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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Feminism and collectivity : the integrative function Light, Linda Louise 1981

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FEMINISM AND COLLECTIVITY: THE INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION by LINDA LOUISE LIGHT B.A., York U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 6 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 8 1 ( c ) L i n d a L o u i s e L i g h t , 1 9 8 1 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date p-fi o / 7 < n i i i . ABSTRACT C o l l e c t i v i t y , (a n o n - b u r e a u c r a t i c , n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y -d e m o c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form) has been d e v e l o p e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o b u r e a u c r a c y i n some Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . Such an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form, a l t h o u g h e x i s t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e f e m i n i s t movement, i s one i m p o r t a n t t o o l used by t h a t movement t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s g o a l s . C o l l e c t i v i t y has a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h what I have c a l l e d i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m , w h i c h f o c u s e s on a s y n t h e s i s o f f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e p o l a r i t i e s both i n s o c i e t y and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s , on a r e - d e f i n i t i o n and s h a r i n g o f power, and on an emphasis on the f e m i n i n e sphere i n o r d e r t o r e d r e s s the p r e s e n t imbalance between the m a s c u l i n e and the f e m i n i n e i n Western s o c i e t y . C o l l e c t i v i t y , w i t h i t s emphasis on d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and f e m i n i z a t i o n o f t h e work p r o c e s s , s h a r e s many o f the g o a l s o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m . The purpose o f t h e t h e s i s , t h e n , i s t o demo n s t r a t e t h e m a s c u l i n e n a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e f e m i n i n e n a t u r e o f c o l l e c t i v i t y , and thus the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y . The p o i n t o f v i e w t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s t h r o u g h o u t Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s not a n a t u r a l outcome o f the b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e x e s , but i s s o c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d and t h e r e f o r e c h a n g e a b l e by s o c i a l means. The t h e s i s argues t h a t t h i s p o l a r -i z a t i o n , m a n i f e s t e d i n o n e - s i d e d p e r s o n a l i t y development f o r both sexes and the d i v i s i o n o f s o c i a l l i f e i n t o an o v e r - v a l u e d m a s c u l i n e ( p r o d u c t i v e ) s p h e r e and an u n d e r - v a l u e d f e m i n i n e (maintenance) s p h e r e , w h i c h emphasize d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s , i s d e s t r u c t i v e t o human and s o c i a l growth. I t a l s o argues t h a t s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the c r i s i s i v. the w o r l d i s now f a c i n g , w h i c h i n v o l v e s the d o m i n a t i o n o f the p o w e r l e s s by the p o w e r f u l , d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , and, i n the West, t o o -r a p i d growth and o v e r - c o n s u m p t i o n . W h i l e c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v i t y as a u n i v e r s a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form ( f o r example, s o c i a l demands f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y and d i s p a r i t y between the i d e o l o g y o f c o l l e c t i v i t y and the dominant i d e o l o g y ) , i t may be t h a t e lements o f c o l l e c t i v i t y can be e f f e c t i v e l y combined w i t h e l e m e n t s o f b u r e a u c r a c y i n a v a r i e t y o f c o n t e x t s . The d a t a on w h i c h the argument i s based i n c l u d e s the l i t e r a t u r e o f f e m i n i s m , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and s o c i a l movements; p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h done on the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ; and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y . V. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . i x CHAPTER 1. FEMINISM AND COLLECTIVITY 1 A. From the New L e f t o f the 60's t o the f e m i n i s m o f the 70's 1 1. The r o o t s o f f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y 1 2. Power, community, i n t e g r a t i o n : unmet g o a l s o f the movement. . . .5 B. Feminism and c o l l e c t i v i t y i n the 70's .11 C. The purpose o f the t h e s i s 16 D. D e f i n i n g t he terms 21 1. I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m 21 2. P r o d u c t i v e v e r s u s maintenance s p h e r e s 2 3 3. Col l e c t i v e s 26 4. Power 27 E. The framework o f t h i s t h e s i s 30 F. Summary 34 CHAPTER 2. A RADICAL FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 37 A. The way t h i n g s a r e 37 1. Sexual s t e r e o t y p i n g 37 2. Sexual s t e r e o t y p i n g and the h i e r a r c h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . . . 38 3. The d e n i g r a t i o n o f t h e f e m i n i n e 41 4. The m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s 42 5. N a t u r e o r n u r t u r e ? 44 v i . C h a p t e r 2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) page B. The f e m i n i s t v i s i o n 4 6 1 . An o v e r v i e w : the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n 4 6 2 . The f e m i n i s t v i s i o n and t h e r o l e s o f women and men 4 7 3 . R e - d e f i n i t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f female and male s t r e n g t h s . . . 4 9 4 . I n t e g r a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance spheres 5 2 5 - I n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t 5 4 6 . I n t e g r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l and the p o l i t i c a l 5 6 7 . I n t e g r a t i o n o f emotion and i n t e l l e c t 5 7 8 . The s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 5 8 C. Summary 5 9 CHAPTER 3 . BUREAUCRACY AND COLLECTIVITY 6 2 A. P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y 6 2 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 2 2 . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f power 6 3 3 . L e a d e r s h i p 7 2 4 . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 7k 5 . D i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r 7 9 6 . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e 81 7 . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and change . 8 5 B. Problems and l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y 8 8 1 . Innovat i o n 8 8 2 . Power s h a r i n g 8 9 3 . P r o c e s s / p r o d u c t t e n s i o n 9 6 k. Time 9 7 5 - Emotion 9 9 v i i . Ch a p t e r 3 ( c o n t i n u e d - page 6. E x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s 100 C. Summary 1 03 CHAPTER 4. MASCULINE AND FEMININE ORIENTATIONS OF BUREAUCRACY AND COLLECTIVITY 107 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 107 B. The development o f b u r e a u c r a c y as a m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form. .107 C. The f e m i n i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n 111 1. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g women's e s p o u s a l o f c o l l e c t i v i t y 111 2. Power, l e a d e r s h i p and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g 1 1 2 3. P r o c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f emotion i n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s 117 4. F l e x i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n 119 D. Women i n b u r e a u c r a c y 1 2 3 E. Men i n c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s 128 1. Men i n c o l l e c t i v i t y 128 2. Men i n communes 133 F. Summary 135 CHAPTER 5- THE IMPLICATIONS 1 3 7 A. The i n t e g r a t i v e g o a l o f f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y : a summary. . . . 1 3 7 B. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m 1 3 9 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n : f o u r l e v e l s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f the arguments . . .139 2. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r movements f o r s o c i a l change 140 3- I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work 145 a. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n s 145 b. V a r i e t i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change 147 c. A l t e r n a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a 154 V I I I . C h a p t e r 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) h. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p u r s u i t o f knowledge 5. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e o f s o c i e t y . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . i x . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W h i l e a c c e p t i n g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n t e n t o f t h i s t h e s i s , I would n e v e r t h e l e s s l i k e t o thank my Committee members, Helga Jacobson and David S c h w e i t z e r , and e s p e c i a l l y my a d v i s o r , Bob R a t n e r , f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t he form o f both s u g g e s t i o n s and s u p p o r t , and f o r the speed w i t h w h i c h t h e y responded when the p r e s s u r e was on. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my immediate and my extended f a m i l y f o r p u t t i n g up w i t h i t a l l , f o r making l i f e b e a r a b l e d u r i n g some v e r y t r y i n g t i m e s , and f o r p r o v i d i n g e v i d e n c e both f o r and a g a i n s t the arguments p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s thes i s. T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o the d o m e s t i c sphere i n w h i c h i t was produced - 1 -CHAPTER 1 FEMINISM AND COLLECTIVITY A. From t h e New L e f t o f the 60's t o the f e m i n i s m o f t h e 7 0 ' s 1. The r o o t s o f f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y I t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t t h e new f e m i n i s t movement and c o l l e c t i v i t y as an a l t e r n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form grew a t the same ti m e and o f t e n i n t h e same p l a c e s , i n the company o f a l r e a d y committed s o c i a l movement a c t i v i s t s . N o t o n l y do c o l l e c t i v i t y and what I w i l l c a l l i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m ^ s h a r e i d e a l s , g o a l s and means, but they s h a r e t h e i r r o o t s , both e v o l v i n g i n res p o n s e t o t he r a d i c a l L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s . Feminism, o f c o u r s e , formed t h e s u b s t a n c e o f the new s o c i a l movement; c o l l e c t i v i t y was one o f i t s o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s . Feminism was the u m b r e l l a under w h i c h women came t o g e t h e r ; c o l l e c t i v i t y was one o f t he major s t r u c t u r e s by whi c h they o r g a n i z e d . Both s u b s t a n c e and form were p o s i t e d as p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the problems o f t h e s o c i a l movement t h a t preceded them. Most s t u d e n t s o f the f e m i n i s t movement l i n k t he b e g i n n i n g s o f the r e c e n t wave o f f e m i n i s m i n the Western w o r l d t o a time i n the l a t e 6 0 ' s when the women w i t h i n t he New L e f t began t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r power 1essness w i t h i n 'the movement 1 and t o m o b i l i z e a g a i n s t i t . (See, f o r example, A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 9 ; D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 ; F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ; Freeman, 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 3 ; H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 5 ; Korda, 1 9 7 3 ; Morgan, 1 9 7 7 ; Ware, 1 9 7 0 . ) The New L e f t had reached a dead end and was i n s e a r c h o f f r e s h ways t o t a c k l e o l d problems o f o p p r e s s i o n , i n j u s t i c e and p o w e r l e s s n e s s , b o t h i n s i d e the movement and o u t . Form and c o n t e n t were i n t e g r a l l y bound up w i t h one a n o t h e r : e g a l i t a r i a n ends c o u l d not be sought w i t h i n i n e g a l i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e s . D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t was i n terms o f both t h e - 2 -f a i l u r e t o meet g o a l s and t h e f a i l u r e t o f i n d new ways o f w o r k i n g . F i r e s t o n e d e s c r i b e s t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n rampant i n the New L e f t a t t h i s t i m e : . . . t h e Movement [was] f o u n d e r i n g , e i t h e r m a r g i n a l , s p l i n t e r e d , and i n e f f e c t i v e due t o i t s r i g i d and o u t d a t e d a n a l y s i s , o r , where i t [did] have mass movement a p p e a l , l a c k i n g a s o l i d base i n h i s t o r y and e c o n o m i c s , "drop o u t " r a t h e r than r e v o l u t i o n a r y . The f e m i n i s t movement [was] t h e u r g e n t l y needed s o l d e r . ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 9 ) Korda ( 1 9 7 3 ) r e p o r t s t h a t many men, t o o , saw the women's movement as a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the breakdown and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the movement i n the l a t e 6 0 ' s and e a r l y 7 0 ' s . Those men, however, d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y see t h i s s h i f t as a p o s i t i v e one. Korda says t h a t some men saw the women as " d e s t r o y i n g " the U.S. r a d i c a l movement (p.7k) by f o c u s i n g on i t s f a i l u r e s , u n d e r m i n i n g i t s s o l i d a r i t y , and u l t i m a t e l y , w i t h d r a w i n g i n t o t h e i r own movement. Such m i s -g i v i n g s miss the p o i n t o f the c o n t i n u i t y between t h e two r a d i c a l movements. D i n n e r s t e i n 1 s d i s c u s s i o n o f the f l o w e r i n g o f f e m i n i s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h the l a t e 40's, the 5 0 ' s and the 6 0 ' s o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e sudden e x p l o s i v e anger o f women a c t i v i s t s a t the end o f the 6 0 ' s . She sees the v a l u e s o f the y o u t h c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e - the here-and-now o r i e n t a t i o n , the p ersona 1 i s t i c p o l i t i c s , the d i s t r u s t o f r a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y and t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s o f p r o g r e s s - as g a i n i n g momentum a f t e r World War II but r e m a i n i n g l a r g e l y out o f the p o l i t i c a l s p o t l i g h t . The p r i v a t e r e a l m , i n which t h e s e c o u n t e r - v a l u e s p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e d , remained t h e r e a l m o f women. When, i n t h e 6 0 ' s , t h e s e c o u n t e i — v a l u e s bloomed p u b l i c l y i n t h e form o f the p e r s o n a l , be-here-now p o l i t i c s o f the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e , and human v a l u e s were a s s e r t e d as p o l i t i c a l weapons, they became an " h i s t o r i c t o o l t o o s i g n i f i c a n t f o r women t o w i e l d e x c e p t as men's a s s i s t a n t s . " ( D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 : 2 6 7 ) New L e f t men r e j e c t e d many o f t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e d r o l e s and p u b l i c l y espoused much o f what had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e , but remained u n w i l l i n g t o g i v e up t h e p r i v i l e g e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c c o r d e d t o t h e i r sex. Women, s e e i n g t h e knowledge t h a t t h e y "have always i n f o r m a l l y and d e e p l y known, and been h e a v i l y - 3 -r e l i e d upon...to a f f i r m on an e v e r y d a y , f o l k - k n o w l e d g e l e v e l " ( p . 2 6 7 ) usurped o s t e n t a t i o u s l y by men i n the c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e and g i v e n n o t h i n g back i n the way o f new power t o a c t , were enraged. D i n n e r s t e i n f e e l s t h a t t h i s rage was born out o f the i n c o m p l e t e n e s s o f the s e x u a l r e - d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d . Men s t a r t e d t o r e - d e f i n e the meaning o f b e i n g male, but c o u l d not a c c e p t from women the " i m p u l s e toward i n i t i a t i v e , the s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , s e l f - r e l i a n t p l e a s u r e i n making d r a m a t i c t h i n g s happen" ( p . 2 7 0 ) which i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f h e a l t h y human m a t u r i t y . I t was g a l l i n g enough f o r women t o have been kept out o f the p u b l i c , p o l i t -i c a l , p o l i c y - m a k i n g r e a l m f o r so l o n g . But t o be e x c l u d e d from t h i s realm when i t s f o c u s had become t h o s e i s s u e s t h a t have c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r own a r e a o f e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e was i n t o l e r a b l e t o many women a c t i v i s t s , and l e d t o the c r e a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t f e m i n i s t movement. The r o o t s o f both f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y go back, o f c o u r s e , beyond the s t u d e n t a c t i v i s m o f the 6 0 ' s . The r o o t s o f the new f e m i n i s m i n the f e m i n i s t movement o f the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e w e l l known. The r o o t s o f the c o l l e c t i v e s o f the 7 0 ' s and 8 0 ' s go back t o a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h c o - o p e r a t i v e and U t o p i a n communities i n the l a s t c e n t u r y and i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y , t o the movements f o r w o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l i n t h e t h i r t i e s , and t o c l a s s i c a l a n a r c h i s t and M a r x i s t t h e o r y ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . L i n k s w i t h c o l l e c t i v e e ndeavors a c r o s s n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s can be found w i t h the k i b b u t z i m i n I s r a e l , w o r k e r - c o n t r o l l e d w o r k - p l a c e s i n S c a n d i n a v i a and E a s t e r n Europe, and c o l 1 e c t i v e s i n C h i n a . For p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , however, t h e r o o t s o f f e m i n i s m and o f c o l l e c t i v i t y w i l l be t r a c e d o n l y t o t h e i r most r e c e n t c o n n e c t i o n s t o the s t u d e n t a c t i v i s m o f the 6 0 ' s and t o the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f many o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t movement. For t h e s e a r e the l i n k s t h a t a r e most p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t t o p r e s e n t movement p a r t i c i p a n t s , many o f whom were the m s e l v e s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t e a r 1 i e r movement o r who have been d i r e c t l y - k -i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r s who were i n v o l v e d . Feminism was not the o n l y s o c i a l movement t o emerge from t h e New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s . The consumer, e n v i r o n m e n t a l , r a d i c a l t h e r a p y and h e a l t h movements a r e a l l examples o f s o c i a l movements t h a t d e v e l o p e d from t h e r a d i c a l a c t i v i s m o f t h a t decade, and u t i l i z e d t h e communications network a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by t h a t a c t i v i s m (Freeman, 1 9 7 3 ) . These movements can be grouped t o g e t h e r under the g e n e r a l term ' s e l f - h e l p movement'; they occupy the r a d i c a l wing o f t h a t movement, which i s a l s o made up o f more t r a d i t i o n a l groups such as A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous and Synanon. There i s a gr o w i n g body o f l i t e r a t u r e on s e l f - h e l p t h a t p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e on s o c i a l movement growth i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n between the 6 0 ' s and the 7 0 ' s . (See p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c i a l s e l f - h e l p i s s u e s o f The J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e , 1 2 ( 3 ) , 1 9 7 6 and S o c i a l P o l i c y , 7 ( 2 ) , 1 9 7 6 . ) L i k e t h e New L e f t and t h e f e m i n i s t movement, the s e l f - h e l p movement t h a t grew out o f the r a d i c a l i s m o f the 6 0 ' s has c l e a r l y a r i s e n o u t o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g m ainstream s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t a d v o c a t e s p e o p l e t a k i n g back t h e i r power; i t i s a n t i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c and i s u s u a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n s m a l l , autonomous c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p s . R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) t r a c e s the p r e s e n t p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f community-based a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o the s t u d e n t - b a s e d New L e f t o f t h e 6 0 ' s , but goes on t o d i s c u s s how s o c i o - c u 1 t u r a 1 f a c t o r s may a l s o have come t o g e t h e r i n a p a r t i c u l a r way t o f a c i l i t a t e t he development o f the p a t t e r n o f c o u n t e r -c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t have emerged a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . She shows how the weakening o f the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and the e v o l u t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m toward i t s own d e s t r u c t i o n have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development o f the c o u n t e r -c u l t u r e . I f i t i s t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h e t e c h n o l o g y and the a f f l u e n c e g e n e r a t e d by a c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t freedom from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f human t o i l , and w h i c h r e n d e r the v a l u e s o f the P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c o b s o l e t e , then we s h o u l d e x p e c t t h e work - 5 -e t h i c t o f i r s t l o s e i t s c o h e r e n c e t o p e o p l e who have grown up under c o n d i t i o n s o f a f f l u e n c e ( i . e . t o p e o p l e whose l i f e e x p e r i e n c e l e a d s them t o t a k e freedom from s c a r c i t y as a gi v e n ) . . . w e would e x p e c t p e o p l e who f i n d c o n v e n t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s so i n c o h e r e n t t h a t they c r e a t e a l t e r n a t i v e v a l u e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s and 1 i f e m e a n i n g s . . . t o be d i s p r o p o r -t i o n a t e l y from a f f l u e n t , w e l l - e d u c a t e d , i n t e l l e c t u a l f a m i l i e s . ( 1 9 7 7 : 1 1 - 1 2 ) R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t found t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e f i v e a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s she s t u d i e d f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n and t h a t not o n l y were t h e s e p e o p l e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e who peo p l e d the New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s but they were o f t e n the same p e o p l e . C l e a r l y , not o n l y d i d t h e women's movement and a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s grow out o f the New L e f t , but a l l t h r e e phenomena were and a r e r e s p o n s e s t o some o f the same s o c i a l s t r e s s e s and p a r t o f the same p r o c e s s o f change. Simpson ( 1 9 7 2 ) sees a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c a c t i v i s m and a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s as p a r t o f a l a r g e r p r o c e s s o f p o s t - ? n d u s t r i a 1 , p o s t - b u r e a u c r a t i c development, w h e r e i n the v a l u e o f r a t i o n a l i t y i s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d i n a m y r i a d o f ways both from o u t s i d e and from w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c i e s . The r a d i c a l a c t i v i s t movement of the 6 0 ' s , l i k e many o f t h e groups t h a t f o l l o w e d i n the 7 0 ' s , was o r g a n i z e d i n r e a c t i o n t o the hugeness, t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y , the b u r e a u c r a c y and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e ( r e a l and p o t e n t i a l ) o f the t e c h n o c r a t i c s o c i e t y (Roszak, 1 9 6 9 ) . Young p e o p l e f e l t fragmented and p o w e r l e s s . The s l o g a n s t h a t formed the heyday o f p o l i t i c a l g r a f f i t i - make l o v e , not war; power t o t h e p e o p l e ; b l a c k i s b e a u t i f u l ; i s t h e r e l i f e b e f o r e d e a th ? - c a p t u r e d t h e s p i r i t and i d e o l o g y o f t h e movement. 2 . Power, community, i n t e g r a t i o n : unmet g o a l s o f the movement I have i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e major g o a l s o f the New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s : 1 ) power t o a f f e c t t h o s e p r o c e s s e s t h a t govern one's l i f e ; 2 ) a sense o f community; and 3 ) i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f one's l i f e i n t o a - 6 -m e a n i n g f u l whole. ( L i g h t , 1977:2) The movement f a i l e d t o s a t i s f y t h o s e g o a l s . In s p i t e o f the e x c i t e m e n t , d e d i c a t i o n , and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s found i n t h a t movement, t h e r e were many f a i l u r e s and d i s a p p o i n t -ments. A l t h o u g h t h e r e were c e r t a i n l y some s u c c e s s e s (and t h e p r e s e n t c o u n t e r -c u l t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e a monument t o t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y i d e a l s espoused by the a c t i v i s t s o f the 60's), i t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t o say t h a t most members o f the New L e f t became d i s i l l u s i o n e d , d i s s a t i s f i e d o r a t l e a s t bored w i t h the emphases and t a c t i c s employed i n t h o s e y e a r s o f marches, s i t - i n s and b i z a r r e f l o u t i n g s o f the b u r e a u c r a c y . "Turn on, tune i n , drop o u t " r e p l a c e d many o f t h e more a c t i v i s t p o l i t i c a l s l o g a n s t h a t d e c o r a t e d w a l l s from Amsterdam t o London t o Vancouver. Many o f the problems o f the movement were i n t e r n a l ones. A l t h o u g h o r g a n i z e d i n r e a c t i o n t o the i m p e r s o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , much o f the movement was o r g a n i z e d a l o n g i t s own b u r e a u c r a t i c l i n e s , w i t h n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s and networks o f branch groups t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y and s m a l l groups making d e c i s i o n s f o r l a r g e memberships. A l t h o u g h the i d e o l o g y o f the movement i n c l u d e d e g a l i t a r i a n i s m and p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy, t h e r e were few o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s b u i l t i n t o e n s u r e t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and power were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The ' s t a r syndrome' r e p l a c e d f o r m a l l e a d e r -s h i p s t r u c t u r e s . Those who were most a r t i c u l a t e , most p o l i t i c a l l y knowledge-a b l e and most a g g r e s s i v e ( u s u a l l y the men) were the l e a d e r s . In the absence i n many cases o f f o r m a l mechanisms f o r c h o o s i n g and c h a n g i n g l e a d e r s t h e s e ' s t a r s ' o f t e n remained s t a r s and t h e r e f o r e i n l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s f o r l o n g p e r i o d s . Those who d i d not occupy p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p o f t e n had l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the group. An a p p r o p r i a t e example i s p r o v i d e d by the Company o f Young C a n a d i a n s , w h i c h employed a c o r e o f w e l l - p a i d o r g a n i z e r s who made the d e c i s i o n s and an army o f p o o r l y p a i d v o l u n t e e r s who d i d t h e work. The f a i l u r e s o f the movement were f e l t most d r a m a t i c a l l y by the most - 7 -p o w e r l e s s w i t h i n i t s r a n k s . W h i l e t h e i r b r o t h e r s and l o v e r s were p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and w r i t i n g p r e s s r e l e a s e s , the women were t y p i n g and making peanut b u t t e r sandwiches. L i k e t h e i r mothers b e f o r e them, t h e s e ' r a d i c a l ' women a c q u i r e d t h e i r power and t h e i r s t a t u s l a r g e l y from t h e men w i t h whom they were c o n n e c t e d . They found t h e m s e l v e s f a c i n g the same f r u s t r a t i o n s i n the movement as they d i d i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s . T h e i r c o n t i n u i n g p o w e r l e s s -ness and o p p r e s s i o n w i t h i n a movement d e d i c a t e d t o g a i n i n g power f o r t h e p e o p l e f i n a l l y l e d many women t o q u e s t i o n the m o r a l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such a movement. Both w i t h i n the movement, t h e n , and from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f i t s impact on s o c i e t y , the s t r u g g l e o f the movement f o r a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power met w i t h many f a i l u r e s . The g o a l o f community was a l s o i n c o m p l e t e l y a t t a i n e d . A movement d i v i d e d i n t o ' l e a d e r s ' and ' f o l l o w e r s ' o r ' o p p r e s s o r s ' and 'oppressed* i s not c o n d u c i v e t o the c r e a t i o n o f community. C e r t a i n l y many p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t a sense o f b e l o n g i n g i n the peace o r c i v i l r i g h t s movements t h a t t h e y d i d not f i n d w i t h i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . But e v e n t u a l l y s c h i s ms w i t h the movement and the f r u s t r a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n o f many who were e x c l u d e d from p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s began t o undermine t h a t sense o f community. The e x c l u s i o n t h a t many women f e l t i n the New.Left l e d them t o s e a r c h f o r community among o t h e r women. Robin Morgan w r i t e s o f her and o t h e r women's passage t h r o u g h the "male-dominated L e f t " , what she l a t e r came t o c a l l " t h e boys' movement" (Morgan, 1 9 7 7 : 4 ) : And i t wasn't m e r e l y the mass e p i d e m i c o f b u r s i t i s (from the c o n t i n u a l c r a n k i n g o f mimeograph machines) w h i c h d r o v e us a l l o u t , but the s e r i o u s , c e a s e l e s s , d e g r a d i n g , and p e r v a s i v e s e x i s m we e n c o u n t e r e d t h e r e , i n each man's a t t i t u d e and i n e v e r y group's s t r u c t u r e and i n the narrow p o l i t i c a l emphases and manhood-proving t a c t i c a l s t y l e t h e m s e l v e s . We were used t o such an approach from t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t , but h e r e , t o o ? In a c o n t e x t w h i c h was supposed t o be d i f f e r e n t , t o be f i g h t i n g f o r a l l human freedom ? ( 1 9 7 7 : ^ ) In t h i s passage can be found e v i d e n c e o f the f a i l u r e s o f the New L e f t t o meet - 8 -a l l t h r e e o f the g o a l s s e t o u t above. In an a r t i c l e t r a c i n g the development o f M a r x i s t f e m i n i s t t h e o r y but w h i c h a p p l i e s a l s o t o the development o f a s e p a r a t e women's movement, Armstrong w r i t e s : The s t o r y p r o b a b l y b e g i n s i n 1 9 6 7 w i t h " S i s t e r s , B r o t h e r s , L o v e r s . . . L i s t e n . . . " Women i n the St u d e n t Union f o r Peace A c t i o n (SUPA) were f r u s t r a t e d by the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the r h e t o r i c o f the movement and the r e a l i t y o f i t s p r a c t i c e , by t h e i r t r e a t m e n t as w i v e s and w o r k e r s , by t h e i r f e e l i n g t h a t they were ' l i k e a c i v i l r i g h t s o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a l e a d e r s h i p o f s o u t h e r n r a c i s t s . " ( B e r n s t e i n e t a l . , 1 9 6 7 : 3 8 ) ( 1 9 7 9 : 1 2 5 ) The t h i r d g o a l , p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , was a l s o l a r g e l y unmet. A l t h o u g h t h e 6 0 ' s c o u n t e r - c u l t u r e was r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the f r a g m e n t a t i o n and compart-m e n t a l i z i n g o f l i v e s i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , i t d i d not succeed i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t he i n t e g r a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l i v e s o r i n t a k i n g t h e s e i n t o a c c o u n t i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . H a r t s o c k , c r i t i c i z i n g New L e f t s o c i a l i s m from a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , w r i t e s : The h i s t o r y o f t h e male L e f t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t i t has no co n c e p t o f p r o c e s s . As a r e s u l t , i t has been u n a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the f u n d -amental u n i t y o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . . . t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n 'of t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e and t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c l a s s i s m which accompanies i t , r e s u l t i n t h e n o t i o n t h a t we work f o r r e v o l u t i o n , not f o r o u r s e l v e s and out o f n e c e s s i t y , but f o r o t h e r s , out o f an i d e a l i s t i c commitment. The r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t r e v o l u t i o n b e g i n s i n our own l i v e s f i r s t , and t h a t i t c o n c e r n s o u r own i d e n t i t i e s as human b e i n g s , took many f o r m s . . . ( 1 9 7 5 : 6 8 - 9 ) The male New L e f t emphasized the p o l i t i c a l and n e g l e c t e d t h e p e r s o n a l ; i t emphasized the i n t e l l e c t u a l and n e g l e c t e d the e m o t i o n a l . P a r t i c i p a n t s were o f t e n e x p e c t e d t o g i v e t h e i r ' a l l ' t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n much the same way t h a t e x e c u t i v e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n the c o r p o r a t i o n (Whyte; 1 9 5 7 ) . The s t y l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e b a t e and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was a male s t y l e , a b s t r a c t , i n t e l l e c t u a l , c o m b a t i v e , i n s e n s i t i v e t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p r o c e s s . ( A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 9 ; F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ; H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 5 ; Morgan, 1 9 7 7 ; among o t h e r s ) F e e l i n g s were i g n o r e d , i f p o s s i b l e , e x c e p t f o r t h e anger p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t toward the ' E s t a b l i s h m e n t 1 . The drug c u l t u r e , the f l o w e r c h i l d r e n , on the o t h e r hand, r e j e c t e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n f a v o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , - 9 -h e d o n i s t i c , and sometimes s p i r i t u a l s o l u t i o n s . F i r e s t o n e d e s c r i b e d t h e s t a t e o f the movement t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development o f an i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m . The dichotomy between emotions and i n t e l l e c t has kept the e s t a b l i s h e d movement from d e v e l o p i n g a mass base: on the one hand, t h e r e a r e t h e o r t h o d o x l e f t i s t s , e i t h e r a b s t r a c t u n i v e r s i t y i n t e l l e c t u a l s o ut o f touch w i t h c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y , o r , i n t h e i r a c t i v i s t g u i s e , m i l i t a n t l y machismo, s e l f - i n d u l g e n t i n t h e i r a c t i o n w i t h l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . On the o t h e r , t h e r e i s Woodstock N a t i o n , the Youth R e v o l t , t he Flo w e r and Drug G e n e r a t i o n o f H i p p i e s , Y i p p i e s , C r a z i e s , M o t h e r f u c k e r s , Mad Dogs, Hog Farmers, and t h e l i k e , who, though they u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the o l d l e a f l e t t i n g and p a m p h l e t t i n g and M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s i s no l o n g e r where i t s a t . . . y e t have no s o l i d h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r own...indeed who a r e a p o l i t i c a 1 . ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 8 - 9 ) The t r a n s i t i o n between the New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s and t h e movements o f the 7 0 ' s was marked by a f o c u s on the c o n n e c t i o n s between the p o l i t i c a l and the p e r s o n a l . T h i s emphasis on the p e r s o n a l was r e c o g n i z e d by men as w e l l as women, but was not always welcomed. Korda q u o t e s from a young male a c t i v i s t i n Glamour magazine i n 1 9 7 2 who u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t he p e r s o n a l had become p o l i t i c a l , but d i d not u n d e r s t a n d the p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h a t s h i f t f o r r a d i c a l s o c i a l a c t i o n . I mean, a l l o f a sudden the r e v o l u t i o n had become persona 1. I t stopped b e i n g some e x t e r n a l phenomenon wh i c h we c o u l d c o n f r o n t . ( 1 9 7 3 - . 7 5 , ' emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) He goes on t o c a l l t h i s s h i f t a " d e t e r i o r a t i o n " and women " s e l f i s h " f o r p h r a s i n g p o l i t i c a l demands i n p e r s o n a l terms. P r o b a b l y the b e s t o f the communes, r u r a l o r u r b a n , came c l o s e s t t o a c h i e v i n g an i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l p a r t s o f a pe r s o n ' s l i f e i n t o a c o h e s i v e l i f e s t y l e . However, s e x i s m abounded i n many such communes ( t h i s i s s u e i s d i s c u s s e d i n C hapter k, under the headi n g Men i n communes) and t h e y , t o o , e v e n t u a l l y s e r v e d t o produce d i s s a t i s f i e d women who lo o k e d e l s e w h e r e f o r community and p o i i t i c a l e f f i c a c y . Women i n the movement p r o b a b l y f e l t t he e f f e c t s o f l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n more than the men, f o r women have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h e g e n e r a l i s t s , c o p i n g w i t h a m y r i a d o f t a s k s and r o l e s w i t h i n t h e i r p r i m a r y i d e n t i t y as c a r e t a k e r s , w h i l e - 1 0 -men have been the s p e c i a l i s t s , i n modern tim e s s e p a r a t i n g t h e i r work l i v e s c l e a r l y from t h e i r home l i v e s . I t i s h a r d e r on women than on men t o m a i n t a i n r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s and a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r . Men have been t r a i n e d from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d t o t r e a t t h e i r work l i v e s as the most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s , hence more e a s i l y r e l e g a t e home and f a m i l y t o e v e n i n g s and weekends. Women, on t h e o t h e r hand, have been t r a i n e d t o see t h e i r r o l e s o f w i f e , mother and homemaker as p r i m a r y , and t o f i t i n p a i d work o r c a r e e r as b e s t they can. T h e r e f o r e , a work s i t u a t i o n o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y t h a t does not i n c o r p o r a t e t h e v a l u e s o r the p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e home and f a m i l y i s a g r e a t s o u r c e o f f r u s t r a t i o n and t e n s i o n f o r a woman and somehow i n v a l i d a t e s her as a woman and as a p e r s o n . Coser and R o k o f f ( 1 9 7 1 ) p o i n t o u t t h a t i t i s the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t w o r k i n g women c o n t i n u e t o g i v e p r i m a c y t o t h e i r home l i v e s w h i l e ( i m p o s s i b l y ) m a i n t a i n i n g an u n i n t e r r u p t e d work l i f e t h a t causes c o n f l i c t f o r t h e s e women. I w i l l now t u r n t o how t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s l e d some p e o p l e , most n o t a b l y women, t o put t h e i r e n e r g i e s and t h e i r hopes i n t o the women's movement. B e f o r e d o i n g t h i s I want t o emphasize two p o i n t s . F i r s t , I am s t r e s s i n g the f a i l u r e s o f the 6 0 ' s because t h e s e f a i l u r e s g i v e us some c l u e s about the ways i n whi c h the s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y o f t h o s e y e a r s l e d i n t o t he s o c i a l movement a c t i v i t y o f the 7 0 ' s and now 8 0 ' s . In so d o i n g I do not w i s h t o b e l i t t l e t he e f f o r t s o r s u c c e s s e s o f the 6 0 ' s . S i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were made i n thos e y e a r s toward both p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l changes; i n many i m p o r t a n t ways i t was the a c t i v i t y o f the 6 0 ' s t h a t paved t h e way f o r the a c t i v i t y o f the 7 0 " s , both i n terms o f the i d e a s , commitments, and e x p e r i e n c e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i n terms o f the r e c e p t i v e n e s s o f the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Second, I want t o re-emphasize t h a t I am f o c u s i n g on the pathways t h a t l e d from the New L e f t o f the 6 0 ' s t o the f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y o f t h e 7 0 ' s - 11 -because I t h i n k t h a t t h e s e pathways r e v e a l some i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s about the women's movement. However, I do not mean t o imply by t h i s f o c u s t h a t t h e s e paths a r e the o n l y ones t h a t l e d t o modern f e m i n i s m . As I have a l r e a d y m entioned, e a r l i e r movements a l s o l e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , as F i r e s t o n e s a y s : . . . i t would be f a l s e t o a t t r i b u t e the r e s u r g e n c e o f f e m i n i s m o n l y t o the impetus g e n e r a t e d by o t h e r movements and i d e a s . For though they may have a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t , f e m i n i s m , i n t r u t h , has a c y c l i c a l momentum a l l i t s own. (1970:31) She a t t r i b u t e s t h i s momentum i n l a r g e p a r t t o a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h has f r e e d women from the t y r a n n y o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i n a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic f a c t o r s have p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e development o f the women's movement and i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s not be f o r g o t t e n i n the p r e s e n t emphasis on p r i o r s o c i a l movements, s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and s o c i a l v a l u e s . B. Feminism and c o l l e c t i v i t y i n the 70's R e a c t i n g t o t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the New L e f t , women began t o see t h e i r p e r s o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n as more than j u s t p r i v a t e p a i n , but as a g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o f women i n the movement and i n s o c i e t y . As they saw t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e i r p a i n and anger and t h a t o f t h e i r f r i e n d s , they began t o see the c o n t i n -u i t y between t h e p e r s o n a l and the p o l i t i c a l . They a l r e a d y knew t h a t the p o l i t i c a l was p e r s o n a l - t h e i r own l i v e s had been so i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h and a f f e c t e d by t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and by the movement t h a t t h i s c o n n e c t i o n was a hard one t o m i s s . But t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s were a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e was one o f t h e most fundamental c a t a l y s t s f o r 2 t h e growth o f t h e r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t movement. F i r e s t o n e c o n f i r m s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s development: The f e m i n i s t movement i s the f i r s t t o combine e f f e c t i v e l y the " p e r s o n a l " w i t h the " p o l i t i c a l " . I t i s d e v e l o p i n g a new way o f r e l a t i n g , a new p o l i t i c a l s t y l e , one t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e c o n c i l e the p e r s o n a l - always t h e f e m i n i n e p e r o g a t i v e - w i t h t h e p u b l i c , - 1 2 -w i t h the " w o r l d o u t s i d e " , t o r e s t o r e t h a t w o r l d t o i t s e m o t i o n s , and l i t e r a l l y t o i t s s e n s e s . ( 1 9 7 0 : 3 8 ) In terms o f a l l t h r e e g o a l s o u t l i n e d above, some branches o f t h e women's movement have been more s u c c e s s f u l and t h e r e f o r e more s a t i s f y i n g t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s than was the male-dominated New L e f t . The f e m i n i s t s t r u g g l e f o r a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power has been d i r e c t e d both e x t e r n a l l y t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and i n t e r n a l l y t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e groups t h e m s e l v e s . Fee w r i t e s about t h i s dual a s p e c t o f i n n o v a t i v e p o l i t i c s o f the women's movement: I f the t h e o r e t i c a l work o f the r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t movement has been uneven, i t has been p r o d u c t i v e i n a c t u a l s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t an o p p r e s s i v e r e a l i t y , and i n v e n t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g new forms o f r e s i s t -ance. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l i s t i d e o l o g y , women have c r e a t e d s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t o combat s p e c i f i c symptoms o f t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n . Among t h e s e a r e t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g group, the women's c e n t e r , t h e rape c r i s i s c e n t e r , t h e women's commune, and t h e s e l f - h e l p group. ( 1 9 7 5 : 8 2 ) An o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m a t common t o most o f t h e s e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i s c o l l e c t i v i t y , w h i c h has been one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t o o l s used by the f e m i n i s t movement. T h i s t o o l has been e f f e c t i v e i n meeting not j u s t the g o a l o f p o w e r - s h a r i n g , but a l l t h r e e o f t h e g o a l s mentioned above. The s u c c e s s o f t h e women's movement i n w i n n i n g more power f o r women and a h i g h e r v a l u a t i o n o f f e m i n i n e s t r e n g t h s i n s o c i e t y as a whole may be d e b a t a b l e . However, i t s s u c c e s s i n a c h i e v i n g a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power w i t h i n i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s c l e a r . R e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power i n the New L e f t , women, and some men, d e v e l o p e d new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e more e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The c o l l e c t i v e model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s among t h e most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e . F i r e s t o n e d i s c u s s e s t h i s s h i f t . In c o n t r a s t t o most r e v o l u t i o n a r y move-ments, where " s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p c u l t s , f a c t i o n a l i s m , ' e g o - t r i p p i n g 1 , back-b i t i n g a r e the r u l e r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n , " F i r e s t o n e m a i n t a i n s t h a t : - 13 -T h e women's movement, i n i t s s h o r t h i s t o r y , h a s a somewhat b e t t e r r e c o r d t h a n m o s t i n t h i s a r e a . One o f i t s m a j o r s t a t e d g o a l s i s i n t e r n a l d e m o c r a c y - a n d i t g o e s t o ( o f t e n a b s u r d ) l e n g t h s t o p u r s u e t h i s g o a l . (1970:39) I n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e women's movement h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s i d e a l o f i n t e r n a l d e m o c r a c y . A l t h o u g h t h i s t h e s i s w i l l r e f l e c t a b a s i c a l l y p o s i t i v e v i e w o f t h e s u c c e s s o f some b r a n c h e s o f t h e women's movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , i t w i l l n o t n e g l e c t t o p a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d f a i l u r e s i n t h i s s t r u g g l e . T h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d t h e w a y s i n w h i c h p o w e r , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d t h u s i n f o r m a t i o n a r e d i s t r i b u t e d , e q u a l i t y i s s a f e g u a r d e d , a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s m a x i m i z e d i n c o l l e c t i v e s , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r 3-A c h a n g e i n t h e way women's s t r e n g t h s a n d t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e v a l u e d i s a t l e a s t a s i m p o r t a n t i n h e l p i n g women t o a c h i e v e p o w e r a s i s h e l p i n g women d e v e l o p a s s e r t i v e n e s s a n d new a r e a s o f c o m p e t e n c e . In t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t m ovement, t h o s e q u a l i t i e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s f o r w h i c h women a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g d e n i g r a t e d a n d r e s t r i c t e d a r e h i g h l y v a l u e d a n d u s e d a s t e c h n i q u e s o f l i b e r a t i o n . F o r c e n t u r i e s , women h a v e met i n s m a l l g r o u p s a n d t a l k e d a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i r l i v e s : i n c h u r c h e s , i n f a r m k i t c h e n s , i n f a c t o r i e s , a n d , i n t h e 19th a n d 20 th c e n t u r i e s , i n a " m u l t i t u d e o f women's c l u b s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s [ d e v e l o p e d j a r o u n d e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l p u r p o s e " ( F r e e m a n , 1 972 :205 ) . W i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s , t h e s e g a t h e r i n g s w e r e o b j e c t s o f men's a p a t h y , i g n o r a n c e a n d s o m e t i m e s , d e r i s i o n . In t h e 1 9 6 0 1s a n d 7 0's, i n t h e New L e f t , t h e s e m e e t i n g s o f women t o o k t h e f o r m o f ' r a p ' o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g g r o u p s , a n d became a n e x p l i c i t p o l i t i c a l t o o l . ( F o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f C.R. g r o u p s , s e e F r e e m a n , 1973; M o r g a n , 1977; W a r e , 1970, among o t h e r s . ) Women h a v e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y h a s t o s t a r t w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; h e n c e c o n s c i o u s n e s s -r a i s i n g h a s become o n e o f t h e m a i n s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e c r u i t i n g , e d u c a t i n g , - 14 -m o t i v a t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g members. P o w e r f u l , k n o w l e d g e a b l e , p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s women can then t a k e a v a r i e t y o f p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n s , u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s , i n c l u d i n g the s m a l l , i n f o r m a l : group. A sense o f community has been one o f the s t r o n g e s t l i n k s among women i n the women's movement. C o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s i s t e r h o o d became a f o r c e t h a t has, t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , l i n k e d women a c r o s s c l a s s and e t h n i c l i n e s . T h i s g o a l has been met t h r o u g h s m a l l g r o u p s , c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g , and i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the movement. C o l l e c t i v e l y - r u n g r o u p s , w h i c h make d e c i s i o n s by consensus and w h i c h s t r e s s p r o c e s s as much as p r o d u c t a r e more c o n d u c i v e t o the c r e a t i o n o f community than a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d g roups. As women have come t o a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s t o v a l u e the f e m i n i n e s t r e n g t h s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r n u r t u r i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e s e s t r e n g t h s have become t h e cement t h a t has bound them t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l groups and i n a movement. T h i s sense o f community i s c l o s e l y bound up w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n o f women's l i v e s i n the movement. Many o f t h e women i n the movement a r e a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f th e m s e l v e s i n t o a s a t i s f y i n g whole. Rossman, i n w r i t i n g about the p a r t i c u l a r power o f s e l f - h e l p , w h i c h i s i n t e g r a l t o the women's movement, s a y s : ...when I come back t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f what the magic i s t h a t a t times e n a b l e s us t o b e l i e v e i n each o t h e r and r e d i s c o v e r our power t o r e c o g n i z e and move on our needs t o g e t h e r , i n e x i s t e n t i a l p e e r s h i p , i t seems t o me t h a t i t has something t o do w i t h w h o l e n e s s , w i t h a v i s i o n o f s e l f and purpose w h i c h g r a s p s our p r i v a t e and s o c i a l l i v e s t o g e t h e r as one c o n t i n u o u s f a b r i c , r a t h e r than as t h i n g s d i v i d e d from each o t h e r . The women's C.R. groups and the communes o p e r a t e d i n t h i s s p i r i t . . . Where i t f a i l s c o m p l e t e l y , . . . i s a t t h e extremes; i n the domain o f r i g i d l y i d e o l o g i z e d p o i i t i c a l o r g a n i z i n g . . . and i n t h e s l u s h y domain o f 'human p o t e n t i a l ' , 'growth' and 'devotion'.