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A commitment to reform : the constitution and politics of Nigeria’s second civilian regime Myers, Jayson S. 1982

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A COMMITMENT TO REFORM: THE CONSTITUTION AND POLITICS OF NIGERIA'S SECOND CIVILIAN REGIME by JAYSON S. MYERS B.A. (Hons.), Queen's University, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS iri THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of P o l i t i c a l Science) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF July (c) Jayson S. BRITISH COLUMBIA 1982 Myers, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 6 October 1982 Abstract On 1 October 1979, t h i r t e e n years of m i l i t a r y r u l e came to an end i n Nigeria. A new c o n s t i t u t i o n was promulgated, the r e s u l t of an exercise i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l reform intended to overcome the p o l i t i c a l problems that, i n the 1960s, had led the country to m i l i t a r y rule and c i v i l war. Nigeria's c o n s t i t u t i o n i s to provide the s t r u c t u r a l framework for a system of government capable o f responding e f f e c t i v e l y to the exigencies of economic and s o c i a l development, a government which i s also non-exclusive of the diverse communal and regional i n t e r e s t s of a p l u r a l p o l i t i c a l society. The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document is-t h e product of four years of debate among Nigeria's c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y leaders. Erected on a set of funda-mental p r i n c i p l e s set f o r t h by the Federal M i l i t a r y Government, many of the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s the basic law establishes — a charter of r i g h t s , an executive presidency, a redefined federal system — are new to Nigeria. However, the disputes which shaped the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l deliberations are reminiscent of the partisan and communal r i v a l r i e s that have.plagued'previous regimes. The p o l i t i c a l problems engendered by sectional c o n f l i c t s and by the conditions of economic underdevelopment remain a potent feature of c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r u l e i n Nigeria. The process of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform, and the provisions of the basic law, have been subject to popular c r i t i c i s m . Partisan r i v a l r i e s continue to rage over access to p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . The checks and balances established by the c o n s t i t u t i o n are part of a cumbersome system of government. A strengthened federal government s t i l l f i n d s i t s e l f i n c o n f l i c t with regional administrations. Nigeria's new c o n s t i t u t i o n establishes the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i n which p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s to take place. Since 1979, the nature of that a c t i v i t y has been determined by p o l i t i c a l forces s i m i l a r to those that prevailed under the country's first, ill-fated civilian regime. - i i -Table of Contents Page Abstract i i List of Tables i i i List of Figures V Acknowledgement V-.l Chapter I: A Legacy of P o l i t i c a l Unrest 1 The Politics of Development 4 Politics in a Plural Society 8 The Objectives of Reform 12 Chapter II: Constitutional Reconstruction 18 Setting the Course for Constitutional ^ Reform The Birth of a New Constitution: 2 g Fundamental Guidelines A Statement of National Objectives ^ 0 and Fundamental Rights A Federal System of Government 41 An Executive Presidency 52 A Representative Legislature 58 The Conduct of Public Officials 59 Traditional Institutions: ^ The Sharia Court of Appeal Military Amendments 65 Chapter III: The Return to Civilian Rule 72 Problems of Institutionalization 75 The Process of Constitutional Reform 80 A Delicate Balance 84 Threatening the Balance: 8 7 The Re-Emergence of Party Politics Sectionalism Revived 98 Government Under a New Constitution 105 Defining the Federation 116 A National Commitment 130 Notes 139 Bibliography 154 - i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s P a g e T a b l e I : C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y A l l o c a t i o n 2 5 o f S e a t s T a b l e I I : P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1 9 7 9 E l e c t i o n s : T h e F i r s t 91 F o u r R o u n d s T a b l e I I I : P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n . N i g e r i a ' s 1 9 7 9 E l e c t i o n s : A S t a t e - b y - S t a t e 91 A n a l y s i s o f t h e F i r s t F o u r R o u n d s T a b l e IV": P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1 9 79 P r e s i d e n t i a l E l e c t i o n : A 94 S t a t e - b y - S t a t e A n a l y s i s L i s t of Figures Page Figure 1: The Federal Republic of Nigeria 43 - V -Acknowledgement For h i s c r i t i c i s m , h i s encouragement, his patience and concern, my warm thanks go to my supervisor, John Wood. I have gained considerably from h i s insi g h t s i n comparative p o l i t i c s , as I have from the expertise and encouragement of Alan Cairns and Robert Jackson. Also at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Peter Busch provided much needed assurance and advice. I am also indebted to Anthony Kirk-Greene and Gavin Williams at Oxford, and to my former tutor at the London School of Economics, Keith Panter-Brick, f o r t h e i r comments and c r i t i q u e . My research at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia was conducted with the assistance of the Soci a l Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada. I would l i k e to extend a s p e c i a l thanks to Nancy Wong for her friendship and support. F i n a l l y , my appreciation goes to my fellow students i n the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science, whose friendship made my year at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia a very enjoyable one indeed. - 1 -C h a p t e r I  A Legacy o f P o l i t i c a l U n r e s t When A l h a j i Shehu S h a g a r i was sworn i n as N i g e r i a ' s f i r s t e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n t on 1 O c t o b e r 1979 , f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y r u l e came t o an e n d . A c a p a c i t y c rowd g a t h e r e d t o wa t ch t h e ceremony i n Ta fawa B a l e w a Squa re as G e n e r a l O l u s e g u n O b a s a n j o , head o f s t a t e s i n c e 1976 and t h e man deemed r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s r e c e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s , handed power back t o c i v i l i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . Cannons boomed a 2 2 - g u n s a l u t e , w h i l e j e t f i g h t e r s f l e w o v e r h e a d and t a n k s r o l l e d t h r o u g h t h e s q u a r e i n a show o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n -com ing p r e s i d e n t . ' ' " A new c o n s t i t u t i o n was p r o m u l g a t e d : t h e p r o d u c t o f more t h a n f o u r y e a r s ;o f d e l i b e r a t i o n and deba te among N i g e r i a n s . As P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i c o m m i t t e d h i m s e l f and h i s . f e l l o w c i t i z e n s t o t h e " g r e a t c h a l l e n g e " and "new o p p o r t u n i t y " r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s , t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e Second N i g e r i a n R e p u b l i c , he r e m i n d e d t h e n a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s and c o n f l i c t s w h i c h had l e d 2 t o t h e c o l l a p s e o f c i v i l i a n government i n 1966 . "Those p r o b l e m s a r e s t i l l w i t h u s " , he t o l d h i s a u d i e n c e . "Now more t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , N i g e r i a n s must work 3 t o g e t h e r . . . t o c u l t i v a t e a f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n h o o d " . C o l o u r e d by so many r e m i n d e r s o f t h e p a s t , t h e ceremony p rompted many o b s e r v e r s t o wonder wha t , 4 i f a n y t h i n g , had changed s i n c e t h e days o f t h e F i r s t R e p u b l i c . The ce remon ies ' t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n Lagos were i n t e n d e d t o u s h e r i n a new e r a o f s o c i a l and economic deve lopmen t and p o l i t i c a l ' r e f o r m . The new c o n s t i t u t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r o c e d u r e s and m a c h i n e r y o f a " t r u l y n a t i o n a l " s ys tem o f gove rnmen t . As s u c h , i t was t o s e t f o r t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t w o u l d a l l o w f o r t h e r a t i o n a l and e f f i c i e n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l deve lopmen t p l a n s , as w e l l as f o r t h e p e a c e f u l management o f c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g be tween e t h n i c and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u -t i o n was t o overcome t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s t h e c o u n t r y had e x p e r i e n c e d s i n c e i t a c h i e v e d i n d e p e n d e n c e i n I 9 6 0 , p r o b l e m s w h i c h had l e d t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f m i l i t a r y r u l e , c i v i l w a r , and w i d e s p r e a d p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t . - 2 -How r e a l i s t i c a r e t h e s e a s p i r a t i o n s ? To what e x t e n t i s i n s t i t u -t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g c a p a b l e o f r e s o l v i n g t he c r i s e s t h a t t h r e a t e n p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n N i g e r i a ? The i n t e n t i o n s o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s and t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e y c o n f r o n t , b o t h as a l e g a c y f rom t h e p a s t and i n t h e fo rm o f more r e c e n t c o n f l i c t s , p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . However , a t t h e h e a r t o f -t h e m a t t e r l i e s a more s p e c u l a t i v e i s s u e — t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s s e t f o r t h by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s t h a t o p e r a t e w i t h i n N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y . No c o n s t i t u t i o n i s a b l e t o s p e c i f y t h e c o r r e c t f o rm o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n e v e r y c i r c u m s t a n c e . I t may o n l y be a b l e t o c i r c u m s c r i b e t h a t a c t i v i t y by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r u l e s and m a c h i n e r y t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g o v e r n i n g . I n t u r n , s u c h s t r u c - : t u r e s must be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . They must become a c c e p t e d p r o c e d u r e s , v a l u e d i n i . t h e i r own r i g h t above t h e somet imes c o n t r a r y demands o f p e r s o n a l o r s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . The g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f c i v i l i a n r u l e i n N i g e r i a i s e x a c t l y t h i s need t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d by t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f gove rnmen t — t o e n s u r e t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e t h a t t h e c o n s t r a i n t s embod ied i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a r e , i n f a c t , a p p l i e d t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n and t h e ^ p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h have o c c u r r e d w i t h i n N i g e r i a s i n c e O c t o b e r 1979 i n d i c a t e j u s t how d i f f i c u l t t h a t t a s k may b e . From t h e t i m e o f t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n , N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s have been a t t h e c e n t r e o f c o n t r o v e r s y . P r e s s u r e s were m o u n t i n g f o r t h e i r r e v i s i o n even b e f o r e t he c o n s t i t u t i o n was p r o m u l g a t e d , and s e v e r a l key a r t i c l e s a r e s t i l l s u b j e c t t o open a t t a c k . N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n o p e r a t e s w i t h i n a p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s h a p e d by c o m p e t i t i o n among f a c t i o n s t h a t have s u r v i v e d t h e y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y - 3 -r u l e . I t s capacity to contain the c o n f l i c t which plagued the country's f i r s t c i v i l i a n government remains very much a matter of conjecture. * *• # When the members of Nigeria's Constitution Drafting Committee and Constituent Assembly met to draw up the a r t i c l e s of a new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document i n the l a t e 1970s, the experiences of the previous two decades were foremost i n t h e i r minds. Their nation, which at independence i n 1960 had been 5 acclaimed as A f r i c a ' s brightest economic and p o l i t i c a l star, had over the previous 15 years experienced the collapse of c i v i l i a n government, a bloody c i v i l war, several m i l i t a r y coups d'etat, general s t r i k e s , mass r i o t s , and student domonstrations. For the men who were to draft a new c o n s t i t u t i o n , the country could not be allowed to return to the factious conditions of the F i r s t Republic with i t s "anxious moments", " s e l f - i n f l i c t e d wounds", and the Q chaos which eventually brought about i t s demise. They were intent upon es t a b l i s h i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework that would prevent a r e p e t i t i o n of the disorder of the recent p o l i t i c a l past. Two d i s t i n c t , yet .related, problems have confronted c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y regimes i n Nigeria since independence. The f i r s t a r i ses from condi-tions of economic underdevelopment. Constrained by l i m i t e d resources and by a system of government that impeded c e n t r a l i z e d planning and policy-making, federal p o l i t i c i a n s of the F i r s t Republic found themselves unable to resolve many of the economic grievances expressed by labour, student groups, farmers, or by the Nigerian m i l i t a r y . The f r u s t r a t i o n s caused by a l i m i t e d capacity to improve national economic and s o c i a l conditions were compounded, i n the second place, by turbulent and often v i o l e n t r i v a l r i e s among p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , regional a u t h o r i t i e s , and ethnic groups. Factions competed for p o l i t i c a l power and the a b i l i t y to control the a l l o c a t i o n of resources. The state existed as a p o l i t i c a l p rize i n i t s e l f . Its structures and practices of government were - A -t h e o b j e c t s o f f i e r c e d i s p u t e , b e c a u s e t h e y seemed t o o p e r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h w i e l d e d p o l i t i c a l p o w e r . N i g e r i a ' s r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i s v e r y much shaped by t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a c e n t r a l government a t t e m p t i n g t o e x t e n d i t s c o n t r o l o v e r a d e v e l o p i n g and p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y . The P o l i t i c s o f Deve lopmen t The a u t h o r s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n i n t e n d e d , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t t h e b a s i c l a w s h o u l d c o n s o l i d a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f a n a t i o n a l government w h i c h had become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n d i r e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f economic g r o w t h and t h e deve lopmen t o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n t h e c o u n t r y . S i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t deve lopmen t p l a n i n 1946 , n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l . a u t h o r i t i e s have become t h e most i m p o r t a n t " i n s t r u m e n t s f o r r a i s i n g l i v i n g 7 s t a n d a r d s and p r o m o t i n g s o c i a l w e l f a r e " . B o t h l e v e l s o f government were engaged i n e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f c i v i l i a n r u l e t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d i n d e p e n d e n c e . R e g i o n a l m a r k e t i n g b o a r d s h e l p e d Q t o s t a b i l i z e t h e i ncomes o f e x p o r t c r o p p r o d u c e r s . P u b l i c r e v e n u e s c o l l e c t e d f rom n a t i o n a l i m p o r t t a r i f f s , and d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e g i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o a f o r m u l a t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e amount o f t a x e s l e v i e d w i t h i n r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s , p r o v i d e d a f u n d t o a t t r a c t f o r e i g n c a p i t a l , e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , ; f i n a n c e n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t s , and e x t e n d h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . ^ S i n c e 1 9 6 0 , h o w e v e r , t h e n a t i o n a l government i n Lagos has assumed an i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f N i g e r i a ' s "economic d e v e l o p m e n t . F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s have been a i d e d i n t h e i r t a s k by s i z e a b l e r e v e n u e s d e r i v e d f r om t h e p r o f i t s o f t h e p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y . " ^ ( P e t r o l e u m r e v e n u e s amounted t o more t h a n $US 1 5 , 0 0 0 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 7 5 . 1 1 ) The 12 n a t i o n a l government has r e g u l a t e d t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n " l u x u r y g o o d s " . I t has t a x e d t h e p r o f i t s o f l a r g e f o r e i g n c o m p a n i e s . F e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s have - 5 -e s t a b l i s h e d t h e l e v e l o f wage awards f o r p u b l i c , and i n d i r e c t l y f o r p r i v a t e , 13 e m p l o y e e s . N a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s have s o u g h t t o e x t e n d N i g e r i a n economic p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s t i p u l a t i n g t h e l e v e l o f f o r e i g n - o w n e d e q u i t y i n a number 14 o f s t r a t e g i c i n d u s t r i e s . A n d , t h e y have f i n a n c e d p u b l i c s h a r e h o l d i n g s i n s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s , as w e l l as i n s u c h n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i e s 15 a s p e t r o c h e m i c a l s and i r o n and s t e e l . F o r e i g n and i n d i g e n o u s p r i v a t e i n v e s t -o r s p l a y a " c r u c i a l p a r t " i n N i g e r i a ' s g r o w i n g economy; b u t , t h e y have become 16 " p a r t n e r s i n p r o g r e s s l e d by t h e f e d e r a l p u b l i c s e c t o r " . The T h i r d N a t i o n a l Deve lopment P l a n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n " t o t r a n s l a t e t h e c o u n t r y ' s v a s t p o t e n t i a l i n t o a permanent improvement i n t he 17 l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s o f a l l N i g e r i a n s " . The N i g e r i a n economy has made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s unde r g o v e r n m e n t a l l e a d e r s h i p . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s g r o s s d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t f r om i t s 1963 l e v e l o f $US 3 , 9 0 0 m i l l i o n t o o v e r $US 4 0 , 0 0 0 m i l l i o n by 1978 r e f l e c t s t h e g r o w t h o f new i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment and 18 i n v e s t m e n t , and i m p r o v e d w e l f a r e and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . Y e t , N i g e r i a r e m a i n s an e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n . By 1976 p e r c a p i t a 19 income was e s t i m a t e d a t l i t t l e more t h a n $US 330 a y e a r . More t h a n 70 p e r c e n t o f t he p o p u l a t i o n i s emp loyed i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r whose d e c l i n i n g p r o d u c -20 t i v i t y has r e s u l t e d i n m a s s i v e i m p o r t s o f f o o d s t u f f s . M a n u f a c t u r i n g r e m a i n s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as t e x t i l e s , f o o d p r o c e s s i n g , and > 21 22 t o b a c c o . Where i n d i g e n o u s i n v e s t m e n t i s a t a v e r y l ow l e v e l , t h e c o u n t r y i s dependen t upon t h e i n t e r e s t s o f f o r e i g n c a p i t a l w h i c h , r e g a r d l e s s o f i n d i -g e n i z a t i o n d e c r e e s , c o n t i n u e s t o make p r o d u c t i o n d e c i s i o n s and t o i m p o r t 23 component p a r t s f rom o u t s i d e N i g e r i a . The p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g heavy i n d u s t r y and an e x p o r t - o r i e n t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r a r e w i t n e s s e d by t h e meagre 2 . 2 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n i t s s h a r e o f t h e g r o s s d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t 24 s i n c e 1 9 6 3 . - 6 -T h e p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y h a s p r o v i d e d u n e x p e c t e d l y f e w b e n e f i t s f o r o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e e c o n o m y . T h e i n d u s t r y w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r 9 2 . 9 p e r c e n t 2 5 o f t o t a l e x p o r t e a r n i n g s a n d f o r m o r e t h a n 3 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o s s d o m e s t i c 2 6 2 7 p r o d u c t i n 1 9 7 5 , e m p l o y s l i t t l e o v e r 6 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . A n d , d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e f e d e r a l N i g e r i a n N a t i o n a l O i l C o r p o r a t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p o l i c i e s o f f o r e i g n o i l c o m p a n i e s o p e r a t i n g i n N i g e r i a , p r o d u c t i o n a n d r e f i n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e s t i l l made o n t h e a d v i c e o f f o r e i g n m a n a g e m e n t s a n d o f t e n p r o v e t o b e o f 2 8 m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t t o o t h e r b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n s . A n u n e m p l o y m e n t f i g u r e t h a t h a s r e m a i n e d a b o v e 8 . 0 p e r c e n t f o r m o r e t h a n a d e c a d e d o e s n o t i n c l u d e y o u n g p e o p l e o r r u r a l w o r k e r s who a r e i n s e a r c h 2 9 o f j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , a n a v e r a g e a n n u a l r a t e o f i n f l a t i o n o f a b o u t 1 5 . 0 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1 9 7 1 u n d e r s t a t e s a y e a r l y 2 7 . 1 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e - i n f o o d 3 0 p r i c e s d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d . A p a r t f r o m p u r e l y e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , N i g e r i a ' s T h i r d N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n i n c l u d e s a l o n g l i s t o f i n f r a s t r u c -t u r a l a n d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s — t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s n e t w o r k s , e d u c a t i o n , l o w c o s t h o u s i n g , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f r e s h w a t e r , h o s p i t a l s , e p i d e m i c 31 c o n t r o l c e n t r e s — a s i m m e d i a t e s o c i a l p r i o r i t i e s . T h e d e m a n d s p l a c e d o n p u b l i c r e v e n u e a n d p l a n n i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g N i g e r i a ' s e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n r e m a i n a l m o s t e n d l e s s . C o n s t r a i n e d b y i t s f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a n d b y t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s • w i t h i n w h i c h i t o p e r a t e s , N i g e r i a ' s n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o t a l w a y s b e e n a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o t h o s e d e m a n d s . T h e c o u n t r y ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t , a n d w i t h i t a d i s j o i n t e d s y s t e m o f p l a n n i n g a n d p o l i c y - m a k i n g . W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y was a c c o r d e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r m o s t a s p e c t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t h e c u r r e n c y a n d c u s t o m s , t h o s e f u n c t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g , i n d u s -t r i a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , p u b l i c w o r k s a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h e a l t h 3 2 a n d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w e r e s h a r e d b y f e d e r a l a n d r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s . - 7 -The s i t u a t i o n was exacerbated by a system of revenue a l l o c a t i o n based on the p r i n c i p l e of "derivation", whereby revenues were apportioned to the governments of the regions i n which they originated. National a u t h o r i t i e s were accorded access only to taxes on company p r o f i t s and import duties, and to 50 percent 33 of mineral r o y a l t i e s . Such an arrangement guaranteed the regions a high degree of f i s c a l autonomy and control over t h e i r own s o c i a l p o l i c i e s ; but, i t also meant that economic development would proceed haphazardly and at d i f f e r e n t rates among regions. I t ensured that no one federal or regional government \ * would be able to implement an i n d u s t r i a l development strategy of i t s own accord. Fi n a n c i a l problems did not disappear with the advent of m i l i t a r y r u l e i n 1966 and the subsequent c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of revenue control, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to petroleum r o y a l t i e s . ^ By the l a t e 1970s, no s a t i s f a c t o r y formula f o r a l l o c a t i n g public funds to federal and state a u t h o r i t i e s had been found. And, despite substantial o i l revenues, public debt had r i s e n to more than.i$US 4,000 m i l l i o n by the end of 1979. 3 5 In addition to these f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , large sums of public money have made t h e i r way into the pockets of government o f f i c i a l s . Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the Nigerian press revealed case a f t e r case of bureaucrats and p o l i t i c i a n s d i v e r t i n g government revenues to t h e i r own personal bank accounts. Whether as a r e s u l t of uncoordinated p o l i c y e f f o r t s or because of a s c a r c i t y of funds, the e f f o r t s of Nigerian governments i n stimulating economic growth have appeared to be i n e f f i c i e n t , i n e f f e c t i v e , or simply inadequate. Assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r economic growth and s o c i a l welfare,- though unable to command the organizational or f i n a n c i a l resources necessary for a complete transformation of economic conditions, the federal government has .been\:regu'lar±yo threatened by popular expressions of economic d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . General s t r i k e s , slow-downs, and walk-outs by Nigeria's labour unions have - 8 -36 a c c o m p a n i e d d e l i b e r a t i o n s by f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s on i n d u s t r i a l wage demands. I n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , economic g r i e v a n c e s have s p a r k e d p e r i o d i c and o f t e n 37 v i o l e n t r i o t s among f a r m e r s . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has been v o c i f e r o u s l y e x p r e s s e d 38 d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f commodi ty s h o r t a g e s and r a p i d l y r i s i n g p r i c e s . A l a r g e army has demanded g r e a t e r e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s and has opposed 39 any p o l i c y o f f o r c e d d e m o b i l i z a t i o n i n t o an a l r e a d y t i g h t l a b o u r m a r k e t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f N i g e r i a n u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t r a n g e beyond economic and s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . A t t h e h e a r t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s t a n d s a f u n d a m e n t a l l y p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m . The p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o f N i g e r i a ' s n a t i o n a l government r e s t s on t h e c a p a c i t y o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t o u n d e r t a k e p o l i c i e s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e economic and s o c i a l demands o f thw e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . P o l i t i c s i n a P l u r a l S o c i e t y I f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n were t o overcome t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t o b s t r u c t e d t h e p a t h o f g o v e r n m e n t a l economic d i r e c t i o n , i t a l s o had t o r e s o l v e t h e d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t s o f r e g i o n a l , e t h n i c , and p a r t i s a n c o n f l i c t w h i c h b r o u g h t abou t t h e c o l l a p s e o f c i v i l i a n government i n 1966 . P o s t - i n d e p e n d e n c e N i g e r i a has been r i f e w i t h communal and s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s . 40 A m u l t i p l i c i t y o f l i n g u i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s , and t r i b a l c o m m u n i t i e s — t h e / i I s l a m i c H a u s a - F u l a n i p r e d o m i n a t i n g i n t h e n o r t h , Y o r u b a s i n t h e w e s t , I bos t o 41 t h e e a s t — i s e v i d e n c e o f a h e t e r o g e n e o u s s o c i e t y . Y e t , t r i b a l , r e l i g i o u s , and o t h e r t y p e s o f f a c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t do n o t emanate f rom t h e s i m p l e e x i s t e n c e o f d i v e r s e l a n g u a g e s , r e l i g i o n s , and c u s t o m s . H o s t i l i t y d e r i v e s i n s t e a d f rom 42 c o m p e t i t i o n be tween p e o p l e s f o r w e a l t h and power . I n a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y , where economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d , and where s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g . I n so f a r as some g roup i d e n t i t y i s p e r c e i v e d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r a t t a i n i n g economic o r s o c i a l g o a l s — b e c a u s e r e s o u r c e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d - 9 -a c c o r d i n g t o communal c r i t e r i a o r b e c a u s e c e r t a i n g r o u p s s e e t h e m s e l v e s c o n t i n u a l l y e x c l u d e d f rom economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s — t h e p e r s o n a l f o r t u n e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r t o depend on t h e i r communal o r i g i n s and 43 c o n n e c t i o n s . Where c o m p e t i t i o n f o r economic r e w a r d s becomes a " w i n n e r - t a k e s -a l l " p r o p o s i t i o n , c o n f l i c t be tween r e g i o n s , s t a t e s , p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s , o r r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s i s t h e immed ia te r e s u l t . The uneven r a t e o f economic and s o c i a l deve lopmen t i n N i g e r i a , w h i c h b r o u g h t abou t t h e r a p i d r i s e o f an e d u c a t e d and p r o s p e r o u s m i d d l e c l a s s i n t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n , and e s p e c i a l l y among t h e I bos o f t he E a s t e r n R e g i o n , has made t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t r i b a l , r e l i g i o u s , 44 and r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s a l l t h e more a p p a r e n t . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c o n f l i c t o v e r a c c e s s t o s t a t e power . P u b l i c a u t h o r i t y i s t h e i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h a l l o w s e a c h g roup t o a c h i e v e i t s own e n d s . I t a l l o w s t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e way o f l i f e o f t h e i r t r i b a l and re l i g i ous : f o l l o w e r s . F e d e r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n -ments assume a l e a d i n g r o l e i n d i r e c t i n g economic g r o w t h . T h e i r p o l i c i e s i. a l l o c a t e t h e r e s o u r c e s — t h e money, c o n t r a c t s , and c o m m e r c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s — i n v o l v e d i n t h e deve lopmen t p r o c e s s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e q u e s t i o n o f who e x e r c i s e s p o l i t i c a l power i s o f t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . P o l i t i c a l l i f e " t u r n s on g a i n i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e w e a l t h , power , and p r e s t i g e , t o be a b l e t o d i s t r i b u t e b e n e f i t s i n t h e fo rm o f j o b s , c o n t r a c t s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , and g i f t s 45 o f money . . . t o o n e ' s r e l a t i v e s and p o l i t i c a l a l l i e s " . I n s h o r t , i t becomes a s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e s t a t e — a s t r u g g l e be tween t h o s e r i v a l communal g r o u p s and p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s t h a t have g a i n e d a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l power and t h o s e t h a t ^ f i n d t h e y have been e x c l u d e d . From t h e m i d - 1 9 4 0 s t o t he l a s t days o f t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n R e p u b l i c , N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t r i b a l and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s . A l t h o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f N i g e r i a and t h e - 10 -Cameroons (NCNC), l e d by D r . Nnamdi A z i k i w e , was t h e c o u n t r y ' s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o g a i n s u p p o r t f rom a w ide c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i t s membersh ip and n a t i o n a l i s t p l a t f o r m q u i c k l y became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a r g e s t 46 e t h n i c g roup o f t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n , t h e I b o . The A c t i o n Group ( A G ) , f o u n d e d by C h i e f Obafemi Awolowo as t h e p o l i t i c a l w i n g o f a Y o r u b a c u l t u r a l o r g a n -47 i z a t i o n , o c c u p i e d a dominan t p o s i t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e Northern P e o p l e ' s C o n g r e s s ( N P C ) , w i t h i t s c l o s e t i e s t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e N o r t h , was g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as t h e p o l i t i c a l 48 v o i c e o f t h e H a u s a - F u l a n i t r i b e s and I s l a m i c e m i r a t e s o f t h a t r e g i o n . E l e c -t o r a l s u c c e s s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d t he f o r t u n e s o f t h o s e r e g i o n s and p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s c l a i m e d t o r e p r e s e n t . I s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e shape o f g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s were more t h a n m a t t e r s o f p a r t i s a n r i v a l r y o r g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e . They were d i s p u t e s whose ou tcomes , were f r e q u e n t l y d e f i n e d i n r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c t e r m s . The h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e s t h a t p r e c e d e d N i g e r i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , and o f t h e s i x y e a r s o f c i v i l i a n government w h i c h f o l l o w e d , i s h e a v i l y shaded by p a r t i s a n and communal c o n f l i c t . I n a c c o r d w i t h t h e demands o f t h e N o r t h e r n P e o p l e ' s C o n g r e s s , t h e c o u n t r y ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' g u a r a n t e e d t h e t h r e e r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e deg ree o f autonomy 49 o v e r economic and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s . Th ree y e a r s a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , an a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s t o i n f l a t e c e n s u s f i g u r e s f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s g e n e r a t e d a s e r i o u s p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . I t c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d 50 t h e r i v a l r i e s w h i c h c e n t r e d on a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l s p o w e r a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l . The g e r r y m a n d e r i n g and r i g g e d r e s u l t s o f t h e 1964 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , and o f h t h e 1965 e l e c t i o n i n t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n , a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e l e n g t h s t o w h i c h N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l c o a l i t i o n s were p r e p a r e d t o go i n p u r s u i t o f p u b l i c :' 51 o f f i c e . I n 1965 w i d e s p r e a d u n r e s t , r i o t s , and v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s be tween e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s a c c o m p a n i e d t h e b reakdown o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . They - 11 -were t h e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f N i g e r i a ' s f i r s t c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . Communal c o n f l i c t d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r w i t h t h e J a n u a r y coup o f 1966 t h a t r e p l a c e d c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h a m i l i t a r y c o u n c i l u n d e r t h e 52 l e a d e r s h i p o f an Ibo o f f i c e r , M a j o r - G e n e r a l A g u i y i I r o n s i . W i t h i n s e v e n months I r o n s i had h i m s e l f been k i l l e d i n a c o u n t e r - c o u p l a u n c h e d by n o r t h e r n o f f i c e r s — a p r o d u c t o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d d i s c o n t e n t , and o f i . t h e f e a r o f e a s t e r n hegemony, t h a t r e s u l t e d f r om I r o n s i ' s a t t e m p t t o c e n t r a l i z e N i g e r i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A f e d e r a l government t h a t was now c o n t r o l l e d by n o r t h e r n i n t e r e s t s , and w h i c h seemed t o o v e r l o o k t h e a t t a c k s made upon Ibo . s e t t l e m e n t s - i n t h e : L N o r t h , was n o t r e c o g n i z e d by t h e m i l i t a r y g o v e r n o r o f t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n , L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l Odumegwu O jukwu. H i s demands f o r E a s t e r n autonomy were met , i n t u r n , by f e d e r a l e f f o r t s t o r e d u c e t h e power o f r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . P o l i c i e s a imed a t r e i n f o r c i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c e n t r a l gove rnmen t were 54 i n i t i a t e d by L i e u t e n a n t - G e n e r a l Yakubu Gowon, N i g e r i a ' s new head o f s t a t e . I n May 1967 , t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n d e c l a r e d i t s s e c e s s i o n f rom N i g e r i a , c o n s t i -t u t i n g i t s e l f as t h e R e p u b l i c o f B i a f r a . The c o u r s e was s e t f o r a b l o o d y c i v i l w a r . I t was a c o n f l i c t t h a t wou ld n o t be c o n c l u d e d u n t i l J a n u a r y 1970 , i n a m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y f o r t h e f e d e r a l r e g i m e . Y e t , r e g i o n a l and communal r i v a l r i e s p e r s i s t e d . I n f l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s d i s r u p t e d t h e a t t e m p t t o c a r r y o u t a r e l i a b l e n a t i o n a l c e n s u s i n 1 9 7 3 , u n d e r l i n i n g once more t h e i m p o r t a n c e p o p u l a r l y a t t a c h e d t o any a c t i v i t y a f f e c t i n g t he r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , and hence o f t h e d i s t r i -55 b u t i o n o f ^ p o l i t i c a l power , among r e g i o n a l , t r i b a l , and e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s . I n 1974 G e n e r a l Gowon c i t e d t h e r e a p p e a r a n c e o f s e c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t a s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s d e c i s i o n t o p o s t p o n e i n d e f i n i t e l y N i g e r i a ' s r e t u r n t o 56 c i v i l i a n r u l e . The s e c t i o n a l i s m and t h e r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c c o n f l i c t - 12 -e n g e n d e r e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l power e x e r c i s e d a d e s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e , even u n d e r t h e " c o r r e c t i v e " p o l i c i e s o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . When a new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p l e d g e d i t s e l f t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m i n 1 9 7 5 , i t had t o c o n f r o n t , above a l l , t h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d by a f r a g m e n t e d and v o l a t i l e p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y . The O b j e c t i v e s o f Re fo rm From t h e t i m e t h e y f i r s t g a i n e d p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s s t r e s s e d t he r e m e d i a l n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e g i m e . They r e p e a t e d l y a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e y had assumed power , n o t a s - a r e s u l t o f p e r s o n a l a m b i t i o n , > b u t i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t p o l i t i c s wou ld n o t r e t u r n t o a s t a t e o f c o n f l i c t 57 be tween r e g i o n a l and t r i b a l b l o c s . To t h i s e n d , e v e r y m i l i t a r y c o u n c i l ,r c o m m i t t e d i t s e l f t o c o r r e c t i n g t h e f l a w s w h i c h had p l a g u e d t h e N i g e r i a n p o l i -t i c a l s y s t e m s i n c e i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t o a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e . Such g o a l s , i t was common ly ' - he ld , were t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes were needed t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . The f i r s t t e n t a t i v e s t e p s were t a k e n i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n by G e n e r a l Gowon. I n an e f f o r t t o d i f f u s e t h e p o l i t i c a l power o f r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , h i s r e g i m e c r e a t e d t w e l v e new s t a t e s i n p l a c e o f t h e f o u r l a r g e r r e g i o n a l 58 a u t h o r i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n 1967 . I t a p p r o p r i a t e d a l l p e t r o l e u m r e v e n u e s and e s t a b l i s h e d a s y s t e m o f r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o d i s t r i b u t e r e s o u r c e s 59 more e v e n l y t o a l l s t a t e s . M o r e o v e r , Gowon o u t l i n e d an e x t e n s i v e programme o f p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m s i n 1970 i n v o l v i n g t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he armed f o r c e s , t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a Second N a t i o n a l Deve lopmen t P l a n , t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f p u b l i c c o r r u p t i o n , t h e c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e s , p r e p a r a t i o n and a d o p t i o n o f a new c o n s t i t u t i o n , c o m p l e t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n c e n s u s , t h e r e o r g a n -- 13 -i z a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f p o p u l a r e l e c t i o n s . ^ I t was t h i s programme w h i c h he was f o r c e d t o s u s p e n d f o u r y e a r s l a t e r . The m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f M u r t a l a Muhammed r e a s s e r t e d i t s commitment t o t h e r e t u r n o f c i v i l i a n government when i t a c c e d e d t o power i n a coup t o p p l i n g G e n e r a l Gowon i n 1 9 7 5 . S u c c e s s i v e m i l i t a r y r e g i m e s had been s t r u g g l i n g f o r a l m o s t a decade t o a c h i e v e n a t i o n a l u n i t y , by a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome s e c t i o n a l a n i m o s i t i e s and t h r o u g h t h e management o f n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p -ment schemes . Y e t , i t was e v i d e n t i n t h e mid-1970s : : t h a t s e r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s s t i l l e x i s t e d i n N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s . P o l i t i c a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n had i n f e c t e d t h e c o u n t r y ' s armed f o r c e s t o o . M o r a l e was a t a l ow ebb as a r e s u l t o f i n t e r n a l w r a n g l e s i n t h e o f f i c e r c o r p s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s were b e i n g d i v e r t e d i n e v e r g r e a t e r amounts t o t h e e f f o r t o f g o v e r n -i n g , and away f r om p u r e l y m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s . I n any c a s e , m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s were f o r c e d t o r e l y on c i v i l i a n b u r e a u c r a t s and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s t o imp lemen t t h e i r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . 6 " 1 " The f a i l u r e t o c o n d u c t a r e l i a b l e c e n s u s i n 1973 and Gowon 1 s s u b s e q u e n t pos tponement o f c i v i l i a n r u l e f rom t h e p r o m i s e d 1976 d e a d l i n e e r o d e d t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f h i s r e g i m e , e i t h e r as an e f f e c t i v e , o r as an i n t e r i m , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( B o t h e v e n t s were i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i s r e m o v a l f rom o f f i c e . ) F i n a l l y , p r e s s u r e s f o r some measure o f l i b e r a l - s -i z i n g r e f o r m were m o u n t i n g among c i v i l i a n l e a d e r s whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g , and i n d e e d i n a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , had been c u r t a i l e d by r e s t r i c t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y imposed by G e n e r a l Gowon. To Muhammed and h i s s u c c e s s o r , O l u s e g u n O b a s a n j o , few o p t i o n s a p p e a r e d t o be a v a i l a b l e t o N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y c o u n c i l b u t t o r e l i n q u i s h power t o a new c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . T h e i r a u t h o r i t y t o o was b a s e d on t h e " c o r r e c t i v e " f a c e o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . However , N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e c o u n t r y were t o r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r wou ld have t o be c o n s t r a i n e d t o a much g r e a t e r d e g r e e by t h e p r a c t i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s - 14 -s e t f o r t h i n a new n a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . A g a i n , s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m a p p e a r e d a s t h e o n l y s o l u t i u o n t o N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s . The f a i l u r e o f c i v i l i a n government d u r i n g t h e F i r s t R e p u b l i c was a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y t o an a b s e n c e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h e c k s l i m i t i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f government o f f i c i a l s . " O u r 1963 c o n s t i t u t i o n , l i k e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , " t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y G o v e r n -ment e x p l a i n e d , " s p o k e o n l y i n t e rms o f power and o f r i g h t s . . . . I t s a y s 62 n o t h i n g o f t h e d u t i e s o f t h e government t o w a r d s i t s s u b j e c t s " . A new c o n s t i t u t i o n wou ld s e t ou t t h e r u l e s o f c o n d u c t g o v e r n i n g p o l i t i c a l l i f e , and w o u l d t h e r e b y p r o v i d e " t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f an o r d e r l y and d e m o c r a t i c 63 s o c i e t y " . I t s h o u l d make i t c l e a r t h a t "powers a r e bes towed upon t h e o r g a n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government n o t f o r t he p u r p o s e o f p e r s o n a l a g g r a n d i z e m e n t o f t h o s e who w i e l d them f rom t i m e t o t i m e , b u t f o r t he w e l f a r e and a d v a n c e -64 ment o f s o c i e t y as a w h o l e " . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government , " t o u n i t e N i g e r i a i n t o one n a t i o n bound t o g e t h e r by common a t t i t u d e s and •> .; v a l u e s , common i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s , and above a l l by an a c c e p t a n c e o f common o b j e c t i v e s and d e s t i n y " , u n d e r s c o r e d i t s e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e t h e s t r u c -t u r a l b a s i s f o r a " t r u l y n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f government whose i n s t i t u t i o n s 65 w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e a b u s e s t h a t were r i f e i n t h e F i r s t R e p u b l i c " . The c o u r s e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m i n N i g e r i a was d e t e r m i n e d f i r s t by t he s t r u c t u r a l changes w h i c h had been a l r e a d y e n g i n e e r e d d u r i n g a decade o f m i l i t a r y r u l e a n d , i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , by a common p e r c e p t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . S u c c e s s i v e m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s made a deep i m p r e s s i o n on t h e manner by w h i c h t h e c o u n t r y had come t o be g o v e r n e d . D u r i n g t h e e r a o f m i l i t a r y r u l e , a c e n t r a l i z e d h i e r a r c h y o f m i l i t a r y command was r e p l i c a t e d by t h e N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . W h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l , l o c a l , and r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t o t h e more immed ia te demands o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , o v e r a l l p o l i c y - m a k i n g , f i n a n c i a l , and c o e r c i v e r e s p o n s i ^ v b i l i t i e s were p l a c e d i n t h e hands o f t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l i n L a g o s . - 15 -E c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , r e v e n u e c o l l e c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n , s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s w e r e n o w m a t t e r s o f f e d e r a l c o n c e r n . M o r e o v e r , t w e l v e s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h a d c o m e i n t o b e i n g . S u b j e c t t o a n a t i o n - w i d e c h a i n o f c o m m a n d , t h e i r m i l i t a r y g o v e r n o r s w e r e u l t i m a t e l y u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f N i g e r i a ' s c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f a n d h e a d o f s t a t e . T h i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p o l i -t i c a l c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , a n d a t a l a t e r d a t e N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s , w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h f u r t h e r r e f o r m w o u l d t a k e p l a c e . T h e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s a p p e a r e d a s p r o b l e m s o f c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , N i g e r i a ' s n e w c o n s t i t u t i o n w a s i n t e n d e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y G o v e r n m e n t m a d e i t c l e a r t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m w o u l d e n t a i l , a b o v e a n y t h i n g e l s e , t h e f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . A t a n e a r l y d a t e , m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k e r s c o m m i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y -m a k i n g . I n t h e i r v i e w , " a m o d e r n e r a a n d a g r o w i n g e c o n o m y " m u s t h a v e a " n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t w i t h p o w e r t o d i r e c t t h e f u t u r e o f n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y " . 