepts youmust try to envision how space will be used, how groupings of space will look, together and how people will re- act to the design. The appearance of a space is important as it tells us what activities can go on there. In addition, the way a place looks also determines our feelings about i t and a designer should be conscious of the attitudes of ,the user. You can learn more about the attitudes you have, as well as those of your classmates by participating in a class dis- cussion group. Proceed as follows: Divide up into discussion groups. Ideally, each group should have about six people in i t . Elect a discussion leader whose job is to keep the discussion going, make sure all people participate, and stop some people from dominating the dis- cussion. Elect a recorder who will write down the results of the discussion for later presentation to the class. The objective is to discuss how areas of your school or class- room look and function and attempt to see how people's attit- udes are similar or different. Go through the following guiding questions or adapt them to your situation.(All participants U s e o f S p a c e should record their own responses here and accept, reject or modify points of view that come out in the discussion). How is your room similar, different, or. in any way special in comparison to other classrooms in the school? How do you feel about the design of the room? Is it well de- signed or could it be improved? How could it be improved? Does the material used in the room (carpet, flooring, seating, wall covering etc.) limit what you can do in the room? •Is the room so functional in design that i t is uninteresting? If you could make the room look more interesting, how would you do it? 35 Examine the features of the room with regard to materials used and make any recommendations you feel would improve the appearance of the room. Look at the lighting and window arrangement in the class- room. Is the lighting arrangement and the availability of natural light well designed? Could the floor level be broken up into more functional space for different activities? Should the seating area and furniture be changed or re- arranged? • What colours are present in the room? How does the colour scheme affect the feeling you get in the room? Would you alter the colour scheme? In the space below draw a diagram of how you would redesign the room to make it more pleasant or functional. Consider the design objectives of the room and the feelings of other users in your planning. Meet together as an entire class following the discussion group sessions. Each group's reporter should present a brief report of the findings. Notice how groups other than your own may differ according to the way their discussion developed. Compare your own responses recorded here to those of your own group and the other groups'. What do you conclude about personal attitudes and feelings towards the built environment? _ 3 6 N e t w o r k S p a c e s (adapted from Mc As you move about in the built environment you make use of stairways, hallways, footpaths, streets and other structures designed to get you from one place to another. These devices are termed "networks" and their effectiveness depends upon how well the space alloted for the network allows for the desired pattern of movement and use. You may examine the network concept through the following activities: Networks in the Classroom Environment: Divide into groups and start by making a large scale map of the classroom on a big piece of paper. On the map, indicate all the paths which are used to enter and leave the room. Act out the daily use of these routes to become familiar with the ways you get to doors, blackboard, teacher's desk, books, storage areas, etc. Think about what happens when the entire class moves at one time. Where are the congested areas in your network? What areas are not used much of the time? Can you think of a better arrangement that would prevent con gestion and improve use of space in your network? and Degge, 1977, 232-233) Network Spaces Within and Around the School: Try to obtain a floor plan of the school and surrounding grounds, possibly from the janitor, District SchooKBoard or planning office. If a plan is not available, draw one to approximate scale. Obtain a map of the surrounding community-enlargements can be made using an overhead projector with the image directed onto a large piece of paper. From the school, floor plan, lo- cate and mark the spaces in the school that are used by all . the students (gymnasium, cafeteria or lunch room, library). Using a felt pen, indicate on the map the routes students in your class follow to move to different places in the school during the day. Draw the paths followed by several individuals ' and then make tours along those routes to study what those individuals experience in one day.Where do traffic jams occur? What is going on in the halls, besides people moving from one place to another? What happens in the heaviest traffic areas? Does the traffic in different areas vary with different times of the day? CO 37 Is there enough light on the routes? Is there space for people to stop and talk or do they interfere with traffic flow? What effect would changing the times people use spaces, the way people behave, and the atmosphere of the spaces do to make the process of getting from one place to another a more pleasant experience? Study traffic flow patterns in your school grounds and on the approaches to the school using the maps you have ob- tained. Do you feel the networks around the school are well planned? Can you suggest improvements?(assume you are a member of a planning team given the task of designing the layout of the network serving the school area). Write a report on your approach to the problem and include any dia- grams that are helpful. S y m b o l s (adapted from McFee and Degge, 1977, 233) Symbols and signs which provide information are a very impor- tant means of informing people about the location and function of different parts of a building or assemblage of buildings. Every day you encounter many symbols which make i t easier for you to share network spaces with many other people. To make yourself more aware of this, collect pictures, make drawings and observe symbols and signs as you travel about. Observe road and highway signs. How do they tell people what road they are on and where they are going? What kind of symbols tell motorists about important safety matters? What symbols indicate a park or playground; a railway crossing; a steep hi l l? (draw) What kind of symbols are used, other than words, to indicate on shop signs what a shop sells? How are different rooms in the school marked? Examine the school office, gymnasium, different classrooms. What techniques are used to make symbols noticable and obvious at a distance? How are signs placed so that they are s t i l l visible when a space is full of people? Can you locate examples of poorly designed signs or symbols in your school or local environment? Describe and identify the problem: . Examine advertising material in magazines and store displays. How are symbols used effectively and what qualities of shape, colour, texture and design do they have? 38 Experiment with creating your own symbols and signs which use symbols. How would you indicate a gymnasium, tennis court, ski touring t r a i l , seafood restaurant, pet shop, farm implement supplier or any other activity that interests you? (try differ- ent media, two and three-dimensional designs) 39 T h e D a t i n g G a m e (adapted from B.C with i l lustratio You can discover a lot of interesting things about the his- torical trends of the area in which you live by conducting a walking tour and observing trends in appearance and con- struction methods according to the age of the buildings. For example, you might notice old wooden stores with false fronts among brick or stone buildings of a later period. Alternately, you might see residential streets with large Z\ storey wooden houses that are quite different from near- by single storey, 2 bedroom houses of a more recent period. It might be apparant that there has been a shift in the location of the commercial and retail center of the area with time or a trend towards movement of shopping centers into the suburbs. Understanding such trends will involve you in consideration of many factors such as changes in construction materials and technology, the fashion of different time periods, popu- lation trends, the advent of transportation systems, economic factors, changing land use patterns, population density and availability of services. Trends in urban development could well be related to world events and immigration patterns. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present, 1974, p. 67-69, is from that source) In order to study this aspect of the built environment it is important to be able to assign dates of construction to the buildings observed. Information on the age of structures may be obtained from a number of sources. Some heritage buildings are identified with dated name plaques or are described in brochures on city architecture. Interviews with owners and residents can provide additional information. City or mun- icipal hall records and planning offices may be cooperative. Good reference books are often available which describe trends in local architecture and general categories of construction. Local museums may have displays or archival material. The style of architecture is often an excellent indicator of the age of a structure. For example, house styles in B.C. have changed from the Victorian form (turrets, dormer windows) of the late 1800's: o Lettering on buildings, often found on cornerstones or above the entrance, can be a useful indicator of age according to the type of lettering employed. By accurately dating one building you may obtain clues as to the age of adjacent ones. Once you have assembled sufficient background material and references, proceed to organize a walking tour of your study area. Obtain a map or prepare one for the walking tour and work out a coding system for the building types you will ob- serve. For example, i f the walk was through a residential area with some of the house types illustrated on the facing page, you might use a code such as: California Bungalow - CB 20's-30's Romanticism - R International Style - I Split Level Ranch - SLR 40 As you move through the area, record the code on your map so that you obtain a plan of the house types on the street and the approximate age based on the style and any other information you can obtain. For each major type of house observed, note the construction details, materials used, ornate decorations, spacing of buildings, shape and dimen- sions, and any other special features. What trends are apparant in the study area with time? Why do you think changes occurred? How did altered technology change the frequency of use of different construction materials and materials used to finish exteriors? Prepare a report on your findings, including maps i l lustra- ting your walking tour and the age of structures you obser- ved. Describe the features of the buildings and the materials used in construction and provide sketches or photographs to il lustrate your report. Speculate on why built form changes in different time periods and what factors have influenced changes in your study area. 41 T h e H o u s e s G a m e (from Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 17-20, with house model and evaluation form from that source) ~" In this activity you will have an opportunity to design your own'arrangement of a group of houses and consider both the functional requirements of the arrangement anci the most attrac- tive design you can-devise. Proceed by taking an 8*5 x 14 " piece of paper and tracing the pattern for 12 houses on the paper using the pattern shown here. Cut out the model of each house and fold i t as indicated in the diagram to leave a back garden on each dwelling. You now have 12 houses, one of which is to be designated a grocery store and identified in some way (colour, label or sign, etc.) . Take another 8*5 x 14 " piece of paper to represent the land upon which the houses are to be arranged. A piece of st i f f cardboard or poster board would be excellent. Assemble glue, felt pens, pencil crayons, painting materials or other suitable items with which to complete your model. Your task is to design a model of the arrangement of the.12 buildings which is interesting, attractive, convenient and inexpensive to construct. A number of design considerations are listed on this page which must be taken into account in your model. Experiment with a number of different arrangements before deciding oh a finaj layout and consider the advantages and disadvantages of each arrangement. back garden ^ c u t Slot-B slot-A H ouse Pattern Design Considerations: Access- Each house must have suitable footpath and road access and there shouTd be room to park cars closeby. Traffic should not cause problems of noise, safety or interfere with privacy. House orientation- Sunshine is desirable in back gardens and people will wish to use their gardens for recreation ; A southern exposure will maximize entry of sunlight. Privacy in home and garden is required. Open space- space for recreation, landscaping and children's play should be considered and indicated on the model. Consider noise, safety and appearance of the area. Convenience- People will wish to visit each other and have easy access to the grocery store and their homes. Visitors from outside the area will require access and parking. Delivery vehicles will require access to the area, particularly to the store. ro 4 2 Once you have carefully selected your design, proceed to complete the model by gluing down the houses on the site. Prior to positioning the houses, make sure all the roads, paths, open spaces etc. are drawn in and identified in some way. Use any techniques you wish to enhance the appearance of your model and the clarity with which i t illustrates the elements of your design. Evaluation: You may evaluate your own design or those of other members of the class using the evaluation form shown on this page. In evaluating designs, ask yourself how well the design satisfys the design considerations. Is the layout convenient? Is it practical and does i t make best use of the site? Does the design look expensive to construct? Has privacy, noise, traffic flow, access, safety been accounted for? Is the design attrac- tive and would you like to live in the area? How might the design be improved? Class evaluations of designs could be done in open discuss- ion or by ballot. In the case of a ballot, someone will have to count the ballots and f i l l in the number of people respond- ing to each of the boxes on the evaluation form. Evaluation Form: attractive convenient inexpensive very fairly in between fairly . very unattractive inconvenient expensive Other Activities: You may wish to devise other activites based on this idea. Some things that could be done are: -designs that make use of different types of houses such as single (detached), semi-detached (duplex) or condominium-type housing. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of each, -experimenting with housing density Variations and the problems and opportunity posed by such developments, -designing for special needs of people- the old, family needs, young people without children,.single parents, handicapped people -designing for special environments- heavy snow conditions,strong prevailing winds, periodic flooding, hot dry conditions. CO 43 T h e I m p r o v e m e n t s G a m The objective of this activity is to allow you to experiment with planning for improvement of an area familiar to you and consider alternatives for future use of parts of that area. Proceed by walking individually.or in small groups around an area close to your school. Select a study area of only a few blocks in size so as not to make the project unmanagable. As you tour the area, concentrate on sites that are suitable for replanning such as derelect buildings, unused vacant lots, places that are not being actively utilized or industrial sites that could be relocated elsewhere. Record details of your observations by photography, sketches, notes or other appropriate means and locate each site's position on a map. Identify each site by means of a number for future reference. Think about possible alternate use of each site that you have observed. As a guide to alternate use, you should decide on a theme for your redevelopment plans. For example, do you wish to redevelop the area as a residential area with faci l i t ies for people such as more recreation area, playgrounds, activity centers, etc? If so, your redevelopment plans would concentrate on creating housing, leisure, local shopping and network space such as streets, paths or transit systems. (modified from Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 21-26) As an.aid to developing your plans for the area you may wish to use a checklist such as the one shown below: Redevelopment Checklist Theme: To improve the quality of the residential area adjacent to the school by providing more leisure facil it ies and activities for local residents. Site Number Present Use and Condition. Alternate Possible Use 1 Vacant level lot; covered with wild grass 2 Abandoned corner grocery store 3 Parking lot; currently not fully used Playground and fitness circuit Activity center for young people Partial conversion to green space area and foot and bicycle path linking Marine Drive and Keith Road When you have completed your survey and developed your ideas for alternate use of the area, meet with a small group of students and present your findings and suggestions. Consider any ideas they may have and try to achieve a consensus on a redevelopment scheme for the area. Prepare maps and diagrams to illustrate your plans and appoint a group spokesperson to present the findings to the class. Oiscuss the findings and the approach taken in class. If you wish, you may expand this activity into a class pro- ject which is designed to produce a land use plan for the area surrounding the school. Proceed as follows: Discuss, as a class, the theme for desirable land use in the area around the school. If the area is residential you may wish to enhance its residential qualities to make the area a more pleasant and interesting place in which to l ive. If the area is largely commercial i t may be desirable to try to create more green space, recreational opportunity or to generally enhance the appearance of the area. Alternately, you might wish to improve transportation systems in the area and devise a scheme that is least disruptive to established areas of the community. Once you have decided on a class theme, proceed to investigate the area in small study groups as indicated on the facing page. The area around the school should be divided among the groups so as to produce a complete study of the entire surrounding area. Each group should finalize its recommendations and the group spokesperson should present them to the class. A map of the area surrounding the school can be drawn on the blackboard or on a large piece of paper and the recommendations of the study groups can be displayed on this map. The class 44 should consider and debate the recommendations and decide on an overall land redevelopment scheme for the area. Once a con- sensus is reached, i f desired a model can be prepared which incorporates the suggested changes for visual examination and discussion purposes. Such a model could be presented to local planners and designers for their consideration. They might be willing to address the class and discuss the municipal planning process. 45 4. C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l Becoming more aware of places deepens our understanding of ourselves and our environment. Understanding however, is only a part of the potential that you have within you and it is possible to go much farther and move towards positive action to create, modify or influence the nature of your built envir- onment. Activities in the previous sections of this book were directed towards developing an understanding of what factors make a place work well and feel right. In considering how a place works and feels, you examined many factors such as function, materials used in construction, aesthetics, atmosphere, economics, structural form, use of space, networks, etc. In order to cr i t ical ly appraise the built environment and to use this appraisal to bring about change, i t is necessary for you to examine the process of appraisal. The group of activ- ities included here therefore deals with practical ways of appraising the built environment and will help you practice the technique. GETTING STARTED: The Four F.actor Building Appraisal- Context, routes, interface, and grouping factors help you to appraise built environment through a checklist and scale system. InfiII- You will observe spaces between buildings and experiment with the design of possible solutions to fil1 in the space. Inf i l l - House Fronts- This activity involves the exam- ination of residential house fronts and the appraisal of how well they relate to each other and to factors such as climate, topography and function. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Inf i l l - Commercial- Examining possible solutions for corner sites being used as commercial offices and eval- uating the appropriateness of design. Appraising Proposals- Learning to appraise proposals and schemes of designers, architects and developers and examining the proposal review process. 46 T h e F o u r F a c t o r B u i l d i n g A p p r a i s a l (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 3-8 utilizing J . Bishop's "CRIG Analysis") An example of an appraisal -technique called the "four factor building appraisal" is' provided in the following pages. This approach allows you to focus on four key elements of building appraisal-context, routes, interface and grouping by using a series of checklist questions and a numerical rating scheme that allows you to assign a score to the factor being appraised. To proceed, select any building or group of buildings that is of interest to you. You could appraise a house, your school, a commercial building, a housing complex, the corner store br the old gas station down the street. Carefully read through the examples that follow to be sure that you understand the check- l is t process. Then go out and observe the building(s) of your choice and conduct your'appraisal using the checklist questions and making notes, drawings, taking photographs, etc. to supple- ment your appraisal of each of the four factors described in the checklists. For each question in the checklists, assign a numerical score from 1 to 7 (1= highly appropriate, 7 = highly inappropriate) and then calculate the average, score for the factor by adding up all the individual scores for each factor and dividing by the number of questions answered. To assign an overall score for the project as a whole based upon the four factor anal- ysis, add up the average scores for the four factors and divide by four. Prepare a report on your appraisal using the following format: 1) Description of building(s) appraised with supportive illustrations (photographs, sketches, maps, diagrams). 2) Appraisal of the building(s) according to the four factor analysis using the checklists with responses to each question completed and a numerical score for each question provided. 3) A paragraph describing the success or lack of success with which each factor is achieved or satisfied (see the example of the appraisal of the Vancouver Law Courts which follows).. 4) Analysis of numerical ratings by computation of average scores for each factor of the appraisal and computation of the overall score for the building(s). 5) Concluding comments based upon your overall appraisal of the building(s). i—> 47 FACTOR 1 - CONTEXT: Context is the setting in which the building is placed. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by asking yourself how well the building(s) suit the context.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) What is the general pattern of the surrounding area; is i t streets, squares, crescents, winding roads? ' Score- 2) What is the scale of the development; size of lots, shape, height, bulk of building, height vs_ width of streets? Score 3} What is the form of the building? Is i t consistent, varied, are materials basic, are windows and doors suitable, etc? Score- 4) How do public and private areas relate to each other? Score- 5) What are the land uses in the area adjoining the building? Score;- 6) What is the topography of the site? Consider slope, contours, views in and out of the site. Score 7) What are the environmental factors of. importance? Consider orientation, exposure, sun, wind, rain, humidity, daylight. Score 8) What is the existing vegetation surrounding the building(s)? Score 9) How do people use the building(s) in relation to the surround- ing structures? ' ; Score Total Score Average (Total / 9) Write a paragraph describing the success or failure or the strong points or deficiencies of the way in which the building(s) suit the context of the surrounding area. 48 FACTOR 2 - ROUTES: Routes are the paths or passageways for traffic that allow the building to relate to its context. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by asking yourself how appropriate the routes are to link the building to its surroundings and how functional they are.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) What routes, pathways, streets and passageways are provided to and around the building? Score 2) What are the flow patterns of traffic or people? Are there busy periods, quiet periods, one-way flows, regular move- ment patterns, traffic jams? Score 5) Are all the routes easily understood by newcomers, visitors, service people? Score 6) How are the routes marked? Are markings clear and easily observed? Score 7) Do the routes effectively link the building to the surround- ing buildings? Score 3) Where are the nodes (meeting points) for traffic around the building and what, i f anything, happens there? Score 4) Do all the routes make sense? Are they coherent and con- venient? Score Total Score _ Average (Total / 7) _ Write a paragraph describing the way in which the routes in and around the building(s) relate the building to its context and the success with which the routes accomplish that purpose. 