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Atrocious spelling and language awareness Rally, Anne Marie 1982

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ATROCIOUS SPELLING AND LANGUAGE AWARENESS by ANNE MARIE RALLY B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n •THE SCHOOL OF AUDIOLOGY AND SPEECH SCIENCES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard John G i l b e r t C a r o l y n Johnson THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 @ Anne Marie R a l l y , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ft ^JL^J^cy^. O ^ £ L .Cyjz^JUv. S c w ^ o The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e A Q A ^ . ; P . v V 2 ^ DE-6 (3/81) — i i -ABSTRACT Current l i t e r a t u r e on s p e l l i n g strategies has indicated that successful s p e l l e r s use phonological and morphological information as well as graphemic memory i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g . Research into s p e l l -ing disorders has uncovered two broad categories of poor s p e l l e r s J Phonetically Inaccurate s p e l l e r s , whose s p e l l i n g errors are phonet-i c a l l y unrelated to the target and who also exhibit a generalized language impairment and Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r s , whose errors are phonetically plausible and who have no obvious neurological impairment. This study intended to investigate some of the organ-i z a t i o n a l and language a b i l i t i e s of those children known as Phonet-i c a l l y Accurate or Atrocious s p e l l e r s . The hypothesis was that Atrocious s p e l l e r s have inadequate knowledge of the phonological and morphological rules necessary f o r correct s p e l l i n g . Three phonological processes were under examinations Pal-a t a l i z a t i o n , Velar Softening and Stress Shift„ Test items incor-porated one or more of these processes. Subjects performed three s p e l l i n g taskss two written s p e l l i n g tasks with o r a l presentation of the item and one s p e l l i n g task without auditory model and three language tasks. The f i r s t , S u f f i x a t i o n , required subjects to pro-nounce r e a l and nonsense words derived from a root word and a f f i x . Subjects also judged relatedness of word pairs and learned nonsense words which either did or did not employ the target processes c o r r e c t l y . Because of the " p a r t i a l cue" reading method employed by the subjects, i t was impossible to determine t h e i r knowledge of phono-logy through the S u f f i x a t i o n task. However, the data gave r i s e to some in t e r e s t i n g considerations. Review of the h i s t o r i c a l development of s p e l l i n g suggested possible p a r a l l e l s between synchronic and diachronic development of s p e l l i n g . Poor hand-writing was linked to poor s p e l l i n g and a rationale was proposed. Several instances of motor perseveration of writing were noted, suggesting that f o r these cases, the stimulus of the motor pattern was stronger than an auditory model. Some evidence f o r word r e c a l l problems appeared; a confrontation naming task would determine whether the incidence of word fi n d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i s higher i n Atrocious s p e l l e r s than i n p r o f i c i e n t s p e l l e r s , Errors i n a f f i x -ation led to further questioning of subjects' morphological competence. Atrocious and good spellers employed a s p e l l i n g strategy known as "sounding out" with varying degrees of profic i e n c y . The question was then raised of how strongly s p e l l i n g errors were influenced by the sp e l l e r ' s d i a l e c t of spoken language. Most notably, nearly a l l test subjects favoured an auditory over a v i s u a l strategy when they were unsure of s p e l l i n g . This t r a n s l a t i o n from morpheme to phoneme s t r i n g and then to grapheme s t r i n g was f e l t to be developmentally an e a r l i e r stage than a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n from morpheme to grapheme. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT o e e e o e e o o e o D O O o o o o a t i o o o o o o o o o o o o XI LIST OF TABLES O Q O O O O Q O O O O O O Q B O O O O Q O O Q O O O VI1 LIST OF FIGURES o o o o o o f l o o o o o o a a o o o o o o o o o o V l l i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................ i x Chapter I REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................... 1 A. H i s t o r i c a l Review ............. 0 1 B. Phonology and Spel l i n g ......... 5 1. Overview of pertinent aspects of English phonology 5 2. Graphemic representation of phonemes o o e . » » o o » « . o . o . o . o » 8 3. Phonological representation i n s p e l l i n g ........»..»..«. 16 C. Substrates f o r Development of Spe l l i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . O . G . . . O . . O . 22 1. Neuroanatomical basis ...... 23 2. Physical correlates ........ 2h 2 0 I M O *tiO IT • o o o o o o o a o e o o d o e o 2 ^  2 02 S snsa"fc x on o e o o o e s o o o a o o *~ 5 3. Perception and Strategies 25 1. Perception * , , o « . o . . . < > . . 25 20 Strategies f . o . o . o . o . o o . 2cS D. Acquisition of Sp e l l i n g Strategies 31 E. Inadequate Versus Atrocious Spellers o o o 0 o o o o o o 0 e o o » o o * o o » o 9 o 3^  Chapter II STATEMENT OF PROBLEM ..................... 36 Cll3,p"fc©2r III METHOD o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c o o o o o o B a o o 3^  Ao Experimental Plan «*0 0 « • o 0 o 0 • » * *. 38 -v-Chapter IV 6 O O Q 0 O O O & 0 0 0 0 4 * o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 B o Subjects l o Referral of subjects 2,, Age and sex of subjects .... Co Description of Tasks 1, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 Task Is Orthographic s p e l l i n g performance , 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Task 2s Audio v i s u a l s p e l l i n g performance 0 0 0 0 0 T 0 0 0 3. Task 3* Orthographic s p e l l i n g without auditory stimulus ; . o o 4. Task 4s S u f f i x a t i o n 0 3 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 . Task 5 « Judging the Related-ness of pairs of WOirdS 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 o Task 6i Learning nonsense WOrdS 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o e o t » e o o 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 7 . Task ?« Letter t e s t . Do Word L i s t s ,.... l o Test items f o r tasks 1 and 2 2. Test items f o r task 3 . . 3, Test items f o r task 4 . . . E." Administration ...... F. Instructions RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS A. Introduction B o Description of Analysis 0. 0 0 O & O 0 0 9 9 • • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a « o o o o o o e o o o o o o c O O O O Q O Q O l o Preliminary analysis of s p e l l i n g tasks « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 . Analysis of tasks 1 and 2 3 o Analysis of task 3 4„ Analysis of task 4 5 o Analysis of task 5 . . . . . . . . 0 . . 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 O 0 d 0 * 0 0 Page 39 39 41 41 41 42 42 43 4 3 44 44 44 48 48 48 49 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 7 5 7 5 8 7 - v i -Page 6 o • Analysis of task 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 7 o Analysis of task 7 • • • » • » • ° « • • 9 1 Chapter V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 9 2 A i Introduction . t o 9 . > o . o . . . s o « o > « « . 9 2 B o Discussion of Processes under Investigation . g o o . . o o o . < o . < t o o a o . 9 5 l o Velar Softening Rule ........ 9 5 2 , P a l a t a l i z a t i o n ... 0 . . . . . . . . . o 9 7 3 o Stress S h i f t . • o . . i o . . . . . . . . . 9 9 Co Strategies . . . . . o . . . o . . t 4 < > o . . . . . o 1 0 0 1 . S p e l l i n g Development ........ 1 0 0 2 o Handwriting ... ....... ....... 1 0 0 3 , Motor Perseveration of Handwriting ................. 1 0 2 4 , Confrontation Naming ........ 1 0 3 3 o Aff l X e l t X O n 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 10^r* 6 0 Sounding Out 0 0 a e « e o • « © • » 0 » o • 1 0 5 7 • OXcl l@Ct * 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 8, Reliance on the Vocal Tl*£LCt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 « • * 0 0 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 110 APPENDIX I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 APPENDIX II 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ll^J* - v i i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1, Vowel Phonemes of American English 6 2, Diphthongs of American English 6 3 , Consonant Phonemes of American English 7 4 , Graphemic Representation of English Phonemes 9 5„ Regular Graphemic Representations of English Phonemes 15 6o Some Functions of 'Silent' F i n a l e i n English S p e l l i n g 21 7. Test Items f o r Task 1 45 8. Test Items f o r Task 2 45 9. Test Items f o r Task 3 46 10. Test Items f o r Task 4 46 11. Test Items f o r Task 5 47 12.. Test Items f o r Task 6 47 13-20. Tasks 1 and 2 Responses from Subjects 1-5 56 21. Task 3 Responses from Subjects 1-5 76 2 2 . Task 4 Responses from Subjects 1-5 79 23„ Correct Responses to Task 4 84 24. Number of Correct Responses from Each Target Process 86 25 . Incorrect Responses to Task 5 by Subjects 1-5 88 26. Task 6 Responses from Subjects 1-5 90 - V I 1 1 -LIST OF FIGURES Lateral View of the Brain Depicting S i g n i f i c a n t Areas of Brodmann Preliminary Analysis of Sp e l l i n g Errors - i x -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was inspired and directed by John H.V, Gi l b e r t . His patience and insight have provided me with an example of what a perceptbr should be. I must also thank Carolyn Johnston f o r her g i f t s of friendship, counsel and time. I appreciate the cooperation of the s t a f f s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the learning assistance teachers, of the schools i n which the study was conducted. Lastly, I would l i k e to thank the subjects of thi s study, the children who, as one l i t t l e boy so aptly said, "don't got to be here unless I want to". CHAPTER I REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. H i s t o r i c a l Review Recent reforms i n the f i e l d of s p e l l i n g have been aimed at simplifying English orthography by providing single grapheme to phoneme correspondences. S p e l l i n g reform has, how-ever, been a theme i n the history of English orthography from the beginning of attempts to translate r e l i g i o u s o r a l t r a d i t i o n s into Early English prose forms. In fact, one might view the history of s p e l l i n g as a series of reforms continuing into the present. Following i s a b r i e f account of English s p e l l i n g since i t s conception. The history of English orthography begins with the in f l u x of Germanic groups into Great B r i t a i n and t h e i r conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y by the end of the s i x t h century. Along with C h r i s t i a n i t y , the Germanic tr i b e s acquired the use of the Roman alphabet. Since Latin phonology did not include c e r t a i n German phonemes, two runes were added to the roman alphabet. U n t i l the tenth century, there coexisted four main s p e l l i n g systems, each representing a dialects Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish and West Saxon. Each of these d i a l e c t s was characterized by d i s t i n c t s p e l l i n g conventions as well as d i f f -erences i n vocabulary and syntax. P o l i t i c a l events resulted i n the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of s p e l l i n g conventions to the West Saxon s t y l e . Thus, by the end of the tenth century, a stable s p e l l i n g system was i n e f f e c t throughout England. At t h i s time, s p e l l i n g provided -2-a much more precise grapheme to phoaeme relat i o n s h i p than does Modern English s p e l l i n g (Scragg p . l l ) . Scragg discusses the significance of a fixed s p e l l i n g t r a d i t i o n to the development of English orthography. F i r s t , some modern s p e l l i n g conventions have t h e i r roots i n the e a r l i e s t English orthographic t r a d i t i o n . These conventions include the interchangeability of (i> and (y) (graphemic variants i n medieval La t i n whose o r i g i n a l l y separate phoneme had f a l l e n together i n most dialects)? the use of one grapheme to represent both /©/ and /&/ (contextual variants of one phoneme i n Old English)? and the use of (s) f o r /z/„ ({x) was used only i n foreign names or tech-n i c a l words). Secondly, the West Saxon t r a d i t i o n proved too stable to be e n t i r e l y l o s t . Our present system i s therefore a mixture of several systems, each having d i s t i n c t i v e conventions (Scragg p.14), 1066 marked the year of the Norman Conquest, Although West Saxon English orthography continued f o r almost a century, i t gradually f e l l into disuse, since the new r u l i n g class maintained t h e i r own language. The Peterborough Chronicle, a progression of dated annals spanning the f i r s t half of the twelfth century, depicts the decline of a universal s p e l l i n g system f o r English orthography, (Scragg p.17). At f i r s t , s p e l l i n g adhered s t r i c t l y to the West Saxon standard but gradually conformity was l o s t as scribes became less versed i n English orthography. By the twelfth century, sacred and secular writings were nearly a l l i n French, The Anglo-Saxon language continued through the Middle English period (1066-1500), possibly because the English refused to abandon t h e i r own language (Hanna p.43). Anglo-Norman, the -3-d i a l e c t of French spoken i n England, declined i n importance with the growing r e a l i z a t i o n of how d i f f e r e n t i t was from standard French. Late i n the fourteenth century, English again became the o f f i c i a l language of England. However, a sizeable amount of French vocabulary remained, p a r t i c u l a r l y those words having to do with r e l i g i o n , food, law, society, the m i l i t a r y and business, French phonemic structure and orthography were also assimilated to English. The many changes revolutionized written English. A few examples are given here. Scribes dropped from the English alphabet the (fc-) and (f) which were not i n the French alphabet. These were gradually replaced by (th). The use of (ch) f o r the a f f r i c a t e / t / / became widespread very quickly, there having been no previous unambiguous way to express t h i s sound. Norman trained scribes overgeneralized French conventions such as (c) f o r / s / to Saxon words (e.g. Old English ( i s ) became (ice)) by analogy, and these forms coexisted alongside t r a d i t i o n a l rep resentations of sounds. Thus, Norman French may be seen to have had the single greatest influence upon English orthography. The Renaissance, however, saw the advance of new ideas requiring expression. New words were introduced into English from I t a l i a n , Spanish and es-p e c i a l l y Greek and L a t i n . Acute s e n s i t i v i t y to the Latin etymology of some words led to the r e v i s i o n of many words which did not have Lat i n root. For example (absolve), (corpse) and (picture) have Middle English ancestors ( a s s o i l ) , (cors) and (peynture), but were modified according to Latin conventions. By the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century, some measure of consistency had been achieved. Nevertheless, inconsistency, - 4 -between and within individuals, was s t i l l preeminent, From 1550 to 1650, a stable s p e l l i n g system was adopted and un i v e r s a l l y accepted by the p r i n t i n g houses. During t h i s time, primary ed-ucation offered better d i r e c t i o n i n s p e l l i n g . S p e l l i n g was s t i l l not completely regular j f o r example, ( i ) and (y) were i n free v a r i a t i o n medially, and ( y ) , ( i e ) , and (ye) f i n a l l y . Consonants could be single or doubled a f t e r a short vowel. These variations allowed t h i s assortment of spellings f o r one wordt ( p i t y ) , (pyty), ( p i t i e ) , (pytie) , ( p i t t i e ) , (pyttye), etc, (Scragg p.71). Choice of variant often depended on the printers length of type l i n e i i f he was running out of space, a shorter variant was used (Hanna p .49 ) . The seventeenth century saw the r i s e of various s p e l l i n g books which were designed to teach 'correct' s p e l l i n g . The con-sequence of these books was the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of s p e l l i n g by 1700, (Scragg p.74-80), Changes since then have been minor. The l a s t major successful reform was i n s t i t u t e d by Noah Webster i n 1806 when he published his f i r s t dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, Most American modifications stem from t h i s dictionary, f o r example, the suffixes (-or), <C-ie) and. ('-re) rather than (-our), (-ick) and (-re), and shortened forms such as (catalog) and (program) rather than (catalogue) and (programme). Some of Webster's reforms such as (ake) f o r (ache) and (crum) f o r <{crumb) were never adopted however (p.15 Venezky 1980). English orthography continues to be i n a mild state of f l u x , Scragg (p,86) observes that new developments invariably shorten the word. Examples are (hiccup), (curtsy) and (biased) rather than (hiccough), (curtsey) and (biassed). Just as Middle - 5 -English scribes added l e t t e r s to words because they charged by the inch, and Elizabethan printers varied s p e l l i n g according to l i n e length, so modern pr i n t e r s advocate economical spe l l i n g s which lower production costs. From t h i s overview i t can be seen that the i d e a l of standardised s p e l l i n g has been i n e f f e c t only f o r the past two or three centuries. Up u n t i l the eighteenth century, one word could be represented by several acceptable forms. Nearly any sequence of phonetically plausible grapheme was l i k e l y to have been given credence by some published work. Modern s p e l l i n g allows only one correct form, and i t i s t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n which creates the problem of the phonetically accurate poor s p e l l e r . B, Phonology and S p e l l i n g 1. Overview of Pertinent Aspects of English Phonology. The English phonological system i s composed of phonetic units, the structure of those units and t h e i r function. The phonetic unit or phoneme may be defined as the smallest unit having contrastive value within the system. Tables 1, 2, and 3 give the phonemes of of English* vowels, diphthongs, and consonants respectively. Variations r e s u l t i n g from differences i n environment are known as allophones. Phonotactic constraints delimit allowable sequences of phonemes f o r s p e c i f i c positions i n a word. For example, i n word i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n consonant clusters may contain no more than three phonemes, and i n prescribed order these are /s/, a voiceless stop consonant /p/, / t / , or /k/, and a l i q u i d /!/ or / r / . Certain single phonemes are limited regarding placement i n a wordt /h/ occurs only at the beginning of s y l l a b l e s , and /rj/ only at the end. -6-TABLE I Vowel Phonemes of American English '(adapted--from - H a l l , 1961) The Vowel sound oft heat or beet b i t b a i t or bate bet bat hot but bought boat book boot Phonetic Description high-front-tense high-front-lax mid-front-tense mid-front-lax low-front-lax low-c entral-lax mid-central-lax mid-back-lax mid-back-tense high-back-lax high-back-tense IPA-Kenyon-Pike Trager-Smith A / /&/ / a / /o/ /ow/ 'r / /uw/ TABLE II Diphthongs of American English (adapted from - H a l l , 1961) The diphthong of* IPA-Kenyon-Pike Trager-Smith bi t e , height etc. /ay/ /ay/ cow, loud /aw/ /aw/ boy /oy/ /oy/ - 7 -TABLE III Consonant Phonemes of American English (adapted 'from - H a l l , 19 61) I n i t i a l Consonant o f t pin t i n kin bin din get f i n t h i n vim t h i s s i n shin zip the consonant) sound repres-) ented by z in) azure chin gin mint name the f i n a l ) sound of ) sing I limb rim Technical Description voiceless b i l a b i a l stop voiceless aveolar stop voiceless velar stop voiced b i l a b i a l stop voiced alveolar stop voiced velar stop voiceless labio-dental f r i c a t i v e voiceless dental f r i c a t i v e voiced labio-dental f r i c a t i v e voiced dental f r i c a t i v e voiceless dental s i b i l a n t voiceless p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t voiced dental s i b i l a n t voiced p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t Phonemic Transcription % A / A / / V or /// A / A / or / y voiceless p a l a t a l stop with s i b i l a n t release A / or A i / voiced p a l a t a l stop with s i b i l a n t release /g/ or A$/ voiced l a b i a l nasal /m/ voiced alveolar nasal /n/ voiced velar nasal / r j / voiced dental or alveolar l a t e r a l / l / voiced r e t r o f l e x / r / -8-Two phonemes are said to be i n "free v a r i a t i o n " when the substitution of one f o r the other re s u l t s i n a d i f f e r e n t pro-nunciation f o r the word rather than a d i f f e r e n t word. For example the g l o t t a l stop / ? / i s i n free v a r i a t i o n with the stop / t / at the end of a s y l l a b l e which precedes a consonant, e.g. "butler". Infrequently, the difference i n pronunciation i s phonemic» f o r example, the f i r s t vowel i n "either" may be / i / or / a i / . These cases are accidental and not part of English phonological structure. Certain relationships between phonemes are missed on the phonological l e v e l . On the morphophonemic l e v e l , a morpheme or minimal meaningful unit, w i l l be given one graphemic represent-ation. However i t may manifest several allomorphs. For example, the p l u r a l morpheme / s / has as contextual variants / z / and /32/, In t h i s case, phonologioal rules are a f f e c t i n g a higher syntactic l e v e l . Although t h e o r e t i c a l l y unconnected, the syntactic and phonological l e v e l s of structure are often interdependent. 