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Design conventions of Wari official garments MacQuarrie-Kent, Janet Diane 1980-12-31

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DESIGN  CONVENTIONS  OF  WARI O F F I C I A L  GARMENTS  by  JANET B.H.E.,  DIANE  MACQUARRIE-KENT  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  of  IN  REQUIREMENTS  British  Columbia,  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  FOR  DEGREE  M A S T E R OF  THE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  of Art  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  October  (T)  Janet  Diane  as  STUDIES  History  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1980  MacQuarrie-Kent  1973  OF  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  purposes  written  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  is  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  by  shall  I  agree  this  or  of  University  Art of  History British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  October,  1980  Columbia  D.  that  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  study.  or  publication  without  my  permission.  Department  Date  of  be a l l o w e d  Janet  The  copying  that  not  requirements  r e f e r e n c e and  t h e Head o f  understood  gain  the  MacQuarrie-Kent  ABSTRACT  The before  people  the  technique  of  ancient  Spanish  Conquest  and  textiles. woven of  One  Wari  The  the  of  of  Few  of  their  or  Very date,  (Sawyer,  and  most  conventions  and  chronology.  His  on  well  in  the  almost  groups as  the  social  formal  With  inherent  the  finely garments  and  design  Wari  in  the  economic  iconography  the  known  handwoven  are  and  years  every  official  sophisticated  however,  repetition  thesis  Wari  An  art  breaks  the  has  been  a  methodology  begins  ceramic  the  he  state  artistic  principles  counteracted  strictly  the  prescribed  an  accompanying  therefore  deciphering  by  the  of  a  brief  examines  be  used  for in  and  of  conventions.  textiles.  by  the  Alan  Sawyer.  complex a  To  design relative  study.  the  continues  of  scientific  establishing this  known  sparse  Wari  of  is  utilizing  article  some  examination  evidence  on  scientific  however,  design  specifically  is  l i t t l e  approach,  created  methodology will  with  and  barrier  it  have  historical  work  In  suggests  documented  tunics  written  important  1963:27-38)  This  organized  colour,  facilitates  l i t t l e  the  A.D.).  thousand  outstanding  exciting  (c.700-1000  four  used  most  served  associations  role.  analysis  documentation  and  They  that  highly  existing grave  cultural  stylistic  of  A.D.. world's  tunics  a  textiles  garments.  the  provenience  the  textiles.  use  monotony  the  of  manifested  their  masterful  problems design  of  is  1532  visually  culture  maintained  produced  in  most  tapestry  rigidity  conventions  some  the  (Huari)  Wari  its  and  of  interlocking  the  and  created  Peru  Wari  with  a  culture  based  discussion  of  i i i. provenience (when known), d i s t r i b u t i o n , technology and the  textiles.  conventions.  The  focus  of  this  study  i s the  iconography use  of  of  design  Examination of three major design conventions - l a t e r a l  d i s t o r t i o n , symmetry and colour usage - i s followed by a comparative a n a l y s i s and a discussion of relevant ceramic evidence.  Sawyer has divided Wari o f f i c i a l  garments into the following three  types:  1.  Type 1 - Paired elements  2.  Type 2 - Composite motifs  3.  Type 3 - S t a f f bearing anthropomorphic  figures.  This thesis i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the f i r s t type. this  study  consists  47  of  representative examples  The sample f o r ranging  from  fragments to complete tunics of Type 1.  Through the examination of l a t e r a l d i s t o r t i o n and the comparative a n a l y s i s of relevant ceramic evidence and known t e x t i l e provenience, a r e l a t i v e chronology possible  can  be  proposed.  It will  to evaluate the design conventions  be  shown that i t i s  of symmetry and  usage to determine the rules governing t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . permits the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of regional and temporal  traits.  colour  This i n turn  iv. TABLE  Title  OF  CONTENTS  Page  i  Abstract Table List  of of  CHAPTER A. B. C. D. E.  Contents  1.  THE  WARI C U L T U R E Civilization  GARMENTS  and D i s t r i b u t i o n  Weaving Techniques C o n s t r u c t i o n and Dimensions Finishes Looms Materials Dyes and M o r d a n t s  Iconography  1 1 7 8 8 10 24 24 25 26 26 29 29 31 34 35 39  1.  Iconographic  Types  39  2.  Iconographic  Sources  42  3.  DESIGN  Introduction  CONVENTIONS to  Design  1.  Abstraction  2.  Distortion  B.  Overall  C.  The Sample  CHAPTER 4 . A.  OF  WARI O F F I C I A L  Definition Provenience Technology  CHAPTER A.  vi  HISTORY  2.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D.  iv  Figures  Introduction to Peruvian Geography The S i t e The Wari C u l t u r e Wari Ceramics  CHAPTER A. B. C.  i i  Design  LATERAL  Charting  AND S A M P L E  Conventions  50 50 50 51  Organization  57 61  DISTORTION  Methodology  112 112  1.  Measurements  112  2. 3.  Conversion to Percentages Charting Process  115 117  CHAPTER 4 . B.  LATERAL  Lateral  DISTORTION  Distortion  1.  Group  1  2. 3. 4.  Group Group Group  2 3 4  5.  Group  5  Charts  cont. 117  and A n a l y s i s  118 118 122 127 130  CHAPTER  5.  SYMMETRY  135  CHAPTER  6.  COLOUR  USAGE  147  S p e c i f i c C o l o u r Use Colour Patterning  147 149  1. 2.  149 152  A. B.  CHAPTER A.  SECONDARY  168  TRAITS  169  Type: Diamond o r Z i g - Z a g Form: C o m p l e t e , P a r t i a l o r C o l o u r : L i g h t o r Dark  169 170 171  Absent  171-1  Colour 1. 2.  C.  7.  Outlining 1. 2. 3.  B.  Charting Methodology Chart Analysis  Additions to Stepped S p i r a l s V a r i a t i o n s : Minor V a r i a t i o n s from  Facial  Details  1. 2.  Mouth Mouth  3. 4.  Eye Eye  (Type  IB)  Form Orientation  Form Orientation  Colour  Patterning  171 172 173 173 174 175 177  CONCLUSIONS  186  Bibliography  191  LIST  Figure  Page  1  1.  Peruvian  2.  Map o f  Peru  3.  Middle  Horizon  4.  Chakipampa  Chronology  Chart...  3 5  Chronology  Chart  A  12 13 14 18 20 20 21  2  11. 12. 13.  S i n g l e I n t e r l o c k i n g Between Dimensions and C o n s t r u c t i o n Warp S e l v a g e F i n i s h  14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  Loom Iron Type Type Type Type  20. 21.  Conchopata R o b l e s Moqo  CHAPTER  Warps  28 29 32  Type M o r d a n t Damage 1 - Paired Elements. 2 - Composite M o t i f s 3 - Staff Bearing Figures 3 - Stages of Representation  33 37 40 41 43 44 ,  Abstraction  23. 24. 25. 26.  A b s t r a c t i o n : P r o f i l e Head Four Zones o f Type 3 . R e s o l u t i o n o f Type 3 Loomed p a n e l s , f r o n t a n d b a c k sides  27.  Type  77. 78. .79. 80.  1:  Sample through  CHAPTER  47 49  3  22.  76.  11  Conchopata A Gateway o f t h e Sun R o b l e s Moqo Vinaque. Atarco Pachacamac  CHAPTER  28. 29.  FIGURES  Number  CHAPTER  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  OF  Five List 75.  :  Stepped  Spiral...  52  faces.and  left  and  right 58  Groups Sample  52 54 56  ..  • numbers  1 through  60 63*-64 65-111  47  4  Column  numbering;  expanded  and compressed  Measuring Process L a t e r a l D i s t o r t i o n C h a r t : Group L a t e r a l D i s t o r t i o n Chart: Group P e r c e n t a g e Range o f D i s t o r t i o n :  1 2 Group  portion  113 116 119 120 121  2.....  81. 82.  R e l a t i o n Between Design Columns: Group 2 , 122 Lateral Distortion.Chart.(Expansion): G r o u p . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3  83.  Lateral  Distortion  Chart  (Compression):  Group  3  124  Number  vii.  84.  Percentage  85. 86. 87.  R e l a t i o n Between Design Columns: Group 3 L a t e r a l D i s t o r t i o n C h a r t : Group 4 P e r c e n t a g e Range o f D i s t o r t i o n : Group 4  Range  of  Distortion:  Group  3  125 126 128 129  88. 89.  R e l a t i o n Between Design Columns: Group L a t e r a l D i s t o r t i o n Chart: Group 5  130 130-1  90. 91. 92.  P e r c e n t a g e Range o f D i s t o r t i o n : Group 5 R e l a t i o n Between Design Columns: Group 5 Proposed Chronology  4  131 132 134  CHAPTER 5 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98.  Symmetric Motions Fundamental P o r t i o n and Design U n i t Slide Reflection Outlining Patterns Symmetry o f A d j a c e n t D e s i g n Columns Symmetry a t C e n t e r Seam.  137 139 140 142 143 145  CHAPTER 6 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109.  Colour Charting S y s t e m . . . . P a r a l l e l and Opposing Motions , D i a g o n a l C o l o u r Movement C h a n g e i n O r i e n t a t i o n a t C e n t e r Seam Parallel Pattern 1 , Parallel Pattern 1 Opposing Pattern 1 Parallel Pattern 2 Opposing Pattern 2 P a r a l l e l and Opposing Motions i n the S a m p l e . . . Parallel Pattern 3  110. 111.  Parallel Pattern 3 Chronology and Colour  CHAPTER 112. 113. 114. 115. 116.  Patterning  ,  ,  150 152 ...153 154 ...156 157 158 160 161 .163 162 164 167  7  Partial Outlining .Colour Additions  170 ' 172  Mouth Forms Composite Chart Composite Chart  -173 179 180.  * **  CHAPTER  A.  1.  HISTORY  OF  THE  WARI  Introduction to Peruvian C i v i l i z a t i o n  The  German  Peruvian  archaeologist  archaeology,  was  s c i e n t i f i c method  based  strati graphic  on  chronological 1962:6), work  primarily  Pachacamac based  (Menzel , still  applicable,  spatial  their  of  John  Peruvian  relations.  registration  with  Coast  1895,  recognized  relation  to  proposed which  framework  a  on  more  data  defined  two  (Rowe, Uhle's  sites,  stylistic the  notably Coast,  analysis.  two H o r i z o n s  useful  on t h e  the  of  on the South  of  of  apply  one a n o t h e r .  considers  i s based  to  father  Horizons  ceremonial  identification  has  and  and T i a h u a n a c o  coastal  the  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  interpretations  civilization  Rowe's  He  in  and t h e l e a V a l l e y  Uhle's  Rowe  considered  beginning  temporal  concerned  While  often  The I n c a  chronological  1977:1).  study  of  styles:  on t h e C e n t r a l his  first,  position.  and i d e n t i f i e d  was  and  horizon  Max U h l e ,  the  systematic  the  CULTURE  i s  framework  for  both  temporal  and  idea  that  ...a sequence o f s t y l e changes i n one s m a l l a r e a form a master sequence, and t h a t we d i s c u s s e v e n t s i n the culture history of other areas by c r o s s - d a t i n g them with p a r t i c u l a r events and s t y l e s i n t h e a r e a o f t h e master sequence. (Menzel, 1977:2)  The  area  Coast  Rowe  since  chronology  selected the  was  as the standard  archaeologic  most  complete  data for  was t h e l e a V a l l e y necessary  this  area.  for (Rowe,  on t h e  South  establishing 1962:49)  a  Rowe  2. defined six temporal groups which this thesis will follow, based on the sequence at lea. These are, from early to late:  1.  Initial Period  2.  Early Horizon  3.  Early Intermediate Period  4. Middle Horizon 5. Late Intermediate Period 6. Late Horizon  In addition to these six groups, many authors also include a Preceramic period and the Colonial period.  Periods  can be considered  "relatively greater regional  three  Horizons  of time  where  there is  isolation", while Horizons show "a much  wider spread of similar traits".  The  as units  (Menzel, 1977:3-4)  defined  by Rowe  indicate  the widespread  distribution of the following three major Peruvian civilizations:  1. Chavin (Early Horizon) 2.  Tiahuanaco or Wari (Middle Horizon)  3.  Inca (Late Horizon)  The three Horizons can be seen in the chronology chart in figure 1 as shaded Initial,  horizontal Early  bands, while  Intermediate  the unshaded  and Late  areas  represent the  Intermediate  Periods, when  widespread cultural unity was not apparent.  3.  Figure  1.  Peruvian Chronology,  (after  1975:vii)  Coaat  Northarn Highlands  Sawyer,  Fa> North  t torth  Southern Central  South  Highland.  This in  his  follows  discussion  Museum has  study  (Sawyer,  divided  highlands  and  between  the  Southern  Highlands  Coast.  North  Coast  Coast  and  three  coastal  1.  shows  For will  Far  be  to  into  North,  Coast are  be  Casma  the  south  to  the  division  coast  and  groups,  the  based  Central  and  South  and  the  North  Far  includes North  Coast,  to  as  the  South  and  Coast. the  Coast  while  on  Far  and  the Coast.  the  South The  below.  includes Valley.  the  Chira  i n c l u d e s the Cafiete V a l l e y .  The South Coast  This  Sawyer  North,  The Central Coast to  Periods,  Art  Northern  the  The North Coast the  Krannert  the  referred  defined  Sawyer  include  study  will  Alan  These  of  as  and  specific  divisions  considered  the  the  coastal this  by  areas.  regions,  further  Far  of  Horizons  geographic  collection.  the  presented  collection  primary  purpose  regions  south 3.  into  these  the  South  to 2.  and  (fig.l)  addition  them  Krannert  (fig.2)  South  In  two  subdivides  in  map  Peruvian  chronology  examples  The  the  chronology  1975:vii).  the  differentiates  of  the  includes  the  contemporary  Valley  Huarmey  Chincha  border  of  south  Valley  Valley Peru  and  Chile.  In  addition,  parallel  the  1.  the  highlands  coastal  can  regions.  be  separated  These  The Northern Highlands Coast  which  are  major  tributary  drained of  the  into  similar  regions  are:  to by  the the  Amazon.  east  of  Maranon  the  North  River,  a  that  5.  Figure  2.  Map o f  Peru,  (after  Sawyer,  1975:vi)  The Central  Highlands t o t h e e a s t o f the Central Coast which are drained by another tributary of the Amazon, the Huallaga River, and also the Mantaro River, particularly in the southern p o r t i o n of the C e n t r a l Highlands. The Southern Highlands  to the east of t h e S o u t h C o a s t w h i c h a r e d r a i n e d by t h e Urubamba R i v e r . This area also includes the regions surrounding Lake Titicaca situated on t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y border of Peru and B o l i v i a .  The  chronology  chart  Southern,  with  this  Since  site  of  the  Central  for  This Horizon Southern  Some  thesis and  is  is  placing  located  defined  the Wari  in  above,  highlands in  the  the  into  Southern  southernmost  this  north  Northern  and  Highlands.  portion  south  and  of  division  the is  study.  therefore  spatially  with  concerned the  temporally  Central  and  with  South  the  Coast,  Middle and  the  Highlands.  terminology  differences or  as  this  separates  division  Wari  Highlands  sufficient  (fig.l)  or  problems  changes  interpretation  of  in  the  should  research  evidence".  be  noted  methods, (Rowe  which  "reflect  knowledge  and M e n z e l ,  of  important  the  subject,  1967:iv).  Max Uhle many y e a r s ago was impressed by the s i m i l a r i t y between the Huari S t y l e group of Peru and the Tiahuanaco s t y l e o f B o l i v i a and treated them as a single style, applying the term "Tiahuanaco" to b o t h . (Rowe and M e n z e l , 1967:vi)  While and  Wendell  Tiahuanaco,  C.  Bennett this  study  first will  proposed follow  the the  distinction  work  of  between  Dorothy  Menzel  Wari who  has made a clear distinction between the two styles. confusion  between  the Tiahuanaco  and Wari  In addition to  styles,  spellings of Wari (Huari) exist in the literature. follow  the f i r s t  unless  i t appears  two alternate  This thesis will  as the alternate  in direct  quotations.  B.  Geography  The rugged geography of Peru must have seemed inhospitable to the many great cultures that flourished there.  The scarcity of water and  lack of land suitable for cultivation made i t necessary for the people of ancient Peru to live in relatively isolated groups.  Peru can be divided into a number of geographical zones.  This  study is concerned with two major zones:  While  1.  The coastal desert  2.  The highlands or altipiano  the Central  and South  Coast and Southern  Highlands are  the  primary regions that concern the Wari, there is also evidence that the Wari  had connections with the eastern slopes of the Andes or the  selva. (Browman, 1978:334)  Textile preservation in the highlands is poor due to the area's abundant rainfall, and few examples have been found there. all  were preserved in dry caves  such  as those  found  Of these,  in 1967 at  Huanca-Santos, south of Wari in the Department of Ayacucho, by Dr. R.T. Zuidema of the University of I l l i n o i s .  Most of the existing textiles  have been found on the arid coastal deserts of Peru, where conditions are more favourable for preservation. Coast, specifically  the lea and  The richest area was the South  Nasca Valleys, where most of the  textiles discussed in this thesis were reportedly found  in burials.  Here, as throughout Peru, huaquero, or grave robber activity has been so intense that few pieces have any archaeological provenience or grave associations.  C.  The Site  The site of Wari is located in the Southern Highlands near the modern town of Ayacucho.  Wari  is situated  in the drainage of the  Mantaro River "which drains the long area from Cerro de Pasco above the Huara and Chancay Valleys southeastward to the region of Ayacucho which lies inland from the lea and Nasca drainage". (Sawyer, 1975:10)  D.  The Mari Culture  Since  most  known  Wari  textiles  have  dubious  archaeological  provenience, a relative chronology for the textiles can only be based on stylistic evidence. culture  Most of the information published on the Wari  is derived from  ceramics.  An  archaeological  examination  of  the  excavations and  ceramic  evidence  studies of is therefore  necessary to the understanding of the development and organization of the Wari state.  As well, the established ceramic chronology can be  compared to a tentative textile chronology to help refine the latter.  Of work  the  of  Dorothy  following Early  researchers  is  a  Menzel  summary  Intermediate  regional better  and of  and  because  some was  the  of  of  the  their  by  is  the was  systems.  improved  Middle  The  end  development  of  greatly  agricultural of  the The  of  also  the  strong  increased  Populations  culture  Horizon,  outstanding.  conclusions.  production  Chavin  the  Lumbreras  marked  terracing  of  unity  investigated  Luis  Agricultural  irrigation  religious  have  Period  states.  probably  who  due  to  increased  production.  the  Early  The  Horizon  had  disappeared.  These r e g i o n a l s t a t e s were a l s o i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r f o r l a n d and f o o d r e s o u r c e s ; and t h e i r l e a d e r s m u s t h a v e v i e d f o r power and prestige. In b r i e f , t h e t i m e was r i p e f o r an imperial attempt. S u c h an a t t e m p t , o r attempts, c h a r a c t e r i z e the Middle H o r i z o n . (Willey, 1971:157)  One  of  these  Southern culture  regional  Highlands had  its of  Tiahuanaco  culture  with  The  major to  the  the  many  long  Bolivian  in  of  is  this Huarpa  the  within the  Horizon. not  the  Huarpa basin  regional  the  state but  basin.  questions  culture  of  While  exact  understood,  can  also This  the  derivation  Early  likely  as  by is  a the  quite  research.  located the  key  Intermediate of  the Wari  seen  influenced  holds  nature  in  The  be  further  basin,  from  completely  and  Tiahuanaco,  transition  centered  Ayacucho.  requiring  Titicaca  the  (Warpa), near  culture,  Titicaca  unanswered  in  was  Mantaro  established  developments  Tiahuanaco  in  local  highlands  Middle  the  roots  derivative  complex  states  the  in  the  to  the  Period  influence  relationships  have  of been  i d e n t i f i e d by Menzel and Lumbreras. regional Middle  s t y l e s must s i m i l a r l y Horizon  began.  f i g u r e 3 f o r the Middle  E.  Menzel  The  area around Ayacucho and i t s  be  understood  has  proposed  to  understand  the  chronology  how  the  shown in  Horizon.  Wari Ceramics  Chakipampa A ( f i g . 4 ) , "the native pottery s t y l e i n ordinary use at t h i s time in the area of Ayacucho and Huari" (Menzel, 1964:66) was "blend  of Huarpa  and  Nazcoid  a  influences". ( W i l l e y , 1971:160)  In  Ayacucho during Epoch 1A of the Middle Horizon, a new ceremonial  style  of oversize pottery with no  local  c a l l e d t h i s s t y l e Conchopata A. ceremonial  vessels  with  antecedents appeared.  The  "painted  (Menzel, 1964:66) ( f i g . 5)  style i s represented depictions  major  stone  particularly  the  Tiahuanaco, that a close r e l a t i o n i s obvious,  Menzel principles  believes  by oversize  mythical  themes".  A s t y l e with a themes and i t s suggest that i t set of  themes so c l o s e l y resemble the  monuments and  has  Menzel goes on to state that:  The a s s o c i a t i o n of the Conchopata special repertory of new mythical i s o l a t i o n in a ceremonial context implies the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new r e l i g i o u s ideas and p r a c t i c e s .  These new mythical  of  Menzel  that  o r i g i n a t e d in the  this  new  south  set  at the  iconography of the  Gateway  of  the  Sun  at  (fig.6)  of site  religious of  ideas  Tiahuanaco or  c u r r e n t l y unknown center, and spread to the Ayacucho area.  and a  11.  Figure  3.  Middle  Horizon  Chronology,  (after  Menzel,  1964:  plate  1)  12.  Figure  4.  Pottery  Vessel  (after  of  the  Lumbreras,  Chakipampa A 1974:  153,  style.  f i g .  163)  13.  Figure  5.  