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Measurement of copolar attenuation through the bright band at 4 & 7 GHz Van der Star, Jack A. 1982-12-31

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MEASUREMENT OF COPOLAR ATTENUATION THROUGH THE BRIGHT BAND AT 4 & 7 GHz  by  JACK A. VAN DER STAR BASc, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE  in  THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982  •  Jack A. Van der Star, 1982  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this for  an  available  that  I  by  understood  that  his  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  DE-6  (.3/81)  University shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive be  her or  shall  copying  granted  by  the  of  publication  not  be  allowed  Columbia  of  make  further this  head  representatives.  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  the  the  Library  permission.  Department  at  of  the  may  or  fulfilment  that  for  purposes  or  degree  agree  for  permission  scholarly  in partial  advanced  Columbia,  department  for  thesis  It  this  without  thesis  of  my  is  thesis my  written  ABSTRACT  This  t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s an experiment  gation  through  mately  100  part  of  coastal  vation 0°C  kilometers  the and  an average  the b r i g h t  Trans  band at 4 and  east  Canada  of  7 GHz.  Vancouver,  Telephone  rainfall  differential  i s o t h e r m and  of  of 1600  1227  m  Columbia,  microwave  mm/year.  Due  Canada,  network.  The  forming path  and  receiving  normally e x i s t  is  experiences  to these f a c t o r s and an  transmitting  band e f f e c t  propa-  path i s l o c a t e d a p p r o x i -  k i l o m e t e r s i n l e n g t h and  between  hence b r i g h t  The  British  System  mountainous i n n a t u r e , 41.3 annual  designed to measure microwave  ele-  sites,  the  along the path  from  November to A p r i l . A measurement resolution  and  taken from f i v e rate  of  along then  10  the  and  sampled as  recording  developed  detailed  description  due  7 GHz  telemetry data.  i s used  Received  as  from  at  site part  of  a rate  where of  both  several  to o b t a i n h i g h  signal  levels  are  microwave channels which are sampled at a  i t arrives  system are p r o v i d e d i n the  attenuation  remote  M e t e o r o l o g i c a l information i s obtained  routines  Results  on  time-correlated  s e l e c t e d 4 and  time-correlated  (Vancouver)  based  accurately  Hz. path  system  of 1 Hz. at  the  The  five  data thus  University  i t i s analyzed  from  using  of  locations  collected  are  British  Columbia  high-level  language  a p r o p a g a t i o n data base management system. the measurement  system  and  the  A  data management  thesis. precipitation  systems  indicate  that  bright  band  can be many times ( i n dB per k i l o m e t e r ) g r e a t e r than a t t e n u a t i o n  t o e q u i v a l e n t amounts of r a i n .  T h i s i s d e s c r i b e d by an Excess A t t e n u a t i o n  (ii)  R a t i o (EAR) using  d e f i n e d as the r a t i o of the excess a t t e n u a t i o n i n dB/km c a l c u l a t e d  the Laws and  Parson d i s t r i b u t i o n a t 0°C.  The  experimental r e s u l t s  com-  pare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those p r e d i c t e d by the t h e o r e t i c a l model of Matsumoto and Nishitsuji. A fade  scintillation  has  also  type  f a d i n g phenomenon  been observed  the p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s changes i n d i f f e r e n t i a l  this  during bright  superimposed  band p r o p a g a t i o n  phenomenon appears  temperature  on  to be  the  broad-band  conditions.  correlated  with  From sudden  between t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r s i t e s  thus a c o r r e s p o n d i n g change i n the t h i c k n e s s of the b r i g h t  (ii±)  band.  and  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  v i i  LIST OF TABLES  xiv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I.  INTRODUCTION 1.1  II.  III.  x  v  1  The Importance of Microwave Propagation i n the Design o f Microwave Systems  1  1.2  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Microwave Propagation 1.2.1 Path F a c t o r s 1.2.2 Rain A t t e n u a t i o n 1.2.3 M u l t i p a t h Fading 1.2.4 Other Propagation F a c t o r s  2 3 5 10 12  1.3  Improving  13  1.4  B r i g h t Band E f f e c t s  15  1.5  Scope of T h e s i s 1.5.1 The Research Program 1.5.2 T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s  21 21 23  1.5.3  24  Reliability  i n Path Design  Thesis Outline  THE EXPERIMENT  26  2.1  Introduction  26  2.2  The Path  26  2.3  Received  Signal Monitoring  26  METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION  35  3.1  System Design 3.1.1 Measurement C r i t e r i a 3.1.2 S i t e S e l e c t i o n  35 35 35  3.2  M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Measurements 3.2.1 Rain 3.2.2 Temperature Transducer  39 39 41  3.2.3 3.3.  Wind V e l o c i t y and Wind D i r e c t i o n Transducer  M e t e o r o l o g i c a l - D a t a Sampling  . . . .  42 42  (iv)  Page IV.  V.  DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM  45  4.1  Design C r i t e r i a f o r a Real Time Data A c q u i s i t i o n System . .  45  4.2  Site Selection  47  4.2.1 4.2.2  47 48  Received S i g n a l S i t e Meteorological Sites  4.3  Data C o l l e c t i o n Network Design 4.3.1 Data S t a t i s t i c s 4.3.2 Link Capacities 4.3.3 Node C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 4.3.4 Implementation of the Network Topology  4.4  Real Time Data Storage 4.4.1 Microprocessor Considerations 4.4.2 Data Storage Formats  49 49 49 50 51  . .  4.5  Allowance f o r Future Data Requirements  4.6  An A l t e r n a t e Data A c q u i s i t i o n System Using Chart Recorders.  DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  5  5.1  Specifications  5.2  Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r DBMS R e l a t i v e t o E x i s t i n g and Future Systems  5.3  VI.  VII.  52 52 ,_2  5  57  A System D e s c r i p t i o n of DBMS 5.3.1 Data T r a n s f e r and Handling  59 59^  5.3.2  61  Estimate of DBMS Data Volumes  RESULTS  62  6.1  Some I n i t i a l R e s u l t s Obtained Using Chart Recording . . . .  62  6.2  Events Measured Using Remote Telemetry Showing B r i g h t Band Propagation 6.2.1 January 23, 1982, 7:30-11:30 p.m  66  66  6.2.2  January 23, 1982, 2:00-4:30 p.m  70  6.2.3  February 19, 1982, 7:30-9:00 a.m  79  CONCLUSIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 7.1  Conclusions  7.2  D i r e c t i o n s f o r Future Research  84 . . .  (v)  84 85  Page 89  APPENDIX A  Automatic Gain C o n t r o l (AGC) C a l i b r a t i o n s  APPENDIX B  D e t a i l s of the Data A c q u i s i t i o n System Layout  95  APPENDIX C  Equipment  and S i t e Layouts  106  APPENDIX D  M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Transducers  122  APPENDIX E  Signal Conditoning Units  127  APPENDIX F  Analog t o D i g i t a l Convertor  1  APPENDIX G  Digital  142  APPENDIX H  Modem U n i t s  145  APPENDIX I  Microprocessor Units  150  APPENDIX J  M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Software  169  APPENDIX K  The B r i g h t  to Analog Convertor  3  6  Band Propagation Experiment's Data Base  Management System  .  190  REFERENCES  200  (vi)  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure Page 3  1.0  Path F a c t o r s  1.1  S p e c i f i c a t t e n u a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of frequency f o r coherent wave p r o p a g a t i o n through u n i f o r m r a i n . The curves are based on the Laws and Parsons d r o p s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the t e r minal v e l o c i t i e s of Gunn and K i n z e r . Rain temperat u r e of 20°C. Rain temperature of 0°C  3  A microwave system diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g space equipment d i v e r s i t y and frequency d i v e r s i t y  14  1.2  1.3  The c h a r a c t e r and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of snow as i t passes through the b r i g h t  1.4 1.5  diversity,  band as seen on water-blue paper  F a l l i n g v e l o c i t y vs. r a d i i  18  of r a i n d r o p s and snowflakes  . . .  19  R e l a t i v e b r i g h t band geometries between s l a n t path t e r r e s t i a l and e a r t h space l i n k s  22  G e o g r a p h i c a l l a y o u t of the b r i g h t band p r o p a g a t i o n experiment  27  2.1  Path p r o f i l e :  28  2.2  Path photographs  2.3  Frequency s e l e c t i o n p l a n and r e c e i v e r equipment receiver site  2.0  Ryder  Lake to Dog Mountain  29 used at 31  2.4  4 GHz  r e c e i v e r microwave t r a n s m i s s i o n b l o c k diagram  32  2.5  7 GHz  microwave t r a n s m i s s i o n system b l o c k diagram  33  3.0  Measurement system l a y o u t  3.1  Path c r o s s - s e c t i o n showing station sites  36 r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s of the  weather 38  3.2  Weather s t a t i o n i n t e r - s i t e d i s t a n c e s  40  3.3  Photograph of the U.B.C. Weatherlog m i c r o p r o c e s s o r and meteorological signal conditioning unit  43  (vii)  Figure 4.0  Page The data a c q u i s i t i o n system b l o c k diagram w i t h component areas i d e n t i f i e d  46  4.1  Data c o l l e c t i o n network t o p o l o g y  51  4.2  Photograph  of the Video T e r m i n a l D i s p l a y i n g  5.0  The b r i g h t  band experiment  5.1  DBMS i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r p r o p a g a t i o n data management systems  58  User f l o w c h a r t t o process time s e r i e s data on the DBMS software system  60  Recordings of r e c e i v e d s i g n a l at 7 GHz d u r i n g b r i g h t propagation: a) Event "A" (January 11-12, 1980) b) Event "B" (February 2, 1980)  63  5.2  6.0  6.1  The A g a s s i z temperature  Incoming  Data  . .  d a t a system f l o w chart  and 7.142 GHz s i g n a l  56  band  level  v e r s u s time 6.2  67  Agassiz r a i n rate v e r s u s time  and the 7.496 GHz s i g n a l  level 68  6.3  The 3.550 and 7.496 GHz s i g n a l l e v e l s versus time  6.4  The Dog Mountain  transmitter  7.496 GHz r e v e i v e r 6.5  6.6  6.7  6.8  53  s i t e temperature  l e v e l s v e r s u s time  The Ryder Lake r e c e i v e r s i t e temperature 7.496 GHz r e c e i v e r l e v e l v e r s u s time  71  and the . . . . . . .  72  and t h e 73  An expanded view at a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 minutes i n t o the event showing the Ryder Lake temperature and 7.496 GHz r e c e i v e r l e v e l versus time  74  Ryder Lake d i f f e r e n t i a l temperature and 7.496 GHz r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l versus time showing the fade d i s c o n t i n u i t y 80 minutes i n t o the event . . . .  75  Ryder Lake d i f f e r e n t i a l temperature and 7.496 GHz r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l versus time showing d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s 30 minutes i n t o the event  76  (viii)  Figure 6.9  6.10  6.11  6.12  6.13  7.0  Page Ryder Lake windspeed, temperature and the 3.550 GHz r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l versus time  77  An expanded view of the Ryder windspeed and 3.550 GHz r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l versus time a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 minutes i n t o the event  78  Ryder Lake and Dog Mountain Temperature, Ryder Lake Windspeed and the 7.496 GHz r e c e i v e s i g n a l l e v e l versus time  80  A g a s s i z r a i n r a t e and the 7.496 and 4.010 GHz r e c e i v e s i g n a l s versus time  81  Ryder Lake d i f f e r e n t i a l temperature and the 7.496 GH r e c e i v e s i g n a l l e v e l versus time  83  Proposed system c o n f i g u r a t i o n to i n c o r p o r a t e r a d i o m o n i t o r i n g system  88  the d i g i t a l  A-1  3550 MHz r e c e i v e r AGC c a l i b r a t i o n  90  A-2  3790 MHz  "  "  "  91  A-3  4010 MHz  "  "  "  92  A-4  7142 MHz  "  "  "  93  A-5  7496.5 MHz r e c e i v e r AGC c a l i b r a t i o n  B-l  Path system l a y o u t experiment .  .  94  f o r U.B.C. microwave p r o p a g a t i o n 97  B-2  Path p r o f i l e Ruby Creek t o Ryder Lake  98  B-3  Path p r o f i l e :  Bear Mountain t o Ryder Lake  98  B-4  Circuit  from Dog Mountain t o Ryder Lake  99  B-5  C i r c u i t l a y o u t from the A g a s s i z E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm to Ryder Lake  99  B-6  Schematic f o r the Ryder Lake t o U.B.C. data c i r c u i t  10°  B-7  The RS232 i n t e r f a c e f o r the Ryder Lake t o U.B.C. data c i r c u i t  101  layout  (ix)  Figure  Page  C-l  Ryder Lake s i t e photograph  102  C-2  Ryder Lake s i t e equipment  C-3  Ryder Lake s i t e l a y o u t  104  C-4a  Dog Mountain s i t e photograph  105  C-4b  A photograph showing damage to the anemometer caused by severe i c i n g c o n d i t i o n s at Dog Mountain  106  C-5  Dog Mountain s i t e equipment  107  C-6  Dog Mountain s i t e l a y o u t  108  C-7  A g a s s i z Experimental Farm s i t e photograph  109  C-8  A g a s s i z Experimental Farm s i t e equipment  C-9  A g a s s i z Experimental Farm s i t e l a y o u t  C-10  Ruby Creek s i t e photograph  C-ll  Ruby Creek s i t e equipment  C-12  Ruby Creek s i t e l a y o u t  114  C-13  Bear Mountain s i t e photograph  115  C-14  Bear Mountain s i t e equipment  C-15  Bear Mountain s i t e l a y o u t  118  C-16  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s i t e photograph  119  C-17  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia equipment  C-18  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s i t e l a y o u t  121  D-l  A photograph of the anemometer  122  D-2  Anemometer c i r c u i t and w i r i n g diagram  123  D-3  A t y p i c a l r a i n bucket and t i p p i n g assembly  124  D-4  Photograph of the temperature probe  125  configuration  103  configuration  configuration  . . .  110 I l l 112  configuration  113  configuration  (x)  117  configuration  .  120  Figure E-1  E-2  Page Top view Photograph of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l unit C i r c u i t schematic f o r the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  signal conditioning 127 signal conditioning  unit  128  E-3  Front and r e a r views of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  E-4  Circuit card  schematic f o r the Bear Mountain s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g  E-5  Circuit  schematic f o r the r e c e i v e r s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g card  F-l  Photographs showing the A/D c o n v e r t o r installed  F-2  Circuit analog  signal  129  132 .  134  s e p a r a t e l y and 137  schematic and p h y s i c a l l a y o u t f o r the Weatherlog to d i g i t a l  convertor  139  F-3  C o n t r o l s i g n a l t i m i n g diagram f o r the A/D c o n v e r t o r  140  F-4 F-5  Sample o s c i l l o s c o p e t r a c e s of the A/D output calibration A/D c a l i b r a t i o n program  140 141  G-l  Circuit  G-2  L i s t i n g of the program t o p r o v i d e c h a r t r e c o r d i n g s from t h e r e c e i v e r data u s i n g the D/A c o n v e r t e r  144  H-l  Photograph of an i n s t a l l e d modem t r a n s m i t u n i t  145  H-2  I n t e r f a c e schematic f o r a Weatherlog modem t r a n s m i t u n i t  . .  147  H-3  P h y s i c a l drawing of the Ryder Lake r e c e i v e r u n i t showing t o p , f r o n t and r e a r views  148  H-4  I n t e r f a c e schematic f o r one of the modem r e c e i v e r u n i t s . . .  149  1-1  P h y s i c a l drawing of the UBC data f o r m a t t i n g ( P//1) m i c r o p r o c e s s o r showing f r o n t , top and r e a r views  151  P h y s i c a l drawing of the UBC data p r o c e s s i n g ( P#2) m i c r o p r o c e s s o r showing f r o n t , top and r e a r views  152  1-2  during  schematic f o r the D/A c o n v e r t o r  (xi)  143  Figure 1-3  1-4 ..  1-5  1-6  1-7  Page Photograph showing the i n t e r i o r l a y o u t of the data f o r m a t t i n g (uP#l) and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g (uP#2) m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  153  C i r c u i t schematic and p h y s i c a l l a y o u t of the asynchronous i n t e r f a c e (ACIA) card  156  P h y s i c a l drawing of the Ryder Lake m i c r o p r o c e s s o r showing f r o n t , top and r e a r views  unit 160  P h y s i c a l drawing of the Weatherlog m i c r o p r o c e s s o r f r o n t , top and r e a r views  showing 162  Photograph showing the i n t e r i o r l a y o u t of a t y p i c a l UBC Weatherlog m i c r o p r o c e s s o r u n i t  163  P h y s i c a l drawing of the low power m i c r o p r o c e s s o r u n i t used at Bear Mountain  165  Photograph showing the i n t e r i o r l a y o u t of the Bear Mountain microprocessor unit  166  Equipment c o n f i g u r a t i o n t o t r a n s f e r data from the c a s s e t t e tape d r i v e to the NOVA 840 magnetic tape d r i v e  167  1-11  C i r c u i t diagram of the RS232C to c u r r e n t loop i n t e r f a c e  . . .  168  J-la  Program flow c h a r t f o r uP#l;  . . . .  171  J-lb  Data f o r m a t t e r b u f f e r memory o r g a n i z a t i o n  J-2  Program flow c h a r t s f o r uP//2; processor unit  1-8  1-9  1-10  the UBC data f o r m a t t e r  172  the UBC data p r o c e s s o r  micro173  J-3  Diagram showing the s t r u c t u r e of the time s e r i e s queue (TSQ)  176  J-4  Data a c q u i s i t i o n flow c h a r t f o r the Ryder Lake d a t a l o g 6800 microprocessor  183  Program f l o w c h a r t f o r the UBC Weatherlog 8085 data t i o n microprocessors  185  J-5  J-6  J-7  acquisi-  Data a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n t r o l program flow c h a r t f o r the remote Bear Mountain 1802 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r u n i t  187  Program f l o w c h a r t t o t r a n s f e r data from c a s s e t t e tapes t o magnetic tape u s i n g the NOVA 840  189  (xii)  gure  Page  K-1  DBMS f u n c t i o n a l flow chart showing completion s t a t u s  K-2  DBMS main program flow c h a r t  193  K-3  Sample P l o t t i n g Run  199  (xiii)  . . . .  192  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.0  A t t e n u a t i o n M u l t i p l i e r s Due t o Watery  2.0  Microwave  3.0  G e o g r a p h i c a l and F u n c t i o n a l S i t e D e t a i l s  3.1  I n t e r - S i t e D i s t a n c e s as a F u n c t i o n of Path Length  40  4.0  Data A c q u i s i t i o n System L i n k C a p a c i t i e s  54  5.0  DBMS Data Volume E s t i m a t e s  61  6.0  Preliminary Results  64  6.1  B r i g h t Band Excess A t t e n u a t i o n R a t i o  6.2  January 23, 1982 R e s u l t s  6.3  Bright-Band Excess A t t e n u a t i o n (EAR) R e s u l t s  6.4  February 19, 1982 R e s u l t s  8  6.5  February 19, 1982 EAR R e s u l t s  82  A-1  R e c e i v e r F r e q u e n c i e s P o l a r i z a t i o n s and A s s o c i a t e d AGC Curves.  89  B-l  VHF Radio Path T r a n s m i s s i o n C a l c u l a t i o n s  96  Transmission Calculations  20  Snow  34  .  37  64  (EAR) R e s u l t s  (7 GHz)  6  9  69 2  U  E-1  The R e s i s t o r Values Used i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Gain Block f o r Optimum Gain  133  F-l  A/D Convertor Channel Assignment T a b l e  138  H-l  Modem Center Frequency Assignments  146  1-1  I/O Port Address assignments f o r the Data Formatter U n i t  uP#l  154  1-2  I/O Port Address assignments f o r the Data Processor Unit  uP#2  155  1-3  6800 I n t e r r u p t V e c t o r s  1-4  Analog t o D i g i t a l  1-5  1/0 Port Address Assignments f o r the Ryder Lake Unit  J-l  RAM Time Assignments (uP#l)  178  J-2  Time S e r i e s Block Format  179  J-3  Data Format f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n B u f f e r  K-1  Data D i r e c t o r y f o r the Time S e r i e s Format  157  (A/D) Convertor Channel Assignments  (xiv)  . . . .  -j.59  . . . .  161  I  8  0  195  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  has  I would  like  provided  me  throughout A  field like  with  much  a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. M.M.Z. Kharadly  needed  support,  supervision  who  and  suggestions  to Mr. N e v i l l e  Owen of the  the course of t h i s r e s e a r c h .  grateful  British  t o acknowledge my  acknowledgement  Columbia  Telephone  i s also  Company  c o o r d i n a t i o n and h i s a d v i c e to thank  the f o l l o w i n g  people  extended  f o r h i s much a p p r e c i a t e d a s s i s t a n c e , h i s throughout  my  thesis  at the B r i t i s h  work.  Columbia  I would  Telephone  also  Company  f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h : Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. In  the same  Communications their  continued  way  Research support  I would Centre  B i l l Squans Stan Dahl Red Matthews George Gatt Dwight Chan Peter Claydon like  to  thank  the f o l l o w i n g  i n Ottawa f o r t h e i r  Dr. Stewart Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr. Mr. Mr. Mr.  McCormick  Rod Olsen Dick B u t l e r Ben Segal John S t r i c k l a n d N e v i l l e Reed Hassen K h e i r a l l a h Joe Schlesak  (xv)  at the  numerous s u g g e s t i o n s , f o r  and f o r p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g  d u r i n g my s t a y :  staff  working  environment  My  gratitude  Experimental  is  Farm  also  for  extended  generously  Mr.  would  David  like  and  to express  my  valuable  for maintaining  back  the UBC  at  up  the  Agassiz  meteorological  chart r e c o r d i n g s  and  Terry  and  Frank DeZwaan Moira J e w e l l  to  give  for  implementing  Michelson,  telemetry  f o l l o w i n g people  Weatherlog computer: Mr. Ms.  I  the  providing  data from t h e i r weather s t a t i o n , l o o k i n g a f t e r the UBC  to  DBMS systems ,  many  making  thanks the  the  to  Dr.  i n t e g r a t i o n phase  results  g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g s t a f f  possible.  Enegren of  the  remote  I would a l s o  at the Department of  like  Electrical  Engineering f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s : Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Thanks are due the  manuscript,  tronics  and  Mr.  to Mr.  to Ms. Ben Len  James Johnston E r i c Minch Edwin Lee Jun Lee  Sherry Lashmar and Van  Smart  der  Star  f o r the  Mrs.  for his  Kathy Brindamour f o r t y p i n g  help  development  of  i n assembling the  entry  the  elec-  procedure  and  p l o t t i n g r o u t i n e packages. I would Dr. Mr.  Basil  also l i k e Peters,  to  Mr.  thank Peter  a l l my van  Frank Peabody f o r c r e a t i n g an  ment.  I would  mental Farm and allowing  the  like  to  greatfully  der  enjoyable  of  their  Gracht, and  colleagues, Mr.  particularly  Konrad  Mauch  s t i m u l a t i n g working  facilities  at  and  environ-  acknowledge, as w e l l , the A g a s s i z  the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g  use  f r i e n d s and  Experi-  Corporation f o r t h e i r cooperation i n intermediate  path.  (xvi)  valley  sites  along  the  T h i s work was contract through National  number contract Science  supported  by the B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company  0007Q8 (NO/KO), the numbers and  OSU  Communications  79-00061, OSU  Engineering  Research  Research  80-00146 Council  of  and  Centre  81-00112  Canada  through  i n Ottawa and  through  The grant  number A-3344. Finally,  I would l i k e to thank my  encouragement and  support  d u r i n g my  w i f e Kathy f o r her continued p a t i e n c e ,  master's program.  (xvii)  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.1  The Importance of Microwave P r o p a g a t i o n I n the Design of Microwave Systems Microwave p r o p a g a t i o n parameters a f f e c t  terrestrial  and s a t e l l i t e communication  f l u e n c e on t h e i r economics this r e l i a b i l i t y ment  cost  [1].  are e s s e n t i a l  effective  the r e l i a b i l i t y  systems  and thus  T h e r e f o r e , techniques  ( a v a i l a b i l i t y ) of have  a major i n -  to c o n f i d e n t l y  estimate  before system planners and d e s i g n e r s can i m p l e -  and e c o n o m i c a l l y  viable  microwave  transmission  systems  [2]. Microwave terrestrial users.  transmission  networks with  The l e a s t  tor.  common  demanding from  H i s performance  available  systems  f o r more  carriers  1000 minutes per year  ing  communication  operate [4].  of  and CATV o p e r a t o r s  are deemed  99.8% of the time,  approximately user  10 GHz i n c l u d e both  an a v a i l a b i l i t y viewpoint  requirements  than  below  systems  [3].  proposed specified  of a t y p i c a l  are the common  common c a r r i e r  f o r the Vancouver to H a l i f a x , to be a v a i l a b l e  unavailability  of l e s s  (.01%) f o r equipment  than  f o r more  f o r m u l t i - p a t h f a d i n g outage.  represents  an outage of  carriers  system s p e c i f i c a t i o n  99.98%  of the time  1/4 (.005%) f o r r a i n On an average  who  presently  o p e r a t i o n s i n the 8 GHz band  0.02% has been a l l o c a t e d  failures,  i f the system i s  8 GHz d i g i t a l c i r c u i t .  than  the main  On the other hand, the most demand-  at 4, 6 and 7 GHz and propose t o s t a r t  An example  being  i s the CATV opera-  satisfactory which  s a t e l l i t e and  i s the one  The system i s [ 5 ] , where t h e  w i t h an allowance outages  of 1/2  and 1/4 (.005%)  per-hop b a s i s t h i s r e p r e s e n t s an  2  unavailability where  the  account of  requirement  combined  meeting  described  not  total  system  by  this  by a path's gation tion,  t h e s i s was  along  by  rain  and  losses.  due  Propagation path  result  i n received signal such  to  as  the  fading  time,  may  not  Therefore, accurate estimation  essential  f o r i n the  before  to study  installation  original  design  In  factors  this  could  light,  since prevent  the  a s s o c i a t e d with  f o r which no account  work  bright-  has yet been made.  Propagation  f o r f r e q u e n c i e s below 10  the path's  changes  microwave  reductions  of  seconds) of  GHz  are  geometry and a s s o c i a t e d weather c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  curvature  a  is  started  7 GHz,  propagation  i s affected  obstruction  factors  (63.2  a v a i l a b i l i t y " objective.  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Microwave Microwave  .0002%  seconds).  accounted  band p r o p a g a t i o n at 4 and  1.2  outage  reliability  factors  the  than  .0001% (31.6  propagation  propagation  less  propagation  f o r more than  the  of  geometry variations factors in  rain  levels  Other  factors  exist  to a minor extent below 10.GHz.  due  i n the way in  related  the  largely  affected  Microwave  of f r e e  space  refractivity  attenua-  profile  and  to m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  attenuation, multlpath  fading,  t o the presence  bright-band.  of the  gaseous a b s o r p t i o n by water vapour oxygen and  fog  A d i s c u s s i o n of these f a c t o r s and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s the s u b j e c t of t h i s next  propa-  section.  