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Resource development and new towns : a women’s perspective Langin, Susan Esther 1981

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RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND NEW TOWNS: A WOMEN'S PERSPECTIVE by SUSAN ESTHER LANGIN B.A., The Colorado College, 19 73 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF ..THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS ...In The School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1981 (cj Susan Esther Langin In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e April 29, 1981 i i ABSTRACT In recent decades a large number of new single-industry resource towns have been professionally planned, designed, b u i l t and populated. In spite of improvements i n the physical design and development of new resource communities, obtaining "the good l i f e " i n these communities i s s t i l l very much i n doubt, p a r t i c u l a r l y for women. L i t t l e information on the women residents of single-industry resource towns - their needs, desires and aspirations - has been collected or analyzed. The purpose of th i s thesis' i s to provide a clearer picture of what i t means to be a women i n a single-industry resource community. This study examines the quality of l i f e i n the most recent single-industry resource town i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Elkford, as perceived and experienced by i t s women residents. I t attempts to determine aspects of the community with which the women are most s a t i s f i e d , aspects .with which they are most d i s s a t i s f i e d , and recommends p o l i c i e s which are aimed at improving the future planning and development of resource-based communities with women's needs i n mind. The methods for approaching the study included a review of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e on single-industry resource communities, as w e l l as a mail question-naire survey of the women i n Elkford f i f t e e n years of age and over. The data were collected and results presented under the following f i v e broad subject areas: employment; housing; geographic and natural environment; s o c i a l i z a t i o n and perceptions of community l i f e ; and community services and f a c i l i t i e s . The results of the survey indicate that, on the whole, the majority of women were s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g i n Elkford. Factors linked with community s a t i s -faction include employment, s a t i s f a c t i o n with dwelling unit, enjoyment of the natural wilderness setting and the recreation i t affords, knowledge of "the state of the community" prior to moving, residency i n the Kootenay Region i i i p r ior to moving to Elkford, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a c t i v i t i e s , and the a b i l i t y to enjoy a small, new community. Factors which contribute to d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n include l i m i t e d employment opportunities, l i m i t e d desirable housing, l i m i t e d community services and f a c i l i t i e s (with the exception of recreation) for shopping, health care, education, transportation, communica-ti o n and non-sports-oriented recreation, and the absence of a common informal meeting place. Recommendations for improving or influencing those factors which are related to s a t i s f a c t i o n are suggested. They provide planners, resource companies, governments, and residents with guidelines for the provision of physical environments and delivery of s o c i a l services i n single-industry resource communities which respond to the needs of the women residents, and which are sensitive to the unique geographic, demographic and economic characteristics inherent i n new resource communities. Women have a special role as resident experts of the quality of l i f e i n resource communities, and whose expertise should be incorporated into the planning, implementation and evaluation of these communities. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES . . . ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER ONE — OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM 1 A. Introduction 1 B. Problem Statement 1 C. Study Design 7 1. Objectives 7 2. Study Components 8 CHAPTER TWO — CASE STUDY 10 A. H i s t o r i c a l Context 10 B. Description of Community 14 1. Demographic Characteristics 14 2. Services and F a c i l i t i e s 17 3. Housing 20 C. Study Methodology . . 20 1. Research Design 20 2. Survey Design 23 a. Interview Survey 23 b. Mail Questionnaire Survey 24 3. Questionnaire Design 25 4. Population - Sample 26 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Questionnaire Survey . 27 6. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 29 CHAPTER THREE — STUDY FINDINGS 30 A. Demographic P r o f i l e 30 1. Age 30 2. Family Characteristics 30 3. Education 31 4. Income 31 5. Reason for Moving to Elkford 31 B. Sense of Community Satisfaction 31 1. Length of Residence 32 2. Anticipated Future Length of Residence 33 3. Choose to Move to Elkford Again 33 i V Page C. Employment 33 1. Number 34 2. Age 34 3. Family Aspects 34 4. Place of Employment, Occupations . . . . 36 5. Length of Employment 37 6. Level of Education 37 7. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 38 8. Full-time Homemaker's Interest i n Employment Scene . . . 38 9. Interest i n Mining Training Program for Women 38 -.10. Community S a t i s f a c t i o n 39 D. Housing 40 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y 45 2. Management and A l l o c a t i o n 46 3. Choice and S u i t a b i l i t y to Environment 47 4. Cost 48 E. Geographic and Natural Environment . 49 1. I s o l a t i o n 50 2. Climate 52 F. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Perceptions of Community L i f e 52 1. Adjustment 53 a. Involvement.in the Decision to.Move 53 b. Awareness of E l k f o r d P r i o r to the Move 54 c. Past R e s i d e n t i a l Environments 54 1) Childhood Residence 54 2) Last Residence Before E l k f o r d 56 3) Past Experience with Resource Town L i v i n g . . . 56 4) Personal T r a i t s and Attitudes 57 2. S o c i a l i z i n g with Friends 58 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Community A c t i v i t i e s 62 4. Perceptions of E l k f o r d as a New.Single-Industry Resource Town 64 a. Newness of Community 64 b. Sense of "Community" 65 c. Community Size and Growth P o t e n t i a l 67 d. Attitudes Toward Major Employer 67 e. Family L i f e 68 f. S o c i a l Problems 69 G. Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s 70 1. Shopping . 72 2. Medical Services and F a c i l i t i e s 75 3. Transportation and Communication 76 4. Recreation Services and F a c i l i t i e s 80 5. Educational F a c i l i t i e s 82 6. Religious F a c i l i t i e s 84 CHAPTER FOUR -- RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS 86 A. Employment 87 B. Housing 89 C. Geographic and Natural Environment 91 v i Page D. So c i a l i z a t i o n . 92 E. Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s 95 1. Shopping 98 2. Health Care 100 3. Transportation and Communication 100 4. Recreation Services and F a c i l i t i e s 102 5. Education 104 6. Other Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s . . . 105 a. Child Care 105 b. Restaurant 105 F. General Policy Implications 106 SOURCES CONSULTED 108 APPENDIX 1 — Cover Letters and Questionnaire . 114 APPENDIX 2 — Tables 3 - 46 115 APPENDIX 3 — Summary of Research Findings 153 v i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Population Growth of Elkford, Projected Future Growth 15 2. Population by Age and Sex, 1976 16 3. Ages of Respondents 116 4. Marital Status 116 5. Number and Ages of Children, Number of Children Per Family, Age Groups of Children Per Family 117 6. Education 118 7. Family Income 118 8. Reason for Moving to Elkford 119 9. Crosstabulation of Length of Residence by Community Satisfaction. 120 10. Crosstabulation of Expected Future Residence by Community Satisfaction 121 11. Crosstabulation of Choose to Move to Elkford Again by Community Satisfaction 122 12. Crosstabulation of Present Employment by Need for Day Care Centre 123 13. Shiftwork . . . 124 14. Occupations 125 15. Length of Employment 125 16. Crosstabulation of Education by Employment 126 17. Attitude of Full-time Homemakers Toward Pot e n t i a l Employment . . 127 18. Interest i n Non-Traditional Mining Positions 127 19. Attitudes Toward Non-Traditional Positions by Potential Workforce 128 20. Crosstabulation of Present Employment by Community Satisfaction . 129 21. Crosstabulation of Dwelling Unit by Satisfaction with Dwelling ••• 130 22. Crosstabulation of Dwelling Unit by Community Satisfaction . . . 131 23. Crosstabulation of Satisfaction with Dwelling by Community Satisfaction 132 24. Crosstabulation of Dwelling Unit by Length of Residence 133 25. Attributes of Elkford Most Liked ..... . . .. . . . 134 26. Most Important Summer Leisure A c t i v i t i e s 135 27. Most Important Winter Leisure A c t i v i t i e s 136 28. Feeling of Isolation 137 29. Attributes of Elkford Least Liked 138 30. Enjoyment of Weather and Climate 140 31. Involvement i n Decision to Move to Elkford "... 140 32. Crosstabulation of Awareness of Elkford Before Move by Community Satisfaction . 141 33. Last Residence Before Elkford 142 34. Past Experience with Single-Industry Resource Communities . . . . 142 35. How Met Friends i n Elkford 143 36. Where Socialize with Friends 143 37. Crosstabulation of Number of Community A c t i v i t i e s by Pa r t i c i p a t i o n i n Organizations 144 38. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Local Organizations, Kinds of Organizations . . 145 39. Crosstabulation of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Organizations by Community Satisfaction 146 40. Crosstabulation of Number of Community A c t i v i t i e s by Community Satisfaction 147 v i i i Table Page 41. Crosstabulation of Number of Community A c t i v i t i e s by Length of Residence . . . 