2, graphemic Representation of Phonemes. There are more phonemes i n English than graphemes to represent themi there are approximately 40 phonemes, but only 26 i n d i v i d u a l graphemes. Some consonantal phonemes are always represented by grapheme compounds, e«g» A)/ i s represented by (ng)» /©/ i s represented by <th) , /£/ by several combinations such as (sh), ( s s ) , (-ti- 1) , Some phonemes having a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p with a grapheme may also be represented by a grapheme combination, e.g. (ph), (gh) , ( r h ) , (ps), or by double graphemes such as ( l l ) or (bb). Vowels may be represented by one grapheme, by graphemic diphthongs such as (ea), ( o i ) , or (ue), or by double graphemes such as <oo) or (ee). Possible graphemic rep-resentations of each phoneme are l i s t e d i n Table 4. TABLE IV Graphemic Representation of English Phonemes (adapted from Hall - 1961) Phoneme Grapheme Examples / i y / ee meet e be e.,, e mete ea sea ae Caesarian eo people oe amoeba e i receive ie believe i machine ey key ay quay / I / i h i t ie sieve e England ee been (in American English) o women u busy y myth u i build /ey/ e i v e i l ea steak ey obey a...e gate a i pain ao gaol ( B r i t i s h s p e l l i n g of j a i l ) au gauge ay ay /£/ e set ea leather ae aesthetic e i h e i f e r ie f r i e n d eo leopard oe f o e t i d (alternative f o r f e t i d ) a i said a any u bury -10-TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme Grapheme Examples /ae/ a hat a i p l a i d ay prayer au laugh / a / a father e sergeant ea heart o hot /<=>/ u cup o son ou couple 00 flood oe does a along a i mountain i a parliament e i v i l l e i n eo dungeon 1 e a s i l y o i porpoise /o/ o order oa broad ou ought a t a l l ah Utah a l t a l k au f a u l t aw raw /ow/ o,..e note oa road oe doe oh oh ou soul ow flow eo yeoman au hautboy eau beau ew sew /u/ u put ou should oo book o wolf -11-TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme /uw/ (for those who have t h i s phoneme) A / / P / A / A / A / A / Grapheme u o • • e ue u i eu ou ew o.. .e oe wo u i y i j w u P PP t ed th t t c cc cch ck ch cq cque cu k q qu b bb d dd ed Examples rule f l u e f r u i t maneuver group grew move canoe two just (adv.) children you union h a l l e l u j a h well quiet pen stopper ten walked; thyme bottom cash account bacchanal back character acquaint sacque b i s c u i t keep barbeque (now the normal s p e l l i n g of t h i s word, by actual count) li q u o r bed robber den ladder pulled -12-Phoneme A / A / /e/ A / A / / ; / A / / y A j 7 TABLE IV (cont'd) Grapheme Examples g give gg egg gh ghost gu guard f f e e l f f muffin gh rough ph physics th t h i n v v i s i t vv f l i v v e r f of ph Stephen s s i t ss loss sc scene sch schism c c i t y sh ship ce ocean ch machine c i s p e c i a l s sugar sch s c h i s t s c i conscience se nauseous s i mansion ss tissue s s i mission t i mention z zone zz dazzle s has ss scissors sc discern x Xenophan g garage s measure s i d i v i s i o n z azure z i brazier ch church tch patch t natural te righteous t i question -13-TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme Grapheme Examples /dy j just d graduate dg judge d i s o l d i e r g magic gg exaggerate m mile mm hammer n n a i l nn banner ng ring n pink 1 love 11 c a l l r red r r carrot rh rhesus h h i t wh who A / A / A/ A / A / In addition to the single phonemes l i s t e d , there are ce r t a i n combinations of phonemes which have sp e c i a l graphemic represent-ations i n English spellings A y / i . . . e bite i high a i a i s l e ay aye e i height ie t i e ey eye uy buy y sky /aw/ ou out ow now A i / o i b o i l oy toy -14-TABLE IV (cont'd) Phoneme Grapheme Examples /yuw/ u,. ,e use eau beauty eu feud ew few ieu adieu ue cue lew view yu...e yule yew yew you you A r / er term ear learn ir thirst or worm yr myrtle ar liar A i / ul cult u l l mull ol pistol i l pist i l el tinsel le handle al sandal /way/ wi e.,e wile or choir /wa/ o. , . e one Aw/ wh which Aw/ qu quick A s / X mix -15-TABLE V Regular Graphemic Representations of English Phonemes ' (adapted from - H a l l , 1961) Phoneme or Combination of Phonemes A / A y / A y / A y / /ow/ /yuw/ A / A / W / o i / / ^ r / A l / A / 'ft /g/ A / 'ft/ A / A / A / /T /hw/ Aw/ A s / Grapheme Examples i h i t e set a bat 0 hot u but e consonant l e t t e r e mete a consonant l e t t e r e hate i consonant l e t t e r e k i t e 0 consonant l e t t e r e mote u consonant l e t t e r e cube aw saw 00 look 00 boot o i b o i l ur hurt u l c u l t P l i p t t i p c can b bib d did g gag f f i n th t h i n V vim th t h i s s sop sh shop z zip z azure ch church j jam m man n nab ng sing 1 lab r rot w wen y yet h ham wh why qu quick X box -16-In English speech production, unstressed vowels are normally reduced to a schwa (/<3/). The schwa i s represented by the ^a), (e), and (o) i n (about), (telegraph) and (photography). Some d i a l e c t s include another unstressed vowelJ the barred " i " ( / i / ) . This phoneme may be produced i n these words? ( j u s t ) , (roses), (optimal). Because of these reduced vowel phonemes, the correct grapheme f o r an unstressed s y l l a b l e cannot be i d e n t i f i e d from the sound of the spoken word, 3 . Phonological Representation i n S p e l l i n g . An alphabetic s c r i p t i s a highly analytic form of language representation which makes reference to phonological units and structures. F r i t h (1980) states succinctly, "Spelling i s v i s i b l e phonology" ( p 2 ) . That we make a d i s t i n c t i o n between 'regular' and 'irregular' s p e l l i n g bears t h i s out. Robert H a l l ( I 9 6 I ) divides English spellings into three types 1 "the regular, the semi-regular and the downright i r r e g u l a r " ( p 5 ) . Examples of regular spellings are shown i n Table 5« One assumes that these graphemes most frequently represent the corresponding phonemes. Table k provides examples of semi-regular spe l l i n g s f o r each phoneme and includes the highly i r r e g u l a r correspondences as well. Examples of highly i r r e g u l a r phoneme to grapheme correspondences are the (wh) f o r /h/,. i n (who), the (u) f o r / I / i n (busy) and the ( o i ) f o r / a i / i n choir. Language i s t y p i c a l l y described as being composed of three levels» ohonology, morphology and syntax. An alphabetic orthography should r e f l e c t each of these components. P h i l i p Smith (1980) f e e l s that t h i s information i s available i n English ortho-graphy : - 17-"...When we read a text we make decisions about parts of speech, morphemic and syntactic structure, and about the denotations and connotations of words..." (p34-35)« Thomas Horn (1966) points out that the type of orthography i n -fluences the degree to which phonological, morphological and syntactic components are r e f l e c t e d , f o r example, a logographic system places more emphasis upon morphological and syntactic components. He gives a " d e f i n i t i o n a l model" f o r the s p e l l i n g of English» "The orthography of American English i s determined by a set of rules f o r u n i t phoneme - grapheme relationships based, with decreasing productivity, upon three l e v e l s of analysis - phonological, morphological and s y n t a c t i c a l " . (p33 )e His model appears i n tabular form as follows: (p33) "Phoneme - grapheme relationships determined by» 1. Phonological f a c t o r s . 1.1 Position 1.2 Stress 1.3; Environmental factors 2 . Morphological factors. 2.1 Compounding 2.2 A f f i x a t i o n 2.3 Word families 3. S y n t a c t i c a l factors. 1. Factors o r i g i n a t i n g at the lowest l e v e l , phonology, are the most important and the most frequent. -18-1.1 As previously mentioned, c e r t a i n graphemes appear only i n c e r t a i n positions. Because of t h i s , George Bernard Shaw's suggestion of (ghoti) as a possible s p e l l i n g of ( f i s h ) i s phonotactically incorrect, since (gh) f o r / f / appears only at the ends of s y l l a b l e s , e.g. (cough)» (o) f o r / I / appears infrequently as a syntactic r e f l e x , e.g. (women) i s the p l u r a l of woman j and ( t i ) i s pronounced / j / only when i t appears i n a s y l l a b l e other than the f i r s t and i s followed by a vowel. 1.2 Stress i s a factor a f f e c t i n g phoneme - grapheme r e l a t i o n -ships appears at more than one l e v e l . At t h i s l e v e l , stress s h i f t s as a function of a f f i x a t i o n . For example the stress i n "photograph" s h i f t s from the f i r s t and t h i r d s y l l a b l e s to the second and fourth f o r " p h o n o g r a p h y " . Reduction of the f i r s t and t h i r d s y l l a b l e s r e s u l t s i n the phonetic value of t h e i r vowels changing to a schwa /£/. However, even though the phonetic value has changed, the grapheme remains the same, 1.3 Environmental factors account f o r such phonological processes as P a l a t a l i z a t i o n and Velar Softening, P a l a t a l i z a t i o n changes the phonemes / t / and /&/ to /$/ when followed by a high front vowel. Velar consonants /k/ and /g/ become / s / and /dz/ re-spectively when followed by mid or high front vowels. (The /k/ value must be graphemically represented by a ( c ) , however). In these cases again, the grapheme i t s e l f remains unchanged but the pronunciation i s d i f f e r e n t . - 1 9 -2 , The psychology of the wordsas a unit i s complex and w i l l not he dealt with here. I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to say that the primacy of the word as a l i n g u i s t i c unit has been established, Lyons (p,194) describes the word as "the unit par excellence of t r a d i t i o n a l grammatical theory". He notes that even the terms "morphology" and "syntax" imply the primacy of the word, since 'morphology' means 'the study of forms' and syntax i s the theory of 'patting together'. That the word i s the form being studied and put together i s taken f o r granted. The d e f i n i t i o n of a morpheme as the smallest meaningful unit, rather than the phoneme, also depicts the word as the foundation of our language structure. Each morpheme has an invariant s p e l l i n g even though i t may be pronounced several ways, Allophonic variations brought about by context are ignored. Phonological rules may r e s u l t i n a d i f f e r e n t phonetic pronunciation from that which i s written, but graphemic representation remains uniform, 2.1 The compounding of two morphemes to produce a compound word produces c e r t a i n phonetic charges. For example the / t / at the end of " f o r t " i n "fortnight" i s often changes to a g l o t t a l stop /?/, or loses i t s a s p i r a t i o n . When "tennis shoes" i s produced as a phrase, the phonetic value of one / s / i s l o s t , 2.2 Combining a bound morpheme with a root r e s u l t s i n changes i n pronunciation. In some cases, such as "muscle" vs "muscular", a s i l e n t grapheme i s pronounced. In pairs such as "serene" -"serenity", the value of a phoneme changes i n a prescribed way, A homograph such as "singer" w i l l be pronounced d i f f e r -ently depending on whether the root was "sing" or "singe". -20-2.3 The etiology of a word can determine the phonological pro-cesses that apply. Words descended from a Latin root undergo velar softening of a c i f a high front vowel follows, f o r example, "cedar", or " c i t y " . This convention does not apply to words of C e l t i c or Germanic etiology, f o r example, "Celt", "Cymric", "soccer". 3, In Sound Pattern of English. Chomsky and Halle give examples of phonological rules a f f e c t i n g the syntactic l e v e l . For example, a p p l i c a t i o n of one stress rule i s dependent on syntactic information regarding parts of speecht i f the word i s a noun, stress i s assigned to the f i r s t s y l l a b l e , i f i t i s a verb, the l a s t s y l l a b l e i s stressed, e.g. permit vs jpermit. Word terminal (e) i s an example of a graphemic structure that has phonological r e a l i t y on a l l l e v e l s , (See Table 6 f o r a description of i t s functions). I t ' s occurrence i s r a r e l y un-explained, either as functional or alternate s p e l l i n g . The few t r u l y i r r e g u l a r occurrences happen to present themselves i n l i t t l e known words, (Sanford Schane 1979). In most cases, the r a t i o n a l f o r i t s occurrence and deletion may be complex, but the reasoning i s sound, ' Chomsky and H a l l (1968) suggest that the spoken word has an underlying representation resembling the conventional s p e l l i n g of that word, even though the phonetic representation may sound quite d i f f e r e n t . I n t r i c a t e rules apply to the underlying representation according to the p r i n c i p l e s determined by the transformational cycle (for example, the % p r i n c i p l e -Ch.l). An example i s the pronunciation /magn-s d^a*/ f o r "manager". This i s derived from [manager] by the Main Stress Rule, a ve l a r softening rule, and Vowel Reduction (p.53). -21-TABLE VI Some functions of ' s i l e n t ' f i n a l (e) i n English s p e l l i n g (adapted from P h i l i p Smith (1980} Graphemic Graphemic/ Phonemic Phonemic Phonological L e x i c a l Etymological Present of <e) i s required a f t e r c e r t a i n l e t t e r s , e.g. (GIVE)(FREEZE)• Absence a f t e r such l e t t e r s indicates a foreign word (M0L0T0V) (KIBBUTZ). Presence of (e) i s required a f t e r a s y l l a b i c l i q u i d (1) or ( r ) that i s preceded by a con-sonant, e.g. (LITTLE) ( CENTRE). Absence only i n rare foreign words (AX0L0TL). (e) modifies preceding vowel (MATE)(THEME)(WINE) (NOTE)(CUTE)in contrast with (MAT)(THEM)(WIN) (NOT)(CUT). <e> also softens <c> and (g> (ICE) (RAGE), i n contrast with (MUSIC)(RAG). The presence of f i n a l <e> i n c e r t a i n words, such as (ECLIPSE)(ARABESQUE) i s claimed by some l i n g u i s t s to indicate a s p e c i a l underlying phonological form that i s u s e f u l i n predicting which s y l l a b l e of the word w i l l receive primary s t r e s s . A f i n a l (e} can help to emphasise that the word i s not a p l u r a l form, e.g. compare the homo-phones .(PLEASE)(RAISE)(ROSE)and (PLEAS)(RAYS) (ROWS). There are a few other homophones d i s -tinguished only by a f i n a l (e)i (ORE)(OR) and (CASTE)(CAST)» and there i s i s also the f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n between such words as (ARTIST) and (ARTISTE). S i l e n t f i n a l (e) often indicates L a t i n or French o r i g i n . This i s not easy to predict with short words, though some homophonic pairs e x i s t , e.g. (LOOT)(HINDI)(LUTE)(OLD PROVENCAL)f (MAIL) Germanic, (MALE) L a t i n . In long words the exist-ence of s i l e n t (e) i n so many a f f i x e s a l l having Latin or French origins (-able\ (-age), (-ance-), (-ate),(Native), etc. means that s i l e n t <e) has a strong s t a t i s t i c a l association with words of Latin and French o r i g i n s . In contrast, a pro-nounced f i n a l e suggests Greek (APOSTROPHE) (PENELOPE) or some modern language (KARATE) (CURARE). In general the 'rules' here are not very r e l i a b l e , and indeed words with s i m i l a r origins may have d i f f e r e n t s p e l l i n g s , depending on when they were f i r s t introduced into Englisht e.g. (DEFINITE)(EXQUISITE)(DEFICIT)(EXPLICIT) are a l l L a t i n words, but the s p e l l i n g without a f i n a l <fe*) indicates a more recent introduction into English. -22-Others (e.g. Dale 1976) argue that underlying repre-sentations and transformational rules may not always be a v a i l -able to modern speakers of English. Since writing systems tend to r e f l e c t the pronunciation of e a r l i e r stages i n the language, orthography may simply be "the residue of h i s t o r i c a l change", (p.223). Nonetheless i t i s apparent that English orthography i s not a straight forward r e f l e c t i o n of pronunciation. However, when orthography does imply an underlying representation, i t , also implies pronunciation. Even though the system i s not purely phonemic, the i n d i v i d u a l interprets the representation i n the l i g h t of his knowledge of English phonological rules and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . C. Substrates f o r Development of S p e l l i n g . 1, Neuroanatomical Basis. On the basis of evidence from brain injury c e r t a i n cerebral areas are presumed to be associated with s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . Lesions of the angular gyms invariably produce disorderssof s p e l l i n g . This e v o l u t i o n a r i l y new structure i s approx-imately 5»000 years old and exists only i n man. I t i s central to the auditory, v i s u a l and somesthetic association areas (see diagram) and connected by fasciculus to Wernickes's area. These associations provice the merging of s k i l l s f o r a "sensory graphic centre", (Henschen 1920-22), Numerous neuropsychological studies (e.g. Sasanuma and Fujimura, 1972t Sasanuma 1975; Pizzamiglio and Black, 1968) provide evidence that damage to s p e c i f i c cerebral locations causes s p e c i f i c s p e l l i n g disorders, A s e l e c t i v e form of agraphia described by Kinsbourne and Rosenfield (1974) involved impaired a b i l i t y to s p e l l orthographically while a b i l i t y to s p e l l o r a l l y was preserved. The authors pinpointed the l e f t p a r a s a g i t t o l p a r i e t a l -23-Figure 1. Lateral view of the brain depicting s i g n i f i c a n t areas of Brodmann. 44,45 Broca's Speech Area 41 Gyrus of Heschl 40 Supramarginal Gyrus 39 Angular Gyrus 22 Wernicke's Area 17,18,19 Visual receptive area and perception 7 Superior P a r i e t a l Lobule 5 Postcentral Gyrus (Adapted from Hecaen and Albert, 1978 F i g . 44) . -24-region as the location of the f o c a l l e s i o n . Broca's aphasic patients, with lesions of the anterior part of the dominant hemi-sphere, produce s p e l l i n g errors which are nonphonetic, while Wernicke's and anomic aphasics, who have posterior lesions, produce spe l l i n g s that are phonetically close to the target. F r i t h (1980a) c i t e s Langmore (1979) who found that Broca's aphasics were unable to s p e l l nonsense words and that almost a l l of t h e i r mis-spellings of r e a l words were s i m i l a r i n configuration to the target words although nonphonetic. Langmore concluded that patients were not able to u t i l i z e phoneme-to-grapheme conversions. Instead they r e l i e d exclusively on v i s u a l memory. Noting that the r i g h t hemi-sphere has been shown to lack strategies f o r phonological information or phoneme-to-grapheme conversions, Langmore speculates that the Broca's aphasic: employs processes available to the i n t a c t r i g h t hemisphere f o r s p e l l i n g . As suggested above, o r a l and orthographic s p e l l i n g have d i f f e r e n t neuroanatomical correlates. The d i f f e r i n g modalities of s p e l l i n g demand d i f f e r e n t physical and psychological s k i l l s for t h e i r information. The focus of t h i s paper i s on orthographic s p e l l i n g . 