Drawing  of  figure  Conchopata  A  from style,  an  oversize (after  vessel  Menzel,  of  1977:  the 112,  fig.  67)  Since  no e x a m p l e s  of  ordinary  size  Tiahuanaco pottery have ever been found in Peru north or west of the Departments of A r e q u i p a a n d P u n o , a n d no P e r u v i a n s p e c i m e n s have been found in B o l i v i a . . . i t therefore seems unlikely that any m i l i t a r y conquest w a s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e new religious ideas into Peru . . . a s . . . m i l i t a r y conquest could be e x p e c t e d to leave some secular traces..., and nothing of the s o r t has been f o u n d . ( M e n z e l , 1 9 6 4 : 6 7 )  This  evidence  The Middle by  implies  ceremonial  Horizon  Wendell  monumental  C.  Bennett  stonework  between  the  two  regions.  of Tiahuanaco  was o c c u p i e d  1974:18),  the c l a s s i c  (Bennett, such  with  contact  as  the l a t e  but  1934:453-456),  the  Gateway  Early  of  long  before  phase  as  represented the  Intermediate  Sun,  Period  is  the  defined by  the  probably  and t h e  early  Horizon.  At  this  Tiahuanaco been  center  (Lumbreras,  contemporaneous Middle  active  time  influence  suggested.  historical  i t  The  precedence  i s  spread  not to  first in  is  possible  to  determine  Wari,  however,  via  religious  exactly  two i m p o r t a n t pilgrimages  how  ways  have  which  have  Peru.  The people of the Ayacucho region may have behaved this way toward Tiahuanaco, whose imposing ceremonial center seems to have a c h i e v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e pan-Andean renown. If so, t h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n why o n l y T i a h u a n a c o elements t h a t occur i n the Ayacucho area are c o p i e s from s t o n e s c u l p t u r e , which were the p r i n c i p l e r i t u a l objects. (Lumbreras, 1974:152)  The of  second way, ideas  (Bennett,  and  which  i s more  iconography  1934:488)  by  pertinent textiles,  Textiles  provide  to  this  which an  study,  was  easy  i s the  suggested  means  of  by  transfer Bennett  transporting  iconography less  because  fragile  Tiahuanaco Conklin this  they  than  is  pottery  At  another  possible  currently  feels  in  the  travelling religion seems  means  that  this  working  Conchopata  worn  time  source  on  or  carried,  l i t t l e of  is  and  known  iconography.  Tiahuanaco  area  abroad  and  brought  that  and of  Communication existed Nasca  at  this  styles.  already wool  well  in  textiles  are about  William to  clarify  highland  (Epoch  the 1A)  have  Chakipampa  Tiahuanaco ceremonial empire  A,  existed,  Tiahuanaco  but  who  the  may  ceremonial  idea  of  "learned It  "men  the  therefore  communication have  new  served  link  as  the  as  area  Chakipampa  from as  A  is  the a  South  blend  highlands  and  the  early  use  of  animals  that  can  well  by  proven  the  and  by  as  the  Coast  of  Huarpa  the  coast  llama  only  also  and  live  appearance  and were  alpaca in  the  of  coastal  Middle  Horizon  textiles.  region  seen the  influence ceramics  the  1964:67)  textiles  between  1934:491),  Ayacucho  we  Huari"  provided  Ayacucho  noted,  textiles,  cotton  the  supports  (Menzel,  while  the  routes  established  (Bennett,  home".  of  iconography.  As  Trade  and  pilgrimages  between  highlands  In  it  character  deposit"  Ayacucho  Wari,  the  time.  coastal  in  of  religious  transport  distinctive  offering  the  Tiahuanaco  of  "the  from  likely  between  from  whether  problem.  Menzel  in  light,  ceramics.  textiles,  (p.c.)  are  with the  became  at  the  a blending local  seeds  of  Huarpa  Nasca  regional  spread their  of  beginning and  style.  producing new had  stronger,  the  mythical  begun the  to  the  At  the  Huarpa  As When  culture  of  resulting  same  oversize  themes. sprout.  styles  time,  Conchopata yet the the  no  Wari  influence Southern  Highlands, which already displayed expansionist tendencies, transformed into the militant Wari. (Sawyer, p.c.) Epoch IB marked the f i r s t major expansion of the new Wari state.  Three main types of ceramics appeared  during this time:  1.  Oversized Robles Moqo  2.  Regular sized Robles Moqo  3.  Chakipampa B  According to Menzel, oversized Robles Moqo (fig.7) "continued the tradition of oversize ceremonial pottery represented by the Conchopata style in Epoch 1A." Oversize Robles Moqo ceramics were found at Wari, Chakipampa and Pacheco, and their "restricted sites  indicates  a  "ceremonial  context".  distribution" at these Only  slight  stylistic  differences exist between these sites. (Menzel, 1964:67)  Ordinary size Robles Moqo pottery has "precedents in the fanciest Tiahuanaco style pottery" and "may reflect new Tiahuanaco From the associations of these ceramics Menzel  influence."  feels that they were "a  high prestige ware associated in some way with the new religion, but less exclusively ceremonial than the oversize vessels." These regular sized ceramics appeared at Wari, Pacheco, Nasca, Lima and Cerro del Oro in the Cafiete Valley, but not at Chakipampa or in the Ayacucho region other than at Wari.  Their occurrence only at Wari suggests that Wari  was the center of expansion during Epoch IB of the Middle Horizon. (Menzel, 1964:68)  The third pottery type from Epoch IB is called Chakipampa B which is considered It  is  found  the secular or native pottery used in the Ayacucho area. throughout  the  Wari  domain  and  is  fairly  18. Figure  7.  Oversize  Vessels  of  the  a.  (after  Batres,  b.  (after  Lumbreras,  R o b l e s Moqo  1975;  148,  1974:  style.  fig.  153,  135)  f i g .  164)  homogeneous. influence  The  from  figures,  this  style  Nasca. may  Tiahuanaco  appears  on  Nasca its IB  the  a  in  sites  emergence  of  beginning  of  pottery  as  separate  the  as  in  provinces."  Wari  as  Epoch  the  appeared  expansion  Ayacucho  are  no  in  the  were  capital  full  Nasca  did  not  influence  suggesting  new By  empire, the  end  Wari  that  sharing of  Epoch  allowing  t h e ; new  and  new  mythical  that  abandoned  of  empire  reflects  Wari  area  1964:68)  Pacheco  the  and  from  (Lanning,1967:133)  throughout  A  1967:133)  (Menzel,  and  there  position  exclusive  2A.  As  the  privileged  Chakipampa  Chakipampa  (Lanning,  well  special  of  a  from  1964:68)  influence.  coast  "enjoyed  prestige  (Menzel,  represent  involve  the  continues  empire  and  the  at  the  Wari-related  local  styles  lost  importance.  Three features  closely  related  appeared  during  pottery  Epoch  1.  Vinaque,  2.  Atarco,  3.  Pachacamac,  2 forming  native  to  native  styles,  the  to  to  the  incorporating  Wari  Ayacucho  Nasca  native  all  group.  area  Tiahuanaco  They  are:  (fig.8)  (fig.9)  Pachacamac  on  the  Central  Coast  (fig.10).  All  three  from  represent  the  ceremonial  belonging  to  respective  home  appear  secular  on  forms,  combinations pottery  the  secular  areas... pottery  indicating  permeated  Wari  of  that  of  features  Epoch  traditions  Mythical in and  2A  about  new  features of  themes  somewhat  the  society  derived  1 with  their  began  religion  become  to  abbreviated had  popularized.  (Menzel,1964:69)  Less  is  Epoch marked  known  2A, a  about  Wari period  Epoch  emerged of  as  great  the  than  capital  expansion,  and  Epoch  2B:  the  new  of in  fact  As  noted,  empire. the  empire  during  Epoch  2B  expanded  Figure  8.  Pottery  Vessel  (after  of  Menzel,  the  Viffaque  1964:  plate  IO-h  style. 2)  2d:,  Figure  10.  Pottery  Vessel  (after  of  the  Lumbreras,  Pachacamac 1974:  156,  style. f i g .  169)  to  its  furthest  influence  of  reach  the  during  empire  was  this  felt  in  Northern  Highlands  and  the Chicama  Southern  Highlands  the  influence  while  on  the  South  (Menzel,1964:69) influence.  not control  During the  centers  this  empire  north  Pachacamac spread  on  almost  should  Coast of  is  t h e Nepena  to  develop  Ocona  between found  new  in  the  In  the  basin,  control  (p.c.  and  scattered  that  special  The  Valley.  at  evident  its a  Coast.  the T i t i c a c a  River,  in  Cajamarca  the  made  i t  e c l i p s e d Nasca  southward  to  been  but  1964:68)  North  to  be  has  to  the  stretched  influence  on t h e N o r t h  the Coast  time and  Wari  north,  Valley  i t  (Menzel,  the  reached  distinction  Strong  ceremonial did  A  Coast  time.  the  Wari  Sawyer)  status  pottery  within  style  named  Ica-Pachacamac.  Most  of  this  expansion  That the strong m evidence cultures.  Lumbreras  and  mechanism  of  conquest  i s  prestige  The in  the  feel  that  "conquest  dissemination"..."while  was t h e  "basic  stimulus."  supported  the  through  military  means.  . . . e x p a n s i o n w a s made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h ilitary support i s implied from the of strong disruption of the local .. .(Bennett,1953:117)  Menzel  doctrine"  throughout  was a c c o m p l i s h e d  empire  by in  the  a  that to  envisioned  proselytizing  (Lumbreras,  fact  addition  was  1974:152) secular  ceremonial  as  the  religious This  ware  idea  was  vessels  of  found  found  in  sites.  influence highlands  of such  Tiahuanaco as  the  caused  Huarpa  who  the  disruption  were  rural  in  of  local  states  nature.  After  Tiahuanaco  contact  cities  also  end  Epoch  of  appeared 2B  the  (Menzel,  1964:72)  not  again  seen  the  southern  on  the  Wari The  until  sierra  Coast  empire  throughout  fell  urbanization  the  Inca  became  and and  empire.  ***  the  the City  urbanized. Wari of  domain.  Wari  u n i f i c a t i o n of  These  was  much  of  At  new the  abandoned. Peru  was  CHAPTER  A.  2.  WARI  GARMENTS  OFFICIAL  Definition  This  study  interlocking served  as  is  restricted  tapestry  the  to  tunics.  official  the  examination  Sawyer  garments  of  has  the  of  proposed  Wari  Wari that  finely  these  woven  textiles  culture.  It seems p r o b a b l e i n v i e w o f known I n c a p r a c t i s e that each d i s t i n c t i v e d e s i g n i n the r i g i d T i a h u a n a c o [Wari] iconography . . . w a s the p r o p e r t y of a s p e c i f i c rank of governmental or religious functionary. The simpler a n d m o r e common o f t h e s e m o t i f s w o u l d a p p e a r t o have been the emblems of the more numerous officials of lower rank, while the elaborate and more rarely encountered designs signified officials of high s t a t u s . (Sawyer, 1963:29)  Many the  of  the  coast  both  prior  in  Stains,  to  found the  iconography mending  funerary tunics  elements  one.  The  reflect  These technique referred  from to  normally  less use  and  highly  not  empire;  of  textiles  design  a  in  than  the  the  term  Wari  official textiles  the The  and  not  use  extreme structure  same Coastal  in  found  the  highland  markedly  interlocking  fine  the  political  found  a  functional  and  differ  were  1963:27)  reflect  Tiahuanaco".  display  garments  (Sawyer,  suggest  organized  garments  "Coastal  official  technique  rigidity  other  as  do  garments.  the  Wari  Wari  alterations  official  textiles  therefore  and  in  tunics,  tradition. as  well  fineness of  the  as  of  which  Tiahuanaco  tapestry  technique  garments.  This  synonomously  the  and Sawyer (Wari)  and study  with  a  Wari.  appearance  graves  on  are will  official  B.  Provenience and D i s t r i b u t i o n  As  noted,  excavated.  Most  reputedly  from  specifically textile  of  from  much  Ayacucho  evidence.  support  the  discussed  in  While tunics  the  have and  Highlands,  It  that  Coast  found,  Sawyer)  differences art  and  regional are  be  the  "temporal,  the  standards  reflecting (Sawyer,  1963:27)  between the  exist  for  at  but in  region  Wari  found  set  stages  the  through does  found  to  textiles  at in  where  the  Wari. feels several  Wari  Pachacamac, the  throughout  because  exist,  from  received  relation  data  for  of  be  shown  Peru,  come  most  are  available.  at  tunics  of  provenience  been  and  of  has  should  primary  also  variation  variations  tradition."  be  Coast  reflect  recovery  Specific  to  regional  conditions  archaeological  Central  that  where  areas,  i n c l u d e d when  seems  Coast  demonstrated  lea  collections  South  information  and  scientifically  information  the  the  have  the  l i t t l e  for  been  private  the  this  such  some  and  of  of  given  have  Valleys,  examples  surprising  garments  Much  huaqueros.  will  (p.c.  some  evolving  the  South  lea  Nasca  Fortunately  on  not  and  While  the  Ancon  display  official  and  study  been  is  empire  this  deserts  plausible  c l a i m s of  museums  responsible  areas. is  textiles  in  ideal.  been  area  ceramic  Nasca  are  these  Wari  coastal  the  have  of  examples  arid  from  caution,  Huara  the  the  who  textiles  the  examples  preservation  huaqueros  with  few  Southern  the  Wari  textiles  were  Sawyer the  states  principle  centuries  of  an  C.  Technology  1. Weaving Techniques  Wari textiles are composed of two elements, the warp and the weft, which are woven (interlaced) together.  Irene Emery, an authority on  textile terminology defines these terms as follows:  1.  Warp: essentially parallel elements that run longitudinally in a loom or fabric crossed at more or less right angles and interworked by transverse elements. (Emery, 1966:74) Weft: the transverse elements in a fabric ...which cross and interwork with the warp elements at more or less right angles. (Emery, 1966:74)  3.  Interlacing (the  Interlaced: the most straightforward way of interworking elements inasmuch as each element simply passes under or over elements that cross its path. (Emery, 1966:62)  is considered a simple weave because  warp and the weft) are involved.  official  only  two elements  The weft elements in Wari  garments completely cover the warp elements.  This form of  interlacing is called weft-faced plain weave or tapestry weave. Emery distinguishes between the two terms in the following way:  W e f t - F a c e d P l a i n Weave:  1.  proportion that  are  cover  employment  not  run  of  or  each  some  slits. in  other  the  back  term  tapestry  of  the  warp  direction  the  completely  warp.  with  in  "wefts  vertical.  tunics  The  weft  the  technique by  between  the  of  small also  areas  each  time  some  with  single as  they  portions  "simply  turn  Skinner, used.  of  about  1974:6);  The is  of  between  called  Wari  the  production  is  In  and  of  wefts  adjacent  once  motifs,  weave  interlocking  of  11)  (Bird  employed  plain  production  do  woven  technically  avoid  single  link  diagonal  interlocking  the  to  that  finished  interlocking  predominate  technique  single  direction is  the  the  1966:80) (Fig. in  are  "wefts  interlocking"  is  weaving  of  (the  discontinuous  was  This  because  notably  without  of  elements  weft-faced  garments  use  linking  (Emery,  wefts,  between  employed  weft  selvage  technique  meet."  is  facilitate  The  the  warps  forth." the  wefts  joining  they  between  weave  The weft  words  interlocking  for  of  to  official  technique  time  warps  however,  elements  to  that  feature  colour.  sort  other  and  textiles  adjacent  warp  1966:77)  wefts,  selvage  Wari  The  each  interlocking pass  from  weave.  different  or  to  compacted  (Emery,  discontinuous  Discontinuous  necessitated  warps,  warps."  distinguishing  type.  holes  the  of  the  tapestry  areas  "sufficiently  continuously is  latter  elements  greater  usually refers specifically to m o s a i c - l i k e p a t t e r n i n g w i t h d i s c o n t i n o u s wefts i n a w e f t - f a c e d p l a i n weave. (Emery, 1966:78)  The  and  weft  a  T a p e s t r y Weave:  2.  edges),  of  indicates  precise therefore  warps.  is  horizontal  (as  is  approximately  worn) twice  while the  the  length  ngle  Interlocking  Between  Warps.  Junius detail,  Bird  (fig.  information paper  2.  they  and  tunics  in  doubled arms  inches  the  in  method  3.  Finishes  Due  to  weave,  order  complete  and  In  the  without  is  A roughly  many  contemporary  weaving  the  way.  are  ends  an  piece first  inches  tunic  in  Much  textiles  discussed  great  of  the  in  this  sections.  and bound square  are  two  selvage  together  shirt,  in  is  each and  warp  the  and 22 are  left  for  approximately  and w e f t  40  direction  12.  in  back  into  interlocked  be  finished in  ends the  ends  quality  by  to  the  the  selvages,  the  practise  leave  i s produced  pieces  openings  and need  Skinner, of  warp  common  one  direction These  inherent  to  loomed  weft  with  figure  most  separately  measuring  produced  The  Bird  the  1963:27)  changes  indication  has  in  Dimensions,  shown  stitch  by  identical,  (Sawyer,  weaving  then  studied  The  80  garment.  magnification,  different  the  virtually  colour  weft  complete,  loomed  Wari  1974:5-13)  following  produced.  tapestry  specimen  Each  two  direction.  frequent  tapestry to  of  construction  the  to  one  Dimensions  i s thereby  of  Skinner,  in the  direction  head.  examined  relevant  approximately  warp  square  and  and  is  consist  the weft  and  Skinner  be s u m m a r i z e d  measuring  inches  (Bird  learned  Construction  pieces  the  35)  and w i l l  Wari  and M i l i c a  of  each  both  Wari  until  the  woven  were  in  piece.  invisible  craftsmanship.  produced  the  . . . u s e of c o n t i n u o u s warp y a r n s which t u r n about y a r n o r c o r d headings l a s h e d a g a i n s t the loom b a r s  in  a  30.  Figure  12.  Dimensions  and  Construction  of  Wari  Official  Garments.  o r w h i c h t u r n a l t e r n a t e l y a b o u t a s i n g l e common c o r d i n another warping system. The w e f t i s l a i d o r b e a t e n in a g a i n s t t h e h e a d i n g w h i c h may o r may n o t b e w i t h d r a w n o n c o m p l e t i o n of the work. ( B i r d and S k i n n e r , 1974:8)  The  second  selvage  interlacing  is  these  formed  with  by  four  cutting  other  each  warps,  warp  to  and  then  produce  a  diagonally  strong  edge,  (fig.13)  4.  Looms  In  the  noticed  areas  that  of  the  unpatterned weft  was  intervals  producing  lines'.  These  diagonal  successive  warps,  rather  width  of  worked  the  the  eighty  inch  warped  differing probable sticks the  which  would  shed  that  Skinner  each  have  done  be  a  to  by  or  'lazy  weaving  around  fact  suggested  that  two  one  Skinner  irregular  this  common  if  at  Given  custom  eliminate  necessary  and  lines,  produced  piece,  is  turned  diagonal  interlocking.  Bird  having  person  and  weavers  still to  the  found  constantly  had  to  span  (80"  by  the  weft.  and  and fiber  loom  Skinner  woven  type  sticks. allows  noted  in  (fig.14): warp  is  The  raising  loomed a  placement  to  piece, frame a  alternate of  the  loomed  evidence  simple  lashed of  each  The  each  The  the  that  separately.  content  together.  loom  on This  Bird was  and  world.  position,  by  were  stripes, and  invisible  lines  than  Bird  colour  discontinous  virtually  simultaneously  throughout shift  weft,  solid  cord warps  weft.  piece that  lead loom that  supports  them  to  made is  this,  suggest by  a  lashing  then  lashed  to  an  opening  or  produces Shed  22")  rods  are  used  to  32.  Figure  13.  Warp  Selvage  Finish,  (after  Bird  and S k i n n e r ,  1974:  9,  f i g .  4)  10  retain to  this  l i f t  the  suggest are  opening  Peru,  alternate  was used  normal  and h e d d l e s  of  not because  of  Skinner,  warps.  i s shown  parts  1974:9)  or yarns  with  most any  They  The  tied  frame  heddles  loom  go on t o  Bird  rods  and  evidence  the warps  that  and shed  archaeological  internal  around  in  the  and  "because  modern  are  used  Skinner  such  native  rods  looms  fabrics."  (Bird  in and  state:  M o r e e f f e c t i v e w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e u s e o f a h e d d l e made only o f c o r d o r y a r n such as i s s t i l l u s e d by some p e o p l e i n S o u t h America. These f l e x i b l e heddles p e r m i t the weaver to raise any p o r t i o n o f t h e warp i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the r e s t but w i l l n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y open t h e e n t i r e s h e d . ( B i r d and S k i n n e r , 1974:9)  Sawyer  notes  that  empire...were that  the  later  accomplished  5.  on  Inca  official  similar  shirts  by means  of  tunics  the  garments  wide  were  looms,  woven  scaffolding  in  of  the  one  chief  piece  wefts."  the  later  Inca  difference  being  with  (Sawyer,  the  neck  slit  alpaca  wool  1963:2)  Materials  In while  Wari the  Cotton,  a  strength. for  woven  "the  warp  is  common The  weft  usually  trade  cotton,  item,  slipperyness  material  of  was  is  predominately  although used  alpaca  for  wool  some the  makes  variation  warp i t  occurs.  because  a less  of  strong  i t s yarn  warp.  The plied  yarns  used  together.  The  were  first  direction  spun of  separately  plying  and  and  spinning  then  twisted  c a n be  or  described  as  either  letter. spun  'S' The  yarns,  The  thread  hundred warp.  in  an  count  in  the  per  inch  Whether  is  from  set  at  Wari.  6.  Dyes  While  i t  as  an  few  weft  tan  possible  for  then  to  but  by  Bird  warps  is  is  central  bar  of  composed  of  two  the  warp and  twenty-six  much  these  are  both  fineness  ends  per  the  pieces  the  mental  unknown,  but  the  fact  that  supports  the  hypothesis  'V weft. one  for  the  achieve  average  do  from  to  each  was  inch  necessary  about  finer  and  Skinner  textiles  of  a the  exist.  