800 Robson St. Food Fair Crerra/Theatre Exhibition ' Meeting Ftooms Tourist Inforrnation Parking Level P2 49 FACTOR 3 - INTERFACE: A building .is essentially an enclosure that separates an interior private space from an exterior public space. Interface is the crucial meeting place where .the inside of the building connects with the outside. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by deciding how well the build- ing satisfies the problems related to interface.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) Does the exterior of the building explain its interior function(s)? (Shop windows explain, nature of shop within). Score _ _ 2) How does the inside of the building connect with the out- side of the building? Are the connections appropriate and functional? Score 3) Are the entrances and exits accessible or are there diff- icult entry ways or exits? ^ Score 4) Are.the various openings related to thoughtful planning of the interior? Consider entry of light, view, privacy needs, noise, heat, glare, atmosphere, etc. ~ . Score 5) What ideas, themes, or concepts are evident inside and outside the building? \ ' Score 6) Are there unexpected features inside the building which are not evident from the outside?^ _ • Score 7) What clues indicate the presence of public and private space? Score 8) Have the designers addressed the problem of interface well in their design of this building? Has" its full potential been realized? .. Score Total Score Average (Total / 8) . Write a paragraph describing how well the design of your building has addressed the problems of interface. What are the strengths and weak- nesses of'the design? How might it be improved or changed? FACTOR 4 - GROUPING: Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Grouping of the parts gives both meaning and variety to the building. Checklist (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by concentrating on the sub- divisions of the building's form and deciding on the appro- priateness of the designer's choice of groupings.) Score: highly appropriate-1 2 3 4 5 6 7-very inappropriate 1) How is the building made up? Are subdivisions apparant and i f so, what are they? Score _ 2) Do the subdivided parts of the building relate clearly to their function? Is use by any social group apparant? Score _ 3) Is i t clear what the various subdivisions of the building might mean to people? Do some sections have a very obvious function? Score 50 4) Are the various parts of the building planned carefully in relation to one another and to the characteristics of the site? Score _ 5) Is there sufficient relationship between the parts of the building for i t to appear as one unified structure? Does enough variation exist to provide interest? Score Total Score _ Average (Total / 5) _ In a paragraph, discuss the subdivision of your building into identifiable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. Is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? 51 AN EXAMPLE OF FOUR FACTOR ANALYSIS - THE VANCOUVER LAW COURTS The following is a series of notes compiled tin each of the four factors used,in the appraisal of the Vancouver. B.C. Law Court structure. These notes illustrate the kind of information that can be assembled for appraisal purposes for use in com- pletion of the checklist process. Background: The Law Courts, opened in September of 1979, were designed by famous architect Mr. Arthur Erickson. The seven story structure, which took three years to construct, accomodates 35 courtrooms plus appropriate related faci l i tes, including 13 c i v i l , 11 criminal, 3 appeal, 3 assize courts, 3 motion chambers and 2 courts designed for complex commercial legal cases. Factor 1 - Context: The site of the structure is the new Robson Square complex located in the heart of downtown Vancouver. Four busy commercial streets- Howe, Smithe, Nelson and Hornby surround the complex. A covered office walkway bridge connects the Law Courts to Robson Square by passing over Smithe Street. Instead of t a l l , narrow buildings rising vertically from the sidewalk, the architect has used an angled geometric stucture for the building and has'prov-ided a considerable number of pedestrian walkways, grassy areas, trees, shrubs and water as well as seating areas. The Robson Square facil i ty which connects to the Law Courts is a "people place" with gardens, private and public space, roller rinks, restaurants, an information center and a theatre complex. Other uses of surrounding land are mixed. The Law Courts are central to the city core with hotels, commer- cial office buildings, shops and restaurants located in buildings which are mostly in the 30-50 year age category and of mixed architectural features. Adjacent buildings such as the Hotel Vancouver and the old courthouse provide an interesting contrast with their unique and attractive architecture. The structure of the Law Court facil ity is so designed that different views of the'surrounding buildings and of the structure' itself are apparant from each level. The building, with its ample public space, allows access from adjacent streets and buildings and allows recrea- tional and leisure time activity for the public as well as serving its intended function as a legal faci l i ty. Scores: (following completion of checklist on context)- 4,2,1,1,2,2,3,2,2 Total= 19, Average* 2̂ 1 52 Factor 2 - Routes: The major entrance of the Law Courts is on the corner of Smithe and Hornby Streets. Service and parking entrances are located off the street on lower levels with entry from Smithe and Howe Streets. Pedestrian routes are tree-lined sidewalks that surround the building. The raised office-bridge structure over Smithe street facilitates movement to and from Robson Square without presenting a barrier to automobile traffic. Pedestrian traffic generally moves well about the building with l i t t le obvious congestion at any time. Due to the legal nature of the building's function, public access to much of the interior is restricted. Routes, services and function of space is generally well labelled and identifyable. Scores: (following completion of checklist on routes)- 3,2,2,4,4,3,3 Total= 21, Average* 3J) 5 3 Scores:(from completion of checklist on interface) 6,4,3,2,1,2,2,3 Total* 23 Average* 2.9 Factor 3 - Interface: The Law Court structure is composed of glass panel roofing supported by tubular steel framework with floors and walls of textured concrete. There are a number of entrances, walkways, levels and the layout varies with each floor. Use of a glass roof substitutes for the need for large windows on the upper floors with several levels opening onto a high, glass enclosed space with ample natural light. Entry into some parts of the building is restricted due to security measures and passage through the building can be confusing due to presence of public and private restricted space. The function of the structure is in no way apparant from its outside appearance. It is unlike any traditional structure used for legal purposes. Large commercial signs are not apparant but rather dignified black block letters provide directions and in- formation on the function of parts of the building. The interior design is consistent with the futuristic appearance of the ex- terior. The harsh and angular lines of the roof, entry ways and pathways is softened by extensive use of foliage. Public space on the exterior of the structure is generally well coordinated with public space within. Private space within the building is well separated from public space. Factor 4 - Groupings: Viewed from the Howe and Hornby Street sides, the Law Courts have an al l glass apex roofline. The glass expanse is broken by angular steel reinforcing structures and the geometric repetitive pattern of those structures adds variety to the design. Trees planted along the periphery of the building help break up the glass expanses. The main entrance area provides the most interesting geometric groupings of design elements. Interior stepped levels climb vertically and expand to the outside of the structure to form a cohesive element in the design. The Smithe Street side of the building serves as a conn- ector to the Robson Square area. This bridge joins the Law Courts and the Robson Square area in a unique way which makes the two parts a cohesive whole. Interior function is not obvious from exterior appearance however, public space and private space is generally readily Identifyable. Score: (following completion of checklist on groupings)- 4,4.3,1,2 Total* 14, Average- 2.8 Overall Rating of the Vancouver Law Courts: Scores on the four factors* 2.1,3.0. 2.9.2.8 Average- 2.7 Synopsis: An extemely interesting structure that combines public space and interest with an important community and government function in a unique and creative way. To the visi tor , function and routes of access may be somewhat obscure, however the uniqueness and versatility of the design which 1s appealing proves to be a significant factor in the appraisal. 55 I n f i l l (after Bulletin of Environmental Education. May 1977, 73, 17-21,witil house plans and corner site illustrations from that source) Consider the situation where there is a group of structures with a gap or space between them such as a vacant lot, building under demolition, etc. that requires the design of a new structure to occupy the vacant space. The challenge facing a designer or planner is to decide on the appropriate use and appearance of the new structure that is to f i l l that space. This activity will give you a chance to appraise the potential of such a space in the context of its surroundings and to try out your ideas for designing an appropriate structure to occupy the space. Proceed as follows: Find an appropriate site for your " inf i l l activity" by walking around an area that interests you and locating a vacant lot, unused building set amongst other functional buildings, a parking lot or other such site. If you wish, you could work with such areas as town squares, gardens, apartment or condominium complexes or any situation where you intend to consider the design of a structure occupying space among other structures. Identify your site and describe i t by making sketches and notes and note particularly the context of the site. What is the function, appearance, and form of adjacent buildings? What constraints and advantages does the context pose for your design? Decide on how you will proceed for your in f i l l activity. List the objectives of your design and its properties. Describe how the in f i l l structure will relate to the context of the other adjacent buildings or structures. In evaluating your proposed design, use the four factor building appraisal describedin the preceeding activity. To assist you in this project, make use of photographs, maps, diagrams, sketches or models which allow you to experiment with different structures inserted in the gap to visualize appearance and function. Once you are satisfied, select an appropriate in f i l l structure and describe or il lustrate i t in any way that is suitable as i f you were a planner or architect faced with the task of presenting a building proposal for con- sideration. Class discussion and presentation of proposals would be useful as an end-point for your project. Examples of in f i l l activities follow which should be helpful. Inf i l l - House Plans: The examples shown illustrate the possible solutions for inserting a new house between other houses. Here design and placement are important. Constraints include distance between houses, distance from the streets (setback), and factors such as parking and access. Here the house fronts are arranged in Une and the new house inust relate well .with the adjacent houses. Here design ts radically different from the other houses and space for off-street parking is created. 57 Inf i l l - Residential House Fronts Consider the three residential dwellings illustrated and how well these houses would relate to each other i f placed side by side. Look at the scale, design and the context in relation to the others and the appropriateness of the house design for a f lat , moderately treed West Coast street. Sample 1 A non-basement bungalow, often described as a "West Coast Rancher". The size and proportion of the house relates well to Sample 2, as does the variety in roof levels and texture of stone decorative features and shake roof. The design suits the lot topography and the climate. Sample 2 te A non-basement bungalow with a Colonial design influence. Size, proportion, textural detail (brick, cedar shakes), relate well to Sample 1. The style suits the house size and topography and is appropriate for the local climate. r^tJrft Sample 3 This two storey Spanish design house is larger and more grand than Samples 1 and 2. Variety is evident in the roof line and t i le work and the arches add interest. The design differs from samples 1 and 2. cn oo Inf i l l - Commercial Use of Corner Site The following examples give alternatives for use of a corner site being used for commercial offices. Each solution should be examined and evaluated by the class through group discussion -infill Corner A corner site with a three-storey block which occupies most of the corner. The angled lower storey responds to pedestrian movement. This block appears solid from.the exterior but has an internal courtyard which allows light in and provides green space. Here the office block occupies the upper two floors and the lower floor allows seating, meetings, displays, etc. Putting the same volume into Ziggurat form, stepping back, a building twice as high. provides terraces, loses space. Alternating projection of Vertical emphasis, s l i t windows, facades. Interesting, expen- use of fins for effect. sive. 59 1930's International Modern style, horizontal emphasis. 1970's ecology style, trees, grass and greenspace. Office space is almost entirely lost. Activity: Explore your c i ty , town or village for a possible corner in f i l l site. Consider alternate designs for the site using drawings, sketches or models to illustrate alternatives. Evaluate each alternative. Recommend the plan that pleases you best. Locate 4 or 5 corner sites in your town or city that have commer- cial office buildings. Photograph, sketch and record details of the sites in note form. Evaluate each site. How have the building designers dealt with corner space? Can you l ist advantages and disadvantages of each design? How might you improve the design? Report on your findings in written form using illustrations to make your points. Alternately, present an oral report to the class on your investigation and evaluation. I!M_!S_I CT) O E v a l u a t i n g P r o p o s a l s "Proposals" are designs submitted by architects, designers and developers to local authorities for planning purposes and in order to receive permisssion to proceed with the project in keeping with the regulations and wishes of local government. Every municipality has a planning office and such offices are open to the public. Often plans for major developments are outlined in newspapers and public meetings are sometimes held where developers present their plans and illustrate them by the use of drawings, maps, models or planning portfolios. You can gain experience in the evaluation of proposals by carrying out the following activity. Evaluation of proposals may be a useful exercise for you to gain experience that is advantagous to you in business or community l i fe . Proceed as follows: -Visit a planning office and talk with the planning officer to find out how the planning procedure works. Find out how a proposal goes through the development, review and accept- tance, modification and acceptance or rejection phases. -Have your teacher arrange for a planner or developer to visit the school and give an informal talk on the planning and review process. It may be possible to review a "case historyof a development familiar.to you. 60 -Try to obtain copies of proposal documents that have been through the review process. Study and appraise these documents and conduct a role-playing activity in the classroom where some students take the role of developers presenting a proposal and others act as municipal officials and general public reviewing the proposals. -Attend public hearings where proposals are reviewed. Watch the process and be aware of the arguments made by both the proponent and the reviewers. Check to see i f the outcome is what the developer had in mind. If possible, talk to the people involved after the hearing to get their personal points of view. -Follow newspaper articles on the progress of major development ŝchemes and clip and keep a f i le .of these articles for reference purposes. Note i f and how the proposal was modified with time. -In evaluating proposals, be aware of all the things that you have learned about the built environment-pedestrian and vehicle movement, convenience, use of space, appearance, function, net- work systems and efficiency, noise, crowding and density, dura- bi l i ty of materials, future use options, context, etc. 61 M o r e E x p e r i e n c e W i t h A p p r a i s a l T e c h n i q u e s Environmental education is concerned with teaching you the evaluation of environmental quality. You must learn to ex- ercise discrimination and judgment in relation to planning and architecture in order to make informed judgments about your environment and the way i t affects your l i fe . Environ- mental education is meaningless unless i t provides you with these opportunities along with environmental-knowledge and ski l ls . In your everyday lives you. constantly use spaces such as homes, shopping centers, sports arenas, theatres, schools,' public buildings, etc. By applying your knowledge of the built environment, i t is possible for you to work towards influencing the quality and function of these built forms and to have a say in the way things are done in your community and work environment. You will be asked to participate and vote on many issues that will affect the nature of your surroundings in future. Often public referendums are held on major development schemes or there is opportunity to participate in the proposal review process. It is important that you participate and be know- ledgable about development alternatives in your town or comm- unity and make use of the ski l ls that you have acquired through these activities. Another application of knowledge of the built environment relates to your own private lives. At some time in your future you will be concerned with buying, renting or leasing real estate for the personal use of yourself and.your family. By being aware of environmental issues and by being discriminating you have the potential to make the best possible choice of personal environ- ment, to modify that environment to suit your needs and to realize the maximal potential and value of that environment. In this last section of the book you will have further opportun- ity to practise evaluation and judgement in relation to the built environment and to explore further techniques of evaluation: GETTING STARTED: Building Impact Evaluation- Assessing buildings by making use of a set of criteria. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Urban Evaluation Sheet- Using an "urban word evaluation sheet" during a sensory walk to form judgments. DOING MORE: Annotated Photographs- exploring a technique which uses annotated photographs to record and illustrate judgments of the environment. Slide Program- an evaluation technique that uses slides, tapes • and written material to form judgments. B u i l d i n g I m p a c t E v a l u a t i o n New development in our c i t ies, towns, villages or commun- ities often leads to construction of buildings of modern design beside older forms of architecture. With time, there is a tendancy for new forms of buildings to replace older, traditional forms. (after Bulletin of Environmental Education. Dec. 1976, 68, 20-26 with building assessment score sheet modified after that source) In this activity you will practice using an evaluation tech- nique that is based upon a set of established cr i ter ia. The class should choose several buildings in the area that are worthy of assessment. You may choose examples of both modern buildings and traditional buildings. Try to choose locations where the building being assessed has other build- ings close by so that its context is easily examined. Proceed to examine each building you have selected in turn and for each building, complete the appropriate section of the evaluation sheet given on the following page. Note that you must assign a score for the way each building satisfies the criteria l isted. Record details of buildings by photos or notes. In the classroom, add up and compare totals and calculate a class total for each building (sum of total scores divided by the number of students completing assessment sheets). Display the scores along with photographs or drawings that illustrate each building and discuss the relative merits of each building and its weaknesses. Were the criteria useful or would you wish to change them to suit your own assessment scheme? 164 0> BUILDING ASSESSMENT SCORE SHEET . Assessor's Name- , " . . Class or Group- Date- : — Instructions- Assign each buildinga number and record the. number and location of each building in Table 1. Assess each, building according to the criteria in Table 2 and assign a score for each criterion from a range of 0 to 10 according to the way in which the building satisfies the criterion (0 = very poor, 10 = excellent). Table ,1 Identification and Location Building Number Building Location Building Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Table 2 Assessment According to Criteria Criterion Building Number 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 Impact of building on the street Size and scale t Relationship of building to surroundings Choice of materials, textures, colours Standard of design of details Value of external space made by building Enjoyment of living or working there Use of site and site possibilities General appearance of the building Resistance to weather and climate Totals- U r b a n E v a l u a t i o n S h e e t A useful technique for recording your impressions and for appraising the built environment involves the use of the "urban evaluation sheet" given on the following page. The method is derived from a research publication dealing with the comparative environmental assessment of four U.S. cities (Lowenthal and Ri e l , 1972) and may be applied to your own activities. To use the evaluation sheet, select a short stretch of road that has interesting features worthy of evaluation. Proceed as a class or group to conduct a sensory walk (Part 1) that takes you through the area. Concentrate on recording your impressions on the evaluation sheet as you move. Instruct- ions for the use of the evaluation sheet are provided at the top of the sheet. The completed urban evaluation sheet will allow you to con- struct a profile of the area you have chosen for your sensory walk. Making a class set of these profiles will allow you to compare impressions with those of your classmates. This tech- nique could be adapted for use in a number of built environ- ment activities as you wish. O Keefe Ranch- early town center, Vernon, B.C. 166' URBAN EVALUATION SHEET Name of Evaluator- 5 Class or Group- Location- Time and Date- • Have you been here before?(circle): often , sometimes never Instructions- Below are 23 pairs of words, each separated by five lines. As you walk, consider each pair of words and place an "X" on the line that best suits your assessment of the place. For example, i f you feel the place is highly a r t i f i c ia l , you might place your "X" on the line closest to the word ar t i f ic ia l : natural _ _ _ _ art i f icial contrast uniform people things ugly beautiful smelly fresh vertical horizontal ordered _ _ _ _ _ _ chaotic moving ._ motionless smooth rough poor' rich open _ _ _ closed in boring interesting old new quiet _ noisy vivid ; . drab Pleasant unpleasant business use _ _ living use clean . dirty full empty rural _ _ _ urban near views far views like dislike dark _ _ _ _ _ _ light How do you feel today? Did your mood affect your assessment? Circle the five words on this l is t that best apply to the location assessed. Write a paragraph describing your sensory walk and the impressions you ob- tained there. Use five words that are not on the l i s t to describe the place. If you were trying to compare or assess particular types of places could you modify this technique to design a more relevant assessment sheet? (urban evaluation sheet modified from Bulletin of Environmental Education Dec. 1976, 68, 26) 1 : — 66 A n n o t a t e d P h o t o g r a p h s (concept after Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 20; Oct. 1979, 102, 2"Tj — Photographs are very useful as they allow you to record factual infor- mation about the built environment and analyse that information or com- pare one place with another. Different photographic techniques may be used to reveal detai l , concentrate on specific aspects of buildings or record the context of a building. You can make notes directly on photographs as a part of your appraisal process. This procedure is called "annotated photography". Analysing a photograph in this way will help you to note details of the building and form judgments. To practice the technique, obtain a large photograph of a street scene in your town, city or village. If i t is hard to obtain such a picture, find one in a magazine that is suitable for practice purposes. Paste the picture on a piece of white paper leaving borders around the picture to provide space for your notations. If you have a photocopier available, make two or three copies of the picture and its margin to produce a final copy for annotation. Proceed to examine details of the picture and eval- uate its contents by writing crit ical comments on the margin of the picture with a fine felt pen or dark ink. Observe the example given here. Use this technique to strengthen your analysis of other activities you may wish to pursue in the study of the built environment. 