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Atrocious spelling and language awareness Rally, Anne Marie 1982

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ATROCIOUS SPELLING AND LANGUAGE  AWARENESS  by ANNE MARIE B.A.,  RALLY  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in •THE SCHOOL OF AUDIOLOGY AND  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to  the required  John  Carolyn  SPEECH  SCIENCES  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  Gilbert  Johnson  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  @  1982  Anne M a r i e R a l l y ,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by  department or by h i s or her  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  written  permission.  Department of  ft  ^JL^J^cy^.  O^£L  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D  DE-6  a  (3/81)  t  e  A QA^. ; P .  vV2^  .Cyjz^JUv.  S c w ^ o  —iiABSTRACT Current  l i t e r a t u r e on s p e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s has  indicated that  s u c c e s s f u l s p e l l e r s use p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as graphemic memory i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g . i n g d i s o r d e r s has uncovered two P h o n e t i c a l l y Inaccurate  T h i s study  i z a t i o n a l and  also exhibit a generalized  P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate  intended  s p e l l e r s , whose e r r o r s  have no obvious n e u r o l o g i c a l  to i n v e s t i g a t e some of the organ-  language a b i l i t i e s of those  i c a l l y Accurate  or A t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s .  c h i l d r e n known as Phonet-  The  hypothesis  A t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s have inadequate knowledge of the and m o r p h o l o g i c a l  r u l e s necessary  porated  one  V e l a r S o f t e n i n g and  of the item and language t a s k s .  two one The  that  phonological  were under examinations S t r e s s Shift„  or more of these p r o c e s s e s .  s p e l l i n g taskss  was  for correct spelling.  Three p h o n o l o g i c a l processes atalization,  Pal-  Test items i n c o r -  S u b j e c t s performed  three  w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g tasks w i t h o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s p e l l i n g task without first,  a u d i t o r y model and  three  S u f f i x a t i o n , r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s to pro-  nounce r e a l and nonsense words d e r i v e d from a r o o t word and Subjects  spell-  s p e l l e r s , whose s p e l l i n g e r r o r s are phonet-  are p h o n e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e and who impairment.  Research i n t o  broad c a t e g o r i e s of poor s p e l l e r s J  i c a l l y u n r e l a t e d to the t a r g e t and who language impairment and  information  a l s o judged r e l a t e d n e s s of word p a i r s and  words which e i t h e r d i d or d i d not employ the t a r g e t  affix.  l e a r n e d nonsense processes  correctly. Because of the " p a r t i a l cue" subjects,  i t was  impossible  reading method employed by  the  to determine t h e i r knowledge of phono-  l o g y through the S u f f i x a t i o n t a s k . to some i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  However, the data gave r i s e Review of the  historical  development of s p e l l i n g suggested p o s s i b l e p a r a l l e l s between synchronic  and d i a c h r o n i c development of s p e l l i n g .  Poor hand-  w r i t i n g was l i n k e d to poor s p e l l i n g and a r a t i o n a l e was proposed. S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of motor p e r s e v e r a t i o n of w r i t i n g were noted, suggesting  t h a t f o r these cases,  the stimulus  was s t r o n g e r than an a u d i t o r y model. problems appeared;  of the motor p a t t e r n  Some evidence  a c o n f r o n t a t i o n naming task would determine  whether the i n c i d e n c e of word f i n d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s A t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s than i n p r o f i c i e n t s p e l l e r s , a t i o n l e d to f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g of s u b j e c t s ' competence.  f o r word r e c a l l  i s higher i n  Errors i n a f f i x -  morphological  A t r o c i o u s and good s p e l l e r s employed a s p e l l i n g s t r a t e g y  known as "sounding out" with v a r y i n g degrees of p r o f i c i e n c y .  The  q u e s t i o n was then r a i s e d of how s t r o n g l y s p e l l i n g e r r o r s were i n f l u e n c e d by the s p e l l e r ' s d i a l e c t of spoken language. notably, n e a r l y a l l t e s t s u b j e c t s favoured s t r a t e g y when they were unsure of s p e l l i n g .  Most  an a u d i t o r y over a v i s u a l T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n from  morpheme to phoneme s t r i n g and then to grapheme s t r i n g was f e l t to be developmentally  an e a r l i e r stage than a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n from  morpheme to grapheme.  -iv-  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  XI  o e e e o e e o o e o D O O o o o o a t i o o o o o o o o o o o o  LIST OF TABLES  VI1  O Q O O O O Q O O O O O O Q B O O O O Q O O Q O O O  LIST OF FIGURES  Vlli  o o o o o o f l o o o o o o a a o o o o o o o o o o  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................ i Chapter I  REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................... A.  H i s t o r i c a l Review .............  B.  Phonology and S p e l l i n g  x  1 1  0  .........  5  Overview o f p e r t i n e n t aspects o f E n g l i s h phonology  5  2.  Graphemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f phonemes o o e . » » o o » « . o . o . o . o »  8  3.  Phonological representation i n s p e l l i n g ........»..»..«.  16  1.  C.  S u b s t r a t e s f o r Development of Spelling .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  O  .  G  .  .  .  O  .  .  O  22  .  1.  Neuroanatomical b a s i s ......  23  2.  P h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e s ........  2h  M O *tiO IT  2 0I  22  S snsa"fc x on  0  3.  •oooooooaoeoodoeo  2^  *~ 5  oeoooesoooaoo  P e r c e p t i o n and S t r a t e g i e s  25  1.  Perception  *,,o«.o...<>..  25  20  Strategies  f.o.o.o.o.oo.  2cS  D.  A c q u i s i t i o n of S p e l l i n g S t r a t e g i e s 31  E.  Inadequate Versus A t r o c i o u s Spellers  o o o 0 o o o o o o 0 e o o » o o * o o » o 9 o  Chapter I I  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM .....................  Cll3,p"fc©2r I I I  METHOD Ao  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  Experimental  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  c  o  o  o  o  o  o  B  a  o  P l a n «* « • o o • » * *. 00  0  0  o  3^ 36  3^ 38  -vPage Bo  Co  Subjects  6 O O Q 0 O O O &  oooooooooo  0 0 0 0 4 *  lo  R e f e r r a l of subjects  2,,  Age and sex of s u b j e c t s ....  D e s c r i p t i o n of Tasks 1,  Task Is  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3.  Task 3*  0  9  0  0  0  41  7  41  Audio v i s u a l performance  42  0  0  0  0  1 0  0  spelling 0 0 0 0 0  T  0 0 0  Orthographic s p e l l i n g without a u d i t o r y stimulus ; . o o 0  3  0  0  0  0  0  * 0  Suffixation  5.  Task 5 «  Judging the Relatedness of p a i r s of 0  Task ?«  0  0  0  9  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0  0  0  0  Letter test .o  0  0  0  42  0  0  0  0  0  43  0  0  0  0  4  L e a r n i n g nonsense WOrdS  7.  41  0  Task 4s  Task 6i  39  0  4.  6o  Chapter IV  0  Orthographic s p e l l i n g performance ,  WOirdS  Do  0  0  0  Task 2s  0  39  3  44  e o t » e o o  0  44  lo  Test items f o r tasks 1 and 2  44  2.  Test items f o r task 3  3,  Test items f o r task 4 . . .  Word L i s t s ,....  E."  Administration  F.  Instructions  0  0  0  0  0  9  ......  0  0  0  0  0  0  ..  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  48  9  48  0 0 O & O 0 0 9 9  48  •  49  RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS  • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  a  A.  Introduction  Bo  D e s c r i p t i o n of Analysis lo  0  «  o  o  o  o  5 0  o  5 0  oeooooooc 0  .  Preliminary analysis of s p e l l i n g tasks « 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2.  A n a l y s i s of tasks 1 and 2  3o  A n a l y s i s of task 3  4„  A n a l y s i s of task 4  5o  A n a l y s i s of task  5  0  0  4  5 0  O O O O Q O Q O  0  0  O  0  0  0  5 0  0  5 5  0  0  0  0  d  . . . . . . . .  0  0  0 *  0  7 5  . .  8 7  0  0  7 5  9  -vi-  Page 6 o  7  Chapter V  • A n a l y s i s o f task  6  . . . . . . . . . . .  91  A n a l y s i s o f task  7  • • • » • » • ° « • •  91  o  92  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A i  Introduction  Bo  D i s c u s s i o n o f Processes  . t o 9 . > o . o . . . s o « o > « « .  Investigation  Co  92  under  . g o o . . o o o . < o . < t o o a o .  95  lo  V e l a r S o f t e n i n g Rule ........  2,  Palatalization  3o  Stress S h i f t  Strategies  ...  0  . . . . . . . . .  o  95 97  . • o . . i o . . . . . . . . .  99  . . . . . o . . . o . . t 4 < > o . . . . . o  100  1.  S p e l l i n g Development  2 o 3,  Handwriting ... ....... ....... 1 0 0 Motor P e r s e v e r a t i o n o f Handwriting ................. 1 0 2  4,  C o n f r o n t a t i o n Naming ........ 1 0 3  3o  Aff lXeltXOn  6  0  Sounding Out  7  •  OXcll@Ct  8,  *0  0  0  0 0 0  0  0  0  4  0  a  0  0  0  e  «  0  4  0  0  0  o  e  0  ........ 1 0 0  0  0  0  0  •«© • »  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0  0  0  » o  0  0  10^r*  0  •  0  0  105 10 7  0  R e l i a n c e on the V o c a l Tl*£LCt  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I APPENDIX I I  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  *  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  «  •  *  0  0  103  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  110  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  113  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  9  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  ll^J*  -vii LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1,  Vowel Phonemes of American E n g l i s h  6  2,  Diphthongs o f American E n g l i s h  6  3,  Consonant Phonemes o f American E n g l i s h  7  4,  Graphemic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of E n g l i s h Phonemes  9  5„  Regular Graphemic Representations of E n g l i s h Phonemes  15  6o  Some Functions of ' S i l e n t ' F i n a l  e  in  English Spelling  21  7.  T e s t Items f o r Task 1  45  8.  T e s t Items f o r Task 2  45  9.  T e s t Items f o r Task 3  46  10. 11.  Test Items f o r Task 4 Test Items f o r Task 5  46 47  12..  Test Items f o r Task 6  47  13-20.  Tasks 1 and 2  Responses  from S u b j e c t s  1-5  56  21.  Task 3  Responses from S u b j e c t s 1-5  76  22.  Task 4  Responses from S u b j e c t s 1-5  79  23„  C o r r e c t Responses to Task 4  84  24.  Number o f C o r r e c t Responses from Each Target Process  86  25.  I n c o r r e c t Responses to Task 5 by S u b j e c t s 1-5  88  26.  Task 6  90  Responses from S u b j e c t s 1-5  -VI11-  LIST OF FIGURES  L a t e r a l View of the B r a i n D e p i c t i n g S i g n i f i c a n t Areas o f Brodmann P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of S p e l l i n g E r r o r s  -ix-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  T h i s study was i n s p i r e d and d i r e c t e d by John H.V, Gilbert.  H i s p a t i e n c e and i n s i g h t have p r o v i d e d me with an  example of what a p e r c e p t b r should be. C a r o l y n Johnston  I must a l s o thank  f o r h e r g i f t s o f f r i e n d s h i p , c o u n s e l and time.  I a p p r e c i a t e the c o o p e r a t i o n of the s t a f f s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers, of the schools i n which the study was conducted.  L a s t l y , I would l i k e to  thank the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study, the c h i l d r e n who, as one l i t t l e boy  so a p t l y s a i d , "don't g o t to be here u n l e s s I want t o " .  CHAPTER I REVIEW OF LITERATURE A.  H i s t o r i c a l Review Recent reforms i n the f i e l d of s p e l l i n g have been  aimed a t s i m p l i f y i n g  E n g l i s h orthography by p r o v i d i n g  grapheme to phoneme correspondences. ever, been a theme i n the h i s t o r y  history  of s p e l l i n g as a s e r i e s  present.  reform has, how-  of E n g l i s h orthography  the b e g i n n i n g of attempts to t r a n s l a t e i n t o E a r l y E n g l i s h prose forms.  Spelling  single  religious oral  from  traditions  In f a c t , one might view  the  of reforms c o n t i n u i n g i n t o  the  F o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f account of E n g l i s h s p e l l i n g  since  i t s conception. The h i s t o r y  of E n g l i s h orthography begins with the  i n f l u x of Germanic groups  i n t o Great B r i t a i n and t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n  to C h r i s t i a n i t y by the end of the s i x t h c e n t u r y . Christianity, alphabet.  Along with  the Germanic t r i b e s a c q u i r e d the use of the Roman  S i n c e L a t i n phonology  d i d not i n c l u d e c e r t a i n German  phonemes, two runes were added to the roman a l p h a b e t . U n t i l the t e n t h century, there c o e x i s t e d f o u r main s p e l l i n g systems,  each r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i a l e c t s  Mercian, K e n t i s h and West Saxon.  Northumbrian,  Each of these d i a l e c t s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t s p e l l i n g conventions as w e l l as erences i n v o c a b u l a r y and syntax.  Political  was diff-  events r e s u l t e d  in  the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of s p e l l i n g conventions to the West Saxon s t y l e . Thus, by the end of the t e n t h century, a s t a b l e was  i n e f f e c t throughout England.  spelling  system  At t h i s time, s p e l l i n g p r o v i d e d  -2-  a much more p r e c i s e grapheme Modern E n g l i s h s p e l l i n g  to phoaeme r e l a t i o n s h i p than does  (Scragg p . l l ) .  Scragg d i s c u s s e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a f i x e d t r a d i t i o n to the development of E n g l i s h orthography.  spelling F i r s t , some  modern s p e l l i n g conventions have t h e i r r o o t s i n the e a r l i e s t English orthographic t r a d i t i o n .  These conventions i n c l u d e the  i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of (i> and ( y ) (graphemic v a r i a n t s i n medieval L a t i n whose o r i g i n a l l y separate phoneme had f a l l e n t o g e t h e r i n most d i a l e c t s ) ? /&/  the use of one grapheme t o r e p r e s e n t both / © / and  ( c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a n t s of one phoneme i n Old E n g l i s h ) ?  use of (s) f o r /z/„ n i c a l words). to  the  used o n l y i n f o r e i g n names or t e c h -  Secondly, the West Saxon t r a d i t i o n proved too s t a b l e  be e n t i r e l y l o s t .  s e v e r a l systems, 1066  ({x) was  and  Our p r e s e n t system  i s t h e r e f o r e a mixture of  each having d i s t i n c t i v e conventions (Scragg p.14),  marked the year of the Norman Conquest,  Although  West Saxon E n g l i s h orthography continued f o r almost a century, i t g r a d u a l l y f e l l i n t o d i s u s e , s i n c e the new t h e i r own  language.  r u l i n g c l a s s maintained  The Peterborough C h r o n i c l e , a p r o g r e s s i o n of  dated annals spanning the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e l f t h century, d e p i c t s the d e c l i n e of a u n i v e r s a l s p e l l i n g system f o r E n g l i s h (Scragg p.17).  At f i r s t ,  orthography,  s p e l l i n g adhered s t r i c t l y to the West  Saxon standard but g r a d u a l l y c o n f o r m i t y was l e s s versed i n E n g l i s h orthography.  l o s t as s c r i b e s became  By the t w e l f t h century, sacred  and s e c u l a r w r i t i n g s were n e a r l y a l l i n French, The Anglo-Saxon language English period to  continued through the Middle  (1066-1500), p o s s i b l y because  abandon t h e i r own  language  (Hanna p.43).  the E n g l i s h r e f u s e d Anglo-Norman, the  -3-  d i a l e c t of French spoken i n England, the growing r e a l i z a t i o n of how French.  d e c l i n e d i n importance  d i f f e r e n t i t was  from  with  standard  Late i n the f o u r t e e n t h century, E n g l i s h a g a i n became the  o f f i c i a l language of England.  However, a s i z e a b l e amount of French  v o c a b u l a r y remained, p a r t i c u l a r l y those words having to do w i t h r e l i g i o n , food, law, s o c i e t y , the m i l i t a r y and b u s i n e s s , French phonemic s t r u c t u r e and orthography a s s i m i l a t e d to E n g l i s h . English.  A few  The many changes r e v o l u t i o n i z e d w r i t t e n  examples are g i v e n here.  E n g l i s h alphabet the (fc-) and (f) alphabet.  S c r i b e s dropped from  which were not i n the  These were g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by  f o r the a f f r i c a t e  were a l s o  / t / / became widespread  having been no p r e v i o u s unambiguous way  (th).  the  French  The use of  (ch)  v e r y q u i c k l y , there  to express t h i s sound.  Norman t r a i n e d s c r i b e s o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d French conventions such (c) f o r / s / to Saxon words (e.g. by analogy,  as  Old E n g l i s h ( i s ) became ( i c e ) )  and these forms c o e x i s t e d a l o n g s i d e t r a d i t i o n a l rep  r e s e n t a t i o n s of sounds. Thus, Norman French may  be seen to have had the s i n g l e  g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e upon E n g l i s h orthography. however, saw  the advance of new  The  Renaissance,  ideas r e q u i r i n g e x p r e s s i o n .  words were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o E n g l i s h from I t a l i a n , Spanish and p e c i a l l y Greek and L a t i n .  Acute  New es-  s e n s i t i v i t y to the L a t i n etymology  of some words l e d to the r e v i s i o n of many words which d i d not have Latin root.  For example ( a b s o l v e ) , (corpse) and  Middle E n g l i s h a n c e s t o r s  (assoil),  m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to L a t i n  (cors) and  ( p i c t u r e ) have  (peynture), but were  conventions.  By the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century, some measure of c o n s i s t e n c y had been achieved.  Nevertheless, inconsistency,  -4between and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s , was s t i l l preeminent, to  From  1550  1650, a s t a b l e s p e l l i n g system was adopted and u n i v e r s a l l y  accepted by the p r i n t i n g houses.  During t h i s time, primary ed-  ucation offered better direction i n spelling.  S p e l l i n g was  still  not completely r e g u l a r j f o r example, ( i ) and ( y ) were i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n m e d i a l l y , and ( y ) , ( i e ) , and (ye) f i n a l l y . c o u l d be s i n g l e o r doubled a f t e r a s h o r t vowel.  These v a r i a t i o n s  allowed t h i s assortment o f s p e l l i n g s f o r one wordt (pitie), of  (pytie) , ( p i t t i e ) , (pyttye), etc,  Consonants  (pity),  (Scragg p.71).  (pyty), Choice  v a r i a n t o f t e n depended on the p r i n t e r s l e n g t h o f type l i n e i  he was running out of space, a s h o r t e r v a r i a n t was used  i f  (Hanna p . 4 9 ) .  The seventeenth c e n t u r y saw the r i s e of v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g books which were designed to t e a c h ' c o r r e c t ' s p e l l i n g .  The con-  sequence of these books was the s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f s p e l l i n g by 1700, (Scragg p.74-80),  Changes s i n c e then have been minor.  The l a s t major s u c c e s s f u l reform was i n s t i t u t e d by Noah Webster i n 1806 when he p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t d i c t i o n a r y , Compendious D i c t i o n a r y o f the E n g l i s h Language,  Most  A  American  m o d i f i c a t i o n s stem from t h i s d i c t i o n a r y , f o r example, the s u f f i x e s ( - o r ) , <C-ie) and. ('-re) r a t h e r than (-our), ( - i c k ) and ( - r e ) , and shortened forms such as (catalog) and (program) r a t h e r than ( c a t a l o g u e ) and (programme).  Some o f Webster's reforms such as  ( a k e ) f o r (ache) and (crum) f o r <{crumb) were never adopted however (p.15  Venezky  1980).  E n g l i s h orthography c o n t i n u e s t o be i n a m i l d s t a t e o f flux,  Scragg  (p,86) observes t h a t new developments  s h o r t e n the word.  Examples a r e ( h i c c u p ) ,  invariably  ( c u r t s y ) and (biased)  r a t h e r than ( h i c c o u g h ) , ( c u r t s e y ) and ( b i a s s e d ) .  J u s t as Middle  -  5 -  E n g l i s h s c r i b e s added l e t t e r s to words because they charged by i n c h , and length,  Elizabethan  p r i n t e r s varied s p e l l i n g according  to  the  line  so modern p r i n t e r s advocate economical s p e l l i n g s which lower  production  costs. From t h i s overview i t can be seen t h a t the i d e a l of  standardised three  s p e l l i n g has  centuries.  been i n e f f e c t only f o r the past  Up u n t i l the eighteenth  century, one  be r e p r e s e n t e d by s e v e r a l a c c e p t a b l e forms. of p h o n e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e grapheme was credence by some p u b l i s h e d c o r r e c t form, and  work.  two  or  word c o u l d  Nearly any  sequence  l i k e l y to have been  given  Modern s p e l l i n g a l l o w s only  one  i t i s t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n which creates the problem  of the p h o n e t i c a l l y a c c u r a t e poor s p e l l e r . B,  Phonology and 1.  Spelling  Overview of P e r t i n e n t Aspects of E n g l i s h Phonology.  English phonological  system i s composed of p h o n e t i c u n i t s ,  s t r u c t u r e of those u n i t s and or phoneme may  The  Tables 1, 2,  vowels, diphthongs, and  and  the  phonetic u n i t  be d e f i n e d as the s m a l l e s t u n i t having  value w i t h i n the system. of E n g l i s h *  their function.  The  contrastive  3 g i v e the phonemes of  consonants r e s p e c t i v e l y .  V a r i a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from d i f f e r e n c e s i n environment are known as allophones. Phonotactic  constraints d e l i m i t allowable  phonemes f o r s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n s i n a word. i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n consonant c l u s t e r s may phonemes, and  i n prescribed  consonant /p/,  / t / , o r /k/,  sequences of  For example, i n word  c o n t a i n no more than  three  order these are / s / , a v o i c e l e s s stop and  a l i q u i d /!/ or / r / .  s i n g l e phonemes are l i m i t e d r e g a r d i n g  Certain  placement i n a wordt  occurs only a t the b e g i n n i n g of s y l l a b l e s , and /rj/  /h/  only a t the  end.  -6-  TABLE I Vowel Phonemes of American '(adapted--from - H a l l ,  English 1961)  IPA-Kenyon-Pike  The Vowel sound o f t  Phonetic Description  heat or beet bit b a i t or bate bet bat hot but bought boat book boot  high-front-tense high-front-lax mid-front-tense mid-front-lax low-front-lax low-c e n t r a l - l a x mid-central-lax mid-back-lax mid-back-tense high-back-lax high-back-tense  Trager-Smith  /&/ /a/ /o/ /ow/  'r /  A/  /uw/  TABLE I I Diphthongs  of American  English  (adapted from - H a l l , The diphthong of* b i t e , height etc. cow, loud boy  IPA-Kenyon-Pike /ay/ /aw/ /oy/  1961) Trager-Smith /ay/ /aw/ /oy/  -7-  TABLE I I I Consonant Phonemes of American E n g l i s h (adapted 'from - H a l l ,  Initial Consonant o f t pin tin kin bin din get fin thin vim this sin shin zip the consonant) sound r e p r e s - ) ented by z i n ) azure chin gin mint name the f i n a l ) sound of ) sing I limb rim  19 61)  Technical Description v o i c e l e s s b i l a b i a l stop v o i c e l e s s a v e o l a r stop v o i c e l e s s v e l a r stop v o i c e d b i l a b i a l stop v o i c e d a l v e o l a r stop v o i c e d v e l a r stop voiceless labio-dental f r i c a t i v e voiceless dental f r i c a t i v e voiced l a b i o - d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e voiced dental f r i c a t i v e voiceless dental s i b i l a n t voiceless palatal sibilant voiced dental s i b i l a n t voiced p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t  Phonemic Transcription  %  A/ A/ /V A/ A/  v o i c e l e s s p a l a t a l stop with  or /// or  /y  sibilant release A / or A i / v o i c e d p a l a t a l stop with s i b i l a n t release / g / or A$/ voiced l a b i a l nasal /m/ voiced a l v e o l a r nasal /n/ voiced v e l a r nasal  /rj/  v o i c e d d e n t a l or a l v e o l a r l a t e r a l / l / voiced r e t r o f l e x /r/  -8Two  phonemes are s a i d to be i n " f r e e v a r i a t i o n " when  the s u b s t i t u t i o n of one f o r the other r e s u l t s i n a d i f f e r e n t pron u n c i a t i o n f o r the word r a t h e r than a d i f f e r e n t word.  