images, they  that  the  four  pure  brown. Wari  to  dyestuffs. variety  method  re-dying  a  was  them  of by  examine  the  models  varied  standards  use  chemical  statements  can  made  member  the  of  wool  white  to wool  produce  a  dyes,  broad  colour.  with  so were  or  the  range  number dying  of  yarns  of of  dyes  their  specific  supplied of  majority  falling  making  colours  using  natural  c o l o u r s were one  the  natural  readily  first  and  spectroscopic  variety  the  dyes  palette  of  family,  a wide  accepts  large  overdying,  in  and  about  cameloid  black,  dying a  be  exists  The  By  another  to  without  Alpaca  from  and  a  technology,  fiber.  between  second  wefts  of  Alpaca,  ranging  A  of  interesting  aspect  colours  with  and  be  conclusive  principal  alpaca  area  would  The  or  to  for  weft  produced  the  garments  the  thesis,  of  Mordants  identity.  three  this  angle  examined  This  currently  area  and  for  the  direction  tunic  weave.  weavers  samplers  analysis,  in  to  official  "S"  number  tapestry  l i t t l e  Wari  plied  examined  mordants  referring in  greater  weft-faced  or  'Z',  yarns  ends The  sample  or  colours  i t only of  possible. colour  and  The  Wari  used  the  colour.  One  of  the  and  is  important  colours  Without easiest  to  resulting  in  a  deterioration  of  i s evident  15,  where  traces of  by  of  clear  a  i t  black,  some an  well  areas  where  black  wool.  have  to  It  as  intact  leads  a  seen  to  Sawyer) in  figure  leaving  may i n d i c a t e  shows  is  (oxidation)  Alan  disintegrated  also  colours difficult  oxidation  specimens  remains  White  darkens  the most  p.c.  fix  colour-fast.  ion change  Rice  preserved  be  drawbacks.  This  James  chemically  Iron  one of  has  to  not  iron.  undergoes  (Col.  black  alpaca  of  salts,  would  compound.  fiber.  the  i s  mordant  time  stable  Areas  only  the use  some  deterioration  alum  (Bennett  bleaching.  mordant  1964:197),  commonly  as  in otherwise  black  Another Bird,  the  fabric  identify  production  Iron  metallic  the  to  and over  black.  natural  caused  the  less  most  of  mordants  for  metal  usually  mordants,  produce.  tri-valence  This  mordants,  the  in Peru.  bright  that  has  been  metallic  (Fester,  colours  and  identified  salt  aluminum  1954:241) does  Alum  not  is  sulphate  which  characteristically  result  in  the  and  occurs produces  deterioration  of  fibers.  Less common (from  burnt  The blue  they range colour  known  mordants  mordants  and  is  about  used  plant  in  at  form  the  of  natural  available  of  three  and  this  primary  order  mordants  throughout  matter)  i s unclear  three  other  world  are  urine.  are found  frequency  primary  alpaca  hues  to  Wari.  the  use  The  at  this  t i n ,  extent  time,  although  chrome,  soda  of  of  use  ash these  time.  colours the  the  in  of  colours,  i n Wari their which  and d i f f e r e n t  textiles:  occurrence. in  yellow, As  combination  mordants  made  a  red group  with  the  virtually  any  Yellow are  the  and  related  easiest  to  create  such  may  impossible  be  used  in  produced the on  scale the  The  called  of  their  There indigo  D.  to  dye  It  main of  is  removal,  to  which dyed but  of  of  brown,  plants  that  however,  yellow  it  dyestuffs  reduction  by  colouring  through  also  Cochineal  is  belongs  insects  in  the  Paracas  roots  that dye  in  in  a  Ayacucho Nasca  noted  coastal  access  to  live  and  Fester of  had  principal  Indigo  immersed blue  the  states  contained  turn  Wari  is  These  study,  the  i t  to  the plant  this  dye  blue  was  coast.  that  Fester  and  the  the  Peru.  are  from  possible with  same  Peru,  "which  grows  isolated  the  derived  which  in  Wari.  1972:58)  cactus  In  the  Dactylopius  (Gade,  been  identified  for  genus  pear  dispute  immersion  be  greenish  evidence,  sources  been  source  the  also  routes  native  shrubs  indigo  is  was  of  the  main  source  produced  by  the  "more  or  fermentation  of  the  leaves  of  matter."  the  source  indigo  oxidation  (D'Harcourt, vat  when  and  are  exposed  to  1962:6)  yellowish air.  Iconography  Wari a  has  l i t t l e  prolonged  to  proliferation  or  have  Coccidae."  indigofera).  dye  various  a  prickly  red  trade  is  (or  blue  upon  or  Relbunium.  through  Fibers  family  a  tan  botanical  source  (Fester,1954:241)  occurrence  less  insects  dyestuffs  textiles.  the  dyestuffs  female  "Opuntia"  area.  of  red  was  insect  the  specific  isolate  cochineal  from  of  from  Horizon.  several  that  ranging  because  Without  to  Middle  While likely  produce  colours.  the  colours,  official  surprisingly  range  of  These  are:  motifs  garments  limited has  are  range  been  composed  of  grouped  of  repetitions  iconography. by  Sawyer  As into  of  noted three  motifs  with  earlier, main  the  types.  Each  of  three  1.  Type 1  -  2.  Type 2  - Composite  3.  Type 3  -  these  three  more  reflects  the  The  of may  Iconographic  Following elements. is  spirals  of  for  of  element  one  figure  divided  Inca  into  below.  the  practise,  1  or  order  textiles  focus  may  they  two  The  Type  and  functionary  as  is  of  in of  into  of  relate  belonged  this  to  the  to,  and  status.  usually  similar,  but  spirals,  vertical a  the  outlined  in  (fig.16b)  white,  as  in  latter  appears  is  in  a  our  with  a  Type  paired  line,  profile  introduces  ending  in  Type  1A,  common,  a and  sample  as  2,  composite  head a  stylized or  1A step  diagonal  1C  more  paired  first,  stylized  Type  bars  display  The  by  substitutes  The  former  textiles  separated  spiral,  IB.  1  subtypes.  geometric  stepped  Type  Type  three  orientation,  stepped  example  second  group  geometric a  or  Sawyer  new  heads, stylized in  fact  illustrated  in  16c.  The  has  IB  either  head,  known  by  with  examples  definition,  rectangle,  the  with  profile  This  a  consisting  paired  only  are  Type  one  of  Figures.  discussed  appearance,  number of  subdivided be  hierarchical  opposing  (fig.16a)  will  official  Sawyer's  of  further  their  view  Anthropomorphic  Types  These  composed  of  represent  Motifs  Bearing  which  in  the  Elements  are  greatest  order,  importance  1.  types  frequency  representing  therefore  Staff  categories  the  study.  Paired  is  group divided  design  similar  of  with  geometric  Wari into  a  textiles, two  profile design  Type  subtypes. feline  but  with  Type  head, a  are 2A  while  profile  (fig.17a)  Type  bird  motifs.  or  2B  is  a  (fig.17b)  human  head.  41.  Figure  17.  Type  2 -  Composite M o t i f s ,  (after  Sawyer,  3.  s— — ^ -  §3L® —  -  4fJe  LTV Q l F ^ H f e S ; b.  A -  1963:  28)  Each  is  The  repeated  movement  transverse axis,  to  in  that  juxtaposition  is the  be  which  wings  other  the  profile  of  winged  The and  usually  (p.c.  formed  a  faces  along  the  axes.  at  a later  staff  two  in  profile  staff  to  the  Sawyer),  in  a  but  with  a  these  are  faces  is  by  first,  with  the  Type  staff  Type  puma,  legs  bent  3B  in  to  a  (fig.18b)  There  important  3A  falcon  substituted  position. not  symmetry  with  front.  standing  separate  anthropomorphic  The  second  either  point.  figures  are  as  Symmetrical  bearing  groups.  design.  two  This frontal  figure  seen  along  of  anthropomorphic  holding  described  illusion  into  figures  four-part  the  3,  subdivided  a  vertical.  are  Type  be  symmetry  other  produces  produce can  group,  is  subtypes  design  bilateral  anthropomorphic  and  to  detail  heads.  similar  this  and  i t  are  position  positions  d i s c u s s e d i n more  consists  human  a  or  two  third  ( f i g . 18a)  running  of  will  The  and  produce  horizontal  interesting  figures,  varying  reflection  one  movement  in  are  for also  this  study.  2.  Iconographic  The  relation  through  the  of  of  Wari  Tiahuanaco  Type  Wari  ceramic  iconography classic  Sources  3  and  Tiahuanaco  evidence,  and  c e r a m i c s and  of  period  textiles  has  have  a  also  has  the the  obvious stone  been  similar,  already  monuments  but  not  always  with  Tiahuanaco.  Sawyer  iconographic  sources  for  the  of  (Sawyer,1963)  These  be  clearly  culture  when  one  and medium.  culture They  are  adopts  designs seen  in  from  easily has  Type  figure  religious  partially  between  the  the  shown.  relation  inevitable  demonstrated  relation  iconographic  can  been  by  19.  the  traced 3  the  textiles.  Variations  iconography  dictated  recognized  from  are  another  geometricizing  43. Figure  18.  Type a. b.  3 -  Staff  Winged Similar  Bearing  Anthropomorphic  Figure  in  (after  Sawyer,  Figure for  the  a  with  running a  wings,  position.  1963:  30,  second in  a  Figures.  fig.  lb)  staff  substituted  standing  position.  Figure  19.  Stages  of  (after  c. T.M. 1961.24.1  representation Sawyer,  Gift of John Wise  1963:  of  Type  3 -  30,  fig.  1)  Staff  Bearing  Figures,  influence  of  the  culture,  and  are  to  made  No  medium reflect  exact  although  warp  sources.  The  is  ends shown  with  split  what  that  of  the  are  Africa  B.C.  to  contemporary  the  and  may  meaning  stepped  spiral  partially  because  of  The  Type  IB  the  of  proponents represent  textiles  shown  the  upper  a  be  to  a  of  right  culture  the  iconography  found been  Gateway  a  to  stylized  of  Sun  by  heads  of  The  6).  are  of  the  Similarly,  suggests  of  tail  birds  version  some  17b.  appendage  of  substitution  for  from  figure  wings.  (fig.  Sawyer  altered  abstracted  depictions  the  Tiahuanaco,  spiralled  abstracted  art.  at  corner  with  these  of  and  are  representation  Both  motifs  from  of  have  falcon,  the  that of  these  symbolic  their  natural  1963:166)  has  great  antiquity  in  examples  exist  in  and  spanning  the  antiquity  universal  symbolic  has of the of an  both been a  referred  puma.  feline  argument  abbreviated  the  and in  indigenous  South the  but  head  believe form  of  that  i t  that  the  a  millenium  likely  The  Wari's  (Lothrop,  has is  been  often  paired  feline.  of  more  literature  interpretation  (as  occurrence  temporally. the  art  America  first  widespread  importance,  to  This  from  and  regionally  profile this  North  period  The  varied  tail  refinements  an  times.  design  as  be  transition  culture.  in Tiahuanaco  Asia)  probably  the  headdress,  design  imply  1964:214)  with.  on  Many  as  design  2  to  "figure  spiral  well  this  Type  head.  spirals  Americas.  the  can  appears  (Sawyer,  step  of  probably  common  as  components."  of  Once occurs,  Consider  occur  is  such  The  tastes  stylized  motifs  elements  the  falcon  a  eye  composite  medium  bird,  another  headdresses the  a  from  in  to  elements  Tiahuanaco  emerging  weft.  antecedents  certain  figure  and  made paired  elements  While  this  interpretation  may  be  conclusively.  For  that  in  literal  As Type  Type  designs  appear  in  Type  appear  on  the  connections from  the  earliest  Sun.  by  not  enough  and  to  evidence  to  describe  the  seen  on  the  in  the  to  left  of  Wari  with  designs  Horizon,  of  in  prove  i t  designs  of  the  that the  same  fragment  as  pairs  from  to  a  do  have  and  the  the  are  Conchopata,  found  near Middle  central of  vertical IB  the band  textiles,  degrees.  of  the  parts  also  The  Gateway  90  are  IB.  The  Type  left  direct  from  narrow of  of  ceramics  1A  shifted  deity,  these  (fig.20)  those  is  appear  central  in  Some  dates  on  for which  vessel  It  figure  found  designs  these  Epoch  style,  figure  the  that  of  1977:109)  this  of  oversized  central  be  ceramics.  Most  an  can  examples  Conchopata  elements,  right  on  of  the  orientation  another  found  (Menzel,  related  antecedents  However,  fragment  is  paired  the  exact  Middle  representations  to  no  iconography.  the a  and  To  the  fragmentary  from  The  vertical  of  the  same  Epoch  1A.  5)  While Gateway  of  this the  common  image Sun  traits  derived  from  back  Tiahuanaco,  to  appear  to  have  is  elements  that  Wari  is  or and  one  it  safe  is This  close  of  the  appear  on  identical stone  appearing  no  innovation,  not  other  Tiahuanaco.  fragment  a  is  conjunction  Uhle.  closely  that  in  of is  1A  three  (fig.  preferable  are  Tiahuanaco  Max  are  motifs  textiles  with  6)  band  it  Tiahuanaco.  ceramics  Epoch is  except  many  1  (fig.  there  is  textiles,  at  example  Conchopata  figure  2  beginning  Horizon,  reason  there  terms.  with  1  correct,  is in  occurred  the  monuments to a  assume design  known  in  and  as  as  early  at  this  can  with  be  Epoch  1A.  the  i t  traced  was  directly  This the  motif,  the  shares  elements  illustrating that  on  iconography  paired  Tiahuanaco.  shows  figures  Tiahuanaco,  that  examples  textiles  running  that  conjunction  equivalent  earliest the  to  that  ceramic paired probably  47.  Figure  20.  Drawing of f i g u r e Conchopata  f r o m an o v e r s i z e  style,  vessel  (after Menzel,  1977:  of  the  109,  fig.  62)  A  ceramic  Middle  Horizon  many  in  in  the  representation  variations however,  this  is  epoch  the  help  period  Whether  follow  alone, the  and  to  of  occurring the  same  of  of  a  an  are  What  figure of  is  the  design  ***  an  of  an  official  elements that  regions  on  applied  garment. during  occurs of  garment ceramics to  the  interest  garments  all  of same  explain  ceramics  of The  the  official  on  the  one  tunic.  particular  in  conventions  is  by  may  official  paired  it  of  reproduction  and  context  IB  style  bound  of  elements  of  IB  which  paired  the  because  not  wearing  domination  Epoch  exact  appearance.  representation rigid  not  their  Wari in  is  design.  from  a Type  structures,  existence date  in  ceramics  textile  the  dating interest  appear  elements  representation suggests  style  particular  Painted  representation  appearing  of  paired  orientation  the  Moqo  elements  govern  a n d may  throughout empire.  the  that  strongly  The  not  of  in  is  paired  patterning.  restrictions  This  Robles  (fig.21)  which  textile  the  the or did  textiles.  49.  CHAPTER 3  A.  DESIGN  The  main  and  a  types  2.  Distortion  3.  Symmetry  4.  Colour  remainder and  1A  a n d IB  conventions  appear  i n Wari  textiles:  this  of  thesis for  consists  the  three  distortion,  of  a  general  types  of  symmetry  discussion  official  and  colour  of  garments, patterning  tunics.  Abstraction  a l l Wari  of  the motif  official  garments.  of  abbreviated  form.  was  shown  staff  Tiahuanaco  (the  progressive shows  the  In  Type  the  3  staff  unrecognizable. of  one  This  textiles the  Figure  The  of  design  the  closely  motif  involves  reduction  discussion  convention  of  of  resemble  c a n be  clearly  the  stages  carving  from  the  Gateway  in  figure  curvilinear  t h e Sun becomes  three  source) tunics.  abstracted image  to  seen  geometricized  a  in in  selective  of  the  sources  for  these  the  Sun  demonstrates  state  an  representation  Similarly,  the  to  Tiahuanaco  seen  of  and  apparent  symbols  their  shows  iconographic  the  iconographic  19  abstraction  bearing  type  abstraction  and  previous  of  stone  original  use o f  Gateway  the  figures.  with  i s  unessential  Abstraction  bearing  beginning  the  that  antecedents.  the  of  analysis  elimination  it  SAMPLE  Patterning  distortion  Abstraction in  design  Abstraction  specific  Type  of  1.  abstraction  1.  AND  Introduction to Design Conventions  Four  in  CONVENTIONS  that  stone  figure i s  the 25  almost  carving  textiles,  at  from  largely  as  a  result  of  abstraction increases Wari  is  time  transistion  in  the  from  textiles  reflecting  it  changing  stone is  to  textile.  apparent  that  interpretations  and  When its  use  tastes  of  artists.  tunics,  tunics. and  2  progressions  are  progression  A  spiral  (fig.22a)  is  (fig.22b)  has  by  additions  first  showing  all  and  2  other  due  to  in  design  of  Type  relatively  almost  be  less  is  to  can  been  such In  be  abstraction  directly  progressive in  stepped an  extent  the  in the  figures second  figure  in  Type  3  Type  1  in  were  derived  from  22.  blocks  the  of  abstraction  23a  and  23b,  a  first second of  the  colour  spiral.  the  greater  of  The  portions  stepped  the  earlier,  while  that two  Similarly,  Type  abstraction  spiral,  addition, to  images  shown  for  however  than  the  as  than  added  seen and  garments,  that  illustrated  later.  demonstrated  striking  and  the  disappear. have  fact  nature,  of  those  less  the  unabstracted  discussed  elements  is  rather  1  abstracted  to  official  tunics  demonstration  shading)  will head  in  innovation  been  spiral  (indicated  profile  a  abstraction  reductive  Wari  Tiahuanaco.  1  in  undoubtedly  are  a  stepped  Type is  tunics  stepped  evident  in  This  probably  2.  medium  examined  over  Similar 3  the  These of  the  with  the  abstraction.  Distortion  The  most  distortion.  apparent This  device  ...lateral  design  convention  used  by  the  Wari  of  expansion  of  those  elements  of the m o t i f which l i e towards the c e n t e r o f t h e g a r m e n t and c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e n e a r e s t t h e s i d e hem (Sawyer,  1963:29)...  is  lateral  52.  is one of the more sophisticated design conventions developed and used by the Wari, and the central theme of an article by Sawyer.  In i t he  states that  ...the degree to which this distortion is carried usually becomes more pronounced in direct relationship to the extent to which the motif is stylized. (Sawyer, 1963:29)  Lateral  distortion  is demonstrated  clearly  in Type 3 textiles.  Its use has some interesting manifestations. As noted, the greatest amount of expansion usually occurs towards the center seam, but in Type 3  tunics  another variation  occurs.  Sawyer has  divided  the  staff  bearing figure into four zones (fig.24) from left to right:  1.  The staff  2.  The head and body  3.  The headdress  4.  The wing, foot and tail  In this figure (fig. 24) we see two staff bearing figures on either side of the center seam facing in the same direction.  The application  of expansion towards the center seam produces two images that appear very different from one another. compression" was  accomplished  Sawyer has noted that expansion and  by the simple expedient of adding or  subtracting from the weft threads used to form the elements in a given zone."  (Sawyer, 1963:29) He notes that in the example (fig. 24) the  54.  Figure  24.  The  Four (after  Zones  of  Sawyer,  Type 1963:  3 34,  Staff f i g .  Bearing 4)  Figures,  two  zones  area is  closest  rather  used  totally a  complex less  design the  diagram  than  the  altering  the  Type  almost  (top and  the  are  same  the  a  staff  application and  Type  1A  A as  filled  at  the  to  the  has  areas  middle  creative  The  registers,  one  portion  the  of  the  eliminated  while  the  lateral It  is  now  demonstrates  across of  the  B  Without  portion).  skill  of  diagram.  This  back  follows.  orientation,  distortion  motifs and  in  (shaded  figure.  lateral  alternate The  top  Sawyer  missing  of  B.  reversed  bearing  attests  the  tunic  and  weavers  who  although  the  the  textiles.  textiles,  the  spiral  horizontal  register  unit  height,  width the  and  in  the  front  as  are  deciphered  Here  is  abstract zones  had  alternating  design  compression)  more  Sawyer  resolution  labelled A  vertical in  of  the  very  or  image.  motif,  appear  orientation  elimination  to  unrecognizable  In  one  (fig.25),  fig.25)  design  complete of  of  that  of  and  textiles.  great  example  process  these  1  another  so  his  zones,  conceived  often  two-thirds  (expansion  different  Briefly,  as  sophisticated  In  in  complete  and  recognizable  is  occupy  distortion  the  other,  maintains  In  degrees  seam  half  shows  within  Lateral  and  units  distortion  center  compression  register.  above  half.  eliminated.  contain  two  the  different  the  very  by  than  to  examples  to  directly and B w i l l  similar of  zones  portion  zones is  be  seen.  of  the  stepped  eye  in  width  of  the  above  or  below  be  not  can  i t .  the  Generally, spiral  profile  Lateral  discussed further  in  identified,  the  element head  equivalent  element  distortion  a later  is  horizontal  as  chapter.  in  the  applied  to  56.  B.  Overall  The the  design  Wari  seen  Design  conventions  artist's  in the  Wari  tunics  are  either  consist  of  solid or  of  design  columns.  of  paired  spiral  For  than  seams,  clarity,  tunic to  The a  side  mirror  to  the  the  right  front  column  or  o r back  of  (or  left  of  face  of  organization  reflection  with  openings  side  that  vertical The  will  These  unpatterned  columns  referred patterned  design  units  and w i l l  spirals  earlier, (Type  also  columns.  be  defined  is  to  columns be  is  1A),  or  as  called  one a  set  stepped  IB).  constructed  one  of  This  the  as  stepped  (Type  with  tunics.  demonstrate  while  of  unit,  two  the  and  set)  distortion  principles.  unpatterned.  (or  either  are  series  columns,  design  head  of  stripes  stack  A  a  or  interspace  tunics  and  of  and  design  organization  colour  and a p r o f i l e  center  formal  composed  a vertical  abstraction  to  patterned  elements,  Wari  the  design  are  columns  consist  of  adherence  overall  interspaces  Organization  on  for  the  the on  loomed  the  half)  the  found  two  and  arms  refers  to  the  tunics  the  joined  head  center  right  panels  seam  the  (fig.12).  portion  assembled,  of  rather  (fig.26).  side left  as  at  of  the  side  of  tunic the  is  tunic.  simply The  58.  Figure  26.  Diagram and  indicating left  loomed  and r i g h t  panels,  front  and back  faces  sides.  FACE  FRONT  FACE  UBFT SIPE  RIQHT SIPE  design  organization  interspace addition, triple, be  and  design  can  etc..  Single  unit  to  a  side  by  double  discussed  as  they  single  compressed  another  For  column  be  columns  on  Group  2  design  appear  a  consists  of  field  to  the  interspace  design  a  and  column  consists column  sample  and  relation  of and  of  the  three  will  be  has  a  as  a  to  adjacent  or  be  design  adjacent  to  not.  divided  interspace  into and  five design  the at  design  colour  column,  stripes.  with These  interspace.  design  interspace  double  referred  edge  multiple  form  occurring  two  compressed  of  columns  study  are  will  27).  double  left  be  that  or  will  this  been  of  unit  in  columns  has  columns  columns  term  columns  the  single  one two  design  (fig.  whole,  of  and  right  a  The  interspace  composed  as  consists  tunic  will  In  double  separation)  unit  of  tunic.  single,  double  example  that  number  a  interspace  column  column.  by  number  by  the  of  as  while  every seam  describe  of  column,  Group 3 edge  the  considered  Group  first  1  to  described  Multiple  design  by  (half)  interspace  side  purposes,  side  remaining  stripes,  edge  one  the  be  column,  well,  separated  comparison reflecting  As  side  separated  design no  described  one  columns.  edge  whether  on  further  with  at  used  groups  the  side  be  columns  occur.  design  will  be  single  design  single  one  columns  columns  (appearing  columns  therefore  the  referred  called  can  column,  columns. double  the  interspace  The  single  compressed  interspace  design  center  design  a  column,  columns  with  the  seam.  columns, columns.  a  single The  compressed interspace  Figure  27.  GROUP  3  The  Five  Groups  of  Type  1  Tunics.  columns the  appear  first  the 1  right  column  appear  first  column  c o n s i s t s of  design  columns  the  interspace  Group 4 edge  to  to  interspace  through  left  of  occurring  two  and  the  and  single  three  right  left  of  occurring  5  differs  from  1  (and  back  approximately  in  half  horizontally,  (multiples  both or  of  a  single  columns. single  the  column,  compressed  The  interspace  design  center  with  column,  seam,  as  in  with  Groups  upper  and  are  five  of  to  these  multiples  edge  design  with  the  first  of  of  and  of  columns two,  the  in  the  continue  into  in  Groups  1  in  the  center  divided columns  to  4  portion  the  In  Interspace  only  is  upper  four.  appear  design  design  and  (as  the  tunic  three  tunic.  at  overall  overall  the  appearing  in  appearing  column  portion  discontinuous,  with  design  4  face)  seven)  in  lower  through  lower  addition, appears  columns  lower  portion  in (two of  seam.  The Sample  The from  tunic  compressed  tunic,  C.  from  Some  the  three)  the  sample  complete  examine in  ranging  tunic.  the  columns,  each  Groups  face  single  seam.  at  front  a  center  design  The  portion  the  at  organization.  the  design  3.  Group  of  double  interspace  and  column  each  and  Berkeley,  personal Sawyer  for  this  tunics  photograph New  York,  research, and  to  existing  the  study  consists  fragments.  many  examples  Washington, extensive  photographs  The  forty author  i n museums D.C. photo  in  of  the  and and  seven has and  examples  been  slide  literature  fortunate  private  Peru.  In  to  collections addition  archives have  ranging  been  of  to Alan  studied.  62.  A breakdown according  to  column  of the sample organization  ***  into can  the five be  seen  groups defined in  figure  28.  Figure  Q?OUP[  tfoopz  km??  28.  Sample  List.  431116  I  ^  I  5-  v.  3 >.  ^  29  IB  1.  SMITH  2.  TM  91.402  30  IB  3.  Pri v.Col.  31  IB  x  Coyungo,  4.  TM  1960.12.1  32  IB  x  Uyujalla,  5.  TM  91.1960.12.3  33  IB  x  lea  6.  TM  91.1960.12.4  34  1A  x  Ingenio  7.  Priv.Col.  35  IB  x x  8.  Milwaukee  36  IB  x  9.  Priv.  37  IB  x  38  IB  x  39  1A  x  Huanca  40  1A  x x  Ayacucho  P.M.  Col.  x XX  10.  AMNH 4 1 . 0  11.  Univ.  12.  Ayacucho  13.  AIC  41  IB  x  14.  TM  42  IB  x  15.  TM  43  IB  16.  AMNH 4 1 . 2  44  IB  17.  Mus.  45  IB  x  18.  DO  B.498  46  IB  x x  19.  TM  91.342  47  1A  x  20.  TM  91.1966.12.5  48  IB  x  21.  Mus.  49  IB  x  22.  Priv.  50  IB  x  23.  AMNH 4 1 . 2  51  1A  24.  DO  PT  52  IB  25.  PM  53  IB  x  26.  Amano  54  IB  x  27.  AMNH 4 1 . 0  55  1A  x  28.  Oberlin  56  1A  29.  Priv.  Col.  57  1A  x  30.  Priv.  Col.  58  1A  x  31.  Priv.  Col.  59  IB  x  32.  Priv.  Col.  60  IB  x  33.  Univ.  111.  61  IB  x  *  KEY  TO  3628  111. Mus.  91.344  de  766  1a  de  PIata  PT  Lujan  Col.  B.499  768  Mus. 1192 61.39  ABBREVIATIONS  ON  Rio  Grande  de  lea  Valley  Valley,  San  Nasca  Valley  Santos,near  Javier  Ayacucho  area  Coyungo,Rio  Grande  de  Nasca  x x  x x x  x  FOLLOWING  Huanca  PAGE  Santos,near  Ayacucho  PHOTOS' Ui  \u  U  3 ^ «r 3  PM  62  IB  TM 91.471  63  1A  36.  AMNH 41.2 764  64  1A  X  37.  TM 91.3432  65  IB  X X  38.  Priv. C o l .  66  1A  X  39.  TM 91.301  67  1A  40.  Priv. C o l .  68  IB  41.  Mus.de Arte,Lima  69  IB  TM 91.9  70  IB  X X  43.  Priv. Col.  71  IB  X  44.  AMNH 41.2 763  72  IB  X  45.  DO B.497 PT.  73  IB  X X  46.  AIC S.1182.55.1702. 74  IB  X  AMNH (no cat.number)75  IB  34. $DpP4. 35.  5(?0U.P5. .42.  M5600 47.  PROVENIENCE  X  X  Callango, X  lea Valley  X  Rio Grande de Nasca  X  AIC  A r t Institute of Chicago  AMNH  American Museum of Natural Hi story,New York  DO  Dumbarton Oaks  PM  Peabody Museum, Harvard  SMITH  Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institute  TM  T e x t i l e Museum, Washington, D.C.  Sample  number  Group  1  Type  IB  Collection:  1.  SMITH  Museum o f Institute,  Photograph:  Author  431116  Natural  History,  Washington,  D.  Smithsonian C.  66.  Figure  30.  Sample Group Type  number  2.  TM  91.402  1 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington  Sawyer  D.  C.  67.  Figure  31.  Sample Group Type  number  3.  Private  Collection  2 IB  Collection:  On  loan  Photograph:  Courtesy  to  Brooklyn  Alan  Sawyer  Museum  Figure  32.  Sample Group Type  number  4.  TM  1960.12.1  2 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  Sample Group Type  number  5.  TM  91.1960.12.3  2 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington, Sawyer  70.  Figure  34.  Sample Group Type  number  6.  TM  91.1960.12.4  2 1A  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  S a m p l e number 7.  Private  Collection  Group 2 Type  IB  Collection:  Private  Collection,  Houston  72.  Figure  36.  Sample Group Type  number  8.  Milwaukee  Public  2 IB  Collection:  Milwaukee  Photograph:  Courtesy  Public Alan  Museum  Sawyer  Museum  Figure  37.  Sample Group Type  number  9.  Private  Collection  2 IB  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Collection, Joanna  Osaka  Staniszkis  74.  Figure  38.  Sample  number  Group  3  Type  IB  Collection: Photograph:  10.  American Author  AMNH 4 1 . 0  Museum o f  3628  Natural  History,  New  York  Sample Group Type  number  11.  University  of  Illinois  3 1A  Collection:  University  Photograph:  Courtesy  of  Alan  Illinois, Sawyer  Urbana  76.  Figure  40.  Sample Group Type  number  12.  Ayacucho  Museum  3 1A  Collection:  Ayacucho  Museum,  Photograph:  Courtesy  Alan  Ayacucho  Sawyer  77.  Figure  41.  Sample Group Type  number  13.  AIC  3 IB  Collection:  Art  Institute  Photograph:  Courtesy  Alan  of  Chicago  Sawyer  78.  Figure  42.  Sample Group Type  number  14.  TM  3 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  79.  Figure  43.  Sample Group Type  number  15.  TM  91.344  3 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  80.  Figure  44.  Sample Group Type  number  16.  AMNH 4 1 . 2  766  3 IB  Collection: Photograph:  American Author  Museum o f  Natural  History,  New  York  81.  Figure  45.  Sample Group Type  number  17.  Museo  de  La  Plata  3 IB  Collection:  Museo  de  La  Plata,  Photograph:  After  Taullard,  Argentina  1949:  plate  43  82.  Figure  46.  Sample Group Type  number  18.  D.O.  B.498  PT  3 IB  Collection:  Dumbarton  Photograph:  Courtesy  Oaks,  Georgetown  Dumbarton  Oaks  83.  Figure  47.  Sample Group Type  number  19.  TM  91.342  3 1A  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  84.  re  48.  Sample Group Type  number  20.  TM  91.1966.12.5  3 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum Alan  ,  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  85.  Figure  49.  Sample Group Type  number  21.  Museo  de  Lujan  3 IB  Collection:  Museo  de  Lujan,  Photograph:  After  Taullard,  Argentina 1949:  plate  18  Sample Group Type  number  22.  Private  Collection  3 IB  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  After  Collection  Taullard,  1949:  plate  47  Sample  number  Group  3  Type  1A  Collection: Photograph:  23.  American Author  AMNH 4 1 . 2  Museum o f  768  Natural  History,  New  York  Figure  52.  Sample Group Type  number  24.  D.O.  B.499  PT  3 IB  Collection:  Dumbarton  Photograph:  Courtesy  Oaks,  Georgetown  Dumbarton  Oaks  89.  Figure  53.  Sample  number  Group  3  Type  IB  25.  Collection:  Peabody  Photograph:  Courtesy  PM  Museum, Alan  Harvard  Sawyer  90.  Figure  54.  Sample  26.  Amano  Collection:  Amano  Museum,  Photograph:  Courtesy  Group Type  number  Museum  3 IB  Mary  Lima Frame  Sample Group Type  number  27.  AMNH 4 1 . 0  1192  3 1A  Collection: Photograph:  American Author  Museum o f  Natural  History,  New  York  92.  Figure  56.  Sample Group Type  number  28.  Oberlin  61.29  College,  Allen  3 1A  Collection:  Photograph:  Oberlin Oberlin,  Ohio  Courtesy  Alan  Sawyer  Art  Museum,  Sample Group Type  number  29.  Private  Collection  3 IB  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  After  Collection  Taullard,  1949:  136  94.  Figure  58.  Sample Group Type  number  30.  Private  Collection  3 1A  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Collection, Joanna  Osaka  Staniszkis  Sample Group Type  number  31.  Private  Collection  3 IB  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Collection, Joanna  Osaka  Staniszkis  96.  Figure  60.  Sample Group Type  number  32.  Private  Collection  3 IB  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Collection, Joanna  Osaka  Staniszkis  97.  Figure  61.  Sample Group Type  number  33.  University  of  Illinois  3 IB  Collection: Photgraph:  University Courtesy  of  Alan  Illinois, Sawyer  Urbana  Sample number 34.  PM  Group 3 Type IB Collection: Peabody Museum, Harvard Photograph: Courtesy Alan Sawyer  99.  Figure  63.  Sample Group Type  number  35.  TM  91.471  4 1A  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  100.  Figure  64.  Sample  number  Group  4  Type  1A  Collection: Photograph:  36.  American Author  AMNH 4 1 . 2  Museum o f  764  Natural  History,  New  York  Sample  number  Group  4  Type  IB  37.  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  TM  91.343  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  102.  Figure  66.  Sample Group Type  number  38.  Private  Collection  4 1A  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Collection, Alan  Sawyer  New  York  (1977)  ure  67.  Sample Group Type  number  39.  TM  91.301  4 1A  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington,  Sawyer  D.  C.  Sample  number  Group  4  Type  IB  40.  Collection:  Private  Photograph:  Courtesy  Private  Collection  Collection, Alan  Sawyer  New  York  (1960)  Figure  69.  Sample  number  Group  4  Type  IB  41.  Museo  Collection:  Museo  de A r t e ,  Photograph:  Courtesy  Alan  de  Arte  Lima Sawyer  106.  Figure  70.  Sample Group Type  number  42.  TM  91.9  5 IB  Collection:  Textile  Photograph:  Courtesy  Museum, Alan  Washington, Sawyer  D.  C.  107.  Figure 71.  S a m p l e number 4 3 . Group Type  Private Collection  5 IB  Collection:  P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n , Chicago  Photograph:  Courtesy Alan  Sawyer  (1960)  108.  Figure  72.  Sample  number  Group  5  Type  IB  Collection: Photograph:  44.  American Author  AMNH 4 1 . 2  Museum o f  763  Natural  History,  New  York  109.  Figure  73.  Sample number 4 5 . Group Type  D.D.  B.497  5 IB  Collection:  Dumbarton  Oaks,  Georgetown  Photograph:  C o u r t e s y Dumbarton  Oaks  Figure  74.  Sample  number  Group  5  Type  IB  46 •  Collection:  Art  Photograph:  Courtesy  AIC  S.1182.55.1702.M5600  Institute Alan  of  Chicago  Sawyer  Hi  I  IBM  111.  Figure  75.  Sample  number  Group  5  Type  IB  Collection: Photograph:  47.  American Author  AMNH  Museum o f  Natural  History,  New  York  CHAPTER 4  LATERAL  The  design  Tiahuanaco to  be an  seen  To  elsewhere  suggestion  examination  of  A. C h a r t i n g  in  the for  of  arrangement  1.  of  the Wari  the author's  that  of  lateral  ( p . c . Conklin),  innovation  hypothesis his  convention  textiles  garments. not  DISTORTION  stonework  applied  knowledge,  the h i s t o r y  use o f  lateral  to  establish in  and  official  Following  textile  is  Sawyer's  over  time  and  chronology,  sample  in  appears  distortion  increased a  seen  their  lateral  this  in chronologic  to  art.  distortion  not  ceramics  the use of  distortion  the specimens  or  i s  exclusively  of Peruvian  lateral  a methodology  distortion  permits  an the  order.  Methodology  Measurements  In  order  to  measurements direct  were  angle  the  design  the from  most  Examples  charts  but  degree  lateral  distortion,  available  photographs.  photographs  allowed  photographed  will  of  be  from  discussed  an  Fortunately, accurate  angle  later  several  in  have terms  relative  been of  the  omitted  the  other  conventions.  To  distinguish  columns  were  nearest  the  numbered center  numbering  system  diagrammed  in  letters,  made  of  measurements. from  chart  from seam  i s  figure  beginning  between  used 76a.  with  'A'  design  columns  one to e i g h t and  working  for  both  Similarly, nearest  within  starting towards the  interspace  the center  with the  left  the  tunic,  the design side  and  column  seam.  right  columns  seam.  same  were  This  sides  as  assigned  113. Figure  76.  a.  Column  Numbering  b.  Expanded  and  System.  Compressed  Portions  of  the  Design  Unit.  To measure lateral  distortion  (expansion and  following procedure was followed.  compression) the  To measure lateral  expansion, the  expanded portion of each design unit (that portion of the design unit nearest  the center  seam) was  measured  in the f i r s t  design column  (fig.76b).  To arrive at a single value, these measurements were then  averaged.  This average became the standard to which the average of the  expanded portions of the design units for each of the other columns was then compared. standard. existed.  This comparison was expressed as a percentage of the  Care was  taken  to determine  i f a consistent  variation  However, none, was detected.  To measure compression, the compressed  same procedure was  followed, the  portion of each design unit (that portion of each design  unit furthest away from the center seam in each column) was measured, then averaged and then compared to the expansion standard. Figure 76b indicates the expanded  portion  of the design unit  ( i to i i ) and  the compressed portion ( i i i to i v ) .  During the process of measuring, another variable became apparent. Comparable  design columns (column 1 right and column 1 left) did not  always produce an equal measurement of the expanded examples  had virtually  identical  distortion  on  portion.  the left  sides, however some displayed a significant difference. the  and  Most right  To simplify  charts, only the right side of each tunic was included.  When a  major difference occurred, a separate chart was made for the left side to see i f the total distortion was consistent between sides.  Variations can be attributed  to several  factors.  It has been  demonstrated that two weavers worked simultaneously on each half of a tunic, and  one might  assume that one weaver would  pack  the weft  d i f f e r e n t l y than the other.  I f t h i s were true, a consistent v a r i a t i o n  within a design column would be expected, but none was  found.  The  v a r i a t i o n s within design columns probably relates to the unevenness of the weft, while the d i s p a r i t y between the l e f t and r i g h t side i s l i k e l y due to the fact they were loomed separately.  I t i s the premise of t h i s study that the Wari a r t i s t s possessed highly  trained  eye  and  were  primarily  consistency of the e n t i r e garment.  concerned  with  the  a  visual  Minor v a r i a t i o n s were permitted, or  were even d e l i b e r a t e , as long as the overall  visual  consistency  was  maintained.  In t o t a l ,  twenty-nine  lateral distortion. excluded.  establish groups  As noted, examples photographed from an angle were  Similarly,  displaying  the the  will  of forty-seven examples were charted for  design  several column  examples  nearest  the  which center  standard) were also omitted. be  discussed  later  in  are  terms  fragments  seam  Both  (required to  of these  of  the  not  excluded  other  design  conventions.  2. Conversion to Percentages  Once complete elements  measurements f o r both the expanded and  were obtained, they were converted to percentages  expanded portion of design column 1 as the standard.  compressed using  the  Percentages were  obtained by d i v i d i n g each measurement by the standard, thus producing a s e r i e s of numbers that show the r e l a t i o n of each measurement to the standard as a percentage, with the standard always 100 sample of t h i s process can be seen i n figure 77.  per cent.  A  In some examples, a  116.  Figure  %  77.  Sample  -  of  Measuring  f  2-  WP. cone. ex?. com  ••{ II  i*5  (.0  Process.  CoMf.  £XP.  \S5  l.O i,b  14  A  C6MR!  h  W | /-c7  U  III. "iv  'CfiMP.  u /.£ is 1.75 use  LS f.e  /.<5  BP.  Wo Wo  SAMPLE  NUMBER.  NOTE.* larsek  OF  I00% Ia6%  <&%  4  >  FUTURE  £3%  32-  COWK&SSep  IN THIS EXAM FIE' T « E -than the ExpAHt>£t> poRTioN-. n o w w e e  LATERAL  i. MEASUREM^NlS  P45TORflO.M  15  PORTlOrt  •rHe  6rANDARD  f&K fcXPAHDED ANP  fv  E A a  = • EXPAMI^P-  PARTl'M  Hefa)9&netiT piMiveo  IN^a-A-TloN  TO  57AtfPA&>  ACTUALLV  AMOUUr  SMALu  (DWlZ&cb ?m\W> CF pm&ti  \\ w&m& m&mwm \w em t>&&*i iii  IS  by  OP  l  $ r  P&/*N  UN/T^  column  W M U  5r/\nWRl> S h o w s  ^?./6#f)  P£f?C£?orM£  measurement resulted order  to  maintain  in a percentage consistency,  the  greater than 100 standard  was  percent.  not  altered  In to  accommodate these larger percentages. 3. Charting Process The examples have been charted according to the five groups shown in figure 28.  Based on the hypothesis  that the degree of  distortion  increased over time, the sample numbers have been arranged in proposed chronologic  order  horizontal  for each  axis.  distortion with one  The  group,  vertical  from axis  left  to  right  represents  the  along  the  percentage  hundred percent at the top working down to one  percent at the bottom.  Examples showing percentage distortion closest  to one hundred per cent display the least distortion.  Expansion  and  compression were charted separately. A single vertical line joins all the design column numbers on both the expanded and compressed charts. along  the  vertical  compression  lines  to  The design column numbers are placed indicate  the  value  of that column relative to the standard.  of  expansion  or  When concerning  expansion, the design column numbers have been circled; when concerning compression, they have been boxed. While i t was hoped that a clear relation or progression could be demonstrated  between  comparable  columns  of  different  proved difficult without the use of a computer.  tunics,  this  Some trends, however,  are seen and will be discussed for each chart. B.  Lateral Distortion Charts Charting is based on the five groups shown in figure 28 to produce  comparable samples.  My  hypothesis, however, is that the five groups  occurred contemporaneously, a not unreasonable  assumption given their  probable  function  separately chart  1.  with  follows  Group  1  Only is  Unlike  and 2  the  the  expanded  follows  the  normal  single  group  29  in  compressed  which  likely  only  can  have  pattern  been  about  represent  the  composite  of  a  The  rest  greater  the  them.  they  considered is  located,  study  edge.  be  portion  could  This  group only  draping  that  include  therefore  of  A  is  examined chronology  therefore  The  textiles,  distinct  grouping.  display of  as  the  than  the  expanded  and  the  only  design  consists  interspace. compressed  portion  sample  one  tunic  it  In  both  portion  oriented  of  closest  and to  seam.  is  the  this  specimens  samples  since  of  and 30)  stripes  may  group  examination.  (figs.  overall  but  Each  tendencies.  conclusions  the  It  group  draw many  other  center  garments.  78).  column,  the  of  individual  samples to  official  summary  this  two  1  a  (fig.  difficult  numbers  as  when  more  samples  fragments  easily  be  represent  design  column  the  of  mistaken  may  tunics  of the as  worn,  group  striped  textiles  officials  appears  are  this  at  of the  this  a  exist  in  collections,  interspace from  low  side  design  portion  another  and  culture.  