67 S l i d e P r o g r a m (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 22} You may present a slide and tape show describing some aspect or experience of the built environment that interests you and that you would like to communicate to others. Slides are a very useful tool as they enable you to present a serial visual rep- resentation of what you have observed. Presentation of slides can be assisted by tape recorded comments which stress the message of the presentation. Proceed as follows: Preparation- Choose a topic related to the study of the built environment that interests you. You may choose to use some of the activities in this book or invent new ones. Try to select a topic that will allow evaluation of some aspect of the built environment and crit ical appraisal. Investigation- Locate a study area and a suitable large scale map of the area or make a sketch map to suit your project. Carry out your investigation according to the objectives of the study being careful to note details of buildings, spaces, street features, traffic and pedestrian-movement, vegetation, slopes and other features suitable for the topic you have chosen. Make notes or sketches to assist your analysis. Photography- Obtain a camera and suitable slide film and.choose a series of viewpoints around your subject for photographic purposes. Be sure to select sites that will illustrate the message you are attempting to convey. Photographs taken from both distance'and close-upmay be useful. As you take each picture, make a note of its number on the roll of film and use a tape recorder to record the content of the picture and any critical comments about it that you wish to make. Record the picture number on your map for future reference. Try to concentrate on only important features that illustrate your point of view. Interpretation- Project your developed slides and try to arrange them in a sequence that illustrates the point of your presentation. Listen to the tape recorded comments on each picture and review any notes or supportive material that you have. Write down important interpretive comments that you wish to make in your presentation and think about how those points can be integrated with the slide show. Presentation- Assemble your presentation with the slides in an ordered sequence and a tape recorded narrative to go with the slides. Make sure that the audience knows the purpose and object- ives of the study at the beginning and why you did i t . Operate the slide projector in time with the recorded narrative. Present conclusions and evaluation comments at the end of the show. Be aware that a few good slides and a clear, concise message is much better than a cluttered confusing presentation. R e f e r e n c e s , S o u r c e s o f Part [ - Discovering and describing the built environment through your senses. Open space activity; the sensory walk; shopping center activit ies; guiding by cards: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Sensing the environment. Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72_, 7-9. Farbstein, J . and Kantrowitz, M. People in Places. Englewood C l i f fs , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978. Describing your environment; building a cri t ical vocabulary: Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, February 1979, 94, 7. Harris, CM. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. Kalman, H. Exploring Vancouver 2. Vancouver, British Columbia: University of British Columbia Press, 1978. I d e a s 68 Part II-- Experiencing the built environment. Steeplechasing: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education December 1976, 68, 6-10. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, June 1979, 98, 8-12. Serial Vision: Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education December 1976, 68, 8-10. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, June 1979, 98, 8-12. Experiencing a building from all sides: McFee, J.K. and Degge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst for Teaching. Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977, 116-122. The town trai l : Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978, 83, 16-17. Cullen, G. The Concise Townscape. London: The Architectural Press, 1971. 69 Part III -Learning how design and materials influence the built environment. Personal space activit ies; defining personal space with objects; shared space; look and use of space; networks; symbols: r McFee, J.K. and Oegge, R.M. Art, Culture and Environment A Catalyst for Teaching. Belmont California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1977, 219-233. Dating game: Vancouver Environment Education Project. B.C. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present (tentative trial edition). Vancouver B.C.: University of British Columbia (Holdsworth, D. and Bailey, P.), 1974. Houses game; home improvements game: ' Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. A primary experience. Bulletin of Environmental Education, July 1979, 99, 12-27. Part IV - Appraisal and judgment of the built environment- Four factor building analysis: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Appraising buildings. Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 3-13. . • Inf i l l : Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Appraising buildings. Bulletin of Environmental Education, May 1977, 73, 17-21. Part IV b - More techniques. Building impact evaluation; urban evaluation sheet: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Experiencing townscape. Bulletin of Environmental Education, December 1976, 68, 24, 26. Lowenthal, D. and Riel , M. Environmental Assessment: A Comparative Analysis of Four-Cities. American Geographical Association, 1972. Annotated photographs: Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 20-21. Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education, October 1979, 102, 20-21. Slide Program; Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978, 83, 22. Additional References: Balaban, R.C. and-A.I. St. Clair. The Mystery Tour - Exploring the Designed Environment with Children. Washington, D.C: * The Preservation Press of the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1976. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Types of Land Use. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2078. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Fieldwork in an Urban Setting. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2079. British Tourist Authority. Town Trails and Urban Walks, 2nd- ed. London: 64 St. James's Street, SW1A-1NF, 1976. Chalmers, F.G. Practical Suggestions for Environmental Design Education. Victoria: CS/SCEA, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, booklet No. 5, 1979. Chalmers, F.G.; Moorcroft, F. and R. Virginil lo. Greek and .Roman Buildings. Vancouver: Western Education Development Group, University of B.C., 1979. City of Vancouver. Granville Vancouver as a Pedestrian Transit- way. Design study prepared by architects Bain, Burrough and Hanson, 14 September, 1973. Dixon, G. Our Built Environment. .Richmond, B.C.: School District Mo. 38 (Richmond) British Columbia, 1979. 70 Halprin, L. Cities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1978. ' • King.S. "A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture." Master's dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1970. Lynch, K. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960. Leicestershire County Council. The Local Tradition. Leicestershire, England: Council Planning Subcommittee, 1975. Pratt, J .H . ; Pratt, J . ; Moore, S.B.;.and W.T. Moore. Environmental Encounter: Experiences in Decision- Making for the Built and Natural Environment. - Dallas, Texas: Reverchon Press, 1979. Sarnoff, H. Design Games: Playing for Keeps with Personal and Environmental Design Decisions. William Kaufman Inc., 1979. Wurman, R.S.; Brunner, H. and N. Donovan. A Guide to Guide- books. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Planning and Evaluation, 1973. Other Sources of Information: Architect's Book Center- Philadelphia Chapter, AIA, 17 th and Sanson Streets, Philadelphia, PA- 19103, U.S.A. Canadian Society for Education Through Art. c/o Dr. M. Travis, . Division of Publications, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 100, Victoria, B.C. V8W-2Y2. 71 Center for City Building Education Programs- 235 S. Westgate Ave., Los Angeles, California 90049, U.S.A". Educational Futures, Inc. 2118 Spruce St . , Philadelphia, PA 19103, U.S.A. National Trust for Historic Preservation- 1789 Massachussetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A. Town and Country Planning Association, Educational Unit- 17 Carleton House Terrace, London, SWI, England. Vision, Inc.- 678 Massachussetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A. Western Education Development Group- University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T-1W5. Maps and Guidebooks: British Columbia Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Small Business Development, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. (Refer also, to local tourism and information centers). Appendix I-B Revised pages of the workbook prepared in accordance with the findings of p i lot testing. C o n t e n t s Chapter _ _ L Acknowledgments 1 Comments for Teachers i i Introduction vii 1. Sensory Experience- Discovery and Description 2 Open Space Activities 3 The Sensory Walk 4 Shopping Center Activities 5 Guiding by Cards 6 Describing Your Environment 7 Building a Critical Vocabulary 9 2. Experiencing the Built Environment 10 Steeplechasing 12 Serial Vision 15 Experiencing a Building from all Sides 17 The Town Trail 20 3. Influence of Design and Materials 29 A-Personal Space 31 Defining Personal Space with Objects 32 Shared Space Activities 33 Analysing the Look and Use of Space 34 Network Spaces 36 Symbols 37 Chapter Page B-The Dating Game 39 The Houses Game 41 The Improvements Game 43 4. Crit ical Appraisal 45 A-The Four Factor Building Appraisal 46 Infi l l 55 Evaluating Proposals 60 B-More Experience with Appraisal Techniques 61 Building Impact Evaluation 62 Urban Evaluation Sheet 64 Annotated Photographs 66 Slide Program 67 5. References, Sources of Ideas 68 6. Glossary of Terms 72 A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s The author is grateful for permission received from a number of sources to reproduce material, photographs or illustrations. Many of the activities contained herein have been taken or ad- apted from articles in the Education Unit of the Town Planning Association's publication Bulletin of Environmental Education published by Russell Press, 45 Gamble St . , Nottingham, NG7-4ET, England. The Town and Country Planning Association may be con- tacted at 17 Carleton House Terrace, London, SW1Y-5AS. The author is extremely appreciative for permission to use this material extended by the Town and Country Planning Association and to the authors of articles in the Association's Bulletin, BEE, who developed and tested many of these ideas and concepts. I am also appreciative of permission given by authors J.K. McFee and R.M. Degge and publishers Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. of Dubuque, Iowa, for permission to use concepts and questions adapted from Art, Culture and Environment, A Catalyst for Teaching. Illustrations of houses used on page 39 are reproduced by permission of the Western Educational Development Group, University of British Columbia. Photographs of the Bentall and Dominion buildings in Vancouver, B.C. (page 9) are reproduced with permission from pages 7 and 12 of H. Kalman and J . Roaf's Exploring Vancouver 2, University of B.C. Press. All other photographs in the text are by the author. I am most appreciative of the patient help, advice and support extended by my graduate studies Committee consisting of Dr. G. Chalmers (supervisor), and Dr. J . Gray of.the Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Univer- sity of British Columbia, and Prof. A. Rogatnick of the School of Architecture, University of British Columbia. Support for publication of this work was extended by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and by Heritage Trust. The author is most appreciative of this assistance. The views ex- pressed in this book are entirely those of the author and no responsibility for them should be attributed to the Central Mortagage and Housing Corporation or to Heritage Trust. C o m m e n t s f o r T e a c h e r s This book deals with the built environment and your relation- ship to i t . The built environment is the man-made environment which surrounds you in everyday l i fe- your house, neighbour- hood, city, streets and paths or any structural forms. The book is to be used, not just to be read. It will enable your students to get involved in places, to be aware of places, to understand how people experience those places and form judg- ments about them. The activities in this book are for enjoy- ment as well as to help students become aware of the built en- vironment and how it affects them as people. Living creatures interact with their environment and are fund- amentally influenced by i t . Man is by no means excluded from this relationship and by his nature and intellect, has the means to alter or shape his environment by transforming natu- ral or man-made objects into the built form. Implicit in this relationship between man and his built environment are the in- fluence of human emotions, feelings and sensitivity, cultural heritage, social patterns, lifestyle and the nature and variety of human activity. Man is , with few exceptions, not a solitary creature and there- fore confines himself to social groupings which may be termed tribes, societies, ethnic groupings, etc., organized around some physical built arrangement of structures such as camps, villages, towns, cities or large metropolitan assemblages. As modern man is , to a large extent, an urban dweller, this urban setting plays a vital and constant role in his total lifestyle. The city and its structure is based upon man's activities and interests and the physical and function- al aspects of the city govern and in some cases constrain man's activ- i t ies. It is therefore apparant that the built environment is a partic- ularly important feature in the l i fe of man and it follows that the study of this environment is a highly suitable topic for education. Fur- thermore, due to the urban setting of our lives and our ability to cre- ate and transform built environment, i t is important for students to become aware of their surroundings and to realize that they have the po- tential to appraise, preserve, change and improve their urban environ- ment. This book is concerned with providing the opportunity for students to experience the built environment for themselves. It does not concentrate on the traditional classroom experience but is based upon the premise that learning does not take place in a vacuum and is greatly facilitated by making the student aware of the external world of ideas, events, peo- ple and objects. Chippindale and Ward (1979 ) argue that i t is fitt ing for the teacher to become involved in the business of architectural in- terpretation. In their view, there is a great need to "open pupils' eyes to the visual aspects of their habitat and make i t under- standable".Their point is that there is much to be gained through the education of the senses and revelation of mean- ings and that such objectives should be a major task of the schools. Teaching a student to be sensitive to his or her environment may lead to the formation of opinions, judgments, or positive action as a result of such sensitivity. Inter- est and concern for the built environment is an important attribute of citizenship and is therefore highly relevant for education. In addition , study of the built environment has application to a variety of subject areas- art, social studies, history, architecture, city planning, design and other interests. It is therefore multi-disciplinary in character and can be ad- apted by the teacher to suit a variety of needs, programs and situations. Study of the built environment allows the teacher to examine historical buildings and examine the nec- essity for preservation of heritage structures, past art and design forms, historical use of building materials and the interests and values of the past. Alternate use of older buildings may be studied and the pros and cons of replace- ment or rennovation examined. Some innovative programs have used the city as a learning laboratory (B.E.E.C. , April 1978, HaCaulay, 1976, Schneider, 1954) in which the structure, function, appearance, social context, sensory impact. iii economic, historical, architectural and other aspects of the community can be integrated in a study program designed to emphasize those element's by interactive exposure to the city. Furthermore, aspects of the future of the built environment may be emphasized to illustrate the relevance of town planning, innovative architecture, artistic elements, creation of functional and pleasing environments and to integrate structure, func- tion and beauty with urban planning. Art is Important in the consideration of the built environment. Ericksen and Smith (1978) assert that "the built environment is an art form". McFee (1974) maintains that we must "develop the capacity to use art as a humanizing force in improving the quality of l i fe on earth". McFee's point is that a pleasant and stimulating urban environment can do a lot to improve the nature of modern l i fe and the often impersonal nature of our surroundings. Ericksen and Smith suggest that there is great potential for using the built environment to help children understand and take part in the art process. They observed that the built environment Is space divided into functional elements (buildings, parks, streets, gardens) and that we respond to elements of space and form with our feelings just as we do to art objects. They feel that one of the prime functions of education is helping students "learn how to see" and that built environ- mental education places heavy stress on visual awareness and personal meaning for the individual. This workbook is based upon several conceptions of curriculum orientation. A key objective of the approach is to teach students to think about their environment in an analytical way. The material follows a cognitive H- 1 developmental process of learning- sensing, experiencing, organ- izing, analysing and evaluating. Each chapter introduces an issue through a set of experiences or study tasks. The approach is flexible in order to allow you to select an activity or area of emphasis suitable to your circumstances, area of interest and the capabilities of your class. For a given chapter, activities are divided into three groups entitled "getting started", "expanding horizons", and "doing more". The book is intended to be a compend- ium of possible means.for the study of the built environment rather than a definitive and structured set of instructional mat- erial . You may well wish to adapt some of the material to suit the interests and needs of your class. Consultation of some of the reference material listed in the book should be helpful in develop- ing ideas and approaches. This material has been successfully tested and evaluated in sev- eral British Columbia high schools (Davis, 1981) and results of that evaluation indicate several factors are important to success- ful introduction and use of the material. First , it is most impor- tant that both the teacher and the students understand the reasons why the study of the built environment is important and worthwhile. Introductory lessons should place emphasis on how the built envir- onment plays an important part in the daily l i fe of people. Such things as population growth, crowding, pressures of city l i f e , function of buildings and city transportation systems, quality of the urban experience, historical, cultural and aesthetic consider- ations, and the need for evaluation and good planning should be recognized as important concerns in the study of the built environ- ment. Alternately, students of art and design may wish to use the material to observe natural and man-made design concepts and study various elements of design such as texture, shape, colour, form and size and space relationships. Thus, the study of the built en- vironment can serve as a stimulus for a variety of subject matter which varies from social and cultural considerations to art, design, architecture, historical trends and planning activities. This workbook has been developed to conform with the General Learn- ing Outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum and also with the objective of satisfying a number of behavioral objectives in the learning process. Things to look for 1n evaluating progress of your students are increased perception (transformation of sensory infor- mation into meaningful concepts about the built environment), growth in knowledge (definitions that distinguish one built form from another, architectural styles, historical groupings, geographical considerations, relationship'of form and function, and knowledge of criteria by which built environment may be evaluated and judged) and also comprehension. Comprehension includes full understanding of the meaning and function of the built form and the development of a student's ability to verbally describe and discuss the qualities and strengths and weak- nesses of a design. Also important, is analysis, behavioral responses which involve the dissection of the subject matter into its con- stituent parts, detection of relationships among the parts and a determination of the relationships of the parts to the whole. Evaluation is a very important behavioral objective of the program and involves development of capacity in the student to make reasoned judgments and perform crit ical evaluation of the built form in relation to aesthetics, functional suitabil ity, design concepts, or any criteria you may wish to establish for the material. Production activities involved in the work are varied and flexible. Production could involve creation of models, plans, architectural drawings, creation of designs, sketching and descriptive writing, slide and tape presentations, i l lustra- tive brochures and town trail route development or other activ- ities designed to encourage expression and innovation on the part of the student. Where do I start? At the outset, i t is important for you to determine the readiness of your class for this material. Readiness should be judged in two areas- familiarity with built environment concepts and city structure and function and readiness to engage in f ield activities and unstructured small group activities. If the class is new to the subject area, i t may be best to start the group on personal space activities (see table of contents), and proceed to explore v a gradually widening array of situations- immediate surroundings, local neighbourhood settings familiar to the students, and finally more distant field excursions to interesting places removed from the school location. Don't just turn your class loose on their own in unsupervised activities until you are convinced that they are comfortable and mature enough to handle such responsibility. You may find it very useful to prepare an overview of the program before you start which maps out your course of action and the means by which you are going to achieve specific goals you have establish- ed for the study program. Ask yourself: What do I want to accomplish or achieve? How am I going to achieve such objectives? What events or behavior on the part of students will tell me i f I am being succ- essful? What problems might I encounter and how could I deal with them as they arise? What resource materials, time, budget and fac i l - ities are required? What methods do I wish to use for encouraging enthusiasm and productivity on the part of the students and for en- suring assignments and follow-up activities are completed? Evaluation techniques that you plan to use must be carefully consid- ered. Experience with pilot testing of the material has indicated that it is best to evaluate student's work at the completion of each assignment. Follow-up activities and class discussion of findings are particularly important, especially following a f ield trip. Also, i t has been demonstrated that it is important for the teacher to vi specify due dates for reporting each activity and to consider the time requirements for completion of projects. Marks could be given for content, originality, practicality, comprehension, knowledge, use of extra reference material, neatness and ski l l with materials, and for class participation in discussion and teamwork situations. Hints for Field Trip Organization This program can involve considerable field trip activities i f the teacher chooses to select such activit ies. Pilot testing of the material has identified some important considerations for success- ful field trip implementation: 1) Plan a f ield trip with the class by setting out the objectives and approach on'the blackboard. Make sure everyone knows the purpose of the trip and what will occur. Have the students record the trip's objectives and steps to be followed. 2) Assemble al l the materials required for the trip and make sure each student has the materials at the start of the trip. Con- sider methods of transportation, schedules, access to buildings, time available, recording materials required, instructional information and brochures, etc. Good maps may be particularly helpful for some activities. 3) Consider what means of recording information will be used by . the students (notebooks, sketchbooks, cameras, etc.). Would a standardized format be helpful? 