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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Piety and fraternalism : a study of the relationship between secret fraternal societies and the American… Loughrey, Elizabeth Jean 1981

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PIETY AND FRATERNALISM: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECRET FRATERNAL SOCIETIES AND THE AMERICAN C I V I L RELIGION. By ELIZABETH JEAN LOUGHREY B.A. B r o c k U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1981 E l i z a b e t h J e a n L o u g h r e y , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date O c t o b e r 19, 1981 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT Robert B e l l a h has suggested t h a t there " e x i s t s a l o n g s i d e of and r a t h e r c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the churches and e l a b o r a t e and w e l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c i v i l r e l i g i o n i n America". T h i s r e l i g i o n expresses c e r t a i n common elements of r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n shared by most Americans. I t g i v e s , says B e l l a h , a " r e l i g i o u s dimension to a l l aspects o f l i f e i n c l u d i n g the p o l i t i c a l sphere". Ac c e p t i n g B e l l a h ' s argument, t h i s t h e s i s analyses working mens' s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s as one aspect of the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . I t examines how f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o s t e r e d p u b l i c r e l i g i o n as a v i t a l f o r c e w i t h i n American c u l t u r e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t examines the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s . What i s the nature of American C i v i l R e l i g i o n ? How i s a p a r t i c u l a r understanding o f t h i s r e l i g i o n r e f l e c t e d i n the f r a t e r n a l emphasis of American lodges? Why has i t s c o l l e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n r e q u i r e d the maintenance of a c l o a k of secrecy? How do the r i t u a l s of s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s mediate and confirm f o r t h e i r members the i d e a l s o f the p u b l i c r e l i g i o n ? H i s t o r i -c a l l y , what segment of the p o p u l a t i o n has been most a t t r a c t e d to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f American C i v i l R e l i g i o n ? What i s the nature of the dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between American s o c i e t y , i t s c i v i l r e l i g i o n and o r g a n i z e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m ? i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 1 Footnotes to the I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . 8 I. THEORETICAL COMPONENTS . 1 0 Footnotes to Chapter I 26 I I . COMPONENTS IN CONTEXT 32 Footnotes to Chapter II 49 I I I . HISTORICAL CONFIRMATION 56 Footnotes to Chapter I I I 75 CONCLUSION 81 Footnotes to the Con c l u s i o n 8 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 87 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d to P r o f e s s o r N. K. C l i f f o r d . W i t h o u t h i s p a t i e n c e , good humour and wisdom t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been c o m p l e t e d . INTRODUCTION In the decades Immediately f o l l o w i n g the American C i v i l War o r g a n i z e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m bourgeoned throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . More than one hundred men's s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a t h i r t y year span; over ten m i l l i o n Americans j o i n e d a t l e a s t one. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the newly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d towns of the mid and northwestern s t a t e s , the number of men b e l o n g i n g to a s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t y f r e q u e n t l y e q u a l l e d one t h i r d o f the t o t a l a d u l t male p o p u l a t i o n . 1 The value of f r a t e r n a l membership was w i d e l y acknowledged: s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s p r o v i d e d an o r g a n i z e d s e t t i n g f o r male c o n v i v i a l i t y ; the m a j o r i t y operated economic s e l f - h e l p and b e n e f i t programs f o r t h e i r members; w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , the orders encouraged p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t y ; most were d e l i b e -r a t e l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l and n o n - s e c t a r i a n , choosing i n s t e a d to c e l e b r a t e t h e i r wider l o y a l t y to a transcendent v i s i o n of an America i n which l i b e r t y , e q u a l i t y and n a t i o n a l i s m were rendered secure. F i n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e c r e t r i t u a l s confirmed f o r f r a t e r n a l members the r e a l i t y of t h e i r shared i d e a l . While disavowing p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , only m i n i m a l l y a f f e c t i n g American p o l i t i c a l p a t t e r n s , s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the f a b r i c of Ame-r i c a n s o c i a l l i f e . They gave e x p r e s s i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r -2-u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n a n d , f o r many whose e x p e r i e n c e o f p o s t C i v i l War A m e r i c a was c o n t r a r y t o t h e t r u t h s o f t h i s r e l i g i o n , t h e r i t u a l s o f f r a t e r n a l i s r a a l l o w e d them t o c o n f i r m an i d e a l t o w h i c h t h e y had i n r e a l i t y no a c c e s s . N e a r l y a l l c o n t e m p o r a r y a n a l y s e s o f A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i -g i o n r e v e a l , t o some e x t e n t , an i n d e b t e d n e s s t o t h e w r i t i n g s 2 o f s o c i o l o g i s t R o b e r t B e l l a h . T h i s t h e s i s i s n o t an e x c e p t i o n . I t a c c e p t s and b u i l d s upon h i s f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e t h a t A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n i s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f b e l i e f s , symbol s and r i t u a l s w h i c h have grown o u t o f t h e A m e r i c a n h i s -t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r p r e t e d i n the d i m e n s i o n o f t r a n s c e n -3 d e n c e . A l t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h C h r i s t i a n s y m b o l i s m and m e t a p h o r , t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m C h r i s t i a n i t y . I t l o c a t e s t h e s o v e r e i g n agency o f G o d ' s 4 w i l l i n t h e s t a t e . The s t a t e i s u n d e r s t o o d as b e i n g r o o t e d i n two e q u a l t r u t h s : t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t , e m p h a s i z i n g r e a s o n as t h e c h i e f g o o d , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e A m e r i c a n F e d e r a l B i l l o f R i g h t s : a n d , t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f a c t i v i s t i c P r o t e s t a n t i s m t h a t s u b m i s s i o n t o G o d ' s w i l l i s 5 man's f i r s t d u t y . These two t r u t h s , w h i c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t r a n s c e n d and a re r e f l e c t e d i n A m e r i c a n l i f e , combine p o s i t i -v e l y t o v a l u e " i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m , p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e m o c r a c y , r e s t r a i n t i n o u t w a r d c o n d u c t and t h r i f t " . 6 A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m b i g u i t y f o r t h e two t r a d i t i o n s w h i c h have shaped i t do n o t e a s i l y - 3 -7 blend, The Enlightenment emphasized human s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and saw s e l f - i n t e r e s t as the safeguard of h i s t o r i c a l progress. Enlightenment thinkers believed competition, technological advancement and material a c q u i s i t i o n would induce a state of abundance which, i n turn, would s a t i s f y man's desires and eradicate his h o s t i l i t y for his fellow man. When h o s t i l i t y vanished, the genuine brotherhood uniting a l l men would be revealed. But these doctrines, i n many respects, were con-travened by American Protestantism. This t r a d i t i o n taught that man i s morally corrupt, estranged from God and from creation. Only by God's grace i s man wholly redeemed and able to l i v e by the terms which ensure human f u l f i l l m e n t . Human reason, however, i s capable of discerning these terms and, aided by a sound w i l l , i t can develop the highest appro-ximation of regeneracy possible within the human sphere. Since, as a consequence of the F a l l , man's w i l l i s not sound, external substitutes compensating for i t s defects should be Q developed. These substitutes include a society of like-minded men and a c i v i c p o l i t y conducive to man's moral betterment. Where the Enlightenment saw l i b e r t y and equality leading to a pre-existent f r a t e r n i t y , American Protestantism believed that the natural p r i n c i p l e s of equality and l i b e r t y were i n -s u f f i c i e n t for the r e a l i z a t i o n of a fr a t e r n a l world. Adherents of American C i v i l Religion attempted to reconcile these d i f -ferent perspectives. Likewise, American secret f r a t e r n a l -4-s o c i e t i e s c r e a t e d an uneasy harmony between Enlightenment d o c t r i n e s and the American P r o t e s t a n t t r a d i t i o n . They acknowledged t h a t the p r o t e c t i o n o f the " n a t u r a l r i g h t s of man" h e r a l d s the advent of the p e r f e c t u n i t y of mankind but they p l a c e d equal emphasis on the f a c t t h a t e q u a l i t y and l i b e r t y cannot i n themselves c o n s t i t u t e f r a t e r n i t y . Unless they are b u t t r e s s e d by a p r i o r f r a t e r n a l understanding, e q u a l i t y and l i b e r t y l e a d only to s o c i a l anomie. American s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s s t r e s s e d t h a t the f r a t e r n a l impulse s p r i n g s from the acknowledgement of shared weakness. In so f a r as men are d e d i c a t e d to the r e a l i z a t i o n of a f r a t e r n a l world, they must understand, through f r a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , t h a t the l i k e q u a l i t i e s u n i t i n g them are more worthy than the u n l i k e q u a l i t i e s s e p a r a t i n g them. Only then w i l l the n e c e s s i t y of l i v i n g by the p r i n c i p l e s of e q u a l i t y and l i b e r t y be p r o p e r l y understood. In American s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , f r a t e r n i t y was expressed through the maintenance of the group's s e c r e t s . As guardians of p a r t i c u l a r s e c r e t s , f r a t e r n a l members understood themselves as s e t a p a r t from and, t h e r e f o r e , s t a n d i n g i n a new r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . T h i s new r e l a t i o n -s h i p , i n t u r n , d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s between f r a t e r n a l members. Shared p e r c e p t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a new b a s i s of i d e n t i t y . Where t h i s i d e n t i t y was valued, t h e r e was f r a t e r -nxty. - 5 -The symbols, r e g a l i a and r i t u a l s which serve as the medium for the creation of secrecy, frame and consolidate the i n d i v i d u a l worth experienced i n f r a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Symbolic patterns give shape to r e a l i t y by fusing p r i n c i p l e s of behavior and i n d i v i d u a l preferences so that they become one.^ The symbols employed by American secret f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s r e f l e c t t h e i r ambiguous understanding of American C i v i l Religion. Christian images and personal piety, animal totems and the righteousness'of man's quest to conquer the laws of nature e x i s t together. Just as symbols present themselves as axiomatic, the messages conveyed by r i t u a l are stated i n a form which renders them u n v e r i f i a b l e . ^ Ritual imbues the objective world with subjective order so that both confirm one another. I t tem-po r a r i l y negates the boundaries of a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s e t t i n g and unveils a p r i n c i p l e of transformation which serves as a common ground for a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I f only momentarily, i t demonstrates the power of this transforming p r i n c i p l e by 12 a l t e r i n g man's relationship to his fellow man. Through t h e i r r i t u a l s , members of American secret f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s r e a l i z e f r a t e r n i t y . This r e a l i z a t i o n affirms the truth of t h e i r interpretation of American C i v i l Religion. H i s t o r i c a l l y , secret s o c i e t i e s drew the bulk of t h e i r membership from the lower middle classes. Members l i v e d within and accepted an America which has b u i l t i t s power on -6-the i d e a of a p e r f e c t i b l e world and the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s d e s t i n e d to be the New Jerusalem. A l l e g i a n c e to these t r u t h s r e q u i r e d a f i c t i o n . I t r e q u i r e d t h a t members deny the r e a l i t y o f t h e i r everyday e x p e r i e n c e . Membership i n a s e c r e t f r a t e r -n i t y s u p p l i e d t h i s f i c t i o n and r i t u a l r e - a f f i r m e d t h a t which was most i n doubt. The r i t u a l s of s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m e s t a b l i s h e d an e q u a l i t y otherwise without substance. Members of America's s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s g e n e r a l l y d i d not have access to the channels of power which b r i n g change. They c o u l d not c h a l l e n g e the short-comings of s o c i e t y . They cou l d o n l y render them i n v i s i b l e by the power of r i t u a l . Retreat i n t o p e r s o n a l p i e t y was o r g a n i z e d f r a t e r n a l i s m ' s response to a s o c i e t y whose momentum appeared beyond immediate c o n t r o l . The f u n c t i o n o f s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , has been to f o s t e r p u b l i c r e l i g i o n as a v i t a l f o r c e w i t h i n American c u l t u r e . This t h e s i s examines how f r a t e r n a l s e c r e t -s o c i e t i e s have performed t h i s f u n c t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t examines the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s . What i s the nature of American C i v i l R e l i g i o n ? How i s a p a r t i c u l a r understanding of t h i s r e l i g i o n r e f l e c t e d i n the f r a t e r n a l emphasis o f American lodges? Why has i t s c o l l e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n r e q u i r e d the maintenance of a cloak of secrecy? How do the r i t u a l s of s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s mediate and c o n f i r m f o r t h e i r members the i d e a l s o f the p u b l i c f a i t h ? H i s t o r i c a l l y , - 7 -why has a p a r t i c u l a r segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n been most a t t r a c t e d t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n ? What i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween A m e r i -can S o c i e t y , c i v i l r e l i g i o n and o r g a n i z e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m ? C h a p t e r one s u r v e y s t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s o u t l i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n and s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , t h e w r i t i n g s o f s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n t h e deve lopment o f s u c h a s t u d y . I n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l components drawn f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n C h a p t e r one a r e p l a c e d i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The c h a r a c t e r o f s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s i s e x a m i n e d , as t h e y e x i s t e d i n t h e decade i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l W a r . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e g e n e s i s and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h r e e A m e r i c a n mens ' s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s i s t r a c e d f r o m t h e i r i n c e p t i o n i n t h e p o s t C i v i l War y e a r s u n t i l 1940 . The t h r e e o r d e r s examined a r e : The B e n e v o l e n t and P r o t e c t i v e O r d e r o f E l k s , The L o y a l O r d e r o f Moose and The F r a t e r n a l O r d e r o f E a g l e s . They have been chosen because o f t h e l i k e -nes s o f t h e i r h i s t o r i e s , t h e i r s i m i l a r s o c i a l l o c a t i o n s ( a reas o f g e o g r a p h i c a l s t r e n g t h , c l a s s , s t a t u s a f f i l i a t i o n s ) and because t h e y have c o n s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f t h e i r s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m i n r e l a t i o n t o b o t h economic and b e n e v o l e n t p r o g r a m s . -8-FOOTNOTES TO INTRODUCTION Walter Basye, H i s t o r y and Operation o f F r a t e r n a l Insurance. (Rochester, New York: The F r a t e r n a l Moniter, 1919), pp. 14-16; A l b e r t C. Stevens, The C y c l o p e d i a of F x a t e r n i t e s . (New York: E.B. T r e a t & Co., 1907). Robert B e l l a h , " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America", Daedalus, v o l . 96, 1 (Winter, 1967), pp. 1-21. Robert B e l l a h , "Response to 'Commentaries on C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America'", The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n : 1968, ed. D.R. C u t l e r . (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1968), p. 389. Leo P f e f f e r , "Commentary on ' C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America'", The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n : 1968, ed. D.R. C u t l e r . (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1968), p. 367. Robert B e l l a h , "Response t o 'Commentaries on C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America'", The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n : 196 8, ed. D. R. C u t l e r . (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1968), p. 390. Robin W i l l i a m s i n American S o c i e t y : A S o c i o l o g i c a l I n t e r - p r e t a t i o n , c i t e d by John F. Wilson , "The Status of C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America", The R e l i g i o n of the R e p u b l i c , ed. E. A. Smith ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s P r e s s , 1971), p. 6. Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), pp. 94-111. - 9 -I b i d . , p. 121. Georg Simmel, "The S e c r e t and the S e c r e t S o c i e t y " , The  S o c i o l o g y of Georg Simmel, t r a n s , and ed. Kurt W o l f f . (Glencoe, 111.: The Free Press, 1950), pp. 331-334. V i c t o r Turner, Dramas, F i e l d s and Metaphors: Symbolic  A c t i o n i n Human S o c i e t y . (New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1974), p. 55. S a l l y Moore and Barbara Myerhoff, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , S e c u l a r  R i t u a l , eds. S. Moore and B. Myerhoff (Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, Assen, 1977), p. 18. Terence Turner, "Transformation, H i e r a r c h y and Transcen-dence: A Reformulation o f Van Gennep's Model of the S t r u c t u r e of R i t e s de Passage", S e c u l a r R i t u a l , eds. S. Moore and B. Myerhoff (Amsterdam: Van Goreum, Assen, 1977) , p. 63. -10-CHAPTER ONE THEORETIGAL COMPONENTS A m e r i c a n s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s have been examined \ f r o m t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s . Members have v i e w e d them a p o l o g e t i -c a l l y ; s o c i o l o g i s t s have s t u d i e d them as economic s e l f - h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d , t h e o l o g i a n s have u n d e r s t o o d them as t h r e a t e n i n g C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g . S e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s , h o w e v e r , have n o t been c r i t i c a l l y examined as an a s p e c t o f t h e i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n . Y e t t h i s f o u r t h p e r s p e c t i v e i s v a l u a b l e f o r i t employs w i d e r , l e s s e v a l u a t i v e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s t h a n t h o s e i m p l i c i t i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s . To d e v e l o p t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r phenomena n o t g e n e r a l l y a n a l y s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r g a n i z e d f r a t e r n a l i s m . T e x t s d i s c u s s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n , f r a t e r n i t y , s e c r e c y , myth and r i t u a l must be c o n s u l t e d . "The R e l i g i o n o f t h e R e p u b l i c " , "The A m e r i c a n Way o f L i f e " , " A m e r i c a n S h i n t o " , " A m e r i c a n F o l k R e l i g i o n " , a n d , most r e c e n t l y , " A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n " a r e a l l t e rms f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e t h o s e a s p e c t s o f A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y and s o c i a l l i f e w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a n a t i o n a l s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h p o s s e s s e s r e l i g i o u s as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n s . The v a r i e t y o f terms employed r e f l e c t s a deba te r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n s f o s t e r i n g t h i s r e l i g i o u s s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d , -11-a l s o , whether the phenomena s u p p o r t i n g a n a t i o n a l s p i r i t u a l i -t y may be r i g h t l y i n t e r p r e t e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g a p u b l i c , • . 1 r e l i g x o n . S c h o l a r s who have d i s c u s s e d the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n c l u d e R obert B e l l a h , M a r t i n M a r t y , John F. W i l s o n , Sydney 2 Mead, W i l l H e r berg and W. L l o y d Warner. P a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p -f u l i n r e l a t i n g what may be d e s c r i b e d as a n a t i o n a l f a i t h t o i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n s i s Robert B e l l a h . H i s t h e s i s i s t h a t " t h e r e a c t u a l l y e x i s t s a l o n g s i d e o f and r a t h e r c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e churches an e l a b o r a t e and w e l l 3 i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c i v i l r e l i g i o n i n A m e r i c a " . The c e n t r a l t e n e t o f t h i s r e l i g i o n i s the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t , t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , A m e r i c a has been c a l l e d upon by God t o e s t a b l i s h 4 "a new s o r t o f s o c i a l o r d e r " . H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h i s as t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n ' s major theme, B e l l a h i s then a b l e t o i d e n t i f y i t s p a r a m e t e r s . F i r s t , s i n c e man's r i g h t s and d u t i e s p r o c e e d from a t r a n s c e n d e n t , s o v e r e i g n w i l l , they p r o v i d e a p o i n t o f l e v e r a g e from which t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e may be a l t e r e d . American C i v i l R e l i g i o n i s not merely r e l i g i o u s n a t i o n a l i s m . ^ Second, s i n c e t h i s s o v e r e i g n w i l l has spoken t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e major t r a d i t i o n s s h a p i n g American h i s t o r y as t hey have been g i v e n p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a t i o n . B e l l a h i d e n t i f i e s P r o t e s t a n t C h r i s t i a n i t y and the E n l i g h t e n m e n t as the most p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e s s h a p i n g American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . ^ -12-B e l l a h e m p l o y s R o u s s e a u ' s p h r a s e " c i v i l r e l i g i o n " b e -c a u s e h e u n d e r s t a n d s A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n a s r e f l e c t i n g E n l i g h t e n m e n t t h o u g h t a d a p t e d t o A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e . T h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c h u r c h a n d s t a t e , t h e e x c l u s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e , t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a d e i t y w h o s e w i l l i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e a r e a l l , s a y s B e l l a h , c o n c e p t s f r e q u e n t -. . 7 l y a p p e a r i n g i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s . B u t t h e y a r e r e f r a c t e d , h e a r g u e s , t h r o u g h t h e o l d e r t r a d i t i o n o f A m e r i c a n P u r i t a n i s m . T h i s t r a d i t i o n u n d e r s t a n d s A m e r i c a a s u n i q u e l y c o v e n a n t e d t o G o d . T h e w o r k o f t h e n a t i o n i s G o d ' s w o r k a n d h e i s " a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d a n d i n v o l v e d i n [ A m e r i c a n ] ' p h i s t o r y " . B o t h t r a d i t i o n s s t r e s s i n d i v i d u a l i s m b u t A m e r i c a n P r o t e s t a n t i s m l e s s e n s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i d e a b y a d v o -9 e a t i n g , v i a t h e c o n c e p t o f c o v e n a n t , a s t r o n g c o m m u n a l e t h i c . T h e s e t r a d i t i o n s h a v e c o a l e s c e d d i f f e r e n t l y a t v a r i o u s t i m e s i n A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y a n d t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n h a s b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d i n a m y r i a d o f w a y s . D o u b t l e s s , B e l l a h w o u l d a g r e e w i t h M a r t y t h a t t h e r e a r e " a s m a n y c i v i l r e l i g i o n s a s t h e r e a r e c i t i z e n s " . " ^ S t i l l , t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n i s g i v e n s y m b o l i c d e f i n i t i o n i n s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c w a y s . B e l l a h n a m e s f i v e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n i s g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n . F i r s t , e v e n t s c r u c i a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f A m e r i c a c o n s t i t u t e t h e r e l i g i o n ' s " s a c r e d c a l e n d e r " . S e c o n d , i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e e v e n t s a r e t h e p r o p h e t s , t e a c h e r s a n d m a r t y r s o f t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n . T h i r d , p l a c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e e v e n t s and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e t h e r e l i g i o n ' s h a l l o w e d g r o u n d . F o u r t h , r i t u a l s c e l e b r a t i n g t h e s e h i s t o r i c moments, p e o p l e and p l a c e s a f f i r m and p r o p a g a t e t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n . F i f t h , s p e c i f i c documents e x p r e s s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t o f t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n as i t has been f o r g e d t h r o u g h o u t A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y . 1 " ' " B e l l a h sees t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g : The A m e r i c a n D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , The F e d e r a l B i l l o f R i g h t s , The A m e r i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n and The G e t t y s b u r g A d d r e s s ; The War o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d i n O l d Tes tament t e r m s ; The A m e r i c a n C i v i l W a r , w h i c h i n t r o d u -c e d the New Tes tament themes o f s a c r i f i c e , d e a t h and r e b i r t h ; t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d w o r l d war e x p e r i e n c e s ; t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Abraham L i n c o l n ; t h e n a t i o n a l h o l i d a y s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f o u r t h o f J u l y , M e m o r i a l Day and T h a n k s g i v i n g ; a n d , A r l i n g t o n C e m e t r y , t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l 12 R e l i g i o n ' s most es teemed monument. J o h n W i l s o n a rgues t h a t t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f B e l l a h ' s model a v o i d s t h e weaknesses w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s o f two o t h e r mode l s u sed t o a n a l y s e A m e r i c a n C i v i l 13 R e l i g i o n . L i k e P r o f e s s o r W a r n e r , B e l l a h sees t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n e x i s t i n g i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s f o l k w a y s ; u n l i k e h i m , he does n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t t o be c o - t e r m i n u s w i t h a l l c u l t u r a l r i t e s and b e l i e f s . S i m i l a r t o P r o f e s s o r M e a d , B e l l a h a n a l y s e s t h e p u b l i c f a i t h as a p r o p h e t i c , t r a n s c e n d e n t r e l i g i o n ; -14-however, he does not see i t s theology t r a n s c e n d i n g the f i e l d of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s observance. B e l l a h ' s argument i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complex t h a t i t f a c i l i t a t e s the i s o l a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f behaviour and b e l i e f c e n tered on the na-t i o n a l p o l i t y and i t , a l s o , a f f o r d s a l e s s e l u s i v e understand-i n g of the theology o f the c i v i l f a i t h . P h i l i p Hammond has claimed t h a t B e l l a h ' s t h e s i s i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , a c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s . In an essay intended to extend r a t h e r than r e f u t e , he examines with g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n 14 the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . The p u b l i c s c h o o l and j u d i c i a l systems are c l o s e l y analysed. N e i t h e r Hammond nor B e l l a h , however, study s e c r e t f r a t e r n a -l i s m as g i v i n g symbolic d e f i n i t i o n t o the c i v i l r e l i g i o n . Consequently, w h i l e t h e i r s t u d i e s are wide-ranging, they have, n e v e r t h e l e s s , n e g l e c t e d an important aspect of the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . F r a t e r n i t y i s seldom mentioned i n r e l a t i o n to American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . There i s only a s m a l l body of modern l i t e r a -t u r e on f r a t e r n i t y and only one major t e x t , w r i t t e n by Wilson Carey McWilliams, which d i s c u s s e s The Idea o f F r a t e r n i t y i n 15 America. E . J . Hobsbawn a t t r i b u t e s t h i s gap i n the l i t e r a -t u r e to the f a c t t h a t , s i n c e i t s essence i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , the t r a d i t i o n of middle c l a s s l i b e r a l thought has not known 16 what to do w i t h the concept. F r a t e r n i t y can only be a by-product of i n d i v i d u a l impulses and, w h i l e i t i s p a r t i a l l y d e f i n e d as l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y which can be l e g i s l a t e d , the attempt to l e g i s l a t e f r a t e r n i t y i n t o p r a c t i c e "has the same a i r of fantas y as F r e d e r i c k W i l l i a m I o f P r u s s i a b e a t i n g h i s s u b j e c t s on the back w i t h h i s s t i c k ... s a y i n g 'You s h a l l love me' " . While a p a r t of McWilliam'.s t h e s i s c o r r o b o r a t e s Hobsbawn's comments, h i s a n a l y s i s of f r a t e r n i t y i s more sub-s t a n t i v e . McWilliams examines f r a t e r n i t y w i t h i n the context of American s o c i a l e xperience, as i t has been seen through p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r y . He argues t h a t there i s a "gene r a l p r i n c i p l e o f ambiguity i n the c u l t u r e " and a t t r i b u t e s t h i s ambiguity to the American attempt t o harmonize, r a t h e r 18 than choose between, r e l i g i o u s and Enlightenment e t h i c s . F o l l o w i n g a path of a g g r e s s i v e pragmatism, Americans have l o s t s i g h t of the r i c h n e s s of both t r a d i t i o n s and t h e i r under-s t a n d i n g of the symbols a s s o c i a t e d with each has become attenuated and vague. McWilliams' study may be broken down i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t , he examines f r a t e r n i t y as a p o l i t i c a l symbol shaped by Enlightenment d o c t r i n e . In the second, he explores the American P u r i t a n understanding of f r a t e r n i t y . In the t h i r d , he t r a c e s the symbiotic r e l a t i o n o f both i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s throughout American h i s t o r y . Throughout h i s ana-l y s i s , he argues t h a t the Enlightenment t h i n k e r s were mistaken i n t h e i r understanding of f r a t e r n i t y . E q u a l i t y and l i b e r t y do not l e a d to f r a t e r n i t y . Rather, f r a t e r n i t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o c i v i c p o l i t y which, i n t u r n , makes l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y possible. McWilliams 1 c r i t i c i s m o f the Enlightenment i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f f r a t e r n i t y i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o h i s sympathetic under-s t a n d i n g of Freud and Georg Simmel. Both these t h e o r i s t s found the key to the human c o n d i t i o n i n the " p a r a d o x i c a l f r u s t r a t i o n o f man's p o s s i b i l i t i e s as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o h i s 19 humanity". This t e n e t i s c e n t r a l t o McWilliams 1 a n a l y s i s . He acknowledges t h a t Enlightenment t h i n k e r s r e c o g n i z e d how f r a t e r n i t y presupposes an a l i e n a t i o n from p r e s e n t surroundings and i s dependent on the e x a l t a t i o n of a shared l i k e n e s s not apparent i n immediate circumstances. But he argues t h a t , w h i l e the Enlightenment saw man estranged from nature, i t d i d not see man estranged from h i m s e l f . S e l f - a l i e n a t i o n r e q u i r e s f r a t e r n i t y to be the b a s i s o f community, not i t s f i n a l g o a l . "The i n d i v i d u a l who knows h i s unworthiness needs the assu-rance t h a t he has v a l u e ; he demands the encouragement o f a f f e c t i o n . The founding f a t h e r s , however, b e l i e v e d t h a t the a f f e c t -ions of f r i e n d s h i p c o n f l i c t e d w i t h man's e s s e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s . A f f e c t i o n i s prone to p a r o c h i a l i t y w h i l e progress r e q u i r e s a " w i l l i n g n e s s t o put a s i d e demands f o r immediate f u l f i l l m e n t and e s p e c i a l l y f o r f r a t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s on a s c a l e more l i m i -21 ted than t h a t of humanity". Quoting from The F e d e r a l i s t , McWilliams demonstrates t h a t the design of American govern-ment was intended t o minimize t h i s c o n f l i c t . With the d i v i s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l powers, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of interme-d i a t e groups and the concomitant fragmentation of p u b l i c -.17-l o y a l t y , the f e d e r a l government would emerge as both the 22 guardian of I n t e r e s t and the most worthy o b j e c t of a f f e c t i o n . While American Enlightenment t h i n k e r s f r e q u e n t l y used the language of American P u r i t a n i s m , t h e i r understanding of f r a t e r n i t y was the a n t i t h e s i s of t h a t o l d e r t r a d i t i o n . In P u r i t a n a n a l y s i s , a l l s o c i e t i e s were based on covenants which committed men to a "common s o u l " by acknowledging t h e i r shared values and g o a l s . While only one covenant, the Covenant of Grace, ensured p e r f e c t f r a t e r n i t y , i t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l e s s e r covenants to encourage e x i s t i n g f r a t e r n i t y so t h a t , through mutual support and e d u c a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t 23 would more conform to the d i v i n e w i l l . U n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Halfway Covenant, the c i v i c p o l i t y o f American P u r i t a n i s m was based on the recog-n i t i o n of a p r i o r f r a t e r n a l understanding. Duties and o b l i -g ations were d e f i n e d by t h i s understanding and the s t r i c t employment of reason a i d e d i n t h e i r e x e c u t i o n . I t was be-l i e v e d t h a t reason was l a r g e l y separate from and d i d not s u f f e r the d e f e c t s of the human w i l l . I t p r o p e l l e d the a f f e c t i o n s toward the h i g h e r w i l l which s t o o d i n judgement over a l l men and guaranteed t h a t the f r a t e r n i t y of t h i s w o r l d d i d not become an end i n i t s e l f . ^ When, however, New Englanders c o d i f i e d the Halfway Covenant the need to acknowledge f r a t e r n i t y was r e p l a c e d by the assumption of i t s p r e - e x i s t e n c e . The-problem • of how to make i n h e r i t e d d u t i e s f e l t as p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s became keenly r e a l i z e d . I t was hoped t h a t a renewed emphasis on e d u c a t i o n would str e n g t h e n the weakened bonds of f r a t e r n i -t y . But, as McWilliams argues, reason, r a t h e r than encourag-i n g f r a t e r n i t y , became an instrument f o r s e l f - e x a g g e r a t i o n . As New England became more and more a Gemeinschaft, s e l f -e x aggeration i n c r e a s i n g l y became a method of l i b e r a t i o n from 25 o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the P u r i t a n community f a c i l i t a t e d , says McWilliams, the acceptance of the Enlightenment i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of f r a t e r n i t y . The o l d e r understanding was not e n t i r e l y d i s p l a c e d but i t was r e c o n c i l e d t o the new so t h a t i t became simply a d i f f u s e f e l l o w - f e e l i n g . F r a t e r n i t y became an adjunct to p o l i t i c s f o r i t was the " f r i e n d s h i p of the i n -d i v i d u a l i s t who demands the semblance of p e r f e c t u n i t y , too proud (or insecure) to bear c o n t r a d i c t i o n , too weak and i s o -l a t e d to do without human support ' ^ t o g e t h e r : McWilliams remarks t h a t a p o l i t i c a l lodges exemplify 27 the American understanding of f r a t e r n i t y . He does not, however, pursue t h i s comment and, consequently, he f a i l s to c r i t i c a l l y examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e c r e c y and f r a -t e r n i t y . For an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i t i s ne-cessary to t u r n from McWilliams to an essay by the German s o c i o l o g i s t Georg Simmel. Simmel's essay "The S e c r e t and the S e c r e t S o c i e t y " 2 8 c l e a r l y r e v e a l s h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l assumptions. A mate-r i a l i s t to the ext e n t t h a t he b e l i e v e d group r e l a t i o n s had a -19-l i f e of t h e i r own and were p a r t i a l l y determinate of mind and an i d e a l i s t , i n t h a t he assumed mind had i t s own p o s s i b i l i -t i e s , Simmel saw a l l human r e l a t i o n s as a " s y n t h e t i c product o f the i n t e r p l a y between the mind and the r e a l i t y o f a c t i v i -29 t y " . He i n f e r r e d the e x i s t e n c e of a s i m i l a r d i a l e c t i c be-tween i n d i v i d u a l s and c u l t u r e , and, i t i s h i s understanding of t h i s second d i a l e c t i c t h a t forms the b a s i s of h i s a n a l y s i s of s e c r e c y . Simmel understood man to be p i t t e d a g a i n s t the c u l t u r e he c r e a t e s . S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s of c u l t u r e but, r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , c u l t u r e makes man i t s 30 epiphenomenon. There are two reasons f o r t h i s f a c t . F i r s t , c u l t u r e i s the product of many people, each w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t i v i t i e s . Second, there i s more c u l t u r e than any one person can i n c o r p o r a t e . C u l t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , may be experienced 31 as o p p r e s s i v e . When i t i s , s e c r e c y develops. Simmel claims t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of the contents i t guards, s e c r e c y f u n c t i o n s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u -32 a t i o n p r o c e s s . P a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the a n a l y s i s of s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s i s h i s argument t h a t , s i n c e man's n a t u r a l impulse i s t o i d e a l i z e the unknown, the knowledge t h a t another possesses a s e c r e t accords the possessor an importance other-33 wise denied. The s e c r e t p l a c e s one i n a p o s i t i o n of except-i o n . When t h i s p o s i t i o n i s p u b l i c i z e d , as i t i s by f o r m a l l y " p u b l i c " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , the contents of the s e c r e t are of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s e c r e t e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y f o r t h o s e who observe i t and t h e i r acknowledgement " r e t u r n s t o t h e s u b j e c t as the enlargement o f h i s own sphere o f s i g n i f i c a n -34 ce " . I n such i n s t a n c e s , s e c r e c y , l i k e v a n i t y , r e q u i r e s 35 o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o d e s p i s e them. W h i l e " p u b l i c " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , t h e i r own arguments n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , , a re not f r a t e r n a l i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o o u t s i d e r s , t h e r e l a t i o n s between s o c i e t y members r e p r e s e n t a c o n s c i o u s attempt t o e s t a b l i s h f r a t e r n a l i d e n t i t y . Members honour one an o t h e r w i t h , a double t r u s t f o r , i n a d d i t i o n t o th e t r u s t d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p u r p o s e , t h e r e 3 6 i s the a d d i t i o n a l t r u s t o f s e c r e c y . The b e s t o w a l o f c o n f i d e n c e i n s e c r e c y cannot be m e c h a n i c a l l y a s s e s s e d . Temptations o f d i s c l o s u r e a r e so omnipresent t h a t the d i s -c r e t i o n i n v o l v e d i n b e s t o w i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n v o l v e s an "incom-37 p a r a b l e preponderance o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r " . Community p r o v i d e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t a g a i n s t the t e m p t a t i o n t o b e t r a y the s o c i e t y ' s s e c r e t s and, a l s o , eompen s a t e s f o r the i s o l a t i o n i m p l i e d i n s e p a r a t i n g from t h e l a r g e 3 8 s o c i e t y . Oaths, s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n i n the a r t o f s i l e n c e , symbolism, r i t u a l and the t h r e a t o f punishment a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a w e l l - r o u n d e d s t r u c t u r e 39 c a p a b l e o f s t r o n g l y b i n d i n g members t o g e t h e r . The s e c r e t s o c i e t y , t h e r e f o r e , o r g a n i z e s i t s e l f as a c o u n t e r image o f the o f f i c i a l w o r l d t o wh i c h i t p l a c e s i t s e l f i n c o n t r a s t . -21-As Simmel p o i n t s o u t , w h i l e t h e i n t e n t i o n o f s o c i e t y members may be i n d i v i d u a l autonomy, t h e r e i s w i t h t h e absence o f n o r m - g i v i n g r e g u l a t i o n s o n l y r o o t l e s s n e s s . The o r g a n i z a t -i o n o f s e c r e t o r d e r s must r e s t o r e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m o f human n a t u r e . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t membership i n a s e c r e t s o c i e t y i m p l i e s a s i z e a b l e and p r e c a r i o u s b i d f o r f r e e d o m , t o t h e same e x t e n t w i l l t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the s e c r e t s o c i e t y r e f l e c t t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l m i l i e u w h i c h , o s t e n s i b l y , i s b e i n g l e f t b e h i n d . S i m m e l ' s a n a l y s i s o f "The S e c r e t and t h e S e c r e t S o c i e t y " 41 has been l a r g e l y o v e r l o o k e d . T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e because l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n on s e c r e c y , and S i m m e l ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f s e c r e c y i s d e e p l y e n r i c h e d when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t u d y o f r i t u a l as shown by Mary D o u g l a s , C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , Edmund L e a c h and V i c t o r T u r n e r . The w r i t i n g s o f D o u g l a s , G e e r t z , L e a c h and T u r n e r s h a r e two emphases . F i r s t , t h e i r a n a l y s e s o f r i t u a l a r e i n f o r m e d by a d i a l e c t i c a l a p p r o a c h , c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c u l t u r e as a symbo l s y s t e m . S e c o n d , t h e i r t h e o r i e s u t i l i z e van Gennep ' s t h e s i s t h a t r i t u a l i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h 42 m e d i a t e s pa s sage f r o m one s o c i a l p o s i t i o n t o a n o t h e r . A l l f o u r t h e o r i s t s see c u l t u r e f u n c t i o n i n g i n two w a y s . -22-As a system o f shared "conceptions expressed i n symbolic 43 forms" , c u l t u r e I s the context through which s o c i a l a c t i o n i s rendered i n t e l l i g i b l e . C u l t u r e a l s o shapes s o c i a l a c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g symbolic g u i d e l i n e s f o r behaviour. To use P r o f e s s o r Geertz's terms, c u l t u r e i s both a "model of" and 44 "model f o r " r e a l i t y . Although c u l t u r e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n shaping behaviour, i t does not e n t i r e l y determine s o c i a l r e a l i t y . C u l t u r e i s meaningful o n l y when I t a r t i c u l a t e s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and, s i n c e i t s f i x i t y i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by the f l u x o f r e a l i t y , ; s h i f t s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u a l l y , i f i m p e r c e p t i b l y , 45 reshape c u l t u r e . Between c u l t u r e and s o c i a l r e a l i t y t h e r e i s an ongoing d i a l e c t i c . R i t u a l attempts t o transcend t h i s d i a l e c t i c by e l i m i n a t -i n g the c o n f l i c t between the world as i t i s l i v e d and c u l t u r -a l l y d e f i n e d . R i t u a l symbols evoke and u n i f y o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e understandings o f r e a l i t y so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s 46 e xperience a congruence between themselves and t h e i r c u l t u r e . By s y m b o l i c a l l y d e f i n i n g the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , r i t u a l i n t e g r a t e s these assumptions i n t o c u l t u r e and r e dresses s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . Even when i t e f f e c t s no t a n g i b l e u n i t y between c u l t u r e and behaviour, r i t u a l m o d i f i e s 47 p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y by p r e s e n t i n g l i f e i n i t s t o t a l i t y . 48 I t p r o v i d e s a m e t a s o c l a l commentary on r e a l i t y . In h i s seminal work, The R i t e s o f Passage, van Gennep 49 demonstrated t h a t the o r d e r of r i t u a l s i s c o n s t a n t . R i t u a l s have three phases: s e p a r a t i o n (.from one s o c i a l p o s i t i o n ) , t r a n s i t i o n , and i n c o r p o r a t i o n ( i n t o a new s o c i a l r o l e ) . P r o f e s s o r s Douglas, Geertz, Leach and Turner see r i t u a l ' s dynamic i n i t s middle phase. I n the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage of r i t u a l , i n d i v i d u a l s e x i s t beyond s o c i e t y ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . From the viewpoint of s t r u c t u r e , they are. " p o l l u t i n g " f o r whatever i s not s y m b o l i c a l l y d e f i n e d possesses i n f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r o r d e r i n g . ^ In r i t u a l t r a n s i t i o n , the a c t u a l i t y o f s o c i e t y i s superseded by a l t e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " ^ The degree to which r i t u a l a c t u a l l y r e o r d e r s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s dependent upon the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g 52 e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s as they have'been shaped by c u l t u r e . V i c t o r Turner c o n t r a s t s r i t u a l assumptions which develop out-s i d e s o c i e t y ' s economic and p o l i t i c a l processes w i t h others more i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s o c i a l whole and argues t h a t , i n r i t u a l , the l a t t e r more c l e a r l y r e v e a l the s u b j e c t i v i t y of 53 and, hence, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . His a n a l y s i s emphasizes the f u n c t i o n of these c o n t r a s t i n g assumpt-ions w i t h i n the r i t u a l process r a t h e r than the dynamic by which they f i r s t assume shape. Roland Barthes and Herbert Marcuse, however, d i r e c t l y examine t h i s problem i n t h e i r 54 r e s p e c t i v e s t u d i e s of bourgeois myth and contemporary c u l t u r e . Myth, argues Barthes, i s a system of v a l u e s i n t e r p r e t e d as f a c t s . In myth, a l r e a d y accepted symbols o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y are reduced to a p u r e l y s i g n i f y i n g f u n c t i o n ; they are f i l l e d with, h i s t o r i c a l l y contingent concepts; and then, l i k e "a con-stantly moving t u r n s t i l e " , both s i g n l f i e r and concept are presented, apparently i n a r e l a t i o n of equivalence. Myth, 55 therefore, functions to transform history into nature. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , because indivi d u a l s have been simultane-ously producers and consumers of t h e i r culture, mythic truths have existed In an i d e a l - r e a l tension with society. Not divorced from the d a i l y struggle of l i v i n g , culture's .myths have provided freedom f o r symbolic opposition to exi s t i n g s o c i a l arrangements. But as Marcuse and Barthes point out, bourgeois myths have eliminated this freedom; they have i n -tegrated culture and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . ^ Bourgeois myths assume a mobile and p e r f e c t i b l e world, subject to the laws of r a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c inquiry, i n turn, bourgeois ideology postulates a world whose order lacks crea-t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . Stripped of s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h i s world view provokes the image of an. unchanging humanity, "characterized 57 by an i n d e f i n i t e r e p e t i t i o n of i t s i d e n t i t y " . Bourgeois myths, therefore, eternalize man and, i n doing so, man's c u l t u r a l concepts become i d e n t i f i e d with t h e i r p r e v a i l i n g , . 58 s o c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n . Since most of bourgeois culture consists only of con-sumption, how the few producers of culture perceive the re-lations between men and the world determines how the majority experience l i f e . " P r a c t i c e d on a national scale, bourgeois norms are experienced as the evident laws of a natural order". T w i c e d i v o r c e d f rom t h e p r o c e s s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e a b d i c a t e t w i c e f r o m t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s h a p i n g r e a l i t y . The degree t o w h i c h t h e y c a n e f f e c t change -t h r o u g h r i t u a l o r o t h e r means - i s m i n i m a l . Because t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l f a c t s i s o b s c u r e d , p u b l i c r i t u a l m e r e l y evokes a f f e c t i v e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f what i s a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r e d s e l f - e v i d e n t . I t s g e n e r a t i v e powers can o n l y r e c r e a t e t h e w o r l d i n i t s own i m a g e . Any a n a l y s i s w h i c h u n d e r s t a n d s s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e -t i e s as g i v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n mus t u t i l i z e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l components o u t -l i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Members o f A m e r i c a n s e c r e t f r a t e r n i -t i e s l i v e ' w i t h i n a s o c i e t y whose c i v i l r e l i g i o n has i n c r e a s -i n g l y degenerated t o t h e p u r s u i t o f power as an end i n i t s e l f . 6 1 L a c k i n g power and u n a b l e t o a l t e r t h e i r s o c i e t y i n any t a n g i b l e way , f r a t e r n a l members choose t o c o n f i r m i t t h r o u g h t h e r i t u a l s o f f r a t e r n i t y . T h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f r a t e r n i t y r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e t o c l i n g t o t h e p i e t i s t i c P u r i t a n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t ; t h e i r s e c r e c y , h o w e v e r , c o n s t i t u t e s a b i d f o r t h e autonomous power o f t h e l a t e r r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l . - 2 6 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE This debate i s o u t l i n e d i n Donald G. Jones and R u s s e l l E. Richey, "The C i v i l R e l i g i o n Debate", American C i v i l R e l i - g i o n, eds. Donald G. Jones and R u s s e l l E. Richey. (New York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 3 - 1 8 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r t i c l e s are found i n American C i v i l R e l i - g i o n , eds. Donald G. Jones and R u s s e l l E. Richey. (New York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 4 ) . A d d i t i o n a l works by John F. Wilson and Robert B e l l a h are c i t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s 1s " S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y " . Robert B e l l a h , " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America", Daedalus, v o l . 9 6 , 1 , (Winter, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 1. I b i d . , p. 8. I b i d . , i p. 4. Robert B e l l a h , "Response to "Commentaries on C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America'", The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n : 1 9 6 8 , ed. D.R. C u t l e r . (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 390 . Robert B e l l a h , " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n America", Daedalus, v o l . 9 6 , 1 , (Winter, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 6-8. I b i d . , p. 7 . Robert B e l l a h , "American C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n the 1 9 7 0 ' s " , American C i v i l R e l i g i o n , eds. Donald G. Jones and R u s s e l l E. Richey. (New York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 2 6 8 . -27-1 0 M a r t i n M a r t y , "Two K i n d s o f Two K i n d s o f C i v i l R e l i g i o n " , A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n , e d s . D o n a l d G . Jones and R u s s e l l E . R i c h e y . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1974), p . 143. R o b e r t B e l l a h , " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n A m e r i c a " , D a e d a l u s , v o l . 96, 1, ( W i n t e r , 1967), p p . 1-21. 1 2 I b i d . , p p . 1-21. 13 J o h n F . W i l s o n , " A H i s t o r i a n ' s A p p r o a c h t o C i v i l R e l i g i o n " , A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n , e d s . D o n a l d G . Jones and R u s s e l l E . R i c h e y . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 19 74) , p p . 117-129. 14 P h i l l i p E . Hammond, "Commentary on C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n A m e r i c a " , The R e l i g i o u s S i t u a t i o n : 1968, e d . D . R . C u t l e r . ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1968), p p . 381-388. 15 W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m s , The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) . 16 E . J . Hobsbawn, " F r a t e r n i t y " , New S o c i e t y , v o l . 27, (Novem-b e r , 1975), p p . 471-473. 1 7 I b i d . , p . 471. 18 W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m s , The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p p . 111-118. 19 R o b e r t M u r p h y , The D i a l e c t i c s o f S o c i a l L i f e : A l a r m s and  E x c u r s i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l T h e o r y . (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971; M o r n i n g s i d e E d i t i o n , 1980), p . 130. -28-20 W i l son Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) , p. 51. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 184. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 190. 2 3 I b i d . , pp. 112-132. 2 4 I b i d . , pp. 112-132. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 152. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 18 2. 27 Robert Murphy, The D i a l e c t i c s o f S o c i a l L i f e : Alarms and  E x c u r s i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory. (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 71; Morningside E d i t i o n , 19 80), p. 130. 2 8 Georg Simmel, "The S e c r e t and the S e c r e t S o c i e t y " , The  S o c i o l o g y of Georg Simmel, trans., and ed. Kurt W o l f f . (Glencoe, 111.: The Free P r e s s , 1950), pp. 330-386. 29 Robert Murphy, The D i a l e c t i c s of S o c i a l L i f e : Alarms and  E x c u r s i o n s i n A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory. (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971; Morningside E d i t i o n , 1980), pp. 130-131. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 133. 31 Georg Simmel, "The S e c r e t and the S e c r e t S o c i e t y " , The  S o c i o l o g y of Georg Simmel, t r a n s , and ed. Kurt W o l f f . (Glencoe, 111.: The Free P r e s s , 1950), p. 330. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 334. 33 I b i d . , p. 333. -29-34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 I b i d . , p. 342. I b i d . , p. 34 2. I b i d . , p. 348. I b i d . , p. 348. -I b i d . , p. 355. I b i d . , pp. 350 & 359. I b i d . , p. 371. Of Simmel's commentators, only Lawrence E. H a z e l r i g g , H.B. Hawthorn and, perhaps , Robert Murphy c o u l d be s a i d to have examined t h i s a r t i c l e i n d e t a i l . For t h e i r works, see t h i s t h e s i s ' s " S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y " . A r n o l d van Gennep, The R i t e s o f Passage, t r a n s . Monika B. Vizedom and G a b r i e l l e L. C a f f e e . (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1960) . C l i f f o r d Geertz, I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C u l t u r e s . (New York: B a s i c Books, 19 73), p. 89. I b i d . , p. 93. C l i f f o r d G eertz, "Thick D e s c r i p t i o n : Toward an I n t e r p r e t a t -i v e Theory of C u l t u r e " , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Cultures.((New York: B a s i c Books, 1973), pp. 3-32. V i c t o r Turner, Dramas, F i e l d s and Metaphors: Symbolic A c t i o n  i n Human S o c i e t y . (Ithaca, New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p. 55. C l i f f o r d Geertz, "Deep P l a y : Notes on the B a l i n e s e Cock-f i g h t " , Daedalus, v o l . 101, 1, (Winter, 1972)., pp. 1-38. - 3 0 -4 8 I b i d . , p . 2 8 . 4 9 A r n o l d van Gennep, The R i t e s , o f P a s s a g e , t r a n s . M o n i k a B . V i s e d o m and G a b r i e l l e L . C a f f e e . ( .Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) . 5 0 Mary D o u g l a s , P u r i t y and D a n g e r : An A n a l y s i s o f Concept s  o f P o l l u t i o n and Taboo . (London : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 6 6 1 , P - 9 4 . 5 1 V i c t o r T u r n e r , Dramas , F i e l d s and M e t a p h o r s : S y m b o l i c  A c t i o n i n Human S o c i e t y . ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i -v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) p . 1 4 . 