hierarchical  seam.  With  column  would  the  status effect  barely  be  visible.  2.  Group 2  The  (fig.  chart  distortion. made  using  79)  shows  Some the  five  useful  following  samples comparisons  three  arranged between  from the  simple mathematical  least five  to  samples  symbols:  greatest can  be  Figure  79.  Lateral  -  Distortion  i LB #: i  5A  %  100  j  4  Chart:  Group  N  1PRE  4j C  l  >  \JI01A  120  --  2.  i  !... I  1  (1  (7-  i  3  r(  Q  ?o  [  a (3  C  c3  I1  £  I 1-  K  s 6 NT*  -i  p-  t 6o  cI  Gj  5o  i . . .  &£  -< —  fo  in  70  11,1  ri  j  •  k [3 -—  10  — 10  1  ..  —  —  •  i  =  equal to greater than  <, less than  Figure then equal  Figure to  80  shows  compares to,  or  80.  the  range  these  to  less  than  Percentage  Compression:  Sample  of  expansion  determine the  if  and the  compression expansion  for is  each greater  sample, than,  compression.  Range  of  Group  2.  #  Expanded  Distortion  Compressed  and C o m p a r i s o n  Expansion  3  (fig.31)  100-110%  100-95%  10  4  (fig.32)  100-  63  109-62  37  5  (fig.33)  100-  66  94-30  34  6  (fig.34)  114-  44  92-22  60  7  (fig.35)  100-  25  84-15  75  of  Expansion  Compression  >  < < <  5 47 64 73 69  122.  To  see  the  mathematical symbol  relation  symbols  between  have  representing  again  expansion  design  been  used  and  the  columns in  for  figure  lower  each  81,  tunic  the  the  top  with  symbol  representing  compression.  Figure  81.  Relation  Sample  Between  Design  Columns:  #  Group  Design 2  1  2.  Column  < >  =  3  >  4  >  5  <  6  general  >-  5  7  The  # 3  tendency  for  the  relation  of  design  columns  is  Column  1">*-  2">"  3.  3.  Group,3  (figs.  Following last  group,  compressed  the  82  the  and  same  83)  form  percentage  portions  seen  in  figure  84.  seen  in  figure  85.  and  the  for  range  the of  distortion  relation  Similarly,  the  examination  of  of for  expansion  relation  between  this both to  group the  as  in  the  expanded  and  compression  design  columns  can  be  can  be  123. F i g u r e 82.  Lateral  ArA i  D i s t o r t i o n Chart  (Expansion):  Group  h  //  %  ;!:  3.  19  3  0  )  £2  ;;  ft bo  )  (!)£>  ()  ) <i)  i  ( d  1 S)  r  ®  i ©J i  )  0  1  T  6°  D  7 T  T  T  r  o P  —  1b  ?  s  $  /!  T  T Y  o bo ui  w  T <*>  — •  »  \<  & —  6)  1)  /  V2/  .  CD  /  • 1 111 1—  124. Figure  83.  Lateral  Distortion  PR Ei i0  £<  n  11  Chart  (Compression):  1  3.  2z  zo  /?  6  /  Group  % • • 1 ; •, h  M -E p .  .  •  il  ft  3 23  ILL  r T^n  s i  i —  -  1  rl  - C if'  T  (jfj  c0  T8o  —E J — —  —  f |f|  l  q ip  Get W  c [1  —  s  —  n  tb  to  m  < V3  II LIS  4  50  ex.  1 '1*1 T  T  k  %  0  JO  Tn 1  OA 20  If  12/  F1 i1 t 2J  ::!:  ::::  .  c  fP m  1  r  1 i—L  -  1  PI  un  T  £P—  pi  10  m  /  LI  3  B :-:: ::•  • •  0ii  L ii  125.  Figure 84. Percentage Range of Distortion and Comparison of Expansion to Compression: Group 3.  Expansion  Compression  Sample #  Expanded  Compressed  10 (fig. 38)  100- 67%  95-51%  33  <  44  11 (fig. 39)  100- 67  95-43  33  <  52  12 (fig. 40)  100- 55  100-45  45  <  55  13 (fig. 41)  100- 45  91-26  55  <C  65  14 (fig. 42)  100- 41  100-26  59  <  74  15 (fig. 43)  100- 27  84-30  73  >  54  16 (fig. 44)  100- 17  80-17  83  ~>  63  17 (fig. 45)  100- 16  65-13  84  >  52  18 (fig. 46)  100- 18  66-18  82  >  48  19 ( f i g . 47)  100- 17  51-10  83  >  41  20 (fig. 48)  109- 17  57-11  92  >  44  21 (fig. 49)  100-  1  55- 1  99  >  54  22 (fig. 50)  100-  1  33- 1  99  ^  32  126.  Figure 85.  Relation Between Design Columns: Group 3.  Column #  Sample #  10  > <  11  5  3  2  1  <  > >  - •- •  >•  12  >•  <  13  > >  <  14  > >  > >  >  15  > •>  <  > >  16  >  > >  > >  17  ><  >  18  >  <: <  19  > >  <  >  .:>  >•  > • - •• >  > > >  >  21  > >  22  > >  >•  >  >  :> > >  >>>  > >  > > >  - •  > -- •  -< <  20  • - •  j> >  >  • •• •  127.  The  general  distortion double was  of  the  the  While column  3  for  the  on  a  first  4.  the  Wari  lateral  (fig.  third  design  (fig.  no  diagonal  expansion and  3  of one  same  columns  is  is  that  consists  double  one  the  of  and  two three  columns.  almost  almost  generally  column  compression,  suggesting  between  This  always  greater  always  double to  a concept  unit  left.  primarily  is  true  for  rather  visual  2  is  distortion and than  from  reinforces  overall  than  column  (one  deviation  and  greater  lateral  columns  This  with  of  column)  monotony  1  however  particular  alleviate  column  chart  considered  omission  and  right  concerned  accurately  measuring  to  sets  The  group  is  columns.  each  from  this  columns  a  an  the  three, more  easily premise  impact.  86)  distortion  63),  of  design  between  column  fluctuations,  relation  helps  were  these  column  column  of  three.  expansion  specific  formula  Group 4  The  some  of  Since  the  expansion  of  than  ->5.  begin  column  progression  predicted that  of  both  design  simplistic  the  are  less  relation  a comparison  they  portions  there  occasionally based  that  expansion  the  however,  because  shows  compressed  for  1 ^ > 2 > 3 > 4  columns,  made,  comparison than  Column  design  also  tendency  shows  and the  (compressed  (fig.  because  86).  in  all  separation compression range  of  of is  edge)  has  This  design  examples, the  distortion  except  paired  apparent. and  been  omitted column sample  from  the  cannot  be  number  35  elements,  necessary  Figure  reflects  the  87  relation  of  for this  expansion  128. Figure  86.  Lateral  Distortion  £V PANS) O N  SA  Chart:  Group  4.  36  >  30  b  % 0  c)  QC T)  100  -) <i/  A  w p  % h —-~r  8o  7o  —  •  —  •  ,—  —  iff  J  —  bo  50  rn £1 Li  r  4**.  m T  r'1  ft m  V  ,  —  20  10  4— i  \  -  129.  to  compression  that  the  for  amount  expansion  and  of  the  great.  Similarly,  tendency  Figure  87.  figure  1  is  second  88,  design  between only  between  compression,  Column  and  distortion  difference  and is  first  compression,  column,  expansion  the  the  omits  adjacent  slight,  the  expanded relation  the  columns.  third  This  design  however, and of  columns, in  a  design  design  #  for  columns  column.  Compressed  Expansion  of  Compression  (fig.63)  100-100%  86-88%  0  <:  2  36  (fig.64)  100-100  31-31  0  =  0  37  (fig.65)  100-  96  46-43  4  >  3  38  (fig.66)  100-  94  47-37  6  <C  7  39  (fig.67)  100-  80  60-42  20  <^  22  design  for  The  35  both  portion  >2.  Expanded  shows  single  compressed  P e r c e n t a g e Range o f D i s t o r t i o n and C o m p a r i s o n Expansion to Compression: Group 4.  Sample  figure  is both  general  130. Figure  88.  Relation  Between  Sample  Design  Columns:  Group  #  4.  Column 1  #  2  35  <  36  =  3  :> 37  > >  38  AA  39  5.  Group  The groups, first  5  (fig.89)  charts the  to  reasons. appears columns. normally  The in  this  second  design  equivalent  for  the The  group  design  column, the  column  because  first  same  design  lateral  interspace first  narrower  in  can  was  the  in as  second  column  columns  than  seen used  distortion  interspace width  be  in  in  figure the  that terms  column  to  the  the  second  Unlike  standard  design Groups  89.  column 1  rather of  through  applied  to  of  relative  the right  of  interspace  the  the  the  other  than  Group 4  5  the is  for  several  design  columns  width center  column.  of seam  In  the is  Groups  130-1. Figure  Lateral  89.  Distortion  Chart:  Group  5  71  C  %I  4i  AMP  «?  % loo  \  (7)  T  ® Y  (  r  ft  fa  mH  /\  0 I i TO  A  c  Y  r"1 Gd  m *  T  —^  0  I "\  J .  o  -1 I  1) lj}3 13 •—j rin N  © T  V Vi  -  w  %i  VJ  _  j So  Su k/.  c3  T T  __  L/  C3 S7 —  ® 30  I  L  S3  20  a) /O  . . . . .  :  A  IT\  —  131.  one  through  are  bound  four, together  interspace  than  right.  This  a  only  the  either  columns,  visual  right  of  The  relation  Figure  of  center  for  between  90.  the  seam  both  #  and  appear  of  so  this  wide  are  the  narrower  (90  than  and and  to  where  first  91)  as  to  as  interspace  half a  central its  the  it  center  column  adjacent  show  the  the  In  (in  to the  and  of  Distortion  Compression:  Expanded  and  Group  Compressed  the  percentages)  Comparison  of  5  Expansion  Compression  42  (fig.  70)  100-  88  90-75  12  <  15  43  (fig.  71)  100-  32  72-28  68  >  44  44  (fig.  72)  100-  33  74-20  67  45  (fig.  73)  100-  14  69-15  86  54  >  left  is  or  point the along  preserve left  and  columns.  columns.  Range  usually  represent  order to  central  focal  seam  respectively,  compression  tunics  is  immediate  textiles  design  the  single,  5  columns.  of  column  make  Group  garments  tunic,  each  column  maintained.  expansion  design  Expansion  not  along  figures  Percentage  Sample  than  on  interspace is  is  column  seam  width  official  rather  following  distortion  column  Wari  balance  the  total  balance  of  center  adjacent  combined  category  interspace  the  The  consistent  design  first  at  column.  greater  and  the  54  range and  of the  132.  Figure  91.  Relation  Sample  Between  Design  Columns:  .  # 1  2  3  4  44 45  reasons to  be  groups One  The  together  data  original  comparable  group.  >  of  This  1  but  be  of  further  might and  the  >  > >  <  >  > >  > >  >  than  design  >  narrower general  further  group  based  separated  >  >  on  by  tendency away  seem  subdivided  be  8  >  the  this  7  <  is  the  .  > >  >  narrower  if  an  the  is  from  to  >  >  the  be  of  discontinuous  for  the  vertical  interspace  for  seam  than  sample  2  other  center  rarer  enlarged  number  column  for were  the  columns  they  are.  the  other  available.  design  columns  columns  in  the  shirt.  presented division  examples. a  >  column  samples  division  portion  concurs,  <  previously,  and w o u l d  The  .>  noted  such  lower  <c <:  design  general,  grouped  >  cases  progressively  In  -<  .  JI  5  AA  43  all  >  <:  42  .  C o l umn # 5 6  «<  In  Group  in of  this the  chapter  sample  Following  chronologic chronologic  order order  into  Sawyer's has is  allows  been  five  some  chronologic  groups  hypothesis, suggested  considered  for  accurate,  was with  made  to  which  tunics for  assessment.  each  produce  the  of  the  group.  author same  133.  The is  incorporation  effected  temporal  by  relations  Evaluation further  of  the  This  design  been  the  numbers  and in  this  Groups  for  the  compressed  not  give  true  2  tunics  hierarchical  measure  problem  a  For  synthetic  the  order  of  requires reference,  chronology  distortion  and  the  evidence.  comparisons  thesis.  lateral  of  in  in  compressed tunics  in  the  (fig.  the  first  edge  each  column  group  3.  from  The  lot  the  use  These  they  implying  same  has  show a  of  number  number  of  Sample  grave  Sample  amount  distortion.  groups,  the  differing  the  therefore  grave  apparent.  chronology.  dictates  and  a  immediately  reputedly  Group  lateral as  are  are  is  column,  with  tunics  than  the  14  different  of  Coast  42)  obviously  because  column  South  incomplete  group  this  into  seam)  positions  3  design  Lateral  for  of  of  ordering  and  number  compressed 4  the  assess  3  of  two that  change  one in  space  column  examples  is  design  available this  lot,  does  are  of  individual  position  or  status.  Another  Group  on  chronologic  this 31  edge  of  based  to  however,  arrangement.  and  interest  center  chronology,  difficult  scope  comparison  The  with  sample  in  owned  a  single  i t  necessary  the  a  making  integrated  the  (figs.  columns  particular  on  different  while  a  been  into  groups  beyond  seam).  14  factors,  factors  is  (nearest  in  groups  different  has  problems  3  2,  and  side  appear  Group  of  based  maintained  Some  yet  is  five  complex  sample  column  (nearest  the  significant  research  however, 92).  many  of  the  distortion than  assessment  of  in  the  the  of  may  this  synthetic  Group  4.  author  also  highlands,  validity  of  feels  have  This is  been  however this  chronology results  in  is an  the  unmeasured  earlier  placement  warranted.  used  to  differing  incomplete  hypothesis.  degrees  scientific  data  on  the  limits  Figure  92.  Proposed Chronology Distortion.  Sample  %  #  Based  on D e g r e e  Distortion 14 lb  3 42 1 4  -  -  "  X  X  82  83  X  85 85 87  99 99  While  chronologic  relatively  accurate,  does  permit  not  arrangement will  is  others  the  be  arrangement  used  in  for  of  the  and  -  -  -  X  X  X X  X X X  1A 1A  X X X X  X  X  X X  1A 1A 1A  X  X  X X  X  X X  X X X  1A  X  X X  X X X X X X X X X X  X 1A  this  each  groups  chronologic  however,  .  IB.  implications  accurate  useful,  a r e Type  ,  "  X X X X X  90 98  all  X  X X X X  78  indicated,  X  1A  80  17 19 20 21 22  conventions.  -  n 74 74  45  groups  x  5b 63 69 70 70  13 14 6 44 18 16 7  -  X  bl bl  43  1A  X  29 37 47 49 55  5  X "  E<C E=C e>c  Type  4  3  X  2b  2 10 12 11 3/ 39 38 36 5 15  Type  2  134.  Lateral  Group 1  35  of  in  group  may  relation  conclusions. synthetic  following  be to  one  Some  arrangement  discussion  considered  of  of  other  another form the  of five  design  135.  C H A P T E R 5 - SYMMETRY  Symmetry Wari.  represents  Using  possible  to  following  symmetry analyse  another  terminology  design  discussion  type  of as  design defined  organization  summarizes  convention  in  Shepard's  by  a  Anna  employed Shepard,  structural  work  as  i t  by t h e i t  is  manner.  applies  The  to  these  textiles.  Shepard regularly state a  repeated  that  shift  for  this  in  the  describes  Two the  symmetric forms  of  as  of  "the  design."  "often  notes  a  employed  that  They  design  manner  (Shepard,  involves  symmetry.  of motions  arrangement  1948:217)  change  of  are  "the  of  She goes  orientation  two e s s e n t i a l  and  in i t s  of  on  to  as w e l l  as  must  be  used  identification  of  the  recognition  steps  the  of  the  motion  or  repetition".  s y m m e t r i c f i g u r e i s c l a s s i f i e d by i t s m o t i o n , that by the manner of r e p e a t i n g the fundamental portion, motions are described by r e f e r e n c e to imaginary s and p o i n t s o r a x i s . ( S h e p a r d , 1948:217)  terms  frequently  fundamental  fundamental  a  Shepard  portion  The is, and line  of  repetition  analysis  combination  are  part  position".  fundamental  symmetry  portion  portion whole",  the basis of  referred  as  while a  and  "the she  serial  the  unique describes  to  in  the  design part the  repetition".  examination  unit.  which design  Shepard i s  repeated  unit  as  of  the  textiles  describes to  "that  form part  the the  which  136. Lateral between place  distortion  design of  columns,  the  more  distortion'. motion  of  motions  3.  Slide  4.  Bifold  is  "a  definition  of  this  will  'symmetry  examination  inequality  is  be  used  with  the  in  lateral  directional  Slide  the  and of  not  be  described  as  Wari  Shepard  shift  in  textiles.  reflection, left  images  footprints spread the  application the  along the  These  in  in  awareness  on  part  alleviate  monotony.  of of  without  are:  a  series type  nature,  but  Using  a  can  these  motions  to  artists,  Shepard that  of  be  dynamic  "the  bifold of  alternation this  to  the  equally  figure  the  images  rotation,  assymmetric in  mirror  transverse  designs,  series  seen  Wari  as  spaced  is  first,  orientation".  equates  motion, a  The  known  in  geometric  motions  in  equally motion  about  four  the  of  final  rotation  change  of  notes  The  manner.  commonly  progression".  degree  these  following  more  third  1948:219)  portion)  the  position  laterally.  "180  in  reflection,  "reflection  (Shepard,  fundamental  in  Reflection  by  transverse  axes".  The  symmetry  an  Rotation  defined  is  axes".  term  producing  Reflection  are  imagery  need  apparent  Transverse  second,  movement  are  2.  terms  right  the  exact  concern  units  Translation  translation  of  primary  design  therefore,  technically  The  1.  The  and  the  repetition.  Four  These  effects  is  spaced  unit  (or  93.  textiles  shows  a  strong  movement,  which  serves  to  137.  Figure  93.  Symmetric  Motions  in  Wari  Official  Garments.  wroi-o Kerrtxtioti  A«YMW£rRlt OWT  L  \1  S) Ph If  Symmetry  analysis  identification Type  1A  by  outlining.  is  not  whether design  For  rotation  study  of  within  is  not  be  paired  design  through  element  where  also  elements  paired  according  to  rectangle  considered  within  consistently  however  the  this  be  encased  This  Since  may  In  moves  rectangle. i t  unit.  spiral  unit.  (fig.94b)  the  stepped  portion  paired  will  one  fundamental  textiles  concerned  1A  identical  the  consistency, and  Type  IB  is  therefore by  In  left  and the  motion  a  the  rectangle,  referred  the  term  to  as  the  textiles. produced the  number spiral  motion 32  (fig.  elements  by of  is  of  series  reflection design  slide  column,  where abberant.  bifold  the  vertical  (stepped can  of  also  be  95a). are  considered axes  that  (fig.95b).  if  considered  for  of  For  both  Type  profile  1A  separately  design  exception of  slide  spirals)  used  mixture  elements  (fig.  be  An  stack  is  horizontal  stacking  reflection.  a  images  units  will  vertical  of  of  design  of  repetition  repetition  of  and  orientation  elements  the  67)  the  paired  stack  Every  consists  mode  a  motions,  garments.  progression  for  symmetric  reflection  right  along  slide  four  slide  IB  their  used  vertical  the  column Type  and  reflection  the  how  official  design  units.  the  transverse  separate  a  textiles,  and  Wari  columns  or  with  reflection,  in  earlier,  design  Type  stepped  entire  the  or  design  reflection,  sample  the  the  transverse  noted  set  oriented  so  design  portion  the  the  textiles  clarity,  are employed  As  as  is  IB  is  this  result  the  with  unit.  translation,  In  is  throughout  identical  This  or  Type  identical,  definition  unit.  the  If  begins  and  portion  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  with  not  repeated  design  94a),  which  case  are  Shepard's  (fig.  textiles  portion  trapezoidal  a rectangle  elements  fundamental fundamental  rotation  the  Wari  the  in  is  the  textiles,  enclosed bifold  of  of  to  units this  head  is and  b.  re 95.  Orientation of elements through S l i d e R e f l e c t i o n .  TYPE  10  TYPE"  IA  It  has  been  orientation  of  elements  separates  each  from  to  in  left  each  right  the  columns  or  column.  a  The  two  forms  and  'zig  center  of  If between  every  design  column  motions,  reveals and  study  Since  the  direct  resulting  number  of  the  front  multiplication  of  an  even  design  by  an  interspace  results  defined An  in  (or  one  of  hourglass)  design  columns  occurs  up  and  the  to  have  back)  number,  one  can  loomed  the  face and  terms  of  Every face  odd the  even  of of  symmetric  these motion  the  design  number tunic  numbers  two  textile  of  a vertical an  relation  examination  front  in  the  in  outlining.  units  odd  a  double  which  between  back  both  in  a  as  separately,  be  of  of  units  design  adjacent  rotation.  appear (or  to  refer  96)  pattern  illustrations  line  to  between  can  design  zig-zag  design  'diamond'  considered  the  that  alternately  occurring  line  line  of  called  relationship  even  only  in  is  used  a  the  position  columns  zig-zag  (fig.  bifold  both  some  when  and  shows  although  be  columns  that  an  units  a  the  displays  number  design  translation  employed  results  column  moves  separated  design  the  units  whether  patterning with  diagonal  producing  be  column  will  confused  adjacent  side,  determines  The  relative  will  adjacent  be  left  the  column  which  design  to  define  design  Zig-zag  design  within  by  of  outlining  each  motions  single  zag'.  not  side  reflection  columns.  right  To  relation  of  should  from  adjacent  appear  slide  design  element  column.  as  that  in  and  term  that  column  this  paired  design  columns,  shown  by  tunic column,  of  is  in  design visible.  two  always  safely  assume  that  the  total  panel  column  will  always  be  even.  Translation zig-zag of  form  design  diamond  of  units  outlining  between  adjacent  outlining, in  a  (fig.  design 97).  while  design  columns  bifold  rotation  column  always  always of  results  an in  results even  in  a  number  hourglass  or  143.  BIFOLD ROTATION  Most  of  the  both  the  sample  right  columns same the  and  piece  used  may  represent  of  these  Outlining  the  sequence  chart  diamond  and  suggest to in  in  interesting  to  note  the  columns  and  outlining  been  bifold  of  addition,  reflection seam  elements this  adjacent a  third  in  however, between  Most design  center  samples  columns  outlining  by  with  between  seam.  Two  one  in  or  either the  on  form  columns  unit  diamond  exceptions,  on  reflection  (fig.  design sample  of  as  talented  the  artist  This  point,  in  extreme  example  personal  control.  however,  adjacent  columns  results  again side  in  of  it  the  side  outlining  produces while  a  bifold  design in  the  two  symmetric  center  appears.  