2, Physical Correlates 2,1 Motor Certain s k i l l s are propadeutic to the development of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . If these s k i l l s are poorly developed then the c h i l d i s hampered i n his e f f o r t s to reproduce words appropriately, Margaret Peters (1967 - P.19) points out that d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s p a t i a l perception and i n l e f t - r i g h t discrimination may cause omissions, reversals and confusions of l e t t e r s . Schonnel (1743 -p.278) states* "The good s p e l l e r i s one f o r whom words have become engram complexes dependent f o r t h e i r s t i m u l i upon dozens of muscles which have been coordinated with d e f i n i t e strength, sequence, accuracy and r a p i d i t y " . The p r a c t i c a l writer does not need to think of each stroke as he forms the l e t t e r , nor of each l e t t e r as he forms the word. Evidence from s l i p s of the pen show that errors are most l i k e l y to be i n stem variants (e.g. "eference" f o r "eferents"), s l i p s of sound patterns ("seen" f o r "scene", "are" f o r "our", "that" f o r "than" and omissions "Sunday" for'Sunny November Day"). (N, Hotopf 1980), The primace of real-word s l i p s of the pen suggests the presence of letter-sequence motor programs, In an experiment by Tenney (1980) subjects were asked to judge correctness of s p e l l i n g of words written i n a zigzag manner. The distorted appearance of the words hindered thenisubjects i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to judge c o r r e c t l y and lowered t h e i r confidence regarding accuracy of judgement. Poor handwriting, then, might a f f e c t a b i l i t y to judge one's own s p e l l i n g . 2.2 Sensation. Hearing impaired children do not make more mistakes than hearing children, as would be expected i f good s p e l l i n g was dependent on sound to l e t t e r conversions. In fact, Templin (195^) found that hearing impaired children had superior s p e l l i n g to hearing children i n theme writing. Templin attributed t h i s f i n d i n g to the greater emphasis placed i n s p e l l i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of the deaf. However Margaret Peters (p.18) f e l t that hearing impaired children r e l y upon v i s u a l memory of a word rather than phoneme to grapheme correspondence. In any case, hearing a word does not appear to be prererequisite to s p e l l i n g i t . 3. Perception and Strategies 3.1 Perception. Except i n rare cases, i n a b i l i t y to -26-perceive speech sounds i s not a factor i n s p e l l i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . By age three or four, children can perceive most phonological d i s t i n c t i o n s (Moskowitz 1970). Discrimination of c r i t i c a l features of writing ( r i g h t - l e f t orient-ation, straight-curved, open-closed) i s not necessarily mastered when s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f i r s t begins. S e n s i t i v i t y to l e t t e r shape appears to develop without formal t r a i n i n g although i n some cases confusion p e r s i s t s . (Gibson p.733)» Statements regarding v i s u a l perception of words are rampant i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example, t h i s quote from Hartman ( 1 9 3 D * "Good spe l l e r s perceive t o t a l configuration, or, one mi say, see the word as a whole more e a s i l y than poor s p e l l e r s " . I t would be hard to measure exactly how a word i s seen "as a whole" or "more e a s i l y " . Margaret Peters (p.23) suggests that a f a m i l i a r word i s not simply reproduced as an image from memory. Instead i t i s recognized as i n reading and then the component parts are r e c a l l e d . 3.2 Strategies. The current debate on s p e l l i n g strategies devolves on the question» "Is the dominant strategy of a successful s p e l l e r sound and rule based, or i s i t dependent on memory?". F r i t h (19S0A) c i t e s a theory put forward by O'Connor aj Hermelin (1978) r e l a t i n g hearing with time and v i s i o n with spaces (p.513) i f "sound has s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t y to temporal processes", then " i t follows that the auditory modality i s i d e a l l y suited to l e t t e r - b y - l e t t e r representation"* Correct s p e l l i n g i s then the correct sequence of l e t t e r s . I f " v i s i o n has s p e c i f i c a f f i n i t y to s p a t i a l processes" then " i t follows that the v i s u a l modality i s - 2 7 -i d e a l l y suited f o r s p a t i a l representation of f a m i l i a r words". Reading a word means i d e n t i f y i n g i t on whatever cues or aspects of the stimulus are s u f f i c i e n t to get i t r i g h t . F r i t h extends the neuropsychological d i v i s i o n of the temporal and s p a t i a l pro-cesses to the strategies they permit, speculating that "the l e f t hemisphere governs phonological or f u l l - c u e strategies, while the right hemisphere governs v i s u a l or p a r t i a l cue strategies i n reading or s p e l l i n g " . She then proceeds to show that the f u l l - c u e strategy i s the most successful f o r s p e l l i n g , since the use of p a r t i a l cues such as f i r s t l e t t e r and general word shape only does not allow the word to he f u l l y reproduced on paper. F r i t h concludes that a sound-based strategy i s primary f o r successful s p e l l e r s . She bases her conclusion on the types of s p e l l i n g errors made under various conditions, e.g. written, nonsense word s p e l l i n g by the deaf and s l i p s of the pen, and notes that most of these errors are sound based. Tenney (1980) reported instances of subjects who used phonological and morphological strategies i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g . One student, noting that, without a (k> following i t , the <fc> would have a sof t sound, chose FROLICKING instead of FROLICING. She chose CONSENSUS over CONCENSUS because of the related word CONSENT. Smith ,(1980) sees reading and s p e l l i n g as translations between three l e v e l s of representation! the graphemic l e v e l which i s simply v i s u a l information on a page, the phonetic l e v e l which i s the spoken version of that l e v e l and the semantic l e v e l or the meaning of the text. Reading and s p e l l i n g involves the fusion of these i n t e r a c t i n g l e v e l s into a single l i n g u i s t i c structure. -28-In her Annotation, F r i t h (1980b) looks at s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n terms of levels of representations; the l e v e l of phonemic analysis or the l e v e l of morphemic analysis. An error i n the analysis of sound might r e s u l t i n a form such as ( f i g r ) f o r ( f i n g e r ) , ( B e r r i a l ) f o r ( b u r i a l ) i n f e r s an error at the l e v e l of meaning, since the correct root i s (bury) rather than (berry), Sloboda (1980) points out that while s p e l l i n g rules may explain the a b i l i t y of some people to s p e l l a word they have not seen before, these rules also explain the t y p i c a l adult s p e l l i n g error. And while some p r o f i c i e n t s p e l l e r s may consciously use rules on occasion, rules alone do not explain the automatic way most words are produced. He suggests that good spe l l e r s s p e l l by memory, while average s p e l l e r s use rules„ However, he postulates a graphemic, rather than v i s u a l memoryt good s p e l l e r s know what graphemes each word contains, while poor sp e l l e r s have stored i n -formation about the sequence of phonemes, A major problem with l i n g u i s t i c rules i s that they are numerous, complex and contradictory, or as F r i t h points out,"known by hindsight only" (p.497). Her example i s NATION , which one should know i s not spelled N.ASHEN , because of i t s relationship to NATIVE, However, the relationship i s only noticed because one can s p e l l NATION. On the other hand, the relationship may provide misleading cues, e.g. SPATIAL might be spelled SPACIAL because i t i s related to SPACE. I t means that no matter what s p e l l i n g algorithm i s established, some words w i l l not conform, or w i l l remain a r b i t -rary i n t h e i r adherence to one of a p a i r of c o n f l i c t i n g rules, Henderson and Chard (1980) also f e e l that orthographic knowledge i s not s u f f i c i e n t to allow correct s p e l l i n g at a l l times; - 2 9 -" F i r s t , the knowledge may be merely t a c i t , able to be manifest i n the r e l a t i v e l y automatic process or word perception but i n -accessible to the more deliberate processes that produce s p e l l i n g . Second, the knowledge may be of a sort that i s inadequate to allow the determination of p a r t i c u l a r s p e l l i n g s . I t might, f o r example, be too general and too abstract", ( p . 8 6 ) . Another controversy concerns the relationship of reading and s p e l l i n g strategies, Ehri ( 1 9 8 0 ) f e e l s that learning to read and learning to s p e l l must be related. She sees a unifying element in the use of graphemes and i n the c h i l d ' s introduction to ortho-graphy as a new medium f o r language. Marsh's ( 1 9 8 0 ) discussion of s p e l l i n g strategies p a r a l l e l s his previous research on reading strategies. He notes how the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l reading strategy, that of substituting of contextually acceptable, known more f o r an unknown v/ord, actually i nterferes with learning to s p e l l , A l a t e r reading strategy adds p a r i a l orthographic cues to the use of syntactic and semantic context, but i s s t i l l not conducive to the a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e l l i n g r u l e s . Marsh's theory of the development of s p e l l i n g and reading strategies i s as follows! By the end of the f i r s t year of reading i n s t r u c t i o n many children have switched from substitution strategies to de-coding strategies involving use of the relationship between the orthography and sound system. As the decoding strategy develops, a h i e r a r c h i a l decoding strategy based on conditional rules evolves. An example of t h i s strategy involves s i l e n t terminal (e), which acts as a marker f o r long vowel (e.g. MAT-MATE) or conditional pro-nunciation of a grapheme (e.g. (CITE-CUTE)„ The development of the phonemic encoding strategy f o r s p e l l i n g i s congruent to that of -30-reading. Children Degin with the simple sequential phonemic encoding strategy and l a t e r develop a h i e r a r c h i a l encoding strategy involving the use of rules conditional on the intraword environ-ment. Read (19?1) considers the use of phonemic strategies f o r s p e l l i n g to he the most natural, as evidence by the s p e l l i n g of children who do not know how to read. Some pre-school sp e l l e r s actuallj'' represented more phonetic d e t a i l than i s available i n conventional s p e l l i n g due to redundancy. An example i s the stop / t / which i n English i s a f f r i c a t e d before the phoneme / r / . Pre-school s p e l l e r s spelled /truck/ as (chruck). Even very young children have the a b i l i t y to analyse and l o g i c a l l y represent the phonetic structure of the word. At f i r s t , then, children are employing opposing s t r a t -egies f o r reading and s p e l l i n g . Most children are using a phonemic decoding strategy f o r reading as well as f o r s p e l l i n g by the second grade, and so the discrepancy may disappear, A group of children who continue to use a v i s u a l strategy w i l l be discussed l a t e r . By the f i f t h grade, Marsh (1977) found children begin to use an analogy strategy to read composition wordsi that i s , they search f o r an appropriate analogue word and pronounce the unfamiliar word by analogy to the f a m i l i a r word. Marsh's 1980 study showed that a strategy of s p e l l i n g unknown words by analogy to the spe l l i n g s of known words had developed between the second and f i f t h grades. It appears, then, that the f i r s t s p e l l i n g strategy i s a simple phonemic encoding one, which develops into a h i e r a r c h i c a l - 3 1 -encoding strategy with condi t i o n a l rules based on context. The f i n a l adult strategy i s analogy. This strategy cannot develop u n t i l the c h i l d has stored a repertoire of words adequate to make t h i s strategy widely u s e f u l . D. A c q u i s i t i o n of S p e l l i n g Strategies. F r i t h (1980a) examines the most common types of s p e l l i n g errors and from her analysis hypothesizes three stages associated with the correct s p e l l i n g of a words 1, An analysis of speech soundsi the approximate phonemes are derived. 2. Conversion of the phonemes into graphemes, either by analogy or by rules, 3 . Choice of the conventionally correct grapheme from the pool of phonetically s i m i l a r graphemes. The smallest number of errors was made at the f i r s t l e v e l , f o r example, <^groud^ f o r "ground", These errors are most l i k e l y to occur: with young s p e l l e r s since they are at an e a r l i e r stage of phonological development. I f t h i s type of error p e r s i s t s , a phonological rather than s p e l l i n g disorder i s l i k e l y . Another group of errors arise because of f a i l u r e at the phoneme-to-grapheme stage, Ignorance of c e r t a i n s p e l l i n g rules may r e s u l t i n nonphonetic errors (e.g. BIT instead of BITE ). F r i t h (1980a) f e e l s that this i s a normal stage of development. Most s p e l l i n g problems can he attributed to f a i l u r e at stage three. There i s some debate over whether t h i s stage i s governed by rules which are r e a l f o r at l e a s t some words and individuals (e.g. Tenney) or whether th i s stage i s completely - 3 2 -subject to rote learning. In either case, phonetic mis-spellings are the r e s u l t of f a i l u r e "at the very end of the s p e l l i n g process", at a stage beyond phoneme-to-grapheme rules, E# Inadequate Versus Atrocious S p e l l e r s . Children who are poor spellers may be broadly cate-gorized into two groups. Sweeney & Rourke (p.213) designated these two groups "phonetically accurate s p e l l e r s " and "phonetically inaccurate s p e l l e r s " . Phonetically accurate s p e l l e r s are those whose errors are phonetically plausible (e.g. (nacher) f o r "nature") while phonetically inaccurate spellers make errors which are phonetically unrelated to the target (e.g. (diltum) f o r "nature"). The l a t t e r group of children exhibit generalized impairment of language functioning! a s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy between Wise Verbal I.Q. and Performance I.Q., and delay i n reading s k i l l s . Further examination by Sweeney and Rourke revealed a deficiency i n processing short strings of words or phonemes, and a widening gap between phonetically inaccurate and normal s p e l l e r s as age increased. The performance of the phonetically accurate group did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the normal group u n t i l a new response was required. When the response c a l l e d f o r information not i n -cluded i n the question, phonetically accurate s p e l l e r s were i n -distinguishable from phonetically inaccurate s p e l l e r s (p.221). Despite the poor performance of phonetically accurate spe l l e r s on creative verbal tasks, a d i v i s i o n on the basis of neurological impairment separates the phonetically accurate s p e l l e r s . F r i t h (1980a) contrasts three groups of sp e l l e r s (analogous to the normal and and phonetically accurate s p e l l e r s de-scribed above): Group A had high s p e l l i n g and reading s k i l l s ; - 3 3 -Group C, low i n s p e l l i n g and reading, were considered by F r i t h to be "mildly dyslexic". Group B had reading s k i l l s s i m i l a r to that of Group A and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s s i m i l a r to that of Group C, Group B showed a d i s s o c i a t i o n reading and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s . She c a l l s t h i s group "unexpectedly poor s p e l l e r s , or "atrocious s p e l l e r s " . An analysis of t h e i r s p e l l i n g errors showed that atrocious s p e l l e r s generally produce a phonetically plausible word, even i f i t i s not conventionally correct. They are able to make the phoneme to grapheme conversions that allow the correct sound to be retained. However, they have not chosen the correct l e t t e r s f o r the word. Breakdown i s at stage 3 of F r i t h ' s stages of the s p e l l i n g process. Although the phoneme-to-grapheme strategy does not work very well i n English, F r i t h proposes that i n languages with s t r i c t l y phonetic orthographies, unexpectedly poor s p e l l e r s would not e x i s t . Because, h i s t o r i c a l l y , English has drawn upon many language systems, the choice of a grapheme i s often from a large pool of plausible graphemes. In a study by Smith & Baker (1976), test subjects used i m p l i c i t knowledge about word origins to decide on correct s p e l l i n g . Each language may be i d e n t i f i e d hy i t s system of orthographic constraints and conventions (for example, words beginning with (ph) are derived from Greek and words which are Latin i n o r i g i n never contain (k) or (w)). F r i t h ' s hypothesis that good and poor s p e l l e r s would have d i f f e r e n t reading strategies was predicated on results of the study by Smith and Baker. She suggests that the obvious way to develop s e n s i t i v i t y to the language o r i g i n or words i s by reading* By c a r e f u l l y observing the l e t t e r sequences composing - 3 4 -the words, i n c i d e n t a l information about the d i f f e r e n t underlying systems as manifested by classes of orthographic conventions, i s gained. Since poor s p e l l e r s appear to lack t h i s knowledge, they might employ a reading strategy which i s d i f f e r e n t from that of a successful s p e l l e r . Following the administration of a standard reading t e s t (on which good and poor s p e l l e r s achieved s i m i l a r scores) she asked subjects to read nonsense words which had been derived from r e a l words. Poor spellers made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more errors on the task nonsense words. F r i t h suggests that poor s p e l l e r s do not read r e a l words by a process of letter-to-sound t r a n s l a t i o n and so cannot recognise the same t r a n s l a t i o n i n the nonsense words. Instead, they read the s c r i p t 'by eye', bypassing the letter-to-sound t r a n s l a t i o n ( F r i t h 198j0.a), Good sp e l l e r s , t r a n s l a t i n g from p r i n t to sound and then from sound to meaning, make f u l l use of a l l cues available i n a word, while poor s p e l l e r s are adept to recognizing a word on the basis of p a r t i a l cues. Minimal cues, f o r example f i r s t l e t t e r and o v e r a l l length, are often s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y a word. I f the word i s not recognized, more cues are added. I t i s possible to read very quickly using a p a r t i a l word strategy; however, i n -formation about underlying s p e l l i n g systems, which i s available only on examination, i s harder to gain. Thus, a r e l a t i v e l y good reader might be a poor s p e l l e r i f he/she prefers a p a r t i a l cue strategy to a strategy which employs redundant cues. Other investigators have arrived at conclusions which are i n accord with F r i t h . Barron et a l (1980) c l a s s i f y s p e l l e r s into "Phoenicians" who use letter-sound rules, and "Chinese", who depend on recognition of a word as a unit. F r i t h (1980b) suggests two types of d e f i c i t s which - 3 5 -might have some affect.on atrocious s p e l l e r s , that i s , one r e l a t i n g the sound i n the word to the orthographic representation, and another r e l a t i n g the meaning of the word to i t s written form. The most serious problems are due to d i f f i c u l t y associated with segmenting speech units into phonological u n i t s . This i s analogous to a breakdown at stage 2, i . e . the correct sequence of sounds i s heard but i s not segmented appropriately. For example, the error (fegra) f o r "finger" suggests that a s p e l l e r does not break down the central sound i n thi s word into a vowel and nasal consonant. The second class of disorders suggest a dominance of the phonological aspect of s p e l l i n g (p.284). Mis-spellings such as (lasi) f o r "lamb" and (fone^ f o r "phone" indicate a lack of understanding of the history and relationships of words. - 3 6 -CHAPTER II STATEMENT OF PROBLEM F r i t h states, "Mastery of s p e l l i n g implies a high degree