6 6 " P e a c e , U n i t y , a n d P r o g r e s s " w e r e t o b e t h e w a t c h w o r d s o f t h e n e w p o l i t i c a l s o r d e r . T h e g r e a t r a n g e o f e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l t a s k s t h a t t h e N i g e r i a n g o v e r n m e n t h a d y e t t o u n d e r t a k e , a n d t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s w h i c h i t c o u l d c o m m a n d , e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e f f i c i e n t a n d r a t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y m u s t b e c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r t s h e l d t h a t t h e c o u n t r y ' s n e w p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s m u s t b e o p e n t o a l l s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s . T h e y f e l t t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y v e s t e d i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , a n d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g o v e r n m n e t i t s e l f , u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s o n t h e ' c o n d i t i o n t h a t n o g r o u p w i t h i n s o c i e t y s h o u l d f i n d - 16 -i t s v o i c e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e d f r om t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . F o r G e n e r a l Muhammed, t h e f a i l u r e o f c i v i l i a n p o l i t i c i a n s t o d e v e l o p a b a s i s o f w ide p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t was a key f a c t o r i n t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e F i r s t R e p u b l i c . Th ree m a j o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s emerged w i t h r e g i o n a l and e t h n i c s u p p o r t , and a t t h e c e n t r e , o n l y an u n e a s y c o a l i t i o n o f two o f t h e s e p a r t i e s was p o s s i b l e a t any one t i m e . . . . W i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s became a l i f e and d e a t h s t r u g g l e w h i c h j u s t i f i e d a l l means — f a i r and f o u l . . . . ^ O r d e r l y s u c c e s s i o n t o power was made v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . Muhammed a r g u e d t h a t where p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l , p a r t i s a n , o r communal g r o u p s , s e c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i s immanent . The r e s u l t i s e i t h e r a s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t a t e i t s e l f , o r an a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s o f government w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s . The a u t h o r s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n go even f u r t h e r , s t r e s s i n g t h a t l o y a l t y t o t h e n a t i o n - s t a t e , and t o t h e r u l e s o f p o l i t i c a l c o n d u c t . embod ied i n i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , must t r a n s c e n d t h e more p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t s o f r e g i o n , t r i b e , r e l i g i o n , r a c e , and l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p . " L o y a l t y t o o n e ' s e t h n i c communi ty ough t n o t t o be a l l o w e d t o i n h i b i t o r d e t r a c t f rom n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y , 70 l o y a l t y t o t h e N i g e r i a n s t a t e " . Such a p o s i t i o n does n o t i m p l y t h a t a n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y s h o u l d s u p p l a n t a l l o t h e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l "government may augment l o y a l t i e s t o communal , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , o r v i l l a g e , t r i b a l , and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n d e e d , r u l e s o f p o l i t i c a l c o n d u c t may p r o v i d e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c i n t e r e s t s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f gove rnmen t p o l i c y - m a k i n g . G e n e r a l Muhammed d e s c r i b e d h i s o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : The F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e emergence o f a s t a b l e s y s t e m o f government t h r o u g h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w . T h i s we t r u s t c a n b e s t be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f v i a b l e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h w i l l e n s u r e maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d ^ c o n s e n s u s and o r d e r l y s u c c e s s i o n t o p o l i t i c a l powe r . - 17 -The c r u c i a l message h e r e i s t h a t N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s must : • become n o n - e x c l u s i v e . They must n o t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f any p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n a l g r o u p . The p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m u n d e r t a k e n i n N i g e r i a d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 1 9 7 0 s , t h e n , was i n l a r g e p a r t a r e a c t i o n t o y e a r s o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y and u n r e s t . M i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and many o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e d t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d overcome t h e c o n f l i c t w h i c h once seemed endemic i n N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y . Y e t , t h e c o u r s e o f t h a t r e f o r m was v e r y much shaped by t h e f o r c e s w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d t o o v e r c o m e . C o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a f t e r a l l , i n v o l v e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e o f who was t o e n j o y a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . F a c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t p l a y , ; a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t y p e o f r e f o r m s t h a t were t o be c a r r i e d o u t , e v e n i n . s p i t e o f t h e w a r n i n g s . a n d d i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d . b y ' O f f i c i a l s o f t he F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government . They have r e m a i n e d a common f e a t u r e o f N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s w e l l i n t o t h e new e r a o f c i v i l i a n r u l e . -18-C h a p t e r I I C o n s t i t u t i o n a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n A p u r e l y c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w o f any p r o b l e m i s n e c e s s a r i l y a l i m i t e d and even d i s t o r t e d v i e w . E v e r y s i t u a t i o n has i t s r o o t s i n t h e p a s t . . . . The p a s t s u r v i v e s i n t o t h e p r e s e n t ; the- p r e s e n t i s i n d e e d t h e p a s t u n d e r g o i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s t h a t came i n t o e f f e c t on 1 O c t o b e r 1979 a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f more t h a n f o u r y e a r s o f d i s c u s s i o n , b a r g a i n i n g , and m u t u a l c o n c i l i a t i o n among N i g e r i a n m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n l e a d e r s . Under t h e d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f t he m i l i t a r y g o v e r n m e n t , e l e c t e d d e l e g a t e s met t o d e c i d e t h e n a t u r e o f p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a new c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . M i n d f u l o f t he p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s t h a t p a r a l y z e d n a t i o n a l government d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1960s and o f t h e deep s e c t i o n a l a n i m o s i t i e s t h a t r e m a i n e d a p p a r e n t d u r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f G e n e r a l Gowon, N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s were c a l l e d upon t o d e v i s e t h e s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d e n s u r e t h e emergence o f an e f f e c t i v e and a c c e p t a b l e s y s t e m o f c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r a c t i c e s , and p r o c e d u r e s . I n s h o r t , t h e i r t a s k was t o p r e s c r i b e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a s y s t e m o f n a t i o n a l d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t . The c o n t r o v e r s i e s and c o n f l i c t w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e emergence o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s was no mean t a s k . Communal , r e g i o n a l , and p a r t i s a n r i v a l r i e s s u r v i v e d t h e e r a o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . F e a r i n g t h a t once a g a i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l government m i g h t become t h e p r e s e r v e o f p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , many c o n s t i t u t i o n a l .\\ d e l e g a t e s and members o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c v e h e m e n t l y opposed p r o p o s a l s w h i c h seemed t o c o n c e n t r a t e power i n t h e hands o f a few o f f i c i a l s , o r t o : e x c l u d e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f r om t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . Y e t , i n t h e i r own t u r n , measures w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e d i v e r s e s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s t o i n f l u e n c e government d e c i s i o n s were c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e t h e y i n t r o d u c e d f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n t o t h e s t a t e ' s p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Many o f t h e d i s p u t e s - 19 -w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e e d i n g s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e c o u n t r y ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . The v p r i n c i p l e s t h a t t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government s e t f o r t h t o g u i d e i n s t i t u -t i o n a l r e f o r m . m e r e l y s e t t h e s c e n e f o r a d e b a t e i n w h i c h c i v i l i a n l e a d e r s wo rked t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w o u l d n o t be e x c l u d e d i n any r e v i s e d s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . A t t i m e s r e s t i n g on o n l y a common c o m m i t -ment among a s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r . a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n g o v e r n m e n t , N i g e r i a ' s p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m was shaped n o t o n l y by a r a t i o n a l i z e d s e t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s , b u t a l s o and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , by t h e i n t e r e s t s and m a c h i n a t i o n s o f t h o s e p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t p r e p a r e d t h e way f o r a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e . S e t t i n g t h e C o u r s e f o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Re fo rm G e n e r a l M u r t a l a Muhammed assumed o f f i c e i n o r d e r t o "sweep c l e a n , g i v e d i r e c t i o n , and p r o v i d e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f good 2 g o v e r n m e n t " . I n h i s N a t i o n a l Day b r o a d c a s t o f 1 O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 , Muhammed announced a f i v e - s t a g e programme w h i c h he p l e d g e d wou ld " f o r g e a v i a b l e 3 p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , b o t h s t a b l e and r e s p o n s i b l e t o p u b l i c f e e l i n g " , and l e a d t o a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e by O c t o b e r 1 9 7 9 . As N i g e r i a ' s new head o f s t a t e a d a m a n t l y d e c l a r e d : "The p r e s e n t m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p does n o t i n t e n d t o s t a y i n o f f i c e a day l o n g e r t h a n i s n e c e s s a r y , and c e r t a i n l y n o t beyond t h i s d a t e . " He p r o m i s e d t o e s t a b l i s h p a n e l s t o s t u d y and make recommenda t i ons on c e r t a i n n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , s u c h as t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l c a p i t a l , and t h e d r a f t i n g o f a new c o n s t i t u t i o n . N i g e r i a ' s s y s t e m o f l o c a l government was t o be r e o r g a n i z e d ; t h e e x i s t i n g ban on p a r t i s a n a c t i v i t y w o u l d be l i f t e d ; and " f r e e and f a i r " e l e c t i o n s w o u l d be h e l d f o r l e g i s l a t i v e and o t h e r e l e c t i v e o f f i c e s , a t b o t h f e d e r a l and s t a t e l e v e l s , b e f o r e h a n d i n g - 20 -power b a c k t o c i v i l i a n s i n 1979 . I n t h e p r o c e s s , p o l i t i c s wou ld be " t r a n s -f o r m e d f r o m i t s p r e v i o u s s c e n a r i o o f b i t t e r p e r s o n a l w r a n g l e s i n t o a h e a l t h y 5 game o f p o l i t i c a l a rgument and d i s c u s s i o n " . F o r N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e means by w h i c h s u c h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was t o be c a r r i e d o u t l a y i n " w i s e " i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m — i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a " g o o d c o n s t i t u t i o n " . Y e t , as Muhammed e m p h a s i z e d , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m had t o be u n d e r -t a k e n by N i g e r i a n c i t i z e n s on t h e i r own b e h a l f . He c o n c e i v e d o f t h e c o n s t i t u -t i o n as an "ag reemen t f r e e l y e n t e r e d i n t o by a p e o p l e r e g a r d i n g how t h e y a r e 7 t o be g o v e r n e d " . I t was t h e i n t e n t i o n o f N i g e r i a n m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s t o make : t h e b u s i n e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as p o s s i b l e o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s d i v e r s e s e c t i o n a l and communal i n t e r e s t s . They r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f an open deba te i n w h i c h a w ide c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f r e g i o n a l , e t h n i c , and r e l i g i o u s spokesmen m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e , i n g a i n i n g g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l f o r t h e methods and r e s u l t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . A t t h e same t i m e t h o u g h , t h e c o u n t r y ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t i t wou ld be dange rous t o a l l o w c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s t o f o l l o w t h e i r own c o u r s e , and p e r h a p s t o f o u n d e r on t h e s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s and f a c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s t h a t c o u l d w e l l e r u p t i f no i n i t i a l d i r e c t i o n were t o be p r o v i d e d . The F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government t o o had made i t s a s s e s s m e n t o f N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s . I t s l e a d e r s p o s s e s s e d t h e i r own i d e a s as t o what fo rm a new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s h o u l d t a k e i n o r d e r t o overcome t h o s e d i f f i c u l t i e s . The c o u r s e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n f i n a l l y e v o l v e d d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A d r a f t document was t o be p r e p a r e d by a commi t t ee o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r t s f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l r ecommenda t i ons o f t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l . The p u b l i c w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o r e s p o n d t o r. t h a t d r a f t b e f o r e i t w a s . d e l i v e r e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a s s e m b l y f o r r e v i s i o n . - 21 -However , a f i n a l r i g h t o f amendment was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y -Government b e f o r e p r o m u l g a t i o n . T h i s s t r a t e g y f o r r e f o r m was as i m p o r t a n t a s t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . I n t h e e n d , t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f N i g e r i a ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c i v i l i a n government wou ld depend on a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d b e l i e f t h a t t h e y were f a i r l y and r e s p o n s i b l y c o n c e i v e d . N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee (CDC) f i r s t met on 18 O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 . I t s 49 members were a p p o i n t e d by t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government i n s u c h a way as t o e n s u r e t h a t each o f t h e n a t i o n ' s t w e l v e s t a t e s w o u l dnbe< . r e p r e s e n t e d b y . : a t i i e a s t S t W o ; ^ d e l e g a t e s . The Commi t tee was composed p r i m a r i l y o f a c a d e m i c s and l a w y e r s , many o f whom were a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l l i f e , e i t h e r as c i v i l i a n c o m m i s s i o n e r s i n t he F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y o r s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , o r as m i n i s t e r s , c i v i l s e r v a n t s , Q and p o l i t i c i a n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . I t s c h a i r m a n was C h i e f R o t i m i W i l l i a m s , a n o t e d N i g e r i a n l a w y e r and a f o r m e r m i n i s t e r o f t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e CDC were e x p l i c i t l y o u t l i n e d by G e n e r a l Muhammed d u r i n g t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g : T h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e l i e v e s s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e p r o -v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n c a n be u s e d f o r r e m o v i n g o r m i n i m i z i n g some o f o u r b a s i c p r o b l e m s . . . . Y o u r a i m , t h e r e f o r e , must be t o d e v i s e a c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i s h w i l l h e l p t o s o l v e o t h e r p r o b l e m s w h i c h may a r i s e i n t h e f u t u r e . . . . t o p r o d u c e an i n i t i a l d r a f t o f a C o n s t i t u -t i o n a l A r rangemen t t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e a s o u n d g b a s i s f o r t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e o f a u n i t e d N i g e r i a . W o r k i n g on a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s i n i t i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee was g i v e n one y e a r i n w h i c h t o s u b m i t i t s p r o p o s e d d r a f t o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t o t h e r u l i n g M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l . C o n c l u d i n g i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s i i n September 1976 , t h e CDC p r e s e n t e d i t s r ecommenda t i ons t o t h e head o f s t a t e , G e n e r a l O l u s e g u n O b a s a n j o , 1 0 f o r p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n . No l e s s t h a n 346 memoranda had a l r e a d y been s u b m i t t e d t o - 22 -t h e CDC d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f i t s d e b a t e s , by a number o f l o c a l and s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s , by o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as t h e N a t i o n a l J o i n t M u s l i m A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Women's S o c i e t i e s , t h e E v a n g e l i c a l C h u r c h e s o f West A f r i c a , and by a c a d e m i c s , l a w y e r s , f o r m e r p o l i t i c i a n s , b u r e a u c r a t s . , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . " ' " ' ' " T h e i r comments were a c c o m p a n i e d by a s t r e a m o f newspaper e d i t o r i a l s , a d d r e s s e s by f o r m e r p o l i t i c i a n s , and r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d by p u b l i c m e e t i n g s h e l d f o r t he p u r p o s e o f d i s c u s s i n g N i g e r i a ' s p r o p o s e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . I n 1977 t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government convened a C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , c h a r g i n g i t w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e l i b e r a t e on t h e p r o p o s a l s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee and t o amend them where n e c e s s a r y . Composed o f a c h a i r m a n , a d e p u t y c h a i r m a n , and 20 o t h e r members a p p o i n t e d by N i g e r i a ' s Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l , as w e l l as t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e CDC and i t s s e v e n s u b - c o m m i t t e e s , and 203 d e l e g a t e s p o p u l a r l y s e l e c t e d f rom t h e 12 s t a t e s , t h e A s s e m b l y met f rom O c t o b e r 1977 t o June 1 9 7 8 . The A s s e m b l y ' s d r a f t was a c c e p t e d by t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government w i t h o n l y a few a d d i t i o n a l amendments and m o d i f i c a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , by t h e t e rms o f t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a (Enac tmen t ) D e c r e e o f 1978 , t h e c o u n t r y ' s d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o p o s a l s were e n a c t e d i n t o l a w . They came i n t o e f f e c t on I ndependence Day 1979 — t h e t a r g e t d a t e f o r a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n government 13 s e t e x a c t l y f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r by t h e l a t e M u r t a l a Muhammed. * # # The p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government were w i d e l y c r i t i c i z e d . P e r i o d i c a l l y t h e y became t h e f o c u s o f d i s p u t e s w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d t o u p s e t t h e e n t i r e r e f o r m p r o j e c t . The c o n s t i t u t i o n , a f t e r a l l , was t o s e t f o r t h t h e s t r u c t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s o f n a t i o n a l government i n N i g e r i a . I t wou ld n o t o n l y p r e s c r i b e t h e means by w h i c h p o l i t i c a l power wou ld be w i e l d e d i n a c i v i l i a n r e g i m e ; i t w o u l d d e f i n e - 23 -who was t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h a t power , and t o t he r e s o u r c e s unde r p u b l i c c o n t r o l , as w e l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e n a t u r e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n — o f who wou ld p a r t i c i p a t e i n s h a p i n g t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s — was a m a t t e r o f s e r i o u s c o n t e n -14 t i o n . D i s s e n s i o n was a p p a r e n t , even as t h e members o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y were b e i n g named. I t was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e CDC s h o u l d be composed o f 50 members. The one a p p o i n t e d d e l e g a t e who d e c l i n e d t o s e r v e was t he f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r , . o f t he W e s t e r n R e g i o n , C h i e f Obafemi Awolowo. A w o l o w o ' s d e c i s i o n t o a b s t a i n f r om t h e p r o c e e d i n g s was w i d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as an a t t e m p t t o s a v e h i s own p o l i t i c a l 1 ' : a m b i t i o n s f rom t h e c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t wou ld n e c e s s a r i l y be imposed 15 were he t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n any p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . A f a t h e r o f N i g e r i a ' s new p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m and a l e a d i n g a u t h o r o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d more t h a n l i k e l y be e x p e c t e d t o a c t i n s t r i c t a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s . I n 1975 , Awolowo was n o t p r e p a r e d t o commit h i s p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s t o s u c h an u n s w e r v i n g p a t h , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e a c t i o n s o f h i s p o t e n -t i a l r i v a l s wou ld n o t be l i m i t e d i n t h e same way. H i s f a i l u r e t o s e r v e on t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee i m m e d i a t e l y b r o u g h t t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f N i g e r i a ' s c i v i l i a n l e a d e r s i n t o q u e s t i o n . Would a new c o n s t i t u t i o n be a b l e t o c o n s t r a i n t h e a c t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s i n a c i v i l i a n r e g i m e ? The a f f a i r s e r v e d t o deepen m u t u a l s u s p i c i o n s t h a t r i v a l g r o u p s m i g h t be p r e p a r e d t o e m p l ' o y / ' i l l e g a l means t o a c h i e v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a i m s . W h i l e m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s were w o r k i n g t o u n i t e t h e c o u n t r y i n a p r o j e c t o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - r e n e w a l t h r o u g h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , C h i e f A w o l o w o ' s d e c i s i o n , made i t c l e a r t h a t a c o n s e n s u s d i d n o t e x i s t o v e r t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h a t r e f o r m , o r t h e means t h a t s h o u l d be u s e d i n a c h i e v i n g i t . D e c i d i n g on t he c o m p o s i t i o n o f t he C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y was an even more d e l i c a t e i s s u e f o r m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s t h a n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f d e l e g a t e s - 24 -t o t h e CDC. The A s s e m b l y was t o be a " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " b o d y . However , t h i s s i m p - l e f o r m u l a g l o s s e d o v e r two v e r y i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s : How were A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s t o be s e l e c t e d ^ A n d , i n what way were t h e y t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ? The F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y G o v e r n m e n t ' s s o l u t i o n was t o a p p o i n t A s s e m b l y 16 d e l e g a t e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r e l e c t i o n by l o c a l c o u n c i l s . B e c a u s e l o c a l c o u n c i l l o r s t h e m s e l v e s had been r e c e n t l y e l e c t e d on a n o n - p a r t i s a n b a s i s , i t was hoped t h a t t h i s method w o u l d o b v i a t e t h e need f o r any t y p e o f e l e c t o r a l c a m p a i g n . I t was n e c e s s a r y , i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , t o a v o i d p o t e n t i a l l y v i o l e n t f a c t i o n a l o r p a r t i s a n r i v a l r i e s b e f o r e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a d e q u a t e l e g a l s a f e g u a r d s r e g u l a t i n g p o l i t i c a l - a c t i v i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many o b s e r v e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f rom N i g e r i a ' s s o u t h e r n : s t a t e s , r e c o g n i z e d a b u i l t - i n b i a s i n t h e p r o c e d u r e t h a t was e v e n t u a l l y recommended. They p o i n t e d t o t h e l o c a l c o u n c i l s o f t h e f o r m e r N o r t h e r n R e g i o n where many c o u n c i l l o r s had been r e t u r n e d u n o p p o s e d , o r where t h e y were i n d i r e c t l y 17 e l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e o f f i c e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l a u t h o r i t i e s . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s e l e c t i o n on t he b a s i s p r o p o s e d by t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l w o u l d mean t h a t A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s f r om t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e s wou ld be more l i k e l y t o a c t as spokesmen f o r t r i b a l and communal i n t e r e s t s . The c o m p l a i n t s o f s o u t h e r n l e a d e r s w e r e , t o some e x t e n t , m i t i g a t e d by a s e c o n d f e d e r a l d e c i s i o n n o t t o a l l o c a t e s e a t s i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y a c c o r d i n g t o a s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t r i c t l y i n p r o p o r t i o n t o s t a t e s ' p o p u l a t i o n s . I n s t e a d , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f A s s e m b l y s e a t s was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a l l s t a t e s w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l d e g r e e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n i d i f f e r e n c e s wou ld n e c e s s a r i l y be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . However , r e g i o n a l c r i t e r i a - ' - w e r e a l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d . As a r e s u l t , s e a t s were a l l o c a t e d on a f o r m u l a w h i c h a c c o r d e d t o N i g e r , t h e R e p u b l i c ' s l e a s t p o p u l o u s s t a t e , s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e number o f A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s t o w h i c h K a n o , w i t h a p o p u l a -t i o n f i v e t i m e s as l a r g e , was e n t i t l e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e a t s t o s t a t e s - 25 -and f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n s i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I . l . T a b l e I 18 C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y A l l o c a t i o n o f S e a t s Fo rmer S t a t e E s t i m a t e d E s t i m a t e d S e a t s P o l i t i c a l A r e a (km2 ) P o p u l a t i o n R e g i o n N o r t h B a u c h i Benue Bo rno G o n g o l a Kaduna Kano N i g e r P l a t e a u S o k o t o West Kwara Lagos Ogun Ondo Oyo M i d - W e s t ^ B e n d e l E a s t - * Anambra C r o s s R i v e r I mo R i v e r s 2 3 7 , 8 8 6 , 0 5 6 2 8 , 9 3 8 , 5 8 1 100 6 1 , 8 1 3 , 7 9 0 2 , 1 9 3 , 6 7 4 10 6 9 , 7 4 0 3 , 0 4 1 , 1 9 4 10 1 1 6 , 5 8 9 2 , 9 9 0 , 5 2 6 11 1 0 2 , 0 6 7 , 2 1 0 3 , 0 0 2 , 8 0 8 10 7 0 , 2 9 3 4 , 0 9 8 , 3 0 5 13 4 2 , 1 2 3 5 , 7 7 4 , 8 4 2 16 7 3 , 5 5 5 , 4 7 8 1 , 2 7 1 , 7 6 7 7 5 6 , 2 4 5 2 , 0 2 6 , 6 5 7 / 9 9 4 , 5 8 8 4 , 5 3 8 , 8 0 8 14 9 3 , 7 0 9 , 2 6 9 1 2 , 7 4 2 , 4 1 1 49 7 3 , 4 0 3 , 5 0 3 2 , 3 0 9 , 3 3 9 8 3 , 5 3 5 1 , 4 4 3 , 5 6 7 8 2 0 , 2 4 1 , 2 0 4 1 , 5 5 7 , 9 4 6 8 1 8 , 1 6 5 2 , 2 7 2 , 6 7 5 10 4 2 , 8 6 2 5 , 1 5 8 , 8 8 4 15 3 8 , 0 6 1 2 , 4 3 5 , 8 3 9 10 3 8 , 0 6 1 2 , 4 3 5 , 8 3 9 10 7 9 , 1 3 8 1 1 , 5 5 1 , 8 2 3 44 1 5 , 7 7 0 2 , 9 4 3 , 4 8 3 11 2 9 , 1 6 4 3 , 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; i 12 1 3 , 0 3 2 3 , 2 0 8 , 3 4 0 13 2 1 , 1 7 2 1 , 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 8 The f o r m u l a c a r r i e d w i t h i t a number o f impor tant ) p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t meant t h a t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y I s l a m i c s t a t e s o f t he f o r m e r N o r t h e r n R e g i o n , w i t h a t o t a l e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f 29 m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s , w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d by 100 A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , 103 A s s e m b l y s e a t s were g r a n t e d t o s o u t h e r n s t a t e s , where few Moslems c o u l d be c o u n t e d 19 among an e s t i m a t e d 27 m i l l i o n i n h a b i t a n t s . The o b j e c t i o n s o f n o r t h e r n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were l o u d l y v o i c e d , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e A s s e m b l y t u r n e d i t s - 26 -a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i s s u e o f I s l a m i c c o u r t s . N o r t h e r n members c l a i m e d t h a t t h e A s s e m b l y was n o t d e m o c r a t i c a l l y composed . The F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government had " d i s t o r t e d t h e e s s e n c e o f d e m o c r a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and c r e a t e d an a r t i f i c i a l f r e a k a s s e m b l y w i t h p r i o r i t i e s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a l i t y o f t he c o u n t r y o r any 20 . . . known p r i n c i p l e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k i n g " . F o r n o r t h e r n a s w e l l as s o u t h e r n d e l e g a t e s , t h e n , t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m t h e m s e l v e s became o b j e c t s o f d i s p u t e . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y was e v e n t u a l l y a c c e p t e d by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s , t hough n o t w i t h o u t a g r e a t d e a l o f 21 e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and t he o c c a s i o n a l t h r e a t , f rom m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o p r i e t y o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s were l e f t u n a n s w e r e d . As s u c h , t h e y r e m a i n p o i n t s o f weakness w h i c h may be e x p l o i t e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e f u t u r e , s h o u l d d i s g r u n t l e d p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s w i s h t o 1 c h a l l e n g e t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The B i r t h o f a New C o n s t i t u t i o n : F u n d a m e n t a l G u i d e l i n e s L i k e t h e t i m e t a b l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s t h a t emerged f r om t h e Commi t tee and A s s e m b l y m e e t i n g s o f t he l a t e 1970s r e f l e c t t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f , and many o f t he d e c i s i o n s a l r e a d y t a k e n b y , N i g e r i a ' s F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government . M u r t a l a Muhammed e x p r e s s e d t h e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e o p e n i n g s e s s i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t t ee : The Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l has . . . a g r e e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g : — V/e a r e c o m m i t t e d t o a f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f gove rnmen t ; and t o a f r e e , d e m o c r a t i c , and l a w f u l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n -ment w h i c h g u a r a n t e e s f u n d a m e n t a l human r i g h t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , " a n y c o n s t i t u t i o n d e v i s e d f o r N i g e r i a " s h o u l d seek t o : i ) e l i m i n a t e c u t t h r o a t p o l i t i c a l c o m p e t i t i o n b a s e d on a s y s t e m o r r u l e s o f w i n n e r - t a k e s - a l l . As C o r o l l a r y ( s i c . ) , i t s h o u l d d i s c o u r a g e e l e c t o r a l m a l p r a c t i c e s . i i ) d i s c o u r a g e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t he - 27 -government i n power a n d , i n s t e a d , d e v e l o p c o n s e n s u s p o l i t i c s and government b a s e d on a communi ty o f a l l i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r e s t s o f a s e c t i o n o f t h e •: c o u n t r y . i i i ) f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r a l l h o l d e r s o f p u b l i c o f f i c e . A l l p u b l i c o f f i c e h o l d e r s must be s e e n t o a c c o u n t o p e n l y f o r t h e i r c o n d u c t o f a f f a i r s . i v ) e l i m i n a t e o v e r - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power i n a few h a n d s , and as a m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p l e d e c e n t r a l i z e power whenever p o s s i b l e , as a means o f d i f f u s i n g t e n s i o n s . The powers and d u t i e s o f t h e l e a d i n g f u n c - ^ ^ t i o n a r i e s o f government s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e r u l e s o f c o n d u c t w h i c h were t o be e n u n c i a t e d i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n must p r e v e n t a r e t u r n t o t h e c o r r u p t and f a c t i o u s p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p a s t . Muhammed went a s t a g e f u r t h e r , s p e c i f y i n g i n a f a i r l y g e n e r a l manner t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l deemed n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p u t i t s p r i n c i p l e s o f o r d e r l y government i n t o e f f e c t . The deve lopmen t o f " g e n u i n e and t r u l y n a t i o n a l " p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s demanded t h a t l i m i t a t i o n s be p l a c e d on t h e number o f p a r t i s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r 24 s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t . I n d e e d , b e c a u s e p a r t y c o n f l i c t was v i e w e d as t h e p r i m a r y c a u s e o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n R e p u b l i c , t h e CDC was t o l d : The Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l i s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t , i f d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f y o u r d e l i b e r a t i o n s and h a v i n g r e g a r d t o ou r d i s i l l u s i o n w i t h p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n t he p a s t , you s h o u l d d i s c o v e r some means by w h i c h government c a n be '•>:>,!,,. fo rmed w i t h o u t t h e c r e a ^ j l o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , you s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o recommend. From t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s t he F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government t u r n e d t o p r e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i t s e l f . I t c a l l e d f o r an " e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m " i n w h i c h : a) t he P r e s i d e n t and V i c e - P r e s i d e n t a r e e l e c t e d , w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d powers and a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e - : . . . and a r e b r o u g h t i n t o o f f i c e i n s u c h a manner so t o r e f l e c t t h e f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y ; and b) t h e c h o i c e o f members o f t h e C a b i n e t s h o u l d a l s o be s u c h a^ ' . t o r e f l e c t t h e f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y . - 28 -The new c o n s t i t u t i o n t h u s d e p a r t s f r om t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y mode l t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . I n s t e a d , i t a d o p t s a p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m s i m u l a t i n g many o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s and c h e c k s o f A m e r i c a n gove rnmen t . F o r N i g e r i a n m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , a n x i o u s as t h e y were t o p r o v i d e some s o r t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s a f e g u a r d s on t h e e x e r c i s e o f p o l i t i c a l power , t he A m e r i c a n model was w o r t h y o f e m u l a t i o n . I t • was f e l t t h a t an e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n t and h i s a p p o i n t e d c a b i n e t wou ld p r o v i d e a c o h e s i v e and e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g g roup w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o f o r m u l a t e l e g i s l a t i o n and deve lopmen t p l a n s , w h i l e i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e l aws e n a c t e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t l e g i s l a t u r e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e d i v i s i o n o f powers embod ied i n t h e A m e r i c a n s y s t e m i m p l i e s t h a t no one i n d i v i d u a l o r s e t o f p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s w o u l d have t h e c a p a c i t y t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e e n t i r e p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . S e p a r a t e e l e c t i o n s c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d f o r e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n b o t h f e d e r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s . Such a p r o c e d u r e wou ld c r e a t e w i d e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l s y s t e m . M o r e o v e r , i t was t h o u g h t t h a t a s y s t e m o f c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s w o u l d h e l p t o e n s u r e t h a t a m a j o r i t y i n one l e g i s l a t i v e chamber wou ld n o t a u t o m a t -i c a l l y g u a r a n t e e t h e a p p r o v a l o f e x e c u t i v e " d e c i s i o n s . I f a b i c a m e r a l l e g i s -l a t u r e were t o be a d o p t e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e power o f p r e s i d e n t i a l v e t o , t h e n a p r o p o s e d b i l l w o u l d have t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f a s i z e a b l e m a j o r i t y i n b o t h a s s e m b l i e s b e f o r e i t c o u l d become l a w . The two l e g i s l a t i v e b o d i e s m i g h t be composed so as t o p r o v i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f b o t h p o p u l a t i o n and r e g i o n a l c r i t e r i a . A n d , i f t h e A m e r i c a n example were f o l l o w e d , p e r h a p s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p a r t i s a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n among a s s e m b l y membgr"! as a f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r ; v q t i n g p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t u r e wou ld b e g i n t o wane. Such an a r rangemen t wou ld e f f e c t i v e l y remove a m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o t h e c o n d u c t o f ha rmon ious p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o u n t r y . I n any e v e n t , - 29 -an i n d e p e n d e n t j u d i c i a r y w o u l d be empowered t o r u l e a g a i n s t any p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i t f o u n d t o be u l t r a v i r e s . I n s t i t u t i o n s b a s e d on t h e A m e r i c a n s y s t e m o f government wou ld a t l e a s t c h e c k t h e b e h a v i o u r o f p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s i n a l l b r a n c h e s o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . I t was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y t o s e t o u t t h e s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s i n much f i n e r d e t a i l . However , t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s and p r a c t i c e s was s p e c i f i e d b e f o r e p u b l i c deba te b e g a n . The Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l l i s t e d t h r e e o t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The i n d e p e n d e n c e o f N i g e r i a ' s j u d i c i a r y was t o be g u a r a n t e e d u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a J u d i c i a l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n . P r o v i s i o n was t o be made f o r s u c h b o d i e s as a C o r r u p t P r a c t i c e s T r i b u n a l and a P u b l i c C o m p l a i n t s B u r e a u w h i c h wou ld m o n i t o r t h e b e h a v i o u r o f government o f f i c i a l s . F i n a l l y , a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n was t o be imposed on t h e number o f a d d i t i o n a l ; : 27 s t a t e s t h a t c o u l d be c r e a t e d . Muhammed s t r e s s e d t h a t h i s p r o p o s a l s were '• " c e n t r a l " t o t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y G o v e r n m e n t ' s programme f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e n e w a l . No t o n l y d i d t h e y fo rm t h e t e rms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e CDC; t h e y w e r e , i n e f f e c t , d i r e c t i v e s upon w h i c h a l l s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n was t o be b a s e d . W h i l e t h e M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l o u t l i n e d t h e f o rm w h i c h N i g e r i a ' s new i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u l d t a k e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w o r k i n g ou t e x a c t s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e d u r e s l a y p r i m a r i l y i n t h e hands o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s c i v i l i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s . I t was i n t h e d e b a t e s and r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i -t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y t h a t t h e b a s i c c h o i c e s i s r e g a r d i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m were made — c h o i c e s w h i c h b r i n g , : i n t o ; r e l i e f t h e o f t e n " i n c o m p a t i b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a s y s t e m o f government w h i c h wou ld b e , a t t h e same t i m e , e f f e c t i v e and open t o a l l o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . The p r o v i s i o n s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n may be summar i zed w i t h - 30 -r e g a r d t o f o u r broad i s s u e a r e a s : the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a f e d e r a l system o f government, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n c y , and p r o v i s i o n f o r t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p a r t i -c u l a r l y f o r the r o l e o f I s l a m i c law. Each s e t o f i s s u e s p r o v i d e d a f o c u s f o r c o n t e n t i o n d u r i n g the f o u r y e a r s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debate t h a t preceded the p r o m u l g a t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s b a s i c law. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , many a r t i c l e s embodied i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n remain the o b j e c t s o f c r i t i c i s m , even a f t e r they were put i i n t o e f f e c t . The p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f r e f l e c t s the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l problems by means o f s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m . A Statement o f N a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s and Fundamental R i g h t s F o r the a u t h o r s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n , a r e v i s e d c h a r t e r o f p o l i t i c a l norms and p r o c e d u r e s had t o go beyond merely d e f i n i n g the l i m i -t a t i o n s t o be p l a c e d on p u b l i c o f f i c e . I t s h o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e a statement o f purpose, o f n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and d i r e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s t o g u i d e s t a t e p o l i c y . In the words o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Committee, a c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d " p r o c l a i m the p r i n c i p l e o o n which the s t a t e i s o r g a n i z e d ; 28 and s p e l l out the i d e a s and o b j e c t i v e s o f the s o c i a l o r d e r " . Indeed, the CDC r e p o r t goes on to e x p l a i n t h a t " u n l e s s the g o a l s and the fundamental a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s " p r e s c r i b i n g the r o l e o f government o f f i c i a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s are c l e a r l y s t a t e d and a c c e p t e d , "a new n a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o 29 f i n d i t s e l f r u d d e r l e s s w i t h no sense o f purpose o r d i r e c t i o n " . A c h a r t e r o f n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s would u n i t e the a s p i r a t i o n s and l o y a l t i e s o f N i g e r i a n s . By d e f i n i n g the g o a l s o f s o c i e t y and d e s c r i b i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r p u r s u i n g them, a statement o f fundamental o b j e c t i v e s and d i r e c t i v e p r i n -c i p l e s i n our C o n s t i t u t i o n seeks t o d i r e c t and c o n c e r t the e f f o r t s and a c t i o n s o f the p eople towards the a c h i e v e -ment o f those g o a l s . . . . Only an- e x p l i c i t statement o f o b j e c t i v e s and d i r e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s which c l e a r l y s e t s the parameters o f government and i n f o r m s i t s p o l i c i e s and - 31 -a c t i o n s c a n g e n e r a t e , ^ s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n , p e a c e , u n i t y , and p r o g r e s s . By e x p l i c i t l y c o m m i t t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e g o a l s o f economic and s o c i a l d e v e l -opment — t o c o n t r o l o v e r t h e economy and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequa te f o o d , c l o t h i n g , wa te r , ' m e d i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s — and t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a m u l t i - e t h n i c s o c i e t y , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n wou ld a c t a s a f o c u s f o r t he l o y a l t y o f a l l N i g e r i a n s , a s wel l ias i a d i r e c t i v e t o government p o l i c y . . . 31 d e c i s i o n s . A l t h o u g h d e l e g a t e s u n a n i m o u s l y s u p p o r t e d t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a s t a t e -ment o f n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t i e s i n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document , c o n f l i c t a r o s e o v e r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h o s e d i r e c t i v e s and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h government s h o u l d be bound t o f o l l o w e x p r e s s i o n s o f p r i n c i p l e . What s h o u l d be t h e r o l e o f t h e s t a t e i n p r o v i d i n g • f o r economic g r o w t h and s o c i a l w e l f a r e ? S h o u l d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n be e x p e c t e d t o d e f i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e o f government i n t he f i r s t p l a c e ? The C D C ' s s u b - c o m m i t t e e on n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and p u b l i c a c c o u n t -a b i l i t y recommended t h a t N i g e r i a n s commit t h e m s e l v e s t o a s o c i a l i s t o r d e r i n West A f r i c a . I t s r e p o r t c o n c l u d e s : I t c a n n o t be d i s p u t e d t h a t t h e i d e o l o g y t h a t i s most r e l e v a n t t o o u r s o c i e t y t o d a y and one t h a t i s a c c e p t e d by most N i g e r i a n s i s one o f s o c i a l i s m o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e f ramework o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy and t h e i d e a l s o f L i b e r t y , E q u a l i t y , and J u s t i c e . I t i s t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e answer t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n e q u a l i t y , i and e x p l o i t a t i o n t h a t e x i s t i n t h e c o u n t r y . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e o f N i g e r i a n s s h o u l d be " t o p l a c e i n t h e hands o f t h e S t a t e and p e o p l e t h e o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f t he means o f 33 p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n " . The recommenda t i ons o f t h e s u b - c o m m i t t e e were met by l o u d c r i e s o f o p p o s i t i o n f r om t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g C o m m i t t e e . F e a r i n g t h a t an e x p r e s s i o n o f s o c i a l i s t g o a l s m i g h t f r i g h t e n away f o r e i g n and d o m e s t i c i n v e s t m e n t , members o f t h e ma in Commi t tee s t r e s s e d t h a t - 32 -34 w e a l t h must f i r s t be c r e a t e d b e f o r e i t c a n be d i s t r i b u t e d . W h i l e t h e y a g r e e d t h a t " t h e s e c u r i t y and t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e s h a l l be t h e p r i m a r y 35 p u r p o s e o f g o v e r n m e n t " — a p r i n c i p l e w h i c h a p p e a r s i n t h e f i n a l d r a f t o f ' t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n — most members o f t h e CDC a r g u e d t h a t t h e o n l y a c c e p t a b l e i d e o l o g y f o r a l l N i g e r i a n s i s t h a t o f a " m i x e d economy" . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s v i e w c a l l e d f o r a s t a t e t h a t wou ld be " s o c i a l i s t " i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f economic a c t i v i t y , y e t w h i c h wou ld a l s o " e n c o u r a g e and p r o t e c t " i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p and i n i t i a t i v e i n t h o s e s e c t o r s o f t h e economy where i t was f e l t t h a t " p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l . i s n o t i n t h e n a t i o n a l . 36 i n t e r e s t " . C a u t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n w o u l d n o t e x c i t e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t were n o t l i k e l y t o be r e a l i z e d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . T h u s , i t was a r g u e d t h a t w h i l e t h e s t a t e must seek t o improve l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r h o u s i n g , m e d i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , i t c a n n o t do so w i t h o u t r e l y i n g on p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t and p r o f i t t o e n c o u r a g e maximum economic g r o w t h . A f t e r l e n g t h y d e b a t e , t he a rguments p u t f o r w a r d by t h e a d v o c a t e s o f a m i x e d economy were f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e p l e n a r y s e s s i o n o f t h e CDC. (The d e c i s i o n n o t t o adop t a more s o c i a l i s t s e t o f economic o b j e c t i v e s l e d two members o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee t o d i s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s f rom t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s f i n a l r ecommenda t i ons 37 and t o f i l e d i s s e n t i n g m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s o f t h e i r own. ) The CDC r e p o r t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f i t s members had a g r e e d " t o m a i n t a i n a m ixed economy" i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r " p l a y s a l a r g e and l e a d i n g r o l e by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e m a j o r s e c t o r s o f economic a c t i v i t y , d e t e r m i n i n g b a s i c p r i c e s , and r e g u l a t i n g 38 c o m p e t i t i o n , b u t where p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i s a l l o w e d and e n c o u r a g e d " . The c o n f l i c t be tween p r o p o n e n t s o f a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e and a d v o c a t e s o f a m i x e d economy, w h i c h o c c u p i e d so much o f t h e t i m e o f t he C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g C o m m i t t e e , was l a r g e l y a v o i d e d d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a compromise f o r m u l a by t h e i r - 33 -39 c h a i r m a n , S i r Udo Udoma, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e " f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y " . D e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e s t a t e s h a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n many a r e a s o f t h e economy "where t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y " , b u t s h a l l c o n t r o l t h e " m a j o r a r e a s — t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h i t a l r e a d y c o n t r o l s o r w h i c h i t may t a k e o v e r by t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f a f u t u r e 40 g o v e r n m e n t " , — t h e d r a f t amendment was a c c e p t e d by b o t h s i d e s o f t h e d i s p u t e . T h u s , by t h e t e rms o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , N i g e r i a n government i s empowered t o c o n t r o l t h e n a t i o n a l economy " i n s u c h a manner as t o s e c u r e t h e maximum w e l f a r e , f r e e d o m , and h a p p i n e s s o f e v e r y c i t i z e n on t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l 41 j u s t i c e and t h e e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s and o p p o r t u n i t y ' , ' . I t s c h a r t e r a l l o w s 42 i t t o ''(manage and o p e r a t e t h e ma jo r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy" . I n s h o r t , t h e economic a c t i v i t y o f t h e s t a t e i s t o r e m a i n l a r g e l y u n c h a n g e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , members o f t h e CDC and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y were u n a b l e t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g t h e i s s u e o f f u n d a m e n t a l economic and s o c i a l r i g h t s . Here t h e d i f f i c u l t y c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e q u e s t i o n o f j u s t i c i a - . b i l i t y . D e l e g a t e s f e l t t h a t some s t a t e m e n t o f t h e g o a l s o f economic and s o c i a l deve lopmen t was r e q u i r e d . The r i g h t t o e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l wo rk , f r e e e d u c a t i o n , f r e e h e a l t h and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , permanent employment i n t he p u b l i c s e r v i c e , f u l l employment and j o b s e c u r i t y , s u i t a b l e and a d e q u a t e s h e l t e r , a d e q u a t e f o o d , a minimum l i v i n g wage, a d e q u a t e l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , 43 and unemployment b e n e f i t s s t a n d s as t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e o f N i g e r i a n s t a t e p o l i c y — as i t does f o r most n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s . Y e t , s h o u l d t h e b a s i c l aw f o r c e t h e government t o p r o v i d e t h o s e a m e n i t i e s ? A m a j o r i t y o f CDC members were opposed t o t h e i d e a o f e l e v a t i n g s u c h economic and s o c i a l r i g h t s t o t h e s t a t u s o f l e g a l l y b i n d i n g no rms . Economic r i g h t s a r e n o t " m u t u a l " l i k e a p e r s o n ' s l e g a l f r e e d o m s , t h e y a r g u e d . The C D C ' s r e p o r t e x p l a i n s t h a t economic and s o c i a l r i g h t s come i n t o e x i s t e n c e o n l y a f t e r gove rnmen ts p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r them. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y a r e r i g h t s t h a t depend on t h e a v a i l s a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s . The CDC c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t wou ld n o t o n l y be " l u d i c r o u s " - 34 -t o o b l i g e government t o p r o v i d e s u c h economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e 44 g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b u t t h a t i t wou ld be " d a n g e r o u s " as w e l l . W h i l e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e s t a t e ' s deve lopmen t p o l i c i e s , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f deve lopmen t s h o u l d be n o n - j u s t i c i a b l e . The economic s u b - c o m m i t t e e o f t h e CDC and a number o f t h e C o m m i t t e e ' s o t h e r members s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . They were c o n c e r n e d t h a t i f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n were t o acknow ledge t h a t gove rnmen ts c a n n o t l e g a l l y be bound by economic and s o c i a l no rms , N i g e r i a ' s p u b l i c 45 o f f i c i a l s m i g h t s i m p l y i g n o r e t h e i r commitment t o a common s o c i a l p u r p o s e . T h a t v i e w was a c c e p t e d by a m a j o r i t y o f members o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , A s s e m b l y d e l e g a t e s s p e c i f i e d t h a t economic and s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s s h o u l d assume an a d v i s o r y r a t h e r t h a n a l e g a l s t a t u s . The A s s e m b l y acknow-l e d g e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s p r o v i s i o n s wou ld : l i k e l y be by 46 way o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , i n s t e a d o f j u d i c i a l a c t i o n . However , i t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e t e r m s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t government p o l i c y i s t o be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s " e n s u r i n g t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a p l a n n e d and b a l a n c e d economic d e v e l o p m e n t " i n w h i c h " t h e m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e communi ty a r e h a r n e s s e d and d i s t r i b u t e d as b e s t as p o s s i b l e t o s e r v e t h e common g o o d " and " s u i t a b l e and a d e q u a t e s h e l t e r , s u i t a b l e and a d e q u a t e f o o d , a r e a s o n a b l e n a t i o n a l minimum l i v i n g wage, o l d age c a r e and p e n s i o n s , and unemployment and s i c k b e n e f i t s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r 47 a l l c i t i z e n s " . I t s r e s o l u t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t was a p p r o v e d by t h e . S u p r e m e M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l . I f a s t a t e m e n t o f f u n d a m e n t a l economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s was d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s f o u n d t h e t a s k o f o u t l i n i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f a " t r u l y n a t i o n a l " government no e a s i e r . N a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s must embody v a l u e s s h a r e d by t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n a l commun i ty . As t h e r e p o r t o f - 35 -t h e CDC e x p l a i n s : The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t h a t t h e v a l u e s and o b j e c t i v e s d e c l a r e d s h o u l d be t h e r e a l l y f u n d a m e n t a l ones w i d e l y s h a r e d i n t h e commun i ty , and n o t t h e s e c t i o n a l o b j e c -t i v e s and g o a l s o f a p a r t i c u l a r g roup o-g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l . . . p o l i c i e s o f a r u l i n g p a r t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y n a t i o n a l v a l u e s may e x c l u d e f rom c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e more p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c i n t e r e s t s o f c e r t a i n t r i b a l , r e l i g i o u s , o r r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s . D e l e g a t e s f r om t h e f o r m e r N o r t h e r n R e g i o n f e l t t h a t t h i s was an e s p e c i a l l y s e r i o u s d a n g e r . F o r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g C o m m i t t e e , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s 49 o f government must r e f l e c t " t h e need f o r l o y a l t y t o N i g e r i a " . " N a t i o n a l U n i t y " i s an i d e a l t h a t g i v e s t h e o r e t i c a l s u b s t a n c e b o t h t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a s w e l l as t o s t a t e p o l i c y . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e c o u n t r y ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n i n c l u d e s a number o f s y m b o l i c p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c u l t i v a t i n g a f e e l i n g o f N i g e r i a n i d e n t i t y . The s t a t e i s c o m m i t t e d t o p r o t e c t i n g and 50 " e n h a n c i n g " N i g e r i a n c u l t u r e . The i d e a l s o f " F r e e d o m , E q u a l i t y , and J u s t i c e " s t a n d as t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e " s t a t e s o c i a l o r d e r " . A " n a t i o n a l e t h i c " i s 51 e x p r e s s e d i n t h e wa tchwords " D i s c i p l i n e , S e l f - R e l i a n c e , and P a t r i o t i s m " . A t t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f i t s n o r t h e r n I s l a m i c members, t he CDC changed t he mot to o f t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f N i g e r i a f rom " U n i t y , P e a c e , and P r o g r e s s " t o " U n i t y 52 and F a i t h , Peace and P r o g r e s s " . F i n a l l y , i n a s t a t e m e n t o f u n i v e r s a l p u r p o s e , N i g e r i a i s c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p r o m o t i o n o f A f r i c a n u n i t y , as w e l l as t h e " t o t a l p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c ' i a l y ' a n d c u l t u r a l l i b e r a t i o n o f A f r i c a , and a l l o t h e r fo rms o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n " a imed a t " t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f 53 u n i v e r s a l peace and m u t u a l r e s p e c t among a l l p e o p l e s and a l l s t a t e s " . N a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s s u c h as t h e s e a r e i n t e n d e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e deve lopmen t o f a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f N i g e r i a n n a t i o n a l i t y . Above t h e p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t d i v i d e t h e c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y , t h e y a r e t o be t h e common a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t u n i t e a l l c i t i z e n s . - 36 -A C h a r t e r o f I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s and Freedoms i s t o p l a y a s i m i l a r r o l e . Embody ing t h e norms o f l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a c y , i t s e t s o u t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e q u a l i t y o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e t h e l aw and s p e c i f i e s t h e i r r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s w i t h respect t o t h e e x e r c i s e o f a l l l e g i s l a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y . As t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n d e c l a r e s , e v e r y c i t i z e n o f N i g e r i a s h o u l d e n j o y t h e r i g h t t o l i f e , i n d i v i d u a l d i g n i t y , h i s own p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y — f reedom o f t h o u g h t , c o n s c i e n c e , and r e l i g i o n , f reedom o f a s s e m b l y and e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e f reedom t o move a t w i l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y — and t o 54 h i s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . E v e r y c i t i z e n " s h a l l have e q u a l i t y o f r i g h t s , o b l i g a -55 t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e f o r e t h e l a w " . Y e t , t h o s e a r t i c l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s were n o t a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . A m a j o r i t y o f CDC members, l e d by d e l e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g n o r t h e r n s t a t e s , a r g u e d t h a t a r e s e r v a t i o n t o t h e r u l e o f e q u a l i t y b e f o r e t h e l aw s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f Moslem and o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s . I s l a m i c l e a d e r s were p a r t i -c u l a r l y f e a r f u l t h e a p r o v i s i o n g u a r a n t e e i n g l e g a l e q u a l i t y wou ld t h r e a t e n n o t o n l y t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , b u t a l s o t h e i r a u t h o r i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h o s e I s l a m i c t e a c h i n g s c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a m i l y m a t t e r s and r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e t h e f a i t h . They m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r u l e s o f I s l a m and o f o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a r e s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l and c o m p r i s e t h e " b a s i s o f N i g e r i a ' s r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " . ^ F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p l e n a r y s e s s i o n o f t h e CDC a g r e e d t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e an a r t i c l e p r o v i d i n g t h a t " a l l c i t i z e n s , male and f e m a l e , s h o u l d have e q u a l i t y o f r i g h t s , o b l i g a t i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s b e f o r e t h e l aw b u t t h i s 57 p r o v i s i o n s h a l l n o t a b r o g a t e any r u l e o f Moslem o r c u s t o m a r y l a w " . Tha t c o n c l u s i o n was b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d by d e l e g a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . Opponents o f t h e r e s e r v a t i o n c l a u s e v i e w e d i t s i n c l u s i o n as a s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n "-to t h e - 37 -n o r t h , and one w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e deve lopmen t o f a n a t i o n - w i d e s y s t e m o f l e g a l no rms . They a r g u e d t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o q u a l i f y " w h a t , a f t e r a l l , i s a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e i d e a l w h i c h we w i s h t o a t t a i n " . I n t h e i r o p i n i o n , " i t ough t t o b e o e x p e c t e d t h a t r u l e s o f I s l a m i c o r c u s t o m a r y l aw w o u l d o r s h o u l d e v e n t u a l l y g i v e way t o t h e i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y e n s h r i n e d i n t h e r u l e " . ^ Opponents o f t h e c o n c e s s i o n t o I s l a m i c l aw fo rmed a m a j o r i t y i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . D e c l a r i n g t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f o r a u n i f i e d s y s t e m o f .l..=v l e g a l p r i n c i p l e , t h e y v o t e d t o remove any r e l i g i o u s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e r u l e o f e q u a l i t y b e f o r e t h e l a w . A s i m i l a r d i s p u t e e r u p t e d o v e r t h e w o r d i n g o f p r o v i s i o n s s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . A r t i c l e 15 o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n r e a d s i n p a r t : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o m o t i n g n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i t s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e S t a t e t o -a) p r o v i d e adequa te f a c i l i t i e s f o r and e n c o u r a g e f r e e ab b m o b i l i t y o f p e o p l e , g o o d s , and s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e F e d e r a t i o n ; b) s e c u r e f u l l r e s i d e n c e r i g h t s f o r e v e r y c i t i z e n i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n ; c ) encou rage i n t e r m a r r i a g e among p e r s o n s o f d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s o f o r i g i n , o r o f d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s , e t h n i c , o r l i n g u i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n o r t i e s ; and d) p r o m i s e o r e n c o u r a g e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t c u t a c r o s s e t h n i c , l i n g u i s t i c , r e l i g i o u s , o r o t h e r s e c t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . The o b l i g a t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e i n t e r m a r r i a g e c o n t r a d i c t s a f u n d a m e n t a l t e n e t o f I s l a m i c l a w . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h a t f a i t h , i t i s o f f e n s i v e f o r a Moslem woman t o mar ry a n o n - b e l i e v e r . O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n grew q u i t e s t r o n g i n m e e t i n g s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g C o m m i t t e e , and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h o s e o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . Led by I s l a m i c f u n d a -60 m e n t a l i s t s , a movement was o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n t h e A s s e m b l y t o p r e v e n t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u c h an immora l o b j e c t i v e i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n o f a m a j o r i t y o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s was i n - 38 -f a v o u r o f t h e p r o v i s i o n , t h e d i s p u t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g even s u c h a b a s i c i s s u e a s s e c u r i n g i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s f o r a l l N i g e r i a n s i s n o t e a s i l y a t t a i n e d . What one s o c i a l g roup d e t e r m i n e s t o be an e s s e n t i a l s t a n d a r d o f m o r a l i t y may n o t be " m o r a l " a t a l l , f r om t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a n o t h e r g roup whose b e h a v i o u r i s i n f o r m e d by d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s . C o n f l i c t a l s o a r o s e o v e r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s t o e n s u r e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e c o n d u c t o f g o v e r n m e n t . S e v e r a l members o f t h e CDC, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e f rom t h e dominan t t r i b e s o f t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n s t a t e s , a r g u e d t h a t w h i l e a l l s t a t e s and e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h i n N i g e r i a s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d f a i r and e q u a l t r e a t m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n \ and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f n a t i o n a l gove rnmen t , a d e q u a t e s a f e g u a r d s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n t h e f o rm o f p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g s e p a r a t e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s . To add a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s w o u l d add an unwelcome c o m p l i c a t i o n t o t h e make-up and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f 61 government o f f i c e . I t w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y s t a n d i n t he way o f d e v e l o p i n g a :: s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y . Because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s n o r t h e r n s t a t e s , H a u s a - F u l a n i p o l i t i c i a n s were a s s u r e d o f e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t t h e c o u n t r y ' s new p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . However , f o r t he c o u n t r y ' s s m a l l e r s e t h n i c g r o u p s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o f t he c e n t r a l s t a t e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f n a t i o n a l government was n o t g u a r a n t e e d . Many CDC members p o i n t e d t o t h e i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e p a s t as e v i d e n c e o f " i n t e r - e t h n i c r i v a l r y t o s e c u r e t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f government by one e t h n i c 62 g r o u p o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s " . They m a i n t a i n e d t h a t w r i t t e n p r o v i s i o n s were t h u s r e q u i r e d t o a v o i d t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c o f f i c e by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a few s t a t e s o r s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d p r e v e n t " t h e monopo ly o f p u b l i c o f f i c e . . . i n t h e F e d e r a l Government . . . o r s t a t e s . . . o r - 39 -o f t h e o f f i c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . . . (by) e t h n i c o r o t h e r sect iona l g r o u p s t o 63 t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p e r s o n s * - f r o m o t h e r s t a t e s , e t h n i c o r s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s " . M o r e o v e r , i t s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h a t " t h e a f f a i r s o f e v e r y gove rnmen t i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n s h a l l be c o n d u c t e d so as t o a s s u r e a f a i r and j u s t t r e a t m e n t f o r 64 a l l e t h n i c g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f a u t h o r i t y o f e a c h g o v e r n m e n t " . D e l e -g a t e s f r om m i n o r i t y t r i b e s v i e w e d s u c h s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e n o n - e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f government i n s t i t u t i o n s as e s s e n t i a l . T h i s p o s i t i o n was a t t a c k e d by a t h i r d g roup o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s . S t r e s s i n g t h e need f o r u n q u a l i f i e d l o y a l t y t o t h e N i g e r i a n s t a t e , t h e y a r g u e d t h a t N i g e r i a " c a n n o t a f f o r d t o a c c e p t a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a m a n ' s e t h n i c o r l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n i s t h e p r i m a r y d e f i n i t i o n " o f h i s c i t i z e n -65 s h i p . A n a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f government must be b a s e d on v a l u e s w h i c h s t a n d above e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s . Hence i t was p r o p o s e d t h a t a s t a t e m e n t p r o v i d i n g t h a t " t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f e v e r y government i n t h e F e d e r a t i o n and t he c o n d u c t o f i t s a f f a i r s s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t . . . ( s o a s ) t o r e c o g n i z e t h e n e e d f o r n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e p r o m o t i o n .o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y " 6 6 was a d e q u a t e . Such an argument r e s t s on t h e v i e w t h a t e f f e c t i v e gove rnmen t demands an i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m o f s t a t e s t r u c t u r e s and t h e s u p p o r t o f a u n i t e d p e o p l e . By r e c o g n i z i n g s e c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s as t he b a s i s o f t h e n a t i o n ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , N i g e r i a w o u l d e x i s t s i m p l y as a sum o f i t s component p a r t s . I n t he o p i n i o n o f t h i s g roup o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s , i t was t h a t v e r y p e r c e p t i o n t h a t l e d t o t h e c o l l a p s e o f c i v i l i a n government i n t h e m i d - 1 9 6 0 s . A compromise was e v e n t u a l l y worked o u t d u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g s e s s i o n s o f t he C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commit tee ' . R e c a l l i n g t h e words o f G e n e r a l Muhammed, a m a j o r i t y o f CDC d e l e g a t e s a c c e p t e d t h e p h r a s e " f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f N i g e r i a " i n t h e p l a c e o f a more e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . N o n e -t h e l e s s , t h e d i s p u t e r e - e m e r g e d d u r i n g t h e • meetings o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . The f e a r s o f m i n o r i t y e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n s were a g a i n c l e a r l y s t a t e d . - 40 -The f i n a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e A s s e m b l y makes r e f e r e n c e t o b o t h t h e " f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f N i g e r i a " and t h e need f o r n o n - e x c l u s i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f g o v e r n m e n t . ^ By t h e t e r m s o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n : The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t he Government o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o r any o f i t s a g e n c i e s and t he c o n d u c t o f i t s a f f a i r s s h a l l be e a r r i e d o u t i n s u c h a manner as t o r e f l e c t t h e f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f N i g e r i a and t h e need t o p romote n a t i o n a l u n i t y , and a l s o t o command n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y t h e r e b y e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e r e s h a l l be no p r e d o m i n a n c e o f p e r s o n s f rom a few S t a t e s o r f r om a few e t h n i c o r o t h e r s e c t i o n g l g r o u p s i n t h a t government o r i n any o f i t s a g e n c i e s . The p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n embodied i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d n o t e x c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s s e c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s . As N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e s n e a r e d an e n d , s e v e r a l d e l e g a t e s o p e n l y r e g r e t t e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r f e l l o w assemblymen had f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o e r e c t t h e 69 f o u n d a t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y on n a t i o n a l v a l u e s a l o n e . The d i s p u t e s w h i c h t h u s shaped t he c o u r s e o f t h e d e b a t e on N i g e r i a ' s n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and p r i n c i p l e s do n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s p e c i f i c s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g . However , t h e y do a c c e n t u a t e an i s s u e w h i c h s t a n d s a t t h e h e a r t o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . What s o r t o f norms s h o u l d g u i d e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e men whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o d ra f tia new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document? E v i d e n t l y , i n t h e c a s e o f N i g e r i a , compromise c o u l d be r e a c h e d on o n l y t he most g e n e r a l o f s t a t e m e n t s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h d e l e g a t e s b e l i e v e d t h a t s p e c i f i e d norms o f b e h a v i o u r w o u l d a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n d u c t o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y r e m a i n s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e . The p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s d e c l a r a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s a r e more s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r d e t a i l o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p r a c t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s . Y e t , t h e y t o were s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o v e r s i e s w h i c h , a t t i m e s , t h r e a t e n e d t o b r i n g t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m t o a h a l t . - 41 -A F e d e r a l Sys tem o f Government F e d e r a l i s m i n N i g e r i a d i d n o t emerge as an i s s u e i n i t s own r i g h t d u r i n g t h e c o u n t r y ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e s . As G e n e r a l Muhammed made c l e a r a t t h e o p e n i n g s e s s i o n o f t h e CDC, t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n were a l r e a d y c o m m i t t e d t o b u i l d i n g a f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t . However , i t was t o be a f e d e r a l s y s t e m t h a t w o u l d d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r om t h e f r a g i l e a r r a n g e m e n t o f r e g i o n s and weak c e n t r a l government t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n R e p u b l i c . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s were n o t v i e w e d as t h e d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s o f s o v e r e i g n r e g i o n a l o r s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . R a t h e r , t h e y s e r v e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e " p e o p l e " . They were e x p e c t e d t o a c t on b e h a l f o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e gove rnmen ts a l i k e . W h i l e the i n t e r e s t s o f o r g a n i z e d s t a t e b u r e a u -c r a c i e s were e x p r e s s e d , agreement on t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d n o t depend on c o n s t r u c t i n g a c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n among spokesmen f o r i n d e p e n -den t g o v e r n m e n t s . K e i t h P a n t e r - B r i c k e x p l a i n s : "The S t a t e s were n o t coming t o g e t h e r t o fo rm a F e d e r a t i o n : t h e F e d e r a t i o n was r e c o n s t i t u t i n g i t s e l f i n i t s 70 own s o v e r e i g n . . . f a s h i o n " . I n so d o i n g , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s t h a t f i n a l l y emerged were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e deg ree o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e e r a o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . J u r i s d i c t i o n s were a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government on t h e r a t i o n a l i z e d b a s i s o f what f u n c t i o n s e a c h c o u l d , o r s h o u l d , be e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y o u t . N e i t h e r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t a t e s n o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e powers p r o v e d t o be i s s u e s f r e e o f d i s p u t e . B u t t h e need f o r a s t r o n g c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y was g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . D e f i n i n g t h e powers and t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment was , a f t e r a l l , t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e x e r c i s e . C h a p t e r I o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e s N i g e r i a as an " i n d i v i s i b l e and i n d i s s o l u b l e " F e d e r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f 19 s t a t e s and - 42 -71 a f e d e r a l c a p i t a l t e r r i t o r y . ( F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s N i g e r i a ' s f e d e r a l and s t a t e b o u n d a r i e s as e s t a b l i s h e d by the c o u n t r y ' s 1979 c o n s t i t u t i o n . ) The d e c i s i o n s o f t h e Gowon (and more r e c e n t l y o f t h e Muhammed-Obasanjo) a d m i n -i s t r a t i o n s , c r e a t i n g t w e l v e and t h e n 19 s t a t e s , were t h e r e b y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e n a t i o n ' s b a s i c l a w . W i s h i n g t o underm ine t h e i n f l u e n c e w i e l d e d by l a r g e r e g i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , G e n e r a l Gowon had f i r s t s u b - d i v i d e d N i g e r i a ' s f o u r r e g i o n s i n t o t w e l v e s e p a r a t e s t a t e s i n 1 9 6 7 . Because the;new state adminis-t ra t ions Were t o e x e r c i s e ! power o v e r s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n s — and o v e r a more l i m i t e d f u n d o f r e v e n u e s and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s as w e l l — t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e wou ld be r e d u c e d . They wou ld no l o n g e r be a b l e t o e n t e r t a i n t h e p r o s p e c t o f s u c c e s s f u l l y s e c e d i n g f rom the N i g e r i a n F e d e r a t i o n , a t l e a s t on 72 an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . The c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e s w o u l d f u r t h e r r e d u c e t h e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s v i s - a - v i s N i g e r i a ' s n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . S t a t e gove rnmen ts c o u l d n o t e x p e c t t o demand c o n c e s s i o n s f rom f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h o u t j o i n i n g i n c o a l i t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s , a move w h i c h wou ld f i r s t r e q u i r e a b r o a d c o n s e n s u s o f i n t e r e s t s . M o r e o v e r , t h e c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e s w o u l d i n c r e a s e t he o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o a t t a i n p o s i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l power , and t o e x e r c i s e t h e c o n t r o l o v e r r e v e n u e s and economic r e s o u r c e s w h i c h t h a t power e n t a i l s . I t w o u l d t h u s h e l p t o a s s u a g e m i n o r i t y f e a r s o f e x c l u s i o n f rom the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , i n s p i t e o f r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e demands f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s a r i s e f r o m t h e " s t r e n g t h o f e t h n i c l o y a l t y , m u t u a l s u s p i c i o n , and even h a t r e d among t h e 73 d i v e r s e p e o p l e s t h a t make up N i g e r i a " , t he F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government m a i n t a i n e d t h a t one r e a s o n f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o u t w e i g h s a l l t h e o t h e r s . S i m p l y p u t , " t h e r e e x i s t s a v e r y s t r o n g movement f o r 74 i t and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y c a n n o t be g u a r a n t e e d w i t h o u t i t " . I t was t h i s l a t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t p romp ted G e n e r a l Muhammed i n 1975 t o e s t a b l i s h an a d v i s o r y commi t tee w i t h powers t o recommend t h e - 43 -(Federal Department of Information, Lugos) - 44 -c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e s . The p r o p o s a l was s u p p o r t e d a t t h e t i m e by b u r e a u c r a t s and f o r m e r p o l i t i c i a n s — Nnamdi A z i k i w e , Obafemi Awo lowo, S i r L o u i s Mbane fo , C h i e f J . U . Nwodo, and C h i e f A j a Nwachuku, a l l w e l l - k n o w n p o l i t i c a l p e r s o n -a l i t i e s and f o r m e r r e g i o n a l o r f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s ---:• a n x i o u s t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f government p o s i t i o n s and t h e i r c h a n c e s o f a t t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , by : communal, d e a d e r s 1 f r om m i n o r i t y g r o u p s w h i c h f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s e x c l u d e d f rom p o l i c y - m a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n e x i s t i n g s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , and by young c i v i l s e r v a n t s and s t u d e n t s i n s e a r a h o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c employment . I n 1976 G e n e r a l Obasan jo announced h i s d e c i s i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e 75 number o f s t a t e s t o 1 9 . A t t h e same t i m e , he r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f s t a t e c r e a t i o n c o u l d go on i n d e f i n i t e l y . I f t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l m i l i t a r y government was t o p r o v i d e a s e p a r a t e s t a t e f o r e a c h d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g roup demanding i t s own g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n t he number o f s t a t e s w o u l d be so g r e a t , and t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f many so r e s t r i c t e d , as t o make s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e . F o r t h a t r e a s o n t he F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government i n s t r u c t e d N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r s t h a t t h e f u r t h e r c r e a t i o n o f s t a t e s s h o u l d be made as d i f f i c u l t as p o s s i b l e . The i s s u e o f s t a t e c r e a t i o n p r o v e d t o be h i g h l y c o n t e n t i o u s f o r members o f t h e CDC and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . S e v e r a l f o r m e r p o l i t i c i a n s and communal l e a d e r s c o n t i n u e d t o a rgue t h a t t he p r e s e n t number o f s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d o n l y be r e g a r d e d as t e m p o r a r y . I n t h e i r v i e w , p e t i t i o n s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e s wou ld c o n t i n u e a f t e r t h e r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t , one CDC s u b - c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t s : I t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e , a l m o s t b o r d e r i n g on n a i v e t y , t o t h i n k t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e C a l a b a r - O g o j a a r e a w i l l s u d d e n l y t u r n swee t u n d e r a c i v i l i a n government and be q u i e t when , even u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t f i r m m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h has come o u t u n e q u i v o c a l l y a g a i n s t f u r t h e r c r e a t i o n o f i > more s t a t e s , t h e y and t h e i r c h i e f s have d e f i e d a p p a r e n t r e p r o o f and have c o n t i n u e d c a n v a s s i n g o p e n l y , l o u d l y and p e t i t i o n i n g f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e i r new s t a t e . Such - 45 -p e o p l e s and c o m m u n i t i e s w i l l c e r t a i n l y be more 9gen and a g g r e s s i v e u n d e r a c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The s u b - c o m m i t t e e c a l l e d f o r p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h w o u l d be f l e x i b l e enough t o meet t h o s e demands, w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o r e s o r t t o e x t r a - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means . O t h e r d e l e g a t e s who a s s o c i a t e d t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e l y w i t h e x i s t i n g s t a t e gove rnmen ts , and w i t h t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government , s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l f o r s t r i n g e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s . A t one t i m e d e b a t e o v e r t h e i s s u e became s o h e a t e d t h a t s e v e r a l members o f t he C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y f rom m i n o r i t y t r i b a l r e g i o n s t h r e a t e n e d 77 t o wa l k o u t o f t h e s e s s i o n s . I t was n o t u n t i l G e n e r a l O b a s a n j o i s s u e d a s t e r n w a r n i n g r e i t e r a t i n g t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l t o t h e i d e a o f an i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s t a t e s t h a t d i s c u s s i o n on t h e m a t t e r 78 was b r o u g h t t o an e n d . The c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a comp lex p r o c e d u r e f o r s t a t e c r e a t i o n . A r e q u e s t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a new s t a t e must be s u p p o r t e d by a t l e a s t a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f t he members o f t h e f e d e r a l S e n a t e and House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who r e p r e s e n t t h e a r e a i n w h i c h t h e demand o r i g i n a t e s , by t h e Houses o f A s s e m b l y o f t h e s t a t e s i n v o l v e d , and by t h e l o c a l government c o u n c i l s o f t h e a r e a a f f e c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e q u e s t must be s u b m i t t e d i n t h e f o rm o f a r e f e r e n d u m f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a c o n c e r n e d . O n l y t h e n may t h e p r o p o s a l be p r e s e n t e d t o b o t h h o u s e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . I t s f i n a l p a s s a g e i n t o l a w r e q u i r e s 79 t h e s u p p o r t o f t w o - t h i r d s o f N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y members. I n e f f e c t , s u c h a f o r m u l a makes t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . I t d e f i n e s a l i m i t beyond w h i c h t h e demands o f e f f e c t i v e gove rnmen t a r e no l o n g e r a b l e t o g i v e way t o g u a r a n t e e s o f communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n . * «• # The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e powers r a i s e d r e l a t i v e l y few i s s u e s o f c o n t e n t i o n f o r members o f t h e CDC o r C o n s t i t u e n t - 46 -A s s e m b l y . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t he d e c i s i o n s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s r e f l e c t e d t he c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n i t i a t i v e s a l r e a d y a d o p t e d by t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government and now r e c o g n i z e d as e s s e n t i a l f o r u n d e r t a k i n g programmes o f n a t i o n a l economic and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g b a s i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l s e r v i c e s , n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e and i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y . However , i t was a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d n o t r e s t r a i n f e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e s , e i t h e r i n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s f o r economic g r o w t h o r i n p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . W h i l e s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a r e t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h 80 m a t t e r s o f l o c a l i m p o r t — t h e o p e r a t i o n o f l o c a l gove rnmen t c o u n c i l s , c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s , l o c a l economic deve lopmen t p r o j e c t s , and s e c u r i n g e d u c a -t i o n a l , h e a l t h and o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r own p o p u l a t i o n s — f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s must be g r a n t e d u n l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y t o p l a n , c o o r d i n a t e , and i m p l e -ment n a t i o n - w i d e economic and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . T h u s , t h e a u t h o r s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n were c o n c e r n e d t o s p e c i f y t h e powers o f c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . F e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s must be c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e d and u n d e r s t o o d . The c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s t h r e e a r e a s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y . The f i r s t i s o u t l i n e d i n a l i s t o f f u n c t i o n s t o be p l a c e d u n d e r t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l gove rnmen t ; t h e s e c o n d , a c o n s u r r e n t l i s t , s p e c i f i e s t h o s e m a t t e r s i n w h i c h b o t h c e n t r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e empowered t o l e g i s l a t e , b u t where f e d e r a l l a w s s u p e r c e d e e n a c t m e n t s o f s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s ; a n d , t h e t h i r d t a k e s t h e fo rm o f a s e t o f r e s i d u a l powers 81 l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . The e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l government i s e x t e n s i v e . F e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s a r e a c c o r d e d t h e r i g h t t o s a f e g u a r d t h e s u p p l y o f e s s e n t i a l c o m m o d i t i e s and t o c o n t r o l t h e i r p r i c e s . They c o n t r o l b a n k i n g and f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . The c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has t h e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o bo r row money f o r f e d e r a l o r s t a t e p u r p o s e s . - 47 -M o r e o v e r , t he f e d e r a l government i s t o r e g u l a t e t r a d e and commerce be tween s t a t e s , m a i n t a i n t r u n k r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , s h i p p i n g and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e s , and s u p e r v i s e a l l cus toms and e x c i s e d u t i e s , l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n . C o n t r o l o v e r a l l m ines and o i l f i e l d s i s p l a c e d i n f e d e r a l h a n d s . So a r e m a t t e r s com ing unde r t he r u b r i c o f e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s and 82 n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e . C e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e f u r t h e r e n a b l e d t o e s t a b l i s h and r e g u l a t e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s f u n d a m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s — a c l a u s e w h i c h s e v e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e x p e r t s o p p o s e d , f e a r i n g t h a t i t wou ld j u s t i f y f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n any p o l i c y a r e a w h a t s o e v e r . The c o n s t i t u t i o n s t i p u l a t e s t h a t i n a d e c l a r e d s t a t e o f emergency ( i n c a s e s o f n a t i o n a l d i s o r d e r , o r upon t he r e q u e s t o f a s t a t e g o v e r n o r and a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f h i s House o f A s s e m b l y , and p r o c l a i m e d by a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f t he N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y ) , t he f e d e r a l gove rnmen t may assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any m a t t e r unde r s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h e x c l u s i v e power t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e c u r i t y , as w e l l as t o c o n t r o l t h e f i n a n c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , o f t he e n t i r e n a t i o n . A l i s t o f c o n c u r r e n t powers i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . B o t h f e d e r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e empowered t o make l a w s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n , n a t i o n a l monuments, a r c h i v e s , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s , e l e c t o r a l p r o c e d u r e s , e l e c t r i c a l powe r , t h e f i l m i n d u s t r y , s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , as w e l l as u n i v e r s i t y and o t h e r p o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , f e d e r a l and s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s e x e r c i s e c o n c u r r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and i n d u s t r i a l w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . B o t h l e v e l s o f government may r e g u l a t e f o r e i g n and i n d i g e n o u s b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . A n d , t h e y a r e j o i n t l y c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r f o r m u l a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , and a g r i c u l t u r a l deve lopmen t - 48 -83 p o l i c i e s . I n e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s , h o w e v e r , f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n t a k e s p r e c e -d e n c e . S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e n , may make l a w s o n l y i n s o f a r as t h e y a r e n o t s u p e r c e d e d by d e c i s i o n s o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . W h i l e t h i s scheme a l l o w s f o r c e n t r a l i z e d c o o r d i n a t i o n and p l a n n i n g , i t a l s o e n a b l e s s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s t o r e s p o n d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r i m m e d i a t e l o c a l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s . By t h e t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , N i g e r i a ' s s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e l e f t w i t h r e s i d u a l p o w e r s . Y e t , t h i s c a t e g o r y a l s o c o v e r s a w i d e r a n g e o f r e s p o n s i i l i t i e s . I n e f f e c t , s t a t e s a r e a c c o r d e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r most 84 c u l t u r a l and t r i b a l m a t t e r s . M o r e o v e r , t h e y r e t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h f a c i l -i t i e s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n commi ts e a c h s t a t e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l o c a l government c o u n c i l s . I t g u a r a n t e e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f " d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d l o c a l c o u n c i l s " f o r a r e a s d e f i n e d by " t h e common i n t e r e s t o f commun i t y , t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 85 c o n v e n i e n c e " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t p l a c e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e f i n i n g t h e number , c o m p o s i t i o n , f i n a n c e s , and f u n c t i o n s o f l o c a l c o u n c i l s w i t h s t a t e 86 a u t h o r i t i e s . S t r e s s i n g t he i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r own c o m m u n i t i e s , t he c o n s t i t u t i o n e n a b l e s l o c a l gove rnmen ts t o make recommenda t i ons t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e Econom ic P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s . L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s may c o n s t r u c t r o a d s and c e m e t e r i e s . They may r e g u l a t e l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y a r e t o a c t as t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n s o f s t a t e gove rnmen ts i n p r o v i d i n g p r i m a r y e d u c a t t i o n , d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and i n m a i n t a i n i n g h e a l t h and 87 w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . I n e f f e c t , t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f powers embod ied i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a c c o r d s s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s s u b s t a n t i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s . I t e x t e n d s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r economic p o l i c y c o o r d i n a t i o n and p l a n n i n g t o t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . B u t , - 49 -many o f t h e d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r e d t o imp lement t h o s e p o l i c i e s r e m a i n w i t h i n s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n . The a l l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e v e n u e s p r o v e d t o be a much more c o n t e n -t i o u s i s s u e d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g s o f t he c o n s t i t u t u i n a l Commi t tee and A s s e m b l y . By t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s , t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government had a t t a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r m i n i n g and p e t r o l e u m r o y a l t i e s and t he r e v e n u e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l m a r k e t i n g b o a r d s . I t had c e n t r a l i z e d t he c o l l e c t i o n o f i n c o m e s , p r o f i t s , and c a p i t a l g a i n s t a x e s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t had e s t a b l i s h e d a d i s t r i b u t a b l e p o o l a c c o u n t and an a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a t h a t , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , r e p l a c e d t h e 88 p r i n c i p l e o f r e d i s t r i b u t i n g moneys t o t h o s e s t a t e s whence t h e y o r i g i n a t e d . I n s t e a d , f i n a n c e s were a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f " n e e d , e q u i t y , and b a l a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t " — 50 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e r e v e n u e s s e t a s i d e f o r s t a t e gove rnmen ts b e i n g s h a r e d e q u a l l y among t he s t a t e s and t h e o t h e r 50 89 p e r c e n t a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n . The i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h l e v e l o f government s h o u l d be empowered t o l e v y s p e c i f i c t a x e s was n o t d i s p u t e d . What s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s d i d q u e s t i o n was t h e f o r m u l a t h a t was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f p u b l i c r e v e n u e s each s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d r e c e i v e . The C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o amend r h e s y s t e m o f r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n a t an e a r l y d a t e . The e x i s t i n g f o r m u l a was " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n d o u b t e d l y u n f a i r t o some o f t h e s t a t e s w i t h l a r g e 90 p o p u l a t i o n s " . CDC d e l e g a t e s , t h o u g h , were u n a b l e t o a g r e e on a f o r m u l a f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i n g r e v e n u e s among s t a t e s . I f a s o l u t i o n p r o v i d e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more r e v e n u e t o p o o r e r o r l e s s d e v e l o p e d s t a t e s , i t d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t i v e s t a t e p o p u l a t i o n s . The Commi t tee recommended t h a t t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government s h o u l d d e v i s e a f o r m u l a f o r r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e t o s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s and i n c l u d e i t s p r o p o s a l s i n a s c h e d u l e t o t h e - 50 -91 c o n s t i t u t i o n . A t e c h n i c a l commi t tee was t h u s convened by t h e Supreme 92 M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l i n 1 9 7 9 . I n s p i t e o f i t s e f f o r t s t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s , t h e commi t tee o f e n q u i r y f i n a l l y had t o s u g g e s t t h a t a f o r m u l a f o r r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n s h o u l d be a m a t t e r f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s new N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y t o d e c i d e . N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n does d e f i n e f e d e r a l and s t a t e j u r i s -d i c t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p u b l i c r e v e n u e s . W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l government has e x c l u s i v e r i g h t o v e r e x p o r t d u t i e s , m i n i n g and p e t r o l e u m r o y a l t i e s , stamp d u t i e s , and t a x e s on i n c o m e s , p r o f i t s and c a p i t a l g a i n s , s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a r e empowered t o l e v y any o t h e r t a x e s , f e e s , o r r e n t s 93 t h r o u g h t h e agency o f l o c a l government c o u n c i l s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d i s t r i b u t a b l e p o o l a c c o u n t i n o r d e r t o a l l o c a t e 94 r e v e n u e s c o l l e c t e d by t h e f e d e r a l government t o s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . However , w i t h t he e x c e p t i o n o f an a r t i c l e p r o v i d i n g t h a t " t a x e s and d u t i e s on c a p i t a l g a i n s , i n c o m e s , and p r o f i t s o f p e r s o n s o t h e r t h a n c o m p a n i e s and on documents 95 o r t r a n s a c t i o n s by way o f stamp d u t i e s " s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t a t e s on t h e b a s i s o f d e r i v a t i o n , no c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r m u l a f o r r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n i s s e t f o r t h . F o l l o w i n g t h e recommenda t i on o f t h e f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n o f e n q u i r y , t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p u b l i c f u n d s has been e f f e c t i v e l y l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n 96 o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f gove rnmen t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p u b l i c r e e v e n u e s r e f l e c t s t he g r o w t h o f c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e r a o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . D e c r e e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e b r o u g h t many g o v e r n m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t he j u r i s d i c t i o n o f f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y , b o t h , d u r i n g and a f t e r N i g e r i a ' s c i v i l wa r . The c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s . B u t , i t does n o t d i s p e l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n f l i c t among l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s and f e d e r a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s . Communal l e a d e r s c o n t i n u e t o demand t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s t o s a t i s f y t h e i r q u e s t f o r - 51 -p o l i t i c a l powe r , and f o r t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s w i t h t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s f r om p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e a c c o r d e d f a r - r e a c h i n g p o w e r s , and i t i s w r i t t e n t h a t f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n s h a l l t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r s t a t e l a w s . B u t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f e d e r a l - s t a t e c o n f l i c t a r e t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e d . S h o u l d t h e economic f o r t u n e s o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and t h e r e c l i e n t e l e come t o r e s t on t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n , t h e n i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s t a t e gove rnmen ts m i g h t s i m p l y d i s r e g a r d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s and a t t e m p t t o imp lemen t t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s . Where o f f i c i a l s c o n t i n u e t o use t h e i r power f o r t h e m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a l l i e s , a f e d e r a l s y s t e m may l e a v e l i t t l e room f o r n e g o t i a t i o n be tween two c o n t e n d i n g l e v e l s o f gove rnmen t . By i t s e l f , N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document c a n n o t p r e v e n t i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t — c o n f l i c t w h i c h may u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o t h e use o f f o r c e by f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n l e a v e s t h e i s s u e o f r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n o p e n . The d i v i s i o n o f p u b l i c f i n a n c e s among s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s d e t e r m i n e s t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r ibu t ion by l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . The d i s p u t e s t h a t have r e v o l v e d a b o u t t h e i s s u e o f d e v i s i n g a r e v e n u e a l l o c a t i o n f o r m u l a t h u s b r i n g i n t o c l e a r r e l i e f t h e r i v a l r i e s t h a t e x i s t among s t a t e o f f i c i a l s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a l l i e s f o r p o l i t i c a l power and a c c e s s t o t h o s e economic b e n e f i t s unde r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s t h a t e s t a b l i s h a f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f government f o r N i g e r i a embody a p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s be tween n a t i o n a l and s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . Shaped by t he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s t h a t t e n d e d t o c e n t r a l i z e a u t h o r i t y d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y r u l e , and g u i d e d by a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n t e n d e d t o s u s t a i n t he powers o f t he f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e d e c i s i o n s o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k e r s were i n t e n d e d above a l l t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f an e f f e c t i v e n a t i o n a l gove rnmen t . - 52 -An E x e c u t i v e P r e s i d e n c y P e r h a p s t h e most e x t e n s i v e range o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s l i e s i n : t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r a p r e s i d e n t i a l s ys tem o f government t o r e p l a c e t h e p a r l i a -men ta ry s y s t e m o f t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n R e p u b l i c . By t h e t e r m s o f t h e C D C 1 s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : The re s h a l l be a P r e s i d e n t and a V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f t he R e p u b l i c who s h a l l be e l e c t e d on t h e same t i c k e t . The P r e s i d e n t s h a l l be Head o f S t a t e and Head o f G o v e r n -ment o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n and C o m m g n d e r - i n - C h i e f o f t h e Armed F o r c e s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . The Commi t tee t h u s r e j e c t e d a sys tem o f government i n w h i c h t h e head o f s t a t e and head o f government a r e s e p a r a t e , and where d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g r e s t s w i t h a c a b i n e t o f e l e c t e d m i n i s t e r s headed by a p r i m e m i n i s t e r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e CDC r e p o r t , e x p e r i e n c e had shown t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n o f c e r e m o n i a l and r e a l p o l i t i c a l power i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n i n A f r i c a . (The) d i v i s i o n be tween r e a l a u t h o r i t y and f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y . . . i s m e a n i n g l e s s i n t h e l i g h t o f A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and h i s t o r y . . . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to: m a i n t a i n i n p r a c t i c e . No A f r i c a n Head o f S t a t e has been known t o be c o n t e n t w i t h t he p o s i t i o n o f a mere f i g u r e h e a d . . . . The sys tem has r e s u l t e d i n a c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s and o f i n t e r e s t s , a c o n f l i c t o f a u t h o r -i t y and an u n n e c e s s a r y c o m p l e x i t y and u n c e r t a i n t y i n g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s . The r e p o r t goes on t o s t a t e t h a t t he c o m p l e x i t y o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y gove rnmen t i s n o t c o n d u c i v e e i t h e r t o t he c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r economic deve lopmen t o r t o t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y . The paramount heed o f N i g e r i a i s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . We want t o be a b l e t o d e v e l o p ou r economy, t o m o d e r n i z e and i n t e g r a t e o u r s o c i e t y , t o s e c u r e and promote s t a b i l i t y i n t h e commun i t y , and t o s a f e g u a r d c i v i l l i b e r t y . . . . The e f f e c t o f . . . (a) system- o f government and o p p o s i t i o n . . . on n a t i o n a l integration and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y i s p o s -i t i v e l y d e t r i m e n t a l . The CDC f e l t t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t s i n h e r e n t i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y . They pose a t h r e a t t o n a t i o n a l u n i t y . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r e can be no c e n t r e o f l o y a l t y , no s e n s e - 53 -o f n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F o r members o f t he C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g C o m m i t t e e , a p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m m o d e l l e d on t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f A m e r i c a n government was b e l i e v e d t o be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l n e e d s . A s i n g l e e x e c u t i v e d e t a c h e d f r om t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , i t was a r g u e d , wou ld p r o v i d e u n i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t l e a d e r -s h i p . "The u n i t y o f a s i n g l e e x e c u t i v e c l e a r l y c o n d u c e s ( s i c . ) more t o e n e r g y and d e s p a t c h t h a n t h e d i s u n i t y o f many w i l l s " . I n o r d e r t o i n s t i t u t e e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p , t h e n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o " e s t a b l i s h a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f c h i e f e x e c u t i v e " w i t h t h e power t o impose h i s w i l l o v e r h i s c a b i n e t when d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n t h r e a t e n t o f o r e s t a l l a g r e e m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , a p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m o f gove rnmen t w o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e hands o f t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e . C a p a b l e o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f h i s i a p p o i n t e d . ^ m i n i s t e r s , a d i r e c t l y e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t w o u l d s t a n d as a f o c u s o f l o y a l t y f o r a l l c i t i z e n s . The r i g h t o f t h e p r e s i d e n t t o g o v e r n , t h e CDC a r g u e d , f l o w s d i r e c t l y f rom t h e p e o p l e . I t does n o t depend on h i s a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a m a j o r i t y i n any l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y . W h i l e t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e wou ld have t o r e l y on t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o p u t h i s p o l i c i e s i n t o e f f e c t , h i s t e n u r e o f o f f i c e and h i s c a p a c i t y t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s wou ld n o t be b a s e d on t h e : f l u i d n a t u r e o f p a r t i s a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n an e l e c t e d a s s e m b l y . " ' "^ The i s s u e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m o f gove rnmen t e x c i t e d v e r y few d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n among members o f t h e CDC o r C o n s t i t u e n t 102 A s s e m b l y . The Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l , a f t e r a l l , had r e s o l v e d t h a t an e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n c y s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d , even b e f o r e t h e CDC had c o n v e n e d . D e l e g a t e s d i d , howeve r , r e c o g n i z e t h e dange r i n v o l v e d i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g power i n t h e hands o f one i n d i v i d u a l . As t h e CDC r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s : A P r e s i d e n t w i t h s u c h w ide powers and armed w i t h t h e o r g a n i z e d f o r c e s o f t he s t a t e c o u l d e a s i l y become a d i c t a t o r , and c o u l d d i s m i s s the l e g i s l a t u r e w h i c h , as an i n s t i t u t i o n , has no o r g a n i z e d f o r c e u n d e r i t s c o n t r o l and no m a c h i n e r y f o r p r e v e n t i n g t h e u s u r p a -t i o n o f power by t h e e x e c u t i v e . The s t a g e i s t h e n s e t f o r p e r s o n a l r u l e by t he p r e s i d e n t . . . . (where) e v e r y c h a l l e n g e t o any a c t o f government m i g h t be v i e w e d as a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e S t a t e and t o t h e e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r e s i d e n t i a l government i s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t u n c h e c k e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power m i g h t become t h e e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e o f one p e r s o n . As D r . S u l e i m a n Kumo a r g u e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , " i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he p r o m o t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s t o 104 have an e x e c u t i v e p r e s i d e n t who i s l aw u n t o h i m s e l f " . P r o v i s i o n m i g h t be made f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f communal o r s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s i n t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t and N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . Y e t , a p r e s i d e n t w i t h u n l i m i t e d e x e c u t i v e power w o u l d be a b l e t o d i r e c t t h e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s o f n a t i o n a l government on h i s own a c c o u n t . A g a i n , t h e r e i n s o f n a t i o n a l government w o u l d f a l l i n t o t h e hands o f one s e t o f p a r t i s a n o r s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . What a p p e a r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y , t h e n , was a sys tem o f e x e c u t i v e , l e g i s l a t i v e , and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h e c k s on t h e power o f t h e p r e s i d e n t . The recommenda t i ons o f b o t h t h e CDC and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y p l a c e d s t r o n g emphas is on d e v e l o p i n g s u c h i n s t i t u -t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Once a g a i n , t h e a im was t o e n s u r e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f d i v e r s e s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s i n t h e m a c h i n e r y o f c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n s e t s f o r t h p r o v i s i o n s f o r a p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t , a c c o m p a n i e d by a comp lex a r r a n g e m e n t o f s a f e g u a r d s a f fec t ing the exercise ©f executive and l e g i s l a t i v e power . E x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y i s d i s t i n -g u i s h e d f rom t h e l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s v e s t e d i n t h e two chambers o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y — t h e Sena te and House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s — and t h e s t a t e s ' Houses o f A s s e m b l y . F e d e r a l e x e c u t i v e power i s v e s t e d i n t h e o f f i c e o f t he p r e s i d e n t who i s t o a c t i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f head o f s t a t e and head o f g o v e r n m e n t . L i k e w i s e , c h i e f e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l i s a c c o r d e d - 55 -t o t h e o f f i c e o f g o v e r n o r . W i t h a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and a p p o i n t e d m i n i s t e r i a l c a b i n e t ( depu ty g o v e r n o r and c o m m i s s i o n e r s i n t he s t a t e s ) , each c h i e f e x e c u t i v e i s c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i c i e s o f h i s r e s p e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s , and c o m m i s s i o n s , i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e and . . . 105 e x e c u t i v e d e c i s i o n s . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r p r e s i d e n t i a l and g u b e r n a t o r i a l o f f i c e a r e s t r i n g e n t . The p r e s i d e n t must be N i g e r i a n by b i r t h and a t l e a s t 35 y e a r s o f a g e . ^ 6 He and h i s v i c e - p r e s i d e n t i a l r u n n i n g - m a t e must be p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d , commanding t h e h i g h e s t number o f v o t e s c a s t i n a n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n and n o t l e s s t h a n o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n a t l e a s t t w o -t h i r d s o f t h e s t a t e s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . I f no c a n d i d a t e i s e l e c t e d on t h i s b a s i s , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r e s a r u n - o f f e l e c t i o n be tween t h e two c a n d i d a t e s 107 w i t h t h e h i g h e s t number o f v o t e s c a s t i n t h e i r f a v o u r . The f o r m u l a d e t e r m i n e d by t h e CDC and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e must a g a i n r e c e i v e a minimum o f 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n a t l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e s t a t e s . I n t he c a s e t h a t a d e a d l o c k r e s u l t s once more f rom t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y and a l l s t a t e A s s e m b l i e s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e m s e l v e s as an e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e , t h e i r members d e t e r m i n i n g by a 108 s i m p l e m a j o r i t y v o t e w h i c h o f t he two c a n d i d a t e s i s t o be p r e s i d e n t . A s t a t e g o v e r n o r i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same age and c i t i z e n s h i p q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t he F e d e r a t i o n . He t o o must be e l e c t e d by p o p u l a r v o t e . A s u c c e s s f u l c a n d i d a t e i s r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t number o f v o t e s c a s t , i n a d d i t i o n t o a t l e a s t o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e l o c a l government a r e a s i n h i s r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e . I f n e c e s s a r y , a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n i s t o be h e l d i n t he s t a t e House o f A s s e m b l y . The c a n d i d a t e who t h e n a c h i e v e s a s i m p l e m a j o r i t y i n t h a t body i s t o be d u l y : e l e c t e d 109 g o v e r n o r . I n t h i s manner , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a t t e m p t s t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e - 56 -o f f i c e s o f n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t and s t a t e g o v e r n o r a r e o c c u p i e d by i n d i v i d u a l s whose e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t i s n o t c o n c e n t r a t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s o f t he c o u n t r y . N i g e r i a ' s e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e s a r e t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l p a r t s o f t he n a t i o n . The p e r i o d o f t e n u r e f o r each e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d by t he c o n s t i t u t i o n . The p r e s i d e n t and s t a t e g o v e r n o r s a r e t o be e l e c t e d e v e r y f o u r y e a r s . ^ ® They may, howeve r , be removed f rom o f f i c e b e f o r e t h e i r t e rm e x p i r e s f o r r e a s o n s o f " g r o s s m i s c o n d u c t i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f dut ies 1 ' . " ' "" ' " ' A l l e g a t i o n s o f " g r o s s m i s c o n d u c t " must be p r o v e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a commi t t ee o f s e v e n p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d by t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S e n a t e (by t h e S p e a k e r o f t h e House o f A s s e m b l y i n t he c a s e o f a s t a t e g o v e r n o r ) . Impeachment o f a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e t h e n r e q u i r e s t he a d o p t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s recommenda-t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t by t w o - t h i r d s o f t he members o f e a c h house o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y ( o r , f o r g o v e r n o r s , by t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e members o f t h e House o f 112 A s s e m b l y c o n c e r n e d ) . Impeachment p r o c e e d i n g s a r e n o t made so s i m p l e as t o become a r o u t i n e t h r e a t t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o remove t he p r e s i d e n t , o r a s t a t e g o v e r n o r , does e x i s t and can be e x e r c i s e d i n s i t u a t i o n s where an abuse o f e x e c u t i v e power i s j u d g e d t o have t a k e n p l a c e . P r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e t h e need t o r e p r e s e n t a l l r e g i o n s w i t h i n t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g m a c h i n e r y o f c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . The c o n s t i t u t i o n s t i p u l a t e s t h a t f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d by t he p r e s i d e n t w i t h m a j o r i t y S e n a t e a p p r o v a l . I t goes on t o d e c l a r e t h a t a t l e a s t one m i n i s t e r s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d f r om 113 e v e r y s t a t e , "who i s an i n d i g e n e o f t h a t s t a t e " . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , c a n n o t become the e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e o f one s e t o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . A l l p a r t s o f t he c o u n t r y must be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t . - 57 -A f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t on t he powers o f t h e p r e s i d e n t i s s e t f o r t h i n t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c e r t a i n e x e c u t i v e b o d i e s whose f u n c t i o n s a r e n o m i n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f p r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t r o l . A C o u n c i l o f S t a t e c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , f o r m e r heads o f gove rnmen t and c h i e f ; j u s t i c e s , t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S e n a t e and s p e a k e r o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s , t h e f e d e r a l a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l , t h e g o v e r n o r o f e a c h s t a t e , and one p e r s o n f rom e v e r y s t a t e a p p o i n t e d by a C o u n c i l o f C h i e f s , i s empowered t o a d v i s e t h e p r e s i d e n t i n m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e n a t i o n a l c e n s u s , h o n o u r s and a w a r d s , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f members o f o t h e r f e d e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s , and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p u b l i c o r d e r . A p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h e n a t i o n a l p u b l i c s e r v i c e and t o l e a d i n g j u d i c i a l p o s i t i o n s a r e t o be made by a F e d e r a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e 114 Commiss ion and a F e d e r a l J u d i c i a l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . A F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l Commiss i on i s c h a r g e d w i t h r e g u l a t i n g t h e c o n d u c t o f n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n s . A N a t i o n a l P o p u l a t i o n Commiss ion i s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f b i r t h s and d e a t h s i n t h e R e p u b l i c . M o r e o v e r , p r o v i s i o n s f o r a N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l Economic C o u n c i l , N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , and a' P o l i c e S e r v i c e Commiss i on a r e s e t f o r t h , e n a b l i n g t h e p r e s i d e n t t o o b t a i n t h e a d v i c e o f h i s c h i e f m i n i s t e r s , and o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s economic and m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , i n i s s u e s s p e c i f i c a l l y a f f e c t i n g i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s e c u r i t y , 115 economic d e v e l o p m e n t , and c o n t r o l o v e r N i g e r i a ' s p o l i c e f o r c e s . S i m i l a r e x e c u t i v e b o d i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l . The c o n s t i t u t i o n c r e a t e s C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n s , S t a t e E l e c t o r a l C o m m i s s i o n s , Economic Deve lopmen t C o m m i s s i o n s , and S t a t e J u d i c i a l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n s t o assume the same f u n c t i o n s as t h e i r f e d e r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a C o u n c i l o f C h i e f s i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n e v e r y s t a t e . A p p o i n t e d by e a c h House o f A s s e m b l y , t h e c o u n c i l s a r e empowered t o a d v i s e s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s i n m a t t e r s o f l o c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n , i n t e r c o m m u n a l r e l a t i o n s , and c h i e f t a n c y - 58 -116 a f f a i r s . F e d e r a l and s t a t e e x e c u t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s a r e t o be i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c i e s , f r e e o f p r e s i d e n t i a l o r g u b e r n a t o r i a l i n f l u e n c e . T h e i r p u r p o s e i s t o remove c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s s u e s f r o m t h e e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r e s i d e n t o r s t a t e g o v e r n o r s . They a r e t o a c t as a r e s t r a i n t on t h e e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n a r y e x e c u t i v e power i n " m a t t e r s o f supreme i m p o r t a n c e o r s e n s i t i v i t y " . A R e p r e s e n t a t i v e L e g i s l a t u r e The c o m p o s i t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e l e g i s l a -t u r e s , as s t i p u l a t e d by N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n , a r e t o e n s u r e a b r o a d r a n g e o f communal and r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and e n a c t -ment o f p u b l i c s t a t u t e s . A t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , a b i c a m e r a l N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y i s composed o f a S e n a t e and a House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . F i v e members f r om e a c h o f N i g e r i a ' s 19 s t a t e s , as w e l l as one r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e F e d e r a l C a p i t a l T e r r i t o r y , s i t i n t h e f e d e r a l S e n a t e . Membersh ip i n t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s t o t a l s 450 and i s b a s e d on p o p u l a r e l e c t i o n f r om s i n g l e - m e m b e r 118 c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . B i l l s a r e e n a c t e d i n t o l aw when t h e y a r e p a s s e d by b o t h h o u s e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y and g i v e n a s s e n t by t h e p r e s i d e n t . A l t h o u g h any b i l l may o r i g i n a t e i n e i t h e r t he Sena te o r t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a s t a t u t e c a n n o t r e c e i v e p r e s i d e n t i a l a s s e n t u n l e s s an c o n s e n s u s i s r e a c h e d be tween t h e two c h a m b e r s . I f agreement c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d , t h e n t h e b i l l i n 119 q u e s t i o n i s d e f e a t e d . :However, i n t h e c a s e o f l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g p u b l i c f i n a n c e , t h e b i l l may be r e f e r r e d t o a j o i n t f i n a n c e c o m m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t i n g 120 b o t h h o u s e s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f f u r t h e r deba te and amendment. The p r e s i d e n t must s i g n i f y h i s c o n s e n t t o l e g i s l a t i o n n o t l a t e r t h a n 30 days a f t e r i t has been s u b m i t t e d t o h im by t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . I f p r e s i d e n t i a l a s s e n t i s w i t h h e l d , t h e b i l l may be e n a c t e d i n t o l aw by a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y i n b o t h t h e S e n a t e and t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( o r , f o r money b i l l s , by a t w o -- 5 9 -121 t h i r d s m a j o r i t y o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y i n j o i n t s e s s i o n ) . T h e l e g i s l a t u r e , t h e n , i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y e m p o w e r e d t o o v e r r i d e t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l v e t o . T h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y , ( t h o u g h , m u s t command t h e s u p p o r t o f a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y o f n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . L e g i s l a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l a r e s i m i l a r i n f o r m . E a c h s t a t e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a u n i c a m e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e — a H o u s e o f A s s e m b l y — c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e t i m e s t h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s e l e c t e d f r o m t h a t s t a t e t o t h e H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A g a i n , e l e c t i o n i s o n t h e b a s i s o f a d u l t s u f f r a g e i n s i n g l e - m e m b e r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . B i l l s b e c o m e l a w u p o n t h e i r p a s s a g e i n t h e H o u s e o f A s s e m b l y a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f a s s e n t b y t h e s t a t e g o v e r n o r . A s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a g o v e r n o r w i t h h o l d s h i s a s s e n t . A s t a t u t e may b e e n a c t e d i n t o l a w , u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a s l o n g a s i t r e c e i v e s t h e s u p p o r t o f a t w o - t h i r d s 122 m a j o r i t y i n t h e H o u s e o f A s s e m b l y . T h e C o n d u c t o f P u b l i c O f f i c i a l s N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a n u m b e r o f a d d i t i o n a l s a f e -g u a r d s f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e a b u s e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y a n d e n s u r i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c a n d r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e p r e s i d e n t , s t a t e g o v e r n o r s , a n d e x e c u t i v e c o m m i s s i o n e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t i n g b o t h f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e o f f i c i a l s a r e c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d e d o f t h e " n e e d t o p r o m o t e n a t i o n a l u n i t y " a n d e x o r t e d t o a p p o i n t o f f i c i a l s " w i t h r e g a r d f o r t h e f e d e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f 1 2 3 N i g e r i a " . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a l l p o l i t i c a l o f f i c i a l s i s t o b e r e g u l a t e d b y a c o d e o f c o n d u c t e n f o r c e d b y a s p e c i a l P u b l i c C o m p l a i n t s T r i b u n a l . T h e c o d e d e c l a r e s a n y a t t e m p t t o u s e p u b l i c o f f i c e f o r r e a s o n s o f p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t i l l e g a l : - 60 -A public o f f i c e r s h a l l not put himself i n a pos i t i o n where h i s personal i n t e r e s t j g r j f l i c t s with h i s duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . O f f i c i a l s are not allowed to operate private businesses while they are p u b l i c l y employed. They may not associate with any i l l e g a l organizations. Personal g i f t s may be accepted only from r e l a t i v e s . Loans may not be received from sources other than government agencies or l e g a l l y recognized f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A written declaration of a l l properties, assets, and l i a b i l -i t i e s must be f i l e d when an i n d i v i d u a l assumes public o f f i c e , as well as at 125 the end of every four year period thereafter. A code of conduct for public employees i s accompanied by a code of e l e c t o r a l behaviour. Although the Supreme M i l i t a r y Council had suggested the a b o l i t i o n of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the Constitution Drafting Committee concluded that partisan a c t i v i t y was indeed a cen t r a l feature of Nigerian p o l i t i c s . Parties are, however, to be c l o s e l y regulated. As the c o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i e s : No association other than a p o l i t i c a l party s h a l l canvas f o r votes f o r any candidate at any e l e c t i o n or contribute to th^gelection expenses of any candidate at an e l e c t i o n . A p o l i t i c a l party must be registered with the Federal E l e c t o r a l Commission and operate from headquarters located i n the federal c a p i t a l . Moreover, a party must be national i n scale. Not only i s the composition of i t s executive committee to r e f l e c t the "federal character of Nigeria", but party membership must be open to every c i t i z e n of the country. A party's name, emblem, and motto are required to be free of any s p e c i f i c ethnic, r e l i g i o u s , or 'regional connotation. F i n a l l y , the code p r o h i b i t s the use or threat of 127 violence i n any e l e c t o r a l campaign. Like the code of conduct for public o f f i c i a l s , Nigeria's new e l e c t o r a l code was devised to prevent the abuse of power that was so evident i n the f i r s t c i v i l i a n Republic. - 61 -T r a d i t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s : The S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l The most c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e s c l e a r l y r e v e a l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n an a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e an e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m - o f :government w h i c h , a t t he same t i m e , e n s u r e s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a -w i d e r a n g e o f s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The d i s p u t e c e n t r e d on t h e r o l e o f I s l a m i c l aw i n t h e f e d e r a l j u d i c i a r y . A n d , i t emerged i n t h e c o u r s e o f d i s c u s s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l cus toms and p r a c t i c e s . The r e p o r t o f t he C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t some d e l e g a t e s were r e t i c e n t abou t i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t I s l a m i c l a w . The re was some argument t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e r e s e r v a t i o n a b o u t I s l a m i c and c u s t o m a r y l aw may t u r n ou t t o i n v o l v e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r r u l e s o f c o n d u c t w h i c h may be w h o l l y j n g e f e n s i b l e and w h i c h do n o t d e s e r v e t o be p r o t e c t e d . Moslem d e l e g a t e s f o u n d s u c h a s t a t e m e n t h i g h l y o f f e n s i v e . As K e i t h P a n t e r - B r i c k o b s e r v e s , t h e q u a r r e l b r o u g h t o u t " a l l t h e p r e j u d i c e s t h a t 129 have c a u s e d s o - much d i s u n i t y i n t he p a s t " . The d e b a t e e x t e n d e d beyond m a t t e r s o f p r i n c i p l e when d e l e g a t e s o f t h e CDC, and l a t e r o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e a r t i c l e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s j u d i c i a r y . S i n c e 1960 , Moslems i n t h e N o r t h had been s u b j e c t t o s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s o f c r i m i n a l and c i v i l l a w . W h i l e t h e r e g i o n ' s c r i m i n a l code was u n i f i e d unde r t h e norms o f E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e , a s y s t e m o f common l aw was accompan ied by an I s l a m i c c i v i l code ( t he S h a r i a ) a d m i n i s t e r e d by j u d g e s l e a r n e d i n t h e I s l a m i c t e x t s . The N o r t h ' s " n a t i v e c o u r t s " d e a l t w i t h a l l f a m i l y m a t t e r s and w i t h many o t h e r c a s e s o f c i v i l l a w p l a c e d b e f o r e them. A S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l a l s o ;had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e r e g i o n t o h e a r a p p e a l s f r om t h e " n a t i v e c o u r t s " . F u r t h e r a p p e a l t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f - 62 -N i g e r i a c o u l d be made o n l y on q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g human r i g h t s o r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f t he c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s p a t t e r n o f d i v i d e d l e g a l norms was m a i n t a i n e d a f t e r t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t he N o r t h e r n R e g i o n i n 1 9 6 7 . E a c h new :n i 130 s t a t e was g r a n t e d i t s own s y s t e m o f S h a r i a c o u r t s . The a u t h o r s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n , m e e t i n g i n t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 s , were c o n c e r n e d t o p r o v i d e a u n i f i e d j u d i c i a l s y s t e m f o r t h e c o u n t r y . D e l e g a t e s a g r e e d t o e s t a b l i s h a j u d i c i a l s t r u c t u r e w h e r e i n a p p e a l s o f c r i m i n a l and c i v i l c a s e s w o u l d be made f r om t h e H i g h C o u r t s o f e a c h s t a t e t o a F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l and u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f 131 N i g e r i a . However , Moslem d e l e g a t e s a l s o demanded t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l , composed o f men " l e a r n e d i n I s l a m i c l a w " — t h e M u f t i — t o h e a r a p p e a l s f rom t h e S h a r i a a p p e l l a t e c o u r t s o f e a c h s t a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e Supreme C o u r t , whose m a g i s t r a t e s a r e v e r s e d p r i m a r i l y i n E n g l i s h -common law and p r o c e d u r e , wou ld t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e f o r m e r w o u l d n o t s e r v e as -a c o u r t t o w h i c h f u r t h e r a p p e a l c o u l d be made r e g a r d i n g m a t t e r s o f I s l a m i c l a w . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l i s an i s s u e t h a t e x c i t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y among N i g e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k e r s . S h o u l d N i g e r i a have one s y s t e m o f c o u r t s ? O r , s h o u l d i t have a d u a l s y s t e m r e c o g n i z i n g b o t h E n g l i s h and I s l a m i c l e g a l c o d e s ? A m a j o r i t y o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee recommended t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f b o t h a F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l and a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f 132 A p p e a l . I t p r e s c r i b e d a j u d i c i a l s ys tem f o u n d e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f common and I s l a m i c l a w . The d e c i s i o n was h o t l y d i s p u t e d by n o n - M o s l e m d e l e g a t e s i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . A movement t o e x c l u d e I s l a m i c c o u r t s f r om t h e f e d e r a l j u d i c i a r y was o r g a n i z e d and l e d by d e l e g a t e s f rom s o u t h e r n s t a t e s where - 63 f o l l o w e r s o f I s l a m c o m p r i s e o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n — members l i k e P r o f e s s o r J u s t i n Tseayo o f A b u , o r P a u l Unongo r e p r e s e n t i n g Kwande i n Benue s t a t e . They a r g u e d t h a t p r o v i s i o n f o r two c o u r t s o f a p p e a l w o u l d u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t e t h e f e d e r a l j u d i c i a r y . The expense i n v o l v e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l w o u l d b e n e f i t o n l y one s e c t i o n o f t h e N i g e r i a n p o p u l a t i o n — t h e I s l a m i c i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e s . Opponen ts o f t h e i d e a b e l i e v e d t h a t t he c r e a t i o n o f a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l wou ld t e n d t o d i v i d e N i g e r i a n c i t i z e n s i n t o Mos lems and n o n - M o s l e m s . 133 " T h a t c a n n o t be a good i d e a f o r t h i s c o u n t r y " . I n t h e i r o p i n i o n , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s e p a r a t e s y s t e m o f I s l a m i c l aw i n t h e j u d i c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f c e n t r a l government w o u l d i n h i b i t t he deve lopmen t o f a u n i f i e d s e t o f l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l N i g e r i a n s . Moslem rtiembers o f the Constituent Assembly attacked, t h a t p o s i t i o n a s p r e j u ^ . d i c e d and m y o p i c . The sys tem>o f S h a r i a c o u r t s was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o u s h e r i t a g e . C r e a t i o n o f a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l , i t was h e l d , w o u l d n o t b e n e f i t Moslems a t t h e expense o f o t h e r r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s . I t wou ld m e r e l y s a t i s f y t h e d e s i r e o f I s l a m i c i n h a b i t a n t s f o r a c e n t r a l a p p e l l a t e c o u r t w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r I s l a m i c c i v i l l a w and t h e S h a r i a c o u r t s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e i n t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e s . They a r g u e d t h a t a t r u l y n a t i o n a l l e g a l s y s t e m c o u l d n o t e x c l u d e I s l a m i c l a w f r om i t s c e n t r a l c o u r t s t r u c t u r e . A n t a g o n i s m among t h e members o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y r e a c h e d a c l i m a x i n A p r i l 1 9 7 8 . A m a j o r i t y w i t h i n t h e A s s e m b l y v o t e d t o d e l e t e t h e a r t i c l e s o f t h e d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l t o be composed o f a Grand M u f t i and s e v e r a l l e s s e r K a d i s . The d e c i s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y s p a r k e d a p r o t e s t among Moslem d e l e g a t e s . E i g h t y - s e v e n A s s e m b l y members f o r m a l l y w i t h d r e w f rom t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . P o i n t i n g t o - 64 -t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f s o u t h e r n members i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , t h e y 134 condemned t h e " c a v a l i e r manner " i n w h i c h t h e v o t e was t a k e n . T h e i r a c t i o n was a c c o m p a n i e d by d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e s , 135 i n s u p p o r t o f a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l . D e m o n s t r a t o r s i n Kaduna c a r r i e d b a n n e r s r e a d i n g "Mo S h a r i a , No P e a c e " and "No S h a r i a , No C o n s t i t u t i o n " . ' ' " ' ^ I n Z a r i a , more t h a n 500 p r o t e s t o r s marched c h a n t i n g 137 " S h a r i a i s t h e o n l y a n s w e r " . A g i t a t i o n became so w i d e s p r e a d t h a t G e n e r a l O b a s a n j o i s s u e d a s t e r n w a r n i n g t h a t t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y Government w o u l d a c t by w h a t e v e r means i t b e l i e v e d n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f t r i b a l and r e g i o n a l u n r e s t . He t o l d t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y : The c o n f i d e n c e and t r u s t o f o u r p e o p l e i n y o u must n o t be s h a k e n o r b e t r a y e d . . . . By y o u r a c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and u t t e r a n c e s , some o f you a r e mak ing t h i s happen b e c a u s e y o u e i t h e r f a i l e d t o s u f f i c i e n t l y a p p r e c i a t e t he c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r o m o t i n g d i v i s i o n s i n t h i s c o u n t r y o r y o u l a c k t h e w i l l , t h e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e w h e r e -w i t h a l l o f a good s t a t e s m a n r a t h e r t h a n a p o l i t i c i a n . P e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d n o t o v e r r i d e t h e need t o f a s h i o n a c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t w i l l be f l e x i b l e and w o r k a b l e a s ^ ^ e l l as g u a r a n t e e t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f o u r g r e a t n a t i o n . On h i s s u g g e s t i o n , t h e A s s e m b l y r e v i e w e d f o r a s e c o n d t i m e t h e q u e s t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l . N o r t h e r n d e l e g a t e s resumed t h e i r s e a t s a f t e r a two-week absence f rom t h e A s s e m b l y . A c o m p r o -m i s e had been p r o p o s e d w h i c h b o t h s i d e s o f t h e d i s p u t e , t h o u g h h e s i t a n t , were w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t . The compromise i s embod ied i n t h e a r t i c l e s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i n g t o j u d i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . E v e r y s t a t e i s e n a b l e d t o e s t a b l i s h i t s own s y s t e m o f S h a r i a c o u r t s o r c u s t o m a r y c o u r t s t o a d j u d i c a t e 139 c a s e s i n v o l v i n g I s l a m i c o r c u s t o m a r y l aw w i t h r e g a r d t o f a m i l y m a t t e r s . No S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l . However.,- t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t o f A p p e a l i s t o i n c l u d e t h r e e m a g i s t r a t e s l e a r n e d i n I s l a m i c - 65 -l av ; who a r e empowered t o p r e s i d e o v e r c a s e s t h a t have been a p p e a l e d f r om 140 t h e S h a r i a c o u r t s o f e a c h s t a t e . The compromise d i d n o t f u l l y s a t i s f y e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e S h a r i a d i s p u t e . Many non -Mos lems s t i l l r e g a r d any acknowledgement o f I s l a m i c l aw as an u n n e c e s s a r y c o n c e s s i o n , o f b e n e f i t o n l y t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s Moslem p o p u l a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a r e n o r t h e r n l e a d e r s who v i e w t h e d e c i s i o n n o t t o e s t a b l i s h a F e d e r a l S h a r i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l as an a t t e m p t t o e x c l u d e Moslem l e g a l cus toms f rom t h e n a t i o n ' s j u d i c i a l s y s t e m . The compromise was a c c e p t e d f o r t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t i t a l l o w e d N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e e d i n g s t o c o n t i n u e . W i t h o u t i t , t h e c o u r s e o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m w o u l d have come t o an a b r u p t e n d . The p r o s p e c t s f o r r e t u r n i n g t o p e a c e f u l c i v i l i a n r u l e w o u l d t h e n have a p p e a r e d r a t h e r s l i m . The c o n s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e te rms o f an ag reemen t r e a c h e d among members o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . The c o n f l i c t be tween p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e S h a r i a d i s p u t e r e m a i n l a r g e l y u n r e s o l v e d . M i l i t a r y Amendments The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document t h a t was f i n a l l y e n a c t e d by t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l i n 1978 v a r i e s o n l y s l i g h t l y f r om t h e d r a f t s u b -m i t t e d by d e l e g a t e s o f N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . M i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s made 17 amendments a t t h a t t i m e , many o f w h i c h were i n t e n d e d t o remove t h e 141 a m b i g u i t i e s f r o m , and t o s t r e n g t h e n , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e new b a s i c l av ; . The i n c l u s i o n o f more s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l s on t h e c o n d u c t o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i s a c a s e i n p o i n t . Where members o f t he C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y (most o f whom e n t e r t a i n e d p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e i r own) were h e s i t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a d e t a i l e d code o f c o n d u c t , N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s had no qua lms i n i n c r e a s i n g b o t h t h e number o f r e s t r i c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and t h e p e n a l t i e s t h a t wou ld be i m p o s e d s h o u l d g o v e r n m e n t a l power be a b u s e d . The amendment e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y - 66 -C o u n c i l t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s h o u l d n o t p r o v i d e any o p p o r t u n i t y w h a t s o e v e r f o r c o r r u p t p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s t o r e - e m e r g e i n a c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . Some o f t h e c h a n g e s e f f e c t e d by t h e m i l i t a r y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , removed t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e A s e e m b l i y ' s d r a f t document t h a t t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l c o n s i d e r e d i m p r a c t i c a l , o r u n d e s i r a b l e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e SMC r e j e c t e d an a r t i c l e mak ing E n g l i s h t he s o l e l a n g u a g e o f b u s i n e s s i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . E n g l i s h i s t h e l a n g u a g e o f N i g e r i a ' s b u s i n e s s , a c a d e m i c , and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I t s use i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e a n e u t r a l means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . One e t h n i c g r o u p w o u l d n o t be f a v o u r e d o v e r a n o t h e r . Y e t , w h i l e a m u l t i - e t h n i c s t a t e r e q u i r e s a commonly u n d e r s t o o d l a n g u a g e f o r i t s o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e o f E n g l i s h i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y wou ld c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e t h e c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y — a n d , i t was f e a r e d , t h e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s — o f i n d i g e n o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . I t w o u l d mean t h a t p e r s o n s who l a c k e d t r a i n i n g i n E n g l i s h wou ld f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e n t e r t h e A s s e m b l y . A n d , i n any e v e n t , i t wou ld g i v e p r e c e d e n c e t o a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f N i g e r i a ' s c o l o n i a l p a s t , a t a t i m e when c i t i z e n s were b e i n g a s k e d t o c u l t i v a t e a deepe r s e n s e o f N i g e r i a n i d e n t i t y . I n i t s f i n a l f o r m , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n r e c o g n i z e s N i g e r i a ' s t h r e e l a r g e s t l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s . The b u s i n e s s o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y i s t o be c o n d u c t e d i n E n g l i s h , and i n H a u s a , I b o , and 142 Y o r u b a when a d e q u a t e a r r a n g e m e n t s have been made t h e r e f o r . The f o r m u l a r e p r e s e n t s a compromise be tween t h e need f o r a common and n e u t r a l l a n g u a g e f o r p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f an i n d i g e n o u s p l u r a l i t y o f e t h n i c c u l t u r e s i n N i g e r i a . I t e s t a b l i s h e s a t e n u o u s b a l a n c e . Many t r i b a l l a n g u a g e s a r e s t i l l e x c l u d e d f r o m A s s e m b l y p r o c e e d i n g s . C e r t a i n g r o u p s b e n e f i t w h i l e o t h e r s do n o t . I t was f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t members o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o a g r e e on t h e u s e o f any l a n g u a g e - 67 -o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . The compromise amendment r e p r e s e n t s a d e c i s i o n w h i c h t he Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l a l o n e was i n a p o s i t i o n t o t a k e . The SMC a l s o r e j e c t e d a C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y m o t i o n t h a t w o u l d have g i v e n t h e j u d i c i a r y u l t i m a t e c o n t r o l o v e r p u b l i c c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . M i l i t a r y l e a d e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h e A s s e m b l y ' s c o n c e r n t h a t e x p e n d i t u r e d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made by t h e most i m p a r t i a l means p o s s i b l e . However , j u d i c i a l c o n t r o l i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d p l a c e an i n o r d i n a t e amount o f power i n t h e hands o f a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s , who w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e n e i t h e r t o t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y n o r t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . M i l i t a r y l e a d e r s d e c i d e d t h a t p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s were t o r e m a i n a m a t t e r f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e competence o f t h e N a t i o n a l and s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l and s t a t e e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s . A c o n t r o v e r s i a l A s s e m b l y m o t i o n d i s q u a l i f y i n g f rom e l e c t i v e o f f i c e a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f o u n d g u i l t y o f p o l i t i c a l m i s c o n d u c t s i n c e 1 O c t o b e r 1960 was d e l e t e d by t h e m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p . Such a p r o c e d u r e wou ld d o u b t l e s s be an e x t r e m e l y p a r t i s a n o p e r a t i o n . I t wou ld be a d i v i s i v e a f f a i r , w i t h e v e r y p o t e n t i a l f o r r e v i v i n g t h e o l d s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s o f t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . Even d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y , t h e m o t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d by some o b s e r v e r s n o t as a means t o combat p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n , b u t as an a t t e m p t t o o b s t r u c t t he p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s o f t h e Y o r u b a l e a d e r , Obafemi Awolowo. The i d e a f o u n d no f a v o u r among m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s i n t e n t upon r e t u r n i n g t h e c o u n t r y t o c i v i l i a n r u l e and a n x i o u s t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n s h o u l d o c c u r i n as p e a c e f u l a manner as p o s s i b l e . A f u r t h e r m i l i t a r y amendment d e l e t e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o N i g e r i a t e r r i t o r y f rom o t h e r s o v e r e i g n s t a t e s . The m o t i o n had f o u n d f a v o u r among C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y members whose t r i b a l t i e s e x t e n d e d i n t o n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s — B e n i n , N i g e r , C h a d , and Cameroon . I t w a s , h o w e v e r , an e m b a r r a s s i n g p r o p o s a l f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s v / i t h b o r d e r i n g s t a t e s . I n any e v e n t , p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n c o r -p o r a t i n g f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y i n t o t h e N i g e r i a n F e d e r a t i o n h a r d l y c o r r e s p o n d t o ' t h e more g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y , n a t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y , and A f r i c a n u n i t y w h i c h a p p e a r e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . M i l i t a r y l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e A s s e m b l y had s t e p p e d b e y o n d t h e l i m i t s o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l manda te . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f N i g e r i a ' s armed f o r c e s h e l p e d t o shape t he amendments made by t h e c o u n t r y ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s as w e l l . As one o f t h e l a s t changes made t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y ' s d r a f t document , t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d a m o t i o n w h i c h w o u l d have r e l a t e d r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he f e d e r a l armed f o r c e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e s i z e o f s t a t e p o p u l a t i o n s . The SMC a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e need f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r om a l l s t a t e s i n t h e armed f o r c e s . However , m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s d i d n o t want t o l o s e c o n t r o l o v e r r e c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . They r e c o g n i z e d t o o t h a t r e c r u i t m e n t on t h e b a s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e A s s e m b l y wou ld i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e w i t h i n t h e armed f o r c e s a m a j o r i t y f rom t h e most p o p u l o u s n o r t h e r n s t a t e s . A t b e s t , t h e m i l i t a r y i t s e l f m i g h t become an o b j e c t f o r p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e among r e g i o n a l g r o u p s . A t w o r s t , t he l e g i t i m a c y o f m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y i n t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s m i g h t s u f f e r . T h e i r amendment o f t h e A s s e m b l y ' s d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n , i n t h e e y e s o f N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , p r e s e r v e d t h e m i l i t a r y as a f o r c e above p o l i t i c s — as an e f f e c t i v e g u a r a n t o r o f p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y even a f t e r t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e . N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s e l i m i n a t e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d r a f t w h i c h t h e y deemed u n d e s i r a b l e . They added s e c t i o n s t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t were n e c e s s a r y , a l t h o u g h agreement had n o t been r e a c h e d w i t h i n t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . The m i l i t a r y amendments announced d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1978 r e p r e s e n t t h e f i n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l - 69 -i n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n (Enac tmen t ) D e c r e e . L i k e t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m p r e s e n t e d t o t he CDC, t h e y i n d i c a t e j u s t how i n f l u e n t i a l t h e m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s were i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f i n a l f o rm o f N i g e r i a ' s new b a s i c l av / , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n t h e s e s s i o n s o f e i t h e r t h e D r a f t i n g Commi t tee o r C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y . Even as an i n d i r e c t f o r c e , m i l i t a r y a d m i n -i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s shaped t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t h a t was u l t i m a t e l y b e q u e a t h e d t o a c i v i l i a n r e g i m e . The t i m e t a b l e f o r c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r e f o r m and t h e q u e s t i o n o f who wou ld p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s were b o t h m a t t e r s r e s o l v e d by m i l i t a r y d i r e c t i v e . I n d e e d , t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f m i l i t a r y government p r o v i d e d an i n d i c a t i o n o f what l a y i n s t o r e f o r N i g e r i a s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n s have b r o k e n down. The p r o s p e c t o f a r e t u r n t o m i l i t a r y r u l e c o n t i n u e s t o e x e r t a v e r y r e a l f o r c e on t h e c o n d u c t o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y u n d e r N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . * * * N i g e r i a ' s 1979 c o n s t i t u t i o n s e t s f o r t h a new body o f s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e d u r a l p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e t o g o v e r n p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r i n an e r a o f c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o overcome t h e p r o b l e m s o f p r e v i o u s r e g i m e s , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r an e f f e c t i v e method o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t w o u l d a l l o w N i g e r i a n o f f i c i a l s t o t a c k l e t h e p r o c e s s o f economic and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i s t o e n s u r e t h a t no s i n g l e s e t o f e t h n i c , r e g i o n a l , o r p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s i s a b l e t o g a i n e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . The b a s i c l aw i s t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e be tween t h e n e e d f o r a s t r o n g f e d e r a l gove rnmen t and t h e p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f d e v o l v i n g as much power as p o s s i b l e t o t h e 19 s t a t e s . I t i s an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e emergence o f a modern s o c i e t y w i t h t h e p u l l s o f t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . A n d , i t s e t s o u t t o u n i t e N i g e r i a ' s e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y . By any - 70 -s t a n d a r d s , t h e r e s u l t i s c o m p l i c a t e d , t h e p r o d u c t o f a l o n g and comp lex n e g o t i a t i n g p r o c e s s . S p e c i f y i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m p r o v e d t o be a c o n t e n t i o u s b u s i n e s s . V i e w p o i n t s f r e q u e n t l y c l a s h e d . Deba te o f t e n d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o h e a t e d a rgumen t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l d e l e g a t e s were a b l e t o a g r e e on one p o i n t : The s t a b i l i t y o f N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m d e p e n d s , i n t h e l a s t i n s t a n c e , on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e two g o a l s — o f e f f e c t i v e and p l u r a l i s t i c gove rnmen t — a r e f u l f i l l e d . What became i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y a r e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n r e c o n c i l i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m . C y n t h i a E n l o e r e f e r s t o t h e two c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g t e n d e n c i e s i n h e r s t u d y o f e t h n i c c o n f l i c t and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . F u n c t i o n a l m o d e r n i t y demands a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l -i z a t i o n and n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f p o l i c y p r i o r i t i e s t o m a x i m i z e t h e use o f d e f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s and a s s u r e t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y " n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s " . However, u n i f i c a t i o n o f a m u l t i e t h n i c s o c i e t y o f t e n i s a c h i e v e d by a c q u i e s c i n g t o e n t r e n c h e d communal d e s i r e s . P r o v i s i o n s t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e hands o f a c e n t r a l gove rnmen t , and w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o " r a t i o n a l i z e " t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , were v i e w e d w i t h some t r e p i d a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o l i m i t t h e a c c e s s t o i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r spokesmen r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e more p a r o c h i a l i n t e r e s t s o f s e c t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m w h i c h a c c o r d s t o o much a u t h o r i t y t o s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , t r e a t i n g them as t h e v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , c o m p l i c a t e s t he g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s . So does t h e p r o c e s s o f e x p a n d i n g t h e m a c h i n e r y o f c e n t r a l gove rnmen t by e s t a b l i s h i n g a m u l t i t u d e o f c h e c k s on t h e e x e r c i s e c f p o l i t i c a l powe r , o r by c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e - 71 -c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t s h a p e d N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e e d i n g s r e f l e c t t h e t e n s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a n e f f e c t i v e a n d n o n - e x c l u s i v e s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h e c o u n t r y ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s w e r e c o n c e r n e d , a b o v e a l l , w i t h f i n d i n g a b a l a n c e , a c o m p r o m i s e , b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o o b j e c t i v e s . T h e i r t a s k w a s t o c o n s t r u c t a s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e f o r a u n i f i e d a n d w o r k a b l e s y s t e m o f n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i n t e r e s t s i n h e r e n t i n a m u l t i - e t h n i c s o c i e t y . P e r i o d i c a l l y , t h e i r b e h a v i o u r t h r e a t e n e d t o d i s r u p t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . D e b a t e w a s l a r g e l y s h a p e d b y s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s a n d d i s p u t e s . T h e p r o c e e d i n g s e m p h a s i z e o n e o f t h e m o s t p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m s f o r e m e r g e n t s t a t e s l i k e N i g e r i a : How i s i t p o s s i b l e " t o r e c o n c i l e t h e d e m a n d s o f c o m m u n a l g r o u p s f o r s e c u r i t y a n d a u t o n o m y w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e n a t i o n - e s t a t e 144 f o r o r d e r a n d u n i t y " ? N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n i s a p r o d u c t o f i t s own p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s a c o m p r o m i s e — a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t w o p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s ; b e t w e e n t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l e n g i n e e r s a n d t h e p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s ; b e t w e e n t h e d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r s . I t s u l t i m a t e a c c e p t a n c e , a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t i s c a p a b l e o f d i v e r t i n g p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r f r o m t h e r a n c o r o u s c o u r s e i t h a s t a k e n i n t h e p a s t , d e p e n d l a r g e l y o n t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t c o m p r o m i s e . Chapter I I I The Return to C i v i l i a n Rule The ceremonies which marked the accession to power o f a c i v i l i a n government i n 1979 were a l s o intended to cel e b r a t e the advent o f a new era of i n t e r n a l peace and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n N i g e r i a . They represented the a s p i r a t i o n s o f the country's m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , and the hopes they placed i n the process o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform. What e f f e c t has a new c o n s t i t u t i o n a c t u a l l y had on the conduct o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n N i g e r i a ? By i t s own account, the document merely se t s f o r t h a s e t of governmental s t r u c t u r e s and p r a c t i c e s . I t p r e s c r i b e s the r u l e s and procedures by which N i g e r i a should be governed. However, t h i s i s perhaps the si m p l e s t o f the tasks i t i s expected to f u l f i l l . The capacity of N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document t o r e g u l a t e p o l i t i c a l behaviour i s another matter a l t o g e t h e r . The disputes which erupted during the months o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debate, the conduct o f p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s since steps were f i r s t taken to e l e c t a new c i v i l i a n government, the i n t e r n a l l o g i c o f the p r o v i s i o n s contained i n the ba s i c law promulgated i n 1979, a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e on p o l i t i c a l conduct i s n e i t h e r as immediate nor as d i r e c t as popular op i n i o n had presumed i t would be. A statement enunciating the p r i n c i p l e s of e f f e c t i v e , democratic, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f t o guarantee a corresponding p a t t e r n o f p o l i t i c a l behaviour. While N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n i s founded on a general w i l l to e s t a b l i s h a p o l i t i c a l system which i s both s t a b l e and e f f e c t i v e , the s t a b i l i t y of that system i s a property contingent upon the dynamic i n t e r p l a y o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . Any attempt to assess the degree to which p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n N i g e r i a i s l i k e l y to assume the shape p r e s c r i b e d f o r i t by the new c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , must i n v o l v e some co n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between the s t r u c t u r e s o f govern-ment on the one hand, and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s and the t r a d i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l - 73 -b e h a v i o u r on t h e o t h e r . From a g e n e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , what r o l e does t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n p l a y i n t h e N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e t h e r e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t must be f u l f i l l e d i n o r d e r f o r government t o o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l and p r o c e d u r a l bounds e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n ? Whether t h e s y s t e m o f gove rnmen t s e t f o r t h by t h e N i g e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n i s c a p a b l e o f manag ing p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t o r n o t i s a m a t t e r t h a t must u l t i m a t e l y be l e f t f o r t i m e t o r e s o l v e . However , t he p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n may a f f o r d some g l i m p s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s N i g e r i a i s l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e . A c o n s t i t u t i o n a l document p e r f o r m s a d u a l p u r p o s e . As James B r y c e w r i t e s , i t p r o v i d e s " a f rame o f p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y , o r g a n i z e d t h r o u g h and by t h e l a w , t h a t i s t o s a y , one i n w h i c h t he l aw has e s t a b l i s h e d permanen t f o rms w i t h r e c o g n i z e d f u n c t i o n s and d e f i n i t e r i g h t s " . ^ " A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t embod ies a s e t o f r u l e s whose p u r p o s e i s t o c o n s t r a i n t h e a c t i o n s o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who e x e r c i s e p o l i t i c a l powe r . C a r l F r i e d r i c h o b s e r v e s t h a t : (A) c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h g o v e r n -m e n t a l a c t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r a i n e d . . . and i s u n d e r s t o o d as t h e p r o c e s s t h e f u n c t i o n o f w h i c h i s n o t o n l y t o o r g a n i z e b u t t o r e s t r a i n . A c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e n , n o t o n l y s p e c i f i e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t ; i t a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . I t p r o v i d e s a p r e s c r i p t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e l a t i o n s among v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s and be tween them and t h e c i t i z e n . B . O . Nwabueze w r i t e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m i n emergent s t a t e s t h a t government i s a c r e a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c l a w . "The c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . c r e a t e s t h e o r g a n s o f g o v e r n m e n t , c l o t h e s them w i t h t h e i r 3 powers and i n s o d o i n g d e l i n e a t e s t h e s c o p e i n w h i c h t h e y a r e t o o p e r a t e " . As s u c h , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n e x i s t s as a n o r m a t i v e f ramework f o r m a l l y s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e l e g a l i t y o f c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t s h o u l d - 74 -determine the bounds of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Yet, a s t r u c t u r a l framework, a statement of p r i n c i p l e s and procedures, remains i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s e l f . I t cannot be d i s s o c i a t e d from the context of the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n which i t evolved. Likewise, the value of a c o n s t i t u t i o n resides less i n the character of i t s actual provisions than i n the extent to which p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s i n f a c t regulated by the organizations and procedures that i t establishes. The hopes vested i n Nigeria's new c o n s t i t u t i o n thus r e s t on the acceptance of i t s s t r u c t u r a l arrangements, 4 by those i n d i v i d u a l s whom they a f f e c t , as r i g h t and proper. I t s procedures 5 of government must become " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " . They must become part of Nigeria's t r a d i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l behaviour, valued i n t h e i r own r i g h t , acquiring a sense of s t a b i l i t y and recurring over time because the rules which they embody are customarily obeyed. J . Roland Pennock explains: Whether p o l i t i c a l and governmental structures are formal or informal, incorporated i n the l e g a l structure or not, i t i s of greatest importance that they should be i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . . . . I t i s when c e r t a i n forms and procedures become the accepted ways of doing things that they become e f f e c t i v e instruments of s t a b i l i t y . How f a r does p o l i t i c a l p ractice r e f l e c t the p r i n c i p l e s and procedures enunciated by Nigeria's new constitution? W i l l the adoption of the c o n s t i t u t i o n consolidate reform within Nigeria's p o l i t i c a l system? The answers to these questions depend i n the f i r s t instance upon the nature of the structures and constraints s p e c i f i e d by the basic law. What a c t i v i t i e s are circumscribed by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l provision? A complete evaluation, however., must also account f o r the authority popularly attached to the a r t i c l e s of the basic law. I t i s necessary to consider the c o n s t i t u t i o n from the standpoint of those customs and p r a c t i c e s which inform the conduct of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n Nigeria. Traditions of p o l i t i c a l behaviour were instrumental i n determining the f i n a l form of the country's basic law. But, they were themselves the - 75 -o b j e c t of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform. The "success" of t h a t p r o j e c t u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s on the c a p a c i t y of the c o n s t i t u t i o n to accommodate the i n t e r e s t s , experiences, and p r a c t i c e s of p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s . The a u t h o r i t y commanded by any document purporting to circumscribe p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s based upon the extent t o which that c o n s t i t u t i o n embodies p o l i t i c a l tradition. What must u l t i m a t e l y be asked, then, i s not how a c o n s t i t u t i o n a c t u a l l y c o n s t r a i n s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , but whether i t s p r o v i s i o n s are able to r e g u l a t e such a c t i v i t y i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Problems o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n Both the s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s of the N i g e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n and the procedures that were employed i n t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n i n f l u e n c e the extent p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s are prepared to defer to the new b a s i c law. I t must be noted at the beginning that N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n i s a product of the r a t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n s of i t s authors. The document i s the c r e a t i o n of c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l engineers whose task i t was to determine which s e t o f s t r u c t u r a l arrangements would best c o n t r i b u t e to the emergence of a s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l regime i n that country. The record of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l proceedings i n d i c a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e that was placed i n past p o l i t i c a l experience, the importance of entrenched p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s and common p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s , i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . I t a l s o shows that much of the task of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform i n v o l v e d a s e l e c t i o n of "appropriate" s t r u c t u r e s and procedures on the b a s i s o f t h e o r e t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of "good" government. A f t e r a l l , N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i -tution-makers possessed very few precedents upon which to base t h e i r p r e s c r i p -t i o n s f o r p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y . Often t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l proposals were founded on l i t t l e more than commonly held a s p i r a t i o n s . They were j u s t i f i e d l a r g e l y on the assumption that p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y would take on the r a t i o n a l inner l o g i c of t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s once put i n t o e f f e c t . - 76 -The n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s enunciated by m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , by the C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Committee, and by the Constituent Assembly, served to u n i t e N i g e r i a ' s constitution-makers i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o achieve a common purpose. The c o n s t i t u t i o n was to l a y the foundations f o r c i v i l i a n govern-ment. I t was to be a democratic government committed to p r e s e r v i n g the l e g a l r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n , to the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f d i v e r s e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s , and to the exigencies of economic and s o c i a l development. N i g e r i a ' s system of government would emulate the i d e a l s o f Western democracy. "Modern-i z a t i o n " and " l i b e r a l democracy" thus stood as the o b j e c t i v e s o f c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l design. Yet, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was ever p a i d to d e f i n i n g the v a l u a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of those p r i n c i p l e s . C o n s t i t u t i o n a l delegates never debated the t h e o r e t i c a l questions r a i s e d by t h e i r a b s t r a c t and r a t h e r incongruent g o a l s . Does a democratic regime r e s t on a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f economic a f f l u e n c e ? I s i t p o s s i b l e t o design a system of government which i s a t once l i b e r a l and democratic? What i s meant by those terms i n the f i r s t place? For c e n t u r i e s , these questions have been asked by p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s . They were of no immediate concern to the authors of N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . Democracy, l i b e r a l i s m , and economic development are strong emotive symbols that e f f e c t i v e l y j u s t i f i e d the proceedings and the r e s u l t s o f the country's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates. As such, they are values which a t t a c h themselves to the governmental s t r u c t u r e s of the new c i v i l i a n regime. The business of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform was never a p u r e l y deductive e x e r c i s e though. N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s are not the products of a wholly t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l u s based on a set of fundamental p r i n c i p l e s , although they are o f t e n explained and defended i n e x a c t l y those terms. Instead, the d e c i s i o n s taken by the country's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l authors r e f l e c t a course of d e l i b e r a t i o n and compromise over c e r t a i n f o r m a l i z e d governmental procedures, - 77 -indigenous and f o r e i g n , past and present, r e a l and imaginary. P o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s may be judged and s e l e c t e d on the grounds of p r i n c i p l e , and, to t h i s extent, the procedure i s defined as a r a t i o n a l undertaking. Commentators must be c a r e f u l though not to evaluate a c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l document from the standpoint of " o b j e c t i v e " moral p r i n c i p l e s alone, or with regard to how w e l l i t achieves i t s "democratic" or " l i b e r a l " ends. The meaning of p o l i t i c a l values — f o r the authors of N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n as w e l l as f o r anyone attempting to assess t h a t document — r e s t s upon personal experience and personal b e l i e f s . The merits o f p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements — a f e d e r a l or a u n i t a r y s t a t e ? a p r e s i d e n t i a l or parliamentary system? — are discussed i n terms of past or p r e d i c t e d behaviour. They are debated on the grounds of how c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s are expected to f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the N i g e r i a n p o l i t y . The compromises and d e c i s i o n s o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform process i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e the i n t e r e s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g p o l i t i c a l groups, i n t e r e s t s which must a l s o be defined i n terms o f past p o l i t i c a l experience. C r i t i c s , then, must not base t h e i r analyses purely at the l e v e l of the p r o v i s i o n s contained w i t h i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . A b a s i c law may p r e s c r i b e a system of government which, on the grounds of past experience, appears to everyone concerned to be the epitome o f a l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c or f e d e r a l s t a t e . That does not mean that such a c o n s t i t u t i o n w i l l a c t u a l l y guarantee a c e r t a i n type of p o l i t i c a l behaviour. The true t e s t o f any c o n s t i t u t i o n may simply be the existence o f a smoothly f u n c t i o n i n g system of government, and of the s t a b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e p o l i t i c a l behaviour that formula e n t a i l s . Such a p r e s c r i p t i o n could provide N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l engineers w i t h very l i t t l e i n the way of a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to design the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a new c i v i l i a n regime. By any standard, the task of economic and s o c i a l development appeared onerous. Moreover, the country - 78 -had never before experienced independent and democratic c i v i l i a n r u l e . Lieutenant-General Danjuma, Army Chief of S t a f f , made the p o i n t c l e a r as the M i l i t a r y Government prepared to l i f t i t s r e s t r i c t i o n s on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s before the e l e c t i o n s o f 1979: I t i s now fashionable i n N i g e r i a to t a l k about a m i l i t a r y regime as an a b e r r a t i o n , and t h a t a r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n r u l e means a r e t u r n t o democracy. This i s a f a l l a c y because we have never had a democracy i n N i g e r i a — the question of ^ r e t u r n i n g " to democracy does not, t h e r e f o r e , a r i s e . No precedent could be found t o i l l u s t r a t e the type of i n s t i t u t i o n s which might engender the development of a s t a b l e and democratic system of n a t i o n a l government i n N i g e r i a . To a large extent, the process o f c o n s t i t u t i o n -b u i l d i n g was an a c t i v i t y which had to s t a r t almost e n t i r e l y from " s c r a t c h " . N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n constitution-makers agreed to maintain a f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l system, as w e l l as the p a t t e r n of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s that had evolved throughout the era of m i l i t a r y r u l e . But, when they turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to e s t a b l i s h i n g a democratic, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and e f f e c t i v e system of government, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l engineers were not able to base t h e i r proposals on a great deal of p o l i t i c a l experience. In f a c t , p a r t i s a n r i v a l r i e s , communal c o n f l i c t , and m i l i t a r y r u l e seemed to provide more of a p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n than any e f f o r t s at r e c o n c i l a i t i o n or c i v i l i a n self-government. In a purely negative sense, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was undertaken to overcome the f a u l t s o f N i g e r i a ' s previous systems of government, not to preserve the p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s o f the country's f i r s t c i v i l i a n regime. For t h i s reason, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to e s t i m a t i n g how p o l i t i c a l leaders might a c t u a l l y behave given the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s of a new c o n s t i t u t i o n , or indeed to the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s might operate i n a wholly unexpected manner. - 79 -C e r t a i n l y , these remain matters of considerable s p e c u l a t i o n . They do, however, emphasize the f a c t t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n s t i t u t i o n a l design and p o l i t i c a l behaviour i s n e i t h e r pre-ordained nor u n i l i n e a r . P o l i t i -c a l conduct i s not reformed by a simple act of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l promulgation. Rather, i t i s a f f e c t e d by r u l e s and p r a c t i c e s that develop over time because they are customarily observed — p r a c t i c e s which may be j u s t i f i e d by t r a d i t i o n as much as by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f i a t . The problem i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the case o f N i g e r i a . At times, e s t a b l i s h e d custom may place the demands o f personal o r p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t before l o y a l t y to a s e t o f c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l r u l e s . But even i f the c o n s t r a i n t s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n are g e n e r a l l y respected, that does not s i g n i f y that p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t has come to an end. S e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s continue to be played out w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e s o f the new b a s i c law. New sets o f governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s may giv e r i s e to new r i v a l r i e s and c o n f l i c t s . The p o t e n t i a l f o r p o l i t i c a l unrest s t i l l e x i s t s . What may be questioned from the beginning, then, i s not so much the content of N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n as the f a i t h i t s authors seem to as c r i b e to a system o f government modelled, f o r in s t a n c e , on the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f American p o l i t i c s . (Of course, there i s no acknowledgement o f the f a c t t h a t the American p o l i t i c a l system once erupted i n c i v i l war i t s e l f . ) The c o n s t e l -l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y i s very d i f f e r e n t from the context of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the United S t a t e s . While the o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures o f American government are accepted and do a f f o r d the opportunity f o r s t a b l e c i v i l i a n r u l e i n the United S t a t e s , we should not, t h e r e f o r e , expect that s i m i l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s would a u t o m a t i c a l l y create a s t a t e of p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n N i g e r i a . Governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s operate d i f f e r e n t l y as s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s - 80 -vary over time and place. They need not be subjected to the same pressures or supported by the same t r a d i t i o n s . The expectation t h a t N i g e r i a might come to emulate the American p o l i t i c a l system, then, i s based on an assumption that reduces p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y to the nature of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s t h a t are intended t o govern i t . In short, p o l i t i c a l behaviour i s deemed to derive from the a r t i c l e s o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n . P o l i t i c a l harmony f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y upon s t r i c t adherence to N i g e r i a ' s new b a s i c law. I t i s not the commitment to a system of government based on the American model, or on the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i b e r t y , democracy, and economic w e l l - b e i n g , t h a t may be challenged here. Rather, i t i s the i l l - f o u n d e d n o t i o n t h a t through such a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l commitment p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y can, i n some way, be ensured. The Process of C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Reform There i s nothing i n e v i t a b l e about the r e s u l t of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n N i g e r i a . Indeed, the e n t i r e reform p r o j e c t was a f f e c t e d by the context of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which i t took p l a c e . N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l authors b e l i e v e d t h a t the procedures t h a t l e d up to the formal a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n must be widely recognized and accepted as proper and c o r r e c t . I f the meetings of the CDC and Constituent Assembly were to be perceived as i l l e g i t i m a t e , then so would the outcome of t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n was promul-gated i n 1979 i s evidence to suggest that the procedures of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform were g e n e r a l l y accepted at that time. However, the question of who was i n v o l v e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g N i g e r i a ' s new b a s i c law i s s t i l l r a i s e d by p o l i t i c a l groups i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to comply with s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of the country's c o n s t i t u t i o n . Disputes regarding the r e g i o n a l o r i g i n s and communal t i e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l delegates were most frequent during the s e l e c t i o n of r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s to the Constituent Assembly. While a method of i n d i r e c t e l e c t i o n by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s allowed the Islamic h i e r a r c h y o f the northern s t a t e s a strong voice i n the Assembly, the a l l o c a t i o n o f seats along r e g i o n a l l i n e s meant that southern r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were i n a m a j o r i t y . Both northern and southern delegates were d i s s a t i s f i e d by the scheme. The Sh a r i a controversy was, thus, as much a matter o f procedural concern as i t was a debate concern-i n g the r o l e I s l a m i c law should play i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l j u d i c i a r y . The composition o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Committee and o f the Constituent Assembly meant that t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s were biased i n other respects as w e l l . CDC membership c o n s i s t e d o f "learned men" versed i n law, economics, h i s t o r y , and the s o c i a l sciences. Among the 50 members o r i g i n a l l y appointed to the Committee, 18 were employed by u n i v e r s i t i e s , 21 were r e c r u i t e d from p r i v a t e business, and eleven had h e l d previous government r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Twelve members were q u a l i f i e d to p r a c t i s e law. I t i s no s u r p r i s e , then, that such a Committee should express a strong preference f o r the encouragement o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . (Only two of i t s members — both u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s — f i l e d d i s s e n t i n g r e p o r t s p r o c l a i m i n g the advan-tages of p u b l i c ownership and economic c o n t r o l . ) Likewise, the composition o f the CDC helps t o e x p l a i n the Committee's emphasis on law and order and i t s concern t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n should i n c l u d e a Charter o f fundamental r i g h t s and freedoms. Legal themes again predominated the memoranda re c e i v e d from the general p u b l i c . Communications regarding the proposed c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements were f i l e d p r i m a r i l y on behalf o f judges, lawyers, p r o f e s s o r s , c i v i l servants, " r e t i r e d " p o l i t i c i a n s , t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s , and r e l i g i o u s 9 or g a n i z a t i o n s . Members o f the Constituent Assembly were s i m i l a r l y r e c r u i t e d from the l e g a l , academic, and p o l i t i c a l professions,"'" 0 occupations c l o s e l y - 82 associated with l o c a l government. The formulation of a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n , the " p u b l i c " ' s comment, and the Assembly's r o l e i n l e g i t i m i z i n g the r e s o l u t i o n s o f the a l l - a p p o i n t e d CDC, were based on d e c i s i o n s taken by the members o f a r e l a t i v e l y narrow p r o f e s s i o n a l and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s . As Claude P h i l l i p s comments, they " c l e a r l y d i d not represent a l l shades o f opinion or a l l interests"."'""'" Although m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n statesmen spoke o f popular consent as the b a s i s f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform — the b a s i c law was t o be an expression o f the p u b l i c w i l l , — they e v i d e n t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the general i n t e r e s t could best be expressed by academics, l e g a l i s t s , and p r i v a t e businessmen. N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n i s not immune from the charge t h a t i t represents the i n t e r e s t s of a small segment o f the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . I f anything, the r o l e o f the army during the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l proceedings lends credence t o such a view. I t i s t r u e t h a t , apart from the general g u i d e l i n e s i n i t i a l l y s e t f o r t h by Murtala Muhammed and the changes made to the d r a f t submitted by the Constituent Assembly, the N i g e r i a n m i l i t a r y d i d not play a d i r e c t r o l e i n determining the content of the new b a s i c law. (The m i l i t a r y ' s presence on the C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Committee was l i m i t e d to a s i n g l e 12 army ch a p l a i n . ) Yet, the army exercised a powerful i n f l u e n c e on the e n t i r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l process. Generals Muhammed and Obasanjo wielded a considerable degree o f moral suasion. I t was always p o s s i b l e f o r the army to intervene, as i t had done i n the past, by once more imposing the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f m i l i t a r y r u l e . Obasanjo f e l t i t necessary to threaten such a c t i o n on s e v e r a l occasions as disputes brought c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e l i b e r a t i o n s to a s t a n d s t i l l . His warnings r e g u l a r l y succeeded i n convincing N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l delegates t h a t some l e v e l o f compromise had t o be found. Viewed from a somewhat d i f f e r e n t angle, however, the t h r e a t o f army i n t e r v e n t i o n served as an e f f e c t i v e method f o r imposing the w i l l of the Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l upon - 83 -the shape o f N i g e r i a ' s new c i v i l i a n regime. What i s now deemed to be the benevolent a c t i o n s of a m i l i t a r y government taken to " c o r r e c t " the course o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l proceedings when they were goins " a s t r a y " , might appear qui t e d i f f e r e n t l y to p a r t i s a n groups should they f i n d themselves excluded from p o l i t i c a l power by the terms o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The proceedings le a d i n g up to the promulgation o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n were g e n e r a l l y regarded as l e g i t i m a t e i n 1979. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l delegates appeared to represent the w i l l of the people. The m i l i t a r y , i t was be l i e v e d , e x e r c i s e d a wholly a l t r u i s t i c i n f l u e n c e on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n s . And the b a s i c law emerged i n the aura of the general i n t e r e s t — i t was a concrete expression of the p u b l i c v o i c e . The myth which was thus erected around the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l process provides a moral a f f i r m a t i o n o f the or g a n i z a t i o n and procedures o f government that accompanied the r e t u r n o f c i v i l i a n r u l e . I t could hardly have been otherwise. I f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l debates had appeared to be biased i n favour o f a p a r t i c u l a r group o f i n t e r e s t s , then the process o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n , and indeed the c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , would not have been accepted i n the f i r s t p l a c e . The v i r t u e s o f the new, pop u l a r l y reformed c o n s t i t u t i o n have been proclaimed by m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , p o l i t i c a l c h i e f s , and the press a l i k e . The whole idea o f n a t i o n a l s e l f -renewal which the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o j e c t was supposed to i n v o l v e , helped to mob i l i z e N i g e r i a n emotions behind the common purpose of a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n government. Adherence t o the p r o v i s i o n s of the new c o n s t i t u t i o n , and the or g a n i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n general, r e s t to a la r g e p a r t on such an emotional commitment to c i v i l i a n r u l e and a b e l i e f i n the p r o p r i e t y of Ni g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l proceedings. However, those moral supports are themselves l i a b l e to be weakened should the c o n d i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l unrest - 84 -reminiscent o f the the F i r s t Republic again emerge. A system of government tha t proves to be incapable o f implementing p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , or perhaps more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , which continues to exclude c e r t a i n s e c t i o n a l or p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s from p o s i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l power, cannot continue to j u s t i f y i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n merely on the grounds that i t had once been regarded as l e g i t i m a t e . In f a c t , d i s s a t i s f i e d groups might a c t u a l l y p r e f e r the r e t u r n of m i l i t a r y r u l e to a p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which they c o n s t a n t l y f i n d themselves disadvantaged. With few t r a d i t i o n s of c i v i l i a n government to appeal to i n the event o f widespread discontent, N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l leaders might f i n d i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l any moral r a t i o n a l e whatsoever i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r claims to n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . In such circumstances, Nigerians might f i n d some c r e d i b i l i t y i n the view that the process o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform indeed had been biased i n favour o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f i n t e r e s t s and was, i n f a c t , imposed by m i l i t a r y f i a t upon the general population. In other words, the myths surrounding the c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l debates and the prelude to c i v i l i a n government might take on an e n t i r e l y negative form. A great deal depends on the conduct o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the country. A system of government which s u c c e s s f u l l y maintains p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y over a pe r i o d o f time i s l i k e l y to possess a c e r t a i n moral a u t h o r i t y which i n i t s e l f j u s t i f i e s the nature o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n . A D e l i c a t e Balance The most immediate problem of N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s , then, i s the prospect not th a t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e s might be t o t a l l y ignored, but that d i s a b l i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s might p e r s i s t even w i t h i n the governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by the new bas i c law. What has become evident s i n c e N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r m a l l y came i n t o e f f e c t i s th a t the nature of n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s has not been r a d i c a l l y transformed by the process o f - 85 -s t r u c t u r a l reform. N i g e r i a remains an underdeveloped n a t i o n , confronted by the need to encourage economic growth and to provide b a s i c s o c i a l amenities f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n , yet w i t h a l i m i t e d amount of p u b l i c revenue at the d i s p o s a l o f the s t a t e . E t h n i c , r e g i o n a l , and p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s p e r s i s t . And the tensions among those p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the p o l i c y process s t i l l hold f o r t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r r i v a l r y and c o n f l i c t . The country's c o n s t i t u t i o n , on the other hand, e s t a b l i s h e s a governmental framework whose o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures are intended to c o n t a i n such d i s i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s . As such, the document has met w i t h some success. There have been serious d i f f i c u l t i e s as w e l l , i n the development of e f f e c t i v e decision-making i n s t i t u t i o n s and the management o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . The a r t i c l e s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n embody a compromise between the two o f t e n incongruent goals that stood at the heart o f c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . In the terms of the b a s i c law i t s e l f , they provide a balance between the norms of e f f e c t i v e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government. Their p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t r e s t s on the nature of t h a t balance. How open may a system o f government be to the involvement of diverse s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s before the c o n s t r a i n t s such a formula imposes on i t s policy-making c a p a c i t y prove i n t o l e r a b l e ? To what extent should l e g i s l a t i v e and executive i n s t i t u t i o n s be made more e f f i c i e n t while power i s concentrated i n the hands of fewer and fewer o f f i c i a l s ? These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l a y behind the e f f o r t s o f N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l engineers i n preparing the country f o r i t s r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n r u l e . They are e s s e n t i a l questions, at the centre of any d i s c u s s i o n o f what the N i g e r i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n i s a c t u a l l y capable of a c h i e v i n g . N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n has operated r a t h e r s u c c e s s f u l l y i n ushering i n a new c i v i l i a n regime. From 7 J u l y to 11 August 1979, s t a t e governors, senators, members of the n a t i o n a l House of Representatives and of s t a t e - 86 -l e g i s l a t u r e s , and f i n a l l y the president and v i c e - p r e s i d e n t were p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d at p o l l s conducted under the auspices of the Fede r a l E l e c t o r a l Commission, i n accordance w i t h a s e t o f e l e c t o r a l r e g u l a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o 13 those entrenched i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n . The country's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l pro-v i s i o n s took e f f e c t s e v e r a l weeks a f t e r the e l e c t i o n s were held . Since October 1979, N i g e r i a ' s system of government has demonstrated t h a t i t i s at l e a s t capable o f f u n c t i o n i n g . F e d e r a l - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s have proved operable. Steps have been taken i n prep a r a t i o n f o r a new n a t i o n a l population census which, with the a i d o f the United Nations, i s intended 14 t o be "completely f r e e from p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and manipulation". State a u t h o r i t i e s are r e g u l a r l y represented at meetings with f e d e r a l executive 15 o f f i c i a l s . At l e a s t one member of the f e d e r a l cabinet has been chosen from 16 every s t a t e . And the j u d i c i a r y has e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r i m p a r t i a l i t y and f o r i t s defence o f fundamental l e g a l r i g h t s and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l procedure. The value o f an independent j u d i c i a r y i s underscored i n the case o f A l h a j i Shugaba Abdurahman Darman. Abdurahman was ordered deported by the f e d e r a l government i n 1980. A le a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n i n Borno s t a t e and m a j o r i t y leader of the s t a t e Assembly, he was arr e s t e d on the charge o f being a Chadian n a t i o n a l and s e c r e t l y bundled i n t o that country by f e d e r a l agents. (The i n c i d e n t appears to have been an attempt on the p a r t o f o f f i c i a l s o f the r u l i n g N a t i o n a l P a r t y of N i g e r i a — President Shagari's p a r t y — to r i d themselves o f an i n f l u e n t i a l r i v a l . Abdurahman i s a member of the Great N i g e r i a n People's Party.) In any event, the Supreme Court h e l d upon appeal that the order i n f r i n g e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t o f a N i g e r i a n c i t i z e n to move f r e e l y throughout h i s country. The judges imposed a s t i f f f i n e on the 17 f e d e r a l government on Abdurahman's behalf. Their d e c i s i o n i n d i c a t e s , at l e a s t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the determination of the Supreme Court to hol d - 8 7 -t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n c h e c k b y i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i n a f a i r l y b r o a d a n d i n d e p e n d e n t m a n n e r . B y t h e f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y o f h i s c i v i l i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i c o u l d s p e a k o f a " g r o w i n g f e e l i n g o f h o p e f o r t h e f u t u r e o f N i g e r i a " . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o u n t r y ' s s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t h a d s u r v i v e d t h u s f a r , w i t h o u t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a n y g r e a t p o l i t i c a l d e b a c l e , w a s r e a s o n e n o u g h f o r c e l e b r a t i o n . T h r e a t e n i n g t h e B a l a n c e : T h e R e - E m e r g e n c e o f P a r t y P o l i t i c s N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n b r i n g s w i t h i t a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f h o p e a b o u t t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e . Y e t , r i a v l r y a n d c o n f l i c t a m o n g p a r t i s a n g r o u p s a n d r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s o v e r a c c e s s t o g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r r e m a i n t h e m o s t s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s . P u b l i c a u t h o r i t y a t n a t i o n a l a n d s t a t e l e v e l s i s s t i l l t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h f i n a n c i a l a n d m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s a r e a l l o c a t e d . A c h i e v i n g p o w e r o v e r t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s t a t e c o n t i n u e s t o b e a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . F o r N i g e r i a , a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e m e a n t a r e t u r n t o p a r t y p o l i t i c s . A f t e r t h e F e d e r a l M i l i t a r y G o v e r n m e n t f i n a l l y l i f t e d i t s b a n o n p a r t i s a n a c t i v i t y i n 1 9 7 8 , i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n a t i o n a l a n d s t a t e e l e c t i o n s , i t s o o n b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e p a r t y r i v a l r i e s i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e f i r s t c i v i l i a n R e p u b l i c w o u l d r e a p p e a r . I n t h e w e e k s f o l l o w i n g t h e l i f t i n g o f t h e b a n o v e r 5 0 p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w e r e f o r m e d . N i n e t e e n s u b m i t t e d f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n t o t h e F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l C o m m i s s i o n ( F E D E C O ) b y t h e d e a d l i n e o f 1 8 D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 8 . T h e C o m m i s s i o n j u d g e d t h a t o n l y f i v e p a r t i e s m e t t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n c r i t e r i a o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n . T h e f o r m a t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w a s t h u s d o m i n a t e d b y a c o n c e r n t o n e g o t i a t e a p p r o p r i a t e a l l i a n c e s , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c h a r g e s o f e t h n i c p a r t i c u l a r i s m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t w e r e f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d b y F E D E C O d o - 88 -not d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from the p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the 1960s. The N a t i o n a l Party o f N i g e r i a , f o r example, i n c l u d e s among i t s supporters p o l i t i c i a n s who were formerly members o f the N i g e r i a n People's Congress, the N i g e r i a n N a t i o n a l Democratic Party (of the o l d Western Region), and the United Middle B e l t Congress. I t s p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate, A l h a j i Shehu Shagari, was a northerner, a former f e d e r a l commissioner under the country's m i l i t a r y regime (1970-1975), and a member of the Constituent Assembly. The NPN's v i c e - p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate, Dr. Alex Ifeanyichukwu Ekwueme, on the other hand, was a well-known Ibo a r c h i t e c t from Anambra s t a t e , w i t h no p o l i t i c a l experience whatsoever. Emphasizing i t s wide range o f support, the NPN boasts i n i t s e l e c t i o n manifesto t h a t i t i s the only 19 party "formed out o f nation-wide c o n s u l t a t i o n and consensus". I t i s 20 "a remarkable c o l l e c t i o n of senior and respected p o l i t i c i a n s " . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the National Party i s described as the de f a c t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the powerful Hausa-Fulani r u l e r s o f the n o r t h . Indeed, northern s t a t e s do account f o r the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s members. And while former NNDP and UMBC p o l i t i c i a n s are now staunch NPN supporters, i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t they had j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h the Northern People's Congress once before, i n 1964, to form the r u l i n g N i g e r i a n N a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e . Shagari was a f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r , a member of the A l l i a n c e and of the Northern People's Congress p r i o r to the 1966 coup. At an e a r l y stage i n the 1979 e l e c t o r a l campaign, h i s party received the f u l l support o f the northern 21 I s l a m i c h i e r a r c h y . The l i n k s w i t h the past are even more evident i n the case o f the Unity Party o f N i g e r i a (UPN). The party was founded by Chi e f Obafemi Awolowo, formerly the leader o f the A c t i o n Group and s t i l l the best known p o l i t i c i a n from the Western Region. Awolowo was the leader o f the f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n i n 89 -N i g e r i a ' s f i r s t c i v i l i a n regime. He was a f e d e r a l commissioner from 1967 u n t i l 1971. He a l s o became the UPN's p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate i n the 1979 campaign. (His running-mate was Chief P h i l i p Umeadi, a l i t t l e known Ibo lawyer from Onitsha.) The UPN evolved from a "National Committee o f F r i e n d s " , an o r g a n i z a t i o n under Awolowo's c o n t r o l , which i s b e l i e v e d to have been in v o l v e d i n c l a n d e s t i n e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y throughout the p e r i o d o f m i l i t a r y 22 r u l e . That view was given considerable credence when the UPN announced i t s e l e c t o r a l manifesto a mere 24 hours a f t e r m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s l i f t e d the ban 23 on p a r t i s a n a c t i v i t y . A t h i r d o r g a n i z a t i o n , the N i g e r i a n People's Part y (NPP), a f f o r d s another example of the r e g i o n a l component of party p o l i t i c s . As o r i g i n a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d , the NPP was an a l l i a n c e among s e v e r a l p o l i t i c a l groupings, i n c l u d i n g the N a t i o n a l Union Council f o r Understanding l e d by A l h a j i W a z i r i Ibrahim (a wealthy northern businessman and a former f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r o f the Northern People's Congress), the "Club 19" composed o f Constituent Assembly delegates from every s t a t e who were opposed to the establishment of a Federal Sharia Court of Appeal, the Committee f o r N a t i o n a l Unity founded mainly by former members o f the N a t i o n a l Council of N i g e r i a and the Cameroons — sup-p o r t e r s of Dr. Nnamdi A z i k i w e , — and the Progressive Front l e d by A l h a j i Alufemi Okunno (a f e d e r a l commissioner under m i l i t a r y r u l e and a n o r t h e r n e r ) . The a l l i a n c e d i d not l a s t long. At i t s inaugural meeting i n November 1978 the NPP s p l i t i n t o a number of f a c t i o n s , f o l l o w i n g o p p o s i t i o n from eastern members to an attempt by W a z i r i Ibrahim to become both p a r t y chairman and 24 p r e s i d e n t i a l nominee. Ibrahim broke away to form h i s own p a r t y . The Progressive Front j o i n e d ranks with the NPN. The NPP assumed i t s present form — an o r g a n i z a t i o n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n N i g e r i a ' s eastern s t a t e s , whose membership l a r g e l y c o n s i s t s o f past NCNC supporters. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, - 90 -N i g e r i a ' s NCNC pr e s i d e n t at the time of the 1966, coup was the party's p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate i n 1979. His running-mate was P r o f e s s o r Ishaya Audu, v i c e - c h a n c e l l o r o f Ahmadu B e l l o U n i v e r s i t y i n the north but, again, a man 25 o f l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l experience. A f t e r l e a v i n g the NPP, A l h a j i W a z i r i Ibrahim and h i s f o l l o w e r s founded t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l p a rty, the Great N i g e r i a n People's Party (GNPP). Ibrahim became the GNPP's p r e s i d e n t i a l nominee. Dr. Ben Nzeribe, an Ibo, 26 was the party's v i c e - p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate. The f i f t h o r g a n i z a t i o n recognized by FEDECO i s the People's Redemption Party (PRP). I t s founder and p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate, A l h a j i Aminu Kano, i s no stranger to N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s e i t h e r . Kano was c h i e f government whip from 1959 u n t i l 1964. Formerly the leader o f the Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU), a l e f t - o f - c e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n which opposed the Northern People's Congress i n 1965 and 1966, Kano accupied the post of f e d e r a l commissioner from 1967 to 1974. L i k e Shagari, he was a member o f the Constiuent Assembly i n the p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n t o c i v i l i a n government. Kano's running-mate, Sam Ikoku, a l e f t - w i n g Ibo economist, was formerly a s sociated w i t h the A c t i o n Group. The PRP was formed a f t e r Kano withdrew h i s support f o r Shagari. There are "fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s " , Kano b e l i e v e s , "between the PRP and the conservative o r i e n t a t i o n o f the NPN w i t h 27 i t s commitment to f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n and respect f o r t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s " . The PRP manifesto c a l l s f o r the establishment of "democratic humanism ... which teaches s e l f - r e l i a n c e and the takeover of our economy from the g r i p o f n e o - c o l o n i a l i s t s " . Although aiming t o b u i l d "a r e a l l y f i r m foundation f o r 28 s o c i a l i s t democracy", and emphasizing the i d e o l o g i c a l commitment o f i t s members r a t h e r than t h e i r r e g i o n a l o r i g i n s , the PRP i s most e x t e n s i v e l y organized i n the s t a t e s o f Kaduna and Kano. Not too s u r p r i s i n g l y , those were - 91 -e x a c t l y t h e a r e a s w h e r e N E P U h a d a t t r a c t e d i t s g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t i n t h e 2 9 m i d - 1 9 6 0 s . A f t e r a p e r i o d o f n e a r l y 1 4 y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y r u l e , o b s e r v e r s may b e j u s t i f i e d i n t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e men who a r e o n c e m o r e i n v o l v e d i n c i v i l i a n p o l i t i c s a r e g e n e r a l l y " t h e v e r y s a m e l o t w h o s e n a m e s w e r e c u r r e n t 3 0 w h e n N i g e r i a w o n i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m B r i t a i n I n 1 9 6 0 " . T h e p e r s i s t i n g r e g i o n a l a n d e t h n i c p a t t e r n s o f p a r t i s a n i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n i n N i g e r i a b e c o m e e v e n m o r e a p p a r e n t i n a s u r v e y o f t h e 1 9 7 9 e l e c t i o n 3 1 r e s u l t s . F i v e r o u n d s o f v o t i n g w e r e h e l d i n J u l y a n d A u g u s t 1 9 7 9 . P a r t y s t a n d i n g s i n t h e f i r s t f o u r r o u n d s — e l e c t i o n s f o r t h e S e n a t e , H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , s t a t e a s s e m b l i e s , a n d s t a t e g o v e r n o r s h i p s — a p p e a r i n T a b l e I I . T a b l e I I 3 2 P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1 9 7 9 E l e c t i o n s : T h e F i r s t F o u r R o u n d s P a r t y GNPP NPN N P P P R P UPN 8 36 1 6 7 2 8 4 3 1 6 8 7 8 4 9 1 1 1 1 5 6 4 8 9 2 2 6 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 7 3 2 5 E l e c t i o n S e n a t e H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s S t a t e A s s e m b l i e s S t a t e G o v e r n o r s h i p s T a b l e I I I p r e s e n t s a s t a t e - b y s t a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e s a m e r e s u l t s . T a b l e I I I 3 3 P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1 9 7 9 E l e c t i o n s :  A S t a t e - b y - S t a t e A n a l y s i s o f t h e F i r s t F o u r R o u n d s A n a m b r a — S e n a t e N P P 5 ; H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s N P P 2 6 , NPN 3 ; H o u s e o f A s s e m b l y N P P 7 3 , N P N 1 3 , GNPP 1 ; G o v e r n o r N P N ( M r J i m N w o b o d o ) . B a u c h i — S e n a t e N P N 5 ; H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s N P N 1 8 , GNPP 1 , N P P 1 ; H o u s e o f A s s e m b l y NPN 4 5 , GNPP 9 , N P P 4 , P R P 2 ; G o v e r n o r N P N ( A l h a j i T a t a r i A l i ) . - 92 -( T a b l e I I I — c o n t i n u e d ) B e n d e l — S e n a t e UPN 4 , NPN 1; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s UPN 1 2 , NPN 6 , NPP 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y UPN 3 4 , NPN 2 2 , NPP 4 ; G o v e r n o r UPN ( P r o f . Ambrose A l i i ) . Benue — S e n a t e NPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 1 8 , NPP 1 ; House o f Assemb ly NPN 4 8 , GNPP 6 , NPP 3 , G o v e r n o r NPN (Mr Ape r A k u ) . Bo rno — S e n a t e GNPP 4 , NPN 1; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s GNPP 2 2 , NPN 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y GNPP 5 9 , NPN 1 1 , PRP 2 ; G o v e r n o r GNPP ( A l h a j i Mohammed G o n i ) . C r o s s R i v e r — S e n a t e NPN 3 , GNPP 2 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 2 2 , GNPP 4 , UPN 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 5 8 , GNPP 1 6 , UPN 7 , NPP 3 ; G o v e r n o r NPN ( D r . C l e m e n t I s o n g ) . G o n g o l a — S e n a t e GNPP 2 , UPN 2 , NPN 1; House o f R e p -r e s e n t a t i v e s GNPP 8 , UPN 7 , NPN 5 , NPP 1; House o f A s s e m b l y GNPP 2 5 , UPN 1 8 , NPN 1 5 , NPP 4 , PRP 1; G o v e r n o r GNPP ( A l h a j i A b u b a k a r B a r d e ) . Imo — S e n a t e NPP 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPP 2 8 , NPN 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPP 7 8 , NPN 1 0 , GNPP 2 ; G o v e r n o r NPP (Mr Samue l Mbakwe) . Kaduna — S e n a t e NPN 3 , PRP 2 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 1 9 , PRP 1 0 , NPP 2 , GNPP 1, UPN 1; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 6 6 , PRP 1 5 , GNPP 9 , NPP 6 , UPN 3 ; G o v e r n o r PRP ( A l h a j i B a l a r a b e M u s a ) . Kano — S e n a t e PRP 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s PRP 3 9 , NPN 7 ; House o f A s s e m b l y PRP 1 2 3 , NPN 1 1 , GNPP 3 , UPN 1; G o v e r n o r PRP ( A l h a j i Abubaka r R i m i ) . Kwara — S e n a t e NPN 3 , UPN 2 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 8 , UPN 5 , GNPP 1; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 2 5 , UPN 1 5 , GNPP 2 ; G o v e r n o r NPN ( A l h a j i Adamu A t t a ) . Lagos — S e n a t e UPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s UPN 1 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y UPN 3 6 ; G o v e r n o r UPN ( A l h a j i L a t e e f J a k a n d e ) . N i g e r — S e n a t e NPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 1 0 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 2 8 , GNPP 2 ; G o v e r n o r NPN ( A l h a j i Awwal I b r a h i m ) . Ogun — S e n a t e UPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s UPN 1 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y UPN 3 6 ; G o v e r n o r UPN ( C h i e f B i s i O n a b a n j o ) . Ondo — S e n a t e UPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s UPN 2 2 ; House o f A s s e m b l y UPN 6 5 , NPN 1; G o v e r n o r UPN (Mr M i c h a e l A j a s i n ) . Oyo — S e n a t e UPN 5 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s UPN 3 8 , NPN 4 ; House o f A s s e m b l y UPN 1 1 7 , NPN 9 , G o v e r n o r UPN (Mr B o l a I g e ) . P l a t e a u — S e n a t e NPP 4 , NPN 1; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPP 1 3 , NPN 3 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPP 3 5 , NPN 1 0 , GNPP 3 ; G o v e r n o r NPP (Mr Solomon L a r ) . - 93 -( T a b l e I I I — c o n t i n u e d ) R i v e r s — S e n a t e NPN 3 , NPP 2 ; House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 1 0 , NPP 4 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 2 5 , NPP 1 6 , UPN 1; G o v e r n o r NPN ( C h i e f M e l f o r d O k i l o ) . S o k o t o — S e n a t e NPN 5 ; House o f R E p r e s e n t a t i v e s NPN 3 1 , GNPP 6 ; House o f A s s e m b l y NPN 9 2 , GNPP 1 9 ; G o v e r n o r NPN ( A l h a j i Shehu K a n g i w a ) . E v e r y s t a t e e l e c t e d a g o v e r n o r and an A s s e m b l y m a j o r i t y o f t h e same p a r t y e x c e p t K a d u n a , where a PRP g o v e r n o r was r e t u r n e d w i t h an NPN m a j o r i t y i n t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e , and G o n g o l a where no s i n g l e p a r t y was e l e c t e d t o a m a j o r i t y i n t h e House o f A s s e m b l y . The s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t e a c h o f t h e f i v e p a r t i e s drew i t s g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t i n i t s l e a d e r ' s home a r e a . O n l y t h e NPN, w h i c h o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f v o t e s c a s t n a t i o n a l l y i n e a c h o f t h e e l e c t i o n s , a c h i e v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f s u p p o r t a c r o s s most o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . NPN s e n a t o r s were e l e c t e d i n t w e l v e o u t o f 19 s t a t e s , NPN f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n 16 s t a t e s , NPN House o f A s s e m b l y members i n 17 s t a t e s , and NPN g o v e r n o r s i n s e v e n s t a t e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , PRP s u p p o r t i s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y c o n f i n e d t o n o r t h e r n s t a t e s . The UPN, a l t h o u g h p r e d o m i n a t i n g i n s t a t e s o f t he f o r m e r W e s t e r n R e g i o n , i s s c a r c e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t he c o u n t r y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n show a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f v o t i n g b a s e d on r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A l h a j i Shehu S h a g a r i , t h e NPN c a n d i d a t e , r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f v o t e s c a s t — 3 3 . 8 p e r c e n t . C h i e f Obafemi Awolowo (UPN) r e c e i v e d 2 9 . 2 p e r c e n t , D r . Nnamdi A z i k i w e (NPP) 1 6 . 7 p e r c e n t , A l h a j i Aminu Kano (PRP) 1 0 . 3 p e r c e n t , and A l h a j i W a z i r i I b r a h i m (GNPP) 1 0 . 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a r v o t e . 3 4 T a b l e IV g i v e s t h e s t a t e - b y - s t a t e outcome o f N i g e r i a ' s 1979 p r e s i d e n t i a l p o l l , t h i s t i m e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o f o r m e r p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n s . - 94 -T a b l e IV P a r t y S t a n d i n g s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1979 P r e s i d e n t i a l E l e c t i o n :  A S t a t e - b y - S t a t e A n a l y s i s 35 Former C a n d i d a t e s ' P e r c e n t a g e s o f V o t e * P o l i t i c a l R e g i o n S t a t e GNPP NPN NPP PRP UPN N o r t h B a u c h i 1 5 . 4 4 6 2 . 4 8 4 . 7 2 1 4 . 3 4 3 . 0 0 Benue 7 . 8 9 7 6 . 3 9 1 1 . 7 1 1 . 3 5 2 . 5 7 Bo rno 5 4 . 0 4 3 4 . 7 1 1 . 3 5 6 . 5 2 3 . 3 5 G o n g o l a 3 4 . 0 9 3 5 . 5 2 4 . 3 5 4 . 3 4 2 1 . 6 7 Kaduna 1 3 . 8 0 4 3 . 1 2 4 . 7 2 3 1 . 6 6 6 . 6 8 Kano 1 .54 1 9 . 9 4 0 . 9 1 7 6 . 4 1 1 .23 N i g e r 1 6 . 5 0 7 4 . 8 8 1 .11 3 . 9 9 3 . 6 9 P l a t e a u 6 . 8 2 3 4 . 7 3 4 9 . 1 7 3 . 9 8 5 . 2 9 S o k o t o 2 6 . 6 1 6 6 . 5 8 0 . 9 2 3 . 3 3 2 . 5 2 West Kwara 5 .71 5 3 . 6 2 0 . 5 2 0 . 6 7 3 9 . 4 8 Lagos 0 . 4 8 7 . 1 8 9 . 5 7 0 . 4 7 8 2 . 3 0 Ogun 0 . 5 3 6 . 2 3 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 1 9 2 . 1 1 Ondo 0 . 2 6 4 . 1 9 0 . 8 6 0 . 1 8 9 4 . 5 1 Oyo 0 . 5 7 1 2 . 7 5 0 . 5 5 0 . 3 2 8 5 . 7 8 M i d - W e s t B e n d e l 1 .23 3 6 . 1 9 8 . 6 0 0 . 7 3 5 3 . 2 3 E a s t Anambra 1 .67 1 3 . 4 9 8 2 . 8 8 1 .20 0 . 7 5 C r o s s R i v e r 1 5 . 1 4 6 4 . 4 0 7 . 6 6 1 .01 1 1 . 7 6 Imo 3 . 0 0 8 . 8 0 8 6 . 6 7 0 . 8 9 0 . 6 4 R i v e r s 2 . 1 8 7 2 . 6 5 1 4 . 3 5 0 . 4 6 1 0 . 3 3 * Not a l l p e r c e n t a g e s t o t a l 1 0 0 , due t o r o u n d i n g > • A g a i n , e a c h p a r t y l e a d e r r e c e i v e d t h e g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t f r o m h i s home s t a t e . (The s t a t e s o f t h e o l d W e s t e r n R e g i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , v o t e d h e a v i l y i n f a v o u r o f C h i e f Awo lowo . ) Even i n t h i s , t h e f i n a l r o u n d o f v o t i n g , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t p a t t e r n s o f p a r t i s a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e l e c t o r a l c h o i c e w i t h i n N i g e r i a a r e much t h e same a s t h e y were p r i o r t o m i l i t a r y r u l e . The n a t u r e o f e l e c t o r a l a c t i v i t y seems t o have r e m a i n e d a b o u t t h e same as w e l l . When t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on p a r t i s a n a c t i v i t i e s were l i f t e d by m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s , G e n e r a l Obasan jo a p p e a l e d t o p o l i t i c i a n s t o l e a r n f r om N i g e r i a ' s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and " n o t t o d i s e m b a r k on a p o l i t i c s o f d e c e i t , f a l s e h o p e s , empty p r o m i s e s , and u n a t t a i n a b l e g o a l s w h i c h . . . a l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o u n r e a l i z a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , b i t t e r n e s s , d i s c o n t e n t , and t h e u n h a p p i n e s s o f the e l e c t o r a t e " . C r i t i c i z i n g the " u n p a t r i o t i c and s e l f i s h stances" of various f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the Constituent Assembly, he warned t h a t the Federal M i l i t a r y Government would not "allow any i n d i v i d u a l or group of i n d i v i d u a l s t o subjugate the higher n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ... to t h e i r s e l f i s h and narrow 36 i n t e r e s t s " . Nevertheless, a l l e g a t i o n s of hooliganism, thuggery, and v i o l e n c e were l e v e l l e d by a l l p a r t i e s throughout the campaign of 1979. Old grievances were r e s u r r e c t e d . Candidates r e g u l a r l y r e f e r r e d to r i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as " t r i b a l i s t i c " . And p a r t i e s were s a i d to have a " t r a d i t i o n o f v i o l e n c e " , a 37 corrupt l e a d e r s h i p , or to have c u r r i e d the favour of m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s . The Federal E l e c t o r a l Commission d i s q u a l i f i e d a t o t a l o f 1,028 candidates f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e on grounds of c o r r u p t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the leader o f the People's 38 Redemption Party, Aminu Kano. ( A f t e r considerable l e g a l a c t i o n Kano was able to r e - e s t a b l i s h h i s candidacy.) The Commission banned no l e s s than 15 g u b e r n a t o r i a l candidates, 17 of t h e i r running-mates, 120 s e n a t o r i a l candidates, 575 candidates f o r s t a t e assemblies, and 300 prospective members of the 39 n a t i o n a l House of Representatives, mainly f o r reasons o f tax d e f a u l t . Amid pleas f o r " n a t i o n a l harmony and understanding" broadcast by 40 the Federal M i l i t a r y Government, the e l e c t i o n s of 1979 were fought i n much the same s t y l e as they had been f i f t e e n years p r e v i o u s l y . Indeed, d i s -putes became so v i o l e n t during the campaign that General Obasanjo thought i t necessary to summon p o l i t i c a l leaders to the Dodan Barracks on s e v e r a l occasions i n order to warn them to decrease the fervour of t h e i r p a r t i s a n 41 a t t a c k s . But N i g e r i a ' s new p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were engaged i n an almost desparate r i v a l r y f o r p o l i t i c a l power. Like t h e i r e a r l i e r counterparts, they are o r g a n i z a t i o n s "whose goal i s to win an e l e c t i o n and which t h e r e f o r e 42 cannot accept the prospect of p o l i t i c a l defeat". One aspect of p a r t i s a n r i v a l r y , and a source of concern to - 96 -N i g e r i a ' s m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s s i n c e t h e re in t rcduct ion o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s , i s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t h a t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d on more t h a n one o c c a s i o n by N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c i a n s t o change t he a r t i c l e s o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n , o r t o i n t e r p r e t i t s p r o v i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e s . D e s p i t e a c o m p l i c a t e d amendment f o r m u l a r e q u i r i n g t h e a p p r o v a l o f a t w o -t h i r d s m a j o r i t y i n e a c h house o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y and t h e s u p p o r t , by r e s o l u t i o n , o f t h e Houses o f A s s e m b l y o f n o t l e s s t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l s t a t e s , 4 " ^ t h e e l e c t i o n campa ign o f 1979 r e s o u n d e d w i t h p r o m i s e s t o r e v i s e t h c o n s t i t u t i o n . P o l i t i c i a n s spoke o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m b e f o r e t h e b a s i c l aw came i n t o e f f e c t ! C h i e f Awolowo d e c l a r e d t h a t he w o u l d a b o l i s h t h e P u b l i C o m p l a i n t s T r i b u n a l e s t a b l i s h e d t o e n f o r c e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s Code o f C o n d u c t . M o r e o v e r , he denounced t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d on t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s . H o p i n g t o a t t r a c t e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t f rom t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o f c e n t r a l N i g e r i a , he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s u c h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s 44 were u n n e c e s s a r y and " u n d e m o c r a t i c " . P r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were a l s o c h a l l e n g e d . Aminu Kano s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r t i e s 45 s h o u l d be a b l e t o u s e r e g i o n a l s y m b o l s . H e , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p a r t y l e a d e r s , w o u l d f u r t h e r amend t h e r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g p a r t i e s t o p u b l i s h p e r i o d i c 46 f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s . Th roughou t t h e e l e c t o r a l c a m p a i g n , p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t r e a t e d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s i m p l y as a document amenab le t o p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s . The norms and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e b a s i c l a w p r o v e d t o be c o n t r o -v e r s i a l l o n g a f t e r t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y had p r e s e n t e d i t s f i n a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e most f r a c t i o u s i s s u e t o a r i s e d u r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s new c i v i l i a n government c e n t r e s on an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h , a t t h e t i m e , had n o t y e t been p r o m u l g a t e d . A m a j o r d i s p u t e emerged c o n c e r n i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f A l h a j i Shehu S h a g a r i a s p r e s i d e n t - 9 7 -o f t h e R e p u b l i c . I n t h e f i n a l r o u n d o f b a l l o t i n g , S h a g a r i o b t a i n e d a t o t a l o f 5 . 6 9 m i l l i o n v o t e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f m o r e t h a n 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n t w e l v e s t a t e s . ( S e e T a b l e I V . ) S h a g a r i * s n e a r e s t r i v a l , C h i e f A w o l o w o , 47 r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f 4 . 9 2 m i l l i o n e l e c t o r s . T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s t i p u l a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s i d e n t m u s t b e e l e c t e d w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n a t l e a s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e s t a t e s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . I n t h e e v e n t , S h a g a r i d i d n o t a t t r a c t o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e v o t e s i n t h i r t e e n s t a t e s — h e r e c e i v e d o n l y 1 9 . 9 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n K a n o s t a t e , w h e r e h i s v o t e was c l o s e s t t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t . R i v a l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i m m e d i a t e l y c a l l e d f o r a r u n - o f f e l e c t i o n . C i t i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ' s p r o v i s i o n s f o r c a s e s o f e l e c t o r a l d e a d l o c k , t h e y d e m a n d e d a s e c o n d p o l l t o b e c o n t e s t e d b y t h e t w o l e a d i n g c a n d i d a t e s . A d v o c a t e s f o r t h e N P N , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r g u e d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f 1 9 a c t u a l l y a m o u n t s t o t w e l v e a n d t w o - t h i r d s . S h a g a r i , i n f a c t , h a d r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f m o r e t h a n a q u a r t e r o f t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e v o t e s c a s t i n K a n o . F E D E C O a c c e p t e d t h e N P N p o s i t i o n a n d d u l y p r o c l a i m e d S h a g a r i p r e s i d e n t o v e r t h e l o u d p r o t e s t s o f 4 8 A w o l o w o a n d h i s U n i t y P a r t y f o l l o w e r s . A w o l o w o l o d g e d a p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l T r i b u n a l o n b e h a l f o f h i m s e l f , D r . A z i k i w e , a n d A l h a j i W a z i r i I b r a h i m , i n p r o t e s t o v e r F E D E C O ' s d e c i s i o n . U n a n i m o u s l y r e j e c t e d b y t h e T r i b u n a l ' s t h r e e j u d g e s , t h e c a s e w a s a p p e a l e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t . B y a m a j o r i t y o f s e v e n t o o n e , t h e p e t i t i o n w a s a g a i n t u r n e d d o w n . I t w a s r e v e a l e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d -i n g s t h a t F E D E C O h a d f o r m u l a t e d i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t w o - t h i r d s o f 1 9 w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n f r o m p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n l a t e 1 9 7 8 . I f t w e l v e a n d t w o - t h i r d s h a d n o t b e e n a d o p t e d a s t h e c o n s t i t u t i n a l t h r e s h o l d a t t h a t t i m e , t h e n o n e o f t h e f i v e p a r t i e s w o u l d n o t 4 9 h a v e b e e n s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l s t a t e s t o c o n t e s t t h e e l e c t i o n . - 98 -The i n c i d e n t r e v e a l s the keen r i v a l r y t h a t e x i s t e d among a l l N i g e r i a n p a r t i e s f o r the country's c h i e f executive o f f i c e . As the Economist r e p o r t s , "Shagari's opponents, ra t h e r than g r a c e f u l l y c o n g r a t u l a t i n g t h e i r r i v a l , immediately rushed to t h e i r adding machines and then p l a i n t i v e l y 50 c r i e d f o u l " . The controversy a l s o spurred the Federal M i l i t a r y Government to make one l a s t amendment to the c o n s t i t u t i o n three days before the document was to take e f f e c t . The Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l deleted those a r t i c l e s e s t a b l i s h i n g the Na t i o n a l Assembly as an e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e . In t h e i r stead p r o v i s i o n was made, i n the case o f an i n d e c i s i v e p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n r e s u l t , f o r a second r u n - o f f e l e c t i o n to be h e l d throughout the Republic. The p o l l would be contested by the two le a d i n g p r e s i d e n t i a l candidates. I t 51 would be determined by a simple p l u r a l i t y o f votes. N i g e r i a ' s b a s i c law thus emerged at the centre of a p o l i t i c a l storm a t e x a c t l y the moment when c i v i l i a n o f f i c i a l s were assuming governmental c o n t r o l . The controversy has a f f e c t e d the course o f p o l i t i c a l behaviour i n the Republic from that time onward. Se c t i o n a l i s m Revived I n t e r p a r t y r i v a l r y s c a r c e l y has diminished s i n c e N i g e r i a ' s r e t u r n to c i v i l i a n government i n October 1979. Disputes continue to erupt over the nature of f e d e r a l appointments. They often lead to v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between the supporters of r i v a l p a r t i s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . For p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e remains a valuable p r i z e . I t continues to be a source o f patronage, as w e l l as a means by which to ensure that one's own e t h n i c or r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s are not overlooked. In h i s inaugural address President Shagari swore t h a t he would seek t o solve "the problems of c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n a l government ... and the i n t e g r a -t i o n o f the various ethnic groups i n N i g e r i a i n f a i r n e s s and without - 99 -52 acrimony". He would, he thought, be g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d i n h i s task by the p r o v i s i o n s o f the country's new c o n s t i t u t i o n . Indeed, the c o n s t i t u t i o n provides a system of safeguards that i s intended to i n h i b i t the concentration o f power i n the hands o f one i n d i v i d u a l or set of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Yet, i n s p i t e of the p r i n c i p l e that n a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s should be appointed with regard to the " f e d e r a l character o f N i g e r i a " , and despite the establishment o f executive commissions which f u n c t i o n independently o f f e d e r a l or s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , the question o f who occupies p o s i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l author-i t y remains a c r u c i a l and contentious matter. The f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e upon which appointments to n a t i o n a l o f f i c e are to be made i s vague at best. The idea i s to guarantee s t a t e i n t e r e s t s a r o l e i n c e r t a i n f e d e r a l decision-making bodies. But who represents a st a t e ' s i n t e r e s t s ? W i l l any s t a t e r e s i d e n t do? The problem i s revealed i n a d e c i s i o n taken by President Shagari i n e a r l y 1980 to appoint p r e s i d e n t i a l l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s i n each s t a t e to supervise f e d e r a l p r o j e c t s and maintain contact with s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . State a u t h o r i t i e s were not consulted about the appointments i n the f i r s t p lace. They were almost unanimously opposed to the move. The r e a l c l a s h , though, came over the issu e o f who was to be appointed. A l l appointees were r e s i d e n t s of the regions i n which they were to ho l d o f f i c e . But they were not c i v i l servants. They were a l l NPN men. In Kano, f o r i n stance, a s t a t e governed by the PRP, the l i a i s o n o f f i c e r turned out to be the unsuccessful NPN g u b e r n a t o r i a l candidate from neighbouring Kaduna (a st a t e whose governor a l s o represented the PRP). As a r e s u l t , the appointees were a l l b e l i e v e d t o be creatures of the f e d e r a l government. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , they appeared to represent the northern-based NPN. The f e d e r a l d e c i s i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d i n eastern and western s t a t e s as a b l a t a n t i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e i r 53 sphere o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . At times, the p r i n c i p l e of f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t s e l f proves to - 100 -be a s o u r c e o f s e c t i o n a l d i s p u t e . The g o v e r n o r o f t h e n o r t h e r n s t a t e o f B o r n o , f o r i n s t a n c e , a p p o i n t e d t h r e e Y o r u b a l a w y e r s t o i m p o r t a n t j u d i c i a l and c a b i n e t p o s t s w i t h i n h i s s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n l a t e 1 9 8 0 . The move, o f c o u r s e , meant t h a t t he p o s i t i o n s c o u l d n o t be o c c u p i e d by Hausa t r i b e s m e n , o r by f o l l o w e r s o f t he I s l a m i c f a i t h . I t was i m m e d i a t e l y c r i t i c i z e d by Malam Adannu C i r o m a , f e d e r a l I n d u s t r y M i n i s t e r , a n o r t h e r n e r , and a l e a d i n g member o f t h e NPN, f o r t h a t v e r y r e a s o n . C i r o m a c a l l e d t h e Y o r u b a s " s t r a n g e r s " and " f o r e i g n e r s " . I n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e g o v e r n o r had 54 " b e t r a y e d t h e p e o p l e ' s t r u s t " . Those r e m a r k s , c o u p l e d w i t h P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i ' s r e t i c e n c e t o d i s o w n h i s m i n i s t e r ' s comments, f e d t h e f e a r s o f n o r t h e r n Hausa d o m i n a t i o n r e g u l a r l y c i r c u l a t e d by t h e UPN. They s p a r k e d o f f p r o t e s t s i n s e v e r a l w e s t e r n c i t i e s whe re , as i n 1 9 6 6 , t h e f e d e r a l gove rnmen t was p o r t r a y e d a s a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g n o r t h e r n c a b a l o p e r a t i n g s o as t o 55 e x c l u d e o t h e r t r i b a l g r o u p s f rom p u b l i c o f f i c e . From w h a t e v e r p e r s p e c t i v e one t a k e s , t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f one o f f i c i a l by a n o t h e r f r om a d i f f e r e n t t r i b e , a l t h o u g h j u s t i f i e d on t h e g r o u n d s o f " f e d e r a l r e f l e c t i o n " , e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s f r om p o s i t i o n s o f power one s e t o f s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a n o t h e r . I t may s i m p l y a p p e a r as t he t h i n edge o f a much l a r g e r wedge w h i c h m igh t e v e n t u a l l y t h r e a t e n t r a d i t i o n a l c l a i m s t o a l l s o u r c e s o f p o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e . A t i t s w o r s t , t h e n , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c a n be u s e d t o j u s t i f y t he r e m o v a l o f r i v a l f a c t i o n s f r om p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . Even a t i t s b e s t , t h e p r i n c i p l e may l e a d t o e x p l o s i v e c o n f l i c t s among N i g e r i a ' s s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s . The d i s p u t e s c e n t r i n g o n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f NPN o f f i c i a l s and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s f rom a s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g r o u p i n g r a i s e a f u r t h e r p r o b l e m r e g a r d i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h any p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e c a n be deemed " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " o r " i n d e p e n d e n t " . Where t h e membersh ip o f f e d e r a l - 1 0 1 -e x e c u t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s i n c l u d e s s t a t e o f f i c i a l s , f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s , o r m i l i t a r y , f i n a c i a l , and j u d i c i a l f i g u r e s , t h e r o l e o f s u c h a g e n c i e s i s l i m i t e d t o an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y o n l y . The c o m m i s s i o n s empowered t o a p p o i n t o f f i c i a l s and t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e i r own a c c o r d a r e t h e m s e l v e s a p p o i n t e d by e i t h e r t h e p r e s i d e n t o r a s t a t e g o v e r n o r . B e c a u s e a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e depends on e x e c u t i v e a p p o i n t m e n t , a p r e s i d e n t o r g o v e r n o r may e x e r c i s e i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e a g e n c i e s ' d e c i s i o n s . The p o s s i b i l i t y i s a l l t h e g r e a t e r s h o u l d t h e a p p o i n t e e s b e l o n g t o t h e same p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , o r t h e same t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n , as t h e p r e s i d e n t o r s t a t e e x e c u t i v e . The " i m p a r -t i a l i t y " o f e x e c u t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e n , i s n o t a w i d e l y r e g a r d e d f a c t o f p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n N i g e r i a , even unde r a new c o n s t i t u t i o n . C o n t r o v e r s i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e o f f i c i a l s a l s o f u e l t h e d i s c o n t e n t s a r i s i n g f rom t h e R e p u b l i c ' s 1979 p r e s -i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s . C h i e f A w o l o w o ' s U n i t y P a r t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , has t a k e n a p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n i n most o f t h e r e c u r r i n g d i s p u t e s . UPN o p p o s i t i o n t o P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t o any a t t e m p t t o weaken t h e power b a s e o f Y o r u b a p o l i t i c i a n s , i s s t r i d e n t . On o c c a s i o n , i t has l e d t o v i o l e n c e . A s u r v e y o f UPN a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e t h e p a r t y ' s 1979 e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t c a n n o t h e l p b u t r e a d as a l i t a n y o f c o n s p i r a c y and u n r e s t . I f Awolowo c o u l d c o m p l a i n o f Malam C i r o m a ' s a t t a c k on Y o r u b a a p p o i n t e e s i n B o r n o , he c o u l d a l s o p r o t e s t the a p p o i n t m e n t by t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t o f f i v e UPN g o v e r n o r s t o an a l l - p a r t y c o n f e r e n c e on p u b l i c s a l a r i e s , c o n v e n e d i n J u l y 1980 . C a l l i n g t h e m e e t i n g a " m o t l e y a s s e m b l y " , Awolowo h i m s e l f r e f u s e d t o a t t e n d . The method o f a p p o i n t i n g d e l e g a t e s had " w i d e n e d t h e s c o p e beyond 56 what c o u l d p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d an a l l - p a r t y m e e t i n g " . F o r h i s e f f o r t s , t h e UPN;leader was at tacked by D r . K . O . Mbadiwe, p r e s i d e n t i a l a d v i s o r t o t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y L i a i s o n Commi t t ee , as an " u n g r a t e f u l i n g r a t e who has r e s o r t e d t o c a s t i g a t i n g t h e p e o p l e who f e e d h im . . . and who t h r e a t e n s t o 102 -57 plunge the country again into the gravest of p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s " . They are words that further alienate UPN o f f i c i a l s from the national administration. Unity Party opposition claimed i t s most important victim i n October 1980. The resignation of Paul Unongo, federal Minister of Mines and Power, on charges of corruption, came at the end of a thinly disguised UPN attack on the central government. Unongo, facing charges on several counts of bribery, was fi n a l l y driven from office by a well-coordinated press campaign based on 58 information supplied by Awolowo's office. The UPN widened i t s criticism of public o f f i c i a l s after Unongo's resignation. In December of the same year, for instance, Awolowo called on Nigeria's Chief Justice, Rotimi Fatayi Williams, to resign. The former chairman of the CDC, Williams had upheld FEDECO's 1979 election ruling against Awolowo. According to UPN sources, his judgments 59 were an indication of p o l i t i c a l preference. Since March 1981, Awolowo has gone even further in attacking the Chief Justice, as well as General Obasanjo, as "time-servers of the northern e l i t e " . 6 0 The leader of the opposition has accused Obasanjo repeatedly of contriving to hand power over to the northern-based National Party. The fact that both Obasanjo and Williams are of Yoruba origin seems to make l i t t l e difference. They are, in the words of Chief Awolowo, "traitors of the western people". Such charges do not easily go unanswered. As early as January 1980, the National Secretary of the National Party, Alhaji Suleimen Takuma, warned at a Lagos press conference of an "alleged secessionist plot" being hatched 62 by the UPN with Yoruba support. No evidence was provided at the time to confirm his allegations. However, one year later, the Nigerian Herald, a government-operated newspaper, published the text of what was claimed to be a secret UPN plan to destabilize the country and overthrow the Shagari regime. The ultimate aim of the Unity Party, the document reads, "must be to take Nigeria back to square one". The current p o l i t i c a l situation i s reminiscent of 103 -o f t he 1962-1966 p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a c l e t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n c i v i l w a r " . W h i l e " i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e n e x t c i v i l war w i l l be b l o o d y , . . . i f t he b l o o d o f t y r a n t s has t o be shed t o e n s u r e t h e emergence o f a j u s t s o c i e t y , so be i t " . ^ Whether o r n o t t he document i s t h e work o f t h e UPN has n e v e r been r e s o l v e d . Tha t may n o t be t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n any c a s e . The p l a n m e r e l y summar i zes what a r e a l r e a d y p resumed t o be t h e a ims o f t h e UPN. I n d e e d , U n i t y P a r t y l e a d e r s have n e v e r d e n i e d t h e d o c u m e n t ' s a u t h e n t i c i t y , C o n s e q u e n t l y , p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e p a p e r has p r o v i d e d t h e gove rnmen t w i t h ammun i t i on i n i t s c o u n t e r a t t a c k upon t he UPN. The o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y i s p o r t r a y e d as a f a c t i o n " d e t e r m i n e d t o cause c o n f u s i o n , and t o foment i n d i s -c i p l i n e among o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h u s e n s u r i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e 64 c i r c l e o f r e n d e r i n g t he new c o n s t i t u t i o n u n w o r k a b l e " . T h a t s t a t e m e n t l e d t o a s e r i e s o f r i o t s i n Y o r u b a l a n d . S e v e n t e e n p e o p l e were i n j u r e d a s U n i t y P a r t y and N a t i o n a l P a r t y s u p p o r t e r s c l a s h e d i n A b e o k u t a , c a p i t a l o f t h e w e s t e r n s t a t e o f Ogun. W i t h t h e p r e s s h i n t i n g o f c i v i l w a r , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s 65 were f i r m l y p u t down by s t a t e p o l i c e . UPN o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t f e d e r a l r e g i m e does b r i n g w i t h i t t h e p r o s p e c t o f i n s t a b i l i t y and u n r e s t . Awolowo and h i s U n i t y P a r t y f o l l o w e r s s h o u l d n o t be c a s t , t h o u g h , as l e s b e t e s n o i r e s o f N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s . T h e i r e f f o r t s t o e x t e n d Y o r u b a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t o r e s i s t any a t t e m p t t o weaken t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e , a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f g e n u i n e c o n c e r n . UPN p o l i t i c i a n s a r e a f r a i d t h a t f e d e r a l , and p e r h a p s even w e s t e r n , i n s t i t u t i o n s may be swamped by n o n - Y o r u b a — and p a r t i c u l a r l y by n o r t h e r n — i n t e r e s t s . I n d e e d , l o c a l UPN o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e g u l a r l y c o m p l a i n o f " p o l i t i c a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n " i n a r e a s where t h e y do n o t e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o v e r gove rnmen t o f f i c e s . ^ I f A w o l o w o ' s p o l i t i c a l a d v e n t u r i s m i s a m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o N i g e r i a n u n i t y , i t i s a l s o a s t r a t e g y w h i c h , i n Y o r u b a l a n d , a p p e a r s t o p r o t e c t c e r t a i n b a s i c t r i b a l - 104 -and r e g i o n a l r i g h t s . What t he a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e UPN and i t s p o l i t i c a l o p p o n e n t s do c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e i s t h a t t h e t h r e a t o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y h a s n o t d i s a p -p e a r e d i n N i g e r i a . P a r t i s a n l o y a l t y r e m a i n s t h e most i m p o r t a n t means o f a c c e d i n g t o p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e . A n d , a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , and t o t h e r e s o u r c e s u n d e r p u b l i c c o n t r o l , i s s t i l l t h e o b j e c t o f f i e r c e and o f t e n v i o l e n t f a c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s . I n s p i t e o f i t s numerous c h e c k s on l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y , N i g e r i a ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n c a n n o t c o n t a i n t h e d e s t a b i l -i z i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f p a r t i s a n c o n f l i c t , o f i t s own a c c o r d . On one s i d e , i t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e c h e c k s imposed on p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y a r e s i m p l y i n a d e q u a t e . The demands o f a c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m p l y do n o t a l l o w f o r t h e d e v o l u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y n e c e s s a r y t o d i f f u s e p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s . Y e t , a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r amework , a c o n s t i t u t i o n c a n o n l y e s t a b l i s h t h e s t r u c t u r e s i n w h i c h p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y o c c u r s . The re i s no o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e be tween t h e norms and p r o c e d u r e s embod ied i n a c o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e a c t u a l c o u r s e o f p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r . On t h e o t h e r s i d e , t h e n , i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a b a s i c l aw i s c a p a b l e o f r e s t r a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n d u c t o n l y i n s o f a r a s i t s s p e c i f i e d p r o c e d u r e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c u s t o m a r y p r a c t i c e s o f gove rnmen t . T h a t , i n i t s e l f , demands some d e g r e e o f p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y . P a r t i s a n g r o u p s must b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t s a r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f e x i s t i n g g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s n o t a t a l l e v i d e n t t h a t s u c h a c o n s e n s u s e x i s t s i n t h e c a s e o f N i g e r i a . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t c o u n t r y seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t when f a c t i o n a l g r o u p s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e i r w o r s t f e a r s o f l o s i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l a r e s i m p l y c o n f i r m e d . I n t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , r e s t r a i n t s on p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y may b e g i n t o d i s s o l v e . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y may come t o j u s t i f y any means f o r a t t a i n i n g t h a t o b j e c t i v e . A n d , s h o u l d t he r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t once 105 -a g a i n l e a d t o m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e n p e r h a p s even t h a t s i t u a t i o n m i g h t be p r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . From a more o p t i m i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f a c i v i l i a n government o p e r a t i n g on t h e b a s i s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t p a r t i s a n g r o u p s have n o t f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s e x c l u d e d f rom p o s i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Y e t , a dange r t h a t s e c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t m i g h t p r o d u c e a l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t w o u l d b r i n g w i t h i t w i d e s p r e a d a c t s o f v i o l e n c e — and e v e n t u a l l y t h e dem ise o f c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l r u l e — s t i l l e x i s t s . I n t he l a s t a n a l y s i s , t h e c o n d u c t o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n N i g e r i a i s c o n s t r a i n e d l e s s by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n t h a n by t h e commitment o f a l l p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e b a s i c l a w . On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s s i n c e t h e r e t u r n o f c i v i l i a n r u l e i n 1979 , t h a t commitment h a s a p p e a r e d t o be v e r y t e n u o u s i n d e e d . Government Under a New C o n s t i t u t i o n How w e l l h a s N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m f u n c t i o n e d s i n c e t h e c o u n t r y ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n was p u t i n t o e f f e c t ? Has t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a t l e a s t made t h e l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s more e f f e c t i v e ? What o f t he c o n s t i t u t i o n - m a k e r s ' g o a l o f " e f f i c i e n t " o r " r a t i o n a l " g o v e r n m e n t ? The p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m a d o p t e d by N i g e r i a n s t a t e s m e n i n 1979 i s s u p p o s e d t o a f f o r d e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s , a t b o t h f e d e r a l and s t a t e l e v e l s , an amount o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e e w a y . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l o w s t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h t o make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t immed ia te r e c o u r s e t o t h e p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n n a t i o n a l o r s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s . W h i l e p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d a s s e m -b l i e s must a p p r o v e a c t s o f l e g i s l a t i o n and r a t i f y t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a number o f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s , t h e l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f a gove rnmen t does n o t depend on t h e s u p p o r t o f a s t a n d i n g m a j o r i t y o f a s s e m b l y members. E l e c t i o n d a t e s a r e 106 -now s e t by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . M o r e o v e r , t h e b a s i c l a w p r e s c r i b e s c e r t a i n r u l e s o f c o n d u c t f o r p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . The e x p e c t a t i o n i s t h a t c o r r u p t i o n w i l l be r e d u c e d , i f n o t e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d . N i g e r i a ' s s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n , i s d e s i g n e d t o o p e r a t e i n s p i t e o f t he d i v e r s e p a r t i s a n and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s f o u n d a t e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . The f i r s t s e v e r a l months o f c i v i l i a n r u l e p r o v i d e ample e v i d e n c e o f j u s t how cumbersome t h e r e s u l t i n g g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s c a n b e . F i r s t o f a l l , c o r r u p t i o n h a s n o t been e l i m i n a t e d by e n t r e n c h i n g i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a code o f c o n d u c t f o r p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . A t an e a r l y s t a g e , members o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n D r a f t i n g Commi t tee were u n a b l e t o a g r e e on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d f r om h o l d i n g p u b l i c o f f i c e . When a CDC s u b - c o m m i t t e e on p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y recommended t h a t i t s h o u l d be made i l l e g a l f o r any e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l , and h i s immed ia te f a m i l y , t o o p e r a t e a b u s i n e s s o r t o r e c e i v e money d u r i n g h i s te rm o f o f f i c e , t h e p r o p o s a l p r o v o k e d " h e a t e d c o n t r o v e r s y " . The code o f c o n d u c t , a s i t f i n a l l y a p p e a r s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , embod ies a much 68 n a r r o w e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he s u b - c o m m i t t e e ' s r e s o l u t i o n . I t s a y s n o t h i n g o f t h e b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s o f immed ia te f a m i l y members. The code r e s t r i c t s s u p p l e m e n t a r y b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s f o r p u b l i c f i g u r e s , b u t o n l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d t h a t o f f i c i a l s a r e a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t . A n o t h e r p r o p o s a l , r e q u i r i n g t h a t a d e c l a r a t i o n o f a s s e t s be made a n n u a l l y , was a l s o amended t o e x t e n d t h e i n t e r v a l t o a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s . The d i f f i c u l t i e s CDC d e l e g a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n d r a f t i n g t he te rms o f a new code o f c o n d u c t r a i s e many d o u b t s a b o u t t h e commitment e x p r e s s e d by N i g e r i a ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s n o t t o u s e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r i v a t e g a i n . From t h e r e c o r d o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y s i n c e t h e c o u n t r y ' s r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e , i t seems t h a t t h o s e d o u b t s a r e w e l l j u s t i f i e d . 1 0 7 T h e 1 9 8 0 r e s i g n a t i o n o f P a u l U n o n g o o n c h a r g e s o f b r i b e r y i s o n l y o n e r e s u l t o f a p r e s s c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t p u b l i c c o r r u p t i o n — a c a m p a i g n w h i c h s h o w s n o s i g n o f a b a t i n g now t h a t N i g e r i a ' s c o d e o f c o n d u c t h a s b e e n e n a c t e d . A n u m b e r o f f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e o f f i c i a l s w e r e i m p l i c a t e d i n J a n u a r y 1 9 8 1 i n a s c a n d a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f r i c e s u p p l i e s . A l l e d g e d l y i m p o r t p e r m i t s w e r e b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f T r a d e t o t h o s e c o m p a n i e s i n w h i c h l e a d i n g N P N a n d NPP m e m b e r s h a d a d i r e c t b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t . One c o m p a n y o n t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s l i s t o f p e r m i t - h o l d e r s w a s , i n f a c t , n o n -e x i s t e n t . T h e m a t t e r h a s b e e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s . B u t i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f y e t a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n . F o r t h e s c h e m e a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a n a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n t r i v e d s h o r t a g e o f r i c e s u p p l i e s . A s d e m a n d f o r t h e f o o d s t u f f c o n t i n u e d t o r i s e , t h e p r i c e o f i m p o r t s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . F o o d r i o t s t o o k p l a c e i n many 6 9 c o m m u n i t i e s . W h a t i s a t s t a k e , t h e n , i s m o r e t h e n s i m p l y t h e p r o p e r c o n d u c t o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . T h e r e g u l a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r a f f e c t s t h e b r o a d e r q u e s t i o n o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y a s w e l l . C o r r u p t p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s a r e n o t t h e o n l y d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h o b s t r u c t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n N i g e r i a . T h e c h e c k s a n d b a l a n c e s o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s p r e s i d e n t i a l s y s t e m p o s e f u r t h e r p r o b l e m s f o r f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e p o l i c y - m a k e r s a l i k e . S t a l e m a t e s a n d b o t t l e n e c k s c o m m o n l y a r i s e a s e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s a n d a s s e m b l y m e m b e r s s t r u g g l e t o r e a c h a n a c c o r d t o g u a r a n t e e t h e p a s s a g e o f l e g i s l a t i o n b y b o t h b r a n c h e s o f g o v e r n m e n t . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e a b u s e o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y a n d i n v o l v e s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s t a k e t h e i r t o l l o n g o v e r n m e n t e f f i c i e n c y . P o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a c o m p l i c a t e d b u s i n e s s . N i g e r i a ' s new s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t h a s m e t a l r e a d y w i t h h a r s h c r i t i c i s m f o r i t s r a t h e r m e a g r e r e c o r d o f l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y . - 108 -Many o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s p r e s c r i b e d by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n h i b i t i n g t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power , s u b j e c t t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l p r o c e s s t o a s e r i e s o f p r o c e d u r a l e n t a n g l e m e n t s . By r e q u i r i n g t h a t a t l e a s t one f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r be a p p o i n t e d f r om each s t a t e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r e s i d e n t may be f o r c e d t o o v e r l o o k e s p e c i a l l y t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s b e c a u s e t h e y , do n o t meet h i s c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s be tween l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h e s h o l d s f o r t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f g o v e r n m e n t a l d e a d l o c k . A t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , membersh ip o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e f l e c t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e R e p u b l i c . An a l l o c a t i o n o f s e a t s on t h e b a s i s o f N i g e r i a n s l a s t " a c c e p t a b l e " p o p u l a t i o n c o u n t — t h e 1963 c e n s u s — g r a n t s a House m a j o r i t y t o d i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f rom s t a t e s o f t h e f o r m e r N o r t h e r n 70 R e g i o n . The S e n a t e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h i t s s e a t s d i s t r i b u t e d e q u a l l y among a l l s t a t e s , e n s u r e s a m a j o r i t y t o members r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o s e s t a t e s 71 c r e a t e d f rom t h e f o r m e r E a s t e r n , W e s t e r n , and M i d - W e s t e r n R e g i o n s . Such a f o r m u l a i n c r e a s e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t — n o t o n l y be tween t h e n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n r e g i o n a l m a j o r i t i e s housed i n t h e b i c a m e r a l N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y , b u t a l s o be tween t h e e x e c u t i v e and a t l e a s t one house o f t h e f e d e r a l l e g i s l a -t u r e — i n m a t t e r s where r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e a t s t a k e . The c o n s t i t u t i o n assumes t h a t any s t a l e m a t e w i l l be r e s o l v e d by some means o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Y e t , i n a c o u n t r y where p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s o f t e n r e s t on t h e r e g i o n a l e f f e c t s o f n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s o f g a r n e r i n g an agreement may be a d r a w n -o u t and e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d a f f a i r . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f N i g e r i a ' s new s y s t e m o f government a r e e v i d e n t f rom t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f c i v i l i a n r u l e . <_•; Upon a s s u m i n g o f f i c e i n O c t o b e r 197J9, P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i c o m m i t t e d h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o a b r o a d r a n g e o f s o c i a l and economic deve lopmen t p o l i c i e s . He p l e d g e d t h a t h i s government wou ld make N i g e r i a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n f o o d , - 109 -encourage housing and the development o f s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s , and review the system of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining f o r wages i n the i n d u s t r i a l and p u b l i c 72 s e c t o r s . His i n t e n t i o n s have been checked by two unfavourable circumstances. F i r s t , c i v i l i a n p o l i t i c i a n s i n h e r i t e d from t h e i r m i l i t a r y predecessors a 73 s u b s t a n t i a l f e d e r a l debt. Government investment programmes could not be r a d i c a l l y expanded without decreasing the t i g h t supply of money even f u r t h e r . The N i g e r i a n Treasury was already.under severe s t r a i n . Perhaps more t e l l i n g , however, has been the need t o prepare l e g i s -l a t i o n which meets with the approval of the N a t i o n a l Assembly. N i g e r i a i s governed by an NPN p r e s i d e n t . The N a t i o n a l Party commands the g r e a t e s t number of seats i n both the Senate and House o f Representatives of a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . However, the NPN does not possess an absolute m a j o r i t y i n e i t h e r house. In order to ensure the passage of executive b i l l s through the f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t u r e , then, President Shagari must not only maintain l o y a l t y w i t h i n h i s own party, but a t t r a c t support from the members of other p a r t i e s as w e l l . That demands l e g i s l a t i o n which does not b e n e f i t one s e c t i o n o f the country above another. I t r e q u i r e s c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h s t a t e o f f i c i a l s , and an e f f o r t to appeal to as broad a r e g i o n a l base as p o s s i b l e . At the end of the 1979 e l e c t i o n campaign, Shagari pleaded t h a t p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s must be put aside f o r the good of the Republic. We must subjugate our p o l i t i c a l and other d i f f e r e n c e s to the u n r e l e n t i n g p u r s u i t o f peace, u n i t y , and progress o f our motherland.... I t i s your duty, indeed your sacred r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to ensure t h a t our n a t i o n a l u n i t y and s t a b i l i t y are not s a c r i f i c e d on the a l t e r o f ego or f l e e t i n g p o l i t i c a l gains or expediency. More then anything e l s e , there i s a need f o r t o l e r a n c e , understanding, and t r u s t . Inflam-matory speeches and indulgence i n polemics must not be allowed to becloud the r e a l i ssues before you. Since our u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s to provide f o r the welfare of a l l N i g e r i a n s , we must subjugate our p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s ^ t o the u n r e l e n t i n g p u r s u i t o f peace, u n i t y , and progress. The p r e s i d e n t ' s c o n c i l i a t o r y message provides the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r a - no -c o o p e r a t i o n agreement t h a t was c o n c l u d e d be tween h i s own N a t i o n a l P a r t y and t h e N i g e r i a n P e o p l e ' s P a r t y i n m i d - O c t o b e r 1 9 7 9 . A t t h a t t i m e , t h e two p a r t i e s u n d e r t o o k " t o work t o g e t h e r i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a m i t y , p e a c e , s t a b i l i t y , and 75 p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y " . The p a c t d i d n o t g i v e r i s e t o a f o r m a l c o a l i t i o n . However , i t d i d create3Bn"5 NPN-NPP v o t i n g a l l i a n c e i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y , g i v i n g S h a g a r i a w o r k i n g m a j o r i t y o f 52 o u t o f 95 s e a t s i n t h e S e n a t e and 246 o u t o f 449 s e a t s i n t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I n r e t u r n , f o u r NPP p o l i t i c i a n s were t o be a p p o i n t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t . The p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S e n a t e and t h e d e p u t y s p e a k e r o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were c h o s e n f r om among members o f t h e NPN; t h e S e n a t e ' s depu ty p r e s i d e n t and t h e s p e a k e r o f t h e House were NPP n o m i n e e s . T h u s , a t an e a r l y s t a g e , t h e agreement w i t n e s s e d t h e emergence o f de f a c t o m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y v o t i n g a l l i a n c e s i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . The e x i s t e n c e o f an NPN-NPP v o t i n g agreement does n o t r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s o f p r e s i d e n t i a l g o v e r n m e n t . I n some i n s t a n c e s , i t may make t h e t a s k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n even more d i f f i c u l t . UPN p o l i t i c i a n s a r e t o t a l l y e x c l u d e d f r om t h e p a c t . F e d e r a l appointments g o : t d f n o r t h e r n (NPN) and e a s t e r n (NPP) n o m i n e e s . UPN s e n a t o r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e r e l e g a t e d t o o p p o s i t i o n b e n c h e s , a d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n f rom t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f i n f l u e n c i n g f e d e r a l l e g i s -l a t i o n . The a l l i a n c e e f f e c t i v e l y s e r v e s t o i s o l a t e UPN members o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . I t e x a c e r b a t e s an a l r e a d y open c l e a v a g e w i t h i n N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s , m a g n i f y i n g w i t h i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a d i v i s i o n t h a t - a p p e a r s t o s e p a r a t e w e s t e r n , Y o r u b a , i n t e r e s t s f rom t h o s e o f o t h e r r e g i o n s o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n . I t i s a s i t u a t i o n a l l t o o r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e A c t i o n G r o u p ' s e x c l u s i o n f rom t h e r u l i n g NPC-NCNC c o a l i t i o n t h a t s t o o d a t t h e h e a r t o f T a f a w a B a l e w a ' s i l l - f a t e d government i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r N i g e r i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e a l l i a n c e h a s p r o v e d v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n . The - I l l -reports of the 1981 debates on the federal government's Revenue Allocation B i l l well illustrate the tensions involved, particularly as the NPP attempts to balance regional representation with i t s desire to remain within the govern-ing alliance. The constitution stipulates that the distribution of federally collected revenues to federal, estate, and local governments i s a matter which must be decided by the National Assembly. In November 1980, President Shagari presented to the federal legislature a b i l l which would distribute 55 percent of total revenues to the federal government, 34.5 percent to the states, and 76 8 percent to local authorities. Although supported by NPP members of the cabinet, the b i l l met strong opposition from NPP representatives in the National Assembly. After a very acrimonious series of debates — on several occasions the proceedings of the Assembly yielded to quarrels and open 77 fighting among i t s members — the House of Representatives drastically reduced the federal share in favour of the states. The Senate restored the original allocation formula. As prescribed by the constitution, a meeting of the Senate-House joint finance committee was then convened. The committee (with an NPN majority) accepted the Senate's version of the b i l l , and President Shagari signed i t into law in February 1981^ The president's decision to enact the legislation without re-submitting i t to the National Assembly after the joint committee's ruling, precipitated violent scenes in both legislative chambers. (At one point police actually fought with legislators in an effort to maintain order.) The Nigerian People's Party, along with other opposition groups, initiated court proceedings against the federal government, claiming that the method employed 78 to pass the Revenue Allocation B i l l was unconstitutional. That move exacer-bated the mutual distrust that had already developed between the NPN and NPP. The federal administration retaliated by rejecting out of hand a l i s t of NPP - 112 -79 ambassadorial nominees. P o l i t i c i a n s on both sides c a l l e d for an end to the interparty accord. Claiming that i t had "received only confrontation" from the government, the Nigerian People's Party announced i n July 1981 that i t s a l l i a n c e with the National Party had come to an end. The speaker of the House of Representatives, deputy president of the Senate, and a few NPP ministers resigned t h e i r posts. A de facto voting a l l i a n c e between the NPN and NPP, however, remains within the National Assembly. By August 1981, opposition to the NPN was weakening among NPP leaders. A group of NPN and NPP o f f i c i a l s issued a j o i n t 81 statement opposing the breakup of the a l l i a n c e . Consequently the federal government i s s t i l l able to muster the support of a majority of Senate and • House representatives. What i s now c l e a r , though, i s the tenuous nature of that majority. NPP members have shown themselves w i l l i n g to vote against government l e g i s l a t i o n . For that matter, the NPN-NPP accord never worked e f f e c t i v e l y . At a more general l e v e l , voting patterns within the Assembly have not always followed party l i n e s . Support f o r the federal executive within the national l e g i s l a t u r e , then, cannot be absolutely guaranteed. I t emerges only from a series of continuing and complex interparty negotiations. As a r e s u l t , the federal l e g i s l a t i v e process has proved to be a cumbersome and time-consuming a f f a i r . In i t s f i r s t year-and-a-half of 82 existence the National Assembly passed only three b i l l s . The federal government's Revenue A l l o c a t i o n Act was judged unconstitutional i n October 83 1981. Moreover, the national l e g i s l a t u r e has been reluctant to r a t i f y federal executive appointments. President Shagari's l i s t of NPN and NPP nominees fo r h i s cabinet's 38 m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n s was submitted to the Senate within 84 two weeks of h i s inauguration. The Senate rejected three candidates outright. I t was not u n t i l early January 1980 that senators f i n a l l y approved v* Shagari's - 113 -l i s t of ministerial nominees -- and even then the decision was the result of 85 a UPN boycott of the session. By the end of the second year of c i v i l i a n administration, Nigeria was s t i l l to post slightly under half of i t s 86 ambassadors. Claiming that i t should have the power to nominate liaison officers to the National Economic Council, the Senate s t i l l refuses to rat i f y 87 President Shagari's l i s t of candidates for the post. A working relation-ship between executive and legislative branches of government can only be expected to develop with time and experience; To date, those relations appear to be very frosty indeed. The legislative process i s painfully slow in Nigeria. A l l too often i t results in federal government inaction, accompanied by a growing ;i .. amount of public criticism. As reported incidents of smuggling, robbery, and corruption increase, and as figures indicating the level of industrial and 88 agricultural productivity continue to wane, the federal administration seems to be drifting and Nigeria's legislatures appear in disarray. Ignoring threats of a ^general strike in May 1981, the national government found i t s e l f conceding to union wage demands a few hours after the strike was 89 called. During that same month, a border clash with Cameroon l e f t five Nigerian soldiers dead. The lack of any o f f i c i a l response from President Shagari e l i c i t e d a strongly worded protest from an outraged military 90 leadership. In many quarters, Shagari is viewed as the chief culprit behind the practice of "minimal government"."The need to search for national concil-iation to override the institutional demands of office" exists as "a heavy 91 weight" upon the country's new president. The national priorities announced by President Shagari on the f i r s t and second anniversaries of c i v i l i a n govern-ment are identical to the programme for reform unveiled the day of his 92 inauguration. - 114 -Stalemates between executive and legislative branches of government are not phenomena confined to the federal level alone. In the state of Kaduna, for instance, no executive decisions requiring legislative approval were taken within the f i r s t 20?-months of c i v i l i a n rule. The People's Redemption Party captured two gubernatorial seats in the 1979 elections — in Kaduna and Kano. However, the party failed to win a majority in the-Kaduna state assembly. The governor, Alhaji Balarabe Musa, faced a National Party majority which, from the start, showed that i t was unwilling to cooperate with a "socialist" PRP administration. In the words of one National Party spokesman, the NPN was reluctant to deal with a governor who could only 93 represent the talakwa, the poor masses. In any event, the deadlock para-lyzed state government. Kaduna's House of Assembly rejected the governor's fourth l i s t of cabinet nominees in July 1980, despite the fact that many of the candidates were National Party members. A f i f t h l i s t was turned down 94 even before i t s contents were announced. The intervention of National Party executive o f f i c i a l s , and of President Shagari himself, were of no avail in 95 resolving the dispute. Consequently no state commissioners were appointed. s The state budget could not be r a t i f i e d . The Assembly would not grant salaries for executive o f f i c i a l s ; the governor scaled down the salaries of Assembly members* The state assembly simply refused to pass any legislation presented to i t by Balarabe Musa. In January 1981, after four weeks of impeachment threats, Balarabe initiated proceedings against the state assembly in Kaduna's High Court. The governor's action followed upon his refusal to appear before a committee of the House of Assembly set up to investigate his conduct in office. The Assembly issued a warrant of arrest against the governor and immediately began proceedings for his impeachment. (Balarabe's plight was compounded by a - 115 -sp l i t within his own party. In 1980 he and the governor of Kano were both expelled by the leader of the PRP for participating in a meeting with Unity Party governors. Claiming that they represented the true PRP, the governors retaliated by expelling Aminu Kano. Ironically, the party's national executive 97 lent i t s f u l l support to the efforts of the NPN-dominated Kaduna Assembly.,! ) 98 Alhaji Balarabe Musa was impeached for "gross misconduct" in July 1981. It was the only action open to the National Party within the provisions of the new constitution. Most obervers feel that the impeachment was a serious distortion of the s p i r i t of the constitution: The document did not intend impeachment to be used purely for p o l i t i c a l ends. In any case, the deadlock remains VM unresolved. Balarabe was replaced by his deputy governor, Alhaji Abba Rimi, who i s also a member of the People's Redemption Party. National Party oppo-sition persists in the state assembly. Kaduna i s a sensitive issue in the polit i c s of Nigeria's c i v i l i a n regime. In that state, government inaction seems to be the only outcome of playing by the country's new constitutional i 99 rules. Nigeria's new constitution provides no means of resolving execu-tive-legislative deadlock. Again, p o l i t i c a l accommodation can emerge only by way of governmental practice. Effective government requires experience and diplomacy. No constitutional formulae are able to guarantee a smoothly func-tioning system of administration for Nigeria. The operation of government cannot be regarded as a pre-existing condition of p o l i t i c a l society. Like the relations among sectional groups, cooperation between executive and legislative o f f i c i a l s develop within the structures established by the basic law. P o l i t i c a l actors make constitutional arrangements work. In Nigeria, i t i s simply not clear to what extent partisan calculations — and competition - 116 -over positions of p o l i t i c a l authority — can be put aside in the interest of operable government. Defining the Federation Nigeria's new c i v i l i a n constitution retains a federal system of government. State authorities are charged with jurisdiction over local matters — health, primary education, local government, regional development. The federal government, on the other hand, exercises responsibility over such matters as communications and transportation networks, currency, and national economic development — affairs that are deemed to be in the national .-> , ... interest. Both levels of government possess their own bureaucratic structures and ^sources of finance. Both are accountable to the publics resident within their t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries. Nigeria's c i v i l i a n regime also-has inherited many of the problems associated with federalism. Intergovernmental conflict s t i l l exists. As a result, the balance of power between central and state governments within^the Federation is constantly being redefined. Any attempt'to draft^a new federal constitution involves, ipso facto, an allocation of government responsibilities to national_,.and regional - . authorities. Yet,, how. are . federal and local;interests ^ toTbe determined? Federations older than Nigeria have been faced with the same dilemma. Matters placed under the jurisdiction of state authorities are often of common concern to an entire national population. Similar demands for p o l i t i c a l action may be voiced from a l l parts of the federation. Alternatively, the policies of one state may affect the inhabitants of another, thereby requiring a response by other regional administrations, and eventually creating a situation which must be dealt with on a national scale. From the opposite perspective, a c t i -v i t i e s that are deemed to f a l l within the jurisdiction of national government may affect regions differently. They may affect regional interests which can - 117 -only effectively be dealt with by state administrations. Local and national interests cannot be defined by any objective standard. A constitution may l i s t the responsibilities to be exercised by federal and state authorities. However, an extensive range of concrete p o l i t i c a l issues cannot be so precisely allocated. The distribution of powers reflects a p o l i t i c a l formula devised during the period of constitutional construction, rather than any attempt to establish an ideal federal system. Likewise, a workable federal system requires a continuous dialogue between federal and provincial authorities. An analysis of modern Nigerian federalism thus begins from two points of enquiry: What is the constitutional organization of Nigeria's federal system intended to achieve? And, given those expectations, how well do federal institutions actually work? The federal system of government established by Nigeria's new constitution reflects the balance of p o l i t i c a l forces involved in the drafting process. The impetus for constitutional reform came predominantly from the central military government. Timetables for the sessions of the CDC and Constituent Assembly, as well as for the election of a c i v i l i a n regime, were devised by the Supreme Military Council in Lagos. That body defined the problems that a new constitution was intended to alleviate. The SMC established the objectives of constitutional reform, setting forth the basic organizational features of a federal system of c i v i l i a n government. At the same time, i t s decisions were based on the experience of almost two decades of federal rule in Nigeria. The constitution is a product both of the p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the First Republic and of the institutions established during the years of military administration. It is a document constructed primarily from the perspective of the central government, whose aim is to consolidate a system of national authority. P o l i t i c a l stability - 118 -and effective government in Nigeria are defined in the terms of the entire Federation. The constitution represents an attempt to strengthen the i n s t i -tutions of central government, rather than any effort to devolve power to regional or state authorities. The centralist nature of Nigeria's federalist constitution is evident in the geographic delimitation of state boundaries, as well as in the allocation of powers to federal and state governments. By maintaining a federation of 19 states, the constitution ensures that no single regional administration is capable on i t s own of posing a threat to national integrity by threatening to secede from the union. Similarly, no state, by withholding i t s consent in federal-state negotiations, can obstruct the development of national polcies requiring a certain degree of state support. The constitution incorporates a "divide-and-rule" principle with an allocation of governmental authority designed to limit state administrations to matters of local concern. It grants the central government overriding jurisdiction to plan and implement national economic and social programmes. The task of ensuring national p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and encouraging national economic development is assisted by institutional arrangements devised to reinforce the hand of the national government. At the same time, though, Nigeria's federal system is confronted by a number of problems inherent in i t s very organization. Fi r s t of a l l , federal and state governments in Nigeria are relatively recent creations. Both organizations are imposed on a diverse collection of traditional community, religious, and t r i b a l groups. Given these circumstances, i t is : f u t i l e to ask whether or not a system of federal government per se is appropriate to meet the goals set forth by the country's constitutional engineers. There would be no need for a smoothly functioning federal government i f some form of nationally determined economic and social - 119 -development strategy were not considered a p r i o r i t y . The need to integrate a wide range of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s would not a r i s e i f t r a d i t i o n a l and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s possessed the power to make p o l i t i c a l decisions i n a l l matters they regard as c r u c i a l . The objectives of "good government" i n Nigeria are defined by the very existence of national and state a u t h o r i t i e s — that should go without saying. It i s v a l i d , however, to question the extent to which Nigerian federalism can go i n achieving either a stable l e v e l of national i n t e g r a t i o n or an operable system of government. Two sets of problems a r i s e i n t h i s regard. The f i r s t centres about the dilemmas involved i n imposing federal and state a u t h o r i t i e s upon an already deeply ingrained pattern of t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e . The second i s a d i r e c t concommitant of any federal system — the emergence of organizational c o n f l i c t s between l o c a l and state administrations, and between federal and state o f f i c i a l s . We have already considered some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that a r i s e i n the e f f o r t to include i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s of federal and state governments, spokesmen representing a v a r i e t y of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . Further problems may emerge because the demands of modern federal and state administrations are d i r e c t l y at odds with the a c t i v i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l and r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s . The c i t y of Kano provides evidence on both counts. Late i n 1980, i n the wake of the Iranian revolution, Kano experienced a s e r i e s of r i o t s i n s t i g a t e d by the Yen Awaki, a f a n a t i c a l sect of Islamic fundamentalists. In one week more than a thousand people died and many more were injured as a r e s u l t of the disturbances. The r i o t s were quelled only a f t e r martial law had been imposed. The army moved into the c i t y , v i o l e n t l y suppressing any opposition i t encountered."'"^ Such a demonstration of r e l i g i o u s fanaticism i s not important because i t i l l u s t r a t e s some organizational flaw i n Nigeria's new c o n s t i t u t i o n . I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e resides i n the f a c t that the r i o t s occurred - 120 -i n s p i te of the constraints imposed on p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y by the basic law. Such c o n f l i c t s among r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l groups are beyond the pale of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l provision. They e x i s t regardless of the nature of federal and state government. And they can be contained only by r e s o r t to the coercive power of public authority. Nigeria's federal system i s construc-ted atop t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of authority that s t i l l determine how many p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s are to be defined. The co n s t i t u t i o n can only be expected to influence public a f f a i r s as long as federal and state i n s t i t u t i o n s are the exclusive l o c i of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Kano's r e l i g i o u s disturbances suggest that national and regional governments do not exert u n r i v a l l e d authority over Nigeria's p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . Federalism i s i n no sense a "natural" form of government f or Nigeria. Where l o c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l author^-i t i e s exert a decisive influence on s o c i a l behaviour, there cannot be any guarantee that s e c t i o n a l differences w i l l f i n d expression, or be contained, within the i n s t i t u t i o n s of a federal system of government. Indeed, state o f f i c i a l s may f i n d themselves i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with l o c a l t r i b a l and r e l i g i o u s leaders. Many t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s , although they possess no l e g i s l a t i v e powers-;1 s t i l l command a large following among the community. Through the Councils of Chiefs established i n each state, they are accorded an advisory r o l e i n state administration. Nevertheless, disputes between modern and t r a d i t i o n a l state a u t h o r i t i e s are common. As witnessed i n the state of Kano, such c o n f l i c t s can r e s u l t , i n v i o l e n t disturbances. Since hi s e l e c t i o n i n 1979, Kano's PRP governor, A l h a j i Abubakar Rimi, has empha-sized h i s commitment to l i m i t the power of the state's t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the emir of Kano, by intervening i n matters of l o c a l t r i b a l and r e l i g i o u s concern. By July 1981 opposition on the part of the - 121 -e m i r a t e t o Abubaka r R i m i ' s a c t i v i t i e s had become q u i t e g e n e r a l i z e d . When t h e g o v e r n o r demanded t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e e m i r l a t e r t h a t y e a r , r i o t s e r u p t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s t a t e . S t a t e o f f i c i a l s a g a i n r e q u i r e d government t r o o p s t o r e s t o r e o r d e r . T r a d i t i o n a l l o y a l t i e s and t r i b a l p r a c t i c e s d i e h a r d i n N i g e r i a . T r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s g o v e r n i n g f a m i l y m a t t e r s , r e l i g i o u s r i t e s , and t r i b a l cus tom t o u c h upon t h e d a i l y l i v e s o f many i n d i v i d u a l s t o a f a r g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s t a t e o r n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . The number o f v o t e r s who a c t u a l l y c a s t b a l l o t s i n N i g e r i a ' s 1979 e l e c t i o n s p r o v i d e s " a n o t h e r p o i g n a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r r o l e p o p u l a r l y a c c o r d e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . O v e r a l l t u r n o u t r a n g e d f rom 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e i n t h e s e n a t o r i a l e l e c t i o n t o a mere 3 5 . 5 p e r c e n t i n t h e p r e s i -102 d e n t i a l p o l l . I n an e l e c t o r a l campa ign t h a t was t o p r e s a g e a r e t u r n t o c i v i l i a n r u l e — t h e f i r s t e l e c t i o n h e l d i n t h e c o u n t r y f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s — t h e l o w f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r a m a j o r i t y o f N i g e r i a n s a new sys tem o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government means v e r y l i t t l e . Any e f f o r t t o impose a f r a m e -work o f p o l i t i c a l r u l e s , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y a f e d e r a l r e g i m e , upon a soci^» e t y where t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s s t i l l d o m i n a t e d a i l y l i f e , i s bound t o be a d i f f i c u l t o p e r a t i o n . I f p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f a i l t o accommodate t r a d i -t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and s o c i a l c u s t o m s , t h e n many communi ty a c t i v i t i e s may r e m a i n beyond t h e s c o p e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . Where f e d e r a l and s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s c h a l l e n g e t h e power o f t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s , t h e i r a c t i o n s may g e n e r a t e p o p u l a r o p p o s i t i o n , i f n o t open r e v o l t . I n s h o r t , f e d e r a l i s m i n N i g e r i a i s n o t a s y s t e m o f government t h a t d e v e l o p s n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l demands o f a p l u r a l s o c i e t y . I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y new and a r t i f i c i a l c r e a t i o n , whose i n s t i t u t i o n s r i v a l e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t r e m a i n o r g a n i z e d a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . - 122 -Nigeria's federal system also brings with i t organizational problems of i t s own. The very existence of separate state and federal administrations, each attempting to govern within the jurisdictional parameters established by the constitution, provides sufficient cause for intergovernmental dispute. Central and regional governments tend to develop an organizational impetus of their own. As policy issues become more and more complex, decision-makers at both levels attempt to extend their authority over matters in related areas of government activity. Jurisdictional boundaries are blurred. Conflicts arise between federal and state authorities along a widening area of mutual concern. Administrations place increasingly greater demands upon a limited pool of bureaucratic and financial resources. Access to p o l i t i c a l power becomes an even more valuable prize. As regional groups attempt to gain exclusive control over public resources, each demands the creation of policy-making structures which i t alone is able to dominate. The conflicts which thus develop between federal and state governments, and among regional populations, are intrinsic to Nigeria's federal system of government. They are, in a sense, organizationsl problems arising from the actual operation of those p o l i t i c a l institutions established by the constitution. Governmental responsibilities cannot be s t r i c t l y compartmentalized according to the categories set forth by the constitution. The activities of federal and state -administrations often overlap. As a result, the policy process involves a large measure of intergovernmental consultation and negotiations. Decision-making in a federal system, while not necessarily requiring'^an accord between central and state governments, does at least involve some measure of mutual predictability. The probable reaction of other governments within the federation is a factor that enters into national and regional policy calculations. In the case of Nigeria, regular meetings - 1 2 3 -o f f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e b u r e a u c r a t s , c h i e f e x e c u t i v e s , a n d c a b i n e t s e c r e t a r i e s p r o v i d e a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n g o v e r n m e n t s . T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S t a t e , F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l C o m m i s s i o n , a N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l , a n d N a t i o n a l P o p u l a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n i n w h i c h f e d e r a l a s " w e l l a s r e g i o n a l 1 0 3 a u t h o r i t i e s a r e t o b e r e p r e s e n t e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , d i s p u t e s o v e r t h e p r e c i s e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c e n t r a l a n d s t a t e p o w e r s a r e c o m m o n . P o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may p r o m o t e i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t a c t o n a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s , a n d t h e r e b y p r o v i d e a f o r u m i n w h i c h c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s c a n b e r e s o l v e d . B u t t h e y a r e n o t s o l u t i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s . F e d e r a l - s t a t e c o n f l i c t o v e r p a r t i c u l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r i s e s f r o m t h e . o p e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s w i t h i n N i g e r i a n f e d e r a l i s m . I t i s o n e m o r e f a c e t o f t h e game o f p o l i t i c s p l a y e d b y t h e r u l e s o f N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . S h a r p d i s p u t e s h a v e e m e r g e d b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a s i n c e t h e r e t u r n o f c i v i l i a n r u l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y . I n l a t e 1 9 7 9 t h e c o u n t r y ' s f i v e U P N - c o n t r o l l e d s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a n n o u n c e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o p r o v i d e f r e e e d u c a t i o n a t a l l a g e 1 0 4 l e v e l s . T h e g o v e r n o r o f L a g o s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e w o u l d n o t a d m i t c h i l d r e n t r a n s f e r r i n g f r o m " n o n - f r e e e d u c a t i o n s t a t e s " i n t o t h e s c h o o l s unde t f h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h e N P P g o v e r n o r o f Imo r e s p o n d e d b y i m p o s i n g a n e d u c a t i o n f e e o n p a r e n t s w h o s e c h i l d r e n w e r e e n r o l l e d a t " f r e e - s t a t e " 1 0 5 s c h o o l s . A c t i n g u n d e r h i s a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t o f a l l N i g e r i a n s - ' t o move a t w i l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y , P r e s i d e n t S h a g a r i c h a l l e n g e d t h e a c t i o n s o f b o t h g o v e r n o r s . I n s o d o i n g , t h e p r e s i d e n t i m m e d -i a t e l y t r a n s f o r m e d a n i n t e r s t a t e d i s p u t e i n t o a f u l l - b l o w n c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d 1 9 s t a t e g o v e r n o r s . S h a g a r i r e f e r r e d t o h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r . T h e g o v e r n o r s - 124 -claimed that decisions a f f e c t i n g education p o l i c y f a l l within the exclusive 106 competence of state authorities.'. Both partie s are correct. After several b i t t e r exchanges, the matter was f i n a l l y submitted f o r negotiation between state and federal bureaucrats. As the a f f a i r well i l l u s t r a t e s , Nigeria's new co n s t i t u t i o n does not prevent intergovernmental c o n f l i c t . Neither does i t prescribe a set of rules through which such c o n f l i c t can be resolved. Intergovernmental c o n f l i c t has also ; . c e n t r e d on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n a n c i a l resources to federal and state a u t h o r i t i e s . The federal government appointed a commission of enquiry, headed by Ju s t i c e Pius Okigbo, 107 i n November 1979 to recommend a formula f o r national revenue a l l o c a t i o n . The commission published i t s report s i x months l a t e r . The findings immed-108 i a t e l y created a major p o l i t i c a l storm. Basing i t s conclusions on the c r i t e r i a of "national i n t e r e s t , derivation, population, even development, equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n , equality of states' needs, f i n a n c i a l comparability, minimum r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , independent revenues, and continuity", the commission recommended that 53 percent of f e d e r a l l y c o l l e c t e d revenues 109 should remain at the disposal of the cen t r a l government. At the same time, 30 percent should be all o c a t e d to state a u t h o r i t i e s and d i s t r i b u t e d accordingly: 40 percent i n proportion to state populations, 40 percent on the grounds of equality, 15 percent i n proportion to primary school enrolment and development needs, and 5 percent to be determined by the amount of revenue c o l l e c t e d within each state. Ten percent of national revenues should go to l o c a l governments, while 7 percent should be invested i n a s p e c i a l r e l i e f and development fund."''"'"0 The commission's recommendations contrasted with a federal proposal, which appeared i n early 1981, a l l o c a t i n g 70 percent of n a t i o n a l l y c o l l e c t e d revenues to the cen t r a l government, 20 percent to the states, and 10 percent to l o c a l administrations."'""'"''' Okigbo's formula was also rejected by a group - 125 -o f nine state governors representing the oil-producing regions of the country. The governors argued that the federal share proposed by the Okigbo plan should be reduced. Forty percent of national revenues, they f e l t , " i s the minimum required to enable the governors of a l l the 19 states to f u l f i l l promises made ... to .the electorate during the electioneering campaigns as 112 well as to service loans already borrowed from abroad". B i t t e r disagreements between federal and state o f f i c i a l s , over the issue of revenue a l l o c a t i o n , raged on through the l a t t e r months of 1980. Each l e v e l of government n a t u r a l l y claimed a higher proportion of revenues f o r i t s own purposes. Although the National Economic Council was convened on several occasions, i n an attempt to reconcile federal and state differences, no formula attracted the support of a l l p a r t i e s . F i n a l l y , i n November, President Shagari introduced h i s National Revenue A l l o c a t i o n B i l l i n the National Assembly. The l e g i s l a t i o n set aside 55 percent of n a t i o n a l l y c o l l e c t e d revenues for the c e n t r a l government, while 34.5 percent would go to the states, 8 percent to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and 2.5 percent to a fund for the 113 development of a new c a p i t a l t e r r i t o r y at Abuja. The b i l l met with widespread c r i t i c i s m from state administrations. As previously mentioned, i t encountered s t r i d e n t opposition i n the National Assembly, was eventually passed and l a t e r judged u l t r a v i r e s . The entire episode placed a great deal of s t r a i n on federal-state r e l a t i o n s . The b i l l r e sulted i n v i o l e n t demonstra-tions on the part of i t s opponents. I t brought with i t the immediate threat of c i v i l unrest. In one sense, the revenue a l l o c a t i o n controversy i s evidence that Nigeria's federal system a c t u a l l y does work. Intergovernmental negotiations are capable of r e c o n c i l i n g adverse p o l i t i c a l demands, at l e a s t to some degree. The b i l l that President Shagari introduced i n the National Assembly, although i t would have given the central government a s l i g h t l y larger share of national - 126 -revenues than that proposed by the Okigbo commission, was c e r t a i n l y not as biased towards the f e d e r a l l e v e l as the president's f i r s t revenue a l l o c a t i o n formula. The f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n made compromises i n the face of s t a t e pressure. The b i l l was a product o f intergovernmental n e g o t i a t i o n s . I t emerged from an extensive, a l b e i t u n f i n i s h e d , dialogue between f e d e r a l and s t a t e o f f i c i a l s — a dialogue i n which p o l i t i c a l p o s t u r i n g , grand statements of p r i n c i p l e , and hard bargaining techniques were employed by both s i d e s . Never-t h e l e s s , one matter remains unresolved. To what extent can intergovernmental c o n f l i c t be productive? Can such c o n f l i c t e x i s t without exacerbating the already f i s s i p a r o u s tendencies of N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s ? In a community o f p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e and competing s e c t i o n a l groups, the f e d e r a l system may operate so as to weaken the chances o f i t s own s u r v i v a l . N i g e r i a ' s f e d e r a l system faces one f i n a l set of problems. S e c t i o n a l groups s t i l l b e l i e v e that the advantages of achiev i n g p o l i t i c a l power are enormous. P o l i t i c a l o f f i c e i s a source of patronage, a l e v e r to be used i n bargaining with other groups, a means f o r p r o t e c t i n g l o c a l customs. I t i s a very valuable p r i z e . I t remains the object o f a great deal of f a c t i o n a l r i v a l r y . One f a c e t of that r i v a l r y i s f i e r c e i n t e r p a r t y competition. Another i s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f demands made on the p a r t o f r e g i o n a l and t r i b a l groups f o r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which they alone are able to c o n t r o l . Since October 1979, p o l i t i c a l leaders have questioned e x i s t i n g s t a t e boundaries, as w e l l as the composition o f l o c a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . Once more, ti-the r e s u l t i n g c o n t r o v e r s i e s underline the dilemma t h a t e x i s t s i n any attempt to design p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s to accommodate a d i v e r s i t y o f s e c t i o n a l i n t e r s e s t s and, a t the same time, to ensure t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s t h a t are created are capable of p r o v i d i n g an e f f e c t i v e form of government. Throughout the p e r i o d of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reform, N i g e r i a ' s Federal M i l i t a r y Government refused to redraw s t a t e boundaries. N i g e r i a was to remain - 127 -114 a f e d e r a t i o n o f 19 s t a t e s . P r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s a r e so complex as t o be v i r t u a l l y p r o h i b i t i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w i t h i n the f i r s t y e a r o f c i v i l i a n r u l e , the f e d e r a l government 115 r e c e i v e d 61 s e p a r a t e r e q u e s t s t o e s t a b l i s h new r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . Many o f the re a s o n s t h a t prompted m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s t o c r e a t e seven a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e s i n the l a t e 1970s r e a p p e a r i n more r e c e n t demands f o r f u r t h e r boundary r e v i s i o n s . M i n o r i t y groups f e a r t h a t they may be e x c l u d e d from the i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g s t a t e governments. P o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s wish t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p e r s o n a l a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s under s t a t e c o n t r o l . R e g i o n a l groups attempt t o s e c u r e more funds f o r l o c a l a r e a s . The c r e a t i o n o f more s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s i s j u s t i f i e d on the p r i n c i p l e o f a c h i e v i n g an e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l 116 w e a l t h t o a l l g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s w i t h i n N i g e r i a . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d i n g the f e d e r a t i o n were r e c o g n i z e d by the Supreme M i l i t a r y C o u n c i l a t an e a r l y s t a g e i n the c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l debates. I f the o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e a s e p a r a t e s t a t e f o r every r e g i o n a l o r t r i b a l i d e n t i t y , then the p r o c e s s o f s t a t e c r e a t i o n may go on f o r .an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d . A l a r g e number o f s m a l l s t a t e s would r e s u l t i n a massive d u p l i c a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f o r t . I t would mean g r e a t e r d i s e c o n -omies o f s c a l e i n the b u s i n e s s o f government as w e l l . Problems o f a r r i v i n g a t any i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l agreement would i n c r e a s e tremendously. In any case, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s t a t e a u t h o r i t y whose b o u n d a r i e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y chang-i n g would amount t o a b u r e a u c r a t i c nightmare. L i t t l e would be develo p e d i n the way o f governmental p r a c t i c e , and any attempt t o p l a n ahead would s i m p l y be f u t i l e . U n t i l i t s removal i n 1979, the F e d e r a l . M i l i t a r y Government t r e a t e d s t a t e c r e a t i o n as a d i v i s i v e i s s u e . The i d e a t h a t each s e c t i o n a l group s h o u l d command a s e t o f p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n , was a l l t o o r e m i n i s c e n t o f the " E a s t - f o r - E a s t e r n e r s " campaign t h a t f l o u r i s h e d i n the - 128 -months that l e d up to c i v i l war. I t remains an issu e that can exacerbate e t h n i c emotions, regardless of the r e a c t i o n o f N i g e r i a ' s c e n t r a l government. Federal o f f i c i a l s have r e c e i v e d w i t h sympathy proposals f o r c r e a t i n g new s t a t e s . However, the idea runs squarely against the p r o v i s i o n s of N i g e r i a ' s new c o n s t i t u t i o n . President Shagari e x p l a i n s the p o s i t i o n o f the f e d e r a l u-government i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: V/e are going to have to create new s t a t e s because we are a l l agreed on i t . But the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s which were d e l i b e r a t e l y so made i n order to create more st a t e s are v J r v . s t r i n g e n t and may be impossible to meet i f not amended. The f e d e r a l government cannot u n i l a t e r a l l y increase the number o f s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s with respect to l o c a l government boundaries. State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s have rece i v e d many a p p l i c a t i o n s on behalf o f t r i b a l groups demanding t h e i r own l o c a l power base. The problems o f s e c t i o n a l d i v i s i v e n e s s and diseconomies o f s c a l e are r e l e v a n t here as w e l l . States too have proved r e l u c t a n t to subdivide e x i s t i n g l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Spokesmen f o r r e g i o n a l groups are f r e q u e n t l y v o c a l i n c r i t i c i z i n g the i n a c t i v i t y o f f e d e r a l and s t a t e o f f i c i a l s w i t h regard to the establishment o f a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e and l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . At times, government i n a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between competing p o l i t i c a l groups. Ten people were k i l l e d i n 1981, f o r instance, as r i o t i n g swept the town of Modakeke i n Yorubaland. The disturbance was sparked o f f when Oyo s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s refused to separate Modakeke from the I l e - I f e l o c a l adminis-118 t r a t i o n i n which i t i s l o c a t e d . Such tensions are aggravated by the claims of f e d e r a l and s t a t e o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s . Intent upon a t t r a c t i n g popular support f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s , o p p o s i t i o n spokesmen argue t h a t , i f only they were i n power, they would respond p o s i t i v e l y to the demands of l o c a l 119 groups.r. I t i s a cla i m made by p o l i t i c i a n s who are not i n p o s i t i o n s o f - 129 -governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Nevertheless, the suggestion i s that r u l i n g p o l i t i c a l o f f i c i a l s are simply ignoring the appeals of regional communities. In a country which has already experienced a considerable degree of s e c t i o n a l unrest, that i s one of the most d i v i s i v e impressions that i t i s possible to convey. The issue of state creation again brings the e n t i r e structure of Nigerian federalism into question. What may appear to be the perfect system of government for a p l u r a l society such as Nigeria's i s a c t u a l l y neither as e f f e c t i v e , nor as accommodative of l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , as the c l a s s i c a l federal model suggests. The competing organizational demands of federal and state govern-ments, and the interplay of s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s v/ithin the i n s t i t u t i o n s of Nigerian federalism, are sources of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i n t r i n s i c to the very nature of the country!s federal system. The c o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i e s the structures of Nigerian government. Yet, intergovernmental r e l a t i o n s , and the balance of power that exists between d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p o l i t i c a l authority, develop according to a dynamic that i s independent of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l constraint. The extent to which federal and regional i n s t i t u t i o n s are capable of either incorporating or supplanting t r a d i t i o n a l authority r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a matter that can only be determined through p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e , over a period of time. S i m i l a r l y , cooperation between federal and state adminis-t r a t i o n s i s b u i l t on a network of intergovernmental contacts established i n the course of regular p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . C o n f l i c t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e and admin-i s t r a t i v e demands are always present. Yet, where the nature of the country's federal system i t s e l f becomes an issue of dispute, the problem i s one of e s t a b l i s h i n g governmental p r a c t i c e . The r i v a l demands of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , intergovernmental c o n f l i c t , and the controversy surrounding the creation of more states and units of l o c a l government a l l hinder the formu-- 130 -lation and implementation of policy decisions. They may serve to aggravate sectional conflict. The federal system institutionalizes regional differences. Issues affecting the balance of power among central, state, and local authorities often become matters of sectional dispute. In such circumstances, "national interest" may appear a hollow symbol, to be subsumed under the competing interests of regional and ethnic communities. In practical terms, disputes arising among federal, state, and local governments can lead to more generalized conditions of social unrest. They are conditions that may once again presage the collapse of c i v i l i a n rule. A National Commitment The d i f f i c u l t i e s which confront constitutional government in Nigeria today are, in many respects, similar to the problems experienced by the country's f i r s t c i v i l i a n regime. Nigeria remains an underveloped country. In fact, economic growth has slowed since the late 1970s. An overdependence on o i l — the petroleum industry accounted for 90 percent of Nigeria's foreign exchange earnings and 80 percent of government revenues 120 in 1980 — has taken i t s t o l l . Conditions of excess supply in the inter-national petroleum market forced Nigeria to reduce i t s o i l production by more 121 than two-thirds during the f i r s t eight months of 1981. As a result, exchange 122 reserves and government revenue were cut by approximately 20 percent. Meanwhile, black market activities are on the increase. Nigeria's central bank reports that the number of man-hours lost through industrial unrest has more 123 than quadrupled since 1978. And, drought in the Sahel keeps agricultural production figures lower than average. While the value of goods imported yearly into the country is now double that of 1979, indigenous industries are losing their share of the domestic market. The value of industrial produc-tion i s static; unemployment figures are growing. Water supplies remain - 131 -unreliable. Power cuts are frequent. Telecommunications are poor. With a population estimated to be approaching the 100 million mark, problems of overcrowding are accompanied by increasing demands for public health, 124 education, and housing f a c i l i t i e s . By a l l accounts, the enormity of the task which l i e s before Nigeria's p o l i t i c a l leaders in their efforts to encourage economic development and to provide basic amenties to the entire population, remains a daunting feature of national government. The country's new constitution specifies a new set of organizational arrangements through which public policy-makers are to operate. It does not, however, guarantee that federal and state governments now possess adequate financial or organizational capabilities to undertake the tasks popularly expected of them. Partisan conflict, institutional checks and balances, disputes among federal and state administrations — they are a l l features characteristic of constitutional rule in Nigeria. Such conditions complicate the policy process. They limit public o f f i c i a l s in their response to the exigencies of economic development. The Nigerian poet Saadu Zangar expresses his nation's plight in more eloquent terms. "Where is the advantage of p o l i t i c a l freedom i f we continue to live in grinding poverty? For many politicians, the answer to Zangar's question is plain. The benefits of participating in Nigeria's p o l i t i c a l system accrue to those who wield p o l i t i c a l pov/er. Public office i s the agency through which communal resources are distributed. Consequently, the exercise of p o l i t i c a l power remains the object of regional, partisan, and intergovernmental ri v a l r i e s , in much the same manner as i t was during the f i r s t c i v i l i a n regime. On the other hand, exclusion from the channels leading to p o l i t i c a l office contributes to sectional discontent, and perhaps even to the collapse of governmental authority. - 132 -When an attempted coup was uncovered in February 1982, the fragile foundations of Nigeria's national government were clearly revealed. Businessmen and soldiers alike were implicated in a plot to overthrow the country's c i v i l i a n regime. Their motives were founded squarely on material gain. A c i v i l i a n government was no longer granting them the lucrative contracts which 126 they had come to expect under military rule. The coup might have been expected from a group which found i t s p o l i t i c a l interests — here defined in material and financial terms — unrepresented within the existing institutions of c i v i l i a n government. Alternative organizational arrangements are preferred, as long as they restore the prospect of p o l i t i c a l patronage. Sectional and partisan riv a l r i e s thus develop within the i n s t i -tutions established by Nigeria's new constitution. Moreover, the structures of government may themselves become objects of communal dispute. As the governor of Kano caustically remarked in early 1981, constitutional rules are used by competing p o l i t i c a l groups, moulded to their own ends, and must, in the last analysis;•• be viewed as an important focus for partisan conflict. Abubakar Rimi explains: Anything can happen in this country at any time. ... What happened in the f i r s t democratic era, from independence to the period of the f i r s t coup, was that politicians, in particular those of the Northern People's Congress, violated the constitution at every turn. The people who did this in the MPC are now in the National Party (NPN). President Shagari^as an NPC minister and now he is a member of the NPN. The governor's polemic i s , of course, a statement