F o r example  the g l o t t a l stop / ? / i s i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h the stop / t / a t the end of a s y l l a b l e which precedes a consonant,  e.g.  "butler".  I n f r e q u e n t l y , the d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s phonemic» f o r example, the f i r s t vowel i n " e i t h e r " may  be / i /  or / a i / .  These  cases are a c c i d e n t a l and not p a r t of E n g l i s h p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . C e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between phonemes are missed the p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l .  on  On the morphophonemic l e v e l , a morpheme  o r minimal meaningful u n i t , w i l l be g i v e n one graphemic r e p r e s e n t ation.  However i t may  m a n i f e s t s e v e r a l allomorphs.  For example,  the p l u r a l morpheme / s / has as c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a n t s / z / and  /32/,  In t h i s case, p h o n o l o g i o a l r u l e s are a f f e c t i n g a h i g h e r s y n t a c t i c level.  Although t h e o r e t i c a l l y unconnected, the s y n t a c t i c  and  p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e are o f t e n interdependent. 2,  graphemic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Phonemes.  There are more  phonemes i n E n g l i s h than graphemes to r e p r e s e n t themi  there are  approximately 40 phonemes, but o n l y 26 i n d i v i d u a l graphemes.  Some  consonantal phonemes are always r e p r e s e n t e d by grapheme compounds, e«g» A)/  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by (ng)»  by s e v e r a l combinations  /©/ i s r e p r e s e n t e d by  such as ( s h ) , ( s s ) , (-ti- ) , 1  having a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a grapheme may by a grapheme combination,  Some phonemes  a l s o be represented  e.g. ( p h ) , (gh) , ( r h ) , ( p s ) , or by  graphemes such as ( l l ) o r ( b b ) . grapheme, by graphemic diphthongs by double graphemes such as  <th) , / £ /  <oo)  Vowels may  be represented by  double one  such as ( e a ) , ( o i ) , o r ( u e ) , o r or ( e e ) .  r e s e n t a t i o n s of each phoneme are l i s t e d  P o s s i b l e graphemic rep-  i n Table  4.  TABLE IV Graphemic Representation  of E n g l i s h Phonemes  (adapted from H a l l - 1961)  Phoneme  Grapheme  /iy/  ee e e.,, e ea ae eo oe ei ie i ey ay  /I/  i ie e ee o u y ui  /ey/  ei ea ey a...e ai ao au ay  /£/  e ea ae ei ie eo oe ai a u  Examples meet be mete sea Caesarian people amoeba receive believe machine key quay hit sieve England been ( i n American English) women busy myth build veil steak obey gate pain gaol ( B r i t i s h s p e l l i n g of j a i l ) gauge ay set leather aesthetic heifer friend leopard foetid (alternative for fetid) said any bury  -10-  TABLE IV Phoneme  (cont'd)  Grapheme  Examples  /ae/  a ai ay au  hat plaid prayer laugh  /a/  a e ea o  father sergeant heart hot  /<=>/  u o ou 00 oe a ai ia ei eo 1 oi  cup son couple flood does along mountain parliament villein dungeon easily porpoise  /o/  o oa ou a ah al au aw  order broad ought tall Utah talk fault raw  /ow/  o,..e oa oe oh ou ow eo au eau ew  note road doe oh soul flow yeoman hautboy beau sew  /u/  u ou oo o  put should book wolf  -11TABLE IV (cont'd) Examples  Phoneme  Grapheme  /uw/  uo• •e ue ui eu ou ew o.. .e oe wo  rule flue fruit maneuver group grew move canoe two  u i  j u s t (adv.) children  y i j w u  you union hallelujah  P  pen  PP  stopper  ( f o r those who have t h i s phoneme)  A/ /P/  A/  A/  t ed th tt c cc cch ck ch cq cque cu k q qu  A/ A/  well quiet  ten walked; thyme bottom cash account bacchanal back character acquaint sacque biscuit keep barbeque (now the normal s p e l l i n g of t h i s word, by a c t u a l count) liquor  b  bed  bb  robber  d dd ed  den ladder pulled  -12-  TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme  Grapheme  Examples  A/  g gg gh gu  give egg ghost guard  A/  f ff gh ph  feel muffin rough physics  th  thin  A/  v vv f ph  visit flivver of Stephen  A/  s ss sc sch c  sit loss scene schism city  /;/  sh ce ch ci s sch sci se si ss ssi ti  ship ocean machine special sugar schist conscience nauseous mansion tissue mission mention  /e/  A/  /y  Aj7  z zz s ss sc x  zone dazzle has scissors discern Xenophan  g s si z zi  garage measure division azure brazier  ch tch t te ti  church patch natural righteous question  -13TABLE IV Phoneme  /dy  (cont'd)  Grapheme  Examples  j d dg di g gg  just graduate judge soldier magic exaggerate  A /  m mm  mile hammer  A /  n nn  nail banner  ng n  ring pink  A/  1 11  love call  A/  r rr rh  red carrot rhesus  A /  h wh  hit who  In a d d i t i o n t o the s i n g l e phonemes l i s t e d , there a r e c e r t a i n combinations of phonemes which have s p e c i a l graphemic representations i n English spellings Ay/  i...e i ai ay ei ie ey uy y  bite high aisle aye height tie eye buy sky  /aw/  ou ow  out now  A i /  oi oy  boil toy  -14TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme  /yuw/  Grapheme  Ai/  ul ull ol il el le al  use beauty feud few adieu cue view yule yew you term learn thirst worm myrtle liar cult mull pistol pistil tinsel handle sandal  /way/ /wa/  wi .,e or o.,. e  wile choir one  Aw/  wh  which  Aw/  qu  quick  As/  X  mix  Ar/  u,. ,e eau eu ew ieu ue lew yu...e yew you er ear ir or yr ar  Examples  e  -15TABLE V Regular Graphemic Representations o f E n g l i s h Phonemes ' (adapted from - H a l l , 1961) Phoneme o r Combination of Phonemes  Examples  Grapheme  i e a  hit set bat hot but  0  u  A/ Ay/ Ay/ Ay/ /ow/ /yuw/ A/ A/ W /oi/ /^r/ A l /  'ft A/  /g/ A/  'ft/  A/ A/ A/  /T  e a i 0  u  consonant consonant consonant consonant consonant aw 00 00  oi ur ul P t c b d g f th V th s sh z z ch j m n ng  1  /hw/ Aw/ As/  r w y h wh qu X  letter letter letter letter letter  e e e e e  mete hate kite mote cube saw look boot boil hurt cult lip tip can bib did gag fin thin vim this sop shop zip azure church jam man nab sing lab rot wen yet ham why quick box  -16-  In E n g l i s h speech p r o d u c t i o n , u n s t r e s s e d vowels are normally reduced the ^a),  (e),  to a schwa (/<3/).  The schwa i s represented  and (o) i n (about), (telegraph) and  (photography).  Some d i a l e c t s i n c l u d e another u n s t r e s s e d v o w e l J (/i/).  This phoneme may  (optimal).  by  the b a r r e d  "i"  be produced i n these words? ( j u s t ) ,  Because of these reduced  (roses),  vowel phonemes, the c o r r e c t  grapheme f o r an u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e cannot be i d e n t i f i e d from  the  sound of the spoken word, 3.  Phonological Representation i n S p e l l i n g .  An a l p h a b e t i c  s c r i p t i s a h i g h l y a n a l y t i c form of language r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which makes r e f e r e n c e to p h o n o l o g i c a l u n i t s and s t r u c t u r e s . states succinctly,  Frith  (1980)  (p2).  " S p e l l i n g i s v i s i b l e phonology"  That we make a d i s t i n c t i o n between ' r e g u l a r ' and ' i r r e g u l a r ' s p e l l i n g bears t h i s out. E n g l i s h s p e l l i n g s i n t o three types 1 and  the downright i r r e g u l a r "  are shown i n Table 5«  One  (p5).  Robert H a l l  ( I 9 6 I )  "the r e g u l a r , the  divides  semi-regular  Examples of r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g s  assumes t h a t these graphemes most  f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t the corresponding phonemes.  Table k p r o v i d e s  examples of s e m i - r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g s f o r each phoneme and i n c l u d e s the h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r correspondences  as w e l l .  i r r e g u l a r phoneme to grapheme correspondences i n (who),  Examples of h i g h l y are the (wh)  f o r /h/,.  the (u) f o r / I / i n (busy) and the ( o i ) f o r / a i / i n c h o i r . Language i s t y p i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as being composed of  three levels» orthography  ohonology, morphology and syntax.  An a l p h a b e t i c  should r e f l e c t each of these components.  P h i l i p Smith  (1980) f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h orthography :  - 17"...When we  read a t e x t we  of speech, morphemic and d e n o t a t i o n s and  the  syntactic structure,  c o n n o t a t i o n s of words..."  Thomas Horn (1966) p o i n t s fluences  make d e c i s i o n s  out  t h a t the  and  about  about  parts  the  (p34-35)«  type of orthography i n -  degree to which p h o n o l o g i c a l ,  morphological  and  s y n t a c t i c components are r e f l e c t e d , f o r example, a l o g o g r a p h i c system p l a c e s more emphasis upon m o r p h o l o g i c a l and components.  He  syntactic  g i v e s a " d e f i n i t i o n a l model" f o r the s p e l l i n g  of English» "The  orthography of American E n g l i s h i s determined  by a s e t of r u l e s f o r u n i t phoneme - grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s based, with d e c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , upon three l e v e l s of analysis - phonological,  m o r p h o l o g i c a l and  H i s model appears i n t a b u l a r  s y n t a c t i c a l " . (p33)e  form as f o l l o w s :  "Phoneme - grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s determined 1.  3.  by»  Phonological f a c t o r s . 1.1  Position  1.2  Stress  1.3; 2.  (p33)  Environmental f a c t o r s  Morphological f a c t o r s . 2.1  Compounding  2.2  Affixation  2.3  Word f a m i l i e s  Syntactical 1.  factors.  F a c t o r s o r i g i n a t i n g a t the  lowest l e v e l , phonology,  are  the most f r e q u e n t .  the most important and  -18-  1.1  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, c e r t a i n graphemes appear only in certain positions. Shaw's s u g g e s t i o n  Because of t h i s , George Bernard  of ( g h o t i ) as a p o s s i b l e s p e l l i n g of  ( f i s h ) i s p h o n o t a c t i c a l l y i n c o r r e c t , since (gh) f o r / f / appears only a t the ends of s y l l a b l e s , e.g. (cough)» (o) f o r / I / appears i n f r e q u e n t l y as a s y n t a c t i c r e f l e x , (women) i s the p l u r a l of / j /  and  ( t i ) i s pronounced  o n l y when i t appears i n a s y l l a b l e o t h e r than the  f i r s t and 1.2  woman j  e.g.  i s f o l l o w e d by a vowel.  S t r e s s i s a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g phoneme - grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s appears at more than one  level.  At t h i s  s t r e s s s h i f t s as a f u n c t i o n of a f f i x a t i o n .  level,  For example  the s t r e s s i n "photograph" s h i f t s from the f i r s t and s y l l a b l e s to the second and Reduction  of the f i r s t and  third  fourth f o r "phonography". t h i r d s y l l a b l e s r e s u l t s i n the  phonetic value of t h e i r vowels changing to a schwa / £ / . However, even though the phonetic  value has changed, the  grapheme remains the same, 1.3  Environmental f a c t o r s account f o r such p h o n o l o g i c a l as P a l a t a l i z a t i o n and V e l a r S o f t e n i n g , the phonemes / t / and /&/ vowel.  processes  P a l a t a l i z a t i o n changes  to /$/ when f o l l o w e d by a h i g h f r o n t  V e l a r consonants /k/ and / g / become / s / and / d z / r e -  s p e c t i v e l y when f o l l o w e d by mid  or h i g h f r o n t  /k/ value must be g r a p h e m i c a l l y  represented  vowels.  (The  by a ( c ) , however).  In these cases again, the grapheme i t s e l f remains unchanged but the p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t .  - 1 9 -  2,  The psychology of the wordsas a u n i t i s complex and w i l l n o t he d e a l t with here.  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o say t h a t  the primacy o f the word as a l i n g u i s t i c u n i t has been established,  Lyons  (p,194) d e s c r i b e s the word as "the u n i t  par e x c e l l e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l grammatical t h e o r y " . t h a t even the terms "morphology" primacy of the word, s i n c e  He notes  and "syntax" imply the  'morphology' means 'the study of  forms' and syntax i s the theory o f ' p a t t i n g t o g e t h e r ' .  That  the word i s the form b e i n g s t u d i e d and put t o g e t h e r i s taken f o r granted.  The d e f i n i t i o n of a morpheme as the s m a l l e s t  meaningful u n i t , r a t h e r than the phoneme, a l s o d e p i c t s the word as the f o u n d a t i o n o f our language  structure.  Each morpheme has an i n v a r i a n t s p e l l i n g even though i t may be pronounced  s e v e r a l ways,  about by c o n t e x t a r e i g n o r e d .  A l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s brought P h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s may r e s u l t  i n a d i f f e r e n t p h o n e t i c p r o n u n c i a t i o n from t h a t which i s w r i t t e n , but graphemic 2.1  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n remains uniform,  The compounding of two morphemes to produce a compound word produces c e r t a i n p h o n e t i c charges.  F o r example the / t / a t  the end of " f o r t " i n " f o r t n i g h t " i s o f t e n changes stop / ? / , o r l o s e s i t s a s p i r a t i o n .  to a g l o t t a l  When " t e n n i s shoes" i s  produced as a phrase, the p h o n e t i c v a l u e of one / s / i s l o s t , 2.2  Combining  a bound morpheme w i t h a r o o t r e s u l t s i n changes  i n pronunciation.  I n some cases, such as "muscle" vs "muscular",  a s i l e n t grapheme i s pronounced.  In p a i r s such as "serene" -  " s e r e n i t y " , the v a l u e of a phoneme changes way,  i n a prescribed  A homograph such as " s i n g e r " w i l l be pronounced  differ-  e n t l y depending on whether the r o o t was " s i n g " o r " s i n g e " .  -20-  2.3  The e t i o l o g y of a word can determine the p h o n o l o g i c a l cesses t h a t a p p l y .  Words descended from a L a t i n r o o t undergo  v e l a r s o f t e n i n g of a example, "cedar",  pro-  c  i f a high f r o n t vowel f o l l o w s , f o r  or " c i t y " .  T h i s convention  does not apply  to words of C e l t i c o r Germanic e t i o l o g y , f o r example, "Cymric", 3,  "Celt",  "soccer".  In Sound P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h . Chomsky and H a l l e g i v e examples of p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s a f f e c t i n g the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l .  For  example, a p p l i c a t i o n of one s t r e s s r u l e i s dependent on s y n t a c t i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p a r t s of speecht i s a noun, s t r e s s i s assigned a verb,  i f the word  to the f i r s t s y l l a b l e ,  i f i t is  the l a s t s y l l a b l e i s s t r e s s e d , e.g. permit vs jpermit.  Word t e r m i n a l ( e ) i s an example of a graphemic s t r u c t u r e t h a t has p h o n o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y on a l l l e v e l s , d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s f u n c t i o n s ) . explained,  (See Table 6 f o r a  I t ' s occurrence  e i t h e r as f u n c t i o n a l o r a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g .  few t r u l y i r r e g u l a r occurrences l i t t l e known words,  the r e a s o n i n g  happen to p r e s e n t  (Sanford Schane 1979).  r a t i o n a l f o r i t s occurrence i s sound,  Chomsky and H a l l  The  themselves i n  In most cases, the  and d e l e t i o n may be complex, but '  (1968) suggest t h a t the spoken word  has an u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n resembling  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  s p e l l i n g of t h a t word, even though the phonetic may  i s r a r e l y un-  sound q u i t e d i f f e r e n t .  representation  I n t r i c a t e r u l e s apply to the  u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e s determined by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l c y c l e ( f o r example, the % Ch.l).  An example i s the p r o n u n c i a t i o n /magn-s d^a*/ f o r  "manager". Rule,  principle-  T h i s i s d e r i v e d from [manager] by the Main S t r e s s  a v e l a r s o f t e n i n g r u l e , and Vowel Reduction  (p.53).  -21-  TABLE Some f u n c t i o n s of  VI  ' s i l e n t ' f i n a l (e) i n English  spelling  (adapted from P h i l i p Smith (1980}  Graphemic  Present of <e) i s r e q u i r e d a f t e r c e r t a i n l e t t e r s , e.g. (GIVE)(FREEZE)• Absence a f t e r such l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e s a f o r e i g n word (M0L0T0V) (KIBBUTZ).  Graphemic/ Phonemic  Presence of ( e ) i s r e q u i r e d a f t e r a s y l l a b i c l i q u i d (1) or ( r ) t h a t i s preceded by a consonant, e.g. (LITTLE) ( CENTRE). Absence only i n r a r e f o r e i g n words (AX0L0TL).  Phonemic  (e) m o d i f i e s p r e c e d i n g vowel (MATE)(THEME)(WINE) (NOTE)(CUTE)in c o n t r a s t w i t h (MAT)(THEM)(WIN) (NOT)(CUT). <e> a l s o s o f t e n s <c> and (g> (ICE) (RAGE), i n c o n t r a s t w i t h (MUSIC)(RAG).  Phonological  The presence of f i n a l <e> i n c e r t a i n words, such as (ECLIPSE)(ARABESQUE) i s claimed by some l i n g u i s t s to i n d i c a t e a s p e c i a l u n d e r l y i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l form t h a t i s u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g which s y l l a b l e of the word w i l l r e c e i v e primary stress.  Lexical  A f i n a l (e} can h e l p to emphasise t h a t the word i s not a p l u r a l form, e.g. compare the homophones .(PLEASE)(RAISE)(ROSE)and (PLEAS)(RAYS) (ROWS). There are a few o t h e r homophones d i s t i n g u i s h e d only by a f i n a l (e)i (ORE)(OR) and (CASTE)(CAST)» and t h e r e i s i s a l s o the f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n between such words as (ARTIST) and (ARTISTE).  Etymological  S i l e n t f i n a l ( e ) o f t e n i n d i c a t e s L a t i n or French origin. T h i s i s not easy to p r e d i c t w i t h s h o r t words, though some homophonic p a i r s e x i s t , e.g. (LOOT)(HINDI)(LUTE)(OLD PROVENCAL)f (MAIL) Germanic, (MALE) L a t i n . In l o n g words the e x i s t ence of s i l e n t (e) i n so many a f f i x e s a l l having L a t i n or French o r i g i n s (-able\ (-age), (-ance-), ( - a t e ) , ( N a t i v e ) , e t c . means t h a t s i l e n t <e) has a s t r o n g s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h words of L a t i n and French o r i g i n s . In c o n t r a s t , a pronounced f i n a l e suggests Greek (APOSTROPHE) (PENELOPE) or some modern language (KARATE) (CURARE). In g e n e r a l the ' r u l e s ' here are not v e r y r e l i a b l e , and indeed words with s i m i l a r o r i g i n s may have d i f f e r e n t s p e l l i n g s , depending on when they were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o E n g l i s h t e.g. (DEFINITE)(EXQUISITE)(DEFICIT)(EXPLICIT) are a l l L a t i n words, but the s p e l l i n g without a f i n a l <fe*) i n d i c a t e s a more r e c e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n into English.  -22-  Others (e.g. Dale 1976) sentations  and  argue t h a t u n d e r l y i n g  transformational  r u l e s may  able to modern speakers of E n g l i s h . to r e f l e c t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n orthography may  simply  repre-  not always be  avail-  Since w r i t i n g systems tend  of e a r l i e r stages i n the  language,  be "the r e s i d u e of h i s t o r i c a l change",  (p.223). Nonetheless i t i s apparent t h a t E n g l i s h orthography i s not a s t r a i g h t forward r e f l e c t i o n of p r o n u n c i a t i o n . when orthography does imply an u n d e r l y i n g also implies pronunciation.  However,  representation,  Even though the system i s not  p u r e l y phonemic, the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t s the  representation  i n the l i g h t of h i s knowledge of E n g l i s h p h o n o l o g i c a l and C.  rules  their application.  Substrates 1,  f o r Development of S p e l l i n g .  Neuroanatomical B a s i s .  On the b a s i s of evidence from b r a i n  i n j u r y c e r t a i n c e r e b r a l areas are presumed to be a s s o c i a t e d spelling ability.  Lesions  disorderssof spelling. imately  v i s u a l and  T h i s e v o l u t i o n a r i l y new  s t r u c t u r e i s approxI t i s c e n t r a l to  somesthetic a s s o c i a t i o n areas  connected by f a s c i c u l u s to Wernickes's a r e a .  Sasanuma and 1968)  Numerous n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Fujimura, 1972t  provide  Sasanuma 1975;  centre",  studies  (e.g.  P i z z a m i g l i o and  Black,  evidence t h a t damage to s p e c i f i c c e r e b r a l l o c a t i o n s  causes s p e c i f i c s p e l l i n g d i s o r d e r s , described  (see diagram)  These a s s o c i a t i o n s  p r o v i c e the merging of s k i l l s f o r a "sensory g r a p h i c (Henschen 1920-22),  with  of the angular gyms i n v a r i a b l y produce  5»000 years o l d and e x i s t s only i n man.  the a u d i t o r y , and  it,  by Kinsbourne and  A s e l e c t i v e form of agraphia  Rosenfield  (1974) i n v o l v e d  impaired  a b i l i t y to s p e l l o r t h o g r a p h i c a l l y while a b i l i t y to s p e l l o r a l l y preserved.  The  authors p i n p o i n t e d  was  the l e f t p a r a s a g i t t o l p a r i e t a l  -23-  F i g u r e 1.  L a t e r a l view of the b r a i n d e p i c t i n g areas of Brodmann.  44,45 41 40 39 22 17,18,19 7 5  significant  Broca's Speech Area Gyrus of H e s c h l Supramarginal Gyrus Angular Gyrus Wernicke's Area V i s u a l r e c e p t i v e area and p e r c e p t i o n S u p e r i o r P a r i e t a l Lobule P o s t c e n t r a l Gyrus  (Adapted from Hecaen and A l b e r t , 1978 F i g . 4 4 ) .  -24r e g i o n as the l o c a t i o n of the f o c a l l e s i o n .  Broca's  aphasic  p a t i e n t s , w i t h l e s i o n s of the a n t e r i o r p a r t of the dominant hemisphere, produce s p e l l i n g e r r o r s which are nonphonetic, while Wernicke's and  anomic aphasics,  who  have p o s t e r i o r l e s i o n s , produce  s p e l l i n g s t h a t are p h o n e t i c a l l y c l o s e to the t a r g e t . c i t e s Langmore (1979) who  Frith  (1980a)  found t h a t Broca's aphasics were unable  to s p e l l nonsense words and  t h a t almost a l l of t h e i r m i s - s p e l l i n g s  of r e a l words were s i m i l a r i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n to the t a r g e t words although nonphonetic.  Langmore concluded t h a t p a t i e n t s were not  able to u t i l i z e phoneme-to-grapheme c o n v e r s i o n s . r e l i e d e x c l u s i v e l y on v i s u a l memory.  Instead  Noting t h a t the r i g h t hemi-  sphere has been shown to l a c k s t r a t e g i e s f o r p h o n o l o g i c a l or phoneme-to-grapheme c o n v e r s i o n s ,  they  Langmore s p e c u l a t e s  information that  the  Broca's aphasic: employs processes a v a i l a b l e to the i n t a c t r i g h t hemisphere f o r s p e l l i n g . As suggested above, o r a l and  orthographic  d i f f e r e n t neuroanatomical c o r r e l a t e s .  The  s p e l l i n g have  differing  modalities  of s p e l l i n g demand d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s k i l l s t h e i r information.  