of l i n g u i s t i c competence and hence s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s cannot he considered a t r i v i a l matter". (1980b p . l ) . The co r o l l a r y of t h i s statement i s that a possible reason f o r the appearance of poor s p e l l i n g i s immature or disordered l i n g u i s t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s . Those aspects of language most c l o s e l y associated with s p e l l i n g are phonology and morphophonemics. Phonological and morphological a b i l i t i e s are manifested not only i n vocal language expression, but also i n orthographic and vocal s p e l l i n g . Competence i n phonology and morphology implies the existence of rules and processes which at some l e v e l of conscious-ness require correct a p p l i c a t i o n . In a controlled experimental s i t u a t i o n , t h i s competence may be assessed by, f o r example, providing tasks which require a subject to make decisions about some aspect of r e a l or nonsense words (e.g. Chomsky and Halle, 1968s Berko 1958). A competent subject would be expected to make correct decisions based on his or her knowledge of phonological and morpho-l o g i c a l r u l e s . The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the l i n g u i s t i c competence of a group of children whose d i f f i c u l t i e s with s p e l l i n g have led to t h e i r being termed "Phonetically Accurate Spe l l e r s " (Sweeney & Rowke, 1978) or "Atrocious Spellers" ( F r i t h 1980a). I t was hypothesized that Phonetically Accurate (or Atrocious) s p e l l e r s possess inadequate or incomplete knowledge of ce r t a i n phono-l o g i c a l and/or morphological rules which are necessary f o r the execution of correct (or "Standard") s p e l l i n g . - 3 7 -For the purposes of t h i s investigation we assumed that a knowledge of c e r t a i n phonological and morphological rules i s necessary f o r the execution of "correct" or "standard" s p e l l i n g s . We therefore hypothesize that the Phonetically Accurate or Atrocious s p e l l e r has inadequate or incomplete know-ledge of phonological and morphological rules (1) which are nec-essary f o r the execution of "correct" or "standard" .spellings. NULL FORM» Apply s t a t i s t i c a l analysis to either accept ( i . e . he/she does have inadequate knowledge and therefore the disordered s p e l l i n g might c e r t a i n l y be associated with inadequate knowledge, plus possibly other f a c t o r s ) , OR Reject ( i . e . he/she does have adequate knowledge, therefore, the disordered s p e l l i n g must be due to something e l s e ) . (1) For the purposes of t h i s investigation, only a limited subset of such rules was chosen f o r examination. -38-CHAPTER III METHOD A, Experimental Plans Subjects were required to perform a number of tasks designed to reveal t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n 1. s p e l l i n g , and 2. word study. A l l three s p e l l i n g tasks required written responses. The three language based tasks involved o r a l responses. In addition to the tasks, several subjects supplied examples of written assign-ments completed i n the classroom. The tasks were broadly designed to allow examination of three phonological processesi 1, P a l a t a l i z a t i o n , by which i s meant the process em-ployed when the phonemes /%/ and / s / are pronounced /S/ when followed by the grapheme sequencet io(u) Consonant; 2. Velar Softening by which i s meant the process em-ployed when: (i ) the grapheme (c} i s pronounced /s/, e.g. "cider", "force" and ( i i ) the grapheme (g) i s pronounced /&//, e«g« "general", "judge" when each i s followed by a mid or high front vowel, i . e . ( i ) , ( e ) , <y>« 3. Stress S h i f t . The rules f o r stress s h i f t i n English are numerous and complex. In t h i s study we are con-cerned with those s h i f t s which occur when a s u f f i x i s - 3 9 -added t o a word, a s i n "photograph" - " p h o n o g r a p h y ", where the stress i s s h i f t e d from the f i r s t and t h i r d s y l l a b l e s to the second and fourth s y l l a b l e s . Approximately 90$ of stimulus items used i n the s p e l l i n g and language tasks possessed environments suitable f o r these pro-cesses to take e f f e c t . Subjects* a b i l i t y to apply the processes appropriately was noted i n o r a l and written tasks, B, Subjects * 1 , Referral of subjects. A l l subjects were students i n elementary schools from the Point Grey, Kerrisdale and K i t s i l a n o areas of Vancouver, B.C. (*See Appendix 1 ) . The study involved a t o t a l of twenty nine children. Twenty two childre n were defined as atrocious s p e l l e r s . Selection of subjects was based on the following guidelines! (a) chronological age 9»0 to 12jO i (b) demonstration of average or good s k i l l s i n a l l academic subjects but p a r t i c u l a r l y readings (c) no apparent language disorders; (d) English monolingual; (e) s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y at l e a s t one and a h a l f years behind reading a b i l i t y on a standardised educational t e s t . Referral of children f o r preliminary t e s t i n g was at the d i s c r e t i o n of the learning assistance teachers from each of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools. Learning assistants were advised by memo and i n interviews of sel e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . In addition to recommendation, te s t scores f o r reading and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s were required. Several p o t e n t i a l subjects were d i s q u a l i f i e d a f t e r test s p e l l i n g and reading scores were obtained. - 4 0 -Every one of the c r i t e r i a except (a) was commuted by some or a l l of the accepted subjects. Since a remarkable number of poor s p e l l e r s also have trouble with arithmetic, guideline (b) was modified to allow an area of d i f f i c u l t y apart from s p e l l i n g , provided the c h i l d was not uniformly low across a l l subjects, and that his reading was average or good. Guideline (e) was inadvertently contravened by the i n -clu s i o n of subject 23. During testing, t h i s subject exhibited errors i n discrimination of phonemes. Upon questioning, the learning assistant stated that t h i s c h i l d had a known problem i n auditory discrimination or processing. Although t h i s d i s q u a l i f i e s his data from any s t a t i s t i c a l analysis i n t h i s study, i t was f e l t to be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g to warrant i n c l u s i o n on a comparative basis. Since nearly a l l schools included French i n t h e i r curriculun, guideline (d) was modified to exclude any c h i l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n -fluenced by a language other than English, Guideline (e) was maintained i n i t s o r i g i n a l form since i t was f e l t to be i n t e g r a l to the purpose of t h i s study. Many students referred because of poor s p e l l i n g achieved good scores on standardized s p e l l i n g t e s t s . Their d a i l y class work, however, was riddled with inconsistencies i n s p e l l i n g . These students were not accepted as subjects because whatever the reasons f o r t h e i r errors i n casual productions s they indicated competence when knowledge was e x p l i c i t l y demanded. One c h i l d was accepted even though his s p e l l i n g was at grade l e v e l , since a l l other s k i l l s were at l e a s t two grade l e v e l s higher. The remaining s i x children, comprosing the control group, -41-had uniformly good academic s k i l l s , Reading scores were equivalent to those of the tes t group. 2, Age and Sex of Subjects. I t i s notable that most of the tes t subjects were boys, i n an approximate r a t i o of 3 i l . Learning assistance teachers agreed that s p e l l i n g disorders are most often seen i n boys. The age range nine to twelve was chosen because p r i o r to grade three, i n a b i l i t y to s p e l l i s not perceived as a problem. I t i s only i n the intermediate grades that child r e n are expected to s p e l l most words c o r r e c t l y i n theme writing. By high school, serious s p e l l i n g problems seem to lessen i n severity, possibly because of increased awareness on the part of the student. The average age of childre n referred was ten years and nine monthst c h i l d r e n older than t h i s made fewer mistakes i n the s p e l l i n g tasks. The younger subjects t i r e d e a s i l y i on a few occasions i t was necessary to shorten the Audio-Visual S p e l l i n g Task because the subject's hand was cramping from the unaccustomed amount of wri t i n g . C, Description of Tasks Generally, there were three s p e l l i n g tasks where the c h i l d spelled with pen and paper under various conditions, three o r a l language based tasks and one task functioning as a check on l e t t e r recognition, 1. Task l i Orthographic S p e l l i n g Performance, Task 1 re-quired the subject to write down each word as i t was o r a l l y pre-sented by the examiner. When the subject had completed one word, the next word was disctated and written down. The purpose of t h i s task was to provide data that would determine the degree of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y f o r 'regular' and 'irr e g u l a r ' words, and reveal treatment -42-of the target phonological rules i n an orthographic condition. 2. Task 2% Audio Visual S p e l l i n g Performance. Task 2 i s a u x i l i a r y to Task 1. As i n Task 1, stimulus items were o r a l l y presented and written down. When the subject had completed the word, the examiner checked the production and i d e n t i f i e d i t to the subject as correct or incorrect. The subject was given three opportunities to produce the correct s p e l l i n g . The stimulus was not o r a l l y presented on second or t h i r d t r i a l s . This task i n -volved the manipulation of s p e l l i n g techniques•and should reveal intra-subject strategies, 3. Task 3. Orthographic S p e l l i n g Without Auditory Stimulus. The subject was presented with a picture and t o l d to write down the name of the picture without saying the name aloud. If the c h i l d wrote the wrong word, he was t o l d by the examiner to think of another appropriate word and to write i t down, 4. Task 41 Suffixation," The purpose of the task was to test a b i l i t y to make the morphophonemic changes associated with s u f f i x a t i o n . The task consisted of 40 test pairs of words, pre-sented i n sequence. Each word was printed i n lower case l e t t e r s on a f i l e card and the card presented to the subject to be read. The f i r s t word of a tes t p a i r was a r e a l wordf a noun, verb, or adjective root, The second word consisted of t h i s root word with a selected s u f f i x . The r e s u l t could be either a nonsense word or a r e a l word. The c h i l d was given ample time to decide on the appropriate pronunciation of the complex word. Thus, the c h i l d was presented with a card on which was written the root word. He read i t f or i f the word appeared un-f a m i l i a r to him, the examiner read i t . The next card was then - 4 3 -presented and the c h i l d was expected to read t h i s word. The next te s t p a i r was then presented. The t e s t suffixes were selected according to the phono-l o g i c a l processes they generated i n the word. A lim i t e d number of suffixes were assigned f o r each of the target processes! p a l a t a l i z a t i o n , v e l a r softening and stress s h i f t . Test subjects were divided into two groups and each group received d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n s . Group A received examples of test pairs which did not contain the target processes! ' d e v i l -d e v i l i s h ' , 'king-kingdom', 'master-mastery'. Group B received three examples each exhibiting one of the target processesi 'locate-location', ' e l e c t r i c - e l e c t r i c i t y ' , r e a l - r e a l i t y ' . 5. Task 5t Judging the Relatedness of Pairs of Words. Subjects were asked to judge the relatedness of two words. 19 pairs of words were presented i n sequence, 10 pairs were semantically related and the remaining pairs were related only by coincidence of grapheme choice and sequence. Although the cards were presented one at a time, subjects were allowed to compare and examine words i n test pairs by looking at both members of a test p a i r at the same time. Root words were nouns or verbs and variants contained a f f i x e s . Unrelated words could be from the same category, f o r example ' p i l l ' and 'pillow', two nouns, 6, Task 6» Learning Nonsense Words. On the premise that i t i s easier to remember an item having a pattern than one composed of random elements, t h i s task inquired into the ch i l d ' s organization of processes. Subjects were required to learn s i x nonsense wordst three employing the target processes and three words having an environment requiring the process and not using i t . The s i x words were presented f o r memorization i n random order. The examiner pre-sented each nonsense word and requested the subject to repeat i t several times. Production was corrected i f pronunciation was i n error, but modifications to the word by the subject were noted. The c h i l d was required to l i s t a l l s i x words from memory before he l e f t the f i r s t session. He was requested to produce the words the next day and errors i n production were noted at t h i s time, 7, Task 7t Letter Test, As a check f o r s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t y at the most basic l e v e l , subjects were required to name graphemes presented sequentially i n lower case on f i l e cards. This task was included to prove knowledge of the basic units of s p e l l i n g , D, Word L i s t s 1, Test Items f o r Tasks 1 and 2; A l i s t of 98 words was divided at random into two l i s t s and one l i s t assigned to each of Tasks 1 and 2, For each l i s t , 30 words involving the target phonological processes were randomly interspersed with 10 ' f i l l e r ' words. Words involving the processes eit h e r u t i l i z e d the process, had the sound of the process but not the s p e l l i n g , or had the s p e l l i n g but not the process, e.g. 'advice', 'precise', 'thicken'. F i l l e r words were included to provide a cross-section of English orthographic con-ventions, as well as c e r t a i n 'irregular' s p e l l i n g s . A l l English phonemes were represented. No words which have homonyms on two correct s p e l l i n g s were included. The l i s t s can be viewed as contrastive by naturei con-taining data f o r P a l a t a l i z a t i o n , Velar Softening and Stress S h i f t , f o r regular and i r r e g u l a r s p e l l i n g s and f o r phonetic and non-phonetic - 4 5 -TABLE VII Test Items f o r Task l i Orthographic S p e l l i n g Performance advice p i c n i c huge secure stag measure stra i g h t thicken suspicious obey pretty cousin mission general p o l i t i c a l v icious medicine -engage corrosion device g l a c i a l heather bridge c r u c i f i x i o n happening massive squeeze c r i t i c a l patience history closure d i v i s i o n colony bugle distance vacation p a c i f i c b e a u t i f u l midnight photography d i s c i p l i n e malicious paradise d i s t i n c t t i c k l e murder c i v i l population contradiction average TABLE VIII Test Items f o r Task 2t Audio Visual S p e l l i n g Performance palace conscience c u r i o s i t y exasperation scratch business spread through salary popular c r i s i s f a i t h f u l l y destruction aquatic mystery r e a l i t y wrong cedar musician p r i v i l e g e action generation dragon spread hedge medicate addition l o g i c a l anguish exercise ju i c y disappear region match s a c r i f i c e c r u c i a l d elicate s u f f i c i e n t curse precise accordion persuasion typewriter p o s i t i o n d e l i v e r e l e c t r i c i t y sympathy wiggle opposite several magic -RO-T A B L E I X Test Items f o r Task 3» Orthographic S p e l l i n g Without Auditory Stimulus bread carrots f i r e strawberries camera perfume iro n wheat vacuum cleaner towels castle mountains grapes toothpaste knife pillows mushrooms chair cereal TABLE X Test Items f o r Task 4 s S u f f i x a t i o n hug - huge nag - nage bug - buge pig - pige frog - froge p i c n i c - picnice panic - p a n i c i t y a t t i c - a t t i c i t y rapid - r a p i d i t y v i t a l - v i t a l i t y r e a l - r e a l i t y stupid - s t u p i d i t y oppose - opposition examine - examination i n v i t e - i n v i t a t i o n combine - combination children - c h i l d r e n i t y recess - r e c e s s i t y carrot - c a r r o t i y robin - robinian orange - orangian awful - awfulian insane - i n s a n i t i o n forget - f o r g e t i t i o n across - a c r o s s i t i o n sock - sockity confuse - confusion discuss - discussion success - succession e l e c t r i c - e l e c t r i c i a n magic - magician music - musician r e s t r i c t - r e s t r i c t i o n d i r e c t - d i r e c t i o n prevent - prevention d e f i n i t e - d e f i n i t i o n create - creation thermos - thermosian glass - glassion dismiss - dismission a t t i c - a t t i c i a n upset - upsetion enchant - enchantion habit - habition c r e d i t - credition f a t - f a t i o n crack - crackian - 4 7 -TABLE XI Test Items f o r Task 5: Judging the Relatedness of Pairs of  Words, (presented i n random order). cat - category p o l i t e - p o l i t i c a l admire - miracle core - c o r a l sat - s a t i s f y but - button cry - crime gray - grade p a i r - periscope carpet - carpenter sure - measure phone - phony crime - criminal choose - choice admire - admirable sign - s i g n a l s a t i s f y - s a t i s f a c t i o n photograph - photography happy - happiness Christ - Christmas peer - periscope store - storage serve - service school - scholar TABLE XII Test Items f o r Task 6 : Learning Nonsense Words (presented i n random order). Palatalization« / f j u d o i ^ n / / d e f j u t i s n / Velor softening! /raemxslkel/ /ma&eklkal/ Stress Shifts AIASI I p i D i / / l A s p i n l D i / -48-but frequent conventions. 2. Test Items f o r Task 3. A problem existed i n the supply of stimulus items f o r t h i s taski they must be e a s i l y and non-ambiguously pictured those pictures must be available i n magazines. This a c t u a l i t y precluded the even preportions of words possible i n other tasks. There i s thus a higher proportion of words which would be known as ' f i l l e r * words. The words are also more frequent i n occurrence than the words i n the others l i s t s . 3. Test Items f o r Task 4. 3.1 P a l a t a l i z a t i o n . Suffixes were "-ion" and "^ian". These were combined with roots ending i n (t) and (s) to produce r e a l and nonsense words. 3.2 Velar Softening. Suffixes were "-e", "-ian", " - i t y " . Roots ended i n (c) or (g) to produce the process and (ck) to produce incorrect environments. 3.3 Stress S h i f t . Suffixes were " - t i o n " , "-ation","-ian" and "-ion". These were combined with words of one, two or three s y l l a b l e s . Indicators of stress other than word length were not considered. E. Administration Tasks were administered i n a one to one s i t u a t i o n i n a quiet room provided by the school. Instructions and test items were pre-sented, l i v e - v o i c e pens were required f o r written tasks unless the subject s p e c i f i c a l l y requested a p e n c i l . Tasks were divided over two daysi Tasks 1, 3» 4, ? and 6 the f i r s t session and Tasks 2, 5 and 6 the second session. Each session lasted approximately 45 minutes. The longer tasks were broken by breaks f o r conversation and by i n s e r t i o n of shorter tasks. - 4 9 -F. Instructions Most children had been informed by t h e i r teachers that they would be doing a s p e l l i n g t e s t . General instructions and i n -troduction varied from subject to subject, depending on his i n t e r e s t and the information given him by his teachers. However, the body of information remained the samei that the examiner was t e s t i n g the format of a series of tasks and that test subjects were randomly selected from the appropriate grades i n each school. S p e c i f i c task instructions (see Appendix II) were spoken i n conversational s t y l e rather than being read. -50-CHAPTER IV RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS A. Introduction No formal s t a t i s t i c a l analysis was carried out due to the as yet undefined nature and ordering of s p e l l i n g r u l e s . Be-cause the s p e l l i n g and phonological rules which resulted i n each erroneous production are undetermined, they cannot he quantified. For example, i f "measure" i s spelled mesare , i t i s unclear whether the errors consist of«-1, metathesis of {a) and (u)> 2, deletion of ( u / or of«-1, deletion of (a) 2, s u b s t i t u t i o n of (a) f o r (u) U n t i l the motivation behind s p e l l i n g errors i s unambiguous, a s t a t i s t i c a l count of types of errors w i l l be i n v a l i d . Analysis of the tasks, with the exceptions of tasks 5 and 7» was s i m i l a r , with modifications according to v a r i a t i o n be-tween the tasks. Responses were grouped to indicate each subject's management of d i f f e r i n g processes and were then compared within and between subjects. Neither task 5 nor task 7 contained any phonological processes and were therefore studied i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. A l l data received preliminary analysis and then f i v e rep-resentative subjects were selected f o r more detailed comparison and analysis, B. Description of Analysis. 