5 2 V i c t o r T u r n e r , " V a r i a t i o n s on a Theme o f L i m m a l i t y " , S e c u l a r R i t u a l , e d s . S a l l y F . Moore and B a r b a r a G . M y e r h o f f . (Amsterdam: V a n Gordum, A s s e n , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 3 6 - 5 2 . 5 3 I b i d . , p p . ' 3 6 - 5 2 . 5 4 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , " M y t h T o d a y " , M y t h o l o g i e s , t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s . (F rogmore , S t . A l b a n s , H e r t s , E n g l a n d : Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 1 9 7 3 ; P a l a d i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 5 9 . 5 5 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , " M y t h T o d a y " , M y t h o l o g i e s , t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s . ( F r o g m o r e , S t . A l b a n s , H e r t s , E n g l a n d : Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 1 9 7 3 ; P a l a d i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 4 2 . ^ H e r b e r t M a r c u s e , "Remarks on a R e d e f i n i t i o n o f C u l t u r e " , D a e d a l u s , v o l . 9 4 , 1 , ( .Winter , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 9 2 . R o l a n d B a r t h e s , " M y t h T o d a y " , M y t h o l o g i e s , t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s . (F rogmore , ST . A l b a n s , H e r t s , E n g l a n d : Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 1 9 7 3 ; P a l a d i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 3 7 - 1 4 2 . - 3 1 -R o l a n d B a r t h e s , "Myth. T o d a y " , M y t h o l o g i e s , t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s . (Erogmore , ST . A l b a n s , H e r t s , E n g l a n d : Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 19 73 ; P a l a d i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 4 2 . H e r b e r t M a r c u s e , "Remarks on a R e d e f i n i t i o n o f C u l t u r e " , D a e d a l u s , v o l . 9 4 , 1, ( W i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 9 8 - 2 0 4 . R o l a n d B a r t h e s , " M y t h T o d a y " , M y t h o l o g i e s , t r a n s . A n n e t t e L a v e r s . (F rogmore , S t . A l b a n s , H e r t s , E n g l a n d : Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , - 1973 ; P a l a d i n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 4 0 . R o b e r t B e l l a h , " A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s " , A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n , e d s . D o n a l d G . Jones and R u s s e l l E . R i c h e y . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 2 7 2 . -32-CHAPTER TWO COMPONENTS IN CONTEXT The s p e c t a c l e of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of American men meeting r e g u l a r l y i n guarded rooms and p l e d g i n g themselves " i n ambiguous and h y p e r b o l i c oaths", as b u f f a l o e s , moose, w a r r i o r s , nobles and knights i s something which has o c c a s i o n e d more m i r t h than s e r i o u s discussion."'" The myths and r i t u a l s of American s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s g e n e r a l l y have been d i s m i s s e d as l i g h t - h e a r t e d flummery: as a w r i t e r i n Harper's Magazine once p o i n t e d out, they merely e x i s t to a f f o r d grown men the oppor-2 . . . tunxty "to p l a y I n d i a n " . Denied mythic and r i t u a l s i g n i f i -cance, s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s u s u a l l y have been an a l y s e d simply as p h i l a n t h r o p i c and b e n e f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Consequently, t h e i r r e l a t i o n to o t h e r types of oath-bound s o c i e t i e s has been obscured, and t h e i r c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e has not been f u l l y e x p l o r e d . S e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to v e t e -rans 1 and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and they can be c o n s i d e r e d together as one aspect of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . Founded i n the decades immediately f o l l o w i n g the C i v i l War, f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y groups a l l c a t e r e d to the c i t i z e n r y ' s d e l i g h t " i n meeting i n guarded rooms, and wearing spangled d r e s s e s , and c a l l i n g them-s e l v e s sachems and b r o t h e r s and comrades, s o l d i e r s of Gideon 3 and Sons o f Reehab". Through symbol, myth and r i t u a l , these -33-organizations s i m i l a r l y oriented t h e i r members to matters of c i v i c behaviour and meaning. Whatever t h e i r other functions may have been, they considered themselves sentinels of American patriotism. In order to place i n perspective the s i m i l a r i t i e s , and also the differences, between f r a t e r n a l , veterans' and heredi-tary organizations, t h i s chapter considers the genesis of these associations against the larger backdrop of post C i v i l War America. Viewed, e s s e n t i a l l y , as a response to the urbani-zation that accompanied post-war i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , these p a t r i o t i c organizations are usefully considered as s i m i l a r u 4 r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movements. At a time when America was expen-5 encing "a profound change of d i r e c t i o n " , members of p a t r i o t i c s o c i e t i e s attempted to maintain t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e self-under-.6 standings i n forms suited to t h e i r uncertain present.. Responding to and shaped by the same environment, f r a -t e r n a l , veterans' and hereditary groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y only insofar as t h e i r memberships and geographical locations dictated p a r t i c u l a r interpretations of the same set of issues. As the least exclusive of the three types of association, f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s were the least issue oriented. In order to maintain t h e i r popular base, they necessarily presented a more malleable .interpretation of the c i v i l r e l i g i o n . Con-sequently, more, than either veterans' or hereditary organi-zations, they were best suited to survive the passage of time. - 3 4 -Although. the changes which American r e f o r m e r s had hoped to b r i n g about through, the C i v i l W:ar were p o l i t i c a l and m o r a l , not economic, the r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n the war encouraged transformed the l i v e s of many Americans, more d r a m a t i c a l l y than 7 any moral v i c t o r y they may have gained. On the one hand, -the modern . technology of . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and.communications served t o b r i n g men t o g e t h e r , encouraging the tendency toward common thought and provoking the Impulse f o r a s s o c i a t i v e ac-t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, I n d i v i d u a l s i n c r e a s i n g l y found themselves bound to a commercial system which, w h i l e u n i t i n g them i n centers o f t r a d e , d i v i d e d them from each o t h e r i n compe t i t i o n . Subject to.changes i n "the market", farmers, tradesmen and l a b o u r e r s a l l became the d i r e c t competitors of t h e i r neighbour, a f a c t which threatened an a l r e a d y f r a g i l e 9 sense of community. I t i s too easy to dub t h i s e r a "The Great Barbeque" f o r the s e c u r i t y and community t h a t were endangered by i n d u s t r i a -l i z a t i o n were a l s o b e l i e v e d to be f o s t e r e d by i t s f o r c e s . 1 ^ In many i n s t a n c e s , the s p i r i t which p r o p e l l e d American business l e a d e r s was the same as that which i n s p i r e d the growth, of numerous and d i v e r s e humanitarian o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p e r i o d of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n more p r o p e r l y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as. a. time of great ambiguity;.. The r e t u r n to normalcy was Im-p o s s i b l e . But, I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the n a t i o n ' s wounds would be bound and the a c t o f Union given "normal j u s t i f i c a t i o n and 11 meaning" through the l o g i c of I n d u s t r i a l expansion . -35-The. c o n t r a d i c t o r y yearnings to r e s t o r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the o l d ways and advance with, the new c o u l d not be r e c o n c i l e d through, an appeal to the i n h e r i t e d creeds of the e i g h t e e n t h century. S o c i a l Darwinism e l e v a t e d e i g h t e e n t h century l i b e r -a l i s m to the l e v e l of s c i e n c e and t i e d i t , w i t h l i t t l e d i f f i -12 c u l t y , t o n i n e t e e n t h century I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Consequent-l y , while the o l d e r b e l i e f i n a t h i s - w o r l d l y f r a t e r n a l commu-n i t y was not d i s p l a c e d by ni n e t e e n t h century i d e a l s , i t generally.remained a vague y e a r n i n g . T h i s i s t r u e u n t i l near the end of the century, when even I n d u s t r i a l i s t s were f o r c e d to acknowledge t h a t c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l i s m c o u l d not p o s s i b l y 13 l e a d t o a f r a t e r n a l Utopia. But others had already reached, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , a l b e i t i n a h e s i t a n t and f r e q u e n t l y f a l t e r i n g way. G e n e r a l l y without s y s t e m a t i c programs f o r the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of a f r a t e r n a l America, the appearance of v e t e r a n s ' and f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s , as e a r l y as the 1860's, t e s t i f i e s to a wish to e s t a -b l i s h a more workable balance between the o l d ways and the new. H e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which had t h e i r l a r g e - s c a l e b e g i n -nings i n the 1880's, were a l s o a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s d e s i r e . F r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l f u n c t i o n e d p r i m a r i l y to compensate f o r the i n s t a b i l i t y and anonymity of post-war American l i f e . Each of these types o f a s s o c i a t i o n emphasized t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l and c o n v i v i a l c h a r a c t e r ; and, to v a r y i n g degrees, each l o b b i e d f o r p o l i t i c a l reform. T h e i r s o c i a l atmosphere proved most a t t r a c t i v e . For veterans r e t u r n i n g to c i v i l i a n l i f e , .meetings of the Grand Army of the Republic ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1866) r e c a l l e d the warm com-r a d e s h i p found i n war. F o r the townsman, who wished r e s p i t e from d a l l y c o m p e t i t i o n and drudgery, the lodge was "a world of 14 pure a f f e c t i o n , , a momentary p l a c e of romance". . Fo r b e l e a -guered members o f h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s who c o n f r o n t e d Increased immigration from southern and e a s t e r n Europe, the grandness of t h e i r s o c i a l gatherings gave reassurance of •. 15 t h e i r own s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . F r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and' h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l sponsored f r e q u e n t lunches, d i n n e r s , conventions, l e c t u r e 16 courses and l i t e r a r y entertainments. S i m i l a r l y , they f u l -f i l l e d t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n by d e v e l o p i n g " e l a b o r a t e " decor-a t i o n s and r i t u a l s , e s t a b l i s h i n g a u x i l l i a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e i r members' c h i l d r e n and spouses, and undertaking a v a r i e t y of p a t r i o t i c p r o j e c t s . While f r a t e r n a l and v e t e r a n s 1 s o c i e t i e s showed a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n r i t u a l and uniform, h e r e d i t a r y groups were e q u a l l y zealous about t h e i r medals, and badges. On ceremonial occas,1- • i o n s , the Sons o f the American R e v o l u t i o n ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1883) wore "a s i l v e r c r o s s , w i t h a g o l d m e d a l l i o n i n the c e n t e r , surmounted by a g o l d o r s i l v e r e a g l e , the c e n t e r d e c o r a t i o n 17 b e i n g suspended from a g o l d r i n g by a b l u e ribbon". - Other groups had e q u a l l y symbolic, although, sometimes more o b l i q u e , i n s i g n i a . The Daughters of the. R e v o l u t i o n ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1890)_, f o r example, used the c o l o u r s blue and b u f f - the b u f f - 3 7 -s u p p o s e d l y w a s t h e s a m e c o l o u r a s G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n 1 s k n e e 1 - ; 1 8 b r i t c h e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d t i t l e s f o r t h e i r m e m b e r s t h a t w e r e a s " o f f i c i a l " a s t h e d e c o r a t i o n s t h e y w o r e . O n t h e w h o l e , h o w e v e r , o n l y f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s u s e d e l a b o r a t e t i t l e s . M e m b e r s o f t h e G r a n d A r m y o f t h e R e p u b l i c w e r e a l w a y s " c o m r a d e s " , a n d , f o r a s h o r t w h i l e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d e g r e e , t h e y w e r e a l s o R e c r u i t s , S o l d i e r s a n d V e t e r a n s . 1 B u t o n l y t h e A n c i e n t a n d H o n o r a b l e O r d e r o f t h e B l u e G o o s e h a d a M o s t L o y a l G a n d e r , a n d o n l y t h e M o d e r n O r d e r o f P r a e t o r i a n s 20 m o v e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a S u b l i m e A u g u s t u s . •• O s t e n t a t i o u s d e s i g n a t i o n s o f d e g r e e a n d o f f i c e , w h i l e n e a r l y a l w a y s t h e p r o p e r t y o f f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s , w e r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r i t u a l s o f b o t h f r a t e r n a l a n d v e t e r a n s ' o r g a -n i z a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , n e o p h y t e s i n t h e G r a n d A r m y o f t h e R e p u b l i c w e r e r e q u i r e d t o k n e e l b l i n d f o l d e d b e f o r e a n e m p t y c o f f i n d e c o r a t e d w i t h a f l a g , s k u l l , c r o s s b o n e s a n d c r o s s e d s w o r d . W i t h t h e i r l e f t h a n d o n t h e B i b l e , t h e y t o o k t h e i r p l e d g e s . " V o w i n g t o k e e p t h e o r d e r ' s s e c r e t s , e x t e n d c h a r i t y t o v e t e r a n s a n d h e l p t h e i r c o m r a d e s s e c u r e e m p l o y m e n t , i n i -t i a t e s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i f t h e y b r o k e t h e i r v o w s t h e y w o u l d b e 2 1 e x e c u t e d , a p u n i s h m e n t r e s e r v e d f o r " t r a i t o r s a n d s p i e s " . T h e u s e o f r e g a l i a a n d r i t u a l e x t e n d e d t o t h e a u x i l l i a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o f f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' a n d h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t -i o n s . V e t e r a n s ' a n d f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s h a d a c o n s t e l l a t i o n -38-of women's and youth, a f f i l i a t e s and h e r e d i t a r y groups sponsored s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The s a t e l l i t e s of one type of a s s o c i a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y overlapped w i t h those o f another. For example, the L o y a l Order o f Moose's (.established i n 18 88). J u n i o r Order o f Moose was r e l a t e d to the Moose Veterans '• A s s o c i a t i o n and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these groups was not u n l i k e t h a t between C i v i l - W a r Veterans' s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r young men's a f f i l i a t e s . In t u r n , these a s s o c i a t i o n s ' young people's groups somewhat resembled the C h i l d r e n ' o f the Ameri-can R e v o l u t i o n which was spawned by the Daughters of the American R e v o l u t i o n (.established i n 1890} i n 1895. Although some suggested t h a t these youth s a t e l l i t e s merely were designed f o r the p r o s a i c task o f keeping the orders s u p p l i e d w i t h members, the young people's a f f i l i a t e s a l s o expressed concern w i t h the meaning of c i t i z e n s h i p and p a t r i o t i s m . P a t r i o t i s m was seldom w e l l - d e f i n e d but i t was s t r e n u o u s l y advocated f o r , as a spokeswoman f o r the Daughters of the American R e v o l u t i o n made c l e a r , i f c h i l d r e n were p r o p e r l y n u r t u r e d there would be 2 2 "no q u e s t i o n about n a t i o n a l defense". '. . Concern f o r the n a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and, consequently, f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d u n i t e f o r only a few p a t r i o t i c v e n t u r e s . As an "emblem of u n i t y , of l o y a l t y to home and to k i n d r e d , and to a l l t h a t i s s a c r e d i n l i f e " , v e n e r a t i o n o f the f l a g r e q u i r e d only a vague sentiment o f p a t r i o t i c g o o d w i l l ; f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y groups, therefore', p a r t i -c i p a t e d together In the " c u l t o f the f l a g " . " ^ Beginning i n the e i g h t e e n e i g h t i e s and c o n t i n u i n g through the n i n e t i e s , h e r e d i t a r y groups, e s p e c i a l l y , p e t i t i o n e d Congress f o r the c r e a t i o n of F l a g Day; they advocated compulsory s a l u t i n g o f the f l a g w i t h i n the s c h o o l s ; and, they a l s o l o b b i e d f o r 24 l e g i s l a t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g d e s e c r a t i o n of the banner. Less embroiled i n the l e g i s l a t i v e r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the c u l t , f r a -t e r n a l orders developed s p e c i a l r i t u a l s f o r F l a g Day. For example, i n the E l k ' s ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1866) s e r v i c e , three c y l i n d r i c a l o b j e c t s were r i t u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d to resemble the L i b e r t y B e l l , a f l a g was p l a c e d atop the b e l l , and an address 25 on the h i s t o r y and meaning o f American p a t r i o t i s m was g i v e n . Other p a t r i o t i c p r o j e c t s and l o b b i e s were more p a r t i s a n i n nature and r e f l e c t e d the i n t e r e s t s and memberships of the s p e c i f i c types of a s s o c i a t i o n . I t was commonly acknowledged t h a t "a l i s t of r e s p e c t a b l e names" added to the c r e d i b i l i t y and s t a t u s of any o r g a n i z a t i o n and most p a t r i o t i c s o c i e t i e s , a c c o r d i n g l y , d o t t e d t h e i r membership r o l l s w i t h the names o f the s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . On the whole, however, h e r e d i t a r y , v e t e r a n s ' and f r a t e r n a l groups had very d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r j o i n i n g . With t h e i r s t r o n g h o l d s i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n American s t a t e s , h e r e d i t a r y groups were more e x c l u s i v e than e i t h e r veterans' or f r a t e r n a l orders'. Members were r e q u i r e d to possess, more than pedigree: there was an " e q u a l l y prime p r e r e q u i s i t e - t h a t o f honorable c a r e e r and h i g h s o c i a l -40-2 6 s t a n d i n g " . Members o f h e r e d i t a r y . a s s o c i a t i o n s were gene-27 r a l l y w e l l - t o - d o business people and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . ' -Although veterans and f r a t e r n a l orders antedated h e r e d i -t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , few w i t h i n the pedigreed c l a n s would have j o i n e d these e a r l i e r types of a s s o c i a t i o n . Members of h e r e d i -t a r y groups were wel l - e d u c a t e d and p r o p e r t i e d , and t h e i r p a t r i o t i s m r e f l e c t e d t h i s f a c t . W i t n e s s i n g the s o c i a l and economic d i s q u i e t o f the 1880's and 1890's, and b e l i e v i n g t h i s u n r e s t e i t h e r to be caused by or aggravated by the New Immi-g r a t i o n , h e r e d i t a r y bodies looked t o t h e i r p a s t f o r r e a s s u r a n -ce of t h e i r p r e s e n t . Attachment to the ways of t h e i r ances-t o r s was given academic support: S i r F r a n c i s Galton's H e r e d i t a r y Genius and p o p u l a r understandings o f S o c i a l Darwinism both gave reassurance of i n d i v i d u a l and n a t i o n a l 2 8 s u p e r i o r i t y by v i r t u e o f l i n e a g e . Convinced t h a t they c o n s t i t u t e d the vanguard which would i n t e r p r e t American h i s t o r y so as to ma i n t a i n n a t i o n a l grandeur, h e r e d i t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s b u s i e d themselves w i t h two main types o f p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t was to i n s t r u c t immigrants i n the ways of America. The Daughters of the American R e v o l u t i o n , f o r example, presented "a handsome s i l v e r medal to the l i t t l e f o r e i g n e r who (turned) out the b e s t composition on American 29 b e a t i t u d e s " . Of more l a s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e was the second type of p r o j e c t . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s , monuments at h i s t o r i c s i t e s , p u b l i c a t i o n o f Important correspondences, establishment of s c h o l a r s h i p s , l o b b y i n g f o r - u n i v e r s i t y c h a i r s of h i s t o r y - h e r e d i t a r y groups demonstrated a keen i n t e r e s t 3 0 i n p r e s e r v i n g and making American h i s t o r y more a c c e s s i b l e . While the Grand Army of the Republic's c h i e f auxi.lli.ary, the Woman's R e l i e f Corps, (.established i n 18 83) , o c c a s i o n a l l y engaged i n h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , most veterans and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e s c o u l d not a f f o r d the l e i s u r e time, to be concerned w i t h t h e i r a n c i e n t p a s t . The rank and f i l e o f v e t e r a n s ' groups came from modest economic and s o c i a l backgrounds. In many i n s t a n c e s , returning, veterans had l i t t l e formal education and l a c k e d s p e c i f i c work s k i l l s . More than a n y t h i n g , they needed to g a i n economic s e c u r i t y . In t h i s r e s p e c t , v e t e r a n s ' groups resembled the s t r i c t l y r u r a l Order of the Knights of Husbandry ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 186 8) . The Grange and the veterans both understood themselves as d e s e r v i n g government favour, and they both l o b b i e d f o r p a r t i -c u l a r economic advantages.. In r e t u r n f o r t h e i r C i v i l War s e r -v i c e , veterans expected laws of p r e f e r e n c e , improved pensions, 3 2 homesteading p r i v i l e g e s and homes f o r orphans and the aged. The f a c t t h a t they were p e t i t i o n i n g f o r s p e c i a l compen-s a t i o n d i d not i n c l i n e the v e t e r a n s to sympathize w i t h others a l s o l o o k i n g f o r reform. They, and t h e i r progeny, f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the v e r t i c a l channels of s o c i e t y were open to those who possessed the proper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a b i l i t y to p e r s e v e r e . T h i s was the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t g i r d e d the f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s . For v e t e r a n s ' o f f s p r i n g , who were l e s s l i k e l y than t h e i r f a t h e r s to b e n e f i t from government a i d , t h e i r a u x l l l a -- 4 2 -ri.es. and f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s were p a r a l l e l b o d i e s . Economic s e l f - h e l p without government p r o t e c t i o n was an- aim of both, f r a t e r n a l and v e t e r a n s ' s o c i e t i e s / , and to t h i s end, they both, emphasized b e n e f i t schemes t h a t o f f e r e d f i n a n -c i a l compensation i n times o f s i c k n e s s and a t death. In o r d e r to compete more s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h such f r a t e r n a l bodies as The Royal Arcanum (.established i n 1877) , the Sons of Vete-rans ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 189 0). d i s c u s s e d the m e r i t s o f i n t r o d u c i n g massive i n s u r a n c e programs.. T h i s i d e a was d i s m i s s e d i n the 1890's but numerous f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s came t o focus prima-r i l y on t h e i r i n s u r a n c e programs. The Ben Hur L i f e Insurance Company, f o r example, was o r i g i n a l l y a f r a t e r n a l body. Even though, numerous f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s e v e n t u a l l y abandoned t h e i r r i t u a l and became i n s u r a n c e companies, s e c r e t f r a t e r n i t i e s , more than v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y groups, were b u i l t to s u r v i v e . E x i s t i n g independently o f the men's asso-c i a t i o n s , many members o f the women's h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s moved with, the c r e s t o f the suffragetemovement and, i n many 34 i n s t a n c e s , abandoned t h e i r D.A.R. and C o l o n i a l Dames t i e s . The f r a t e r n i t y o f the veterans was dependent on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the C i v i l War, and as succeeding generations grew up without that experience, the v e t e r a n s ' s o c i e t i e s s l o w l y d i s s o l v e d , to be r e p l a c e d by orders commemorating other wars. The f r a t e r n i t y of s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l lodges was l e s s ex-c l u s i v e and more amorphous than e i t h e r v e t e r a n s ' or h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and, In t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n , the c h a r a c t e r of - 4 3 -t h i s f r a t e r n i t y Is examined. C r i t e r i a f o r membership, the nature o f f r a t e r n a l r i t u a l and the p o s i t i o n of s e c r e t f r a t e r -n i t i e s on p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s are co n s i d e r e d . B e l i e v i n g they p r o v i d e d an o u t l e t f o r those "ambitions f o r precedence" which American l i f e f o s t e r e d and s t i m u l a t e d "without adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r g r a t i f i c a t i o n " . , Walter B. H i l l once d e s c r i b e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s as "The Great '".35 American S a f e t y - V a l v e " . • • "The Golden Age o f F r a t e r n i t y " was a popular and u n c e r t a i n response t o the e s s e n t i a l ambiguity o f po s t C i v i l War American s o c i e t y . On one hand, members o f f r a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n s c i o u s l y upheld e x i s t i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s -.they applauded rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m and opposed 3 7 government; r e g u l a t i o n o f busi n e s s . . On the o t h e r hand, mem-bers o f f r a t e r n a l groups f e l t the need f o r a p i e t i s t i c brotherhood. S u b j e c t to s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n , t h e i r understanding o f f r a t e r n i t y r e f l e c t e d W i l l i a m Summer's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the presen t l i f e o f f e r e d "only a 'martyrdom of 3 8 man' i n the i n t e r e s t o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s " . The nature o f lodge f r a t e r n i t y i s w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d i n the teachings of " E l k o l o g y " , and a b r i e f o u t l i n e of E l k d o c t r i n e i l l u m i n a t e s the philosophy u n d e r l i n i n g f r a t e r n a l c r i t e r i a f o r membership.^ E l k o l o g y was a r e l i g i o n t h a t was " f r e e , n o t creed-bound; s c i e n t i f i c , not dogmatic; s p i r i t u a l , not t r a d i t i o n a l ; u n i v e r s a l , not s e c t a r i a n " . E l k o l o g y , i n s h o r t , r e f l e c t e d a popular -understanding o f nineteenth, century l i b e r a l thought. However, i t was an understanding t h a t was -44-robbed of any grim overtones f o r , more than a theory, of God, Elkolotjy was the "new a p p l i c a t i o n o i h i s e x i s t e n c e " . As a f o u n t of l o v e , whose a t t r i b u t e s were helpfulness, and happiness, the God of the E l k s l i v e d w i t h i n and about a l l o f l i f e . Through, degrees of Enlightenment, men came to know t h i s God and to understand t h a t he formed the core, of t h e i r b e i n g . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r a c t i c a l brotherhood became r e a l i z e d , and i t was extended to a l l f o r " s i n i s o n l y a term a p p l i e d to i g n o r a n t good". . F r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , consequently, b e l i e v e d the doors o f t h e i r orders were wide open. As a spokesman f o r the L o y a l Order o f Moose ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1888) made c l e a r , "no s o c i a l s t a t i o n of l i f e i s too h i g h , none too low f o r member-s h i p i n the Moose ... men ... meet e q u a l l y ... e n l i s t e d i n the • 40 g r e a t human cause of Moose". . In r e a l i t y , t h e r e were s e v e r a l s t i p u l a t i o n s f o r j o i n i n g . F r a t e r n i t y was. i m p o s s i b l e w ithout the c o n v i c t i o n of a d e i t y , and members were r e q u i r e d to s t a t e t h e i r b e l i e f i n a Supreme Being. P r a c t i c a l concerns f o r d a i l y l i v i n g a l s o i n t r u d e d i n the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . " F o r e i g n e r s " -the a p p e l l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y a p p l y i n g to a l l non Caucasians -were excluded. Caucasians had b u i l t and s u s t a i n e d the n a t i o n God had b l e s s e d ; immigrants threatened to destroy the coun-41 t r y ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The d e s t i t u t e and the i n f i r m were a l s o excluded. In order to .maintain t h e i r b e n e f i t schemes, f r a -t e r n a l orders r e q u i r e d members who c o u l d pay t h e i r dues; they a l s o needed reassurance t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s would not -45-42 drain, t h e i r c o f f e r s to the deteriment of o t h e r members. A l l candidates were examined f o r e l i g i b i l i t y b e f o r e they were i n d u c t e d Into the m y s t e r i e s o f the v a r i o u s o r d e r s . For example, the sachem of the Improved Order of Red Men (.esta-b l i s h e d In 1833) d i s p a t c h e d h i s c h i e f of records, to an ante-., room to examine the c a n d i d a t e . Only when he had r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e answers to h i s q u e s t i o n s , d i d the o f f i c i a l permit the neophyte to proceed w i t h i n i t i a t i o n . 4 ^ In i n i t i a t i o n the neophyte "journeyed" from the profane w o r l d to the realm of the s a c r e d . He was a " p i l g r i m i n s e a r c h of l i g h t " , a "weary t r a v e l l e r i n the w i l d e r n e s s " , an " a l i e n f a r from h i s own shores", a " l o s t w a i f t o i l i n g the E l y s i a n f i e l d s " . His t r a v e l s were not easy. "A s e r i e s of perambula-t i o n s around the lodge room" c o u l d be a t r e k over hot sands or a cake o f i c e ; i t c o u l d be an odyssey through the enemy's camp; i t could be a p e r i l o u s ascent of Mount Olympus. P i t f a l l s e x i s t e d a t every t u r n . Sometimes the neophyte was lowered i n t o a mattressed grave and mourned as l o s t b e f o r e m i r a c u l o u s l y b e i n g brought back to l i f e . Lodge members sometimes assumed the r o l e of r u f f i a n s and s u b j e c t e d the i n i t i a t e to g r e a t i n d i g -n i t i e s , c h a l l e n g i n g him to defend h i s journey. Sometimes they p e r s o n i f i e d the v i c e s and the weary p i l g r i m was made to a v o i d g r e a t temptation. Only i f these p i t f a l l s were avoided c o u l d the i n i t i a t e hope to complete h i s p i l g r i m a g e and gain member-44 s h i p i n the o r d e r . Having, demonstrated the q u a l i t i e s o f a w a r r i o r , or a k n i g h t , or a w i l d beast, the i n i t i a t e was brought f i n a l l y i n t o the l i g h t . "Unleash the s i x t y watts of every f r o s t e d bulb on .Mount Olympus". I.n the A n c i e n t A r a b i c Order of Nobles o f the M y s t i c S h r i n e , the neophyte " i s then introduced to the Grand Po t e n t a t e , whom he i s commanded to approach with humble and great reverence, s t o o p i n g low on h i s knees, h i s head near the ground, his' buttocks e l e v a t e d , where he r e c e i v e s the "Grand Salaam", t h a t i s a blow on h i s b u t t o c k s " . A f t e r t h i s s t r o k e of i n t r o d u c t i o n , he i s Introduced to the Grand Potentate, "hear whom there i s a Gal v a n i c B a t t e r y (.under the carpet) t h a t when the candidate i s i n t r o d u c e d to the Grand 45 Potentate he receives, a severe e l e c t r i c a l shock".. • What was the nature o f these e s o t e r i c t r u t h s , gained a t such c o s t and symbolized i n the f l i c k i n g o f a l i g h t switch? In i n i t i a t i o n the candidate entered the m y s t e r i e s of c h i v a l r y , c h a r i t y , hope, p a t r i o t i s m and f r a t e r n a l brotherhood. Depending on h i s choice o f lodge, he l e a r n t the meaning behind such s t o r i e s as King A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t l y c o u r t , the Good Samaritan, s u f f e r i n g Job, the unknown s o l d i e r and V a l l e y Forge, David and Jonathan, Damon and.Pythias whose lo v e was s t r o n g e r 46 than death, and a c a u t i o n a r y a n a l y s i s of Caxn and A b e l . The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f these mysteries u s u a l l y was c o n f i n e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b e n e f i t schemes and c h a r i t a b l e u ndertaking w i t h i n the lodge. I t a l s o i n c l u d e d such p l a t l t u -dinous promises, as "I w i l l never... v o l u n t a r i l y d i s t u r b the domestic r e l a t i o n s o f a b r o t h e r Knight" and "X w i l l always .. endeavour to warn him of any: danger which I may know to 4 7 t h r e a t e n him or h i s f a m i l y " . I t d i d not e n t a i l committment to s p e c i f i c economic and p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . . Few f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s a c t i v e l y p e t i t i o n e d f o r govern-ment reform. Most discouraged p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , and the Improved Order of Red Men went so f a r as to foreswear p o l i t i c s 48 e n t i r e l y . Emphasizing I n s t e a d p e r s o n a l v i r t u e s and congeni-a l i t y , the lodges, a t l e a s t u n c o n s c i o u s l y , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e i r f r a t e r n i t y was too weak "to compete w i t h the other 49 l o y a l t i e s and the I n d i v i d u a l i z e d purposes o f men". The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the years between 1865 and 1890 rep r e s e n t e d an ambiguous response to the economic and s o c i a l d i s q u i e t t h a t r e s u l t e d from r a p i d post-war i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Although i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the mechanisms o f the i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r would give meaning to the a c t o f Union and e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to the r e a l i z a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l f r a t e r n i t y , t h i s b e l i e f , f o r many, appeared without substance. V a r i o u s l y c o n f r o n t e d with the anonymity of urban l i f e , the constant?^ t h r e a t o f unemployment, the changes wrought by i n c r e a s e d immigration and changes i n immigration p a t t e r n s , members o f f r a t e r n a l , v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempted to maintain a sense of c o n t i n u i t y by accommodating the myths of t h e i r p a s t to t h e i r p resent circumstances. -48-U n l i k e members of v e t e r a n s ' o r h e r e d i t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , however, those who j o i n e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s had no concrete b a s i s f o r f r a t e r n i t y . They had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the war t h a t had made America i n d i v i s i b l e . N e i t h e r c o u l d they c l a i m k i n s h i p with those who had founded the gre a t n a t i o n . Those who j o i n e d f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s had a l e s s s p e c i f i c r o l e i n t h e i r country's p r o v i d e n t i a l h i s t o r y . D i v i d e d by the f o r -ces o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h a t , o s t e n s i b l y , were to u n i t e them, they c o u l d allow o n l y the vaguest o f f r a t e r n a l understandings. The grandness of t h e i r r i t u a l and d e c o r a t i o n compensated f o r the f r a t e r n i t y they c o u l d not a f f o r d . "For a l l t h e i r Joves and Neptunes , t h e i r r i t u a l s and myths o f gay dogs who have l e f t t h e i r wives a t home" what were members of f r a t e r n a l 5 orders "but homesick tribesmen h u n t i n g f o r t h e i r l o s t c l a n s ? " -49-FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO C h a r l e s W. F e r g u s o n , F i f t y • M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama  o f A m e r i c a n .Lodges: and C l u b s . (New Y o r k : F a r r a r and R i n e -h a r t , I n c . , 193 7), p p . . 3-4. C h a r l e s M e r z , "Sweet Land o f S e c r e c y : The S t r a n g e S p e c t a c l e o f A m e r i c a n F r a t e r n a l i s m " , H a r p e r ' s M a g a z i n e , v o l . 154, ( F e b . 19 27), p . 334. W a l l a c e E . D a v i e s , P a t r i o t i s m on P a r a d e : The S t o r y o f  V e t e r a n s ' and H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a , 1773-1900. ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p . 123. See A r t h u r M . S c h l e s i n g e r S r . , " B i o g r a p h y o f a N a t i o n o f J o i n e r s " , A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 50, n o . 1, ( O c t . 19 44) , p p . 1-25. W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m s , The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p . 373. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n as a r e v i -t a l i z a t i o n movement see J o h n F . W i l s o n , P u b l i c R e l i g i o n i n  A m e r i c a ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979) , pp.:16 5-173. W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m s : , : The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : " U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) , p . 372. -50-10 11 12 13 14 15 16 A r t h u r M . S c h l e s i n g e r S r . , " B i o g r a p h y o f a N a t i o n o f J o i -n e r s " , A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 50, n o . 1, ( O c t . 1944)., p . 16. W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m s , The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p . 372. Havana Mumford J o n e s , The Age o f E n e r g y : V a r i e t i e s o f Ame- r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e , 1865-1915. (New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1971), p . 9. W i l s o n Carey M c W i l l i a m , The I d e a o f F r a t e r n i t y i n A m e r i c a . ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) , p . 373. I b i d , p . 381. I b i d , p . 378. I b i d , p . 379. W a l l a c e E . D a v i e s , P a t r i o t i s m on P a r a d e : V e t e r a n s ' and  H e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a , 1783-1900. ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p p . 119-138. W a l l a c e D a v i e s d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the v a r i o u s s o c i a l a s -p e c t s o f v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y s o c i e t i e s . A l l l i t e r a -t u r e on f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s u sed i n t h i s c h a p t e r d i s -cus se s t h e c o n v i v i a l i t y o f l o d g e l i f e . - 5 1 f t 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 W a l l a c e E . D a v i e s , P a t r i o t i s m on P a r a d e : V e t e r a n s ' and  H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 3 - 1 9 0 0 . ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 3 6 . I b i d , p . 