The  focus of t h i s paper i s on  for  orthographic  spelling. 2,  Physical 2,1  Correlates  Motor C e r t a i n s k i l l s are propadeutic to the development  of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y .  I f these s k i l l s are p o o r l y developed then the  c h i l d i s hampered i n h i s e f f o r t s to reproduce words a p p r o p r i a t e l y , Margaret Peters in s p a t i a l perception  and  omissions, r e v e r s a l s and p.278) s t a t e s *  (1967  - P.19)  p o i n t s out t h a t  difficulties  i n l e f t - r i g h t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may confusions  of l e t t e r s .  cause  Schonnel (1743  -  "The  good s p e l l e r i s one  f o r whom words have become engram  complexes dependent f o r t h e i r s t i m u l i upon dozens of muscles which have been c o o r d i n a t e d with d e f i n i t e s t r e n g t h , sequence, and  accuracy  rapidity". The p r a c t i c a l w r i t e r does not need to t h i n k of each s t r o k e  as he forms the l e t t e r , nor of each l e t t e r as he forms the word. Evidence  from s l i p s of the pen show t h a t e r r o r s are most  likely  to be i n stem v a r i a n t s (e.g. "eference" f o r " e f e r e n t s " ) , s l i p s of sound p a t t e r n s "than" and 1980),  ("seen" f o r "scene", "are" f o r "our",  omissions  "that" f o r  "Sunday" for'Sunny November Day"). (N, Hotopf  The primace of real-word  s l i p s of the pen suggests  the  presence of l e t t e r - s e q u e n c e motor programs, In an experiment by Tenney (1980) s u b j e c t s were asked to judge c o r r e c t n e s s of s p e l l i n g of words w r i t t e n i n a z i g z a g manner. The d i s t o r t e d appearance of the words hindered t h e i r a b i l i t y to judge c o r r e c t l y and r e g a r d i n g accuracy  of judgement.  a f f e c t a b i l i t y to judge one's own 2.2  Sensation.  Hearing  thenisubjects i n  lowered t h e i r  confidence  Poor handwriting, spelling.  impaired c h i l d r e n do not make more  mistakes than h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , as would be expected s p e l l i n g was  then, might  i f good  dependent on sound to l e t t e r c o n v e r s i o n s .  Templin (195^) found  t h a t h e a r i n g impaired  c h i l d r e n had  s p e l l i n g to h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n theme w r i t i n g .  In f a c t , superior  Templin a t t r i b u t e d  t h i s f i n d i n g to the g r e a t e r emphasis p l a c e d i n s p e l l i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of the deaf. h e a r i n g impaired  However Margaret Peters  (p.18) f e l t  that  c h i l d r e n r e l y upon v i s u a l memory of a word r a t h e r  than phoneme to grapheme correspondence.  In any case, h e a r i n g a  word does not appear to be p r e r e r e q u i s i t e to s p e l l i n g i t . 3.  P e r c e p t i o n and S t r a t e g i e s 3.1  Perception.  Except  i n r a r e cases,  i n a b i l i t y to  -26p e r c e i v e speech sounds i s not By age  a factor  three or f o u r , c h i l d r e n  can  in spelling d i s a b i l i t i e s .  p e r c e i v e most p h o n o l o g i c a l  (Moskowitz 1970).  distinctions  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of w r i t i n g ation,  s t r a i g h t - c u r v e d , open-closed) i s not  when s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f i r s t b e g i n s .  ( r i g h t - l e f t orient-  necessarily  S e n s i t i v i t y to  mastered letter  shape appears to develop without f o r m a l t r a i n i n g although i n some cases c o n f u s i o n p e r s i s t s .  (Gibson p.733)»  Statements r e g a r d i n g v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n of words rampant i n the  are  l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example, t h i s quote from Hartman  (193D* "Good s p e l l e r s p e r c e i v e t o t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , or, say,  see  one  mi  the word as a whole more e a s i l y than poor s p e l l e r s " .  would be  hard to measure e x a c t l y how  or "more e a s i l y " . word i s not  Margaret P e t e r s  a word i s seen "as  i t i s r e c o g n i z e d as  i n r e a d i n g and  a whole"  (p.23) suggests t h a t a  simply reproduced as an image from memory. then the  It  familiar  Instead  component p a r t s  are  recalled. 3.2 strategies  Strategies.  devolves on  the  The  c u r r e n t debate on  question»  a s u c c e s s f u l s p e l l e r sound and  "Is the  spelling  dominant s t r a t e g y  r u l e based, or i s i t dependent  of  on  memory?". Frith  (19S0A) c i t e s a theory put  forward by  Hermelin (1978) r e l a t i n g h e a r i n g with time and (p.513) i f "sound has  v i s i o n with spaces  s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t y to temporal processes",  then " i t f o l l o w s t h a t the  auditory modality i s i d e a l l y suited  l e t t e r - b y - l e t t e r representation"* correct  O'Connor aj  sequence of l e t t e r s .  C o r r e c t s p e l l i n g i s then  I f " v i s i o n has  s p a t i a l p r o c e s s e s " then " i t f o l l o w s t h a t the  to the  s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t y to v i s u a l modality i s  -27-  i d e a l l y suited f o r s p a t i a l representation  of f a m i l i a r words".  Reading a word means i d e n t i f y i n g i t on whatever cues o r aspects of the stimulus  are s u f f i c i e n t to get i t r i g h t .  the n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l  F r i t h extends  d i v i s i o n of the temporal and s p a t i a l pro-  cesses t o the s t r a t e g i e s they permit, s p e c u l a t i n g t h a t "the l e f t hemisphere governs p h o n o l o g i c a l  o r f u l l - c u e s t r a t e g i e s , w h i l e the  r i g h t hemisphere governs v i s u a l o r p a r t i a l cue s t r a t e g i e s i n reading  or s p e l l i n g " . She  then proceeds to show t h a t the f u l l - c u e s t r a t e g y  i s the most s u c c e s s f u l f o r s p e l l i n g , s i n c e the use of p a r t i a l cues such as f i r s t l e t t e r and g e n e r a l word shape only does n o t allow the word t o he f u l l y reproduced on paper. F r i t h concludes t h a t a sound-based s t r a t e g y i s primary for successful spellers. spelling  She bases her c o n c l u s i o n on the types o f  e r r o r s made under v a r i o u s  c o n d i t i o n s , e.g. w r i t t e n , nonsense  word s p e l l i n g by the deaf and s l i p s of the pen, and notes t h a t most of these e r r o r s are sound based. Tenney (1980) r e p o r t e d phonological  instances  o f s u b j e c t s who used  and m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g .  One  student, n o t i n g t h a t , without a (k> f o l l o w i n g i t , the <fc> would have a s o f t sound, chose FROLICKING i n s t e a d o f FROLICING.  She chose  CONSENSUS over CONCENSUS because of the r e l a t e d word CONSENT. Smith ,(1980) sees r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g as t r a n s l a t i o n s between three l e v e l s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ! i s simply  v i s u a l information  the graphemic l e v e l which  on a page, the phonetic  l e v e l which i s  the spoken v e r s i o n o f t h a t l e v e l and the semantic l e v e l o r the meaning o f the t e x t .  Reading and s p e l l i n g i n v o l v e s the f u s i o n o f  these i n t e r a c t i n g l e v e l s i n t o a s i n g l e l i n g u i s t i c  structure.  -28In h e r Annotation, F r i t h difficulties  (1980b) looks a t s p e l l i n g  i n terms of l e v e l s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ;  phonemic a n a l y s i s i n the a n a l y s i s  the l e v e l of  or the l e v e l of morphemic a n a l y s i s .  An e r r o r  of sound might r e s u l t i n a form such as ( f i g r )  f o r ( f i n g e r ) , ( B e r r i a l ) f o r ( b u r i a l ) i n f e r s an e r r o r a t the l e v e l of meaning, s i n c e the c o r r e c t r o o t i s ( b u r y ) r a t h e r Sloboda (1980) p o i n t s may e x p l a i n not  out t h a t while s p e l l i n g r u l e s  the a b i l i t y of some people to s p e l l a word they have  seen b e f o r e , these r u l e s a l s o e x p l a i n the t y p i c a l a d u l t  spelling error. use  than ( b e r r y ) ,  And w h i l e some p r o f i c i e n t s p e l l e r s may  consciously  r u l e s on o c c a s i o n , r u l e s alone do not e x p l a i n the automatic way  most words are produced.  He suggests t h a t good s p e l l e r s s p e l l by  memory, w h i l e average s p e l l e r s use rules„ a graphemic, r a t h e r  than v i s u a l memoryt  graphemes each word c o n t a i n s ,  However, he  postulates  good s p e l l e r s know what  while poor s p e l l e r s have s t o r e d  in-  f o r m a t i o n about the sequence of phonemes, A major problem w i t h l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s i s t h a t numerous, complex and c o n t r a d i c t o r y , by  hindsight  only"  (p.497).  should know i s n o t s p e l l e d to NATIVE, can  o r as F r i t h p o i n t s  N.ASHEN , because of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p because one  On the o t h e r hand, the r e l a t i o n s h i p may p r o v i d e  m i s l e a d i n g cues, e.g. i s r e l a t e d to SPACE. i s established,  out,"known  Her example i s NATION , which one  However, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o n l y n o t i c e d  s p e l l NATION.  they are  SPATIAL  might be s p e l l e d SPACIAL because i t  I t means t h a t no matter what s p e l l i n g a l g o r i t h m  some words w i l l not conform, o r w i l l remain a r b i t -  r a r y i n t h e i r adherence to one of a p a i r of c o n f l i c t i n g r u l e s , Henderson and Chard  (1980) a l s o f e e l t h a t  orthographic  knowledge i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t to allow c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g a t a l l times;  - 2 9 -  "First,  the knowledge may  be merely t a c i t , able to be m a n i f e s t  i n the r e l a t i v e l y automatic process or word p e r c e p t i o n  but i n -  a c c e s s i b l e to the more d e l i b e r a t e processes t h a t produce s p e l l i n g . Second, the knowledge may  be of a s o r t t h a t i s inadequate to allow  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s p e l l i n g s . be  too g e n e r a l and  too a b s t r a c t " ,  I t might, f o r example,  (p.86).  Another c o n t r o v e r s y concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p of and  spelling strategies,  and  l e a r n i n g to s p e l l must be r e l a t e d .  i n the use  Ehri  of graphemes and  graphy as a new  f e e l s t h a t l e a r n i n g to read  ( 1 9 8 0 )  She  i n the c h i l d ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n to ortho-  ( 1 9 8 0 )  d i s c u s s i o n of s p e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s  p a r a l l e l s h i s previous research  on r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y ,  of c o n t e x t u a l l y  notes  a c c e p t a b l e , known more f o r an unknown v/ord, A l a t e r reading  adds p a r i a l o r t h o g r a p h i c cues to the use  semantic context, but of s p e l l i n g r u l e s . and  He  t h a t of s u b s t i t u t i n g  a c t u a l l y i n t e r f e r e s with l e a r n i n g to s p e l l , strategy  sees a u n i f y i n g element  medium f o r language.  Marsh's  how  By the  of s y n t a c t i c  Marsh's theory of the development of s p e l l i n g  end  follows!  of the f i r s t  year of r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n  many c h i l d r e n have switched from s u b s t i t u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s to coding s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v i n g use sound system.  h i e r a r c h i a l decoding s t r a t e g y An  and  i s s t i l l not conducive to the a c q u i s i t i o n  r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s as  orthography and  reading  example of t h i s s t r a t e g y  de-  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the As the decoding s t r a t e g y  develops, a  based on c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e s  evolves.  involves  s i l e n t terminal  ( e ) , which  a c t s as a marker f o r l o n g vowel (e.g. MAT-MATE) or c o n d i t i o n a l pronunciation  of a grapheme (e.g.  phonemic encoding s t r a t e g y  (CITE-CUTE)„  The  development of  f o r s p e l l i n g i s congruent to t h a t  of  the  -30reading. encoding  C h i l d r e n Degin w i t h the simple s e q u e n t i a l phonemic s t r a t e g y and l a t e r develop a h i e r a r c h i a l encoding s t r a t e g y  i n v o l v i n g the use of r u l e s c o n d i t i o n a l on the intraword e n v i r o n ment. Read (19?1) c o n s i d e r s the use of phonemic s t r a t e g i e s for of  s p e l l i n g to he the most n a t u r a l , as evidence by the c h i l d r e n who  do not know how  to read.  spelling  Some p r e - s c h o o l s p e l l e r s  actuallj'' represented more phonetic d e t a i l than i s a v a i l a b l e i n c o n v e n t i o n a l s p e l l i n g due  to redundancy.  An example i s the stop  / t / which i n E n g l i s h i s a f f r i c a t e d b e f o r e the phoneme / r / . s c h o o l s p e l l e r s s p e l l e d / t r u c k / as ( c h r u c k ) .  Pre-  Even very young  c h i l d r e n have the a b i l i t y to analyse and l o g i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the phonetic s t r u c t u r e of the word. At f i r s t ,  then, c h i l d r e n are employing  egies f o r r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g .  opposing  strat-  Most c h i l d r e n are u s i n g a phonemic  decoding s t r a t e g y f o r r e a d i n g as w e l l as f o r s p e l l i n g by the second grade, and so the d i s c r e p a n c y may c h i l d r e n who  disappear,  A group of  continue to use a v i s u a l s t r a t e g y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  later. By the f i f t h grade, Marsh (1977) found c h i l d r e n b e g i n to  use an analogy s t r a t e g y to read composition wordsi  that i s ,  they search f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e analogue word and pronounce the u n f a m i l i a r word by analogy to the f a m i l i a r word.  Marsh's  1980  study showed t h a t a s t r a t e g y of s p e l l i n g unknown words by  analogy  to  second  the s p e l l i n g s of known words had developed  and f i f t h  between the  grades. I t appears,  then, t h a t the f i r s t  simple phonemic encoding one,  which develops  s p e l l i n g strategy i s a into a h i e r a r c h i c a l  - 3 1 -  encoding s t r a t e g y with c o n d i t i o n a l f i n a l adult strategy u n t i l the c h i l d has  i s analogy. stored  r u l e s based on c o n t e x t . This s t r a t e g y  The  cannot develop  a r e p e r t o i r e of words adequate to  make t h i s s t r a t e g y w i d e l y u s e f u l . D.  A c q u i s i t i o n of S p e l l i n g S t r a t e g i e s . (1980a) examines the most common types of  Frith  s p e l l i n g e r r o r s and associated 1, are 2.  w i t h the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g of a words  An a n a l y s i s of speech soundsi  the approximate phonemes  derived. Conversion of the phonemes i n t o graphemes, e i t h e r  analogy or by 3.  from her a n a l y s i s hypothesizes three stages  by  rules,  Choice of the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  c o r r e c t grapheme from  p o o l of p h o n e t i c a l l y  s i m i l a r graphemes.  number of e r r o r s was  made a t the f i r s t l e v e l , f o r example,  <^groud^ f o r "ground",  The  the  smallest  These e r r o r s are most l i k e l y  occur: w i t h young s p e l l e r s s i n c e they are a t an stage of p h o n o l o g i c a l  development.  p e r s i s t s , a phonological  to  earlier  I f t h i s type o f  error  r a t h e r than s p e l l i n g d i s o r d e r  is  likely. Another group of e r r o r s a r i s e because of f a i l u r e the phoneme-to-grapheme stage, r u l e s may BITE ).  Ignorance of c e r t a i n s p e l l i n g  r e s u l t i n nonphonetic e r r o r s Frith  development.  (e.g.  BIT  instead  failure  There i s some debate over whether t h i s stage i s  governed by r u l e s which are r e a l f o r a t l e a s t some words individuals  of  (1980a) f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s a normal stage of  Most s p e l l i n g problems can he a t t r i b u t e d to  a t stage t h r e e .  at  and  (e.g. Tenney) or whether t h i s stage i s completely  -32subject  to r o t e l e a r n i n g .  In e i t h e r case, phonetic  mis-spellings  are the r e s u l t of f a i l u r e " a t the very end of the s p e l l i n g process", at a stage beyond phoneme-to-grapheme r u l e s , E#  Inadequate Versus A t r o c i o u s  Spellers.  C h i l d r e n who are poor s p e l l e r s may be broadly gorized two  i n t o two groups.  Sweeney & Rourke (p.213) designated  spellers".  P h o n e t i c a l l y accurate s p e l l e r s a r e those  whose e r r o r s a r e p h o n e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e while p h o n e t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e phonetically unrelated  (e.g. ( n a c h e r ) f o r "nature")  s p e l l e r s make e r r o r s which a r e  to the t a r g e t  (e.g. ( d i l t u m ) f o r  l a t t e r group of c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t g e n e r a l i z e d  language f u n c t i o n i n g ! Verbal Further  "nature").  impairment of  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between Wise  I.Q. and Performance I.Q., and delay  i n reading  examination by Sweeney and Rourke r e v e a l e d  in processing gap  these  groups " p h o n e t i c a l l y accurate s p e l l e r s " and " p h o n e t i c a l l y  inaccurate  The  cate-  skills.  a deficiency  s h o r t s t r i n g s of words o r phonemes, and a widening  between p h o n e t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e  and normal s p e l l e r s as age  increased. The  performance of the p h o n e t i c a l l y a c c u r a t e group d i d  not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the normal group u n t i l a new response was  required.  cluded  When the response c a l l e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  i n the question,  not i n -  p h o n e t i c a l l y accurate s p e l l e r s were i n -  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from p h o n e t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e  s p e l l e r s (p.221).  D e s p i t e the poor performance o f p h o n e t i c a l l y s p e l l e r s on c r e a t i v e v e r b a l tasks,  accurate  a d i v i s i o n on the b a s i s of  n e u r o l o g i c a l impairment separates the p h o n e t i c a l l y a c c u r a t e s p e l l e r s . Frith  (1980a) c o n t r a s t s  three groups of s p e l l e r s  (analogous to the normal and and p h o n e t i c a l l y accurate s p e l l e r s des c r i b e d above):  Group A had h i g h s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g  skills;  -33Group C, low i n s p e l l i n g and reading, were c o n s i d e r e d by F r i t h to be " m i l d l y d y s l e x i c " .  Group B had r e a d i n g s k i l l s s i m i l a r to  t h a t of Group A and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s  s i m i l a r to t h a t of Group C,  Group B showed a d i s s o c i a t i o n r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s .  She  c a l l s t h i s group "unexpectedly poor s p e l l e r s , or " a t r o c i o u s spellers". An a n a l y s i s of t h e i r s p e l l i n g e r r o r s showed t h a t a t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s g e n e r a l l y produce a p h o n e t i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e word, even i f i t i s not c o n v e n t i o n a l l y c o r r e c t .  They are able  to make the phoneme to grapheme c o n v e r s i o n s t h a t allow the c o r r e c t sound to be r e t a i n e d .  However, they have not chosen the  c o r r e c t l e t t e r s f o r the word.  Breakdown i s a t stage 3 of F r i t h ' s  stages of the s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s .  Although the phoneme-to-grapheme  s t r a t e g y does not work v e r y w e l l i n E n g l i s h , F r i t h proposes t h a t i n languages w i t h s t r i c t l y  phonetic o r t h o g r a p h i e s , unexpectedly  poor s p e l l e r s would not e x i s t . Because, h i s t o r i c a l l y , E n g l i s h has drawn upon many language systems, the c h o i c e of a grapheme i s o f t e n from a l a r g e p o o l of p l a u s i b l e graphemes.  In a study by Smith & Baker  (1976),  t e s t s u b j e c t s used i m p l i c i t knowledge about word o r i g i n s to decide on c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g .  Each language may  be i d e n t i f i e d hy i t s  system of o r t h o g r a p h i c c o n s t r a i n t s and conventions ( f o r example, words b e g i n n i n g w i t h (ph) are d e r i v e d from Greek and words which are  L a t i n i n o r i g i n never c o n t a i n ( k ) o r ( w ) ) . F r i t h ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t good and poor s p e l l e r s  would  have d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s was p r e d i c a t e d on r e s u l t s of the to  study by Smith and Baker.  She suggests t h a t the obvious way  develop s e n s i t i v i t y to the language o r i g i n or words i s by  reading*  By c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v i n g the l e t t e r sequences  composing  -34the words, i n c i d e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the d i f f e r e n t u n d e r l y i n g systems as m a n i f e s t e d gained.  by c l a s s e s o f o r t h o g r a p h i c conventions, i s  S i n c e poor s p e l l e r s appear t o l a c k t h i s knowledge, they  might employ a r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y which i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of a successful speller. reading t e s t  F o l l o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a standard  (on which good and poor s p e l l e r s achieved  s c o r e s ) she asked  similar  s u b j e c t s to read nonsense words which had been  d e r i v e d from r e a l words.  Poor s p e l l e r s made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  e r r o r s on the task nonsense words.  F r i t h suggests  t h a t poor  s p e l l e r s do n o t read r e a l words by a process o f l e t t e r - t o - s o u n d t r a n s l a t i o n and so cannot r e c o g n i s e the same t r a n s l a t i o n i n the nonsense words.  Instead, they read the s c r i p t  the l e t t e r - t o - s o u n d t r a n s l a t i o n Good s p e l l e r s ,  'by eye',  bypassing  ( F r i t h 198j0.a),  t r a n s l a t i n g from p r i n t to sound and  then from sound to meaning, make f u l l use of a l l cues a v a i l a b l e i n a word, while poor s p e l l e r s a r e adept t o r e c o g n i z i n g a word on the b a s i s of p a r t i a l cues.  Minimal  cues, f o r example f i r s t  letter  and o v e r a l l l e n g t h , are o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y a word. I f the word i s not recognized, more cues are added. to  I t i s possible  read very q u i c k l y u s i n g a p a r t i a l word s t r a t e g y ; however,  in-  f o r m a t i o n about u n d e r l y i n g s p e l l i n g systems, which i s a v a i l a b l e o n l y on examination,  i s harder t o g a i n .  Thus, a r e l a t i v e l y good  r e a d e r might be a poor s p e l l e r i f he/she p r e f e r s a p a r t i a l cue s t r a t e g y to a s t r a t e g y which employs redundant  cues.  Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a r r i v e d a t c o n c l u s i o n s which are i n accord w i t h F r i t h .  Barron e t a l (1980) c l a s s i f y  spellers  i n t o "Phoenicians" who use l e t t e r - s o u n d r u l e s , and "Chinese",  who  depend on r e c o g n i t i o n o f a word as a u n i t . Frith  (1980b) suggests  two types of d e f i c i t s which  -35might have some a f f e c t . o n a t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s , t h a t i s , one r e l a t i n g the sound i n the word to the orthographic and  representation,  another r e l a t i n g the meaning of the word to i t s w r i t t e n form.  The most s e r i o u s problems are due to d i f f i c u l t y a s s o c i a t e d segmenting speech u n i t s i n t o p h o n o l o g i c a l  units.  