1. Preliminary Analysis of S p e l l i n g Tasks. Preliminary analysis of error type separated s p e l l i n g errors generally into -DI-SPELLING ERRORS SC AC DC MC SDC ADC DDC MDC Sub. - Substitution Add. - Addition Del. - Deletion Met, - Metathesis FIGURE H i Preliminary Analysis of S p e l l i n g Errors. SPELLING ERRORS Sub. - Substitution Add. - Addition Del. - Deletion Met. - Metathesis FIGURE II : Preliminary Analysis of Spelling Errors. - 5 3 -consonant and vowel errors (see figure 2 ) , These broad categories were then subdivided into substitutions, additions, deletions and metatheses. These processes could a f f e c t either a single or a digraph consonant, Digraph consonants were broadly defined a s i -1 , double consonants, e.g. (ll)» 2 , two consonant graphemes representing a single phoneme, e.g. <^ck% • An error marked as a digraph error could indicate t h a t i -1 , a digraph had been substituted f o r a single consonant, 2 , a single consonant had been substituted f o r a digraph, 3 „ a d i f f e r e n t digraph had been substituted, S i m i l a r l y , vowels were spe c i f i e d as either single or digraph vowels, A d i s t i n c t i o n was made between vowels i n a stressed s y l l a b l e and vowels with reduced stress, because of the obvious differences i n the subjects! treatment of vowels i n these p o s i t i o n s j -1 , Unstressed vowels were more frequently deleted than were stressed vowels, 2 , Most vowel errors involved unstressed vowels. 3 o Substitutions f o r stressed vowels were more l i k e l y to be phonetically s i m i l a r to the target than were substitutions f o r unstressed vowels, e.g. when Subject 1 spelled (coureosady^ f o r " c u r i o s i t y " , he substituted (bu) f o r ( u) i n the stressed s y l l a b l e , and (a) f o r <i) i n the reduced s y l l a b l e . Errors involving word terminal s i l e n t (e) were classed by themselves, since f o r t h i s s p e c i a l case, deletions, additions and substitutions would appear to d i f f e r i n motivation. - 5 4 -Each word i n Task 1 was analysed i n t h i s way. (As previously mentioned, there i s no assurance that the suggested l o g i c i s accurate). Each subject's data was given a cursory check f o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c prominence of any strategy which could give i n -sight into arrangement of language r u l e s . A l l subjects displayed confusion over unstressed vowels, which were variously substituted and deleted, however i n no case was i t c e r t a i n that any p a r t i c u l a r strategy was being favoured. For example, the unstressed vowel po s i t i o n might be f i l l e d by any one of the vowel graphemes or i t might be deleted, depending on which word was being spelled. Analysis of Task 2, Audio-Visual Spelling, revealed what appeared to be a hit-or-miss strategy governing choice of unstressed vowel. For example, Subject 4 experimented with (i) (e), and (a) i n the f i n a l unstressed s y l l a b l e of " p r i v i l e g e " . Minor strategies f o r s e l e c t i o n of orthographic convention often appearedi Subject 5 represented a l l CONSONANT /!/ structures with CONSONANT (-el), so that " c i v i l " , "bugle", " t i c k l e " , and " p o l i t i c a l " were spelled <sivel>, <bugel), ( t i k e l ) , and ( p o l i t i k e l ) , The only exception was " c r i t i c a l " which was spelled CRIDECL . A few of the subjects frequently deleted portions of words. Subject 2, f o r example, spelled "vacation" and " d i v i s i o n " as {vaction) and (diron) respectively. These children also employed other pro-cesses of substitution, addition and metathesis. No subject em-ployed one process to the exclusion of a l l others. Frequent deletion of portions of words may be a consequence of that subject's poor handwriting, (See Chapter 5 for discussion of handwriting). Deletion of parts of words might also r e f l e c t the writer's reading method, described by F r i t h as reading by p a r t i a l cues. In either case, a deletion process does not necessarily r e f l e c t language organization, -55-p a r t i c u l a r l y since no one strategy predominated i n any other subject. These findings did not suggest any need f o r further i n -vestigation into intra-subject s p e l l i n g strategies i n connection with language r u l e s . There did not appear to be any clues to the subject's management of language rules i n his manipulation of ortho-graphic rules. Because of t h i s no further analysis of s p e l l i n g error type was done. Subsequent analysis thus involved groups of words rather than i n d i v i d u a l words, 2. Analysis of Tasks 1 and 2, A l l words from Tasks 1 and 2 were tabled according to the target phonological process they contained, (see Tables 13 to 20), Within each table, the words were grouped according to phonetic s i m i l a r i t y . Horizontally, each subject's s p e l l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l items i s recorded*; v e r t i c a l l y , treatment of word type i s av a i l a b l e . Thus i t can be seen that f o r the word "suspicious", each c h i l d has a unique s p e l l i n g , but one subject (Subject 5) deletes the unstressed s y l l a b l e nucleus; two subjects (Subject 4 and Subject 2) delete the / s / from the medial consonant cl u s t e r , and a l l subjects except Subject 1 record the phoneme / j " / (for which the correct orthography i s - c i -) as sh , V e r t i c a l l y , i t can be seen that Subject 5 codes most productions of the phoneme /$/ with <sh^ i f the correct orthography codes i t with (-ci-) or (- s i but c o r r e c t l y with (- t i -) i f the standard orthography i s <(- t i . A l l s p e l l i n g variations f o r Task 2 items were included, thus strategies f o r manipulation of graphemes could be examined across and within subjects. For example, f o r the item "palace", the <e>, <a), <c), and <e> were manipulated by subjects, but the beginning of the word, (pa -), remained constant. No subject appeared -56-TABLES XIII - XX Tasks 1 and 2 Responses from Snhjpn-hs 1-5 TABLE XIII Items Containing P a l a t a l i z a t i o n Item Subject Response Subject 1 suspicious suspices malicious m a l l i s o i s vicious v i c i o s Subject 2 sapishas malshase vicesse Subject 3 speshes vishes conscience patience s u f f i c i e n t g l a c i a l c r u c i a l conchens conchons counchonts patiants conehence conchench conchence pashentece pashents glashel musician musisian musician musition musician musition musesition musiction mission corrosion persuasion ; d i v i s i o n misson divisson michen divon michen crotion d i v i t i o n c r u c i f i x i o n crowsafiction vacation population vacation population vaction population vacation popullation population - 5 7 -TABLE XIII (Cont'd) Item contradiction exasperation action generation destruction addition p o s i t i o n Subject Response  Subject 1 Subject 2 c o n t r i d i c t i o n contradiction action genaration generation d i s t r u c k i t i o n distruktshoin distrucketion a d i t i o n adiation addition p o s i t i o n action genaration genaretion gener-decrution decru-a d i t i o n a d i t i o n adetion p e s i t i o n p e s i t i o n pesishtion Subject 3 contrdiction action destroction destroktion destroction p i z i t i o n p i s e t i o n p i s i t i o n No response recorded f o r t h i s subject. Item suspicious malicious vicious conscience patience s u f f i c i e n t g l a c i a l c r u c i a l musician mission corrosion persuasion d i v i s i o n - 5 8 -TABLE XIII - (Cont'd) Subject Response  Subject k supeshis mulishis vishous conchence conchance conenance pashents suffeshent sufishont sufishent g l a s h e i l croshel crooshel croochel musichon musishen musishen mishon croshon presswesshon perswaytion persuation divishen Subject 5 suspishus milishes vishus conchints conintes conchents pashints g l s h e l musition musation mus-mishun d i v i t i o n Item c r u c i f i x i o n vacation r population contradiction exasperation action generation destruction addition p o s i t i o n - 5 9 -TABLE XIII (Cont'd) Subject Response  Subject k c r u s h i f i c s o n vacashen popalashon contudetshon exasperashon exasparashen exaspashon achen achon achshen generashen genarashon genarachen destruchen destruktion destrucktion addition pesishon peseshan p o s i t i o n Subject 5 c r u s e f i c t i o n vacation population contrediction achen action genaration generation addition posetion p o s i t i o n No response recorded f o r t h i s subject. -60-TABLE XIV Items Confounding P a l a t a l i z a t i o n  Item Subject Response Subject 1 Subject 2 accordion Subject 3 accordeon aeourdein acoredeen anguish accordion anguish Subject 4 acordan acorden akorden Subject 5 acordean ucordean - denotes no response recorded f o r t h i s subject. -61-TABLE XV Items Containing Velar Softening of /g/  Item Subject 1 general genarel generation genaration generation l o g i c a l region magic engage average huge p r i v i l e g e bridge hedge regame regine regiane magic angage avrage huge privoledge privolege p r i r o l e g bridge hedge Subject 2 genarl genaration genaretion genar-l o g i c i l l ogcal l o g c e l magic angage aviage huge brige he age headge headage Subject 3 generl magic engage avrige huge bridget bridge - 6 2 -TABLE XV Items Containing Velar Softening of /g/ Item general generation l o g i c a l region Subject 4 genral genarashen genarashon genarachen l o g i c k e l logekle logekel regon magic engage average huge p r i v i l e g e bridge hedge mageck majec majeck engage avrige huge p r i v e l i g e privelege prevelage brige hege hedge Subject 5 generel genaration generation regun reegun reagun magick magic engage averidge huge p r i v e l i d g priveledg privaledg bridge hedg hedge =63-TABLE XVI Items Containing Velar Softening of A / Item c i v i l cedar c r u c i f i x i o n medicine p a c i f i c e l e c t r i c i t y d i s c i p l i n e exercise precise advice device s a c r i f i c e palace juicy distance Subject 1 s i vie cedar medicon p a c i f i c e l e c t r i c a t y e l e c t r i c i t y dissaplen excersise excesize p r i s i c e precise advise devise p a l i c e palece palace juicey juicy distance Subject 2 isriele: ceder cedar medsen p i s f i c e l a t r i s a t e e l c t r i s a t y e l c t i s a t y diapin exerces exerce exerice edvice device scraphice sacraphice sacraphic palace paluce palace Subject 3 s i v e l crowsafiction medicen p i c i f e c d i s a p l i n advise d i v i s e sackrufisc sackrufis sacrefise palice p a l i i s e e p a l l i c e distence distans - 6 4 -TABLE XVI Items Containing Velar Softening of A / Item c i v i l cedar c r u c i f i x i o n medicine pacif i c e l e c t r i c i t y d i s c i p l i n e exercise precise advice device s a c r i f i c e palace jui c y Subject 4 c i v e l cedar crushificson medison p i c i f i c e l e c t r i c i t y d i s i p l i n exersize e x i r s i z e exercize price p r i c i s e advice di v i c e pallece palece p a l i s e jucy juicy Subject 5 s i v e l seeder seader seder medisun p a s i f i c e l e x t r i c a t y e l e x t r i s a t y elextresaty d i s a p l i n exersize exarsize exersiz advice di v i c e sacrefice sacrafice sackrefice p a l i c e pales p a l i s jucey jucy - 6 5 -TABLE XVI (Cont'd) Item distance Subject 4 jucicy distance Subject 5 gucey distents - 6 6 -TABLE XVII Items Confounding Velar Softening Item curse secure paradise c r i s i s several cousin massive pi c n i c delicate medicate thicken stag dragon bugle wiggle juicy Subject 1 curse sicure paridise sevarl sevaral s e v a r o l l cousin massive piknick delicate thicken stag dragon buegle wiggle juicey juicy Subject 2 cerse carse sugur paradee ch i s t e s t c h r i s t e s t c h r i s -coisn pjlcnick delacete delecate delacate thicken stag dragon buegle Subject 3 secore paridise cuson masive pidnick d e l i c u t d e l l i c a t delecut medicaet medicate thicon stag bugle -67-TABLE XVII Items Confounding Velar Softening Item Subject 4 Subject 5 curse curece curs kerese curess kerece curse secure secure sicure paradise paradice paridice c r i s i s c r i s s e s cerises c r i s e s c r i c e s c r i s s e s c r i s e c several sevral severel sevrel severel sevral sevral cousin cousun cus i n massive massev vasiv p i c n i c picknick piknik delicate d e l i c e t d e l i k e t d e l i k e t d e l i k i t delicket d e l e k i t medicate medecate medicate medacate medakate medacete medacate thicken thicken thiken stag stag stag dragon dragoon -dragon bugle bugel bugel - 6 8 -TABLE XVII (Cont'd) Item wiggle jui c y Subject 4 wiggel w i g e l l wigal jucy jucicy juicy Subject 5 jucey jucy gucey - 6 9 -TABLE XVIII Items Containing Stress S h i f t Item aquatic r e a l i t y p o l i t i c a l photography c u r i o s i t y Subject 1 r e a l i t y p o l i t i c a l e phontografy coureosidey coureosady coureosidey Subject 2 reallady realady realade p l i d c i l e p o l g r f i l l l (?) c h r i s t e s t c h r i s t e s t c h r i s -Subject 3 aquatct aquatic p i l i t e k e l phitographe Item aquatic r e a l i t y p o l i t i c a l photography c u r i o s i t y Subject 4 aqutic aquitick aquatic r e a l i t y p o l i t i c a l potogrofy cereosity c e r i o s i t y cereosity Subject 5 r e a l i t y p o l i l i t i k e l photogrefy - 7 0 -TABLE XIX Items Contrasting with Stress S h i f t Items Item c r i t i c a l t i c k l e pretty f a i t h f u l l y salary colony Subject 1 c r i t i c a l e t i c k l e pretty f a t h f e l y f a t h f u l l y fathfuly salery salary c o l l i n y Subject 2 c r i d i c l e t i c k l e preety fahfuly fafuley f a t h f u l y salary coline Subject 3 c r i t i c a l l t i c k e l p r i t t y f a t h f u l l l e y f a t h f u l l y f a t h f u l y c o l l i n e Item c r i t i c a l t i c k l e pretty f a i t h f u l l y salary colony Subject 4 c r i t i c a l t i c h e l p r i t t y f a t h f u l y f a t h f e l f a t h f u l l y c a l l e r y calery salery colony Subject 5 c r i d e c l t i k e l p r i t y f a t h f u l l y f a e t h f u l l y f a t h f u l y salery salary coliny - 7 1 -TABLE XX Items with no Target Process Item match obey straight d e l i v e r business popular through mystery hist o r y heather happening disappear squeeze wrong be a u t i f u l Subject 1 match obay straet d e l i v e r busnise buisnes buisness popular history hether happening disaper disapear disapaer sqeze wrong b e u t i f u l Subject 2 math mach match abay strate bisnesee bisnese bisn populer popular thorght throght thurght history heather happening squise whonge wronge wronge butaful Subject 3 match obay s t r a t d i l i v e r d i l e v e r d e l i v e r popular throw throu thought mistery mistery mistore history hether squese teeva - 7 2 -Item d i s t i n c t spread sympathy opposite scratch midnight murder TABLE XX (cont'd) Subject 1 Subject 2 d i s t i n k spreed spread o p i s i t e opisete o p i s i t scratch midnight murdre dicnte spred spreed spread scrach scrash scrach midnight muder Subject 3 distinced distinked opezet opesit opisete scrach scratch midnight murder No response denoted by a -- 7 3 -Item match obey stra i g h t d e l i v e r business popular through mystery hist o r y heather happening disappear squeeze wrong bea u t i f u l d i s t i n c t spread sympathy opposite scratch TABLE XX (cont'd) Subject 4 match obey strate d e l i v e r bisness bisnes bisnes popular throw throu threw mistry misttry missttry h i s t r y hether hapening squeez wrong beutyful distenct spred spre-opiset opiset opeset scrach schrach skrach Subject 5 mach mache mach obay bisnes bisanis bisnas popuoler popular through h i s t r y hether happining scweez wrong buteful distinght sped spread opiset opesit opisset scrach scrache screch - 7 4 -TABLE XX (cont'd) Item Subject 4 Subject 5 midnight midnight midnight murder No response denoted by a - 7 5 -to have any strategy f o r a l t e r i n g s p e l l i n g s i each experimented with various consonant and vowel substitutions, presence or absence of word terminal ^ e ) , and digraph combinations, depending on the stimilus word. 3 . Analysis of Task 3» Due to r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by a v a i l -a b i l i t y of picturable stimilus words, items f o r th i s task were easier to s p e l l than items f o r Tasks 1 and 2 , These words were necessarily more common and beside t h i s increased frequency of occurrence, they were more often seen accompanied by a picture. A l l the Task 3 items were concrete nouns, while Task 1 and 2 items included abstract nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Any of these facts might account f o r why subjects had greater success s p e l l i n g Task 3 words than Task 1 or 2 words. Because they were accompanied by a picture during t e s t i n g and because of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g composition, these words were ana-lysed' separately (see Table 2 1 ) , However, type of analysis was i d e n t i c a l to that of Tasks 1 and 2 , 4 , 'Analysis of Task 4 . Responses were transcribed phoneti-c a l l y when i n c o r r e c t l y produced and recorded with a check i f correct. Responses from the f i v e sample subjects were entered onto Table 22 . In cases where the correct production i s questionable, a l l re-sponses were transcribed phonetically. S i m i l a r l y to the s p e l l i n g tasks, items were grouped accord-ing to process. In th i s way one can see not only a l l productions of each item, but also each subject's command of the phonological processes i n question and his performance on r e a l versus nonsense words. This task most c l e a r l y revealed any d i f f i c u l t y i n reading phonetically. Children who read by the method c a l l e d "reading by p a r t i a l cues" (Uta F r i t h , 1980a) had d i f f i c u l t y reading nonsense • 76-Item TABLE XXI Task 3 - Responses from Subjects 1 Subject Responses - 5 Subject 1 cereal chair pillows mushrooms carrots f i r e bread grapes iron knife toothpaste camera mountains mointains towel wheat strawberries vacuum cleaner vacume perfume castle Subject 2 c e a r i l n i f e toothpast camra moantian towles weat strabarees vacum perfum casal Subject 3 c e r e l char pilow carots lorn n i f e toothpast camara mountens weet straberry vacuoom perfroom easel Correct response i s denoted by a - . - 7 7 -TABLE XXI (cont'd) Item Subject 4 Subject 5 cereal - sereel chair - cher pillows pellew -mushrooms musroom -carrots carats vedgatible f i r e - -bread breed bred grapes - -iron - i r e n knife - -toothpaste tooth past toothpast camera comrow camra mountains mountan moutin towel two Is sheets wheat wheet weet strawberries strowberry starberys vacuum cleaner vachume vacumcleener perfume - purfume castle c a s t e l cacel Correct response i s denoted by a . 