either  of  seam.  Transverse  of as  the  center  does  bifold  mirror  image  rotation  of  shifts  98).  whether or  seen  between  reflection  columns  study,  adjacent  seen  either  diamond  design  design  this  are  more  This  effect  a  and  predominates.  design  transverse  transverse adjacent  orientation  columns  design  hourglass  form  entire  by  is  design  as  well  a later  translation  motions  motion,  adjacent  an  of  two  design  diamond  three  textiles  (as  on  outlining  five.  monotony.  allowing at  and  overall  alleviate  detail  that  rotation These  between  results  rotation,  demonstrated  forms.  treatment  more  3  executed  conventions  discussed  has  was  this  between  four  The  to  columns  outlining  outlining  further  be  that  i t  design  Group  92).  zig-zag  that  conventions a breakdown  (fig.  outlining  hourglass  columns of  of  exception  or  zig-zag  design  form  An  between  displays  in  one  diamond  and  between  only  garment. has  two  will  It  In  late  the  which and  and  display  of  time  three  distortion)  who  one  chronology  use  lateral  47)  same  appears  proposed  combined  is  the  study  side  (fig.  columns  at  two  this  left  19  design but  in  and  number  between four,  tunics  outlined  zig-zag  forms,  columns number  13  on  between displays  either (fig.  adjacent  41)  side and  diamond of  the  sample  number  10  columns study  at  the  that  center the  (fig.  principle  Some  These  or  are  the  adjacent  design  can  be  seen  as  for  the  but  that  describes  the  textiles  design  ones  in  columns  rotation  orientation  term  only  design  the  the  adjacent  bifold  rotation,  describe  column,  and  textiles  between  adjacent  between  bifold  to  pieces  between  employed 1A  outlining  two  reflection  Type  used  design  zig-zag  translation  motions  was  individual  are  this  at  therefore  columns  at  displaying same  of both  elements 1A  the  either  reason  Type  the  slide in  an  and  Type  to  form  used.  To design  summarize, columns  adjacent Bifold  rotation  in  a  design  of  slide  columns and  outlining  result  adjacent  all  through  design  hourglass but  seam.  reflection  reflection  is  center  Transverse  seam.  transverse  IB  display  employ  seam.  center  38)  reflection.  dictates  transverse between  different columns  at  in  the  The  form  orientation center  ***  design of seam  study  be  both  elements. less  seen  relation  outlining  columns  is  may  symmetric of  reflection  adjacent  the  this  between  produce at  the  them.  diamond center  Translation common.  between  or  seam, between  147. CHAPTER 6 - COLOUR USAGE  The Wari artists were aware of the danger of monotony inherent in the repetitive use of the design unit. The orientation of the paired elements in  design  units was  symmetric motions. compression design  varied, as  use  of  In addition, i t has been shown that expansion and  emphasized  column.  previously shown, through the  or  de-emphasized  the  Sawyer notes that without  system, the complete textile  would s t i l l  paired  elements  a similarly be  in  every  complex colour  subject to geometric  and  garments can be examined on  two  colour repetitiousness. (Sawyer, 1963:38)  The use of colour in Wari official  levels, colour patterning or the directional movement of colour, and the actual  use  of specific  colours.  While  this  study  is limited  to  an  examination of colour movement, some comments on the actual use of colour should be made.  A.  Specific Colour Use  The Wari favoured certain colour ranges. and yellow ranges appearing  The main ones were the red  as reds, pinks and oranges, or as yellows,  golds, tans and soft browns.  In addition, black and white were commonly  used for paired elements (particularly the stepped spiral  portion), for  outlining  appears more  and  as  accents  within  design  frequently than white except in outlining.  units.  Black  Intense blues and soft greens  are seen in many tunics, however, their application is usually limited to secondary accents.  A general progression from the use of strongly contrasting colours to more subtle colour harmonies is evident in most groups.  Sample number 3  (fig. on  31)  dark  heads seen a  of gray  are in  the  use  example  of  the  entire  become  previously  contrasted  It  colour. in  shown  which  uses  many  the  gray  stands  out;  however,  de-emphasized  with  yellow  outlining  the  earlier three  areas  Two number  piece  13  (fig.  to  sample  number  same  41)  12 The  Southern  contrast  of  subtler  provenience.  to  progression  numbers  42  show  a  similar  employ is near  In  the  second  accents a  green  by  a  more column  background  fields  of  the  rather  the  appear  soft  previously  the  white  more  first  than  example,  example,  2  distortion  the  oranges  first  Group  interspace  background  from  sample  progression sample  the  South  Ayacucho,  in  numbers and  number  the white  outlining  frequently  applied  71).  is  to  37  4  and 38  3  the  rather  and  5  (figs.  40)  strong  only  and  in two  and the  above) have  second  progression than and 65  sample  contrasting  (discussed  while  suggesting  Group  (fig.  colours  Coast  temporal  12 from  number  contrasting  harmonies  70  tan  sample  Both  strong  evident  (fig.  a  and  strong  from  replaced  the  elements  with  tunics,  is  is  as  red  producing  lateral  colours  of  bright  piece.  harmonies.  between  a n d 43  replaced  3  subtle  same  The  example  greater  contrast  Blue  Group  first  Another  the  background.  later  Highlands more  respectively  are  the  examples  colours  the  in  but  columns  on  hues.  profile  interspace  the  yellow-tan  the  and y e l l o w  in  head  in  spirals  The  system.  dark  Pink  stepped  highlights.  of  golden-orange  red  brown  extreme  profile  and  fields.  displays  soft  colour  orange  tunic.  35)  The  the  soft  dark  repeated  however,  itself  softening  or  3.  and  is  (fig.  number  background  blue  spiral  example,  repeats  is  with  7  respectively,  yellow  colour  number  sample  subtle  bright  highly  discussed  features  stepped  sample  than  and  2  accented  vibrant,  is  Group  known is  from  from  high  regional. is  and 6 6 )  and  The  demonstrated and  sample  149.  In similar of  addition, ways.  Group  Note  2  For  red  spiral lateral  Group  tunics.  5  additional  B.  Colour  1.  Type  IB  orange  a  yellow  that  of  of  stepped  often  colour  in  sample  progression  47  spiral  on  dark  the  Based 47  colour  the  relative  use  of  on  can use  specific  sample  number  number of  use  sample  background.  determining  (fig. gray  placed  can  (fig.  of  study  Art  of  Boas  (Boas,  tunic  and  d i s c u s s i o n he  goes  to  early be  used  5. and  use  among  and other  as  an  tunics.  the  touched  upon  1955:38-39) set  out  calls  the  colour  a  in  Wari  official  garments  the  subject  briefly  in  he  examined  a double  design  where basic  movement  charting of  system  colour  (fig.  "rhythmic  his  99).  planning  is  apparent  in  all  Wari  official  treatise column  of his  repetition"  and  state:  deliberate  exists  In  T h e v i r t u o s o who v a r i e s t h e m o n o t o n y o f h i s m o v e m e n t s and e n j o y s h i s a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m a more complex action p r o d u c e s a t t h e same t i m e a m o r e c o m p l e x r h y t h m . ... In many c a s e s , r h y t h m i c c o m p l e x i t y i s c l e a r l y t h e r e s u l t of careful planning. (Boas, 1955:41)  Such  Group  colour  in 31)  background  therefore  of  3  75)  similar  be  dating  number  colours  Methodology  general on  use  Groups  Patterning  Franz  Primitive  the  The  specific  date.  the  distortion,  of  C h a r t i ng  No  a  way  different  resembles  on  minimal  of  example,  closely  particularly  the  to  textiles  garments.  150.  Figure  99.  Colour  Charting  System,  (after  Boas,  1955:  39,  f i g .  34)  151. Following Boas" charting system which involves a series of and  alphabetical  notations, letters  are  assigned  to  the  numerical  stepped  elements, while numbers are used for the profile head elements.  Two  spiral parts  of each paired element are used for charting; they are:  Stepped Spiral  1.  Spiral Colour  2.  Spiral Background Colour  Profile Head  The  A, B, C  1, 2, 3..-..  1.  Predominate Face Colour  2.  Background Colour  quantity of letters or numbers used depends on the total  variety of  colours appearing in the garments.  All samples available in colour have been charted. concerned with  colour movement rather  than specific  Since this study is colour  use,  i t was  possible to enlarge the sample by judging colour movement based on relative value (light and dark) of black and white illustrations.  152. 2.  Chart  Analysis  When  the  patterns  charts  existed  were  which  motions  as  diagrammed  Figure  100.  Colour  Parallel  analysed,  can  be  below  i t  became  described  as  apparent  either  that  parallel  two or  major  opposing  (fig.100).  Patterns:  Parallel  Motion  and  Opposing  Opposing  Motions.  Motion  X These  motions  diagonal of  a  use  movements  series  clear  across  direction  each  colours  for  diagonal  motions  occur,  lateral colour  columns, interspace  diagonals  columns  however  the  distortion  whether  Parallel seam,  the  of  of  These  indicate  the  and  of  paired they the  continue  design  (fig.  side  of the  colour tunic,  elements  are  movement. produced  in  the  emphasized  symmetric  columns  are  side  or  the  involve  repetition  units.  de-emphasized  between by  by  design  orientation  uninterrupted  Both  side  of  by  design  adjacent or  While the  units. design  separated  by  101).  and  opposing  the  two  sides  motions often  are have  found a  on  different  each  side  of  orientation.  the  center  When  the  MX  .13LAC* M P mm  6T£PP£P :5?K«US, W < 5  IM M ' W A U i e t  mmM^  154.  changes  in  evident  Figure  orientation  f o r both  102.  are  examined,  the parallel  and o p p o s i n g  Change  in Orientation  Center  Seam.  PARALLEL  PATTERN  two  of  different motions  Colour  ( f i g .  Patterns  (. . A-  symmetric however, usually  and o p p o s i n g  organization the  change  determined  orientation  of  of  motions  design  in  orientation  by  the  elements  in  same  are  columns on  on  either  symmetric  adjacent  2.  iLmeur<,  A.~ STEPPED  parallel  U  I. I-  A.  Both  102).  1.  PATTERN  2.  are  MOTION  PATTERN  1.  patterns  at  OPPOSING  MOTION  k.  PATTERN  colour  design  created  independently  either side  of  side the  motion  that  columns  at  of  of  the  center  tunics, seam  determined the  the  center  i s the  seam.  155. If  the  two  patterns  considered seam  for  while  in  Pattern  that  the  that  represent  Pattern  1:  two  Sample  number  displaying  rotation  and  (fig.  second In  appear,  moving  parallel  the  variables movement three  is  also  are  each  of  side  continuously  Pattern  1:  motion. seam  is  the  The  number  and  center  will  be  orientation  of  It  are  colour  the  same  patterning  colour  opposing  are  translation,  seam  several  parallel  one  number  motion.  38,  another  charts  at that  motions.  three  colour  in  an  direction,  the  In  sample  These  only  is  number  variables  although center  motion  the  move  that  by  four a  of  the  the  of  the  colour parallel  use  colour  same  (A,B,C)  the  parallel  head  the  side  although  13,  profile  one one  caused  in  in  two  bifold  variables  from  moves  dual  note  are  involves  resulting  diagonally  opposing  ( f i g . 104)  first  both  to  This  13  The  translation,  number  to  sample  interesting  of  only  variables  diagonal  elements  (1,2)  on move  seam.  Motion  43  symmetric  bifold  of  is  tunic,  across  parallel  or  the  center  It  evident.  Opposing  Sample  1  variables.  (A,B,1,2)  the  examine  the  reflection.  determine  at  movements at  rotation  orientation  and  involves  predominate.  colour  each  sample  other.  (B)  in  colour  orientation  bifold  that  to  103)  Pattern  pattern.  to  for  in  transverse  columns  useful  opposing  Motion  colour  tunic  by  change  is  38  examples  the  design  patterns  Parallel  either  principles  the  It  by  and  change  produced  adjacent  determine  the  the  produced  always  seam.  parallel  terms,  symmetric  as  center  is  is  between  the  1  2  elements those  both  symmetric  Pattern  shown  for  rotation,  (fig.  105)  treatment and  the  is of  an  example  adjacent  change  in  design  of  Pattern columns  orientation  of  at  1  opposing the  colour  center  movement  Figure  103.  Colour  Chart  for  sample  number  38:  Parallel.Pattern  I  Mi  \n  A  B  C  ;j"B  A ;  B  A  B  C  B  !  B ;  B  A  B  C  B  A  : B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  ; C  B  CO  I  B  A  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  A  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  A  ! B  A  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  A  B  j  A  B  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  A  ii B  A  B  A  A  B  C  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  B  A  B  A  B  A'  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  A  B  A  Stepped  1  Spiral  A  Spiral Spiral  Background  Interspace Minor Dotted  Ml  columns  colour lines  indicate  i  B  A  i  A  B  ! B  A  i  ;  C  Tan  Brown  Gold  Blue  Tan  Tan  indicated  variations  B  are  by  vertical  lines.  boxed.  reconstructed  areas.  A  B  A  1.  Figure  104.  Colour  Chart  for  sample  number  13:  Parallel  Pattern  CM  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  1  1  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  2  B  1  A  B  1  A  2  B  1  1  A  2  1  B  A  2  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  CM  A  CM  1  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  I  Stepped  Spiral  Spiral Spiral  Background  Profile  Head  Face Background  Interspace Minor Dotted  colour lines  columns  A  B  Fuchsia  Orange-Gold  Olive  Grey  1  2  Pink  Gold  Grey  Black  indicated  variations indicate  are  by  vertical  boxed.  reconstructed  areas.  lines.  Figure  105.  Colour  Chart  for  sample number  43:  Opposing  Pattern  S  3 B 1 A A  1  2  B 2 A  B 3 A  1  B 2 A  3 B  A  2 B 3 A  1  1 A 2  B 3 A  1  B 2 A  3 B 1  A | B 3  2 B 3 A A  1  B 2  B 2 A  1  A 3 B 1 A A  1  3 B 1 A  A 2  B  3  A 1  B 3 A  B 2 A  3  B  1 A  3 B 2 A  B 3 A  1  B 3 A 2  B  1 A  3 B 1 A  3 B 2 A  1  B 3 A  3 B 1  2  B 2 A 2  B 3 A  1  B 3  B  3 X  X B 2 A  3 A  X X 2 A 3  B X  X 2  B 3 A  X X X X 2  B 1  X X B 3 A  1  X A  3 B 1  X X X X[B]1  1  3 X X A 2  B X X 3 B 1  Stepped  X  A X  X 3 A  B X X X X  1  B 1 A  A  B 1  1  A 3 B X X  1  Orange  OliveGold  OliveGold  Pink-  Yellow  pendant  Background  Dotted  Brown  Brown  Orange  Brown  Black  i n t e r s p a c e columns  colour variations lines  Pink  are  i n d i c a t e d by  boxed.  indicate reconstructed areas.  XX.  2  3 B 2 A 2  B 1 1  B 1 1  B 1 1  B  A  3  B 3 A  X X  B 2  B X X 2 .;B 3 X X A  1  X X  A  B 3 A  3  3 B 2 A  B 3 A  B 1 A  (pale)  Minor  2  A X X 2 A  B 3 X X  Red  Brown  Discontinuous  1  A  3 B 2 A  X X A  1  Head  Face  Eye  B 1  B  Background  Profile  3 X X X X(A]2  Spiral  Spiral Spiral  1  A 2  2  1  1.  159. is  the  same.  colour  Five  differentiation  (2,3).  The  distorted (fig.  tunic  because  71)  stepped  spiral  in  an  across  Pattern  Parallel  lines This the  does back  Pattern  to  7  not or  2:  number  following  the  of  of  14  elements  side  chart  the  official  profile  head  elements  the  profile  the head  have  colour  elements appear  actual  garment  garments.  Both  (1,2,3)  continue  spiral  elements  stepped elements.  been  slight  (fig.105)  however  however,  only  Minor  colour  boxed.  shows seam  Note  down  the  to in  a  change  which  that the  is  the  in  the  direction  result  orientation  pattern  orientation,  of  diagrammed but  of  rather  of  transverse  the  in  the  parallel  figure  indicates  102. either  tunic.  Motion  profile left  head  Wari  106)  a change  face  Five  the  to  used,  with  for  seam,  center  upside  reflection. head  center  profile colour  system  and  imagery.  Opposing  Sample  (A,B)  the  signify  front  the  proportions  (fig.  at  be  the  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ,  mirror  appear  of  occur  Motion  number  or  (A,8,1,2,3)  in  notation  the  will  movements  reflection  two  direction  which  parallel  the  elements  deviations,  Sample  between  normal  opposite  2:  variables  proportions  of  follows  uninterrupted move  colour  colour  107)  variables  (1)  the  pattern  (fig.  meet  at  tunic of  the  is  (A,B,1,2,3) the  was rest  another  center  visible of  the  example  appear,  seam. for  tunic,  of  but  Note  only  that  charting the  transverse  only  (fig.  missing  one  of part  42),  portion  the of but  can  be  according  to  reconstructed.  The the  five  sample  is  groups.  divided  into  Complete  parallel  tunics  and  and  opposing  fragments  motions that  show  sufficient  160.  Figure  106.  Colour  Chart  for  sample  number  7:  Parallel  1 .53  2  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  1  A  2  B  2  A  1  B  2  2  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  CP  B  B  1  A  2  B  1  A  1  B  2  A  1  1  A  2  B  13  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  1  A  B  2  A  1  B  2  2  B  1  A  2  1  B  2  A  1  B  B  1  A  2  B  A  1  B  2  A  1  1  A  2  B  1  2  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  1  A  B  2  A  1  B  2  2  B  1  A  2  A  B  Spiral  Wine  Gold-Orange  Background  Gold-Tan  01ive-Tan  1  2  Face  Pink  Yellow  Background  Olive-Tan  Dark  Stepped  Profile  Spiral  Head  Interspace Minor Dotted  columns  colour lines  indicated  variations indicate  are  by  vertical  Brown  lines.  boxed.  reconstructed  areas.  2 B 1 A 2 B  Pattern  2.  161.  Figure  Colour  107.  Chart  for  sample  number  Opposing  14:  Pattern  2.  3*  ovrv  !3  B  ',1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  !B  3  ;A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  12  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  :A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  il  B  2\  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  JB  1  A*  ,2  B  3  A  1  B  2  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  J3  A  1  \B  2  A  3  B  1  A  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  B  3  A  1  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  \  2  1  B  2  A  3  B  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  1  A  2  B  3  2  A  •6 i  A\  1  B  3  A  A  1  B  2  A  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  3  B  1  A  2  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  \2  B  3  A  1  B  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  2  A  3  B  1  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  3  A  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  1  B  2  A  3  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  B  1  A  2  B  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  t  •A  3  B  12  B  3  ;B  2  A  i  B  !I  A  2  B  ,3  !A  1  B  2\  B  1  A  3  A  1  A  .3  B  |A  2  B  3  ii  B  2  A  3»  jB  1  A  2  B  ',3  A  1  B  2  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  ht-  !  A  1  B  2  \A  3  B  1  A  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  !A  3  B  1  A  '?  B  3  A  1  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  A  2  B  B  3  A  1  B_  2  A  3  B  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  !  3  !B i2  3  }  i  t  :|B  2  A  3  B  r»  A  2  B  3. 2  A  3  B  1  A  2  B'  3  A  ii  A  2  B  3  A\  1  B  2  A  B  3  A  1  B  2  A  3  B  1  ;A  1  B  2  A  3'  B  1  A  2  3  B  1  A  2  B  3  A  1  B  Stepped  A  B  Spiral  Black  Orange  Background  Orange  Dark-Orange  Profile  1  2  3  Pink  Yellow  Brown  Face  Spiral  Head  I n t e r s p a c e c o l u m n s i n d i c a t e d by v e r t i c a l lines. Minor colour v a r i a t i o n s are boxed. Dotted l i n e s  indicate  reconstruction.  patterning pattern, this  on are  figure  parallel Sample  i t  pattern  18  be  (fig.  while  type  diagrammed  109.  in  seam  1  seen  that  thirty  tunics  sixteen  tunics  only does  not  change  figure  or  2  3  to  determine  the  chart  out  of  display  the  (fig.  parallel  in  on  follow  number  displaying  a  Parallel  center  Pattern  46)  both  the  as  sample  with  below  of  while  addition,  70),  Figure  can  motion,  In  sides  indicated  number  use. (fig.  both  defined 31)  and  colour  orientation  (fig.  the  specific  108).  forty-seven  patterns  motion.  for  sample  From display  opposing  patterning,  at  the  colour  number  form  shoulder  42  another line  as  109.  Pattern  3.  BACK FACE  FRONT FACE  A of  colour both  these  chart the  for  front  display  sample and  parallel  number  back  were  motion.  3  is  shown  available Since  in for  only  figure eleven two  110.  Illustrations  tunics.  examples  of  Seven  of  Parallel  •  Figure  108.  Sample  Divided  into  Group  Parallel  Parallel Sample  1.  #  Pattern -  1 2  2.  and O p p o s i n g  1  Motions.  Opposing  2  3  Pattern  Sample  # 1  2  (x)  X  3  X  7  X  8  4  X  5  X X  6  g 3.  11 12  (x)  13 16  X X  17 23  X  10 14  X  15  X X  19  X X  20 21  X  24 26  22 25  27 28  29  X  30 31 32 33 34  35  4.  Sample logic  ()  -  X X  37 39  X X  41  X  42  5.  Note:  36  number of  Tentative  the  18  does  rest  of  pattern  X  40  X  43  X  46  44  47  45  not the  number  follow sample  the and  assignment.  