and  also their  3  1.2.1  Path F a c t o r s F i g u r e 1.0 shows an example of a l i n e - o f - s i g h t  form  a  segment  typically  have  in a a hop  common-carrier's back-bone length  of 40  to 60 km,  microwave  a fade  o p e r a t i n g frequency between 4 and 10 GHz [ 5 ] .  F i g u r e 1.0  Path  microwave path which would  Factors  system.  I t would  margin of 40 dB  and an  4  The  E f f e c t Due t o Changes I n R e f r a c t i v i t y Although a microwave path i s o f t e n termed to be " l i n e - o f - s i g h t " , the beam  does not t r a v e l i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e to  the r e c e i v e r  but r a t h e r  atmospheric r e f r a c t i v e or  equivalent  radius  earth  r , gives  microwave responding  bends  index w i t h  radius  beam.  Therefore,  changes  as a r e s u l t height.  earth  curve,  6  = 77.6 | + dry  3  ,  7  3  1  refractivity  by the  5  i n the by a "K" earth  propagating cause  cor-  as a f u n c t i o n of atmos-  as f o l l o w s [ 6 ] : (1-1)  6  2  wet term (N u n i t s )  refractive  P:  atmospheric p r e s s u r e  T:  absolute  e:  water vapour p r e s s u r e  index (m b a r )  temperature (°K)  i s taken at a f i x e d  beam, r , r e l a t i v e the v e r t i c a l  term  0  n:  a point  r, travelled  v a r i a t i o n s i n atmospheric r e f r a c t i v i t y  T  If  bending i s d e s c r i b e d  i n the K f a c t o r and are d e s c r i b e d  N = (n-1) 1 0  decrease  i f m u l t i p l i e d by the a c t u a l  p h e r i c temperature and water vapour content,  where N:  of a s l i g h t  This  f a c t o r which,  the f i c t i c i o u s  Q  through the atmosphere from the t r a n s m i t t e r  t o the e a r t h ' s  (m b a r )  e l e v a t i o n the r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e  radius  r  index of r e f r a c t i o n g r a d i e n t  Q  can be expressed  dn/dh to g i v e  of the  as a f u n c t i o n of  the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s -  s i o n f o r the K f a c t o r [ 7 ] :  K  r  - (1 + r | M o dh'  1  v  o  Published  maps on world  = (1 v  dh  / 157)  atmospheric  1  radio  1  r  o  , = 6370 km  refractivity  (1-2)  and r e f r a c t i v i t y  5  g r a d i e n t s are a v a i l a b l e  [8,9,10].  C a l c u l a t i o n of the Free  Space  The can  be  attenuation determined  expression, A  dB  Attenuation  to a microwave s i g n a l emitted  as  a  function  of  frequency  from an i s o t r o p i c  and  distance  by  the  radiator following  [2] : =  9  2  ,  4  +  where, A  2 0  :  1 O g  10  f  +  2 0  l Q  gio  D  (  f r e e space a t t e n u a t i o n  1  _  3  )  (dB)  OLD  Obstruction  f:  frequency  D:  distance  losses vary according  o p e r a t i n g frequency  Rain Early  (km)  Losses  Obstruction  1.2.2  (GHz)  which allows  to a path's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  and  t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n , eg. B u l l i n g t o n [11].  Attenuation theoretical  were made by  Ryde and  estimates Ryde  of r a i n a t t e n u a t i o n on microwave  [12,13] d u r i n g  World  War  H  f i r s t - o r d e r f o r w a r d - s c a t t e r i n g model that used a uniform diameter  profile  spheres.  i s given i n equation  The  resulting  expression  were based on  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  for attenuation  f o r a plane  2  (D/A,  x f Si  attenuation  (dB/Km)  N:  density  (m )  D:  drop diameter  -3  (mm)  m)  dB/km  a  equiwave  (1-4):  a = 0.4343 x N x T r x D  where, a:  and  propagation  ( 1 - 4)  6  m:  . n-jnx, the complex r e f r a c t i v e  f :  r a t i o of energy absorbed and s c a t t e r e d to that incident upon the projected area of the  f l  Medhurst, derived  i n h i s review  by Ryde  using  this  expected, i n experimental some of t h i s but  variation  further theoretical  mined  that  this  model f o r r a i n GHz. has  effect  been  researchers estimates In  [14], corrected  model  could  a n a l y s i s by Crane would  be  attributed  theory  to  to a l l o w  valid  variation,  acknowledge  that  than  Medhurst suggested that scattering  f o r frequencies  rain  good  experimental  the c a l c u l a t i o n  greater  processes  [20] d e t e r -  and the " s i n g l e s c a t t e r i n g "  and experiment  inaccurate  drop.  calculations  [19] and Rogers & Olsen  insignificant  was, i n f a c t ,  and c a r e f u l l y obtained order  a large  be a t t r i b u t e d to m u l t i p l e  between  at present  but found  the numerical  measurements [15,16,17,18].  attenuation  The d i s c r e p a n c y since  index of water  which  rate  lower than 20  Medhurst  observed  measurements.  agreement  between  observations  Most  theoretical  are p o s s i b l e [ 2 1 ] .  of the a t t e n u a t i o n  coefficient  using  path-average r a i n r a t e data, a r e l a t i o n between the r a i n r a t e , the d e n s i t y and the  drop  diameter  i s required.  v e l o c i t y of a f a l l i n g R = 1.885 x  v  where, R:  The  This  i s given  i n terms  of  the t e r m i n a l  drop i n ( 1 - 5 ) : x N x D  3  (mm/hr)  (1-5)  r a i n r a t e (mm/hr)  v:  terminal v e l o c i t y  N:  density  D:  drop diameter  (m/sec)  (m ) - 3  (mm)  t e r m i n a l v e l o c i t y i s r e l a t e d to the drop diameter, as measured by Gunn and  Kinzer  [14] , and t h e r e f o r e  the c a l c u l a t i o n  of the a t t e n u a t i o n  coefficient i s  7  possible  for  uniform  rain  for  a  s i n g l e drop  size  using  r a i n i s composed of d r o p - s i z e s e x h i b i t i n g a continuous 0.5  mm  drop gives  to  7 mm.  size  I n t e g r a t i n g the  (1-4)  the  over  the whole drop  attenuation  [22], provides  by  applicability  dependent  on  the  selection  of  the  drop  of  the of  size  rainfall  correlation  between the  relation  for a single  distribution  for various  rain  rain  Figure  taken  rate.  1.1,  frequency  at  types  results the  spheres  distribution the  derived  Laws and  Ryde model and  is  using  used  and,  the  therefore,  important.  Parson  For  distribution  experiment  Ryde  distribution  d r i z z l e , wide spread  [24]  r a i n and  and  the  Further of  have developed  the  various  [23].  the  most  Joss  et  proper  temperate-  provides  a good  Other drop s i z e  a l . distributions  dis-  Marshall [25]  for  Attenuation  rate  have  to  the  calculation  been made by  Olsen,  s i m p l i f y i n g e m p i r i c a l formula  of  specific Rodgers  and  attenuation Hodge  i n ( 1 - 6 ) , known as  [22],  (1-6)  A = attenuation  (dB/Km)  as  a who  the A - R  relation:  where, A:  is  Rate  improvements rain  from  thunderstorms.  A S i m p l i f i e d E m p i r i c a l Model f o r Rain as a F u n c t i o n of Rain  rates  model  are a v a i l a b l e f o r d i f f e r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s which i n c l u d e the  Palmer  function  vs.  attenuation  approach.  diameter  continental  and  actual rain  using t h i s  tributions  size  Physically,  range of diameters from  a graph of the s p e c i f i c a t t e n u a t i o n versus  r a i n rates The  specific  (1-4).  8  F R E Q U E N C Y (GHz)  F i g u r e 1.1  S p e c i f i c a t t e n u a t i o n as a f u n c t i o n of frequency f o r coherent wave propagation through uniform r a i n . The curves are based on Laws and Parsons d r o p s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the t e r m i n a l v e l o c i t i e s of Gunn and K i n z e r . Rain temperature of 20°C. Rain temperature of 0°C.  9  R:  r a i n rate  (mm/hr)  a,b:  frequency and r a i n temperature dependent parameters t a b u l a t e d i n [26]  Rain Rate Measurement The ate  determination  measurement  of path  of path  a t t e n u a t i o n due t o r a i n f a l l  average  rain  that r a i n i s non-uniform i n nature extent  [21].  individual possible  Therefore,  rain  In a d i s t r i b u t e d ments  where  the  path  i s complicated  path  average  by the f a c t  at as many l o c a t i o n s along  guages, the path  attenuation  due  to  of l i m i t e d  rain  u s i n g s y n t h e t i c storm techniques  system of r a i n  total  an a c c u r a t e  be sampled  [26,27] or be estimated  This  and o f t e n c o n s i s t s of r a i n c e l l s  to obtain  r a t e s must  rate.  r e q u i r e s the a c c u r -  r a t e , the  the path as [59-62].  can be t r e a t e d i n seg-  rain  i s the sum  of the  i n d i v i d u a l segment a t t e n u a t i o n s , as f o l l o w s : n A  =  I  n A  i =  i=l  I  x  (  R  ±  n  ±  (  1  "  7  )  i=l  where, R^:  An  a  r a i n r a t e at guage i (mm/hr)  Aj_:  l e n g t h of segment i as a percentage of path  length  (R^):  s p e c i f i c a t t e n u a t i o n i n dB/km at r a i n r a t e R^  approximation to (1-7) i s u s u a l l y adopted, ( 1 - 8 ) , which uses the path  average r a i n r a t e d i r e c t l y  through the assumption that v a r i a t i o n s i n r a i n  segments  small  are s u f f i c i e n t l y  are l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d .  that  the inter-segment  specific  rate  attenuations  10  n A  I  = a { x  ^ 1 L  x £ *) x L  (1-8)  J  * where, A:  1.2.3  t o t a l path a t t e n u a t i o n  a^:  s p e c i f i c a t t e n u a t i o n f o r a determined average r a i n r a t e (dB/km)  R^:  r a i n r a t e f o r segment i (mm/hr)  £^:  l e n g t h of segment i  L:  t o t a l path l e n g t h (km)  *:  path average  path  rain rate  M u l t i p a t h Fading Under  normal  propagation changes result  path  atmospheric between  transmitter  i n the r e f r a c t i v i t y parallel  receiver, variations  they  conditions  profile  to the main beam add together  propagation  paths  of amplitude  [6,28].  line-of-sight receiver  When these  to t h e i r  phase  and d e l a y  hop  provides  antennas.  additional  known as m u l t i p a t h  i n g t h i s phenomenon can be expressed  If  propagation arrive  fading.  paths can  together  relationship  I  n  0  one  certain  at the  producing  For N m u l t i p l e  the t r a n s f e r f u n c t i o n d e s c r i b -  as f o l l o w s [ 6 ] :  N  H(f) =  - j irf T a e , n n=l  and  occur,  according  i n the r e c e i v e d s i g n a l  a  (1-9)  11  Measurement Techniques and P h y s i c a l Models Investigations nique where the delay  or  quency  used  and  responses number  arrival a  and  Sanberg,  [33].  that  of  fades  while deeper least  mentally  for  multipath  are  where used  the  depends  frequency  strongly  of  from  on  frequency  o c c u r r e d which could not swept measurements  the  order  fades,  of  of  the  20 dB are order  of  is  obtain  the  links'  swept  primarily  two  the  meteorological with  measurements  to  fre-  was that  fade  concluded  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  due  in  time-domain  increases  conducted by M a r t i n  tech-  and time  swept  experiments  fade  radar  amplitude  path  the  a multipath  events Other  the to  results  on  ducting  these  by f o u r  or  [34] concluded  path  propagation  40 dB or more are due to the e x i s t e n c e of  parameters  order  to  physical  and f o r  model which has yet  to  parameters  specialized  can be a p p l i e d  types  have of  been  verified  atmospheric  empirically  experi-  layering  from d i r e c t l y  [35]  measured  to be developed [ 6 ] .  r  P r o p a g a t i o n Outages  characterize  availabilities  Barnett  technique  The c o n c l u s i o n from these  paths  E s t i m a t i o n of M u l t i p a t h  path  p u l s e s are monitored by number,  using  based  a general  In  used a time-domain  three p a t h s .  Models  but  either  transformations  that  no m u l t i p a t h  have  frequency-domain  Fourier  fewer rays  at  of  propagation  conditions  that  multipath  [29,30,31,32].  of  depth.  of  multipath  be e s t i m a t e d ,  [36] to c a l c u l a t e m u l t i p a t h U = a x b x 6.0 x 1 0 ~  7  propagation  a general  in  formula  outage p r o b a b i l i t i e s  x f x D  3  x 10  t _ F / 1 0 ]  a manner which  allows  has been developed by as f o l l o w s : (1-10)  12  where, U:  fade p r o b a b i l i t y below fade margin  a:  path roughness f a c t o r (4 f o r v e r y smooth, 1 f o r average with some roughness and 1/4 f o r very mountainous t e r r a i n . )  b:  f a c t o r to convert worst month p r o b a b i l i t y to annual p r o b a b i l i t y (1/2 f o r hot humid, 1/4 i n l a n d and 1/8 f o r very dry mountainous)  f:  frequency  D:  path l e n g t h  F:  fade margin under normal o p e r a t i o n  for  rough  average  (GHz) (km)  Availability For  propagation  factors  such  as  multipath  the  availability  i s given  by  (1-11) [ 2 ] . A = (1-U) where:  x 100% A  -  (1-11)  Availability  received U - fade  defined  Other  probability  defined  as  oxygen. ation  is  of  time  the  fraction  of  time  the  the  Propagation Factors  minor  frequencies  percentage  useable.  Gaseous A b s o r p t i o n by Water Vapour, Oxygen and A  the  s i g n a l i s useable  r e c e i v e d s i g n a l i s not  1.2.4  as  effect lower  on  than  r a d i o wave 10  GHz  Fog  propagation  i s due  to  the  near  the  a b s o r p t i o n by  This e f f e c t increases with higher frequencies. .007  dB/km at  20°C  f o r oxygen  earth's  absorption  and  surface f o r  water vapour  At 10 GHz  and  the a t t e n u -  .0045 dB/km at  20°C  13  f o r water vapour  a b s o r p t i o n [10].  than one dB f o r an average waves  50 km microwave path.  by the same s c a t t e r i n g  drop  diameters  involved  The a t t e n u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , amounts to l e s s  mechanism  the amount  as r a i n  of  Fog a l s o a t t e n u a t e s m i c r o but due to the much s m a l l e r  attenuation  i s minimal.  Measured  a t t e n u a t i o n s of 1 dB/km at 90 GHz are r e p o r t e d [37] which means f o r an average link  the a t t e n u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s  than  one dB f o r f r e q u e n c i e s lower  than 10 GHz. B r i g h t Band E f f e c t s There  i s increasing  a t t e n u a t i o n i n excess discussed i n d e t a i l  1.3  Improving  equipment  design  reliabilities  system  by a r a i n model.  causes This i s  Design  and t h e r e f o r e both [2].  the e f f e c t s  i n equipment  Improvements  need  to be c o n s i d e r e d i n the  i n p r o p a g a t i o n r e l i a b i l i t y can  of m u l t i p a t h and r a i n  availability  components and redundant  techniques.  band  c a r e f u l path s e l e c t i o n and the use of frequency and space  to minimize  improvements  the b r i g h t  ( a v a i l a b i l i t y ) i s a combined f u n c t i o n of the p r o p a g a t i o n  of a microwave l i n k  diversity  that  of what i s normally p r e d i c t e d  R e l i a b i l i t y i n Path  be achieved through  to suggest  i n s e c t i o n 1.4.  Path r e l i a b i l i t y and  evidence  are accomplished  configurations.  attenuation, while by  using  reliable  F i g u r e 1.2 i l l u s t r a t e s  these .  14  F i g u r e 1.2  For  a  A Microwave System Diagram I l l u s t r a t i n g Space Equipment D i v e r s i t y and Frequency D i v e r s i t y .  typical  non-diversity  frequency and r a i n s t a t i s t i c s path If  fading  further  can be  calculated  propagation  path  of g i v e n  path  fade margin,  the outage p r o b a b i l i t i e s due to r a i n and from equations  reliability  (1-6) and  improvement  the space d i v e r s i t y improvement  factor  (1-10)  i s required  and/or frequency d i v e r s i t y can be used on the l i n k . calculate  distance,  Diversity,  multi-  respectively.  space  diversity  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  used to  i s g i v e n by V i g a n t s  [38] as  follows: I__  = (1.2 x 10~  where,  T-SD  :  s  P  3  a c e  x f x S  2  x 10  [ F / 1  ° )/D  (1-12)  ]  d i v e r s i t y improvement  factor  15  S: v e r t i c a l antenna  s p a c i n g i n meters  D: path l e n g t h i n k i l o m e t e r s F: fade margin a s s o c i a t e d with the second  antenna  f : frequency i n GHz.  Frequency  Diversity  Similarly,  a relation  to c a l c u l a t e  the frequency  diversity  improvement  f a c t o r i s g i v e n by Barnett . [36]: I  F D  = a x [Af/f] x 1 0 IFJJ  where,  :  (1-13)  [ F / 1 0 ]  frequency d i v e r s i t y  a: frequency band  improvement  factor  factor  (3 f o r the 890 - 960 MHz band 1 f o r the 2 1/2 f o r the 1/4 f o r the 1/8 f o r the  GHz band 4 GHz band 6 GHz band 7 & 8 GHz bands  and 1/12 f o r the 12 GHz band) f : frequency (Hz) Af: frequency s p a c i n g (Hz) F: fade margin (dB) 1.4  B r i g h t Band E f f e c t s The  bright  band i s the t r a n s i t i o n  therm where f a l l i n g  snowflakes  melt  r e g i o n immediately  and are t u r n i n g i n t o r a i n .  band p r o p a g a t i o n occurs when a microwave beam passes this region. ing  from  screens.  this  below the 0°C i s o -  through  Thus, b r i g h t -  precipitation i n  I t was named d u r i n g World War I I when h i g h radar r e t u r n s r e s u l t melting  layer  region  caused  a  "bright  band"  on  the radar  16  From suggests  a  propagation  that, during  point  wet  of  snow or  view,  there  sleet  events,  temperate marine c l i m a t e s experience due  to r a i n  a result 0°C  [39,40,41].  I t has  isotherm  attenuation  or is  bright  band.  difficult  and  carried  out  (in  to be  dB)  dicted  Sapporo  there  of  direct been  Oomeri and Japan,  equivalent  taken bright  Recently,  amount of  using band  out  rain.  i n the  radar  Aoyagi  few  of  reported  predicted  through this  excess where  [40] from p r o p a g a t i o n  tests  i n d i c a t e that  Watson  shows  In  sleetfall  attenution  with  proven  accurate  measurements  In t h i s technique then  radar  to  published  the United  methods  of b r i g h t band a t t e n u a t i o n  for  in  the  results,  Kingdom of  exces-  [39].  beacon s i g n a l s to measure d i r e c t  prediction  cites  results.  attenuation  these  snow  similar  pre-  rain  attenuation  attenuation,  have been taken  more  [44,47,48].  the r a i n a t t e n u a t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e d to the base of the b r i g h t  this  value  i s subtracted  amount a t t r i b u t a b l e to bright-band Schlesak  [39], i n h i s survey,  excessive  addition  the  cases  USSR [ A l ] which found  also  [42-47].  by u s i n g s t a l l i t e  together  radar  microwave beams i n  measurement  only  s i v e a t t e n u a t i o n i n the presence of s l e e t or wet  Antar,  which  that the excess a t t e n u a t i o n i s  there are some r e p o r t s i n Canada, Scandanavia and  band and  angle  s c a t t e r i n g upon t r a n s m i s s i o n  have  Hokuriku,  studies carried  Measurements presence  low  evidence  s i x to seven times as l a r g e as the a t t e n u a t i o n that can be  f o r the  propagation  and  and  Accurate  q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s are g i v e n .  increasing  a t t e n u a t i o n i n excess of values  been p o s t u l a t e d  of i n c r e a s e d a b s o r p t i o n  is  and  Olsen  [47]  from the  attenuation.  using  show a c o r r e l a t i o n of i n c r e a s e d  a  total  attenuation  to g i v e  Measurements taken by  dual-channel  polarization  excess a t t e n u a t i o n  an  Hendry  diversity  a s c r i b e d to the melt-  17  i n g l a y e r w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the v e r t i c a l for  a given p r e c i p i t a t i o n  ferred  orientation  as opposed  Nishitsuji  tables  paper  distributions  f o r various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  of Laws and Parson.  snow of which  the l a s t  to be t y p i c a l l y 20%  of snowflakes  passes  [12,13].  through  These  distribution  namely, dry snow, moist  of snow s i m i l a r to  t a b l e s were prepared f o r snow, wet snow and watery  three r e p r e s e n t snow types present i n the b r i g h t  1.3 taken from t h i s  character  i n the m e l t i n g l a y e r  [49] e s t a b l i s h e s a s e t of Nrs d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s of  snow c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s :  Figure  the percentage of p r e -  to model the b r i g h t band has been made i n a s e r i e s of paper by  snowflake-size  it  of the p a r t i c l e s  that  and Matsumoto [49,50,51] u s i n g the Ryde and Ryde approach  Their f i r s t  four  They a l s o found  t o 65% to 85%, f o r r a i n .  An attempt  the  rate.  t h i c k n e s s of the b r i g h t band l a y e r  paper  illustrates  as they would  the b r i g h t  band.  appear  band.  these p r o g r e s s i v e changes i n the on water-blue  In a d d i t i o n ,  paper  Nishitsuji  f o r snow as  and Matsumoto  measured the f a l l i n g v e l o c i t y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o each snowflake diameter and f o r each  snow  classification.  A graph  of these  results  i s presented i n F i g u r e  1.4 taken from [ 4 9 ] . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a t e velocity  ( V r s ) and  (P) can then be r e l a t e d  the r a d i u s  ( r ) to a l l o w r  t o the d e n s i t y  the c a l c u l a t i o n  (Nrs),  fall  of the snow  a t t e n u a t i o n f o r each snow c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as f o l l o w s [ 5 1 ] :  P = 43 The  7 T  ^ r rV  greatest  be due t o watery attenuation  3  N rs rs  (1-14)  a t t e n u a t i o n f o r equal p r e c i p i t a t i o n  r a t e s was then found t o  snow i n the frequency range between 4 and 7 GHz.  relative  to r a i n  of the same p r e c i p i t a t i o n  rate  In terms of  the a t t e n u a t i o n  (3)  (2)  % •  Large  Small  Rain  • •- 0 Watery  large  drop  Small  or watery  snow  # Wet  Wotery  wet  snow  snow  (B)  F i g u r e 1.3  Dry  Snow  snow  (.7)  snow  (6)  Moist  or moist  dry  snow  (5)  (4)  snow  Moist  wet  snow  snow  or  snow  •  (9)  Graupel  The C h a r a c t e r and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Snow as i t passes through the B r i g h t Band as seen on Water-Blue Paper.  10  0  .5  1.0  Radius ol ro in drop and snowfloke {cm)  F i g u r e 1.4  F a l l i n g V e l o c i t y vs. R a d i i Raindrops and Snowflakes  of  20  due  t o watery  kilometer.  snow i n t h i s  Table  1.0 presents  various frequencies  Table  range  was  c a l c u l a t e d to be 15 times i n dB's per  these m u l t i p l i e r ' s  as d e r i v e d from the model f o r wet snow [ 5 1 ] .  1.0  Attenuation  M u l t i p l i e r s Due t o Watery  Frequency (GHz)  fixed  0.2 4.6 15.1 15.0 12.1 7.3 7.0 6.5  are s e v e r a l  precipitation  Snow.  Attenuation M u l t i p l i e r (dB/km)  1 2 4 7 11 24 35 50  There  i n dB's per k i l o m e t e r f o r  supporting  p h y s i c a l reasons why  r a t e f o r watery  the a t t e n u a t i o n  and wet snow i s g r e a t e r  at a  than that due to  r a i n f a l l [50]: a)  f o r a raindrop the g r e a t e r  b)  and watery  snowflake of the same weight  the l a t t e r has  radius;  the r a t e of f a l l  of watery  snow as compared t o a  raindrop  i s smaller  so that the number of snowflakes i n a u n i t volume i s g r e a t e r than that of c)  rain;  snowflakes do not break up d u r i n g t h e i r f a l l since in  the drop  size  spectrum j u s t  shape t o that j u s t below  it  above  [53];  through the  the m e l t i n g  melting  layer  layer i s similar  21  d)  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of r a i n d r o p r a d i i  i s semilogarithmic  while  that of  watery snow i s the sum of the same s e m i l o g a r i t h m due t o a g g r e g a t i o n at the top of the m e l t i n g l a y e r sized since  snowflakes  [52-57], which means there are many l a r g e  i n the b r i g h t band.  the i n c r e a s e i s p r o p o r t i o n a l  snowflake  T h i s g r e a t l y impacts a t t e n u a t i o n  t o the  cube of the diameter  of a  or r a i n d r o p .  P o s s i b l e Impact on Microwave T r a n s m i s s i o n Systems For paths climates  such  the b r i g h t  allowances  band  frequencies  band  appears greater  Excess  and s l a n t  increasingly  8 GHz  a s s o c i a t e d with an earth-space  paths effect  i n temperate  marine  which suggests  type of a t t e n u a t i o n when p r e d i c t i n g  a t t e n u a t i o n as a r e s u l t  t o be than  links  c o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t  should be made f o r t h i s  gation r e l i a b i l i t y . bright  as earth-space  more  are used.  link  that  propa-  of p r o p a g a t i o n through the  important  Examples  t o account  showing  and a s l a n t - p a t h t e r r e s t i a l  the  f o r as  geometries  link  relative  to the b r i g h t band are shown i n F i g u r e 1.5 1.5  Scope of T h e s i s  1.5.1  The Research The  Program  o b j e c t i v e s of the present p r o p a g a t i o n r e s e a r c h program which i s being  c a r r i e d out i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Canadian B r i t i s h Columbia 1)  Telephone  Research  Centre i n Ottawa and the  Company i n Vancouver are as f o l l o w s :  To p r o v i d e the f a c i l i t i e s  to perform  r e s e a r c h i n t o the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  of both analog and d i g i t a l microwave p r o p a g a t i o n . 2)  To s e l e c t  and f u l l y  instrument  a s u i t a b l e p a t h ( s ) f o r the m o n i t o r i n g of  a number of f a c t o r s that a f f e c t microwave p r o p a g a t i o n .  Figure  1.5  R e l a t i v e B r i g h t Geometries Between Slant T e r r e s t i a l and Earth-Space L i n k s  Path  23  3)  To  establish  structure  1.5.2  data  store,  collection retrieve  and  and  analyze  analysis  l a r g e amounts of  between the occurrence  band  and  and  To  be  infra-  data.  multipath  fading  phenomenon  the  performance  of b r i g h t of  certain  into  account  links.  able  to  determine  a  statistical  model which  takes  b r i g h t band a t t e n u a t i o n f a c t o r s  that would enable improved  design f o r both t e r r e s t r i a l and  e a r t h space  availability  paths.  Thesis Objectives The main o b j e c t i v e s of the work i n t h i s t h e s i s may  1)  data  To e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any,  microwave 5)  necessary  to e f f i c i e n t l y  propagation 4)  the  Identification  and  be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s :  measurement of the parameters a f f e c t i n g  bright  band  propagation. 2)  Development lection  and  system  implementation which  can  of a working  t e l e m e t r y based  a c c u r a t e l y measure,  time  correlate  data  col-  and  pre-  process l a r g e amounts of r e c e i v e d s i g n a l and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l d a t a . 3)  Development data  4)  of a data base management system  to s t o r e and  analyze  the  collected.  Analysis effects  of in  the the  data 4  t h e o r e t i c a l model  and  collected 7  GHZ  to  range  determine and  bright-band  provide  a  propagation  comparison  to  the  24  1.5.3  Thesis Outline A  description  Included history  is a  of  path  as w e l l  the  path  profile,  as  selected  a summary  the c a l c u l a t e d  i s the  subject  of the path's  and measured  of  Chapter  previous  system  II.  propagation  performance  charac-  teristics. Chapter  I I I d e a l s with the c r i t e r i a  f o r m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s i t e s e l e c t i o n and  i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the wind d i r e c t i o n , wind speed, temperature transducers  through  and r a i n  which the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l parameters a f f e c t i n g excess  path  a t t e n u a t i o n can be measured. Chapter from  IV d e a l s  received  doing  this  tics,  the  signal  i n real link  with  the data  and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  time.  