7 8 -words or r e a l words which they had not seen before. Instead, these children appeared to be reading part of the word and guessing at the r e s t , As would be expected i f the subjects were indeed using the " p a r t i a l cue" reading method, there were many additions, deletions and substitutions of s y l l a b l e s i n unfamiliar words, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the longer words, where scanning a b i l i t i e s are most needed. Because of the following factorst 1. variations i n word length, 2. f a m i l i a r i t y of r e a l words to the subject, 3. variations i n the percentage of r e a l words and nonsense words i n each target process group we cannot state a hierarchy of d i f f i c u l t y f o r learning to recognize the target processes. Table 24 describes the numbers correct f o r each target process obtained by subjects 1 to 5i For a l l three target processes, subjects were more adept at deciphering r e a l words than nonsense words. The highest percentage of correct responses f o r nonsense words was obtained with the P a l a t a l i z a t i o n process. The card on which the root word was printed was presented immediately before the card showing the s u f f i x i z e d word. In some cases p a r t i c u l a r l y involving the Velar Softening of /g/, the root word caused interference to the reading of the s u f f i x i z e d word. For example, Subject 14 produced /naegi/, / p i g 3 /, and / f r a g i / f o r "nage", /pige/ and /froge/. Interference from the root word also occurred with the items "upsetion" (root word "upset") and " f a t i o n " (root word " f a t " ) . These were pronounced / ApsetjAn / and /f&tSAn/ by several subjects. - 7 9 -TABLE XXII  Task k - Responses from Subjects 1-5 Item Subject Response Subject 1 Subject 2 huge - -nage naed^ nag buge b A d / ^ bug pige p i d A ) paig froge f radAj frag picnice pzknais p a n i c i t y 'pauitsisti pcsntkiti a t t l c i t y a e t ^ k t t i d e t ' i k i t i r a p i d i t y v i t a l i t y r e a l i t y s t u p i d i t y opposition examination i n v i t a t i o n combination c h i l d r e n i t y r e c e s s i t y c a r r o t i t y robinian orangian awfulian i n s a n i t i o n v a i e t ' i l t t i ' r i a l i t i ' t ^ a i l d r e n i t i ' k y a t i t i 'rabnn^An i' t d / ^ n ' af-u-l'en i n ' senx^An 'vait ©lVfci ' r i a l i t i Ig'zaamnJAn m ' vaitaf/sn cam' bainiJA n ' t j x l d r E> rfxniot 'ke?at a t i 'rab *ns>n a 'f v len n'sen[An - 80 -Item f o r g e t i t i o n a c r o s s i t i o n sockity confusion discussion succession e l e c t r i c i a n magician musician r e s t r i c t i o n d i r e c t i o n prevention d e f i n i t i o n creation equation thermosian glassion dismission a t t i c i a n upsetion enchantion habition c r e d i t i o n f a t i o n crackion Table XXII (Cont'd) Sub.iect 1 Subject 2 f ^ g i t ^ N n f?'g£tx$/\h "ae-'kras i$ A n a'kras ir>p\ n ' s a k i ' d i t i t l £Ktnk*dn ee^nfasan '© srmssen 'glae^'an 'astikan A P ' S £ t ( M l ' haeb x t'5an h a e b i t J A n ' k r ^ d i t e j a n 'fart^n 'faetJAn /krftkan krQdcan Correct response i s denoted b y a -- 8 1 -Item huge nage huge pige froge picnice p a n i c i t y a t t i c i t y TABLE XXII  Task 4 m. Responses from Subjects 1-5 Subject Response  Subject 3 Subject 4 paig fradz, pxk'niks pae'niktti <*L<tik3«li bjug paig f r o g i 'pxknas 'pasni 'kxti 'aeta'kxti r a p i d i t y v i t a l i t y r e a l i t y s t u p i d i t y opposition examination i n v i t a t i o n combination c h i l d r e n i t y r e c e s s i t y c a r r o t i t y robinian o rang ian awfulian i n s a n i t i o n f o r g e t i t i o n ra&padt'-lti ' v a i t a " l x t i ' r i a l t i A ' p o u z i ' ' J A n in'vaitA"5an Jtam'bain^An ' ' k ^ a / t i t i ra' "naen ^'aend/^n d'faelaen In' se^An f^'getlSAn si 'tSlldra'nenrfci 'k^ati 'robe'nen 'Ja nd^'e$An 'ofal' en In'senI"ton f rf'g£t$An -82-Item a c r o s s i t i o n sockity confusion discussion succession e l e c t r i c i a n magician musician r e s t r i c t i o n d i r e c t i o n prevention d e f i n i t i o n creation equation thermosian glassion dismission a t t i c i a n upsetion enchantion habition c r e d i t i o n f a t i o n crackion TABLE XXII (cont'd) Subject 3 Subject 4 c3e'krasI$An a'KrasI^/vn sok'lti ' maed/^ Ikan ©3"mo"j"cEn Qafmo'seyvn 'gleesan a t i - k j A n 'astlkeS^n A.b'se$An 'hatbIt$An 'kreda'tfcyNn fazJ^An fatten 'kradcan 'krsJcen Correct response i s denoted by a -. -83-TABLE XXII 'cont'd) Item Subject 5 Item Subject 5 huge - confusion -nage neg discussion -huge bjug succession 'sAk'a 'stsai"c pige paig e l e c t r i c i a n -f roge frog magician -picnice plknaik musician -p a n i c i t y - r e s t r i c t i o n -a t t i c i t y aet lki t i d i r e c t i o n -r a p i d i t y v i t a l i t y • r e a l i t y s t u p i d i t y -prevention d e f i n i t i o n creation equation -opposition - thermosian e«f ma'saian examination - glassion glae s i "an i n v i t a t i o n - dismission -combination - a t t i c i a n ae.'tl"kai n c h i l d r e n i t y 't^IldranAti upsetion Ab'se^n rec e s s i t y - enchantion -c a r r o t i t y 'k£:>ti habition 'haebi'taiftn robinian r a'bxnaian c r e d i t i o n krfcditaion orangian 'orand^'aian f a t i o n •'fdfc.tai'a n awfulian ' d f V i a La A crackion kr«Jc'aian in s a n i t i o n Ins ai'ne^n f o r g e t i t i o n far'gi!\ eSA n a c r o s s i t i o n ae'krasl'jan sockity -Correct response i s denoted by a - 8 4 -Velar Softening huge nage pige froge picnice pa n i c i t y a t t i c i t y sockity TABLE XXIII Correct Responses to Task IV /hjud/y' /neldoy/ /pald/y' /frovdvy /p'Ikn'Ais/ or /p'Iknis/ / p a n 7 I s * t i / / a t ' I s i t i / / s ' a k i t i / Stress S h i f t r a p i d i t y v i t a l i t y r e a l i t y s t u p i d i t y c h i l d r e n i t y recessity c a r r o t i t y examination i n v i t a t i o n combination opposition i n s a n i t i o n f o r g e t i t i o n / r a p ' I d i t i / / v A i t ' a e l i t i / / r i ' a e l i t i / / s t u p ' I d i t i / /t5 Ildr'£ n i t i / / r i s ' e s i t i / / k£?'atiti/ /£ks'ae.mln'£ i j a n / /' Invat'£ i$en/ /'kambim'E. i ( a n / /'apes'I^an/ /'Ins6n'I$an/ / t D r g a t ' I f e n / - 8 5 -TABLE XXIII (cont'd) Stress S h i f t a c c r o s s i t i o n /"aekras'Ii'en / magician / mad/vj' I ^ n / robinian /rab'Inian/ orangian /T ' aendftjian/ awfulian / af'-u-lian/ P a l a t a l i z a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n /d£fs>n'I$an / creation / k r i ' e l f e n / equation / ikwei^ a n / habition /Ahtfb'ljan/ upsetion /-o-ps'^an/ f a t i o n / 'faejan/ c r e d i t i o n / kr£ d a 5 a n / r e s t r i c t i o n / r e s t r ' I k f e n / d i r e c t i o n / d^r'tk^en/ prevention / prav'e-nt^an/ enchantion / Intent £an/ musician / mjuz' I$an/ e l e c t r i c i a n / a i £ktr'l£m/ a t t i c i a n / at ' l S a n / confusion / ken f y u A j ^ n / thermosion /ea^m 'O^n/ discussion / disk'A 5an/ succession / sAks'^an/ glass ion / gl'dejan/ dismission / dasm'I^an/ -86-TABLE XXIV Task 4i Number of Correct Responses f o r Each Target Process Process Velar Softening /g/ Velar Softening /k/ Subject Real Words Nonsense Words Total 1 1/1 4)4 5/5 2 1/1 0/4 1/5 3 1/1 3/4 4/5 4 1/1 1/4 2/5 5 1/1 0/4 1/5 1 2/3 2/3 2 1/3 1/3 3 0/3 0/3 1/3 1/3 5 1/3 1/3 Stress S h i f t P a l a t a l i z a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6/8 2/8 3/8 7/8 8/8 11/11 10/11 10/11 11/11 10/11 3/10 2/10 5/10 1/10 3/io 5/H 5/11 5/H 4/11 5/H 11/18 4/18 8/18 8/18 10/18 16/22 15/22 16/22 15/22 13/22 - 8 7 -5 . Analysis of Task 5 . Responses from subjects 1 - 5 were entered onto Table 2 5 which was then divided into two sections? one section where items were related and another section where items were not related semantically. Items could be assigned unambiguously to one of the two sections since the relatedness of any two items i n a p a i r was p l a i n l y evident to an adult competent speaker of English. In most cases, relatedness was also p l a i n to the children. This task would have been more valuable i f the subjects had found i t more challenging. There was, however, some d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g word pairs that were unambiguously yet not obviously related. 6 . Analysis of Task 6 . Responses to t h i s task are recorded i n Table 2 6 . Subjects learned each item on the f i r s t day of testing; on the second day, they were asked to r e c a l l the items. In most cases a cue consisting of the f i r s t s y l l a b l e (Consonant-Vowel) of the item was given to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l ; these items were marked "C", The vowel i n the Consonant-Vowel cue was never reduced as t h i s would have provided a hint to the stress assignation. It was o r i g i n a l l y thought that subjects would have more d i f f i c u l t y learning the three items not conforming to the phonological processes i n question, i f they had some awareness of the r u l e s . This hypotheses was not borne out i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, but the subjects did i n f a c t evince some awareness of the phonological processes. Instead of remembering phonologically plausible items more e a s i l y then phonologically implausible items, the subjects alt'ered t h e i r production of the item to make i t phonologically acceptable. For example, / d e f j u t i a n / was pronounced either /defju£an/ to conform with the P a l a t a l i z a t i o n process, or a v a r i a t i o n such as /defjutani/, i n which case P a l a t a l i z a t i o n was not required. -88-TABLE XXV Incorrect Responses to Task 5 by Subjects 1-5 Related Words Subject 1 Subject 2 Subjec periscope - peer no crime - criminal s a t i s f y - s a t i s f a c t i o n admire - admirable choose - choice no sign - sign a l no photograph - photography happy - happiness Christ - Christmas store - storage serve - service school - scholar no Unrelated Words cat - category yes p o l i t e - p o l i t i c a l yes admire - miracle yes core - c o r a l yes sat - s a t i s f a c t i o n yes but - button yes crime - cry gray - grade periscope - p a i r carpet - carpenter measure - sure phone - phony -89-TABLE XXV Incorrect Responses to Task 5 by Subjects Related Words periscope - peer crime - criminal s a t i s f y - s a t i s f a c t i o n admire - admirable choose - choice sign - sign a l photograph - photography happy - happiness Ch r i s t - Christmas store - storage school - scholar serve - service Unrelated Words cat - category p o l i t e - p o l i t i c a l admire- miracle core - c o r a l sat s a t i s f a c t i o n but - button crime - cry gray - grade periscope - p a i r carpet - carpenter measure - sure phone - phony Subject 4 Subject 5 no - 9 0 -TABLE XXVI Task 6 - Responses from Subject 1-5 Subject 1 -Subject 2 -/ ' l A S pa=.<dC > / / - f j ^ d ' i S ^ " / / -v-arrv->ar / /'! A s p i^V^Q5A5/ A j U ' d O j ' A S / /dl e -f j u+ i A r\/ A a e m a e / A S / A a* aLkjul AS/ Subject 3 - / n A f ^ E p4-bi/ / ^ A S p ^ n x b i / / f j u / d o S * " / />3? rva 'a tSl tavV /ms- 'a^ 'hafcat / Subject 4 - /nA^ ^ l p - t&'v^/ / ^ A S p ' X n + b'v / A j u d o ^ S / / ^ e^juS^n / Aawa?£S:fc&/ /maf'asfet ia£/ n o Subject 5 - / M A J ' 11 -t * " t i / / i A v p i d i t i / Aju'dx 5 / d e ' f j u U 5 / / r a e . m - / _ / V Y V a*'ae K i I a S / C-C C C C C-91-7« Analysis of Task 7• Since t h i s task was included s o l e l y as evidence against dyslexia, i t was not anticipated that there would he any incorrect responses. Response latency was considered hut i t was never excessive! the l e t t e r card was not held up longer than a second i n any case. F a i l u r e on any item or excessive latency would have meant exclusion from the study. - 9 2 -CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Introduction. I t has been hypothesized that the Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r has inadequate or incomplete knowledge of the phonological and morphological rules which are considered necessary f o r the execution of correct s p e l l i n g s . In the present investigation, the operation of these rules was examinedi a) The P a l a t a l i z a t i o n rule by which / s / or / t / are p a l a t a l i z e d when followed by io(u) Consonant. " b) The ve l a r Softening rule by which <c> and (g) are pronounced / s / and respectively when followed by mid or high front vowels. c) The Stress S h i f t rule which reassigns stress i n words a f t e r a f f i x a t i o n . Asserles of tasks were administered to Phonetic-a l l y Accurate s p e l l e r s to determine t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n orthographic s p e l l i n g and t h e i r awareness of phonology i n o r a l language. One of the three tasks concerned with phonological awareness, i . e . Learning Nonsense Words, involved the subject i n remembering nonsense words containing s p e c i f i e d sequences of phonemes, from a model which had been presented a u d i t o r a l l y . Two other tasks were designed to t e s t l i n g u i s t i c awarenessj they werei Word Relatedness and S u f f i x a t i o n . Both of these tasks involved! (1) reading stimulus items from f l a s h cards. (2) making decisions regarding the stimulus items. These tasks presupposed a c e r t a i n l e v e l of reading a b i l i t y . - 93 -A few studies have examined the reading s t y l e of Phonetically Accurate S p e l l e r s . Baron (1980) noted that Phonetic-a l l y Accurate s p e l l e r s have "poor word study s k i l l s " . F r i t h (1978) found that unexpectedly poor s p e l l e r s read by p a r t i a l cuest that i s , they noted only some aspects of a word before deciding on i t s designation. This " p a r t i a l cue" method of reading i s adequate when the reader has seen the words before and knows t h e i r meaning. When the " p a r t i a l cue" reader has not seen a word before and cannot guess at i t s meaning, his derivation of the word from i t s sequence of graphemes (and t h e i r corresponding phonemes) i s f a u l t y . In the Word Relatedness Task, subjects were asked to decide whether or not two words were re l a t e d . Stimulus items were chosen from a l i s t of r e a l , f a i r l y common words. I f the subject could not read a word, the word was i d e n t i f i e d f o r him. Since reading method does not appear to a f f e c t knowledge of words, and since reading a b i l i t y was controlled, reading a b i l i t y or method was not seen as a l i k e l y factor a f f e c t i n g performance on th i s task. The S u f f i x i z a t i o n Task required subjects to pronounce either nonsense words, or r e a l words, some of which were unfamiliar to them (e.g. " v i t a l i t y " ) . In t h i s task, word study s k i l l s were c r u c i a l to performance. Subjects who used a " p a r t i a l cue" reading method would be less l i k e l y to decipher unfamiliar s t i m u l i success-f u l l y than would subjects who were competent with a f u l l cue read-ing strategy, regardless of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . Evidence that the test subjects employed inadequate techniques f o r word study i s manifested i n the numerous s y l l a b l e additions and deletions, and phoneme substitutions that occur i a l l subjects made at lea s t one of these errors. Some subjects preferred eit h e r to delete, add, or _ 9 4 -substitute: Subject 13 added a s y l l a b l e to ^accrossition) to produce /^krasin'a J A n/, deleted a s y l l a b l e from ( r a p i d i t y ) to produce / r x p t d ' t i / , and pronounced the <t) i n (carrotity) as a Af/i A ^ ' d t j f n t ' i / i Other subjects employed only one strategy f o r dealing with unfamiliar words, f o r example, Subject 15 con-s i s t e n t l y deleted s y l l a b l e s . In many instances the examiner, who f e l t that the subjects "weren't looking at the words", asked subjects to "look again", or "look c a r e f u l l y " , but t h i s strategy never re-sulted i n a correct production, or even a correct s y l l a b l e count. The purpose of the s u f f i x a t i o n task was to discover the degree of phonological awareness of Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r s , i n order that some explanation f o r t h e i r unexpectedly poor s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y might be reached. It seems clear, however, that the performance of the Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r s on the s u f f i x a t i o n task was confounded by t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r reading method, i,e.« the 41 p a r t i a l cue" method. Although control subjects who were good readers and sp e l l e r s did indeed perform better on the s u f f i x a t i o n task, i t cannot be said that t h i s i s because of t h e i r superior know-ledge of phonology. The most obvious explanation f o r the inadequate performance of the Phonetically Accurate s p e l l e r s i s t h e i r inadequate a b i l i t y to interpret an unfamiliar sequence of graphemes. Despite an i n a b i l i t y to accept the hypotheses as pro-posed at thi s time, secondary gains have been considerable and worth-while. Observations of the subjects* strategies f o r coping with s p e l l i n g problems w i l l be a valuable adjunct to already ex i s t i n g information. Certain facets of the relat i o n s h i p between s p e l l i n g and language which r a i s e i n t e r e s t i n g questions w i l l be presented. - 9 5 -B. Discussion of processes under investigation, 1, Velar Softening Rule. Of the phonological processes under observation, subjects generally appeared to be most successful with the Velar Softening rule governing the phoneme /g/. Unlike other phonemes (e.g. /k/, / f / ) , the vela r stop i s represented unambiguously by the grapheme g*. When followed by a mid or high front vowel, the /g/ becomes /dn^/ according to the Velar Softening r u l e . Subjects were consistently accurate i n t h e i r choice of <g) instead of ( j ) to represent the phoneme /d/^/ i n the context of mid or high front vowels. In contrast, the softened c was as often represented by an <s) as by a (c). I t seems plausible that subjects employed the (g> co r r e c t l y simply because ( j ) r a r e l y occurs medially, or f i n a l l y , i n words. The subjects did not appear to understand the rel a t i o n s h i p between environment and pronunciation of the grapheme, as evidenced by ifowel e r r o r s i "region" spelled (regon) by Subject 4» "buglef spelled (bugel) by Subject 5. The grapheme <g) was selected to represent both /g/ and /&y/ simply because of a lack of other options. Subjects* ignorance of the vela r softening rule was also demonstrated by t h e i r treatment of the softened ( c ) . This grapheme,.normally pronounced as /k/, i s pronounced / s / when followed by a mid or high front vowel. Generally, s e l e c t i o n of (c) or (s) to precede the mid or high front vowel appeared to be random, Some subjects evidenced minor strategies which consisted of assigning a constant grapheme sequence to a p a r t i c u l a r phoneme sequence. Subjects 1 to 5 each employed a strategy to s p e l l the word f i n a l sequence / a i s / i n ''advice", "device", "paradise"? Subjects 4, 5 - 9 6 -and 2 spelled a l l of these words with the ending ( - i c e ) ? and Subjects 1 and 3 used <^-ise). This strategy did not extend to other sequences, however, a l l subjects used both ( s ) and ( c ) ( c o r r e c t l y and i n c o r r e c t l y ) i n other words. As with the grapheme (g)» subjects were unaware of the si g n i f i c a n c e of context to the grapheme (e)t Subject 1 produced(electricady)for " e l e c t r i c i t y " and Subject 2 wrote (cerse) instead of "curse". One strategy, which involved the softening of (V> and (g), might be i n d i c a t i v e of the development of a rule f o r phonology i n s p e l l i n g . That i s , Subjects 1 to 5 constantly added word f i n a l (e) to words ending i n the phonemes /dz/ or / s / , i f the subject represented these phonemes with (g) and ( c ) . Thus, "average" was variously spelled as (avrage"), (aviage) , <(avrige) , and (averidge) • As with a l l items ending i n the phoneme /dz/, a l l variants of "average" end with <(-ge). The item "distance" evinced these responses?, (distance), (distance), ( d i s t e n t s ) , (distons). The forms which employ (c) also have word terminal ^e) i forms employing (s) do not. Subjects 5's three attempts to s p e l l "palace" were ( p a l i c e ) , ( p a l e s ) , and(palis); Subjects 2's s p e l l i n g s of "exercise" were (exerces), (exerce), and(exerice). These subjects employed word f i n a l <(-ce) as a u n i t . They appeared to substitute (ce) f o r (s)» rather than (c) f o r (s), Words ending with the phonemes /k/ or /g/ were represented by the graphemes ( c ) and <g) respectively? however there was no case where they were represented by ( c / or (g) followed by word f i n a l ( e ) , "Magic" was spelled (majec), (magic) , (magick), etc, and "stag" was c o r r e c t l y spelled by a l l subjects. The only exception to t h i s strategy of representing softened con-sonants with word f i n a l ( e ) were Subject 5's variants of "privelege", a l l of which ended i n (-dg). For a l l other consonants, addition of word f i n a l ( e ) appeared to he haphazard. In the case of words ending i n /d/ or / s / where the subject intended to represent these sounds with the graphemes (g) and ( c ) , word f i n a l (e)was used appropriately. I t would appear, then, that these subjects were aware that the addition of (e) to the end of a word permits an alternate pronunciation to (g1) and (k) , namely /d / and / s / . I t i s u n l i k e l y that the subjects recognized word f i n a l (e)as the s i l e n t form of a mid front vowel and thus i t cannot be said that they have acquired the Velar Softening r u l e . Subjects have learned that the f i n a l sequences (ge) and (ce) axe equivalent to /d/>j/ and / s / respectively. At t h i s point, they have acquired an orthographic convention rather than a phonological s p e l l i n g r u l e . However, t h i s i s the convention f o r the Velar Soft-ening rule i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r environment and therefore one might argue that they have acquired t h i s rule f o r a r e s t r i c t e d environment. 