4) Be sure to take careful note of the time required for the trip and for reporting on the results of the trip. Followup class discussions at the completion of a trip are particularly important, preferably when the experience is fresh in the minds of the students. Considerable work may be involved in process- ing the information gathered on a trip. Allow classroom time or home study time for completion. 5) If students are ready for unsupervised activities, ensure that they choose realistic and practical topics that have a good possibility of success- some students may wish to tackle very ambitious and challenging topics that will prove frustrating for them. 6) Enjoy, the experience with your class. It is most important that you participate in field activities and.be available to give ad- vice and support as required. Try to maintain a dialogue with the students and challenge them to look at the built environment from a variety of perspectives. 7) Choice of study location is very important. Select interesting and stimulating places for study. Students respond very positively to field activities and their enthusiasm and interest can be turned to advantage i f you select a good study site. References (see also, reference l is t at the back of the book) Built Environment Education Center (B.E.E.C.). A growing f ie ld- a field for growth. Report of the Built Environment Ed- ucation Center, Philadelphia, PA: B.E.E.C. , No. 3, Apri l , 1978, pp. 5-8. Chippindale, F. and Ward, C. A concluding word. Built Environ- mental Education. April 1979, p. 27. Davis, S .J . Development of a built environment program for application and use in the B.C. secondary curriculum. Master of Arts Dissertation, Faculty of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, Vancouver, B.C.: The University of British Columbia, May, 1981. Eriksen, A. and Smith, V. Art and the built environment. Art Education, September, 1978, pp. 4-6. McFee, J.K. Society, art and education. In Hardiman and Zemich (Eds.) Curricular considerations for visual arts educa- tion. Stipes, 1974, pp. 79-80. MaCaulay, D. Underground. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976. Schneider, H. and Schneider, N. Let's look under the city. New York: Scott, 1954. 1. S e n s o r y E x p e r i e n c e - D i s c o v e r y a n d D e s c r i p t i o n Concentrating on your sensory experiences will enable you to better describe the built environment. A group of activ- ities follow which will allow you to discover your environ- ment through the use of your senses: GETTING STARTED: Open Space Activity- sensing places by concentrating upon open spaces and their properties by using your senses one at a time will help you become aware of your perceptions. The Sensory Walk- noticing how places and your percep- tions of those places change as you walk through them while concentrating upon your sensory impressions. Shopping Area Activities- using a shopping area as a place to practice sensing the built environment. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Guiding by Cards- using "fun cards" to help you sense the built environment through a structured approach. DOING MORE: Describing Your Environment- looking at parts of interest- ing buildings and describing what you see. Exploring other parts of those buildings and seeking information in order describe them through various sources. Building a Critical Vocabulary- exploring ways of using and building vocabulary through visual observation. 3 O p e n S p a c e A c t i v i t e s (after Bulletin of Environmental Education, April 1977, 72, 7-8) Choose a large open space such as a park, f ie ld , play- ground or parking lot and enter i t . Stop somewhere and look around. Concentrate on each of your senses in forming an impression of the space: Eyes: What do you see? How is this space used and how does its design reflect this use? Notice l ight, shadow, textures, the tapestry of l ights, colours. Record your impressions: Ears: Close your eyes and concentrate on the sounds around you. What different sounds can you hear? What sounds are most noticable? What sounds are attractive or unattractive? Are there near sounds, distant sounds, musical sounds or birdsongs? Touch: Examine the ground around you and at your feet. Reach down and touch i t . If an object is nearby, reach out and touch i t . How does i t feel? Motion through Space: Choose an interesting object and walk to- wards i t . How does your impression of the space change as you move? Does the object appear different as you get nearer to it? Stop at the object and explore it carefully using al l your senses. Record your impressions: Smell and Taste: Turn and inhale facing in different direc- tions. What smells do you detect? Flowers, automobiles.industry, cooking? Can you also taste things in the air? How do you feel about these sensations? Steeplechasing Few places do not have some tall building, church steeple, tower or other object that is visible on the skyline. The objective of this activity is to choose such a structure and observe its app- earance in relation to other buildings and objects from different vantage points surrounding i t . Once you have chosen a suitable focal point, proceed as follows: 1) Acquire a map of the streets surrounding the focal point. A tourist guide map with a large scale may be ideal. If you cannot obtain a suitable map, draw one to approxi- mate scale. 2) Move around the focal point in the surrounding streets, stopping at appropriate places to observe the focal point. When you stop record your location on the map (use a num- bering system to record locations- see following page). 3) Draw or photograph the focal point from each observation point. Try to select locations where you get a different perspective of the focal point in relation to other build- ings or structures. 4) Make notes on how the focal point looks from each observa- tion point. Use the following questions to guide your note taking (not al l have to be answered at each observation point). How does your location influence the way the struc- ture looks? How do you feel about the focal point when you look at i t in relation to other buildings? Is your impress- ion of the focal point different than when you viewed it 12 from other spots? How does the structure compare and contrast with other buildings? What design elements are visible on the structure? How do they influence its appearance? Are there things about the focal point you had not noticed before? Do you like the structure? Does i t look like an inviting place to visit? Arrange your photographs or sketches around the map and use the number code to indicate the location of each observation point as illustrated on the following pages. On a separate page, l is t your observation point numbers and under each number, write a few impor- tant comments about each observation location by consulting your notes. Write a conclusion about the focal point you have observed, including comments on its appearance, your impressions of i t , things you became aware of and your reaction to the experience. You may wish to discuss your findings with others in class. CO T h e T o w n T r a i l (adapted from Bulletin of Environmental Education, March 1978, 83, 16-17) The town trail provides a way of enjoying and experiencing the built environment. It involves a planned route through an urban area that may be walked and is designed to bring out features of the area for the observer. The route may be illustrated on a guide map or brochure or be marked by signs or posts where town trails have been prepared for use by visitors to the community. Such a trai l can have many uses. It can be used to guide people past points of interest for tourism purposes or be organized to illustrate specific features such as shopping areas, historic buildings, house types, architectural features, industry, ethnic community content or landscape detail. Alternately, the town trai l can be used to illustrate urban features such as road and rapid transit systems, urban renewal, problems (traffic flow, decay, reconstruction needs) or almost anything that the designer of the trail wishes. Use of a town trail will enable you to develop interest and have enjoyable and useful experiences in the built environ- ment. Through the use of the town trail you can examine the processes that shape our urban environment and develop a cri t ical eye for evaluating that environment. Town trails are fun- they contain adventure, surprize and entertainment. DESIGNING A TOWN TRAIL- Preparation and Planning: Think of an interesting topic or theme and write down what your objectives are in designing such a t ra i l . What do you hope to achieve and who would use such a trail? Do you wish to study a particular type of build- ing, architectural feature, urban problem or historical theme? Once you have established these objectives, go out and find examples in the urban environment to illustrate your ideas. In planning a town trail you should try to be practical and consider both the objectives of the trail as well as the comfort and needs of the users. Can you design a trail that clearly illustrates your point? Are most of the points of interest along the way fairly close together so that the distance walked is not excessive? Is the trail safe for users and not likely to cause discomfort and hardship? Presentation of Your Town Trai l : As well as carefully plan- ning your t ra i l 's route, it is most important that you con- sider how you intend to communicate ideas and information to the users of the t ra i l . A written guide to the trai l with illustrations that add something to the text is very useful. This guide should not just provide a description of what the user sees, but should convey your message, suggest ideas or ways of looking at things that are informative and stimulat- ing to the user. Check that your material is accurate, clear and well thought out. Directions and maps should be clear so that the user is not confused by the route. If buildings are to be entered, the hours that they are open to the public should be specified as well as any entry fees. It is useful to tell the user how long it will take to walk the trail and approximately how far he or she will have to walk. Any special features such as safety considerations, rest stops or transportation needs should be mentioned. Try to make your trail exciting and interesting for the user. Can you introduce adventure, surprize or fun into the trail directions? Possible Topics for Trail Design: -barriers (fences, doors, walls, hedges, banks) -advertising (signs, posters, billboards, window displays, storefronts) -enclosure of space, activities -construction methods and materials -gardens -degeneration and decay -conversion of form or function -urban housing types -natural form vs. ar t i f ic ia l form -human activities What other ideas for a theme can you think of? Record your choice of a theme here: What are the objectives of your town trail? CO 36 N e t W O r k S p a C e S (adapted from McFee and As you move about in the built environment you make use of stairways, hallways, footpaths, streets and other structures designed to get you from one place to another. These devices form "networks" of circulation and communication and their effectiveness depends upon how well the space alloted for the network allows for the desired pattern of movement and use. You may examine the network concept through the following activities: Networks in the Classroom Environment- Divide into groups and start by making a large scale map of the classroom on a big piece of paper. On the map, indicate all the paths which are used to enter and leave the room. Act out the daily use of these routes to become aware of the ways you get to doors, blackboard, teacher's desk, books, storage areas, etc. Think about what happens when the entire class moves at once. Where are the congested areas in your network? What areas are not used much of the time? Can you think of a better arrangement that would prevent con- gestion and improve the use of space in your network? Degge, 1977, 232-233) Network Spaces Within and Around the School- Try to obtain a floor plan of the school and surrounding grounds. If a plan is not available, draw one to approximate scale. Obtain a map of the surrounding commun- ity. Enlargements of maps can be made using an overhead projector with the image directed onto a large piece of paper. From the school floor plan, locate and mare' the spaces in the school that are used by all the students (halls, gymnasium, lunch room, library, etc.). Using a felt pen, indicate on the map the routes students in your class follow to move to different places in the school during the day. Draw the paths followed by several individuals and then make tours along those routes to study what those individuals experience in their travels. Where do traffic jams occur? What is going on in the halls, besides people moving from one place to another? What happens in the heaviest traffic areas? Does the traffic in different areas vary with different times of the day? ' Are some routes not used as much as they could be? CO 39 T h e D a t i n g G a m e (adapted from B_ with i l lustrati You can discover a lot of interesting things about the his- torical trends of the area in which you live by conducting a walking tour and observing trends in appearance and con- struction methods according to the age of the buildings. For example, you might notice old wooden stores with false fronts among brick or stone buildings of a later period. Alternately, you might see residential streets with large 2H storey wooden houses that are quite different from nearby single storey, 2 bedroom houses of a more recent period. It might be apparant that there has been a shift in the location of the commercial or retail center of the area with time or a trend towards movement of shopping centers into the suburbs. Understanding such trends will involve you in consideration of many factors such as changes in construction materials and technology, the fashion of different time periods, popu- lation trends, the advent of transportation systems, econom- ic factors, changing land use patterns, population density and availability of services. Trends in urban development could well be related to world events and immigration pat- terns. In order to study this aspect of the built environment i t is important to be able to assign dates of construction to the buildings observed. Information on the age of structures may be obtained from a number of sources. Some buildings have C. Urban History: Discovering the Past in the Present, 1974, p. 67-69 ons from that source) their dates of construction carved onto the facade near the roof, over the main door or on a cornerstone. Some heritage buildings have been identified with dated name plaques or are described in brochures on city architecture. Interviews with owners and resi- dents can provide additional information. City or municipal hall records and planning offices may be cooperative. Good reference books are often available which describe local architecture and general categories of construction. Local museums may have displays or archival material, including old photographs and articles that can be dated. The style of architecture is often an excellent indicator of the age of a structure. For example, house styles 1n B.C. tend to follow the trends shown below: !T_H V i c t o r i a n - late 1800's Ontario Cottages 1920-30 s romanticism _ LUJ iD] I ra California Bungalows LOSSES 1940 s International Style 1950s Split Level Ranch ) • CO CO 45 4. C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l Becoming more aware of places deepens your understanding of yourself and your environment. Understanding however, is only a part of the potential that you have within you and it is possible to go much farther and move towards positive action to create, modify or influence the nature of your built envir- onment. Activities in the previous sections of this book were direc- ted towards developing an understanding of what factors make a place work well and feel right. In considering how a place works and feels, you examined many factors such as function, materials used in construction, aesthetics, atmosphere, econ- omics, structural form, use of space, network systems, etc. In order to cr i t ical ly appraise the built environment and to use this appraisal to bring about change, i t is necessary for you to examine the process of appraisal. The group of activ- ities included here deals with practical ways of appraising the built environment and will help you practice the tech- nique. GETTING STARTED: The Four Factor Building Appraisal- Context, routes, inter- face, and grouping factors help you to appraise built envir- onment through a checklist and scale system. Inf i l l - You will observe spaces between buildings and exper- iment with the design of possible solutions to f i l l in the space. Inf i l l - House Fronts- This activity involves the examination of residential house fronts and the appraisal of how well they relate to each other and to factors such as climate, top- ography and function. EXPANDING HORIZONS: Inf i l l - Corners- Examining the uses of corner sites and eval- uating the appropriateness of design. Appraising Proposals- Learning to appraise proposals and the schemes of designers, architects and developers and examining the proposal review process. 47 FACTOR 1- CONTEXT: (the binding's setting) (Complete the response for each question shown below and assign a score from the choices below by asking yourself how well the building suits the context) Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) How does the building suit the pattern of the surrounding streets? "~ Score - 2) How does the scale of the building suit the site i t sits upon? Score = 3) How does the scale of the building suit the scale of surrounding buildings? Score = 4) How does the scale suit the character of the neighbour- . hood? Score = 5) Do the public and private areas relate well to one an- other? • Score - 6) Do the land uses adjacent to the building seem to f i t harmoneously with the building? Score = 7) Does the type of building and its intended use f i t well with the type and uses of adjacent buildings? . Score 8) Does the appearance of the building f i t in well with the type of buildings surrounding it? Score = 9) Is the scale of the building suitable for its purpose on the site? Score = Average Score (total/9) = Write a paragraph describing the context, including any-comments or concerns that you may have about the way the building suits or fails to suit the context of the surrounding area. FACTOR 2- ROUTES: (routes are the traffic paths or passageways that allow the building to relate to its context) (Complete the response for each question shown below and assign a score from the choice shown below by asking your- self ____pj2pj_ijt_a_^ link the building to its surroundings and how functional the routes are.) Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) Are sufficient routes, pathways, streets and passageways provided to and around the building? Score - 2) What are the flow patterns of traffic or people? Are there busy periods, quiet periods, one-way flows, regular movement patterns, traffic jams? Are the routes arranged to consider these factors? Score ; 3) Where are the nodes (meeting points) for traff ic around the building and what happens there? Score - 4) Do are the routes make sense? Are they understandable and convenient? ; Score ; 48 5) Are all the routes easily understood by newcomers, visitors, service people? . . — _ Score - 6) How well are the routes marked? Are the markings clear and easily understood? _ Score • 7) How effectively do the routes link the building to the surround- ing buildings or structures? . Score Average Score (total /7) Write a paragraph describing the way in which the routes in and around the building(s) relate the building to Its context and the success with which the routes accomplish that purpose. 800 Robson St. Food Fair Cinema/Theatre Exhibition ' Meeting Rooms Tourist Information Parking Level P2 49 FACTOR 3- INTERFACE: (A building is essentially an enclosure that separates an interior private space from exterior public space. The interface, is the crucial meeting place where the inside of the building connects with the outside.) (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by deciding how well the build- ing satisfies the problems related to interface.) Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) How clearly or effectively does the exterior of the build- ing indicate its interior function(s)? Score - 2) How effectively does the inside of the building connect with the outside of the building? Are the connections appropriate and functional? Score - 3) Are the exits and entrances easily accessible? Score = 4) Are the various openings related to thoughful planning of the interior? (Consider entry of l ight, view, privacy, noise, heat, glare, atmosphere, etc.) Score = 5) Are the exitways appropriate from a safety point of view? ] Score = 6) When you move from the exterior of the building to the inter- ior by means of the main entrance, is the experience pleasant, interesting, or special in any way? Score = 7) Are the clues to what is public and what is private space clear to the visitor? Score - 8) Have the designers, in your opinion, handled the problem of interface well in their design of this building? Score - Average Score (total/8) = Write a paragraph describing how well the design of the building has addressed the problem of interface. What are the strengths and concerns that you have about the design? How might it be'im- proved or changed? FACTOR 4- GROUPING: (Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Grouping of the parts gives both form and mean- ing as well as variety to the building.) (Complete the response for each question and assign a score from the choices shown below by concentrating on the subdivisions of the building's form and deciding on the appropriateness of the designer's choice of group- ings. ) •Score highly appropriate- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -very inappropriate 1) Concentrate on the subdivision of the building's parts as viewed from the outside. What parts are evident? Do the parts integrate well with each other and form an effective and pleasing appearance? Score - 2) Do the subdivided parts of the building appear to have a specific function? Is the function of each part easy to identify? Score = 3) Is i t clear what various subdivisions of the building might mean to visitors? Would a visitor know where to go on entering the building? Score - 4) Are the various parts of the building planned carefully in relation to one another and to the characteristics of the site? Score ; 50 5) Is there sufficient relationship between the parts of the building for i t to appear as one unified structure? Score - 6) Does enough variation exist in the structural parts and groupings to provide interest and variety? Score - Average Score (total/6) • In a paragraph, discuss the subdivision of your building into identifiable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. Is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? 57 Inf i l l - Possible solutions to house placement 1-Consider each of the following examples. In each one, a different solution is shown for the problem of placing a house or houses on the center lot. Give reasons why each of the following examples would or would not work. A. C. X 1 [S3 X : X X D. E ! 1 X i i x i ! E. F. G. 2-Choose a design which would best be placed on the inf i l l lot shown below. Discuss your inf i l l lot plan in a paragraph, giving reasons for your choice of design and location. E v a l u a t i n g P r o p o s a l s "Proposals" are designs submitted by architects, designers and developers to local authorities for planning purposes and in order to receive permission to proceed with the project in keeping with the wishes and regulations of local government. Every municipality has a planning office and such offices are open to the public. Often plans for major developments are outlined in newspapers and public meetings are sometimes held where developers present their plans and illustrate them by the use of drawings, maps, models or planning portfolios. Evaluation of proposals may be a useful exercise for you to gain experience that is advantageous to you in business or community l i fe . You can gain experience in the evaluation of proposals by carrying out the following activity: -Visit a planning office and talk with the planning officer to find out how the planning procedure works. Find out how a proposal goes through the development, review and accept- ance, modification and acceptance, or rejection phases. -Have your teacher arrange for a planner or developer to visit the school and give an informal talk on the planning and review process. It may be possible to review a "case history" of a development familiar to you. 6 0 -Try to obtain copies of proposal documents that have been through the review process. Study and appraise these documents and conduce a role-playing activity in the classroom where some students take the role of developers presenting a proposal and others act as municipal officials and general public review- ing the proposals. -Attend public hearings where proposals are reviewed. Watch the process and be aware of the arguments made by both the proponent and the reviewers. Check to see i f the outcome is what the devel- oper had in mind. If possible, talk to the people involved after the hearing to get their personal points of view. -Follow newspaper articles on the progress of major development schemes and clip and keep a f i le of these articles for reference purposes. Note i f and how the proposal was modified with time and for what reasons. -In evaluating proposals, be aware of all the things that you have learned about the built environment- pedestrian and vehicle move- ment,convenience, use of space, appearance, function, network sys- tems and efficiency, noise, crowding and density, durability of materials, future use options, context, etc. B u i l d i n g I m p a c t E v a l u a t i o n 62 New development in our c i t ies , towns, villages or commun- ities often leads to construction of buildings of modern design beside older forms of architecture. With time, there is a tendency for new forms of buildings to replace older forms. In this activity you will practice using an evaluation technique that is based upon a set of established cr i ter ia. You should choose several buildings in an area that appear worthy of assessment. Examples of both modern buildings and older build- ings should be selected, preferably in a location where the two types are located close together so that building context is easy to examine in relation to the surrounding built environment. Proceed to examine each building you have selected in turn and, for each building, complete the appropriate section of the evalu- ation sheet provided on the following page. Note that you must assign a score for the way each building satisfies the criteria l isted. Record details of buildings by photographs or notes. In the classroom, add up and compare totals and calculate a class total for each building (sum of total scores on each assessment sheet divided by the number of students completing assessment sheets). Display the scores along with photographs or drawings that il lustrate each building and discuss the relative merits of each building and its weaknesses. Were the criteria useful or do you wish to change them to suit your own assessment scheme? I— 1 Slide Program; Education Unit of the Town and Country Planning Association. Bulletin of Environmental Education. March 1978. 