Included  capacities,  of  a data  systems future tion  presently propagation  of  the t o t a l  band  VI presents  a t 4 and 7 GHz.  system.  described  1982  i n Chapters  and  design f o r statis-  the p r e p r o c e s s e d  time  the d e s i g n and the implementation  This i s discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the c u r r e n t  processing  requirements. and  handling  bright  band  Included system  t o software  system i s an  and  and t o  illustra-  the economics  system. results  One  using  of c o p o l a r  s e t of these  r e c o r d i n g s d u r i n g January-February January-February  and the network  the data  are s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g with the data  r e s e a r c h software data  of c o l l e c t i n g  formats.  i n existence,  associated with using t h i s Chapter  sensors  V d e a l s with the s p e c i f i c a t i o n ,  base management  aspects  the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  s e r i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s Chapter  handling  1980.  a t t e n u a t i o n through  results  has been taken  Another s e t of r e s u l t s  the t e l e m e t r y  based  I I I , IV, and V, are a l s o  the b r i g h t  data  from  taken  collection  presented  i n this  chart during  system  as  chapter.  25  These  results  measured and  represent  a  limited  the nature of b r i g h t  set  to  convey  the  band p r o p a g a t i o n and  c h a r a c t e r of to i l l u s t r a t e  the  data  possible  c o r r e l a t i o n s to m e t e o r o l o g i c a l parameters. Conclusions system  based  on  both  the  chart  recorder  and  the  telemetry  are presented i n Chapter V I I as w e l l as suggestions to f u r t h e r  the measurement system  and  the a n a l y s i s techniques used  i n this  based  develope  thesis.  26  CHAPTER I I THE EXPERIMENT  2.1  Introduction This  chapter  provides  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the path s e l e c t e d ,  the equipment  used and the system fade margin parameters.  2.2  The Path The  path under i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p a r t of the Trans Canada Telephone System  microwave  network  and  is  Vancouver, B.C., Canada. meters  i n length  an  annual  the tion  graphs site  between s i t e  rainfall  (and hence b r i g h t  of the path are a l s o  (Figure  elevations  of 1600 mm/yr. , there  between the t r a n s m i t t e r  profile  100  kilometers  and r e c e i v e r s i t e s .  looking  directly  2.2(a)) and d i r e c t l y  i s a high  band) w i l l e x i s t  are shown i n F i g u r e s  provided  east  of  of 236 m and 1436 m above  Because the path has an e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l  average  0°C isotherm  approximately  I t i s c o a s t a l and mountainous i n n a t u r e , 41.3 k i l o -  and l i e s  mean sea l e v e l .  located  of 1227 m and  p r o b a b i l i t y that  at an i n t e r m e d i a t e  The g e o g r a p h i c a l  eleva-  l a y o u t and  2.0 and 2.1 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Photo-  down the path from the t r a n s m i t t e r  up the path from the r e c e i v e r s i t e  (Figure  2.2(b)).  2.3 Received S i g n a l At  Monitoring  the r e c e i v e r  site,  signal  levels  monitored and sampled a t a r a t e of 10 Hz. obtaining  maximum i n f o r m a t i o n  with respect  from  five  microwave  channels are  These were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t o broadband and narrowband  multi-  F i g u r e 2.0 G e o g r a p h i c a l Layout of the B r i g h t Band P r o p a g a t i o n Experiment.  Figure 2.1  Path P r o f i l e :  Ryder Lake to Dog Mountain.  29  a)  b)  From Transmitter Site:  (Dog Mountain) Looking South indicates location of Receiver Site  From Receiver S i t e : (Ryder Lake) Looking North "+" indicates location of Transmitter S i t e .  Figure 2 . 2  Path Photographs.  30  path  fading, copolar  a t t e n u a t i o n and  cross-polar effects.  Four of the  n e l s are of h o r i z o n t a l p o l a r i z a t i o n and were s e l e c t e d at each end 7 GHz  bands.  The  remaining  channel  i s at 4 GHz  chan-  of the 4 and  and  has  a vertical  polariza-  s e l e c t e d and  the  r a d i o equipment used  tion. Specific  i n f o r m a t i o n on  are g i v e n i n F i g u r e A  sampling  2.3.  rate  c a p a c i t y of the h i g h ceived have  signal  been  a  this  10  tems  block  used  These  in  are  resulting Table signal  propagation and  31.6 The  (AGC)  this  fast  been s e l e c t e d as  link  and  fade  events.  similar  and  sampling  yet  a compromise between  maintaining  rates  link  in British  rate  has  the  data  maintain  the  the i n t e g r i t y of the r e -  Fade  experimental  receiver signal  to  given as  calculate  outage  the  received  7 GHz  signal  level  4 and  to  The be  2.4  signal  in  cases  to w i t h i n 1 dB. i s estimated  the  shown i n F i g u r e s  minutes/year f o r the 7 GHz received  f o r both  probabilities  the 4 and  agree  events  are  experiment  In both  levels  has  of  been  50  to  60  dB/sec  Columbia chosen  [57],  to  avoid  flow w i t h i n the  capa-  link.  annual  2.0.  a  diagrams  used  Hz  information  c i t y of the data The  10  speed data  on  Hz  fade  of  during  observed  Therefore, losing  data  the f r e q u e n c i e s  the  7 GHz and  transmission  resulting  4.4  sys-  2.5 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  levels,  the measured and  transmission  fade  margins  and  c a l c u l a t i o n s of  calculated received  outage p r o b a b i l i t y  minutes/year f o r the  due  4 GHz  to  system  system.  i s monitored  from  the  Automatic  Gain  Control  feedback v o l t a g e which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the magnitude of the incoming  signal.  The  variation  of  the AGC  voltage  versus  r e c e i v e r input s i g n a l  i s g i v e n i n Appendix A f o r the f i v e microwave r e c e i v e r s monitored.  level  31  PARABOLIC  HORN REFLECTOR FROM DOG MOUNTAIN  FROM DOG MOUNTAIN  HORIZONTAL  VERTICAL *  HORIZONTAL  RADIO EQUIPMENT  HORIZONTAL  878 C3 RADIO EQUIPMENT *  - SELECTED RECEIVER CHANNELS  MHz *• <!0!0  MHz  MHz  RA 3  3630  TD 2  3710  TD 2S  3790  TO 2  3870  TO 2S ^  4170  TO 2 J  J  4 GHz  7 GHz FREQUENCY  3550  TO 2S  4090 7496.5 «  7142  PLAN  FREQUENCY  MHz  RA 3  PLAN  F i g u r e 2.3 Frequency S e l e c t i o n Plan and R e c e i v e r Equipment used at Receiver S i t e .  *  *  HORIZONTAL  4 0 / 0  F i g u r e 2.4  M H Z  4 GHz. Microwave T r a n s m i s s i o n Block Diagram  tV/? /37  <S\  0 7/42.  O  F i g u r e 2.5  AfMZ  o  TO  + 3 0  7/42.0  ^SC£/t/£/ZS  ^5, M/-/Z.  7 GHz. Microwave T r a n s m i s s i o n System Block Diagram  34  Table 2.0 Microwave Transmission Calculations  1)  Locations  Dog Mtn.  2) 3) 4) 5)  Latitude ° N Longitude °W Elevation (meters) Antenna Height (meters)  6)  Azimuth (°T)  217.5  217.5  8) Frequency (MHz)  4010 41.3 136.8 1.0  7496.5 41.3 142.3 1.0  49°24'35" 121 33'28 1463m 20m 0  M  9) Path Length (km) 10) Path Attenuation (dB) 11) Misc. Losses (dB) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)  Transmission Line Type Transmission Line Loss Circulator Loss F i l t e r Loss Connector Loss Radome Loss  20) Antenna Gain (dBi)  21) Transmitter Power (dBm) 22) Received Signal Level (18+20+21) 23) Receiver Threshold (dBm) 24) Fade Margin (22-23) 25) Propagation A v a i l a b i l i t y % (Annual)* 26) Annual Outage Estimate  49°06'52" 121°54'07" 235m 20m  Dog Mtn.  Ryder Lake  49°24 35" 121°33'28" 1463m 9m  49°06'52 121°54'07 236m 8m  ,  WR229 0.8 0.6  WR229 0.8 0.6  WR137 1.8 0.8  0.4 1.0  0.4 1.0  0.6 1.0  -  18) Total Loss (dB) 19) Antenna Type  Ryder Lake  -  -143.4 Horn Reflector +39.5  WRI 3 7 3.8 0.8  -  0.6 1.0 -153.7  Horn Reflector +39.5  Parabolic +42.9  Parabolic +42.9  -31.4  +33.0 (-31.0 Measured)  -37.9  +30.0 (-38.5 Measun  -37.1  -68.5 (-37.5 Measured)  31.6  -69.5 (-31.0 Measun  99.9992  99.994  4.4 Min/Year  31.6 Min/Year  *The propagation a v a i l a b i l i t y on l i n e 25 has been calculated using the following formula [2,36,58]: Propagation A v a i l a b i l i t y % =• 1 0 0 [ l - a b ( 6 . 0 x l 0 ~ x f x D x l 0 ~ 7  where  a b f D F  • • » • •  3  Terrian roughness factor (1 « average) Climate Factor (1/4 •» normal temperate) frequency i n Gigahertz distance i n kilometers fade margin i n dB  (  F/10)  )]  35  CHAPTER I I I METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION  3.1  System Design  3.1.1  Measurement  Criteria  In order t o measure the e f f e c t s of copolar band  i t i s important  along  the path,  to be able  to determine  transmitter  of the bright-band  through the band.  sites  of  bright-band  indirectly  by e s t a b l i s h i n g the temperature g r a d i e n t  p r e c i p i t a t i o n rates  gauges  or i n d i r e c t l y  requires several function  3.1.2  ature  synthetic of  the path  directly  storm  windspeed  to determine  wind  is  then  The  determined  through the 0°C i s o t h e r m . through  techniques  and  i s included.  a network of r a i n  [59-62].  direction,  precipitation cell  The  latter  preferably  at  l o c a t i o n s as a  Selection  order  t o meet the measurement  gradient,  weather  using  detected,  between the  of time.  Site In  along  once  can be monitored  the measurement points  region,  and t o  The presence of the b r i g h t  to see i f the 0°C isotherm  thickness  The  region  by e s t a b l i s h i n g the temperature d i f f e r e n t i a l  and r e c e i v e r the  the presence of the 0°C i s o t h e r m  the t h i c k n e s s  measure the p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a t e s band can be detected  to monitor  p r o p a g a t i o n through the b r i g h t  stations  These s i t e s  point have  rainfall been  criteria  rate  selected  of o b t a i n i n g  information between  are shown i n F i g . 3.0 with  and wind  transmitter  t h e i r geographical  detailed  temper-  information,  and r e c e i v e r  five sites.  and f u n c t i o n a l  site  36  DOG MOUNTAIN (V ) TRANSMIT SITE  RECEIVE  SITE  ELEV'  in  256  F i g u r e 3.0  information t i o n s and The at  provided  i n Table  temperature  gradient  Detailed site  p l a n s , equipment  information  is  floor  beneath  allow  the  the  one  obtained  weather s t a t i o n s ( I I and path.  measurement  of  can  be  determined  from the  at the t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e  s u i t a b l e e l e v a t i o n ) and  rate  3.0.  s i t e photographs are a v a i l a b l e f o r each s i t e i n Appendix  beam e l e v a t i o n , w i t h one  (at  Measurement System Layout.  IV)  at the from  s i t u a t e d at  These the  as  well  as  intermediate  intermediate  melted  ( V ) , one  receiver site  these  sites  precipitation  three  The  from  the  sites  rates  C.  sites  located  at mid-path ( I I I )  (I).  are  configura-  point r a i n f a l l two  along  valuable directly  remaining the  valley  since under  they the  Table 3.0  SITE I.  Geographical and F u n c t i o n a l  Coordinates & E l e v a t i o n  Ryder  49 06* 52" N. L a t . 121 54' 07" W.  Lake  Elevation:  II.  III.  Agassiz  236 m  Experimental  Elevation:  Signals  Multiplex's  Hor. P o l  Receiver S i t e  1- 4 GHz. Ver. P o l  Receiver  2- 7 GHz. Hor. P o l  Rain Rate  Meteorological  Temperature  Creek  Meteorological  Mtn.  Long.  Elevation:  1463 m  Intermediate S i t e at Path E l e v a t i o n Rain Rate  Meteorological  Intermediate S i t e on V a l l e y F l o o r  49 24* 35" N. L a t . Long.  Intermediate S i t e  Temperature Meteorological  31 m  121 33' 28" W.  Signals  on V a l l e y F l o o r  945 m  121 36' 45" W. Elevation:  Field  Rain Rate  49 21' 15" N. L a t .  Ruby  Dog.  Long.  Importance  2-4 GHz.  49 18' 25" N. L a t . Elevation:  V.  Long.  Primary  Receiver  15 m  121 41' 30" W.  IV.  Data C o l l e c t e d  49 14' 40" N. L a t . 121 47' 18" W.  Bear Mtn.  Long.  Site Details  Temperature Meteorological  Transmitter S i t e  data  38  path and  during  bright  band  hence warmer s i t e  activity.  elevations.  This Fig.  i s possible  due to t h e i r much  3.1 p r o v i d e s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n  the path showing the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n s of the weather s t a t i o n s i t e s  0  5  10 •  Figure  3.1  15  20  25  30  35  40 41.5  DISTANCE IN KILOMETRES  Path C r o s s - s e c t i o n Showing R e l a t i v e of the Weather S t a t i o n S i t e s .  Locations  lower view of  selected.  39  3.2 3.2.1  Meteorological Measurements Rain The  r a i n gauges used  i n this  thesis are of the tipping-bucket v a r i e t y  capable of measuring point r a i n rates of up to 400mm/hour.  Accurate measure-  ment above t h i s rate i s not important because of the low p r o b a b i l i t y of such events i n the path area [63,64]. The r a i n bucket t i p s a f t e r each 0.318mm of r a i n which generates a pulse by momentarily closing a glass encapsulated reed switch relay.  The pulse thus  generated i s latched using a s i g n a l conditioning c i r c u i t f o r sampling by the microprocessor a f t e r which time the l a t c h i s cleared to await the next bucket tip.  For a detailed  d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i g n a l  conditioning  circuit  with  respect to c i r c u i t schematics, p h y s i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and photograph refer to Appendix E. With  the path  being  located  approximately  100  kilometers  east  of  Vancouver, i t was e s s e n t i a l that the t i p p i n g buckets require low maintenance. For t h i s reason a molded p l a s t i c unit which i s inherently corrosion r e s i s t a n t was acquired.  Appendix D-3 provides a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n and photograph of  this unit. Five r a i n gauges were i n s t a l l e d along the path at each of the weather station sites.  Figure 3.2 and Table 3.1 show the i n t e r - s i t e spacings and the  spacings as a function of t o t a l path length.  40  RYDER LAKE  AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM  . I  1  0.0  F i g u r e 3.2  Table 3.1  average two  bucket  41.25  KILOMETRES  Distances.  -  Agassiz Exp.Farm .43  -  Bear Mtn. .59 .15  -  Ruby Creek .82 .39 .23  Dog Mtn.  1.0 .57 .41 .18  -  r a t e f o r the path i s determined u s i n g a d i s t a n c e weighted  from the r a i n  interval  1  33.71  I n t e r - S i t e D i s t a n c e s as a F u n c t i o n of Path Length  Ryder Lake A g a s s i z Exp. Farm Bear Mountain Ruby Creek Dog Mountain  rain  IN  DOG MOUNTAIN  1  24.20  Weather S t a t i o n I n t e r - S i t e  Ryder Lake  total  RUBY CREEK  1  17.83 DISTANCE  The  BEAR MOUNTAIN  rates  tips  at each of the s i t e s .  The r a i n  at a working gauge i s f i r s t  r a t e between any  determined by e q u a t i o n  3-1. RR ^site  1  =  tJ  -P AT  s  l  z  e n  tip  where Tip S i z e = 0.318mm AT^p  = time i n t e r v a l between two t i p s .  (  ^\  3  _  1  )  41 Then "path averaged  D  D  path  _ ' ,  rain rate"  (RR path) c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e q u a t i o n ( 3 - 2 ) .  (RR  _ , + RR . site 1 site  .) x (% Path) ,„ .. . 2' 'site 1 - site 2 2  (RR  . „ + RR _) x (% Path) . . site 2 site 3 site 1 - site 2 2  H~  • • • •  +  (RR .  ..  k  + RR  n  s i t e N-1 It  i s important  „) x (% Path) , site N  to c a l c u l a t e  this  s i t e N-1 - S i t e N  rain  r a t e w i t h only, those gauges which  are o p e r a t i o n a l and not a f f e c t e d by accumulations of snow. An  attempt  rejecting  rain  the passage 3.2.2  has been  made  to minimize  i n f o r m a t i o n from  of a p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Temperature  gauges  errors  where  due  no a c t i v i t y  factors  i s observed  by  during  event.  Transducer  Temperature t r a n s d u c e r s were placed at a l l the s i t e s s i d e ambient  t o these  temperature.  As a system,  to measure the o u t -  these t r a n s d u c e r s determine  ence of the 0°C isotherm and hence the b r i g h t  the p r e s -  band along the path as w e l l as  i n d i r e c t l y d e t e r m i n i n g the t h i c k n e s s of the b r i g h t band r e g i o n by e s t a b l i s h i n g the temperature Their conductor  g r a d i e n t between t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r s i t e  d e s i g n i s based junction  when  on the l i n e a r  forward  temperature  biased with  coefficient  a constant  t r a n s d u c e r i s c o n d i t i o n e d to p r o v i d e a s w i t c h s e l e c t a b l e per degree bration.  c e n t i g r a d e or per degree Further d e t a i l s  of a semi-  current source.  fahrenheit allowing f o r single point  procedure.  The  output of 0.01 v o l t s  are g i v e n i n Appendix D d e s c r i b i n g  as p r o v i d i n g the c a l i b r a t i o n  elevations.  cali-  the u n i t as w e l l  42  3.2.3  Wind V e l o c i t y and Wind D i r e c t i o n All  propeller and  wind  the  sites,  type  except  Ruby Creek and  anemometer with  direction.  The  propeller-driven  dc  acteristic.  azimuth,  The  Transducer  the  velocity  Bear Mountain, are equipped  purpose  of m o n i t o r i n g  i s d e r i v e d from  generator which e x h i b i t s  the  both  output  wind of  with a velocity  the  unit's  a l i n e a r windspeed-voltage  char-  on the other hand, i s p r o v i d e d by the l i n e a r  output  v o l t a g e which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the angle r e l a t i v e to true n o r t h based  on  the  output of a g e a r - d r i v e n p o t e n t i o m e t e r . The ducers the  wind v e l o c i t y  and  i s r e q u i r e d to be  p r o c e s s i n g of  the  wind  speed  i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from  able to apply  propagation  data  synthetic  storm  3.3  Meteorological-Data The  Creek and  trans-  [59-62] i n  More  detailed  D.  Sampling  b a s i c ac powered weather s i t e s of the A g a s s i z Experimental Farm, Ruby Dog  Mountain are each  equipped  with one  U.B.C. Weatherlog  c e s s o r and one M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g U n i t . u n i t s i s presented i n F i g u r e 3.3. I f o r the weatherlog unit.  techniques  f o r r e s e a r c h purposes.  i n f o r m a t i o n on the anemometer u n i t i s g i v e n i n Appendix  these  p r o c e s s o r and  A photograph  Microproof these  D e t a i l s on these u n i t s i s g i v e n i n Appendix i n Appendix E f o r the s i g n a l  conditioning  43  Figure  The  3.3  Photograph o f the U.B.C. Weatherlog Microprocessor and M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g U n i t .  w e a t h e r l o g has been programmed so t h a t  i t samples t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  v a r i a b l e s o f wind d i r e c t i o n , wind v e l o c i t y , temperature and r a i n f a l l on a onesecond  software-determined  interval.  quency FSK modulated s i g n a l .  the  The output  o f the u n i t  i s a voice  The sampling o f the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  fre-  v a r i a b l e s at  Ryder Lake and Bear Mountain s i t e s f o l l o w the same "weatherlog" system  design,  but use other  microprocessor  configurations  a t these  d i f f e r i n g m o n i t o r i n g requirements and power a v a i l a b i l i t y  sites  due t o  constraints.  In choosing the optimum sampling r a t e , a t r a d e - o f f i s made between l o s i n g information  of f a s t  link capacity unit.  varying  variables, transmitting  and m i n i m i z i n g the d e s i g n  data within  the maximum  complexity of the s i g n a l  conditioning  The compromise reached was to use a 1 Hz sampling r a t e , t o t r a n s m i t the  data at 110 bps and design the conditioning unit t o l a t c h bucket t i p s  until  44  sampled.  T h i s 'is a reasonable  variables  except  retained  and  temperature  the f a s t e s t  little  changes  information  or r a i n f a l l .  compromise  This  the i n f o r m a t i o n  i n wind v e l o c i t y  i s lost leaves  since  i n the most  a growth  data requirements as a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s d u c e r s  f o r a l l the  and wind d i r e c t i o n are important  v a r i a b l e s of  allowances of 1 2 0 % f o r f u t u r e  are needed.  45  CHAPTER IV DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM  4.1  Design C r i t e r i a f o r a Real Time Data A c q u i s i t i o n The  data a c q u i s i t i o n system must be capable  sampled store  meteorological  this  computer. 3.0,  data  a series  Columbia f o r r e a l time The  received  i n a format  To do t h i s  through  and  signal  compatible  of a c q u i r i n g i n r e a l time the  level  be  able t o  f o r p r o c e s s i n g on a g e n e r a l  purpose  the data must be routed from of data  links  System  to a r r i v e  data  and  then  the s i t e s ,  shown i n F i g u r e  at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  correlation.  design of the data a c q u i s i t i o n system comprises  three b a s i c a r e a s : a  I ) The o n - s i t e data  acquisition  I I ) The data c o l l e c t i o n network I I I ) The r e a l - t i m e s t o r a g e , f o r m a t t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n of the data. Figure  4.0  shows  the data  acquisition  three component areas i d e n t i f i e d . tion, and  d e a l s with  the i n t e r f a c e  collection  system b l o c k diagram w i t h  Component area I , the o n - s i t e data  the type of data, the analog to the outgoing i s concerned  data  with  link.  to d i g i t a l Component  minimizing  system  of the  acquisi-  (A/D) sampling area  rates  I I , the d a t a -  cost  and d e l a y  time  under c e r t a i n l i n k - c a p a c i t y , l i n k - f l o w and r o u t i n g c o n t r a i n t s .  Component  area  III,  network,  each  the r e a l - t i m e s t o r a g e , f o r m a t t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n of the d a t a , i s con-  cerned  with  the time  correlation  of the incoming  data  and the p r o c e s s i n g o f  the d a t a i n t o s u i t a b l e time s e r i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s storage  formats.  46  SITE NAME RAIN R A T E  RYOER LAKE  CHANNEL TYPE  RECEIVED SIGNAL L E V E L S ( A G O  SIGNAL L E V E L  MICRO  TEMPERATURE WIND SPEED  l  MICROWAVE PATH  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ( U.B.C.}  CABLE  DATA  — PPO;ESSOR|  METEOROLOGICAL  (yuP)  100 tt>j  CABLE  WIND DIREC.  RYDER DOG MOUNTAIN  RR — -  WS  Z  1  P  H M  MICROWAVE ^  1 M  LAKE VIDEO TERMINAL  WD RR — —  BEAR MOUNTAIN  T  TO  — *  MWTx  VHF  M UBC  AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM  H M  ws-  VOICE  CIRCUIT  M  DATA  woLINK  RUBY CREEK  RR T -  AREA I  P  M  M  - A R E A II  VHF  H M AREA rr  U.B.C. COMPUTING CENTRE  ASEA  Figure 4.0 The Data A c q u i s i t i o n System Block Diagram With Component Areas I d e n t i f i e d .  m  47  4.2  Site Selection  4.2.1  Received S i g n a l S i t e The  signal  Ryder  reconstruct  stream.  This  observed  at  received  second  at  must an  sufficient received  particularly to  50-60 dB  s i g n a l data  samples and signal  to per  transmitted  meet from  on  from  the  received  r e s o l u t i o n to outgoing  data  which have p r e v i o u s l y  been  s i m i l a r paths  must a l s o a l l o w  i n the  easy  region  formatting,  a r a t e which i s equal to or l e s s than the outgoing l i n k maintain  accurately  and  fades  second  the  quantization  levels  fast  o v e r a l l system determined  timing.  sampling  s i g n a l l e v e l s were c o n d i t i o n e d  of the A/D to  up  received  sent  and  tives,  bits  a c q u i s i t i o n equipment, which monitors  the  applies  rates  The  must be city  data  l e v e l s , must provide  accurately  [57].  Lake  the number of outputted system the  data  five  formats.  monitored  To  rate  to +0-5  of  10  Hz  design  was  objec-  chosen,  signal  the range  b i t s were l i m i t e d to e i g h t  r e s u l t i n g data  received  these  v o l t s matching the input  quantization  The  meet  capa-  rate  levels  of  is  600  bits  calculated  per as  follows: (One  - 8 b i t synch byte + f i v e - 8 b i t r e c e i v e r  samples + 1 s t a r t b i t / b y t e + 1 stop all For  more  times 10  information  r e f e r to Appendix E, and  sampling c y c l e s per concerning  the  bit/byte)  second = 600  receiver  bps.  signal conditioning  f o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the Ryder Lake  s i g n a l l e v e l data a c q u i s i t i o n m i c r o p r o c e s s o r r e f e r to Appendix I.  units  received  48  4.2.2  Meteorological Sites The  is  purpose of the data a c q u i s i t i o n equipment at the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s i t e s  to sample the weather v a r i a b l e s  ture  and  outgoing  rainfall  at one  communication  second  of wind d i r e c t i o n , wind v e l o c i t y ,  intervals  channel  into  the  and  send  data  tempera-  these back v i a the  collection  network.  site's  The  data  a c q u i s i t i o n equipment c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y of a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r which c o o r d i n a t e s the sampling provides  a  modem which  (see Appendix I ) , a m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t which full  encodes  data channel The  range,  +0-5  the  data  (see Appendix  outgoing  requirements  data  volt, as  of  start 50 bps. The  are  b i t and  At  110  bps  present,  type  of  radio  from  channel  Experimental these  communications system  Farm  communication  the next  section.  was  the  shift  (see Appendix  keyed  (FSK)  chosen keeping  data  E)  output  and to  a the  sent  for a  f u t u r e data growth one  second  sampling  - 8 b i t s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n byte as w e l l as  block  Dog  diagram  Mountain  ( I I ) and channels  a  c a p a c i t y of 60 bps f o r f u t u r e use. channels  the Bear Mountain from  A/D  stop b i t f o r each of these bytes to g i v e a net data r a t e  T h i s l e a v e s an excess  shown i n the  channels  one  the  a frequency  c y c l e i n c l u d e s f o u r - 8 b i t b y t e s , one one  to  H).  r a t e of  i n mind.  input  of  ( I I I ) and (V),  cable  at  a  used  from  Figure  the  4.0  meteorological  and  i n c l u d e s VHF  Ruby Creek (IV) s i t e s , telephone  Ryder  Lake  circuit (I).  The  from  sites radio  a microwave the  Agassiz  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  i n t o a data c o l l e c t i o n network i s the s u b j e c t of  49  4.3  Data C o l l e c t i o n Network Design  4.3.1  Data From  handle  a second, AGC  section  the  A packet  Statistics 4.2  of r e c e i v e r  signal  r e c e i v e r amplitude  data  packet  wind The  weather  data  s t a r t and  4.3.2  the  data  receiver  and  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data  l e v e l data i s sent from  collection  site  a s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n byte.  data i n c l u d i n g  of m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data,  velocity, net  that  c o n s i s t i n g of 5 samples (the 3550, 3790, 4010,  v o l t a g e s ) , f o l l o w e d by  five  evident  statistically-different  this  the  i t is  station  sites,  temperature  and  on  the s t a r t the  consisting rainfall),  and  of  four  followed  7142.0 and  on  samples  a per  packets.  