1 3 7 . I b i d , p . 1 2 3 . F o r a l i s t o f some o f t h e more e x t r a v a g a n t t i t l e s o f o f f i c e see Howard S . B e n e d i c t , " B r e t h r e n , t h e Neophyte W a i t s W i t h o u t " , The N a t i o n , v o l . 1 2 0 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 5 ) , p . 4 0 5 . W a l l a c e E . D a v i e s , P a t r i o t i s m on P a r a d e : V e t e r a n s ' and H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a , 1 7 8 3 - 1 9 0 0 . ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 2 3 . F o r an a c c o u n t o f a U n i t e d S p a n i s h War V e t e r a n s ' i n i t i a t i o n see Howard S . B e n e d i c t , " B r e t h r e n , t h e Neophyte W a i t s W i t h o u t " , The  N a t i o n , v o l . 1 2 0 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 5 ) , p p . 4 0 3 - 4 0 4 . C h a r l e s W. F e r g u s o n , F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama o f  A m e r i c a n Lodges and C l u b s . (New Y o r k : F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , 1 9 3 7 ) p p . 2 0 5 - 2 0 6 . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f v e t e r a n s ' and h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s c u l t see W a l l a c e E . D a v i e s , P a t r i o t i s m  on P a r a d e : V e t e r a n s ' and H e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m e r i -c a , 1 7 8 3 - 1 9 0 0 . ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 2 1 8 - 2 2 6 . F o r t h e r i t u a l s o f f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s s ee N o e l G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l S t u d y o f F r a t e r n a -l i s m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( C o l u m b i a , M o . : The U n i v e r s i t y -52-of M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1940), pp. 110-111. 24 Wallace E. Davies, P a t r i o t i s m on Parade: Veterans' and  H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n America, 1783-1900. (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), pp. 211-222. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 110. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 79. 27 Not always employed, members o f women's h e r e d i t a r y o r g a n i -z a t i o n s were u s u a l l y a f f l u e n t . 2 8 Wallace E. Davies, P a t r i o t i s m on Parade': Veterans ' and  H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n America, 1783-1900. (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), p. 48. 29 Charles W. Ferguson, F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama of American Lodges and Clubs. (New York: F a r r a r and Rine h a r t , Inc., 1937) , p. 206. 30 . . . I b i d . , pp. 263-280. See a l s o Wallace E. Davies, P a t r i o t i s m on Parade: Veterans' and H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Ameri- ca, 1783-1790. (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), pp. 215-249. Wallace E. Davies d i s c u s s e s e x t e n s i v e l y v e t e r a n s ' p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s . 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 123-125. A l s o see. a l l l i t e r a t u r e on f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s used i n t h i s chapter. An i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f the t r a n s i t i o n from f r a t e r n a l to i n s u r a n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s foxind i n G l a f Johnson, Con- v e r s i o n o f the F r a t e r n a l S o c i e t y i n t o an O l d - L i n e Company:  A d v i s a b i l i t y , Tendency, • O b j e c t i o n s . (Los Angeles, N a t i o n a l Convention of Insurance Commissioners, 1926). Wallace E. Davies, P a t r i o t i s m on Parade: Veterans' and  H e r e d i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n America, 1783-1900. (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955), pp. 283-285. Walter B. H i l l , "The Great American S a f e t y - V a l v e " , Century, v o l . 44, (1892), p. 383. W.S. Harwood, "Secret S o c i e t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " , North American Review, v o l . 164, (1897), pp. 622-623. Warner O l i v i e r , Back o f the Dream: The S t o r y o f the L o y a l  Order of Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 19 52) , pp. 198-225. W i l l i a m Sumner c i t e d by Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea  of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles, Univer s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p. 381. S e a t t l e D a i l y Times, c i t e d by A r t h u r Preuss, A D i c t i o n a r y  of S e c r e t a n d Other S o c i e t i e s . (St. L o u i s : B. Herder Co, 1924), p. 62. Noel G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study o f F r a t e r n a -l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (Columbia, Mo.: The U n i v e r s i t y 6 M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 19 40), p. 134. -54-This i s a r e c u r r i n g theme i n the e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e o f f r a -t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d i n d i v i d u a l s were i n v i t e d to j o i n the lodges. These people were well-known. They were " s o c i a l " members o n l y . Noel G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study of F r a t e r n a -l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (Columbia, Mo.: The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 19 40), p. 86. Th i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s taken from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s . How-ever, G i s t gives a s u c c i n c t o u t l i n e o f s e v e r a l i n i t i a t i o n p a t t e r n s . See pp. 80-10 2. Howard Be n e d i c t , "Brethren, the Neophyte Waits Without", The N a t i o n , v o l . 120, ( A p r i l , 1925), p. 403. Noel G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study of F r a t e r n a - l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (Columbia, Mo.: The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1940), pp. 80-102. Noel G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study of F r a t e r n a - l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (Columbia, Mo.: The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1940), p. 94. Charles W. Ferguson, F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama of  American Lodges and C l u b s ) . (New York: F a r r a r and Rine h a r t , Inc., 1937), p. 356. -55-W i l s o n Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p. 379. Charles Merz, "Halt Who Goes There?", The New R e p u b l i c , v o l . 35, (Aug., 1923), p. 328. - 5 6 -CHAPTER THREE HISTORICAL CONFIRMATION In 19 23, Frank E. Campbell came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i f he was to f i n d an unused totem f o r h i s f l e d g l i n g s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t y , i t would be necessary to t u r n from the animal kingdom to the f i e l d o f botany. Campbell was the founder of Bunch No. 1 of the Order of Bananas. By the 1920's, there e x i s t e d f r a t e r n a l o rders of Bears, Beavers, B u f f a l o e s , Blue Geese, Bugs, Camels, Deer, Dogs, E a g l e s , E l k s , F l e a s , Goats, L a r k s , L i o n s , Moose, Mules, Owls, Rein-deer and White R a b b i t s . The animal kingdom n e a r l y was d e p l e -t e d . ^ C l e a r l y , the a s s o c i a t i v e impulse had f e d upon i t s e l f . I t a l s o had provoked the m i r t h of onlookers who, i n t u r n , tweaked the s e r i o u s s o c i e t i e s w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the 2 Concatenated Order of Hoo-Hoo. The h i s t o r y of most of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s b r i e f and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . Three o f the animal o r d e r s , however, have w i t h s t o o d the t e s t of time. In the l a t e n i n e t e e n s e v e n t i e s , the F r a t e r n a l Order of E a g l e s , the Benevolent and P r o t e c t i v e Order of E l k s and the L o y a l Order of Moose had a combined membership of three and a h a l f m i l l i o n . Among t h e i r numbers, they counted Jimmy C a r t e r , Walter Mondale, R i c h a r d Daley and 3 J . Edgar Hoover. - 5 7 -These three orders s u r v i v e d because they s u c c e s s f u l l y transformed t h e i r f r a t e r n a l s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g to accommodate, and r e f l e c t , changes i n the popular understanding o f the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . In order to keep apace wi t h the times, the E l k s , Eagles and Moose a l l a l t e r e d t h e i r s e c r e t r i t u a l s , t h e i r s o c i a l and benevolent concerns, and t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s to o u t s i d e r s . The s i m i l a r development and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the s u b j e c t of t h i s c h a p t e r . O r i g i n a l l y known as the " J o l l y Corks", the Benevolent and P r o t e c t i v e Order o f E l k s was founded i n New York i n 1866 by an a c t o r named Charles Algernon V i v i a n . V i v i a n and h i s t h e a t r e cohorts banded to g e t h e r to s i d e s t e p a law which c l o s e d the saloons on Sunday: they rented a room, bought an ample supply of l i q u o r each Saturday and met a t the week's end to r e v e l i n t h e i r d r i n k and each other's company. T h e i r h i g h -j i n k s became well-known and others j o i n e d t h e i r weekly meetings. In 1868, the name E l k s was chosen and the group's f i r s t con-s t i t u t i o n was drawn up. I t s preamble s t a t e d that the o r g a n i -z a t i o n intended to "promote, p r o t e c t and enhance the w e l f a r e 4 and happiness" of a l l E l k s . The g r e a t success o f the E l k s doubtless was an i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n s to o r g a n i z e the L o y a l Order of Moose and the F r a t e r n a l Order of E a g l e s . The f i r s t Moose was a p h y s i c i a n from L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky. In 1888, John Henry W i l s o n decided to c r e a t e a s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t y t h a t would combine the -58-" r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r " of the Knights of P y t h i a s and the "fun and games" of the E l k s . He founded a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n he c a l l e d the L o y a l Order of Moose. Ten years l a t e r , a s m a l l group of S e a t t l e , Washington t h e a t r e owners decided to form a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e i r o b j e c t was "fun". Under the l e a d e r s h i p of John C o r t , the " S e a t t l e Order of Good Times" came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . S h o r t l y a f t e r , the "Order of Good Times" was renamed the F r a t e r n a l Order of E a g l e s . Although t h i r t y - t w o years separate the b i r t h of the f i r s t and l a s t o f t h i s t r i o o f animal o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the e a r l y h i s t o r y of a l l three a s s o c i a t i o n s i s remarkably s i m i l a r . U n t i l the b e g i n n i n g years o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the E l k s , the Moose and, o b v i o u s l y t o a l e s s e r degree, the Eagles a l l responded to the same i s s u e s t h a t c o n f r o n t e d t h e i r country's i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s . In the p o s t C i v i l War. years a s y n t h e t i c f r a t e r n i t y had been maintained by the b e l i e f t h a t i n d u s t r i a l expansion e v e n t u a l l y would redeem the n a t i o n . In the c l o s i n g decades of the century, however, t h i s c o n v i c -t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y was threatened by the s o c i a l and economic tens i o n s wrought by c l a s s i c a l l a i s s e z - f a i r e and the g e n e r a l f a i l u r e of l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o g r e s s i -ve i d e o l o g i e s proved a panacea f o r t h i s downward s p i r a l , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the o l d e r orders of the E l k and Moose date t h e i r modern \his t o r y from the b e g i n n i n g years of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 6 P r o g r e s s i v i s m brought a new -59-emphasis to the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . The adoption of t h i s emphasis was a t u r n i n g p o i n t w i t h i n a l l three f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s . The r e l e n t l e s s i n t r u s i o n of economic and s o c i a l c r i s e s i n the 1880's and 1890's s e r i o u s l y undermined America's com-p l a c e n t t r u s t i n the u n f e t t e r e d mechanisms of the i n d u s t r i a l o r d e r . The formation of labour p a r t i e s and the b l o o d i n e s s of s t r i k e - b u s t i n g , the u g l i n e s s of the c i t i e s and the b l i g h t of poverty, the c a l l f o r more s t r i n g e n t immigration r e g u l a t i o n s , and the beginnings o f the S o c i a l Gospel a l l were symptomatic of a progress which had gone a s t r a y . The e f f e c t s o f i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n appeared the a n t i t h e s i s of f r a t e r n i t y . American reformers, however, were too w e l l t r a i n e d i n the l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n to abandon i t s p r e c e p t s . I n s t e a d , they attempted to d i s c o v e r a "new formula" which would r e c o n c i l e the f r a t e r n i t y 8 o f e q u a l i t y w i t h the l i b e r t y of i n d i v i d u a l i s m . The p r o g r e s s i v e s l a i d a new emphasis on the E n l i g h t e n -ment t e a c h i n g t h a t change a f f i r m s the f r a t e r n a l d e s t i n y of man by i n d i c a t i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s to abandon the c o n f i n e s o f i n s t i -t u t i o n s merely developed to s o l v e proximate concerns. The p r o g r e s s i v e s moved beyond t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s : they a s s e r t e d t h a t e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s had run t h e i r course. Cl a i m i n g t h a t i n d u s t r i a l monopolies had robbed man of i n d i v i d u a l i n i -t i a t i v e as w e l l as community, the p r o g r e s s i v e s demanded t h a t u n i v e r s a l s o l i d a r i t y become "the means as w e l l as the end of p r o g r e s s " . The p r o g r e s s i v e s b e l i e v e d t h a t i f the tyranny of monopolies and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s was e l i m i n a t e d , the d i s t i n c -- 6 0 -t i o n s s e p a r a t i n g men a l s o would v a n i s h . Without the i n t e r -v e n t i o n of " a r t i f i c i a l " ' secondary groups, the n a t i o n would assume the q u a l i t i e s o f a primary group. Guided by the e t h i c of s e r v i c e , the c i t i z e n r y , would merge i n t o an u n d i f f e r e n t i a -9 ted f r a t e r n a l whole. Popular understandings of p r o g r e s s i v e d o c t r i n e p e n e t r a -ted and transformed the s o c i e t i e s of the E l k s , Eagles and Moose. They became c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r b e l i e f i n s e r v i c e , t h e i r p r i d e i n nationhood and t h e i r understanding of the need f o r government r e g u l a t i o n of some aspects o f l i f e . While the s u p e r f i c i a l optimism t h a t accompanied Union c o a l e s c e d imper-c e p t i b l y w i t h i n c r e a s e d sentiments o f n a t i o n a l i s m , the empha-s i s on s e r v i c e and the awareness o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f government r e g u l a t i o n marked a new s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s on the p a r t of the lodges. T h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s manifested i t s e l f i n the r i t u a l s and benevolent p r o j e c t s o f the o r d e r s , and both proved an enticement f o r " j o i n i n g " . Between 1 8 9 0 and 1 9 0 5 , the E l k s m o d i f i e d t h e i r r i t u a l c o n s i d e r a b l y . In 1 8 9 0 , the number of degrees r e q u i r e d f o r f u l l membership was reduced from two to one. Then to quote an Elk h i s t o r i a n : "The apron went i n 1 8 9 5 . The ' s e c r e t pass-word' e x p i r e d i n 1 8 9 9 . The badge and g r i p d i e d n a t u r a l deaths i n 1 9 0 2 and 1 9 0 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t e s t oath and a few o t h e r extraneous things disappeared and the E l k s began to be them-s e l v e s and look l e s s l i k e a cross between the Masons and a c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t y " . J"u I n i t i a t i o n came to be conducted w i t h d i g n i t y and decorum. Devoid o f any f e a t u r e s which would em-b a r r a s s o r annoy the candidate, i t no l o n g e r s u b j e c t e d him "to r i d i c u l e o r to any d i s c o m f o r t , p h y s i c a l o r •mental":. 1 1 This new p r o p r i e t y stood i n marked c o n t r a s t w i t h e a r l i e r E l k r i t u a l . In the order's b e g i n n i n g y e a r s , i n i t i a t i o n f r e -q u e n t l y had been a t e r r i f y i n g and h u m i l i a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . "You were l e d i n t o the lodge b l i n d f o l d e d , and t h a t b l i n d f o l d remained on u n t i l a f t e r you had taken the oath ... F o l l o w i n g t h a t you were seated, and suddenly the door opened and s i x robed f i g u r e s , sometimes c a r r y i n g c a n d l e s , e n t e r e d the room, be a r i n g a c o f f i n . T h i s was p l a c e d i n a s u i t a b l e p o s i t i o n ... be f o r e the a l t a r . Now entered another robed f i g u r e , who began to intone ... 'To him, who i n the lov e o f nature holds commu-ni o n w i t h her v i s i b l e forms' ... When i t was f i n i s h e d the c o f f i n was c a r r i e d from the room and the i n i t i a t i o n was over. W e l l , not q u i t e over!'