with  T h i s i s analogous  to a breakdown a t stage 2, i . e . the c o r r e c t sequence of sounds i s heard but i s not segmented a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  For example, the e r r o r  ( f e g r a ) f o r " f i n g e r " suggests t h a t a s p e l l e r does n o t break down the c e n t r a l sound i n t h i s word i n t o a vowel and n a s a l consonant. The the p h o n o l o g i c a l as (lasi)  second c l a s s of d i s o r d e r s suggest a dominance of aspect  of s p e l l i n g  (p.284).  M i s - s p e l l i n g s such  f o r "lamb" and ( f o n e ^ f o r "phone" i n d i c a t e a l a c k o f  understanding o f the h i s t o r y and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f words.  -36-  CHAPTER I I STATEMENT OF PROBLEM F r i t h s t a t e s , "Mastery of s p e l l i n g i m p l i e s a h i g h degree o f l i n g u i s t i c competence and hence s p e l l i n g cannot he considered  a t r i v i a l matter".  difficulties  (1980b p . l ) . The  c o r o l l a r y of t h i s statement i s t h a t a p o s s i b l e reason f o r the appearance o f poor s p e l l i n g i s immature o r d i s o r d e r e d capabilities.  linguistic  Those aspects of language most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h s p e l l i n g a r e phonology and morphophonemics.  Phonological  and m o r p h o l o g i c a l a b i l i t i e s are manifested n o t only i n v o c a l language expression,  but a l s o i n orthographic  and v o c a l  spelling.  Competence i n phonology and morphology i m p l i e s the existence  o f r u l e s and processes which a t some l e v e l o f conscious-  ness r e q u i r e c o r r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n .  I n a c o n t r o l l e d experimental  s i t u a t i o n , t h i s competence may be assessed by, f o r example, p r o v i d i n g tasks which r e q u i r e a s u b j e c t t o make d e c i s i o n s about some of r e a l o r nonsense words (e.g. Chomsky and H a l l e , 1968s 1958).  aspect Berko  A competent s u b j e c t would be expected t o make c o r r e c t  d e c i s i o n s based on h i s o r h e r knowledge o f p h o n o l o g i c a l  and morpho-  logical rules. The  purpose o f t h i s study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the  l i n g u i s t i c competence of a group o f c h i l d r e n whose d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h s p e l l i n g have l e d to t h e i r being termed " P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate Spellers" 1980a).  (Sweeney & Rowke, 1978) o r " A t r o c i o u s  Spellers"  I t was hypothesized t h a t P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate  (Frith  (or A t r o c i o u s )  s p e l l e r s possess inadequate o r incomplete knowledge o f c e r t a i n phonol o g i c a l and/or m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s which a r e necessary f o r the execution  of c o r r e c t (or "Standard") s p e l l i n g .  -37-  For the purposes  of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n we  assumed  t h a t a knowledge of c e r t a i n p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l i s necessary f o r the e x e c u t i o n of " c o r r e c t " o r "standard" We  rules spellings.  t h e r e f o r e hypothesize t h a t the P h o n e t i c a l l y  Accurate or A t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r has inadequate ledge of p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s  or incomplete know(1)  which are nec-  e s s a r y f o r the e x e c u t i o n of " c o r r e c t " or "standard" . s p e l l i n g s . NULL FORM»  Apply s t a t i s t i c a l  a n a l y s i s to e i t h e r accept ( i . e .  he/she does have inadequate  knowledge and t h e r e f o r e the  d i s o r d e r e d s p e l l i n g might c e r t a i n l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h inadequate OR  knowledge, p l u s p o s s i b l y other f a c t o r s ) ,  R e j e c t ( i . e . he/she does have adequate knowledge,  t h e r e f o r e , the d i s o r d e r e d s p e l l i n g must be due to something else).  (1)  For the purposes  of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o n l y a l i m i t e d  subset of such r u l e s was  chosen f o r examination.  -38-  CHAPTER I I I METHOD A,  Experimental  Plans  S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to perform designed  to r e v e a l t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n 1. 2.  a number o f tasks  s p e l l i n g , and word study.  A l l three s p e l l i n g tasks r e q u i r e d w r i t t e n responses. language based t a s k s i n v o l v e d o r a l responses.  The three  In a d d i t i o n t o  the t a s k s , s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s s u p p l i e d examples o f w r i t t e n a s s i g n ments completed i n the classroom. The t a s k s were b r o a d l y designed  to allow  examination  of three p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i 1,  P a l a t a l i z a t i o n , by which i s meant the process  em-  ployed when the phonemes / % / and / s / are pronounced /S/ when f o l l o w e d by the grapheme sequencet  io(u)  Consonant; 2.  V e l a r S o f t e n i n g by which i s meant the process  em-  ployed when: ( i ) the grapheme ( c } i s pronounced / s / , e.g. " c i d e r " , " f o r c e " and ( i i ) the grapheme ( g ) i s pronounced /&//, "general",  e«g«  "judge"  when each i s f o l l o w e d by a mid o r h i g h f r o n t vowel, i.e. ( i ) , 3.  ( e ) , <y>«  Stress S h i f t .  The r u l e s f o r s t r e s s s h i f t i n E n g l i s h  are numerous and complex.  In t h i s study we  are con-  cerned w i t h those s h i f t s which occur when a s u f f i x i s  -39-  added t o a word, a s i n "photograph" - " p h o n o g r a p h y " , where the s t r e s s i s s h i f t e d from the f i r s t and t h i r d s y l l a b l e s to the second and f o u r t h s y l l a b l e s . Approximately and  language t a s k s possessed  cesses t o take e f f e c t . a p p r o p r i a t e l y was B,  90$ of s t i m u l u s items used i n the s p e l l i n g  noted  environments s u i t a b l e f o r these  pro-  Subjects* a b i l i t y to apply the processes i n o r a l and w r i t t e n t a s k s ,  Subjects *1,  Referral of subjects.  A l l s u b j e c t s were students i n  elementary s c h o o l s from the P o i n t Grey, K e r r i s d a l e and K i t s i l a n o areas of Vancouver, B.C. The  1).  (*See Appendix  study i n v o l v e d a t o t a l of twenty nine c h i l d r e n .  two c h i l d r e n were d e f i n e d as a t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r s .  Twenty  S e l e c t i o n of  s u b j e c t s was based on the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s ! (a)  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age 9»0  (b)  demonstration  to 12jO  i  of average o r good s k i l l s i n a l l academic  s u b j e c t s but p a r t i c u l a r l y  readings  (c)  no apparent language d i s o r d e r s ;  (d)  English  (e)  s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y a t l e a s t one and a h a l f years  monolingual; behind  r e a d i n g a b i l i t y on a s t a n d a r d i s e d e d u c a t i o n a l t e s t . R e f e r r a l o f c h i l d r e n f o r p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g was a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers from each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t s were advised by memo and i n i n t e r v i e w s of s e l e c t i o n  criteria.  In a d d i t i o n t o recommendation, t e s t scores f o r r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s were r e q u i r e d .  S e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were  d i s q u a l i f i e d a f t e r t e s t s p e l l i n g and r e a d i n g s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d .  -40-  Every one  of the c r i t e r i a except  some or a l l of the accepted  subjects.  (a) was  commuted by  S i n c e a remarkable number  of poor s p e l l e r s a l s o have t r o u b l e w i t h a r i t h m e t i c , g u i d e l i n e (b) was  m o d i f i e d to a l l o w an area of d i f f i c u l t y a p a r t from  provided the c h i l d was t h a t h i s r e a d i n g was Guideline  spelling,  not u n i f o r m l y low a c r o s s a l l s u b j e c t s , and  average o r good. (e) was  c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t 23.  i n a d v e r t e n t l y contravened  by the i n -  During t e s t i n g , t h i s s u b j e c t e x h i b i t e d  e r r o r s i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of phonemes.  Upon q u e s t i o n i n g , the  l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n t s t a t e d t h a t t h i s c h i l d had a known problem i n auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or processing.  Although  this  disqualifies  h i s data from any s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study, i t was be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g to warrant i n c l u s i o n on a  felt  to  comparative  basis. S i n c e n e a r l y a l l s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d French i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u n , guideline  (d) was m o d i f i e d to exclude any c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n -  f l u e n c e d by a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h , Guideline i t was  (e) was maintained  i n i t s o r i g i n a l form s i n c e  f e l t to be i n t e g r a l to the purpose of t h i s study.  Many  students r e f e r r e d because of poor s p e l l i n g achieved good s c o r e s on standardized s p e l l i n g t e s t s .  T h e i r d a i l y c l a s s work, however,  r i d d l e d with i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n s p e l l i n g .  These students were not  accepted as s u b j e c t s because whatever the reasons i n casual productions was  for their errors  they i n d i c a t e d competence when knowledge  e x p l i c i t l y demanded.  s p e l l i n g was two  s  was  One  c h i l d was  accepted  even though h i s  a t grade l e v e l , s i n c e a l l o t h e r s k i l l s were a t l e a s t  grade l e v e l s h i g h e r . The remaining  s i x c h i l d r e n , comprosing the c o n t r o l group,  -41-  had u n i f o r m l y good academic s k i l l s ,  Reading scores were e q u i v a l e n t  to those o f t h e t e s t group. 2,  Age and Sex of S u b j e c t s .  I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t most of the t e s t  s u b j e c t s were boys, i n an approximate r a t i o of 3 i l .  Learning  a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s agreed t h a t s p e l l i n g d i s o r d e r s a r e most o f t e n seen i n boys. The age range n i n e t o twelve was chosen because p r i o r t o grade t h r e e , i n a b i l i t y t o s p e l l i s n o t p e r c e i v e d as a problem.  It  i s o n l y i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e expected t o s p e l l most words c o r r e c t l y i n theme w r i t i n g .  By h i g h s c h o o l ,  serious  s p e l l i n g problems seem t o l e s s e n i n s e v e r i t y , p o s s i b l y because o f i n c r e a s e d awareness  on the p a r t o f the s t u d e n t .  The average age  of c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d was t e n years and n i n e monthst than t h i s made fewer mistakes i n the s p e l l i n g t a s k s . subjects t i r e d e a s i l y i  children older The younger  on a few o c c a s i o n s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o  s h o r t e n the A u d i o - V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Task because the s u b j e c t ' s hand was cramping from the unaccustomed C,  amount o f w r i t i n g .  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Tasks G e n e r a l l y , there were three s p e l l i n g tasks where the  c h i l d s p e l l e d w i t h pen and paper under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s ,  three  o r a l language based tasks and one task f u n c t i o n i n g as a check on letter 1.  recognition, Task l i Orthographic S p e l l i n g Performance,  Task 1 r e -  q u i r e d the s u b j e c t t o w r i t e down each word as i t was o r a l l y presented by the examiner.  When the s u b j e c t had completed one word,  the next word was d i s c t a t e d and w r i t t e n down.  The purpose of t h i s  task was t o p r o v i d e d a t a t h a t would determine the degree o f s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y f o r ' r e g u l a r ' and ' i r r e g u l a r ' words, and r e v e a l treatment  -42-  of the t a r g e t p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s i n an o r t h o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n . 2.  Task 2%  Audio V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Performance.  a u x i l i a r y t o Task 1. presented  Task 2 i s  As i n Task 1, stimulus items were o r a l l y  and w r i t t e n down.  When the s u b j e c t had completed the  word, the examiner checked t h e p r o d u c t i o n and i d e n t i f i e d i t to the s u b j e c t as c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t .  The s u b j e c t was g i v e n three  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o produce the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g . not o r a l l y presented  on second o r t h i r d t r i a l s .  The s t i m u l u s was T h i s task i n -  v o l v e d the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s p e l l i n g techniques•and intra-subject 3. The  should r e v e a l  strategies,  Task 3.  Orthographic  S p e l l i n g Without A u d i t o r y  Stimulus.  s u b j e c t was presented with a p i c t u r e and t o l d t o w r i t e down  the name o f the p i c t u r e without  s a y i n g the name a l o u d .  I f the c h i l d  wrote the wrong word, he was t o l d by the examiner t o t h i n k o f another  a p p r o p r i a t e word and to w r i t e i t down,  4.  Task 41  Suffixation,"  The purpose o f the task was to  test a b i l i t y  t o make the morphophonemic changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  suffixation.  The task c o n s i s t e d o f 40 t e s t p a i r s of words, pre-  sented  i n sequence.  Each word was p r i n t e d i n lower case  on a f i l e c a r d and the card presented The  first  to the s u b j e c t t o be read.  word o f a t e s t p a i r was a r e a l wordf  adjective root, a selected s u f f i x . a r e a l word.  letters  a noun, verb, o r  The second word c o n s i s t e d o f t h i s r o o t word w i t h The r e s u l t c o u l d be e i t h e r a nonsense word o r  The c h i l d was g i v e n ample time t o decide on the  a p p r o p r i a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the complex word. Thus, the c h i l d was presented with a c a r d on which was w r i t t e n the r o o t word.  He read i t f o r i f the word appeared un-  f a m i l i a r t o him, the examiner read i t . The next card was then  -43-  presented and the c h i l d was expected  to read t h i s word.  The next  t e s t p a i r was then p r e s e n t e d . The  t e s t s u f f i x e s were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the phono-  l o g i c a l processes they generated  i n the word.  A l i m i t e d number  of s u f f i x e s were a s s i g n e d f o r each o f the t a r g e t p r o c e s s e s ! p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , v e l a r s o f t e n i n g and s t r e s s  shift.  T e s t s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups and each group received d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s .  Group A r e c e i v e d examples  of t e s t p a i r s which d i d n o t c o n t a i n the t a r g e t p r o c e s s e s ! devilish',  'king-kingdom', 'master-mastery'.  Group B r e c e i v e d t h r e e  examples each e x h i b i t i n g one o f the t a r g e t p r o c e s s e s i location', 5.  'electric-electricity', Task 5t  S u b j e c t s were asked  'devil-  'locate-  real-reality'.  Judging the Relatedness o f P a i r s o f Words. to judge the r e l a t e d n e s s o f two words.  of words were presented i n sequence,  19 p a i r s  10 p a i r s were s e m a n t i c a l l y  r e l a t e d and the remaining p a i r s were r e l a t e d o n l y by c o i n c i d e n c e of grapheme c h o i c e and sequence.  Although the cards were presented  one a t a time, s u b j e c t s were allowed t o compare and examine words i n t e s t p a i r s by l o o k i n g a t both members o f a t e s t p a i r a t the same time. Root words were nouns o r verbs and v a r i a n t s c o n t a i n e d affixes.  U n r e l a t e d words c o u l d be from the same category, f o r  example ' p i l l ' 6, it  and ' p i l l o w ' , two nouns,  Task 6»  L e a r n i n g Nonsense Words.  On the premise  that  i s e a s i e r t o remember an item having a p a t t e r n than one composed  of random elements, of p r o c e s s e s . three employing  t h i s task i n q u i r e d i n t o the c h i l d ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n  S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n s i x nonsense wordst the t a r g e t processes and t h r e e words having an  environment r e q u i r i n g the process and not u s i n g i t . were presented f o r memorization  i n random o r d e r .  The s i x words  The examiner pre-  sented each nonsense word and requested the s u b j e c t to repeat i t s e v e r a l times.  P r o d u c t i o n was c o r r e c t e d i f p r o n u n c i a t i o n was i n  e r r o r , but m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the word by the s u b j e c t were noted. The c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o l i s t a l l s i x words from memory b e f o r e he left  the f i r s t s e s s i o n .  He was requested to produce the words the  next day and e r r o r s i n p r o d u c t i o n were noted a t t h i s 7, at  Task 7t  time,  L e t t e r T e s t , As a check f o r s p e l l i n g  difficulty  the most b a s i c l e v e l , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o name graphemes  presented s e q u e n t i a l l y i n lower case on f i l e  cards.  T h i s task was  i n c l u d e d to prove knowledge o f the b a s i c u n i t s o f s p e l l i n g ,  D,  Word L i s t s 1,  T e s t Items f o r Tasks 1 and 2;  A l i s t o f 98 words was  d i v i d e d a t random i n t o two l i s t s and one l i s t assigned to each o f Tasks 1 and 2, For each l i s t ,  30 words i n v o l v i n g the t a r g e t p h o n o l o g i c a l  processes were randomly i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h 10 ' f i l l e r ' words.  Words  i n v o l v i n g the processes e i t h e r u t i l i z e d the p r o c e s s , had the sound of  the process b u t n o t the s p e l l i n g , o r had the s p e l l i n g but n o t the  p r o c e s s , e.g. 'advice', ' p r e c i s e ' ,  'thicken'.  F i l l e r words were  i n c l u d e d t o p r o v i d e a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h i c conv e n t i o n s , as w e l l as c e r t a i n phonemes were r e p r e s e n t e d .  'irregular' spellings.  A l l English  No words which have homonyms on two  c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g s were i n c l u d e d . The l i s t s can be viewed as c o n t r a s t i v e by n a t u r e i  con-  t a i n i n g data f o r P a l a t a l i z a t i o n , V e l a r S o f t e n i n g and S t r e s s S h i f t , for  r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g s and f o r phonetic and non-phonetic  -45-  TABLE VII Test Items f o r Task l i advice picnic huge secure stag measure straight thicken suspicious obey pretty cousin mission general political vicious medicine -  Orthographic engage corrosion device glacial heather bridge crucifixion happening massive squeeze critical patience history closure division colony bugle  S p e l l i n g Performance distance vacation pacific beautiful midnight photography discipline malicious paradise distinct tickle murder civil population contradiction average  TABLE V I I I Test Items f o r Task 2t palace conscience curiosity exasperation scratch business spread through salary popular crisis faithfully destruction aquatic mystery reality wrong  Audio V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Performance cedar musician privilege action generation dragon spread hedge medicate addition logical anguish exercise juicy disappear region match  sacrifice crucial delicate sufficient curse precise accordion persuasion typewriter position deliver electricity sympathy wiggle opposite several magic  -RO-  TABLE  Test Items f o r Task  3»  bread carrots fire strawberries camera perfume iron  IX  Orthographic S p e l l i n g Without A u d i t o r y Stimulus wheat vacuum c l e a n e r towels castle mountains grapes  toothpaste knife pillows mushrooms chair cereal  TABLE X Test Items f o r Task 4 s  Suffixation  hug - huge nag - nage bug - buge p i g - pige frog - froge picnic - picnice panic - p a n i c i t y attic - atticity  rapid - r a p i d i t y vital - vitality real - reality stupid - s t u p i d i t y oppose - o p p o s i t i o n examine - examination invite - invitation combine - combination children - childrenity recess - r e c e s s i t y carrot - carrotiy robin - robinian orange - orangian awful - a w f u l i a n insane - i n s a n i t i o n forget - f o r g e t i t i o n across - a c r o s s i t i o n sock - s o c k i t y  confuse - c o n f u s i o n discuss - discussion success - s u c c e s s i o n electric - electrician magic - magician music - m u s i c i a n restrict - restriction direct - direction prevent - p r e v e n t i o n definite - definition create - c r e a t i o n thermos - thermosian glass - glassion dismiss - dismission attic - attician upset - u p s e t i o n enchant - enchantion habit - habition credit - credition fat - fation crack - c r a c k i a n  -47TABLE XI Test Items f o r Task 5: Judging the Relatedness of P a i r s of Words, (presented i n random o r d e r ) . c a t - category polite - political admire - m i r a c l e core - c o r a l sat - s a t i s f y but - b u t t o n c r y - crime gray - grade p a i r - periscope carpet - carpenter sure - measure phone - phony  crime - c r i m i n a l choose - c h o i c e admire - admirable sign - signal satisfy - satisfaction photograph - photography happy - happiness C h r i s t - Christmas peer - p e r i s c o p e s t o r e - storage serve - s e r v i c e school - scholar  TABLE XII T e s t Items f o r Task 6 :  L e a r n i n g Nonsense Words (presented i n random o r d e r ) .  Palatalization«  /fjudoi^n/ /defjutisn/  Velor softening!  /raemxslkel/ /ma&eklkal/  Stress Shifts  AIASI I p i D i / / lAspinlDi/  -48-  but frequent 2.  conventions.  T e s t Items f o r Task 3.  of stimulus  A problem e x i s t e d i n the  items f o r t h i s t a s k i  they must be e a s i l y and  supply non-  ambiguously p i c t u r e d those p i c t u r e s must be a v a i l a b l e i n magazines. T h i s a c t u a l i t y precluded other tasks.  'filler*  words.  The words are a l s o more  occurrence than the words i n the others 3.  Test Items f o r Task 3.1  of words p o s s i b l e i n  There i s thus a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of words which  would be known as in  the even p r e p o r t i o n s  frequent  lists.  4.  Palatalization.  S u f f i x e s were " - i o n " and " ^ i a n " .  These were combined w i t h r o o t s ending i n (t)  (s)  and  to  produce r e a l and nonsense words. 3.2  Velar Softening.  S u f f i x e s were "-e",  "-ian", " - i t y " .  Roots ended i n (c) o r (g) to produce the process  and  (ck) to  produce i n c o r r e c t environments. 3.3 and  Stress S h i f t . "-ion".  These were combined w i t h words of one,  three s y l l a b l e s . l e n g t h were not E.  S u f f i x e s were " - t i o n " , " - a t i o n " , " - i a n " two  or  I n d i c a t o r s of s t r e s s o t h e r than word considered.  Administration Tasks were administered  room provided sented,  i n a one  by the s c h o o l .  to one  s i t u a t i o n i n a quiet  I n s t r u c t i o n s and  t e s t items were pre-  l i v e - v o i c e pens were r e q u i r e d f o r w r i t t e n tasks u n l e s s  s u b j e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y requested  a pencil.  Tasks were d i v i d e d over two f i r s t s e s s i o n and  Tasks 2,  5 and  l a s t e d approximately 45 minutes. breaks f o r c o n v e r s a t i o n  the  daysi  Tasks 1,  3»  4,  6 the second s e s s i o n . The  ? and  6 the  Each s e s s i o n  l o n g e r tasks were broken by  and by i n s e r t i o n of s h o r t e r t a s k s .  - 4 9 -  F.  Instructions Most c h i l d r e n had been informed  they would be doing a s p e l l i n g t e s t .  by t h e i r teachers  General  that  i n s t r u c t i o n s and i n -  t r o d u c t i o n v a r i e d from s u b j e c t to s u b j e c t , depending on h i s i n t e r e s t and  the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n him  by h i s t e a c h e r s .  However, the body of  i n f o r m a t i o n remained the samei  t h a t the examiner was  format of a s e r i e s of tasks and  t h a t t e s t s u b j e c t s were randomly  s e l e c t e d from the a p p r o p r i a t e grades i n each s c h o o l . instructions  testing  Specific  the  task  (see Appendix I I ) were spoken i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e  r a t h e r than b e i n g  read.  -50CHAPTER IV RESPONSE AND A.  ANALYSIS  Introduction No f o r m a l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was  the as y e t undefined  nature and  cause the s p e l l i n g and erroneous p r o d u c t i o n  c a r r i e d out due  to  o r d e r i n g of s p e l l i n g r u l e s .  Be-  p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s which r e s u l t e d i n each  are undetermined, they cannot he q u a n t i f i e d .  For example, i f "measure" i s s p e l l e d mesare , i t i s u n c l e a r whether the e r r o r s c o n s i s t  or  1,  m e t a t h e s i s of {a)  2,  d e l e t i o n of ( u /  of«and (u)>  of«1,  d e l e t i o n of  2,  s u b s t i t u t i o n of (a) f o r  (a) (u)  U n t i l the m o t i v a t i o n behind s p e l l i n g e r r o r s i s unambiguous, a statistical  count of types of e r r o r s w i l l be  invalid.  A n a l y s i s of the t a s k s , w i t h the exceptions and  7» was  s i m i l a r , with m o d i f i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g  tween the t a s k s .  of tasks  5  to v a r i a t i o n be-  Responses were grouped to i n d i c a t e each s u b j e c t ' s  management of d i f f e r i n g processes  and were then compared w i t h i n  and between s u b j e c t s .  N e i t h e r task 5 nor task 7 contained  any  p h o n o l o g i c a l processes  and were t h e r e f o r e s t u d i e d i n a d i f f e r e n t  manner. A l l data r e c e i v e d p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s and  then f i v e  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d f o r more d e t a i l e d comparison and a n a l y s i s , B.  D e s c r i p t i o n of A n a l y s i s . 1.  P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of S p e l l i n g Tasks.  a n a l y s i s of e r r o r type separated  Preliminary  spelling errors generally into  -DI-  SPELLING ERRORS  SC  AC  DC  Sub. Add. Del. Met,  FIGURE  Hi  MC  SDC  -  Substitution Addition Deletion Metathesis  ADC  DDC  P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of S p e l l i n g E r r o r s .  MDC  SPELLING  Sub. Add. Del. Met.  FIGURE I I :  -  ERRORS  Substitution Addition Deletion Metathesis  P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s of S p e l l i n g E r r o r s .  -53-  consonant and vowel e r r o r s were then subdivided  (see f i g u r e 2 ) ,  These broad  categories  i n t o s u b s t i t u t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s , d e l e t i o n s and  metatheses. These processes could a f f e c t e i t h e r a s i n g l e o r a d i g r a p h consonant,  Digraph consonants were b r o a d l y  defined a s i -  1,  double consonants, e.g.  2,  two consonant graphemes r e p r e s e n t i n g phoneme, e.g. •  (ll)» a single  <^ck%  An e r r o r marked as a d i g r a p h e r r o r could  indicate thati-  1,  a d i g r a p h had been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r a s i n g l e consonant,  2,  a s i n g l e consonant had been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r a d i g r a p h ,  3„  a d i f f e r e n t d i g r a p h had been s u b s t i t u t e d , S i m i l a r l y , vowels were s p e c i f i e d as e i t h e r s i n g l e o r  d i g r a p h vowels,  A d i s t i n c t i o n was made between vowels i n a s t r e s s e d  s y l l a b l e and vowels with reduced s t r e s s , because of the obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s u b j e c t s ! 1,  treatment of vowels i n these p o s i t i o n s j -  Unstressed vowels were more f r e q u e n t l y  deleted  than were s t r e s s e d vowels, 2,  Most vowel e r r o r s i n v o l v e d u n s t r e s s e d  3o  Substitutions  f o r s t r e s s e d vowels were  vowels. more l i k e l y  to be p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o the t a r g e t than were s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r unstressed 1  vowels, e.g. when S u b j e c t  s p e l l e d (coureosady^ f o r " c u r i o s i t y " , he s u b s t i t u t e d  (bu)  f o r ( u ) i n the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e , and ( a ) f o r <i)  i n the reduced  syllable.  E r r o r s i n v o l v i n g word t e r m i n a l s i l e n t ( e ) were c l a s s e d by themselves, s i n c e f o r t h i s s p e c i a l case, d e l e t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s and s u b s t i t u t i o n s would appear t o d i f f e r i n m o t i v a t i o n .  -54Each word i n Task 1 was analysed  i n t h i s way. (As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, there i s no assurance logic i s accurate).  t h a t the suggested  Each s u b j e c t ' s data was g i v e n a c u r s o r y check  f o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c prominence of any s t r a t e g y which could g i v e i n s i g h t i n t o arrangement of language r u l e s .  A l l subjects displayed  c o n f u s i o n over u n s t r e s s e d vowels, which were v a r i o u s l y s u b s t i t u t e d and d e l e t e d , however i n no case was i t c e r t a i n t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g y was b e i n g favoured.  F o r example, the u n s t r e s s e d vowel  p o s i t i o n might be f i l l e d by any one o f the vowel graphemes o r i t might be d e l e t e d , depending on which word was being  spelled.  A n a l y s i s o f Task 2, A u d i o - V i s u a l S p e l l i n g , r e v e a l e d what appeared t o be a h i t - o r - m i s s s t r a t e g y governing c h o i c e o f u n s t r e s s e d vowel. F o r example, S u b j e c t 4 experimented with ( i ) unstressed s y l l a b l e of " p r i v i l e g e " .  ( e ) , and (a) i n the f i n a l  Minor s t r a t e g i e s f o r s e l e c t i o n  of o r t h o g r a p h i c convention o f t e n a p p e a r e d i  S u b j e c t 5 represented  a l l CONSONANT / ! / s t r u c t u r e s w i t h CONSONANT (-el),  so t h a t  "civil",  "bugle",  " t i c k l e " , and " p o l i t i c a l " were s p e l l e d <sivel>, <bugel),  (tikel),  and ( p o l i t i k e l ) ,  was  spelled  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n was " c r i t i c a l "  which  CRIDECL .  A few of the s u b j e c t s f r e q u e n t l y d e l e t e d p o r t i o n s o f words. S u b j e c t 2, f o r example, s p e l l e d " v a c a t i o n " and " d i v i s i o n " as { v a c t i o n ) and  (diron) respectively.  These c h i l d r e n a l s o employed o t h e r pro-  cesses o f s u b s t i t u t i o n , a d d i t i o n and m e t a t h e s i s .  No s u b j e c t em-  ployed one process t o the e x c l u s i o n of a l l o t h e r s .  Frequent d e l e t i o n  of p o r t i o n s o f words may be a consequence o f t h a t s u b j e c t ' s poor handwriting,  (See Chapter 5 for d i s c u s s i o n of h a n d w r i t i n g ) .  Deletion  of p a r t s of words might a l s o r e f l e c t the w r i t e r ' s r e a d i n g method, d e s c r i b e d by F r i t h as r e a d i n g by p a r t i a l cues.  I n e i t h e r case, a  d e l e t i o n process does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t language o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  -55p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e no one s t r a t e g y predominated i n any  other  subject. These f i n d i n g s d i d not suggest any need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n into i n t r a - s u b j e c t s p e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n connection w i t h language r u l e s .  There d i d not appear to be any c l u e s to the  s u b j e c t ' s management of language r u l e s i n h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n of orthographic r u l e s . e r r o r type was  Because of t h i s no f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of s p e l l i n g done.  Subsequent a n a l y s i s thus i n v o l v e d groups of  words r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l words, 2.  A n a l y s i s of Tasks 1 and 2,  A l l words from Tasks 1 and 2  were t a b l e d a c c o r d i n g to the t a r g e t p h o n o l o g i c a l process contained,  (see Tables 13 to 20),  they  Within each t a b l e , the words were  grouped a c c o r d i n g to phonetic s i m i l a r i t y .  Horizontally,  each  s u b j e c t ' s s p e l l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l items i s recorded*; v e r t i c a l l y , treatment  of word type i s a v a i l a b l e .  Thus i t can be seen t h a t f o r  the word " s u s p i c i o u s " , each c h i l d has a unique subject subjects  s p e l l i n g , but  (Subject 5) d e l e t e s the u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e nucleus; (Subject 4 and Subject 2) d e l e t e the / s / from  one two  the medial  consonant c l u s t e r , and a l l s u b j e c t s except S u b j e c t 1 r e c o r d the phoneme / j " /  ( f o r which the c o r r e c t orthography  Vertically,  i t can be seen t h a t S u b j e c t 5 codes most p r o d u c t i o n s  of the phoneme / $ / with <sh^ w i t h (-ci-) or orthography  (- s i i s <(- t i  is  - c i -) as  i f the c o r r e c t orthography  but c o r r e c t l y with  sh ,  codes i t  (- t i -) i f the standard  .  A l l s p e l l i n g v a r i a t i o n s f o r Task 2 items were i n c l u d e d , thus s t r a t e g i e s f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n of graphemes c o u l d be examined across and w i t h i n s u b j e c t s . the <e>,  <a),  <c), and <e>  For example, f o r the item "palace",  were manipulated  by s u b j e c t s , but the  b e g i n n i n g of the word, (pa -), remained c o n s t a n t .  No s u b j e c t  appeared  -56-  TABLES X I I I - XX Tasks 1 and 2  Responses  from Snhjpn-hs  1-5  TABLE X I I I Items C o n t a i n i n g P a l a t a l i z a t i o n Item  S u b j e c t Response Subject 1  suspicious malicious vicious conscience  patience  Subject 2  suspices  sapishas  mallisois  malshase  vicios  vicesse  conchens  conehence  conchons  conchench  counchonts  conchence  patiants  pashentece  Subject 3 speshes  vishes  pashents  sufficient glashel  glacial crucial musician  musisian  musition  musition  musician  musician  musesition musiction  mission  misson  michen  corrosion  michen crotion  persuasion ; division  divisson  divon  crucifixion vacation population  divition crowsafiction  vacation  vaction  vacation  population  population  popullation population  -57TABLE X I I I  (Cont'd)  S u b j e c t Response  Item Subject 1 contradiction  Subject 2  Subject 3  contridiction  contradiction  contrdiction  action  action  action  genaration  genaration  generation  genaretion  exasperation action generation  generdestruction  distruckition  decrution  destroction  distruktshoin  decru-  destroktion destroction  distrucketion addition  position  adition  adition  adiation  adition  addition  adetion  position  pesition  pizition  pesition  pisetion  pesishtion  pisition  No response recorded f o r t h i s s u b j e c t .  -  58-  TABLE X I I I - (Cont'd) Item  S u b j e c t Response 5  Subject k  Subject  suspicious  supeshis  suspishus  malicious  mulishis  milishes  vishous  vishus  conchence  conchints  conchance  conintes  conenance  conchents  pashents  pashints  vicious conscience  patience sufficient  suffeshent sufishont sufishent  glacial  glasheil  crucial  croshel  glshel  crooshel croochel musician  mission corrosion persuasion  musichon  musition  musishen  musation  musishen  mus-  mishon  mishun  croshon presswesshon perswaytion persuation  division  divishen  divition  -59TABLE X I I I Item  (Cont'd)  S u b j e c t Response Subject  k  Subject  5  crushificson  crusefiction  vacashen  vacation  popalashon  population  contradiction  contudetshon  contrediction  exasperation  exasperashon  crucifixion vacation r  population  exasparashen exaspashon action  achen  achen  achon  action  achshen generation  generashen  genaration  genarashon  generation  genarachen destruction  destruchen destruktion destrucktion  addition  addition  addition  position  pesishon  posetion  peseshan  position  position  No response recorded f o r t h i s s u b j e c t .  -60-  TABLE XIV Items Confounding  Palatalization  Item  S u b j e c t Response Subject 1  Subject 2  accordion  Subject 3 accordeon aeourdein acoredeen  anguish  Subject accordion  4  Subject 5  acordan  acordean  acorden  ucordean  akorden anguish  - denotes no response  recorded f o r t h i s s u b j e c t .  -61-  TABLE XV Items C o n t a i n i n g V e l a r S o f t e n i n g of / g / Subject 2  Subject 3  genarel  genarl  generl  genaration  genaration  generation  genaretion  Item  Subject  general generation  1  genarlogicil  logical  logcal logcel region  regame regine regiane  magic  magic  magic  magic  engage  angage  angage  engage  average  avrage  aviage  avrige  huge  huge  huge  huge  privilege  privoledge  brige  bridget  privolege priroleg bridge  bridge  bridge hedge  hedge  he age headge headage  -62-  TABLE XV Items C o n t a i n i n g V e l a r S o f t e n i n g of / g / Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  general  genral  generel  generation  genarashen  genaration  genarashon  generation  genarachen logical  logickel logekle logekel  region  regon  regun reegun reagun  magic  mageck  magick  majec  magic  majeck engage  engage  engage  average  avrige  averidge  huge  huge  huge  privilege  privelige  privelidg  privelege  priveledg  prevelage  privaledg  bridge  brige  bridge  hedge  hege  hedg  hedge  hedge  =63-  TABLE XVI Items C o n t a i n i n g V e l a r S o f t e n i n g of 1  A/  Subject 2  Subject 3  s i vie  isriele:  sivel  cedar  ceder  Item  Subject  civil cedar  cedar crowsafiction  crucifixion medicine  medicon  medsen  medicen  pacific  pacific  pisfic  picifec  electricity  electricaty  elatrisate  electricity  elctrisaty elctisaty  discipline exercise  dissaplen  diapin  excersise  exerces  excesize  exerce  disaplin  exerice precise  prisice precise  advice  advise  edvice  advise  device  devise  device  divise  scraphice  sackrufisc  sacraphice  sackrufis  sacraphic  sacrefise  palice  palace  palice  palece  paluce  paliisee  palace  palace  pallice  distence  distans  sacrifice  palace  juicy  juicey juicy  distance  distance  -64-  TABLE XVI Items C o n t a i n i n g V e l a r S o f t e n i n g of  A/  Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  civil  civel  sivel  cedar  cedar  seeder seader seder  crucifixion  crushificson  medicine  medison  medisun  pacif i c  picific  pasific  electricity  electricity  elextricaty elextrisaty elextresaty  discipline  disiplin  disaplin  exercise  exersize  exersize  exirsize  exarsize  exercize  exersiz  precise  price pricise  advice device  advice  advice  divice  divice sacrefice  sacrifice  sacrafice sackrefice palace  juicy  pallece  palice  palece  pales  palise  palis  jucy  jucey  juicy  jucy  -65-  TABLE XVI Item  distance  (Cont'd) Subject 4  Subject 5  jucicy  gucey  distance  distents  -66-  TABLE XVII Items Confounding V e l a r S o f t e n i n g Item  Subject  curse  curse  1  Subject 2  Subject 3  cerse carse  secure  sicure  sugur  secore  paradise  paridise  paradee  paridise  crisis  chistest christest chris-  several  sevarl sevaral sevaroll  cousin  cousin  massive  massive  picnic  piknick  pjlcnick  pidnick  delicate  delicate  delacete  delicut  delecate  dellicat  delacate  delecut  coisn  cuson masive  medicaet  medicate  medicate thicken  thicken  thicken  thicon  stag  stag  stag  stag  dragon  dragon  dragon  bugle  buegle  buegle  wiggle  wiggle  juicy  juicey juicy  bugle  -67-  TABLE XVII Items Confounding V e l a r S o f t e n i n g Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  curse  curece  curs  kerese  curess  kerece  curse  secure  secure  sicure  paradise  paradice  paridice  crisis  crisses  cerises  crises  crices  crisses  crisec  sevral  severel  sevrel  severel  sevral  sevral  cousin  cousun  cus i n  massive  massev  vasiv  picnic  picknick  piknik  delicate  delicet  deliket  deliket  delikit  delicket  delekit  medecate  medicate  medacate  medakate  medacete  medacate  thicken  thicken  thiken  stag  stag  stag  dragon  dragoon  several  medicate  -  dragon bugle  bugel  bugel  -68-  TABLE XVII  (Cont'd)  Item  Subject 4  wiggle  wiggel  Subject 5  wigell wigal juicy  jucy  jucey  jucicy  jucy  juicy  gucey  -69-  TABLE XVIII Items C o n t a i n i n g S t r e s s S h i f t Item  Subject  1  Subject 2  Subject 3  aquatic  aquatct aquatic  reality  reality  reallady realady realade  political  politicale  plidcile  photography  phontografy  polgrfilll  curiosity  coureosidey  christest  coureosady  christest  coureosidey  chris-  Item  Subject  aquatic  aqutic  4  pilitekel (?)  phitographe  Subject 5  aquitick aquatic reality  reality  reality  political  political  polilitikel  photography  potogrofy  photogrefy  curiosity  cereosity ceriosity cereosity  -70-  TABLE XIX Items C o n t r a s t i n g w i t h S t r e s s S h i f t Items Subject 2  Subject 3  criticale  cridicle  criticall  tickle  tickle  tickle  tickel  pretty  pretty  preety  pritty  faithfully  fathfely  fahfuly  fathfullley  fathfully  fafuley  fathfully  fathfuly  fathfuly  fathfuly  salery  salary  Item  Subject  critical  salary  1  salary colony  colliny  colline  coline  Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  critical  critical  cridecl  tickle  tichel  tikel  pretty  pritty  prity  faithfully  fathfuly  fathfully  fathfel  faethfully  fathfully  fathfuly  callery  salery  calery  salary  salary  salery colony  colony  coliny  -71TABLE XX Items w i t h no Target  Process  Subject 2  Subject 3  match  math mach match  match  obey  obay  abay  obay  straight  straet  strate  strat  deliver  deliver  business  busnise buisnes buisness  bisnesee bisnese bisn  popular  popular  populer popular  popular  thorght throght thurght  throw throu thought  Item  Subject  match  1  through  diliver dilever deliver  mistery mistery mistore  mystery  history  history  history  history  heather  hether  heather  hether  happening  happening  happening  disappear  disaper disapear  squeeze wrong  beautiful  disapaer sqeze  squise  wrong  whonge wronge wronge  beutiful  butaful  squese  teeva  -72-  TABLE XX Item distinct spread  (cont'd)  Subject 1  Subject 2  Subject 3  distink  dicnte  distinced distinked  spreed spread  spred spreed spread  sympathy opezet opesit opisete  opposite  opisite opisete opisit  scratch  scratch  scrach scrash scrach  scrach scratch  midnight  midnight  midnight  midnight  murder  murdre  muder  murder  No response denoted by a -  -73TABLE XX  (cont'd)  Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  match  match  mach mache mach  obey  obey  obay  straight  strate  deliver  deliver  business  bisness bisnes bisnes  bisnes bisanis bisnas  popular  popular  popuoler popular  through  throw throu threw  through  mystery  mistry misttry missttry  history  histry  histry  heather  hether  hether  happening  hapening  happining  squeeze  squeez  scweez  wrong  wrong  wrong  beautiful  beutyful  buteful  distinct  distenct  distinght  spread  spred spre-  sped spread  opposite  opiset opiset opeset  opiset opesit opisset  scratch  scrach schrach skrach  scrach scrache screch  disappear  sympathy  -74-  TABLE XX  (cont'd)  Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  midnight  midnight  midnight  murder  No response denoted by a  -75to have any s t r a t e g y f o r a l t e r i n g s p e l l i n g s i w i t h v a r i o u s consonant  each  experimented  and vowel s u b s t i t u t i o n s , presence  of word t e r m i n a l ^ e ) , and d i g r a p h combinations,  o r absence  depending on the  s t i m i l u s word. 3.  A n a l y s i s of Task 3»  Due to r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by a v a i l -  a b i l i t y o f p i c t u r a b l e s t i m i l u s words, items f o r t h i s task were e a s i e r t o s p e l l than items f o r Tasks 1 and 2 ,  These words were  n e c e s s a r i l y more common and beside t h i s i n c r e a s e d frequency o f occurrence, they were more o f t e n seen accompanied by a p i c t u r e . A l l the Task 3 items were c o n c r e t e nouns, w h i l e Task 1 and 2 items i n c l u d e d a b s t r a c t nouns, verbs, a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs.  Any o f  these f a c t s might account f o r why s u b j e c t s had g r e a t e r success s p e l l i n g Task 3 words than Task 1 o r 2 words. Because they were accompanied by a p i c t u r e d u r i n g t e s t i n g and because o f t h e i r d i f f e r i n g composition, l y s e d ' s e p a r a t e l y (see Table 2 1 ) ,  these words were ana-  However, type o f a n a l y s i s was  i d e n t i c a l to t h a t o f Tasks 1 and 2 , 4 , 'Analysis of Task 4 .  Responses were t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i -  c a l l y when i n c o r r e c t l y produced  and recorded with a check i f c o r r e c t .  Responses from the f i v e sample s u b j e c t s were entered onto Table 2 2 . In cases where the c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , a l l r e sponses were t r a n s c r i b e d  phonetically.  S i m i l a r l y to the s p e l l i n g t a s k s , items were grouped accordi n g to p r o c e s s .  In t h i s way one can see not only a l l p r o d u c t i o n s  of each item, but a l s o each s u b j e c t ' s command of the p h o n o l o g i c a l processes i n q u e s t i o n and h i s performance on r e a l versus nonsense words. T h i s task most c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d any d i f f i c u l t y phonetically. p a r t i a l cues"  C h i l d r e n who read by the method c a l l e d (Uta F r i t h ,  i n reading " r e a d i n g by  1980a) had d i f f i c u l t y r e a d i n g nonsense  • 76TABLE XXI Task 3 - Responses from S u b j e c t s  1 -5  S u b j e c t Responses  Item Subject  1  cereal  Subject 2  Subject 3  cearil  cerel  chair  char  pillows  pilow  mushrooms carots  carrots fire bread grapes  lorn  iron knife  nif e  nife  toothpaste  toothpast  toothpast  camera  camra  camara  moantian  mountens  mountains  mointains  towel  towles  wheat  weat  weet  strawberries  strabarees  straberry  vacuum c l e a n e r vacume  vacum  vacuoom  perfume  perfum  perfroom  castle  casal  easel  C o r r e c t response i s denoted by a  - .  -77-  TABLE XXI  (cont'd)  Item  Subject 4  Subject 5  cereal  -  sereel  chair  -  cher  pillows  pellew  mushrooms  musroom  -  carrots  carats  vedgatible  fire  -  -  bread  breed  bred  -  knife  -  toothpaste  t o o t h past  toothpast  camera  comrow  camra  mountains  mountan  moutin  towel  two Is  sheets  wheat  wheet  weet  strawberries  strowberry  starberys  vacuum c l e a n e r  vachume  vacumcleener  perfume  -  purfume  castle  castel  cacel  grapes iron  C o r r e c t response  i s denoted by a  iren  -  .78words or r e a l words which they had not seen b e f o r e .  Instead,  these c h i l d r e n appeared to be r e a d i n g p a r t of the word and a t the r e s t ,  As would be expected i f the s u b j e c t s were  u s i n g the " p a r t i a l cue" d e l e t i o n s and  guessing  indeed  r e a d i n g method, there were many a d d i t i o n s ,  s u b s t i t u t i o n s of s y l l a b l e s i n u n f a m i l i a r words,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the longer words, where scanning  abilities  are  most needed. Because of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s t  we  1.  v a r i a t i o n s i n word l e n g t h ,  2.  f a m i l i a r i t y of r e a l words to subject,  3.  