2, P a l a t a l i z a t i o n . One of the most p e r s i s t e n t l y " d r i l l e d " s p e l l i n g conventions i s the s u f f i x (-tion). I t i s frequently presented i n long l i s t s of words a l l containing t h i s ending. To some extent, t h i s d r i l l appear? to have been ef f e c t i v e * the phoneme sequence /5V\n/ i n stimulus items was often interpreted to be ( t i o n ) . In l i g h t of the frequency of occurrence of t h i s sequence and the extent to which (-tion) words are " d r i l l e d " , i t i s not remarkable that subjects could c o r r e c t l y reproduce t h i s sequence. What i s remarkable i s that c e r t a i n subjects continue to substitute other grapheme sequences f o r t h i s extremely common sequence and that the most common substitution i s a sequence which i s very uncommon i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i n the word: the sequence ^-shVn) (V vowel), (sh); i s a common graphemic representation f o r the phoneme /// i n a l l positions i n root morphemes, but i s uncommon i n -98-a f f i x e s . Subjects who favor (sh) over / t i o n / i n t h i s p o s i t i o n show l i t t l e understanding of "word study", They also appear to r e l y less on v i s u a l memory (e.g. word shape and sequencing) hut more on an auditory analysis. In the preceding discussion of the Velar Softening rule, i t was suggested that the primacy of the grapheme (g). i s representingteboth phonemes /g/ and /d/, was due to the infrequently occurring grapheme (j") i n medial and f i n a l word posi t i o n s . However the question of how frequency affects correct usage must remain unresolved since i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n involving (tion), the less frequent grapheme sequence was often chosen. Some subjects evidenced overgeneralization of the sequence ( t i o n ) . "Musician" was spelled (musitian) by several subjects, including Subject 2 and Subject 5. These subjects have apparently learned the correct rule but are applying i t to items to which i t does not extend. This error i s perhaps analogous to that stage i n the development of morphology when morphological and s y n t a c t i c a l rules are overgeneralized. A continuation of t h i s analogy between s p e l l i n g development and language development, would be that there exists a l a t e r stage i n s p e l l i n g when the c h i l d learns to l i m i t the rule to s p e c i f i c items. Predicatably, subjects had more d i f f i c u l t y with stimulus items containing a p a l a t a l i z e d phoneme sequence which was not represented by (-tion)) these included the endings / - J A S / , /5A n/, /'yn/, //Ans/i / J A n t / and / J A 1/ (see table 13). These phoneme sequences were represented by a variety of grapheme sequences. Correct s e l e c t i o n depended upon graphemic memory of the word or on 1 I knowledge of the word's etymology, rather than upon analogy strategies or 'phonic® strategies (such as 'sounding the word out')» Some subjects evidenced some memory of the correct s p e l l i n g f o r an item and some knowledge of possible grapheme sequences. For example, Subject 1 t r i e d (musisian) f o r "musician", (suspices) f o r "suspicious", ( v i c i o s ) f o r "vicious" and (misson) f o r "mission". He employed the sequence (-tion) appropriately. Other subjects, e.g. Subject 5 abandoned the struggle with graphemic memory and succumbed to t o t a l dependence on an auditory analysis. Subject 5 could s p e l l items containing (-tion), but f o r a l l other stimulus item s p e l l i n g s , pro-duced sequences beginning with <-sh-), f o r example, "suspicious", "mission", and "patience" were spelled (suspishus), (mishun), and ;(pashints), 3. Stress S h i f t . The t h i r d process under investigation, the Stress S h i f t rule, could not adequately be studied using a written 'spelling t e s t ' task structure. Stimulus items which contained a 'stress s h i f t ' were items having an a f f i x that caused the natural stress of the root morpheme to change. These items included " e l e c t r i c i t y " , " p o l i t i c a l " , "photography", " c u r i o s i t y " , " r e a l i t y " and "aquatic". They were misspelled as frequently as the other stimulus items but there does not appear to be any evidence that the errors were activated by processes other than those which resulted i n errors on a l l of the task items. Of the s i x items i n question, only one item, " p o l i t i c a l " , underwent any s y l l a b l e deletion and that was done by only one subject, Subject 2, S y l l a b l e deletion was f a i r l y common f o r m u l t i s y l l a b i c words, such as "several", "exercise" and "general", but was infrequent fo r items with an a f f i x causing stress s h i f t . The data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to,allow more than preliminary questions regarding the significance -100-of t h i s , however. C, Strategies 1, S p e l l i n g Development. Certain p a r a l l e l s e x i s t between the a c q u i s i t i o n of orthography and the h i s t o r i c a l development of the English s p e l l i n g system since the Norman Conquest. Graphemes which unambigously represent a phoneme, i . e . are i n a one to one phoneme to grapheme correspondence, are standardized, while graphemes i n more complex grapheme to phoneme relationships are more frequently confused. For example, the grapheme sequence (ch) to represent the phoneme / t j / i s less l i k e l y to be a source of error to the atrocious s p e l l e r than the graphemic representation of / s / , which might be either" (s) or <c>. H i s t o r i c a l l y , (ch) represented / t ^ / u n i v e r s a l l y soon a f t e r i t s introduction while other graphemes remained i n free v a r i a t i o n , consistence of s p e l l i n g improved over time, both h i s t o r i c -a l l y and i n normal a c q u i s i t i o n . Consistency of s p e l l i n g improves over time, both h i s t o r i c a l l y and i n normal a c q u i s i t i o n . By the seventeenth century, a stable s p e l l i n g system had been adopted, but had not yet become completely regular. S i m i l a r l y , by grade three, children have learned most s p e l l i n g conventions but may s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t y with con-f l i c t i n g r u l e s . D i a l e c t a l variations become less prevalent as the orthographic system matures. I t i s not within the scope of t h i s paper to speculate about these p a r a l l e l s , but i t would be inappropriate to ignore them completely i n a study of s p e l l i n g strategies, 2, Handwriting. Results from Tenney's (1980) experiment on the e f f e c t of handwriting on s p e l l i n g are supported by re s u l t s obtained - 1 0 1 -i n the present study*. Handwriting of a l l six control subjects was uniform and precise; only a few of the t e s t subjects had equally good handwriting. Subjects 5 and 1 6 produced the standard acceptable handwriting taught i n Elementary school; that i s , c a r e f u l l y formed, rounded graphemes; even spacing between graphemes and words, and exactly placed retrograde orthographic strokes (dotted i ' s and crossed t ' s ) . These subjects were among the most accurate sp e l l e r s as well as the most accurate writers. Furthermore, nearly a l l of t h e i r s p e l l i n g errors were grapheme reversals or substitutions rather than s y l l a b l e deletions or additions. For example, of the sixteen words i n error i n Subject 16's Task 1 data, there was only one addition of a s y l l a b l e ( p i c i n i c f o r "picnic") and only one deletion ( c r i c f i t i o n f o r " c r u c i f i x i o n " ) . Both of these examples involved unstressed s y l l a b l e s . Although Subject 5 had t h i r t y - e i g h t words i n error from the forty-seven words presented i n Task 1 , only one ( p o l i l i t i k e l f o r " p o l i t i c a l " ) involved a s y l l a b l e error. A s t r i k i n g number of test subjects showed poor hand-writing a b i l i t y , which included: ( 1 ) alternating d i r e c t i o n ( 2 ) i r r e g u l a r l y formed graphemes ( 3 ) uneven spacing These confounding patterns resulted i n orthography that was always hard to decipher, and, on occasion i l l e g i b l e . Subjects 3 , 4 , ? , 1 3 , 1 5 . 1 7 » 1 9 > 2 0 and 2 3 produced handwriting with these character-i s t i c s . Generally, these subjects made more errors than subjects with good handwriting. Their errors included some deletions or add-i t i o n s of stressed s y l l a b l e as well as unstressed s y l l a b l e s , e.g. * Judgement of handwriting i s s t r i c t l y subjective since there are no standardized measurements f o r neatness at t h i s time. Handwriting samples were designated as good, mediocre or both depending on l e g i b i l i t y and symmetry. -102-<divish> f o r " d i v i s i o n " (Subject 2 0 ) ( d i s t i n g t i n ) f o r " d i s t i n c t " (Subject 1 3 ) (vaction) f o r "vacation" (Subject 2 ) Since these subjects do not omit these s y l l a b l e s i n o r a l pro-duction and thus do not have incorrect underlying representations of the items, the cause of the errors would appear to be at a motor l e v e l . For these infrequently occurring words, subjects do not appear to possess automatic motor c o n t r o l . These subjects cannot e a s i l y read what they are writing and thus may lose t h e i r place i n the word as they write. The r e s u l t of such confusion i s duplication or omission of s y l l a b l e s . F i n a l l y , because they f i n d t h e i r own handwriting d i f f i c u l t to read, they are less l i k e l y to check f o r errors. In t h i s way, poor handwriting contributes to poor s p e l l i n g . Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that subjects de l i b e r a t e l y attempt to hide s p e l l i n g errors with i l l e g i b l e handwriting. Subject 3 ' s handwriting became increasingly distorted as the task proceeded. Her attempts at the word "bea u t i f u l " i n p a r t i c u l a r demonstrate that handwriting was more i l l e g i b l e when she knew she could not s p e l l a word, 3 , Motor Perseveration of Handwriting. Several of the subjects (e.g. Subjects 2 , 3 , 1 3 and 1 9 ) evidenced perseveration of writing patterns. For example, a ( t ) was added to the written response f o r "though" on several occasions. I t appeared that a "programmed" motor response demanded that a ( t ) follow (th-ough), There were various treatments of the (r) f o r this target item. Subject 1 9 retained the ( r ) and added a f i n a l (t) . Subject 3 deleted the ( r ^ when she added ( t ) and Subject 2 transposed the ( r ) . -103-Another example of perseverative writing also i n -volved f i n a l ( t ) i on hearing the stimulus item "bridge", Subject 3 reported that she had a f r i e n d named "Bridget" which was l i k e "bridge" and then proceeded to s p e l l ( B r idget). After reviewing her production she crossed out the f i n a l ( t ) . In these cases, i t would seem that the stimulus of the motor pattern f o r writing was stronger than the stimulus provided by some auditory model with i t s corresponding vocal t r a c t "foundation" associated with "sounding out" the items. None of the control group evidenced t h i s persevera-t i v e writing behavior. 4. Confrontation Naming. A notable problem, appearing as a r e s u l t of the construction of the Visual S p e l l i n g Task, was the number of childr e n evidencing word r e c a l l problems. Because the pictured items used were of commonly occurring objects, i t was not anticipated that confounding would occur as a r e s u l t of the naming process. A l l subjects knew the names of the pictured items but some subjects evidenced the " t i p of the tongue" phenomenon, that i s , they could not immediately r e c a l l the target word. Subjects with t h i s problem used a semantic category to t r i g g e r r e c a l l . For example, Subject 9 said aloud "shaving cream" when presented with a picture of a perfume bottle but instead of writing, stared at the picture f o r several seconds and then said "perfume" which he immediately wrote down. Subject 17 referred to "grapes" as "cherries" and could not remember the word "strawberries" On both occasions he appeared to be frustrated with his i n a b i l i t y to r e c a l l the correct word, claiming that he knew the name but "couldn't think of i t " . When presented with the picture of tooth-paste, Subject 20 wrote "AIM with f l o u r i d e " and then wrote "toothpast - 104 -In a l l cases the subjects remembered the correct label after several seconds. It would be worthwhile to administer a confrontation naming task to Phonetically Accurate spellers to determine whether or not the incidence of word finding d i f f i c u l t i e s i s higher than in proficient spellers. 5 . Affixation. In both auditory spelling tasks, stimulus items were presented in a sentence context. One reason for this particular approach was the attempt to c l a r i f y the meaning of a particular stimulus word and to indicate i t s case, as a clue to i t s spelling. Despite these "constraints", several subjects treated certain items as i f they were a different word plus a bound morpheme. Nearly a l l subjects spelled "patience" with one of these endingsi -(~ts) or -(ns^ although this sequence does not occur in English orthography in word f i n a l position unless the (t) or (n) is the f i n a l letter of the root word and the (s) either denotes plural form, or acts as the contracted form of " i s " . Some subjects treated both items ending in /ns/ the same way» for example, Subject 1 9 spelled "distance" as (distants) and "patience" as (pactits^ . Other subjects used different strategies for the two words, for example Subject 3 spelled "distance" as (distons) and "patience" as (pashents), while Subject 1 spelled "distance" correctly but spelled "patience" as (patiants). Incorrect affixation occurred in other items. Subject 1 3 produced (fishes^) for "vicious" and Subject 2 0 produced ('vishes) for "vicious" and (distinked) for "distinct"o Why incorrect affixation should be used i s not clear. Several possible reasons suggest themselvest - 105-a) Subjects may have thought that the homonym of the stimulus item was i n f a c t the correct choice. They may not have listened to the sentence context. b) Subjects may not be aware of patterns of morphology. They therefore depend on a s t r i c t auditory strategy at a l l times, without noticing r e g u l a r i t i e s related to syntactic structure. c) Subjects may have been aware of the morphological im-pl i c a t i o n s of t h e i r productions but could not produce an alternate s p e l l i n g . d) Subjects may be aware of morphological r e g u l a r i t i e s , but are not aware that c e r t a i n sequences are limited to ce r t a i n morphological structures i n the interests of rapid i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f o r example, they do not know that Consonant ( s^ > only occurs when the p l u r a l morpheme ( s ) has been a f f i x e d to a word. In t h i s case subjects r e l y on an auditory encoding/decoding strategy rather than a set of in t e r n a l i z e d rules, although they are aware of such r u l e s . 6. "Sounding Out". One of the most widely used methods i n current s p e l l i n g instructions depends strongly on "phonics", a method which involves the subject/child i n f i n d i n g a one to one correspond-ence between each simultaneously produced o r a l phoneme and written grapheme of a word. This method, commonly known as "sounding (the word) out" i s habitual f o r many people when confronted with s p e l l i n g a word whose production i s not completely automatic. A l l subjects, both Test and Control, evidenced the use of t h i s technique at some point, since some stimulus words were infrequently represented -106-at t h e i r reading l e v e l s . This method i s most successfully used i n combination with morphological and etymological information, to ensure correct grapheme choice and s y l l a b l e count. Dependence on "sounding out" varied? some subjects subvocalized continuously, others only on p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t items. A l l subjects used t h i s technique with varying degrees of success. Control subjects subvocalized "contradiction" re-markably successfully, using a s y l l a b l e count to arr i v e at the pro-duction of t h i s m u l t i s y l l a b i c word. Many subjects i n the Test group "sounded out" items inaccurately? Control subjects were not ob-served to lose correspondence between phoneme and grapheme. Subject 3 "sounded out" "perfume" while writing (perfroom)? Subject 2 pronounced a l l s y l l a b l e of "vacation" while s p e l l i n g ^vaction). Correct o r a l production of a phoneme, then, did not ensure correspond-ence to the correct grapheme. In these two examples, a case could be made f o r motoric confoundingt perseveration of the ( r ) and accidental omission of the ( a ) . Other examples suggest interference from another source. Subject 13 p e r s i s t e n t l y wrote <^poplyar^ while saying "popular" c o r r e c t l y . Many children convert words with a - / j u l / - s y l l a b l e to - / l i / - ? f o r example, "ambulance" i s often i t pronounced "ambliance" (Gilbert and Johnson 1977). This stage often proecedes correct production i n speech development. Subject 13 had acquired the correct production but spelled the word as he had probably pronounced i t at an e a r l i e r time. "Sounding out", at least i n s y l l a b i c terms, does not necessarily appear to involve a correspond-ence between the token which i s uttered and a grapheme. "Sounding out" may also involve an unspoken but i n t e r n a l l y acknowledged model? i . e . the c h i l d may be pronouncing a word i n one way but thinking of i t i n another. 107-A most obvious problem which arises when "sounding out" i s that even i f the phoneme to grapheme correspondence i s well-ordered, English orthography i s not"phonetic" « simple phoneme to grapheme correspondences do not adequately describe the language system. Most errors which occurred involved correct grapheme choices, e.g. <(misition) instead of "misician", <(disaplin) instead of " d i s c i p l i n e " , etc. The unanswered question i s , why are these p a r t i c u l a r graphemes chosen? 