. There remained the f i n a l degree and " i t was fun f o r the b r o t h e r s who looked on". For example, i n the branding proces s , the new member was f l u n g b l i n d f o l d e d to the f l o o r where he could f e e l the heat of a poker and s m e l l the b u r n i n g f l e s h o f a p i e c e o f steak. His b e l l y was c a u t e r i -12 zed with i c e , and a rubber stamp was a p p l i e d . The gradual e l i m i n a t i o n of such pomposity and i n d i g n i t i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t . In the p e r i o d o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s e c r e t f r a -t e r n a l r i t u a l s had r e c o n c i l e d s u c c e s s f u l l y the promised grandeur o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the n o s t a l g i c y e a r n i n g f o r - 6 2 -"the o l d community". The i n h e r i t e d f r a t e r n a l s y n t h e s i s had not eroded s u f f i c i e n t l y so t h a t men doubted t h e i r a b i l i t y to be l i o n s and t i g e r s ; and community s t i l l e x i s t e d to a degree t h a t c h a l l e n g e s to these a s p i r a t i o n s remained r e l a t i v e l y un-known. However, as the problems of d a i l y l i v i n g became more and more acute, the o l d assumptions s l o w l y d i e d . Unable to r e c a p t u r e a l o s t f r a t e r n i t y , and e q u a l l y unable to w a i t f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t o f a " f r a t e r n a l destiny",men turned to a more immediate brotherhood. They adopted the e t h i c of p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e . L a c k i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n "between warmth g e n e r a l l y and f r a t e r n i t y s p e c i f i c a l l y " , t h i s new brotherhood emphasized 13 • harmony and s o l i d a r i t y , not c o n f l i c t . The m o d i f i e d r i t u a l s of the lodges gave e x p r e s s i o n to t h i s new f r a t e r n a l under-s t a n d i n g . To f a c i l i t a t e a more p r a c t i c a l brotherhood, i t was ne-c essary to broaden and more f i r m l y r e g u l a t e the payment of f r a t e r n a l b e n e f i t s . No l o n g e r was i t f e a s i b l e to keep d i r e c t assessments w i t h i n the l o c a l lodge: i n times of extreme hard-s h i p , payment of b e n e f i t s t hreatened lodge s o l v e n c y ; and i n -c reased l e v i e s and reduced a i d were only s e l f - d e f e a t i n g mea-sures by which to stave o f f bankruptcy. The E l k s , Eagles and Moose never c o n s i d e r e d i n s u r a n c e to be t h e i r p r i n c i p a l r a i s o n -d ' e t r e , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t , they d i f f e r e d fundamentally from the s p e c i f i c a l l y f r a t e r n a l b e n e f i t s o c i e t i e s . The b e n e f i t s o c i e t i e s , however, p r o v i d e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l example which -63-the three animal orders emulated. By 1906, the E l k s , Eagles and Moose a l l had a three t i e r e d system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l government ( n a t i o n a l , s t a t e and l o c a l ) which c o - o r d i n a t e d and 14 more e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d s i c k and f u n e r e a l b e n e f i t s . In 1886, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s i x t e e n f r a t e r n a l b e n e f i t s o c i e t i e s met i n Washington as founders of the N a t i o n a l F r a -t e r n a l Congress. They j o i n e d together "to o b t a i n sympathetic s u p e r v i s i o n by s t a t e i n s u r a n c e departments and c o n s t r u c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n from s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s and Congress" and to o b t a i n laws d e f i n i n g the scope of t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s i n order to p r o t e c t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s "from the odium r a i s e d by 15 f r a u d u l e n t s " . The E l k s were the only o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the animal t r i o t h a t e x i s t e d i n 1886, and i t d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s o f the Congress. S t i l l , the two o b j e c t i v e s s t r e s s e d by the N.F.C. came to permeate and i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l concerns of a l l t h r e e animal o r d e r s . F i r s t , there was an awareness that l o c a l concerns c o u l d be r e a l i z e d by appeal-i n g to s t r o n g e r r e g u l a t o r y powers e x i s t i n g beyond the l o c a l l e v e l . Second, there was the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t government r e g u l a t i o n c o u l d a l l e v i a t e the s u f f e r i n g o f w e l l - i n t e n d e d groups whose mi s f o r t u n e was undeserved. From i t s e a r l y days, the F r a t e r n a l Order of Eagles r e a l i z e d i t s v o t i n g s t r e n g t h and the p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e which accompanied i t . In 190 8, the Eagles sponsored America's f i r s t mother's pension law, the f i r s t of a s e r i e s o f b i l l s whose proposals i n c l u d e d workmen's compensation, the - 6 4 -eli.nri.nation of the poor house and o l d age pensions." 1" The s p i r i t u n d e r l y i n g these p r o p o s a l s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a news-paper a r t i c l e . , "Why Eagles Champion the Cause of the Aged." W r i t t e n a t a l a t e r date, i t s t i l l r e f l e c t s the e a r l i e r s e n t i -ment: "These workers grown o l d are not i d l e r s . They are not s p e n d t h r i f t s or degenerates. They are simply v i c t i m s of an economic system ... w i t h no s u r p l u s f o r the e v i l day when the 17 e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y has ceased". The E l k s , Eagles and Moose a l l c o n s i d e r e d d i s t r e s s e d women and c h i l d r e n to be d e s e r v i n g of t h e i r benevolence. S i g -n i f i c a n t l y , when the l a n g u i s h i n g Moose were r e v i v e d under the s k i l l e d d i r e c t i o n o f "Our Jim" Davis i n 1906, a t t e n t i o n 18 q u i c k l y focused on the p o s s i b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g mooseheart. F i r s t thought of i n 1909, and only a c i r c u s t e n t i n a f i e l d by 1913, Mooseheart i s now an i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e c o v e r i n g 1200 acres near Aurora, I l l i n o i s . P r o v i d i n g a home f o r widows and orphans of deceased Moose, Mooseheart grew from the e a r l y dream to c r e a t e an " e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n o f the orphans and c h i l d r e n o f t h i s o r d e r and 19 such others as may e n t e r " . In the s c a l e d down r i t u a l of the L o y a l Order of Moose, there i s p r o v i s i o n f o r the "Nine O'clock Ceremony". With bowed heads and f o l d e d arms, members tu r n toward Mooseheart. S i l e n t l y they pray 1: " ' S u f f e r l i t t l e c h i l d r e n to come unto me and f o r b i d them not f o r such i s the 20 Kingdom of Heaven'. God b l e s s Mooseheart". -65-The s e c u r i t y o f M o o s e h e a r t , t h e e n t i c e m e n t o f p r o t e c t i -v e b e n e f i t schemes, a g r o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s , and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r i t u a l s s u i t e d t o t h e t o n e o f t h e age a l l e n c o u r a g e d t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e Moose, E l k s and E a g l e s . I n 189 3, o n l y 1000 Moose met a t f i f t e e n W a t e r i n g P l a c e s ; by 1910, t h e h e r d numbered 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 2 1 I n t h e same 22 y e a r , t h e r e were n e a r l y 30 5,000 E l k s . Q u i c k l y e x p a n d i n g , 23 i n 1919-, t h e r e were 329,000 men b e l o n g i n g t o E a g l e A e r i e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n membership l e v e l l e d o f f d u r i n g t h e y e a r s Of t h e f i r s t w o r l d war, t h e a n i m a l t r i o c o n t i n u e d t o p r o s p e r . B u i l d i n g on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e i r o l d b e l i e f s , t h e o r d e r s f o u n d new meaning and p u r p o s e . The E l k s , E a g l e s and Moose a l l a g r e e d w i t h P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n who a r g u e d t h a t : "From t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e f i r s t t h o u g h t o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t u r n e d t o s o m e t h i n g more t h a n w i n n i n g t h i s war. <It t u r n e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e e t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f r i g h t a n d j u s t i c e . ... T h e r e i s a g r e a t t i d e r u n n i n g i n t h e h e a r t s o f men. ... Men have n e v e r b e e n so c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r b r o t h e r h o o d " . 2 4 E l k h i s t o r i a n H o l l i s F u l t z e x p r e s s e s t h e same c o n f i c t i o n i n a l e s s e l o q u e n t v e i n . D u r i n g t h e war, t h e E l k s became more t h a n E l k s : t h e y became " C i t i z e n s o f t h e W o r l d " . 2 5 S o c i o l o g i s t W. L l o y d Warner h a d a r g u e d c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t i t i s i n t i m e s o f war t h a t t h e " a v e r a g e " A m e r i c a n l i v i n g i n s m a l l towns and c i t i e s " g e t s h i s d e e p e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n s as a -66-member of h i s s o c i e t y " . ' " 3 Wax a c t i v i t i e s s t r e n g t h e n communi-ty i n t e g r a t i o n : s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n t o groups where everyone is: i n v o l v e d and In which "there i s an i n t e n s e aware-ness of oneness", community a l s o i s i n c r e a s e d by f e e l i n g s of s t r e n g t h and autonomy brought about by c o m p e t i t i o n i n war • • 27 a c t i v i t i e s w i t h neighbouring communities". The animal t r i o ' s sense of .their own importance was strengthened by the b e l i e f t h a t t h e i r s a c r i f i c e s were f o r the common good of the n a t i o n . F u l t z proudly recounts t h a t In Olympia, Washington "community s i n g i n g was a great morale b u i l d e r i n the war bond d r i v e ; ... 'There's a Long, Long T r a i l a 'Winding 1. 'Tipperary', and 'Smiles' [were heard] i n the Lodge meetings ... and outdoors i n the d r i v e s ; the E l k s band was a v a i l a b l e whenever c a l l e d 2 6 upon". As w e l l , with the a i d of scores of E l k s wives, tons of absorbent v e g e t a t i o n were d r i e d and sacked and forwarded to the medical corps i n France, "to soak up the b l o o d o f the 29 wounded dough-boys". In 19 25, the F r a t e r n a l Order of Eagles c o u l d look back w i t h p r i d e on the f a c t t h a t 50,000 Eagles had j o i n e d the ranks of the m i l i t a r y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d remind i t s members t h a t the Grand A e r i e had voted unanimously to pay the dues of members i n s e r v i c e . I t c o u l d a l s o p o i n t to i t s " P a t r i o t i c Fund" which had dispensed one and a h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s - one thousand d o l l a r s to each c h i l d whose Eagle f a t h e r had surrendered h i s l i f e to p r o t e c t " t h e American Way". 3 0 - 6 7 -However, the r e t u r n o f the "dough-boys" brought with i t a new s e t of problems f o r the lodges. Randolph Bourne d e s c r i -bed the c r i s i s of the nineteen-twenties as the need to choose between a " ' t r a n s - n a t i o n a l America' u n i t e d by values which i n c l u d e d but transcended c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y , and a s u b - n a t i o -31 n a l America, a s o c i e t y of i s o l a t e d and anxious mass men". But f o r America to be " t r a n s - n a t i o n a l " i t was necessary t h a t there be l e s s e r n a t i o n s , s m a l l e r communities and f r a t e r n i t i e s , 32 and these r a p i d l y were e r o d i n g . The n a t i o n and the s t a t e , which had been one d u r i n g the war, were again separated; and the impersonal power of the Machine threatened to d e - s t a b i l i z e even the community found i n f a m i l y . I t was an era when "human s o c i e t y was transformed between the i n f a n c y and o l d age of an average man. The urban d w e l l e r born i n an era of c o a l - o i l lamps, horse c a r s , and f o u r s t o r y b u i l d i n g s d i e d amidst the r o a r and rumble o f a c i t y o f i n c o n -33 descent lighting,.'automobiles and s k y c r a p e r s " . I t was a time when mechanization f r e e d women from many o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t was a l s o an age when mechaniza-t i o n s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d more than the e x t e r n a l s of l i f e . The p r i n c i p l e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , v i t a l f o r I n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y , became one of the animating p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i e t y . " S t a n d a r d i -zed newspapers, magazines, books, movies, p l a y s [caused people] not o n l y to use the same s l a n g , s i n g the same melodies, and wear the same c l o t h e s , but even to f e e l the same emotions and 34 t h i n k the same thoughts". -6 8-S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i m p e l l e d men to embrace the myths o f t h e i r age f o r , i n d i m i n i s h i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y , i t narrowed the p o s s i b i l i t i e s : f o r a l t e r n a t i v e world-views. There were few who c h a l l e n g e d America's f r a t e r n a l d e s t i n y : most continued to a f f i r m t h e i r fundamental brotherhood: and, of n e c e s s i t y , they a v e r t e d t h e i r eyes from the i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l anonymity and growing economic d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t made even l o c a l community i m p o s s i b l e . As McWilliams comments, i f the twenties "roared" i t was because s i l e n c e was unbearable and speech no l o n g e r was 35 able to b u i l d the b r i d g e of communion between men. The t w e n t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , was the decade t h a t most lodges l u r c h e d s i l e n t l y to t h e i r deaths - s l o w l y k i l l e d by the more p r i v a t e 36 a t t r a c t i o n s of the automobile,radio and cinema. U n l i k e t h e i r more unf o r t u n a t e c o u n t e r p a r t s , the E l k s , E a g l e s , and Moose endured, e x p e r i e n c i n g d e c l i n e only w i t h the advent of the d e p r e s s i o n . The animal t r i o s u r v i v e d because they s h i f t e d t h e i r f r a t e r n a l emphasis to r e f l e c t the dominant mood of the age: through t a l e n t n i g h t s and i n t e r l o d g e compe-t i t i o n , they o f f e r e d t h e i r members o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f -aggrandizement; and through i n c r e a s e d p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t y , they e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r o n g sense of community t h a t d i d not t h r e a t e n members' i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and p r i v a t e concerns. F i t n e s s c l a s s e s , r e p o r t s on member's h o l i d a y s , glee c l u b s , m i n s t r e l shows', v a u d e v i l l e n i g h t s , and " l i v e - w i r e " c l u b s , which were designed to i n c r e a s e membership In competi-t i o n w i t h o t h e r lodges, a l l came to p l a y an important r o l e i n the l i v e s o f the E a g l e s , E l k s and Moose- Band and d r i l l con-t e s t s were I n s t i t u t e d a t the s t a t e l e v e l , the r e s u l t being "An Increased i n t e r e s t f e l t by the i n d i v i d u a l members In 37 t h e i r own lodge a c t i v i t i e s " . Of the v a r i o u s m t e r l o d g e ac-t i v i t i e s , r i t u a l c o n t e s t s were most p o p u l a r f o r , i n a d d i t i o n to the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f winning, v i c t o r y f r e q u e n t l y was recog-n i z e d w i t h pennants, cups, t r o p h i e s and cash awards. This t h r u s t f o r s o c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n c a r r i e d over to the p h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t i e s of the o r d e r s . The E l k s , f o r exam-p l e , were advised to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r a cts of benevolence, not of course to "partake of a boast, but r a t h e r to a f f o r d i n f o r m -3 8 a t i o n which the p u b l i c i s always eager t o have". The nature and s p i r i t of the o r d e r s ' p h i l a n t h r o p h y remained much the same. The Moose i n s t i t u t e d Moosehaven near J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l o r i d a , a v i l l a g e "Where L i f e Begins" f o r e l d e r l y Moose and 39 t h e i r spouses. The Eagles continued to l a b o u r f o r the o l d -age pension; and the E l k s became engaged i n h e l p i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , s e t t i n g a s i d e the f i r s t Monday of August as " C r i p p l e d 40 K i d d i e s Day". The b e l i e f p e r s i s t e d t h a t anybody c o u l d be-come somebody merely by e x e r t i n g enough e f f o r t , but, f o r those whose i n a b i l i t y was apparent, h e l p s h o u l d be o f f e r e d . More than the o t h e r two o r d e r s , the Moose succeeded i n f e r r e t . t i n g out human a b i l i t i e s : i n o r d e r to a v o i d the Ignominy o f c h a r i -t y , those i n h a b i t a n t s of Moosehaven who were unable to work were given the t i t l e "Sunshiners" and an accompanying wage 41 f o r b r i g h t e n i n g up the days of o t h e r s . Although In many ways succumbing to the f o r c e s of t h e i r age, the animal t r i o p e r s i s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s a n c t i t y o f the home. Refusing to allow t h e i r l a s t b a s t i o n of community to be undermined, they e s t a b l i s h e d a v a r i e t y o f benevolent programs, s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and r i t u a l s which were designed to s a f eguard f a m i l y u n i t y . Youth clubs and s c o u t i n g groups i n c u l c a t e d the d u t i e s of c i t i z e n s h i p ; e d u c a t i o n a l t r u s t s p r o v i d e d access to h i g h e r l e a r n i n g and i n c e n t i v e to demonstra-te i n d i v i d u a l worth; dinners and p i c n i c s brought f a m i l i e s t o -gether; and the d i g n i t y o f motherhood was l o u d l y p r o c l a i m e d . Mother's Day, f i r s t suggested i n 1904 by Eagle Magazine e d i t o r Frank H e r i n g , came to be c e l e b r a t e d by a l l three o r d e r s . As e x p l a i n e d i n an Eagle p u b l i c a t i o n ^ " ... to a l l c i v i l i z e d men, s i n c e the dawn of human understanding, every day has been and always w i l l be 'Mother's Day'. ... God gave us mothers t h a t we 42 might understand". I f men found themselves i n e f f e c t i v e i n the course of d a i l y l i v i n g , the lodges r e s t o r e d a sense o f e q u i l i b r i u m by reminding them o f t h e i r power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to preserve the f a m i l y u n i t . In a poem e n t i t l e d "From the Heart o f a C h i l d " , p u b l i s h e d a t a time when the Eagle's f l e d g l i n g i n s u -rance program was f l a g g i n g , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f fatherhood i s c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d : -71-Mary 1s Daddy l e f t insurance And t h e i r home w i l l s t i l l be t h e i r s . They're not hungry. Sometimes Mary gives me cast-off clothes she wears. They don't have to take i n sewing. Mary's Momma doesn't cry For her Daddy l e f t insurance But you didn't Daddy - why? 4 3 In the nineteen t h i r t i e s , the animal t r i o continued to maintain the Holy G r a i l of family. However, t h e i r f r a t e r n a l emphasis again switched focus as socialism and communism came to be i d e n t i f i e d as the v i l l i a n s which threatened the "Ameri-can Way of L i f e " . The "Americanization" work of the Elks came to stress not only the virtues of c i t i z e n s h i p but also the p e r i l s of communism. In 1937 Charles Spencer, the Grand Exalted Ruler of the -Elks, denounced the American Federation of Teachers as "communists", as he believed they-threatened to subvert 44 the character of the country's.youth. The Eagles agreed with Spencer's pronouncement, and to do t h e i r part i n b a t t l i n g the foe they i n s t i t u t e d t h e i r own "Americanization" 45 committee. In pinning down an external enemy, the animal orders successfully diverted attention from t h e i r actual c u l t u r a l dilemma. The effects of the depression took a heavy t o l l , and the task of rebuilding the economy forced many lodge members -72-to abandon themselves more completely to the business e t h i c . Business became the b a s i s f o r brotherhood, and lodge members were encouraged to a d v e r t i s e i n the orders 1 newspapers i n order to tap new markets. F a i l u r e to applaud the "modern business creed" was c o n s i d e r e d Tan-American; i t allowed the communists to make a mockery of American c a p i t a l i s m . The need to adopt the business creed and h a l t the i n r o a d s of communism was given e x p r e s s i o n In Orpheus C. Soot's poem, "Buy American": To stop the growth o f p o v e r t y In t h i s l a n d t h a t gave us l i b e r t y We pledge support i n word and deed To t h a t g r e a t cause of p r e s s i n g need Buy American. No l o n g e r s h a l l our t r i b u t e be To A l i e n lands beyond the sea But favour f i r s t our U.S.A. And always we w i l l g l a d l y say Buy American^ 6 In succumbing whole-heartedly to the business e t h i c , the lodges l o s t t h e i r a l r e a d y p r e c a r i o u s b a s i s f o r f r a t e r n i t y . F r a t e r n i t y r e q u i r e d a t e n s i o n between the animal t r i o ' s under-s t a n d i n g of American d e s t i n y and the n a t i o n ' s p r e s e n t form. None e x i s t e d . The animal orders d i d not regard the New Deal p o l i c i e s which propped up v a s t s e c t i o n s of the economy as a s i g n of the f a i l u r e of l i b e r a l p o l i c i e s . Rather, f o r them, the New Deal demonstrated t h a t "the goals of m a t e r i a l progress and the mastery of nature" c o u l d be made to walk p a r a l l e l - 7 3 -courses w i t h f r a t e r n i t y and community . "*' In 1939, i t was r e p o r t e d to the s e c r e t a r y of the S e a t t l e Eagles t h a t s e v e r a l b r o t h e r s had been overheard d i s c u s s i n g A e r i e a f f a i r s i n p u b l i c p l a c e s , and In some Instances i n f r o n t of non-members. The s e c r e t a r y pronounced such d i s c u s s i o n s "both d i s t a s t e f u l and degrading". He continued to s t a t e t h a t , although the o r d e r no longer s t r e s s e d s e c r e c y to the degree i t had p r e v i o u s l y , d i s c r e t i o n was s t i l l necessary i n o r d e r to 48 honour the Eagle vows. The i n d i s c r e t i o n s of these few Eagle members were symptomatic of a g r e a t e r change w i t h i n the animal o r d e r s . In r e t r o s p e c t , Charles F u l t z p o i n t s to 1940 as the year the E l k s became a c l u b r a t h e r than a lodge, the a c t i v i t i e s of the t r u s t e e s assuming g r e a t e r importance than 49 the plans of the E x a l t e d R u l e r . Without a b a s i s f o r f r a t e r n i t y , the E a g l e s , E l k s and Moose i n c r e a s i n g l y assumed the c h a r a c t e r of working mens 1 50 " c o u n t r y - c l u b s " . Membership no longer s i g n i f i e d a recognized e q u a l i t y made humble by shared v i s i o n . I t became a symbol of s e l f worth. L a c k i n g a common purpose wi t h which to transform s o c i e t y , the animal orders came only to c o n f i r m i t . P h i l a n t h r o p i c a c t i v i t y remained a mainstay of the three a s s o c i a t i o n s , compassion p r o v i d i n g s o l i d a r i t y w i t h o u t the c h a l l e n g e s of f r a t e r n a l brotherhood. Cancer r e s e a r c h , c e r e -b r a l p a l s y r e s e a r c h , the Heart fund, the March o f Dimes, the Red ;Cross, and the Boy Scouts a l l r e c e i v e support from a t l e a s t -74-one of the animal o r d e r s . Given t h e i r l a r g e memberships and the nature of t h e i r p h i l a n t h r o p h y , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s have sought membership i n the E l k s , Eagles and Moose. Where the American Dream Is not qu e s t i o n e d , they, no doubt, r e c e i v e much support. - 7 5 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER THREE 1 Howard S. Ben e d i c t , "Brethren, the Neophyte Waits Without", The Nation, v o l . 