v a r i a t i o n s i n the percentage of r e a l words and nonsense words i n each t a r g e t process group  the  cannot s t a t e a h i e r a r c h y of d i f f i c u l t y f o r l e a r n i n g to  the t a r g e t p r o c e s s e s . each t a r g e t process t a r g e t processes,  recognize  Table 24 d e s c r i b e s the numbers c o r r e c t f o r  obtained by s u b j e c t s 1 to 5i  For a l l three  s u b j e c t s were more adept at d e c i p h e r i n g  words than nonsense words.  The  responses f o r nonsense words was  real  h i g h e s t percentage of c o r r e c t obtained with the  Palatalization  process. The  card on which the r o o t word was  p r i n t e d was  presented  immediately b e f o r e the c a r d showing the s u f f i x i z e d word. cases p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v i n g the V e l a r S o f t e n i n g of /g/,  In some the r o o t  word caused i n t e r f e r e n c e to the r e a d i n g of the s u f f i x i z e d word. example, S u b j e c t 14 produced /naegi/, / p i g 3 "nage", / p i g e / and / f r o g e / .  by s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s .  /, and / f r a g i / f o r  I n t e r f e r e n c e from the r o o t word a l s o  occurred with the items " u p s e t i o n " (root word " f a t " ) .  For  ( r o o t word "upset") and  These were pronounced / ApsetjAn  / and  "fation" /f&tSAn/  - 7 9 -  TABLE XXII Task k - Responses from S u b j e c t s 1-5 Item  Subject  Response  Subject 1  Subject 2  huge  -  -  nage  naed^  nag  buge  bAd/^  bug  pige  pidA)  paig  froge  f radAj  frag  picnice  pzknais  panicity  'pauitsisti  pcsntkiti  attlcity  aet^ktti  det'ikiti  rapidity vitality  vaiet'iltti  ' v a i t ©lVfci  reality  'rialiti  'rialiti  stupidity opposition examination  Ig'zaamnJAn  invitation  m ' vaitaf/sn  combination  cam' bainiJA n  childrenity  't^aild  reniti  ' t j x l d r E> rfxniot  recessity carrotity  'kyatiti  'ke?at a t i  robinian  'rabnn^An  'rab *ns>n  orangian  i'td/^n  awfulian  ' af-u-l'en  insanition  i n ' senx^An  a 'f v l e n n'sen[An  - 80 -  Table XXII (Cont'd) Item  Sub.iect 1  Subject 2  forgetition  f^git^Nn  f?'g£tx$/\h  acrossition  "ae-'kras i $ A n  a'kras ir>p\ n 'saki'diti  sockity  confusion discussion succession tl  electrician  £Ktnk*dn  magician musician restriction direction prevention definition creation equation  thermosian  ee^nfasan  '© srmssen 'glae^'an  glassion dismission  'astikan  attician upsetion  AP'S£t(Ml  enchantion habition  ' haeb x t'5an  credition  'kr^ditejan  fation  'fart^n  'faetJAn  crackion  /krftkan  krQdcan  haebitJAn  C o r r e c t response i s denoted b y a -  -81-  TABLE XXII Task 4 m. Responses from S u b j e c t s Item  Subject Subject  3  1-5  Response Subject  4  huge nage huge  bjug  pige  paig  paig  froge  fradz,  frogi  picnice  pxk'niks  'pxknas  panicity  pae'niktti  'pasni ' k x t i  atticity  <*L<tik3«li  'aeta'kxti  ra&padt'-lti  rapidity vitality  'vaita"lxti  reality  'rialti  stupidity opposition  A'pouzi''JAn si  examination invitation  in'vaitA"5an  combination  Jtam'bain^An  'tSlldra'nenrfci  childrenity recessity carrotity  ''k^a/titi  'k^ati  robinian  ra'  'robe'nen  "naen  'Ja nd^'e$An  o rang i a n  ^'aend/^n  awfulian  d'faelaen  'ofal' en  insanition  In' se^An  In'senI"ton  forgetition  f^'getlSAn  f rf'g£t$An  -82-  TABLE XXII  (cont'd)  Item  Subject 3  Subject 4  acrossition  c3e'krasI$An  a'KrasI^/vn  sockity  sok'lti  confusion discussion succession electrician magician  ' maed/^Ikan  musician restriction direction prevention definition creation equation thermosian glassion  ©3"mo"j"cEn  Qafmo'seyvn  'gleesan  dismission attician  ati-kjAn  'astlkeS^n A.b'se$An  upsetion enchantion habition  'hatbIt$An  credition  'kreda'tfcyNn  fation crackion  fazJ^An 'kradcan  C o r r e c t response i s denoted by a -.  fatten 'krsJcen  -83TABLE XXII  'cont'd) Subject 5  Item  Subject 5  Item  huge  -  confusion  nage  neg  discussion  -  huge  bjug  succession  'sAk'a 'stsai"c  pige  paig  electrician  f roge  frog  magician  picnice  plknaik  musician  panicity  -  restriction  atticity  aetlkiti  direction  -  prevention rapidity vitality•  definition  -  creation  reality stupidity opposition examination invitation combination childrenity  equation  -  thermosian  't^IldranAti  -  attician  ae.'tl"kai n  upsetion enchantion  carrotity  'k£:>ti  habition  robinian  r a'bxnaian  credition  orangian  'orand^'aian  fation  La A  insanition  Ins ai'ne^n  forgetition  far'gi!\  acrossition sockity  glae s i "an  dismission  -  'dfVia  e«f ma'saian  glassion  recessity  awfulian  -  crackion  eSA n  ae'krasl'jan  C o r r e c t response i s denoted by a  Ab'se^n  'haebi'taiftn krfcditaion •'fdfc.tai'a n kr«Jc'aian  -84TABLE XXIII C o r r e c t Responses to Task IV Velar  Softening  huge  /hjud/y'  nage  /neldoy/  pige  /pald/y'  froge  /frovdvy  picnice  /p'Ikn'Ais/  panicity  /pan Is*ti/  atticity  /at'Isiti/  sockity  Stress  or /p'Iknis/  7  /s'akiti/  Shift  rapidity  /rap'Iditi/  vitality  /vAit'aeliti/  reality  /ri'aeliti/  stupidity childrenity  /stup'Iditi/ /t5 Ildr'£ n i t i /  recessity  /ris'e s i t i /  carrotity  / k£?'atiti/  examination invitation combination  /£ks'ae.mln'£ i j a n / /' Invat'£ i $ e n / /'kambim'E. i ( a n /  opposition  /'apes'I^an/  insanition  /'Ins6n'I$an/  forgetition  /tDrgat'Ifen/  -85TABLE XXIII Stress  (cont'd)  Shift  accrossition  /"aekras'Ii'en /  magician  /  robinian  /rab'Inian/  orangian  /T ' aendftjian/  awfulian  / af'-u-lian/  mad/vj' I ^ n  /  Palatalization definition  /d£fs>n'I$an /  creation  /  equation  / ikwei^an/  habition  /Ahtfb'ljan/  upsetion  /-o-ps'^an/  fation  / 'faejan/  credition restriction direction  kri'elfen/  / kr£da5an/ /restr'Ikfen/ / d^r'tk^en/  prevention  / prav'e-nt^an/  enchantion  / Intent £an/  musician electrician attician confusion  / mjuz' I$an/ / a i £ktr'l£m/  /  at'lSan/  / ken  fyuAj^n/  thermosion  /ea^m'O^n/  discussion  / disk'A  succession  /  glassion dismission  5an/  sAks'^an/  / gl'dejan/ / dasm'I^an/  -86TABLE XXIV Task 4i  Number of C o r r e c t Responses f o r Each Target  Process Velar Softening / g /  Velar Softening /k/  Subject  Real Words  1  1/1  4)4  5/5  2  1/1  0/4  1/5  3  1/1  3/4  4/5  4  1/1  1/4  2/5  5  1/1  0/4  1/5  1  2/3  2/3  2  1/3  1/3  3  0/3  0/3  1/3  1/3  1/3  1/3  5 Stress  Shift  Palatalization  Process  Nonsense Words  Total  1  6/8  3/10  11/18  2  2/8  2/10  4/18  3  3/8  5/10  8/18  4  7/8  1/10  8/18  5  8/8  3/io  10/18  1  11/11  5/H  16/22  2  10/11  5/11  15/22  3  10/11  5/H  16/22  4  11/11  4/11  15/22  5  10/11  5/H  13/22  -875.  A n a l y s i s of Task 5 .  onto Table 2 5 which was  were entered one  then d i v i d e d i n t o two  sections?  s e c t i o n where items were r e l a t e d and another s e c t i o n where items  were not r e l a t e d s e m a n t i c a l l y . to  1-5  Responses from s u b j e c t s  one  of the two  a p a i r was  Items c o u l d be assigned  s e c t i o n s s i n c e the r e l a t e d n e s s of any  unambiguously two  items i n  p l a i n l y evident to an a d u l t competent speaker of E n g l i s h .  In most cases,  r e l a t e d n e s s was  a l s o p l a i n to the c h i l d r e n .  This  task would have been more v a l u a b l e i f the s u b j e c t s had found i t more c h a l l e n g i n g .  There was,  however, some d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g  word p a i r s t h a t were unambiguously yet not o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d . 6.  A n a l y s i s of Task 6 .  i n Table 2 6 .  Subjects  on the second day,  Responses t o t h i s task are  l e a r n e d each item on the f i r s t day of t e s t i n g ;  they were asked to r e c a l l the items.  cases a cue c o n s i s t i n g of the f i r s t the item was "C",  recorded  syllable  g i v e n to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l ;  In most  (Consonant-Vowel) of  these  The vowel i n the Consonant-Vowel cue was  items were marked never reduced as  this  would have p r o v i d e d a h i n t to the s t r e s s a s s i g n a t i o n . I t was  o r i g i n a l l y thought t h a t s u b j e c t s would have more  d i f f i c u l t y l e a r n i n g the three items not conforming to the processes  i n question,  hypotheses was did  i f they had  some awareness of the r u l e s .  not borne out i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, but the  i n f a c t evince some awareness of the p h o n o l o g i c a l  Instead  phonological This  subjects  processes.  of remembering p h o n o l o g i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e items more e a s i l y  then p h o n o l o g i c a l l y i m p l a u s i b l e items,  the s u b j e c t s alt'ered t h e i r  p r o d u c t i o n of the item to make i t p h o n o l o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . example, / d e f j u t i a n / was  For  pronounced e i t h e r /defju£an/ to conform  with the P a l a t a l i z a t i o n process,  or a v a r i a t i o n such as / d e f j u t a n i / ,  i n which case P a l a t a l i z a t i o n was  not  required.  -88-  TABLE XXV I n c o r r e c t Responses to Task 5 by S u b j e c t s Related Words  Subject 1  p e r i s c o p e - peer  Subject 2  1-5  Subjec  no  crime - c r i m i n a l satisfy - satisfaction admire -  admirable  choose - c h o i c e  no  sign - signal  no  photograph - photography happy - happiness Christ -  Christmas  s t o r e - storage serve -  service  school - scholar  no  U n r e l a t e d Words c a t - category  yes  polite - political  yes  admire - m i r a c l e  yes  core - c o r a l sat - s a t i s f a c t i o n but - button crime - c r y gray - grade periscope - p a i r carpet - carpenter measure - sure phone - phony  yes yes yes  -89TABLE XXV I n c o r r e c t Responses to Task 5 by S u b j e c t s R e l a t e d Words  Subject 4  p e r i s c o p e - peer crime - c r i m i n a l satisfy - satisfaction admire -  admirable  choose - c h o i c e sign - signal photograph - photography happy - happiness Christ -  Christmas  s t o r e - storage school - scholar serve - s e r v i c e U n r e l a t e d Words c a t - category polite - political admire- m i r a c l e core - c o r a l sat  satisfaction  but - button crime - c r y gray - grade periscope - p a i r carpet - carpenter measure - sure phone - phony  no  Subject 5  -90-  TABLE XXVI Task 6 - Responses from S u b j e c t  1-5  Subject 1 A S pa=.<dC >  /  /-fj^d'iS^"  /  /  /  /'l  no  -v-arrv->ar  Subject 2 /'! A s p i^V^Q5A5/ AjU'dOj'A S / /dl e -f j u+ i A r\/ A a e m ae/AS/  A  Subject 3  -  a* aLkjul AS/  / n A f ^ E p4-bi/ /^ASp^nxbi / / f j u / d o S * " / />3? rva'atSltavV  /ms-'a^'hafcat/ Subject 4 - /nA^^lp-t&'v^/ / ^ A S p ' X n + b'v /  Ajudo^S  /  / ^e^juS^n /  Aawa?£S:fc&/ /maf'asfet i a £ / Subject 5 -  11 -t * " t i / C /i A vpiditi/ C C Aju'dx 5 / d e ' f j u U 5 / C / r ae.m/ C _ / M A  J '  / V Y V a*'ae K i I a S / C-  -917«  A n a l y s i s of Task 7•  Since t h i s task was  s o l e l y as evidence  a g a i n s t d y s l e x i a , i t was  there would he any  i n c o r r e c t responses.  c o n s i d e r e d hut i t was  never e x c e s s i v e !  included  not a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  Response l a t e n c y  was  the l e t t e r c a r d was  h e l d up l o n g e r than a second i n any case.  F a i l u r e on any  or e x c e s s i v e l a t e n c y would have meant e x c l u s i o n from the  not  item study.  -92-  CHAPTER V RESULTS AND A.  DISCUSSION  Introduction. I t has been hypothesized  Accurate s p e l l e r has  inadequate  t h a t the P h o n e t i c a l l y  or incomplete  knowledge of the  p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s which are c o n s i d e r e d f o r the e x e c u t i o n of c o r r e c t  spellings.  the o p e r a t i o n of these r u l e s was a)  investigation,  examinedi  The P a l a t a l i z a t i o n r u l e by which / s / o r / t / are p a l a t a l i z e d when f o l l o w e d by  b)  In the p r e s e n t  necessary  i o ( u ) Consonant.  "  The v e l a r S o f t e n i n g r u l e by which <c> / s / and  and  (g) are pronounced  r e s p e c t i v e l y when f o l l o w e d by mid  or h i g h  front  vowels. c)  The S t r e s s S h i f t r u l e which r e a s s i g n s s t r e s s i n words a f t e r affixation. A s s e r l e s of t a s k s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to Phonetic-  a l l y Accurate s p e l l e r s to determine t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n o r t h o g r a p h i c s p e l l i n g and t h e i r awareness of phonology i n o r a l language. of the t h r e e t a s k s concerned  One  w i t h p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness, i . e .  L e a r n i n g Nonsense Words, i n v o l v e d the s u b j e c t i n remembering nonsense words c o n t a i n i n g s p e c i f i e d sequences of phonemes, from a model which had been presented a u d i t o r a l l y . designed to t e s t l i n g u i s t i c awarenessj and S u f f i x a t i o n .  Two  o t h e r t a s k s were  they werei  Word  Relatedness  Both of these tasks i n v o l v e d !  (1)  r e a d i n g s t i m u l u s items from f l a s h c a r d s .  (2)  making d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s t i m u l u s  items.  These t a s k s presupposed a c e r t a i n l e v e l of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .  - 93 A few s t u d i e s have examined the r e a d i n g s t y l e of P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate S p e l l e r s .  Baron (1980) noted t h a t P h o n e t i c -  a l l y Accurate s p e l l e r s have "poor word study s k i l l s " .  Frith  found t h a t unexpectedly poor s p e l l e r s read by p a r t i a l cuest is,  (1978) that  they noted o n l y some a s p e c t s of a word b e f o r e d e c i d i n g on i t s  designation.  T h i s " p a r t i a l cue" method o f r e a d i n g i s adequate  when the r e a d e r has seen the words b e f o r e and knows t h e i r meaning. When the " p a r t i a l cue" reader has n o t seen a word b e f o r e and cannot guess a t i t s meaning, h i s d e r i v a t i o n of the word from  i t s sequence  of graphemes (and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g phonemes) i s f a u l t y . In the Word Relatedness Task, s u b j e c t s were asked to decide whether o r n o t two words were r e l a t e d . were chosen from a l i s t  Stimulus  of r e a l , f a i r l y common words.  items  I f the  s u b j e c t c o u l d n o t read a word, the word was i d e n t i f i e d f o r him. S i n c e r e a d i n g method does n o t appear t o a f f e c t knowledge o f words, and  s i n c e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y was c o n t r o l l e d , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o r  method was n o t seen as a l i k e l y f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g performance on t h i s task. The S u f f i x i z a t i o n Task r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o pronounce e i t h e r nonsense words, o r r e a l words, some of which were u n f a m i l i a r to them (e.g. " v i t a l i t y " ) . c r u c i a l t o performance.  I n t h i s task, word study s k i l l s were  S u b j e c t s who used a " p a r t i a l cue" r e a d i n g  method would be l e s s l i k e l y t o d e c i p h e r u n f a m i l i a r s t i m u l i successf u l l y than would s u b j e c t s who were competent w i t h a f u l l cue reading strategy, regardless of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . t e s t s u b j e c t s employed inadequate  Evidence t h a t the  techniques f o r word study i s  m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e numerous s y l l a b l e a d d i t i o n s and d e l e t i o n s , and phoneme s u b s t i t u t i o n s t h a t o c c u r i of these e r r o r s .  a l l s u b j e c t s made a t l e a s t one  Some s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r e d e i t h e r t o d e l e t e , add, o r  _94-  substitute:  Subject  13 added a s y l l a b l e t o ^ a c c r o s s i t i o n ) t o  produce / ^ k r a s i n ' a J A n/, produce / r x p t d ' t i / , Af/i for  A^'dtjfnt'i/i  d e l e t e d a s y l l a b l e from ( r a p i d i t y ) t o  and pronounced the <t) i n ( c a r r o t i t y ) as a Other s u b j e c t s employed o n l y one s t r a t e g y  d e a l i n g w i t h u n f a m i l i a r words, f o r example, S u b j e c t  s i s t e n t l y deleted s y l l a b l e s .  15 con-  I n many i n s t a n c e s the examiner, who  f e l t t h a t the s u b j e c t s "weren't l o o k i n g a t the words", asked s u b j e c t s to  "look again", o r "look c a r e f u l l y " , but t h i s s t r a t e g y never r e -  sulted i n a c o r r e c t production, The  o r even a c o r r e c t s y l l a b l e  count.  purpose of the s u f f i x a t i o n task was to d i s c o v e r  the degree of p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness of P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate spellers,  i n o r d e r t h a t some e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r  poor s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y might be reached.  unexpectedly  I t seems c l e a r , however,  t h a t the performance of the P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate  s p e l l e r s on the  s u f f i x a t i o n task was confounded by t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g method, i,e.«  the p a r t i a l cue" method. 41  Although c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s who were  good readers and s p e l l e r s d i d indeed perform b e t t e r on the s u f f i x a t i o n task, i t cannot be s a i d t h a t t h i s i s because o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r knowledge o f phonology.  The most obvious e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the inadequate  performance o f the P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate ability  t o i n t e r p r e t an u n f a m i l i a r sequence of graphemes. D e s p i t e an i n a b i l i t y  posed a t t h i s time, while.  s p e l l e r s i s t h e i r inadequate  Observations  to accept the hypotheses as pro-  secondary gains have been c o n s i d e r a b l e and worthof the s u b j e c t s * s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g  s p e l l i n g problems w i l l be a v a l u a b l e adjunct t o a l r e a d y information. and  with  existing  C e r t a i n f a c e t s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e l l i n g  language which r a i s e i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d .  -95-  B.  D i s c u s s i o n o f processes  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  1,  V e l a r S o f t e n i n g Rule.  Of the p h o n o l o g i c a l processes  under  o b s e r v a t i o n , s u b j e c t s g e n e r a l l y appeared t o be most s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h e V e l a r S o f t e n i n g r u l e governing o t h e r phonemes (e.g.  the phoneme / g / .  Unlike  /k/, / f / ) , the v e l a r stop i s represented  unambiguously by the grapheme  g*. When f o l l o w e d by a mid o r  h i g h f r o n t vowel, the / g / becomes /dn^/ a c c o r d i n g t o the V e l a r Softening r u l e .  S u b j e c t s were c o n s i s t e n t l y a c c u r a t e  i n their  c h o i c e o f <g) i n s t e a d o f ( j ) t o r e p r e s e n t the phoneme /d/^/ i n the context o f mid o r h i g h f r o n t vowels. was  as o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d  I n c o n t r a s t , the s o f t e n e d  by an <s) as by a (c).  c  I t seems p l a u s i b l e  t h a t s u b j e c t s employed the (g> c o r r e c t l y simply because ( j ) r a r e l y occurs m e d i a l l y , o r f i n a l l y ,  i n words.  The s u b j e c t s d i d n o t appear  to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between environment and p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the grapheme, as evidenced (regon) by S u b j e c t 4»  by ifowel e r r o r s i  " b u g l e f s p e l l e d (bugel)  "region" spelled by S u b j e c t  5.  The  grapheme <g) was s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t both / g / and /&y/ simply because o f a l a c k o f o t h e r Subjects*  options. ignorance  o f the v e l a r s o f t e n i n g r u l e was  a l s o demonstrated by t h e i r treatment of the s o f t e n e d ( c ) .  This  grapheme,.normally pronounced as /k/, i s pronounced / s / when f o l l o w e d by a mid o r h i g h f r o n t vowel.  Generally, s e l e c t i o n of (c) or (s) to  precede the mid o r h i g h f r o n t vowel appeared t o be random, s u b j e c t s evidenced  Some  minor s t r a t e g i e s which c o n s i s t e d o f a s s i g n i n g  a constant grapheme sequence t o a p a r t i c u l a r phoneme sequence. Subjects  1 t o 5 each employed a s t r a t e g y t o s p e l l the word f i n a l  sequence / a i s / i n ''advice", " d e v i c e " , "paradise"?  S u b j e c t s 4, 5  -96-  and 2 s p e l l e d a l l of these words w i t h the ending ( - i c e ) ? S u b j e c t s 1 and 3 used <^-ise).  and  T h i s s t r a t e g y d i d not extend  to o t h e r  sequences, however, a l l s u b j e c t s used both ( s ) and ( c ) ( c o r r e c t l y i n c o r r e c t l y ) i n o t h e r words.  As w i t h the grapheme (g)»  and  subjects  were unaware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of context to the grapheme ( e ) t S u b j e c t 1 p r o d u c e d ( e l e c t r i c a d y ) f o r " e l e c t r i c i t y " and S u b j e c t 2 wrote (cerse) instead of "curse". One and  s t r a t e g y , which i n v o l v e d the s o f t e n i n g of (V>  ( g ) , might be i n d i c a t i v e of the development of a r u l e f o r  phonology i n s p e l l i n g . word f i n a l (e)  That i s ,  S u b j e c t s 1 to 5 c o n s t a n t l y added  to words ending i n the phonemes / d z / o r / s / , i f the  s u b j e c t represented these phonemes w i t h ( g ) and ( c ) . "average"  was  (averidge) •  Thus,  v a r i o u s l y s p e l l e d as (avrage"), (aviage) , <(avrige) , and  As w i t h a l l items ending i n the phoneme /dz/, a l l  v a r i a n t s o f "average"  end w i t h <(-ge).  The  item " d i s t a n c e " evinced  these responses?, ( d i s t a n c e ) , ( d i s t a n c e ) , ( d i s t e n t s ) , (distons). forms which employ (c) a l s o have word t e r m i n a l ^e) i (s)  do n o t .  S u b j e c t s 5's  (palice), (pales),  forms employing  three attempts to s p e l l " p a l a c e " were  and(palis);  were ( e x e r c e s ) , ( e x e r c e ) ,  S u b j e c t s 2's  and(exerice).  word f i n a l <(-ce) as a u n i t . (s)»  The  r a t h e r than ( c ) f o r (s),  s p e l l i n g s of " e x e r c i s e "  These s u b j e c t s employed  They appeared to s u b s t i t u t e ( c e ) f o r Words ending w i t h the phonemes /k/  o r / g / were r e p r e s e n t e d by the graphemes ( c ) and <g) r e s p e c t i v e l y ? however there was  no case where they were represented by ( c / o r ( g )  f o l l o w e d by word f i n a l ( e ) , (magick),  e t c , and  " s t a g " was  "Magic" was  s p e l l e d (majec), (magic) ,  c o r r e c t l y s p e l l e d by a l l s u b j e c t s .  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n to t h i s s t r a t e g y of r e p r e s e n t i n g s o f t e n e d consonants w i t h word f i n a l ( e ) were S u b j e c t 5's v a r i a n t s of " p r i v e l e g e " , a l l of which ended i n (-dg).  For a l l other consonants, a d d i t i o n of word f i n a l appeared to he haphazard.  In the case of words ending i n / d / or  / s / where the s u b j e c t intended  to r e p r e s e n t these  sounds with  the  graphemes ( g ) and ( c ) , word f i n a l (e)was used a p p r o p r i a t e l y . would appear, then,  (g ) and (k) , namely /d / and / s / . 1  an a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the  r e c o g n i z e d word f i n a l ( e ) a s the s i l e n t form of a mid  subjects  f r o n t vowel  Subjects have l e a r n e d t h a t the f i n a l sequences (ge)  e q u i v a l e n t to /d/>j/ and / s / r e s p e c t i v e l y .  have a c q u i r e d an o r t h o g r a p h i c spelling rule.  convention  At t h i s p o i n t ,  However, t h i s i s the convention  conventions  One  t h e r e f o r e one might  d r i l l appear? to have been e f f e c t i v e *  frequency  items was  words are " d r i l l e d " ,  continue  this  the phoneme sequence /5V\n/ In l i g h t of the  of t h i s sequence and the extent to which ( - t i o n )  i t i s not remarkable t h a t s u b j e c t s c o u l d  reproduce t h i s sequence.  in  To some extent,  o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d to be ( t i o n ) .  of occurrence  spelling  I t i s f r e q u e n t l y presented  l o n g l i s t s of words a l l c o n t a i n i n g t h i s ending.  