148 42. General Perceptions of Elkford . 149 43. Attitudes Toward Fording 150 44. Rating of Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s 151 45. Need for Bus Service 152 46. Need for Child Day Care Centre 152 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Location of Elkford 11 2. Photographs of Housing 41-43 3. Photographs . 74 4. Photographs 81 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my warm appreciation to the following people who have helped me i n preparing this thesis. Dr. William Rees acted as my advisor and provided me with invaluable support, guidance and c r i t i c i s m throughout the study. I am also grateful to. Professor Brahm Wiesman for his excellent contributions as reader. Working with them has been a t r e -mendous learning experience, and both deserve a medal for t h e i r patience. Special i n s p i r a t i o n came from Eugene Lee, my mentor " i n the f i e l d " who suggested the thesis topic, , and Diana E l l i s , who has been concerned about women i n resource communities for many years. Many thanks to the women of Elkford who participated i n the study and who took the time to share the i r thoughts and feelings with me. I would also l i k e to express my appreciation to the Elkford V i l l a g e Council for i t s moral and f i n a n c i a l support of the project. I am extremely grateful to Fran Lindsay for typing the draft and the f i n a l manuscript. F i n a l l y , "I would l i k e to express special thanks to my family who has provided me with continuous support and encouragement over, the years. Bob, my husband and dearest fr i e n d , was always there to say "You can do i t . ' , " even i n the darker moments. My parents deserve special mention, for they i n s t i l l e d within me the desire to seek ways for improving the human condition. 1 CHAPTER ONE  OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM A. Introduction This study deals with women's attitudes and perceptions of the quality of l i f e i n new single-industry resource communities. I t examines several factors which contribute to levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s -faction for women i n Elkford, the most recent new town i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and recommends p o l i c i e s aimed at improving the future planning and develop-ment of resource-based communities with women's needs i n mind. The study, then, i s an attempt to provide a clearer picture of one new resource town as seen and experienced by i t s women residents. B. Problem Statement I t has been suggested that more than any other country i n the world,. Canada might wel l be considered the land of new towns (Robinson, 1962, p.l).. -Not created to serve philanthropic or i d e a l i s t i c ends, Canada's new towns have been b u i l t for economic reasons - to serve the needs of a private i n d u s t r i a l enterprise engaged i n the extraction and/or primary processing of a natural resource. The lack of settlement and consequent shortage of labour at or near the s i t e of the resource to be exploited have necessitated the establishment of new communities to house and service the workers and their f a m i l i e s . These communities are t y p i c a l l y one-industry towns, small, geographically i s o l a t e d , and usually beyond the continuously settled region of southern Canada. Tra d i t i o n a l l y , the role of governments i n the development of resources and resource towns has been rather passive. Most of the i n i t i a t i v e s have been l e f t to resource companies i n the private sector, and the nature of developments has been determined largely by them. Hence, the "company town" stigma. Governments are beginning to take a more active role i n the develop-2 ment of resources and resource communities by p a r t i c i p a t i n g rather than merely regulating. Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, Fermont, Quebec, and the proposed new town of Tumbler.Ridge.associated with the. developmeht"Of North-east Coal ;ih. .BritishjiiColumbia"' are; examples . Although not large i n terms of population, the large number of single-industry communities i s a unique feature of Canada's development. These communities play an important role i n the economy of a nation which i s highly dependent upon the development of i t s abundant natural resources. Due to Canada's resource-based economy and increasing demands on Canadian resource development, the construction of new resource towns w i l l l i k e l y continue. In recent decades a large number of new single-industry resource towns have been professionally planned, designed, b u i l t and populated. The planning of these communities has. concentrated more on the i r economic v i a b i l i t y and physical design rather than on the needs, desires and aspirations of the future residents. The need for knowledge on s o c i a l determinants