7496.5  net a r r i v a l  stop b i t s  by  must  I every one-tenth  from  (wind  of GHz  rate for  i s 600  other hand, i s sent  r a t e f o r the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data  stop b i t s i s 50  The  system  bps.  A  each  of  direction,  s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n byte. site  basis  including  bps.  Link C a p a c i t i e s In order  to d e f i n e a network  topology,  the  link  capacities  each of the outgoing communication channels were c o n s i d e r e d . tives  exist  f o r each s i t e  but  the  link  and  and  cost f o r  Several a l t e r n a -  a s s o c i a t e d communications  channel  p r o v i d i n g f o r the best c o s t - c a p a c i t y t r a d e - o f f are as f o l l o w s : i ) Ryder Lake to UBC This  l i n k was  (telephone  restricted  circuit)  to an order-wire  n e l a v a i l a b l e from the telephone corresponds 2400 bps.  type telephone  circuit  company's e x i s t i n g network.  to a c o n d i t i o n e d telephone  circuit  This  chanlink  with a data c a p a c i t y of  50  ii)  Other Telephone C i r c u i t s Other  telephone  Experimental  Farm and  channels  The  telephone  through  1200  circuit  bps  frequency of  Radio Two  circuit  the  Agassiz  ( v i a microwave) to the  the r e g i o n s switched The  Dog  network with a c a p a c i t y  Mountain c i r c u i t channel  and  has  uses the  lower  maximum c a p a c i t y  B-4).  Channels  VHF  r a d i o l i c e n s e s were o b t a i n e d  munication  channels  from  Ruby Creek  These u t i l i z e the v o i c e frequency a maximum l i n k c a p a c i t y of 600 For d e t a i l e d B where t h e i r  Mountain s i t e  a network alarm  (see F i g u r e  o b t a i n e d from  from A g a s s i z i s a d e d i c a t e d u n c o n d i t i o n e d  (see F i g u r e B-5).  p o r t i o n of  300 bps  were e a s i l y  from the Dog  Ryder Lake s i t e .  of  iii)  circuit  pass  to p r o v i d e the remaining and  Bear Mountain  band of the VHF  to  two  Ryder  comLake.  radios providing  bps.  i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l these data l i n k s please r e f e r to Appendix  circuit  schematics,  path p r o f i l e s  and  transmission calculations  are g i v e n .  4.3.3  Node C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Individual  sition  node  o b j e c t i v e to  design  must  coordinate  be  and  c o n s i s t e n t with time  correlate  the  overall  a l l collected  data  acqui-  data.  This  i m p l i e s that no data storage or b u f f e r s at any of the c o l l e c t o r or a c q u i s i t i o n nodes  can  delay  the  arrival  of  data  at  sampled data should be sent immediately  the  storage  node  (UBC)  (as i t i s m o n i t o r e d ) .  and  that  the  51  4.3.4  Implementation of the Network Topology The  straints  final  data a c q u i s i t i o n  of c o s t , c a p a c i t y  tween nodes.  t o p o l o g y was  and a v a i l a b i l i t y  largely  determined  of the communication  The r e s u l t i n g t o p o l o g y i s presented i n F i g u r e  F i g u r e 4.1  4.1.  Data C o l l e c t i o n Network Topology  by  the  con-  channels be-  52  4.4  Real Time Data  4.4.1  Storage  Microprocessor Considerations The  handles  acquisition the  arrives, putting  system data storage m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks  of o r g a n i z i n g the data the  processed  data  of  tagging  into  onto  a  useful  levels ing  by  the  data  s e l e c t i n g o n l y d e s i r a b l e time  data  using  volume  to  hourly  approximately  10%  of  normal o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a 4.5 mately  10 days of system  uses two  selection. incoming  A video monitor  description  of  as  shown  the  UBC  c u s s i o n of the UBC  4.4.2  time  data  series  a  video  intervals  total  as w e l l as  technique incoming  reduces data  given  megabyte data c a s s e t t e w i l l  UBC  has  computer i s i n t e r f a c e d  the  The  monitor.  compress-  that  under  record approxi-  u s i n g RS  232  ports  tasks of p r o c e s s i n g , f o r m a t t i n g and  been added  i n Figure  4.2.  microprocessor  arrives  and  hourly t o t a l  value.  out-  the s t o r e d  so  to a l l o w the r e a l  Refer hardware  to Appendix and  time  to Appendix  data  display  I for a  of  complete  J for a  at  another  UBC  i s s t o r e d i n two  for distribution  data.  b a s i c formats; The  time  i n c l u d e s a l l the a r r i v i n g data whereas the d i s t r i b u t i o n data format cumulative  of  dis-  Formats  which  data  onto  and  as i t  p r o c e s s o r programs.  Data Storage The  the  CPU's to d i s t r i b u t e  data  and  time  output.  To make i t e f f e c t i v e , and  real  and  the volume of data to manageable  This  the  with  storage formats  tape  series  distributions.  data  data  magnetic  T h i s p r o c e s s o r ' s main o b j e c t i v e i s to reduce  the  i s l o c a t e d at UBC  time  of each v a r i a b l e series  data  one  series  for data  provides a  f o r the number of samples taken at a  i s only  s t o r e d when an  event  occurs  and  |INE  63 1] 15 57 51  ws MY  ei ei MI <w 44 44 SA 44  ee  06 •W 55 53 45 <N ee MSZ M> 61 ta 94 61 n.n. Cl 16 81 <n ei  wt.n. C7 02 D7 13  14  C4 05 N 13 14  C5 Cb CJ C5 C4 C8 C4 C4  F i g u r e 4.2  therefore  time  Photograph  series  02 05 02 03 05 02 05 02  05 03 08 05 03 03 Ob 07  13 13 13 13 13  14 14 14 14 14 14 13 14 13 14  13  of Video Terminal D i s p l a y i n g  dumps are random  Incoming  Data  i n nature and vary i n l e n g t h  whereas  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n b u f f e r i s dumped h o u r l y and has a f i x e d l e n g t h of 3890 b y t e s .  The  time  second  series  data  b l o c k s where  i s organized i n t o  one  t r i b u t i o n data i s comprised of 5 types of data (wind d i r e c t i o n , wind  velocity,  each  receiver  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data amplitude.  byte  "bins"  byte  "bins".  for  r a i n f a l l and r e c e i v e r  the time  and  series  amplitude) w i t h 5 double byte and  5 double  byte  distributions  distributions  f o r each  Of these, each m e t e o r o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n has 64 double  each  Each  type  block i s composed  of 12 complete  The d i s -  for  one second  comprised  of 80 b y t e s .  temperature,  each  a queue  receiver  signal  amplitude  bin represents a certain queue  distribution  sampled  value.  has  J.  double  The format  i s g i v e n i n Table J-2 and the format  t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s queue i s p r o v i d e d i n Table J-3 of Appendix  128  used  f o r the d i s -  54  4.5  Allowance The  of  data  present  is bps  data a c q u i s i t i o n  system d e s i g n has l e f t  c a p a c i t y unused as shown i n T a b l e  the c a p a b i l i t y the  f o r Future Data Requirements  of adding  program p r o g r e s s e s . l a r g e l y determined of unused  effective  total  data data  4.0.  a d d i t i o n a l propagation I f the assumption  capacity.  amount  T h i s was intended t o p r o v i d e experiments  to the network as  i s made that the network c a p a c i t y  by the Ryder Lake to UBC l i n k handling  a substantial  This  rates since a s t a t i s t i c a l  then there i s 65% or 1550  i s calculated  based  on u s i n g  data m u l t i p l e x i s used  on the  Ryder Lake t o UBC l i n k .  Table 4.0  Data A c q u i s i t i o n  LINK 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  4.6  Ryder t o UBC Dog to Ryder Ruby t o Ryder Bear to Ryder A g a s s i z t o Ryder  System L i n k C a p a c i t i e s  TOTAL CAPACITY 2400 300 600 600 900  CAPACITY USED bps %  CAPACITY UNUSED bps %  850 50 50 50 50  1550 250 550 550 850  An A l t e r n a t e Data A c q u i s i t i o n System Using Chart Prior  to the implementation  of the automated  system of c h a r t r e c o r d e r s were used  t o monitor  35 17 8 8 6  65 83 92 92 94  Recorders  data  acquisition  system a  two 7 GHz microwave channels at  the r e c e i v e s i t e and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s from f o u r s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d a l o n g the path.  T h i s system produced  sented i n two papers  the f i r s t  p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s which were p r e -  [65,66] and a r e g i v e n i n t h i s t h e s i s i n s e c t i o n 6.1.  55  CHAPTER V DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  5.1  Specifications The  data base management system (DBMS) has been developed  research  to p r o v i d e  computer, logical  an e f f i c i e n t  to handle  means, through  the a n a l y s i s  and p r o p a g a t i o n  data.  and storage  Within  the p o i n t where the 800 b p i , 9-track 840  to the UBC computing  center.  the use of a g e n e r a l purpose of l a r g e volumes  the o v e r a l l  f a r as the b r i g h t - b a n d r e s e a r c h i s concerned,  as part of t h i s  of meteoro-  data h a n d l i n g problem, as  DBMS takes over data h a n d l i n g at  raw data tape i s t r a n s f e r e d from the NOVA This  interface  i s illustrated  i n the data  f o r DBMS, s e v e r a l g e n e r a l  i s s u e s were  system flow c h a r t of F i g u r e 5.0. In  developing  considered. familiarity different minimum  the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  F i r s t , DBMS must be easy to MTS can u t i l i z e  propagation amount  data  of software  it.  series  to use so that a r e s e a r c h e r with Second, DBMS must be f l e x i b i l e  formats  revision  to be handled  to incorporate  T h i r d , DBMS must make maximum use of e x i s t i n g the  74 GHz experiment  system. system  Finally, data  propagation data. In a d d i t i o n tional  [66,70] and the l i b r a r y  DBMS must  records  software  since  use "time"  changes.  packages developed  for  routines' r e s i d e n t on the MTS  a  common  field  of access t o  variable  for  a l l  > t o these g e n e r a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  DBMS must s a t i s f y  requirements: 1.  to allow  and yet r e q u i r e a  the necessary  as the u n i v e r s a l  i t i s inherently  minimal  I t must enter new data onto the system (ENTER),  four func-  f  mt  56 fro'-ofty .co / \ J  V  V  data  *  >  \^  ^  Lit.  *y</Cr  freceiver  (eeoc)  ^  lf  0  J  aarv  Aw,'M^/« flA  fTf***er f<yco7\  fmtt<or*/*g><*J^\  eft mux  ^  PATLOG UBC (eeoo)  DATA  DATA  /.  ACOU/3ITIOA/  SASE  Jo*  DBMS  CA m daM'/A4 TS)  STAT/ST'tCAl  ure 5.0  The B r i g h t  €r GRAPHICAL  A/VALfS'S  Band Experiment Data System Flow Chart  57  2.  I t must  be capable  summarized r e s u l t s 3.  I t must  be able  of l i m i t e d  selection  to extract s p e c i f i e d analysis  data  r e c o r d s from  a detailed  from  the data  (EXTRACT),  I t must a l l o w easy a p p l i c a t i o n of g r a p h i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l sis routines  For  and data  (SCAN),  base f o r independent 4.  perusal  analy-  (PLOT).  description  of the ENTER, the SCAN, the EXTRACT and the  (PLOT) r o u t i n e s , r e f e r to Appendix K.  5.2  Design C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r DBMS R e l a t i v e t o E x i s t i n g and Future In  the d e s i g n  of DBMS, s e v e r a l other  experiments  and data  Systems  base  storage  systems ( i n progress or proposed) were c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to each other as shown  i n Figure  experiments Company proposed  5.1.  At the present  c o n t r i b u t e data  monitoring digital  system  radio  time  the 74 GHz and the b r i g h t  to the UBC data  develops  propagation  base  i t s own data experiment  while  base.  will  band  the B.C. Telephone In the f u t u r e , the  c o n t r i b u t e data  to both  these data bases as w e l l as to the one at the Communications Research  Centre,  Ottawa,  between  the  Ontario.  systems  Therefore,  i n order  i t would  be d e s i r a b l e to t r a n s f e r  t o a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s at one l o c a t i o n  data  t o have access to  d a t a from the o t h e r . There between which  are s e v e r a l  systems,  i s also  under adding  the c o n t r o l to t h i s  as i l l u s t r a t e d  the most  between systems.  methods  which  can be used  i n Figure  universal,  5.1.  to transfer  The most  i s to t r a n s f e r  these  reliable  the raw data  data  method,  cassettes  T h i s method i s d e s i r a b l e s i n c e the data p r o c e s s i n g would be of the r e s e a r c h e r who wants the r e s u l t s .  method's u n i v e r s a l i t y  i s that  Another  reason,  the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d i n g  formats  58  I 74  G H Z  I  R A W  P/ITA  I  1 C R C &AIY  P/OITAL  R4TA  |  ac R A W  TCL DATA  E N T E R S A I N  PPfSEA/TAT/OA/ PP£SE/VrAT/OA/  F i g u r e 5.1  /POL/r/A/fS  DBMS i n R e l a t i o n t o Other Propagation Data Management Systems.  POur/A/ES  59  are the same as other Canadian p r o p a g a t i o n The  most  efficient  method  experiments.  to interface  the two data  bases would  be t o  t r a n s f e r the data on magnetic tapes between computing c e n t e r s and use a b r i d g ing  r o u t i n e t o reformat  number  i s workable p r o v i d e d  of tapes  t o be  i s not e x c e s s i v e .  Data T r a n s f e r and Handling DBMS s t a r t s  data of e i t h e r  i n p u t t i n g data by evoking  time  series  u n l a b e l l e d magnetic  density  the "ENTER" mode.  or d i s t r i b u t i o n  tape,  of 800 b p i i n h a l f  series  one  p r e p r o c e s s i n g scan  scans  are made.  information  word h e x i d e c i m a l format  using The tape  In the l a t t e r  scaling  converted using  factors disc  can then  "FILESAVE"  the f i r s t  rates  and look-up  files  the MTS  rain  case  f o r p r o c e s s i n g from  on the NOVA system at a from  series scan  the c a s s e t t e s .  t a b l e s to p r o v i d e be o u t p u t t e d  scan  plots  temperature Figure time  of windspeed,  temperature,  converts  to a l a b e l l e d  or f u r t h e r  processed  temperature  data  the b u c k e t - t i p the data  the e n g i n e e r i n g  "PLOT" mode t o d i s p l a y the data i n one of s e v e r a l o p t i o n s . series  Once  data two p r e p r o c e s s i n g  processes  and the second  system  T h i s i n p u t s raw  For the d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s  i s made and f o r the time  t o determine  formats  previously transferred  i n p u t t e d the data i s entered on a d i s c f i l e .  the  a large  A System D e s c r i p t i o n of DBMS  5.3.1  an  T h i s method  of b r i d g i n g r o u t i n e s are not r e q u i r e d and the number  transferred  5.3  the d a t a .  units.  6450 b p i d a t a by evoking the  These i n c l u d e time  gradient,  differential  and r e c e i v e r s i g n a l s t r e n g t h . 5.2 g i v e s a b l o c k diagram of the DBMS software  series  data.  At the present  time  system t o process  the r o u t i n e s to process  t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s d a t a have y e t to be implemented.  the d i s -  R DBMS  OPTIONS  3,4 •  1, ENTER 2, PLOT 3, SCAN 4, EXTRACT  ENTER OPTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,  TAPE PERM PERM TEMP TEMP  FILE FILE FILE FILE  PLOT OPTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4,  lRx, RAIN 1 TEMP, lRx lRx, 1 WIND 2Rx  TEMP OPTIONS 1,1 TEMP, l R x 2, dT/dt, l R x 3, T:SITE, lRx 4, dT/dH, l R x  "EAD DATA  1,3  CONVERT  SCALE FACTORS  SELECT VA~IA3LT  PLOTSEE  DATA OUTPuT TO-DAT/.  Rx OPTIONS 1, N. RES, 1 SEC. AVE. 2, HIGH RES. lflO SEC.  OUTPUT  F i g u r e 5.2  User Flowchart t o Process time s e r i e s on the DBMS software system.  data  61  5.3.2  Estimate o f DBMS Data Volumes Size e s t i m a t e s f o r the b r i g h t - b a n d d a t a base a r e of i n t e r e s t .  of  data a c q u i r e d i s determined  series  data.  Assuming  5% of the time estimates foot six  series  are presented  magnetic  tapes  mainly by the event  that  the event  data  i s recorded  i n Table  per year  5.0.  s e t to r e c o r d  i s s e t so that  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g I t i s estimated  i s necessary  6250 b p i 2400 foot magnetic tapes  series  criteria  criteria  to s t o r e  time  on an average,  yearly  data  volume  that two 6250 b p i 2400  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  data and  per year a r e r e q u i r e d to s t o r e the time  data.  Table 5.0  The amount  DBMS Data Volume  Estimates  D i s t r i b u t i o n Volumes ( i n bytes)  Time S e r i e s Volumes (@ 5% i n bytes  3,890/hr. 93,360/day 653,520/wk. 2,800,800/mo. 33,609,600/yr.  14,580/hr. 349,920/day 2,449,440/wk. 10,497.600/mo. 125,971,200/yr.  62  CHAPTER VI' RESULTS  6.0  Introduction Results  were  taken  analyzed  are presented in  early  from  1980  exhibiting  using  opposite  These r e s u l t s are presented were taken Chapters  in early  I I , IV and  1980 V.  two  series  chart  dynamics  of measurements.  recorders i n the  i n s e c t i o n 6.1.  and  from  which  movement  The  second  The  of  first  two  the  series  events  0°C  are  isotherm.  s e r i e s of measurements  uses the remote t e l e m e t r y system as d e s c r i b e d i n  R e s u l t s from  three events  are a n a l y s e d i n s e c t i o n  6.3  showing v a r i o u s aspects of b r i g h t band p r o p a g a t i o n phenomenon.  6.1  Some I n i t i a l R e s u l t s Obtained P r i o r to completion  January number  3, of  Table 6.0 The cal  1980  were  shows two two  events  movement  of  the  i n Table 0°C  recorded from  6.0  isotherm on  recorded  0°C  t u r e r e c o r d i n g s and  using chart recorders.  showing  isotherm.  along with 6.1.  rising  above the path.  system data was  the  presence  of  collected  2, The  Charts  the  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Event  "A",  i n elevation 1980,  of  bright-band  effects.  events.  recorded from  shows the  presence  0°C  received signal  sampling  intervals  on January  below  the  path  while  are  that were  event  shows "B",  i n elevation  band i s v e r i f i e d by  r a i n gauge a c t i v i t y at the t r a n s m i t t e r and  verti-  data  11-12, 1980,  i s o t h e r m descending  of the b r i g h t  from  During t h i s time a  s e l e c t e d show o p p o s i t e dynamics a s s o c i a t e d with the  and  February  1980,  Recordings  s e t s of data taken d u r i n g separate b r i g h t - b a n d  the  shown i n F i g u r e 6.1 used  of the t e l e m e t r y based  to March 30,  events  Using Chart  tempera-  receiver  sites.  F i g u r e 6.0  Recordings of Received S i g n a l at 7 During Bright-Band Propagation a) b)  Event Event  "A" "B"  (January 11-12, 1980) (February 2, 1980)  GHz  Table 6.0  Event & Sample No.  Average Rain Rate (mm/hr)  Preliminary Results Average A t t e n u a t i o n i n dB Excess Meas. Rain* Atten.  "A"  1 2 3 4 5  13.4 9.5 13.4 3.8 13.3  16.6 13.5 20.0 9.0 15.5  4.3 2.3 4.3 1.0 4.3  12.3 11.2 15.7 8.0 11.2  "B"  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  8.1 8.0 17.7 19.1 9.3 7.2 5.5 4.3  2.9 3.8 6.9 10.9 15.0 16.6 17.4 10.4  2.4 2.4 6.2 6.8 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.1  0.5 1.4 0.7 4.1 12.5 14.5 15.8 9.3  *Derived  Table 6.1  u s i n g the Laws and Parson  Bright-Band  Event No.  D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r 0°C  Excess A t t e n u a t i o n R a t i o (EAR) R e s u l t s  Average Rain Attenuation dB/km  Bright-band Attenuation dB/km  Excess A t t e n u a t i o n Ratio (EAR)  "A"  1 2 3 4 5  0.104 0.056 0.104 0.024 0.104  0.851 0.775 1.086 0.553 0.775  8.2 13.9 10.5 23.1 7.5  "B"  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  0.058 0.058 0.150 0.164 0.060 0.051 0.039 0.027  0.036 0.097 0.048 0.291 0.865 1.003 1.093 0.643  0.6* 1.8* 0.3* 1.7* 13.1 19.7 28.0 23.8  *The 0°C isotherm  i s above the t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e f o r these data  points.  65  These that  results  predicted  show  by  a  that  rain  the measured model  and,  a t t e n u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y above  at  this  a t t r i b u t e d t o excess b r i g h t - b a n d a t t e n u a t i o n . presented by Dissanayake  frequency,  could  only  The radar r e f l e c t i v i t y  and McEwan [44] show that  the b r i g h t  be  profiles  band can be ex-  pected to occur f o r approximately 35% of the t o t a l path l e n g t h . In ratio  this  thesis,  of the excess  the excess  a t t e n u a t i o n has  been d e f i n e d i n terms of a  a t t e n u a t i o n i n dB/km a t t r i b u t a b l e  to b r i g h t  band  divided  by the r a i n a t t e n u a t i o n i n dB/km u s i n g the Laws and Parson d i s t r i b u t i o n at 0°C [23],  The  ratio  R a t i o (EAR).  thus  defined w i l l  be r e f e r r e d  to as the Excess A t t e n u a t i o n  The EAR's f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g sampling i n t e r v a l s used i n Table  6.0 have been c a l c u l a t e d and are presented i n Table The excess event  attenuation ratios  "B", both being determined  be e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s .  f o r event  6.1.  "A" are g e n e r a l l y  lower  than f o r  assuming r a i n along the whole path.  In event  T h i s may  "B" the 0°C i s o t h e r m s t a r t e d from above the  t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e w i t h r a i n a t t e n u a t i o n o c c u r r i n g along the whole path.  Since  wet snow or s l e e t would have been f a l l i n g at the t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e d u r i n g event "B", a c o n t r i b u t i o n  to the excess a t t e n u a t i o n may  l a t i o n s on the radome.  a l s o have come from accumu-  Taking these f a c t o r s i n t o account, the EAR's f o r event  "A" would be lower and more i n l i n e w i t h the EAR's found i n event accumulations present  f o r event  appeared  would  at the t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e  the sampling i n t e r v a l s In  "A"  both  events,  have  been  and r a i n was  falling  since  Radome  " d r y " snow  was  at the r e c e i v e r s i t e f o r  selected. rapid  scintillation  on the r e c e i v e d s i g n a l r e c o r d i n g s .  the occurrence  minimal  "A".  of heavy b r i g h t - b a n d f a d i n g  type  fluctuations  of  5  to  10  Hz  These f l u c t u a t i o n s c o i n c i d e d w i t h and were e s t i m a t e d t o be up to 15  66  dB  i n depth.  tive  I t has  multipath  as  a  been suggested result  of  t h a t these f a s t  propagation  through  fades are due the  bright  to  refrac-  band r e g i o n . *  Although  these s p i k e s were present i n the r e c o r d i n g s , the measured a t t e n u a t i o n  in  6.0  Table  present. to  was  on  due  the  a b a s e l i n e assuming that the s p i k e s were not  the cause of these s c i n t i l l a t i o n s i n more d e t a i l ,  bright-band  EAR's with  to radome snow accumulation,  remote t e l e m e t r y was  ment  along  In order to study  determine  errors  averaged  system has  implemented.  been presented  greater  an improved  Remote Telemetry  6.2.1  January  23,  i n Chapters  7:30-11:30  experimental  I I , IV and  to  minimize  design  improved measure-  V and  some p r e l i m i n a r y  Propagation  p.m.  These r e s u l t s were taken a f t e r a major storm f r o n t moved e a s t e r l y the path d u r i n g a p e r i o d of evenly d i s t r i b u t e d i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n u a t i o n . i s evident shown i n F i g u r e 6.1. p o r t i o n of the event  The  Excess  points  shown i n F i g u r e  6.3.  These  predicted temperature  *  Attenuation  range  by  theory  as the 0°C  precipitation  wide spread  from  Ratios  6.2 10.4  [50].  and to The  the 19.8  were  results and  presence  precipitation.  r a t e s were measured f o r the  (EAR's)  are  agree of  r e c o r d i n g s at the t r a n s m i t t e r and  through  i s o t h e r m moves i n t o the path  as shown by the r a i n r a t e and  6.3.  based  6.2.  R e s u l t s Showing B r i g h t Band  1982,  and  A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s  r e s u l t s from t h i s system are g i v e n i n S e c t i o n  6.2  resolution  the  An as  decaying  attenuation plots i n Figure  calculated presented favourably bright  receiver  for  the  sampling  i n Tables to  the  band was  6.2  EAR  and  of  15  verified  by  sites.  P r i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h R.K. Crane at the URSI, Commission F, h e l d at L e n n o x v i l l e , Quebec, May 1980.  Symposium  67  Figure  6.1  The A g a s s i z Temperature and 7.142 GHz S i g n a l s Versus Time  68  Figure  6.2  Agassiz Rain Rate and The 7.496 GHz S i g n a l Level Versus Time  69  Table 6.2  January 23, 1982 R e s u l t s Average  Event & Sample No.  Average A t t e n u a t i o n i n dB  Rain Rate (mm/hr)  Meas.  Rain*  1  4.4  8.8  1.5  4.4  1.5  6.3  3.5 4.4  7.8 7.1 6.9  1.1 1.5  6.0, 5.4  5  1.3  3.0  0.4  0.2  6.3  Bright-Band  Excess A t t e n u a t i o n R a t i o (EAR) R e s u l t s Rain  Bright-band  Event & Sample No.  Attenuation dB/km  Attenuation dB/km  1  0.036  2 3 4 5  0.036 0.027  0.51 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.18  0.036 0.009  *The 0°C isotherm  results  7.3  u s i n g the Laws and Parson D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r 0°C  Average  These  Excess Atten.  2 3 4  *Derived  Table  (7 GHz)  Excess  Attenuation Ratio (EAR) 14.0 12.1 15.4 10.4 19.8  i s above the t r a n s m i t t e r s i t e f o r these data p o i n t s .  show  that  the measured  attenuation  i s considerably  above  t h a t p r e d i c t e d by a r a i n model and a g a i n as i n the chart r e c o r d i n g s c o u l d o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d a t t h i s frequency Although widespread theory.  rain  nature  information of t h i s  t o excess was  event's  taken  bright-band a t only  precipitation  attenuation. one s i t e  the uniform  gives consistent r e s u l t s  and with  70  In 6.0,  this  no  sponded 6.2.2  event  rapid  which  i s similar  scintillation  t o g r a d u a l changes  type  microwave  system  front  link  between  fluctuations  part  were  i n temperature over t h i s  January 23, 1982, 2:00-4:30 The  to the l a t e r  of event  observed.  B i n Figure This  corre-  period.  p.m.  f o r the event  on January  2:00 and 4:30 p.m.  23, 1982, passed  through the  producing fades of up to 30 dB on  the 7 GHz r e c e i v e r s and up to 19 dB on the 4 GHz r e c e i v e r s , as shown i n F i g u r e 6.3.  The b r i g h t band was present along the path as i n d i c a t e d  by the tempera-  ture  recordings  the Ryder  f o r the Dog  Mountain  r e c e i v e r s i t e i n F i g u r e s 6.4 and 6.5 As passage  shown on F i g u r e  expanded of t h i s  i n received view  through  signal  of F i g u r e  site  and  Lake  respectively.  