i n stimulus  environment.  of the most p e r s i s t e n t l y " d r i l l e d "  i s the s u f f i x ( - t i o n ) .  they  f o r the V e l a r S o f t -  argue t h a t they have a c q u i r e d t h i s r u l e f o r a r e s t r i c t e d Palatalization.  (ce)  and  r a t h e r than a p h o n o l o g i c a l  ening r u l e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r environment and  2,  to  thus i t cannot be s a i d t h a t they have a c q u i r e d the V e l a r S o f t e n i n g  rule. axe  It  t h a t these s u b j e c t s were aware t h a t the a d d i t i o n  of ( e ) to the end of a word permits  and  (e)  correctly  What i s remarkable i s t h a t c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s  to s u b s t i t u t e o t h e r grapheme sequences f o r t h i s extremely  common sequence and  t h a t the most common s u b s t i t u t i o n i s a sequence  which i s very uncommon i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i n the word:  the sequence  ^-shVn) (V vowel), (sh); i s a common graphemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the phoneme / / / i n a l l p o s i t i o n s i n r o o t morphemes, but i s uncommon i n  -98-  affixes.  Subjects  who  f a v o r (sh) over / t i o n / i n t h i s p o s i t i o n show  l i t t l e understanding of "word study", on v i s u a l memory (e.g. word shape and  They a l s o appear to r e l y l e s s sequencing) hut more on  an  auditory a n a l y s i s . In the p r e c e d i n g r u l e , i t was  d i s c u s s i o n of the V e l a r  suggested t h a t the primacy of the grapheme ( g ) . i s  representingteboth  phonemes / g / and /d/,  o c c u r r i n g grapheme (j") i n m e d i a l and the q u e s t i o n unresolved frequent  of how  was  due  to the  f i n a l word p o s i t i o n s .  s i n c e i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g (tion),  grapheme sequence was  However  the l e s s  o f t e n chosen.  evidenced o v e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of  sequence ( t i o n ) .  "Musician"  i n c l u d i n g Subject  2 and Subject  was  s p e l l e d (musitian) 5.  the  by s e v e r a l  These s u b j e c t s have  the c o r r e c t r u l e but are a p p l y i n g  does not extend.  infrequently  frequency a f f e c t s c o r r e c t usage must remain  Some s u b j e c t s  learned  Softening  subjects,  apparently  i t to items to which i t  T h i s e r r o r i s perhaps analogous to t h a t stage i n  the development of morphology when m o r p h o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l r u l e s are o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d . s p e l l i n g development and  A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s analogy between  language development, would be t h a t  there  e x i s t s a l a t e r stage i n s p e l l i n g when the c h i l d l e a r n s to l i m i t r u l e to s p e c i f i c  items.  Predicatably, stimulus  /5A n/,  s u b j e c t s had more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h  items c o n t a i n i n g a p a l a t a l i z e d phoneme sequence which  not represented  the  by (-tion))  these i n c l u d e d the endings  /'yn/, / / A n s / i / J A n t / and / J A 1/  phoneme sequences were represented  (see t a b l e 13).  was  / - J A S / ,  These  by a v a r i e t y of grapheme sequences.  C o r r e c t s e l e c t i o n depended upon graphemic memory of the word or  on  1  I  knowledge of the word's etymology, r a t h e r than upon analogy s t r a t e g i e s o r 'phonic® s t r a t e g i e s (such as 'sounding the word out')» Some s u b j e c t s  evidenced some memory of the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g f o r an  item and some knowledge of p o s s i b l e grapheme sequences. Subject  F o r example,  1 t r i e d ( m u s i s i a n ) f o r "musician", ( s u s p i c e s ) f o r " s u s p i c i o u s " ,  ( v i c i o s ) f o r " v i c i o u s " and ( m i s s o n ) f o r " m i s s i o n " . sequence ( - t i o n ) a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  Other s u b j e c t s ,  He employed the  e.g.  Subject  5  abandoned the s t r u g g l e with graphemic memory and succumbed t o t o t a l dependence on an a u d i t o r y a n a l y s i s .  Subject  5 c o u l d s p e l l items  c o n t a i n i n g ( - t i o n ) , but f o r a l l other stimulus  item  s p e l l i n g s , pro-  duced sequences b e g i n n i n g w i t h <-sh-), f o r example,  "suspicious",  "mission",  (mishun), and  and " p a t i e n c e " were s p e l l e d ( s u s p i s h u s ) ,  ;(pashints), 3.  Stress S h i f t .  The t h i r d process under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the S t r e s s  S h i f t r u l e , c o u l d n o t adequately be s t u d i e d u s i n g a w r i t t e n t e s t ' task s t r u c t u r e .  Stimulus items which contained  'spelling  a 'stress s h i f t '  were items having an a f f i x t h a t caused the n a t u r a l s t r e s s of the r o o t morpheme to change.  These items i n c l u d e d " e l e c t r i c i t y " ,  "photography", " c u r i o s i t y " , " r e a l i t y " and " a q u a t i c " . misspelled  as f r e q u e n t l y as the other stimulus  "political",  They were  items but there does  not appear t o be any evidence t h a t the e r r o r s were a c t i v a t e d by processes other than those which r e s u l t e d i n e r r o r s on a l l of the task items.  Of the s i x items i n q u e s t i o n ,  o n l y one item,  "political",  underwent any s y l l a b l e d e l e t i o n and t h a t was done by o n l y one s u b j e c t , Subject  2,  S y l l a b l e d e l e t i o n was f a i r l y common f o r m u l t i s y l l a b i c  words, such as " s e v e r a l " , " e x e r c i s e " and " g e n e r a l " , f o r items w i t h an a f f i x causing  stress s h i f t .  t o , a l l o w more than p r e l i m i n a r y questions  but was  infrequent  The data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  regarding  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  -100-  of t h i s , however. C,  Strategies  1,  S p e l l i n g Development.  C e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s e x i s t between the  a c q u i s i t i o n of orthography and the h i s t o r i c a l development E n g l i s h s p e l l i n g system s i n c e the Norman Conquest.  o f the  Graphemes which  unambigously r e p r e s e n t a phoneme, i . e . are i n a one to one phoneme to grapheme correspondence, are s t a n d a r d i z e d , w h i l e graphemes i n more complex confused.  grapheme to phoneme r e l a t i o n s h i p s are more f r e q u e n t l y  For example,  the grapheme sequence ( c h ) to r e p r e s e n t the  phoneme / t j / i s l e s s l i k e l y to be a source of e r r o r to the a t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r than the graphemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f / s / , which might be either" (s) o r <c>.  Historically,  (ch) r e p r e s e n t e d  / t ^ / universally  soon a f t e r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n w h i l e o t h e r graphemes remained i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , c o n s i s t e n c e o f s p e l l i n g improved over time, both h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n normal a c q u i s i t i o n . C o n s i s t e n c y of s p e l l i n g improves over time, both h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n normal a c q u i s i t i o n .  By the seventeenth century,  a s t a b l e s p e l l i n g system had been adopted, but had not y e t become completely r e g u l a r .  S i m i l a r l y , by grade t h r e e , c h i l d r e n have l e a r n e d  most s p e l l i n g conventions but may f l i c t i n g rules.  s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h con-  D i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s become l e s s p r e v a l e n t as the  o r t h o g r a p h i c system matures. I t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s paper to s p e c u l a t e about these p a r a l l e l s , but i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e to ignore them completely i n a study of s p e l l i n g 2,  Handwriting.  strategies,  R e s u l t s from Tenney's  (1980) experiment on the  e f f e c t of h a n d w r i t i n g on s p e l l i n g are supported by r e s u l t s obtained  -  i n the p r e s e n t study*. was  -  1 0 1  Handwriting  uniform and p r e c i s e ;  of a l l s i x c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s  o n l y a few of the t e s t s u b j e c t s had e q u a l l y  S u b j e c t s 5 and 1 6 produced  good h a n d w r i t i n g .  h a n d w r i t i n g taught i n Elementary rounded graphemes;  school;  the standard  acceptable  t h a t i s , c a r e f u l l y formed,  even s p a c i n g between graphemes and words, and  e x a c t l y p l a c e d r e t r o g r a d e o r t h o g r a p h i c s t r o k e s (dotted i ' s and crossed t ' s ) .  These s u b j e c t s were among the most accurate s p e l l e r s  as w e l l as the most accurate w r i t e r s .  Furthermore,  n e a r l y a l l of  t h e i r s p e l l i n g e r r o r s were grapheme r e v e r s a l s or s u b s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r than s y l l a b l e d e l e t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s .  Task 1 data, there was  s i x t e e n words i n e r r o r i n Subject 16's one a d d i t i o n of a s y l l a b l e deletion  ( cricfition  ( picinic  f o r " p i c n i c " ) and only  for "crucifixion").  involved unstressed s y l l a b l e s .  For example, of the only one  Both of these examples  Although Subject 5 had  thirty-eight  words i n e r r o r from the f o r t y - s e v e n words presented i n Task 1 , o n l y one  ( polilitikel  f o r " p o l i t i c a l " ) involved a s y l l a b l e  error.  A s t r i k i n g number of t e s t s u b j e c t s showed poor handwriting ability,  which i n c l u d e d : (1)  alternating  (2)  i r r e g u l a r l y formed graphemes  (3)  uneven s p a c i n g  direction  These confounding p a t t e r n s r e s u l t e d i n orthography hard to d e c i p h e r , and, 13,  on o c c a s i o n i l l e g i b l e .  1 5 . 1 7 » 1 9 > 2 0 and 2 3 produced  istics.  t h a t was  always  Subjects 3 , 4 , ? ,  handwriting w i t h these c h a r a c t e r -  G e n e r a l l y , these s u b j e c t s made more e r r o r s than s u b j e c t s  with good h a n d w r i t i n g .  T h e i r e r r o r s i n c l u d e d some d e l e t i o n s or add-  i t i o n s of s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e as w e l l as u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s ,  e.g.  * Judgement of h a n d w r i t i n g i s s t r i c t l y s u b j e c t i v e s i n c e there are no s t a n d a r d i z e d measurements f o r neatness a t t h i s time. Handwriting samples were designated as good, mediocre or both depending on l e g i b i l i t y and symmetry.  -102-  <divish> f o r " d i v i s i o n "  (Subject  20)  (distingtin) for "distinct"  (Subject  13)  (vaction) f o r "vacation"  (Subject  2 )  S i n c e these s u b j e c t s do not omit these s y l l a b l e s i n o r a l prod u c t i o n and thus do not have i n c o r r e c t u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the items, the cause of the e r r o r s would appear to be a t a motor l e v e l .  F o r these i n f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g words, s u b j e c t s do  not appear to possess automatic motor c o n t r o l . cannot  e a s i l y read what they are w r i t i n g and thus may  p l a c e i n the word as they w r i t e .  t h e i r own  lose  their  The r e s u l t of such c o n f u s i o n i s  d u p l i c a t i o n o r omission of s y l l a b l e s .  F i n a l l y , because they  find  h a n d w r i t i n g d i f f i c u l t to read, they are l e s s l i k e l y to  check f o r e r r o r s . poor s p e l l i n g . attempt  These s u b j e c t s  In t h i s way,  poor handwriting c o n t r i b u t e s to  Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t s u b j e c t s d e l i b e r a t e l y  to h i d e s p e l l i n g e r r o r s w i t h i l l e g i b l e h a n d w r i t i n g .  3 ' s h a n d w r i t i n g became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s t o r t e d as the task Her attempts  Subject  proceeded.  a t the word " b e a u t i f u l " i n p a r t i c u l a r demonstrate  t h a t h a n d w r i t i n g was more i l l e g i b l e when she knew she c o u l d not s p e l l a word, 3,  Motor P e r s e v e r a t i o n of Handwriting.  (e.g. S u b j e c t s 2 , 3 , 1 3 and 1 9 ) patterns.  evidenced p e r s e v e r a t i o n of w r i t i n g  For example, a ( t ) was  f o r "though" on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . motor response  S e v e r a l of the s u b j e c t s  added to the w r i t t e n response I t appeared  t h a t a "programmed"  demanded t h a t a ( t ) f o l l o w (th-ough),  v a r i o u s treatments  of the ( r ) f o r t h i s t a r g e t item.  r e t a i n e d the ( r ) and added a f i n a l (t)  .  There were Subject 1 9  S u b j e c t 3 d e l e t e d the ( r ^  when she added ( t ) and S u b j e c t 2 transposed the ( r ) .  -103Another example of p e r s e v e r a t i v e w r i t i n g a l s o i n volved f i n a l ( t ) i  on h e a r i n g the stimulus item " b r i d g e " , S u b j e c t  3 r e p o r t e d t h a t she had a f r i e n d named " B r i d g e t " which was " b r i d g e " and then proceeded  to s p e l l ( B r i d g e t ) .  her p r o d u c t i o n she crossed out the f i n a l ( t ) .  like  A f t e r reviewing In these cases, i t  would seem t h a t the s t i m u l u s of the motor p a t t e r n f o r w r i t i n g  was  s t r o n g e r than the stimulus p r o v i d e d by some a u d i t o r y model w i t h i t s corresponding v o c a l t r a c t " f o u n d a t i o n " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h out" the items.  "sounding  None of the c o n t r o l group evidenced t h i s p e r s e v e r a -  t i v e w r i t i n g behavior. 4.  C o n f r o n t a t i o n Naming.  A n o t a b l e problem, appearing as a r e s u l t  of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Task, was  the number  of c h i l d r e n e v i d e n c i n g word r e c a l l problems. Because the p i c t u r e d items used were of commonly o c c u r r i n g o b j e c t s , i t was  not a n t i c i p a t e d  t h a t confounding would occur as a r e s u l t of the naming p r o c e s s .  All  s u b j e c t s knew the names of the p i c t u r e d items but some s u b j e c t s evidenced the " t i p of the tongue" phenomenon, t h a t i s , they c o u l d not immediately  r e c a l l the t a r g e t word. S u b j e c t s w i t h t h i s problem used a semantic  to t r i g g e r r e c a l l .  category  F o r example, S u b j e c t 9 s a i d aloud "shaving cream"  when presented w i t h a p i c t u r e of a perfume b o t t l e but i n s t e a d of w r i t i n g , s t a r e d a t the p i c t u r e f o r s e v e r a l seconds and then "perfume" which he immediately  wrote down.  said  S u b j e c t 17 r e f e r r e d to  "grapes" as " c h e r r i e s " and c o u l d not remember the word " s t r a w b e r r i e s " On both o c c a s i o n s he appeared  to be f r u s t r a t e d w i t h h i s i n a b i l i t y  to r e c a l l the c o r r e c t word, c l a i m i n g t h a t he knew the name but " c o u l d n ' t t h i n k of i t " .  When presented w i t h the p i c t u r e of t o o t h -  paste, S u b j e c t 20 wrote "AIM  w i t h f l o u r i d e " and then wrote " t o o t h p a s t  - 104 In a l l cases the subjects remembered the correct l a b e l a f t e r several seconds. I t would be worthwhile to administer a confrontation naming task to Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r s to determine whether or not the incidence of word finding d i f f i c u l t i e s i s higher than in proficient spellers. 5.  Affixation.  In both auditory s p e l l i n g tasks, stimulus items  were presented i n a sentence context.  One reason f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  approach was the attempt to c l a r i f y the meaning of a p a r t i c u l a r stimulus word and to indicate i t s case, as a clue to i t s s p e l l i n g . Despite these "constraints", several subjects treated c e r t a i n items as i f they were a d i f f e r e n t word plus a bound morpheme. Nearly a l l subjects spelled "patience" with one of these  endingsi  -(~ts) or -(ns^ although t h i s sequence does not occur i n English orthography  i n word f i n a l p o s i t i o n unless the ( t ) or (n) i s the  f i n a l l e t t e r of the root word and the ( s ) either denotes p l u r a l form, or acts as the contracted form of " i s " .  Some subjects  treated both items ending i n /ns/ the same way»  f o r example,  Subject 1 9 spelled "distance" as (distants) and "patience" as (pactits^ .  Other subjects used d i f f e r e n t strategies f o r the two  words, f o r example Subject 3 spelled "distance" as ( d i s t o n s ) and "patience" as (pashents), while Subject 1 spelled "distance" c o r r e c t l y but spelled "patience" as ( p a t i a n t s ) . occurred i n other items.  Incorrect a f f i x a t i o n  Subject 1 3 produced (fishes^) f o r "vicious"  and Subject 2 0 produced ('vishes) f o r "vicious" and ( d i s t i n k e d ) f o r "distinct"o Why incorrect a f f i x a t i o n should be used i s not c l e a r . Several possible reasons suggest  themselvest  - 105a)  S u b j e c t s may have thought  t h a t the homonym of the  stimulus item was i n f a c t the c o r r e c t c h o i c e . may n o t have l i s t e n e d t o the sentence b)  They  context.  S u b j e c t s may n o t be aware o f p a t t e r n s o f morphology. They t h e r e f o r e depend on a s t r i c t a u d i t o r y s t r a t e g y a t a l l times, without n o t i c i n g r e g u l a r i t i e s r e l a t e d to syntactic  c)  structure.  S u b j e c t s may have been aware o f the m o r p h o l o g i c a l imp l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s but c o u l d n o t produce an a l t e r n a t e  d)  spelling.  S u b j e c t s may be aware o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l  regularities,  but a r e n o t aware t h a t c e r t a i n sequences a r e l i m i t e d t o c e r t a i n m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the i n t e r e s t s of r a p i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f o r example, they do n o t know t h a t Consonant ( s^> o n l y occurs when the p l u r a l morpheme ( s ) has been a f f i x e d t o a word.  In t h i s case s u b j e c t s r e l y  on an a u d i t o r y encoding/decoding  s t r a t e g y r a t h e r than a  s e t o f i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s , although they a r e aware o f such 6.  rules.  "Sounding Out".  One o f the most w i d e l y used methods i n  c u r r e n t s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s depends s t r o n g l y on "phonics", a method which i n v o l v e s the s u b j e c t / c h i l d i n f i n d i n g a one t o one correspondence between each s i m u l t a n e o u s l y produced grapheme of a word.  o r a l phoneme and w r i t t e n  T h i s method, commonly known as "sounding (the  word) out" i s h a b i t u a l  f o r many people when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h  s p e l l i n g a word whose p r o d u c t i o n i s n o t completely automatic. A l l s u b j e c t s , both T e s t and C o n t r o l , evidenced the use o f t h i s  technique  a t some p o i n t , s i n c e some stimulus words were i n f r e q u e n t l y represented  -106-  at t h e i r reading l e v e l s . i n combination  T h i s method i s most s u c c e s s f u l l y used  with morphological  and e t y m o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,  to ensure c o r r e c t grapheme c h o i c e and s y l l a b l e count. on "sounding out" varied?  some s u b j e c t s s u b v o c a l i z e d c o n t i n u o u s l y ,  others o n l y on p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t  items.  A l l s u b j e c t s used t h i s technique of s u c c e s s .  Dependence  with v a r y i n g degrees  Control subjects subvocalized "contradiction" r e -  markably s u c c e s s f u l l y , u s i n g a s y l l a b l e count to a r r i v e a t the prod u c t i o n o f t h i s m u l t i s y l l a b i c word. "sounded out" items i n a c c u r a t e l y ?  Many s u b j e c t s i n the Test group C o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were not ob-  served t o l o s e correspondence between phoneme and grapheme. 3  "sounded out" "perfume" while w r i t i n g (perfroom)?  Subject  Subject 2  pronounced a l l s y l l a b l e o f " v a c a t i o n " while s p e l l i n g ^ v a c t i o n ) . C o r r e c t o r a l p r o d u c t i o n o f a phoneme, then, d i d not ensure ence t o the c o r r e c t grapheme. be made f o r motoric  I n these two examples, a case c o u l d  confoundingt  a c c i d e n t a l omission of the ( a ) . from another s o u r c e . s a y i n g "popular" -/jul/-  correspond-  p e r s e v e r a t i o n o f the ( r ) and Other examples suggest i n t e r f e r e n c e  Subject 13 p e r s i s t e n t l y wrote <^poplyar^ while  correctly.  s y l l a b l e to - / l i / - ?  Many c h i l d r e n convert words w i t h a f o r example, "ambulance" i s o f t e n i t  pronounced "ambliance"  ( G i l b e r t and Johnson 1977).  proecedes c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n i n speech development.  T h i s stage o f t e n S u b j e c t 13 had  a c q u i r e d the c o r r e c t p r o d u c t i o n but s p e l l e d the word as he had probably pronounced i t a t an e a r l i e r time.  "Sounding out", a t l e a s t  i n s y l l a b i c terms, does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y appear to i n v o l v e a ence between the token which i s u t t e r e d and a grapheme.  correspond-  "Sounding o u t "  may a l s o i n v o l v e an unspoken but i n t e r n a l l y acknowledged model? i . e . the c h i l d may be pronouncing a word i n one way but t h i n k i n g o f i t i n another.  107-  A most obvious  problem which a r i s e s when "sounding  out" i s t h a t even i f the phoneme to grapheme correspondence i s w e l l - o r d e r e d , E n g l i s h orthography  i s not"phonetic" «  simple  phoneme to grapheme correspondences do n o t adequately the language system.  Most e r r o r s which occurred  describe  involved correct  grapheme c h o i c e s , e.g. <(misition) i n s t e a d o f " m i s i c i a n " , <(disaplin) instead of " d i s c i p l i n e " , e t c .  The unanswered q u e s t i o n i s , why  are these p a r t i c u l a r graphemes chosen? 3,7  Dialect.  A provocative question r e q u i r i n g future  i n v o l v e s the s u b j e c t ' s d i a l e c t .  study  C e r t a i n s p e l l i n g s o f words  c l e a r l y r e f l e c t the s u b j e c t ' s own p r o d u c t i o n o r p e r c e p t i o n o f the word, e.g. <^contudetshon) f o r " c o n t r a d i c t i o n " (distink) f o r "distinct"  (Subject 4)  (Subject 1)  <(spishes) f o r " s u s p i c i o u s "  (Subject 3)  Data from S u b j e c t 23, the s u b j e c t w i t h an " a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n " problem, i s e n l i g h t e n i n g .  H i s s p e l l i n g s i n d i c a t e d c o n f u s i o n a t the  phoneme l e v e l , e.g. (pribalige) f o r "privelege" <ffafefully> f o r " f a i t h f u l l y " <fsacerfice) f o r " s a c r i f i c e " I f s u b j e c t s a r e "sounding out" words a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own pron u n c i a t i o n , o t h e r e r r o r s which a r e n o t so unquestionably might be e x p l a i n e d .  dialectal  F o r example, the o r a l p r o d u c t i o n s o f S u b j e c t s  1 and 22 were n o t heard by the examiner, but might e x p l a i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o r t h o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n s (phontography) and <j>ertogrerphy). The major source of s p e l l i n g e r r o r , f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , was i n the graphemic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u n s t r e s s e d vowels.  Information  regarding  f  -  108"  a s u b j e c t ' s p r o d u c t i o n of these vowels (or how  they b e l i e v e they  produce these vowels) would l e a d to v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s s t r a t e g i e s b e i n g employed by the A t r o c i o u s s p e l l e r .  