colour is  X X  patterning  therefore  omitted.  Figure  110.  Colour  Chart  for  sample  number  3:  Parallel  Pattern  s:  a *—  •3.  o A  2  B  1  A  2  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  A  2  B  1  A  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  1  A  2  B  1  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  B  1  A  2  B  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  2  B  1  A  2  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  A  2  B  1  A  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  1  A  2  B  1  1  B  2  A  1  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  B  2  A  1  B  1  B  2  A  1  B  2  2  B  1  A  2  B  2  A  1  B  2  A  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  1  B  2  A  1  1  A  2  B  1  A  1  B  2  A  1  B  B  1  A  2  B  1  B  2  A  2  A  1  2  B  1  A  2  B  2  A  1  A  1  A  A  2  B  1  A  2  A  B  Spiral  Red  Orange  Background  Gold  Dark-Grey  Face  Pink  Yellow  Background  Blue  Dark-Brown  Stepped  Spiral  Profile  Head  Interspace Minor Dotted  columns  colour lines  Shoulder  line  indicated  variations indicate  are  by  vertical  boxed.  reconstructed  indicated  by  lines  horizontal  areas. line.  3.  165. Pattern  3  have  possible in  that  the  patterns.  It  not  the  patterning,  has  adjacent  transverse between  zig  zag  form  seam.  Since  symmetric  early  example  columns  in  colour  at  the  outlining also  and  may  the  center  10  the  reflect  is  illustrated)  indicates other  18  this  study  that  parallel  (fig.  seam  2 which  is  one  is  46)  for  of  does colour  adjacent lateral when  design  the  by  center the  seam.  i t  that at is  were  of  relation  translation.  columns  rules  the  result  symmetric  pieces  10  elements  at  distortion, formal  of  determined  is  two  number  as  the  seam  only  sample  normally  however, center  of  orientation  orientation  the  time  for  center  at  a  in  exception  motion  seam,  l i t t l e  number  i t  pattern.  the  between  displays  than  Pattern  columns  number  frequency sample  however,  face  data  pattern  Opposing  back  The  with  at  drawn,  or  examples  fourth  same  sample  it  a  be  pattern.  other  the  design  of  the  can  front  that  study,  reflection  earlier,  noted  this  shows  adjacent  less  in  design  10  as  the  this  with  represent  change  number  only  into  been  logic  conclusions  (with  occurs  same  few  fall  already  employ  directional  noted  3  specimen  38),  Sample  also  a n d may  Every  between  pieces  may  Pattern  follow  located,  other  sample  Parallel  (fig.  been  As  have the  the  center  probably still  an  being  developed.  To  determine  patterning, (figs.  39  because  and  that  known  coming  from  Parallel colour  have  number both  are  provenience the  regional  comparisons  40)  sample  expected with  some  the  South  Pattern  patterning  3, is  known 12  so  can  while not  the  be  closely  f i r s t ,  second  regionally  Sample  from  the  resembles  numbers  The  significance  made.  Pattern  sample  Coast.  temporal  provenience  Parallel are  or  1.  as  Southern  sample  Other 3 and  numbers  14  determined.  11  colour and  Highlands,  number  11,  in  (figs.  and 4 2 ) ,  Pattern  31  noted, 2.  this  falls  This  12 and  i t  examples  previously  i s Opposing  of  is  study both into  suggests  166.  In  order  composite charted chart  One  is  is  lateral clear  that  the  both  the  a  Type  3  Type  1A  3  textiles  appear  later  display  It  has  different teamed  in  often  are  face  the  have  of  originally  support  have  also  this 19  been  chart  (figs.  34  chronology motion.  monotony,  this  mentioned  extreme supports  in  terms  lateral its  late  of  also  been  this  that of  the  visual  effect.  in  a  and the  has  the  than the  so  ground  on  because  of  1  been  found.  tunics,  Most  1A  of  patterns,  the  artist's  concern  placement.  19  47)  use  displays  examples.  of  chronology.  which  opposing  temporal  other  the  however,  examples  of  (fig.  prior  Type  opposing  Wari  art,  originally  patterning,  Type  3  line  culture  111.  appearance  later  outlining,  in  for  display  number  distortion  Wari  figure  other  Type  Tiahuanaco  conventions  used  Given  sample  ***  the  which  than  feels,  the  parallel  and 47)  placement  in  staff  In  the  to  hypothesis  display  supports  towards  3  chart.  the  shoulder  author  appeared  to  19).  the  textiles  some  The  kaleidoscopic  3  indicated  chart  at  The  Type  (fig.  this  Pattern  chronology  relates  feet  tunics.  From  Parallel  the  3  tunics  oriented  relationship  of  a  examples  111).  display  occurs  patterning,  twenty-nine  (fig.  Pattern 3  colour  the  beginning  Type  figures of  that  in  to  symmetry,  with  patterning,  been  orientation  evidence  parallel  alleviating  the  have  in  a  at  may  the  produces  appear  for  of  compiled  examples  Accordingly,  6 and  in  two  been  tunics  tunics  numbers  with  may  actual  sample  pattern  back  tunics  Type  no  1A  bearing and  has  orientation  textiles.  to  however,  in  significance  patterning  figures  iconographic  1  applied  all  the  the  change  front  Type  Type  that  for  staff  close  that  distortion  anthropomorphic  textiles,  temporal  colour  3 and 42)  explanation  the  the  showing  numbers  bearing  to  assess  chart  for  (sample  to  opposing  a  This, colour  Figure  111.  Colour  Sample  #  Patterning  X  3  2  X  42  5  X  1  1  X  4  2  2  1  10  3  1A  12  1A  11  1A  Opposing Motion  X X X  3  X  3  X  4  X  39  1A  4  X  38  1A  4  X  36  1A  4  X  5  2  X  15  3  X  43  5  X  13  3  14  3  X  2  X  44  2  X  *18  3  16  3  X  7  2  X  45  5  17  3  6  19  1A  X  X X  •3  1A  X  J  20  3  21  3  X  22  3  X  not  1A  Paral l e i Motion  Group #  37  Type  Chronology.  4  35  *Does  and  follow  demonstrated  indicated,  remainder  colour  type  IB  patterns.  X  168. CHAPTER 7 :  The  SECONDARY  primary  design  distortion,  symmetry  examination  of  temporal  TRAITS  conventions  and  secondary  colour traits  characteristics.  used  in  patterning will  These  -  help  traits  to  will  Wari have  textiles been  further  lateral  discussed.  assess  be d i s c u s s e d  -  regional  in the  An and  following  order:  A.  B.  C.  A  Outlining  1.  Type:  Diamond  or Zig  2.  Form:  Complete,  Partial  3.  Colour:  Light  Dark  or  Zag or  Absent  Colour  1.  Additions:  2.  Variations:  Facial  Details  To S t e p p e d  Minor  (Type  1.  Mouth  2.  Mouth  3.  Eye  Form  4.  Eye  Orientation  d i s c u s s i o n of  conventions  will  Spiral  variations  Elements  from  Colour  Patterning  IB)  Form Orientation  the r e l a t i o n follow  their  of  these  secondary  individual  traits  examination.  to  the major  design  169. A.  Outlining  1.  Type:  It side  has  by  (or  between  In  or  of  shown  tunic,  with  13  separated  (figs.  columns  at  one  the  predominant  on  the  elements  line  or  the  appears  addition, units,  the  every  in  cases,  most  background outlining falling  appear example  by  a  line  of  the  this Of  i n Group  this  that  4  all  whether  the  zig  zag  19  not  either  (fig.  while  on  both  47)  except  bifold It  sample  zig  type  of  of  noted.  numbers  adjacent  or  has  sides  already  between  a  Translation  outlining.  same  diamond  appearing  in  type,  of  the  outlining  or  result  type  is  whether  outlining.  examples  forms,  of  the  is  juncture unit i t  between  has of  an  10  design  zag  is  the  a  sample all  numbers  this  by  4  solid  from  which  diagonal  other  colour  In  design  For  is  is  between  elements.  outlining.  these  emphasized,  than  that  of  The  predominant  type  of  forty-seven  examples  eight and  in Group  study,  a  paired  different  remaining  occur  the  outlining  delineation by  outline,  thirty-nine  The  A  separately  elements.  with  in  unit.  emphasized  study  the  emphasized  appears  is  remainder  textiles  however,  design  i t  paired  eight,  The  of  number  diamond  category.  2.  column,  diamond  sample  (outline)  shaped,  these  Group  the  not  in  diamond  into  of  or  in  the  whether  design  example  field is  outlining.  as  type  outlining  several  occurs  solely  columns,  side.  construction  whether  reasons,  of  shown  in  zag  results  display  complete  again  zig  seam,  appears  by  a  design  interspace  produces  either  determined  an  type  been  center  Outlining  paired  the  and 41)  form  by  exception,  has  38  adjacent  columns  columns  that  i t  or  design  design  been  Zag  that  hourglass)  addition,  and  or Z i g  shown  adjacent  rotation  the  been  side  diamond  also  Diamond  display  zig  zag  and  34)  6  (figs.  32  4,  and  fact,  except  in  sample  of  every  number  40  170. (fig.  68),  five  2.  of  Form:  three  display  partial  elements  design  unit.  outlined.  The  112.  of  or  or  It  a  interesting  to  note  that  1A.  evident  in  this  Thirty-nine This  design  means unit  the forty-seven and d e s i g n  s i x examples  also  a r e Type  outlining  absent.  within  is  Absent  outlining.  elements  diagrammed  Figure  Parial  S i x of  the paired  outlining.  z i g zag examples  forms  complete  paired  zag  Complete,  complete,  as  zig  the eight  The  of  have  as  have  units  c a n be  a  of  the  solid  well these  sample  be  forty-seven  colour  line  as  outlining  lines  around  and a r e c o n s i d e r e d  further  can  separated  into  only  two  pieces  separates the  only  termed  entire portions  partially categories  below:  Partial  OUTLINE  Outlining:  PATTERN  Pattern  1 and 2 . *  1.  OUTLINE  PATTERN  2  i  /  *HEAVY  Four These  of  LINES  the  -  PARTIAL  s i x examples  a r e sample  numbers  OUTLINE  with 11,  partial  12,  outlining  30 and 32  (figs.  follow  Outline  Pattern  3 9 , 4 0 , 58 and 6 0 ) .  1. The  171.  other 36)  two  with  which  known  follow  highland  Two and  partial  design  Outline  have  of  no  units.  impression  of  19,  has  combination  tunic,  and  abberrant  3.  With  Light  the  outlining  colour,  with  only  66  all  seven  sample the  of  of  a  remaining  or  4,  8  four,  sample  numbers  A  narrow  (fig.  42  and  and  19  does  not  as  noted  one  11  32  and  and  have  trait.  40  prevent  (fig. and  the  on  this  each  the  47 the  overall  earlier. in  and  12  elements  example  outlining  (figs.  highland  paired  is  9  of  36,  Sample  study side  elements  that  of  the  (another  the  Two  edging same seven of  provenience,  38  two  white  these,  Group 4  of  a  the  Group  (figs.  the  outlining have  sample first  or  64,  4  2, 65,  (sample  examples,  outlining.  separates the  in  Group  an  predominant  Three are  in  of  white  is  and 41  only  examples  the  37)  example  as  in  colour.  and  37,  have  absence  outlining  36  one  an  outlined  dark  addition  and 67)  or  a  32,  noted,  forty  colour.  in  numbers  63  are  White  (figs.  in  with  study  brown.  and  often  known  examples  this  As  line  Thirteen  have  4.  (figs.  vertical  outlining 61)  Group  a n d 39  in  sample  outlining,  than  a  delineating  outlined  and  has  colour  line  dark  forty-five  40)  elements.  the  two  pieces  number  paired  the  line  diamond  the  in  columns,  is  be  numbers  outlining  and  of  appear  interspace  separating  8  numbers  may  sample  and  Dark  69)  35  outlining  solid  and  no  sample  4  unexpected.  black  numbers  Since  zag  zag  other  either  2.  discussed,  not  or  numbers  a distinct  zig  exception  line,  dark  while  is  of  zig  absence  trait)  Colour:  seven,  previously  the  line  or  of  sample  forty-seven,  absence  diamond  number a  the  are  partial  distinct  The  as  Pattern  provenience,  examples  68)  outlining  design colour  a different numbers  from  the  14 South  and  of  the  edging and  33  Coast  171-1.  and  the  second  variations other  in  from edging  examples  in  indicating  different  colour  of  matching  the  of  Group  4  3  (sample  This  supports  arrangement,  B.  Colour  1.  Additions:  Colour  into  this 21  and in  in  two  the  abberrant  have  and  the  22)  all  Group  in  two  the  appear  one  or  an  other  appearing  late  are  4  indicated  the  other  edging  in  late  of  the  Group  traits.  value. are  trait, the  3  with  colours,  the  by  that  examples  opposite  colour than  in  most  examples  a  Most  late  more  vertical of  indicates  determined.  Further,  other  and  This  one Most  from  Group  chronology. and  this  chronologic  suggested.  stepped  to  significance.  edging  of  Ayacucho.  regionally  category,  previously  To  not  examples  placement  additions  simultaneously  17,  near  a r e Group 3 and  also  colour,  variations  later as  are  forty-seven  numbers  a  category  edging  falls  are  temporal  outlining  suggests  highlands  colour  this  sequence,  Eleven  the  spiral  stepped  areas.  elements spiral  These  areas  elements are  the  in  the  tip  of  sample the  appear  spiral  and  the  inside  Figure  curve  113.  areas  of  comparison based  on  distortion  One  interesting  that  the  use  Type  1A  of  Type  1A  to  textiles IB  number  distinction  between  difficult  to  discern  status  another  2.  of  Variations:  As sample,  shown  A 37  and  type  Minor  however  within  65) 1A  most  to  the  additions.  proposed  frequency  of  to  Type IB  remaining  from  IB  of  in  A  chronology  colour  an  additions  which  several  4  textiles  is  spiral  elements  of  imitates  number  36  the  to  trait  imitate  accepted  Colour  colour design  eye  64)  this  this  attempt  the  (fig.  demonstrates  within  Normal  Group  stepped  displaying  diagonal  tunics,  the  sample  represent  consistent  apparent  illusion of  and  might  many  the  additions  Variations  earlier,  is  comparison  while  trait  colour  distortion.  optical  (fig.  Element.*  display  that  that  an  Type  Spiral  this  shows  coloured  produces  below.  additions.  of  feature  examples.  sample  Stepped  examples  lateral  light  diagrammed  colour  occurrence  greater  of  to  forty-seven  the  with  as  Additions  the of  spiral  indicate  lateral  increases  the  Colour  *Dark  Nineteen  of  forms  of  Type  point.  The  is the  often rank  or  format.  Patterning  movements units,  occur or  in  portions  the of  them,  deviate  occurrence, evident.  from  either In  randomly  the within  most  deliberate  also  represent  It  and  has  used  appearance  of  minor  was  detected.  An  example  for  a  green  C.  1.  7  (fig.  maroon is  35), eye  Form  Three  mouth  between  suggested  alleviate  the  of  variations colour  a  cream  coloured  details  of  in  the  has  profile  be  head  forms  evident  in  the  sample  and  are  Figure  114.  Mouth  in  Forms.  MOUTH FOPH l.  MOUTH  FORM  MMTOORM'3.  sample  substituted  element  diagrammed  below.  in  distortion  gray.  are  might  increase  seen  been  was  places  It  lateral  can  band  No  in  deviations  monotony.  greater  eye  that  artists.  variations  textiles  several  Sawyer)  inherent  with  minor  in  (p.c.  consistency  comparable  appear  particular  of  and  for  or  No  Type IB  Facial Details:  Mouth  been  patterning.  variations  workshops  where  substituted  the  colour  band,  colour  textile  to  schools or  the  number  one  examples  scattered.  were  normal  light  Sixteen 1  or  of  the  shaped 30  the  1  N'  thirty-five  shaped  mouth.  and 48)  to  be  examples, form  in  the  This  ceremonial and  may,  as  represent  an  44  60  (figs.  Both the  4  and  while  14  the  number  Type  33  "S"  only (fig.  it  additions  imitate  a  dark  and  therefore  32 IB  with  and 42) textile  has  the  41  different to  in  the  the  display  and  59) on  with  known  29,  context  in  "N"  temporal  mouth  mouth shaped  and  Wari  the  tunics,  spiral  motif, 32  shaped  This  '  may For  a  numbers  "N"  late.  '  and  have  Tiahuanaco  highland  fang  (figs.  the  provenience, a  1  sub-groups.  the  a late  Form  ^  1  sample,  half  all  20  stepped  of  Mouth  the  and  Sample  coastal  shaped  or  design.  represent  'N'  in  both  considered  known  2  variation  in  prestige  shading  distorted  tunics  61)  a  colour  may  Type  in  38, a  motif  appears  2  categorizing  (figs.  have  mouth.  occur  scroll,  common  1,  shaped  forms  sideways  have  31,  mouth  31  very  IB  '  \^  sample Form  '  and  a  Mouth numbers  13  to  72)  (figs.  major  10,  the  are  the  this  sample  further  is  attempt and  or  in  have  for  although  shaped mouth  Three 3,  a  with  examples "N"  of  scroll  art,  sixteen  significant  numbers  shape  textiles  examples,  these  highly  IB  and  Form 3  from  sample  mouth.  three  Mouth  Variations prove  fangs,  Only  have  Type  and  mouth.  variation  on  trait.  sample  shaped  numbers  mouth  provenience, indicating  form, sample  regional  significance.  2.  Mouth  As shaped  Orientation  noted, mouth  sixteen form.  of  This  the fang  thirty-five form  is  Type  commonly  IB  textiles  referred  to  have as  the  the  'N' mouth  175. of  a  feline.  reversed  in  In  the  sample,  orientation  '  H  1  the  fangs  can  appear  as  either  'N'  or  with  'N'  .  The d e p i c t i o n of f a n g s i n M i d d l e H o r i z o n a r t , f o u n d in some o f their anthropomorphic, mythological figures, and in these h e a d s , may w e l l be a s u r v i v a l of the feline attributes so f r e q u e n t i n the Chavin art and the mythology of Peru a thousand or more years earlier. In t h i s c a s e [ s a m p l e number 7 ( f i g . 3 5 ) ] or p e r h a p s by t h e t i m e t h i s s h i r t was m a d e , t h e treatment of the fangs was casual. Fifty-one of the 120 d e p i c t i o n s a r e i n c o r r e c t and show t h e l o w e r j a w fang b e h i n d the upper i n s t e a d of i n f r o n t as they actually are in c a t s . ( B i r d and S k i n n e r , 1974:11)  A  count  shaped the  fangs  fangs  'N'  fang, the  of  "correct"  a  manner  is  the  Wari  3.  Eye  the  their  each  tunic  show  treatment  attempt  to  This  sixteen per  the  No  confirming  was  casual  at  for  realism  this in  an  was  range)  behind  consistency  found,  fangs  (45-55%  fang  was  the  examples  cent  lower  reverse.  portray  concern  the  fifty  show  the  orientation  fang  for  approximately  cent  of  evident. in  Bird  time.  the  in  the  and In  upper use  of  Skinner's Tiahuanaco  anatomically  evidently  of  correct  abandoned  by  textiles.  Forms  All form  that  deliberate  in  per  form  orientation  that  fangs  fifty  observations art  their  reveals  shaped  while  and  with  examples its  sample.  in  roots The  this in  first  sample  Tiahuanaco eye  form  have  a  vertically  iconography. is  banded,  Two that  divided forms i s ,  a  or  are band  split apparent or  eye in  pendant  appears  below  the  split  eye.  Tiahuanaco  iconography,  and  as  a  line  mask",  at  best  an  unbanded  "tear  the  eight each  eye.  the  banded  display  Sample  occurring  20,  and  addition  8  of  split  Similar  eye  normal  It  at  vary  has  example  in  forms  of  noted  IB  that  appear  as  both  imposed weavers this.  standards at  Wari,  number  sample  small.  'N'  shaped  and on  sample  with  in  although  a  with  the  South  the  c  ^  '  <^  This Coast  there  is  ' may  an  outlining  of  evident. numbers than  is  more  sizes  of  both  N1  in  the  one mouth  Following  this  chart,  shaped  every  fangs  has  shaped  mouth,  the  be  result  of  the  artists, no  however,  shaped  1  composite 1  16,  32)  appears '  the  numbers  distortion.  provenience.  unbanded. the  fang  and  coastal  this  lateral  in  with  rounded  (fig.  Relative  only  eye  sample  more  4  is  occur  are  in  are  number  and 16  notably  forms  form  while  split  banded,  sample  is  twenty-seven  Sample  of  unbanded  eye  variations  portion,  demonstrated  textiles  banded  also  form,  meaning  category,  banded  in  literature  of  with  eye.  are  provenience,  in  a  split  a p p l i c a t i o n of  the  be  is  unusually  known  textiles IB  the  this  roots  the  second  banded  unbanded  is  the  with  Type  support  to  examples  Type  case  The  the  Similarly,  time  will  74)  where  highland  which  and  its  in  some m i n o r  30) the  the  form.  according  In  highland  in  into  noted,  above  to  predominant,  falling  within  the  53)  same  eye.  rigidly  in  is  has  interpretation  1974:11)  (fig.  71  areas  known  observation, example  and  the  been  with  appears  36  and  48,  appear  rectilinear  and  forms  banded  colour  5  also  referred  the  form  As  number  portion  (figs.  rounded, eye  small  eye  form.  44,  been  and S k i n n e r ,  below  (figs.  variations  and 25  the  46  both  often  examples  unbanded  form.  banding 43  IB  banding  although  split  Type  the  has  (Bird  split  thirty-five  eye  the  tear  questionable.  Clearly of  or  This  than  specific  a  eye less  imposed  on  evidence  to  4.  Eye  Orientation  As have on  noted,  a  split  either  of  not  This  of  the  face,  This  appear  split  the  as  have  eye  eye  as  the  dark  Type  composed  IB of  textiles  in  this  light  and  dark  William Conklin  has  noted  is  nature  the  been  of  portion  in  like  is  split.  dark  an  feature,  to  examples  vertical  textiles,  the  Conklin)  thirty-five  eye.  side  Tiahuanaco front  all  usually  appears  orientation  significant  from  of  to  the  the  study  segments that  oriented  towards  a profile  view.  'N'  shaped  Wari  as  the (p.c.  fangs  i t  was  in  does  to  the  Tiahuanaco.  