6.5, there appears  of the temperature  tinuities  transmitter  to be a correspondence between the  0°C at Ryder  Lake  site  level  recordings  at 7 GHz.  6.5 around  80 minutes  into  with  Figure  the d i s c o n 6.6 shows an  the event showing  details  correspondence.  Expanded views of the d i f f e r e n t i a l temperature around the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s shows a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e points.  Figure  6.7  fade d i s c o n t i n u i t y  shows  i n the r a t e  the i n c r e a s e  80 minutes  of change of temperature  in differential  temperature  at these f o r the  i n t o the event and F i g u r e 6.8 shows d i s c o n t i n u i -  t i e s e a r l i e r i n the event around 30 minutes. A similar changes that  as  correspondence  i s seen i n the Ryder  i n the 3.550 GHz s i g n a l the  corresponding  0°C  isotherm  rapid  changes  as shown i n F i g u r e  moves  into  and  i n received signal  out  temperature 6.9. of  and the r a p i d  These  the  attenuation.  path  changes there  show are  71  F i g u r e 6.3  The 3.550 GHz and 7.496 GHz S i g n a l L e v e l s Versus Time  PRELIMINARY  BRIGHT-BAND  RESULTS  BASED DN JANUARY 23. 1982 7ELEHETRT DfllA  Figure 6.4  The Dog Mountain Transmitter S i t e Temperature and The 7.496 GHz Receiver Level Versus Time  73  Figure 6.5  The Ryder Lake Receiver S i t e Temperature and The 7.496 GHz S i g n a l Reciever Level Versus Time  PRELIMINARY BRIGHT-BAND RESULTS BASED ON JfiNURRY 23. 1982 TELEMETRf DflTfl  jAPPRox. so MI:TLTES INTO EVENT ^  i-*  2D  J'.D  4^  TIME (MINUTES)  F i g u r e 6.6  ?o  ^  ?T 8 - B  An Expanded View At Approximately 80 Minutes I n t o The Event Showing The 7.496 GHz R e c e i v e r S i g n a l L e v e l Versus Time  75  Figure 6.7  Ryder Lake D i f f e r e n t i a l Temperature and 7.496 GHz Receiver S i g n a l Level Versus Time Showing The D i s c o n t i n u i t y 80 Minutes Into The Event  76  Figure 6.8  The Ryder Lake D i f f e r e n t i a l Temperature and 7.496 GHz Receiver S i g n a l Level Versus Time Showing D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s 30 Minutes Into The Event.  77  Figure  6.9  Ryder-Lake Windspeed, Temperature, and The.3.550 GHz Reciever Signal Level Versus Time  78  Bh a  PRELIMINARY BRIGHT-BAND RESULTS  4-  BASED ON JflNURRT 23. 1982 TELEMETRY DflTfl  K-  5 tun  RYDER ULW WINDSPEED  UJ £L CD  3.550 GHz  11 1 D.Q  3.0  1— 6-0  1 9.0  1  1  12.0  15.0  1 IB.a  1 21.0  1 34. D  T 77.0  TIME (MINUTESI  Figure 6.10 An Expanded View Of The Ryder Lake Windspeed and 3.550 GHz Receiver Signal Level Versus Time Approximately 90 Minutes Into The -Event  1 30.0  79  Figure signal  6.10  versus  shows an expanded view  time  starting  reduction i n received  of the Ryder windspeed  b e f o r e the 90 minute  signal  l e v e l was preceded  and 3.550 GHz  discontinuity.  The sudden  by a sudden drop i n the wind-  speed. Rain  information f o r this  portion  of the event  was not a v a i l a b l e  since  the r a i n buckets were o b s t r u c t e d by i c e . 6.2.3  February 19, 1982, 7:30-9:00 These  results  were  taken  through the path on February i s indicated  a.m.  d u r i n g the e a s t e r l y  19, 1982.  passage  of a storm  front  The presence of the 0°C i s o t h e r m dur-  ing  t h i s event  and  receiver  for  both 4 and 7 GHz and are presented i n Tables 6.4 and 6.5 a c c o r d i n g to the  site  by the temperature  i n F i g u r e 6.11.  Excess  r e c o r d i n g s f o r the t r a n s m i t t e r  A t t e n u a t i o n R a t i o s were  calculated  sample p o i n t s shown i n the r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l and r a i n r a t e p l o t s i n F i g u r e 6.12. These presence rain. for  results  generally  of the b r i g h t  band  show  that  the measured  i s significantly  Although there i s a g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y  this  event  this  at  o n l y one s i t e  it  passed  could be a t t r i b u t e d  g r e a t e r than  Evidence  of  the  that  d u r i n g the due t o pure  i n the Excess A t t e n u a t i o n R a t i o s  t o r a i n r a t e f o r the path being taken  ( A g a s s i z ) and to the t u r b u l e n t  through.  attenuation  turbulent  nature of the storm f r o n t as make-up  of  observed i n the r a p i d f l u c t u a t i o n s of the Ryder Lake temperature  this  event  is  and windspeed  p l o t s shown i n F i g u r e 6.11. Scintillation recordings ceived  like  i n section  signal  levels.  fading  6.1  phenomenon which  a l s o were observed  appeared  i n this  first  event  on the chart  i n the 7.496 r e -  More o b s e r v a t i o n s and a n a l y s i s needs to be undertaken  F i g u r e 6.11  Ryder Lake and Dog Mountain Temperatures, Ryder Lake Windspeed and The 7.496 GHz R e c e i v e r S i g n a l L e v e l Versus Time  81  Figure 6.12  Agassiz Rain Rate, The 7.496 GHz and 4.010 GHz Receiver Signals Versus Time  Table 6.4 Frequency  & Sample No.  February  Average Rain Rate (mm/hr)  19, 1982 Results Average Attenuation i n dB Excess Meas. Rain* Atten.  4.010 1 2 3 4 5 6  0.6 4.0 11.2 9.0 4.0 1.2  0.6 1.6 2.5 2.4 1.0 0.7  .04 .20 .57 .45 .20 .06  0.56 1.40 1.93 1.95 0.80 0.64  1 2 3 4 5 6  0.6 4.0 11.2 9.0 4.0 1.2  1.5 6.0 8.5 6.5 3.0 3.7  0.17 1.36 4.50 3.50 1.36 0.36  1.33 4.64 4.00 3.00 1.64 3.31  7.495  Derived using the Laws and Parson D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r 0°C  Table 6.5 Frequency  &  Sample No.  February  Average Rain Attenuation dB/km  19, 1982 Results  Bright-band Attenuation dB/km  Excess Attenuation Ratio (EAR)  4.010 1 2 3 4 5 6  .00103 .0048 .0137 .0110 .0048 .00145  .044 .097 .134 .135 .056 .044  42.7 20.2 9.8 12.3 11.7 30.3  1 2 3 4 5 6  .0041 .0329 .1110 .0860 .0329 .0088  .092 .321 .277 .208 .114 .229  22.4 9.8 2.5 2.4 3.5 26.0  7.496  82.5  before  definite  determined. spond to  T h i s data  to r a p i d  the  does  plot  transition  of  change at r a t e s  of up  shown  t h e i r paper  on atmospheric  above  0°C  increase  to  would a  in  Figure  changing  particular  which due  suggest,  band  physically  this  cause  of  these  scintillations  however,  that  and  these could r e s u l t  that  along  the  these  rapid  path.  The  to 2°C per second  6.13.  The  fades  be  corre-  i n changes  spikes  at each  feasibility  can  in  the  s i d e of the  of  differential  at these r a t e s i s shown by Thompson et a l . i n  t u r b u l e n c e measurements [71].  event suggest  reduction  the  temperature  that in  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s being c a r r i e d phenomenon.  the  bright  as  the  temperature  In  to  changes i n temperature  thickness  temperature fade  c o n c l u s i o n s as  the  t h i c k n e s s of  temperature out  fluctuations  to f i n d  the  gradient the cause  decrease bright  for  band  these  of t h i s  to  just would  periods.  scintillation  83  Figure 6.13  Ryder Lake D i f f e r e n t i a l Temperature and The 7.496 GHz Receiver Signal Level Versus Time  84  CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS AND  7.1  observations  attenuation  at  magnitudes  being  watery  watery  7  GHz  due  ratios  an  the  with on  ranged  chart  to  Based  snow p r e d i c t s  variance  using  consistent  snow.  attenuation  factors;  7  excess  density  rain  bucket  second, d e v i a t i o n third,  first,  of  the  network the  bright  these  from  recordings  to  28  by  times  Nishitsuji  of  15  which  determining  thickness  of  the  can  rain  be  rates  while at  the  the  Matsumoto  the  7 GHz.  can  excess  with  and  observations,  ( i n dB)  ratio  that  considerable  from those p r e d i c t e d  inaccuracies  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  is  preliminary  attenuation  for  [64,65] showed  band  those p r e d i c t e d  between the measured values  several  and  FUTURE WORK  Conclusions Previous  for  DIRECTIONS FOR  excess  model The  for  large  be a t t r i b u t e d to  a t t r i b u t e d to i n turbulent  b r i g h t band from the  a  low  events,  assumed 400  path averaged p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a t e from  m  that  of a p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a t e averaged s o l e l y w i t h i n the b r i g h t band. The  r e s u l t s , however,  suggested  that  model f o r watery snow was  a p p l i c a b l e and  ment  by  and  that  predicted  theory  would  the  Nishitsuji  therefore most  and  the  Matsumoto  v a r i a t i o n s between measure-  likely  be  a t t r i b u t a b l e to  the  e x p e r i m e n t a l methods used. The  remote-telemetry-based  correlations confirmed previously  between  the  scintillation  observed  p r o p a g a t i o n was  meteorological  with  measurement phenomenon  phenomenon  the  a f f e c t e d by the  chart  and  superimposed  recorders  turbulent  system  and  provided  received on  the  showed  meteorological  accurate  signal broad  that  levels,  band  fade  bright  band  phenomenon d u r i n g  the  85  first  phases of a storm system which became more s t a b l e as  Excess  Attenuation  decaying  phases  of  occurring.  Under  single  bucket  rain  information.  rapid  these  from  conditions  near the  a  single  fluctuations are  to  draw  radio  thesis  with  be  intial  the  of  one  by  0°C  to  further  conclusions  consistent  to  correspond measurements  regarding  a  sufficient  a storm f r o n t the obtain  were  operating)  provided  appeared but  was  the  the  rain results. with and  physical  observations.  the  groundwork  bright-band  8 GHz  scintillations  is  that  digital  the  EAR  band  attenuation  Figure  6.0  a  certain slant deep  to  be  it  bright  propagation  15  at  factor  important  For  fading  As  8 GHz at  [51]  this  shown by  conditions.  impact the  paths.  band  digital  f a c t o r s which  may  Another f a c t o r of  rain conditions  an  8 GHz  become c l e a r e r that  even more important.  making  proposed  also s i g n i f i c a n t l y  significant  under heavy widespread  the  under v a r i o u s  of the r a d i o .  i s expected  bright  hours  on  during  [5,6]  s t a r t s becoming  evaluate  band may  radio  observed  attenuation  several  to  study i t has  bright  e r r o r r a t e performance  concern  for  fading  during  p r e c i p i t a t i o n rates  only  enough  around firm  obtainable  path g e n e r a l l y  not  to i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y  a t t r i b u t e d to the  gation rapid  lays  respect  During t h i s  bit  uniform  influenced  during  temperature  required  the  was  phenomenon  in  of  path was  site  were  D i r e c t i o n s f o r Future Research This  can  theory  (unfortunately  center  mechanisms r e s u l t i n g i n these  7.2  with  a storm where widespread  scintillation  analysis  consistent  However, when the  information The  Ratios  the storm decayed.  example,  the  affect  the  considerable  and  since  frequency the  propa-  i t makes  recordings  a b r i g h t band fade can  design  variable.  rain  in last  Therefore  86  to  derive  digital  maximum b e n e f i t  r a d i o and the b r i g h t  Figure the  from  first  7.0 uses  gives the  the  next  band experiment  two a l t e r n a t e  data  phase i n  link  to  terms  of  improving  the  r e s e a r c h program,  should be run  system b l o c k diagrams  send  the  second o p t i o n uses a WWVB time r e c o r d e r at In  this  present  real each  system,  the  time  the  concurrently. to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s ,  clock  as  data  and  the  site. following  suggestions  can be  made: (a)  The  temperature  provide greater information (b)  (c)  i n the (e)  The  and r a d i a n t  heater  (I)  should  be  made  10 Hz to  should be i n s t a l l e d  camera  should monitor  the  Dog Mountain  accumulations d u r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n  to  retain  at  the Dog  transmit  antenna  events.  system should be developed to e l i m i n a t e  rain  code  Lake  site.  A time-lapse  A heating  Ryder  variations.  anemometer  radomes f o r (d)  at  r e s o l u t i o n around 0°C and be sampled at  on i t s  A sturdier Mountain  measurements  accumulations of snow  buckets. for  the  SCAN  and  EXTRACT  features  of  DBMS  needs  to  be  implemented. (f)  A graphical  routine  could be developed to p l o t  temperature  contours on  a path c r o s s s e c t i o n . (g)  A statistical  routine  fade p r o b a b i l i t i e s Long  term  should i n c l u d e :  objectives  needs  to  be  incorporated  from the d i s t r i b u t i o n in  the  area  of  series  bright  in  DBMS to  determine  data.  band  propagation  research  87  A detailed  evaluation  with respect tem  to bright  of other  slant  band e f f e c t s  paths  such  as earth-space  and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t  links  on s y s -  availability.  The N i s h i t s u j i  and Matsumoto models d e s c r i b i n g snow a t t e n u a t i o n by snow  classification  should be extended  should its  determine  a t t e n u a t i o n f o r the b r i g h t  characteristic  and  then  t o the b r i g h t  snow p r o f i l e  calculating  i n terms  the a t t e n u a t i o n  band.  band by f i r s t  as  a  function  (or b r i g h t band t h i c k n e s s ) and p r e c i p i t a t i o n  A  needs  which  to be developed  establishing  of moist, wet and watery  gradient model  This extension  t o account  of  temperature  rate.  f o r the s c i n t i l l a t i o n  corresponded t o r a p i d changes i n temperature.  snow  type  88  (5  PATA  &4/VP  P/G/T/ll  &4PJO SIGNALS  PAT*  ty/?oc£Ssoe.\  P/OfTAL  \T/M£  S/e/Grr~r  # • •  UBC M/C&O-  Bs4/VP P/G / Ts4L J&fP/O  M/CXO •  Y'/eocf-ssoK  WKJI/B  r/MS /&4P/0  Py4T>*  /eyptzy^  F i g u r e 7.0  Proposed System C o n f i g u r a t i o n s to Incorporate the D i g i t a l Radio M o n i t o r i n g System  89  APPENDIX A AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC) CALIBRATIONS  To  obtain accurate  must be a c c u r a t e l y level  calibrated.  of the c o r r e c t  monitoring monitored  r e c e i v e d s i g n a l l e v e l values  frequency  the AGC v o l t a g e at  the output  of  the  look  i s achieved  i n t o the input  output.  In t h i s  the r e c e i v e r  Appendix E) and p l o t t e d a g a i n s t AGC curves  This  tables  and  signal  the AGC v o l t a g e s were  conditioning  These curves  i n t e r p o l a t i o n routines  i n the data  V and Appendix K.  The r e c e i v e r f r e q u e n c i e s ,  Receiver Frequency (MHz)  base management  used  as  part  (see  the  entry  i n Chapter  p o l a r i z a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d AGC  Receiver Frequencies P o l a r i z a t i o n s and A s s o c i a t e d AGC Curves  Polarization V = Vertical H = Horizontal  of  system as d e s c r i b e d  Associated AGC Curve by F i g u r e #  3550  H  A-l  3790  H  A-2  4010  V H  A-4  H  A-5  7142.0 7496.5  circuit  then form the b a s i s f o r  used i n t h i s experiment are g i v e n i n Table A - l .  TABLE A - l  a known s i g n a l  of the microwave r e c e i v e r and  experiment  procedure software  curves  by i n s e r t i n g  voltage  the r e c e i v e r input s i g n a l l e v e l t o produce the  shown i n F i g u r e s A - l t o A-5. up  the AGC feedback  A-3  FIGURE 3550 MHZ  RECEIVER  A - I AGC  CALIBRATION  RECEIVER  INPUT  LEVEL  dBm  RECEIVER  INPUT  LEVEL  dBm  95  APPENDIX B DETAILS OF THE  Figure B - l gives for  the  UBC  DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM LAYOUT  a 1:250,000 t o p o g r a p h i c a l map  microwave  propagation  experiment  a s s o c i a t e d data l i n k s .  These i n c l u d e the Dog  path,  speed data l i n k to UBC  the outgoing  mediate s i t e s A  more  B-7.  Figures  paper f o r the to  Ryder  calculations [11,67] and entry from  VHF  Dog  and  Mountain  these  two  Ryder  Ryder Lake to UBC  tration  of  processors  the and  data  associated  and  the e n d - l i n k s  the A g a s s i z  links  using  sites  to the  in  and  techniques  the  B-4  232  and  Agassiz  on  4/3  VHF  i s shown i n F i g u r e B-6  to  earth  from Ruby  transmission by  Bullington  B-5  levels,  f o r the  Experimental  and  Farm. B-2  l a y o u t s , showing  Finally, a detailed circuit link  the  developed  circuit  i n Figures from  and  inter-  Figure  profiles  B - l presents  Detailed  layout  Experimental  i s given  d e t a i l e d path  Table  provided  Lake  RS  a l l the  from Bear Mountain to Ryder Lake and  paths  r o u t i n g , are to  provide  a l . [68].  Ryder Lake, r e s p e c t i v e l y . the  B-3  respectively.  Okumura et  points  and  radio links  Lake,  for  B-2  a l l these  including  system  Mountain to Ryder Lake microwave  of Ruby Creek, Bear Mountain and  detailed description for  Figure  Creek  high  showing the  links  Farm  to  r o u t i n g diagram f o r  and  a detailed  i n t e r f a c e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s between the  the s t a t i s t i c a l m u l t i p l e x u n i t s i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e  B-7.  illusmicro-  96  TABLE B - l  1)  VHF Radio Path T r a n s m i s s i o n C a l c u l a t i o n s  Bear Mountain  Locations Latitude  °N  Longitude °W  49°18'25" 121°41'30"  E l e v a t i o n (Meters) Antenna  945  Height (Meters)  DOC C a l l Sign  7  Frequency (MHz) Path Length (km) Path A t t e n u a t i o n (dB) Shadow Loss (dB) T r a n s m i s s i o n Line Type L i n e Loss (dB) Connector Loss (dB) M i s c . Loss (dB)  ,  1  49°21'15" 121°36'45" 31 10  49 06 52• 121 54'07" 236 15 o  VGK 928  VGK 926  160.11 26.1 -104.7 0.0  151.79 33.7 -102.4 26.0 RG 58 -2.5 -3.5 -0.5  RG 58 -5.0 -1.0 -0.5  -113.7 9.0  ,  o  212°T  RG 58 -2.5 -3.5 -0.5 -141.4  +11.0  T r a n s m i t t e r Power (dBw) -5.2 Received S i g n a l L e v e l (dBw) -98.9 (16+17+18) T h r e s h o l d @ 12 dB SINAD (dBw) -149.0 Fade Margin (dB) SINAD (dBw) A v a i l a b i l i t y % Annual [67,68,69]  ,  Lake  218°T  -1.0 -1.0 -0.5  Gain (dBd)  o  VGK 928  RG 58  T o t a l Losses (dB)  o  Ryder  Ruby Creek  49 06 52• 121 54 07 236 15  VGK 927  Azimuth (°T)  Antenna  Ryder Lake  50.1 99.9998  +11.0  +9.0 +  4.8  116.6 -149.0 32.4 99.989  97  FIGURE  l_jf  >-Cultus Lake  /y?™^^p.rk\  49°00-, ~ 122°00'  i  Chitttark Iwtr  I ' - i ^ r ^ . ^ »A  B-l  PATH SYSTEM LAYOUT FOR UBC MICROWAVE PROPAGATION EXPERIMENT PROVINCIAL • :» FOREST^°° _ i 72  nl  N1TED STATES OF AMERICA  •  650 600  F i g u r e B-2  Path P r o f i l e :  Ruby Creek to Ryder Lake  DISTANCE  F i g u r e B-3  Path P r o f i l e :  IN KILOMETERS  Bear Mountain t o Ryder Lake  99  DOG  DOG MOUNTAIN MICROPROCESSOR  MOUNTAIN  34A GROUP SHELF  V.f.  DATA OUTPUT 2.0V P - P  RYDER  LEVEL - l6dB  LAKE  BNC  3 4A GRP. SH.  V.f. DATA INPUT 16V P - P  RYDER LAKE MODEM BOX  U B C D A T A ON G R O U P N9 2 CHANNEL N 5 OF S I G A L A R M SYSTEM s  F i g u r e B-4  C i r c u i t Layout from Dog Mountain to Ryder Lake  a  AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM MICRO PROCESSOR  F i g u r e B-5  <  Ml a IE  BNC  BNC Z  CUSTOMER  0 >> TV.f. "  INTERFACE  v.f. DATA OUTPUT 10V P - P  RYDER LAKE MODEM BOX  J  EXCHANGE  ROUTING  DATA INPUT 8 V P-P  C i r c u i t Layout from the A g a s s i z E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm t o Ryder Lake  RYDER  9 C  LAKE  TEL  RYDER  R52J2  LAKE  •*1  D T I  INTERFACES  M  W  rVANCOUVER RYDER  o  OATA CHANNELS FROM  UBC  TELEMETRY  IYHCHRONOUI  <  MUX  )  4112  tOI C MOMM  LOOP  «  A  LAKE  BROUP  t  CHANNEL  C X  I  R  D R O U P t  UNIT  SYSTEM  '  U C I  14  C H A N N E L t  PAP 4 It «•  C.I • iHen  I—I  r UBC ELECTRICAL BUILOINS ROOM  CUTU  ENOINEERINB 44B  WK III  uec R S E » INTERFACES  PN4I00II  L.  4111 LOOT  201  BACK  C  MODEM  UNIT  SYNCHRONOUS  TO  MU>  DATA  UBC  OAYA  LOG  COLLECTION  MICROPROCESSOR  <1>. (•«•• •Ma  1  II... »•«•  I  •** I {-•)  w  t CNAMMIl.  VANCOUVER RYDER 34 A  LAKE CROUP  2  CHANNEL  t  SCHEMATIC FOR THE RYDER LAKE TO UBC DATA CIRCUIT  O  101  RYDER LAKE <— PIN  PIN  — • U.B.C.  PIN DESIGNATIONS  PIN  PIN  n  RS 232  I  I  Rx  2  2  Tx  3  3  4  4  5  5  6  6  7  7  6  8  20  20  22  22  25  25 DATA COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (DCE)  DATA TERMINAL EQUIPMENT (DTE)  RYDER MICROPROCESSOR OR MODEM BOX  F i g u r e B-7  RYDER SUPER MUX 480  DCE  UB.C. SUPER MUX 480  DTE  U.B.C. DATA LOG MICROPROCESSOR  The RS232C I n t e r f a c e f o r the Ryder Lake to UBC Data C i r c u i t  102  APPENDIX C EQUIPMENT AND  C-l  SITE LAYOUTS  Ryder Lake T h i s s i t e i s the d a t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n node where a l l the e x p e r i m e n t a l  data  are  circuit  collected  before  being  f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o the  s t a t i s t i c a l l y multiplexed University  d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system serves two signal second,  level  data  to monitor  variables  at  the  from  five  the wind site.  of B r i t i s h  main purposes:  selected  4  and  7  speed, wind d i r e c t i o n ,  Figure C - l  F i g u r e C-3  Ryder Lake S i t e  telephone  The o n - s i t e  to c o l l e c t received  microwave temperature  F i g u r e C - l i s a photograph o f  shows the equipment c o n f i g u r a t i o n and  a  Columbia.  first, GHz  onto  field  the  illustrates  Photograph  channels and  site,  and,  r a i n rate Figure  C-2  the s i t e l a y o u t .  ANEMOMETER  imp omecriwi HAJN  KETtOlltV  tUCKET  ymo COMCMTIOMIM I  i m p  • IKO DIHCCT.  U.B.C.  T TI4I M » i  MMi » « C M N l . AtC -  •ISO  MMl. * « C •  »»ov  CATALOG  DC  •ana  MICRO PROCESSOR  OC POWER SUPPLY  "TIT"  (6800) RYDER  TII.HK7.tH0.  no VAC  _L_  LAKE  I T S O MMl. M C 4 0 1 0 MMl. A » C " • TO UB.C VIA J4A  fc=d  OROUP t CHANNEL t (SEE FIOO-OI  U B C M O D E M UNIT  RYDER  LAKE  73 • C - l NC—U NC  *  RSIS2 INTERFACE TO 0 0 0 MOUNTAIN 4 VIA 37A OROUP t CHANNEL 9 ( S E E FIO 0 - 4 ) TO A G A S S I ! EXPERIMENTAL FARM ( S E E FIO 8-51  9 R L 816 f U l ANTENNA MIN' DO A M  ( S E E FIO » - 7 )  4  vttr RADIO HCCCIVI*  OC POWER SUPPLY  ninr •Ptirrta  RYDER LAKE SITE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION  IHCCIIVIII FIGURE  C -  2  MAR.  12,110!  1  VHF RECEIVE ANTENNA  ANEMOMETER  OC POWER SUPPLY FOR VHF RADIOS  BEAR MTN. V H F RECEIVER  RUBY C R E E K V H F RECEIVER  w.l c. n f l i I O I •tola L U I o  w.ac. ITICI  BAT4 L U I  LM O  -METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONING UNIT  M»u  TELEPHONE CIRCUIT  mix 4 1 0  mm*  > ASYNCRONOUS MULTIPLEXER  uui  4«o - SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER  201C MODEM 4112 LOOPBACK MODULE  FRONT VIEW OF THE UBC EQUIPMENT BAY AT RYDER LAKE  PLAN VIEW OF THE RYDER LAKE SITE  RYDER LAKE SITE LAYOUT  FIGURE  C- S  MAR  12,196?.  o  105  C-2  Dog Mountain The  Dog  Mountain  site  which  i s the t r a n s m i t t e r  site  and the  northern  terminus o f the microwave l i n k under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , has an e l e v a t i o n o f 1463r. A weather s t a t i o n l o c a t e d there senses m e t e o r o l o g i c a l back  t o Vancouver  Ryder Lake s i t e .  via a  spare  data  i n f o r m a t i o n and sends I t  channel on t h e 51G alarm  system t o the  A t Ryder Lake t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y  f o r r e t r a n s m i s s i o n t o UBC.  multiplexed  Access to the s i t e i s by c a b l e c a r as shown i n the  s i t e photograph, F i g u r e C-4a.  F i g u r e C-4a  The  equipment  configuration  Dog Mountain S i t e Photograph  i s given  i n Figure  ( r e l e v a n t t o t h i s work) i s shown i n F i g u r e C-6.  C-5  and a  site  layout  106  This  site  destruction To  prevent  experiences  icing  of the experiment's i n i t i a l this  d e s t r u c t i v e i c e build-up  a r a d i a n t h e a t e r be i n s t a l l e d processor  severe  could  be  used  t u r n i n g i t on o n l y d u r i n g  F i g u r e C-4b  conditions  which  caused  anemometer, as shown i n F i g u r e i n the f u t u r e  the h e a t e r  during  a -5°C t o +3°C temperature  the C-4b.  i t i s recommended  d i r e c t e d a t the anemometer*.  to c o n t r o l  have  that  The weather m i c r o -  icing  conditions  range.  A Photograph Showing Damage t o the Anemometer Caused by Severe I c i n g C o n d i t i o n s a t Dog Mountain  by  ANEMOMETER  UBC.  WEATHERLOO 34 A  KfTtOM-  LMICAi. IJtUl  HPO PIPICTIOW »'»»  MICRO PROCESSOR (BOSS)  • » » DOS  r  VF. DATA OUTPUT I V p-p  IjooJ  tiit PAD  • WAT «PO WU MIO0I  OROUP I CHANNELS  0  n o  TO U.B.C. V I A RYDER L A K E  NE  N 910 ?CHANNEL LARM  MOUNTAIN  UE C-t  FlOt  00 •-•  110 VAC  1  OC POWER BUPPLV  TO II t A I M N tTPTIM  PROPOSED CAMERA CONTROL  PROPOSEO HEATER CONTROL  DOG MOUNTAIN SITE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION •'• ISSUE I FIGURE  C - S  F E B . 26,1981  TO 3 4 * CHANNEL (ONI CHS)  PROM METEOROLOOICAL SENSORS  r  \  » U «e«TNU L M DO# MOUNTAIN  use. EQUIPMENT BAY  V/// TEMPERATURE P R 0 6 E OC POWER SUPPLY -METEOROLOOICAL INTERFACE UNIT  B C TEL EOUIPMENT  BATTERY  AREA  C A B L E FROM METEOROLOOICAL SENSORS  -ANEMOMETER  PLAN VIEW OF THE DOG MOUNTAIN SITE / / / / / / / ; /  / /"/  /  FRONT VIEW OF THE UBC EOUIPMENT BAY AT DOG MOUNTAIN  DOG MOUNTAIN SITE LAYOUT FIGURE  C-8  F E B . 28,1981  o 00  l 9 n  C-3  Agassiz Experimental Farm This site has an elevation of 15m, is 17.8 kilometers from the Ryder Lake  receive end and i s 200 meters off beam-center.  Its primary purpose i s to  collect meteorological data with particular emphasis on the measurement of rainfall.  This site  i s co-located with  the experimental  farm's weather  station which provides a source of valuable back-up data, as well as gives information on other variables such as pressure and humidity which are not monitored  i n this experiment.  Being situated  610m  below beam elevation,  melted precipitation rates can be measured using a tipping bucket rain gauge even though the freezing level may be at or below path elevation.  The data  thus collected are sent to Ryder Lake via a telephone circuit and from there on to UBC, using the statistical multiplex.  Refer to Figure C-7 for a site  photograph, Figure C-8 for the equipment configuration and Figure C-9 for the site layout.  Figure C-7  Agassiz Experimental Farm Site Photograph  8—r-<3 ANEMOMETER  BNC  U.at WEATHERLOQ BNC WHO  OmiCTIM  MICRO PROCESSOR (8085)  W'WD i m p AOASSII SITE  EXPERIMENTAL  vr  =13  • C TtL CUITOIttA IMUNrtCI  POC— VIA  T O U.B.C.  RYDER L A K E IMS n « * e-i A  DATA OUTPUT lOVp-p  TEMPERATURE  IIO VAC _  J  POWER SUPPLY  AGASSIZ  EXPERIMENTAL FARM  SITE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION  FIGURE  C-8  hO  1  _1 y WALL  /  j- B C T C U P H O N f OUTLET  T*»LI ro* THfl lUIIII •lr>CHII1II1T«L MM HITCOItOLOflCAL (MTKUM UTI  I  U.i.C •TIATHItLM  m i n i o I 1 H I M H 1 I L WMMO 0  HETEOBOLOOICAL SIGNAL CONDITIONING UNIT  FRONT VIEW OF THE UBC EOUIPMENT AT THE AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM  PLAN VIEW OF THE AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM SITE  AGASSIZ EXPERIMENTAL FARM SITE LAYOUT FIGURE C - 9  F E B . 2S.I9SI  112  C-4  Ruby Creek The Ruby Creek Site has an elevation of 31m, Is 300m o f f beam-center and  33.9 kilometers from the Ryder Lake receive end. a tower and a shelter.  The s i t e provides f o r power,  I t also l i e s 1158m below beam e l e v a t i o n , making i t  well suited f o r use as an intermediate weather s t a t i o n f o r monitoring melted p r e c i p i t a t i o n rates. link  The sampled data are sent to Ryder Lake v i a a VHF radio  and from there i t i s assigned  a data multiplex channel to complete the  routing to UBC. For  detailed information, refer  Figure C - l l f o r the s i t e ' s equipment  to Figure  C-10 f o r a s i t e photograph,  configuration and Figure C-12 f o r the  s i t e layout.  