into Strategies for  f i n d i n g the c o r r e c t grapheme to r e p l a c e an u n s t r e s s e d vowel y i e l d e d e q u i v o c a l evidence.  S u b j e c t 1 chose[-back] vowels to r e p l a c e the  u n s t r e s s e d vowel i n "palace"» ( p a l i c e ) , ( p a l e c e ) , ( p a l a c e ) i  while  s u b j e c t 2 chose [-front) vowels» ( p a l a c e ) , ( p a l u c e ) , (paLoce) . However, n e i t h e r s u b j e c t maintained  a c o n s i s t e n t [-back) or  s t r a t e g y f o r u n s t r e s s e d vowel replacement i n o t h e r words. s u b j e c t s appeared to be m a n i p u l a t i n g u n s t r e s s e d vowels i n the Audio V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Task,  [-front) Most  haphazardly  An a c c u r a t e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of  t h i s p o i n t awaits c o r r o b o r a t i o n by s p e c t r o g r a p h i c measurements, 8,  R e l i a n c e on the V o c a l T r a c t ,  Most n o t a b l y , n e a r l y a l l t e s t  s u b j e c t s favoured an a u d i t o r y s t r a t e g y over a v i s u a l s t r a t e g y when they were unsure of how S u b j e c t 1 who  an item was  spelled.  An e x c e p t i o n  e f f e c t i v e l y employed v i s u a l c l u e s to h e l p him  was spell.  S p e l l i n g p r o d u c t i o n s of items from the A u d i o - V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Task r e g u l a r l y improved with repeated attempts, of  "Phonetic"  phonemes, such as repeated use of ( s h ) f o r ///,  spellings  were r a r e .  I n c o r r e c t l y s p e l l e d items were more l i k e l y to i n v o l v e mis-sequenced graphemes (e.g. ( g e n a r e l ) f o r " g e n e r a l " ) , an i n c o r r e c t c h o i c e of o r t h o g r a p h i c convention  (e.g, ( d i v i s s o n ) f o r " d i v i s i o n " ) , or a  v e r s i o n of the c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g d i s t o r t e d by the a d d i t i o n o r d e l e t i o n of an e x t r a grapheme (e.g, ( b e u t i f u l ) f o r " b e a u t i f u l " ) .  Nearly  a l l t e s t s u b j e c t s a p p a r e n t l y used v i s u a l c l u e s on o c c a s i o n . S u b j e c t 1, however, use of v i s u a l c l u e s was subjects/appeared  dominant, w h i l e  For other  to depend on a u d i t o r y c l u e s .  An a u d i t o r y model to be used as a c l u e to s p e l l i n g  169 c o u l d be the speech p r o d u c t i o n talker.  o f the s p e l l e r o r o f another  In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , s u b j e c t s requested  t h a t the  examiner "say i t again", presumably because the s u b j e c t to make a d i r e c t phoneme t o grapheme correspondence. model was o f t e n the s p e l l e r ' s own p r o d u c t i o n s u b j e c t s repeated  intended  The a u d i t o r y  o f an item.  Several  items s l o w l y as they wrote, u s i n g the method  t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as "sounding a. word o u t " (see above d i s c u s s i o n ) . The  r e l i a n c e o f these s u b j e c t s on t h e i r v o c a l t r a c t s  is a s t r i k i n g consideration,  These s u b j e c t s a r e a b l e t o t r a n s l a t e  from a grapheme sequence t o a morpheme when r e a d i n g .  However, i n  s p e l l i n g , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s from morpheme t o phoneme s t r i n g and then t o grapheme s t r i n g .  I n t u i t i v e l y one f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s an  e a r l i e r stage f o r a u s e r o f an a l p h a b e t i c system than a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n from morpheme to grapheme.  A d i r e c t morpheme to  grapheme t r a n s l a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the item i s s t o r e d i n the memory as a u n i t .  In a s p e l l i n g system which i s morphophonemic i n many  i n s t a n c e s , such as E n g l i s h , an i n t e r m e d i a r y  translation involving  i n d i v i d u a l sounds must n e c e s s a r i l y be a l e a r n i n g stage r a t h e r than the f i n a l stage o f development.  -110BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Robert G. 'Orthographic Awareness' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g . Uta F r i t h (ed) Academic Press, InC. London* 1900 ( a ) . 51-67 Baker, Robert G. and Smith, P h i l i p T. 'A P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c . Study of E n g l i s h S t r e s s Assignment Rules' Language and Speech 19 (January-March)* 1976 Baron, Johathon; Treiman, Rebeccas W i l f , J e n n i f e r F.s and Kelliman, P h i l i p ' S p e l l i n g and Reading by Rules' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h Ted; 159-193 Barron, Roderick W. ' V i s u a l and P h o n o l o g i c a l S t r a t e g i e s i n Reading and S p e l l i n g ' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 195-213 Chomsky, Noam and H a l l e , M o r r i s The Sound P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h Harper and Row, New York I 9 6 B Derousne, J , and Beauvois, M.F. Reading* Data from A l e x i a ' surgery, and P s y c h i a t r y 42*  'Phonological Processing i n f o u r n a l of Neurology? NeuroT979 1125-1132  E h r i , L i n n e a C. 'The Development of Orthographic Images' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 311-337 F r i t h , Uta 'Unexpected S p e l l i n g Problems' i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 495-515  C o g n i t i v e Processes  F r i t h , Uta 'Annotation* S p e l l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s ' J o u r n a l of C h i l d Psychology and P s y c h i a t r y 191 1980 (b) 279-285 Gibson, E.S. 'Perceptual Aspects o f the Reading Process and I t s Development' Handbook of Sensory P h y s i o l o g y Volume 8 s P e r c e p t i o n R. Held et a l (ed) S p r i n g e r V e r l a g B e r l i n * 1978 G i l b e r t , J.H.V, and Johnson, C a r o l y n 'The Ambliance Phenomenon' J o u r n a l of C h i l d Language* 1976 Gleitman, L e i l a and Rozin, Paul 'The S t r u c t u r e and A c q u i s i t i o n of Reading I* R e l a t i o n s Between Orthographies and the S t r u c t u r e of Language' Reading A Reber (ed) Goldbaum Press , New York 1976 H a l l , Robert A, J r . Philadelphia*  Sound and S p e l l i n g i n E n g l i s h 19SI  C h i l t o n Company,  Hanna, P a u l R; Hodges, Richard E, and Hanna, Jean S, Spelling* S t r u c t u r e and S t r a t e g i e s Houghton M i f f l i n Company Boston 1971 Harpin, W i l l i a m The Second London 1976  'R*  George A l l e n and U n i v i n L t d  Hecaen, H e n r i and A l b e r t , M a r t i n L, Wiley and Sons, I n c . New York  Human Neuropsychology 1978  John  -IllHenderson, L e s l i e and Chard, J a c k i e 'The Header's I m p l i c i t Knowledge o f Orthographic S t r u c t u r e ' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g U t a F r i t h (ed) 85-115 Henachen, S.E. K l i n i s c h e und Anatomische B e i t r a g e zur P a t h o l o g i e des Gehirns Nordiske Bokhandeln Stockholms 1920-1922 Horn, Thomas D. Research on Handwriting and S p e l l i n g N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h Champaign, Illinois» 1966 Hotopf, Norman  Uta F r i t h  { S l i p s o f the Pen'  (ed)  287-308  Hyman, L a r r y M, Phonologys and Winston New York.  C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g  Theory and A n a l y s i s 1975  Holt,  Rinehart  Kinsbourne, M and R o s e n f i e l d , D. 'Agraphia S e l e c t i v e f o r W r i t t e n Spelling* B r a i n and Language It 1974 215-225 Linksy, A r t h u r New York*  On W r i t i n g , Reading and D y s l e x i a 1973  Grune and S t r a t t o n  Lyons, John I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s U n i v e r s i t y Press Cambridges 1968  Cambridge  Marsh, Georges Friedman, Mortons Wilson, V e r o n i c a and Desberg, Peter 'The Development o f S t r a t e g i e s i n S p e l l i n g ' Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 339-353 Morton, John 'The Logogen Model and Orthographic S t r u c t u r e ' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 117-133 P e r t z , D.L, and Bever, T.G, ' S e n s i t i v i t y t o P h o n o l o g i c a l U n i v e r s a l s i n C h i l d r e n and Adolescents' Language 51, Is 1975 149-162 Peters, Margaret L. S p e l l i n g s Kegan Paul Londons 1967  Caught o r Taught? Routledge and  Read, Charles C h i l d r e n ' s C a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f Speech Sounds i n E n g l i s h N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Teachers o f E n g l i s h Urbana, I l l i n o i s ? 1975 Rozin, Paul and Gleitman, L e i l a 'The S t r u c t u r e and A c q u i s i t i o n o f Reading l i s The Reading Process and the A c q u i s i t i o n o f the Alphabetic P r i n c i p l e ' Reading A.Reber (ed) Goldbaum Press New York 1 1976 Sasanuma, S, and Fujimura, 0, 'An A n a l y s i s o f W r i t i n g E r r o r s i n Japanese Patientss K a n j i versus Kana Words' Cortex 8s 1972  265-282  Schane, Sanford A. 'Rule Breaking i n E n g l i s h S p e l l i n g s A Study of. F i n a l "E"' S t u d i e s i n D e s c r i p t i v e and H i s t o r i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s Paul J . Hopper (ed) John Benjamins B.V. Amsterdams 1977 Scragg, D,G, H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h S p e l l i n g Press Londons 1974  Manchester U n i v e r s i t y  -112Shattuck-Hufnagel, S t e f a n l e and K l a t t , Dennis H. 'The L i m i t e d Use o f D i s t i n c t i v e Features and Markedness i n Speech P r o d u c t i o n s ! Evidence from Speech E r r o r Data' Journal of V e r b a l Hearing and V e r b a l Behavior 18i 1979 41-55 Sloboda, John A, ' V i s u a l Imagery and I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e i n Spelling C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g U t a F r i t h (ed)  231-248  Smith, P h i l i p T, ' L i n g u i s t i c Information i n S p e l l i n g * Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 33-49  Cognitive  Smith, P h i l i p T. and Baker, Robert G. 'The I n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h S p e l l i n g P a t t e r n s on P r o n u n c i a t i o n ' J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g and V e r b a l Behavior 15% 1976 267-283 Sweeney, James E, and Rourke, Byron P. N e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P h o n e t i c a l l y Accurate and P h o n e t i c a l l y Inaccurate S p e l l i n g E r r o r s i n Younger and Older Retarded Spellers Academic Press Inc. Windsors 1978 Tenney, Yvette J . ' V i s u a l F a c t o r s i n S p e l l i n g ' C o g n i t i v e Processes i n S p e l l i n g . Uta F r i t h (ed) 215-229 Vachek, J , W r i t t e n Language  Mouton and Co. N.V.  The Haguei  Venezky, Richard L. 'From Webster t o Rice t o Roosevelt' Processes i n S p e l l i n g U t a F r i t h (ed) 9-30  Cognitive  Wijk, A x e l Rules o f P r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r the E n g l i s h Language U n i v e r s i t y Press London 1966 Wolf, Maryanne The Word R e t r i e v a l Process and Reading and Aphasics Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y ! 1979  1973  Oxford  i n Children  -115-  APPENDIX I I Task It  Orthographic S p e l l i n g  Performance  I n s t r u c t i o n s - L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o these i n s t r u c t i o n s . are  g o i n g t o hear some words.  You  F i r s t you w i l l hear a word, then  you w i l l hear t h a t word i n a sentence, then you w i l l hear the word a g a i n .  I would l i k e you t o l i s t e n t o a l l t h r e e r e p e t i t i o n s ,  and then s p e l l the word u s i n g your paper and pen.  F o r example,  you w i l l hear, "dog - I fought a dog - dog". Then you w i l l w r i t e dog.  Don't worry i f you don't know how t o s p e l l the words, j u s t  do your b e s t . Do you understand? Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? Are you ready?  Task 1 Items w i t h Sentences,  1.  advice  Take my advice and l e a ^ t o w n .  2.  picnic  We go on a p i c n i c every summer.  3.  huge  She bought a huge cake.  4. secure 5.  stag  I f e e l secure a t home. The s t a g knocked h i s horns a g a i n s t a t r e e .  6. measure  I w i l l measure the i n g r e d i e n t s  carefully.  7. s t r a i g h t  The road i s s t r a i g h t and narrow.  8. t h i c k e n  Heat i t and i t w i l l t h i c k e n up.  9. s u s p i c i o u s I saw a s u s p i c i o u s l o o k i n g man. 10.  obey  Please obey the r u l e s .  11.  pretty  The scenery i s p r e t t y a l o n g t h a t r o a d .  -116-  Task 1 Items w i t h Sentences  (cont'd)  12.  cousin  My c o u s i n came to v i s i t .  13.  mission  Soon my m i s s i o n w i l l he complete.  14.  general  The g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s e a s i l y swayed.  15.  engage  I w i l l engage them i n c o n v e r s a t i o n .  16.  corrosion  The i r o n showed s i g n s o f c o r r o s i o n by w i n t e r .  17.  device  T h i s handy d e v i c e s e l l s  18.  glacial  During g l a c i a l times, sheets o f i c e covered  cheaply.  the e a r t h . 19.  heather  I p l a n t e d some heather i n my garden.  20.  bridge  We need a b r i d g e t o c r o s s the r i v e r ,  21.  c r u c i f i x i o n The c r u c i f i x i o n i s c e n t r a l to E a s t e r ,  22.  happening  What's happening today?  23.  massive  The massive rock f e l l on the highway,  24.  squeeze  Don't squeeze the v e g e t a b l e s ,  25.  critical  My t e a c h e r i s c r i t i c a l of my work,  26.  patience  I have no p a t i e n c e w i t h b a b i e s .  27.  history  I study h i s t o r y because i t ' s f u n .  28.  closure  We need c l o s u r e of some i d e a s .  29.  distance  Toronto  30.  vacation  I need a v a c a t i o n soon.  31.  pacific  Cross the P a c i f i c Ocean i n a s a i l b o a t .  32.  beautiful  That c a r has b e a u t i f u l  33•  midnight  I t was midnight  34.  photography I've taken up photography as a hobby.  35.  discipline  i s a g r e a t d i s t a n c e away.  lines.  when the witches came o u t .  Severe d i s c i p l i n e i s n o t good f o r anyone.  -117-  Task 1 Items w i t h Sentences (cont'd)  36.  malicious  Who's been s p r e a d i n g m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p ?  37.  paradise  V i s i t a t r o p i c a l p a r a d i s e l i k e Hawaii.  38.  distinct  One  39.  tickle  Never t i c k l e me under my  40.  murder  A b r u t a l murder was committed  41.  civil  Keep a c i v i l tongue i n your head.  42.  population  Most o f B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n i s i n the Lower  i s a u i t e d i s t i n c t from the o t h e r . feet. last night.  Mainland• 43,  c o n t r a d i c t i o n That i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms.  44.  average  The average k i d l o v e s to watch  45.  political  There are t h r e e ma.ior p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n  T.V.  Canada. 46.  vicious  Read about t h a t v i c i o u s f i g h t i n the papers.  47.  medicine  Take some medicine i f you f e e l  48,  division  M u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n are f u n .  49.  colony  The ant c o l o n y s t e a l s food from our p i c n i c s .  50.  bugle  My b r o t h e r played the bugle i n the army.  sick.  -118-  Task 2i  Audio-Visual Spelling  I n s t r u c t i o n s - L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s . are  g o i n g to hear some words.  You  F i r s t you w i l l hear a word, then  you w i l l hear t h a t word i n a sentence, then you w i l l hear the word a g a i n .  I would l i k e you to l i s t e n to a l l t h r e e r e p e t i t i o n s  and then s p e l l the word u s i n g your paper and pen. I w i l l t e l l you, i f i t i s wrong you may  If i t i s right  write i t again.  If i t  i s r i g h t t h i s time I w i l l t e l l you, i f i t i s wrong you can t r y i t one more time.  For example, you w i l l hear, " c a t - My c a t has  green eyes - c a t " .  You should w r i t e c - a - t on the paper.  Then  I w i l l t e l l you i f i t i s r i g h t o r wrong. Do you  (  understand?  Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? Are you  ready?  Task 2 Items w i t h Sentences. 1.  palace  In the p a l a c e l i v e d the k i n g and queen.  2.  conscience  My  3.  curiosity  His  4.  ftyasperation  In a f i t of e x a s p e r a t i o n , I stomped out o: the  conscience i s b o t h e r i n g me. c u r i o s i t y got the b e t t e r of him.  room.  5.  scratch  I have a s c r a t c h on my  arm.  6.  cedar  A t a l l cedar t r e e grows next t o my  7.  musician  I heard a f i n e m u s i c i a n p l a y the g u i t a r .  8.  privilege  I t i s a p r i v i l e g e to be here today.  9.  action  I saw a c t i o n i n the 2nd World  10.  generation  With each new .generation comes new  11.  sacrifice  No s a c r i f i c e i s too s m a l l .  12.  crucial  Speed i s c r u c i a l to my  plan.  house.  War. hope.  -119-  Task 2 Items w i t h Sentences  (cont'd)  13.  delicate  T h i s m a t e r i a l i s d e l i c a t e and e a s i l y  14.  sufficient  We now  15.  curse  The bad f a i r y p l a c e d a curse on the baby,  16.  business  A s m a l l b u s i n e s s can be p r o f i t a b l e .  17.  magic  Take a r i d e on a magic c a r p e t .  18.  through,  The dog  19.  salary  No one earns a good s a l a r y a t h i s f i r s t  20.  popular  I t ' s n i c e to be p o p u l a r a t s c h o o l .  21.  crisis  There i s a c r i s i s i n the Middle E a s t ,  22.  faithfully  I f you do your work f a i t h f u l l y you w i l l  23.  destruction  We watched the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the o l d b u i l d i n g ,  24.  aquatic  I go swimming a t the A q u a t i c Centre,  25.  mystery  I want to see a good mystery  26.  reality  Sometimes r e a l i t y i s more i n t e r e s t i n g  have s u f f i c i e n t  torn.  evidence.  jumped through the hoop. job.  pass.  movie. than  daydreams. 27.  wrong  Don't choose the wrong answer,  28.  dragon  A f i r e - b r e a t h i n g dragon came out of the cave.  29.  spread  An eagle spread h i s wings and f l e w away,  30.  hedge  A b i g hedge surrounded  the c a s t l e .  31.  medicate  A d o c t o r e w i l l medicate  his patients.  32.  addition  S u b t r a c t i o n and a d d i t i o n are  33.  logical  Sometimes the l o g i c a l answer i s n ' t the r i g h t  34.  anguish  The Bee Gee's s u f f e r e d anguish and doubt i n their  35. 36.  exercise juicy  easy.  song.  F r e s h a i r and e x e r c i s e might cause Have a b i t e of t h i s j u i c y a p p l e .  cancer.  one.  -120-  Task 2 Items w i t h Sentences  (cont'd)  37.  disappear  A m a g i c i a n might d i s a p p e a r i n a p u f f of smoke.  38.  region  Ranching of  i s important i n the northwestern r e g i o n  B.C.  39.  match  Use a s a f e t y match to l i g h t a f i r e .  40.  precise  Give me  41.  accordion  I'd  42.  persuasion  Use p e r s u a s i o n to get what you want.  typewriter  Use a t y p e w r i t e r to type l e t t e r s .  44.  position  I don't l i k e the p o s i t i o n I'm i n .  45.  deliver  I f you d e l i v e r newspapers, you can make some  a precise figure, please.  l i k e to take a c c o r d i o n l e s s o n s .  money.  46.  electricity  We use e l e c t r i c i t y to heat the house.  47.  sympathy  Don't ask f o r sympathy from  48.  wiggle  Watch the worm wiggle  49.  opposite  Black i s the o p p o s i t e of white.  50.  several  Try  me.  around.  s e v e r a l times b e f o r e g i v i n g  up. I  -121-  Task 3»  Orthographic  Instructions  -  S p e l l i n g Without A u d i t o r y  L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s .  going to show you a p i c t u r e .  I am  I would l i k e you to w r i t e the word  t h a t i s the name of the p i c t u r e . it.  Stimulus  Do not say the word, j u s t w r i t e  F o r example, I ' l l show you t h i s c a r d and y o u ' l l w r i t e "boy".  Do you understand? Do you have any Are you  questions?  ready?  Task 3 Items (pres ented i n random  order).  1.  toothpaste  11.  chair  2.  fire  12.  pillows  3.  iron  13.  knife  4.  bread  14.  grapes  5.  cereal  15.  perfume  6.  carrots  16.  mushrooms  7.  camera  17.  vacuum ( c l e a n e r )  8.  wheat  18.  mountain  9.  castle  19.  strawberry  10.  towels  -122-  Task 4t Instruetions -  Suffixation  L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o these i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  going t o show you a c a r d w i t h a word on i t , which I w i l l for  you.  Then I w i l l show you another c a r d .  I am read  I t w i l l have a new  word on i t , made up from the word you saw b e f o r e , p l u s an ending, I would l i k e you t o read the new word.  F o r example, I w i l l show  you t h i s c a r d and I w i l l say, " d e v i l " .  Then I w i l l show you t h i s  next c a r d , and you w i l l say, " d e v i l i s h " .  You may take as l o n g as  you l i k e t o decide how the new word should sound when you say i t a t normal speed. Group A i  Here a r e some more examples.  Now you t r y .  King - Kingdom master - mastery  Group B i  locate - location electric -  electricity  real - reality Do you understand? Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? Are you ready? Task 4 Items ( p a i r s presented i n random o r d e r ) , hug - huge  oppose - o p p o s i t i o n  nag - nage  examine -  bug - buge  invite - invitation  pig  combine -  - pige  examination  combination  frog - froge  children - childrenity  picnic - picnice  recess - r e c e s s i t y  panic - p a n i c i t y  carrot - carrotity  attic  robin - robinian  - atticity  rapi^d - r a p i d i t y  orange - orangian  vital - vitality  awful - a w f u l i a n  -123-  Task 4 Items  (cont'd)  real - reality  insane - i n s a n i t i o n  stupid  forget - f o r g e t i t i o n  -  stupidity  confuse - c o n f u s i o n  accross -  discuss - discussion  sock -  success - s u c c e s s i o n  thermos -  electric - electrician  glass - glassion  magic - m a g i c i a n  dismiss - d i s m i s s i o n  music - m u s i c i a n  attic  restrict - restriction  upset - u p s e t i o n  direct -  enchant -  direction  accrossition  sockity thermosian  -• a t t i c i a n  enchantion  prevent - p r e v e n t i o n  habit - habition  define - d e f i n i t i o n  c r e d i t -• c r e d i t i o n  create -  fat -  creation  crack - c r a c k i o n  equate - e q u a t i o n  Task 5»  Judging the  fation  Relatedness of carefully  P a i r s of Words  Instructions -  Listen  say two words.  I would l i k e you to t e l l me  a l i k e because they are r e l a t e d , I'll  say, " b i g - b i g g e r " .  related,  o r j u s t by chance?  moustache",  understand?  Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? Are you  ready?  I will  i f these words sound  o r j u s t by chance.  For example,  Do they sound a l i k e because they are Here's another examplei  "mouse -  Do they sound a l i k e because they are r e l a t e d  by chance? Do you  to these i n s t r u c t i o n s .  or  just  - 124 -  Task 5 Items (presented i n random o r d e r ) , cat - category  c r y - crime  choose - c h o i c e  crime - c r i m i n a l  polite - political  gray - grade  admire -  p a i r - periscope  admirable  admire - m i r a c l e  peer - p e r i s c o p e  core - c o r a l  carpet - carpenter  sat - s a t i s f y  sure - measure  satisfy - satisfaction  photograph - photography  sign - signal  happy -  but - button  Christ -  s t o r e - storage  phone - phony  serve - s e r v i c e  school - scholar  Task 6s  happiness Christmas  L e a r n i n g Nonsense Words  Instructions -  L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  I'm  g o i n g to teach you s i x words.  These words don't mean anything,  they are j u s t nonsense words.  I would l i k e you to t r y and r e -  member them u n t i l tomorrow, when I ' l l ask you to say them f o r me Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? /n  llpADi/  / l  spinlDi/  / f judo an/ /defjutian/ / r m s l k 1/ /m  k l k 1/  -125-  Task 7t  L e t t e r Test  I n s t r u c t i o n s - L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  I will  show you some cards, each with a l e t t e r p r i n t e d on i t . I would l i k e you to t e l l me Do you  letter.  understand?  Do you have any Are you  the name of the  questions?  ready?  Task 7 items were the 26 l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t .  i  

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