(1976 : 8 9 , emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) The g o a l o f i n t e g r a t i o n i s more i m p o r t a n t , o r more e x p l i c i t , i n t h e i n t e g r -a t i v e women's movement than i t was i n t h e New L e f t o f the 60's, and c e r t a i n l y has been more s u c c e s s f u l l y met. ( F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ; H a r t s o c k , 1970, among o t h e r s . ) G a l p e r and Washburne w r i t e o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r - 15 -r o l e s w h i l e w o r k i n g as s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a f e m i n i s t agency. . . . i t f e l t t e r r i f i c . One major e f f e c t our s t y l e o f w o r k i n g had was t o e n a b l e us t o mesh our p e r s o n a 1 / p o i i t i c a 1 / p r o f e s s i o n a 1 l i v e s . We were not s e p a r a t e s e l v e s . The more we brought our p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o our work, the more e f f e c t i v e our s e r v i c e was. (1976:50) T h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d on a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s , from t h e i d e o l o g i c a l t o the p r a c t i c a l . Many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e women's movement want t o r e s p e c t t h e m s e l v e s and t o be r e s p e c t e d as whole p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i n e and s o - c a l l e d m a s c u l i n e s i d e s o f t h e m s e l v e s and i n c l u d i n g a l l t h e i r v a r i o u s l i f e r o l e s . Some o f the s p e c i f i c ways i n w h i c h t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s 3 and k. Not the l e a s t o f t h e s e forms o f i n t e g r a t i o n has been t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l and the p o l i t i c a l . A l t h o u g h c o l l e c t i v i t y and i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m can and have e x i s t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f each o t h e r , both i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e , the a r e a o f t h e i r o v e r l a p i s what i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the arguments p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s. Of the 40-odd p r e s e n t and p a s t c o l l e c t i v e groups I i d e n t i f i e d i n the Vancouver-Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a , more than h a l f were all-women c o l l e c t i v e s , most o f t h e r e s t i n c l u d e d both women and men, and o n l y two were a l l - m e n c o l l e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e have been o c c a s i o n a l men's c o l l e c t i v e s w h i c h would f i t my c r i t e r i a , as w e l l as c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g groups composed o f men, they a r e few and f a r between. They u s u a l l y c o n s i s t o f men who a r e c o u p l e d w i t h f e m i n i s t women o r who a r e gay, and/or who a r e making an a t t e m p t t o 'work on 1 some o f t h e same i s s u e s , both p e r s o n a l and p o l i t i c a l , as t h o s e t h a t c o n c e r n the f e m i n i s t movement. Even t h e s e male g r o u p s , t h e n , may be seen as a p r o d u c t o f f e m i n i s m . Those men who do e s t a b l i s h and f i t w e l l i n t o c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s may be t h o s e who s o c i e t y would c l a s s as not ' t y p i c a l ' men, but r a t h e r t h o s e h i g h on a t t r i b u t e s such as s e n s i t i v i t y , g e n t l e n e s s and e m o t i o n a l openness. - 16 -C o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n i n Chap t e r k t o the d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h men and women r e l a t e t o c o l l e c t i v i t y . One f u r t h e r note i s r e l e v a n t h e r e . I t would seem t h a t c o l l e c t i v i t y i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form t h a t has co n c e r n e d women t h e o r e t i c a l l y as w e l l as p r a c t i c -a l l y t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i t has men. A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the w r i t t e n work on c o l l e c t i v i t y t h a t I have come a c r o s s has been done by women. Crow (1978); Freeman (1975); Freeman and M c M i l l a n (1976-77); G a l p e r and Washburne (1976); K a n t e r (1972); Mansbridge (1973); O ' S u l l i v a n (1976); R i d d l e (1978); R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t (1976, 1977, 1979); Sparks (1978), among o t h e r s , a r e a l l women who have e x p l o r e d i n d e t a i l some a s p e c t ( s ) o f c o l l e c t i v i t y as an a l t e r n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form. In c o n t r a s t , male w r i t e r s , a l t h o u g h o f t e n w r i t i n g about the same s o c i a l movements o r o t h e r s o c i a l movements wh i c h have grown i n r e a c t i o n t o the New L e f t o f the 60's, have d e a l t w i t h t h e s e movements v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y , and not u s u a l l y from the p o i n t o f view o f an a n a l y s i s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form i t s e l f . (See, f o r example, C u r t i s and Z u r c h e r , 1973; Katz and Bender, 1976; Levy, 1976; McCarthy and Z a l d , 1973, 1977; M c N e i l and Thompson, 1971; T r a u g o t t , 1978.) T h i s c o n c e r n shown by women f o r t h e i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l movement groups r e f l e c t s women's g r e a t e r c o n c e r n i n g e n e r a l w i t h p r o c e s s , a p o i n t which i s i m p o r t a n t i n the arguments put f o r t h by t h i s t h e s i s . C. The purpose o f the t h e s i s The main argument c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s can be s t a t e d most s i m p l y as f o l l o w s : g i v e n t h a t women i n g e n e r a l and f o r whatever reasons a r e more nur-t u r i n g , c o - o p e r a t i v e , e m o t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e and p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d , and t h a t men i n g e n e r a l and f o r whatever reasons a r e more c o m p e t i t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , e g o - c e n t r e d , r a t i o n a l and p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d , and g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , one would e x p e c t t h a t women would more r e a d i l y e s t a b l i s h and p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o l l e c t i v e s than would men. The s t r e n g t h o f the - 1 7 -argument f o r t he c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y w i l l r e s t , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , on e s t a b l i s h i n g a case f o r bureauc-r a c y as p r i m a r i l y a male o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form, c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s t h a t a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y male, and c o l l e c t i v i t y as a female form, c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s t h a t a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e . A l t h o u g h t h e argument d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a p p l i e s most f o r c e f u l l y t o 3 f e m i n i s t s , who a r e c o n s c i o u s l y d e a l i n g w i t h t he i s s u e s o f gender p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i t i s a l s o i n t e n d e d t o a p p l y , i n a l e s s d r a m a t i c way p e r h a p s , t o women i n g e n e r a l . However, i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m as an i d e o l o g y a p p ears t o l e a d l o g i c a l l y i n t o c o l l e c t i v i t y as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form; f o r t h o s e not committed t o an i d e o l o g y o f f e m i n i s m and not aware o f o r a c c e p t i n g o f t h e s t r e n g t h s o f s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i n e approaches t o t h e w o r l d , e s p o u s a l o f c o l l e c t i v i t y may be more p r o b l e m a t i c . In C h a p t e r h some a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o t h o s e ways i n whi c h men and women have been s o c i a l i z e d s i m i l a r l y and t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h men and women thus s h a r e . Some o f t h o s e q u a l i t i e s , such as c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s and achievement o r i e n t a t i o n have r e s u l t e d i n problems f o r women as w e l l as f o r men in c o l l e c t i v e s . O t h e r s , such as c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s and d e s i r e f o r a f f i l i a t i o n have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s u c c e s s o f some men i n h e l p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The purpose o f the t h e s i s i s t o examine i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y and t o p o i n t t o some o f the major reaso n s why the two a r e so c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d . T h e i r s h a r e d g o a l s and methods w i l l be e x p l o r e d as w e l l as t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e f o r a s o c i e t y i n need o f fundamental change. The t h e s i s w i l l a s s e r t t h a t a p r i m a r y g o a l o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m i s t o s y n t h e s i z e o r i n t e g r a t e t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e and male r o l e s , v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s and t o change the ways i n w h i c h power i s d e f i n e d , used and - 1 8 -d i s t r i b u t e d ( A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 9 ; D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 ; F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 3 ; G a l p e r and Washburne, 1 9 7 6 ; Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; Janeway, 1 9 8 0 ; L i p s , 1 9 7 9 ; M i l e s , undated and 1 9 8 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; Morgan, 1 9 7 7 ; R i c h , 1 9 7 6 ; Watson, 1 9 7 5 ) . I t w i l l a l s o a s s e r t t h a t the c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form i s one s i g n i f i c a n t t o o l used by the f e m i n i s t movement t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e g o a l s . The themes o f i n t e g r a t i o n and o f power w i l l be t h e u n d e r l y i n g themes o f t h i s work. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two c o n c e p t s , how th e y a r e d e f i n e d and used i n the f e m i n i s t c o l l e c t i v i s t w o r l d as opposed t o the male-dominated, b u r e a u c r a t i c w o r l d , w i l l be e x p l o r e d . The t h e s i s w i l l l o o k a t how power i n male-dominated s o c i e t y has been based on p o l a r i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y i n t o s o - c a l l e d male and female realms and how, i n one f e m i n i s t v i e w , power depends on i n t e g r a t i o n . O t her g o a l s o f f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d w i l l be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s e two major themes o f i n t e g r a t i o n and power. The f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e 7 0 ' s and 8 0 ' s , b o t h s c h o l a r l y and p o p u l a r , has produced an i m p r e s s i v e a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f f e m i n i s m and o f i t s f a r - r e a c h i n g r e l e v a n c e f o r a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m f o r power r e l a t i o n s , f o r both the maintenance and p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e s , and t h r o u g h o u t o u r p o l a r i z e d s o c i e t y , have been d e a l t w i t h by the same w r i t e r s c i t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h . An a r t i c l e w h i c h appeared r e c e n t l y i n Homemakers Magazine ( F i n l a y s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) ? a n a l y z i n g t h e i s s u e from a p e r s p e c t i v e s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s e s c h o l a r l y w o r k s , g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s a n a l y s i s has e n t e r e d the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s o - c a l l e d o r d i n a r y women and men. What has n o t , t o my knowledge, been begun w i t h a n y t h i n g l i k e t he thor o u g h n e s s o f the forme r a n a l y s i s , and what t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a t t e m p t i n s m a l l p a r t t o do, i s t o make a d e t a i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s f e m i n i s t a n a l y s i s t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y , i n c l u d i n g both b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s c o l l e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e . K a n t e r , a s o c i o l o g i s t who has s t u d i e d a l t e r n a t e and b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - 1 9 -forms and s e x - r o l e s , remarks on the p a u c i t y o f the r e s e a r c h on women's r o l e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the ways i n w h i c h t h e s e d i f f e r from men's. She c l o s e s her a r t i c l e on "Women and the S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s " w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : The i d e o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f modern o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t h e c o n n e c t i o n between a "mascu1ine e t h i c " and a " s p i r i t o f m a n a g e r i a l -ism", need f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r men and women i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r o f men and women i s c r i t i c a l f o r both s o c i a l i n q u i r y and s o c i a l change. (1975:64) W i t h the i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f f e m i n i s t a n a l y s i s and a growing body o f t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h i s p a u c i t y may change (see f o r example, K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1978; and t h e Quest i s s u e on l e a d e r s h i p , l l : 4 , 1976 ) . The t h e s i s w i l l a l s o l o o k a t some o f the ways i n w h i c h c o l l e c t i v i t y and f e m i n i s m , i n r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the r a t i o n a l , b u r e a u c r a t i c , m a l e - o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y , have a c q u i e s c e d w i t h t h a t s o c i e t y ' s tendency toward p o i a r a i z a t i o n . C o l l e c t i v e s i n some i n s t a n c e s may put t o o much emphasis on c o u n t e r - v a l u e s and r e j e c t m ainstream v a l u e s w i t h o u t f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e ways i n w h i c h they c o u l d be u s e f u l t o them. To t h i s e x t e n t , the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y i s not s e r v e d . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l make some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the body o f t h e o r y t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s s o c i o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f t h e o r i e s o f human n a t u r e and o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f the arguments made i n the t h e s i s t o m a c r o - l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e w o r l d system a r e more p r o b l e m a t i c . W h i l e the arguments have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the ways i n whi c h Western s o c i e t y and t h e w o r l d a r e d e v e l o p i n g , t h e d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i v e and c o l l e c t i v i s t p r i n c i p l e s t o m a c r o - s t r u c t u r e s i s p r o b a b l y p r e -mature. Educated s p e c u l a t i o n , w h i l e an i m p o r t a n t component o f s o c i a l change, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s , s t i l l s p e c u l a t i o n . W i t h t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind, some o f the p r a c t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s t o l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be d e a l t w i t h b r i e f l y i n C h a p t e r 5-- 20 -At a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f a p p l i c a t i o n , i s s u e s r a i s e d by i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o q u e s t i o n s about what c o n s t i t u t e s human n a t u r e . Is human n a t u r e more e l a s t i c than the c o m p a r t m e n t a 1 i z a t i o n p r e s e n t l y i n t e g r a l t o s o c i a l l i f e i m p l i e s ? Is i t p o s s i b l e t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a l and s o c i o - e m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s can be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n each i n d i v i d u a l and t h a t such i n t e g r a t i o n i s not o n l y p o s s i b l e but n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e development o f whole and happy human b e i n g s ? Is i t d e s i r a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e a wide range o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e p a r a t e d s o c i a l r o l e s and t o meet each w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same range o f b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s ? The i s s u e s r a i s e d i n the t h e s i s can be taken beyond the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s about what i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e ways t h a t we a c c o m p l i s h work i n t h i s s o c i e t y . Is i t p o s s i b l e t o do work e f f e c t i v e l y and t o do i t h a p p i l y ? Is i t f e a s i b l e t o have a n o n - b u r e a u c r a t i c work o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t humanizes s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s among w o r k e r s a t a l l l e v e l s and between w o r k e r s and the p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s , w h i l e s t i l l p r o d u c i n g a p r o d u c t i n a way t h a t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e ? In what ways and a t what c o s t s can t h i s model be d e v e l o p e d ? To what e x t e n t i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r our d e f i n i t i o n o f what i s e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e ? These a r e t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s p r i m a r i l y t o a d d r e s s . The arguments c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t a p p roach t o i n d i v i d u a l development, s o c i a l t h e o r y and t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Counter arguments may be posed w h i c h r e f e r t o t h e f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by s e x - r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and the p r e v a i l i n g forms o f i n e q u a l i t y i n our s o c i e t y , and t o t h e chaos w h i c h may r e s u l t s h o u l d our i n e q u a l i t y - b a s e d s t a b i l i t y be d i s t u r b e d . In the l a s t c h a p t e r , some response w i l l be made t o t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l i s t c o n c e r n s . - 21 -D. D e f i n i n g the terms B e f o r e g o i n g any f u r t h e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e the terms and o u t l i n e the c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s . 1. I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m A l t h o u g h the terms i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m o v e r l a p i n i m p o r t a n t ways, the term i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m w i l l be used i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s term has been used both i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e i m p r e c i s i o n embedded i n the more w i d e l y used term r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m and i n o r d e r t o r e f e r t o a s e t o f q u i t e s p e c i f i c p r i n c i p l e s i m p l i e d by t h e emphasis on the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . I w i l l d e f i n e i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m i n much the same way as M i l e s (1980) does. L i k e r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m (as d e f i n e d i n the n o t e s t o C h a p t e r 1 ) , i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m sees f e m i n i s t i s s u e s as c e n t r a l t o any l a r g e r s o c i a l a n a l y s i s and any fundamental s o c i a l change. I t sees t h e cause o f women's o p p r e s s i o n i n t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f power s t r u c t u r e s i n s o c i e t y and t h e r e f o r e seeks s o c i a l change t h a t w i l l not s i m p l y r e - o r d e r power p o s i t i o n s but do away w i t h t h e power r e l a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . F i r e s t o n e c a l l s t h i s "an end t o power p s y c h o l o g y " (1970: 3 9 ) . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m , however, goes beyond F i r e s t o n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m t o i n c l u d e an emphasis both i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e on the i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e i n s o c i e t y and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . The i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s whose work p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r much of t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s t h e s i s see the r o o t s o f women's o p p r e s s i o n not p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n s , but i n the p o l a r i z a t i o n t h a t c r e a t e s a 'proper' f e m a l e and ' p r o p e r ' male s p h e r e and then rewards one w h i l e d e n i g r a t i n g the o t h e r . I t i s o f c r u c i a l i mportance here t o emphasize t h a t t h i s i s a f e m i n i s m w h i c h has as i t s major f o c u s not the f i g h t f o r women's r i g h t s ( t h e p r o p r i e t y o f t h e s e i s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d ) , but the s t r u g g l e t o u n d e r s t a n d the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f - 22 -s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y f o r t he way i n whi c h c i v i l i z a t i o n has de v e l o p e d and t o change the c o u r s e o f t h a t development. I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s want t o r e - s t r u c t u r e s o c i e t y i n ways t h a t g i v e equal i m p o r t a n c e not o n l y t o women and men but t o ' f e m i n i n e ' and ' m a s c u l i n e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s . They want t o r e p l a c e d o m i n a t i o n , o p p r e s s i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h e q u a l i t y and c o - o p e r a t i o n , and p o l a r i z a t i o n w i t h i n t e g r a t i o n . They do not s i m p l y want more women i n the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e - and f r e e t o f o r e g o t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e o r maintenance one ( a l t h o u g h t h a t i s p a r t o f what they w a n t ) . They want t o r a i s e t he maintenance s p h e r e t o a l e v e l o f i m p o r t a n c e equal t o t h a t o f the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e , and t o ' f e m i n i z e ' t he p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e i n terms o f i t s v a l u e s , i t s g o a l s and i t s p r a c t i c e s . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m , t h e n , means an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance s p h e r e s o r what M i l e s (undated and 1980) c a l l s t he p r o d u c t i v e and r e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e s . I t a l s o means the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l and t h e p o l i t i c a l ; t h e e m o t i o n a l , t h e s p i r i t u a l and t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l ; t h e i n t u i t i v e and t he r a t i o n a l ; c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n ; p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t o r means and end; and the s e p a r a t e r o l e s we must a l l p l a y i n s o c i e t y . A l l o f t h e s e p o l a r i t i e s can be seen i n terms o f t h e d i v i s i o n between t h e sexes and the assignment o f one sphere o f i n f l u e n c e and one way o f b e i n g and d o i n g i n the w o r l d t o women and one t o men. The i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s i s one w h i c h seeks t o oppose t h i s s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n . One o f the v e h i c l e s used i n the f e m i n i s t w o r k p l a c e t o e f f e c t t h e s e i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i s c o l l e c t i v i t y . The term i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n has been used i n i t s broad sense i n s o c i o -l o g y i n a way t h a t i s somewhat c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e way t h a t I have used i t here t o mean a p r o c e s s w h i c h opposes f r a g m e n t a t i o n and p o l a r i z a t i o n both w i t h i n t he i n d i v i d u a l and i n s o c i e t y . P arsons and B a l e s ( 1 9 5 5 ) use t h e term i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . They see i t as a h e a l t h y c o u n t e r -- 23 -f o r c e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the ' e x p r e s s i v e ' and ' i n s t r u m e n t a l ' f u n c t i o n s w h i c h r o u g h l y c o i n c i d e w i t h f e m a l e and male r o l e s i n s o c i e t y - T h i s i n t e g r a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f f e m i n i s m has been e x p l o r e d by D i n n e r s t e i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; Hughes ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; Janeway ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; M i l e s (undated and 1 9 8 0 ) ; and M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , who.have f o c u s e d on the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a s e x u a l l y p o l a r i z e d s o c i e t y and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r change t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n . By i n t e g r a t i o n I do not mean the a n n i h i l a t i o n o f e i t h e r t h e fe m a l e o r t h e male; nor do I mean the p e r f e c t b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r on a l l d i m e n s i o n s . The u n i o n o f o p p o s i t e s i n h e r e n t l y i n v o l v e s s t r u g g l e , w h i c h can be a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s o f growth o r a d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t . I t can be a p r o c e s s w h i c h r e s u l t s o n l y i n s t r u g g l e and c o n f l i c t o r i t can be a p r o c e s s w h i c h r e s u l t s a l s o i n the m a x i m i z a t i o n o f the s t r e n g t h s o f each s i d e . The f r a g m e n t a t i o n and p o l a r i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f s o c i e t y have so f a r i n h i s t o r y r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y i n d e s t r u c t i v e c o n f l i c t and male dominance - t o w h i c h f e m i n i s m has a r i s e n i n res p o n s e . The i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s occupy a p o s i t i o n w h i c h c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h a t o f l i b e r a l f e m i n i s t s , who p r i m a r i l y want women t o get a l a r g e r s l i c e o f the s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c p i e , w i t h s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t s who see f e m i n i s t i s s u e s as s u b o r d i n a t e t o o t h e r i s s u e s o f t h e L e f t , and w i t h r a d i c a l l e s b i a n f e m i n i s t s who a d v o c a t e f e m a l e s e p a r a t i s m . 2. P r o d u c t i v e v e r s u s maintenance s p h e r e s The p r o d u c t i v e sphere may be r o u g h l y equated t o the male sphere w h i l e the maintenance sphere may be r o u g h l y equated t o the female s p h e r e . The e q u a t i o n s a r e rough ones because, w h i l e they a r e a c c u r a t e i n a g a n e r a l s e n s e , they do not d e s c r i b e the w o r l d (or even Western s o c i e t y ) e x a c t l y as i t i s . However, w h i l e t h e r e a r e many e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l p i c t u r e , t h e y do not b e l i e t h e t r u t h o f the g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t . The p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e i s the realm o f p a i d work i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d , dominated by men and embodying v a l u e s such as r a t i o n a l i t y , - 2k -e f f i c i e n c y , c o m p e t i t i o n and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . I t has been s o c i a l l y v a l u e d more h i g h l y than t h e maintenance sphere which i s the w o r l d o f the home and f a m i l y and human r e l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g a l l t h e n u r t u r i n g , e d u c a t i v e , s e r v i c e p r o c e s s e s w h i c h h e l p t o 'reproduce' and m a i n t a i n the s p e c i e s . I t embodies v a l u e s such as e m o t i o n a l i t y , t e n d e r n e s s , c a r i n g f o r o t h e r s , i n t u i t i v e n e s s and c o - o p e r a t i v e -n e s s . To the e x t e n t t h a t some o c c u p a t i o n s and some j o b s w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s a r e o r i e n t e d t o n u r t u r i n g , e d u c a t i n g and k e e p i n g the s p e c i e s h e a l t h y and happy, the maintenance f u n c t i o n e x t e n d s beyond the home t o the w o r k p l a c e . W i t h i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , i t i s t h e s e j o b s t h a t a r e p e o p l e d p r i m a r i l y by women, and whic h c l a i m the lo w e s t s t a t u s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance f u n c t i o n s h e l p s us t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the ways i n whi c h the w o r l d has been d i v i d e d up i n t o 'male' and ' f e m a l e ' , and the ways i n whi c h o c c u p a t i o n s have been a l l o c a t e d and v a l u e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e x u a l c r i t e r i a . The p o l a r i z a t i o n o f m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e v a l u e s , s t r e n g t h s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r o l e s has been a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n the d o m i n a t i o n o f women by men. The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a c i r c u l a r one. The s t e r e o -t y p i n g o f women has a c t e d as a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p rophecy: t o a d i s t u r b i n g d e g r e e , women have become t h e p e o p l e t h a t s o c i e t y e x p e c t e d them t o be and so have a i d e d i n the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and the s t e r e o t y p e s on whic h they a r e based. T h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e one of the c e n t r a l t a r g e t s o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m . Such an a n a l y t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two s p h e r e s , o f c o u r s e , i s not the p r o d u c t o f f e m i n i s t t h e o r y ( a l t h o u g h i t i s a c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n i n the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t t h e o r y o f , f o r example, Hughes and M i l e s , who use the term r e p r o d u c t i v e sphere where I haye used maintenance s p h e r e ) . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s e two sph e r e s i s r e l a t e d t o the d i s t i n c t i o n made by Par s o n s and B a l e s ( 1 9 5 5 ) between the i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h - 2 5 -c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e r o l e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f men and women r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y f o c u s e s on g o a l a t t a i n m e n t and a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i l e e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t y f o c u s e s on i n t e g r a t i o n and t e n s i o n -management. Morgan d e s c r i b e s Parsons' d i s t i net i o n : Put s i m p l y , i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y c o r r e s p o n d s t o our e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t a t e d ' i d e a s ' man, w h i l e e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t y i s t h e a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he ' i n t e r n a l l y ' o r i e n t a t e d ' c u s t o d i a n ' . ( 1 9 7 5 : 2 9 ) P a r s o n s a p p l i e s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n t o the f a m i l y , t o t h e s m a l l g r o u p , and t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y and sees i t as a fundamental b a s i s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Morgan, 1 9 7 5 : 2 9 ) . W h i l e the d i s t i n c t i o n s used by Pa r s o n s r o u g h l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e used i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e i s an i n e v i t a b i l i t y , r i g i d i t y and s t a t i c q u a l i t y i m p l i e d by P a r s o n s ' a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s not i n t e n d e d h e r e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s a l s o c e n t r a l t o t h e work o f such w r i t e r s as Bakan ( 1 9 6 6 ) , who d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e f o r c e s o f 'agency' and 'communion' and May ( 1 9 8 0 ) , who c o n t r a s t s t h e ' p a t t e r n o f p r i d e ' w i t h t h e ' p a t t e r n o f c a r i n g ' . The d i s t i n c t i o n has a l s o been used i n a n a l y s e s o f the r o l e s p l a y e d by women and men i n a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 ) . I m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t i n t h e work o f P a r s o n s , B a l e s , Bakan and May i s the as s u m p t i o n t h a t t he p e r v a s i v e d i s t i n c t i o n and s e x u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance i s a ' n a t u r a l ' and 'proper' one, and one t h a t s e r v e s a n e c e s s a r y and p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f o r s o c i e t y . The a r g u -ment d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i r e c t l y opposes t h i s view. The major f o c u s o f the argument put f o r w a r d here i s t h a t a more e l a s t i c and i n t e g r a t e d a p p roach t o human b e h a v i o u r not o n l y i s p o s s i b l e but may be c r u c i a l f o r human p r o g r e s s . W h i l e the need f o r p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance f u n c t i o n s t o be f i l l e d has always e x i s t e d , no c l a i m can be made f o r the u n i v e r s a l i t y ( e i t h e r h i s t o r i c a l l y o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y ) o f t h e s e two d i s t i n c t s p h e r e s and t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o s e x u a l c r i t e r i a . W h i l e s i g n i f i c a n t elements o f such an a r r a n g e -- 2 6 -ment have e x i s t e d i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s and a t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e p r e s e n t form o f the s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e s e realms i n t o a p r o d u c t i v e and a maintenance s p h e r e , w h e r e i n the p r o d u c t i v e s phere i s a s s i g n e d t o men and v a l u e d more h i g h l y than the maintenance sphere w h i c h i s a s s i g n e d t o women, i s s p e c i f i c t o i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . 3. C o l l e c t i v e s In t he t h e s i s , r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l t e r n a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e s . For purposes o f t h i s work I have d e f i n e d a l t e r n a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y as c o l l e c t i v e s ) i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. The k i n d o f c o l l e c t i v e s i n wh i c h I am i n t e r e s t e d here a r e tho s e o f the r a d i c a l L e f t , w h i c h have a p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y and a r e o r i e n t e d t o the achievement o f a t a s k e x t e r n a l t o the group. They ar e t h o s e groups w h i c h a r e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y o r g a n i z e d as c o l l e c t i v e s and s e l f -c o n s c i o u s l y a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o and a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the ' e s t a b l i s h e d ' system f o r t h e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l , h e a l t h , l e g a l . , f ood and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . I do not i n c l u d e In t h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e s i d e n t i a l communes, c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g g r o u p s , e n c o u n t e r g r o u p s , psycho-t h e r a p y g r o u p s , economic c o - o p e r a t i v e s w h i c h a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s o r g a n i z e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y , c o l l e c t i v e sub-groups w i t h i n o t h e r w i s e h i e r a r c h i c a l bureau-it c r a c i e s , o r groups o f p e o p l e o r g a n i z e d p r i m a r i l y f o r s o c i a l purposes . W h i l e c o l l e c t i v e s have much i n common w i t h the communes o f the l a s t two decades and e a r l i e r , t h e y a l s o d i f f e r i n i m p o r t a n t ways i n terms o f b o t h ends and means.. A l t h o u g h communes a r e n o t , i n g e n e r a l , i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o them when a p p r o p r i a t e . Some d i s c u s s i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two v a r i e t i e s o f s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t i s i n c l u d e d i n Ch a p t e r k. There i s an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e on communes w h i c h may be r e f e r r e d t o f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . See, f o r example, Abrams and M c C u l l o c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; F r e n c h and F r e n c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; G a i r d n e r and Moment ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; Gardner ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; - 2 7 -K a n t e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; Kephart ( 1 9 7 6 ) . W i t h i n the l o o s e l y bonded c o u n t e r - c u l t u r a l community, a c o l l e c t i v e i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c group w h i c h has no f o r m a l l e a d e r s , makes d e c i s i o n s by consensus o r some m o d i f i e d form o f v o t i n g , and u s u a l l y employs some form o f j o b r o t a t i o n . In a c o l l e c t i v e , i d e a l l y , e v e r y o n e s h a r e s e q u a l l y the power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and has t h e r i g h t t o speak f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t a k e p a r t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A l t h o u g h c o l l e c t i v i t y i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form d e v e l o p e d and used by the f e m i n i s t movement, n e i t h e r i t s development nor i t s use have been e x c l u s i v e t o t h a t movement; some men have a l s o become d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f o r g a n i z i n g and have sought a new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model i n c o l l e c t i v i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e not based on t h i s model. T h i s model has been d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l by Freeman ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; J o r e e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; K a n t e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; K l e i b e r and L i g h t ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; M a n s b r i d g e ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; and R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 9 ) among o t h e r s . h. Power The way I use the term power here i s d i f f e r e n t i n c r u c i a l ways from the way the term i s g e n e r a l l y used i n s o c i o l o g y . Power can be d i v i d e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y , i n t o two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . In d i s t i n g u i s h i n g them I am not t r y i n g t o i s o l a t e one from t h e o t h e r , but t o i d e n t i f y my emphasis i n t h i s t h e s i s . On the one hand, power can be d o m i n a t i o n o r power o v e r someone e l s e . Power as d o m i n a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i e r a r c h i e s o r power s t r u c t u r e s . I t r e l i e s on the dependence o r s u b m i s s i o n o f o t h e r s . Power as autonomy, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such words as independence, s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , e g o - s t r e n g t h , competence and c o n f i d e n c e . I t depends not on t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r s but on the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l one's own l i f e : t o know what one needs and t o have the p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s t o f u l f i l l t h o s e needs. - 2 8 -A l t h o u g h i n many ca s e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two t y p e s o f power i s c l o s e they a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d . One o f the a s s e r t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be t h a t t he i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement, a t i t s b e s t , has succeeded i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the two. I w i l l t r y t o show t h a t women a r e a t t e m p t i n g , r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o d e v e l o p s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , i n n e r s t r e n g t h s and t h e power t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own l i v e s , w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g t h e use o f power as domin-a t i o n o v e r o t h e r s . Janeway ( 1 9 7 5 ) n o t e s t h e s e two d e f i n i t i o n s o f power. She i d e n t i f i e s two d i s t i n c t d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s o f power, one r e f e r r i n g t o a b i l i t y t o do something and one r e f e r r i n g t o dominance o r t h e a b i l i t y t o compel o b e d i e n c e . She r e l a t e s t h e s e two meanings t o l i b e r a t i n g power, on the one hand, and l i m i t -i n g power on the o t h e r . She s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e two t y p e s o f power a r e not d i s t i n c t , but p a r t s o f the same p r o c e s s . What i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n o n e s e l f as l i b e r a t i n g s t r e n g t h o r c a p a b i l i t y may be e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r s as l i m i t i n g d o m i n a t i o n . However, she does not s t o p a t t h i s p e s s i m i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n ; she goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f l o o k i n g a t t h e power r e l a t i o n s h i p may i n c l u d e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e powers o f the weak, f o r example, i n g r a n t i n g o r w i t h h o l d i n g t h e i r c o n s e n t t o be governed, o r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t -i a l i t i e s i n what she c a l l s l i b e r a t i n g power and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a v o i d i n g the g o v e r n i n g o r d o m i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . M i l l e r a l s o makes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t " t h e c a p a c i t y t o implement" has not i n the p a s t been t h e meaning imputed t o t h e word power. Power has g e n e r a l l y meant the a b i l i t y t o advance o n e s e l f and, sim-u l t a n e o u s l y t o c o n t r o l , l i m i t , and i f p o s s i b l e , d e s t r o y t he power o f o t h e r s . ( 1 9 7 6 : 1 1 6 ) Watson a l s o w r i t e s o f t h e s e two meanings: I b e l i e v e t h a t we w i l l f i n d t h a t t he e x p e r i e n c e o f women h e l p s t o c l a r i f y t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f power and the d i s t i n c t i o n s between them. The d e f i n i t i o n o f power as dominance covers one range o f uses. The d e f i n i t i o n o f power as a b i l i t y , competence, and the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f power as en e r g y , c o v e r a n o t h e r , much w i d e r - 2 9 -and more i n t e r e s t i n g c l u s t e r o f meanings... The complex r e l a t i o n s between the k i n d o f power t h a t i n v o l v e s competence and e n e r g y , have never had enough e x p l i c i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . L i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r women the two a r e l i k e l y t o be i n c o n f l i c t , but a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e two k i n d s o f power a r e more s e p a r a b l e i n p r a c t i c e than they have been so f a r i n argument. ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 ) T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d by many o t h e r f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s and a c t i v i s t s , such as H a r t s o c k ( 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 6 - 7 ) and L i p s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on power as autonomy, I do not mean t o imply a d e v a l u a t i o n o f t he im p o r t a n c e o f women's power i n s o c i e t y . In o r d e r f o r women t o be f r e e from o p p r e s s i o n , they must a t t a i n e q u a l i t y w i t h men i n s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic s p h e r e s . To a t t a i n t h i s e q u a l i t y they must c o n f r o n t not o n l y t h e m s e l v e s but s o c i e t y i n d i r e c t and p o l i t i c a l ways. My purpose i n e m p h a s i z i n g power as autonomy i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , I want t o p o i n t o u t the impor t a n c e o f women's c o m p l i a n c e i n t h e i r own o p p r e s s i o n , and t o s t r e s s t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a woman t o f e e l s t r o n g and e f f e c t i v e i n o r d e r f o r her t o r e f u s e t o be e x p l o i t e d and i n o r d e r f o r her t o work t o change the system. Second, I want t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e emphasis o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s t h e m s e l v e s on power as autonomy as opposed t o power o v e r o t h e r s . T h i s r e d e f i n i t i o n o f power r e l a t i o n s i m p l i e s a p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l change so p r o f o u n d t h a t i t would a l t e r the ways i n w h i c h we r e l a t e t o one a n o t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s , as members o f our sex, as w o r k e r s and as n a t i o n s . I t has been s u g g e s t e d because o f t h e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f power t h a t a new term be used, and t h a t the usage o f the term power be r e t a i n e d f o r i t s t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ^ . S e l f - e s t e e m o r some r e l a t e d term has been s u g g e s t e d t o me as one t h a t would b r i n g my a n a l y s i s o f women and power i n t o t he r e a l m o f the s t u d y o f o t h e r m i n o r i t y o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d groups and t h e r e f o r e make a v a i l a b l e t o i t comparisons t h a t may not o t h e r w i s e appear a p p r o p r i a t e . L i p s a r g u e s a g a i n s t t h i s p o s i t i o n . - 30 -...expanding r a t h e r than l i m i t i n g our d e f i n i t i o n o f power seems i m p o r t a n t because the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g a somewhat d i s t o r t e d v i e w o f what i s p o p u l a r l y u n d e r s t o o d as power, c o n s t r a i n s us t o l a b e l as p o w e r l e s s the pe r s o n who c o o p e r a t e s w i t h o t h e r s o r who c o n c e n t r a t e s on the s t r o n g e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f her s e l f and her a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r than on the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f o t h e r s . (1979:6) T h i s t h e s i s w i l l argue t h a t c o l l e c t i v e s , i d e o l o g i c a l l y and i n p r a c t i c e , emphasize power as autonomy and t r y t o a v o i d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the use of power as d o m i n a t i o n . B u r e a u c r a c y , on the o t h e r hand, i s based on the use o f power as d o m i n a t i o n and o f n e c e s s i t y d i s c o u r a g e s power as autonomy e x c e p t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s i n t h e upper l e v e l s o f the h i e r a r c h y . I t does n o t , however, mean t o imply e i t h e r t h a t c o l l e c t i v e s have succeeded i n c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t i n g d o m i n a t i n g power from t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s o r t h a t h i e r a r c h i e s can c o m p l e t e l y o b l i t e r a t e power as autonomy from t h e i r s . R a t h e r , I w i l l t r y t o l o c a t e b o t h c o l l e c t i v i t y and b u r e a u c r a c y a l o n g a continuum between t h e s e two ' i d e a l ' p o s i t i o n s , and t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f v a r i a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s among o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E. The framework o f t h i s t h e s i s The a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be an e x p l o r a t i v e , s p e c u l a t i v e one, u s i n g e v i d e n c e from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s . An argument w i l l be d e v e l o p e d and s u p p o r t e d , u s i n g q u a l i t a t i v e and sometimes i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c ' d ata' from my own r e s e a r c h , p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , and the l i t e r a t u r e . The l i t e r a t u r e used w i l l be p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d s o f f e m i n i s t t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , c o l l e c t i v i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y , and s o c i a l movements. My t h r e e and h a l f y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h w i t h the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ( K l e i b e r and L i g h t , 1978) and my p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the R a d i c a l Therapy C o l l e c t i v e p r o v i d e d me w i t h f i r s t - h a n d knowledge o f c o l l e c t i v e s and t h i s w i l l be used as i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n Ch a p t e r 3. Du r i n g my y e a r s w i t h the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , I l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l about how a c o l l e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s and d e v e l o p s , what i t v a l u e s and d i s v a l u e s , how i t d i f f e r s from a h i e r a r c h y , and what i t s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses - 31 -a r e . My own d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , t r a n s c r i p t s o f many hours o f m eetings and o f e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h C o l l e c t i v e members, and i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h members w i l l a l l be used as p a r t o f t h e d a t a f o r t h i s p r e s e n t work. In the y e a r s s i n c e our o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h was c o m p l e t e d , the C o l l e c t i v e has a l t e r e d i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e and i s u n w i l l i n g t o be t h e s u b j e c t o f any f u r t h e r academic r e s e a r c h . The d a t a used i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e -f o r e , i s t h a t g a t h e r e d from 19J4-1977 and r e f l e c t t h e C o l l e c t i v e as i t was t h e n . My a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the R a d i c a l Therapy C o l l e c t i v e , a group w h i c h was i n the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f f o r m i n g i t s e l f as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the p s y c h i a t r i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ' e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' a l s o y i e l d e d i n s i g h t s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s group i n c l u d e d b oth male and f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and some a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be noted both i n the ways i n w h i c h men and women o p e r a t e d i n the group and i n the ways t h i s mixed-sex group o p e r a t e d as opposed t o the ways an all-women c o l l e c t i v e o p e r a t e d . These c o m p a r i s o n s s p a r k e d my f i r s t i n t e r e s t i n l o o k i n g a t the d i f f e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f men and women t o c o l l e c t i v i t y . My e x p l o r a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v i t y as an a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form has been c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o my e x p l o r a t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m as a d i r e c t i o n f o r s o c i a l change. Throughout my r e s e a r c h w i t h the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e and i n the i n t e r v e n i n g time p e r i o d , I have c o n t i n u e d t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two i d e o l o g i e s and have been c o n t i n u a l l y s t r u c k by the s i m i l a r i t i e s between them ( K l e i b e r and L i g h t , 1978; L i g h t , 1978, 1979, 1980). The f o c u s o f t h i s work i s on Western s o c i e t y i n t h e l a s t two decades. W h i l e both c o l l e c t i v e groups and women's l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s have o c c u r r e d i n non-Western s o c i e t i e s , the forms t h e s e developments have t a k e n a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e i n the West. And w h i l e , w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , s i g n i f i c a n t development o f b oth c o l l e c t i v i t y and f e m i n i s m has t a k e n p l a c e o v e r hundreds o f y e a r s , i t i s w i t h i n the p a s t twenty y e a r s t h a t t h e s e two f o r c e s have come - 32 -t o g e t h e r i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r ways d e s c r i b e d h e r e , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f two d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d s o c i a l movements. T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h some v e r y b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s a r e made and a l t h o u g h some o f the id e a s p r e s e n t e d may have r e l e v a n c e beyond our own c u l t u r e , t h e arguments a r e i n t e n d e d t o a p p l y p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t h i s bounded time and space. The terms d e f i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a l s o p l a c e t h i s work w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n t e x t . My f o c u s i s on i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y as I have d e f i n e d them. T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the arguments p r e s e n t e d here do not have r e l e v a n c e t o o t h e r f e m i n i s t i d e o l o g i e s , o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s , o r o t h e r forms o f communal o r c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y . I s u s p e c t , i n f a c t , t h a t they do, and w i l l d i s c u s s some o f the w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the t h e s i s i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . One f u r t h e r p o i n t must be noted b r i e f l y and w i l l be ta k e n up i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Ch a p t e r 2. The t h e s i s w i l l make some a t t e m p t t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f the bases o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men. The f a c t t h a t i n o ur s o c i e t y men a r e more a g g r e s s i v e , c o m p e t i t i v e , p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d and g i v e n t o r a t i o n a l i t y r a t h e r than t o emotion o r i n t u i t i o n , and t h a t women a r e more n u r t u r i n g , a f f i l i a t i v e , e m o t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e , c o - o p e r a t i v e and p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d i s an i m p o r t a n t b a s i s f o r the major arguments p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . W h i l e the arguments have some f o r c e whether t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e seen t o be b i o l o g i c a l l y o r s o c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f o r i g i n a r e enormous f o r any a t t e m p t s t o change the way i n which s o c i e t y i s d e v e l o p i n g . W h i l e some b i o l o g i c a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t o c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s may i n f a c t e x i s t , t he p o s i t i o n t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s not one o f b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n iism. The p o s i t i o n taken here i s t h a t s e x - r o l e development, and t h e development o f d i s t i n c t s e t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s f o r women and f o r men i s a s o c i a l phenomenon and one t h a t can t h e r e f o r e be changed by s o c i a l means. Any i n n a t e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t may e x i s t have been so - 33 -e x a g g e r a t e d and e n t r e n c h e d by our p e c u l i a r s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t any d i s c u s s i o n o f what i s ' n a t u r a l ' has r e l e v a n c e p r i m a r i l y as a p o l i t i c a l d ebate. And f i n a l l y , making c o n n e c t i o n s between two d i f f e r e n t streams o f th o u g h t o r modes o f a n a l y s i s can be i l l u m i n a t i n g i n s o f a r as i t opens new windows t h r o u g h w h i c h t o v i e w s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . There i s no need f o r the two v i e w p o i n t s t o f i t t o g e t h e r p e r f e c t l y , t o c o v e r o r e x p l a i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e , o r t o be e x c l u s i v e o f a l l o t h e r p o i n t s o f vie w . To d i s c o v e r and e x p l o r e c o n n e c t i o n s between f e m i n i s m and the growth o f c o l l e c t i v i t y does not i n any way imply t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m i s s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i v i t y o r t h a t c o l l e c t i v i t y i s e x c l u s i v e l y a c f e m i n i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form. Nor does i t imply t h a t a l l women o r even a l l f e m i n i s t s w i l l w h o l e h e a r t e d l y embrace c o l l e c t i v i t y as a way o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r w h i l e a l l men o r even a l l s e x i s t men w i l l oppose i t o r f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t . What i t p r o b a b l y means i s t h a t more women than men w i l l f i n d c o l l e c t i v i t y f i t s t h e i r needs and s t r e n g t h s and t h a t more men than women w i l l f i n d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n b l e n d i n g t h e i r s o c i a l i z e d p a t t e r n s o f f e e l i n g and a c t i n g w i t h t he r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y . What i t may a l s o mean i s t h a t t h o s e men who adapt e a s i l y t o w o r k i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y have i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f what s o c i e t y would d e f i n e as f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y low l e v e l o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , what t h i s a n a l y s i s c o n t e n d s i s t h a t women have found an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form t h a t maximizes t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i a l growth and whic h c o u l d p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r the d i r e c t i o n s o f t h a t growth. I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t h a t t he s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n and h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s be seen s o l e l y i n terms o f t h e framework p r e s e n t e d here. Many i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s have been de-emphasized i n t h i s a n a l y s i s o f m a l e - f e m a l e r e l a t i o n s , most n o t a b l y economic and s o c i a l c l a s s f a c t o r s . The ways i n w h i c h the arguments o f t h i s t h e s i s f i t i n t o an economic o r c l a s s a n a l y s i s o f women's p o s i t i o n c o u l d form the s u b j e c t o f f u r t h e r work i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . One o f t h e - 3 4 -u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t fundamental changes i n t h e " s e x u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s " ( D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 : 4 ) i n our own and i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s a r e a n e c e s s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r o t h e r p r e s s i n g and f a r - r e a c h i n g s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic change. F. Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r I have s e t the s t a g e f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e t h e s i s . I have g i v e n background i n f o r m a t i o n and a r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement and on c o l l e c t i v i t y as one o f i t s o r g a n i z i n g t o o l s . I have shown how t h e p r e s e n t f e m i n i s t and c o l l e c t i v i s t movements have d e v e l o p e d as r e s p o n s e s t o i n a d e q u a c i e s i n the New L e f t o f t h e 6 0 ' s . On t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s - power, community and i n t e g r a t i o n - I have shown how f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y have been more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e male-dominated New L e f t . A g a i n s t t h i s b a c k d r o p , I have d e f i n e d the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , w h i c h i s t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m and c o l l e c t i v i t y , and c o n v e r s e l y , between h i e r a r c h y and male d o m i n a t i o n . In the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r , I have d e f i n e d the terms and c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e c e n t r a l t o the t h e s i s , o u t l i n e d the approach t h a t I w i l l t a k e i n t h i s work, and d e s c r i b e d t h e frame-work t h a t must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the arguments p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The next c h a p t e r w i l l b u i l d on the c o n c e p t s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t an i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e on the p r e s e n t s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the f e m i n i s t r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n . Notes 1 . Throughout most o f t h i s t h e s i s , the term i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m w i l l be used t o d e s c r i b e the p a r t i c u l a r t y p e of f e m i n i s m on w h i c h the t h e s i s i s f o c u s e d . T h i s term i s d e f i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Very b r i e f l y , i t r e f e r s t o a - 35 -f e m i n i s m w h i c h f o c u s e s on an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e p o l a r i t i e s b o t h i n s o c i e t y and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . In c e r t a i n c a s e s , where the r e f e r e n c e i s t o a more g e n e r a l f e m i n i s m o r t o a f e m i n i s m w i t h a d i f f e r e n t emphasis, the terms f e m i n i s m , women's movement, o r r a d i c a l , l i b e r a l o r s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s m w i l l be used. 2. Because the term i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m has a v e r y s p e c i f i c meaning and i s not g e n e r a l l y used by a c t i v i s t s o r even y e t by t h e o r i s t s t o d e s c r i b e a d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n the f e m i n i s t movement, i n t h i s more g e n e r a l c o n t e x t I use the term r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m , u t i l i z i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h have a l s o been used by F i r e s t o n e (1970) and Ware (1970). Freeman (1972, 1973) s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t s the r a d i c a 1 / r e f o r m i s t dichotomy as m e a n i n g l e s s i n the c o n t e x t o f the f e m i n i s t movement. However, her d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e o l d e r and younger branches o f the women's movement, based on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e , c o v e r s some o f the same d i s t i n c t i o n s made her e . B a s i c a l l y , r a d i c a l f e m i n i s m , as opposed t o l i b e r a l o r r e f o r m i s t f e m i n i s m , sees the cause o f women's o p p r e s s i o n not j u s t i n the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s o f power i n s o c i e t y , but i n the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f power s t r u c t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s . R a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s "want t o d e s t r o y the p o s i t i o n s o f power... not t o g e t i n t o t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . " (Ware, 1970:25) They b e l i e v e t h a t the e x e r c i s e o f p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l power i n e v i t a b l y depends on someone e l s e ' s o p p r e s s i o n . They t h e r e f o r e seek a l t e r n a t i v e ways t o o r g a n i z e and t o r e l a t e t o p e o p l e and b e l i e v e , u l t i m a t e l y , i n a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . 3. I have used the word gender here i n t h e sense o f s o c i a l i z e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes (see Tresemer, 1975). However, u n l i k e Tresemer, I have used the terms s e x - r o l e and g e n d e r - r o l e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , as they a r e used i n t he e v e r y d a y s e n s e , t o r e f e r t o s o c i a l i z e d r o l e s p l a y e d / b y ; e a c h s s e x . k. An argument may be put f o r w a r d t h a t the p r o p e n s i t y t o form c o l l e c t i v e groups i s c l a s s - b a s e d r a t h e r than sex-based. Examples o f c l a s s - b a s e d communal - 36 -groups a r e the working-men's c l u b s and f r i e n d l y s o c i e t i e s o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . A l t h o u g h formed f o r purposes o f community, mutual s u p p o r t , and, i n many c a s e s , e d u c a t i o n , and l a r g e l y s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , they were n e v e r t h e -l e s s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the k i n d s o f c o l l e c t i v e s d i s c u s s e d here. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , they were not u s u a l l y aimed a t the accomplishment o f work, they were bound by s t r i c t and o f t e n r e p r e s s i v e r u l e s (Thompson, 1963), and appear t o have l a c k e d an i d e o l o g y o f o p p o s i n g h i e r a r c h y , s h a r i n g power and i n t e g r a t i n g p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l p o l a r i t i e s . 5. T h i s s u g g e s t i o n came from a s e s s i o n on 'Resource M o b i l i z a t i o n i n S o c i a l Movements' c h a i r e d by Guy l e C a v a l i e r a t the Canadian S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g s i n M o n t r e a l , May, 1980. - 3 7 -CHAPTER 21 A RADICAL FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON SOCIAL ORGANIZATION A. The way t h i n g s a r e  1 . Sexual s t e r e o t y p i n g A c r u c i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n w i t h i n o u r s o c i e t y i s a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s , w h e r e i n women a r e seen as embodying one s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s , and men a n o t h e r . Women a r e 'supposed t o be' p r i m a r i l y n u r t u r i n g , e m o t i o n a l , i n t u i t i v e , i r r a t i o n a l , l o v i n g , c o - o p e r a t i v e , v u l n e r a b l e and p a s s i v e . I t i s t h i s s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s w h i c h I w i l l c a l l the ' f e m i n i n e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Men, on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e seen as p r i m a r i l y r a t i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , e f f i c i e n t , c o m p e t i t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , a c h i e v e m e n t - o r i e n t e d , s t r o n g , e m o t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and a c t i v e . These I w i l l c a l l the ' m a s c u l i n e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s i g n e d t o women a r e seen as a p p r o p r i a t e t o the maintenance sphere o f home, f a m i l y and human s e r v i c e ; t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s i g n e d t o men a r e seen as the a p p r o p r i a t e ones f o r the w o r l d o f p r o d u c t i o n . (Bakan, 1 9 6 6 ; B a r d w i c k and Douvan, 1 9 7 1 ; F a s t e a u , 1 9 7 5 ; F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ; K i m b a l l , 1 9 7 5 ; Janeway, 1 9 8 0 ; May, 1 9 8 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; W e i s s t e i n , 1 9 7 1 , among many o t h e r s r ) The s t e r e o -t y p e s a r e s u p p o r t e d by many members o f the p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h i a t r y p r o f e s s i o n s ( s e e , f o r example, Broverman, 1 9 7 2 ; C h e s l e r , 1 9 7 2 ; Smith and D a v i d , 1 9 7 5 , among o t h e r s ) . T h i s s u p p o r t has made t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h i a t r y a t a r g e t o f t h e r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t movement and has been a l a r g e p a r t o f the impetus f o r a r e l a t e d s o c i a l movement, the r a d i c a l t h e r a p y o r a n t i - p s y c h i a t r y movement. B e t t l e h e i m ' s now n o t o r i o u s q u o t e : ...as much as women want t o be good s c i e n t i s t s o r e n g i n e e r s , they want f i r s t and f o r e m o s t t o be womanly companions o f men and t o be mothers. ( 1 9 6 5 , as quoted i n K i m b a l l , 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 9 ) - 38 -i s a good example o f t h i s k i n d o f s u p p o r t . A l t h o u g h not a l l o f us f i t i n t o t h e s e s e x u a l s t e r e o t y p e s , K i m b a l l ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 2 ) p o i n t s o ut t h a t a l l o f us have l e a r n e d them both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y and must respond t o them i n one way o r a n o t h e r . Most o f us a r e u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h wide d e v i a t i o n s from t h e s e images, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t an a g g r e s s i v e woman i s c a l l e d ' c a s t r a t i n g ' o r 'manish' and a s o f t , g e n t l e o r p a s s i v e man i s lo o k e d a t askance as ' e f f e m i n a t e 1 . To i d e n t i f y one s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as m a s c u l i n e and the o t h e r as f e m i n i n e emphasizes the d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r than the s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the ways i n w h i c h t h e two sexes have d e v e l o p e d . To emphasize t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i s not t o deny t h a t men a l s o embody what I have c a l l e d f e m i n i n e q u a l i t i e s o r t h a t women a l s o embody s o - c a l l e d m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l dichotomy between m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e r e f l e c t s a r e a l i t y w h i c h governs much o f o u r s o c i a l l i f e . The p o l a r i z a t i o n between women and men i s common knowledge i n our s o c i e t y . The p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e sexes form t h e b a s i s f o r a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g about how we s h o u l d conduct o u r s e l v e s as men o r women and how we e x p e c t o t h e r s t o conduct t h e m s e l v e s . The r e s u l t i n g s t e r e o t y p e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s form the s u b j e c t m a t t e r not o n l y o f s c h o l a r l y work and academic d i s c o u r s e but o f p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e and ev e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n . 2 . Sexual s t e r e o t y p i n g and the h i e r a r c h i c a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between male and female i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a n e g a t i v e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ; o p p o s i t e s can be complementary and s t r u g g l e can be aimed a t e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a l a n c e . However, where one s i d e i s c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r i o r t o the o t h e r and where the o b j e c t o f the s t r u g g l e i s not b a l a n c e but d o m i n a t i o n , c o n f l i c t becomes not c r e a t i v e but d e s t r u c t i v e . In o ur s o c i e t y , t he m a s c u l i n e c l e a r l y p r e d o m i n a t e s o v e r the f e m i n i n e . M a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e s have shaped o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y and d e t e r m i n e most o f - 3 9 -our s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ^ (Crow, 1 9 7 8 ; K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) w h i l e f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e s have been r e s t r i c t e d t o s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i n e domains where they a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e . O r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e geared toward e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y ; b u r e a u c r a c y c o u n t s a l a c k o f p a s s i o n as one o f i t s s t r e n g t h s (Crow, 1 9 7 8 ; G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ; K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; Weber, 1 9 4 7 ) . The p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e , where m a s c u l i n e v a l u e s have t h e i r f u l l e s t e x p r e s s i o n , i s g r a n t e d more w o r t h i n our s o c i e t y than t h e f e m i n i n e sphere o f home, f a m i l y and maintenance t a s k s ( H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ; Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; M i l e s , undated and 1 9 8 0 ) . Not o n l y i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b u i l t i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s between the s e x e s , but t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e freedom o f c h o i c e a l l o w e d f o r members o f e i t h e r sex i n terms o f how t o d e f i n e t h e m s e l v e s as women o r as men. I f the sexes were d i f f e r e n t but t r u l y e q u al and each sex was a l l o w e d t o f u l l y e x p l o r e i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b e i n g and d o i n g i n t h e w o r l d , members o f b o t h sexes c o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own p o s i t i o n on the spectrum o f 'humanness 1. Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f e m i n i s t s a r g u e , t h e r e would l i k e l y be a f a r more v a r i e d d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n g t h e s e x u a l continuum than the p r e s e n t p o l a r i z a t i o n would l e a d us t o b e l i e v e p o s s i b l e . The r o l e d i v i s i o n s between women and men a r e t h e most o b v i o u s and t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e o f the p o l a r i z a t i o n between the sexes and t h e r e f o r e were among the f i r s t t a r g e t s o f the f e m i n i s t movement. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , women have been c a r e -p r o v i d e r s i n one form o r a n o t h e r : t h e i r j o b i s t o produce the p e o p l e who make up our s o c i e t y , t o t r a i n them i n the ways o f o u r w o r l d , t o keep them h e a l t h y and happy and t o f a c i l i t a t e s u f f i c i e n t harmony t o keep the s o c i a l machine f u n c t ion i ng. Even w i t h i n the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e , women a r e kept i n t h e i r 'proper p l a c e ' . They a r e a s s i g n e d t o the c a r e t a k i n g r o l e s w i t h i n the w o r k f o r c e and w i t h i n s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r a m b i t i o n s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n o t h e r a r e a s b e l i t t l e d ( K o r d a , 1 9 7 3 ) . K a n t e r documents what we a l l can see c l e a r l y i n the - ko -w o r l d around us, t h a t "Women g e n e r a l l y do not h o l d p o s i t i o n s o f power and a u t h o r i t y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . " ( 1 9 7 5 : 3 5 ) . Even where most o f the employees may be women, she p o i n t s o u t , the boss i s l i k e l y t o be a man. Women p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d i f f e r e n t l a b o u r market than men, even w i t h i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e i r " t y p i c a l j o b s " i n the o f f i c e c a r r y w i t h them not o n l y sex r o l e demands but a l s o placement i n a c l a s s and h i e r a r c h y t h a t i t s e l f l i m i t s m o b i l i t y i n t o p o s i t i o n s o f power... S i m p l i s t i c a 1 1 y women a r e p a r t o f a c l a s s rewarded f o r r o u t i n e s e r v i c e , w h i l e men compose a c l a s s rewarded f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r a t i o n a l i t y and v i s i b l e l e a d e r s h i p . ( 1 9 7 5 : 3 5 ) The most i m p o r t a n t j o b s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l goods, i d e a s , t e c h n o l o g y and ' p r o g r e s s ' - i n the s o - c a l l e d w o r l d - o u t - t h e r e - a r e l e f t up t o the men. The w o r l d - o u t - t h e r e i s a c o m p e t i t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , p h y s i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding one, b e s t l e f t t o the c o n t r o l of t h a t sex w h i c h p o s s e s s e s s t r e n g t h s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s e demands. Women's g r e a t e r e m o t i o n a l i t y , s o f t n e s s , p a s s i v i t y i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the maintenance s p h e r e . So t h e s t e r e o t y p e goes - and i t i s t h i s s t e r e o t y p e w h i c h has governed not o n l y t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n our s o c i e t y , but the whole d i r e c t i o n o f t h a t s o c i e t y . ( D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 ; F a s t e a u , 1 9 7 5 ; F i r e s t o n e : , 1 9 7 0 ; Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; Janeway, 1 9 8 0 ; M i l e s , undated and 1 9 8 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 . ) The f a c t t h a t women and t h e f e m a l e sphere o f a c t i o n a r e v a l u e d l e s s h i g h l y i n our s o c i e t y than men and the male sphere of a c t i o n i s a c r u c i a l component i n the way work i n o u r s o c i e t y i s o r g a n i z e d and u n d e r s t o o d . The work o f men i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be i m p o r t a n t and p r e s t i g i o u s . I t i s p a i d f o r i n hard c a s h , whereas the work done by women, o f t e n not even c o n s i d e r e d t o be 'work', ( B a r d w i c k and Douvan, 1 9 7 1 ; H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) i s m o s t l y u n p a i d o r , i f i t i s p a i d f o r a t a l l i s p a i d a t a c o n s i d e r a b l y lower r a t e than t h a t done by men ( s e e , f o r example, Armstrong and A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 8 ) . Not o n l y a r e homemakers c o n s i d e r e d ' j u s t housewives' ( H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) , but even t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s i n the o u t s i d e w o r l d t h a t a r e dominated by women a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f lower s t a t u s than t h o s e o c c u p i e d p r i m a r i l y by men ( F a s t e a u , 1 9 7 5 ) . Compare, f o r - 41 -example, the p r e s t i g e and f i n a n c i a l rewards a c c o r d e d t o d o c t o r s as opposed t o n u r s e s , t o se c o n d a r y as opposed t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , and t o w a i t e r s as opposed t o w a i t r e s s e s . 3. The d e n i g r a t i o n o f the f e m i n i n e C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the h i e r a r c h i c a l v a l u a t i o n o f male and f e m a l e s p h e r e s o f a c t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t male p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s a r e d e f i n e d as s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e o f women. The s o - c a l l e d f e m i n i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been s a c r i f i c e d f o r more ' r a t i o n a l ' p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; M i l e s , 1 9 8 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; W y c k o f f , 1 9 7 7 , among o t h e r s ) . The s o c i a l d e n i g r a t i o n and r e p r e s s i o n o f emotion and i n t u i t i o n r e f l e c t t he d e n i g r a t i o n and r e p r e s s i o n o f women i n our s o c i e t y , w i t h whom t h e s e q u a l i t i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d ( H o c h s c h i l d , 1 9 7 5 ) . The sword i s a double-edged one. W h i l e women a r e e x p e c t e d t o be the s e n s i t i v e , i n t u i t i v e , e m o t i o n a l s e x , and w h i l e they use d i s p l a y s o f emotion as one o f t h e i r few h a n d l e s on power, a t t h e same t i m e they a r e 'put down 1 f o r t h e s e e m o t i o n s . T h e i r i n t e l l e c t i s not r e s p e c t e d because i t i s s u p p o s e d l y dominated by emo t i o n ; l o g i c presumably has no chance i n the f a c e o f f e e l i n g . I n t u i t i o n i s t o be a v o i d e d i n any ' r a t i o n a l ' d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . S o c i e t y i s o r g a n i z e d around what i s s u p p o s e d l y o f r e a l i m p o r t a n c e - b u r e a u c r a c y , r e a s o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y , e f f i c i e n c y - a l l o f w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y would be d e s t r o y e d by any d i s p l a y o f emotion o r any u t i l i z a t i o n o f i n t u i t i v e powers. H o c h s c h i l d ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i s c u s s e s the absence o f emotion i n s o c i o l o g y as an e x p r e s s i o n o f s o c i e t y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f emotion as i n f e r i o r t o c o g n i t i o n . Emotion i s seen as a t b e s t i r r e l e v a n t and a t w o r s t d e t r i m e n t a l t o ac c o m p l i s h m e n t . She notes the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o n n o t a t i o n o f ' e m o t i o n a l ' and ' s e n t i m e n t a l 1 : i n p o p u l a r usage they imply an e x c e s s o r a d e g e n e r a t i o n ( p . 2 8 1 ) . The well-known s t u d y by Broverman e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) s u p p l i e s us w i t h ample e v i d e n c e o f t h i s n e g a t i v e v a l u i n g o f women's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Broverman and her c o - r e s e a r c h e r s found t h a t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s j udged by one o f t h r e e groups o f - kl -h e a l t h c l i n i c i a n s t o d e s c r i b e a 'mature, h e a l t h y , s o c i a l l y - c o m p e t e n t a d u l t man' and t h o s e judged by a second group t o d e s c r i b e a mature, h e a l t h y , s o c i a l l y - c o m p e t e n t a d u l t p e r son were v e r y s i m i l a r . The q u a l i t i e s chosen by a t h i r d group t o d e s c r i b e a mature, h e a l t h y , s o c i a l l y - c o m p e t e n t a d u l t woman, however, were ma r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e chosen by t h e f i r s t two gr o u p s . The d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s o f women and men. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e enormous f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f women's dilemma. A woman i s caught i n a d o u b l e b i n d , a b l e t o be e i t h e r a n o r m a l , h e a l t h y p e r son o r a n o r m a l , h e a l t h y woman, but not both ! For women, t h i s dilemma has meant r e s t r i c t e d l i f e o p t i o n s , s t u n t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l development, o n e - s i d e d p e r s o n a l i t y development, g r e a t e r p o v e r t y than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s ( s e e , f o r example, Armstrong and A r m s t r o n g , 1 9 7 8 ) and s e v e r e s e l f - i m a g e problems (see M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; W y c k o f f , 1 9 7 7 ) . Women e x p e r i e n c e h a l f o f t h e m s e l v e s as und e r - d e v e l o p e d and the o t h e r h a l f as u n d e r - v a l u e d . One o f the most i r o n i c a l and t r a g i c a s p e c t s o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , f o r women and f o r s o c i e t y as a whole, i s t h a t even t h o s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f women's c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t h a t c o u l d be seen as s t r e n g t h s and c e n t r a l t o t h e human c o n d i t i o n a r e d e n i g r a t e d by s o c i e t y and by women t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s i r o n y forms a f o c u s o f r e c e n t works by D i n n e r s t e i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Janeway ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Q u a l i t i e s c r u c i a l t o our humanness - d e s i r e t o n u r t u r e , d e s i r e f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y , e m o t i o n a l openness and need - a r e seen as p e r i p h e r a l , i n f e r i o r t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as to u g h n e s s , independence, a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l . Men, who have shaped and dominated our s o c i e t y , have not i n t e g r a t e d t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o t h e i r own l i v e s , much l e s s i n t o s o c i e t y . h. The m a s c u 1 i n i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d p r i m a r i l y by men and dominated by men the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s emphasized w i l l be t h o s e most emphasized - 43 -i n men t h e m s e l v e s . One of the most p e r v a s i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the ' m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n 1 o f s o c i e t y i s the b u r e a u c r a t i c , h i e r a r c h i c a l model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n on w h i c h v i r t u a l l y a l l o f our s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e based. ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 7 ) D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the i d e a l b u r e a u c r a c y i n c l u d e many o f the q u a l i t i e s a s c r i b e d t o the i d e a l male i n our s o c i e t y . Weber uses words l i k e ' t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ' , ' o b j e c t i v e r a t i o n a l i t y ' and ' i m p e r s o n a l i t y ' t o d e s c r i b e the s t r e n g t h s o f b u r e a u c r a c y and words l i k e ' p r o f e s s i o n a l man 1 and ' s p e c i a l i z e d e x p e r t ' t o d e s c r i b e the i d e a l b u r e a u c r a t ( G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ) . K a n t e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) s p e c i f i c a l l y names t h i s " m a s c u l i n e e t h i c ' c r e a t e d by b u r e a u c r a t i c development and shows how the t r a i t s assumed t o b e l o n g t o some men a r e e l e v a t e d t o become n e c e s s i t i e s f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c management ( p . 2 2 ) . R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t p o i n t s t o i m p e r s o n a l i t y as a key f e a t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y . P e r s o n a l emotions a r e not supposed t o ' d i s t o r t ' r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e ''r o l e - b a s e d , s e g m e n t a l , and i n s t r u m e n t a l " ( 1 9 7 7 : 8 8 ) . Contemporary m o d e r n i z a t i o n has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a s h i f t from p e r s o n - b a s e d t o r o l e - b a s e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Coleman, 1 9 7 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y a r e r o l e - b a s e d , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h maximizes e f f i c i e n c y but s e r i o u s l y 2 t h r e a t e n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f human s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n t h o s e r e l a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t t h e s e developments a r e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m a s c u l i n e end o f the spectrum o f human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they have been d e f i n e d i n our s o c i e t y , r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t b u r e a u c r a c y has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a male o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m , d e v e l o p e d and c o n t r o l l e d by men. From the b e g i n n i n g o f f o r m a l b u r e a u c r a c y , i t s management l e v e l s , t h o s e l e v e l s where the most s u c c e s s -f u l b u r e a u c r a t s r e s i d e , have been pe o p l e d by men, who have been assumed t o embody the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h r i v i n g i n such a s t r u c t u r e . When women t r i e d t o e n t e r t h e s e l e v e l s , they were r e j e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r d e f i c i e n c y i n t h i s m a s c u l i n e e t h i c . In t h i s way, h i e r a r c h i c a l bureau-c r a c y was m a i n t a i n e d by men i n t h e i r own image ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . - kk -5 . N a t u r e o r n u r t u r e ? A r i s i n g from any d i s c u s s i o n o f the s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i n s o c i e t y i s the q u e s t i o n o f o r i g i n . Why do t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t ? A r e men and women born so d i f f e r e n t , o r do they become so ? A l t h o u g h I w i l l not here a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t the f u l l arguments f o r both s i d e s o f t h i s d e b a t e , t h e q u e s t i o n must be a d d r e s s e d i n a t l e a s t a c u r s o r y f a s h i o n . For a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes a r e i n n a t e o r n a t u r a l , see May ( 1 9 8 0 ) . For a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the case f o r the main b a s i s o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s b e i n g i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n , see M i l l e t ( 1 9 6 9 ) and W e i s s t e i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) . W i l l e t t ( 1 9 7 1 ) o f f e r s a more i n t e g r a t i v e p o s i t i o n , open t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p l o r i n g the e x t e n t o f the b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men but e m p h a s i z i n g the s o c i a l and t h e r e f o r e c h a n g e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . Tresemer ( 1 9 7 5 ) emphasizes the d i f f e r e n c e between s e x - r o l e s (based on b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s ) and g e n d e r - r o l e s ( l e a r n e d r o l e s ) 3 and argues f o r an i n t e g r a t i o n o f the n a t u r e / n u r t u r e p o l a r i z a t i o n . He p r o v i d e s the f a m i l i a r argument t h a t b i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e h a v i o u r , w h i c h a r e i n t u r n a f f e c t e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t e x a g g e r a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e m o d i f i a b l e . U n d e r l y i n g a l l t h e s e arguments i s a fundamental gap i n our knowledge: because o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s and a d u l t s o c i a l r o l e s , we cannot know how much o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes i s b i o l o g i c a l and how much i s l e a r n e d ( M i l l e t , 1 9 6 9 : 3 9 ; W e i s s t e i n , 1 9 7 1 : 2 2 2 ) . D i n n e r s t e i n acknowledges the b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s but chooses t o emphasize t h o s e a s p e c t s o f the s e x u a l d i chotomy w h i c h a r e amenable t o change. She r e c o g n i z e s t h e immense c o m p l e x i t y o f the psycho-s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e m a x i m i z i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a l t e r i n g the p r e s e n t human c o n d i t i o n . She argues t h a t a l t h o u g h what u n d e r l i e s the ways i n w h i c h - h5 -men and women d i f f e r and the ways i n whi c h we r e l a t e t o each o t h e r i s not as immutable as anatomy o r hormones: our c o n s e n t i s f a r l e s s s i m p l e t o w i t h d r a w than many f e m i n i s t s would l i k e t o b e l i e v e . . . The p r e v a i l i n g s y m b i o s i s between men and women i s something more than a p r o d u c t o f s o c i e t a l c o e r c i o n . I t i s p a r t o f the n e u r o t i c o v e r a l l p o s t u r e by means o f whi c h humans, male and f e m a l e , t r y t o cope w i t h m a s s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems t h a t l i e a t the h e a r t o f our s p e c i e s ' s i t u a t i o n . A t the p r e s e n t s t a g e o f t e c h -n o l o g i c a l development, i t i s p r i m a r i l y because they h e l p us t o m a i n t a i n t h i s doomed p o s t u r e t h a t the s p e c i f i c s o c i e t a l mechanisms s u p p o r t i n g the s e x u a l s t a t u s quo c o n t i n u e t o f e e l n e c e s s a r y . (19 7 6 : 7 - 8 ) She goes on t o argue t h a t : I t i s s e n s e l e s s t o d e s c r i b e o ur p r e v a i l i n g m a l e - f e m a l e arrangements as " n a t u r a l " . They a r e o f c o u r s e a p a r t o f n a t u r e , but i f they s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the e x t i n c t i o n o f our s p e c i e s , t h a t f a c t would be p a r t o f n a t u r e t o o . Our i m p u l s e t o change t h e s e arrangements i s as n a t u r a l as they a r e , and more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h our s u r v i v a l on e a r t h , (p.8-9) The p o s i t i o n t a k e n here i s one t h a t , w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g the c o m p l e x i t y and u n r e s o l v e d n a t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n , sees s o c i a l i z a t i o n as t h e p r i m a r y d e t e r m i n a n t o f s e x - r o l e b e h a v i o u r i n women and men. I t seems c l e a r t h a t whatever b i o -l o g i c a l t e n d e n c i e s t h e r e may be f o r women t o a c t i n one way and men a n o t h e r have been so e x a g g e r a t e d and e n t r e n c h e d by s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s has long ago become a p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r than a s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n . C l e a r l y , c u r r e n t s e x - r o l e d i v i s i o n s s e r v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r e s e n t h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l system; t h o s e i n c o n t r o l have an i n t e r e s t i n p e r p e t u a t i n g such a rrangements. In the f a c e o f such p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e room f o r e x p l o r i n g t h e f u l l range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e i t h e r women o r men. The e x t e n t t o which s e x - r o l e p o l a r i z a t i o n i m p a i r s o v e r a l l human o r g a n i z a t i o n and how t h i s impairment can be c o u n t e r a c t e d a r e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s . - kS -B. The f e m i n i s t v i s i o n 1. An o v e r v i e w : the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n Many i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s a r e r e f u s i n g t o a c c e p t the m a l e - c o n s t r u c t e d v i s i o n o f the w o r l d , and a r e t r y i n g t o c o n s t r u c t i n s t e a d an a l t e r n a t e image, c e n t r e d on i n t e g r a t i o n , c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour and the f u l l development o f t h e human p o t e n t i a l . M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) and Janeway ( 1 9 8 0 ) a r e among the most e l o q u e n t o f t h o s e f e m i n i s t t h e o r i s t s who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n s t r u c t a new r e a l i t y . The i n t e g r a t i v e v i s i o n o f o t h e r s o c i a l c r i t i c s such as Schumacher ( 1 9 7 3 ) c o i n c i d e s i n many ways w i t h t h a t o f r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s . The i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n d e p i c t e d here argues t h a t a b a l a n c e between the f e m i n i n e and the m a s c u l i n e r e p r e s e n t s an o p t i m a l s o c i a l s t a t e . The p o s i t i o n a s s e r t s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes must be r e c o g n i z e d , r e s p e c t e d and i n some cases r e v e l l e d i n , but the sexes not h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r d e r e d nor t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r c i b l y m a i n t a i n e d . The p a r t women p l a y i n r e p r o d u c t i o n and i n maintenance and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e emphasized as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e r o l e s , argue t h e s e f e m i n i s t s , s h o u l d be rewarded but not g l o r i f i e d , encouraged but not made e x c l u s i v e t o women, nor women r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s r e a l m . In t h i s v i e w , t h e maintenance r o l e and i t s c o n t i n g e n t v a l u e s a r e a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as the p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s and v a l u e s from w h i c h they a r e so c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d and t o w h i c h t h e y a r e judged i n f e r i o r . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s argue t h a t t h i s m aintenance real m must be p l a c e d w i t h m a s c u l i n e v a l u e s i n t h e c e n t r e o f human e x i s t e n c e and t h e v a l u e s o f t h a t r e a l m a s s e r t e d as dominant v a l u e s i n our c u l t u r e . Both f e m a l e and male realms must be r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e a s p e c t s o f the o t h e r . In o r d e r t o c o u n t e r a c t the e x i s t i n g imbalance between the male and fe m a l e r e a l m s , r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r emphasis would have t o be p l a c e d on the fe m a l e r e a l m , w h i c h t h e o r i s t s r e f e r t o v a r i o u s l y as t h e ' p a t t e r n o f c a r i n g 1 (May, 1 9 8 0 : 6 9 - 7 0 ) , the ' e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n ' ( P a r s o n s and B a l e s , 1 9 5 5 ) and 'communion' (Bakan, - k7 -1 9 6 6 ) . Hughes p o i n t s t o t h i s s h i f t i n emphasis w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any r e a l change can be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n t h i s a r e a : The t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d from p a t r i a r c h y t o androgyny w i l l be marked by an i n v e r s i o n o f c u r r e n t emphasis; the p r i v a t e r e a l m w i l l t a k e on a g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e than the p u b l i c r e a l m and s o - c a l l e d " f e m i n i n e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i 1 1 t a k e on g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e than " m a s c u l i n e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The "sex-gender system" w i l l be t u r n e d on i t s head b e f o r e i t f i n a l l y merges i n t o a s y n t h e s i s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , o f p o l i t i c a l and e r o t i c , o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e , o f i n t i m a t e and s h a r e d , most f u l l y s y m b o l i s e d by r e p r o d u c t i o n . ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 3 ) The c e n t r a l theme r u n n i n g through t h i s v i s i o n i s i n t e g r a t i o n , a p r o c e s s w h i c h an i n c r e a s i n g number o f f e m i n i s t s c o n s i d e r t o be t h e p i v o t a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r f e m i n i s m ( D ? n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 ; Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; M i l e s , undated and 1 9 8 0 ) . Hughes c a l l s s y n t h e s i s the " h a l l m a r k o f f e m i n i s t t h e o r y " ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 1 ) . T h i s theme o f i n t e g r a t i o n can i t s e l f be seen t o i n t e g r a t e t h o s e g o a l s t h a t I w i 1 1 i d e n t i f y as most c e n t r a l t o f e m i n i s m . These g o a l s i n c l u d e the i n t e g r a t i o n o f ' f e m i n i n e ' and ' m a s c u l i n e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e n g t h s , o f p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance f u n c t i o n s , o f p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , o f the p e r s o n a l and the p o l i t i c a l , and o f the e m o t i o n a l and t h e r a t i o n a l . 