Figure C-10  Ruby Creek Site Photograph  191.76 M H i G A I N 9.0 4 B * 2I7.4*T  -o TO UBC VIA  POWER SUPPLY  RYDER  (SEE Ct  NO CONNECTION TO ANEMOMETER  T i f f IN* RAIN tUCXET  •»—  U3.C.  L A K E  rio'i  •  M l  WEATHERLOG  . RAN I CLEAR IL tETR EO RLOMICRO PROCESSOR IAA •O Q IRC L ^HC W (SOBS) H IO Ol RECTI ON M C ^ j CONDTIO IN* ! . NC VN I O •Mtft NC, UNT I RUBY CREEK  VHF RADIO TRANSMITTER  torn  <  TO  R M C  TEMPERATURE ~ It  IIOVAC  I OC POWER SUPPLY  RUBY CREEK SITE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION  «0I> IIKN  DC POWER S U P P L Y FOR V H F RADIO U K  WCATHCRLOO  FRONT VIEW OF THE UBC EQUIPMENT AT THE RUBY CREEK INSTALLATION  PLAN VIEW OF THE RUBY CREEK SITE  RUBY CREEK SITE LAYOUT ISSUE  f  115  C-5 Bear Mountain The Bear Mountain site is located at beam elevation on a mountaintop near mid-path.  It has a site elevation of 945m and i s situated 26.3km from Ryder  Lake and 3km to the northwest side of the microwave beam. The Bear Mountain site i s important for investigating the bright band region since i t allows an Intermediate temperature point to be monitored thus enabling a more accurate temperature gradient profile to be established allowing a more accurate determination  of the bright-band  thickness.  In the f i n a l  site selection, special consideration has been given to finding a sheltered  Figure C-l3 Bear Mountain S i t e Photograph  116  location  that  effects.  A photograph of the s i t e i s i l l u s t r a t e d  The system The  would  minimize  weather data w i l l  be monitored  and t r a n s m i t t e d t o UBC  equipment  misleading  readings  to  local  system  convection  i n F i g u r e C-13.  by a battery-powered  v i a a 0.3 Watt  configuration f o r this  due  VHF  data  radio link  acquisition  t o Ryder  Lake.  i s shown i n F i g u r e C-14 and the  s i t e l a y o u t i n F i g u r e C-15.  C-6  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h The  University  the E l e c t r i c a l lected. coded tape. using  of B r i t i s h  which  the sampling  arrive time  F a c i l i t i e s are provided the v i d e o  Columbia  Engineering b u i l d i n g  The data  with  Columbia Recording  Terminus  (UBC) s i t e  i s l o c a t e d i n Room 448 of  and i s the terminus  v i a a telephone  and condensed f o r the r e a l  t e r m i n a l and the c h a r t  circuit,  f o r storage time  f o r a l l the data  col-  are d e m u l t i p l e x e d ,  on magnetic c a s s e t t e  viewing of the incoming  r e c o r d e r t o g e t h e r with  data  the d i g i t a l to  analog c o n v e r t o r . A photograph of the UBC terminus  i s shown i n F i g u r e C-16.  c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e C-17 and the s i t e  The equipment  l a y o u t i n F i g u r e C-18.  0 \) u  rt  •am  tl  (00 MH] 0AINSOI tH.6«T  ;  TO U.B.C  •y  RYDER LJ  CIIH  BNC  U.B.C. REMOTE WEATHERLOG  MICRO PROCESSOR (1802)  BEAR MOUNTAIN  JUL.  DC POWER SUPPLY (BATTERY! CAUSTIC P O T A S H 1000 A-MR CAPACITY  BEAR MOUNTAIN SITE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION • ' FIGURE C - 1 4  ISSUE MAR  I  IC.ISS2  SIDE VIEW OF EQUIPMENT TREE  PLAN VIEW OF THE BEAR MOUNTAIN SITE FIGURE  C-15  •MR.  12.198 J  00  119  F i g u r e C-16  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia  Site  Photograph  FROM AND  RYDCR L A W OTHER  METEOROLOOICAL SITES  _  MAONETIC TAPE  ,  300C*  RECORDER  I M l Flit ••I, C - l , O - l , c - i , c-uae-tll  • D/A  CONVERTOR  CHART  IBM 3010 COMPUTER VIDEO TERMINAL  RECORDER  i  f  K  ~  >  M  DC POWER SUPPLY  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA EOUIPMENT CONFIGURATION FIGURE  C-17  M A R . 12,1982  WINDOW  ^  WALLS]  I POWER  IBM 3101 VIOCO TERMINAL  OA  /lP N » I OATA a FORMATTER.  M l  IBM  STNC  VIDEO  MU>  MICRO PROCESSOR RACK  9101  CONVERTOR j^j  TERMINAL  r  t  P  t  RECORDER  m  c  m  STRIP  .  PROCESSORi  M ^ D E 'M  OATA  SUPER  MUX  480  SUPER  MUX  480  PROCESSOR  CHART RECORDER  S U P E R MUX  ROOM 4 4 8  \ \  \  \  HECTOR  MCCLOUO  4*0  BUILDING  \  FRONT VIEW OF THE UBC EQUIPMENT TABLE  PLAN VIEW OF THE UBC SITE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SITE LAYOUT FIGURE  C -  18  MAR.  .It, 1 9 8 2  122  APPENDIX D METEOROLOGICAL TRANSDUCERS  D-l  The Anemometer The anemometers used a r e of the p r o p e l l e r - v a n e v a r i e t y c a p a b l e o f measur-  ing  both wind  speed  and wind  direction.  A photograph  o f an anemometer i s  shown i n F i g u r e D - l .  Figure D-l  A Photograph of t h e Anemometer  To be able t o monitor wind speed and wind d i r e c t i o n u s i n g t h e anemometer, three s e p a r a t e i n p u t and output s i g n a l s need shown  i n the c i r c u i t  and w i r i n g  diagram  t o be I n t e r f a c e d t o the u n i t , as  of Figure  D-2.  These  i n c l u d e the  potentiometer i n p u t e x c i t a t i o n v o l t a g e f o r azimuth, i t s output v o l t a g e and the wind speed output v o l t a g e d e r i v e d from the p r o p e l l e r - d r i v e n DC g e n e r a t o r .  123  F i g u r e D-2  These  units  have  Anemometer C i r c u i t & W i r i n g Diagram  proven  to work  reliably  at  a l l sites  Mountain where severe i c i n g c o n d i t i o n s damaged the i n i t i a l lation.  A  radiant  heater  i n d i c a t e d i n Appendix  D-2  has  been  recommended  for  anemometer  to r e s o l v e t h i s  Dog  instal-  problem,  as  C-2.  The T i p p i n g - B u c k e t Rain Gauge The r a i n gauges used are of the t i p p i n g - b u c k e t v a r i e t y  measuring  point rain  r a t e s up  r a t e i s not important The size  except  of  rain 12.2  gauges  due  mm/hr.  Accurate measurement above  to the low p r o b a b i l i t y  have  grams or  to 400  12.2  a  collecting  area  cubic centimeters  and are capable of  of such events i n t h i s  of  383.6 cm  of water  2  so  and that  this  area.  a nominal  tip  a t i p occurs  124  a f t e r each .318  mm  of r a i n .  q u a n t i t y of water through  T h i s c a l i b r a t i o n i s done by f i r s t the bucket  the volume of water per t i p .  tips  by  sensing  c o u n t i n g the number of t i p s  Then, by d i v i d i n g  the c o l l e c t i n g a r e a of the bucket, Electrical  and  by  generating  p a s s i n g a permanent magnet, attached  the  last  year  a  calculated.  pulse  to the bucket's  near p r o x i m i t y to a chassis-mounted reed s w i t c h . been minimal d u r i n g  to give  the volume of water p e r t i p by  the r a i n f a l l per t i p , i s  i s accomplished  p o u r i n g a known  Rain bucket  of o p e r a t i o n , l a r g e l y  due  as  the  tipping  bucket arm,  in  maintenance  has  to t h e i r  plastic  c o r r o s i o n proof c o n s t r u c t i o n . F i g u r e D-3  shows a photograph of the r a i n bucket  F i g u r e D-3  A Typical  Rain Bucket and  and  i t s tipping  T i p p i n g Assembly.  assembly.  125  D-3  The Temperature Transducer The operation of the temperature transducer i s based upon the linear  temperature coefficient of a semi-conductor junction when forward biased with a constant current.  The forward voltage which results across the junction  varies linearly with temperature and i s amplified to produce a DC output voltage of 10 millivolts per degree with separate gain circuits to provide indications In degrees Centigrade or degrees Fahrenheit. A photograph of the temperature transducer appears i n Figure D-4. temperature sensor Is located on the tip of the probe.  The  The  tri-position  switch allows for selection between an off position, or either the Fahrenheit or centigrade gain circuits.  In this experiment the Fahrenheit gain circuit  is selected in order to maintain unipolar operation into the conditioning c i r cuits over the desired temperature range of 0°F-64°F, (Appendix E).  Figure D-4  Photograph of the Temperature Probe  126  Calibration following cup  of  i s used  the  output  for  each  temperature  snow  to s e l e c t  scale  and  (temperature both  Fahrenheit scale and,  First  32.2°F  or  These  the  manual.)  probe  is installed  with  Care an  Centigrade gain  isolated  be DC  lower  i f the c e n t i g r a d e s c a l e  tri-position scales  and  point  of  the  two  i s used  the  ( T h i s c a l i b r a t i o n assumes that c a l i b r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to  taken to ensure power  the  r e a d i n g s r e p r e s e n t s 32.2°.  have been a c c u r a t e l y must  by  i s immersed i n a  Then the  f o r m o n i t o r i n g , the  similarly,  °F g a i n c i r c u i t s  accomplished  the probe  0°C).  between the two  i s used  both the °C and  be  v o l t a g e s r e p r e s e n t the f r e e z i n g  h i g h e r of the two v o l t a g e readings i s +32.2°C.  instruction  can  the F a h r e n h e i t and  the d i f f e r e n c e  r e a d i n g s i s 0°F  transducer  procedure.  v o l t a g e s are noted.  i f the  voltage  the  one-point c a l i b r a t i o n  semi-melted  switch  Thus  of  supply  that  since  c a l i b r a t i o n when a n o n - i s o l a t e d source i s used due to a ground  the the  temperature probe  loses  loop c o n d i t i o n .  Response Time The response time of the temperature t r a n s d u c e r was degrees C e n t r i g r a d e per second. T h i s was  measured to be  done by q u i c k l y immersing  60  the  temperature probe i n t o a cup of c o l d water a f t e r b e i n g i n a room temperature enviroment and o b s e r v i n g the response on a s t o r a g e o s c i l l o s c o p e .  127  APPENDIX E SIGNAL CONDITIONING UNITS  E-1  Meteorological The  Signal Conditioning  -eteorological  signal  conditioning  between the v a r i o u s weather t r a n s d u c e r to  digital  convertor  amp d e r i v e d .  inputs.  Adjustable  Units  outputs  The c i r c u i t ,  potentiometers  units  of the c o n d i t i o n e d  signals.  the  and the + 0-5 v o l t  as p r e s e n t e d  range  analog  i n F i g u r e E-2, i s opcir-  g a i n c o n t r o l adjustments f o r  The i n p u t / o u t p u t  connections  are shown i n F i g u r e E-3.  F i g u r e E-1  interface  a t the f r o n t edge of the p r i n t e d  c u i t board (see photograph i n F i g u r e E-1) p r o v i d e each  provide  Top View Photograph of the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Signal Conditioning Unit.  f o r the u n i t  K> CO  129  G  o  TIP  G  BKT  G  © 0  G  G  G  G  G  G  G  CNT  SPARES TEMP  o  ® RAIN  ®  METEOROLOGICAL  0)  POWER  ®  ©  ws  WD  h-ACCESS HOLES TO GAIN CONTROL POTENTIOMETERS  TEMP  INTERFACE UNIT  FRONT VIEW  RAIN  WS  WD  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  •5 V  + 12 V  RAIN CLEAR  b) R E A R  TEMP  -12 V  VIEW  F i g u r e E-3  Front and Rear Views of the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Signal Conditioning Unit.  130  The set-up procedure i s best completed i n the l a b o r a t o r y b e f o r e i n s t a l l a tion  and  i s done  through  the adjustment  of  the g a i n  control potentiometers.  The procedure to c a l i b r a t e each m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i s as i)  Rain:  Connect  inputs  using  the  counter  'harwin'  and  rain  connectors and  panel u s i n g an o s c i l l o s c o p e .  bucket  leads  observe  to  follows: the  the output  front  from  panel  the  rear  Connect a p u l s e generator i n t o the r a i n  c l e a r port on the back panel and set i t f o r a s e v e r a l second  interval  between p u l s e s . Now latches Next,  adjust high  at  observe  If  not, ease  of  the bucket  the  of  the  output,  rain  circuit  indicated  to see i f the p u l s e from o f f the g a i n u n t i l sets  the r a i n c i r c u i t ii)  the g a i n  Temperature:  the l a t c h  and  by  until  the  a bucket  green  LED  turning  the generator c l e a r s  the l a t c h  i s cleared.  t i p pulse  the  lated  -9.0  a p u l s e from the generator r e s e t s i t ,  i s ready f o r o p e r a t i o n ,  Connect  Ensure volt  i s maintained. the  gain  2.5 v o l t s .  until  latch.  When both a t i p  the output of the temperature probe i n t o the  f r o n t panel input of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t u s i n g connectors.  on.  that  the temperature  DC power source so that Now  probe  'harwin'  i s powered from an  the accuracy of the c a l i b r a t i o n  p l a c e the probe i n t o an i c e water mixture and  32.2°F.  The c i r c u i t  on i s now  the  iso-  Fahrenheit  scale  gives  an  adjust  output  of  ready f o r o p e r a t i o n .  T h i s procedure p r o v i d e s a temperature dynamic range of 0°F (0 v o l t s ) to 64.4°F (5.0 v o l t s ) .  131  iii)  Wind D i r e c t i o n : the  wind  direction  F i g u r e E-2 iv)  the  molex  trace  input  connector  the  two  (See  volts  to  Figure  f o r a g a i n of 1/2..  input v o l t a g e  s i o n monitors the output apply  voltage  input  molex  and  connector  (See  of the anemometer to the  input  and  E-2  for d e t a i l s ) .  the  voltage.  first  channel at  traces  remain of  100  adjust  the  superimposed. kilometers  1 volt  per  volt  division per  divi-  At ground p o s i t i o n a l i g n both t r a c e s .  per  the f a c t o r y c a l i b r a t i o n graph f o r output read d i r e c t l y by simply  Now  second channel at 0.5  a fan to the anemometer p r o p e l l e r and  speeds i n excess  The  the  azimuth e x c i t e r v o l t a g e  T h i s i s e a s i l y accomplished by u s i n g a  o s c i l l o s c o p e where the  monitors the  Now  the +5  Connect the windspeed output  potentiometer dual  both  for details),  Wind Speed: of  Connect  adjust  the g a i n so that  This  procedure  allows  for  hour  to be monitored and  wind allows  v o l t a g e versus wind speed to  be  d i v i d i n g the " o l t a g e s c a l e i n h a l f .  Bear Mountain C o n d i t i o n i n g Card The  presented first  circuit  schematic  i n Figure  being  ture voltage  E-4.  f o r the As  Bear Mountain s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g card  shown, the  a s i n g l e op-amp d i f f e r e n t i a l and  the  bucket t i p v o l t a g e s .  second i s a v o l t a g e The  circuit  is basically  two  parts,  is the  a m p l i f i e r to  c o n d i t i o n the  f o l l o w e r , S-R  l a t c h to c o n d i t i o n the  t o t a l c u r r e n t consumption i s l e s s than 5 ma  c o n f i g u r a t i o n making i t w e l l s u i t e d f o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n .  tempera-  for this  132  VALUES GAIN  OUT V  ^2 =  a) TEMPERATURE  b)  RAIN  F i g u r e E-4  R, R  R,  2  CONDITIONING  CONDITIONING  =22K = IOOK  CIRCUIT  CIRCUIT  C i r c u i t Schematic f o r the Bear Mountain S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Card  USED  133  E-2  Receiver The  +  Signal Conditioning  r e c e i v e r s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t provides  0-5 v o l t  s i g n a l t o the analog  r e c e i v e r AGC o u t p u t s . lifier E-5.  gain  blocks  The c i r c u i t  used  A differential  monitored  to d i g i t a l  convertor  on the r e c e i v e r c o n d i t i o n i n g card  gain  and a l l f i v e  Lake  resistor  block  gain  to c o n d i t i o n  values  meteorological  used  was used  blocks  f o r each  required  the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  to achieve  E-1  SIGNAL 3550 GHz 3790 GHz  TEMP RAIN  were  i s shown i n F i g u r e  of the f i v e  AGC v o l t a g e s  incorporated  on one card  The same card was a l s o used at signals.  the optimum  Table  gains  E-1 provides the  f o r each  r e c e i v e r and  The R e s i s t o r Values Used i n the D i f f e r e n t i a l Gain  WS WD  the 4 and 7 GHz  s i g n a l monitored.  Table  4010 7142.0 7496.2  from  R  l» i+ R  Block  range of  schematic f o r one of the d i f f e r e n t i a l amp-  which was mounted on the 6800 mother board. Ryder  an optimum input  f o r Optimum  R ,R 2  5  R  6' 7 R  20K  5 OK  25K  20K 20K 10K 10K  50K 50K 10K 10K  25K 25K 50K 50K  10K 10K 50K 10K  50K 50K 5 OK  10K 22K 50K  50K  22K  Gain  R  3  lOOKpot lOOKpot lOOKpot  GAIN -  Q p T  .93  - 1.26 - 1.40  50Kpot 50Kpot  -35.0 -50.0  lOOKpot lOOKpot lOOKpot lOOKpot  + 0.5 + 0.8 + 5.0 + 1.0  134  IF:  F i g u r e E-5  R| = R  4  ; R  2  = R  5  i R6=R?  C i r c u i t Schematic f o r One of the Gain Blocks f o r the R e c e i v e r S i g n a l C o n d i t i o n i n g Card  135  Set Up Procedure Each r e c e i v e r insert  a  signal  levels  into  generator. the input  gain  provides  a safe  the  receiver  conditioning  signal  the  each  the  This  to  of  than  input  of  calibration  +10dB h i g h e r  circuit  the  voltage  receiver  conditioning  analog  conditioning  is  normal  microwave  to unit  margin  digital is  set-up  in  clear  receiver for  unit  the  weather using  overfades. to  match  convertor.  now ready  same manner. received  signal  a microwave  signal  At the  First  this  level,  highest  After  doing  allowable this  to be i n c l u d e d as part  procedure to o b t a i n the AGC curves i n Appendix A.  tune  of  the the  136  APPENDIX F ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTOR  Two types work.  of analog  The f i r s t  unit  to d i g i t a l  i s a 16 channel  for  use with  the 6800 system  and  i s c u r r e n t l y being used  The  second  unit  with  remainder F-l  installed  F-l  12 b i t s  both  i n the Ryder Lake m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  the RCA  designed  for this  1802 and the INTEL  appendix w i l l  photographs  resolution  Research  i s a low power consumption 16 channel  of t h i s  provides  A/D with  by the Communications  t i o n which has been e s p e c i a l l y junction  (A/D) c o n v e r t o r s have been used  d e a l with  of t h i s  A/D  this  convertor  developed  Centre,  Ottawa,  (see Appendix I ) .  A/D with 8 b i t s  resolu-  r e s e a r c h , to be used  i n con-  8085 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s .  second  A/D c o n v e r t o r .  viewed  by i t s e l f  The Figure  and as an  unit.  Functional Description The  second  A/D c o n v e r t o r has the c a p a b i l i t y  of a d d r e s s i n g one of s i x t e e n  + 0-5 v o l t  analog channels  ed channel  to a l a t c h e d h e x i - d e c i m a l output with values r a n g i n g from  Although nels, ing  i n this  and c o n v e r t i n g the v o l t a g e appearing on the s e l e c t -  the 0816 A/D c o n v e r t o r  module has the c a p a b i l i t y  so f a r o n l y f o u r c o n d i t i o n e d m e t e o r o l o g i c a l outputs  unit  have  been  the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :  connected.  These A/D channels  00 to FF.  of 16 i n p u t from  chan-  the c o n d i t i o n -  are assigned  according to  Figure F - l Photographs showing the A/D Convertor S e p a r a t e l y and  Installed.  138  TABLE F - l  A/D  When t h i s A/D nel  selection  Channel 3  Channel Assignment  Table  Meteorological Variable Wind D i r e c t i o n  4 5 6  Wind Speed Temperature Rain  7  Not  variable  p r i a t e software output  trol  Convertor  Defined  c o n v e r t o r i s used with an 8085 system, c o n t r o l  and  F i g u r e F-2  A/D  c o n v e r s i o n i s done through  of the chan-  the s e l e c t i o n  of  appro-  instructions.  p r o v i d e s a schematic  of the A/D  l o g i c a s s o c i a t e d with s p e c i f i c output  c o n v e r t o r board w i t h the  instructions  3 p r o v i d e s the t i m i n g between each of the c o n t r o l In the d e s i g n of t h i s A/D  board  special  identified.  con-  F i g u r e F-  signals.  care has  been taken i n s e l e c t i n g  components with low power consumption to a l l o w d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n  of t h i s  unit  i n b a t t e r y powered s i t e s such as Bear Mountain.  F-2  A/D  Convertor  Calibration  Calibration  of  range of a s e l e c t e d of  the h e x i d e c i m a l  in  Figure  directly  F-5 on  an  the  A/D  A/D  channel w i t h a known v o l t a g e and m o n i t o r i n g the v a l u e  output.  i s used.  convertor  i s accomplished  T h i s procedure  I t allows  oscilloscope  8085 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .  Procedure  F i g u r e F-4  provides  u s i n g the c a l i b r a t i o n t e s t program.  sweeping  the  i s s i m p l i f i e d i f the t e s t  the A/D's  by m o n i t o r i n g  by  the  hexidecimal serial  output  output  to be  p i n (SOD)  a sample o s c i l l o s c o p e  0-5  V  program viewed of  the  t r a c e of  SOD  ICI •Dean  PHYSICAL LAYOUT  RAIR  cum  A/D BOARD SCHEMATIC  /I 40M  \i  CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC a P H Y S I C A L LAYOUT F O R T H E WEATHERLOG ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTOR FIGURE F - 2  M A R . 12.1962  140  OUT  01.  JI  0UT"4F  I I i OUT  2F  START  I  I  C O N V E R S A T I O N (SO  ADDRESS L A T C H ENABLE (ALE) E N D OF C O N V E R S A T I O N (EOC) TYPICALLY  F i g u r e F-3  C o n t r o l S i g n a l Timing Diagram f o r the A/D  RS232  lOQx/sec  Converter  OUTPUT = 29 HEX  OUTPUT (SOD)  •12V  -12V  0  0  1  0  1  7  6  5  4  3  0  2  0  1  1  0 LSB  MSB RAIN CLEAR OUTPUT  •5V  PULSES PRODUCED IN SOFTWARE BY THE "OUT IF" INSTRUCTION F i g u r e F-4  Sample O s c i l l o s c o p e Traces of the A/D  Output  During  Calibration  141 Tektronix  8000/8085 ASM V3. 1  00001 00002 -00005 00004 00005  P«9C  i  oooo: 00007 00003 -©000?00010 00011 •O0012• 00013 oooo 00014 -OO015. oooo C30001 00016 0100 00017 0102 D300 •ocuais 01 fi-1 00019 OOOl'O -0002-  t I I I -:  :  MAIN  THIS PROGRAM READS ONE CHANNEL OF THC A/D AND OUTPUTS THE RESULT IN C0NTIN0U3 LOOP FASHION SO THAT THE DATA CAM DE READ FROM Or : I L L C A RAIN CLEAR PULCE—IT I '".'CD EACH PIT AND A DOUBLE PULSE IS USED TO INDICATE THE START OF THE DATA BYTE. ON THE SCOPE THE DATA APPEARS WITH THE LEAST SICVIIFIO* BIT—AS—THE-THE FIRST-BJT--AT-THE-LEFT SIDE-OF-THE DATA BYTE. - -  ORG OOOH JMP MAIN -ORG—lOOHMVI A.31H OUT 00 MVI A.03H SIM MVI H.3FH SPHL DATA CHANNEL ON A/D IS SELECTED  00040 00041 00012 00043 00044 000450004 & 00047 012A OEOS 000.1;: 01  OOOS' ' -  00060 00061 -OO062 00063 00064 000^5 00066 00067  DATA BYTE IS SENT OUT IN A CONTINOUS LOOP FASHION ?#####**##***#*#*#*#**«•#*#####**#»****#****#**  CC2  MVI COSH  CC1  CUT IFH RRC  7'T  0004? C12E 00050 0130 —00051- 0131 00052 0132 00053 0134 00054 00055 -00056 O0057 0005S  IN 02 IN 02  0136 0133 0139 013A 013B  D31F OF 47  MOV..D*-A—  Fi.^O E6C0  ORI 40H ANI OCOH  D31F 30  OUT IFH SIM  78  OD C23001  010C  0150 0150 00 0151 •C9 0152 1E50 0154 ID Oir-5 025101 0153 C?  DCR C JN2 CC1 «.'MP CC2 ORG 150H NOP DELAY -SET DL1 MVI E 50H DCR E CC? JNZ  ceo  RET  F i g u r e F-5  A/D C a l i b r a t i o n  Program  142  APPENDIX G DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTOR  this  The d i g i t a l  t o analog  (D/A) c o n v e r t o r has been used  experiment  t o generate  i n the f i r s t  chart r e c o r d i n g s of the v a r i a b l e s  phase of  sampled by the  d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n system and t o v e r i f y the a c c u r a c y of the r e s u l t s processed by the  data  base management  system  D/A  unit  and i t s i n t e r f a c e  (Chapter  t o the UBC  V).  The c i r c u i t  schematic  6800 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  f o r the  i s presented i n  Figure G - l . In with  the f i r s t  phase  the c a s s e t t e  store  the time  channel.  of t h i s  recorder.  series  The data  experiment  This  was done  data as i t a r r i v e d  thus  the D/A was used  taken was then  by f i r s t  using  i n conjunction the r e c o r d e r to  at UBC from one s e l e c t e d RS 232 data read  back from  the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r  i n t o the UBC 6800 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r which s e l e c t e d a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e from the time  series  easily assigned  data  to be outputted  accomplished a specific  n i z a t i o n byte.  since  each  position  through  the D/A.  variable  with  respect  arriving  This s e l e c t i o n on  the RS  process i s  232  port i s  t o the s a m p l i n g - i n t e r v a l s y n c h r o -  The program f o r t h i s s e l e c t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e G-2.  TYPE  RS232 CONNECTOR  MSB 7 6 5  Bl Bz B3  6 7  B4  8  4  Bs  9  3 2 |  B  10 11  6  B7  LSB  9 TO D/A PORT ON MICRO PROCESSOR  B8  DAC-08  r  3  r  16 13  HH  r  .01/JF  X -IOV.  Circuit  =  IFS"RL  TO CHART RECORDER  12 1  _  Aj>F  Figure G-l  Eo  +IOV.  Schematic f o r the D/A Converter  T H I S PRnpftAM I S U S E D T O SF|_ F C T T T M F — S F R T F S A S I T A R R I V E S AT U B C FROM T H E DATA L I N K A V A R I A B L E R E L A T I V E TO A S Y N C H R O N I Z A T I O N B Y T E ISL.SELEC.TEEI_FCR_ O U T P U T . TO.. JHE_D7.fi AND T H E A P P R O P I A T E V A R I A B L E I S CHOSEN BY E D I T I N G T H E COMMENT S T A T E M E N T S ORG OEOOOH VARPTR EQU OOOl ?VARPTR EQU 0002 ?VARPTR EQU 0003 VARPTR EQU 0004 ?VARPT ^ EQU 0005 STK'PTR EQU 0AO50H PIACRA EQU 0801 I K • PIADRA EQU OSO1 OH CTR EQU 0A040H CLR PIACRA LDA A #OFFK STA A PIADRA LDA A #04H STA A PIACRA LDA A #03H STA A OSO1 EH LDA A #015H STA A OSO1 EH LDS #STKPTR LOOP LDA A OSO1 EH LSR A BCS DTOA LOOP •JMP DTOA LDA B 0 S 0 1 F H CMP B ttOFFH BEQ ZERO LDA A CTR CMP A #VARPTR OUTPUT BEQ I NC CTR •JMP LOOP OUTPUT STA J L PIADRA I NC CTR JMP LOOP 7FRi"! i":.' R CTR I NC CTR JMP LOOP „ „. END _  F i g u r e G-2  ! j i ! ' . j I i  1  7  ACTIVATED  FOR R A I N OR  RX#4  •  :  PIA  ;  CLEAR P I A CONTOl R E S I S T ER SET P I A AS OUTPUT NON INTERRUPT PORT  7  REGISTERS  RESET  ACIA  ; COMMAND R E G I S T E R S E T UP 5 STACK POINTER LOAD STATUS FROM PORT 7 RDRF  Y E S GET B Y T E  LOAD ; IS IT SYNCH Y E S - R E S E T COUNTER 7  IS T H I S THE V A R I A B L E Y E S : SEND OUT D / A NO: 5 SEND  INPUT NEXT OUT D / A  RESET  VARIABLE  COUNTFR  LOOK FOR NEXT  BYTE  L i s t i n g of the Program t o Provide Chart Recordings from the R e c e i v e r Data Using the D/A  !  145  APPENDIX H MODEM UNITS  H-l  Modem Transmit U n i t s A modem t r a n s m i t u n i t  and  Agassiz Experimental  ±12  volt  output carried  i s i n c l u d e d i n each o f t h e Dog Mountain, Ruby Creek Farm Weatherlog  RS 232 compatible  a voice frequency by way of e i t h e r  modem r e c e i v e r s  Microprocessors.  110 bps s e r i a l  FSK modulated  data  signal.  a VHF o r a telephone  at the Ryder Lake S i t e .  Each u n i t  takes a  and encodes  this to  The modulated s i g n a l  i s then  stream  communications  channel  The r e c e i v e modems a r e d e s c r i b e d i n  s e c t i o n H-2.  F i g u r e H - l Photograph  t o the  of an I n t a l l e d Modem Transmit  Unit  146  The  centre f r e q u e n c i e s f o r the modems that were a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s p r o j e c t  are g i v e n i n Table H-l as f o l l o w s :  Table H - l Modem Centre  Frequency (Hz) 480 720 960 1200 1440  Code DA DB DC DD DE  Frequency Assignments  L i n k s Used Dog Mountain A g a s s i z Experimental Ruby Creek  Farm^Bear Mountain  Figure H - l shows a p i c t u r e of a t y p i c a l modem transmit in  a Weatherlog  Microprocessor  and F i g u r e  H-2 g i v e s  unit  as i n s t a l l e d  the i n t e r f a c e  schematic  between the modem t r a n s m i t u n i t and the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r .  