i n community planning has become p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l because there are indications that i n spite of improvements i n :the physical design and development of new resource communities, that obtaining "the good l i f e " i n these communities i s s t i l l very much i n doubt, p a r t i c u l a r l y for women. As a r e s u l t , there i s a growing awareness of the s o c i a l and human factors which need to be taken into consideration i n the planning and development of such communities. The s o c i a l v i a b i l i t y of these settlements i s also important because people are our most valuable resource. The creation of settlements on the resource f r o n t i e r i s not a new phenomenon i n the Canadian experience; they have been a f a m i l i a r feature of Canada from the early stages of i t s history. However, the structure of these resource settlements has evolved from temporary camps, which attracted unskilled labour and could be abandoned when the resources were exhausted 3 or not i n demand, to permanent communities, with urban infrastructure and amenities which are meant to attract and maintain a stable, s k i l l e d work force. Although a r e l a t i v e l y common phenomenon for a l l basic industries, labour turnover is.considered to be a costly and serious problem because i t affects dependable output. The resource industries t r a d i t i o n a l l y have employed a predominantly male labour force. In 1972 i t was estimated that the cost of labour turnover i n the mining industry i n Canada was $36,000,000 (MacMillan and others, 1972). The average turnover rate for B r i t i s h Columbia mining communities surveyed i n a. 1975 report was approximately.90% per year, with ten of the sixteen mining companies experiencing w e l l over 100% turnover rates (Bancroft, 1975). Therefore, i t i s i n the best interest of the resource company to have stable workers. Increasingly, the resource company's pre-ferred employee i s married because i t i s assumed that married men, especially those with children, w i l l tend to become established more readily and stay i n the community longer. A recent report prepared for mining companies i n B r i t i s h Columbia indicated that a 70% proportion of married workers i s a target figure that mining companies consider desirable (Unecon Project Consul-tants, 1976). At any length, the resource operation, the workers and p r o f i t are the primary concerns of the company. Labour i s a paramount concern to operators and concentration i s on the male worker. However, the resource companies r e a l i z e that they have to provide a certain l e v e l of amenities i n the community i n order to attract and maintain the workers and their f a m i l i e s , which i n turn help to ensure that the i r primary goal of economic success i s achieved. However, the h i r i n g of married male workers has strong implications not only for the economic productivity of the resource company, but also i n the o v e r a l l planning and the ultimate s t a b i l i t y of the community. According to R i f f e l (1976, p. 61): ' 4 ....probably the most,important reason leading an i n d i v i d u a l , worker to leave a resource town i s because h i s family i s not happy with l i f e i n the town ... I t would seem that employment opportunities a t t r a c t people to resource towns, and that a s a t i s f y i n g family l i f e and a sense of belongingness are needed i f they are going to stay. Employment opportunities alone w i l l not a t t r a c t and sustain people to l i v e and work i n singl e - i n d u s t r y resource communities. Only an adequate and decent l i v i n g environment which i s p h y s i c a l l y and mentally stimulating f o r a l l residents w i l l make permanence, attractiveness and s t a b i l i t y a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y for these communities. Therefore, there i s a need to ensure that f a m i l i e s moving to resource communities have a su i t a b l e environment i n which to make th e i r homes and where they w i l l want to stay. Without t h i s , not only i s the resource exploited, but the people as w e l l . The concept of "q u a l i t y of l i f e " , then, i s ce n t r a l i n the discussion of new resource communities. For the purpose of the study, " q u a l i t y of l i f e " r e f e r s to the l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n as well as the s o c i a l or community dimension. Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on single-industry resource towns (Lucas, 1971; Bancroft, 1975; R i f f e l , 1976; Pressman, ed., 1976; Northern Women's Task Force, 1977; Wiesman, 1977; Lauder, 1977; and V e i t , 1976 and 1978) discusses the stresses and s t r a i n s that resource town l i v i n g has on family l i f e . Problems include shiftwork, l i v i n g f a r away from family and f r i e n d s , a l i m i t e d s o c i a l network, a higher cost of l i v i n g , incidence of mental i l l n e s s and drug abuse, l i m i t e d community services and f a c i l i t i e s , lack of community s p i r i t and "belongingness", l i m i t e d employment opportunities, geographic i s o l a t i o n and harsh climates. Furthermore, i t has been recognized that the cumulative r e s u l t of these problems seems to a f f e c t women more severely. Women are.extremely important when i t comes to labour turnover and community s t a b i l i t y , as exemplified i n the following statement: "No husband 5 can stay [in the community], no matter how content he i s , i f the wife i s ... discontented" (Lucas, 1971, p.. 214). The extent to which women fi n d i t d i f f i c u l t to adjust and l i v e i n the resource community has s i g n i f i c a n t implications for family and community l i f e , and ultimately on the productivity and success of the resource company, i t s e l f . In spite of t h i s , there appears to be very l i t t l e understanding or information about what i t means to be a woman i n a single-industry resource town. The l i t e r a t u r e on resource towns makes very l i t t l e mention of women, -and more often than not, the terms used to describe women and the manifestation of their problems are derogatory: "bored, unemployed housewives", "nagging, complaining wives", "tense, anxious and depressed women",, "housewife psychosis", and "cabin fever". The woman's experience i s not included as part of the accounts concerned with the l i f e and work i n single-industry communities. What appears to be lacking i s an understanding of the role that women play i n single-industry communities, how women can best be supported i n their r o l e , as w e l l as the changing role of women i n the broader society. In short, women are expected to function e f f e c t i v e l y i n single-industry resource towns where l i t t l e thought has been given to their r o l e or personal needs. Since very few women are employed by the resource company, they are not seen as active participants or contributors to the ultimate goal of these towns, the economic success and p r o f i t of the resource company. Women are not considered "workers" affecting company output and productivity, for they are not part of the v i s i b l e public world of work. Their work and experience are i n the private and less v i s i b l e world of the home and family and i n the so c i a l l i f e of the community, the t r a d i t i o n a l areas of concern for women. They play a key ro l e i n the family s o c i a l and economic unit. In discussing women's role i n single-industry resource communities, i t i s also important to consider the changing role of women i n the context of 6 the broader society. A number of s i g n i f i c a n t trends indicate that the aspirations and a c t i v i t i e s of women have changed profoundly since the turn of the century. Women today wish to take a larger part i n society; t h e i r growing assumption of a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which formerly were closed to them r e f l e c t s t h i s . Women, increasingly well-educated and independ-ent, do not wish to be r e s t r i c t e d . The most far-reaching change i n the l i v e s of women today i s t h e i r enormously increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the workforce. There are more and more working women as well as working mothers. Other trends are undeniable: women are l i v i n g longer, more than ten years longer on the average than men; women are having fewer children and the family size i s decreasing, which means that fewer years are devoted to c h i l d rearing and are available for other a c t i v i t i e s ; women are increasingly heading families or are choosing to remain unmarried. Not only are women's roles changing, but l i f e s t y l e s are more f l e x i b l e and varied. However, these changes and trends often f a i l to be recognized or are slow to be reflected i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , places of work and home s t i l l continue to be r i g i d l y defined and separated. In new single-industry resource communities most of the women are f u l l -time homemakers. Since there are few employment opportunities for women, there i s often very l i t t l e choice to accepting the domestic role on a f u l l -time basis. There are generally few alternatives for women i n single-industry resource communities, while i n the broader society there i s increasing, choice, d i v e r s i t y and options, not only i n terms of s o c i a l attitudes and acceptability, but also i n employment and family alternatives. However, whether employed outside the home or not, women assume the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c h i l d -rearing and housekeeping, they spend much of their time i n the home or dealing with the physical and s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s of the community. The community and the home are c r i t i c a l