3,7 Di a l e c t . A provocative question requiring future study involves the subject's d i a l e c t . Certain sp e l l i n g s of words c l e a r l y r e f l e c t the subject's own production or perception of the word, e.g. <^contudetshon) f o r "contradiction" (Subject 4) (distink) f o r " d i s t i n c t " (Subject 1) <(spishes) f o r "suspicious" (Subject 3) Data from Subject 23, the subject with an "auditory perception" problem, i s enlightening. His spellings indicated confusion at the phoneme l e v e l , e.g. ( p r i b a l i g e ) f o r "privelege" <ffafefully> f o r " f a i t h f u l l y " <fsacerfice) f o r " s a c r i f i c e " I f subjects are "sounding out" words according to t h e i r own pro-nunciation, other errors which are not so unquestionably d i a l e c t a l might be explained. For example, the o r a l productions of Subjects 1 and 22 were not heard by the examiner, but might explain t h e i r respective orthographic productions (phontography) and <j>ertogrerphy). The major source of s p e l l i n g error, f o r a l l subjects, was i n the graphemic representation of unstressed vowels. Information regarding f - 108" a subject's production of these vowels (or how they believe they produce these vowels) would lead to valuable insights into strategies being employed by the Atrocious s p e l l e r . Strategies f o r fi n d i n g the correct grapheme to replace an unstressed vowel yielded equivocal evidence. Subject 1 chose[-back] vowels to replace the unstressed vowel i n "palace"» ( p a l i c e ) , (palece), (palace)i while subject 2 chose [-front) vowels» (palace),(paluce), (paLoce) . However, neither subject maintained a consistent [-back) or [-front) strategy f o r unstressed vowel replacement i n other words. Most subjects appeared to be manipulating unstressed vowels haphazardly i n the Audio V i s u a l S p e l l i n g Task, An accurate s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h i s point awaits corroboration by spectrographic measurements, 8, Reliance on the Vocal Tract, Most notably, nearly a l l test subjects favoured an auditory strategy over a v i s u a l strategy when they were unsure of how an item was sp e l l e d . An exception was Subject 1 who e f f e c t i v e l y employed v i s u a l clues to help him s p e l l . S p e l l i n g productions of items from the Audio-Visual S p e l l i n g Task regularly improved with repeated attempts, "Phonetic" sp e l l i n g s of phonemes, such as repeated use of (sh) f o r ///, were rare. Incorrectly spelled items were more l i k e l y to involve mis-sequenced graphemes (e.g. (genarel) f o r "general"), an incorrect choice of orthographic convention (e.g, (divisson) f o r " d i v i s i o n " ) , or a version of the correct s p e l l i n g distorted by the addition or deletion of an extra grapheme (e.g, ( b e u t i f u l ) f o r " b e a u t i f u l " ) . Nearly a l l t e s t subjects apparently used v i s u a l clues on occasion. For Subject 1, however, use of v i s u a l clues was dominant, while other subjects/appeared to depend on auditory clues. An auditory model to be used as a clue to s p e l l i n g 169 -could be the speech production of the s p e l l e r or of another t a l k e r . In several instances, subjects requested that the examiner "say i t again", presumably because the subject intended to make a d i r e c t phoneme to grapheme correspondence. The auditory model was often the s p e l l e r ' s own production of an item. Several subjects repeated items slowly as they wrote, using the method t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as "sounding a. word out" (see above discussion). The reliance of these subjects on t h e i r vocal tracts i s a s t r i k i n g consideration, These subjects are able to translate from a grapheme sequence to a morpheme when reading. However, i n spelling,the t r a n s l a t i o n i s from morpheme to phoneme s t r i n g and then to grapheme s t r i n g . I n t u i t i v e l y one f e e l s that t h i s i s an e a r l i e r stage f o r a user of an alphabetic system than a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n from morpheme to grapheme. A d i r e c t morpheme to grapheme t r a n s l a t i o n implies that the item i s stored i n the memory as a u n i t . In a s p e l l i n g system which i s morphophonemic i n many instances, such as English, an intermediary t r a n s l a t i o n involving i n d i v i d u a l sounds must necessarily be a learning stage rather than the f i n a l stage of development. -110-BIBLIOGRAPHY Baker, Robert G. 'Orthographic Awareness' Cognitive Processes  i n S p e l l i n g . Uta F r i t h (ed) Academic Press, InC. London* 1900 (a). 51-67 Baker, Robert G. and Smith, P h i l i p T. 'A Psycholinguistic. Study of English Stress Assignment Rules' Language and Speech 19 (January-March)* 1976 Baron, Johathon; Treiman, Rebeccas Wilf, Jennifer F.s and Kelliman, P h i l i p 'Spelling and Reading by Rules' Cognitive  Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h Ted; 159-193 Barron, Roderick W. 'Visual and Phonological Strategies i n Reading and Sp e l l i n g ' Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 195-213 Chomsky, Noam and Halle, Morris The Sound Pattern of English Harper and Row, New York I 9 6 B Derousne, J, and Beauvois, M.F. 'Phonological Processing i n Reading* Data from Alexia' fournal of Neurology? Neuro- surgery, and Psychiatry 42* T979 1125-1132 Ehri, Linnea C. 'The Development of Orthographic Images' Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 311-337 F r i t h , Uta 'Unexpected S p e l l i n g Problems' Cognitive Processes  i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 495-515 F r i t h , Uta 'Annotation* Sp e l l i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s ' Journal of  Child Psychology and Psychiatry 191 1980 (b) 279-285 Gibson, E.S. 'Perceptual Aspects of the Reading Process and Its Development' Handbook of Sensory Physiology Volume 8 s  Perception R. Held et a l (ed) Springer Verlag Berlin* 1978 G i l b e r t , J.H.V, and Johnson, Carolyn 'The Ambliance Phenomenon' Journal of Child Language* 1976 Gleitman, L e i l a and Rozin, Paul 'The Structure and Acquisition of Reading I* Relations Between Orthographies and the Structure of Language' Reading A Reber (ed) Goldbaum Press , New York 1976 H a l l , Robert A, J r . Sound and Spelling i n English Chilton Company, Philadelphia* 19SI Hanna, Paul R; Hodges, Richard E, and Hanna, Jean S, Spelling* Structure and Strategies Houghton M i f f l i n Company Boston 1971 Harpin, William The Second 'R* George A l l e n and Univin Ltd London 1976 Hecaen, Henri and Albert, Martin L, Human Neuropsychology John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York 1978 - I l l -Henderson, L e s l i e and Chard, Jackie 'The Header's Imp l i c i t Knowledge of Orthographic Structure' Cognitive Processes  i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 85-115 Henachen, S.E. Klinische und Anatomische Beitrage zur Pathologie  des Gehirns Nordiske Bokhandeln Stockholms 1920-1922 Horn, Thomas D. Research on Handwriting and Spel l i n g National Council of Teachers of English Champaign, Illinois» 1966 Hotopf, Norman {Slips of the Pen' Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 287-308 Hyman, Larry M, Phonologys Theory and Analysis Holt, Rinehart and Winston New York. 1975 Kinsbourne, M and Rosenfield, D. 'Agraphia Selective f o r Written Spelling* Brain and Language It 1974 215-225 Linksy, Arthur On Writing, Reading and Dyslexia Grune and Stratton New York* 1973 Lyons, John Introduction to Theoretical L i n g u i s t i c s Cambridge University Press Cambridges 1968 Marsh, Georges Friedman, Mortons Wilson, Veronica and Desberg, Peter 'The Development of Strategies i n S p e l l i n g ' Cognitive  Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 339-353 Morton, John 'The Logogen Model and Orthographic Structure' Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 117-133 Pertz, D.L, and Bever, T.G, ' S e n s i t i v i t y to Phonological Universals i n Children and Adolescents' Language 51, Is 1975 149-162 Peters, Margaret L. Spellings Caught or Taught? Routledge and Kegan Paul Londons 1967 Read, Charles Children's Categorization of Speech Sounds i n English National Council of Teachers of English Urbana, I l l i n o i s ? 1975 Rozin, Paul and Gleitman, L e i l a 'The Structure and Acquisi t i o n of Reading l i s The Reading Process and the Acq u i s i t i o n of the Alphabetic P r i n c i p l e ' Reading A.Reber (ed) Goldbaum Press New York 1 1976 Sasanuma, S, and Fujimura, 0, 'An Analysis of Writing Errors i n Japanese Patientss Kanji versus Kana Words' Cortex 8s 1972 265-282 Schane, Sanford A. 'Rule Breaking i n English Spellings A Study of. F i n a l "E"' Studies i n Descriptive and H i s t o r i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s Paul J. Hopper (ed) John Benjamins B.V. Amsterdams 1977 Scragg, D,G, History of English S p e l l i n g Manchester University Press Londons 1974 -112-Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanle and Klat t , Dennis H. 'The Limited Use of D i s t i n c t i v e Features and Markedness i n Speech Productions! Evidence from Speech Error Data' Journal of Verbal Hearing and Verbal Behavior 18i 1979 41-55 Sloboda, John A, 'Visual Imagery and Individual Difference i n Spel l i n g Cognitive Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 231-248 Smith, P h i l i p T, 'Linguistic Information i n Spelling* Cognitive  Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 33-49 Smith, P h i l i p T. and Baker, Robert G. 'The Influence of English S p e l l i n g Patterns on Pronunciation' Journal of Verbal Learning  and Verbal Behavior 15% 1976 267-283 Sweeney, James E, and Rourke, Byron P. Neuropsychological  Significance of Phonetically Accurate and Phonetically  Inaccurate S p e l l i n g Errors i n Younger and Older Retarded  Spellers Academic Press Inc. Windsors 1978 Tenney, Yvette J . 'Visual Factors i n S p e l l i n g ' Cognitive  Processes i n S p e l l i n g . Uta F r i t h (ed) 215-229 Vachek, J, Written Language Mouton and Co. N.V. The Haguei 1973 Venezky, Richard L. 'From Webster to Rice to Roosevelt' Cognitive  Processes i n S p e l l i n g Uta F r i t h (ed) 9-30 Wijk, Axel Rules of Pronunciation f o r the English Language Oxford University Press London 1966 Wolf, Maryanne The Word Retrieval Process and Reading i n Children and Aphasics Brandeis University! 1979 -115-APPENDIX II Task It Orthographic S p e l l i n g Performance Instructions - L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s . You are going to hear some words. F i r s t you w i l l hear a word, then you w i l l hear that word i n a sentence, then you w i l l hear the word again. I would l i k e you to l i s t e n to a l l three r e p e t i t i o n s , and then s p e l l the word using your paper and pen. For example, you w i l l hear, "dog - I fought a dog - dog". Then you w i l l write dog. Don't worry i f you don't know how to s p e l l the words, just do your best. Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Task 1 Items with Sentences, 1. advice Take my advice and lea^town. 2. p i c n i c We go on a p i c n i c every summer. 3. huge She bought a huge cake. 4. secure I f e e l secure at home. 5. stag The stag knocked his horns against a tree. 6. measure I w i l l measure the ingredients c a r e f u l l y . 7. s t r a i g h t The road i s straight and narrow. 8. thicken Heat i t and i t w i l l thicken up. 9. suspicious I saw a suspicious looking man. 10. obey Please obey the r u l e s . 11. pretty The scenery i s pretty along that road. -116-Task 1 Items with Sentences (cont'd) 12. cousin My cousin came to v i s i t . 13. mission Soon my mission w i l l he complete. 14. general The general public i s e a s i l y swayed. 15. engage I w i l l engage them i n conversation. 16. corrosion The ir o n showed signs of corrosion by winter. 17. device This handy device s e l l s cheaply. 18. g l a c i a l During g l a c i a l times, sheets of ice covered the earth. 19. heather I planted some heather i n my garden. 20. bridge We need a bridge to cross the r i v e r , 2 1 . c r u c i f i x i o n The c r u c i f i x i o n i s ce n t r a l to Easter, 2 2 . happening What's happening today? 2 3 . massive The massive rock f e l l on the highway, 24. squeeze Don't squeeze the vegetables, 2 5 . c r i t i c a l My teacher i s c r i t i c a l of my work, 26. patience I have no patience with babies. 27. h i s t o r y I study history because i t ' s fun. 28. closure We need closure of some ideas. 2 9 . distance Toronto i s a great distance away. 30. vacation I need a vacation soon. 31 . p a c i f i c Cross the P a c i f i c Ocean i n a sai l b o a t . 32. b e a u t i f u l That car has be a u t i f u l l i n e s . 33• midnight I t was midnight when the witches came out. 34. photography I've taken up photography as a hobby. 35. d i s c i p l i n e Severe d i s c i p l i n e i s not good f o r anyone. - 1 1 7 -Task 1 Items with Sentences (cont'd) 36. malicious Who's been spreading malicious gossip? 37. paradise V i s i t a t r o p i c a l paradise l i k e Hawaii. 38. d i s t i n c t One i s auite d i s t i n c t from the other. 39. t i c k l e Never t i c k l e me under my f e e t . 40. murder A b r u t a l murder was committed l a s t night. 4 1 . c i v i l Keep a c i v i l tongue i n your head. 42 . population Most of B.C.'s population i s i n the Lower Mainland• 43, contradiction That i s a contradiction i n terms. 44 . average The average kid loves to watch T.V. 45. p o l i t i c a l There are three ma.ior p o l i t i c a l parties i n Canada. 46 . vicious Read about that vicious f i g h t i n the papers. 47. medicine Take some medicine i f you f e e l s i c k . 48, d i v i s i o n M u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n are fun. 49. colony The ant colony steals food from our p i c n i c s . 50. bugle My brother played the bugle i n the army. -118-Task 2i Audio-Visual S p e l l i n g  Instructions - Li s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s . You are going to hear some words. F i r s t you w i l l hear a word, then you w i l l hear that word i n a sentence, then you w i l l hear the word again. I would l i k e you to l i s t e n to a l l three repetitions and then s p e l l the word using your paper and pen. I f i t i s r i g h t I w i l l t e l l you, i f i t i s wrong you may write i t again. I f i t i s r i g h t t h i s time I w i l l t e l l you, i f i t i s wrong you can t r y i t one more time. For example, you w i l l hear, "cat - My cat has green eyes - cat". You should write c-a-t on the paper. Then I w i l l t e l l you i f i t i s r i g h t or wrong. ( Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Task 2 Items with Sentences. 1. palace In the palace l i v e d the king and queen. 2. conscience My conscience i s bothering me. 3. c u r i o s i t y His c u r i o s i t y got the better of him. 4. ftyasperation In a f i t of exasperation, I stomped out o: the room. 5. scratch I have a scratch on my arm. 6. cedar A t a l l cedar tree grows next to my house. 7. musician I heard a f i n e musician play the g u i t a r . 8. p r i v i l e g e I t i s a p r i v i l e g e to be here today. 9. action I saw action i n the 2nd World War. 10. generation With each new .generation comes new hope. 11. s a c r i f i c e No s a c r i f i c e i s too small. 12. c r u c i a l Speed i s c r u c i a l to my plan. -119-Task 2 Items with Sentences (cont'd) 13. d e l i c a t e 14. s u f f i c i e n t 15. curse 16. business 17. magic 18. through, 19. salary 2 0 . popular 2 1 . c r i s i s 22. f a i t h f u l l y 2 3 . destruction 24. aquatic 2 5 . mystery 2 6 . r e a l i t y 27. wrong 28. dragon 2 9 . spread 3 0 . hedge 3 1 . medicate 32. addition 3 3 . l o g i c a l 34. anguish 35. exercise 36. j u i c y This material i s de l i c a t e and e a s i l y torn. We now have s u f f i c i e n t evidence. The bad f a i r y placed a curse on the baby, A small business can be p r o f i t a b l e . Take a ride on a magic carpet. The dog jumped through the hoop. No one earns a good salary at his f i r s t job. I t ' s nice to be popular at school. There i s a c r i s i s i n the Middle East, If you do your work f a i t h f u l l y you w i l l pass. We watched the destruction of the old bui l d i n g , I go swimming at the Aquatic Centre, I want to see a good mystery movie. Sometimes r e a l i t y i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than daydreams. Don't choose the wrong answer, A fire-breathing dragon came out of the cave. An eagle spread his wings and flew away, A big hedge surrounded the c a s t l e . A doctorewill medicate his patients. Subtraction and addition are easy. Sometimes the l o g i c a l answer i s n ' t the r i g h t one. The Bee Gee's suffered anguish and doubt i n t h e i r song. Fresh a i r and exercise might cause cancer. Have a b i t e of t h i s juicy apple. -120-Task 2 Items with Sentences (cont'd) 37 . disappear A magician might disappear i n a puff of smoke. 38. region Ranching i s important i n the northwestern region of B.C. 39 . match Use a safety match to l i g h t a f i r e . 40 . precise Give me a precise figure, please. 4 1 . accordion I'd l i k e to take accordion lessons. 4 2 . persuasion Use persuasion to get what you want. typewriter Use a typewriter to type l e t t e r s . 44 . p o s i t i o n I don't l i k e the p o s i t i o n I'm i n . 45 . d e l i v e r I f you d e l i v e r newspapers, you can make some money. 46 . e l e c t r i c i t y We use e l e c t r i c i t y to heat the house. 47 . sympathy Don't ask f o r sympathy from me. 4 8 . wiggle Watch the worm wiggle around. 49. opposite Black i s the opposite of white. 50. several Try several times before giving up. I -121-Task 3» Orthographic S p e l l i n g Without Auditory Stimulus Instructions - Listen c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s . I am going to show you a p i c t u r e . I would l i k e you to write the word that i s the name of the p i c t u r e . Do not say the word, just write i t . For example, I ' l l show you t h i s card and y o u ' l l write "boy". Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Task 3 Items (pres ented i n random order). 1. toothpaste 11. chair 2. f i r e 12. pillows 3 . i r o n 1 3 . knife 4. bread 14. grapes 5. cereal 15. perfume 6. carrots 16. mushrooms 7. camera 17. vacuum (cleaner) 8. wheat 18. mountain 9. castle 19. strawberry 10. towels -122-Task 4t S u f f i x a t i o n  Instruetions - Lis t e n c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s , I am going to show you a card with a word on i t , which I w i l l read f o r you. Then I w i l l show you another card. I t w i l l have a new word on i t , made up from the word you saw before, plus an ending, I would l i k e you to read the new word. For example, I w i l l show you t h i s card and I w i l l say, " d e v i l " . Then I w i l l show you t h i s next card, and you w i l l say, " d e v i l i s h " . You may take as long as you l i k e to decide how the new word should sound when you say i t at normal speed. Here are some more examples. Now you t r y . Group A i King - Kingdom master - mastery Group B i locate - lo c a t i o n e l e c t r i c - e l e c t r i c i t y r e a l - r e a l i t y Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Task 4 Items (pairs presented i n random order), hug - huge oppose - opposition nag - nage examine - examination bug - buge i n v i t e - i n v i t a t i o n pig - pige combine - combination frog - froge children - c h i l d r e n i t y p i c n i c - picnice recess - re c e s s i t y panic - panici t y carrot - c a r r o t i t y a t t i c - a t t i c i t y robin - robinian rapi^d - r a p i d i t y orange - orangian v i t a l - v i t a l i t y awful - awfulian - 1 2 3 -Task 4 Items (cont'd) r e a l - r e a l i t y insane - i n s a n i t i o n stupid - s t u p i d i t y forget - f o r g e t i t i o n confuse - confusion accross - a c c r o s s i t i o n discuss - discussion sock - sockity success - succession thermos - thermosian e l e c t r i c - e l e c t r i c i a n glass - glassion magic - magician dismiss - dismission music - musician a t t i c -• a t t i c i a n r e s t r i c t - r e s t r i c t i o n upset - upsetion d i r e c t - d i r e c t i o n enchant - enchantion prevent - prevention habit - habition define - d e f i n i t i o n c r e d i t -• c r e d i t i o n create - creation f a t - f a t i o n equate - equation crack - crackion Task 5» Judging the Relatedness of Pairs of Words Instructions - Listen c a r e f u l l y to these i n s t r u c t i o n s . I w i l l say two words. I would l i k e you to t e l l me i f these words sound a l i k e because they are related, or just by chance. For example, I ' l l say, "big - bigger". Do they sound a l i k e because they are related, or just by chance? Here's another examplei "mouse -moustache", Do they sound a l i k e because they are related or just by chance? Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? - 124 -Task 5 Items (presented i n random order), cat - category choose - choice p o l i t e - p o l i t i c a l admire - admirable admire - miracle core - cor a l sat - s a t i s f y s a t i s f y - s a t i s f a c t i o n sign - sign a l but - button store - storage serve - service cry - crime crime - criminal gray - grade pa i r - periscope peer - periscope carpet - carpenter sure - measure photograph - photography happy - happiness Christ - Christmas phone - phony school - scholar Task 6s Learning Nonsense Words Instructions - Listen c a r e f u l l y to these inst r u c t i o n s , I'm going to teach you six words. These words don't mean anything, they are just nonsense words. I would l i k e you to t r y and re-member them u n t i l tomorrow, when I ' l l ask you to say them f o r me Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? /n l l p A D i / / l s p i n l D i / / f judo an/ / d e f j u t i a n / / r m slk 1/ /m klk 1/ -125-Task 7t Letter Test Instructions - L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to these ins t r u c t i o n s , I w i l l show you some cards, each with a l e t t e r printed on i t . I would l i k e you to t e l l me the name of the l e t t e r . Do you understand? Do you have any questions? Are you ready? Task 7 items were the 26 l e t t e r s of the alphabet. i 

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