H-2  Modem Receive All  Appendix the  four  Units  modem  C) and have been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o  "UBC Modem U n i t " .  lated  r e c e i v e r u n i t s are l o c a t e d at the Ryder  one 19" rack mounted u n i t  Each modem r e c e i v e r i n p u t s a v o i c e frequency  s i g n a l and decodes i t i n t o a 110 bps RS 232 compatible  cate the i n p u t of the t r a n s m i t u n i t each RS 232 u n i t the s t a t i s t i c a l The  (see S e c t i o n H - l ) .  output  S i t e (see known as FSK moduto d u p l i -  The RS 232 output  i s then r e l a y e d onto UBC f o r storage v i a separate  from  channel  on  multiplex.  p h y s i c a l layout  of the "UBC R e c e i v e r  Modem U n i t "  back and top views i s shown I n F i g u r e H-3 and a schematic f a c e between a modem r e c e i v e r u n i t i n F i g u r e H-4.  Lake  and the RS 232 output  depicting  front,  of a t y p i c a l  inter-  connections  i s given  147  + 12  (RED)  e  - 12  (GRAY)  o  INDEX  AO B  0*  MODEM  E  TRANSMIT UNIT  F •  e  HO  (ORANGE)  V F OUT  (BLACK)  GND.  (WHITE)  RT S  (YELLOW)  TRANSMITTED DATA  i  J  o  KO LO MO NO  12 PIN  HALF DUPLEX HUE CTS  (BLUE) (BROWN)  DSR INTERLOCK LOCAL  COPY  (GREEN)  © (2) 0 © © (2) 0 © © 0 0 © © © © 0 © © © 0 0 © TERMINAL STRIP  + 12  POWER SUPPLY  -12  ,BNC  1  N.C. "  SERIAL  DATA IN  N.C. + 12  • +12 N.C. N.C.  -±?  MOLEX CONNECTOR  F i g u r e H-2  I n t e r f a c e Schematic f o r a Weather Log Modem Transmit  Unit  in u i  PORTS |~)  UBC MODEM  UNIT  ^  ©  DOB MOUNTAIN RECEIVER MOOCH CARO  RUBY CRCCK RECEIVER M C O t M CARO  FRONT VIEW  TERMINAL STRIP S 0 9 9 ® 0  o e sa e s  VF INPUTS  r  S 0 0 s e0 0  e  O  RESET  DC POWER SUPPLY  © AGASSI! EXPERIMENTAL FARM RECEIVER MODEM CARD  AGASSIl  ©  ©  BEAR MTN.  RUBY CK.  ©  000  MTN J  RS 232 O U T P U T S • C A R MOUNTAIN MOOCH RECEIVER C A R O  REAR VIEW DUMMY RESET SWITCH  TOP VIEW SHOWING INTERIOR LAYOUT OF THE MODEM UNIT  POWER LIGHT SWITCH  PHYSICAL DRAWING OF THE RYDER LAKE . i RECEIVER UNIT SHOWING TOP, FRONT 8 REAR VIEWS FIGURE H - S  MAR  12.1912  CO  149  " \  TO SPOWER - ) SUPPLY  Y  BNC  O o o  <  + 12V. -I2V VF  INPUT  GND' o  MODEM RECEIVER UNIT  o o o o o  F i g u r e H-4  GND GND RTS  NC RCV  LOOP (-I2V1I  CTS 20  RECEIVED  Tx  DATA RCV L I N E SIG D E T  DTR  NC  F E M A L E  RS232  o  NC  o  REMOTE NC RCV DISABLE  o  L O C A L COPY INPUT  CONNECTOR  NC  I n t e r f a c e Schematic f o r One of the Modem Receiver  Units  150  APPENDIX I MICROPROCESSOR UNITS  1-1 i)  The UBC M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s General D e s c r i p t i o n The  used the  two UBC m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  f o r the purpose of time sampling  lects  the incoming  results unit  processors  each  butions  data,  second  then reduces  6800  Motorola  based  units  and are  correlating  the d a t a as i t a r r i v e s  at UBC  from  the path.  The data f o r m a t t e r u n i t  (uP#l)  col-  constructs  to the data  the time  processor  series  unit  queues  (yP#2).  and outputs the  The data  processor  the data to manageable l e v e l s by c o n s t r u c t i n g h o u r l y  and choosing  megabyte  along  are both  capacity  selected  cassette  time  series  recorder.  intervals  The software  f o r storage  distri-  onto  a 4.5  r o u t i n e s to do t h i s are  d i s c u s s e d i n Appendix J . Two stream.  methods  have  been  employed  The method c u r r e n t l y  used  takes  the data f o r m a t t e r (uP#l) and resends video  monitor.  method  i s given  A  photograph  i n Chapter  to prevue  the time  series  the incoming  data  data outputted  from  i t u s i n g the data p r o c e s s o r  of the v i d e o  IV.  and t e s t  A second  display  (uP//2) t o a  and d i s c u s s i o n of  method was employed  this  i n the f i r s t  phases of the system i n t e g r a t i o n by r e a d i n g s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s from the a r r i v ing  data  streams  and o u t p u t t i n g these  through  a digital-to-analog  convertor,  as d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix G. The and ings  physical  l a y o u t s f o r the UBC m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  1-2 f o r the d a t a f o r m a t t e r and d a t a  processor  show the r e a r t e r m i n a t i o n assignments,  are shown i n F i g u r e 1-1  respectively.  the f r o n t  panel  These draw-  display  and the  WK dew <a tL>-  I  PCV~  tn tn at »*t< CD O >" K Out D O U 3 K O OCO  •  LI I I  RUBY  •  .(=• 2A  IIOVA  o  SPARE  DOG  '  O  C D  CZD  OUT  AGASSIZ  1—II—1 BEAR  RYD.  SWT.  SA  BUG  OO  I  FUSES  REAR  VIEW  v SLOTS  1/0  UBC DATA LOG • UT  M A . RCV.  o o o o o o g  a  RE0ULAT0R jBOARD MPU  ( WITH  EPROM)  ©  PROSRAM RE DISPLAY  BOARD  TOP VIEW  S 8 0 0 MOTHER BOARD POWER SWITCH  3  FRONT VIEW  PHYSICAL DRAWING OF THE UBC DATA FORMATTER (uP N*2) MICROPROCESSORj SHOWING FRONT,TOP AND REAR VIEWS FIGURE  l-l  MARCH I t . l S S Z  (— Ln h-  1  1  •rt'mt- na  < a: - £  <  F  1 ° _•  .>  K Q . Q a.  PROCESSOR  Til  DIGITAL  'i^'APORTS  1  I VIDEO |  TERMINAL ^  TAPE  O ID O O CD  ta.  K O o<D  m o CD  CO  t  «D O  O  CO  CD  o Q «  OC.  CONNECTOR  TT]  O  ii]  o  \  UNIT  POWER  +}  F U S E S +12  -12  o o o  REAR  VIEW  v—— I/O  SLOTS  UBC OATA  MPU(WITH  NI  3  !  PROCESSOR  RYDER RESET  EPROM)  RESET  FRONT  P  <=  VIEW  TOP VIEW PHYSICAL DRAWING OF THE UBC OATA PROCESSINCtyiPN« 2 ) MICROPROCESSOR SHOWING FRONT.TOP ANO REAR VIEWS FIGURE  1-2  ISSUE MARCH  I 12,1962  a)  F i g u r e 1-3  The  Data Formatter  (uP#l)  Photographs Showing the I n t e r i o r Layout of the Two UBC M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  154  p r o c e s s o r mother board  layouts.  A photograph of both m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  i s given  i n F i g u r e 1-3 i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r i n t e r i o r l a y o u t s . An  integral  part  of the UBC u n i t  communications i n t e r f a c e parallel face  data  are the ACIA cards  between the s e r i a l  bus of the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s .  to two RS 232 p o r t s  1-2 f o r uP 1 and 2.  which  RS 232 i n p u t / o u t p u t  p r o v i d e the  p o r t s and the  Each ACIA card p r o v i d e s  a c c o r d i n g to the assignments shown i n Table  Its circuit  schematic  and p h y s i c a l  layout  I/O Port Address Assignments f o r the Data Formatter  I/O PORT it 0  PORT ADDRESS 8000 8001 8002 8003  ASSIGNMENT  Not  8004  PIA I/O Reg.  8005 8006  DDR PIA I/O Reg.  8007  DDR  8008 8009 800A 800B 800C 800D 800E 800F 8010 8011 8012 8013  Unit yP//l  FUNCTION  ACIA ACIA ACIA ACIA  CMD I/O Reg. CMD I/O Reg.  assigned  Terminal Port PIA  Not  assigned  Not  assigned  Spare 1/0 Port Ryder Lake Meteorological  1-1 and  are g i v e n i n  F i g u r e 1-4. Table 1-1  an i n t e r -  Table 1-1  cont'd.  8014  ACIA CMD Reg.  Agassiz Experimental  8015  ACIA I/O Reg.  Farm  8016  ACIA CMD Reg.  Bear Mountain  8017  ACIA I/O Reg.  8018  ACIA CMD Reg.  Ruby Creek  8019 801A 80IB  ACIA I/O Reg. ACIA CMD Reg. ACIA I/O Reg.  Dog Mountain  80IC  ACIA CMD Reg.  Tape Unit RS232  801D  ACIA I/O Reg.  Output Port  80IE  ACIA CMD Reg.  R e c e i v e r Channel  80IF  ACIA I/O Reg.  from Ryder Lake  Table 1-2  PORT ADDRESS  I/O Port Address Assignments f o r the Data Processor Unit uP#2  FUNCTION  ASSIGNMENT  8018  ACIA CMD Reg.  8019 801A 80IB  ACIA I/O Reg. ACIA CMD Reg. ACIA I/O Reg.  Output Port t o Video Screen and Tape Unit Receive from uP#2  80IC 801D 801E  ACIA CMD Reg. ACIA I/O Reg. ACIA CMD Reg.  80IF  ACIA I/O Reg.  Future Digital I/O Ports  BAUD  RATE  OUTPUT  SELECTION  JUMPERS  «3  CONNECTORS  NCRttBXaCTSr  MOLEX  TXtTXiRTS GND  TO  CONNECTOR  6800  MOTHER  BOARD  •TO  SELECT  OPTIONS  PINS  M U S T BE JUMPERED  I/O S E L E C T  | _  RESET  CHAN2,II0BANDJ C H I , IIO  ' IIO  t_CHAN2'300  300  -  600  !  9600  -  CHI,  - C H I ,  R/W  ti  2,1200  IH A N  1200  2,9600 8600  INC  *CM8»  J  2,600  - CHI, 6 0 0  j—CHAN  »8V  tt ii i4 it >*•  CHI. 3 0 0  :HAN .  1200  <TX) DT 06  7BI54  D5 04  P'  v  \  —CTS: E X T . CONTROL CTS". A L W A Y S ENABLED  OPTION SELECTION CONNECTOR  D2 DI DO  \fi ii io 9 i r  |  j T t r t i jj h 1 rn.  -mrt.  4CI.4 USO-J  * s 5 S U 5 5 i IH  ,  IJ H  •*-t a'J  13 H is /* ir im  HUHIIDM  RSI  »sv REG.  RS2  I  IRO NMI  • 8V  68S0-2  N C  INDEX  CHI GND tl2V  RX  CH2RX  I  CTS  MOLEX(F)  >OUTPUT CONNECTOR 232 C H I T X TORS PORTS C H 2 T X  -I2V  NC  NC NC  RTS  GND  sSSjl lis INTERFACE  DATA B U S  CONNECTOR  DATA B U S  T O 6800  CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC INTERFACE  MOTHER  BOARD  ASYNCHRONOUS CARD  I/O CONNECTIONS PHYSICAL LAYOUTS ASYNCHRONOUS INTERFACE CARD  CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC A N D PHYSICAL LAYOUT OF T H E  ASYNCHRONOUS INTERFACE (ACIA) CARD ISSUE I M A R 12 FIGURE  ,19B2  1 4  Ul  157  Specifications a)  MPU board • modified bps.  to produce  data  rates  of 110, 300, 600, 1200 and 9600  data  r a t e s of 110, 300, 600, 1200 and  (uP//l).  • unmodified  i n uP#2 to g i v e  2400 • i f the SWTBUG monitor switches  i s to be used  switch  o f f both  "PROM" d i p  and switch on the "SWT" and "MONITOR" d i p s w i t c h e s .  • to use a program  i n the EPROM, switch on the "LO PROM" or the "HI  PROM" d i p switch and t u r n o f f the "SWT" and "MONITOR" d i p s w i t c h e s . The  EPROM  space  program  with  then  starts  the i n t e r r u p t  i n location  vectors  being  E000  1 &  of the memory  assigned  the f o l l o w i n g  addresses.  Table 1-3  6800 I n t e r r u p t Vectors  Type of Vector  Location  I n t e r r u p t Request (IRQ) Non Maskable I n t e r r u p t (NMI) Software I n t e r r u p t (SWI) Restart  E7F8 E7FA E7FC E7FE  b)  ACTA board • The boards  must  t h e i r data r a t e s .  be strapped  according  to F i g u r e  1-4 to determine  158  c)  Regulator Input  board ±24V  Voltage:  Output V o l t a g e s :  d)  purpose  A.C.  Ryder i s to  Lake M i c r o p r o c e s s o r sample  both  the  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s s i t e and Every  1/10  tenth  The  of  a  sampling  a l s o sampled and  second interval  analog-to-digital  channel  i n Table 1-4,  i s based  received signal send the  i t to UBC received  ( i . e . each  convertor  required.  s t r i p p i n g the f o u r l e a s t The  unit  on  levels  v i a two  signal  the Motorola and  second) the  Its  the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  separate data  levels  6800.  are  weather  channels.  sampled  and  on  information i s  sent.  b i t s which i s more than  ted.  (uP//l o n l y ) (uP//l o n l y )  The Ryder Lake M i c r o p r o c e s s o r U n i t The  every  UD1 UD2  T o t a l AC power r e q u i r e d 500ma at 110V.  1-2  +12V -12V +14.6V -14.6V  significant  i n this  unit  i s able  to  resolve to  T h e r e f o r e , each sample i s f i r s t  reduced  b i t s before the 8 b i t samples are  12 by  output-  assignments f o r the a n a l o g - t o - d i g i t a l c o n v e r t o r are p r o v i d e d  as f o l l o w s :  159  Table 1-4  Analog to D i g i t a l  (A/D)  Convertor Channel Assignments  Figure the  CPU,  1-5  A/D  Channel  Channel  Assignment  F  Unassigned  E  Unassigned  D  Rain  C  Temperature  B  Wind  A  Unassigned  9  Wind  8  Unassigned  7  Unassigned  6  Unassigned  5  Unassigned  4  7496 GHz  Rx  3  7142 GHz  Rx  2  4010 GHz  Rx  1  3790 GHz  Rx  0  3550 GHz  Rx  p r o v i d e s a drawing showing  the ACIA  card  and  Speed  Direction  •  the hardware  the a n a l o g - t o - d i g i t a l  assignment  convertor.  Table  slots for 1-5  pro-  v i d e s the I/O port address assignments f o r the Ryder Lake U n i t , as f o l l o w s :  5 J! 5°si RECEIVER CHANNELS  « s 9 S  WEATNCR  CHANNELS  G « O  o 5 m  1 o o «  A/D  o o « 1 1 « o o «  vie  OF  K  o m  | i  u 5 Q •  BOARD  t  § i1  o  s  s 1  »1 •  CO  u.  o  o  CD  CO  1 CO  8  Q-I2V. ©  SPEED  PORT  1 u 5  8  &  b i  o o *  K  M  t  i  o o  M  T L 4  «  REAR VIEW  CD  | 8 t ; » - 8 8 2 3 )  CONDITIONING  CARD  RECEIVE  CONDITIONING  CARD  UBC SIGNAL  BOARD  LH  ^  OC POWER OUTPUTS  METEOROLOGICAL  MPU  C r  (WITH  DATA  c.  LOO  •  E PROM I  O  RESIT  MO 1200  o o o n a MET (CV RYDER  .  LAKE  ft  m  POWER  FRONT  VIEW  TOP VIEW PHYSICAL 0RAWING OF THE RYDER LAKE MICROPROCESSOR UNIT SHOWING FRONT, TOP AND REAR VIEWS FIGURE X -  S  (MARCH 12 ,1982  o  161  Table 1-5  I/O Port Address Assignments f o r the Ryder Lake U n i t  PORT  I/O PORT #  ADDRESS 8008 8009 80OA 800B  FUNCTION ACIA ACIA ACIA ACIA  CMD I/O CMD I/O  ASSIGNMENT High  Reg. Reg. Reg. Reg.  speed  Receiver  Data  Low speed Meteorological  Data  DC Power Supply  8018 t o 801B  Interface  A l l other I/O port addresses are unassigned.  1-3  The Weatherlog  Microprocessor Units  The weatherlog m i c r o p r o c e s s o r u n i t s used the A g a s s i z Experimental to  Farm are based  channels signal  intervals.  T h e i r purpose i s  conditioning  unit  tempera-  The i n p u t s to the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r ' s A/D  are 0-5 v o l t s which are p r o v i d e d at the output  i n c o r p o r a t e s a low speed  put  on the INTEL 8085.  Ruby Creek and  sample the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s of wind speed, wind d i r e c t i o n ,  t u r e and r a i n at one second  of  at Dog Mountain,  (see Appendix frequency s h i f t  E).  of the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  The weatherlog  microprocessor  keyed modem between the RS 232 output  the 8085 i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s o r to the v o i c e frequency 600 ohm unbalanced of the w e a t h e r l o g .  corresponding  The FSK output  thus  channel back t o Ryder Lake.  i s v i a VHF r a d i o , from Dog Mountain  this  d e r i v e d i s then  From the Ruby Creek  applied  t o the  location  i s v i a the 37A message c i r c u i t  out-  this on the  WIND SPEED © • ' «  ©•. A/D  TRANSMIT  © RAIN  CLEAR  o TEMPERATURE  W P U S I  CARD  REAR TO AO»a I N T E R F A C E  r-i-ri  RAIN  i  h  MOOCH  [A/0  o o  VOLTAOC OUTPUTS  CONVERTOR  j,  o MOOIM OUTPUT  O-.t  IIO V A C  WIND DIRECTION  ©  |  MOOIM  INTERFACE  |  POWER  INTERFACE  VIEW  MAIN - TERMINAL STRIP  •anninnnniBiiii_ t H  UBC  X N T I L  S I C  •ORt  3  WEATHER LOO  RO/M  COMPUTIR  ©  •OARD  RESET  L  9ITE  TOP  5  DOG MOUNTAIN NAME'  FRONT  VIEW  VIEW PHYSICAL DRAWING OF THE WEATHER LOG MICROPROCESSOR SHOWING FRONT, TOP AND REAR VIEWS FIGURE  1-6  MARCH  IS , 1981  163  7 GHz  radio  and  from  the A g a s s i z  E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm  this  i s v i a a telephone  link. A drawing  indicating  the p o s i t i o n i n g  within  the weatherlog unit  of the  8085 computer board, the A/D c o n v e r t o r and the modem t r a n s m i t c a r d i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1-6.  A photograph of t h i s i n t e r i o r l a y o u t i s shown i n F i g u r e  F i g u r e 1-7  1-4  1-7.  Photograph showing the I n t e r i o r Layout of a T y p i c a l UBC Weatherlog M i c r o p r o c e s s o r U n i t .  The Bear Mountain M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Unit The purpose of the Bear Mountain M i c r o p r o c e s s o r i s t o sample  logical variables  the meteoro-  of temperature and r a i n once p e r second and output t h e d a t a  onto the r a d i o l i n k t o Ryder Lake.  164  In  designing  the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  unit  f o r this  site,  special  care  taken t o minimize the power consumption and to choose a technology which withstand for  large  temperature v a r i a t i o n s (±40°C).  units  i s an RCA 1802 and the c i r c u i t s  are d e s c r i b e d  could  CMOS technology was s e l e c t e d  the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , the A/D and the s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t .  processor  was  The m i c r o -  f o r the A/D and s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g  i n Appendices F and E r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The t o t a l power con-  sumption of the CMOS e l e c t r o n i c s was 70 ma. The low  radio  power  used  i s a hand-held  consumption  sumption was achieved  applications.  unit  from Motorola  Optimization  through the use of a high  current  the RF output  power  gain  1.5 watts  power  con-  t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna and transmitter  to 300 mwatts  stage,  thus  and the r a d i o ' s  draw to 225 ma.  The  expected  operational  2000 A-HR c a u s t i c potash and  from  designed f o r  of the r a d i o ' s  e l i m i n a t i n g the power consumption of the r a d i o ' s f i n a l reducing  specially  3.23 years  replacement  cells  life-time  f o r the Bear Mountain  i s therefore  f o r the e l e c t r o n i c s b a t t e r y .  i s done by h e l i c o p t e r s i n c e  d r i v e o n l y ) which could  site  based on  1.01 years f o r the r a d i o I t i s recommended  that  battery battery  the road access i s rugged ( f o u r wheel  damage the c e l l s .  A drawing of the equipment c o n f i g u r a t i o n showing the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , the radio,  the A/D and the s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t  photograph i n 1-9.  i s given  i n Figure  1-8 and a  £91  166  Figure 1-9  1-5  Photograph showing t h e I n t e r i o r Layout of the Bear Mountain M i c r o p r o c e s s o r U n i t  The  NOVA 840 Minicomputer  The  purpose of the  the c a s s e t t e tapes  NOVA 840 minicomputer i s t o take the d a t a r e c o r d e d on  and then t r a n s f e r  matted 800 b p i magnetic tape.  these d a t a i n s e r i a l  F i g u r e 1-10 i l l u s t r a t e s  f a s h i o n t o IBM f o r -  the equipment  arrange-  ment needed t o t r a n s f e r the d a t a . In  o r d e r t o e n t e r data  on t h e NOVA, an RS 232 to c u r r e n t l o o p  was c o n s t r u c t e d as the NOVA had no RS 232 i n p u t p o r t s . loop  i n t e r f a c e schematic i s given i n Figure I—11.  interface  The RS 232 t o c u r r e n t  167  IO0 4.5 MEGA BYTE  RS232 TO  COLUMBIA DATA 300 D CASSETTE TAPE UNIT  1  1 RS232  CURRENT LOOP INTERFACE  | 1  1 1 CURFcENT  NOVA 840  LOOP  CASSETTE  800 bpi  TAPE  MAGNETIC TAPE  F i g u r e 1-10  Equipment C o n f i g u r a t i o n to T r a n s f e r Data from the C a s s e t t e Tape D r i v e to the Nova 840 Magnetic Tape D r i v e .  6  168  ro /vow  TO *?S 232  F i g u r e 1-11  64o  ojsssrrr l£l/£LS  Circuit  Schematic of the RS-232C t o Current Loop I n t e r f a c e  169  APPENDIX J MICROPROCESSOR SOFTWARE  J-l  The UBC M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  i ) Functional Description The  main  formatter field  f u n c t i o n of the UBC 6800 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  (uP//l) and the data  data  as these  arrives  viewing on a v i d e o monitor, time  series  using  formats.  a l l these  were d i s t r i b u t e d matter  on the data  i n the data  (yP#2) i s to t i m e - c o r r e l a t e a l l the link,  output  the data  compress i t i n t o s t a t i s t i c a l  segments f o r storage  suitable  corporating  processor  software  and f i n a l l y  for real  distributions,  tasks  under  the c o n t r o l  between two p r o c e s s o r s .  or uP//l, has been a s s i g n e d  select  s t o r e the data on magnetic  Due to t i m i n g c o n s t r a i n t s and the complexity of a s i n g l e  The f i r s t  the tasks of i n p u t t i n g  the data  the a r r i v i n g  tape  of i n -  CPU, these  processor,  time  tasks forfield  d a t a , coding t h i s data to r e a l time, f o r m a t t i n g i t i n t o b u f f e r s and o u t p u t t i n g the  formatted  data  once per second  t o the second  CPU.  The second  processor,  the data p r o c e s s o r or uP//2 has been a s s i g n e d the tasks of o u t p u t t i n g the data for from  r e a l time v i e w i n g on a v i d e o monitor, t h e d a t a , choosing  time  series  generating s t a t i s t i c a l  segments and s t o r i n g  magnetic c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r i n a r e c o v e r a b l e The multiplex  interfaces  between  and uP#l, from  both  both  records onto a  format.  UBC m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s ,  microprocessors  uP#2 to the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r a r e a l l RS232C. c o n f i g u r e d i n the s o f t w a r e .  these  distributions  from  to the v i d e o  the  statistical  t e r m i n a l and from  The i n p u t / o u t p u t p o r t s are a l l  170  The J-la,  program  flow  chart  f o r the  data  formatter  (yP#l)  i s given  in Fig.  a diagram of i t s b u f f e r memory o r g a n i z a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e J - l b and  the program flow c h a r t f o r the data p r o c e s s o r (yP#2) i s presented i n F i g . J-2. ii)  Input/Output  Software  I.  S i g n a l Data  Received The  signal  Design  amplitude  (uP//].) i n r o t a t i o n a l from  the  lowest  received to  after  update  order  software  case,  data  by a  one-tenth  on  A  a  second  synchronizing  receiver  the  intervals  basis  byte  sample a r r i v e s of  10  starting  incoming  (FF)  and  is  i s used  synch  bytes  the r e c e i v e d s i g n a l data i s dumped  (yP#2).  determining series  of  receiver.  clock  processor  time  at the i n p u t of the data f o r m a t t e r  A f t e r each second  to the data p r o c e s s o r  fading  at  frequency  1 second.  The  data a r r i v e s  the h i g h e s t frequency  the  equalling  Specifications  checks  i f they  the  incoming  exceed  levels  a specified  dump i s i n i t i a t e d .  The  for multipath  range.  data  If this  processor  and  i s the  finishes  by  t a k i n g each byte of r e c e i v e r s i g n a l data to update an h o u r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n buffer,  to s t o r e i t i n a r o t a t i n g  viewing t o a v i d e o II.  queue and  to send  i t for  M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Data  l o g i c a l channels, and is  sent.  temperature position with  series  monitor.  Each second,.four  byte  time  and  i n the  the new  s u c c e s s i v e bytes a r r i v e on the f i v e i n p u t meteoroimmediately  Their  order  rainfall. data  values  of As  formatter and  before  following their a r r i v a l a synchronizing arrival  each  of  unit's they  i s wind these  direction,  samples  (uP#l) i n p u t  are  outputted  wind  speed,  i s received, their b u f f e r s are  to the data  updated  processor  1  BND POL  |» •  ^  ACIA* BUFFER PO NT E ft [ • CL C BUFFERS | « BIT FIABB 10 99  i  POLL IK»UT AMD O U T P L / T POUT a  «C  POL  BHD POL 008  POL  HUB POL mc  POL  IND POL • CII POL ASA POL M C POL • MO  POL  WTO  POL  BEl SVNCH FLAB  -*® —0 -K£> -KiD -*®  -MD -KD -KD -KD -KD _-KD  ^  PCVW  )  •CT BFLAB  SCT DATA*« I  BIT BUFPtn  ADDPEtS EQUAL TO DUMP AOON, fOP »/W  n»o  PROGRAM FLOW CHART FOR uP N« I,THE u e : DATA FORMATTER MICRO PROCESSOR UNIT FIGURE J - l o  MARCH  ti , J e J |  BUFFER Ns-I  Figure J - l b  BUFFER N  gl  2  BUFFER  3  Data Formatter (yP#l) B u f f e r Memory O r g a n i z a t i o n  INPUT D A T A _rROM_«_P N t " I O U T P U T DATA TO VIDEO DISPLAY  « T  L A S T COUNT  •12  RESET EVENT FLAG ™ S E T TIME S E R I E S WAIT F L A O COPT TIME S E R I E S QUEUE  RESET SERIES  r  TtME FLAO  S E T DISTRIBUTION DUMP F L A f t START O l S T R l B U T T o i T DUMP BESET TIME __SEHIES F L A O SET TIME SERIES DUMP F L A G BEGIN T1 ME SERIES DUMP  .  1  UPDATE ACIA 2-« T S_  I  GET MINUTES  .  1  r  r  PROGRAM FLOW CHART FOR uP N*2 THE UBC  I S I T HOUR F U t  DATA PROCESSOR ^  MAIN  )  MICRO PROCESSOR UNIT FIGURE J - 2 MARCH  12ISS2 1  174  (yP//2).  The data p r o c e s s o r then  takes  each  updating  i t s hourly d i s t r i b u t i o n  buffer,  byte  of m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data  storing  i t i n a rotating  s e r i e s queue and o u t p u t t i n g i t f o r viewing t o a video III.  time  monitor.  Headers and T r a i l e r s Every  second  formatter  (uP#l)  Immediately  the time after  following  initialized,  comprise^  series  being  queue  terminated  block  i s sent  by  the data  by two "FF" t r a i l e r  markers.  t h i s a header f o r a new time  series  queue b l o c k i s  of data bytes to i d e n t i f y r e c o r d type, month, day,  hour, minute and second. IV.  C r i t e r i a to Dump the D i s t r i b u t i o n B u f f e r Every  processor time  hour  the b u f f e r  (uP//2) i s dumped  series  distribution  buffer  waits  distribution  five  single  meteorological  following  buffer  byte  the time  temperature,  series  case, the dump of the  queue dump i s completed  1 6  types  and r e c e i v e r  of d a t a  (wind  amplitude)  with  meteorological variable  f o r each  has 4 0  distribution  of f i v e  rainfall  f o r each  distributions  distribution  amplitude  cassette recorder unless a  For t h i s s p e c i a l  i s comprised  byte d i s t r i b u t i o n s  double  receiver  until  i n the d a t a  the d i s t r i b u t i o n d a t a .  d i r e c t i o n , wind speed, five  to the magnetic  dump i s i n p r o g r e s s .  before t r a n s f e r r i n g The  c o n t a i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n data  = 64  receiver 1 Q  amplitude.  double  has 128 double  byte  byte  t o t a l memory r e q u i r e d f o r one d i s t r i b u t i o n  type and  bins  bins  buffer:  Each  and each  to g i v e t h e  175  5 This  x [7 + 4 x 1 2 8 + 2 5 6 + 3 ]  includes  variable is  a header  type.  required  =  of 7 bytes  3 8 9 0 bytes  and a t r a i l e r  For two d i s t r i b u t i o n  to g i v e a t o t a l  buffers  V.  C r i t e r i a to Dump the Time S e r i e s Whenever  an event  twice t h i s  processor buffer  T h e r e f o r e , at 9 6 0 0 bps the h o u r l y dump w i l l  of 3 bytes  f o r each  number of bytes  requirement  of 7 7 8 0 b y t e s .  take 3.2 seconds.  Data  i s d e t e c t e d the time  series  queue i s dumped  from  the b u f f e r i n the data p r o c e s s o r (uP//2) t o the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r u n l e s s a d i s t r i b u t i o n dump i s i n p r o g r e s s . ferred  into  dump.  an output  buffer  to await  case  the time queue i s t r a n s -  completion  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  The time s e r i e s queue (TSQ) i s comprised o f : 12  x [ 7 header  + 5x4 meteorological + 1 0 x 5 receiver +  , At  In t h i s  1 event + 2 t r a i l e r ] = 9 6 0 bytes  9600  bps t h i s  will  take  receiver  event  flag  a  minimum  of  1.0 seconds  to output f o r  storage. The found  i n the MAIN program.  to be s e t , the TSQ dump i s i n i t i a l i z e d  output b u f f e r t o f i r s t propagation next  i s tested  event  12 seconds  t e n t h of a second Another occur  seconds  has been d e t e c t e d , the time  i s disabled  so that  is  and the TSQ i s copied t o an  a l l o w completion of other I/O i n p r o g r e s s . series  dump f l a g  When a  over t h e  a dump i s not being requested  every  d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n of the event.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s that  a f l a g g e d event w i l l  c o n v e n i e n t l y at the end of an i n t e g r a l  making, the TSQ  If i t  copy  of data would  t o the output be t r a n s f e r r e d .  