83, 22. Additional References: Balaban, R.C. and A.I. St. Clair. The Mystery Tour- Exploring the Designed Environment with Children. Washington, D.C.r The Preservation Press of the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1976. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Types of Land Use. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, No. 2078. British Columbia Teacher's Federation. Fieldwork in ah Urban Setting. Vancouver: Lesson Aids Service, N. 2079. British Tourist Authority. Town Trails and Urban Walks, 2nd Ed. London: 64 St. James's St . , SW1A-1NF, 1976. Chalmers, F.G. Ideas for Built Environment Education: A Transatlantic Annotated Bibliography of Useful Books and Periodicals (1970-80). Vancouver, B.C.: Dept. of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Ed- ucation, The University of B.C., January, 1981, 1-12. Chalmers, F.G. Practical Suggestions for Environmental Design Education. Victoria, B.C.: CS/SCEA, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, booklet No. 5, 1979. Chalmers, F.G., Moorcroft, F. and R. Virginil lo. Greek and Roman Buildings. Vancouver, B.C.: Western Education Development Group, University of B.C., 1979. City of Vancouver. Granville Vancouver as a Pedestrian Transit- way. Design study prepared by architects Bain, Burrough and Hanson, September 14, 1973. 70 Dixon, G. Our Built Environment. Richmond, B.C.: School District No. 38, Richmond British Columbia, 1979. Halprin, L. Cities. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1978. King, S. "A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture." Master's dissertation, The University of B.C., 1970. Lynch, K. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960. . Leicestershire County Council. The Local Tradition. Leicestershire, England: Council Planning Subcommittee, 1975. Pratt, J .H . ; Pratt, J . ; Moore, S.8.; and W.T. Moore. Environmental Encounter: Experiences in Decision-making for the Built and Natural Environment. Dallas, Texas: Reverchon Press, 1979. Sarnoff, H. Design Games: Playing for Keeps with Personal and Environmental Design Decisions. William Kaufman Inc., 1979. Wurman, R.S.; Brunner, H. and N. Donovan. A Guide to Guidebooks. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Planning and Evaluation, 1973. Other Sources of Information: Architect's Book Center- Philadelphia Chapter, AIA, 17th and Sanson Streets, Philadelphia, PA.- 19103, U.S.A. Canadian Society for Education Through Art. c/o Dr. M. Travis, Division of Publications, Faculty of Education, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 100, Victoria, B.C., V8W-2Y2. G l o s s a r y o f T e r m s Annotate- to add notes; usually critical or explanatory comments. Anticipated space- the space which one expects to experience before fully encountering i t . Appraisal- an evaluation or estimate of something's value, cost, usefulness, qualities, etc. Barrier- any obstruction or object serving to separate or limit space, i e . - fence, wall, hedge, bank, etc. Bungalow- a one-storey frame house or summer cottage, often surrounded by a veranda. Closed space- space completely closed off by walls, build- ings, etc. , ie . - a room, a courtyard. Condominium- a form of real estate ownership of a multiple family residential dwelling. Each occupant has full own- ership of his apartment and partial ownership of all common elements of the structure such as halls, elevators, grounds, etc. Context- the setting in which a building is placed, ie . - its surroundings (other buildings, etc.) Design- to assemble and compose elements that are drawn or constructed as scale models in order to indicate the form of a building or other object that can be created from this composition. The composition of the final object is called the design. Parmer- a structure projecting from a sloping roof, usually housing a window or ventilation opening. 72 Exterior space- space outside of structures, usually uncovered (external space). Facade- the exterior face of a building which is the architect- ural front. Sometimes the facade is distinguished from the other sides by elaboration of architectural or ornamental details. Floor plan- a drawing taken above the floor of a building as i f one were looking directly down at the structure from above. The floor plan shows diagrammatically, the walls of the building, its doors and windows and the arrangement of its spaces. Four factor building appraisal- use of four important factors (context, routes, interface, groupings - see definitions) to appraise built environment through a checklist and scale system. Function- the natural, proper or characteristic action or purpose of an. object or the way man' uses that object. Functional- serving a function or use. Functional ism- a philosophy of architectural design, emerging in the 20 th century, asserting that the form of a building should f i t its function, reveal its structure, and express the nature of the material. Grouping- composition of the elements of a building into groups which form recognizable units. Impression- the general influence or feeling one has in response to f irst contact with a building or structure. 73 Infil1- a term used to describe the process of designing appropriate structures to f i l l in a space or spaces between buildings or the space in a corner of a block of buildings. Good use of the site and compatability with existing buildings are important. Interface- the crit ical transitional place where the out- side of a building meets the inside. Internal space- inside space contained within a structure. Mansard roof- a roof having a double slope on all four sides; the lower slope being much steeper. Network- an interconnected structure where elements of the structure cross each other or are attached to each other. In the context of the city, networks include streets, paths, railway systems, communication systems, drainage and supply systems, freeways. Open space- in urban planning, the designation given to parks, recreational and natural areas and other land not occupied by buildings or structures. Perimeter- the external boundary of a body or figure. Perspective- the technique of representing solid objects upon a flat plane; the appearance of objects or scenes as determined by their relative distance and positions. Pitched roof- a roof having one or more surfaces with a pitch greater than 10 degrees; a roof having two slopes that meet at a central ridge. Population density- the average number of people per unit of area (usually'per square kilometer). Private space- personal space, usually used for reasons of com- fort, quiet, security, convenience or shelter. Projection- in masonry, stones that are set forward of the gen- eral wall surface to provide a rugged or rustic appearance; any component member or part which juts out from a building. Proposal- an offer to perform the work described in a contract or set of'specifications for a specified price. A construction proposal would usually have a full set of drawings and details of how the structure would be built. Public space- an area within a building to which there is free access by the public, such as the entrance foyer or lobby. In some areas, public space may be a piece of land of a structure legally designated for public use. Recess- any shallow depression in a surface; a shallow depression in a floor. Redevelopment- to develop again in some new way. Route- the course or way which is to be travelled. Semi-detached houses- duplex or fourplex housing with several family dwellings contained in the same structure. Serial vision- focusing on a distant building or object and exper- iencing the changing view of the object as you draw closer to i t . Single houses- detached houses that stand alone from one another. Steeplechasinq- a technique for studying the built environment which a church steeple or high object is chosen and viewed from many vantage points in the surrounding area. Street furniture- a term given to benches, signs, l ights, fixtures, and receptacles provided as part of the design of a street right-of-way. Structural form- a form resulting from a choice of construc- tion method. Texture- the tactile and visual quality of a surface other than its colour. Threshold- the plank, stone or piece of timber which lies under a door; the s i l l of a door; entrance or beginning point. Town t r ia l - a planned route through an urban area which may be walked. The trail may be indicated by markers or by routes on a map. It provides a planned means of experi- encing the built environment and for guiding the walker to specific points of interest. Traffic flow- the flow or movement of pedestrians and vehicles along a route (street, path, entranceway, corridors inside buildings). Urban renewal- the improvement of a deteriorated or under- utilized area of a city such as a "slum or old industrial site. Generally, urban renewal is achieved through city, provincial or federal programs which specify clearance and redevelopment of the area, rehabilitation of relative- ly sound structures and conservation measures to arrest the spread of deterioration. 74 Vantage point- a position that gives a person advantage for observing a situation or place. • Vehicular space- space designated for vehicular traffic such as roads, highways, driveways, parking areas. V i s u a 1 . - something perceived or understood by vision; an imaqe that forms a mental picture. o o 201 Appendix II Technical evaluation of the program according to the format developed by Massey and Werner. This evaluation was conducted by the author prior to p i l o t testing of the workbook to id e n t i f y strengths and concerns about the program for further consideration. The format provides an organized method for examining details of the intents, content, methodology and structure of the workbook. 202 Technical Analysis of the Program- Program Analysis (after format of D. Massey and W. Werner- unpublished) Unit: Close Encounters with the Built Environment Grade Level: 11, 12 Analyst: Susan J . Davis 1.0 Intents 1.1,Completeness: (Is there a complete and expl ic i t statement of intents? Knowledge objectives - concepts and generalizations? Ski l l objectives? Value objectives?) Intents and general objectives are specif ied. Specif ic objectives in - clude knowledge, behavioral objectives (Bloom, Wilson). Ski l l and value objectives are based upon the general learning outcomes of the B.C. secondary art curriculum. 1.2 Clar i ty: (Are the intents clearly stated and easy to understand? Are ° they kept within the teacher's view at a l l times?) The objectives of the book should be stated in the forward of the book. The intents of each act iv i ty should be stated. 1.3 Scope: (Is the scope of the unit of suff ic ient breadth? Is i t too gen- eral or too narrow?) The scope of the unit appears of suff icient breadth for a workbook. It is not intended to be a di f i ni t i ye text on the subject of bui l t environ- ment or art or architectural concepts. Certainly there are other sources and handbooks which could be used by teachers and students to complement the workbook. Few however, are written with the B.C. bui l t environment in mind. 1.4 Appropriateness: (Are the intents appropriate to student grade level and to a range of student interests and abi l i t ies?) The intents appear appropriate for senior high school students. Back- ground material was largely selected from similar grade level programs developed in Great Br i ta in . The approach has been successfully tested in Great Br i ta in . Al l act iv i t ies in, the book are broken into three levels-"getting started,"expanding horizons1',and"doing more". Act iv i t ies i take the students through areas that are familiar to them. Considerable emphasis is placed on making conscious natural processes- sensing, ex- periencing, working with materials and analysing and evaluating. , 1.5 Realism: (Are the intents achievable within the time and resource constraints?) Most act iv i t ies are capable of completion within given school periods. Some take longer than others and extra time is l ike ly required for the reporting of f i e ld projects. Teachers must be conscious of this require- ment and plan accordingly. Suggestions for organization of time should 203 be incorporated in the introduction of the workbook. Since many of the act iv i t ies are f ie ld oriented, a scheme involving a planning session, a f i e l d tr ip and follow-up session(s) in class would be a general pattern for organization of time. 1.6 Internal Consistency: (Are the objectives consistent with the rationale?) Yes- the objectives of the program (to provide students with the means of concentrating on sensing, experiencing, analysing and appraising the bui l t environment) are consistent with the rationale that they wil l ben- e f i t from the experience through increased awareness and ab i l i ty to ex- ercise c r i t i ca l judgment. 1.7 Provincial Consistency: (Are the intents consistent with the provincial guidelines?) The general learning outcomes of the B.C. art curriculum form the specif- ic objectives' of; the program: and. of ..the evaluation methodology. Related subject area objectives (Social Studies, Architecture, Sociology) were not used direct ly in preparation of a l l of the ac t iv i t ies but certainly are probably applicable to some degree. 1.8 Inter-unit Consistency: (Is there sequential consistency with prior and subsequent units- concepts, topics, s k i l l s , attitudes? Does i t have con- tinuity?) The workbook follows cognitive development stages- sensing, experiencing, analysing and evaluating. Within every act iv i ty and in each chapter three levels of famil iar i ty are presented- "getting started", ^'expanding hori - zons" and "doing more". Act iv i t ies are arranged in the order of cognitive developmental stages. 1.9 External Consistency: (Are the intents consistent with related l iterature?) Recent trends in art education thought are incorporated in the book. The concept of developing awareness and c r i t i ca l judgment is fundamental in current thinking. Emphasis on f l e x i b i l i t y and the unique :nature of the individual , his culture, background, experience and personal mean- ing of interaction with the environment are incorporated. 2.0 Content 2.10 Bias/Stereotypes: (Is there evidence of bias- ethnic, re l ig ious, pol- i t i c a l , sex roles, mult icul tural , regional, occupational?) Al l the photographs in the book i l lust ra te B.C. locations. The source material was adapted from programs tested in Great Britain and the U.S.A. The act iv i t ies are probably universal in application, at least to Western society. There is emphasis placed upon urban rather than rural settings. 2.20 Accuracy: (Are there misstatements or omissions? Is there evidence of inaccuracy?) None at this time. 204 2.30 Currency: (Does the content have currency and futurity? Are the sty les, examples, and expressions dated?) Content is recent- act iv i t ies were adapted in many cases from recently published l i terature sources. Some photographs in the workbook depicting "modern" buildings wil l become dated with time. 2.40 Congruency: (Does the content match the stated objectives? Are the objectives developed?) Content follows stated objectives of the workbook. The general learning outcomes of the B.C. art curriculum were considered when incorporating and adapting ac t iv i t i es . 2.50 Readibi l i ty: (Is the level of reading d i f f i cu l ty - vocabulary, style of presentation, sentence structure - appropriate for student differences and preparedness?) A number of new concepts are included in the workbook and a considerable amount of new vocabulary that is unfamiliar to the students may be incor- porated. A readibi l i ty test appears warrented. Explanatory sections on vocabulary might improve the workbook. 2.60 Interest: (Is i t interesting, at tract ive, meaningful and relevant to students? Does i t start from their experience?) The workbook attempts to provide both written and visual material to stimulate the students. Many i l lustrat ions wil l be well known to B.C. students. Students are aware in a general way and concerned about their environment, hence the material should be of interest. Field tr ips and group act iv i t ies provide re l ie f from highly structured classroom work and are l ike ly to promote interest and enthusiasm. As awareness of the properties and features of bui l t environment increases through intro- ductory act iv i t ies in the workbook, interest and desire to do more should result . 2.70 Organization: (Is the content well organized? Are the ideas clearly stated? Is i t easy to understand? Is there sequencing? Is there a table of contents? Summary charts? Advanced organizers? Does the format keep intents v is ib le to teachers?) Content is organized and sequenced appropriately. Each chapter has an explanatory introduction and table of contents. The workbook i t s e l f has a table of contents. The general introduction could be strengthened to provide more guidance for teachers and c lar i fy intents and objectives. Generally, material and directions should be easy to understand. 2.80 Variety: (Are a variety of resources suggested? Are different materials provided? Is a bibliography of sources provided to fac i l i t a te further teacher planning?) A large reference l i s t is provided and indexed by chapter. Citations within the chapter of l is ted references are made. Use of different materials, methods, choice of study locations provides variety of con- tent. 205 3.40 F lex ib i l i t y : (Are alternatives suggested for different teaching styles and learning styles? Accomodation of different interests and choices?) The workbook is designed to be f lexible and to allow for different teaching and learning styles as well as innovation. The use of a question and answer format in some act iv i t ies may be quite structured and impose some restraint on f l e x i b i l i t y . 3.50 Creativity: (Is creativity encouraged?) Creativity and individual action is encouraged wherever possible. In recording and i l lust ra t ing their discoveries, students are encouraged to work with a variety of materials to express their reactions and recommendations. Field t r ip formats are often suf f ic ient ly f lexible to allow students to develop their own approach to study design and em- phasis. 3.60 Student Involvement: (Is student decision-making encouraged? Are students involved in the formulation of goals and selection of content? Do stu- dents have choices in the unit? Does i t incorporate the experiences they bring to the classroom? Are they interested?) Student decision-making is certainly encouraged, especially in the sections on analysing information and evaluation. The purpose of the exercise is to teach students to form c r i t i ca l judgments based on per- sonal experience and knowledge. There is opportunity for students to select goals and study emphasis and to modify act iv i t ies to meet the needs of their study design. 3.70 Individualization: (Does i t allow for individualized pacing- rates of speed and output, rather than group pacing? Must a l l students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way?) The workbook allows.for individualized pacing rather than group pacing. Students are encouraged to work individually or in small groups in many ac t iv i t i es . The teacher must have a well developed organizational 'plan, part icularly where f i e ld tr ips are involved so that introductory and follow-up act iv i t ies are properly conducted. The evaluation methodology imposes some structure on use of the workbook by confining p i lot testing to an intensive six week period. 3.80 Open-endedness: (Does i t encourage a variety of student responses rather than restr ict ing responses? Is i t divergent rather than convergent?) Both the act iv i t ies and subject matter can be described as open-ended. The study of the buil t environment encompasses many subject areas- art , architecture, planning, functional aspects of buildings, materials and construction methods, ethnic and social considerations, historical per- spectives, etc. The act iv i t ies should serve to i l lust ra te this variety and allow students a broad range of expression relative to their own interests and experience. 3.90 Evaluation: (Do evaluation strategies accommodate student differences? Matched with intents rather than content? Do students have opportunity for self and group evaluation?) 206 2.90 Significance: (Is i t worthwhile for students to pursue? Can the time al lotted to the unit be just i f ied?) The book deals with the buil t environment and our relationship to i t . It therefore deals with subject matter common to the l ives of a l l people. Awareness of, and development of c r i t i ca l appraisal techniques related to the buil t environment should be helpful from both the stand- point of the individual and of the community. 2.10 Depth: (Is i t treated in suff ic ient depth and detail rather than in survey fashion? Is i t covered adequately? Is i t comprehensive?) The workbook is intended to be a compendium of a variety of ways from which to approach the study of the bui l t environment. It is not intend- ed to be a comprehensive work on the subject but rather an act iv i ty guide which stimulates innovation and the desire to do more and explore related f i e lds . Emphasis on ci ty planning and social studies and other topics could form the basis of similar workbooks. 2.11 Redundancy: (Is the content new rather than redundant to students?) While buildings and man's bui l t environment are extremely familiar to al l students, their famil iar i ty may be quite super f ic ia l . The workbook concentrates upon making students aware of bui l t forms, their proper- t ies and features, materials used in construction, use of space, net- work systems and a variety of considerations designed to increase awareness and analysis of the appropriateness and complexities of the subject. It is expected that most students wi l l find that focussing on these areas greatly increases awareness and c r i t i ca l appraisal of the bui l t environment. 3.0 Methodology 3.10 Variety: (Are a variety of student and teacher strategies suggested for opener, developmental, and closure lessons?) Each chapter contains introductory material and three levels of famil- ia r i ty are provided to offer a natural progression through the material. There is opportunity for indiv idual , group or class projects conducted in the classroom, immediate area around the school or further a f i e ld . A variety of methodology is offered and teachers and students are en- couraged to innovate to suit their own circumstances. 3.20 Emphasis: (Is the intended emphasis upon transmission of content, stu- dent ac t iv i t i es - inquiry, discovery, experiential , or both?) The book offers a mix of content transmission and act iv i t ies involving inquiry, discovery and experience. The use of personal inquiry and judgment encourages development of c r i t i ca l appraisal s k i l l s . Emphasis is upon personal discovery and experience rather than content transmiss- ion. 3.30 Consistency: (Does the methodology match the objectives?) Methodology is designed to match the objectives. 207 Evaluation methodologies were chosen to form a broad assessment of the material- teacher surveys, student questionnaires, evaluator observation, quantitative test ing, examination of student output. A number of act iv i t ies within the workbook encourage self evaluation and classroom evaluation of results through open discussion and verbal or written presentation of f indings. Working in small teams and groups encourages discussion and evaluation of findings and approach taken. 208 Appendix III Important points to consider when designing a formative evaluation of a program (from W. Werner, personal communication). 209 DESIGNING FORMATIVE EVALUATION There are no formulae for evaluation planning. It requires creativity and work because no two evaluations are the same. 1.0 Negotiation (eg. developers, administrators, etc.) 1.1 What program is to be evaluated?(eg.- master plan; classroom program; discrepancy between master plan and classroom program; etc.) 1.2 What purposes are to be served? (eg.-goal and roles of evaluation) 1.3. What questions are of concern? 1.4 What parameters are necessary? (eg.