of partisan interest in i t s own right. Its claim that national government leaders belong to a self-perpetuating northern e l i t e reflects the sentiments of a politician whose own party is excluded from the federal executive. Yet, the statement indicates the extent to which constitutional rules can themselves appear to be manipu-lated by factional groups vying for p o l i t i c a l power. Constitutional reform, - 133 -and the structural engineering i t entails, are not sufficient in themselves to contain sectional conflict. The stability of c i v i l i a n rule depends, above a l l , upon a common commitment to maintain the p o l i t i c a l institutions set forth by the constitution. What is highly uncertain is how long such a commitment may be expected to exist. Nigeria's constitution has survived thus far the partisan disputes and the cumbersome system of checks and balances that are features of c i v i l i a n rule. The organizational provisions of the new constitution have been imple-mented. Its procedural norms have been enforced. Supported by the belief that the constitution represents the general w i l l of the Nigerian people, the institutions prescribed by the basic law form the structural framework in which p o l i t i c a l activity takes, place. To evaluate those institutions in terms of their role in successfully resolving the problems of partisan conflict and effective government is perhaps a misleading exercise. The value of a constitution becomes apparent only with respect to immediate p o l i t i c a l condi-tions. Constitutional "success", then, is a relative term. In the case of Nigeria, i t may "best be gauged simply byrthe existence of.a c i v i l i a n ".regime dyer a period of time. The survival of constitutional government in Nigeria, in spite of i t s many problems, does afford some indication that present institutions of public authority are, on the whole, preferred to any alternative p o l i t i c a l regime. The prospect of a return to military rule lingers on. If the experience of the country's f i r s t c i v i l i a n regime holds any lesson for Nigerian p o l i t i -cians, i t i s that where government office becomes the private preserve of i t s occupants or where partisan conflicts lead to widespread social unrest — conditions which would both deter effective government policy-making — army commanders are likely to intervene to re-establish order. Since the advent - 134 -of c i v i l i a n rule, public o f f i c i a l s have agreed openly on one point,— that a return to military government must be avoided i f at a l l possible. If the declarations of p o l i t i c a l leaders are to be taken at face value, they offer the overall impression that Nigeria's public figures are determined to make the country's p o l i t i c a l system work. As a senior politician in Kaduna puts i t : "We know the army i s not far away, watching us. I f we f a i l this time, God knows when Nigeria w i l l have the right to choose a government 128 again". Those sentiments seem to be shared by a l l shades of partisan opinion. In the words of one UPN o f f i c i a l : "The only choice is between National 129 Party government and renewed military rule". Chief Awolowo also recognizes the immanent danger of p o l i t i c a l unrest. While addressing meetings of Unity Party faithful, Awolowo s t i l l refuses to accept as f a i r the 1979 election results. Yet, even he is able to admit that "the worst c i v i l i a n government is 130 better than military rule". Whether these sentiments actually moderate partisan conflict i s not at a l l clear. The spectre of renewed military inter-vention may place a moral constraint upon p o l i t i c a l behaviour. It may provide a basis for cooperation among partisan groups, at least to the extent that would keep Nigeria's system of government functioning. An explicit commitment on the part of national leaders to "make the system work" does help to l e g i t i -mate existing p o l i t i c a l institutions. It reinforces the symbol of national unity that was generated during the process of constitutional reform. That, in i t s e l f , strengthens the procedures and the organization of constitutional government, increasing the resilience of those structunes to the problems posed by a fragmented and underdeveloped p o l i t i c a l society. For i t s part, the military continues to show i t s willingness to support Nigeria's second c i v i l i a n regime. Despite frequent warnings from media commentators that the country is on the verge of c i v i l war, or that - 135 -army leaders are once again preparing to intervene in Nigerian po l i t i c s , military commanders appear to be far more occupied by organizational problems of their own. The lo g i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of maintaining an armed force of well over 140,000 men are enormous. Moreover, Nigerian military involvement in other parts of Africa to a certain extent deflects the attention of military leaders away from the arena of national p o l i t i c s . The army has responded promptly to the aid of state authorities, restoring order to regions where local discontents have erupted into violence. In early 1982, when military officers were implicated in the plot to overthrow President Shagari, they were brought before a military tribunal and summarily executed for treason. Civilian politicians are aware that the probability of military intervention would become much greater i f circumstances were to reveal a corrupt p o l i t i c a l system oh the verge of collapse. Dissatisfaction within the military establish-ment would also grow i f i t were to appear that military interests in particular were being ignored by a c i v i l i a n regime. Nevertheless, i t i s recognized that military intervention would destroy any semblance of legitimacy presently attached to Nigeria's constitutional government. It would again commit the army to a responsibility for national administration, this time for an indefin-ite period. The prospect of returning to a p o l i t i c a l situation similar to that which existed in the early 1970s is not particularly relished by army officers. The consequences of re-establishing military rule may themselves act as a constraint upon the involvement of the army in p o l i t i c a l affairs. However, a striking similarity remains between Nigeria's recent experience; of constitutional reform and the achievement of national indepen-dence 20 years earlier. Both events united p o l i t i c a l actors behind a common objective to establish c i v i l i a n government. Yet, once that goal had been achieved, politicians in the Fi r s t Republic scrambled for the rewards of p o l i t i c a l power, competing amongst each other with l i t t l e regard for the - 136 -stability of the national regime. Likewise, a commitment to make Nigeria's current system of government "work" may not be sufficient to contain the disintegrative tendencies of partisan conflict. That can be achieved only through the development of a common ideal standing above the differences that distinguish various personal or sectional interests — an objective which might again serve to unite the loyalties and aspirations of a l l Nigerians. The federal government's foreign and defence policies have acquired, since 1979, much of the ideological significance of a common national interest. Nigerian troops are referred to as West Africa's peace-131 keepers. The enthusiasm shown by the Shagari administration in committing:. men and materiel to an expeditionary force prepared to intervene in the Chadian c i v i l war, helped to reinforce that image. Nigeria has assumed a more active role in foreign affairs as well. The federal administration is vocal in i t s appeals for African unity. It supports the activities of guerilla organizations in Namibia while condemning the apartheid policies of South 132 Africa. Nigeria's role in international affairs is well publicized at home. The central government has gained the recognition of other regimes as well, acting, for instance, in i t s capacity as African spokesman at the 1980 133 Commonwealth Conference on Namibia. Military and diplomatic affairs thus provide a focus for national sentiment. They engender a sense of national identity, founded on the ideal of a common national purpose. Be that as i t may, the sta b i l i t y of constitutional rule in Nigeria ultimately rests on the degree to which the organization:- and procedures of government are established as the institutions in which p o l i t i c a l activity takes place. It may simply be a question of time before partisan and sectional groups feel that their interests are not being systematically excluded from government. Again, i t may be a question of time before cooperation develops - 137 -between executive and legislative branches, or between federal and state o f f i c i a l s . Indeed, a great deal of p o l i t i c a l experience has been built up already, within the f i r s t few years of constitutional rule. President Shagari has acquired a reputation for integrity and fairness. To many, he appears as 134 "a man above divisions who is able to speak for Nigeria as a whole". He i s respected as a national statesman. His activities reinforce the symbolic role of the president as a figurehead for national unity. At the same time, .-: they help to consolidate the institutions of Nigerian government. Other signs point to the development of a more stable p o l i t i c a l system. As executive o f f i c i a l s establish more extensive contacts with national and state assemblies, they become increasingly aware not only of the legis-lation that w i l l find favour within those bodies, but also of their power to lobby assembly members. On the other hand, legislators who vote across 135 party lines are now common phenomena. Partisan conflict too is moderated by the mechanics of Nigeria's new system of government. During a 1981 v i s i t , President Shagari was given a warm welcome from the UPN governor of Oyo state. He was similarly received by the o f f i c i a l s of Lagos state, another Unity Party stronghold. The administrations of both states are dependent on 136 federal aid in order to finance an overhead railway system. As public o f f i c i a l s consolidate their positions in national and state governments, as . they attempt to implement policies for which they are responsible, the need to find some level of accommodation in order to make government "work" becomes increasingly important. In such circumstances, the destabilizing effects of partisan conflict may be moderated within the institutions of government themselves. The same cannot be said for the electoral process. The achievement of p o l i t i c a l office remains a highly competitive af f a i r . In this sense,, perhaps the most immanent threat to constitutional rule in Nigeria is posed - 138 -by the upcoming round of federal and state elections scheduled, by-the constitution, for 1983. It is in the contest for public office that partisan differences are bared. A series of elections fought between r i v a l coalitions closely identified with regional or sectional interests, might result in widespread social disturbances that would make a mockery of any democratic principle. Once again, the maintenance of p o l i t i c a l order is based on the development of an accepted code of electoral practice. It is only as a result of p o l i t i c a l experience, of the establishment of p o l i t i c a l practices over time, that the institutions specified by Nigeria's c i v i l i a n constitution can be >valued in their own right, above the particularistic interests of partisan and communal groups. What may be lacking in the equation is simply the element of time. The success of any constitution must be gauged by i t s capacity to "age in the wood" of p o l i t i c a l society. Bitter memories of the social unrest, c i v i l war, and military rule which accompanied the breakdown of governmental authority in the Fi r s t Republic remain fresh in the collective Nigerian conscience. The very fact that a new constitution has been promulgated in Nigeria,: and that a c i v i l i a n administration has managed thus far to formulate and implement policy decisions in an authoritative manner, reflects a commitment to establish a stable system of government for the country. That is something of an achievement in i t s e l f . -139-Notes Chapter I; A Legacy of P o l i t i c a l Unrest 1. See Daily Times, Lagos (2 October 1979); "Installation of a President", West Africa 3247 (8 October 1979), pp. 1833-1835. 2. "First National Broadcast by President Shagari", West Africa 3247 (8 October 1979), p. 1862. 3. Ibid., p. 1862. 4. See "Installation of a President", p. 1835; Claude S. Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions? 1975-9", Journal of Modern African  Studies XVIII, 1 (March 1980), p. 15. 5. "With almost a quarter of the continent's population, possessing an abundance of natural wealth, and recently endowed with the machinery required by modern government, Nigeria seemed to have everything — t a l e n t , resources, and good wi l l — and was set on the road to certain success". "The African Giant", New Africa VIII, 11/12 (November/December 1966), p. 5. 6. Lieutenant-General Olusegun Obasanjo in an address formally opening Nigeria's Constituent Assembly, 6 October 1977, quoted in "Nigeria's Historic Gathering", West Africa 3145 (17 October 1977), p. 2113. 7. Lord Hailey quoted by Douglas Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", in Soldiers and O i l : The P o l i t i c a l Transformation of Nigeria, ed. Keith Panter-Brick (London, 1978), p. 146. 8. See Rimmer,"Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", p. 143. 9. Ibid., pp. 147-149; Gavin Williams and Terisa Turner, "Nigeria", in West African States: Failure and Promise — A Study in Comparative Politics, ed. John Dunn (Cambridge, 1978), pp. 138-139. 10. The value of Nigeria's petroleum exports rose from $US 100.5 million in 1962 to $US 1,500 million by 1970, and stood at $US 15,900 million in 1974. (Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", p. 150; Federal Republic of Nigeria, Third National Development Plan, 1975-1980, Vol. I (Lagos, 1975), pp. 15-16.) Similarly, the proportion of government revenue derived from taxes levied on the petroleum industry and from the profits of the state-run Nigerian National Oil Corporation increasdd from 3 percent in 1963 to more than 77 percent in 1975. (Guy Arnold, Modern Nigeria (London, 1977), p. 51; Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", p. 152.) In the words of Abdul Atta, Permanent Secretary of Finance i n 1971: "It is expected that revenues from an effective Nigerian o i l policy w i l l ... above a l l ensure p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y " . (Quoted by Terisa Turner, "Commercial Capitalism and the 1975 Coup", in Soldiers and O i l , p. 150.) 11. World Bank, Nigeria: Options for Long-Term Development (London, 1974), p. 49; Jonathon Baker, "Oil and African Development", Journal of Modern  African Studies XV, 2 (June 1977), p. 189. 12. Passenger vehicles, safety pins, and hair spray for instance. World Bank, Nigeria, p. 24. 13. For a discussion of the reports published by the Morgan Commission (1964), the Adebo Commission (1970-1971), and the Udoji Commission (1974), see Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", pp. 154-155; Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 148; World Bank, 'Nigeria', pp. 31-35; and Arnold, Modern Nigeria, pp. 116-123. 14. In 1972 and 1977 the Federal Military Government published i t s Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decrees which reserved specific economic activities solely for Nigerian nationals, while stipulating that other foreign enterprises were to have at least 40 percent of their equity in Nigerian ownership. Federal Government of Nigeria, Second National Development Plan,  1970-1974,(Lagos, 1970), p. 144; Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", pp. 157-158; Arnold, Modern Nigeria, pp. 78-79. - 140 -15. See Federal Republic of Nigeria, Third National Plan, pp. 11-21. 16. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Second National Plan, p. 289. 17. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Third National Plan, p. 5. 18. Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 81; Colin Legum, "Nigeria", in Africa: Contemporary Record, 1977-1978 (London, 1979), p. B759. 19. Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 1. 20. Ibid., p. 91; World Bank, Nigeria, p. 30. Between 1967 and 1971, the annual growth rate of agricultural production was only 0.8 percent. As a result of low yields, decreasing s o i l f e r t i l i t y , lack of credit, and slowly rising international coraraddity prices, the production of such trad-itional goods as cotton, cocoa, and palm o i l has fallen off. (Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 71; World Bank, Nigeria, p. 12; as well as the budget statement of President Shagari in "The Gradual Ending of Constraints", West Africa 3271 (31 March 1980), p. 558.) 21. World Bank, Nigeria, p. 13. 22. Three percent of Nigeria's population controls 66 percent of the nation's capital investment. Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 78. 23. Ibid., p. 82. 24. In the 1962/1963 financial year, manufacturing accounted for 5.8 percent of Nigeria's gross domestic product. (World Bank, Nigeria, p. 13.) The share had climbed to only 8.0 percent by 1975. (Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 81.) See also Peter H i l l , "Nigeria: A Special Report", The Times, London (22 July 1976), p. v i . 25. Rimmer, "Elements of P o l i t i c a l Economy", p. 150. 26. Legum, "Nigeria", p. B759. 27. Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 153. 28. Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 53; Scott R. Pearson, "Oil Boom Reshapes Nigeria's Future", African Report XVI, 2 (February 1971), pp.14-17; Sayre P. Schatz, Nigerian Capitalism,(Berkeley, 1977), pp. 39-62. 29. Alhaji Shehu Shagari, quoted in "The Gradual Ending of . • .-Constraints", p. 558, 30. World Bank, Nigeria, p. 250. At the same time, i t is estimated that 94 percent of the public do not benefit directly from industrial or public wage increases. See Arnold, Modern Nigeria, p. 122. 31. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Third National Plan, pp. 13-15. 32. John P. Mackintosh, Nigerian Government and Politics (London: 1966), p. 38. 33. Regional governments, on the other hand, relied on exclusive control over income tax, export duties on petroleum products and primary commodities produced within their respective regions, and 50 percent of a l l mineral royalties and rents. Moreover, 30 percent of the import duties and mining royalties collected by the federal government were allocated to a distributable pool and divided proportionately among the regions — 40 percent to the North, 24 percent to the West, and 31 percent to the East. Ibid., p. 31. 34. The decree which extended federal control over revenues from the o i l industry was i t s e l f a decisive factor in the events leading up to the declaration of Biafran secession and the outbreak of c i v i l war in June 1967. 35. Shagari, "The Gradual Ending of Constraints", p. 560. General Obasanjo warned in 1976 that petroleum revenues were inadequate to meet the requirements of development. (Guy Arnold in "Nigeria; A Special Report", p. iv.) 36. The 13-day general strike which followed the federal government's hesitation to publish Justice Adeyinka Morgan's report in 1964 effectively - 141 -paralyzed Nigerian industry. (See P.C. Lloyd, Power and Independence: Urban Africans' Perception of Social Inequality (London, 1974), p. 211; Williams and Turner, !1Nigeria", pp. 152-153.) Strikes also followed upon the government's exemption of certain firms from a wage increase recommended by Justice Simeon Adebo in 1970. And, industrial action was renewed in 1974 with the report of the Public Service Review Commission headed by Justice J.O. Uddji. (Arnold, Modern Nigeria, pp.vl20-123; Arnold, "Nigeria: A Special Report", p. v i ; Lloyd, Power and Independence, pp. 211-212; Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 162; Richard A. Joseph, "Affluence and Underdevelopment: The Nigerian Experience", Journal of Modern African Studies XVI, 2 (June 1978), p. 237.) 37. The Agbekoya tax riots of 1968 and 1969, for example, were for Henry Bienen, "an overt rebellion on the part of the peasantry". See Henry Bienen and Martin Fitton, "Soldiers, Politicians, and C i v i l Servants", in Soldiers and O i l , ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 35-36. Also Henry Bienen, "Military Rule and P o l i t i c a l Process", Comparative Politics X, 2 (January 1978), pp. 216-217; Lloyd, Power and Independence, pp. 204-209. 38. In 1975, for instance, a scarcity of petroleum products resulted in massive queues at service stations throughout the southern part of Nigeria. As the military assumed control over the pumps, they faced an increasingly hostile public. Newspapers of the day carry stories of near riots sparked off by the behaviour of the troops. They suggest that many Nigerians directly affected by the o i l shortages in fact welcomed the coup which toppled General Gowon from power in July of that same year. See the Daily Times, Lagos (May-August 1975). 39. An attempted coup in February 1976, involving the assassination of the head of state, General Murtala Muhammed, by officers who later explained that their actions hadfbeen promoted by fears for their own career prospects, demonstrated that military officers were willing to use their power to determine who was to hold p o l i t i c a l authority in the country. Ian Campbell, "Army Reorganization and Military Withdrawal", in Soldiers and O i l , ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 60-64, 86-91. 40. It is estimated that more than 250 distinct language groups exist in Nigeria. More than 200 tribes possess a number of separate dialects, and are organized into distinct villages and clans. See Cynthia H. Enloe, Ethnic Conflict and P o l i t i c a l Development (Boston, 1973), p. 89; "Nigeria Starts Again", Economist CCLXXII, 7095 (August 1979), p. 13. 41. The concept of a Yoruba, Hausa, or Ibo identity is i t s e l f a relatively new phenomenon. Tribal labels tend to subsume the existence of a diversity of local customs, practices, and loyalties. (See John Hatch, "Re-Uniting Nigeria", New Statesman LXXIX, 2028 (23 January 1970), p. 105; Immanuel Wallerstein, "Ethnicity and National Integration in West Africa", in Politics and Society: Studies in Comparative P o l i t i c a l Sociology, ed. Eric A. Nordlinger (Englewood C l i f f s , 1970), p. 220; Audrey C. Smock and David R. Smock, "Ethnicity and Attitudes Toward Development in Eastern Nigeria", Journal of DevelopingAreas III, 4 (July 1969), p. 50,) Descriptions of the ethnic composition of Nigeria may be found in K.A. Busia, Africa in Search  of Democracy (New York, 1967), pp. 114-115; Enloe, Ethnic Conflict, pp. 89-92; C.S. Whitaker, Jr., The Politics of Transition, Continuity and Change  in Northern Nigeria, 1946-1966 (Princeton, 1970); James S. Coleman, Nigeria:  Background to Nationalism (New York, 1963); P.C. Lloyd, 'x'The Yoruba Town Today", Sociological Review VII, 1 (July 1959), pp. 45-63; Audrey C. Smock, Ibo Pol i t i c s : The Role of Ethnic Unions in Eastern Nigeria (Cambridge, Mass., 1971; Paul Anber, "Modernisation and P o l i t i c a l Disintegration: Nigeria and - 142 -the Ibos", Journal of Modern African Studies V, 2 (September 1967), pp. 169-173. 42. P.C. Lloyd, "The Ethnic Background of the Nigerian Crisis", in Nigerian Politics and Military Rule: Prelude to C i v i l War, ed. Keith Panter-Brick (London, 1970), p. 5. See also Anber, "Modernisation and P o l i t i c a l Disintegration", p. 168. 43. Robert Melson and Howard Wolpe, "Modernization and the Politics of Communalism: A Theoretical Perspective", in Nigeria: Modernizationiand the  Politics of Communalism, ed. Melson and Wolpe (Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 6. 44. First exposed to European education and economic activity, the populations of Nigeria's Eastern and Western Regions enjoyed a higher standard of liv i n g and a greater range of economic opportunities than the inhabitants of the North. The Ibos especially took advantage of their economic circumstances. During the 1950s and early 1960s, easterners spread throughout Nigeria f i l l i n g managerial positions and c l e r i c a l posts in the public and private sectors. In 1953, for instance, an estimated 82 percent of c l e r i c a l workers in the Northern Region were of eastern origin. (Frederick A.O. Schwarz, Jr., Nigeria: The Tribes, the Nation, or the Race — The Politics of  Independence (Boston, 1965), p. 71.) Such migrations decreased employment opportunities for residents of other regions and challenged the authority of traditional leaders. They prompted fears that "the sheer weight of s k i l l s and the aggressive drive of some groups ... has to be regulated i f we are not to be l e f t as the economic, social, and possibly p o l i t i c a l under-dogs ino our own areas of origin in the very near future". (Memorandum from the Western Region published a few weeks before the collapse of c i v i l i a n administration in 1966, quoted in Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria: A Documentary  Sourcebook, 1966-1969,ed. A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, Vol. I (London, 1971), pp. 14-15.) 45. Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 133. 46. See Mackintosh, Government and Politics, pp. 405-426; Coleman, Nigeria: Background to Nationalism, Chpts. XV-XVII. 47. The Action Group was committed to "capturing power in the Western Region and to preserving the institutions of the region for Westerners". Mackintosh, Government and Politics, pp. 426-460; D.I.O. Ewezukwa, "Nigeria", in Constitutions of the Countries of the World, ed. Albert P. Blonstein and Gisbert H. Flanz (New York, 1979), p. 19. 48. Organized under the motto "Only my tribe; only my faith, only my culture", the NPC pledged i t s e l f to defending the "unity" and "traditions" of the North. (Schwarz, Nigeria, p. 80.) The f i r s t president of the party was the Sardauna of Sokoto, the most eminent of northern emirs. The NPC stres-sed one's religious duty to obey and to protect hereditary rulers, the virtue of Islamic unity, as well as the usefulness of patronage and clientage (of traditional styles of leadership) in Nigerian p o l i t i c s . (Whitaker, Politics  of Transition.) 49. Ewezukwa, Nigeria, pp. 19-20. 50. During the 1963 census, enumerators found that the inhabitants of the Eastern and Western Regions were more numerous than Northern residents. The North, which until that time had been attributed more than half the population of the country, and whose NPC delegates accounted for more than 50 percent of the members of the federal parliament, was thus threatened with the possibility of losing control over the central government. As the figures were alleged to have been inflated in parts of the Eastern Region, the prime minister, a Northerner, rejected the results and ordered a new count to be taken. The amended population estimates inflated the Northern and Western counts - 143 -and restored the North to i t s former dominant position within the federal legislature. See Ian Campbell, "The Nigeria Census: An Essay in C i v i l -Military Relations", Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics LIV, 3 (November 1976), pp. 242-254; Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 142; Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict, Vol. I, pp. 18-19. 51. By 1964, the NPC-NCNC coalition which had governed Nigeria since independence had crumbled. With a federal election scheduled later that year, the Northern People's Congress joined forces with a new party, the Nigerian National Democratic Party, i t s e l f composed of several members of the Western wing of the NCNC as well as the United People's Party (an organization led by Chief L.S. Akintola that s p l i t away from the Action Group in 1962). The new coalition was known as the Nigerian National Alliance (NNA). The NCNC, on the other hand, a l l i e d i t s e l f to the Action Group in the United Pro-gressive Grand Alliance (UPGA). The election of December 1964 was openly rigged. Parties opposed to the regional governments in the North and West (NFC and NNDP governments respectively) were not free to nominate candidates or to campaign in the election. In many instances, electoral officers registered only candidates nominated by the party in power. Several cases of intimidation, often including regional police forces, were reported. Some opposition candidates were detained by local authorities until after the election was over. Several members were declared to have been returned unopposed despite the fact that opposing candidates had been validly nominated. The UPGA boycotted the election while the NNA claimed victory by default. The results were rejected by Nigeria's president, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, himself the leader of the NCNC. The c r i s i s was f i n a l l y defused in early 1965 when several new elections were held and a "broad-based" government was formed, under the former NNA prime minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. (Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", pp. 142-143; Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict, Vol. I, pp. 22-23; Ewezukwa, "Nigeria", pp. 28-29; Mackintosh, Government and Poli t i c s, pp. 545-609.) Within a year the NNA and UPGA were again locked in an irregular electoral battle in the Western Region. In i t s bid to gain a majority in the Western House of Assembly, the NNDP resorted to the rigging techniques of i t s 1964 federal campaign. REpresentatives of opposing parties were excluded from polling stations. Returning officers were instructed to send their t a l l i e s directly to the premier's office for publication. Two versions of the election results were f i n a l l y published, one by the government of the Western Region, the other by the UPGA bureau of information. Both organizations claimed a major electoral victory. Both the NNDP and the UPGA named a regional premier. A period of lawlessness and unrest followed. Westerners fought with Eastern'. residents of the region. Government o f f i c i a l s were attacked. The paralysis of the Western Region, the violence and unrest, were f i n a l l y brought to an end by the Ironsi coup of 15 January 1966. (Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", pp. .:, 142-143; Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict, Vol. I, pp. 22-23; Ewezukwa, . "Nigeria", p. 29. 52. The objective of the coup, "to destroy the politicians, end party government and regionalism, and substitute a unitary constitution free of corruption, tribalism, and inefficiency", was widely supported at the time. See Mackintosh, Government and Politics, p. 627. 53. Ignoring the fears of unitary government voiced by Northern leaders, Ironsi had announced that control over local courts, prisons, and police in Nigeria was to be taken from the regions' Native Authorities and placed in the hands of the federal government. In May, the military govern-ment abolished Nigeria's regional authorities. Public services were to be unified, and a l l p o l i t i c a l associations were banned. Northerners interpreted the actions of the new military regime as an attempt to extend the control of - 144 -Ibos across the country. Student protest spread throughout the North. Local merchants and NPC clients organized attacks on Ibo settlements in the region. A counter-coup was staged by northern officers, led by Yakubu Gowon, on 29 July 1966. (Kirk-Greene, Crisis and Conflict, Vol. I, pp. 25-48.) 54. Ojukwu echoed the demands made months before by Northern activists. He was not prepared to accept a strong central government i f i t were controlled by Northern interests, or any arrangement which would decrease the authority of his rehional administration. When the Federal Military Government denied any notion of ceding increased p o l i t i c a l , military, or administrative powers to the regions, Eastern o f f i c i a l s claimed that i t had repudiated an agreement worked out at a series of constitutional meetings at Aburi, Ghana, in January 1967. Eastern fears or Northern and Western domination were brought to a climax on 27 May 1967 when Gowon announced that twelve new states would be created out of Nigeria's existing regions. Three days later the Republic of Biafra was proclaimed. (Kirk-Greene, Crisis and  Conflict, Vol. I, pp. 25-111; Williams and Turner, "Nigeria", p. 145; Panter-Brick, "From Military Coup to C i v i l War, January 1966 to May 1967", in Nigerian Politics, ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 14-57. 55. Campbell, "The Nigeria Census", pp. 246-247. 56. When the c i v i l war ended in January 1970, the Federal Military Government committed i t s e l f to a programme of p o l i t i c a l reforms designed to return the country to c i v i l i a n rule by 1976. Yet, the re-emergence of sectionalism led General Gowon to announce on 1 October 1974 that:"It could only amount to a betrayal of trust to adhere ri g i d l y to the target date for c i v i l i a n government". He continued: "There has already emerged such a high degree of sectional politicking, intemperate utterances and writings a l l designed to whip up i l l feelings within the country for the benefit of a few, there is no doubt that i t would not take them long to return to the old cutthroat po l i t i c s that once led the nation into serious c r i s i s " . (Gowon, quoted in the Daily Times, Lagos (2 October 1974), p. 1. 57. Gowon, quoted by A. Bolaji Akinyemi, "Nigeria: What Should Follow Army Rule and When?", African Report XVI, 2 (February 1971), p. 22. 58. Mackintosh, Government and Politics, pp. 67-69. 59. S. Egite Oyovbaire, "The Politics of Revenue Allocation", in Soldiers and Oil, ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 225-229. 60. Pauline H. Baker, "The Politics of Nigerian Military Rule", African Report XVI, 2 (February 1971), pp. 18-19. 61. See especially Bienen and Fitton, "Soldiers, Politicians and C i v i l Servants". 62. Federal Military Government of Nigeria (FMG), Your Draft  Constitution: Reports of the Constitution Drafting Committee, Vol. I.. (Lagos, 1976), p. v. 63. Brigadier Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, at the closing session of the CDC, 7 October 1976, in Ibid., Vol. I, p. E. 64. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. v-vi. 65. Ibid., Vol. I, p. v i . 66. Report of the Sub-Committee on National Objectives and Public Accountability, in Ibid., Vol. II, p. 35. 67. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 37. 68. Murtala Muhammed, address to the opening session of the CDC, 18 October 1975, in Ibid., Vol. I, pp. x l i - x l i i . 69. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. x l i - x l i i . 70. Ibid., Vol I, p. v i i i . 71. Muhammed, in Ibid., Vol. I, p. x l i i . - 145 -Chapter II: Constitutional Reconstruction 1. From S. Phillipson and S.O. Adebo, The Nationalisation of the C i v i l Service (Lagos, 1954), p. 49. 2. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", in Soldiers and Oil, ed. Panter-Brick, p. 292. 3. Muhammed, quoted in Daily Times, Lagos (2 October 1975), p. 1. 4. Muhammed, quoted in "Nigeria Pledged to 1979", West Africa 3041 (6 October 1975), p. 1166. 5. Muhammed, in FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x l i . 6. Ibid., p. x l i . 7. Shehu Yar-^Adua, 7 October 1976, quoted in Ibid., p. E. 8. See "Constitutional Committee", West Africa 3042 (13 October 1975), p. 1228. 9. Muhammed, in FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x l i . 10. Obasanjo acceded to power upon the assassination of Muhammed in the abortive Dimka coup of 13 February 1976. 11. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. II, pp. 10-26. 12. Ewezukwa, "Nigeria", pp. 36-37; Kirk-Greene, "From Blueprint to Constitution: 2", West Africa 3195 (9 October 1978), p. 1983; "Rebuilding Nigeria's Foundations", West Africa 3124 (23 May 1977), p. 978; Legum, "Nigeria", pp. B730-B732. 13. The process of constitutional engineering in Nigeria i s described by Ewezukwa, "Nigeria", pp. 34-42; Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", pp. 289-298, See also FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, pp. i - x l i i i , and Vol. II; Legum, "Nigeria", pp. B730-B734; "Draft Constitution Launched for Public Debate", The Times, London (8 October 1976), p. 9; "Elections for Places in Constituent Assembly", The Times, London (1 September 1977), p. 6; "Opening of Constituent Assembly", The Times, London (6 October 1977), p. 8; "Constituent Assembly to Complete New Constitution Within One Year", The Times, London (7 October 1977), p. 9; "Head of State Formally Presented with New Constitution", The Times, London (30 August 1978), p. 4; "Constitution Committee Starts Work", West Africa 3044 (27 October 1975), p. 1285; "Draft Constitution Discussions", West  Africa 3091 (27 September 1976), p. 1426; "Constitution Debate", West Africa 3097 (8 November 1976), p. 1889; "Assembly Amendments", West Africa 3187 (14 August 1978), p. 1614; "Constitution Becomes Law", West Africa 3199 (6 November 1978), p. 2221; as well as the Daily Times and New Nigerian, Lagos (October 1975-November 1978). 14. See Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 9. 15. "Constitution Committee", p. 1228; Phil l i p s , "Nigeria's New Po l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 2. 16. Panter-Brick, "Nigeria's Great Debate", West Africa 3108 (31 January 1977), p. 191. 17. Ibid., p. 191. 18. "Rebuilding Nigeria's Foundations", p. 978. 19. Ibid., p. 978. 20. "Obasanjo Warning to Assembly Members", West Africa 3171 (24 April 1978), p. 777. 21. Ibid., pp. 776-777. 22. Muhammed, in FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x l i i . 23. Ibid., p. x l i i . 24. Ibid., p. x l i i . 25. Ibid., p. x l i i . i - 146 -26. Ibid., p. x l i i . 27. Ibid., pp. x l i i - x l i i i . 28. Ibid., p. v i . 29. Ibid., p. v i . 30. Ibid., p. v i . 31. See Panter-Brick, "Four African Constitutions: Two Models", Government and Opposition XIV, 3 (Summer 1979), pp. 340, 342-343; and Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", p. 298. 32. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. II, p. 36. 33. Ibid., p. 36. 34. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", p. 300. 35. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, II, 13 (2)(a). 36. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. 13. 37. The dissenting members were Dr. S. Osoba and Dr. Yusufu Usman. 38. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xiv. 39. "Changes in the Constitution", West Africa 3190 (3 September 1978), p. 1729; Daily Times, Lagos (4 April 1978), p. 1. 40. "Changes in the Constitution", p. 1729. 41. Constitution, II, 16 (l)(a). 42. Ibid., II, 16 (l)(b)(c). 43. Ibid., II, 16, 17, 18; FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xv, and Vol. II, pp. 38-39. 44. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, pp. xv-xvi. 45. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committed", p,; 304. 46. Daily Times, Lagos (17 May 1978), p. 7; "Changes in the Constitution", p. 1729. 47. Constitution, II, 2 (a)(b)(d). 48. FMG,.Your Draft-Constitution, Vol. I, p. v i . 49. Ibid., p. v i i i . 50. Constitution, II, 20. 51. Ibid., II, 22. 52. Ibid., II, 15 (1). 53. Ibid., II, 19. 54. Ibid., IV. A l l legal liberties are subject to the discretion of the nation's courts of law in passing"sentance on c i v i l and criminal cases. They may be temporarily withdrawn in times of proclaimed national emergency. 55. Ibid., II, 17 (2)(a). 56. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. v i i . 57. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. v i i , 12-13; Constitution, II, 11 (1)(2). 58. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, p. v i i ; "Changes in the Consti-tution", p. 1729; "Nigeria's Road Back to C i v i l Rule", West Africa 3180 (29 June 1978), pp. 1209-1210; Daily Times, Lagos (14 April 1978), pp. 1-2. 59. Constitution, II, 15 (30'(a) (b) (c) (d). 60. Daily Times, Lagos (15 April 1978), p. 1. 61. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. v i i i . 62. Ibid., p. ix. 63. Ibid., p. ix. 64. Ibid., p. ix. 65. Daily Times, Lagos (3 December 1975), pp. 8-9. 66. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. ix. 67. "Nigeria's Road Back", p. 1209. 68. Constitution, II, 14 (3). 69. Daily Times, Lagos (20 July 1978), p. 11. 70. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", p. 334. - 147 -71. Constitution, I, 2 (1)(2), 3 (1). A Federal Capital Territory-i s to be established at Abuja. Ewezukwa, "Nigeria", pp. 35-36. 72. It was the prospect of significantly reduced powers and revenues which led immediately to the secession of the Eastern Region, soon after Gowon announced his plan for creating new states. 73. FMG, Ministry of Information, FMG Views on the Report of the  Panel on the Creation of States (Lagos, 1976), pp. 8-9. 74. Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 11. 75. A l i D. Yahaya, "The Creation of New States", in Soldiers and  Oil , ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 202-223. 76. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x x v i i i . 77. Daily Times, Lagos (7 November 1977), p. 1; "Assembly in Action", West Africa 3149 (14 November 1977), p. 2293. 78. "Obasanjo Warning", p. 776. 79. Constitution, I, 8 (1) (a)(b)(c)(d). 80. State jurisdiction over local government is recognized in Ibid., I, 7. 81. The CDC originally proposed that one exclusive l i s t should be provided, describing matters in which the federal government would have legislative and administrative jurisdiction, as well as those where federal legislative power would be accompanied by state executive responsibilities. For reasons of simplicity, the Constituent Assembly recommended the inclusion of a concurrent l i s t . "Changes in the Constitution", p. 1731. 82. Constitution, Second Schedule, Part I. 83. Ibid., Second Schedule, Part II. 84. In the f i e l d of marriage law, for instance, the federal government is granted exclusive power over the formation, annulment, and dissolution of marriages, except for marriages under Islamic law and customary law. In the latter cases, traditional practices are s t i l l valid. Where disputes arise under customary law, state authorities possess powers of adjudication. 85. Constitution, I, 7 (1), 2 (b). 86. Ibid., I, 7 (1). 87. Ibid., Fourth Schedule (1)(2). 88. Oyoubaire.in Soldiers and Oil , ed. Panter-Brick, pp. 225-231. 89. Ibid., p. 231. 90. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xxxii. 91. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", p. 340. 92. New Nigerian, Lagos (9 July 1977), p. 1. 93. Constitution, Second Schedule, Part I, 21, 36, 55, 56; Part II D, 7, 8, 9, 10. 94. Ibid., VI, Part I, C, 149 (1). 95. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. 42. 96. Constitution, VI, Part I, c, 149 (2)(3). 97. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xxix. 98. Ibid., p. xxix. 99. Ibid., p. xxix. 100. Ibid., p. xxx. 101. Ibid., p. xxx. 102. "Nigeria's Road Back", pp. 1209-1210; "Nigeria's Historic. Gathering", p. 2113; "Assembly in Action", p. 2293; "At the Assembly", West Africa 3150 (21 November 1977), pp 2345-2346. 103. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xxx. 104. Suleiman Kumo, "At the Assembly", p. 2346. - 148 -105. Constitution, I, Part II, 5 (l)(a)(b), 2 (a)(b). 106. Ibid., VI, Part I, 123 (a)(b). 107. Ibid., VI, Part I, 126 (1)(2)(3). 108'. The provisions for the run-off election and electoral college were later amended by the Suprema^.Military Council. See page 98 below. '{ (Military Men Amend the Constitution", West Africa 3247 (8 October 1979), p. 1833.) 109. Constitution, VI, Part II, 163, 164. 110. Ibid., VI, Part I, 127 (2), Part II, 165 (2). 111. Ibid., VI, Part I, 132 (2)(b), Part II, 170 (2)(b). 112. Ibid., VI, Part I, 132, Part II, 120. 113. Ibid., VI, Part I, 135 (2)(3). 114. Ibid., Third Schedule, Part I, D, 7. 115. Ibid., VI, Part I, B, 140 (1); Third Schedule, Part I. 116. Ibid., Third Schedule, Part II. 117. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x x x i i i . 118. Constitution, V, Part I, D, 65 (a)(b). 119. Ibid., V, Part I, B, 54. 120. If the committee cannot resolve the disagreement, the money b i l l i s then to be referred to the decision of the entire National Assembly. Ibid., V, Part I, B, 55. 121. Ibid., V, Part I, B, 54, 55. 122. Ibid., V, Part II. 123. Ibid., VI, Part I, D, 157 (5). 124. Ibid., Fifth Schedule, Part I, 1. 125. Ibid., Fifth Schedule, Part I. 126. Ibid., VI, Part III, D, 201. 127. Ibid., VI, Part III, D, 202, 203 (b), 207. 128. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p.. v i i . 129. Panter-Brick, "The Constitution Drafting Committee", pp. 340-341. 130. Ibid., p. 341. 131. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xxxv; Constitution, VII, Part I, A, B, C. 132. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. xxxiv. 133. Justin Tseayo, quoted in "At the Assembly", p. 2345. 134. Ibid., p. 2345; "Obasanjo Warning", pp. 776-779. 135. "Walkout Protest over Sharia", West Africa 3170 (17 April 1978), p. 737; New Nigerian, Lagos (7-9 April 1978), p. 1. 136. "Obasanjo Warning", p. 779. 137. Ibid., p. 779. 138. Ibid., p. 776. 139. Constitution, VII, Part II, B, 240; C, 245. 140. Ibid., VII, Part I, B, 217 (2)(b), 219. 141. "Military Men Amend the Constitution", p. 1833. 142. Constitution, V, Part I, B, 51. 143. Enloe, Ethnic Conflict, p. 84. 144. Melson and Wolpe, "Modernization-iand the Politics of Communalism", p. v i i . Chapter III: The Return to Civilian Rule 1. James Bryce, Studies in History and Jurisprudence, Vol. I (Oxford, 1901), p. 195. - 149 -2. Carl J. Friedrich, Constitutional Government and Democracy, 4 ed.,(Waltham, Mass., 1968), p. 171. 3. B.O. Nwabueze, Constitutionalism in the Emergent States (London, 1973), p. 5. 4. See Seymour Martin Lipset, "Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and P o l i t i c a l Legitimacy", American P o l i t i c a l Science  Review LIII, 1 (March 1959), p. 86. 5. See Samuel P. Huntington, P o l i t i c a l Order in Changing Societies (London, 1968), p. 12; Huntington, "The Change to Change: Modernization, Development and Politics", Comparative Polit i c s III, 3 (April 1971), pp. 315-318; Aristide Zolberg, "The Structure of P o l i t i c a l Conflict in the New States of Tropical Africa", American P o l i t i c a l Science Review LXII, 1 (March 1968), p. 70; Arnold Rivkin, Nations by Design: Institutions-Building  in Africa (Garden City, 1968). 6. J. Roland Pennock, "Po l i t i c a l Development, P o l i t i c a l Systems, and P o l i t i c a l Goods", World Politics XVIII, 3 (April 1966), p. 418. 7. Danjuma, November 1978, quoted by Phillips, "Nigeria's New Po l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 19. 8. Ibid., pp. 3-4. 9. Ibid., p. 5. 10. Ibid., p. 10. 11. Ibid., p. 3. 12. Ibid., p. 4. 13. Ibid., pp. 14-21; "Let the Game of Politics Begin", West Africa 3194 (2 October 1978), p. 1937. 14. Shagari, quoted in "Issues Worrying President Shagari", West  Africa 3298 (6 October 1980), p. 1985; See also "Preparations for Census", West Africa 3286 (7 July 1980), p. 1254. 15. Martin Dent, "Effective and Ineffective Constitutions", West Africa 3297 (29 September 1980), pp. 1885-1887. 16. The states of Imo, Anambra, Rivers, Plateau, Gongola, Kano, Kwara, Cross Rivers, and Niger had no permanent secretaries under previous regimes. "Reflecting Federal Character", West Africa 3303 (10 November 1980), p. 2260. 17. Dent, "Effective and Ineffective Constitutions", p. 1887; "Significance of Shugabe Victory", West Africa 3289 (4 August 1980), p. 1424. 18. "Causes for Celebration", West Africa 3297 (28 September 1980), p. 1875. 19. "The P o l i t i c a l Leaders", West Africa 3239 (13 August 1979), pp. 1451-1452. 20. Ibid., p. 1451. 21. "Now We Are Five", Economist CCLXX, 7064 (20 January 1979), p. 58. 22. "Denials of Awolowo Inspiration", West Africa 3167 (27 March 1979), p. 624. 23. "Now We Are Five", p. 58; "The P o l i t i c a l Leaders", pp. 1451-1452. 24. "The P o l i t i c a l Leaders", pp. 1451-1452. 25. See also "Now We Are Five", p. 58. 26. Ibid., p. 58. 27. "The P o l i t i c a l Leaders", p. 1452. 28. Ibid., p. 1452. 29. "Now We Are Five", p. 58. 30. "Nigeria Starts Again", p. 13. 31. Elections for 95 seats in the federal Senate (five from each . -- 150 -state) were held on 7 July 1979. One week later a poll-»was held to f i l l the 449 seats of the House of Representatives. Members of state assemblies, 1347 in a l l , were elected on 21 July 1979. Polls £or 19 state governorships were conducted on 28 July 1979. The presidential election took place on 11 August 1979. 32. "Road to Democracy Mapped Out", West Africa 3241 (27 August 1979), p. 1572. 33. Ibid., p. 1572. 34. Ibid., p. 1572. 35. "President Shagari i s Elected", West Africa 3240 (20 August 1979), p. 1491. 36. "Obasanjo Speaks on Leadership", West Africa 3235 (16 July 1979), p. 1283. 37. "Shagari Decries Tribalism", West Africa (23 July 1979), p. 1345; "Final Warning to Politicians", West Africa 3233 (2 July 1979), p. 1182. 38. "Aminu Kano Banned", West Africa 3233 (2 July 1979), p. 1149. 39. Ibid., p. 1149. FEDECO disqualified 4 percent of a l l NPN candidates, 17 percent of UPN candidates, 25 percent of GNPP candidates, 40 percent of those seeking offices on behalf of the NPP, and 43 percent of a l l PRP nominees. "Disqualified Candidates", West Africa 3234 (9 July 1979), p. 1241. 40. "Obasanjo Speaks on Leadership", p. 1283. 41. Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 20. 42. "Awolowo's Election Petition", West Africa 3244 (17 September 1979), p. 1680. 43. Constitution, I, Part II, 9 (2). 44. "Denials of Awolowo Inspiration", p. 624. 45. "Look Upon the Whole, Not the Part", West Africa 3209 (15 January 1979), p. 103. 46. Ibid., p. 103. The suggestion was made before Kano was himself investigated for tax evasion. 47. "President Shagari i s Elected", p. 1491. 48. Ibid., p. 1491. 49. Kenneth Mackenzie, "Nigerian Factions Treading Softly to Preserve Civilian Government", The Times, London (11 April 1980), p. 9. 50. "Nigeria Starts Again", p. 13. 51. "Military Men Amend the Constitution", p. 1833; See Constitution, VI, Part I, 126. 52. "First National Broadcast by President Shagari", p. 1862. 53. See Mackenzie, "Nigerian Factions", p. 9. 54. Karan Thapar, "Tribal Quarrel Threat to Nigerian Unity", The  Times, London (23 January 1981), p. 7. 55. Karan Thapar, "Tribalism Prevents Creation of One Nation in Nigeria", The Times, London (12 March 1981), p. 8. 56. "Awolowo Boycotts P o l i t i c a l Meeting", West Africa 3288 (28 July 1980), pp. 1378-1379. 57. Dr. K.0. Mbadiwe, quoted in "K0 Attacks Awo", West Africa, p. 1255. 58. Karan Thapar, "British Alleged in Nigerian Bribery", The Times, London (31 October 1980), p. 6. 59. Karan Thapar, "Chief Calls on Nigeria's Chief Judge to Resign", The Times, London (12 December 1980), p. 7. 60. Thapar, "Tribalism Prevents Creation", p. 8. 61. Ibid., p. 8. - 151 -62. Mackenzie, "Nigerian Factions", p. 9. 63. Karan Thapar, "Nigerian Party Is Accused of Subversion Plot", The Times, London (14 January 1981), p. 5. 64. Quoted by Ibid., p. 5. 65. Karan Thapar, "Nigerian Party Faction Wins O f f i c i a l Recognition", The Times, London (24 January 1981), p. 5. 66. "KO Attacks Awo", p. 1255. 67. FMG, Your Draft Constitution, Vol. I, p. x x x i i i . 68. Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 59-63. 69. Karan Thapar, "Political Scandal Over Nigerian Rice Imports", The Times, London (3 January 1981), p. 4. 70. Within the House of Representatives, comprising 449 members, 226 seats are allocated to the states of the former Northern Region, while 223 members are to represent the rest of the country — 20 from the Mid-West, 101 from the East, and 102 from the West. 71. Northern states are allocated 45 Senate seats, Western states 25, Mid-Western 5, and Eastern 20. 72. "Installation of a President", p. 1833;"Promises the NPN Has Made", West Africa 3241 (27 August 1979), pp. 1535-1537; "Shagari's Plea for Moderation", West Africa 3249 (22 October 1979), p. 1920; "Alleviate • the Suffering of Millions", West Africa 3249 (22 October 1979), p. 1963. 73. See"The Gradual Ending of Constraints", p. 558. 74. "Shagari's Plea", p. 1963. 75. "NPN-GNPP Agreement", West Africa 3255 (3 December 1979), p. 2257. 76. Karan Thapar, "Nigerian Government Passes Survival Test", The Times, London (11 March 1981), p. 8. 77. "Nigerian MPs Screened by Riot Police", The Times, London (30 January 1981), p. 7. 78. See Thapar, "Nigerian Government Passes", p. 8. 79. Karan Thapar, "Compromise Plan Saves Nigerian Coalition", The Times, London (14 February 1981), p. 5. 80. Karan Thapar, "Government Coalition Breaks Up in Nigeria", The Times, London (9 July 1981), p. 11. 81. Some NPP ministers remained in the Cabinet, the Foreign Minister, Professor Ishaya Audu, for instance. See Karan Thapar, "Nigeria and Cameroon Make It Up", The Times, London (25 July 1981), p. 5. 82. See Karan Thapar, "Poet Makes an Indecisive President", The Times, London (10 July 1981), p. 7. 83. Karan Thapar, "Nigerian Revenue Act Dies in Court", The Times, London (5 October 1981), p. 7. The Supreme Court ruled that i t i s necessary for legislation to be passed by the National Assembly after a ruling of the joint house finance committee. 84. Among the rejected nominees were Chief Richard Akinjide (the 3 unsuccessful NPN candidate for the governorship of Oyo state and the party's legal advisor) and Paul Unongo (secretary general of the NPP). Both men played a prominent role i n securing Shagari's electoral victory. They were strongly opposed by the UPN. See "The GNPP Hangs on the Brink of Total Disintegration", West Africa 3253 (19 November 1979), p. 2161. 85. "President Shagari's Cabinet", West Africa 3258 (24-31 December 1979), pp. 2408-2409. 86. Thapar, "Poet Makes an Indecisive President", p. 7. 87. "Trying Times", pp. 1815, 1817. 88. Thapar, "Poet Makes an Indecisive President", p. 7. 89. Ibid. - 152 -90. Mark Webster, "Strains Appear in Nigeria's Cumbersome Constitution", Financial Times, London (16 July 1981), p. 4. 91. Stanley Macebuh, "Minimal Government by Shagari", Daily Times, Lagos (12 November 1979), p. 7. See also Karan Thapar, "Internal Dissent Threatens Nigeria's Ruling Party", The Times, London (18 December 1980), p. 6. 92. "Issues Worrying President Shagari", p. 1985. 93. "P o l i t i c a l Conflict in Kaduna", West Africa 3256 (10 December 1979), p. 2269. 94. "Impasse Continues in Kaduna", West Africa 3288 (28 July 1980), p. 1372. 95. "P o l i t i c a l Conflict in Kaduna", p. 2269. 96. See Webster, "Strains Appear", p. 4. 97. Karan Thapar, "Governor Takes Assembly to Court", The Times, London (5 January 1981), p. 4. 98. "Straining the Nigerian Constitution", The Times, London (13 July 1981), p. 11. 99. Webster, "Strains Appear", p. 4. 100. Karan Thapar;, "Many Feared Dead After Muslim Riots in Nigeria", The Times, London (22 December 1980), p. 5; Thapar, "Lagos Press Puts Kano Riots Death Toll at 250", The Times, London (24 December 1980), p. 5; Thapar, "Army Moves into Kano as Riot Toll Rises", The Times, London (29 December 1980), p. 5. 101. Webster, "Strains Appear", p. 4; "Straining the Nigerian Constitution", p. 11. 102. "Road to Democracy", p. 1572. 103. Constitution, Third Schedule, Part I. 104. "Results of State Assembly Polls", West Africa 3237 (30 July 1979), pp. 1388, 1435; Macebuh, "Minimal Government", p. 7. 105. Macebuh, "Minimal Government", p. 7. 106. Ibid., p. 7. 107. "Sharing the National Cake", West Africa 3254 (26 November 1979), pp. 2206-2207. 108. Shagari, quoted in "An Historic Day", West Africa 3286 (7 July 1980), p. 1221. 109. Ibid., p. 1222. 110. "Oil Governors Reject Okigbo Report", West Africa 3293 (1 September 1980), p. 1641. 111. "An Historic Day", p. 1222. 112. Ibid., p. 1222; "Oil Governors Reject", p. 1641. 113. "Revenue Allocation B i l l " , West Africa 3303 (10 November 1980), p. 2259. 114. Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions", p. 11. 115. "Okpara Calls for Ahia State", West Africa 3287 (14 July 1980), p. 1308; "Nigerians Call for Fourteen More States So Far", West Africa 3290 (11 August 1980), pp. 1479-1480; " C i v i l War Issues Surface Again in Nigeria", The Times, London (13 March 1981), p. 8. 116. "Nigerians Call for Fourteen More States", pp. 1479-1480; Phillips, "Nigeria's New P o l i t i c a l Institutions", pp. 11-12. 117. Shagari, quoted in "Issues Worrying President Shagari", p. 1985. 118. "Ten Die as Riots Sweep Two Nigerian Towns", The Times, London (18 April 1981), p. 7. 119. "Nigerians Call for Fourteen More States", p. 1480. - 153 -120. "Focus on Nigeria", The Times, London (3 February 1982), p. III. 121. From 2,100,000 barrels per day in January to 708,000 barrels a day in August. Ibid., p. III. 122. Ibid., p. III. 123. Ibid., p. III. 124. See Ibid., p. IV. 125. "Ina amfani ga yanci, in akwai haliu talanci?" Saadu Zangar, quoted by Martin Dent, "Effective and Ineffective Constitutions", p. 1887. 126. "'Coup' Plot Foiled in Nigeria", The Times, London (20 February 1982), p. 5. 127. Quoted by Karan Thapar, "Army Alert Against 2 Threats to Nigeria", The Times, London (16 February 1981), p. 5. 128. Mackenzie, "Nigerian Factions", p. 9. 129. Ibid., p. 9. 130. Ibid., p. 9. 131. "Plans for Military Buildup", West Africa 3286 (7 July 1980), p. 1254. 132. Ibid., p. 1254. 133. "Focus on Nigeria", p. I. 134. Daily Times, Lagos (1 )ctober 1980), p. 7. 135. "Focus on Nigeria", p. I. 136. Ibid., p. II. -154-Bibliography O f f i c i a l Documents Federal Republic of Nigeria. Constitution. 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