buffer  second  typically  The t w e l f t h  not, i n g e n e r a l , which only  second  means when 11  complete  b l o c k of d a t a  176  would  normally  be incomplete  and would  consist  on ,the  average  one-tenth of a second r e c e i v e r sample sets and an incomplete cal  set.  The b u f f e r  must  therefore  ensure a twelve second r e c o r d . as  be designed  to hold  of f i v e  meteorologi-  13 seconds t o ,  The r e s u l t i n g TSQ i s given i n F i g u r e J - 3 ,  follows:  TSQ POINTER  F i g u r e J-3  The next  TSQ p o i n t e r  block  i s used t o f i n d  for f i l l i n g .  from the TSQ p o i n t e r  Diagram Showing the S t r u c t u r e of the Time S e r i e s Queue (TSQ)  the f i r s t  When the event  i s dumped.  flag  block  f o r dumping and the  i s set,  The dump p o i n t e r  the TSQ s t a r t i n g  c y c l e s around from the  177 high address completed VI.  to the low address  age.  There  data  with  as to how  are b a s i c a l l y  two  much data w i l l  a maximum  rate  of  288,000 bytes  at an a n t i c i p a t e d  and  per  event  the f i r s t the second  hour  but  probability  more  being d i s being  TSQ  typically  of 0.05.  Thus  the t o t a l number of bytes expected  to be recorded h o u r l y i s 18,290 b y t e s .  At  magnetic  this  rate  expected ed  the  to l a s t  to vary from  when no TSQ Software  4.5  mega  byte  cassette  an average  of 246 hours, or 10.25  15.4  where a l l TSQ  hours  the a r r i v a l equalling  can  be  T h i s i s expect-  data are recorded to 48.2  days  data are r e c o r d e d ,  Clock  of each  one  cartridges  days.  Real time i s maintained through a software c l o c k that synch  second.  byte and  The  time  data f o r m a t t e r w i t h the i n i t i a l tor  recently  be generated f o r s t o r -  types of data s e r i e s ;  recorded at 3890 bytes per hour  14,400 bytes per hour  iii)  the most  Requirements  question arises  tribution data  then upwards u n t i l  b l o c k i s encountered.  Storage The  and  (see Appendix  1-1).  be e n t e r e d i n hexedecimal  i s kept  i s stored time  on  the b a s i s  i n RAM  of a 10 synch  locations,  being entered through  Table J - l g i v e s the RAM  i s incremented  bytes  200-204 of  the  the "SWTBUG" moni-  time assignments  format when i n i t i a l l i z e d .  upon  which must  178  Table J - l  iv)  RAM Time Assignments  Location  Assignment  0200  Month  0201  Day  0202  Hour  0203  Minute  0204  Second  Data Formats There are two b a s i c data formats  a time s e r i e s format is  (pP#l)  given i n Table  outputted by the data p r o c e s s o r  and a d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s  J-2 and i s repeated  minimum of 12 one second  records  format.  f o r each one second  records  being dumped  as long as the event  series  format,  on the other hand, i s g i v e n i n Table occur.  persists.  format  r e c o r d dumped.  are dumped preceding an event  series  even i f no propagation events  The time s e r i e s  (yP//2);  with new  A  time  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  J-3 and i s dumped h o u r l y  179  Table J-2  Byte  Time S e r i e s Block  Description  Format  Specific  Comments  1  Record Type  FE = Time S e r i e s  2 3 4  Months Days Hours  BCD BCD BCD  5  Minutes  BCD  6 7  Seconds Gauge Status  BCD HEX  8  Wind D i r e c t i o n  Dog Mountain  9 A  Wind Speed Temperature  Dog Mountain Dog Mountain  B  Rainfall  Dog Mountain  C D E F  Wind D i r e c t i o n Wind Speed Te-perature Rainfall  Ruby Ruby Ruby Ruby  10 11  Wind D i r e c t i o n Wind Speed  Block  Creek Creek Creek Creek  Bear Mountain Bear Mountain Bear Mountain Bear Mountain A g a s s i z Experimental  12  Temperature  13 14  Rainfall Wind D i r e c t i o n  15  Wind Speed  16 17 18 19  Temperature Rainfall Wind D i r e c t i o n Wind Speed  A g a s s i z Experimental A g a s s i z Experimental A g a s s i z Experimental Ryder Lake Ryder Lake  IA  Temperature  Ryder Lake  IB IC  Rainfall Receiver 1  Ryder Lake  ID IE  Receiver 2 Receiver 3  3550 MHz 3790 MHz 4010 MHz  First First First  100 msec. 100 msec. 100 msec.  IF  Receiver  7142 MHz  First  100 msec.  20  Receiver 5  4  7496.5 MHz  First  Farm Farm Farm Farm  100 msec.  Table J-2  Byte  Time S e r i e s Block Format  Description  21-25  (cont'd.)  Specific  Comments  Second 100 msec.  26-2H  T h i r d 100 msec.  2B-2F  F o u r t h 100 msec.  30-34  F i f t h 100 msec.  35-39  S i x t h 100 msec.  3A-3E  Seventh 100 msec.  3F-43 44-48  E i g h t h 100 msec. Ninth 100 msec.  49-4D  Tenth 100 msec.  4E 4F-50  EVENT INDICATOR EOB TRAILER  Table J-3  Byte  cc = Fade 99 = Rain Two c o n s e c u t i v e FF's  Data Format f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n  Description  Buffer  Specific  Comments  0 1  Record Type (FD) Month  FD = D i s t r i b u t i o n BCD  2 3 4  Day Hour Minute  BCD BCD BCD  5 6 7-86 87-106  Second  BCD  Data Type (01) Dog Mountain  Data Type C o n t r o l Word Wind D i r e c t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n  Ruby Creek  107-186  Bear Mountain  187-206  A g a s s i z Exp. Farm  207-286  Ryder Lake  287 288 289  Series  FF FF FF  Wind D i r e c t i o n Trailer  Distribution  Table J-3  Data Format f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n B u f f e r  Byte  Description  28A  Record Type (FD)  28B  Month  28C  Day  28D  Hour  28E  Minute  28F  Seconds  290  Data Type  311-390 391-410  Ruby Creek Bear Mountain  411-490  A g a s s i z Exp. Farm  491-510  Ryder Lake FF  512  FF  513  FF  514  Record Type (FD)  515 516 517 518  Month Day Hour Minute Second  51A 51B-59A 59B-51A 51B-69A  Data Type (04) Dog Mountain Ruby Creek Bear Mountain  69B-71A 71B-79A 79B  Header  (02)  Dog Mountain  519  Comments  Header  291-310  511  Specific  (cont'd.)  Wind Speed  Distribution  Wind Speed  Distributions  Trailer  Header  Header Temperature  Distribution  A g a s s i z Exp. Farm Ryder Lake  Temperature  Distribution  FF  Trailer  79C  FF  79D  FF  79E  Record Type (FD)  79F  Month  780  Day  781  Hour  782  Minute  Header  182  Table J-3  Data Format f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n B u f f e r  Byte  Description  783  Second  784  Data Type  Comments  Header (08)  7A5 824  Dog Mountain  825-8A4  Ruby Creek  8A5-924  Bear Mountain  925-9A4  A g a s s i z Exp. Farm  9A5-A24  Rainfall  Distribution  Rainfall  Distribution  Ryder Lake  A25  FF  A26  FF  A27  FF  Trailer  A28  Record Type (FD)  A29 A2A A2B A2C  Month Day Hour Minute  A2D  J-2  Specific  (cont'd.)  Header  Second  Header  A2E A2F-B2E B2F-C2E C2F-D2E  Data Type (10) Receiver 1 (3550 MHz) Receiver 2 (3790 MHz) Receiver 3 (4010 MHz)  D2F-E2E  Receiver 4 (7142 MHz)  E2F-F2E  Receiver 5 (7496  F2F  FF  F30  FF  F31  FF  Received S i g n a l  Distribution  Received  Distribution  Signal  MHz) Trailer  The Ryder Lake 6800 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Software The purpose of the Ryder Lake software i s to c o o r d i n a t e the sampling f o r  both these link  the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s on  two  links;  respectively  F i g u r e J-4.  a low  to UBC.  speed The  and r e c e i v e r  s i g n a l amplitudes and  (110 bps) l i n k software  flow  The program s t a r t s by i n i t i a l i z i n g  and a h i g h  chart  to do  transmit  speed (1200 this  bps)  i s given i n  the ACIA I/O p o r t s and A/D  and  183  (  M A I N  ")  i  INITIAIZE ACIA A/D STACK POINTER  SEND SYNCH. = FFH  l/IOSEC  ("  MASTER  )  SAMPLE EACH VARIABLE 8 TRANSMIT Rx^CH^OOH Rx =CH# I OH 2  SEND MET DATA  SEND SYNCH. = FFH  Rx. =CH#30H  4  DEC MCOUNT SEND SYNCH. =FFH  SAMPLE MET VARIABLES a STORE WD =CH#90H WS =CH#80H TEMP=CH#COH RAIN =CH#DOH IF DATA=FFH RESTORE AS F EH  F i g u r e J-4  Data A c q u i s i t i o n Flow Chart f o r the Ryder Lake Datalog 6800 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r .  184  then waits to sample data. which time  the r e c e i v e r s  The  are sampled and  v a l , that i s f o r each second, data  transferred  received  signal  to  an  levels  b a s i c sampling  data sent.  buffer  sent  as  m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data are s e n t , one  for  soon  as  they  at a time, from  J-3  The Weatherlog The  purpose  sampling  8085 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r  of  d i r e c t i o n , temperature channel given  to UBC  software  four  and  r a i n , and then send  and  pin  of  the  of 110  s t a r t and one  bps.  The  weatherlog  channels  and  which  to  the  communications  i s determined  is facilitated  interval.  by  by  link.  a program  monitoring  (see F i g u r e 1-6)  A/D wind  communication flow  chart i s and  and  the  This  delay  by  delay loop.  the v a r i a b l e s are sampled and o u t p u t t e d through  the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  measure the sampling  ACIA  second speed,  the software  changes are made to the main program software  of  The  As shown, the program s t a r t s  software  nector  the  Mountain, the Ruby Creek  every  This  wind  software  repeated  recalibrated.  whereas  stop b i t which  these data on the  i s the same f o r the Dog  8085 m i c r o p r o c e s o r second  the  an output b u f f e r .  meteorological variables:  the s t a c k p o i n t e r , the A/D  Then a f t e r each second  sampled,  way  i s to c o o r d i n a t e a one  the A g a s s i z E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm s i t e l o c a t i o n s . initializing  this  Software  the  at a r a t e  i n F i g u r e J-5  In  the  m i c r o p r o c e s s o r data f o r m a t t e r i n p u t p o r t s .  of the weatherlog  interval  are  at  Every t e n t h i n t e r -  transmission.  output p o r t s at Ryder Lake are c o n f i g u r e d f o r one are matched by the UBC  of a second  the m e t e o r o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s are sampled and  output are  their  i n t e r v a l i s 1/10  loop.  the  SOD  cycle  is  If  any  the d e l a y loop must be rain  clear  output  con-  u s i n g a frequency meter t o  185  VARIABLE  a  STORE  A S  F O L L O W I N G a) C H  N9'3  b) C H  N9 4 : w s  = WD  O C H  N?5=TEMP  d)CH  NS«=RAIN  t _ I F  O A T A  IS  « F F H R E S T O R E  DATA  A S = F E H  _  _SEND_ S E N D S E N D  S E N D «  F i g u r e J-5  WD_ W S  T E M P  S Y N C H F F H  Program Flow Chart f o r the UBC Weatherlog 8085 Data A c q u i s i t i o n M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s  186  J-4  The Bear Mountain 1802 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Functionally,  the  flow  chart  differences interval derived  Software  the Bear Mountain RCA 1802 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  software  of F i g u r e J-6, i s the same as the 8085 weatherlog.  The o n l y  are i n the method by which the t i m i n g f o r the one second  sampling  and the 110 bps data  stream  are derived.  Instead of u s i n g  d e l a y loops as i s done i n the 8085 system the 1802 software  externally  shown i n  derived interrupt  p u l s e s to e s t a b l i s h sampling  software r e l i e s on  i n t e r v a l s and t r a n s -  mission timing.  J-5  The NOVA 840 Minicomputer Data T r a n s f e r The  sette ware After  purpose  recorder flow  of t h i s  software  Software  i s to t r a n s f e r  to the magnetic r e e l - t o - r e e l tape  chart  for this  initialization,  data  transfer  the program  first  data from  on the NOVA 840.  operation requests  i s given  a block  from the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r by i s s u i n g an ASCII c o n t r o l converts tape.  the data  After  to EBCDIC  c h a r a c t e r s and outputs  t r a n s f e r r i n g one block another  process i s r e p e a t e d .  the magnetic  cas-  The s o f t -  i n Figure J-7.  of data  command.  (2k bytes)  The NOVA then  the block to the magnetic  i s requested  f o r t r a n s f e r and the  187  C BEAR  MTN.  INITIALIZE A/D REGISTERS WAIT FOR I SEC INTERRUPT  6  SAMPLE/SEND  SAMPLE EACH VARIABLE a STOREa) TEMP. = CH. N2 5 b) RAIN=CH.N26  IF  DATA=FFH  RESTORE DATA AS= F E H  SEND 9 9 H  SEND  CCH  SEND SYNCH • FFH  F i g u r e J-6  Data A c q u i s i t i o n and C o n t r o l Program Flow Chart f o r the Remote Bear Mountain 1802 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Unit  188  J-4  The Bear Mountain 1802 M i c r o p r o c e s s o r Functionally,  the  flow  chart  differences interval derived  Software  the Bear Mountain RCA 1802 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r  software  of F i g u r e J-6, i s the same as the 8085 weatherlog.  The o n l y  are i n the method by which the t i m i n g f o r the one second  sampling  and the 110 bps data  stream  are d e r i v e d .  Instead of u s i n g  d e l a y loops as I s done i n the 8085 system the 1802 software  externally  shown i n  d e r i v e d i n t e r r u p t p u l s e s to e s t a b l i s h sampling  software r e l i e s on  i n t e r v a l s and t r a n s -  mission timing.  J-5  The NOVA 840 Minicomputer Data T r a n s f e r The  sette ware After from  of t h i s software  i s to t r a n s f e r  r e c o r d e r t o the magnetic r e e l - t o - r e e l tape flow  chart  for this  initialization,  data  transfer  the program  first  data from  on the NOVA 840.  operation requests  the magnetic  i s given  a block  the data  After  to EBCDIC  c h a r a c t e r s and outputs  t r a n s f e r r i n g one block another  process i s r e p e a t e d .  cas-  The s o f t -  i n Figure J-7.  of data  the c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r by i s s u i n g an ACSII c o n t r o l command.  converts tape.  purpose  Software  (3k b y t e s )  The NOVA then  the block to the magnetic  i s requested  f o r t r a n s f e r and t h e  189  c  NOVA  8 40  INITIALIZE= CURRENT MAG  PORT  TAPE  READ  BLOCK  FROM  CURRENT PORT  CONVERT FROM TO  STORE ON  HEX  EBCDIC  BLOCK  MAGNETIC TAPE  c F i g u r e J-7  STOP  Program Flow Chart t o T r a n s f e r Data from C a s s e t t e Tapes to Magnetic Tape Using the Nova 840.  190  APPENDIX K THE BRIGHT BAND PROPAGATION  EXPERIMENT'S  DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  K-1  Introduction This  appendix  and maintenance band  gives  the documentation  of the data base management system  p r o p a g a t i o n experiment.  system  to f a c i l i t a t e  program  development  (DBMS) used i n t h i s  bright  As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV, the data a c q u i s i t i o n  generates s u f f i c i e n t l y  large  volumes  of data to make the b r i g h t  band  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i m p r a c t i c a l u n l e s s a computerized data r e d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e and analysis  system  is utilized.  DBMS i s an i n t e g r a l  part  Thus  of t h i s  the data h a n d l i n g  research project  function  performed by  since i t i s responsible to  p r o v i d e the data a n a l y s i s and g r a p h i c a l outputs which are used t o draw the experimental  K-2  conclusions.  The System DBMS i s a s e q u e n t i a l  system where the input  the output i s g i v e n as a p r e s e n t a t i o n tines. their  A functional  flowchart  developmental s t a t u s  i s raw e x p e r i m e n t a l data and  of g r a p h i c a l r e s u l t s v i a p l o t t i n g  relative  t o the b r i g h t  to the completion of t h i s  band  experiment  rou-  showing  t h e s i s work i s g i v e n i n  F i g u r e K-1. In  terms  integrated path  of DBMS development,  plotting  average  rain  package rate,  which  the e n t r y  includes  individual  rain  procedure  routines  rates,  site  i s complete,  to p l o t  and an  attenuation with  temperature,  site  dif-  f e r e n t i a l temperature, d i f f e r e n t i a l temperature, temperature g r a d i e n t and wind  191  £>ATA  £Xf £.&/A>/£-A/rs4L (FtfOAf A/OM A4//\Jf >  COMPUTER.  800 3 FORMAT COXPESPOAVDS TO DD ' /MPUT FORMAT .  /  \  DBMS V.  TAPE 3Y°THE  DATA  ppocessor.  P^EPAPED EXTPACT  MODE  D  A  T  A  t a p e s  PLOTT/NG  RO(JT/NES_,  PIOTTED OUTPUTS  F i g u r e K-1  DBMS F u n c t i o n a l Flow Chart  Showing Completion  Status  192  speed  as a f u n c t i o n of time,  still  under development  have  and these  been f i n i s h e d .  S e v e r a l DBMS packages a r e  i n c l u d e the "SCAN" f u n c t i o n , the "EXTRACT"  f u n c t i o n and s e v e r a l "PLOT" r o u t i n e o p t i o n s . A detailed prise  d e s c r i p t i o n of the major  DBMS are d e a l t with  DBMS program, "PLOT"  the b r i g h t  routine  system software  i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . band  options.  packages which  These i n c l u d e the main  "ENTER" f u n c t i o n , the data  A l l these  system  packages  com-  d i r e c t o r y , and the  use the F o r t r a n IV-G  compiler.  K-3  DBMS Main The  trol  DBMS main  to user  program  requested K-2.  initializes  operating  the system and d e l e g a t e s  modes  as shown i n i t s software  chart  i n Figure  fully  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o DBMS, however, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the "SCAN" and the  t h i s research  K-4  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  time  flow  con-  given  "EXTRACT" mode w i l l  At the present  program  into  the "ENTER" and "PLOT" modes a r e  the system d u r i n g  "ENTER"  floating  point engineering  envoked the d i s c f i l e ed  phase of  program.  "ENTER" i s a c o n v e r s i o n a l g o r i t h m designed to  the next  to engineering  t o convert  units f o r analysis.  recorded  hex values  When the "ENTER" o p t i o n i s  or tape c o n t a i n i n g the hex i n f o r m a t i o n i s read,  u n i t s and then  These data can then be analyzed  outputted  t o a temporary d i s c f i l e ,  u s i n g "PLOT" o r s t o r e d to permanent  or on magnetic tape u s i n g MTS "FILESAVE".  convert"-DATA".  disc  files  193  I smerevec.  Figure K-2  DBMS Main Program Flow Chart  194  K-5  The Data  Directory  Each of the formats fied  into  by a data d i r e c t o r y .  and out of the DBMS e n t r y procedure  Each item i n the d i r e c t o r y i s s e p a r a t e l y and p a r a -  m e t i c a l l y d e f i n e d so changes can be made to i t without software. it  are s p e c i -  changing  the e x e c u t a b l e  Since the data d i r e c t o r y d e f i n e s the DBMS input and output  i s central  t o the development  of new e n t r y  procedures  f o r other  formats, experi-  ments . A bright  listing band  of the data  experiment  column headings A.  Record  directory  i s given  used  i n Table  i n the e n t r y  K-1.  procedure  The l e t t e r e d  labels  for  the  for  the  can be d e f i n e d i n more d e t a i l , as f o l l o w s :  sequence  number;  a  label  (not entered  as p a r t  of the data  directory), B.  Field  Name; d e s c r i p t o r of the data  C.  Tape Type Number; 1 f o r output and 2 f o r input tape,  D.  V a r i a b l e Type Number; "1" f o r 2 byte or 1 half-word byte or 2 half-word s i z e data  elements,  fields,  E.  S t a r t i n g byte p o s i t i o n of t h i s f i e l d  F.  Ending byte p o s i t i o n of t h i s f i e l d  G.  F i e l d e x t r a c t i o n parameter;  H.  Data v a r i a b l e encoding  i n the data r e c o r d ,  i n the data r e c o r d ,  g i v e s the o p t i o n a l d e f a u l t  format.  s i z e and "2" f o r 4  specification,  Table K-1  A  Data D i r e c t o r y  B  f o r theTime S e r i e s Format  C  D  E  F  G  H  1 2 3 4 5  Record Type Month Days Hours Minutes  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1 1  1 3 5 7 9  2 4 6 8 10  BCD BCD BCD BCD BCD  6 7 8 9 10  Seconds Gaugestatus Dog-Wind DN Dog-Wind SP Dog-Temp  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1 1  11 13 15 17 19  12 14 16 18 20  BCD HEX HEX HEX HEX  11 12 13 14 15  Dog-Rain RBY-Wind DN RBY-Wind SP RBY-Temp RBY-Rain  2 2 2 2 2  2 1 1 1 2  21 23 25 27 29  22 24 26 28 30  00 00 00 00  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  16 17 18 19 20  Bar-Wind DN Bar-Wind SP Bar-Temp Bar-Rain AGZ-Wind DN  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 2 1  31 33 35 37 39  32 34 36 38 40  00 00 00 00 00  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  21 22 23 24 25  AGZ-Wind SP AGZ-Temp AGZ-Rain RLK-Wind DN RLK-Wind SP  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 2 1 1  41 43 . 45 47 49  42 44 46 48 50  00 00 00 00 00  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  26 27 28 29 30  RLK-Temp RLK-Rain 01-RX1:3550 01-RX2:3790 01-RX3:4010  2 2 2 2 2  1 2 1 1 1  51 53 55 57 59  52 54 56 58 60  00 00  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  31 32 33 34 35  '01-RX4:7142 01-RX5:7496 02-RXl:3550 02-RX2:3790 02-RX3:4.010  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1 1  61 63 65 67 69  62 64 66 68 70  00 00 00  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  Table K-1  Data D i r e c t o r y f o r the Time S e r i e s Format  B  (cont'd.)  H  36 37 38 39 40  02-RX4:7142 02-RX5:7496 03-RX1.3550 03-RX2:3790 03-RX3:4010  2 2 2 2 2  71 73 75 77 79  72 74 76 78 80  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  41 42 43 44 45  03-RX4:7142 03-RX5:7496 04-RX1.3550 04-RX2:3790 04-RX3-.4010  2 2 2 2 2  81 83 85 87 89  82 84 86 88 90  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  46 47 48 49 50  04-RX4:7142 04-RX5:7496 05-RXl:3550 05-RX2:3790 05-RX3:4010  2 2 2 2 2  91 93 95 97 99  92 94 96 98 100  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  51 52 53 54 55  05-RX4:7142 05- RX5:7496 06- RXl:3550 06-RX2:3790 06-RX3:4010  2 2 2 2 2  101 103 105 107 109  102 104 106 108 110  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  56 57 58 59 60  06-RX4.-7142 06-RX5:7496 07-RXl:3550 07-RX2:3790 07-RX3:4010  111 113 115 117 119  112 114 116 118 120  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  61 62 63 64 65  07-RX4:7142 07- RX5:7496 08- RXl:3550 08-RX2:3790 08-RX3:4010  121 123 125 127 129  122 124 126 128 130  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  66 67  08-RX4:7142 08-RX5:7496  68  09-RXl:3550  69 70  09-RX2:3790 09-RX3:4010  131 133 135 137 139  132 134 136 138 140  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  2 2 2 2 2  197  Table K-1  Data D i r e c t o r y  A  K-6  f o r the Time S e r i e s  B  Format  (cont'd.)  C  D  E  F  141 143 145 147 149  142 144 146 148 150  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  151 153 155 157 159  152 154 156 .158 160  HEX HEX HEX HEX HEX  71 72 73 74 75  09-RX4:7142 09-RX5:7496 10-RX1:3550 10-RX2:3790 10-RX3:4010  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1  76 77 78 79 80  10-RX4:7142 10-RX5:7496 EVENT FLAG FF END OF BLOCK FF  2 2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1 1  1  G  H  "PLOT" "PLOT"  is  an  integrated  interactive  designed  f o r presenting  format.  The p l o t t i n g o p t i o n s developed Rain r a t e and one r e c e i v e r  2.  Temperature a)  site  temperature  b)  site differential  c)  site versus  d)  site  specifically time  series  i n work are as f o l l o w s :  s i g n a l versus time;  and one r e c e i v e r temperature  differential  s i g n a l versus time,  and one r e c e i v e r s i g n a l versus t i m e , temperature  and  one  receiver  signal  time,  temperature  gradient  and one r e c e i v e r  3.  S i t e windspeed and one r e c e i v e r  4.  Two r e c e i v e r  5.  High r e s o l u t i o n two r e c e i v e r points).  package  the recorded measurements i n a g r a p h i c a l  1.  to  plotting  s i g n a l s v e r s u s time  level  level  versus time;  versus time;  (one second  average);  l e v e l s versus time ( a l l 1/10 second  sample  198  In a l l these p l o t The  "PLOT"  o p t i o n s the s c a l e s package  "-DATA" tempory f i l e , called  "-PLOT#".  output  to the CALCOMP  for  processes  The p l o t  the best o u t p u t ) .  takes  source  data  i n engineering  i t f o r the p l o t t e r i n t o another  can then  plotters  and o f f s e t s are i n t e r a c t i v e l y a d j u s t a b l e . units  from  the  temporary  file  be previewed u s i n g PLOTSEE and routed f o r  or to a p r i n t r o n i x  printer  (RMPROUTE=PTRXPLOT  A sample p l o t t i n g rum i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e K-3.  199  PROPAGATION  SELECT  OUTPUT  OPTION  DATA  PLOTTING  REQUIRED  (ENTER  FUNCTION  T I M E S E R I E S P L O T OF AND ONE R A I N R A T E  (3)  T I M E S E R I E S PLOT OF ONE R E C E I V E R S I G N A L STRENGTH ANO ONE OF S E V E R A L T E M P E R A T U R E D I S P L A Y OPTIONS  (3)  TIME S E R I E S PLOT AND WIND S P E E D  ONE  RECEIVER  RECEIVER  SIGNAL  NUMBER)  (1)  OF  ONE  SYSTEM  SIGNAL  STRENGTH  STRENGTH TYPICAL STRENGTHS  SEQ.  t 2  I . E N T E R S T A R T I N G RECORD N O . TO BE P L O T T E D : (16) 1 . E N T E R N O . OF RECOROS TO BE P L O T T E D : (16) 80O0. PLOT WILL D I S P L A Y BCOO R E C O R D S . S T A R T I N G WITH N O . t ARE D E F A U L T V A L U E S OF F I R S T RX . S I G N A L L E V E L D I S P L A Y OK? O R I G I N VALUE • - 4 0 00 INCREMENT • 5.00 E N T E R "<CR>" DR "NO * NO ENTER O R I G I N V A L U E : ( F 5 0} -65. . ENTER INCREMENT V A L U E : (F5.0) 5. . ARE O E F A U L T V A L U E S OF SECOND R X . S I G N A L L E V E L D I S P L A Y OK? O R I G I N VALUE -40.00 INCREMENT • 5 . OO E N T E R "<CR>" OR "NO" NO ENTER O R I G I N V A L U E : <F5.0> -50.. E N T E R INCREMENT V A L U E : (F5.0) 5. . ENTER D I S P L A * RESOLUTION COOE: t -> ONE P L O T T E D P O I N T PER SECOND 2 -> T E N P L O T T E D P O I N T S PER SECOND 1 . ARE D E F A U L T V A L U E S OF TIME A X I S D I S P L A Y OK? O R I G I N VALUE • 0 0 INCREMtNT ».OO ENTER •<CR>* 0 « "NO" NO ENTER O R I G I N V A L U E : (F5.0) O. . E N T E R INCREMENT V A L U E : (F5.0) • O. . FOR F I R S T R E C E I V E R C H A N N E L : E N T E R R E C E I V E R NUMBER TO BE S E L E C T E D : 1 •> 3 5 5 0 MHZ. 3 •> 3 9 9 0 MHZ. 3 >> 4 0 1 0 M H Z . 4 •> 7 1 4 3 MHZ. 5 •> 7 4 9 6 M H ? . 3. FOR  SECOND  RECEIVER  CHANNEL;  RX .  1 OO 3.00 5.00 7.00 9.00 11 . 0 0 11.00  1301 3401 3601 4801 6001 6003  CODE FOR SOURCE F I L E DESIRED: »> TEST SCRATCH F I L E "-DATA" •> PERMANENT D I S K F I L E "DO01.DAT"  (INCHES) X  1  PLOT  ENTER  RESULTS: NO.  RX.  #3  1 83 0.37 0.44 1 .45 0.91 0.92  o.ee  S U C C E S S F U L L Y REAO 8001 DATA RECORDS 14 I N C H E S OF P L O T T I N G WILL T A K E A P P R O X . 3 MIN. 53 S E C . AND MAXIMUM Y V A L U E I S A P P R O X . 10 I N C H E S . 0 MIN 51 S E C , OR 33% OF T O T A L PLOT TIME IS WITH P E N U P . SUCCESSFUL PLOT. fExecutIon laminated 16. 1 3 , $4 1 87T #SET RMPROUTE-PTRXPLOT * $01. J41.B9T #R • P L O T SE E 0 - - P L O T * • E x e c u t i o n Begins  0 %  I-LII--I-  .  i-  ;v„v  j. -j --J j—  I G ? PX •RMPRINT* a s s i g n e d Job number 463548 P r l n t r o n l x p l o t g e n e r a t i o n done. I G ? PX P r l n t r o n l x p l o t o e n e r a t i o n done. I G ? PX P r l n t r o n l x p l o t g e n e r a t i o n done. IG? End of p l o t s . Last chance to use *IG. IG? $ • R M P R I N T • RM462548 r e l e a s e d t o PTRXPLOT OEVICETYPf'PTRX *E«ocutlon  Figure K-3  01  5.88 5.83 5.50 5.B6 5.69 5.74 5 . 74  Terminated  Sample P l o t t i n g Run  6  • -  pages  -i  i- i  PRIORITY-NORMAL  PAPER  200  REFERENCES  Van Trees, Satellites: 1977.  H., Hoversten, E., and McGarty, T., "Communications Looking i n t o the 1980's", IEEE Spectrum, pp. 43-51, Dec.  GTE Lenkurt, Engineering Systems, 1970.  Considerations  Silverthorn, D. , and Tetarenko, R., T e l e s i s , v o l . 5, pp. 209-213, 1976. HervieUx, P., "RD-3: an 8 GHz v o l . 4, pp. 53-59, 1975.  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