-time l ines , finances, access to information, etc.) 1.5 Who is to be involved, and when? 2.0 Proposal (indicate scope and sequence of study and the contract) 2.1 Problems, questions, purposes of the study; 2.2 Methodology for data col lect ing, analysis and reporting; 2.3 Personnel needed or involved; 2.4 Budget (specify items such as time, secretar ia l , t ravel , computor, mailing, hiring help, e t c . ) ; 2.5 Time lines for procedures and submission of reports; 3.0 Data Collection (method) 3.1 Ends-means data 3.1.1 Qualitative analysis of documents, special techniques and instrum ents a) Ends: kinds (knowledge, att i tudes, values, s k i l l s ) , balance, c l a r i t y , leve ls , specif ication (specif ic-general; teacher-student), consistency. b) Means: readabi l i ty , kinds of act iv i t ies (opener, develop- mental, closure), balance, c l a r i t y , redundancy*,' levels of questions, instructions. c) Organization: linkages between a c t i v i t i e s , t ransit ions, cum- ulative building or development, sequential log ic , focus mechanisms. d) Consistencies: internal (is there consistency between and among the intents, resources, and strategies? Carry through?); external (congruency with master plan? with current practice and research? significance of the program?); inter-program or unit (logical and 210 . sequential consistency among the programs for var- ious grades, etc, "3.1.2 Quantitative analysis of outcomes (testing and measurement) 3.2 Situational Data (pilot testing) 3.2.1 Questionnaire (usually a l l participants) a) teachers b) students c) administrators, consultants, parents 3.2.2 Interviews (selected participants) a) teachers b) students c) other groups 3.2.3 Teacher.diaries (all participants) 3.2.4 Observations (selected situations) 3.3 Cr i t ica l Data 3.3.1 Images of groups (ethnic, sex, minorit ies, etc.) 3.3.2 Images of students (freedom, involvement, etc.) 4.0 Report Writing 4.1 Format 4.1.1 Scope of the study; purposes; procedures 4.1.2 Strengths 4.1.3 Concerns- concerns raised by teachers, students; concerns about internal consistency, inter-program consistency, ex- ternal consistency. 4.1.4 Suggestions for consideration 4.1.5 Appendices, special reports and data 4.2 Approach . 4.2.1 Ego involvement (question posing) 4.2.2 Ease of reading (tables, l i s t s , points, brevity) 211 5.0 Discussion 5.1 Copies for everyone 5.2 Brief overview of f indings: 5.2.1 Start with and stress strengths 5.2.2 Interpret summary charts or points 5.2.3 Raise concerns/recommendations as questions which lead into discussion 5.3 Discussion re revisions 5.3.1 Be sure concrete examples are available to support claims 5.3.2 Determine where action is needed- where do we go from here? (specify direct ions, ro les, times, etc.) 212 Appendix IV R e s u l t s o f t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d a t c o m p l e t i o n o f the s i x week p i l o t program p e r i o d . T e a c h e r responses a re re p r o d u c e d verbatum as hand w r i t t e n on e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t a c o m p i l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s on a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e form f o r each group w i t h number o f s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d i n g i n each c a t e g o r y shown n u m e r i c a l l y on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e form. Responses o f a w r i t t e n n a t u r e from the s t u d e n t s a r e summarized by l i s t i n g a l l i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s to a g i v e n q u e s t i o n by a t e s t group. V 213 Teacher Questionnaire This survey is to obtain your view of the Built Environment curriculum unit being tested in your classroom. As you are pi lot ing the unit , make notations on the following questions as they apply to the unit 's objectives, content and teaching-learning strategies. Your comments wil l be treated confidential ly. Unit T i t l e : Built Environment Grade Level: 10 to 12 School: A Characteristics of the Class (eg. -reluctant readers, more able learners, e tc . ) : Keen, competitive students who want to do well in the course. Their ab i l i t y varies from very able students to slower learners- but a l l have interest in the course. 1) Comment on the significance of the unit. Can time alloted to the unit 'be ; just i f ied? Is the content" worthwhile for the students to pursue? This unit is an excellent introduction to a year course on studying one's bui l t environment. The content is def in i te ly worthwhile for student's aware- ness is def ini tely increased through the various ac t i v i t i es . The course is designed to make a l l actively involved- not just passive observers. 2) Comment on the appropriateness of the unit. Is i t appropriate to the grade level? Does i t accomodate students of varying ab i l i t i es and inter- ests? It is appropriate to this grade level (10 to 12). The vocabulary is reason- ably easy to understand. The act iv i t ies encourage the students to become completely aware of their environment which i s , in my opinion, of vital im- portance to everyone. This unit could be altered to suit almost any grade level . The unit does accomodate the students' varying a b i l i t i e s and interests- open enough, yet directed. 3) What is your overall assessment of the unit? The overall assessment of the unit is good. However, more time could have been allowed- so much to learn! 214 4) Please complete the following questions by placing an "x" on the response that best f i t s your assessment: Objectives Are they expl ic i t and complete? Are they clearly stated and easy to follow? Are they suited to your time and resource restaints? Are they developed sat is factor i ly throughout the unit? Content Is there evidence of bias (ethnic, sex ro les, stereo- types)? Are there mistatements or omissions of fact? Is the content dated rather than current? Does i t match stated objectives? Is the readibi l i ty appropriate (vocabulary, sen- tence structure)? Is . i t well organized and easy to follow? Are a variety of resource materials provided or suggested? Is i t treated in suff ic ient depth rather than in survey fashion? Is the content new rather than redundant to students? Teacher-learning Strategies Is variety provided (opener, developmental, closure)? Are they suited to the objectives? Are there alternatives for different teaching- learning styles? The unit i s : satisfactory/unsatisfactory x sometimes confusing 215 . Do they encourage c r e a t i v i t y : * Do they encourage a var ie ty of student responses? x Do they f a c i l i t a t e enquiry rather than rote learning? x Do evaluation a c t i v i t i e s su i t the object ives? x Do evaluation a c t i v i t i e s accommodate student di f ferences? x Do students have opportunity for se l f and group evaluation? x 5. Comment on how long i t took you to teach the un i t . We were given s ix weeks, however, as stated e a r l i e r , more time could have been spent on the uni t . It offered.enough var ie ty to have more time spent on i t yet each a c t i v i t y progressed n ice ly from one to another. 6. Did you require help from someone (eg. consul tant , development team member, fe l low teacher) to c l a r i f y some aspect of the uni t? Yes, help was required x No 7. Comment on the involvement of the student in the un i t . Do students become - c ac t i ve l y involved and interested? Do they perceive i t as re levant , a t t rac t i ve and meaningful? Does the uni t bu i ld on the student 's own . experiences? Is i t student or content oriented? Is there enough var iety? Is student decision-making encouraged and choice accommodated? Does i t al low for ind iv idua l i zed pacing, or must a l l students do the same thing at the same time and in the same way? A l l students became ac t i ve ly involved in the unit - they a l l seemed to want to do wel l and put a good deal of e f fo r t into the i r assignments. Yes, the students did perceive the unit to be relevant and meaningful. They cont inua l ly made com- ments about how they were now aware of the i r bu i l t environment and had learned basic s k i l l s in how to evaluate the i r environment. It does bui ld on a student's own experiences - the a c t i v i t i e s were directed and spec i f i c about the aims of each area but allowed for personal expression. The ent i re uni t was based on student decision-making.-. they were evaluated on the i r e f fo r ts on each project but not whether i t was wrong or r igh t . It de f i n i t e l y encouraged indiv idual th ink ing. Students had to work at the same time but hot the same way. 216 8) Comment an any a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s which you f e e l would be h e l p f u l t o the p e r s o n r e v i s i n g t h i s u n i t . S u g gested a r e a s f o r comment c o u l d i n -c l u d e s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s from t he f o l l o w i n g : c o m p l e t e n e s s , c l a r i t y , s c o p e , r e a l i s m , i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , b i a s , a c c u r a c y , c u r r e n c y , r e a d a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t , o r g a n i z a t i o n , v a r i e t y , d e p t h , redundancy, f l e x i b i l i t y , c r e a t -i v i t y , sequence, i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , open-endedness. For t he amount o f t i m e a l l o t t e d , i t would perhaps have been b e t t e r t o have the i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s s c a l e d down ( l e s s e n the a c t i v i t y l o a d ) . T h e r e f o r e , more o f t he a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d have been done. The e x e r c i s e s c o u l d have i n c l u d e d more o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g - maybe a " v o c a b u l a r y " r e v i e w a t the end o f each s u b - u n i t ( a c t i v i t y ) . The q u e s t i o n s c o u l d have been more s p e c i f i c and d i r e c t - the s t u d e n t s sometimes found them d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . 9) What i n y o u r o p i n i o n , i s the o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h o f t h i s u n i t ? The o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h was t h e way t h e book made t h e s t u d e n t s become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h e x p l o r i n g t h e i r b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t "ground" o r base f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n the b u i l t e n vironment. Any s t u d e n t i s c a p a b l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g and g e t t i n g something p o s i t i v e from a book o f t h i s t y p e . 10) What i n y o u r o p i n i o n , i s the o v e r a l l weakness o f t h i s u n i t ? V o c a b u l a r y - a c l e a r e r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o new words. I l l u s t r a t i o n s and photo- graphs c o u l d have been more e x c i t i n g . 217 11) Do you recommend t h a t t h i s u n i t be produced f o r c l a s s r o o m use and d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e ? (check one) (a) w i t h o u t r e v i s i o n s (c) w i t h major r e v i s i o n s (b) x w i t h minor r e v i s i o n s (d) not recommended I f you checked (b) o r ( c ) , what s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement do you recommend? Review q u e s t i o n s and v o c a b u l a r y a t the end o f each s e c t i o n . 218 Teacher Questionnaire This survey is to obtain your view of the Bui l t Environment curriculum unit being tested in your classroom. As you are pi loting the unit, make notations on the following questions as they apply to the uni t 's objectives, content and teaching-learning strategies. Your comments wi l l be treated confident ial ly . Unit T i t l e : Built Environment Grade Level: 11 School: B Characteristics of the class (eg.- reluctant readers, more able learners, etc.) The class has an unusually high percentage of potential and returned dropouts. Many of them (about 50 %) have had l i t t l e or no success in school to this point. The students were f a i r l y new to me when this project began. 1) Comment on the signif icance of the unit. Can time al lotted to the unit be just i f ied? Is the content worthwhile for the students to pursue? Content is important and a great deal of time should be spent on learning about the environment. I am, however, unhappy with the structure that the testing imposed. The students found five continuous weeks too much. I would normally have integrated this information with "producing" ac t iv i t ies — 2) Comment on the appropriateness of the unit. Is i t appropriate to the grade level? Does i t accomodate students of varying ab i l i t i es and inter- ests? The language was sometimes too technical and often too dry. There is a general lack of introductory work to raise student's (and teacher's) awareness to the level where exercises would have some meaning. 3) What is your overall assessment of the unit? 219 4) P l e a s e c omplete t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s by p l a c i n g an "x" on the r e s p o n s e t h a t b e s t f i t s y o u r assessment: . \ \ T h e u n i t i s : O b j e c t i v e s • " s a t i s f a c t o r y / u n s a t i s f a c t o r y A r e t h e y e x p l i c i t and complete? ( l a c k i n t r o . e x e r c i s e s ) x Are t h e y c l e a r l y s t a t e d and easy t o f o l l o w ? x ; Are t h e y s u i t e d t o y o u r time and r e s o u r c e r e s t a i n t s ? x A r e t h e y d e v e l o p e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h r o u g h o u t the u n i t ? C o n t e n t Is t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f b i a s ( e t h n i c , sex r o l e s , s t e r e o - t y p e s ) ? ( s l a n t e d towards a r c h i t e c t u r e r a t h e r t h a n d e s i g n .' r _x c o n c e p t s ) A r e t h e r e m i s t a t e m e n t s o r o m i s s i o n s o f f a c t ? __x ___ Is t h e c o n t e n t d a t e d r a t h e r t h a n c u r r e n t ? Does i t match s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s ? Is t h e r e a d i b i l i t y a p p r o p r i a t e ( v o c a b u l a r y , s e n - t e n c e s t r u c t u r e ) ? I s i t w e l l o r g a n i z e d and e a s y t o f o l l o w ? A r e a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d o r s u g g e s t e d ? ( o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o f i n d and use e x t r a r e s o u r c e s ) Is i t t r e a t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e p t h r a t h e r t h a n i n s u r v e y f a s h i o n ? Is t h e c o n t e n t new r a t h e r t h a n redundant t o s t u d e n t s ? T e a c h e r - l e a r n i n g S t r a t e g i e s Is v a r i e t y p r o v i d e d (opener, d e v e l o p m e n t a l , c l o s u r e ) ? (more making a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d ) A r e t h e y s u i t e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s ? A r e t h e r e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t t e a c h i n g -l e a r n i n g s t y l e s ? ( h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l way) 220 Do they encourage c r e a t i v i t y : ( f a i r l y d i r e c t i v e ) x Do they encourage a v a r i e t y o f s tudent responses? x Do they f a c i l i t a t e enqu i r y r a t h e r than ro te l e a r n i n g ? x Do e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s s u i t the o b j e c t i v e s ? x Do e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodate s tudent d i f f e r e n c e s ? x Do s tudents have oppo r t un i t y f o r s e l f and group e v a l u a t i o n ? x 5. Comment on how long i t took you t o " t e a c h the u n i t . F i ve weeks 6. Did you r e q u i r e he lp from someone (eg . c o n s u l t a n t , development team member, f e l l o w teacher ) to c l a r i f y some aspect o f the u n i t ? x Y e s , he lp was requ i r ed No 7. Comment on the involvement o f the s tudent i n the u n i t . Do s tudents become a c t i v e l y i nvo l ved and i n t e r e s t e d ? Do they pe rce i ve i t as r e l e v a n t , a t t r a c t i v e and meaningfu l? Does the u n i t b u i l d on the s t u d e n t ' s own exper iences? Is i t s tudent or content o r i en ted? Is there enough v a r i e t y ? Is s tudent dec i s ion -mak ing encouraged and cho i ce accommodated? Does i t a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p a c i n g , o r must a l l s tudents do the same t h i n g a t the same t ime and i n the same way? The s tudents found the u n i t meaningless and bor ing (accord ing to t h e i r r esponses ) . However, what I t h i n k they were opposed to was the f a c t t ha t thev had to do the u n i t . A l s o , they came i n t o the c l a s s w i th 10 y e a r s ' worth o f expec ta t i ons about what one does i n an a r t c l a s s . Most o f these p a r t i c u l a r s tudents are not comfor tab le w i th read ing and w i th words i n g e n e r a l . The work book might have been more s u c c e s s f u l i f i t had been more v i s u a l i n i t s approach. I t i s very wordy. 221 8) Comment on any additional aspects which you feel would be helpful to the person revising this unit. Suggested areas for comment could in - clude selected aspects from the following: completeness, c l a r i t y , scope, realism, internal consistency, bias, accuracy, currency, read- a b i l i t y , interest, organization, variety, depth, redundancy, f l e x i - b i l i t y , creat iv i ty , sequence, individual izat ion, open-endedness. My f i r s t (and strongest suggestion) is that the book be set up in such a way that i t encourages integration with other a c t i v i t i e s . I also feel that i ts architectural and sociological emphasis is too strong for an art c lass. There is very l i t t l e information on elements and principles of design and how they are used in our surroundings. Introductory exercises in communication and response to stimuli would also be helpful . Cr i t ica l evaluation should receive further c lar i f ica t ion and guidance. _ _ . 9) What in your opinion, is the overall strength of this unit? The general topic is important and the lessons are clearly laid out and explained. • . 10) What in your opinion, is the overall weakness of this unit? While the book allows for individual adaptation, i t is structured to such a degree that i t does not encourage f l e x i b i l i t y . Some teachers would find i t too constr ict ive. I would also have appreciated a l i t t l e more humour. The tone is very serious 222 11) Do you recommend t h a t t h i s u n i t be produced f o r c l a s s r o o m use and d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e ? (check one) ^ w i t h o u t r e v i s i o n s ^ w i t h major r e v i s i o n s ^ x w i t h minor r e v i s i o n s • (d)— n o t r e c o m n l e n c l e d I f you checked (b) o r ( c ) , what s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement do you recommend? 1) An i n t r o d u c t o r y u n i t . 2) A c h a p t e r on how to use the book em p h a s i z i n g f l e x i b i l i t y . 3) I n c l u s i o n o f a c h a p t e r on elements and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n and a c t i v i t i e s d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t the book which r e l a t e back t o i t . 4) A paradigm f o r c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . 5) More v i s u a l e x e r c i s e s ( e x e r c i s e s t h a t encourage v i s u a l r a t h e r than v e r b a l r e s p o n s e ) . Perhaps the s u g g e s t i o n s ( f o r r e v i s o n ) would be seen as major. I c a l l them minor because they do not a l t e r the e s s e n c e o f the book. 223 T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e T h i s s u r v e y i s t o o b t a i n y o u r view o f t h e B u i l t Environment c u r r i c u l u m u n i t b e i n g t e s t e d i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m . As you a r e p i l o t i n g t h e u n i t , make n o t a t i o n s on t he f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s as t h e y a p p l y t o t h e u n i t ' s o b j e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t and t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Your comments w i l l be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y . U n i t T i t l e : B u i l t Environment Grade L e v e l : 11 , 12 S c h o o l : _ r, ( C o n t r o l Group T e a c h e r ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c l a s s ( e g . - r e l u c t a n t r e a d e r s , more a b l e l e a r n e r s , e t c . ) Grade 11/12 AD ( C e r a m i c s ) . S t u d e n t s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n working w i t h t h e i r hands. 1) Comment on the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the u n i t . Can time a l l o t t e d t o the u n i t be j u s t i f i e d ? Is t h e c o n t e n t w o r t h w h i l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o p u r s u e ? U n i t i s more s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a g e n e r a l A r t 11 or 12 o r s e n i o r Geography. 2) Comment on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e u n i t . Is i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o the grade l e v e l ? Does i t accomodate s t u d e n t s o f v a r y i n g a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r - e s t s ? A p p r o p r i a t e t o grade l e v e l . Accomodates s t u d e n t s o f v a r y i n g a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s . 3) What i s y o u r o v e r a l l assessment o f t h e u n i t ? 224 4) Please complete the following questions by placing an "x" on the response that best f i t s your assessment: Objectives Are they exp l ic i t and complete? Are they c lear ly stated and easy to follow? Are they suited to your time and resource restaints? Are they developed sa t is fac tor i ly throughout the unit? Content - '," Is there evidence of bias (ethnic, sex ro les , stereo- types)? The unit i s : satisfactory/unsatisfactory _x • x Are there mistatements or omissions of fact? (historical background x of architecture) Is the content dated rather than current? _x • _ _ Does i t match stated objectives? _x • _ Is the readib i l i ty appropriate (vocabulary, sen- tence structure)? (too advanced) Is i t well organized and easy to follow? Are a variety of resource materials provided or suggested? Is i t treated in suf f ic ient depth rather than in survey fashion? Is the content new rather than redundant to students? Teacher-learning Strategies Is variety provided (opener, developmental, closure)? Are they suited to the objectives? Are there alternatives for di f ferent teaching- learning styles? 225̂ Do t h e y e n c o u r a g e c r e a t i v i t y : Do t h e y e n c o u r a g e a v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s ? Do t h e y f a c i l i t a t e e n q u i r y r a t h e r t h a n r o t e l e a r n i n g ? Do e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s s u i t t h e o b j e c t i v e s ? Do e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodate s t u d e n t d i f f e r e n c e s ? Do s t u d e n t s have o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f and g roup e v a l u a t i o n ? 5. Comment on how l o n g i t t o o k you t o * t e a c h t h e u n i t . C o n t r o l g roup 6. D i d y o u r e q u i r e h e l p f r o m someone ( e g . c o n s u l t a n t , d e v e l o p m e n t team member, f e l l o w t e a c h e r ) t o c l a r i f y some a s p e c t o f t h e u n i t ? t Y e s , h e l p was r e q u i r e d No 7. Comment on t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e u n i t . Do s t u d e n t s become c a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and i n t e r e s t e d ? Do t h e y p e r c e i v e i t as r e l e v a n t , a t t r a c t i v e and m e a n i n g f u l ? Does t h e u n i t b u i l d on t h e s t u d e n t ' s own e x p e r i e n c e s ? I s i t s t u d e n t o r c o n t e n t o r i e n t e d ? I s t h e r e enough v a r i e t y ? I s s t u d e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e n c o u r a g e d and c h o i c e accommodated? Does i t a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p a c i n g , o r must a l l s t u d e n t s do t h e same t h i n g a t t h e same t i m e and i n t h e same way? C o n t r o l Group - s t u d e n t s were n o t i n t e r e s t e d . F o r them t h e u n i t was no t r e l e v a n t , a t t r a c t i v e o r m e a n i n g f u l . The s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e y were b e i n g u n f a i r l y u s e d . As a t e a c h e r , I r e a l i z e t h e need f o r a c o n t r o l g roup i n s u c h an e n d e a v o r . Bu t f r a n k l y , I f e l t s o r r y f o r t h e s t u d e n t s who seemed t o g e t o n l y a f e e l i n g o f s t u p i d i t y f r om b e i n g a c o n t r o l g r o u p . 226 8) Comment an any additional aspects which you feel would be helpful to the person revising this unit . Suggested areas for comment could i n - clude selected aspects from the following: completeness, c l a r i t y , scope, realism, internal consistency, bias, accuracy, currency, readabi l i ty , interest, organization, variety, depth, redundancy, f l e x i b i l i t y , creat- i v i t y , sequence, individual izat ion, open-endedness. The unit i t s e l f seems to be quite good. One point I wonder about is the overall• vocabulary. I wonder i f words and phrases such as "texture, tapestry of l igh ts , facade, and the vocabulary l isted on page 9 is understandable to a high school student? . 9) What in your opinion, is the overall strength of this unit? The stress oh observing one's surroundings. 10) What in your opinion, is the overall weakness of this unit? Overall vocabulary should be simpler. 227 1 1 ) Do you recommend that t h i s unit be produced for classroom use and distributed throughout the entire province? (check one) (a) without revisions (c) with major revisions (b) x with minor revisions (d) not recommended If you checked (b) or (c) , what s p e c i f i c suggestions for improvement do you recommend? This question seems to assume that this unit in some form should be a mandatory part of the curriculum. (Improvements- as mentioned, vocabulary). 