2 . The f e m i n i s t v i s i o n and the r o l e s o f women and men The changes e n v i s a g e d by i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s do not c r e a t e a w i n - l o s e s i t u a t i o n between women and men. In the l o n g - r u n , both women and men s t a n d t o g a i n by a b r o a d e n i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g o f t h e i r ways o f b e i n g i n t h e w o r l d . The p r i c e men pay f o r t h e i r dominance i s a h i g h one - a l o s s o f easy warmth, e m o t i o n a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y , a c c e s s t o t h e i r i n t u i t i v e powers, the a b i l i t y t o conn e c t w i t h p e o p l e w i t h ease and i n t i m a c y , the a b i l i t y t o be weak and ask f o r s u p p o r t . However, i t i s not co n c e r n f o r men whi c h m o t i v a t e s the f e m i n i s t movement: i t i s c o n c e r n f o r the women - f o r t h e i r p o w e r l e s s n e s s , t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n , and t h e i r p a i n - and i t i s c o n c e r n f o r t h e s t a t e o f the w o r l d , w h i c h has been c r e a t e d l a r g e l y by t h e predominance o f male p a t t e r n s o f o p e r a t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g - 48 -and t h i n k i n g ( D i n n e r s t e i n , 1 9 7 6 ; Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; Janeway, 1 9 8 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . F e m i n i s t s r e c o g n i z e t h a t most men w i l l not w i l l i n g l y g i v e up t h e i r p o s i t i o n s o f power and w i l l not g r a s p t h e v a l u e o f the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t a p p roach f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r c h i 1 d r e n . They u n d e r s t a n d t h a t women have l e s s t o l o s e than men and t h a t women, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l have t o be t h e ones t o f i g h t f o r i n t e g r a t i v e s o c i a l change. A n o t h e r reason women can a c t so e f f e c t i v e l y i n the s t r u g g l e towards an i n t e g r a t e d s o c i e t y i s t h a t they have not been so t h o r o u g h l y s o c i a l i z e d i n t o the dominant and d o m i n a t i n g r o l e s o f t h e p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y they a r e t r y i n g t o change. I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s a rgue f u r t h e r t h a t women's s p e c i a l r o l e as r e p r o d u c e r s and c a r e t a k e r s p l a c e s them i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n as e n g i n e e r s o f change. Hughes p o i n t s out t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development o f e f f e c t i v e means o f c o n t r a c e p t i o n and the e m a n c i p a t i o n o f women has l o n g been u n d e r s t o o d , but t h a t : . . . i t i s o n l y now p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s f o r m the f a c t w h i c h r e s t r i c t e d women i n t o the f a c t w h i c h p l a c e s women i n a s p e c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n . ( 1 979:24) Thus, t h e i d e a s g e n e r a t e d by the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement, t h a t p l a c e r e p r o d u c t i o n a t the c e n t r e o f human e x p e r i e n c e , r e s t o r e t o women the power and the a b i l i t y t o use the knowledge t h a t i s u n i q u e l y t h e i r s and c r u c i a l t o the development o f a b a l a n c e d w o r l d . Hughes w r i t e s o f the s p e c i a l r o l e women have t o p l a y i n the c r e a t i o n o f t h i s new s o c i a l o r d e r : W h i l e a woman does have a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f r e p r o -d u c t i o n , she i s not l i m i t e d [ i n the new s o c i a l order] by t h a t r e l a t -i o n as she has been i n p a t r i a r c h a l t h e o r y and s o c i e t y . In her i s embodied t h e s y n t h e s i s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c . F e m i n i s t t h e o r y c l a i m s t h a t o n l y women can r e t u r n us t o our e s s e n c e as human b e i n g s by b r i n g i n g an end t o our a l i e n a t i o n from the p r o c e s s o f human r e p r o d u c t i o n ; t h a t i s why women must be the a g e n t s o f the human r e v o l u t i o n . (1979:23-4) M i l l e r ' s ( 1 9 7 6 ) v i e w o f the c e n t r a l i t y o f women's a r e a s o f s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . - hs -A l t h o u g h most o f the w r i t e r s • c a l 1 i n g f o r s o c i a l change i n a d i r e c t i o n o f f e m i n i z a t i o n a r e f e m i n i s t women, t h e r e i s a s m a l l but gro w i n g number o f male w r i t e r s a n a l y z i n g t he same s i t u a t i o n from a male p e r s p e c t i v e and c a l l i n g f o r s i m i l a r changes b o t h i n t h e home and i n t h e w o r k p l a c e ( F a s t e a u , 1 9 7 5 ; K o r d a , 1 9 7 3 ; N i c h o l s , 1 9 7 5 ; and Lyon, 1 9 7 7 ) . Korda, f o r example, r i d i c u l e s t he male f a n t a s y t h a t men a r e somehow more c a p a b l e than women o f d o i n g t he " r e a l b u s i n e s s " o f s o c i e t y . There i s no reason o f c o u r s e , he says, t h a t women c o u l d not do i t j u s t as w e l l , o r b e t t e r . But i f they c o u l d , he a s k s o f men: Then who a r e we, and why a r e we s i t t i n g t h e r e s h u f f l i n g papers and a n s w e r i n g t h e t e l e p h o n e , h e i r s i n f a n t a s y t o the power and a u t h o r i t y o f F r e d r i c k t he G r e a t , B a r b a r o s s a , t he P l a i n s I n d i a n s , a hundred, a thousand m i l l i o n men who b e l i e v e d . . . t h a t i t was a man's f u n c t i o n t o d e a l w i t h t he p h y s i c a l w o r l d , t o conquer i t , t o tame i t , t o mold i t i n h i s image; who l e f t t o women t h a t magic, inward m y s t e r y o f c h i l d -b i r t h , o f c o n t i n u i t y , t h e i m p u l s e s t h a t s i l e n t l y , i n s t i n c t i v e l y c o n n e c t one g e n e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r and p r o v i d e t he r a t i o n a l e f o r e x p a n s i o n and a d v e n t u r e and work. To ask men t o a l l o w women i n t o t h i s dream c a s t l e . . . i s t o ask them t o d i s m a n t l e i t , t o a d m i t . . . t h a t the dreams and i l l u s i o n s a r e o v e r and done w i t h , t h a t n o t h i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h i s o f f i c e , a t t h i s d esk, b e h i n d t h i s t y p e w r i t e r o r computer but work w i t h o u t g l o r y , w i t h o u t s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . . ( 1 9 7 3 : 6 3 ) 3 . R e - d e f i n i t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f female and male s t r e n g t h s T h i s g o a l i n c o r p o r a t e s both the b e s t known and what i s perhaps t h e most t r u l y r a d i c a l o f the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t g o a l s . On the one hand, i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m encourages women t o be s t r o n g , competent, a s s e r t i v e . I t i s t h i s g o a l t h a t i s most commonly u n d e r s t o o d by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as a p l a n k o f the f e m i n i s t p l a t f o r m , and has m o t i v a t e d many c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g g r o u p s . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s e q u a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r women, and u l t i m a t e l y t h e whole s o c i e t y , t o r e - e v a l u a t e ' f e m i n i n e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t o r e - d e f i n e t h e s e as s t r e n g t h s , and t o see women as p o w e r f u l i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y as w e l l as i n the f a m i l y . To r e - d e f i n e as s t r e n g t h what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e f i n e d as weakness i n v o l v e s a p r o f o u n d and r a d i c a l s h i f t i n our c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the w o r l d . -.50 -F i r e s t o n e (1970) r e c o g n i z e s both t h e c e n t r a l i mportance o f ' l o v e ' i n s o c i e t y and the way i t has been used t o keep women out o f the mainstream o f c u l t u r e c r e a t i o n . She r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the s e x u a l p o l a r i t y t h a t u n d e r l i e s the whole o f our s o c i e t y r e s u l t s i n o n l y h a l f the c u l t u r e b e i n g termed i t s t o t a l i t y ; and the o t h e r h a l f , the e m o t i o n a l h a l f , b e i n g h i d d e n , d e n i e d , depended upon o n l y "on t h e s l y " ( F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ) . Women have a l w a y s r e c o g n i z e d the importance both f o r the m s e l v e s and f o r men o f t h i s e m o t i o n a l r e a l m , but because o f the way i n wh i c h s o c i e t y d e n i g r a t e s i t , they have f a c e d a c o n f l i c t . That c o n f l i c t between what they know i n t h e i r h e a r t s t o be t r u e and what s o c i e t y has t r i e d t o make them b e l i e v e has r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t d e a l o f a m b i v a l e n c e about t h e i r own e m o t i o n a l i t y , s e n s i t i v i t y t o o t h e r s , and d e s i r e f o r dependence. The a s s e r t i o n t h a t emotion and v u l n e r a b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s t r e n g t h r a t h e r than weakness i s a l s o made by such w r i t e r s as D i n n e r s t e i n ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F a s t e a u ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; Janeway (1980); Lyon ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; Lyons ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; and M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; among o t h e r s . Many f e m i n i s t s a r e now s t r e s s i n g the need t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s i g n a t e d as f e m i n i n e a r e c e n t r a l t o the e s s e n c e o f what i t means t o be 'human 1. Because o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n the development o f the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t v i s i o n , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o re-em p h a s i z e t h i s p o s i t i o n . By a s s e r t i n g t h a t women's s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n i s the c o r e o f human e x i s t e n c e , f e m i n i s t t h e o r y argues f o r the predominance and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s o - c a l l e d " f e m a l e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s " . . . (Hughes, 1 9 7 9 : 2 5 ) M i l l e r , d i s c u s s i n g a l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s emphasized by i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s , p o i n t s out t h a t : T h i s l i s t o f i s s u e s s u g g e s t s a most i n t e r e s t i n g and e x c i t i n g p r o p o s i t i o n : i n t h e c o u r s e o f p r o j e c t i n g i n t o women's domain some o f i t s most t r o u b l e s o m e and p r o b l e m a t i c c o n t i n g e n c i e s , m a l e - l e d s o c i e t y may a l s o have s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and u n w i t t i n g l y , d e l e g a t e d t o women not humanity's " l o w e s t needs" but i t s " h i g h e s t n e c e s s i t i e s " - t h a t i s , the i n t e n s e , e m o t i o n a l l y c o n n e c t e d c o o p e r a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r human l i f e and growth. ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 - 6 ) - 51 -Janeway ( 1 9 8 0 ) sees t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t have been s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d as f e m i n i n e as h a v i n g g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r chang i n g a w o r l d t h a t i s f r a u g h t w i t h p o l a r i t i e s . To r e c o g n i z e the dangers o f an o v e r - d e v e l o p e d e m o t i o n a l i t y and n u r t u r i n g c a p a c i t y combined w i t h an u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d r a t i o n a l i t y and c a p a c i t y f o r a s s e r t -i v e n e s s i s as i m p o r t a n t as r e c o g n i z i n g the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f e i t h e r s p h e r e . Adams ( 1 9 7 1 ) warns a g a i n s t what she c a l l s " t h e compassion t r a p " , w h i c h p l a c e s women i n a p o s i t i o n where they a r e the o n l y ones a b l e t o p r o v i d e l o v e , n u r t u r i n g and p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s and where t h i s n u r t u r i n g f u n c t i o n i s t h e i r p r i m a r y , o r o n l y one. W h i l e t h e f e m i n i s m espoused by, f o r example, Hughes, Janeway, M i l e s , and M i l l e r may s u p p o r t the im p o r t a n c e o f t h i s n u r t u r i n g , a f f i l i a t i v e c a p a c i t y i n women, i t i n no way seeks t o e x c l u d e men from t h i s f u n c t i o n o r t o r e s t r i c t women t o t h i s r o l e . On the c o n t r a r y , i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m sees t h e n e c e s s i t y o f men t a k i n g on t h e s e n u r t u r i n g r o l e s and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r a f f i l i a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and o f women d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r a s s e r t i v e , b o l d and i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e s . The c r u c i a l p o i n t here i s b a l a n c e : t o e f f e c t i v e l y b a l a n c e the s o f t , t h e v u l n e r a b l e and the e m o t i o n a l w i t h t he tou g h , the a s s e r t i v e and the r a t i o n a l , w i t h o u t d e n y i n g e i t h e r . M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , i n p l a c i n g a h i g h v a l u e on t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e l l -d e v e l o p e d i n most women, comes d a n g e r o u s l y c l o s e t o what K i m b a l l c a l l s t he p e d e s t a l phenomenon ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 4 ) w h i c h r o m a n t i c i z e s women's r o l e . A l t h o u g h M i l l e r h e r s e l f says t h a t she does not w i s h t o put f o r t h women as the s a v i o u r s o f t he w o r l d , she does p l a c e a tremendous amount o f f a i t h i n the power o f women to use t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t r e n g t h s t o change the c o u r s e o f the w o r l d . W h i l e t h e argument o f t h i s t h e s i s s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w , one must guard a g a i n s t an o v e r l y s i m p l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f a v e r y complex s i t u a t i o n . A n o t h e r danger i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f a t t a c h i n g g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o the main-tenance r e a l m , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the t h r u s t comes from men, i s t h a t such a r e -- 52 -v a l u a t i o n may be used t o r a t i o n a l i z e and p e r p e t u a t e a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . For t h i s r e a s o n , a l l a s p e c t s o f change i n women's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n must r e c e i v e e q u al a t t e n t i o n : r e - v a l u a t i o n o f maintenance f u n c t i o n s , e q u a l a c c e s s f o r women and men t o a l l t y p e s o f work s i t u a t i o n s , and an i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance s p h e r e s . In s p i t e o f t h e s e d a n g e r s , the need t o i n t e g r a t e male and fe m a l e p a t t e r n s i n o ur s o c i e t y and the p r e r e q u i s i t e o f i n c r e a s e d emphasis on t h e f e m i n i n e has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way i n w h i c h s o c i e t y i s o r g a n i z e d . A s o c i e t y based on m a l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s and a b u r e a u c r a t i c , h i e r a r c h i c a l f o r m a t geared p r i m a r i l y toward p r o d u c t i o n , w i l l , i n an i n t e g r a t e d w o r l d , have t o change i n the d i r e c t i o n o f more a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o p e o p l e ' s e m o t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , more emphasis on the p r o c e s s o f a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than j u s t on the p r o d u c t , co-o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e w o r k i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , and a s y n t h e s i s o f t h o s e b a s t i o n s o f the male and the f e m a l e , t h e s p h e r e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and mai n t e n a n c e . k. I n t e g r a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance s p h e r e s One o f the major ways i n whi c h s o c i e t y r e f l e c t s t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n and h i e r -a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n between male and fe m a l e i s t h r o u g h t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f the realms o f p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance (Hughes, 1 9 7 9 ; M i l e s , undated and 1 9 8 0 ) . In the w o r l d e n v i s a g e d by t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v a l u e s and g o a l s o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance realms would be i n t e g r a t e d , as w o u l d , i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , t h e i r p h y s i c a l spaces and t h e i r t a s k s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The maintenance o f the s p e c i e s would be seen t o be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f both women and men and the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e would be e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o b o t h s e x e s . In o r d e r f o r such changes t o o c c u r , t h o s e who make d e c i s i o n s i n o r g a n i z a -t i o n s would have t o a c c e p t t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r a i s i n g t h e s o c i e t y ' s c h i l d r e n . In such an i d e o l o g i c a l s h i f t , t he maintenance sphere would be p l a c e d i n a p r i m a r y p o s i t i o n i n the minds o f women and men, a t - 53 -t h e c e n t r e o f human a c t i v i t y and achievement. At the same t i m e , i t would no l o n g e r be mandatory f o r a woman t o bear and r a i s e c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o be v a l u e d i n s o c i e t y o r f o r a woman t o c o n s i d e r the b e a r i n g and r a i s i n g o f c h i l d r e n as her p r i m a r y o r o n l y f u n c t i o n . As women g a i n equal a c c e s s t o a l l l e v e l s o f the p r o d u c t i v e w o r l d , and as men ta k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r maintenance f u n c t i o n s , the o p t i o n s open t o both sexes would be i n c r e a s e d . However l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h r u l e s t h a t men and women be t r e a t e d as e q u a l s o r be o f f e r e d equal employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s does not d e a l w i t h t h e c e n t r a l problem o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t the w o r k p l a c e . M i l e s a s s e r t s t h a t : I t i s not thr o u g h f e m a l e e n t r y i n t o t he male w o r l d and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t he 'female' sphere t h a t l i b e r a t i o n w i l l be won; and the r e a l l i b e r a t o r y p o t e n t i a l o f women's e n t r y i n t o t h e work f o r c e i s i n d i r e c t - as i t b r e a k s down the power r e l a t i o n (and i t s r a t i o n a l e ) between men and women. (Undated, p.22) An a n a l y s i s w h i c h sees f e m a l e e n t r y i n t o t he l a b o u r f o r c e as a t t a c k i n g t h e b a s i c problem o f t h e i n e q u a l i t y between t h e sexes does n o t h i n g t o d e a l w i t h the problems o f p e r s o n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n and power 1 e s s n e s s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l male w o r l d . Nor does i t ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t : ...the e x i s t e n c e o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the p o w e r f u l tendency w i t h i n f e m i n i s t r a d i c a l i s m whose p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e goes w e l l beyond s e e k i n g women's e n t r y i n t o t h e s e male r e a l m s , t o a s s e r t t h e i m p o r t -ance o f t h e female realm and the n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e g r a t i n g a l l o f l i f e and s o c i e t y around the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e o p l e ' s s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n . ( M i l e s , u n dated, p.22) Hughes ( 1 9 7 9 ) p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s emphasis on r e p r o d u c t i o n o r maintenance i s one v i t a l way i n whi c h i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t t h e o r y goes beyond Marxism t o p l a c e the maintenance real m i n a p o s i t i o n o f importance equal t o t h a t o f the w o r l d o f p r o d u c t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g the q u a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n o f human l i f e . I t i s the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the two realms r a t h e r than a r e v e r s a l o f the p r e s e n t d o m i n a n t / s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n t h a t i s the c r u x o f the i s s u e . The l a c k f o r women and men o f a sense o f meaning o r wholeness i n t h e i r l i v e s stems a t - 5k -l e a s t i n p a r t from the g u l f t h a t e x i s t s between t h e p r o d u c t i v e and m a i n t e n a n c e s p h e r e s . Lack o f f u l f i l l m e n t t a k e s d i f f e r e n t forms f o r women and men p a r t l y because o f what has been d e n i e d each sex. The i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance f u n c t i o n s i n many ways u n d e r l i e s the forms o f i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d below. 5. I n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e p r o c e s s i s v a l u e d i n s o f a r as i t i s r a t i o n a l , o r d e r l y , and geared t o e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y (Crow, 1978:16). The g o a l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o produce as much as p o s s i b l e as q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y as p o s s i b l e . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and methods a r e geared t o t h i s end. In the w o r l d imaged by i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s and o t h e r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s on t h e l e f t , t h e r e a r e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h i s p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n , o f w h i c h the c o l l e c t i v e i s one. Such a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e based on changes i n t h e v a l u e system on w h i c h human a c t i v i t y i s p r e d i c a t e d - work i s no l o n g e r d i r e c t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f more m a t e r i a l goodsor a g r e a t e r number o f s e r v i c e s . Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the p e r s o n a l , p o l i t i c a l and moral i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the p r o c e s s o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g p r o d u c t i v e work, the way i n w h i c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t e s . ' P r o c e s s p e o p l e 1 not o n l y v a l u e the p r o c e s s i t s e l f , but they v a l u e the a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o i t w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n (Crow, 1978). Concern w i t h the way i n w h i c h t h i n g s a r e done o c c u p i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t i m e and energy i n t h i s b ranch o f the f e m i n i s t movement. Changes i n t h i s p r o c e s s a r e seen as c r u c i a l i n m e e t i n g g o a l s o f s o c i a l change. A l t h o u g h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d , emphasis i s a l s o p l a c e d on the h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f the human b e i n g s who a r e d o i n g the p r o d u c i n g and o f t h o s e who a r e b e n e f i t t i n g from the p r o d u c t . The w e l l - b e i n g o f a l l humans i s r e c o g n i z e d as the p r i m a r y g o a l o f t h i s l i f e and p r o d u c t i o n as o n l y one o f the many means t o t h i s end. C o n n e c t i o n s a r e made - 55 -between the way i n whi c h t h i n g s a r e done i n a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and the way a c t i v i s t s would l i k e ' t o see t h i n g s done on a l a r g e r s c a l e . The same v a l u e s a r e seen t o o p e r a t e i n the w o r k p l a c e as i n the home and i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a : r e s p e c t f o r the whole human b e i n g , e m o t i o n a l h o n e s t y , e q u a l i t y among p e o p l e , r e s p e c t f o r the env i r o n m e n t . Thus the h u m a n i z a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d not i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y (as i n the human r e l a t i o n s model o f b u r e a u c r a c y d e s c r i b e d by K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 , and Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) , but f o r moral and p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . W i t h i n the f e m i n i s t movement i t s e l f t h e r e i s a s p l i t between t h o s e o r i e n t e d toward an emphasis on p r o c e s s and t h o s e o r i e n t e d toward an emphasis on p r o d u c t . A p a r t i c u l a r l y c o mprehensive d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t e n s i o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n a s e r i e s o f t h r e e a r t i c l e s under the heading "The P r o c e s s / P r o d u c t Debate" (Crow, 1 9 7 8 ; R i d d l e , 1 9 7 8 ; S p a r k s , 1 9 7 8 ) . C l a r i f y i n g t h i s d i c h o t o m y , Crow ( 1 9 7 8 ) i d e n t -i f i e s a p r o c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h an emphasis on what I have c a l l e d t he f e m i n i n e q u a l i t i e s and a p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h what I have c a l l e d t he m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s . She d e s c r i b e s the 'process p e r s o n ' as one who f e e l s t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f t h e f e m i n i s t movement and c u l t u r e have t o do w i t h n u r t u r i n g q u a l i t i e s : e m o t i o n a l openness and s u p p o r t , s e n s i t i v i t y , i n t u i t i o n , i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and co-o p e r a t i o n . The 'p r o d u c t p e r s o n ' , on the o t h e r hand, emphasizes as the major g o a l s o f f e m i n i s m a s s e r t i v e n e s s , competence, and t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t w i l l put women on an equal f o o t i n g w i t h men i n the economic and p r o d u c t i v e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h both ends o f the spectrum a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n f e m i n i s t and many o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e g r o u p s , many groups a r e a c t i v e l y engaged i n w o r k i n g o u t some b a l a n c e between t h e s e two extremes. An i n t e g r a t i v e p o s i t i o n a d v o c a t e s a b a l a n c e between a c o n c e r n w i t h human needs f o r e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and s u p p o r t , and a c o n c e r n w i t h p e r s o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , development o f competence, and e f f i c i e n c y a t d e v e l o p i n g and u s i n g a system. ( R i d d l e , 1 9 7 8 ) . ; - 5 6 -.6. I n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l and t h e p o l i t i c a l As was p o i n t e d out i n Chap t e r 1 , the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l and the p o l i t i c a l i s a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the development o f the modern women's movement. The emphasis on p r o c e s s , on the c e n t r a l i t y o f t h e maintenance s p h e r e , on the u n i v e r s a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f good day c a r e , on e m o t i o n , and on power and autonomy i n t h e i r own l i v e s , a l l t h e s e a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f the e s s e n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y between the p e r s o n a l and t h e p o l i t i c a l . F e m i n i s t s a rgue t h a t women cannot be f r e e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own s o c i a l and work l i v e s i f they a r e not f r e e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own p e r s o n a l and s e x u a l l i v e s . U n l e s s i t becomes the norm f o r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the mai n t e n a n c e o f t h e p e r s o n a l sphere t o be s h a r e d by a l l members o f s o c i e t y , women w i l l not be f r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y i n t h e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e (Coser and R o k o f f , 1 9 7 1 ) -I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s i n s i s t t h a t s e x , housework and motherhood a r e p r o f o u n d -l y p o l i t i c a l (Morgan, 1 9 7 7 ) and t h a t t he way we work and the p o l i t i c a l programs we d e v e l o p a r e i n e x o r a b l y p e r s o n a l . They comprehend t h e p o l i t i c a l causes o f women's p e r s o n a l o p p r e s s i o n and the p o l i t i c a l impact o f c h a n g i n g t h o s e p e r s o n a l l y o p p r e s s i v e s i t u a t i o n s . They g r a s p t h e n e c e s s i t y o f b r i n g i n g t he p e r s o n a l i n t o t h e i r work l i v e s : o f r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s t o be r e l e g a t e d t o a s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d time and p l a c e and t o be t r e a t e d as i n f e r i o r i n the w o r k p l a c e because o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s and commitments. I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s a rgue t h a t t h i s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e g r a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e a l i t i e s , o f f e e l i n g and a c t i n g , and o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i s what makes the women's movement l e s s a b s t r a c t , more p r a c t i c a l and more c e n t r e d on r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r change w i t h i n b oth i n d i v i d -u a l s and the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s than p r e v i o u s movements ( F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 ; H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 5 ; Morgan, 1 9 7 7 ) . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s i n s i s t t h a t i t i s not p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r s o c i a l l y h e a l t h y t o have one s e t o f r u l e s and v a l u e s f o r the p e r s o n a l s p h e r e and a n o t h e r - 5 7 -f o r the p r o d u c t i v e o r p o l i t i c a l one. As i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , the s e p a r a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i e s a f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the p e r s on i n t o d i s t i n c t and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s . An emphasis on the u n i o n between t h e s e s p h e r e s , on the o t h e r hand, r e f l e c t s i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m ' s emphasis on t h e whole p e r s o n . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i n o r d e r f o r t h e p e r s o n a l t o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and the p r o d u c t i v e , i t cannot remain i n i t s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n on the p e r i p h e r y o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d ' r e a l l y ' i m p o r t a n t i n the w o r l d . As long as the p e r s o n a l i s c o n s i d e r e d t r i v i a l , n e i t h e r men nor women w i l l g r a n t i t c e n t r a l i t y o r i n t e g r a t e i t i n t o t h e i r p u b l i c l i v e s . 7 . I n t e g r a t i o n o f emotion and i n t e l l e c t There i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r s o n a l p o l i t i c s o f the women's movement and an emphasis on emotion ( F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 7 0 : 3 8 ) . The i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement has not s u r p r i s i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d b u r e a u c r a c t i c s o c i e t y ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h reason w i t h male dominance, and has s t r i v e n t o combat i t as p a r t o f the problem o f s e x u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The movement's c o n c e r n w i t h p r o c e s s r e f l e c t s i t s c o n c e r n w i t h e m o t i o n ; emotion i s seen as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the whole person and i t s e x p r e s s i o n as n e c e s s a r y t o human f u l f i l l m e n t . The l i b e r a t i o n o f e motion i n s o c i e t y i s seen as c o n t i n g e n t w i t h the l i b e r a t i o n o f women. In a r g u i n g f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f emotion i n s o c i o l o g y , R o t h s c h i l d ( 1 9 7 5 ) i s c r i t i c a l o f the c o n f u s i o n i n s o c i o l o g y and i n s o c i e t y between r a t i o n a l i t y and e m o t i o n l e s s n e s s and the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t r a t i o n a l a c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g do not r e q u i r e emotions and f e e l i n g s . A r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p a r t p l a y e d by emotions and f e e l i n g i n b u r e a u c r a c y , and an augmenting and u t i l i z a t i o n o f emotion i n a l t e r n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms a r e both p a r t o f the i n t e g r a t i v e v i s i on. Ware comments on the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the f a c t t h a t i n the women's movement, - 5 8 -h a p p i n e s s f i n a l l y became a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 7 ) - She notes t h a t i n b u i l d i n g a l t e r n a t e s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e women's movement, " F o r t h e f i r s t t ime p o l i t i c a l systems a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d t h a t v a l i d a t e t he demand f o r h a p p i n e s s " ( 1 9 7 0 : 1 A)- T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s r i g h t t o s a t i s f a c t i o n i s i n t e g r a l t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the need t o g r a n t emotion a s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e i n the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h c u r r e n t l y p r e -d o m i n a t i n g f o r c e s o f reason and i n t e l l e c t . 8 . The s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y One o f the p r i m a r y g o a l s o f the women's movement i n v o l v e s power - t o r e -d e f i n e power, t o e f f e c t t he r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power both i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and i n the movement, and t o a t t a i n t h e power n e c e s s a r y f o r women t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own l i v e s . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t i n o r d e r t o r a d i c a l l y a l t e r s o c i e t y i n the long r u n , power must be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t o emphasize i t s l i b e r a t i n g a s p e c t s (Janeway, 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 8 0 ; L i p s , 1 9 7 9 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; Ware, 1 9 7 0 ; Watson, 1 9 7 5 ) . In t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , power as autonomy i s emphasized, and an a t t e m p t i s made t o a v o i d the use o f power as d o m i n a t i o n o v e r o t h e r s . The p r o c e s s o f e x t r i c a t i n g o u r s e l v e s from the p a t t e r n s o f d o m i n a t i o n / s u b -m i s s i o n i n a l l i t s v a r i o u s forms i s p r o b a b l y t he most p e r v a s i v e theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement. In the f a c e o f the power s t r u c t u r e s e x i s t i n g i n s o c i e t y , a c r u c i a l s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s f o r women t o g a i n the power t o f r e e t hemselves from the d o m i n a t i o n o f men. O f t e n women must overcome f e e l i n g s o f ina d e q u a c y , incompetency, and f e a r s both o f f a i l u r e and o f s u c c e s s ( M i l l e r , 1 9 7 6 ; G o r n i c k , 1 9 7 2 ) i n o r d e r t o have the c o n f i d e n c e t o use what they do know t o b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g new knowledge. T h i s i s one im p o r t a n t component o f the f e m i n i s t c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g p r o c e s s . One o f t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the s h a r i n g o f power and r e s p o n s i b -i l i t y i s the s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s a r e opposed t o the m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s the backbone o f the h i e r a r c h i c a l system. - 59 -C o - o p e r a t i o n as e q u a l s i s dependent upon both p e o p l e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p h a v i n g equal a c c e s s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and a c t i o n . Most f e m i n i s t s , l i b e r a l s and r a d i c a l s a l i k e , a r e t r y i n g i n a v a r i e t y o f ways t o g a i n knowledge. W i t h i n t he i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t movement i t s e l f , t h e r e i s a h i g h v a l u e p l a c e d on t h e s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y ; t h i s s h a r i n g i s one o f t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y . The movement's r e l a t i o n t o the l a r g e r s o c i e t y a l s o has as one o f i t s p r i m a r y g o a l s t he s h a r i n g o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t have been m o n o p o l i z e d by men.: The r a d i c a l arm o f the s e l f - h e l p movement, w h i c h i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e a c q u i r i n g o f knowledge i n o r d e r t o h e l p o n e s e l f and i n o r d e r t o g a i n some independence from an u n h e l p f u l and i n some c a s e s o p p r e s s i v e s o c i e t y , has d e v e l o p e d hand-in-hand w i t h t he women's movement. That p r i n c i p l e s o f s e l f - h e l p s u f f u s e the f e m i n i s t movement i s dem o n s t r a t e d by the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f such groups as women's t r a n s i t i o n houses, women's p u b l i s h i n g houses, women's i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s , rape c r i s i s c e n t r e s , b i r t h c e n t r e s , and women's h e a l t h c o l l e c t i v e s . D. Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r I have d e s c r i b e d t h e s t a t e o f s o c i e t y t h a t has l e d t o the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t r e s p o n s e : t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n between t h e sexes and the d o m i n a t i o n by men. I have d i s c u s s e d how the r o l e d i v i s i o n s o f women and men have r e s u l t e d i n women b e i n g l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the maintenance s p h e r e and men t o the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e . I have d e m o n s t r a t e d not o n l y how male s p h e r e s o f a c t i o n a r e d e f i n e d as s u p e r i o r t o t h o s e o f women, but how male p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s a r e d e f i n e d as s u p e r i o r . Emphasis has thus been p l a c e d not o n l y on the l a c k o f development i n women o f t h e s o - c a l l e d m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s o f a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , i n t e l l e c t and achievement o r i e n t a t i o n - 60 -but a l s o on the d e n i g r a t i o n o f t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y f e m i n i n e : warmth, e m o t i o n a l i t y , i n t u i t i o n , and a t t e n t i o n t o I n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o c e s s e s . In a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s between women and men, no att e m p t i s made t o d e a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e n a t u r e -n u r t u r e i s s u e . The p o s i t i o n i s ta k e n t h a t a l t h o u g h p r e s e n t r e a l i t y i s o b v i o u s l y a r e s u l t o f an i n t e r a c t i o n between b i o l o g y and e n v i r o n m e n t , t h i s t h e s i s f o c u s e s on s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s as the prime d e t e r m i n a n t o f s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s . The f e m i n i s t p o s i t i o n i s d e t a i l e d i n terms o f i t s i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n : the i n t e g r a t i o n o f f e m i n i n e and m a s c u l i n e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r e n g t h s ; o f the p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance s p h e r e s , o f p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t , o f the p e r s o n a l and t h e p o l i t i c a l , and o f emotion and i n t e l l e c t . F i n a l l y , d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e s on the i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t g o a l o f an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and the i n t e g r a l r o l e p l a y e d by i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s p o w e r - s h a r i n g . T h i s g o a l i s a p p l i e d both t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y and t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t he movement i t s e l f . The next c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h some o f the ways i n w h i c h c o l l e c t i v i t y g i v e s form t o t h e s e f e m i n i s t g o a l s o f i n t e g r a t i o n and p o w e r - s h a r i n g . Notes 1. However, i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t a m i n o r i t y o f men have had a predominant i n f l u e n c e o v e r the development o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s . These men and the s t r u c t u r e s t h e y have c r e a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d a r e what Smith (1980) c a l l s the r u l i n g a p p a r a t u s . A l t h o u g h i t i s men who have been the c r e a t o r s and t h e p r i m a r y b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s , t he m a j o r i t y o f men have been r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s w i t h i n t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s j u s t as have the m a j o r i t y o f women. W h i l e the p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between - 61 -c l a s s and gender as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f o p p r e s s i o n w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t he c o m p l e x i t y o f t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p needs t o be acknowledged. (See S m i t h , 1 9 8 0 , f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . ) The 'human r e l a t i o n s ' model o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t has made some i n r o a d s on the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f b u r e a u c r a c y as an emot i o n -l e s s e n t i t y , has not f u n d a m e n t a l l y a l t e r e d e i t h e r i t s t h e o r y o r i t s p r a c t i c e . ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 ; 1 9 7 7 ; Whyte, 1 9 5 7 ) . I t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f emotion as a f o r c e i n t h e w o r k p l a c e i s a n y t h i n g but e g a l i t a r i a n : i t i s the w o r k e r s , not the managers, who a r e even i n t h e o r y r e c o g n i z e d as b r i n g i n g t h e i r e m o t i o n a l needs t o work and whose e m o t i o n a l needs must be ta k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n any p l a n f o r e f f e c t i v e management ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 7 ) . However, a c c o r d i n g t o w o r k e r s i n t e r v i e w e d by T e r k e l ( 1 9 7 2 ) , l i t t l e o r no g e n u i n e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n i n the w o r k p l a c e t o t h e i r f e e l i n g s . As s t a t e d i n Chap t e r 1, Note 3 , I have not f o l l o w e d Tresemer's ( 1 9 7 5 ) d i s t i n c t i o n between s e x - r o l e s and g e n d e r - r o l e s . - 62 -CHAPTER 3 BUREAUCRACY AND COLLECTIVITY A. P r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n What f o l l o w s i s a comparison o f b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y i n terms o f the i s s u e s o r problems t h a t both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms f a c e but w h i c h each o f them d e a l s w i t h somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y . R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 7 : 7 9 ) c a u t i o n s us in our a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e two v e r y d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s , t h a t n e i t h e r e x i s t s i n i t s 'pure' form, but t h a t a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e some c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two extremes. However, she a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t e x a m i n i n g the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h an aim o f d e v e l o p i n g an i d e a l t y p e o f c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l : a l l o w us t o u n d e r s t a n d c o l 1 e c t i v i s t - d e m o c r a c i e s not o n l y i n terms o f b u r e a u c r a t i c i d e a l s they do not s h a r e , but i n terms o f c o u n t e r - v a l u e s t h e y do h o l d . F u r t h e r , the use o f an i d e a l t y p e p e r m i t s us t o l o c a t e a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l o n g a continuum. ( 1 9 7 7 : 7 9 ) In s p i t e o f t h e o v e r l a p between t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s , they a r e , i n both t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , v e r y d i f f e r e n t . The f a c t t h a t t h e i r i d e o l o g i e s , t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s about human n a t u r e and the way the w o r l d s h o u l d o p e r a t e , t h e v a l u e s they i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e and t h e s p e c i f i c g o a l s they h o l d a r e so d i f f e r e n t i s t he major c o n s i d e r a t i o n here. S i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e two, I w i l l a r g u e , w h i l e t h e y must be n o t e d , a r e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than the d i f f e r e n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between c o l l e c t i v i t y and b u r e a u c r a c y as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms. The problems and compromises g e n e r a t e d by the da y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n . - 63 -2. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f power P r o b a b l y the most c e n t r a l t a s k f a c e d by b u r e a u c r a t i c and c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and a u t h o r i t y . The way i n w h i c h t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l ways i n whi c h power i s d e a l t w i t h , form the major bases o f c o n t r a s t between t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms. B u r e a u c r a c y i s o r g a n i z e d around the p r i n c i p l e o f h i e r a r c h y , based on a s y m m e t r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s u b o r d i n a t e s and s u p e r o r d i n a t e s . The power i s u l t i m a t e l y i n v e s t e d i n one person a t the top and f l o w s downward, n e g l i g i b l e amounts o f i t e v e r r e a c h i n g the lo w e s t l e v e l s o f the h i e r a r c h y ( K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s i n e q u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s i n h e r e n t i n our s o c i e t y ' s p r e v a l e n t i d e a s about the n e c e s s i t y o f l e a d e r s and o f the p e r s o n a l e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y . i n o r d e r f o r a group t o f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y as a team. A p r e v a i l i n g a s s u m p t i o n i n our s o c i e t y appears t o be t h a t i n o r d e r f o r a t a s k t o g et done, one person must t e l l a n o t h e r ( s u b o r d i n a t e ) p e r s o n t o do i t . Remuneration i n a b u r e a u c r a c y r e f l e c t s i t s h i e r a r c h i c a l f o r m a t : t h o s e a t the top o f the h i e r a r c h y e a r n many tim e s more than t h o s e a t the bottom. C o n t r o l i s one o f the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s o f b u r e a u c r a c y ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ; Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s assumed by the l e a d e r a t the top and by the managers - a whole c l a s s o f w o r k e r s whose p r i m a r y r o l e i s t o c o n t r o l t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s - a c c o r d i n g t o g u i d e l i n e s s e t by per s o n s above them i n the h i e r a r c h y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e j o f bureaucracy] l o o k s l i k e a pyramid and the p r e o c c u p a t i o n i s c o n t r o l . Sometimes t h e r e i s r e b e l l i o n and we r e a l i z e t h a t a l l a l o n g the a c t u a l power i s i n the p e o p l e and t h e i r c o m p l i a n c e . However, as long as p e o p l e a r e f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s o f t h e s t a t u s quo, c o n t r o l f l o w s down from the l e a d e r a t the t o p . ( K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 : 5 ) - 64 -B u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y may be based on c o n t r o l by e x p e r t i s e ; , 'on t h e b a s i s o f s u p e r i o r knowledge, o r on o b e d i e n c e f o r i t s own s a k e , whether o r not the person commanding o b e d i e n c e has g r e a t e r knowledge o r whether t h e c o n t r o l i s i n the i n t e r e s t o f tho s e whom i t governs ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 5 4 ; G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ; R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . In the terms d e f i n e d i n Chap t e r 1 , b u r e a u c r a c y maximizes power as dominance and m i n i m i z e s the use o f power as autonomy. Power as autonomy must be s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d i n a b u r e a u c r a c y ; w o r k e r s who a r e encouraged t o d e v e l o p autonomy c o u l d not be e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d ^ . However, some c r e a t i v i t y among employees i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the group. Autonomy and s e l f -m o t i v a t i o n a r e a l l o w e d , even encouraged i n c e r t a i n upwardly mobi 1e w o r k e r s and managers o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t they a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r advancement and t h e ass u m p t i o n o f g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the human r e l a t i o n s model o f b u r e a u c r a c y has encouraged a t l e a s t a semblance o f autonomy among i t s w o r k e r s , t h e o v e r a l l g o a l i s s t i l l one o f e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y and the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n one o f c o n t r o l from the top down ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 5 4 ; K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ; Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) . C o n t r o l and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y a r e f o r m a l and e x p l i c i t ; t hey a r e m a i n t a i n e d i n b u r e a u c r a c y p a r t l y by d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n and p a r t l y by i t s use o f d e f i n e d r u l e s , p r o c e d u r e s and s a n c t i o n s . ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 5 4 ; R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . I n c e n t i v e s a r e p r i m a r i l y m a t e r i a l ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . C o n t r o l i s m a i n t a i n e d t o a c c o m p l i s h g o a l s w h i c h may be r a t i o n a l and e x p e d i e n t f o r t h o s e who make t h e r u l e s w h i l e b e i n g n e i t h e r r a t i o n a l nor e x p e d i e n t f o r the w o r k e r s ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 5 4 : 2 0 - 2 1 ) . In c o n t r a s t , c o l l e c t i v i t y i s based on i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l members i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; a u t h o r i t y i s v e s t e d i n the whole group r a t h e r than i n any one i n d i v i d u a l ( R o t h s c h i I d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . - 6 5 -C o l l e c t i v i t y opposes both e x p e r t i s e and o b e d i e n c e f o r i t s own sake as bases f o r a u t h o r i t y . I t r e c o g n i z e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge and power and t h e r e f o r e works a g a i n s t the m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f e x p e r t i s e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f monies r e f l e c t s t h i s i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y . Remuneration i s u s u a l l y the same f o r a l l members o r e l s e i s a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o need. Where d i f f e r e n t i a l s e x i s t , they a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . R u l e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e a r e m i n i m i z e d and f l e x i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y m aximized. What r u l e s t h e r e a r e , and o f c o u r s e t h e r e a r e some, a r e made by the whole g r o u p , i n the i n t e r e s t s o f g o a l s s h a r e d by a l l group members. I n d i v i d u a l s a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o the group and t o each o t h e r i n a p e r s o n a l way. W h i l e l e s s f o r m a l and r a t i o n a l than t h o s e i n a b u r e a u c r a c y , r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s i n a c o l l e c t i v e a r e f a r from a r b i t r a r y . The p r e s s u r e s t o p e r f o r m and t o f u l f i l l commitments a r e persona 1 i s t i c and moral r a t h e r than m a t e r i a l ones ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 8 6 ) . P e o p l e who have ta k e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n making d e c i s i o n s and d e f i n i n g p o l i c i e s and who f e e l c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f , a r e a b l e t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h o s e d e c i s i o n s and p o l i c i e s . They a r e more l i k e l y w i l l i n g l y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r commitments i n terms o f s p e c i f i c j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the gr o u p , t h e r e b y o b v i a t i n g the need f o r a h i e r a r c h i c a l system o f command. The group's h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i t s members a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y . Some c o l l e c t i v e s use s t r u c t u r e d t e c h n i q u e s t o h e l p e n s u r e t h a t j o b s g e t done - such as p o s t e d s c h e d u l e s and d u t y r o s t e r s , l o g books and c h e c k - o f f l i s t s , and weekly r e v i e w s d u r i n g m e e t i n g s . I f i n d i v i d u a l s do not f u l f i l l o b l i g a t i o n s , moral p r e s s u r e s may be brought t o bear both by i n d i v i d u a l s ' d i s a p p r o v a l and by s t r u c t u r e d c r i t i c i s m s e s s i o n s . Gouldner (1954:241) not e s t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c r u l e s s e r v e t o r e g u l a t e the t e n s i o n s g e n e r a t e d by s u p e r v i s o r y r e l a t i o n s w i t h o u t r e s o l v i n g the t e n s i o n s which a r e i n h e r e n t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i n e q u a l i t y . C o l l e c t i v i t y t r i e s t o a t t a c k the - 6 6 -problem a t a more b a s i c l e v e l , t r y i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e ways o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r t h a t do not r e q u i r e r e l a t i o n s o f dominance and s u b m i s s i o n . W h i l e c o l l e c t i v i t y may thus be a more p r o b l e m a t i c and t e n s i o n - p r o d u c i n g work environment on one l e v e l , l a c k i n g r u l e s w h i c h a c t as s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n s t o w o r k e r t e n s i o n s , c o l l e c t i v i t y w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e s a s y m m e t r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as a b a s i s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g work, d e a l s more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t produce the t e n s i o n s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . C o l l e c t i v i t y a t t e m p t s t o maximize the use o f power as autonomy and t o m i n i m i z e i t s use as d o m i n a t i o n . At i t s b e s t , i t has succeeded i n s e p a r a t i n g t h e s e two t y p e s o f power: t o encourage group members t o d e v e l o p t h e i r i n n e r r e s o u r c e s , t h e i r s k i l l s and t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the group, and t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the l i m i t s o f t h e i r c a p a b i l i -t i e s w i t h o u t c o n t r o l l i n g o t h e r s . I t i s t h r o u g h m a x i m i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h r a t h e r than m i n i m i z i n g i t t h a t c o l l e c t i v e s t r y t o maximize t h e i r s t r e n g t h as o r g a n i z a t i o n s (see Bunch and F i s h e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . In the same way t h a t b u r e a u c r a c i e s embody and encourage i n t h e i r members the v a l u e s o f the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t u s quo, c o l l e c t i v e s s e r v e a c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g f u n c t i o n , i n e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r members t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own s t r e n g t h s and t o t a k e power not o n l y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n but i n s o c i e t y . Both b u r e a u c r a c y and e g a l i t a r i a n groups o r communit-iesirequi re a complex b a l a n c i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m a g a i n s t t h e needs o f the group (Whyte, 1 9 5 7 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms a r e ones o f power, i n e q u a l i t y , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In a b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the l e a s t p o w e r f u l a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y s a c r i f i c e d t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the most p o w e r f u l , w h i c h a r e most o f t e n p o s i t e d as t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the group as a whole ( G o u l d n e r , 1 9 5 4 ) . W i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e up autonomy i s not a m a t t e r o f c o n s c i o u s c h o i c e f o r most w o r k e r s , nor i s i t based on commitment t o the g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l autonomy and power a r e l i m i t e d by c o e r c i o n , w i t h wages and - 6 7 -p r o m o t i o n used as the weapons o f t h a t c o e r c i o n . Workers' s a c r i f i c e s may be made w i t h r e s e n t m e n t , w i t h r e s i g n a t i o n , o r w i t h an a c c e p t a n c e born o f a l i f e -t i m e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t has c o n v i n c e d them t h a t the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l on t h e b a s i s o f p o s i t i o n i n the o c c u p a t i o n system i s 'normal' (see H e i n z , f o r t h c o m i n g ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o l l e c t i v e s a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h a t "an o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . c a n n o t be c o m p r i s e d o f a c o l l e c t i o n o f autonomous w i l l s , each p u r s u i n g i t s own p e r s o n a l ends" ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 8 1 ) . In a c o l l e c t i v e , the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e s a c r i f i c e d t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the group as a r e s u l t o f c o n s c i o u s commitment t o group p r i n c i p l e s and g o a l s . The g o a l s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e same as t h o s e o f the group i t s e l f , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h , i n c o n t r a s t t o b u r e a u c r a c y , makes th e s a c r i f i c e a p e r s o n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t one. U n l i k e i n a b u r e a u c r a c y , i n a c o l l e c t i v e , a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t i s made t o f u l f i l l t he needs and r i g h t s o f each i n d i v i d u a l member and t o b a l a n c e t h e s e a g a i n s t the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e group. Because t h e r e i s no h i e r a r c h y o f groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s whose i n t e r e s t s a r e i n c o n f l i c t , t h e r e does not e x i s t the problem o f c e r t a i n r u l e s w o r k i n g i n the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e management but a g a i n s t the i n t e r e s t s o f the managed. Where c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the group do not c o i n c i d e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s commitment t o the group u s u a l l y makes h i m / h e r - w i 1 1 i n g t o s a c r i f i c e h i s / h e r s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s w i t h o u t f e e l i n g o p p r e s s e d o r e x p l o i t e d . ...one t h i n g I've r e a l l y l e a r n e d t o b e l i e v e i n t h r o u g h the C o l l e c t i v e , w h i c h I d i d n ' t have such a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n b e f o r e , i s p r o c e s s . I'm l e s s c o ncerned when group g o a l s don't c o i n c i d e w i t h mine, because I t h i n k t h a t p e o p l e can l e a r n , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s changes, and my c o n s c i o u s n e s s changes, and my g o a l s don^t n e c e s s a r i l y s t a y t h e same. That ' s an o n g o i n g p r o c e s s . . . (HC member , 1 9 7 4 ) The c o l l e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e o f s h a r i n g power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e s i n v o l v e m e n t i n and commitment t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole and t o i t s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and t h e r e f o r e more e f f o r t on the p a r t o f each i n d i v i d u a l - 68 -p a r t i c i p a n t . I t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o t a k e r e f u g e i n the c o m p l e x i t y and anonymity o f a b u r e a u c r a c y than t o f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and t o s h a r e i n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h o s e d e c i s i o n s , whether they a r e i n r e g a r d t o a s c h e d u l e f o r c l e a n - u p , who i s t o c h a i r a m e e t i n g , o r how t h e group i s t o r e l a t e t o a group o r p o l i c y o f the l a r g e r soc i e t y . . . . t h e r e ' s t h i s w o r l d out t h e r e t h a t i s j u s t v e r y hard on women, hard on p e o p l e , and c o m p e t i t i v e , and n o n - s u p p o r t i v e . . . a n d knowledge i s a s e c r e t , and t h e r e i s so much t h a t i s t r y i n g t o be d i f f e r e n t here...we r e a l l y work a t i t . . . r e a l l y work a t b e i n g a h e a l t h COLLECTIVE, and both o f t h o s e words a r e i m p o r t a n t . . . (HC member, 1974) In o r d e r t o have equal a c c e s s t o power, p a r t i c i p a n t s must have equal a c c e s s t o r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between power and i n f o r m a t i o n i s u n d e r s c o r e d by Pateman (1970). The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the group i s a major t i m e consumer w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v e s and i s one o f the main t a s k s a d d r e s s e d i n meetings and i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s commitment t o t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s , a g a i n , i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the system employed w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y . In b u r e a u c r a c i e s , w h i l e the impo r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d as a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power, i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y . I t i s w i t h h e l d from t h o s e a t t h e lower l e v e l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y p r e c i s e l y i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t them from assuming t o o much power. A l t h o u g h b o t h power and i n f o r m a t i o n a r e i m p e r f e c t l y s h a r e d and sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y w i t h h e l d i n c o l l e c t i v e s as w e l l as i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s , t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two modes. In a b u r e a u c r a c y t h i s i n e q u a l i t y i s o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , and t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t e n t l y p e r p e t u a t e d ; whereas i n a c o l l e c t i v e such p r a c t i c e s run c o u n t e r t o t he i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a r e n e g a t i v e l y s a n c t i o n e d . In c o l l e c t i v e s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , r a t h e r than i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g t he unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t r i e s t o e n s u r e i t s - 6 9 -broad d i s s e m i n a t i o n . What's i m p o r t a n t i n c o l l e c t i v i t y and i n consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s t h a t everyone i s encouraged t o s h a r e i n t h e knowledge, power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . We a l l have the p o t e n t i a l t o be p o w e r f u l and t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The C o l l e c t i v e can encourage t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t , and make new members r e a l i z e t h a t they have as much w o r t h and p o t e n t i a l as everyone e l s e . (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t p o i n t s out t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f power i n c o l l e c t i v e s and i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s r e f l e c t s s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n s about human b e i n g s and t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . C o l l e c t i v i t y " p r e s u p p o s e s the c a p a c i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s f o r s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d , c o - o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o u r " , a s p e c t s o f human b e i n g s w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e s " u n i v e r s a l l y and r o u t i n e l y e mphasize." ( 1 9 7 7 : 8 0 ) . B u r e a u c r a c y , on the o t h e r hand, assumes t h a t most p e o p l e need t o be t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s and t h a t they a r e p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by gr e e d and s e l f - i n t e r e s t . O f f i c i a l l y , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s run [by b u r e a u c r a t s ] d e i f y c o - o p e r a t i o n ; i n a c t u a l i t y , they remain p l a c e s where s u c c e s s s t i l l comes t o t h o s e m o t i v a t e d e s s e n t i a l l y by t h e o l d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , c o m p e t i t i v e d r i v e s . (Whyte, 1 9 5 7 : 1 5 6 ) W h i l e the f o r m a l r u l e s t h a t g o v e r n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a b u r e a u c r a c y may be grumbled about by p a r t i c i p a n t s , they a r e r a r e l y c h a l l e n g e d . A l o c a l u n i o n p r e s i d e n t commented on the l i m i t a t i o n s o f p l a n t w o r k e r s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r j o b s : T h e i r i d e a i s not t o run the p l a n t ; I don't t h i n k t h e y ' d know what t o do w i t h i t . They don't want t o t e l l t h e company what t o do... ( T e r k e l , 1 9 7 2 : 2 6 4 ) Pateman ( 1 9 7 0 ) t a k e s a c l o s e r l o o k a t w o r k e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and makes an i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between h i g h and low l e v e l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Workers s t u d i e d i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y work s e t t i n g s showed c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t lower l e v e l s , i n v o l v i n g e v e r y d a y work i s s u e s than t h e y d i d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i g h e r l e v e l d e c i s i o n s . Lack o f d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t h i g h e r l e v e l s may be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n l a r g e p a r t by s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o e x i s t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e s where r u l e by - 70 -v i r t u e o f f o r m a l e x p e r t i s e and p o s i t i o n on the h i e r a r c h y i s a c c e p t e d as n e c e s s a r y (Pateman, 1970:83; see a l s o H e i n z , f o r t h c o m i n g ) . However, Pateman ar g u e s t h a t w o r k e r s l e a r n t o p a r t i c i p a t e by p a r t i c i p a t i n g , t h a t t he s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and sense o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y g a i n e d by al m o s t any degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n has a g e n e r a l i z i n g e f f e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f the p o s s i b ? 1 i t i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o t h e r ways and i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s . Lower l e v e l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o be more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e w o r k e r s ' d e s i r e s f o r h i g h e r l e v e l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r r e a l power. Such a c i r c u l a r development r e v e r s e s the v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s i n whi c h most w o r k e r s a r e caught i n t r a d i t i o n a l work s e t t i n g s . The f o r m a l r u l e s and h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f v a l u e s common t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y : o r d e r , o b e d i e n c e , f o r m a l r a t i o n a l i t y and i m p e r s o n a l i t y . These v a l u e s a r e f i r m l y h e l d by many o f s o c i e t y ' s members who would not under p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s choose the freedom and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a c o l l e c t i v e way o f w o r k i n g and who R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t d e s c r i b e s as h a v i n g a " n o n - d e m o c r a t i c " c h a r a c t e r (1977:109). When f e m i n i s t s and o t h e r s o c i a l movement a c t i v i s t s c h a l l e n g e h i e r a r c h i c a l , b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y a r e c h a l l e n g i n g t h e s e v a l u e s . In r e a c t i o n t o the c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and r i g i d s t r u c t u r e o f the b u r e a u c r a c y , many o f t h e s e a c t i v i s t s a t t e m p t e d t o form s t r u c t u r e l e s s , l e a d e r l e s s groups (Bunch and F i s h e r , 1976; Kokopel? and Lakey, 1978) w h i c h were o f t e n u n s u c c e s s -3 f u l . . However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e - i t e r a t e here t h a t f a r from b e i n g s t r u c t u r e -l e s s , a we 1 1-developed c o l l e c t i v e has i n v e n t e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s t o a s s u r e i t s smooth f u n c t i o n i n g and t o speed up i t s o f t e n cumbersome p r o c e s s e s . P r e c i s e l y because i n f o r m a l h i e r a r c h y and l e a d e r s h i p do emerge t o some e x t e n t i n c o l l e c t i v e s , s a f e g u a r d s a r e b u i l t i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e i r development and entrenchment. - 71 -The development i n c o l l e c t i v e s o f t h e s e p o w e r - s h a r i n g s t r u c t u r e s h i g h l i g h t s one d i f f e r e n c e between c o l l e c t i v e s and communes. Many communes e i t h e r aim f o r freedom from a l l s t r u c t u r e s o r o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s around a dominant l e a d e r ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . K a n t e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t r a t h e r than f r e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s from a l l a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s , many communes succeed o n l y i n s u b j e c t i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s . Most p r e s e n t - d a y c o l l e c t i v e s , on the o t h e r hand, do not aim f o r a l a c k o f s t r u c t u r e . R a t h e r , they aim t o e s t a b l i s h d i f f e r e n t , more f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e s o v e r w h i c h members have some c o n t r o l . Coover e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; Freeman ( 1 9 7 5 ) ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; J o r e e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; Lyons: ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; Mansbridge ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; and R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) a r e among t h o s e who have l i s t e d s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r e n s u r i n g t h e e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e the l i m i t -i n g o f p e r s o n a l autonomy w i t h i n the group. These t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e a p l u r a l -i t y o f t a s k s and wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h o s e t a s k s among members o f the group; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each i n d i v i d u a l t o the gro u p , whether f o r a ccomplishment o f s p e c i f i c t a s k s o r a u t h o r i t y f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge and s k i l l s by the s k i l l e d t e a c h i n g the u n s k i l l e d , by r o t a t i o n o f t a s k s o f both a r o u t i n e and a d i r e c t i n g n a t u r e , and by s t u d y g r o u p s ; m e e t i n g t e c h n i q u e s d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s s h a r e d , e v e r y o n e i s h e a r d , and the f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n o f each i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e a k i n g i s c o n t r o l l e d ; p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h may o r may not be based on the consensus model; development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t t e c h n i q u e s , a s u p p o r t system f o r newcomers, and the use o f p r o f e s s i o n a l group If f a c i l i t a t o r s and c r i t i c i s m / s e l f - c r i t i c i s m t e c h n i q u e s . Among t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s h a r i n g o f power, t h r e e s t a n d o u t as d e s e r v i n g o f a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . These a r e l e a d e r s h i p , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and t a s k a l l o c a t i o n . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s however, i t s h o u l d be re-emphasized t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the t e c h n i q u e s l i s t e d above, - 7 2 -members' p e r s o n a l commitment" t o the s h a r i n g o f power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m i l i -t a t e s a g a i n s t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power. T h i s s h a r i n g r e q u i r e s a commitment t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i t s e l f , an i d e o l o g i c a l commitment beyond t h a t w h i c h most w o r k e r s have t o the t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s w h i c h c l a i m e i g h t h o u rs o f t h e i r day. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n commitment and m o t i v a t i o n o f w o r k e r s c o n s t i t u t e s one o f the most s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t s between the n a t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y . T h i s c o n t r a s t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g comments from th e p r e s i d e n t o f an a u t o m o t i v e w o r k e r s ' l o c a l u n i o n and from a w o r k e r i n a f e m i n i s t c o l l e c t i v e . The guys a r e not happy h e r e . They don't come home and t h i n k , Boy, I d i d a g r e a t j o b today and I c a n ' t w a i t t o g e t back tomorrow. T h a t ' s not the f e e l i n g a t a l l . I don't t h i n k he t h i n k s a b l a s t e d t h i n g about the p l a n t u n t i l he comes back. He's not c o n c e r n e d a t a l l i f t h e p r o d u c t ' s good, bad, o r i n d i f f e r e n t . ( T e r k e l , 1 9 7 2 : 2 6 4 ) I f e e l b e t t e r about my i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e C o l l e c t i v e than I've f e l t about a n y t h i n g e l s e I've e v e r done...I f e e l t h a t I've been t o t a l l y honest w i t h m y s e l f , and r e a l l y e x p r e s s e d whatever I had t o e x p r e s s . I've r e a l l y p l a y e d out a l o t o f q u a l i t i e s and t h a t ' s been v e r y s a t i s f y i n g . . . w h i c h makes i t j u s t i m p o s s i b l e f o r me t o imagine what e l s e I'm g o i n g t o do so t h a t I can s t a y i n a s i t u a t i o n where I can r e a l l y be m y s e l f , r i g h t deep down, a t t h e b a s i c l e v e l . . . ( H C member, 1 9 7 4 ) 3. L e a d e r s h i p Both b u r e a u c r a c i e s and. c o l 1 ecti'ves'have t o d e a l w i t h v e r y g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s among p e o p l e i n terms o f a p t i t u d e s , c o m p e t e n c i e s , knowledge and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . Both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms have a l s o t o d e a l w i t h the need f o r d i r e c t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s . These two f a c t o r s combine t o shape i s s u e s o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y , a need f o r s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p i s assumed and t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e f i r m l y i n p l a c e f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s need. In what K o k o p e l i and Lakey c a l l " p a t r i a r c h a l l e a d e r s h i p " , whether a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c , . . .the f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s v e s t e d i n one p e r s o n . . . However much d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y t h e r e i s , t h e u l t i m a t e power r e s t s w i t h the person a t t h e t o p . ( 1 9 7 8 : 5 ) - 7 3 -What we commonly u n d e r s t a n d as ' l e a d e r s h i p ' q u a l i t i e s a r e c u l t i v a t e d i n t h o s e who a r e moving upward i n the h i e r a r c h y and a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d among t h o s e who i t i s assumed w i l l remain a t the bottom. In c o n t r a s t , a c o l l e c t i v e i s s t r u c t u r e d t o p r e c l u d e l e a d e r s . In t h e o r y , a l l members o f a c o l l e c t i v e a r e equal p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r u n n i n g o f the o r g a n -i z a t i o n , b oth i n making and i n c a r r y i n g o u t d e c i s i o n s . ...any groups t h a t I've been i n v o l v e d i n b e f o r e , i t ' s been l i k e the p r e s i d e n t , t h e b o s s , you know, t h a t whole k i n d o f s t r u c t u r e , and i t j u s t f a s c i n a t e d me i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h a t c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s , where t h e r e ' s a c t u a l l y no b o s s , o r when...somebody from o u t s i d e wants an answer t o a q u e s t i o n , say about whether we w i l l a g r e e t o do a speak-ing engagement, and you have t o s a y , " W e l l , I c a n ' t g i v e an answer r i g h t now" and they s a y , " W e l l , who's th e boss ?" and you s a y , " W e l l , t h e r e i s no b o s s " and t h e y s a y , " W e l l , how can I f i n d out ?" and you s a y , " W e l l , i t has t o be brought up a t a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g and w e ' l l a l l d e c i d e " . . . t h a t r e a l l y f l a b b e r g a s t s p e o p l e ! (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) In p r a c t i c e , however, most c o l l e c t i v e s do have l e a d e r s . A l t h o u g h a l l c o - o r d i n a t i n g and c h a i r i n g p o s i t i o n s a r e r o t a t e d , members who a r e more e x p e r i -enced, k n o w l e d g e a b l e , a s s e r t i v e o r p e r s o n a l l y a p p e a l i n g do p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p , a f a c t w h i c h causes a m b i v a l e n c e and d i s c o m f o r t i n t h e group. There a r e d e f i n i t e l y l e a d e r s i n t h e C o l l e c t i v e . I t would be d i s -h onest t o say t h e r e a r e n o t . And t h a t ' s okay f o r them t o be leaders...my tendency w i t h i n t h e C o l l e c t i v e was t o deny my l e a d i n g a b i l i t y . That wasn't always an honest t h i n g f o r me t o do. (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) The f o l l o w i n g comment r e l a t e s t o the power o f i n f o r m a t i o n as a b a s i s o f l e a d e r -s h i p : One way [ p e o p l e g e t power a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ] i s by b e i n g here a l o t , and knowing e v e r y t h i n g t h a t ' s g o i n g on. A n o t h e r way i s by b e i n g h e r e f o r a long t i m e , so t h a t t h e y have a l o t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o g i v e t o o t h e r s . (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) P a r t l y because o f t e c h n i q u e s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n and power, such l e a d e r s h i p i s more f l e x i b l e and open i n a c o l l e c t i v e than i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . L e a d e r s h i p t h a t i s not f o r m a l i z e d and t h a t i s c o u p l e d w i t h a commitment t o s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e s s e n t r e n c h e d than i s f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n committed t o a - 7 4 -h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . K o k o p e l i and Lakey p o i n t out t h a t ' d e m o c r a t i z e d l e a d e r s h i p ' s p r e a d s l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s around among more group members, and t h a t where a l l group members can e x e r c i s e l e a d e r s h i p , members w i l l t a k e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the group ( 1 9 7 8 : 9 ) . Here I can be more o f a l e a d e r than I would be e l s e w h e r e . I t h i n k we encourage l e a d e r s h i p i n each o t h e r . (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) The C o l l e c t i v e has been r e a l l y good because I've had a chance t o work ou t a l o t o f s t u f f . . . around b e i n g competent and b e i n g i n c h a r g e , b e i n g a b l e t o d o . . . t h i n g s enough t h a t I f e l t competent enough t o t a k e on l o t s o f r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y . . . I ' v e d e v e l o p e d a l o t o f c o n f i d e n c e . I can go and speaknow t o groups o f p e o p l e p r e t t y much a t e a s e , and a c o u p l e o f y e a r s ago you wouldn't have dragged me t o speak t o anybody. (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) T h i s empowering a s p e c t i s an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v i t y and has p r o v i d e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r many c o l l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o remain i n v o l v e d i n a group d e s p i t e p r e s s u r e s o f money s h o r t a g e s , t i m e , and e m o t i o n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l and ccR.sci o u s n e s s - r a i s i ng f u n c t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i n c o m b a t t i n g n o n - d e m o c r a t i c t e n d e n c i e s i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ( R o t h s c h i l d -W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . P e o p l e who t h i n k o f th e m s e l v e s as p o w e r f u l and who have a t t a i n e d p o s i t i o n s o f s t r e n g t h have had t o l e a r n how t o g i v e up some o f t h e i r power i n o r d e r t o a v o i d d o m i n a t i n g o t h e r , l e s s p o w e r f u l members. E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t as the empowering p r o c e s s i s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f r e a l i z i n g p e r s o n a l power w i t h o u t u s i n g t h a t power t o c o n t r o l o t h e r s . The c o l l e c t i v e says a l o t t o me about l e a r n i n g how t o s h a r e s k i l l s and l e a r n i n g how t o g i v e up a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t you g e t from b e i n g good a t something - b e i n g a p o w e r f u l p e r s o n and an i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n . I t j u s t p o i n t s up t o me t h a t a l l the i d e a l s a r e p o s s i b l e . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) 4 . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d i f f e r s i n b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y i n terms o f who makes t h e d e c i s i o n s , t h e p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h they a r e made, and what f a c t o r s a r e a d m i s s a b l e i n making them. In a h i e r a r c h y , d e c i s i o n s a r e made a t t h e t o p , by i n d i v i d u a l s o r s m a l l c o m m i t t e e s , and passed down t o t h o s e a t t h e lower l e v e l s , - 7 5 -o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and resentments on the p a r t o f t h o s e who know t h a t t h e y have v i r t u a l l y no i n f l u e n c e on the d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r j o b s and t h e i r w o r k i n g l i v e s (see T e r k e l , 1 9 7 2 ) . Where d e c i s i o n s a r e opened up t o the group as a wh o l e , v o t i n g i s used, u s u a l l y w i t h l i t t l e o r no d i s c u s s i o n a t the rank and f i l e l e v e l . The m a j o r i t y r u l e s , o f t e n l e a v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l d i s s a t i s f i e d m i n o r i t y . Even where a t t e m p t s a r e made t o g e t i n p u t o r f e e d b a c k from t h o s e a t the lower l e v e l s , i t i s common knowledge w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y t h a t the power f o r the f i n a l d e c i s i o n r e s t s w i t h 'the b o s s 1 . In some c a s e s , d e c e n t -r a l i z e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and even the appearance o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t any r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f c o n t r o l from the t o p , because the p r e m i s e s on w h i c h such d e c i s i o n s a r e based a r e c o n t r o l l e d ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 8 6 ) . In s p i t e o f p e r s o n a l resentments and f r u s t r a t i o n , most p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t the b u r e a u c r a c y a c c e p t the p r e m i s e t h a t such a system i s the o n l y way t h a t d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be made. Many employees would not even be p r e p a r e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e l e n g t h y and demanding p r o c e s s e s o f ge n u i n e p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (Pateman, 1 9 7 0 ; R o t h s c h i I d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ; T e r k e l , 1 9 7 2 ) . In c o l l e c t i v e s , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s p a r t i c i p a t o r y , and d e c i s i o n s a r e nego-t i a t e d ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 8 2 ) . Not a l l c o l l e c t i v e s use consensus d e c i s i o n -making, but a l l c o l l e c t i v e s use some method o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t i s more p a r t i c i p a t o r y than t h a t used i n b u r e a u c r a c y . Because consensus d e c i s i o n -making p r o v i d e s the most s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and w i t h v o t i n g and t h e r e f o r e b e s t i l l u m i n a t e s t h o s e a s p e c t s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t t h e i r opponents c r i t i c i z e , consensus w i l l be t h e method d e s c r i b e d h e r e . Consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r e s s e s each p e r s o n ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . Each p e r s o n ' s r i g h t t o be heard i s emphasized, and d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l an agreement i s reach e d . In both consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and - 76 -i n v o t i n g , a l t h o u g h e veryone may not a g r e e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n was the b e s t t h a t c o u l d have been made, everyone must a t l e a s t a g r e e t o a c c e p t t h a t d e c i s i o n and t o c a r r y i t o u t . Where the p r o c e s s o f consensus d i f f e r s from t h a t o f v o t i n g i s t h a t i n the f o r m e r , m i n o r i t y v i e w s a r e d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h and t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n the s e a r c h f o r a s o l u t i o n . Because p e o p l e a r e not p o l a r -i z e d i n t o a yes/no v o t e , t h e r e i s i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f i n d i n g a m i d d l e ground; compromise i s seen as a p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than an i n e f f e c t u a l s o l u t i o n , one w h i c h might not have been sought out i n a d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e (Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , 1977). One o f the reasons why c o l l e c t i v e s do, i n most c a s e s , manage t o r e a c h an ap p a r e n t consensus may be the degree o f i d e o l o g -i c a l homogeneity amongst members ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1977)- P a r t i c i p a n t s ' b e l i e f i n t h e c o n c e p t o f consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and commitment t o s e a r c h i n g f o r compromise s o l u t i o n s o f t e n o v e r r i d e a s p e c i f i c d i s a g r e e m e n t . I f i n d t h a t I r e s p e c t p e o p l e h e r e . Even i f I d i s a g r e e , I'm w i l l i n g t o t r y s o m e t h i n g , because I'm committed t o c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h p e o p l e . I t ' s commitment t o the p r o c e s s . (HC member, 1976) I don't t h i n k anybody goes away f e e l i n g bad... because i f t h e r e ' s somebody f e e l i n g one way and somebody e l s e f e e l i n g a n o t h e r way, t h e r e ' s u s u a l l y somebody who can come a l o n g and p i c k up something t h a t ' s i n the m i d d l e o f t h o s e two, t h a t f e e l s good t o e verybody. J u s t t h e f a c t t h a t i t ' s r e a l l y w o r k i n g , t h a t was the t h i n g t h a t amazed me most, from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . . . ( H C member, 1976) The i n n o v a t i v e n a t u r e o f c o l 1 e c t i v e s m e a n s t h a t d e c i s i o n s a r e not made t o st a n d f o r i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d s o f t i m e . There i s a sense i n c o l l e c t i v e s t h a t i f something does not work, i t can be changed, o r a d e c i s i o n r e v o k e d . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y sometimes makes i t e a s i e r f o r p e o p l e t o a g r e e t o t r y out a p o l i c y w i t h w h i c h they do not f e e l e n t i r e l y c o m f o r t a b l e . Group s i z e i s a c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r making d e c i s i o n s . The s m a l l e r the g r o u p , t h e e a s i e r i t i s t o i n c l u d e a l l members as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d e c i s i o n . As the group becomes l a r g e r , more members a r e l i k e l y t o remain p a s s i v e and the p r o c e s s becomes more l e n g t h y and - 7 7 -complex. Beyond a c e r t a i n s i z e , consensus methods i n v o l v i n g a l l members a r e s i m p l y too cumbersome, and a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s must be d e v e l o p e d . These a l t e r n a t i v e methods w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e some form o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n but may a l s o i n c l u d e consensus d e c i s i o n -making w i t h i n a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d body o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Even w i t h i n l a r g e g r o u p s , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t f o r d e c e n t r a l i z i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and thus c r e a t i n g a s i t u a t i o n where consensus methods a r e p r a c t i c a l w i t h i n manageable groups a t a v a r i e t y o f l e v e l s . A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h b u r e a u c r a t i c and c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g d i f f e r s i s in the a d m i s s a b i 1 i t y o f n o n - r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . In b u r e a u c r a c i e s , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s above a l l a r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s ; emotion i s c o n s i d e r e d d y s f u n c t i o n a l ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s r a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was emphasized by Weber as a c o n t r a l s t r e n g t h o f b u r e a u c r a c y . H o c h s c h i l d i s c r i t i c a l o f Weber i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f r a t i o n a l a c t i o n , i n w h i c h she f e e l s he c o n f u s e s r a t i o n a l i t y and e m o t i o n l e s s n e s s and i m p l i e s t h a t : ...emotions and f e e l i n g s a r e not p o s i t i v e l y r e q u i r e d by t h e r a t i o n a l a c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e smooth f u n c t i o n i n g o f i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( H o c h s c h i I d , 1 9 7 5 : 2 0 4 ) . H o c h s c h i l d p o i n t s out t h a t emotions a r e a p a r t o f the e v e r y d a y , r a t i o n a l f u n c -• t i o n i n g o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a r e not r e s t r i c t e d t o c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , when they may l e a d t o i r r a t i o n a l a c t i o n . The b i a s a g a i n s t emotion and i n t u i t i o n i n the w o r k p l a c e i s nowhere as e v i d e n t as i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . To under-s t a n d the e x t e n t t o wh i c h t h i s b i a s shapes t h a t p r o c e s s , i t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o imagine the form t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g would t a k e i f i t was based on t h e assump-t i o n t h a t emotion and i n t u i t i o n were the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r d e c i s i o n -making and reason was used as a check on e m o t i o n a l and i n t u i t i v e f a c t o r s and, i n some c a s e s , t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i d e a s and c o n c e p t s t h a t t h e y i n i t i a t e d . - 7 8 -Even the human r e l a t i o n s model o f bure a u c r a c y , d i d not c h a l l e n g e the p r i m a c y o f reason as the g o v e r n i n g f a c t o r i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ; Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) . " I n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " - t h e p l a y o f e m o t i o n , s e n t i m e n t , and p o l i t i c s - c o n t i n u e d t o be s t u d i e d p r i m a r i l y among l o w e r - r a n k i n g p e r s o n n e l , l e a v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t o n l y w o r k e r s , and not managers, base t h e i r a c t i o n s on " i r r a t i o n a l " f a c t o r s . ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 : 2 4 ) K a n t e r goes on t o d e s c r i b e the r a t i o n a l e by w h i c h emotion was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o b u r e a u c r a c y . When human r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y f i l t e r e d i n t o t h e management l e v e l o f c o r p o r a t i o n s i n the form o f s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g groups i n t h e l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s , i t c o e x i s t e d a l o n g s i d e t h e o r i e s and t e c h n i q u e s f o r r a t i o n a 1 . d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S e n s i t i v i t y groups were c o n s i d e r e d a v e h i c l e f o r l e a r n i n g about r e l a t i o n s h i p s so as t o m a s t e r , not u n l e a s h , e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 : 2 4 ) In c o l l e c t i v e s , on the o t h e r hand, emotion and i n t u i t i o n a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t he d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . A d v o c a t e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e committed t o the development o f t h e whole p e r s o n , i n c l u d i n g both t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l / c o g n i t i v e and t h e i r e m o t i o n a 1 / i n t u i t i v e a s p e c t s ; f u r t h e r m o r e , p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c o g n i z e t h a t e m o t i o n , i n a p r a c t i c a l s e n s e , i s an i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f human i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e must be acknowledged and u t i l i z e d r a t h e r than i g n o r e d o r r e p r e s s e d . As e m o t i o n s . a r e much more a t the f o r e f r o n t o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n a s m a l l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y group than i n an im p e r s o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y , d e a l i n g w i t h them becomes much more i m p e r a t i v e . Such an i n c r e a s e i n e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i s l i k e l y t o accompany any a t t e m p t s t o i n t r o d u c e a s p e c t s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i n t o l a r g e r , more t r a d i t i o n a l g r o u p s . In f a c e - t o - f a c e g r o u p s , a p e r s o n ' s i d e a s become h e a v i l y e n t w i n e d w i t h h i s e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e l f . . . p r e s s u r e s i n c r e a s e t o make d e c i s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than on the grounds o f " r a t i o n a l " , c o s t - b e n e f i t , s e l f - i n t e r e s t . ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 : 3 5 8 ) One major e f f e c t o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g emotion i n t o group p r o c e s s e s i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s have the freedom t o e x p r e s s doubts o r i n s e c u r i t i e s w i t h o u t f e a r o f - 7 9 -b e i n g d i s c o u n t e d i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o r l o s i n g t he r e s p e c t o f c o l l e a g u e s ( G a l p e r and Washburne, 1 9 7 6 : 5 0 ) . 5 . D i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r B u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s based on a p r i n c i p l e o f r a t i o n a l l y d i v i d i n g work up i n t o s e p a r a t e , d e l i m i t e d t a s k s , w h i c h can be e a s i l y mastered and a r e not s u b j e c t t o the d i s t r a c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n ' t r y i n g t o do more than one j o b a t once.' A s t r u c t u r e b u i l t o f s e p a r a t e r o l e s r a t h e r than o f whole p e r s o n s a l l o w s the i n d i v i d u a l and the system t o behave more r a t i o n a l l y . (Simpson, 1 9 7 2 : 1 ) H e r b s t ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f b u r e a u c r a t i c d e s i g n i s t h e s p l i t t i n g o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g from t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . R o l e s a r e s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ; Simpson, 1 9 7 2 ) and imp e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s encouraged ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ) i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e d i s t r a c t i o n from the p r o d u c t i v e goals o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and maximize e f f i c i e n c y . Such a s e p a r a t i o n o f j o b s i n t o s p e c i f i c t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o s p e c i f i c groups o f p e o p l e n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new c l a s s o f w o r k e r s , c a l l e d managers, t o o v e r -see and c o - o r d i n a t e t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i f i c p a r t s o f the whole. In a b u r e a u c r a c y , j o b s , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , a r e d i s t r i b u t e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . The most c r e a t i v e j o b s , w i t h the g r e a t e s t autonomy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e done by t h o s e a t the top o f the h i e r a r c h y , w h i l e t h e most r o u t i n e , b o r i n g and c i r c u m s c r i b e d j o b s a r e done by t h o s e a t the bottom. T y p i c a l l y , p e o p l e e s t a b l i s h c a r e e r s by a d v a n c i n g up t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c l a d d e r . Such a p a t t e r n o f work a l l o c a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , s u p p o r t s t h e e n t i r e b u r e a u c r a t i c system: i n f o r m a t i o n and power a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g l y so t h a t t h o s e a t the bottom can be more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h o s e a t the t o p . F u r t h e r m o r e , j o b s a r e a s s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e x u a l s t e r e o t y p e s o f our s o c i e t y , r e s u l t i n g i n men d o m i n a t i n g the top l e v e l s and women p r e d o m i n a t i n g i n t h e lower l e v e l s . Men do the t h i n k i n g and make the p o l i c i e s , w h i l e women do the c a r e t a k i n g t a s k s ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ; Korda, - 80 -1 9 7 3 ; Shepard, 1 9 7 7 ) . When t h e g o a l s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e not p r i m a r i l y r a t i o n a l i t y and e f f i c -i e n c y , then t h e r e i s no l o n g e r the same p r e s s u r e t o d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y i n terms o f s p e c i f i c r o l e s . Indeed, when the g o a l s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l wholeness and the e q ual d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge and power, then t h e r i g i d s e p a r a t i o n o f r o l e s becomes c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t s t a t e s t h a t : . . . t h e e g a l i t a r i a n and p a r t i c i p a t o r y i d e a l s o f the c o l l e c t i v i s t o r g a n - i z a t i o n can p r o b a b l y not be r e a l i z e d where g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n  members' a b i l i t i e s t o p e r f o r m o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s . For t h i s r e a s o n , some a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . d e v o t e a g r e a t d e a l o f energy t o r o t a t i n g t a s k s and t o c u l t i v a t i n g a genera 1 knowledge about the work i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p l a c e o f s p e c i a l i z e d e x p e r t i s e . ( 1 9 7 6:48, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) W i t h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h t u r n - o v e r o f s t a f f , j o b r o t a t i o n and t a s k s h a r i n g h e l p e n s u r e t h a t no one p e r s on becomes i n d i s p e n s a b l e . One woman spoke o f t h i s p r a c t i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o power: I f a c o - o r d i n a t i n g j o b i s on a r o t a t i n g b a s i s , then i t i s n ' t as i f one p e r s o n has a l l the power, and e v eryone e l s e w i l l s t a r t t u r n i n g t o her f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . . . T h i s i s what we a l l have a r e a l f e a r o f , o f not s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and not s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i 1 i t y . . . ( H C member, 1 9 7 4 ) E x c l u s i v e l e a d e r s h i p depends on t h e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f t a s k s ; t h e r e f o r e , one purpose o f t a s k r o t a t i o n i s t o d e m y s t i f y the n a t u r e o f a l l t a s k s i n the o r g a n -i z a t i o n and make the s k i l l s t o master them a v a i l a b l e t o a l l members. . . . d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n . . . s o w e l l d i s t i n g u i s h e s the e t h o s o f . . . c o l 1 e c t i v i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s from t h a t o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . For demyst-i f i c a t i o n e n t a i l s , i n i t s e s s e n c e , the n e g a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s i n most s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The c e n t r a l purpose o f t h i s d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s t o b reak down the u s u a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and p r e t e n c e o f e x p e r t i s e , and t o t h e r e b y a l l o w a l l members o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e more e q u a l l y i n i t s c o n t r o l . ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1976:82) In such a s i t u a t i o n , where t h e r e i s no h i e r a r c h y o f p o s i t i o n s , c a r e e r advance-ment i s not a m e a n i n g f u l c o n c e p t ( R o c h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) -The freedom and the c h a l l e n g e o f the c o l l e c t i v e ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g comment: - 81 -Many o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t were happening a t th e C o l l e c t i v e were t h e k i n d o f t h i n g s I had always wanted t o do i n n u r s i n g , but because o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . . . w a s never a l l o w e d t o do. I was never a l l o w e d t o r e a l l y t h i n k and make d e c i s i o n s on the k i n d o f l e v e l t h a t 1 was a l l o w e d and encouraged t o do a t th e H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e . (HC member, 1974) At t h e s i m p l e s t l e v e l , j o b r o t a t i o n and t a s k s h a r i n g i s an at t e m p t t o e n a b l e e v e r y o n e t o s h a r e i n both the i n t e r e s t i n g , c r e a t i v e t a s k s and the b o r i n g , dead-end ones ( G a l p e r and Washburne, 1976:48). At a n o t h e r l e v e l , i t i s an a t t e m p t t o e q u a l l y s h a r e t he power and c o n t r o l o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, the i s s u e i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one; not a l l c o l l e c t i v e f e m i n i s t groups have chosen t o i n c o r p o r a t e t a s k r o t a t i o n i n the same way o r f o r t h e same reason s ( H a r t s o c k , 1976-77). 6. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e A g r e a t d e a l o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e o f c o l l e c t i v e s and b u r e a u c r a c i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by th e p r o c e s s / p r o d u c t debate w i t h i n t he c o l l e c t i v e movement i t s e l f . A l t h o u g h t h e r e can be no s i m p l e e q u a t i o n o f bur-e a u c r a c y w i t h p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v i t y w i t h p r o c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n , t he n a t u r e and emphases o f the p r o c e s s e s used by each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t . The p r o c e s s o f b u r e a u c r a c y i s not u n i m p o r t a n t , but i t i s not v a l u e d i n and o f i t s e l f i n the same way i t i s i n a c o l l e c t i v e . The p r o c e s s js^ i m p o r t a n t t o p r o d u c t p e o p l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t work s m o o t h l y , be known t o e v e r y o n e , be f o l l o w e d c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y , and be m o d i f i e d i n f r e q u e n t l y , so t h a t . l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n need be p a i d t o i t . (Crow, 1978:17, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) The s t y l e o f b u r e a u c r a c y i s o r d e r e d and p r e d i c t a b l e ; t h e 'human e l e m e n t 1 i s m i n i m i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d by f o r m a l r u l e s and i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t e x p e c t a t i o n s . The n a t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y , w r i t e s Weber: .. . d e v e l o p s t h e more p e r f e c t l y t h e more t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i s 'dehumanized 1, t h e more c o m p l e t e l y i t succeeds i n e l i m i n a t i n g from o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s l o v e , h a t r e d , and a l l p u r e l y p e r s o n a l , i r r a t i o n a l , and e m o t i o n a l elements w h i c h escape c a l c u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y and i t i s a p p r a i s e d as i t s s p e c i a l v i r t u e . ( G e r t h and M i l l s , 1958:216) - 82 -In a h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m b a s e d on r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s u p e r i o r i t y - i n f e r i o r i t y ( H e r b s t , 1976 ) , w h e r e o n e must b e a t o u t someone e l s e i n o r d e r t o g a i n a r u n g , t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' s e n s e o f t h e m s e l v e s a s a c c e p t a b l e p e o p l e . I f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t s y s t e m a l l o w e d t h e m s e l v e s t o f e e l d e e p l y - e i t h e r t h e h u m i l i a t i o n o r a n g e r o f b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y c o n t r o l l e d by o t h e r s , o r , a t t h e u p p e r l e v e l s , t h e shame o f o p p r e s s -i n g o t h e r s o r t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t m u s t be w e l l c o n c e a l e d - t h e s y s t e m w o u l d be i n d a n g e r . In h i s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h w o r k e r s , T e r k e l (1972) h a s r e c o r d e d t h i s d e n i a l o f e m o t i o n s a n d some o f t h e p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t a n d a n g e r t h a t i t c a u s e s . A s u p e r -v i s o r d e s c r i b e s h i s c o n f l i c t i n a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e he t a k e s a n o l d e r woman o f f t h e j o b i n f a v o u r o f a y o u n g e r o n e : My f e e l i n g s c a n ' t come i n t o p l a y . What I do i s w h a t I h a v e t o d o . T h i s d o e s n ' t mean I w o n ' t g e t g r e y h a i r s , o r f e e l k i n d o f b a d . . . (p. 5 2 2 , e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) A p r e s i d e n t o f a l o c a l a u t o w o r k e r s ' u n i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n a t a G e n e r a l M o t o r s p l a n t : . . . [ t h e y ] t r y t o t a k e e v e r y movement o u t o f t h e g u y ' s d a y , s o he c o u l d c o n s e r v e s e c o n d s . . . t o make h i m more e f f i c i e n t , m o r e p r o d u c t i v e , l i k e a r o b o t . . . O u r a r g u m e n t h a s a l w a y s b e e n : T h a t ' s m e c h a n i c a l , t h a t ' s n o t human. The w o r k e r s s a i d , We p e r s p i r e , we s w e a t , we h a v e h a n g - o v e r s , we h a v e u p s e t s t o m a c h s , we h a v e f e e l i n g s a n d e m o t i o n s , a n d w e ' r e n o t a b o u t t o be p l a c e d i n a c a t e g o r y o f a m a c h i n e . When y o u t a l k a b o u t t h a t w a t c h , y o u t a l k a b o u t i t f o r a m i n u t e . We t a l k a b o u t a 1 i f e t i m e . . . ( T e r k e l , 1972:261) Women who v e n t u r e o u t o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e i n t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e a r e , w i t h a f e w e x c e p t i o n s , s u b j e c t t o t h e same s t r i c t u r e s a s a r e men. A s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s p e o p l e h a v e o f h e r : You h a v e t o h a v e a n i c e s m i l i n g v o i c e . Y o u c a n ' t be a n g r y o r come i n l i k e y o u ' v e b e e n o u t t h e n i g h t b e f o r e . . . Y o u a l w a y s h a v e t o be p l e a s a n t - no m a t t e r how bad y o u f e e l . ( T e r k e l , 1972:61) A l o n g d i s t a n c e o p e r a t o r p o i n t s o u t t h e i r o n y o f t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e a l l d a y , y e t - 83 -b e i n g u n a b l e r e a l l y t o t a l k t o anyone: A b i g t h i n g i s not t o t a l k w i t h a customer. I f you g e t caught t a l k i n g w i t h a custom e r , t h a t ' s one mark a g a i n s t you. You c a n ' t h e l p but want t o t a l k t o them i f t h e y ' r e i n t r o u b l e o r i f t h e y ' r e j u s t f e e l i n g bad...But you can ' t . . . I ' m a communications p e r s o n but I c a n ' t communicate. ( T e r k e l , 1972:66, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y and r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a c y i s not c o m p l e t e , however. K a n t e r (1977) uses the s e c r e t a r y - b o s s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o de m o n s t r a t e a s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y where r u l e s , r a t i o n -a l i t y , and i m p e r s o n a l i t y a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a r e governed by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s t a t u s , by p e r s o n a l w i s h e s o f the bo s s , and by bo s s e s ' demands f o r l o y a l t y w h i c h may go beyond c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what i s f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ( K a n t e r , 1977:7^0, r a t h e r than by any d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o humanize an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some w o r k e r s a r e aware o f the p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d on them by t h e d e n i a l o f such a l a r g e p a r t o f the m s e l v e s and f e e l r e s e n t m e n t , rage o r d e p r e s s i o n . Most cannot e x p r e s s t h e i r anger a t the p e o p l e o r t h e s i t u a t i o n a t t h e i r w o r k p l a c e , so they t u r n i t upon t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r upon t h e m s e l v e s : I c a n ' t blow up a t him...I'd p r o b a b l y g et f i r e d . So i n s t e a d I j u s t g e t d e p r e s s e d . I may not even know I'm f e e l i n g bad, but i t ' s j u s t a g r a y c l o u d o f d e p r e s s i o n . . . . ( L y o n s , 1976:61) O t h e r s seem not t o be aware o f the magnitude o r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s t r i c t -i ons p l a c e d on them by t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n s : I'm the k i n d o f guy, i f I was due f o r a r a i s e I'm not gonna ask f o r i t . I f th e y don't f e e l I'm e n t i t l e d t o i t , t h e y ' r e not gonna g i v e i t t o me. I f I don't d e s e r v e i t , I'm not gonna get i t . I don't q u e s t i o n my b o s s , I don't q u e s t i o n the company. ( T e r k e l , 1972:250) The d e n i a l o f e m o t i o n , o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s not un i q u e t o t h e lower l e v e l s o f the h i e r a r c h y . ( T e r k e l , 1972; Whyte, 1957). A r e t i r e d c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f a c o r p o r a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e c l i m b o f t h e a m b i t i o u s e x e c u t i v e up t h e c o r p o r a t e l a d d e r : As he s t r u g g l e s i n t h i s j u n g l e , e v e r y p o s i t i o n he's i n , he's t e r r i b l y l o n e l y . He c a n ' t c o n f i d e and t a l k w i t h t he guy w o r k i n g under him - 84 -[or] t o the man he's w o r k i n g f o r . To g i v e v e n t t o h i s f e e l i n g s , h i s f e a r s , and h i s i n s e c u r i t i e s , he'd expose h i m s e l f . T h i s goes a l l t h e way up the l i n e u n t i l he g e t s t o be p r e s i d e n t . The p r e s i d e n t r e a l l y d o e s n ' t have anybody t o t a l k t o , because the v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s a r e w a i t i n g f o r him t o d i e o r make a m i s t a k e . . . He c a n ' t t a l k t o the board o f d i r e c t o r s , because t o them he has t o appear as a tower o f s t r e n g t h , knowledge, and wisdom...The board o f d i r e c t o r s , t h e y ' r e c o l d , t h e y ' r e h ard...They're i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o f i t s . T hey're i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o g r e s s . . . ( T e r k e l , 1 9 7 2 : 5 3 3 - 4 , emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) In c o n t r a s t t o b u r e a u c r a c y , c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r o l a l l o w s w o r k e r s t o s t r u c t u r e both t h e p r o d u c t and the p r o c e s s o f t h e i r work i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r p o l i t -i c a l and moral p h i l o s o p h y and p e r s o n a l s t y l e s ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 977 : 95 ) . The g e n e r a l s t y l e o f c o l l e c t i v e ways o f w o r k i n g i s i n f o r m a l : sometimes n o i s y , sometimes c h a o t i c , always s u b j e c t t o s p o n t a n e i t y w h i c h ranges from s c h e d u l e changes t o e m o t i o n a l o u t b u r s t s . One o f the e x p l i c i t g o a l s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i s the i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e whole p e r s o n , w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d i n the emphasis on p r o c e s s , e m o t i o n s , p e r s o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f members, g e n e r a l i z e d knowledge of the group's o p e r a t i o n s , and s h a r e d power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n -a l s t y l e o f c o l l e c t i v e s r e f l e c t s t h e i r g o a l s o f community; f r i e n d s h i p t i e s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e c r u i t m e n t p r a c t i c e s and group s o l i d a r i t y p r o v i d e s a good d e a l o f the m o t i v a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g s t r e n g t h o f groups ( R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1977 ) . S o c i a l c o h e s i o n , c o - o p e r a t i o n , s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t than e f f i c i e n c y ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 77 : 82 ) . These emphases o f c o l l e c t i v i t y can be summarized by two comments from H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e members who compared t h e i r work e x p e r i e n c e s a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e w i t h o t h e r j o b s they had had. The more I've thought and t a l k e d about t h e C o l l e c t i v e , the more I f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a k i n d o f i n t e g r a t i o n between what I f e e l and what I r e a l l y b e l i e v e and the way we're w o r k i n g , and I don't f e e l t h a t t e r r i b l e s p l i t t h a t I n e a r l y always f e l t i n any j o b I've had...(HC member, 1974) I t was a r e a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r me t o be t o t a l l y c o n g r u e n t w i t h the p e o p l e t h a t came t o the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , t o be t o t a l l y t r u t h f u l w i t h them - 8 5 -t o l i t e r a l l y e x p r e s s and show p a r t s o f me t h a t I thought they c o u l d r e l a t e t o , t o not have t o c o n s t a n t l y be n e g a t i n g p a r t o f my e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h i s what I had t o do i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e b e f o r e . . . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) T h i s i n t e g r a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f c o l l e c t i v e s i s c o n f i r m e d by Coover e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; G a l p e r and Washburne ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; M a n s b r i d g e ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; and R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) . 7 . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and change A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have as a p r i m a r y g o a l the s t a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s o v e r t i m e , whether t h a t time p e r i o d i s an i n d e f i n i t e one o r o n l y as l o n g as i t ta k e s t o a c c o m p l i s h a d e f i n e d t a s k . A t the same t i m e , no s u c c e s s f u l group i s s t a t i c o v e r t i m e o r c o m p l e t e l y u n r e s p o n s i v e t o the needs o f i t s members o r i t s env i r o n m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , a l l groups must have some mechanisms f o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p r e s s u r e s and a c c o m p l i s h i n g change w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the d i s r u p t i o n t h i s c auses t o t h e group. These mechanisms and the i d e o l o g y t h a t i n f o r m s them v a r y w i d e l y i n b u r e a u c r a c y and i n c o l l e c t i v e s . S t a b i l i t y , r a t h e r than i n n o v a t i o n , i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f e s t a b l i s h e d b u r e a u c r a t i c g r o u p s . There i s o f c o u r s e some f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y , w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y as a re s p o n s e t o demands o f c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t o c o n t r o l t e n s i o n o r c o n f l i c t l e v e l s among w o r k e r s . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i s more e v i d e n t w i t h i n t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y than i t i s w i t h i n the network o f f o r m a l r u l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n n o v a t i o n and change w i t h i n a b u r e a u c r a c y , r u n n i n g c o u n t e r t o t h e s t a t u s quo w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a r e approached c a u t i o u s l y : they g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d p r o c e d u r e , governed by r a t i o n a l , and u s u a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ; Z a l d and Ash, 1 9 6 6 ) . A cumbersome machinery f o r implementing change and an i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n w h i c h r e s i s t s change make the p r o c e s s o f change a sl o w one i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s . W h i l e f l e x i b i l i t y i s c e r t a i n l y a d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n w o r k e r s i n - 8 6 -s e t t i n g s o t h e r than c o l l e c t i v e s , i t i s , i n b u r e a u c r a c y , not the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i t i s i n a c o l l e c t i v e . Change i n a b u r e a u c r a c y r a r e l y o r i g i n -a t e s from the w o r k e r s a t the lower l e v e l s , but i s i n s t i g a t e d by managers o r d i r -e c t o r s and passed down t o the w o r k e r s as a f a i t a c c o m p l i . Such a top-down p r o c e s s , by m i n i m i z i n g w o r k e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n and t h e r e f o r e commitment t o the change, i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t change w i l l cause d i s r u p t i o n . In c o l l e c t i v e s , however, not o n l y i s change a p o s i t i v e g o a l toward w h i c h members a r e o r i e n t e d , but changes come about as a r e s u l t o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n w h i c h everyone has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Changes a r e made and implemented by the same p e o p l e . Pateman ( 1 9 7 0 ) c i t e s e v i d e n c e t h a t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f changes o c c u r s most smoothly when w o r k e r s have t a k e n p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Weber d e s c r i b e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development i n terms o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n , and g o a l d i s p l a c e m e n t ( G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ) . He sees o r g a n i z a t i o n a l maintenance as one form o f g o a l d i s p l a c e m e n t i n w h i c h : p a r t i c i p a n t s i n [a] s t r u c t u r e have a s t a k e i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s a b i l i t y t o a t t a i n g o a l s . ( Z a l d and Ash, 1 9 6 6 : 3 2 7 ) A c c o r d i n g t o what Z a l d and Ash c a l l t he W e b e r - M i c h e l s model: Whatever the form o f g o a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i t i s always i n the d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r c o n s e r v a t i s m ( t h e accommodation o f o r g a n i z -a t i o n a l g o a l s t o t h e dominant s o c i e t a l c o n s e n s u s ) . ( 1 9 6 6 : 3 2 7 ) A l t h o u g h t h i s model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development may a p p l y t o most b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s s o c i e t y , i t p r o v i d e s an i n a d e q u a t e e x p l a n -a t i o n o f many s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( Z a l d and Ash, 1 9 6 6 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as c o l l e c t i v e s . C o l l e c t i v e s s t r e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y ; s t a b i l i t y o r l o n g e v i t y may not be a p r i m a r y v a l u e o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s may d e v e l o p i n ways wh i c h d i v e r g e m a r k e d l y from the model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development proposed by Weber and M i c h e l s . Where an o r g a n i z a t i o n m a i n t a i n s an a n t i -s o c i e t y / a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a n c e , o b j e c t i v e s may a c t u a l l y become more r a d i c a l . - 8 7 -A l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s may d i s b a n d o r / r a d i c a l l y change t h e i r g o a l s o r t h e i r t a c t i c s when g o a l s have been j u d g e d t o have been met, t a c t i c s a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e , o r when, f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n , the purpose f o r wh i c h they were formed i s no l o n g e r b e i n g s e r v e d . On a t l e a s t two o c c a s i o n s when t h e H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e f a c e d c r i s e s o f t h i s n a t u r e , s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s b a n d i n g . Lengthy d i s c u s s i o n o f g o a l s , t a c t i c s , and members' commitments r e s u l t e d i n a r e - f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r r a d i c a l i s m . As t h e c o l l e c t i v e model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n depends on i n n o v a t i o n and e x p e r -i m e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than on w e l 1 - a c c e p t e d p r e c e d e n t s , i t i s more o f t e n under d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n i t s own ranks than i s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l model. One o f i t s e x p l i c i t g o a l s i s t o be r e s p o n s i v e t o the needs o f i t s members and i t s c l i e n t s . Members' o n g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e s a f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h h e l p t o make o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s p o n s i v e t o p r e s s u r e s f o r change. Women a t t h e H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t one o f t h e reason s p e o p l e d i d not f o l l o w t h r o u g h on some t a s k s was t h a t t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s had changed. I t h i n k t h a t i t ' s t r u e t h a t some p e o p l e don't do What th e y say t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o do but I t h i n k t h a t maybe they j u s t a r e n ' t d o i n g the same k i n d o f t h i n g s t h a t p e o p l e who had been here b e f o r e d e c i d e d the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e s h o u l d do. We need t o l o o k a t what p e o p l e want t o be d o i n g and what p e o p l e a r e f e e l i n g v e r y down on d o i n g and what t h i n g s p e o p l e would l i k e t o e x p l o r e because we don't have t o be a b s o l u t e l y f i x e d o r c o n s i s t e n t , you know...peop1e l e a v e and new p e o p l e come i n , and t h a t ' s how i t goes on - goes on and changes... (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) W h i l e the demands o f c r e a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n an ong o i n g p r o c e s s r e s u l t i n some problems f o r members, t h e i r commitment t o the i d e a l o f c o l l e c t i v i and the e x c i t e m e n t o f c r e a t i n g something new and something t h e y f e e l i s s o c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t goes a long way toward s u s t a i n i n g them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s . I f i n d t h e way the C o l l e c t i v e o p e r a t e s . . . a f a s c i n a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . . . C o l l e c t i v i t y i s r e a l l y s t r u g g l e d f o r . . . i n any group I've been i n v o l v e d i n everyone b i t c h e s about the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and t h e h i e r -a r c h y . . . a n d then as soon as they become an o r g a n i z a t i o n they j u s t d u p l i c a t e i t . . . i n t he H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e t h e r e i s t h i s c o n s t a n t e f f o r t , t h i s c o n s t a n t awareness not t o l e t t h a t happen...(HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) - 88 -B. Problems and l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y  1. I n n o v a t i o n P r o b a b l y the most p e r v a s i v e problems o f d e v e l o p i n g and w o r k i n g i n a c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n stem from t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y u n c h a r t e d t e r r i t o r y . As an emergent c o l l e c t i v i t y , t he s o c i a l movement cannot depend upon t r a d i t i o n , f o r i t i s i n the p r o c e s s o f making t r a d i t i o n s , not f o l l o w i n g them. ( K i l l i a n , 1 9 6 4 : 3 9 ) U n l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a c o l l e c t i v e way o f w o r k i n g demands t h a t d e c i s i o n s be made about how power w i l l be s h a r e d , who w i l l p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n what s i t u a t i o n s , how d e c i s i o n s w i l l be made, how t a s k s w i l l be a l l o c a t e d , and how a c c o u n t a b i l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d . A t the v e r y l e a s t , t h e s e d e c i s i o n s a r e time--and energy-consuming; a t w o r s t , they may g e n e r a t e t e n s i o n and c o n f l i c t w h i c h must be r e s o l v e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r example, i s f a r more p r o b l e m a t i c w i t h i n a c o l l e c t i v e than w i t h i n a b u r e a u c r a c y because c o l l e c t i v e s a r e b r e a k i n g new ground, t r y i n g t o combat c e n t u r i e s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h have geared i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n e q u a l i t y , c o m p e t i t i o n , and d i r e c t i o n by l e a d e r s . C o l l e c t i v e s make a l o t o f m i s t a k e s and have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e o r s u p p o r t from a c o u n t e r - c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t -i o n a l network t o f a l l back on when th e y do. Not o n l y do they l a c k s u p p o r t from t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , but t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s sometimes work a c t i v e l y t o undermine them ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . P a r t l y because o f the s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n n o v a t i o n and p a r t l y because c o l l e c t i v e s a r e t r y i n g t o d e a l w i t h p e o p l e as whole p e o p l e r a t h e r than l i m i t i n g t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h them t o one c l e a r l y segmented r o l e , members have t o work h a r d e r a t b e i n g p a r t o f a c o l l e c t i v e than they would i n a t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n , where e x p e c t a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f r o l e s a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . The e x p e r i m e n t a l n a t u r e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form and t h e f a c t t h a t i n n o v a t i o n , - 8 9 -f l e x i b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e i n t e g r a l components o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e i d e o l o g y make i n s t a b i l i t y a c o n s t a n t f a c t o r i n a c o l l e c t i v e . W h i l e the i n n o v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e s much o f i t s a p p e a l t o members, i t a l s o p r o v i d e s much o f i t s f r u s t r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g comment c a p t u r e s t h i s d u a l n a t u r e o f the i n n o v a t i v e p r o c e s s o f b u i l d i n g a c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n : I s a t t h r o u g h m e e t i n g s a y e a r ago, and I heard the same t h i n g s b e i n g s a i d and I heard t h e same d i s c u s s i o n s h appening, and then a y e a r l a t e r we'd go t h r o u g h t h a t a g a i n , and i t ' s f r u s t r a t i n g f o r me, but I know t h a t ' s p a r t o f the c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s . New p e o p l e come i n and t h i n g s e v o l v e , and sometimes they go f o r w a r d and sometimes they go back, and t h e r e ' s a beauty i n w a t c h i n g a l l t h a t happen. There's an a w f u l l o t o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n i t t o o , but t h e r e i s a b e a uty. (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) Z u r c h e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) d e s c r i b e s what he c a l l s the "mutable p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e " as the k i n d o f p e r s o n most l i k e l y t o t h r i v e i n such a c h a n g i n g , i n n o v a t i v e s o c i e t y . 2. Power s h a r i n g ...each i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g s t o the group d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e , p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , v e r b a l s k i l l , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n t e r e s t i n the t a s k . T h e r e f o r e each group must (a) reduce i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t can be reduced and (b) u n d e r s t a n d and f i n d ways t o d e a l w i t h i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t cannot be r e d u c e d . ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 : 3 6 1 ) The amount o f commitment t h e s e two t a s k s r e q u i r e i s enormous and c o n s t i t u t e one o f t h e g r e a t e s t d e t e r r e n t s o f a l l t o t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e model i n s o c i e t y . Both problems a r e , t o an unknown e x t e n t , a r e f l e c t i o n o f s o c i a l a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e n e c e s s i t y o f i n e q u a l i t y . As one member o f a women's c o l l e c t i v e w h i c h was f r a u g h t w i t h problems s a i d : P e o p l e don't know how t o r e l a t e t o each o t h e r as e q u a l s . We have l i v e d so l o n g e i t h e r t e l l i n g o r b e i n g t o l d what t o do, we don't know how t o work w i t h o t h e r s i n any o t h e r way. ( 1 9 7 9 ) Members must p o s s e s s c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o adapt t o e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be d e v e l o p e d by a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t s e l f (Pateman, 1 9 7 0 ; R o t h s c h i l d -W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . - 9 0 -One o f the most f r e q u e n t c r i t i c i s m s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i s the a l l e g e d tendency w i t h i n groups t o become b u r e a u c r a t i c and c o n s e r v a t i v e (see G e r t h and M i l l s , 1 9 5 8 ; Z a l d and Ash, 1 9 6 6 ) . However, the c r i t i c i s m does not a p p l y t o a l l g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n r a d i c a l s o c i a l movements. Z a l d and Ash ( 1 9 6 6 ) d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d c o n s e r v a t i s m a r e not i n e v i t a b l e p r o c e s s e s i n s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o such t e n d e n c i e s . Newman ( 1 9 8 0 ) r e l a t e s t h i s tendency i n c o l l e c t i v e groups t o i s s u e s o f money: she says t h a t not o n l y a r e groups f o r c e d t o adopt b u r e a u c r a t i c e l e m e n t s i n o r d e r t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s , but the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the d i v i s i o n between p a i d and u n p a i d w o r k e r s causes h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s t o d e v e l o p w i t h i n the group. Of the groups she s t u d i e d , t h e most s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , n o n - b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s were t h o s e w h i c h were s e l f -s u p p o r t i n g and d i d not need t o a c c e p t money from government s o u r c e s . To some e x t e n t , Newman's c o n c l u s i o n s were s u p p o r t e d by e v i d e n c e from the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , where r e l a t i o n s between p a i d and u n p a i d w o r k e r s , were p r o b l e m a t i c i n terms o f i s s u e s o f l e a d e r s h i p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However, c o l l e c t i v e s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e s e and o t h e r dangers w h i c h accompany a l a c k o f s t r u c t u r e and a l a c k o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ways t o d e a l w i t h i n e q u a l i t i e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s d e v e l o p e d by c o l l e c t i v e groups have a r i s e n p a r t l y out of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n . The problem o f i n e q u a l i t y t a k e s a v a r i e t y o f forms w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v i t y : c o m p e t i t i o n among members, r e s e n t m e n t s a g a i n s t t o o - p o w e r f u l members, f r u s t r a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i v e l y p o w e r l e s s , g u i l t about t a k i n g t o o much o r not enough r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y , f r u s t r a t i o n a t t h e time and e m o t i o n a l energy i t t a k e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e i s s u e s ( A l l i s o n , 1 9 7 8 ; Bunch and F i s h e r , 1 9 7 6 ; G a l p e r and Washburne, 1 9 7 6 ; Freeman, 1 9 7 5 ; H a r t s o c k , 1 9 7 4 ; 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ; J o r e e n , 1 9 7 3 ; K l e i b e r and L i g h t , 1 9 7 8 ; - 91 -K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ; M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 ; R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ; f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e n d e n c i e s t o d e v e l o p h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v i t y , see Newman, 1 9 8 0 ) . Because i t runs c o u n t e r t o t h e i d e o l o g y o f c o l l e c t i v i t y , l e a d e r s h i p i s more s u b t l e and l e s s acknowledged than i t i s i n a h i e r a r c h y . As such i t i s a s o u r c e o f a m b i v a l e n c e and t e n s i o n i n t h e g r o u p , w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t f o r members t o d e a l w i t h h o n e s t l y . In the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , l e a d e r s h i p i s seen both as p o s i t i v e , i n terms o f t h e energy and d i r e c t i o n some p e o p l e :give t o the gro u p , and as n e g a t i v e , i n terms o f t h e maintenance o f unequal r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members. The most p o w e r f u l women i n t h e C o l l e c t i v e were b o t h r e s p e c t e d and r e s e n t e d f o r t h a t power. The r o l e o f e x p e r t i s looke d down upon i n c o l l e c t i v e s ; t o be a ' s t a r ' i s t o hoard knowledge and power f o r o n e s e l f . On t h e o t h e r hand, t a k i n g p l e a s u r e i n one's e x p e r t i s e , one's competence, i s seen as i m p o r t a n t , and i s a d i f f i c u l t t h i n g f o r many women t o do (Bunch and F i s h e r , 1 9 7 6 ; H a r s t o c k , 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ) . One woman spoke o f her own e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s c o n f 1 i c t : [As., a r e s u l t o f w o r k i n g a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ] I'm much more c o n s c i o u s o f my own a u t h o r i t y and how I use t h a t a u t h o r i t y . . . I ... g o t more i n t o u c h . . . w i t h my c o n f l i c t s around l e a d i n g , because I tend t o l e a d , and...I g o t much more i n touch w i t h not l e a d i n g , and...I got t o f e e l i n g v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about b e i n g a l e a d e r , and not w a n t i n g t o be a l e a d e r , and I don't t h i n k t h a t ' s good e i t h e r . [ A n o t h e r H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e member] would keep on s a y i n g t o me 'Don't s u p p r e s s t h a t , don't deny t h a t p a r t o f y o u r s e l f , because t h a t ' s a v e r y s t r o n g p a r t o f yo u . 1 (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) One member o f s e v e r a l f e m i n i s t c o l l e c t i v e s spoke o f problems o f f e m i n i s t 1eadersh i p: Women's competence i s not t r u s t e d . Competent women a r e thought t o be power t r i p p i n g . We a r e j u s t i n the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g models o f how t o r e s p e c t competence w i t h o u t l e t t i n g competent p e o p l e t a k e o v e r , o r f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n e d t h a t they w i l l . (1979) Leaders f e e l g u i l t y f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s but a l s o p l a c e some o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h o s e i n the group who do not t a k e power. - 9 2 -...Even t a l k i n g about b e i n g c o m p e t i t i v e . . . i s n 1 t t o o easy f o r me t o d e a l w i t h . . . I ' m n o t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e t h a t I have ...because i t seems l i k e my power t r i p . . . i t made me r e a l l y u p t i g h t , b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as t h e 1 e x p e r t ' , because i t j u s t kept me d o i n g t h o s e t r i p s - l i k e I d i g b e i n g seen as the e x p e r t , and as long as p e o p l e keep s e t t i n g i t up, I ' l l keep jumping i n . . . (HC member, 197*0 The d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f l e a d e r s h i p i n c o l l e c t i v e s have come about p a r t l y because o f a c o n f u s i o n between t h e " r o l e o f l e a d e r " and the " f u n c t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p " (Coover e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s i m p o r t a n t because g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s do need l e a d e r s h i p but they do not need l e a d e r s ! They need the f u n c t i o n s t o be f i l l e d , but not by one ( o r a few) l e a d e r s . ( K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 : 7 ) R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t we do not a l l have e q u a l a b i l i t i e s , S t . Joan s a y s : The i d e a o f l e a d e r s h i p among p o l i t i c a l e q u a l s , i f l e a d e r s h i p i s seen as a f u n c t i o n , i s not the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i t appears t o be. ( 1 9 7 6 : 7 ^ , emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) H a r t s o c k ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 ) , t o o , s t r e s s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e group, t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n o r f o c u s b e i n g o n l y one o f them. " S h i f t i n g l e a d e r s h i p " ( S t . J o a n , 1 9 7 6 ) depends on an i n d i v i d u a l t a k i n g on c e r t a i n l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , c u l t i v a t i n g i n h e r s e l f the a b i l i t y t o l e t go o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , and the r e s t o f the group l e a r n i n g a t t h e same time t o t a k e o v e r her f u n c t i o n s . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f "mutual dependency and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " ( p . 7 ^ - 5 ) i s a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e o f s h a r i n g l e a d e r s h i p among p o l i t i c a l e q u a l s (see a l s o Bunch and F i s h e r , 1976). C l e a r l y , such a model o f l e a d e r s h i p i s a p p r o p r i a t e o n l y under r e l a t i v e l y b e n i g n c o n d i t i o n s . In s i t u a t i o n s o f c r i s i s o r s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t i n v o l v i n g l a r g e numbers, f o r example, s w i f t , a r b i t r a r y and a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a d e r s h i p may be i m p e r a t i v e ( B e c k e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . I f l e a d e r s h i p models w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e not f l e x i b l e enough t o i n c o r p o r a t e such c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , they may f o u n d e r under extreme s t r e s s . The e x i s t e n c e o f s i t u a t i o n s where c o l l e c t i v i t y does not o f f e r t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n t o a problem i s not a cause f o r r e j e c t i n g c o l l e c t i v i t y as an - 9 3 -o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form. R a t h e r i t d e m o n s t r a t e s the need f o r a d v o c a t e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y t o r e c o g n i z e the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r model and t o i n c o r p o r a t e t e c h n i q u e s from the b u r e a u c r a t i c model where such t e c h n i q u e s can be u s e f u l . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t goes w i t h power i s a l s o a s o u r c e o f t e n s i o n , both t o t h o s e who assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o t h o s e who have t r o u b l e assuming i t . One r e l a t i v e l y new H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e member a n a l y z e d an i n c i d e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d between her and a more e x p e r i e n c e d member: . . . I was a f r a i d t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and was l a y i n g t h a t down as her f a u l t . Here I am f e e l i n g l i k e somebody who i s n ' t i m p o r t a n t , l i k e I c o u l d n ' t do t h i n g s v e r y w e l l , p u t t i n g the blame on p e o p l e l i k e her f o r not t e a c h i n g us how t o work on phone i n f o r m a t i o n l i n e s . When her t r i p was j u s t the o p p o s i t e . . . f e e 1 i n g angry a t the new p e o p l e f o r not t a k i n g more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and f e e l i n g g u i l t y a t the same time t h a t maybe she s h o u l d be t e a c h i n g us more... ( 1 9 7 4 ) A c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s a problem i n many c o l l e c t i v e s because o f the l a c k o f f o r m a l r u l e s , rewards and s a n c t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t a s k a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . G i v e n the n a t u r e o f h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y and a u t h o r i t a r i a n s o c i a l i z a t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s do not f u n c t i o n w e l l when th e y a r e not t o l d c l e a r l y what t o do and t h r e a t e n e d w i t h punishment i f they do not do i t . A l t h o u g h a c o l l e c t i v e i s somewhat s e l f - s e l e c t i n g i n terms o f members who a r e w i l l i n g and a b l e t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m s e l v e s , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a r e c u r r i n g , i f u s u a l l y minor problem i n c o l l e c t i v e s . Many c o l l e c t i v e members a r e l o a t h t o i n s t i t u t e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y because they f e e l such s t r u c t u r e s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o t h e i r r e s p e c t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s ' autonomy and sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . W h i l e such a p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t s c o l l e c t i v e members' p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r f e l l o w members, i t may cause problems i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g the work o f the group. A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s used t o a d d r e s s t h i s p roblem have a l r e a d y been mentioned. In a d d i t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n s about group e x p e c t a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l members, members' commitments t o each o t h e r and the g r o u p , and the e f f e c t s on the group o f f a i l u r e t o f u l f i l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e used t o e d u c a t e and put p r e s s u r e - 3k -on members (see K l e i b e r and L i g h t , 1 9 7 8 ) . The i d e o l o g y o f the group i s a s t r o n g f o r c e s h a p i n g members' b e h a v i o u r . W i t h o u t t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l commitment, c o l l e c t i v i t y w i l l not 'work': consensus c o u l d not be r e a c h e d , t o o much time would be consumed by c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e s about o b j e c t i v e s and p r o c e d u r e s , and p e o p l e would not be m o t i v a t e d t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t h e i r s p e c i f i c t a s k commitments. A s i m i l a r degree o f i d e o l o g i c a l homogeneity i s r e q u i r e d a t the upper l e v e l s o f b u r e a u c r a c y ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . In b o t h s i t u a t i o n s , r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e d u r e s r e f l e c t t h i s n e c e s s i t y f o r homogen-e i t y ; t o o - g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s among members would undermine t h e system. The i d e o l o g i c a l commitment o f most members o f t h i s s o c i e t y t o the b u r e a u c r a t i c model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y i s one o f t h e major f a c t o r s s u s t a i n i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form and t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e major o b s t a c l e s t o i n t r o d u c i n g e l ements o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C o l l e c t i v i t y ' s need f o r d e m o c r a t i c p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s may a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a problem: p a r t i c i p a n t s who p o s s e s s n o n - d e m o c r a t i c p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can cause s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n some gr o u p s . However, t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n t o p a r t i c i p a t e by p a r t i c i p a t i n g , and t h a t p e o p l e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i v e groups adapt t o and become s k i l l e d a t a c o - o p e r a t i v e way o f w o r k i n g ( M a r k o v i c , f o r t h c o m i n g ; Pateman, 1 9 7 0 ; R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) . The problems i n h e r e n t i n consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e t y p i c a l o f t h o s e i n h e r e n t i n the p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i t s e l f . The time i t t a k e s , the domin-a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e l y s u b m i s s i v e and i g n o r a n t by the a s s e r t i v e and k n o w l e d g e a b l e , o r c o n v e r s e l y , the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a l l can c o n t r i b u t e e q u a l l y t o a g i v e n d e c i s i o n o r t a s k , t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i t p l a c e s on group s i z e , t he e m o t i o n a l i t y i t engenders, and t h e need f o r a h i g h degree o f homogeneity among members a r e a l l p o t e n t i a l l y s e r i o u s problems. Consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , l i k e c o l l e c t i v i t y as a whole, r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f commitment t o the p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e , members must d e c i d e f i r s t t h a t the p r o c e s s - 95 -i s one t o w h i c h they want t o dev o t e l a r g e amounts o f ti m e and energy (see Bunch and F i s h e r , 1 9 7 6 : 2 ) . In groups u s i n g t he consensus model, a s s u m p t i o n s about the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the method may be taken f o r g r a n t e d and any s u g g e s t i o n s t o the c o n t r a r y seen as ' h e r e s y 1 . One H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e member a d m i t t e d : I t i s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y s e l f - e v i d e n t why we have c o n s e n s u s , o r what i s i s . I d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a t f i r s t why we d i d n ' t j u s t v o t e , a l t h o u g h I never a d m i t t e d t h a t t o anyone. (1976) Some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h i s method a r e h i g h l i g h t e d by a C o l l e c t i v e member who had remained committed t o t h e consensus method o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s : Consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g can i n v o l v e a v e r y s u b t l e form o f c o e r c i o n i n a group. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t he group f i r s t a g r e e on how d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made, e i t h e r by consensus o r by v o t i n g . . . O n c e p e o p l e a g r e e on the method, then t h e d e c i s i o n s can be made w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o always and e n d l e s s l y d i s c u s s t he method. And you know, d e c i s i o n s can be made s a t i s f a c t o r i l y by v o t i n g . I t j_s_ p o s s i b l e t o use t h a t method w i t h o u t b e i n g e v i l ! I t does work i f p e o p l e a g r e e t o do i t t h a t way. And i t ' s t r u e t h a t consensus does o f t e n t a k e a 1ong t i m e ! I t can be a v e r y t e d i o u s p r o c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i f e v eryone i s not r e a l l y committed t o i t , o r v e r y s k i l l e d i n the t e c h n i q u e s . (1976) Task r o t a t i o n , w h i l e i t s e r v e s p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n a c o l l e c t i v e , a l s o c r e a t e s problems o f i t s own. R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t comments on the s a c r i f i c e t h a t many a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e p r e p a r e d t o make i n o r d e r t o d e m y s t i f y and r o t a t e t a s k s and thus i n c r e a s e t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f knowledge and power. ...by c o l l e c t i v e l y r e a s s i g n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s by c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f who s t a n d s t o l e a r n t h e most from a job,.who has been a t t h e i r j o b " t o o l o n g " , and who most wants t o do a j o b , r a t h e r than who i s most e x p e r i e n c e d and/or t a l e n t e d a t the j o b , they a r e s a c r i f i c i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y , a t l e a s t i n the short-run;.. ( T h i s f l i e s i n the f a c e o f the s u p p o s i t i o n i n the Human R e l a t i o n s model t h a t worker s a t i s f a c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r o d u c t i v i t y and e f f i c i e n c y } ( 1976 :82 , emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) Other f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d o u t t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the r o t a t i o n o f t a s k s . Such r o t a t i o n i g n o r e s t h e needs o f a p e r s o n t o become competent i n a r o l e and t o c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p and use t h i s competence i n a s a t i s f y i n g way. I t a l s o negates the v a l u e f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f knowledge and s k i l l s by any one pe r s o n - as soon as a pe r s o n becomes competent he/she i s a s s i g n e d t o a n o t h e r t a s k and a new pe r s o n must be - 9 6 -t r a i n e d . H a r t s o c k a r g u e s t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and r o t a t i o n o f t a s k s i n c o l l e c t i v e s f r agments w o r k e r s i n t h e same ways t h a t c a p i t a l i s t l a b o u r does, o f t e n p r e v e n t i n g them from e x p e r i e n c i n g the s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t comes from managing a t a s k from b e g i n n i n g t o end. She says t h a t such a system: . . . t r e a t s i t s members as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e and e q u i v a l e n t p a r t s . I t r e p r o d u c e s the assembly l i n e o f the modern f a c t o r y , but i n s t e a d o f r u n n i n g the work p a s t the p e o p l e , p e o p l e a r e run p a s t the work. ( 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 : 1 2 ) In f a c e o f such drawbacks many c o l l e c t i v e s a r e e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h v a r i o u s ways o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g t a s k r o t a t i o n . , i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l c o s t s w h i l e s t i l l b e n e f i t t i n g from i t s a d v a n t a g e s . 3 . P r o c e s s / p r o d u c t t e n s i o n The t e n s i o n between p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t i s one t h a t has t o be d e a l t w i t h i n one way o r a n o t h e r by a l l c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p s . W h i l e t h e problem o f b a l a n c i n g a p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h an emphasis on p r o c e s s may be g r e a t e r f o r men than f o r women (M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 ) , t h i s s h i f t i n emphasis i s l i k e l y t o be d i f f i c u l t f o r both sexes w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v i t y . The q u e s t i o n i s not whether t h e c o n f l i c t can be a v o i d e d but whether i t w i l l r e s u l t i n r i f t s between the ' p r o c e s s p e o p l e ' and the 'product p e o p l e 1 o r i n new ways o f c o m b i n i n g t h e s e two c o n c e r n s (Crow, 1 9 7 8 ; R i d d l e , 1 9 7 8 ; S p a r k s , 1 9 7 8 ) . Most would a g r e e t h a t a c e r t a i n l o s s o f e f f i c i e n c y i s i n e v i t a b l e i n work o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t pay c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f how work g e t s done ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 ; Rothsch i 1 d-Wh i t t , 1 9 7 7 ) " ' . P a r t i c i p a n t s have t o weigh t h i s l o s s a g a i n s t the g a i n s o f a more human approach t o work. On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s a danger i n a l t e r n a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f o v e r - r e a c t i n g t o the p r o d u c t i o n - o r i e n t a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a c y by p l a c i n g t o o much emphasis on p r o c e s s t o the d e t r i m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n . Focus on p r o d u c t a l l o w s us t o have the e x p e r i e n c e o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g g o a l s , o f h a v i n g t h e power t o c r e a t e and implement. E x c l u s i v e p r o d u c t f o c u s , though, can a l l o w us t o v i e w p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g o u r s e l v e s , as o b j e c t s t o be used. We may push o u r s e l v e s beyond the l e v e l s o f good h e a l t h and s a n i t y because the p r o d u c t d e a d l i n e c a n ' t w a i t . . . - 9 7 -Focus on p r o c e s s allows, us t a k e o u r s e l v e s and our e x p e r i e n c e s e r i o u s l y , t o r e a l i z e t h a t our l o v i n g i s i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h our w o r k i n g . E x c l u s i v e f o c u s on p r o c e s s , though, can m a i n t a i n f o c u s so e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e HOW t h a t we never g e t t o the WHAT and p e o p l e g e t b u r n t o u t from f e e l i n g l i k e t hey never get a n y t h i n g done. C o n t i n u o u s i n t r o -s p e c t i o n i s l i k e p u l l i n g the scab o f f the wound t o see i f i t i s h e a l i n g . . . ( R i d d l e , 1 9 7 8 : 2 3 ) The b a l a n c e between p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t i s a s h i f t i n g one. In t h e s h o r t -term, the problem can be s o l v e d by e m p h a s i z i n g p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t i n d i f f e r i n g d e g r ees f o r d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , depending on t h e needs o f t h e group. In t h e l o n g - t e r m , emphases o f a l t e r n a t i v e groups appear t o s h i f t as members' g o a l s and p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s e s s h i f t . The r e a c t i o n i n t h e e a r l y and m i d - s e v e n t i e s t o the r i g i d p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a c y was a s t r o n g emphasis on p r o c e s s ; a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e appears t o be a swing back i n some groups t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the impo r t a n c e o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a renewed a t t e m p t t o b a l a n c e the two extremes. In r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between members' g o a l s , some c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s m i ght be b e s t s o l v e d by d i v i d i n g i n t o sub-groups f o c u s i n g on d i f f e r e n t g o a l s and means w h i l e r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4. T ime ...a boss can hand down a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r d e r i n a f r a c t i o n o f t h e time i t would t a k e a group t o d e c i d e the i s s u e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y . ( R o t h s c h i l d -W h i t t , 1 9 7 7:104) Time i s a major drawback o f w o r k i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y and i s a c e n t r a l i s s u e i n many o f t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h c o l l e c t i v i t y f rom b u r e a u c r a c y , i n c l u d i n g the p r o c e s s / p r o d u c t debate i t s e l f . I t i s a problem t h a t has o c c u p i e d most a n a l y s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s (see f o r example, K a n t e r and Z u r c h e r , 1 9 7 3 ; M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 ; R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 7 ; Pateman, 1 9 7 0 ) . A change i n v a l u e s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o an a c c e p t a n c e o f the expend-i t u r e o f time on m a t t e r s not u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as work. Women as w e l l as men haye been s o c i a l i z e d t o v a l u e e f f i c i e n c y and most e x p e r i e n c e some d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o the s l o w e r pace o f c o l l e c t i v i t y . One v e t e r a n o f s e v e r a l - 98 -s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e c t i v e endeavours commented: I had t o come t o g r i p s w i t h r e c o n c i 1 i n g m y s e l f t o a l o s s o f e f f i c i e n c y . I had t o l e a r n t o a p p r e c i a t e the s h a r i n g and the c o l l e c t i v i t y f o r i t s own s ake, and i t was w o r t h i t . 