120 ( A p r i l , 1 9 2 5 ) , p. 4 0 5 . 2 For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the burlesque orders see Charles W. Ferguson, F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama of American  Lodges and Clubs. (New York: F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , Inc., 1 9 3 7 ) , pp. 3 3 6 - 3 4 8 . 3 A l v m J . Schmidt, F r a t e r n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1 9 B 0 ) , pp. 9 4 - 9 7 ; 1 0 0 - 1 0 5 ; 2 2 0 - 2 2 3 . 4 I b i d . , p. 1 0 1 . 5 Warner O l i v i e r , Back of the Dream: The S t o r y of the L o y a l  Order of Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 2 7 . ^ H o l l i s B. F u l t z , Elkdom i n Olympia: A H i s t o r y . (Olympia, Washington: Press o f Warren's Quick P r i n t , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2 9 ; A l v i n J . Schmidt, F r a t e r n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 19 8 0 ) , p. 10 2; Warner O l i v i e r , Back of the Dream: The s t o r y o f the L o y a l Order of Moose. (New York: E;P. Dutton and Co., 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 2 7 . 7 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the b e g i n n i n g of the S o c i a l Gospel see Henry F. May, P r o t e s t a n t  Churches and I n d u s t r i a l America. (New York: Harper and Row, 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 1 9 1 - 2 2 4 . T h i s i s a l s o a theme found i n Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berke-l e y and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 4 6 9 - 4 8 3 . -76-Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) , p. 473. 9 I b i d . , pp. 4 83-490.. Fehrenbach c i t e d by A l v i n J . Schmidt, F r a t e r n a l Organiza- t i o n s . (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1980), p. 102. The apron was o r i g i n a l l y a Masonic symbol. I t ha% been adopted by s e v e r a l o r d e r s . Made of lambskin, i t i s a symbol of innocence. What i t Means to be an E l k , c i t e d by W i l l i a m J . Whalen, Handbook o f S e c r e t O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (Milwaukee: The Bruce P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1966), p. 34. 12 I n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l s v a r i e d somewhat from lodge to lodge. This account i s given by H o l l i s B. F u l t z , Elkdom i n Olympiad A H i s t o r y . (Olympia, Washington: Press of Warren's Quick P r i n t , 1966), pp. 45-46. 1 3 Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea o f F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p. 481. 1 4 See Walter Basye, H i s t o r y and O p e r a t i o n o f F r a t e r n a l Insuran-ce (Rochester, N.Y.: The F r a t e r n a l M o n i t e r , 1919)., pp. 41-57. 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 74-75. -77-Although- the momentum f o r these b i l l s gained momentum over time, Eagle a p p l i c a t i o n forms g i v e these dates. "Why Eagles Champion the Cause o f the Aged", S e a t t l e (Washington); Mother A e r i e News, December, 1925, p. 6. John Henry Wilson d i d not possess the l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s o f Jim Davis. Davis developed a s u c c e s s f u l r e c r u i t i n g program, he developed lodges f u r t h e r west ( s i n c e the west had been l e s s a f f e c t e d by the C i v i l War, I t had fewer orders) and he shortened the r i t u a l . See Warner O l i v i e r , Back o f the Dream: The Story o f the L o y a l Order of Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1952), pp. 48-64. I b i d . , p. 118. A l v i n J . Schmidt, F r a t e r n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 19 80), p. 221. Charles W. Ferguson, F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s : A Panorama of  American Lodges and Clubs. (.New Yiork: F a r r a r and Ri n e h a r t , Inc. 1937), p. 288; Warner O l i v i e r , Back of the Dream: The  Sto r y o f the L o y a l Order of Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1952) p. 64. Charles W. Ferguson, F i f t y M i l l i o n B r o t h e r s , A Panorama o f  American Lodges and Clubs. (New York: F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , Inc., 1937), p. 283. S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother A e r i e News, November, 19 26 , p. 1; September, 1929, p. 1. -78-24 Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea o f F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 19 73). p. 50 5. 25 H o H i s B. F u l t z , Elkdom i n Olympia: A H i s t o r y . (Olympia, Washington: Press of Warren's Quick P r i n t , 1966), p. 55. 2 6 W. L l o y d Warner, American L i f e : Dream and R e a l i t y . (.Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 19 53), p. 26. 27 I b i d . , p. 26. 2 8 H o l l i s B. F u l t z , Elkdom i n Olympia: A H i s t o r y . ( S e a t t l e , Washington: Press o f Warren's Quick P r i n t , 1966) , pp. 70-71. 29 I b i d . , ; p . 71. 30 "Address by V i s i t i n g Grand S e c r e t a r y , John S. P a r r y " , S e a t t l e (.Washington) Mother A e r i e News, November, 1925. 31 P r e s i d e n t W ilson c i t e d by Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea of F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles, U n i v e r s i - . ty of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 19 73), p. 50 8. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 508. 33 A r t h u r M. S c h l e s i n g e r , S r . , "The New Tyranny", Nothing Stands  S t i l l . (Cambridge; The Belknap Press of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p. 132. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 1344 -79-35 Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea ox F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973) , pp.. 509-510. Noel D. G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study of F r a t e r -n a l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . (St. L o u i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1940), p. 43. 37 Washington S t a t e E l k s A s s o c i a t i o n , Proceedings o f the Annual  Convention ( S e a t t l e , Washington: 1926), p. 13. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 16. 39 "Where L i f e Begins" i s a documentary f i l m made by the L o y a l Order of Moose. F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of Moosehaven see Warner O l i v i e r , Back of the Dream: The Story of the L o y a l Order of  Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1952), pp. 168-209. 40 Washington S t a t e E l k s A s s o c i a t i o n , Proceedings o f the Annual Convention ( S e a t t l e , Washington: 1924), pp. 39-44. 4 1 Warner O l i v i e r , Back of the Dream: The S t o r y of the L o y a l  Order of Moose. (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 19 52), p. 184. 4 2 S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother A e r i e News, May, 1929, p. 1. 4 3 "From the Heart o f a C h i l d " , S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother  A e r i e News, A p r i l 19 27. 4 4 S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother A e r i e News, October 19 37, p. 7. 45 I b i d . , J u l y 1935, p. 2. -80-"Buy American", S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother A e r i e News, March, 1933. The phrase i s from Wilson Carey McWilliams, The Idea of  F r a t e r n i t y i n America. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i -ty of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1973), p. 546. S e a t t l e (Washington) Mother A e r i e News, A p r i l , 19 39, p. 6. H o l l i s B. F u l t z , Elkdom i n Olympia: A H i s t o r y . (Olympia, Washington: Press of Warren's Quick P r i n t , 1966), p. 105. Noel D. G i s t , S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s : A C u l t u r a l Study of Erater-r •• n a l i s m i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . (St. L o u i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1940), p. 43. -81-CONCLUSION W r i t t e n as a response to questions generated by h i s o r i -g i n a l 1967 a n a l y s i s of the American C i v i l R e l i g i o n , Robert B e l l a h ' s " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n the 1970's" ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1974) i s an examination of the p u b l i c f a i t h from both an epistemo-l o g i c a l and e v a l u a t i v e perspective."' - The American C i v i l R e l i g i o n , B e l l a h says, I s "a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y " ; and, s i n c e a l l groups have a r e l i g i o u s dimension, he q u i c k l y 2 dismisses those who q u e s t i o n the e x i s t e n c e of a c i v i c c u l t . The q u e s t i o n , he b e l i e v e s , i s not whether a c i v i l r e l i g i o n does or should e x i s t but, g i v e n a c i v i l r e l i g i o n , how i t should be i n t e r p r e t e d so as to safeguard i t s transcendence and u n i v e r s a l i t y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the essay l i e s i n B e l l a h ' s understanding of the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n . As a symbol of the open transcendence which l e g i t i m a t e s t h e i r democratic p o l i t i c a l order, Americans, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , have invoked a j e a l o u s B i b l i c a l God. The image of a n a t i o n s t a n d i n g under the judgement of a transcendent d e i t y has f u n c t i o n e d h i s t o r i c a l l y to ensure t h a t the c i v i l r e l i g i o n n e i t h e r degenerates i n t o mere r e l i g i o u s n a t i o n a l i s m nor be-comes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c r e l i g i o u s orthodoxy. W r i t i n g from h i s experience o f contemporary American c u l t u r e , however, B e l l a h sees the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s openness to be c o n t i n g e n t upon the f u l f i l m e n t of two c o n d i t i o n s . These c o n d i t i o n s are: -82-a v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c t h e o l o g i e s and a r e v i t a l i z e d sense o f communi ty . R e i t e r a t i n g an i d e a p r e v i o u s l y advanced by M a r t i n M a r t y , B e l l a h emphas i ze s t h a t , i f spokesmen f r o m d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s addre s s t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e n a t i o n ' s n e e d s , t h e i r c o m p e t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g s o f A m e r i c a n mean ing and d e s t i n y w i l l e n s u r e t h a t t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n r e m a i n s c r e a t i v e and t r a n s c e n -3 d e n t . A l t h o u g h n o t d i r e c t l y s t a t i n g , x t , B e l l a h s t r o n g l y i m -p l i e s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n , and w i t h i n , t h e s e g roups need t o be i n f o r m e d by a sense o f community n o t u n l i k e t h a t 4 e n v i s i o n e d by t h e New E n g l a n d P u r i t a n s . A c o n v i c t i o n o f common p u r p o s e and an acknowledgement o f s h a r e d l i m i t a t i o n w i l l p r o t e c t a g a i n s t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f d e f i n i t i v e c o n t e n t on w h a t , o f n e c e s s i t y , mus t r e m a i n a p r o p h e t i c , d i a l e c t i c f a i t h . H a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , t h e h i s t o r y o f o r g a n i z e d s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l i s m i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l R e l i g i o n , i t i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s i n c r e a s i n g l y have come t o t h r e a t e n r a t h e r t h a n embody t h e c o n d i t i o n s B e l l a h s e t s down. W i t h t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e f r a t e r n a l s y n t h e s i s , A m e r i c a has succumbed t o t h e c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y i s t h e means t o u n i v e r s a l communi-t y . A m e r i c a n s have d i s c o u r a g e d l e s s e r c o m m u n i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t -l y , t h e y have shaped a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e myths o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l r e f u s e t o be c h a l l e n g e d by o r t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e myths o f t h e l e s s p o w e r f u l . I n A m e r i c a , t h e myths: o f t h e s t r o n g a r e e x p e r i e n c e d as o r t h o d o x y . -83-The c e n t r a l myth of c i v i l r e l i g i o n orthodoxy i s t h a t America i s a chosen people and Americans a chosen l a n d . T h i s myth' allows Americans to view themselves as p l a y i n g a redemptive r o l e i n u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y . Thus, t h e i r sense o f n a t i o n transcends the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s o f p l a c e and time. P l a c e d In a u n i v e r s a l framework, the myth of American d e s t i n y no lon g e r i s understood as an h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . I t i s a u n i v e r s a l a b s o l u t e . When the proximate myth-making a c t i -v i t i e s of Americans are c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n s t the backdrop of t h i s u n i v e r s a l l s t myth, they too r e c e i v e e t e r n a l v a l i d a t i o n . Refusing to compromise v a l u e s , Americans d i s a g r e e o n l y on f a c t s . Although experienced as e t e r n a l f a c t , myth i n r e a l i t y i s an h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . As a system of symbols, i t p r o v i d e s a context through which the processes of d a i l y l i v i n g can be give n meaning. Through the.^symbols o f myth, i n d i v i d u a l i d e a l s are made congruent with c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s . Myth can be a tr a n s f o r m i n g power f o r i t expresses the dichotomy between f e l t i d e a l s and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . However, when the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s 5 f o r myth i s not p e r c e i v e d , myth becomes t y r a n n i c a l . Those who j o i n American s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l orders are un-able to r e j e c t the c i v i l r e l i g i o n ' s myths of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and pr o g r e s s . D i v o r c e d from the myth-making process, they are f o r c e d to accept as r e a l i t y myths; they cannot l i v e up to except i n i m a g i n a t i o n . In order to c o n f i r m an i d e a l not r e a l i z e d i n -84-t h e i r own l i v e s , t h e y t u r n t o t h e s y m b o l i c d e v i c e s o f r i t u a l and s e c r e c y . . Through, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e s y m b o l i c f o r m s , t h e y a f f i r m t h e i r own w o r t h by t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h " t h e e t e r n a l t r u t h s " o f t h e /American C i v i l R e l i g i o n . B u t because t h e r e i s t oo g r e a t a d i c h o t o m y between t h e i d e a l s o f t h e c i v i l r e l i g i o n and t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r own l i -ves t h e i r s e c r e c y and r i t u a l f a i l s t o t r a n s f o r m and s i m p l y d i s s o l v e s i n t o b a n a l i t y . F o r e x a m p l e , on t h e E l k ' s a l t a r t h e r e i s a f l a g , a B i b l e and a s e t o f a n t l e r s . The a n t l e r s a r e supposed t o m e d i a t e between t h e l i b e r t y o f t h e f l a g and t h e i m m e d i a t e b r o t h e r h o o d p r o c l a i m e d i n t h e b i b l i c a l s t o r i e s . The s y m b o l i s m o f t h e e l k who i s b o t h f r e e and a l w a y s r e a d y t o p r o t e c t t h e weak , h o w e v e r , i s n o t s t r o n g enough t o work any r e a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i t o n l y c o n f i r m s a r a t h e r i n n o c u o u s p i e t y . The h i s t o r y o f A m e r i c a n s e c r e t f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r o g r e s s i v e e l i m i n a t i o n o f the t e n s i o n between s o c i a l r e a l i t y and c u l t u r a l i d e a l s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e myths by w h i c h most A m e r i c a n s l i v e t o d a y do n o t r e f l e c t o r communicate t h e t e n s i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f t h e i r e v e r y d a y s o c i a l l i f e . They do n o t r e f l e c t t h e v i o l e n c e i n t h e s t r e e t s , t h e c l e a v a g e between t h e r a c e s and t h e f a c t t h a t some a r e more e q u a l t h a n o t h e r s . I n s t e a d t h e c i v i l r e l i -g i o n p e r p e t u a t e s a myth o f l i b e r t y and a m a n i f e s t d e s t i n y u n d e r God w h i c h , c a n n o t be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s o f A m e r i c a n - 8 5 -l i f e . Such a myth i s not conducive to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a c r e a t i v e space between c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . For when s o c i e t y i s no longer r e l a t e d to c u l t u r e as a means to an end, there i s no reason f o r secrecy or r i t u a l because the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r the s o c i e t y do not e x i s t . In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e f o r e the f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t i e s have d i s s o l v e d i n t o s o c i a l clubs with a c o n t i n u i n g pious i n t e r e s t i n s e r v i c e to the weak and h e l p l e s s . In t a k i n g t h i s s t e p they have not ceased to be i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the c i v i l r e l i g i o n ; they have simply abandoned the i d e a l o f f r a t e r n i t y and s u b s t i t u t e d a s i m p l e r and l e s s demanding p i e t y . -86-FOOTNOTES TO. THE CONCLUSION Robert B e l l a h , " C i v i l R e l i g i o n i n the 1970's", American  C i v i l R e l i g i o n / eds. Donald G. Jones and R u s s e l E. Richey. CNew York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1974)., pp. 255-272. I b i d . , p. 256. I b i d . , pp. 258-259. I b i d . , p. 268. The tyranny of many modern myths i s d i s c u s s e d by a number of s c h o l a r s . See p a r t i c u l a r l y Roland Barthes, "Myth Today", Mythologies, t r a n s . Annette L a v e r s . (Frogmore, S t . Albans, H e r t s , England: Granada P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 19 73; P a l a d i n , 1976), 137-142. H e r b e r t Marcuse, "Remarks on a R e d e f i n i t i o n of C u l t u r e " , Daedalus, v o l . 9 4, 1(Winter, 1965), pp. 190-207. Edmund R. 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