228 Student Responses School A Your Reaction Please te l l us how you feel about the things you did during the unit on Built Environment. There are no right or wrong answers. Your reaction will help us to revise the unit. 1) I think this unit was (place a check mark along the l ine) Easy to understand Interesting Important to learn Too long Moving too fast Worthwhile and valuable What else? 2 6 3 5 0 3 8 3 2 0 1 6 7 2 0 0 1 7 6 2 3 3 5 5 0 4 9 3 0 0 Hard to understand Boring Not important to learn Too short Moving too slowly Not very worthwhile or valuable "Very worthwhile and enjoyable." "Should be longer." "The questions were very vague and d i f f i c u l t to understand." "Quite interesting." 2) While doing this unit I (place a check mark along the l ine) Often discussed i t at home or with friends Seldom fe l t confused Often asked questions Learned things I never knew before broadened my know- ledge about bui l t environment CM 2 1 7 4 5 7 0 3 1 2 5 5 3 1 9 4 3 0 0 5 5 5 1 0 Seldom discussed i t at home or with friends Often f e l t confused Seldom asked questions Learned things I already knew before Did not broaden my knowledge about bui l t environment What else? "I was very pleased with the work I was doing and I was enjoying the unit ." "I'd l ike to know the costs of buildings and things" "Learned to control my hand at drawing and painting." "Find d i f f i c u l t i e s in answering the questions." "I learned to examine buildings." Student Responses- School A (cont.) 3) I learned most in this unit by (Check as many as you wish) _2 Taking notes. 10 Reading the books. 12 Listening to the teacher. _1 Watching the pictures and l istening to the tapes. 11 Having class discussions. 14 Doing group projects. _1 Having simulations or debates. __7 Doing the written exercises and writing answers to questions. 2 Having the teacher ask me questions. 4 Working by myself. _9 Listening to what other students have to say. _1 Asking resource people for their opinions. 0 Working in the l ibrary . _1 Being given the answers to the problems by the teacher. 10 Expressing my own opinion. _2 Disagreeing with the teacher or other students. _7 Finding out answers for myself. __8 Asking questions. What else? "Doing the projects in the unit. Doing f ie ld t r ips . " "Asking opinions of people." "Field t r i p s . " "Studying buildings." 4) I found i t hard in this unit to (Check as many as you wish) - 3 Understand the books and a r t i c les . 10 Answer the assigned questions. _1 Watch the films or f i lmstr ips . _6__ Work by myself on the assignments. __1 Work with others on the group projects. Student Responses- School A (cont.) 230 4 Find information to answer the questions. 2 Become interested in the topic. 5 Make sense out of the assignments. 0 Ask questions. 4 Follow the instructions on handouts. 0 Remember what I read in the assigned readings. 6 Figure out why we had to learn this material. What else? "We already knew some of i t . " "Hard to make the answers complete." "Hand in projects because there was a lot of work to do." "Use the exercises." "Wording hard to understand in questions and exercises." "Understand the questions asked." 5) What I l iked best about the unit was "It was fun to do while at the same time taught us important things such as environmental awareness." "The f i e l d t r i p s , architecture, some Vancouver history." "The f ie ld tr ips and going to places to learn more." "It helped me to be aware of any buildings around me." "Field t r ips . " "The selection of study areas-Granville Island was very good." "The tr ip to U.B.C. and Granville Island." "Going on the f i e ld tr ips to observe and take notes for projects." "As far as the bui l t environment is concerned, I think I have learned something." "That i t helped me become more aware of the buildings around me." "The f ie ld t r ip to Granville Island and real ly looking at each building." "Being able to go on a f i e ld t r ip and look at a building in a very different manner than I would normally. You get a very much more objective view." "That I take a closer look at a l l buildings I see now." "That the unit wasn't too long and didn' t take much time to do any one assignment." "The f ie ld tr ips to interesting architectural places." 6) What I l iked least about the unit was "Trying to figure out what the questions meant." "The fact that why we had to learn the information that seemed to have nothing to do with architecture." "The amount of time allowed for the unit." "The repetit ive or vague questions assigned for each assignment." 231 Student Responses- School A (cont.) "The questions." "The repetitive nature of the questions and the way they were presented." "It was very brief.". "Doing some of the questions- they were hard to answer." "The amount of time to do such projects." "Doing the assignments of the U.B.C. tower." "Some of the questions asked." "I l iked the entire unit." "Some of the stupid questions-eg.-How do' the people go from the inside t o t h e outside." "Nothing. I fe l t the whole unit was interesting and enjoy- able." 7) What I would l ike to change in this unit is "I think there should be more simple projects which can be done to learn, instead of only a few long, hard pro- jects . I think more f i e ld tr ips would be a good idea, since the f i e ld tr ips we did take were very enjoyable." "Some of the questions need more time, 2-4 hours in the area." "Nothing." "The form of the questions and the wording of some of the questions." "To make i t a l i t t l e bit shorter." "If i t were to be used in schools, the time allotted should be shorter." "To spread assignments out- more time, more expl ic i t questions." "More f i e ld t r ips . " "The way the questions are phrased and arranged." "Making the instructions simpler and easier to understand." "The way the questions were asked." "The number of assignments in such a short period of time." "More time and more learning of technical drawing." "The assignments- eg. the Clock Tower. What does this have to do with architecture, other than appreciating i t? Unique buildings should have been recognized, rather than t a l l , s l im, boney structures." "The Steeplechasing- there were- too many angles involved." 232 Student Responses School B Your Reaction Please te l l us how you feel about things you did during the unit on Built Environment. There are no right or wrong answers. Your reaction wil l help us to revise the unit. 1) I think this unit was (place a check mark along the line) Easy to understand _6 _1 _5 _2 _2 Hard to understand Interesting _0 _2 _3 _3 _6 Boring Important to learn _1 _0 _6 _2 _5 Not important to learn Too long 11 _2 _2 _0 _0 Too short Moving too fast _2 _2 _4 _0 _5 Moving too slowly Worthwhile and 0 _0 _4 _4 . _6 Not very worthwhile valuable or valuable What else? (place a check mark along the line) 2) While doing this unit I Often discussed i t at home or with 1 friends Seldom fe l t 6 confused Often asked 3 questions Learned things I _3_ never knew before Broadened my know- ' ledge about bui l t 0 environment What else? "I liked to "Nothing." 1 1 CM  2 2 1 3 2 0 0 5 1 2 1 1 discuss the unit." Seldom discussed i t at home or with friends Often fe l t confused Seldom asked questions Learned things I already knew before Did not broaden my know- ledge about bui l t envir- onment 3) I learned most in this unit by (check as many as you wish) 3 Taking notes _1 Reading the books 6 Listening to the teacher S t u d e n t Responses- S c h o o l B ( c o n t . ) 4 Watching the p i c t u r e s and l i s t e n i n g t o the t a p e s . _3 Having c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s . 0 Having s i m u l a t i o n s o r d e b a t e s . _9 Doing the w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s and w r i t i n g answers t o q u e s t i o n s . _1 Having t he t e a c h e r ask me q u e s t i o n s . 8 Working by m y s e l f . 3 L i s t e n i n g t o what o t h e r s t u d e n t s have t o say. 4 A s k i n g r e s o u r c e p e o p l e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . 4 Working i n the l i b r a r y . _2 B e i n g g i v e n the answers t o the problems by the t e a c h e r . __7 E x p r e s s i n g my own o p i n i o n . _1 D i s a g r e e i n g w i t h the t e a c h e r or. w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s . 10 F i n d i n g out answers f o r m y s e l f . _7 A s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . 4) I found i t hard i n t h i s u n i t t o (Check as many as you wish) 6 U n d e r s t a n d the books and a r t i c l e s . 5 Answer the a s s i g n e d q u e s t i o n s . 3 Watch the f i l m s o r f i l m s t r i p s . 2 L i s t e n t o t h e t a p e s . 1 Work by m y s e l f on the assignments.- 2 Work w i t h o t h e r s on the group p r o j e c t s . 3 F i n d i n f o r m a t i o n t o answer the q u e s t i o n s . 9 Become i n t e r e s t e d i n the t o p i c . 6 Make sense o u t o f the a s s i g n m e n t s . 1 Ask q u e s t i o n s . 3 F o l l o w t he i n s t r u c t i o n s on handouts. 4 Remember what I re a d i n the a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s . 234 Student Responses- School B (cont.) 13 Figure out why we had to learn this material. What else? "I didn't understand." "The questions were useless." 5) What I liked best about the unit was "Thinking things out myself." "Nothing." (3) "Working and talking with other people." "No." "I didn't really l ike i t . " (2) "Walking by myself and noticing things that I wouldn't of i f I was with someone." "Open space act iv i ty ." "Open space." "Work outside." "Going outside." "Gave us free time." "It had a few interesting points." 6) What I liked least about the unit was "It was hard to understand at f i r s t . " "Some of the stuff didn't make sense." "Everything." (3) "Writing these papers."' "The handouts." "Deadline." "Talking about i t with other people- I couldn't get into i t . " "That there was so much writ ing." " A l l . " "Doing i t myself." "Writing the assignments out." 7) What I would l ike to change in this unit is "I don't know." "Stupid questions." "That i t should have been a group thing." " A l l . " "Everything." (3) "That we be able to do i t a l l our se l fs . " "Everything but open space act iv i ty ." "These papers." "Almost everything." "Some of the topics." To be able to go other places that I am not familiar with." Appendix V Details of the quantitative evaluation (pre- and post-tests) administered to the pi lot test groups and the control group. Objectives of the Pre-,and Post-Test of the Curriculum Workbook 236 General -The objectives of the test correspond with the objectives.of the workbook. -Questions used in the pre-and post-test correspond with specifications (page 25) . Content of Parts of the Pre and Post Test I Perception- Learning to perceive and respond to aspects of the buil t environment. ".' A. Learning to recognize and describe the subject elements of the buil t environment. EhLearning to go beyond the recognition of the subject matter to the perception and description of formal qualit ies and expressive content. Testing mastery of the combined effect of the subject matter and the specif ic visual form that characterizes a particular built form. II Knowledge- Testing knowledge about the buil t environment by remembering, recall ing or recognizing those things which are present during an original learning situation. _ A.Terms- to remember definitions of terms which distinguish one buil t form from another. III Comprehension- Achieving an understanding of the l i t e r a l , symbolic and al legorical message of the buil t form. AJTranslation- Learning to translate (verbally describe) built form. B.Interpretation- Learning to be able to verbally interpret and also to re-order, rearrange, and assess what is irrelevant. IV Analysis- Abi l i ty to dissect the buil t form into i ts constituent parts and detect relationships among the parts and the relationship of the parts to the whole. A. Analysis of Elements- Accounting for elements of the buil t form item by item. 237 :: B. A n a l y s i s o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s - A b i l i t y to determine some o f the major c o n n e c t i o n s among a s p e c t s o f the b u i l t form. C. A n a l y s i s o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f P a r t s t o the Whole- A b i l i t y t o r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n about the e x p r e s s i v e c o n t e n t o f the work and e x p l i c a t e how v a r i o u s a s p e c t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s f u s e t o form the e x p r e s s i v e c o n t e n t . V E v a l u a t i o n - Making a reasoned c r i t i c a l judgment about the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y and v a l u e o f the b u i l t form. A. E m p i r i c a l E v a l u a t i o n - a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e how w e l l something s e r v e s a f u n c t i o n B. S y s t e m i c E v a l u a t i o n - a b i l i t y t o see coherence and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the b u i l t form: - f u s i o n and v i v i d n e s s o f one's e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the b u i l t form -degree to which the b u i l t form r e p r e s e n t s the norm -amount o f p l e a s u r e or p a i n g e n e r a t e d from the b u i l t form A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S t r u c t u r e o f the P r e ^ and P o s t - t e s t Based upon t h e above c o n t e n t , a q u a n t i t a t i v e t e s t was d e v e l o p e d which i n c o r p o r a t e d b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s and c o n t e n t a r e a s r e l a t e d to the s t u d y o f the b u i l t environment. The t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f a m i x t u r e o f f o r c e d - c h o i c e and w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s t o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s t u d y groups a c c o r d i n g t o a s e t time s c h e d u l e (§0 minutes t o t a l ) . V i s u a l m a t e r i a l used t o s t i m u l a t e r e s p o n s e s was a s e t o f s l i d e s and l a r g e f o r m a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s d e p i c t i n g b u i l d - i n g s , d e s i g n c o n c e p t s , i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the b u i l t form and b u i l d i n g p a r t s and f e a t u r e s . The t e s t was s c o r e d out o f a t o t a l o f 50 p o i n t s and r e s u l t s were a n a l y s e d on the b a s i s o f c l a s s r e s p o n s e as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapte r I I I o f t h i s r e p o r t . The f o l l o w i n g pages p r o v i d e d e t a i l s o f the t e s t f o r m a t and c o n t e n t . Pre and Post Summative Test for a Unit of Curriculum 238 on the Built Environment (time- 60 minutes) Date: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Name: School: Instructions: darken the c i rc le that best answers the question. I Perception: A. Look at the pictures and answer the following: 1) Which picture shows rapid sequential movement (a) (b) (c) (d) in space? 0 0 0 0 2) Which picture shows s k i l l f u l l y directed object movement in space? 0 0 0 0 3) Which picture shows floating directed movement in space? 0 0 0 0 4) Which picture shows rhythmic expressive movement in space? 0 0 0 0 5) The arrangements in this sl ide have been designed to give a person a feeling of calm, tranquil i ty or serenity. What do you see in the picture that gives you this feeling? (choose one) a) shape of house 0 b) pool of water 0 c) a l l the elements in the picture 0 d) don't know 0 B. Look at the picture and answer the following: 1) Doorways give you the impression of the style of building you are entering. What style of building does this doorway suggest to you? a) Greek 0 b) Roman • 0 c) Baroque 0 d) Modern 0 e) don't know 0 2) what evidence suggests the architectural style present? a) height of door 0 c) shape of the door 0 b) door decoration 0 d) colour 0 e) don't know 0 239 3) In what building might you find this door? a) house 0 b) store 0 c) warehouse 0 d) l ibrary 0 e) don't know 0 II Knowledge: A. Terms ) 1) When you walk from one end of a street to another your impression of the object at the end of the street changes as you approach i t . What you experience is a series of changing views of the object. What could that process be termed? a) focal point 0 b) tunnel vision 0 c) serial vision 0 d) vantage point 0 e) don't know 0 2) This picture of the U.S.S.R. Pavilion i l lustrates a site that might be used in the: a) steep!echasing game b) horse racing game c) Pavilion seeker's game d) tower to l l ing game e) don't know 0 0 0 0 0 3) This picture shows:, a) vehicular space 0 b) clustered space 0 c) private space 0 d) enclosed space 0 e) don't know 0 4) This picture shows public and private space. The architect has created this situation by: a) making the pathways out of brick 0 b) changing the surface levels 0 c) creating barriers 0 d) adding a waterfall 0 e) both b and c 0 5) The architect 's use of s ta i rs , bridge, mirrors help direct us to the entrance of this Japanese Pavilion at Expo 70. These factors make us look forward to: a) enclosed space 0 b) anticipated space 0 c) private space 0 d) vehicular space 0 f) don't know - 0 240 6) The following picture i l lus t ra tes : a) open space 0 b) closed space 0 c) shared space 0 d) personal space 0 e) both b and d 0 7) Functionally, the rai l ings in the picture were used to create: a) sta i r structure 0 b) aesthetics 0 c) architectural l ine 0 d) barriers 0 e) don't know • 0 Texture is used to give surface qual i ty, variety and order to Which picture shows: (a) (b) (c) (!d) 8) metal surface? 0 0 0 0 9) clay surface? 0 0 0 0 10) wood surface? 0 0 0 0 11) lacquered surface? 0 0 0 0 (don't know) 0 0 0 0 12) This picture shows space arranged in different ways. Which picture shows rearranged space? (a) (b) (c) (don't know) 0 0 0 v 0 13) This playgrOund picture is composed of elements that both define and subdivide space. What are some of these elements? 14) To what extent has the designer or architect met the needs of the children who wil l be using this space? (answer in a few words) I l l Comprehension: A. Translation People occupy different spaces in their working environment. Which pictures suggest the following things about working spaces? 1) indoor, closed, limited feelings ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) W d o n ' t know) 0 0 0 0 0 2) outdoor, f lexible feeling 0 0 0 0; 0 241 (a) (b) (c)(d)(don't know) 3) mobile, but confining 0 0 0 o 0 4) indoor, stimulating feeling 0 0 0 Q 0 5) Express which category of work space you would l ike to work in for a l iv ing i f you had a choice of indoor, closed limited space; outdoor, f lexible space; mobile, but confined space; indoor, stimulating space. Give a substantial reason for your choice of work environment: B. Interpretation You can look at an object in terms of i ts function, meaning, .(appearance, or potential for change. Answer the questions below and give a reason to support your answer. 1) Does the letter box clearly communicate i ts intended use? . 2) Could you change the way we use the letter box to make i t function better? 3) Is the letter box attractive and does i ts intended use (storage of mail) improve people's relationships with one another?. 4) Is there a way of altering the appearance of the letter box so i t provides more information about i ts function? c2 , _ — , — • • • • .. . • • • - • The appearance of space is important as i t te l ls us what act iv i t ies can go on there. In addition, the,way a place looks also determines our feelings about i t and an architect or a designer should be conscious of the attitudes of the user. 5) How does the appearance of the outside space of this building give us information about the country i t represents? 6) How does the building and structure make you feel? Explain in a few words: 242 7) Graphics and signs can organize or te l l us about the use of space. What do these graphics te l l you about the country that the building represents? Networks such as paths, roads, stairways, streets allow for a desired pattern of movement and use. Which pictures show networks suited for: 8) rapid movement, f lexible ( a ) ( b ) (0 ( d ) ( d o n ' t know) 9) slow movement 0 0 0 0 0 10) rapid movement, inf lexible 0 0 0 0 0 1.1) product movement 0 0 0 0 0 - IV Analysis A. Analysis of Elements 1) Context is the setting in which the building is placed. Write a few words describing the success or fai lure or the strong points or deficiencies of the way the building (center) suits the context of the surrounding area. B. Analysis of Relationships 1) Buildings are usually divided into sections which are organized in form into some type of grouping. Discuss the subdivision of this building into ident i - f iable parts and the way that the designer has arranged the grouping of those parts. 2) To what extent is the design successful and has the concept of grouping been well employed? - C. Analysis of Relationships of Parts to the Whole 1) Each of these trademarks i l lustrated is composed of a bare minimum of visual elements. In every symbol but one, the elements are identical or are derived from a single basic shape. Which one is different? top lef t 0 top right 0 center le f t 0 center right 0 bottom lef t 0 bottom right 0 243 2) Explain how the symbol that you chose is different from the others. V Evaluation A. Empirical Evaluation Write a short answer for the following questions: 1) How does the Br i t ish Pavilion portray elements of Br i t ish industry and technology? 2) What s k i l l s are apparent in Br i t ish industry and technology and what might the country be proud of judging from the building's appearance? 3) How well does the building convey the message the designer had in mind and why? " B. Systemic Evaluation 1) Give your overall feelings of pleasure and displeasure with your personal bedroom in two or three sentences. 2) How would you rate your room on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = highly pleasurable, 10 = very unpleasant). 3) If you had the opportunity, what would you do to change your room to improve i t? 244 Appendix VI Completed formative evaluation sheets resulting from the author's observation of groups from schools A and B engaged in act iv i t ies described in the workbook. Each act iv i ty is identif ied by t i t l e , date of commencement of the act iv i ty (some took several periods) and details are provided on the strengths of the act iv i ty and concerns of the evaluator. Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) 245 T i t l e of Act iv i ty : Open Space Act iv i ty (students went individually to various open spaces) Workbook Page: Evaluator: Date: Wed. Sept. 17. 1980 Time: 12:20 C l a s s : ' ' ' Grade: 10. 11. 12 School: A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse interest in the students? The class used the workbook exactly 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? As above 3) Are they related to, or do they use information from the workbook? Yes Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes .2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for materials, plans, or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Used notebooks, pens, pencils. Chose individual open space 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? 4) What are some of the student responses? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of teacher and workbook clear? Not enough information was provided on the purpose of the act iv i ty . The instructions were clear and posed no problems. 246 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? No questions were asked as instructions were clear 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Attitude appeared satisfactory 4) What distract ive or obstructive questions are there? None Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students had no d i f f i cu l ty working independently. 2) Is the act iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Appears well designed for individuals. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Students selected a variety of open spaces. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Positive and keen to discuss their own findings. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Yes - good rapport in class discussions. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? The students had obviously chosen a variety of interesting open spaces for study. This suggests interest and innovation was present. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Act iv i ty required 45 minutes. 247 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suf f ic ient time apportioned for this act iv i ty? Yes 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further ac t iv i t i es in the workbook? Yes - they appear positive about the subject matter. 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related act iv i ty is being performed outside the classroom? (students) Some rechecked space for accuracy 6) Have other students or teachers not d i rect ly involved with the act iv i ty expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t i v i t y , magazines, a r t i c l e s , pictures, maps, models, etc.) None 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Several alternatives were discussed - Memorial Park, Lighthouse Park, back:gardens, a parking lo t , the soccer f i e l d . 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the act iv i ty? (or both?) Yes - as indicated by the follow-up discussions arid finished products. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc. None 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this act iv i ty and was extensive preparation required? No'.extensive preparation - about 15 minutes. General Comments: Students appeared to enjoy working in the open spaces. Some thought the act iv i ty a "bit corny". Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t le of Act iv i ty: Shopping Center Act iv i ty (follow-up lesson) 248 Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: 10,11,12 A F r i . Sept. 19, 1980 08:50 Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Interest aroused by review of existing and proposed Granville St. designs. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Proposed rennovation of the 4000 block, Dunbar St. and a f i e ld t r ip to the area. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Material from both parts 1 and 4 of the workbook with reference to eval- uating and redesigning the buil t environment. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat- e r i a l s , plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Buildings in the Dunbar area were chosen for study. Materials included notebooks, penci ls, paper, l ight cardboard. 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? Yes. 4) What are some of the student responses? Some fe l t the act iv i ty increased their awareness of local buildings. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Instructions were clear and the intent of the act iv i ty was evident. They drew plans of the existing block, made an overlay of drafting paper and then redesigned the block on the overlay. Yes. 249 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Intel l igent, thoughtful questions asked. 3) How do the students respond?" (attitude) They displayed a positive attitude and appeared to enjoy the act iv i ty . 4) What distract ive or obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students worked individually and did rough maps and drawings, notes, etc. in class time. Detailed drawings of existing and redesigned structures- done as homework. 2) Is the act iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Works well for both individuals and groups. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Good students were adept at grasping the intent of the lesson and using materials to produce interesting and attractive designs for the area. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) The act iv i ty promoted considerable discussion among the students. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher accompanied the students to the s i te . She' was keen to help the students and answer their questions. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes - students were interested and motivated. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Students put considerable private time into completion of the designs. 250 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suff ic ient time apportioned for this act ivi ty? Sufficient for introduction and acquisition of information but more time was required for completion of the project. 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional act iv- i t ies? Yes- they were positive about doing more ac t i v i t i es . 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the c lass- room? Yes- extremely well done designs with obvious investment of time. 6) Have other students or teachers not direct ly involved expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t iv i ty , magazines, a r t i c l e s , maps, pictures, models, etc.) Architectural drawings were displayed on the bul let in board. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Materials available included notebooks, drawing paper, drafting supplies. 3) : What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e ld t r i p s , etc.? Students used their own cars for transportation on the f i e ld t r i p . Cost of the materials supplied by the school was minimal. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this act iv i ty and was ex- tensive preparation required? Extensive preparation was not required beyond researching the introduc- tory material and choice of study location. 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc- tion portions of the act ivi ty? Students fe l t that they had become more aware of buildings and enjoyed the preparation of alternate building designs. General Comments The group produced ah.extremely well done set of drawings and innovative alternative building designs. Motivation was high and the students ob- viously became interested and involved in the act iv i ty . Awareness of design elements and buildings appeared to increase. 251 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t l e of Act iv i ty : Steep!echasing ; Workbook Page: 12 Evaluator: S. Davis Date: . Sept. 23, 1980 Time: 1:00-3:00 PM Class: Grade: ' 10,11,12 School: A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Instructions were clear- the students were obviously eager to begin the t r ip . 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Discussion of the use of a high object (U.B.C. Clock Tower) in relation to other buildings. 3) Are they related to , or do they use material from the workbook? Used the introduction from the act iv i ty and workbook questions. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Planning included preparation of maps of the U.B.C. campus, a question, sheet, sketchbooks. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat- e r i a l s , plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? Yes- interested in the campus buildings and architecture although not familiar with the campus. 4) What are some of the student responses? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Instructions were clear. The students were to use seven questions from the workbook and observe the tower from eight locations. 252 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? The students asked for the questions to be repeated as they did not come prepared with typed l i s t s of questions. 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Positive attitude. 4) What distract ive or obstructive questions are there? None Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Students worked in pairs - one sketched each vantage point, one answered questions. 2) Is the ac t iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Act iv i ty could work with either individuals or groups. The pair system probably saved some time. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) See above. The act iv i ty appeared to increase awareness of buildings arid their relationship to one another. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) See above. The pairing system promoted discussion among peers. Good class discussion followed the act iv i ty . 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) There was good interaction with the teacher. Students were not afraid to ask questions. They were encouraged to give positive or negative res- ponses with substantive reasons to back up their judgments. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes - the students enjoyed the study location. Some had never been on the U.B.C. campus. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Yes - an additional hour was required to do f inal drawings, compile answers to questions and prepare a summary paragraph. Some needed to spend additional time on their own. 253 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suff ic ient time apportioned for this act iv i ty? Suff icient time was available for the f i e ld t r ip and data gathering but not for follow-up completion ac t i v i t i es . 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional ac t iv - i t i es? Two boys said they appreciated working out of the classroom and having the opportunity to think for themselves and form opinions and judgments. 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the c lass - room? Patrick and Andrew fe l t they had become more aware of high points in the c i ty . 6) Have other students or teachers not direct ly involved expressed interest? A social studies teacher v is i t ing the school expressed interest. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t iv i ty , magazines, a r t i c l e s , maps, pictures, models, etc.) Architectural drawings and building designs displayed on the bul le t in ' board. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Buildings used included the Sedewick Library, Brock Ha l l , Law Building, Buchanan Building, Physics, Architecture, l ight posts, street furniture. 9) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc.? Maps were free from U.B.C. Transportation was by student and teacher ve- hicles. Materials costs were minimal. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this ac t iv i ty and was ex- tensive preparation required? Approximately one half hour preparation plus the f i e ld t r ip . 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc- tion portions of the act iv i ty? Students fe l t they would have liked more time for this act iv i ty . General Comments The questions for this act iv i ty may require revision. It may be preferable to have questions answered at the end of the act iv i ty - a l l seven questions are too many or appear repetitive i f used at each station of observation. 254 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t l e of Act iv i ty : Four factor analysis - ' Evaluator: S. Davis Het ?, iqan 1:30 - 3:00 p.m. (r.nmmpnrpmpnt) 10^ I K 12 — ' A Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse interest in the students? Yes 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Introductory class discussion of the four factors and explanation 3) Are they related to , or do they use information from the workbook? Al l the basics of the lesson were taken from the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for materials, plans, or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Granville Island Public Market chosen for study location. 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? Yes - enjoyed the opportunity to study the area. 4) What are some of the student responses? Very excited about going to the Public Market. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of teacher and workbook clear? Al l appeared clearly understood by the students. Workbook Page: Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: 255 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Some of the questions in the book appeared d i f f i c u l t for the students. They appear to require s impl i f icat ion. 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Very keen; interested. 4) What distractive of obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Worked as a group in the Granville Island Boardroom to review and answer the workbook questions and complete data sheets. 2) Is the act iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Could work well for either individuals or groups. Group completion of the questions was probably best as some questions appeared d i f f i c u l t . 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Granville Island Public Market was a good choice of location. It is fu l l of interesting act iv i t ies and also a good example of public markets in the Province. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Students were extremely keen, anxious to help one another and par t i c i - pate in group discussion. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher conducted an instructive and enjoyable f i e ld t r ip . The stu- dents talked freely with the teacher and asked questions of content. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Yes- the students were guided by good instruct ion, knew what they were doing and responded posit ively- in a l l , a feeling of success. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Follow-up questions were explored in class after the f i e ld t r ip . 256 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suf f ic ient time.apportioned for this act iv i ty? Yes- the teacher planned several blocks of time for completion of the lesson. 4) Do student responses indicate that they wish to work on additional act iv - i t i es? Yes. 5) Is there any evidence of additional work being done outside of the c lass - room? Students came prepared to class with assignments done. Assignments were handed in on schedule (mark penalty specified for late assignments). 6) Have other students or teachers not direct ly involved expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t iv i ty , magazines, a r t i c l e s , maps, pictures, models, etc.) Four Factor Analysis projects were displayed in the school art gal lery. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Write-ups on the project were scored out of 100 (25 marks/factor) 9) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc.? Students used own transportation. 10) How much time did the teacher have to spend on this ac t iv i ty and was ex- tensive preparation required? One half hour. 11) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or produc- tion portions of the act iv i ty? Very successful- good rapport with teacher and team mates and feedback. General Comments Workbook questions require s impl i f icat ion. Teacher interest and par t i c i - pation appears essential to assist students and provide explanation. A detailed lesson introduction appears important to introduce concepts. 257 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t l e of Act iv i ty : Shopping Center Act iv i ty Workbook Page: 5 Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Sept. 5, 1980 Time: 11:00 AM Class: Grade: 11,12 School: B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Instructions clear- students told to read questions careful ly . 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Teacher reviewed the questions with the c lass- discussion followed. 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Yes- direct application of the workbook. Field t r ip to local mall u t i l i zed . Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes, copies of the workbook and notebooks used. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat- e r i a l s , plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? The book asks basic questions in a manner that appears clear to the students. 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of,materials? Fa i r ly - some seemed shy and hesitant to sketch in a public place. They appear uneasy about doing act iv i t ies outside of the classroom. 4) What are some of the student responses? Appear quiet and shy. Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Students were asked to answer the questions in the workbook, draw a group of stores as they are, and consider how they could be redesigned. 258 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? None 3) How do the students respond? (attitude) Fair ly well - hesitant unti l they become involved in the act iv i ty . 4) What d is t ract ive or obstructive questions are there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? Appear to require guiding questions. 2) Is the ac t iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? The students worked in small groups and were asked to submit individual project reports (reports due at the end of the six week t r ia l period). 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) Students hesitant to enter shops and record information by sketching. Working outside the shops appeared less traumatic for them. 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Students have to converse and discuss their findings and study approach. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Teacher did not accompany students on the f i e ld t r ip . Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? Students did not bother to return to class to discuss f indings. 2 ) Is i t necessary to extend a c t i v i t y to another art period or to independent work? Absolutely - time is needed for discussion of the a c t i v i t i e s . 259 Formative. Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suf f ic ient time apportioned for this act iv i ty? Not in this case - the teacher did not allow time for a follow-up discussion. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further ac t iv i t i es in the workbook? Not sure of attitudes - may lack motivation. 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related act iv i ty is being performed outside the classroom? (students) 6) Have other students or teachers not d i rect ly involved with the act iv i ty expressed interest? 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t i v i t y , magazines, a r t i c l e s , pictures, maps, models, etc.) Students were instructed to bring in pictures of store fronts (not done). 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the act iv i ty? (or both?) 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc. Nil - f i e ld t r ip took place within walking distance of the school. 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this act iv i ty and was extensive preparation required? N i l . General Comments: In this case the response by the students was not part icularly encouraging. Teacher preparation and participating was not adequate - the teacher must accompany the class and work with them for the project to be successful. The book i t s e l f therefore may not be suff icient for total motivation. 260 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t l e of Act iv i ty : The Sensory Walk Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: Sept. 24, 1980 1:00 PM 11,12 B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? Students were asked to look for an area outside that was familiar to 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Used the workbook contents and instructions on sketching and recording. 3) Are they related to , or do they use material from the workbook? Exactly as given in the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Yes- f i e l d t r ip to nearby Minoru Park, Richmond 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat- e r i a l s , plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? The book provides specif ic questions to guide the students. 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? Yes- they needed more speci f ic individual help with sketching techniques and texture rubbing methods. 4) What are some of the student responses? Wondered how you "can smell air"? Lesson Instructions: 1) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Students instructed to draw a sketch map at each stop they made, label location on a map, take a texture rubbing, record signs, smells, sounds, visual images. Instructions clear. Texture rubbing a good idea. them. 261 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? Some asked what was meant by a sketch map? 3) How do students respond (attitude)? Positive attitude- enjoyed working outside in the park. 4) What distractive or obstructive questions were there? None. Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are the students able to work independehdently? This group appears to need direct supervision and guidance and help with the exercises. 2) Is the act iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Worked in groups of two individuals per group. This appeared to be a good arrangement. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between the students and the materials? (examples) The guiding questions def ini tely help orient the students and organize their approach to the act iv i ty . 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) It is evident that working in pairs fac i l i ta tes discussion of the mater- ial and encourages group resolution of answers to the workbook questions. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) The teacher did not accompany the class on the f i e ld t r ip . The students appeared glad the evaluator was present and fe l t they needed someone to provide guidance and c lar i fy approaches to the act iv i ty . Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? There was no direct follow-up after the f i e ld t r ip . Lesson was inadequate- ly concluded. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Product was to be a compendium of a l l ac t iv i t ies handed in at completion of the six week t r ia l period. 262 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suff ic ient time apportioned for this act iv i ty? No - requires an extra period. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further ac t iv i t i es in the workbook? 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related act iv i ty is being performed outside the classroom? (students) Some students stated that they would l ike to go on other f i e ld tr ips (down to the c i ty ) . 6) Have other students or teachers not d i rect ly involved with the act iv i ty expressed interest? A Social Studies teacher expressed interest in the workbook. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t i v i t y , magazines, a r t i c l e s , pictures, maps, models, etc.) None. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? The projects were to be evaluated at the end of the 6-week t r i a l period Materials used included notebooks, sketching materials, cameras. 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the act iv i ty? (or both?) Fair - attitudes d i f f i c u l t to assess with this group. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc. N i l . 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this act iv i ty and was extensive preparation required? N i l . General Comments: The act iv i ty would def ini te ly have benefitted from more teacher part ici pation in the f i e ld t r ip . Also, there was no follow-up discussion of findings following the f i e ld t r ip . The use of texture rubbings in the act iv i ty appeared a good idea. Information from the specif ic senses cou be recorded at each study site and itemized on the sketch map. 263 Formative Evaluation Sheet (Qualitative) T i t l e of Act iv i ty : Steeplechasing or Serial Vision (choice given to students) Workbook Page: Evaluator: S. Davis Date: Time: Class: Grade: School: Oct. 4, 1980 1:00 PM 1 1 , 12 B Lesson Introductions: 1) Are the lesson introductions clear and do they arouse students' interest? The act iv i t ies appear to arouse more interest than shown previously by the group. 2) What method(s) does the teacher use to introduce lessons? Used one period to discuss the book and review the instructions for the ac t iv i t i es . 3) Are they related to, or do they use material from the workbook? Direct use of the workbook. Lesson Materials: 1 ) Are the materials, plans or timetables well executed? Students go off on their own in small groups to do the f i e ld work,, draw and photograph. 2) To what extent does the book help or hinder positive suggestions for mat- e r i a l s , plans or timetables? Cite what materials are used. Why or why not are material choices clear? Students must be organized for the f i e ld t r ip and have the proper equip- ment assembled. , < 3) Do students respond posit ively to the use of materials? More positive attitude to the act iv i t ies than in previous cases. 4) What are some of the student responses? One student elected to go to Seattle and study the Space Needle as a Steeplechasing act iv i ty- i_e.' choice of a distant study location. Lesson Instructions: 1 ) To what extent are the instructions of the teacher and workbook clear? Appeared very clear. 264 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 2 2) How many times do students ask what to do and what type of questions are asked? (Teacher did not accompany group on f i e ld trips) 3) , How do the students respond? (attitude) The evaluator's group seemed more keen than before. More discussion took place and more positive questions were asked than on previous t r ips . 4) What distract ive or obstructive questions are there? Body of the Lesson: 1) To what extent are students able to work independently? The students appeared to l ike to work in pairs and discuss the material. Reports, however, were to be individually prepared. 2) Is the act iv i ty well designed for individuals or groups? Groups or pairs. 3) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students and materials? (examples) 4) To what extent does the lesson show good interaction between students? (examples) Working in pairs stimulated interaction and discussion. 5) Is there evidence of good interaction between students and the teacher? (examples) Students appeared to l ike the evaluator to be with them and discuss the material, respond to questions, etc. Conclusion of the Lesson: 1) Does the lesson end on a positive note? My group appeared posit ive. I was unable to observe other groups. 2) Is i t necessary to extend act iv i ty to another art period or to independent work? Yes, a work period was required. 265 Formative Evaluation Sheet - 3 3) Has there been suff ic ient time apportioned for this act iv i ty? Extra art periods were required to complete the work. 4) Do student responses indicate that they want to work on further ac t iv i t i es in the workbook? Fair response (not a l l appear enthusiastic). 5) Is there any evidence that this work or related act iv i ty is being performed outside the classroom? (students) 6) Have other students or teachers not d i rect ly involved with the act iv i ty expressed interest? Other teachers in the school appeared curious as to which projects were going on. 7) To what extent are examples of related visual materials displayed in the classroom or school? (products of the ac t i v i t y , magazines, a r t i c l e s , pictures, maps, models, etc.) No material displayed. 8) What choices or choice of materials and products were evident and how were they evaluated? Notebooks, cameras, sketching materials were employed. Reporting at the end of the 6 week t r i a l period. 9) Did the students feel they were successful in the experience or production portions of the act iv i ty? (or both?) Fair - some students appeared apathetic. 10) What costs were involved for materials, maps, f i e l d t r i p s , etc. None - project within walking distance of the school. 11) How muchtime did the teacher have to spend on this act iv i ty and was extensive preparation required? None. The f i e ld t r ip would have been more successful with teacher participation and guidance. General Comments: Teacher participation and guidance would have greatly improved this project. A more appealing landmark in an exciting area would have stimulated student interest and part icipation.

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