0 9 7 9 ) H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e members e x p r e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f r u s t r a t i o n about the amount of time spent on ' n o n - b u s i n e s s ' i s s u e s . New g u i d e l i n e s have t o be e s t a b l i s h e d about what does and does not c o n s t i t u t e 'work'. P a r t o f me f e e l s t h a t t h e time I spend j u s t t a l k i n g w i t h someone e l s e I'm w o r k i n g w i t h about what's g o i n g on i n my l i f e and i n her l i f e i s c r u c i a l t o how we and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e w o r k i n g . But i t ' s s t i l l r e a l l y hard t o l e t m y s e l f see t h a t as work, because t r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h a t j u s t i s n ' t . (HC member, 1974) Not a l l the problems o f time and e f f i c i e n c y i n a c o l l e c t i v e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s emphasis on t h e p e r s o n a l . I n f o r m a t i o n d i s p e r s a l t h r o u g h o u t a l l l e v e l s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ; e d u c a t i o n t o a l l o w p o t e n t i a l l y e q ual i n p u t i n t o p o l i c y - m a k i n g ; c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g t o h e l p r e t i c e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s d e v e l o p t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r t a k i n g power and dominant p a r t i c i p a n t s t o g i v e up some o f t h e i r power; consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; d i s t r i b u t i n g and r o t a t i n g t a s k s ; c r i t i c i s m / s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s e s s i o n s - a l l t h e s e t a k e a g r e a t d e a l o f time and reduce e f f i c i e n c y i n a c o l l e c t i v e ^ . M ansbridge n o t e s t h a t : The g r e a t amount o f time needed f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g can make q u i c k d e c i s i o n s i n emergencies a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e , can l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n and boredom among the members, and can cause d i v i s i o n s between t h o s e who see t h e i r time as more o r l e s s v a l u a b l e . (1973:356) There i s a r e c o g n i t i o n i n c o l l e c t i v e s t h a t a l t h o u g h some problems o f time a r e i n h e r e n t i n c o l l e c t i v i t y , many o f t h e i r o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s c o u l d be s t r e a m -l i n e d w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g an a t t e n t i o n t o p r o c e s s . I'm s u r e we're i n e f f i c i e n t . In some ways we're v e r y e f f i c i e n t , and we a c c o m p l i s h t h i n g s t h a t b e i n g h i g h l y b u s i n e s s l i k e we'd never g e t , t o , but t h e r e a r e o t h e r ways t h a t we're n o t . There a r e d u p l i c a t i o n s , because t h e r e a r e n ' t enough p l a n s , not enough c o - o r d i n a t i o n . (HC member, 1974) A b e l i e f t h a t e v e ryone must be i n v o l v e d i n e v e r y s i n g l e d e c i s i o n , no m a t t e r how i n s i g n i f i c a n t , c a u s e s a l o t o f t i m e and p e r s o n hours t o be wasted i n c o l l e c t i v e s . A t some p o i n t i n the c o l l e c t i v e ' s g r o w t h , you j u s t have t o r e c o g n i z e - 9 9 -t h a t i f e v e r y d e c i s i o n i s made by e v e r y member, the c o l l e c t i v e w i l l c o l l a p s e under the w e i g h t o f d e t a i l . You j u s t have t o have f a i t h t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e w i l l h a n d l e t h i n g s okay. And you have t o l e a r n t o l i v e w i t h d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s when the d e c i s i o n made i s not the one t h a t you would have made ! (member o f c o l l e c t i v e f o o d d i s t r i b u t i o n warehouse, 1 9 7 9 ) H e r b s t ( 1 9 7 6 ) a l s o emphasizes t h i s need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and the r o l e p l a y e d by mutual t r u s t and commitment t o a common g o a l i n o b v i a t i n g the need f o r group d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n a l l c a s e s . He s t r e s s e s t h a t what i s i m p o r t a n t i n the a s s i g n i n g o f c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s t o s m a l l groups o r t o i n d i v i d u a l s i s t h a t a l l group members have a c c e s s t o the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the s p e c i f i c t a s k o r d e c i s i o n f i t s i n t o t he o r g a n -i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y as a whole. W h i l e the problem o f ti m e i s a c o n c e r n t o a d v o c a t e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y , i t i s not t h e u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l i s s u e i t i s t o b u r e a u c r a t s , t o whom the e q u a t i o n o f time w i t h money i s a 1 1 - i m p o r t a n t . However, the c o l 1 e c t i ve'. s s a c r i f i c e o f e f f i c i e n c y i n f a v o u r o f human w e l l - b e i n g had l e d R o t h s c h i 1 d - W h i t t ( 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 7 ) t o p o i n t o u t t h a t a c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y t o be a b l e t o compete e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h a t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s i m i l a r goods o r s e r v i c e s . Where i t i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f i t s g o a l s a r e q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e pursued by b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 5 . Emotion At the Law C o l l e c t i v e a member warns t h a t " p l a n t s d i e here from the heavy v i b e s " . ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 7 ) In a s m a l l , f a c e ^ t o - f a c e group where emotions a r e a l l o w e d r e l a t i v e l y f r e e p l a y , t e n s i o n s a r e i n e v i t a b l y g e n e r a t e d . These t e n s i o n s may be e s p e c i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g because the group depends on consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 8 ) . An example o f the k i n d o f iss.ue t h a t causes t e n s i o n i n a c o l l e c t i v e i s t h a t o f r e m u n e r a t i o n ; i n the absence o f f o r m a l r u l e s f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a group's s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , t e n s i o n may b u i l d up. Because m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s a r e not acknowledged as i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e s i n c o l l e c t i v e groups ( R o t h s c h ? 1 d - W h i t t , - 1 00. -1 9 7 7 ) , open d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s i s not welcomed. In a s m a l l p a r t i c i p a t o r y group w h i c h l a c k s f o r m a l r u l e s t o govern b e h a v i o u r , a v o i d a n c e o f p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s can r e s u l t i n a b u i l d - u p o f e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t w h i c h may be d e s t r u c t i v e o f the group. On the o t h e r hand, too much ti m e and energy devoted t o e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s may r e s u l t i n l i t t l e e l s e b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d . M a n s b r i d g e ( 1 9 7 3 ) emphasizes the ti m e t h a t such an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s bound t o spend on e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s , and the c o n f l i c t t h a t a d j u s t i n g t o such a s h i f t i n emphasis may c r e a t e . The i s s u e o f d e a l i n g w i t h emotions i n a work o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c l o s e l y bound up w i t h t h e p r o c e s s / p r o d u c t d e b a t e , and i n v o l v e s t he same s h i f t i n v a l u e s and need t o r e - d e f i n e what c o n s t i t u t e s 'work'. A c c e p t i n g t he need t o spend time on emotions a l s o means r e a s s e s s i n g the v a l u e s g i v e n t o ' p r o d u c t i o n ' and 'maintenance' a c t i v i t i e s i n our s o c i e t y . . . b o t h women and men o f t e n a c c e p t the l a r g e r s o c i e t y ' s j u d g e -ment t h a t achievement i s more i m p o r t a n t than a f f i l i a t i o n . ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1 9 7 3 : 3 6 0 ) M a n s b r i d g e s u g g e s t s the use o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n e r s t o h e l p the group l e a r n how t o cope w i t h e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n among members. Some groups p r e f e r t o s t r u c t u r e t h e i r own ways o f d e a l i n g w i t h e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n s , such as the c r i t i c i s m / s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s e s s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o many c o l l e c t i v e s . C o n v e r s a t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members of a v a r i e t y o f c o l l e c t i v e s r e v e a l a range o f p o s i t i o n s groups have t a k e n on t h i s i s s u e o f e m o t i o n ; however, a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , i n f o r m a n t s have been aware o f the power t h a t t h i s i s s u e has t o s u s t a i n o r d e s t r o y a c o l l e c t i v e . 6 . E x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s W h i l e the f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s on t h e i n t e r n a l dynamics and problems o f c o l l e c t i v e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a t l e a s t n o t e some o f the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s on t he development o f c o l l e c t i v i t y . A t t he p r e s e n t t i m e , s o c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t the l a r g e - s c a l e d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , f e m i n -i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g y , and e s p e c i a l l y p r e v a i l i n g i d e a s - 1 01 r about what c o n s t i t u t e s ' p r o g r e s s ' a c t as, d e t e r r a n t s t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s i n most work o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Western s o c i e t y . To the e x t e n t t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d around p r i n c i p l e s o f maximum e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y , and t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o enormous p r e s s u r e s t o produce and t o be c o m p e t i t i v e by k e e p i n g c o s t s down, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i z e a c t s as a c o n s t r a i n t on the development o f c o l 1 e c t i v i t y . C o l l e c t i v i t y ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n , and d i r e c t c o n t r o l p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy burden on l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . W h i l e s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be s u b j e c t e d t o many o f the same p r e s s u r e s as l a r g e o n es, t h e i r s m a l l e r s i z e makes, t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f some a s p e c t s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y less, cumbersome and more e a s i l y manageable. T h e r e f o r e , c o l l e c t -i v i t y may be a b l e t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s e s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h o u t major r e d u c t i o n s i n e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y . See F r e n c h and F r e n c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) and Meyer 0 9 7 2 ) f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s i z e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . W h i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i z e , t h e n , does a c t as a c o n s t r a i n t on t h e development o f c o l l e c t i v i t y , t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y ways i n w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l a r g e g r o u p s . Some o f t h e s e ways a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 under ' I r n p l i c a t i o n s 1. O t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g f e m i n i z i n g p r a c t i c e s not i n c l u d e d i n most e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s , c a n , a t t h i s p o i n t , o n l y be the s u b j e c t o f s p e c u l a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember here t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r p r i n c i p l e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y t o have some impact on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , c o l l e c t i v i t y does not have t o be a p p l i e d t o l a r g e - s c a l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t s e n t i r e t y . S i g n i f i c a n t changes can be made by i n t r o d u c i n g e l ements o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i n t o l a r g e o r g a n -i z a t i o n s w i t h o u t c o n v e r t i n g them i n t o s m a l l c o l l e c t i v e s . (See F r e n c h and F r e n c h , 1 9 7 5 ; H e r b s t , 1 9 7 6 ; Pateman, 1 9 7 0 . ) Other e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , on t h e g r o w t h o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i n c l u d e l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , l a c k of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t , and i n many c a s e s o u t r i g h t o p p o s i t i o n from the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . O p p o s i t i o n i s m a n i f e s t e d o f t e n i n such - 102 -p r a c t i c a l forms as the o v e r - z e a l o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f z o n i n g o r b u i l d i n g r e g u l -a t i o n s , o r t h e p o s i n g o f l e g a l o r r e g u l a t o r y o b s t a c l e s t o , f o r example, i n c o r -p o r a t i o n as c o - o p e r a t i v e s . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s l a c k o f p r a c t i c a l and m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t , and c r u c i a l t o the f a i l u r e o f c o l l e c t i v e s t o p r o l i f e r a t e , i s a l a c k o f i d e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o b u r e a u c r a c y . W h i l e i d e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t from w i t h i n the movement may be s t r o n g , so f a r , o r g a n i z a t i o n s out o f the mainstream o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s l a c k any f i n a n c i a l l y s t r o n g , s u p p o r t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l network. Community-based co-o p e r a t i v e c r e d i t u n i o n s , w h i c h o f f e r l o w - c o s t f i n a n c i a l h e l p t o n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l community g r o u p s , a r e one p o s i t i v e s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The i s s u e o f f u n d i n g i s i n t e g r a l t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f c o l l e c t i v e g r o u p s , and o v e r l a p s w i t h i s s u e s o f group s i z e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h government and o t h e r f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s , l a c k o f o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u p p o r t , and l a c k o f i d e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t from the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Newman (1980) has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t o r g a n -i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e funded by government have d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g a non-b u r e a u c r a t i c , n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , whereas o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e s e l f -s u p p o r t i n g a r e r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h a t r e g a r d . However, R o t h s c h i l d -W h i t t has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t most c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n n o t compete w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s . She says t h a t the most s u c c e s s f u l a l t e r n a t i v e groups a r e t h o s e w h i c h produce something t h a t i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t w h i c h i s o f f e r e d by t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Loney 0 9 7 4 ) has d e s c r i b e d the d e v e s t a t i n g e f f e c t s on s o c i a l movements o f government monies p a i d t o r a d i c a l a c t i v i s t s w h i c h r e d i r e c t s t h e i r e n e r g i e s i n t o a r e a s t h a t a r e l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o the s t a t u s quo. i m p o r t a n t a s . t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e , they do not p r o v i d e a f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s and w i l l not be e x p l o r e d i n d e t a i l . I t i s w o r t h p o i n t i n g o u t , however, t h a t i n o r d e r f o r c o l l e c t i v e s t o become an i n c r e a s i n g l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t h e y w i l l have t o s o l v e some of the problems o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e l a r g e r . - 103 -s o c i e t y . The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s problems f o r t h e development o f c o l l e c t i v e groups on a l a r g e r s c a l e i s a c r u c i a l a r e a f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . See K anter and Z u r c h e r f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e s e i s s u e s i n the c o n t e x t o f the e v a l u a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . For d i s c u s s i o n s o f some o f the o t h e r e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n the s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f c o l l e c t i v e s and o t h e r s o c i a l movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s , see C u r t i s and Z u r c h e r (1973j; Loney ( 1 9 7 % McCarthy and Z a l d ( 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 7 ) ; Newman ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; Simpson and G u l 1 e y , ( 1 9 6 2 ) ; Wilson.. ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; Z a l d and Ash ( 1 9 6 6 ) . C. Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r , I have compared the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f b u r e a u c r a c y and c o l l e c t i v i t y . The g r e a t e s t emphasis has been g i v e n t o the ways i n w h i c h power i s o r g a n i z e d : power i s lo o k e d a t i n terms o f c o n t r o l , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and a s s u m p t i o n s about human n a t u r e on w h i c h t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms a r e based. P a t r i a r c h a l and democ-r a t i x l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s a r e c o n t r a s t e d and the f u l f i l l m e n t o f l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s i n c o l l e c t i v i t y examined. Consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s d e s c r i b e d as the form o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w h i c h c o n t r a s t s most s t r i k i n g l y w i t h methods used i n b u r e a u c r a c y . I t ' s p a r t i c i p a t o r y n a t u r e and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f emotion i n t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s a r e s t r e s s e d . The ways i n wh i c h l a b o u r i s d i v i d e d i n h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s and non-h i e r a r c h i c a l c o l l e c t i v e s a r e compared. The f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by t a s k r o t a t i o n and t a s k s h a r i n g i n c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e d i s c u s s e d : t h e s h a r i n g o f power, the d i s t r i b u t i o n and d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge, and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The s t y l e s o f the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms a r e c o n t r a s t e d , n o t i n g b u r e a u c r a c y ' s emphasis on e f f i c i e n c y , o r d e r , r a t i o n a l i t y , e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , and c o l l e c t i v i t y ' s emphasis on p r o c e s s , i n f o r m a l i t y , emotion and the c r e a t i o n o f community-. The e f f e c t s o f b u r e a u c r a c y ' s s t r e s s on s t a b i l i t y and c o l l e c t i v i t y ' s - 104 -s t r e s s on i n n o v a t i o n a r e examined, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f l e x i b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . F i n a l l y , the problems and l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e examined i n some d e t a i l . These problems i n c l u d e the i n s t a b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n i n n o v a t i o n , t h e p r e s s u r e o f c o n s t a n t l y i n v e n t i n g new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ; problems o f i n e q u a l i t y and d o m i n a t i o n ; p o t e n t i a l p e r s o n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n t a s k r o t a t i o n ; t e n s i o n between p r o c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n and p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n ; time consumption and i n e f f i c i e n c y ; e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y ; and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Some a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e ways i n w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e s a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e s e problems. Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r , emphasis has been p l a c e d on the h i g h degree o f e m o t i o n a l and i d e o l o g i c a l commitment o f members wh i c h i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s -f u l c o l l e c t i v i t y and the r o l e p l a y e d by t h i s commitment i n s o l v i n g the problems o f c o l l e c t i v i t y and i n s u s t a i n i n g members when problems cannot be s o l v e d . T h i s commitment p r o v i d e s an a t t r a c t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e members and i s a s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h f o r g r o u p s . Because o f the demands i t p l a c e s on members, i n terms o f both time and e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , the n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s commitment i s a l s o one o f the reasons why c o l l e c t i v i t y has not p r o l i f e r a t e d as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form i n t h i s s o c i e t y . Too l i t t l e i s known about the a c t u a l a b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i v i t y t o adapt t o a s o c i e t y based on p r o d u c t i v i t y , c o m p e t i t i o n and r a p i d g r o w t h , o r o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r a p p l y i n g i n a l i m i t e d way some o f the p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f c o l l e c t -i v i t y i n a, b u r e a u c r a t i c s e t t i n g . However, i t seems c l e a r t h a t c o l l e c t i v i t y as i t has been d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r 1 has l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t cannot be i g n o r e d , i n terms o f i t s a b i l i t y t o compete i n b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s on a l a r g e s c a l e . Any a d o p t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v i t y as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s , a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f g o a l s w h i c h s h i f t s t he emphasis from p r o d u c t i v i t y t o q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t aims o f human d e v e l -- 105 -opment. The s m a l l e r s i z e and l e s s e r p r o d u c t i v i t y o f c o l l e c t i v e s a r e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l s t a n c e ; how f a r c o l l e c t i v e s can m a i n t a i n t h i s s t a n c e w h i l e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g v i a b l e i n s o c i e t y i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n f o r a d v o c a t e s of a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms. In t he next c h a p t e r , the c o n n e c t i o n w i l l be made between the two o r g a n -i z a t i o n a l forms d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r and the m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e s s e t o u t i n Chap t e r 2. Notes 1. Because o f the n a t u r e o f human b e i n g s , however, autonomy, even i n t h o s e a t the bottom o f the h i e r a r c h y , i s u n l i k e l y t o be c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d ( R o t h s c h i l d - W h i t t , 1977 ) . 2. The e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h done by K l e i b e r and m y s e l f on the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e from 1974 t o 1978 (see Ch a p t e r 1) s e r v e s as a s o u r c e o f many o f the quotes i n c l u d e d i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . When q u o t i n g members of the Vancouver Women's H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , HC w i l l be used to d e s i g n a t e ' H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ' . 3. J o r e e n (1973) and Freeman ( 1975 ), whose d i s c u s s i o n s o f s t r u c t u r e l e s s groups e x h i b i t some c o n f u s i o n between s t r u c t u r e l e s s n e s s and a l t e r n a t e , f l e x i b l e forms o f s t r u c t u r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s do i n d i c a t e some o f t h e problems i n h e r e n t i n an a v o i d a n c e o f a l l s t r u c t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p a r t l y because o f w r i t i n g s such as t h e s e , s t r u c t u r e l e s s n e s s came t o i r e p r e s e n t t o the same p e o p l e a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , and were sometimes used t o i l l u s t r a t e t he u n w o r k a b i 1 i t y o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form t h a t was not h i e r a r c h i c a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c. 4 . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s may be found i n the above s o u r c e s o r i n K l e i b e r and L i g h t ( 1 978 ) . - 106 -5. Pateman (1970) o f f e r s some e v i d e n c e t o the c o n t r a r y from d e m o c r a t i c work e n t e r p r i s e s i n B r i t a i n . In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e c o l l e c t -i v e s i n Vancouver have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f b u r e a u c r a c y i s a myth, and t h a t the time consumed by c o l l e c t i v i t y ' s a t t e n t i o n t o p r o c e s s may, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , be b a l a n c e d by t h e time consumed by b u r e a u c r a c y ' s c o n c e r n w i t h 'red t a p e ' . 6. See Note 5 above. - 107 -CHAPTER 4 MASCULINE AND FEMININE ORIENTATIONS OF BUREAUCRACY AND COLLECTIVITY A. I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l i n t e g r a t e the m a t e r i a l i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s i n t o what i s the c e n t r a l i s s u e o f t h i s t h e s i s : I w i l l t r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t he m a s c u l i n e n a t u r e o f b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e f e m i n i n e n a t u r e o f c o l l e c t i v i t y . The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , I w i l l argue t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms embody much o f what we have come, i n t h i s s o c i e t y , t o r e c o g n i z e as ' m a s c u l i n e 1 and t h a t c o l l e c t i v i t y embodies what we have come t o r e c o g n i z e as ' f e m i n i n e ' . In so a r g u i n g , I w i l l o u t l i n e some o f the c o n n e c t i o n s between the f e m i n i s t movement and the development o f a l t e r n a t i v e , a n t i - b u r e a u -c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . B. The development o f b u r e a u c r a c y as a m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form The power s t r u c t u r e s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c s o c i e t y have been l a r g e l y male d e s i g n e d and d e v e l o p e d . Men have d e s i g n e d s o c i e t y and the s t r u c t u r e o f work around t h e i r own imp u l s e s and t h e i r sense o f b e l o n g i n g t o g e t h e r , as i f they were i n some m y s t e r i o u s way g u a r d i a n s o f t h e s a c r e d f l a m e o f p r o g r e s s , w e a l t h , e n e r g y , a c h i e v e m e n t . . . ( K o r d a , 1973:62) Kanter (1975, 1977), t r a c i n g the development o f b u r e a u c r a c y as a m a s c u l i n e o r g a n -i z a t i o n a l f o r m , p o i n t s o ut t h a t c o n t r a r y t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s as ' s e x - n e u t r a l machines' (1975:46), m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e s dominated t h e i r a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s . The q u a l i t i e s y a l u e d i n b u r e a u c r a c y were t h o s e assumed t o be p r e s e n t and s o c i a l l y encouraged i n men. T h i s " m a s c u l i n e e t h i c " e l e v a t e d t he t r a i t s assumed t o be l o n g t o men w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l advantages t o n e c e s s i t i e s f o r e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s : a tough-minded approach t o problems;-. a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t i e s - 108 -a b s t r a c t and p l a n ; a c a p a c i t y t o s e t a s i d e p e r s o n a l , e m o t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the i n t e r e s t o f t a s k a c c o m p l i s h m e n t ; and a c o g n i t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . ( K a n t e r , 1975:43) I t was a l o g i c a l s t e p , f o r men who equate t h e s e q u a l i t i e s w i t h m a n l i n e s s , t o t r a n s f e r them t o the w o r k p l a c e , where men a r e paramount. Women's supposed l a c k o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s was used as a way o f e x c l u d i n g them from p o s i t i o n s o f power i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s . K a n t e r (1975) c i t e s a s u r v e y i n w h i c h managers s t a t e d t h a t women were " t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y u n f i t " f o r management (p.47) . The m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a c y r e s u l t e d i n t h e c l a s s i c a l model o f t h a t form w h i c h , as Kanter s a y s : ...was o r i e n t e d t o w a r d , and assumed t o be c a p a b l e o f , s u p p r e s s i n g i r r a t i o n a l i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y , and e m o t i o n a l i t y , and p e o p l e who had t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e v a l u e d and kept from i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o t h e r w i s e f l a w l e s s m a c h i n e . . . b u r e a u c r a c y was t h e t r u l y ' p a s s i o n l e s s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n (1975:45) Shepatsd (1977) o b s e r v e s t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e m i l i t a r y was an e f f e c t i v e t r a i n -ing ground f o r men i n b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , where the a r t o f b e i n g a s u p e r -ior.-or a s u b o r d i n a t e , and of g i v i n g o r d e r s u n f e e l i n g l y o r o b e y i n g them u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y was a l l - i m p o r t a n t . A major way i n whi c h e f f i c i e n c y i s maximized i n b u r e a u c r a c y i s by the r e d u c t i o n o f d i s t r a c t i n g p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s . Not o n l y Is emotion m i n i m i z e d o r i g n o r e d , but r o l e s a r e s t r i c t l y s e g r e g a t e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t between, f o r example, the c o n c e r n s and v a l u e s o f home and f a m i l y and thos e o f the work-p l a c e . I t has a l r e a d y been demonstrated i n Chapt e r 2 how, i n t h i s s o c i e t y , such r o l e s e g r e g a t i o n and e m o t i o n a l s u p p r e s s i o n r e p r e s e n t m a s c u l i n e ways o f be i n g i n t h e w o r l d . U n l i k e women, men a r e encouraged t o see t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n as c e n t r a l t o t h e i r l i v e s and home and f a m i l y as s e c o n d a r y . Such a c l e a r de-m a r c a t i o n and v a l u a t i o n o f sp h e r e s m i n i m i z e s d i s r u p t i o n caused by r o l e c o n f l i c t and makes i t easy f o r men t o f i t i n t o b u r e a u c r a t i c work s t r u c t u r e s (Coser and R o k o f f , 1971). In a b u r e a u c r a t ' s l i f e : - 109 -W o r k . . . i s dominant. E v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s s u b o r d i n a t e and the e x e c u t i v e i s u n a b l e t o c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e h i s l i f e . Whatever the segment o f i t -l e i s u r e , home, f r i e n d s - he i n s t i n c t i v e l y measures i t i n terms o f how w e l l i t meshes w i t h h i s work. (Whyte, 1975:161) Shepard d e s c r i b e s t he t r a d i t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y w h i c h ; produce [d] an a d u l t male who was d e d i c a t e d t o the d i s c i p l i n e d p e r -formance o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e , and who was c a p a b l e o f s u b o r d i n -a t i n g h i m s e l f f o r the purpose o f moving upward...This d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o work extended t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m munication. A r t i c u l a t e , r a t i o n a l , f a c t - b a s e d , c a u s e - e f f e c t d i s c o u r s e was a c r i t i c a l s u c c e s s s k i l l . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the boss s h o u l d be b u s i n e s s l i k e . S u b o r d i n a t e s were t o be d i r e c t e d and e v a l u a t e d . Issues among pe e r s s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d by the b o s s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e s were t o be imp e r s o n a l - f i r m , but f a i r . . . I f men e x p e r i e n c e d . . . a n x i e t y . . . t h e y were not t o show i t . . . c a r e e r s c o u l d be damaged by a show o f f e e l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y the warmer e m o t i o n s . . . s u p p o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r o f any k i n d was r a r e ; a d m i t t i n g a need f o r h e l p from o t h e r s was a s i g n o f weakness; o f f e r i n g h e l p was a putdown. (1977:389~90) Shepard, l i k e K a n t e r , t r a c e s the h i s t o r y o f b u r e a u c r a c y t h r o u g h i t s most f o r m a l , t r a d i t i o n a l phase t o i t s human r e l a t i o n s phase. A c c o r d i n g t o Shepard t h i s l a t t e r phase r e c o g n i z e d t he need f o r a more h u m a n i s t i c model o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h s t r e s s e d c o - o p e r a t i o n , openness, t r u s t and em o t i o n . A l t h o u g h Shepard tends t o become somewhat o v e r - g e n e r o u s about the human c a p a c i t i e s o f modern o r g a n i z a t i o n , even he does not p r e t e n d t h a t the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s o f the complex modern b u r e a u c r a c y have r a d i c a l l y changed. He o b s e r v e s t h a t " C o n t r o l i s s t i l l t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f the manager." (1977:393)• E f f e c t i v e n e s s i n terms o f the p r o d u c t i s s t i l l t he g u i d i n g f a c t o r i n the human r e l a t i o n s model o f b u r e a u c r a c y . Any changes i n the form, and t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t o nes, d i d not r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n from the g o a l o f maximum p r o d u c t i v i t y , from the model o f h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r from t h e r a t i o n a l b i a s o f t h a t model ( K a n t e r , 1975)- Kanter p o i n t s o u t t h a t t he human r e l a t i o n s model o f b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e emphasis on i n f o r m a l r a t h e r than f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t he b u r e a u c r a c y i n f a c t s u p p o r t s t he r a t i o n a l i t y emphasized i n f o r m a l b u r e a u c r a c y . Not o n l y do w o r k e r s emerge as the o n l y p a r t i c i p a n t s , t o have emotions o r engage i n i n f o r m a l - 1 1 0 -o r g a n i z a t i o n , but any a t t e m p t t o 'keep the w o r k e r s happy', i s done not f o r the sake o f the w o r k e r s but f o r the sake o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . W h i l e i n t r o d u c i n g s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and f o c u s i n g on the human s i d e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the h u m a n - r e l a t i o n s a n a l y s t s s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y and m a n a g e r i a l r a t i o n a l i t y . In Mayo's v i e w , w o r k e r s were c o n t r o l l e d by s e n t i m e n t , e m o t i o n , and s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s , and t h i s phenomenon needed t o be u n d e r s t o o d and t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g . Managers, on the o t h e r hand, were r a t i o n a l , l o g i c a l , and a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e i r r e m o t i o n s i n the i n t e r e s t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e s i g n . ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 : 4 6 - 7 ) Pateman ( 1 9 7 0 ) a d d r e s s e s the same i s s u e when she notes the " p s e u d o - p a r t i c i p a t o r y " n a t u r e o f worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t m e r e l y e n l i s t s worker s u p p o r t f o r d e c i s i o n s a l r e a d y made. Such p a r t i c i p a t i o n , she s a y s , i s d i r e c t e d o n l y toward g r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y and not toward i n c r e a s e d worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e w o r k e r s . (For a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r g e n u i n e worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n , see S w a r t z , 1 9 8 1 . ) The f o c u s on men and on r a t i o n a l i t y arid i m p e r s o n a l i t y i n b u r e a u c r a c y s e r v e d not o n l y t o r e s t r i c t women but a l s o t o l i m i t the t h e o r y o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . K a n t e r p o i n t s o u t t h i s l i m i t i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e male b i a s : At t h e same ti m e t h e s e l e a n i n g s o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y a l s o had i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n sequences, l i m i t i n g i t s a n a l y t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . L a r g e r i s s u e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l placement i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f men and women, and the consequences o f t h e s e f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r - t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were l a r g e l y u n n o t i c e d . I f t h e s t a t u s quo o f power i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and women's d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n was s u p p o r t e d , i t was as much because o f i n t e l l e c t u a l b l i n d e r s a s.because o f d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t . ( 1 9 7 5 : 4 8 ) Such a p e r s p e c t i v e s u p p o r t e d not o n l y the s t a t u s quo o f the s e x u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but a l s o the s t a t u s quo o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l -opment i n s o c i e t y , f o c u s i n g on r a t i o n a l i t y and h i e r a r c h y as the o n l y p o s s i b l e ways f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e l y . Women, the g u a r d i a n s o f emotion and i n t u i t i o n i n our s o c i e t y , have thus been t h e major c l a s s o f p e o p l e e x c l u d e d from b u r e a u c r a t i c power bases i n t h i s s o c i e t y up t o the p r e s e n t t i m e . - 111 -C. The f e m i n i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n 1. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g women's e s p o u s a l o f c o l l e c t i v i t y A t l e a s t t h r e e o v e r l a p p i n g f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o women's a t t r a c t i o n t o c o l l e c t i v i t y as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e . F i r s t , women r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y were d i s s a t i s f i e d w o r k i n g i n male c o n s t r u c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s -t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s n e i t h e r broke down p a t r i a r c h a l p a t t e r n s nor accommodated f e m a l e q u a l i t i e s . A g a i n s t t h e background o f b u r e a u c r a c y as a m a s c u l i n e a pproach t o o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d why, when i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s sought ways t o combat male d o m i n a t i o n , they a l s o sought ways t o r e - s t r u c t u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e a c t i o n o f f e m i n i s t s t o male b u r e a u c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1. K o k o p e l i and Lakey a l s o acknowledge t h i s f e m i n i s t r e a c t i o n as a key f a c t o r i n the development o f a l t e r n a t e s t y l e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f e m i n i s t s saw i n s e x i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n the d e g r a d a t i o n and p o w e r l e s s -ness o f women. They r e c o g n i z e d the l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n t o f e e l i n g s and n u r t u r a n c e i n m a l e - l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a t the same time they e x p r e s s e d newfound p r i d e i n some f e m i n i n e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h p a t r i a r c h y h e l d i n contempt. (1978:7) C o l l e c t i v i t y and i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s m thus not o n l y s h a r e a c r i t i c a l v i e w o f p a t r i a r c h y and o t h e r forms o f d o m i n a t i o n , but they s h a r e a s e t o f p o s i t i v e g o a l s . These g o a l s i n c l u d e : the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y both w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h i n s o c i e t y ; the s h a r i n g o f knowledge i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n ; t h e o p p o s i n g o f p e r s o n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n and the development o f whole and i n t e g r a t e d human b e i n g s ; a t t e n t i o n t o p r o c e s s ; and the i n t e g r a t i o n of many o f the p o l a r i t i e s i n our s o c i e t y . Second, women have l e s s t o l o s e i n a r a d i c a l r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f power and p r i o r i t i e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s than do men. W i t h l e s s i n v e s t e d than men i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c m a c h i n e r y o f e f f i c i e n c y , p r o d u c t i o n and s u c c e s s , women may be more w i l l i n g t o t r y new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h o s e forms r e f l e c t more c l o s e l y t h e i r own v a l u e s . -112 -And t h i r d , s o c i a l i z a t i o n has done more t o p r e p a r e women f o r c o l l e c t i v e ways of w o r k i n g than i t has f o r men. A comparison o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s encouraged ( i n women i n our s o c i e t y (Chapter 2) and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s embodied i n c o l l e c t i v i t y ( C hapter 3) i l l u m i n a t e s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two. Many o f the emphases o f c o l l e c t i v i t y r e f l e c t t he emphasis on n u r t u r i n g , maintenance f u n c t i o n s o f women's d a i l y l i v e s . 2. Power, l e a d e r s h i p and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g In t he i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f f e m i n i s t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t b u r e a u c r a c y and p a t r i a r -c h a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e , emphasis was on the p e r s o n a l , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and the a v o i d a n c e o f s t r u c t u r e and l e a d e r s h i p . As women's r e a c t i o n s c o a l e s c e d i n t o a movement, women r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s were p o l i t i c a l and needed f o c u s and s t r u c t u r e . S e a r c h i n g f o r form f o r t h e i r a n t i - b u r e a u c r a t i c , a n t i -p a t r i a r c h a l r e a c t i o n s , women began t o d e v e l o p o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t were l a c k i n g i n b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Informal c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g groups e v o l v e d i n t o s t r u c t u r e d c o l l e c t i v e s , w hich had t o d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h issues, o f power, l e a d e r s h i p , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o d u c t i v i t y , a t the same time as they had t o d e a l w i t h i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t i d e a l s o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g f e m a l e v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s i n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e . E q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s became one o f the most i m p o r t a n t g o a l s o f many f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . L e a r n i n g how t o be e q u a l s , a p r o c e s s o f u n l e a r n i n g p e r v a s i v e s o c i a l l e s s o n s , i s a d i f f i c u l t one f o r both women and men. However, i t seems t o be an e a s i e r p r o c e s s f o r women p a r t l y because o f what each sex has i n v e s t e d i n r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n and p a r t l y because o f d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s . There seems t o be l i t t l e doubt t h a t l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s t h a t emphasize p o w e r - s h a r i n g , f l e x i b i l i t y , and c o - o p e r a t i o n r e f l e c t a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e ( S t . J o a n , 1976). These c o n c e p t s [ o f f e m i n i s t l e a d e r s h i p ^ s u g g e s t a p a t t e r n o f l e a d e r s h i p f a r d i f f e r e n t from jnen's,, ,V/Omen's,,. . o r g a n i c . , .ways o f l e a d i n g may be a k i n d o f " s h i f t i n g l e a d e r s h i p 1 ' , w h i c h does not e x p e c t a l e a d e r t o - 1 1 3 -always and everywhere p e r f o r m t h a t f u n c t i o n . . . w e c a l l t h i s v i e w o f l e a d e r s h i p " s h a r e d " t o emphasize the equal s t a k e members...of the group see t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g I n a c h i e v i n g group g o a l s and m a i n t -a i n i n g group m o r a l e . ( K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1 9 7 8 : 8 ) Such a model o f l e a d e r s h i p does not embody th e i n d i v i d u a l e g o - i n v e s t m e n t o f a more r i g i d and c e n t r a l i z e d model o f l e a d e r s h i p where the l e a d e r a t t r a c t s r e s p e c t , a d m i r a t i o n and envy because o f h i s / h e r p o s i t i o n . Those who f i l l l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n s i n t h i s more f l u i d s t r u c t u r e have t o g i v e up a l o t o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f s u p e r i o r i t y they might have g a i n e d from a more t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r -s h i p r o l e . F u l f i l l i n g such a l e a d e r s h i p f u n c t i o n t h e r e f o r e i s l i k e l y t o be h a r d e r f o r a p e r s o n who has a g r e a t d e a l o f ego i n v e s t e d i n o c c u p y i n g a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y i n a g r o u p , which i s more l i k e l y t o be a man than a woman. Women's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o m p e t i t i o n i s a complex one and d i f f e r s i n some i m p o r t a n t ways from t h a t o f men. W h i l e the s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f women i n t o t r a d i t -i o n a l f e m i n i n e r o l e s emphasizes n u r t u r i n g , a f f i l i a t i o n and h e l p i n g r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i o n , women have a l s o been s u b j e c t e d t o many o f the same s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s as men, i n c l u d i n g c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s as a v a l u e d a i d t o p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e -ment. However, women have not been a l l o w e d t o compete o p e n l y w i t h men i n the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e ; women's c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s has u s u a l l y been f o c u s e d on the p r i v a t e s p h e r e . In t h i s s p here o f the p e r s o n a l , where e m o t i o n a l d e f e n s e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y a b s e n t , c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s is. h a r d e r t o a c c e p t as a p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c . I t may be t h a t t h i s l a c k o f p r o t e c t i v e d e v i c e s t o b u f f e r t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i n t h e p e r s o n a l sphere (which a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e i n the form o f , f o r example, rules, and the c a r e f u l g u a r d i n g o f e m o t i o n s ) combines w i t h women's s o c i a l i z a t i o n toward c o - o p e r a t i o n t o make women l e s s l i k e l y t o be h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e . C e r t a i n l y c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i s not an open f e a t u r e o f f e m i n i n e c u l t u r e i n the same way i t i s f o r men. Women's s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , s u c h as t h e f a m i l y and ' h e l p i n g ' a g e n c i e s , haye not l e g i t i m a t e d o r i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n i n the way men's haye. C o m p e t i t i o n among women, t h e r e f o r e , i;s more o f t e n a s o u r c e o f g u i l t than s a t i s f a c t i o n , whether t h a t c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s - 1 1 4 -i s a f e a t u r e . o f a work s i t u a t i o n o r a f r i e n d s h i p . One r e s u l t o f women's a m b i v a l e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n i s t h a t the n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y a r e o f t e n welcomed by women. a n i m o s i t y and h o s t i l i t y and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . I t h i n k t h a t my back-ground has been a v e r y c o m p e t i t i v e one, g o i n g t h r o u g h s c h o o l and w o r k i n g v e r y hard t o g e t good enough g r a d e s t o g e t i n t o m e d i c a l s c h o o l , always competing w i t h e v e r y o n e . I had t o be the b e s t . And t h i s has been good t o l e a r n about not b e i n g c o m p e t i t i v e , and t o l e a r n t h a t e v e r y o n e i s not o u t t o beat me, you know, and t h a t I'm not out t o beat everyone e l s e e i t h e r . . . I don't know what i t i s t h a t the C o l l e c t i v e has t h a t has made t h a t happen f o r me, i t ' s hard t o put my f i n g e r on any one a s p e c t o f i t , but I t h i n k i t ' s the s h a r i n g o f ide a s and the s h a r i n g o f d e c i s i o n s , the t a l k i n g about problems as they come up...(HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) I r e a l l y f e e l t h a t t h e C o l l e c t i v e has been a v e r y i m p o r t a n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r me, and t h a t i t ' s t a u g h t me many ways o f b e i n g w i t h p e o p l e , o t h e r women, t h a t I wouldn't have come a c r o s s m y s e l f , and I t h i n k I would have l i v e d a c o m p e t i t i v e and f a i r l y i s o l a t e d l o n e l y l i f e , i f I hadn't been i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s group and r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e r e a l l y a r e o t h e r ways o f w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e and g e t t i n g t h i n g s done. (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) I'm so happy when I see how w e l l t h i r t y women can work t o g e t h e r . There a r e some problems but they a r e and can be worked o u t . But i t ' s so c o n t r a r y t o t h e t e a c h i n g I had as a c h i l d t h a t women c a n ' t work t o g e t h e r and a r e always competing w i t h each o t h e r . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) However, y e a r s of• s o c i a l i z a t i o n have made the i s s u e o f c o m p e t i t i o n a c o m p l i c a t e d one t h a t c o l l e c t i v e s have by no means s o l v e d . C o m p e t i t i v e f e e l i n g s s t i l l e x i s t w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v e s ' members and c o m p e t i t i o n has not been e r a d i c a t e d from t h e i r p r o c e s s e s . Nor do a l l members agre e t h a t a l l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s can or even s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . I don't c o n f r o n t c o m p e t i t i o n y e r y w e l l . I don't l i k e i t happening. I've t a k e n on t h a t t h i n g t h a t i t ' s not c o o l , and you s h o u l d n ' t be competing. T h a t ' s a n o t h e r one o f the women's movement t r i p s , you know, t h a t we s h o u l d n ' t be co m p e t i n g . And t h a t ' s j u s t not something t h a t I've d e a l t v e r y a d e q u a t e l y w i t h . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) Male dominated i n s t i t u t i o n s such as. companies and s p o r t s teams, on the o t h e r hand, f o c u s w i t h p r i d e on c o m p e t i t i o n as a s o u r c e o f m o t i v a t i o n and e x c e l l e n c e . W r i t i n g o f c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s p r i m a r i l y as. a male v a l u e , N i c h o l s s a y s : - .1.15 -...Women have a l l o w e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a c c e p t t h i s v a l u e t o o , a l t h o u g h more c o v e r t l y . I t i s among men, however, t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n o c c a s i o n s l o u d b o a s t s . (.1978:90) W h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g women's c o m p e t i t i v e a s p e c t s , M i l l e r a rgues t h a t women a r e g e n e r a l l y more c o - o p e r a t i v e than men p a r t l y because, not b r o u g h t up t o f e e l s u p e r i o r w i t h i n the f a m i l y o r i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , women do not f e e l the same sense o f l o s s when they choose a c o - o p e r a t i v e mode o f a c t i o n ( 1 9 7 6 : 4 3 ) . She a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n w h i c h most women spend most o f t h e i r time a r e more c o n d u c i v e t o c o - o p e r a t i o n than m a l e - o c c u p i e d s e t t i n g s . Not o n l y may women a d j u s t more e a s i l y t o c o l l e c t i v i t y because o f ' t h e i r e a s i e r a d j u s t m e n t t o s h a r i n g power, but they g e n e r a l l y s t a n d t o g a i n more than men i n terms o f l e a r n i n g how t o be s t r o n g and a s s e r t i v e and a r t i c u l a t e . The c o n s c i o u s -n e s s - r a i s i n g a s p e c t s and c o n f i d e n c e - b u i l d i n g p o t e n t i a l o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i s as i m p o r t a n t f o r women as the knowledge and s k i l l s h a r i n g , f o r w i t h o u t the c o n f i d e n c e t o use them, knowledge and s k i l l s w i l l be wasted. That t h e s e e f f e c t s o f s h a r e d l e a d e r s h i p a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r women i s d e monstrated by comments made by H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e members: P e o p l e come t o t h e H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e f o r a l o t o f r e a s o n s . One o f the t h i n g s t h a t happens o f t e n i s t h a t they come t h e r e , and t h e y ' r e not r e a l l y t o o t o g e t h e r w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s , and t h r o u g h a p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e y r e a l l y do d e v e l o p a f e e l i n g o f s e l f - e s t e e m and a l o t o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and r e a l l y s t a r t t o r e a l i z e t h a t they haye a l o t o f p o t e n t i a l and then they f e e l t h a t they can move i n t o something e l s e . . . I t h i n k t h a t ' s one o f the most f a n t a s t i c t h i n g s t h a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e does. (1974) [What I have g a i n e d from the C o l l e c t i v e ] i s the f e e l i n g o f s t r e n g t h t h a t I'm h a v i n g f o r the f i r s t t ime - t h a t women a r e n ' t p o w e r l e s s . And t h a t comes from b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women who a r e strong...Women who . . . w i l l t a k e on d i f f i c u l t t a s k s w i t h o p t i m i s m i n s t e a d o f j u s t assuming t h a t they c a n l t do a n y t h i n g . Now-.-I'm much b r a v e r about what I t h i n k we can do. (.1976) The empowering p r o c e s s t h a t r e s u l t s from b e i n g l i s t e n e d t o and r e s p e c t e d o p e r a t e s f o r men i n c o l l e c t i v e s a s w e l l as f o r women, but the e f f e c t has been more d r a m a t i c f o r women because they have been the ones most c o n s i s t e n t l y d e n i e d r e s p e c t and power i n t h i s s o c i e t y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . - 1 1 6 -. . . I j u s t don't t h i n k I've e v e r had t h a t f e e l i n g [ o f power] b e f o r e , and I t h i n k t h i s i s t r u e o f a l o t o f women. We j u s t k i n d o f s c h l e p p a l o n g t h r o u g h l i f e t h i n k i n g t h a t b a s i c a l l y we're no good, t h a t nobody l i k e s u s , t h a t we're not smart, t h a t we're al w a y s making m i s t a k e s , t h a t i t r e a l l y d o e s n ' t m a t t e r what we do...and w o r k i n g i n t h e C o l l e c t i v e has h e l p e d my self-image...and...made me j u s t f e e l l i k e I'm an okay p e r s o n . And t h a t ' s come from a l l the mee t i n g s where I v e r y s l o w l y began t o open up and t a l k about how I was f e e l i n g about the way t h i n g s were b e i n g done, and b e i n g l i s t e n e d t o . T h i n g s t h a t I s a i d were a c c e p t e d and d i s c u s s e d and i f t h e y were v a l i d they were worked on. And t h a t f e e l s v e r y good.(HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) I had worked f o r f i v e months a t a n o t h e r c l i n i c . I f e l t p o w e r l e s s t o change any o f the t h i n g s I f e l t needed c h a n g i n g . My i n v o l v e m e n t a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e gave me a f e e l i n g o f power t o h e l p change. (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) I'm r e a l l y happy w i t h the way the C o l l e c t i v e i s d o i n g t h i n g s . And I f e e l a l s o t h a t when I don't l i k e the way t h i n g s a r e g o i n g . . . I can change t h a t , and t h a t i t ' s a c c e p t e d f o r me t o do t h a t . (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) The o p p r e s s i o n o f women i s somewhat uniq u e i n t h a t women a r e i n t i m a t e l y bound up i n p r i m a r y l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s . In the l i g h t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t o f women's o p p r e s s i o n , n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms t a k e on a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r women. To be f r e e o f d o m i n a t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y d o m i n a t i o n by men, has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r women's p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e l v e s . Women's d e s i r e s t o s t r u c t u r e s i t u a t i o n s t o e n s u r e equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by c o l l e c t i v e methods o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The p a r t i c i p a t o r y n a t u r e o f consensus d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has a p a r t i c u l a r appeal t o women because t h e y , more than men, hgye e x p e r i e n c e d the e x c l u s i o n from d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n p a t r i a r c h a l s t r u c t u r e s . I f women d i d g a i n a p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y where they had a c c e s s t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , the way i n whi c h the p r o c e s s was c o n s t r u c t e d put them a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . In a c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n where i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n -making i s based on r a t i o n a l i t y , a . r t i c u l a t e n e s s , a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , where non-r a t i o n a l f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d d y s f u n c t i o n a l , and where the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r o p e n s i t y t o hear the arguments i s Based.to a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t on the sex o f the speaker { S m i t h , 1 974 ) , women have 1 i t t 1 e chance o f e x e r t i n g i n f l u e n c e . - 1 1 7 -l . n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s s a w i n t he r e s t r i c t i o n o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a d e n i a l o f p a r t o f w h a t m a d e u p t h e i r l i v e s . L e a r n i n g t o t a k e p r i d e i n t h e i r n o n - r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e f e m i n i s t m o v e m e n t , t h e y w e r e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a n d g a i n t h e c o u r a g e t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h i s c o n t e n t i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , W y c k o f f , 1 9 7 7 ) . T o a r g u e f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f e m o t i o n a n d i n t u i t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h a t b a s t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y , w a s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t e p . A d a m s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f w o m e n ' s i n t u i t i o n h i g h l i g h t s i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s : l j \ n ] a p p a r e n t c a p a c i t y f o r p i c k i n g u p s u b l i m i n a l c l u e s w h i c h , w h e n p u t t o g e t h e r , c a n p r o d u c e a d i a g n o s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r s i t u a t i o n s w i t h m o r e p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t t h a n i s a c h i e v e d b y m o r e u s u a l p r o c e s s e s o f c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t . . . i s l i k e l y t o b e d e v e l o p e d t o a h i g h e r l e v e l i n w o m e n . ( 1 9 7 1 : 5 7 2 ) 3 . P r o c e s s - o r i e n t a t i o n a n d t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f e m o t i o n i n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s O n e o f t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f f e m i n i s m h a s b e e n t h e c o n c e p t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s , o r HOW w e d o t h i n g s , i s a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e p r o d u c t , o r WHAT w e d o . ( R i d d l e , 1 9 7 8 : 2 3 , e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) T h e f a c t t h a t , i n m a n y c o l l e c t i v e s , b o t h p r o c e s s a n d p r o d u c t a r e s e e n a s i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f t h e s a m e g o a l s o f p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e r e f l e c t s i n t e g r a t i v e f e m i n i s t s ' v i e w s a b o u t t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e p e r s o n a l a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d o f e m o t i o n , i n t u i t i o n , a n d i n t e l l e c t . T h e a m o u n t o f t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l w i t h p r o c e s s a n d w i t h e m o t i o n r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l a d j u s t m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f m o s t c o l l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r m s o f t h e v a l u e s p l a c e d o n p r o d u c t i y e a n d m a i n t e n a n c e f u n c t i o n s . M a n s b r i d g e p o i n t s o u t t h a t : M o s t m e n n e a s u r e t h e i r w o r t h b y w h a t t h e y ' d o ' i n t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , w h a t t h e y p r o d u c e . . . W o m e n a r e more i n c l i n e d t o j u d g e t h e m s e l v e s b y t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r a f f U i a . t i . y e r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . . ( 1 9 7 3 : 3 6 0 ) T h i s v a l u e p l a c e d o n a f f i. 'l l a t i y e , m a i n t e n a n c e f u n c t i o n s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t w o m e n a r e u s u a l l y m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h , t h e i r e m o t i o n s t h a n men a r e , m a k e s i t e a s i e r i n g e n e r a l f o r w o m e n t o a d j u s t t o a n d o f t e n w e l c o m e p r o c e s s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s i n c o l l e c t i v e s . - 1 1 8 -Many women i n c o l l e c t i y e s a r e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d , e q u a t i n g a p r o d u c t - o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s w h i c h t h e y o b j e c t t o i n male o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forms. A c c o r d i n g t o p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d women, the p r i n c i p l e s o f openness of f e e l i n g s , c o - o p e r a t i o n , s u p p o r t i v e n e s s and v a l u i n g s e n s i t i v i t y , empathy, i n t u i t i o n , n u r t u r a n c e , i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and t r u s t a r e a t the h e a r t o f the women's c u l t u r e and t h e f e m i n i s t movement. (Crow, 1 9 7 8 : 7 8 ) O t h e r s s u p p o r t a more i n t e g r a t i v e p o s i t i o n : What happened f o r me i n b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e i s t h a t I f e e l an i n c r e d i b l y s t r o n g c o n n e c t i o n between the p r o c e s s and the p r o d u c t . I've f e l t q u i t e i n t o u c h w i t h t h e p r o c e s s i n o t h e r groups I've been i n but f e l t t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g b e i n g p r o d u c e d . T h a t ' s the whole e s s e n c e o f the women's movement - C.R. and a c t i o n . . . I would not e v e r s e p a r a t e t h o s e two t h i n g s . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f the p r o c e s s o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e s i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . To r e v e a l one's f e a r s , i n s e c u r i t i e s , f a l s e s t a r t s , o r m i s t a k e s i s t o d e m y s t i f y one's r o l e and make o n e s e l f v u l n e r a b l e both t o l o s s o f r e s p e c t o f co - w o r k e r s (which i s based not on b e i n g 'human' but on b e i n g 'super-human') and t o c o m p e t i t i o n ; t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y h a r d e r f o r a man t o expose h i m s e l f t o than a woman. I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e ' s a l o t o f power t o change t h i n g s from women e x p l o r -i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s and e x p l o r i n g d i f f e r e n t ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s because I f e e l l i k e so many o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s and so many t h i n g s around us have been b u i l t by men and have been m a i n t a i n e d by men i n a v e r y male o r i e n t a t e d way of d o i n g t h i n g s . . . y o u know, l i k e p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the p r o c e s s o f what we do...I j u s t f e e l l i k e a l o t o f changes can come about by h a v i n g us t a l k about how we f e e l . . . I was t h i n k i n g about how men go o f f i n a c o r n e r and t h i n k about how t h e y ' r e f e e l i n g and come up and t h e y ' v e g o t the answer, t h e y ' v e g ot s o m e t h i n g , man, you know, and t h e y ' l l throw i t o u t and someone e l s e w i l l compete w i t h them and say something e l s e , and i t j u s t goes on... (HC member, 1 9 7 6 ) The c o - o p e r a t i v e e t h o s o f c o l l e c t i v i t y p u t s p r e s s u r e on p a r t i c i p a n t s n ot t o be c o m p e t i t i v e and not t o c o n c e a l e i t h e r t he i n f o r m a t i o n o r the p r o c e s s e s p a r t i c u l a r t o a c e r t a i n r o l e o r t a s k . W h i l e such e x p e c t a t i o n s may cause i n i t i a l a n x i e t y i n p a r t i c i p a n t s , i t appears t h a t f o r many p e o p l e , the rewards from such d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n exceed the d i f f i c u l t i e s , G a l p e r and Washburne r e p o r t t h a t i n the fern i n i s t soc i a 1 work agency- which, t h e y h e l ped d e v e l op: - 1 1 9 -[Vhi 1e we] had a g r e a t d e a l o f autonomy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r admin-i s t e r i n g an e n t i r e agency.. .W,e were a l so a b l e t o f e e l weak and s c a r e d and c o u l d admit o ur s h o r t c o m i n g s because the atmosphere was g e n e r a l l y a s u p p o r t i v e one. (1976:50) I t seems a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s o p e n i n g up o f o n e s e l f t o s c r u t i n y i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s p r o b l e m a t i c f o r women than f o r men. Because women a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y defended than men, the y a r e more accustomed t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y , t a k e more p r i d e i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s than i n a c h i e v i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l t a s k s ( M a n s b r i d g e , 1973) and a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e s s e g o - c e n t r e d than men ( K o k o p e l i and Lakey, 1978; M i l l e r , 1976; S t . J o a n , 1976). The s o c i a l message i s t h a t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women t o be weak and even incompetent and t o ask f o r h e l p , whereas men a r e 'supposed t o be' s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and s k i l l f u l a t a c c o m p l i s h i n g g o a l s . A l l o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s would seem t o make i t e a s i e r f o r women than f o r men t o r e v e a l t he p r o c e s s e s t h a t they go thr o u g h t o a c c o m p l i s h a t a s k and t o ask f o r h e l p o r s u p p o r t a l o n g the way. Janeway (I98O) and Mi11er (1976) p o i n t o ut t h a t t he a b i l i t y t o r e v e a l one's v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s a s t r e n g t h r a t h e r than a weakness, a f a c t w h i c h many women appear t o i n t u i t i v e l y g r a s p , but w h i c h , f o r men, has been overshadowed by s o c i e t y ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r m a n l i n e s s . . C o l l e c t i v e s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e t h i s s t r e n g t h , making i t p o s s i b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e v e a l v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g them t o work t o t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y . In t h i s way, c o l l e c t i v e s , a t t h e i r b e s t , a r e a b l e t o u t i l i z e more c o m p l e t e l y the p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r members. k. F l e x i b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n Women and men have both s u f f e r e d as. a r e s u l t o f the demands o f an e f f i c i e n c y -o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y f o r the s e g r e g a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l r o l e s . Women, because i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r work o u t s i d e , they bear t h e g r e a t e s t burden o f m a i n t a i n i n g t he home and f a m i l y , have s u f f e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e l y from t h i s demand f o r f r a g m e n t a t i o n . U n l i k e men, the y haye not been s o c i a l i zed t o s u b o r d i n a t e o t h e r - 1 2 0 -a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s t o an o c c u p a t i o n . Those women who combine a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e i r r o l e o f homemaker e x p e r i e n c e a n o r m a t i v e c o n f l i c t ( Coser and R o k o f f , 1 9 7 1 ) not o n l y i n terms o f ti m e and energy demands, but i n terms o f v a l u e s : v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n the maintenance sphere a r e not always a p p r o p r i a t e i n the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e . The f a c t t h a t women have had t o a c c o m p l i s h such a comb i n i n g o f r o l e s i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y l i v e s a t a h i g h p e r s o n a l c o s t , i s p a r t o f the s i t u a t i o n t h a t l e d to t he development o f c o l l e c t i v i t y i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s o f p e r s o n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n and the im p o r t a n c e o f i n t e g r a t i n g i n the w o r k p l a c e the v a r i o u s r o l e s one p l a y s i n one's d a i l y l i f e have been v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f women t o c o l l e c t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h women cannot c l a i m t o t a l c r e d i t f o r t h i s change i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e , they have p r o b a b l y been th e prime movers b e h i n d i t , p r e c i s e l y because they have s u f f e r e d most o b v i o u s l y from t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r l i v e s . In d e v e l o p i n g c o l l e c t i v e w o r k p l a c e s , women sought c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a l l o w e d them t o be whole p e r s o n s and y e t s t i l l e n a b l e d them t o a c c o m p l i s h the work o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f em o t i o n ; the e x t e n s i o n o f the c a r i n g , n u r t u r i n g r o l e i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t work; f l e x i b l e h o u r s ; the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n - a l l o f t h e s e a r e d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f women's s t r u g g l e t o i n t e g r a t e the v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e i r l i v e s . G a l p e r and Washburne c i t e t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n as one o f the p r i m a r y b e n e f i t s o f w o r k i n g i n a f e m i n i s t agency. . . . i t f e l t t e r r i f i c . One major e f f e c t o ur s t y l e o f w o r k i n g had was t o e n a b l e us t o mesh our p e r s o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s . We were not separated selves,. The more we brought our p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o our work, the more e f f e c t i v e o u r s e r v i c e was... ( 1 9 7.6 : 5 0 ) For many f e m i n i s t w o r k e r s , an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i r i d e o l o g y i s the f a c t t h a t t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work i s o f equal i m p o r t a n c e w i t h the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h o s e whom they s e r v e . The re a s o n s f o r t h i s a p p roach a r e not j u s t a knowledge o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and q u a l i t y o f - 1 2 1 -o u t p u t , but a f e e l i n g t h a t they have a r i g h t , even a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n j o y what they do and t o work a t what t h e y want t o do. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s , i n p a r t , a r e a c t i o n t o the tendency toward 'martyrdom' w i t h w h i c h many women have grown up. For some women, t h i s has meant t h a t t h e i r work, i n o r d e r t o be o f v a l u e , must be f o r o t h e r s , never f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f c o l l e c t i v i t y has changed t h i s f o r many women. The t h i n g t h a t I p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e about the C o l l e c t i v e i s t h a t i t d o e s n ' t f e e l t o me t h a t I'm d o i n g something f o r somebody e l s e , I'm d o i n g i t f o r me, t o o . I worked a l l of l a s t y e a r down a t S k i d Row, and s u r e , t h e d r u n k s may need s t u f f , but I'm not one of them. I t was v e r y much a m i s s i o n a r y k i n d o f r o l e . Even though I'm not y e t ready t o say t h a t a l l t h o s e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d l e a v e , I knew t h a t I no l o n g e r wanted t o do t h a t . T h i s work [at the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e ! d o e s n ' t f e e l l i k e t h a t because I know t h a t I'm l e a r n i n g s t u f f f o r m y s e l f . I t d o e s n ' t have t h a t k i n d o f h i e r a r c h y . . . (HC member, 1 9 7 4 ) I've had a l o t of t r o u b l e w i t h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a c o n c e p t o f s e l f - w o r t h . And I f i n d t h a t I f e e l r e a l l y v a l u a b l e i n the C o l l e c t i v e and I'm g e t t i n g much more c o n f i d e n t . And I f e e l l i k e I'm d o i n g something w o r t h w h i l e , and t h a t I'm d o i n g i t w e l l , and i t ' s r e a l l y good f o r me. (HC member, 1976) More than j u s t a p e r s o n a l whim, t h i s b e l i e f i s p a r t o f an i d e o l o g y t h a t i n s i s t s t h a t women ta k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . One r e s u l t o f t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and e x h i l a r a t i o n w i t h one's work a r e s o u r c e s o f g r e a t s t r e n g t h f o r women i n the movement. At the same time t h a t women's d e s i r e f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y more a c u t e than t h a t o f men, so i s t h e i r t o l e r a n c e f o r the s i t u a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s . Women's f l e x i b i l i t y , e m o t i o n a l i t y , and i n t u i t i v e n e s s a r e q u a l i t i e s needed f o r s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n t o c o l l e c t i v e ways o f w o r k i n g , w h i c h , u n l i k e b u r e a u c r a c y , a r e not r i g i d , o r d e r l y , o r e x c l u s i v e l y r a t i o n a l . The f l e x i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n a c o l l e c t i v e i s c l o s e r t o the norms o f women's l i v e s than t h o s e o f men's l i v e s . ( s e e , f o r example, Adams, 1975> Janeway, 1980; M i l l e r , 1 976 ) . T h e r e f o r e i t may be e a s i e r f o r women t o adapt t o the u n c e r t a i n t y and the c o n s t a n t change i n a c o l l e c t i v e and t h e need t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e v e r a l q u i t e d i f f e r e n t s p h e r e s a t t h e same time and t o p l a y s e y e r a l p o t e n t i a l l y . . c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e s w i t h i n a normal - 1 2 2 -w o r k i n g day. Such f l e x i b i 1 i t y i s f a m i l i a r t o women who s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p l a y the r o l e s o f mother, w i f e , and w o r k e r . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f what Z u r c h e r c a l l s the "mutable p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e " which he sees as most a d a p t i v e i n a s o c i e t y t h a t i s c h a n g i n g and i n n o v a t i v e . T h i s "mutable s e l f " i s l e s s a t t a c h e d t o s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s than t o s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s , more f l e x i b l e . * a s e l f w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s the c o m p a r t m e n t a 1 i z a t i o n , a b s o r b s t h e c o n f l i c t , mends the f a c t i o n a l ism...and i s i n v o l v e d more d e e p l y i n the f a m i l y and micro-community [ t h a n i n the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s ] . . . (and tends t o j seek i n t e g r a t i o n o f w o r k / l e i s u r e / f a m i l y / f r i e n d s h i p . . . a n d t o welcome the e x p e r i e n c e o f s h i f t i n g among many r o l e s . . . , ( 1 9 7 3 : 3 7 3 ) S o c i e t y has r e n d e r e d women c l o s e r t o t h i s "mutable p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e " than men. A l t h o u g h Z u r c h e r does not mention sex as a v a r i a b l e i n d i s c e r n i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s he d e s c r i b e s , a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the "mutable s e l f " i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f he i s r i g h t , women have a . h e a d - s t a r t i n a d a p t i n g t o change-o r i e n t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . In an a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h new l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s f o r women, S t . Joan d e s c r i b e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h she sees as c e n t r a l t o the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s women can p l a y : More o f t e n than men, women pay a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n n e c t i o n s i n l i f e , and cart f o c u s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i n g s , e v e n t s , i d e a s , p e o p l e . . . A t our b e s t , women can communicate v e r y c o n c r e t e l y w i t h o u t the s p l i t s between mind, body, e m o t i o n , and v a l u e s . Women can combine th e r a t i o n a l and the i n t u i t i v e - h o l d two c o n t r a d i c t o r y b e l i e f s a t the same t i m e , a c c e p t t h a t as, r e a l i t y , and s t i l l make a d e c i s i o n - s t i l l use our power. ( 1 9 7 6 : 7 2 ) Adams w r i t e s t h a t " " f l e x i b i 1 i t y o f o p e r a t i o n " and the " c a p a c i t y f o r i n t u i t i v e a wareness" a r e a t t r i b u t e s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n women: F l e x i b i l i t y i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t most women have had t o f o s t e r i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e t h e i r l i m i t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h o u t p a r a l y z i n g f r u s t r a t i o n . Because t h e i r s k i l l s and c r e a t i v e energy have been m a i n l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h promoting t h e s u c c e s s f u l growth and f u n c t i o n i n g o f o t h e r s , t h e y have d e v e l o p e d unusual v e r s a t i l i t y c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r own p r e f e r e n c e s and g o a l s , a h e i g h t e n e d a b i l i t y t o g r a s p o p p o r t u n i t y when i t o c c u r s , an equal c a p a c i t y f o r w i t h s t a n d i n g d i s a p p o i n t m e n t when i t i s w i t h d r a w n , and unl i.mited competence i n making t h i n g s o v e r . . . ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 7 1 ) By way o f e x p l a n a t i o n f o r women's g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r i n t u i t i v e power, she s a y s : - 123 -When women's s a t i s f a c t i o n and r a i s o n s d ' e t r e depend upon t h e s k i 1 1ful m a n i p u l a t i o n o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s w e l 1 - b e i n g , i t i s incumbent upon them t o d e v e l o p a v e r y f i n e l y c a l i b r a t e d s k i 11 f o r t u n i n g i n t o the needs and moods o f th o s e i n d i v i d u a l s . . . t h i s . . . q u a l i t y g i v e s women an i n v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r d i v i n i n g s u b t e r r a n e a n s t r e s s e s i n l a r g e r group systems and a l e r t i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r p r e s e n c e and t o the p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s they w i l l t a k e i f n ot c o n t r o l l e d . Men have not needed t o d e v e l o p t h i s s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e t o the same e x t e n t because t h e i r e x e r c i s e o f power has been o v e r t and e x p l i c i t , (p.572) Such an awareness has o b v i o u s v a l u e f o r a c o l l e c t i v e work s e t t i n g . T h i s c a p a c i t y o f women t o combine the s t r e n g t h s o f reas o n and i n t u i t i o n , and i t s i m p o r t a n c e both t o women p e r s o n a l l y and t o s o c i e t y , a r e a l s o noted by Janeway (1980) and Wyckoff (1977). D. Women i n b u r e a u c r a c y I f b u r e a u c r a c y i s , i n d e e d , a m a s c u l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m , and c o l l e c t i v i t y a f e m i n i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m , what happens when women work w i t h i n a bur e a u -c r a c y o r men w i t h i n a c o l l e c t i v e ? B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o the f i r s t o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between t h e p o s i t i o n s women occupy i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s , w h i c h a r e i n g e n e r a l q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f men, and the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f women i n bureau-c r a c i e s , w h i c h may o r may not be d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f men. These two i s s u e s a r e r e l a t e d i n t h a t both r e f l e c t the l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e and maintenance s p h e r e s , t he i n f e r i o r y a l u e t h a t has been p l a c e d on what i s d e s i g n a t e d as f e m i n i n e , and the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a r e c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, i n o r d e r t o see the ways i n whi c h t h e s e i s s u e s i n t e r a c t , i t i s u s e f u l t o r e c o g n i z e them as d i s t i . n c t . The predominance o f women i n the l e s s p o w e r f u l and lower s t a t u s p o s i t i o n s w r t h i n t he h i e r a r c h y (Coser and R o k o f f , 1971\ K a n t e r , 1977) i s i m p o r t a n t here i n s o f a r as i t d e m o n s t r a t e ? the e x t e n t t o whi c h b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n our s o c i e t y a r e m a l e dominated and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f e m a l e v a l u e s and s t r e n g t h s a r e not r e c o g n i z e d . o r rewarded w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c i e s . Coser and R o k o f f (1971) - 124 -show how the i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d by women i n most b u r e a u c r a c i e s i s r e l a t e d t o the l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f the maintenance and p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e s . Many of the v a l u e s , norms, and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f women a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c e n t r a l r o l e i n the maintenance s p h e r e , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d e x t r a n e o u s and c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e . In g e n e r a l , what i s a d a p t i v e f o r the maintenance sphere i s m a l a d a p t i v e f o r the p r o d u c t i v e s p h e r e as i t i s now d e f i n e d . Women, caught between c o n f l i c t i n g s e t s o f norms, v a l u e s and time commitments, a r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y . On a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , f o r example, l a c k o f c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n the w o r k p l a c e and l a c k o f e x t r a s i c k l e a v e f o r p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r most mothers t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o d u c t i v e sphere w i t h o u t n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r c h i l d - r a i s i n g f u n c t i o n s . On the l e v e l o f v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the male-o r i e n t e d v a l u e s of r a t i o n a l i t y and s u p p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n a l i t y make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r women t o 'be t h e m s e l v e s ' a t work. Men do not e x p e r i e n c e t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n because t h e i r commitments a r e c l e a r l y t o the p r o d u c t i v e s phere and i t s v a l u e s . They a r e rewarded w i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a c y f o r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r t h a t r e f l e c t t h i s more u n i d i m e n s i o n a l commitment. In t h e i r p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y , women's a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a r e in p a r t f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e power o r p o w e r l e s s n e s s w i t h i n t he o r g a n i z a t i o n ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) and i n p a r t f u n c t i o n s o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t have imbued them not o n l y w i t h a t t i t u d e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o work w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s but w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the maintenance s p h e r e . The e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g women's a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a c y i s l i m i t e d because t h e r e appear t o have been few s t u d i e s w h i c h l o o k s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the b e h a v i o u r o f women as opposed t o t h a t o f men i n b u r e a u c r a c y ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 7 ) . What e v i d e n c e t h e r e i s on women i n the upper l e v e l s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s u n c l e a r - w h i l e some d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s - 1 2 5 -i n the l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s o f women and men, o t h e r s c o n t r a d i c t t h i s . There seems to be l i t t l e d o ubt, however, t h a t p e o p l e ' s b e h a v i o u r i n groups i s t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i r power and s t a t u s p o s i t i o n ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 : 5 5 ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o u r and p o s i t i o n i s p a r t o f the e x p l a n a t i o n why d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women appear t o be l e s s e v i d e n t a t the m a n a g e r i a l l e v e l o f b u r e a u c r a c i e s than a t the lower l e v e l s . T h e r e f o r e , i n w r i t i n g about women i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s one must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the f a c t t h a t women a r e o p e r a t i n g as a m i n o r i t y w i t h i n a c o n t e x t w h i c h has been s t r u c t u r e d by men t o f a v o u r men. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many women i n b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , they a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the lower l e v e l s o f the h i e r a r c h y . In the h i g h e r l e v e l s , among the managers, who a r e the most s u c c e s s f u l b u r e a u c r a t s , women a r e i n a v e r y s m a l l m i n o r i t y . K a n t e r argues t h a t s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v i n g sex r a t i o s . . . p l a y a major r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g how women behave i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . What we know about women's l e a d e r s h i p , f o r example, we know from a c o n t e x t i n wh i c h v e r y few women have power. What we know about women as p r o f e s s i o n a l s we o f t e n know from s e t t i n g s where a woman i s the o n l y female i n a group o f men. What we know about the m a j o r i t y o f women workers we have l e a r n e d from s t u d y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s c a r r y i n g f e m a l e sex s t e r e o t y p e s , l i k e n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , o r t y p i n g . ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 7 2 ) I f women a c t l i k e ' t y p i c a l b u r e a u c r a t s ' i n s i t u a t i o n s where o n l y t y p i c a l b u r e a u c r a t s s u c c e e d , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g . They have had t o compete hard i n 'a man's w o r l d ' , on male te r m s , and have, i n many c a s e s , had t o be b e t t e r than the men who were competing f o r the same j o b . And n e i t h e r can a woman r e l a x once she has got t h e j o b : b e i n g a 'token woman', or a t l e a s t i n a s t r i k i n g m i n o r i t y , she must c o n s t a n t l y p rove h e r s e l f j u s t as good as her male c o l l e a g u e s i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g b u r e a u c r a t i c g o a l s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t some s t u d i e s w i t h i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c framework have shown t h a t t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the b e h a v i o u r o f men and women i n t h a t c o n t e x t ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 7 : 3 0 0 ) . Some l e a d e r s h i p s t u d i e s , however, appear t o a f f i r m t h a t women r e t a i n some - 126 -a s p e c t s o f t h e i r f e m i n i n e s t r e n g t h s w i t h i n a b u r e a u c r a c y . K a n t e r c i t e s a stu d y done by Hennig o f s u c c e s s f u l women e x e c u t i v e s w h i c h found t h a t i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f ' l e a d e r s h i p s t r a t e g i e s ' : The women tended t o m i n i m i z e the a u t h o r i t a t i v e e x e r c i s e o f power and maximize s u b o r d i n a t e autonomy and l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e l e g a t i o n . ( 1 9 7 5 : 6 2 ) Kanter ( 1 9 7 7 ) says t h a t women i n p o s i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i f f e r w i d e l y i n the ways they use t h a t a u t h o r i t y , some u s i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s and some u s i n g more n u r t u r i n g , h u m a n i s t i c ones. She c o n c l u d e s t h a t once i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power o v e r o t h e r s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r -ences between the sexes have l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y between men and women p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s b oth the o v e r l a p i n the ways i n which t h e y a r e s o c i a l i z e d and the b u r e a u c r a t i c power s t r u c t u r e s i n wh i c h they work. However, t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t c e r t a i n o f women's p a r t i c u l a r l y f e m i n i n e s t r e n g t h s may s u r v i v e , a t l e a s t a t the lower l e v e l s o f the b u r e a u c r a c y . As K anter ( 1 9 7 7 ) p o i n t s o u t , t he r o u t i n i z a t i o n and d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f bureau-c r a c y i s i m p e r f e c t . W h i l e the e x c l u s i v e l y f e m a l e s e c r e t a r i a l r o l e i s c e n t r a l t o , and i n f a c t was c r e a t e d by b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s s t i l l one of the r o l e s t h a t remains the most p e r s o n a l , t h e most r e s i s t a n t t o r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . W i t h i n the b u r e a u c r a c y she s t u d i e d , i t was t h e s e c r e t a r i e s who added the p e r s o n a l touches t o t h e i r s p a c e s , t a l k e d about p e r s o n a l t h i n g s , acknowledged p e r s o n a l a s p e c t s o f c o - w o r k e r s ' l i v e s , and were e x p e c t e d by t h e i r bosses t o l o o k a f t e r t he p e r s o n a l needs both o f bosses and o f t h e i r g u e s t s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t i s i n t h i s f e m a l e rea l m t h a t many u n r e s o l v e d t e n s i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n b u r e a u c r a c y remain. Kanter a l s o p r e s e n t s o t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t women i n groups a c t and a r e m o t i v a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y than men. She notes t h a t w i t h i n mixed-sex work o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h p e e r s a r e more c e n t r a l t o a woman's work than t o a man's. She a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t : - 1 2 7 -Women i n f e m a l e groups may be more o r i e n t e d toward immediate r e l a t -i o n s h i p s than men i n male groups...women i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . 1 i m i t t h e i r a m b i t i o n s , p r e f e r l o c a l and immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and o r i e n t t h e mselves t o s a t i s f y i n g peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 3 ) E x e c u t i v e s ' v o l u n t a r y i s o l a t i o n and the a v o i d a n c e o f i n t i m a c y d e s c r i b e d by T e r k e l ( 1 9 7 2 ) and Whyte ( 1 9 5 7 : 1 7 4 ) i s more o f t e n and perhaps more e a s i l y a c c e p t e d by men than by women, who v a l u e a f f i l i a t i o n more than do men. K a n t e r ' s own s t u d y o f women i n a c o r p o r a t i o n showed t h a t women w i l l sometimes f o r e g o an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n because i t would mean s a c r i f i c i n g t h e i r f emale peer group ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 4 ) . K a n t e r a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t the famous Hawthorne e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h f i r s t f o c u s e d on i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g w o r k e r s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n e g l e c t e d t o c o n s i d e r sex c o m p o s i t i o n o f groups as a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e . She n o t e s t h a t the two groups who were found t o be " c o - o p e r a t i v e and t r u s t i n g o f management" were composed e n t i r e l y of women, w h i l e the t h i r d g r oup, " c o u n t e r d e p e n d e n t , a g g r e s s i v e l y c o n t r o l l i n g , and s u s p i c i o u s " was composed e n t i r e l y o f men ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 2 ) . She c i t e s s t u d i e s t h a t show t h a t : Female game-playing s t r a t e g y i n s e v e r a l l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s was accommodative, i n c l u d i n g r a t h e r than e x c l u d i n g , and o r i e n t e d toward o t h e r s r a t h e r than toward w i n n i n g , whereas the male s t r a t e g y was e x p l o i t a t i v e and s u c c e s s - o r i e n t e d . A l l - f e m a l e g r o u p s ' themes i n a comparison o f s i n g l e - s e x and mixed l a b o r a t o r y groups i n c l u d e d a f f i l i a t i o n , f a m i l y , and c o n f l i c t s about c o m p e t i t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p , s e l f , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n c o n t r a s t t o the male themes: compet-i t i o n , a g g r e s s i o n , v i o l e n c e , v i c t i m i z a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l j o k i n g , q u e s t i o n s o f i d e n t i t y , and f e a r o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 3 ) One s t u d y compared a l l - m a l e and a l l - f e m a l e groups and found t h a t among n i n e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s , o n l y p e r s u a s a b i 1 i t y was h i g h e r i n f e m a l e groups and l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n h i g h e r i n male groups ( K a n t e r , 1 9 7 5 : 5 3 ) . Other s t u d i e s show c o n s i s t e n t l y , K anter s a y s , t h a t groups o f women and o f men d i f f e r p r i m a r i l y i n o r i e n t a t i o n s toward i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l e v e l s o f a s p i r a t i o n ( 1 9 7 5 : 5 4 ) . T h i s e v i d e n c e seems t o r e f l e c t b o t h the d i f f e r e n t - 1 2 8 -s o c i a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f women and men, and a r e a l i s t i c r e s p o n s e t o d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r women and men. Whatever the r e a s o n s , however, these d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o r i e n t a t i o n s o f men and women t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o l l e c t i v e s . O r i e n t a t i o n toward i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w i l l i n g n e s s t o be p e r s u a d e d , and a l a c k o f emphasis on p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n a r e a l l q u a l i t i e s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c o l l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . E. Men i n c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s ^ 1 . Men i n c o l l e c t i v i t y A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e few a l l - m a l e c o l l e c t i v e s , t h e r e a r e men who work more o r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h i n e g a l i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e s . I f some o f t h e s e do not f i t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t have been made here about the a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f men i n r e l a t i o n t o c o l l e c t i v e ways o f w o r k i n g , i t must be remembered t h a t the men who work i n c o l l e c t i v e s c o m p r i s e a s e l f - s e l e c t e d sample and a r e more l i k e l y than most men t o p o s s e s s q u a l i t i e s a d a p t i v e t o c o l l e c t i v i t y . W h i l e a s i m i l a r argument c o u l d be used i n the case o f women i n c o l l e c t i v e s , i t i s m a i n t a i n e d here t h a t many o f the q u a l i t i e s e x h i b i t e d by women i n c o l l e c t i v e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the q u a l i t i e s s h a r e d by women i n g e n e r a l . In d i s c u s s i o n s a t the H e a l t h C o l l e c t i v e , s e v e r a l women who p a r t i c i p a t e d a l s o i n a mixed c o l l e c t i v e noted d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o l l e c t i v e p r o c e s s when men took p a r t . The major d i f f i c u l t i e s they saw t h a t men had i n w o r k i n g w i t h i n c o l l e c t i v i t y c e n t r e d on m a i n t a i n i n g e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the group r a t h e r than d o m i n a t i n g ones, and on an a c c e p t a n c e o f a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o p r o c e s s . M i l l e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) p o i n t s o ut t h a t w h i l e men do u n d e r t a k e c o - o p e r a t i v e e n d e a v o u r s , the c o m p e t i t i v e s e t t i n g s i n wh i c h most of them spend most o f t h e i r time make such endeavours d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n . M i l l e r r e l a t e s t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n co-o p e r a t i v e s e t t i n g s t o men's e x p e r i e n c e i n the f a m i l y , where they a r e l e d t o - 129 -b e l i e v e t h a t they a r e s u p e r i o r t o female f a m i l y members and e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s . From then on, c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s may appear t o men as i f i t were somehow d e t r a c t i n g from t h e m s e l v e s . To c o o p e r a t e , t o s h a r e , means somehow t o l o s e s o m e t h i n g , o r a t b e s t , a l t r u i s t i c a l l y , t o g i v e something away. A l l t h i s i s g r e a t l y augmented by men's n o t i o n s t h a t they must be indep e n d e n t , go i t a l o n e , w i n . (1976:42) I d e o l o g i c a l l y , men may be committed t o w o r k i n g toward s o c i a l change t h r o u g h e g a l i t a r i a n , c o - o p e r a t i v e g r o u p s . However, many m a s c u l i n e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s , embedded i n them t h r o u g h o u t y e a r s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e , m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t such c o -