The with the  reversal  approximately thirty-five  eyes  in  face,  each  while  the  numbers  between  towards  the  the  numbers two  72),  3  3  displays  of  and 4 2 ,  has  known  similar  42  are are and  one  which  appear  appear Parallel  South  Coast  notably  In  31,  percent  late  early  in  Pattern  of of  in the 3  characteristics,  may  and  the  dark  73)  chronology,  colour  and be  back  of  20  of of  and  this  the  44  dark  the  four  face, others,  consistently oriented  that  deviate  except are  number  coastal  the  and  sample  the  patterning.  sample  split  in  portion  examples  chronology  for  provenience  front  70  these  the  percent  In  the  numbers  addition,  50,  of  the  occurs  fangs.  examples  sample  the  eye  shaped  towards  towards  All  N1  split  percent  thirty-five  (figs.  head.  1  Several  reverse.  hundred  profile  relation  of  45  the  oriented  oriented the  the  fifty  reverse.  approximately  the  examples  the  where  and  fifty-fifty  located  number  back  are  percentages,  22,  ninety  portion  of  of  approximately  dark  eye  portions  as t h a t  these  percent  3,  light  frequency  the  split  sixty-five  sample  from  and  from  and  examples,  percent  48  while  IB  fifty  (figs.  of  Type  same  show  deviate  portions  the  tunic  sample  show  of  42, as  only  Sample which well.  A  composite  conventions  chart  plotted  (fig.  against  demonstrates  some  examples  previously  not  facilitates regional  115) an  interesting  included  emerge  secondary  increasing  relations.  some c h r o n o l o g i c a l  traits  of  from  in  the  use  A  of  similar  lateral  assessments. the  traits  other  lateral (fig.  distortion  chart  interesting  chart  in  figure  design  distortion  chart  Some  composite  and  116)  for  (fig.  92)  temporal  and  115.  These  are:  1.  The  five  early,  groups  but  group.  this  One  chronology, this  2.  Type  beginning  3.  Colour and  4.  5.  while of  1A to  occur  first  end  more  frequent  The  two  of  represent  the  textiles.  4  to 4  is  IB  chronology.  the  small  occurs  appear  in  the  considered  appear  at  the  throughout  to  the  stepped  spiral  elements  of  the the  the  as  noted  chronology, second  with  half  imitation  of  the  both  of  Type  previously,  while  Parallel  chronology,  in  As  the  groups.  as  size  noted  appears of  this  of  the  earlier,  inaccurate.  i n most  as w e l l  1  beginning  middle.  evident  groups  Group  sample  are  patterning,  in  the  and  examples  beginning  Group  rest  Type  i n most  half  of  Group  and  colour  throughout  attributable  the  additions  Parallel the  is  example  placement  Both  appear  the  Opposing  design  are 1A  is  a  later  and  trait,  IB.  more  colour  from  frequent  in  patterning  is  chronology.  Colour which  chronology,  Pattern  as  3  suggested  conventions  occur  at  the  earlier,  may  used  in  Type  3  Fig.  115.  Composite Design  Chart  of  Secondary  Conventions,  Proposed  Arranged  eve  lU  si s:  *5T  $  ve  35  ^  4  63  1A  v.  FORM  <  -IVS 5-  1 v ^ ^ v- ^ ¥ < < <*>  o  VC  ~s  \J\  a  S  <  to  the  1  N  1  1  i l l  J  o  Q  8 V-  Ct  <  |  §: ^  Cv  o  •1.  3  2  31  X  42  5  70  X  1  1  29  4  2  32  2.  <  ZX §  X X  PftoveNte-NCtz  —  o  X  X  Major  COLOUR  t  o  Ul  According  ?  Of ul  2  and  Chronology.  Mourn  z.  Traits  1 P  1 ai  9 aSl £P I  B  3  tt!  3  X  X  1.  X  X  X  5  X  X  X  ?  o  X  X  X  1.  2  1  30  10  3  38  12  3  40  1A  1.  1.  X  X  11  3  39  1A  1.  1.  X  X  37  4  65  39  4  67  1A  X  38  4  66  1A  X  36  4  64  1A  X  5  2  15  X  X  X  X  X  X  X 2.  1. 1.  X  X  X  1.  X  X  X  1.  X  X  X  X  33  3  43  X  X  43  5  71  13  3  41  14  3  42  6  2  34  44  5  72  18  3  46  16  3  44  7  2  45 17  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  1.  X  X  X  5  73  X  X  3  45  X  X  X  1.  X 1.  X  1.  X  20  3  48  21  3  49  X  X  1.  22  3  50  X  X  X  Type  1A  of  zig  remainder  zag  and  Type  diamond.  IB  X  X  X  X X  X  2  47  indicated,  X  X  3  X  X  X  X  19  X  X  X  X  35  X  X  2  X  X  X  *  1.  1.  X X  X  2  X  X  X  1.  1.  X X  X  *-mixture  X  X  X  X  1A  X  X  X  1A  1.  X  2  X X  X  Fig.  116.  C o m p o s i t e C h a r t o f S e c o n d a r y T r a i t s and M a j o r D e s i g n C o n v e n t i o f o r Examples not P r e v i o u s l y i n c l u d e d in Chronology, Arranged A c c o r d i n g to Group.  Hourti FORM  5*  s  z  o z  i  ~A Ck.  <sr  Cv D O  ODLOVft  PfitrratNtNQ  $  z  o  0  ul  oc o  dye FORM  a.  M  V  P  ^ M  \U  £ £  <c  c <  9». Ci  2 < «S  3 o  \J  (\ a. < 6 O  ^*  <  lu < >=•  ^  1  36  X  9  37  X  23  51  24  52  25  53  26  54  27  55  1A  X  X  28  56  1A  X  X  29  57  30  58  31  59  32  60  33  61  34  62  8  40  2  4  41  46 47  5  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X 1.  69  X  X  X X  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  1.  X  X X  X X  1A  X  1. X  § i  £S Vil  X  X  X  75  X  1A  68  74  2.  7  X  X X  1. 1.  X  X  X  X  X  X  X X  X X  The  symmetric  shows  a  consistent  patterning 115.  treatment  at  the  Bifold  resulting  rotation  in  either  appears  chronology.  The  part  of  Parallel  colour  zig  zag  outlining  noted  earlier,  to  seam. of  with  greater  3,  between  change  in  frequency  is  in  adjacent  is  number  design  colour  in  1.  figure form  Transverse  latter  10  of  seam  predominant  bifold  numbers  center  evident  the  the  sample  sample  the  Pattern  displaying  include  at  orientation  consistency  Opposing  not  and  columns  columns  or  samples  Pattern  the  design  chronology  design  This  Parallel  three  the  adjacent  relation  center  reflection  first  of  part  of  the  rotation  in  the  3  and  columns  which  displays  13,  which  at  the  have center  seam.  As A  comparison  the  'N'  the  '  forms.  of  shaped ^  1  the  mouth mouth  shaped  banded  split  eye  and  eye  forms  have  the  banded  mouth  form  have  is  the  reveals eye both  predominant that  form,  eye  form.  all  examples  with  while  examples  with  banded  and  unbanded  eye  182.  8.  The  secondary  the  chronology.  outlining  highland  as  in  Sample  2.  rounded  rather  therefore related, the  8 the  but  stepped  spiral  the  in  the  partial  outlining, Two  Type  or  are  1A  outlining  in  figure  first  half  of  absent  form  of  often  found  in  examples  with  known  suggesting  this  trait  and  9  (fig.  36)  closely  examples  known  also  lack  be of  coastal the  same.  partial  elements  to  now  above groups  be  included  and  through  (fig.116)  in  the  stylistic  in  the  same  4  (fig.  115.  8  8  can  cited  according  rectilinear  to  fragments,  evidence  charted  number  has  its  of  partial  them the  only  than  expected  colour  show  on  are  Sample  4  primarily  patterning,  another.  of  Numbers  together  appear  highlands.  based  number  number  one  examples  Pattern  Sample  dark  many  These  Sample  are  the  chart  the  Group 2:  and  with  examples,  comparison. manner  the  traits  zag  provenience  occurred  chronology  Zig  and  combination  Eighteen  outlining  resembles  in has  eye  this  study  dark form  outlining  indicates a  number  with  Partial  outlining similar  provenience, Sample  sample  and  number and  slightly  9  its  and  to  sample (fig.  unbanded, number  number  37)  addition  later  Outlining  an  sample  32)  is of  placement.  8  4.  could  similarly colour  to  183.  Group 3:  Sample  Sample  numbers  distortion  and  indicating  an  Sample lateral  additions attributes. sample  Sample  examples the  numbers two  lack  placement  29  and  in  31  of  22  (fig.  also colour  23,  and  examples.  no  of  57  and  61)  show  the  stepped  They  and  l i t t l e spiral  and  28  and  are  to  the  lateral elements  the  (figs.  51,  but  greater  expected  to  be  of  may  have  56)  no  with  spiral  highland  less  are  that  distortion  the  important  all  colour  that  chronology.  indicate  slightly  colour  resembles the  became  showing  lateral  that  end  55,  moderate  stepped  appear  This  spirals  have  the  similarly both  at  to  chronology.  distortion  the  distortion  exhibit  of  additions.  to  appear  59)  appears  colour  therefore  part  lateral  which  62)  additions  elements  3.  lateral  and  colour  (figs.  Group  27  52  first  additions  period  spiral. 12  50)  has  l i t t l e  and  to  the  extreme  numbers  highland  the  (figs.  display  with  11  34  Both  22  54  additions  spiral  later  stepped  (figs.  stepped  of  Sample  33  the  number  the  and  but  a  number  application during  24  numbers  to  and  34  placement.  number  Sample  through  colour  early  suggest  23  26  no  distortion,  elements  of  Numbers  Type  1A  additions  to  than  later  sample  than  the  184.  Sample resembles  number  sample  respect  to  stepped  spirals  later  (fig.  numbers  Partial and  11  58)  is  another  and  12,  (figs.  Outlining  the  Pattern  distortion  Type 39  1.  in  example  and  The  evident  1A  40)  closely  particularly  addition  the  that  of  spiral  colour  form  with  to  the  indicates  a  placement.  A 60)  the  30  comparison  shows  sample place  a  similar  number this  32,  number  Sample  Sample  25  (fig.  65)  and  (fig.  68)is  one  sample  number  distortion opposing chronology.  later  the  19  than colour  in  53)  the  and  (fig.  (fig.  other  1,  32  (figs.  however  greater  in  the  lateral  58 case  and of  distortion  chronology.  colour  additions  to  the  stepped  spiral  41  69) a  47).  Group  closely  similar  examples  patterning  and  number  distortion.  40  two  has  sample  Pattern  symmetry  indicates of  to  variant  lateral  41  30  Outlining  (fig.  Numbers  number  number  Partial  much  and moderate  Group 4:  sample  the  example  Sample element  of  placement.  with  While 4  no i t  textiles, suggest  resembles  solid  to  lack  placement  Sample colour  seems the  sample  of  near  number  37  number  40  outlining  have  less  outlining the  end  as  is  lateral and  the  of  the  185. Group'5:  Sample  Sample (fig.  72)  Sample  number and  number  band  appears  form  has  not  seen  placement  a  Numbers  47  is 46  (fig. the line  elsewhere a n d may  and  (fig.  expected  above  hooked  46  in  47  75)  therefore  76),  however,  eye  rather  protruding this  indicate  closely  a  to  from  ***  below  i t .  and  These of  near  abberrant  it  sample. breakdown  fall  has  than  resembles  the  the  sample i t  The  44  chronologically.  iconography. 'N'  headdress  anomalies style.  number  The  shaped  mouth  details  suggest  eye  a  are late  186. CONCLUSIONS  The  purpose  conventions logic  found  Lateral  proposed  of  double  the  of  to  identify  determine  Observations  types  of  design  In  the  second  the  the  design  rules  and  from  the  resulting  conventions  between  Columns  established  greatest  amount  displays width  the of  both  Group  double  columns  the  with  first  the  from  of  design  in  design  and  which  set  of  the  the  consists  3)  the  is  lateral of  are  greatest amount  of  two  first  greater  (column  a concept  validity  greatest  in  has  2)  sets  design than  in  straightforward  in  earlier  distortion. lateral  of  The  distortion  progression  of  a  left.  column  expansion,  the  (column  increase  to  compression.  3,  double  t h e more  right  and  distortion  with  compression  2 and 3 i n d i c a t e s than  to  appears  seam  and  of  the  greatest  center In  lateral  limitations  expansion  sophisticated  relationship  increasing  generally  seam.  set of  changes  groups,  the  side  column  most  on  however,  nearest  columns,  design  i s more  based  distortion  This  decreasing  the  nearest  the  second  relation  the  garments  and  below.  reference,  Lateral  design  examples.  that  major  chronology  expansion  compression  column  examine  application.  three  for  acknowledged.  of  to  official  are summarized  synthetic  amount  is  Distortion  A been  the  thesis  Wari  their  of  study  this  in  governing  examination this  of  nearest  while  the  Similar  interspace  the  center  column  nearest  progressions  columns  in  seam  all  are  displays the  edge  evident  Groups  in  except  187.  Group  5.  center of  width  seam w a s  with  first reduced  in  application  the  Wari  to of  artists  demonstrate  a  simplistic  interspace  that  when  distortion  columns  column  width  the  so  lateral  design  design  of  reduced  progressive  Group  the  The  on  that  maintain lateral of  was at  side  visual  of  use  an  together  the  of  center  the  indicate design  of  the  visual Group  seam,  the  seam  These  5,  the  the  width  minor  only  of  the  similarly  adaptions  of  understanding  by  of  distortion  of  appearance  were  a thorough  predicted  side  In  problems  lateral  easily  either  center  consistency.  specific  sophisticated  on  maintained.  distortion  the  progression  viewed  meet  either  columns  each  rather  Group than  a  and more  formula.  Symmetry  The  design  stepped  spirals  (Type  IB).  units  oriented  design  Design  are  rotation.  is  (Type  or  columns  are  the  these  motions.  rotation  produces  side  of  outlining  diamond  employment  of  translation  columns  the  center  at  transverse as  bifold  rotation  paired  elements.  the  center  seam  appears  with  is  greater  and a  the Bifold  the  by  slide  hourglass bifold  rotation  in  form, the  is  or  while  being  the  adjacent  part  been  the  bifold to  design  outline  orientation  transverse the  the  observed,  same  design  of  bifold  determined  adjacent  in  design  interspace  between has  head  Adjacent  addition  however latter  of  In  results  between  by  pattern,  motion  difference  rotation  stacking  columns  pattern.  paired  profile  translation  zag  symmetric  principle  and  separated  of  zig  either  reflection.  adjacent  reflection  predominant  or  motions  a  spiral  vertical  side  between  third  frequency  the of  produces  Transverse  with  the  or  seam,  reflection.  by  symmetric  elements,  stepped  appearing the  paired  paired  produced  Translation a  two  motion  by  pattern  a  of  symmetric  whether  produced The  composed  1A),  by  columns,  columns  by  unit  columns  of at  reflection chronology.  188. Colour Patterning  A  progression  subtle  colour  concerned in  the  seam  with  the  has  motion  and  would  at two  chronology at  with  Parallel  the  Pattern  chronology shoulder  and line  are  face  of  i t  two  motions  of at  appears  in  3 has  oriented  are  design  regionally  patterns  the  end  two  observed  to  patterning towards  both  of  the  examples that  the  found the  the  change  ground  the  center  for  change parallel  appear  provenience, determined.  in i t The  with  greater  opposing  patterns  chronology.  at  in  appear  relation  motions  appear  while  more  primarily  motions  Highland  chronology,  at  detected  Since  not  is  direct  columns  patterns  to  opposing  opposing  the  been  feet  A  Southern  parallel  frequency  relates  the  that  seam.  motion.  and  study and  and  three  This  colours  parallel  center  adjacent  opposing  beginning  greater  the  with  Coast  shows  sample.  parallel  South  the  chart  frequency  figures  known  seam,  the  contrasting  motions,  of  Both  for  in  of  treatment  center  strongly  Two  side  noted.  that  of  evident  either  the  use  movement.  patterns  with  seem  appear  on  been  examples  back  colour  is  symmetric  orientation  the  harmonies  sample  between  from  Type on  in 3  both  beginning  of  orientation textiles the  the  at  the  where  the  and  the  front  tunics.  Secondary Traits  In traits These  addition were  traits  ceramic  to  the  examined were  evidence  three to  determine  compared and  to  major  the  to  types  temporal  examples  major  of  with  design  design and known  conventions, regional  significances.  provenience,  conventions.  secondary  to  relevant  Diamond zig  zag  outlining  type,  secondary  partial  traits.  chronology  and  treatments  often  frequent  in  An  part  of  the  Minor tunics  evidently  portions This where  absent  the form,  appear  considered in  predominant and  dark  primarily  temporal  form  in  with  outlining  outlining the  traits.  conjunction  of  first The  one  are  considered  part  three  another,  while  and  of  the  outlining are  more  1A.  of  are  no  colour a  additions  temporal  variations  apparent  with were  trait  of  South  used  to  to  and  differs  split  from  colour or  Coast  and  alleviate  particular  the  in  temporal  both  orientation  their  or  appear  colour  represent  The  is  the  stepped  generally  spiral  appear  in  elements the  latter  chronology.  with  examples  may  are  Type  they  white  These  analysis  indicates  in  the  eye  shows  Tiahuanaco  orientation  was  regional  or  'N'  It  They  Highland has  in  been  many  are  of  evident  provenience, observed  the  that  in and they  workshops.  shaped  that  these  iconography  more  appear  basis.  Southern  monotony.  artists  of  patterning  mouth  and  features the  consistent.  the were  source  of  dark treated these  and  light  casually. features,  In  conclusion,  provide  a  working  categorization Using  this  anomalies  which  one  obviously  colour do  produce  these  monotony  official varied refine regional further  use  garments; in  the  some  of  and  to  ideas  use  of  Future  the  permit  design  be  made  secondary  the  these  s k i l l f u l l y  distortion  in  Similarly, of  and  thesis the  principles. of  traits  the  basic  and  other  Wari  culture,  conventions  control  changed  over  used  these  concerned  conventions  with  to  alleviating  the  form.  proposed  understanding  can  of  of  primarily  the  and  this  rules.  center use  textiles  groups  of  in  abberrances.  simple  Types.  Wari  to  not  Wari  were  however,  differences. the  the  lateral  other the  regard  of  strict  the  their  of  to  Similarly,  that  in  but  the  textiles  inherent  Similar  conform  established  reconstruction  from  with  evident  according  accurate  further  lessened.  is  analysis  movement,  not  moves  conventions  the  fragments  particuarly  It  for  information, and  time,  design  tool  of  symmetry  As  the  is  evident  symmetry, study  this  more  of  study,  other  colour these  Types and  types  particularly  scientific  textiles.  ***  in  data  is  of  Wari  iconography should in  help  terms  of  necessary  to  191.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Batres,  C a r l o s M i 11 a . Q u i a  Carlos  M i ll a B a t r e s ,  de A r q u e o l o g i a P e r u a n a .  Lima,  Peru:  Bennett, Wendell C. "Excavations at Tiahuanaco." American Natural History Anthropological Papers. V o l . 34, Part 3 ,  . University  Bird,  Editorial  S.A., iy/b  Excavations  at Wari,  Ayacucho,  Publications in Anthropology,  Peru.  Museum o f pp.3by-4y4,  New H a v e n :  Yale  4y, 1 9 b 3 .  Junius B. and M i l i c a D. Skinner. "The Middle Horizon Tapestry S h i r t from P e r u . " V o l . 4 , No. 1, D e c . 1974, p p . 5 - 1 3 .  Technical Features of a T e x t i 1 e Museum J o u r n a l .  Browman, D a v i d L. "Toward the Development of the Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) State." Advances i n Andean A r c h a e o l o g y . E d i t e d by D a v i d L. Browman. The Hague & P a r i s : Mouton P u b l i s h e r s , 1978, pp.327-349.  Boas,  Franz.  Emery,  Irene.  Primitive Art.  Primary  Washington,  D.C.:  New Y o r k :  Structure  Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1955.  of Fabrics.  The T e x t i l e  Museum,  An i l l u s t r a t e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 19bb.  ~ ~  192.  Lanning,  Edward  P.  Peru  Prentice-Hall  Before  Inc.,  the  Incas.  Englewood  Ancient Peru. Smithsonian  Hoyle, Rafael. The A n c i e n t C i v i l i z a t i o n o f - P e r u . James H o g a r t h . London: B a r r i e and J e n k i n s , 1971.  Lothrop,  Samuel  K.  Treasures  of  Ancient  Menzel, Dorothy. The A r c h a e o l o g y Uhle. Berkeley! R.H. Lowie California, Berkeley, 1977.  Pacha  Rowe,  2.  John  19b4,  H.  Southwestern  pp.  New  Jersey:  1967.  L u m b r e r a s , L u i s G. The P e o p l e s and C u l t u r e s o f by Betty J. Meggars. Washington, D.C.: Press, 1974.  Larco  Cliffs,  America.  Journal  and of  Translated  Skira,  by  1964.  o f A n c i e n t P e r u and t h e Work of Max Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , University of  " S t y l e and T i m e i n 1-105, plates 1-9.  "Stages  Geneva:  Translated Institution  Periods  in  Anthropology.  the  Middle  Archaeologic Vol.18,  Horizon."  Nawpa  Interpretation", No.l,  1962.  pp.  m^w. Rowe, John H. and D o r o t h y M e n z e l . Selected Readings. Berkeley:  "Introduction", in Peruvian Archaeology Peek P u b l i c a t i o n s 1967, pp. i - v i .  Sawyer, A l a n R. A n c i e n t A n d e a n A r t s A r t Museum. Urbana-Champaign: Illinois, 1975.  i n the C o l l e c t i o n s of the Krannert Krannert Art Museum, University of  193.  Journal.  Vol.  1,  . No.  "Tiahuanaco Tapestry 2, 1963, pp.27-38.  Design."  Textile  Museum  S h e p a r d , Anna 0 . "The Symmetry of A b s t r a c t Design w i t h Special Reference to Ceramic Decoration." Contributions to American Anthropology and ! History. V o l . 4 7 , May 1 9 4 8 , pp.211-293.  Taullard, Alfredo. Tejidos Aires: Guillermo Kraft  Willey, G o r d o n R. South America.  TWIT.  y Ponchos Indigenas Limitada, 1949.  An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Englewood C l i f f s ,  ***  de  Sudamerica.  American Archaeology, Volume New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hal 1,  Buenos  Two, Inc.,  


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