supports i n a woman's a b i l i t y to perform her 7 c u l t u r a l l y defined s o c i a l r o l e w e l l . Without a good support, system to ass i s t women i n this r o l e , t h e i r jobs as keeper of the home and family become much more d i f f i c u l t , contributing to tension, stress, anxiety and general unhappi-ness. Most of the men are employed by the resource industry and are away from the community and home most of the day. Therefore, i t i s women, not men, who have direct experience with the strengths and weaknesses of the community on a daily basis. They can provide the user viewpoint on how their homes and communities function. Women have a special ro l e as resident experts of the quality of l i f e i n resource communities, and whose expertise should be incorp-orated into the planning, implementation and evaluation of these communities. Greater s o c i a l knowledge and understanding of the requirements, aspira-tions and desires of the women residents of resource towns could help to further enhance and greatly improve the planning i n these communities. There i s a creative challenge for planners to respond to and interpret not simply needs articulated by resource companies or governments, but the needs of the ultimate c l i e n t , the future residents who are going to have to l i v e i n and with the planner's plans. Since women are the ones who are most affected by the quality of l i f e i n new resource communities, the planning for these communities must be sensitive to meet their needs. I t i s this challenge, of planning to meet the needs of women i n new resource communities, which has prompted th i s study. To my knowledge, the attitudes and perceptions of women concerning the quality of l i f e i n resource-based new towns have not previously been studies as a singular phenomenon. C. Study Design 1. Objectives Objectives of the study were fourfold, and directed towards the incorporation of resident attitudes and perceptions into the planning process: 8 a. To examine various aspects of the ph y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment which r e l a t e to the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r women i n the new resource town of Elk f o r d , B r i t i s h Columbia; b. To determine the extent to which women i n E l k f o r d are either s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r community, what the sources of t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n are, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n character-i s t i c s of the women and t h e i r l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the various aspects of t h e i r planned environment; c. To seek, from the women residents, suggestions for ways i n which t h e i r community could be improved to better meet t h e i r perceived needs; and d. To provide those who w i l l be involved i n the planning and development of new resource communities - pr o f e s s i o n a l planners, government, industry and residents - with recommendations aimed at meeting the needs, desires and aspirations of the women residents. 2. Study Components a. L i t e r a t u r e Review The l i t e r a t u r e on resource communities i s vari e d i n i t s approach and scope, ranging from studies of a si n g l e resource community to broad d i s -cussions of resource communities i n general. S p e c i f i c mention of women i s sparce, and more often than not, negative i n tone. Nevertheless, i n reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e , i n s i g h t s were gained as to various aspects of l i f e i n resource communities which could be re l a t e d to a woman's perspective. Pertinent findings from the l i t e r a t u r e are included. 9 b. Case Study A study of women's attitudes and perceptions of the quality of l i f e i n the new resource town of Elkford, B r i t i s h Columbia was undertaken. I t i s believed that the community i s deserving of attention and concern for several reasons: 1. i t i s the most recent resource;:town i n the province; 2. i t appears to have most of the problems of new resource communities (Regional D i s t r i c t of East Kootenay, 1975). ;;;ajrjfd 3. i t i s situated i n a region which faces exponential population growth as a result of major increases and expansion to the coal mining industry. In 1976 a survey questionnaire was distributed to every woman in Elkford f i f t e e n years of age and over. Information was generated r e l a t i n g to women's backgrounds, the employment picture for women, housing considera-tions, women's attitudes about the geographic and natural environment, the so c i a l i z a t i o n of women into the community and their perceptions of community l i f e , and women's opinions of community services and f a c i l i t i e s . 10 CHAPTER TWO  CASE STUDY Elk f o r d i s located i n the midst of the Rocky Mountains i n the south-eastern corner of B r i t i s h Columbia, and very close to the Alberta border (Figure 1). I t i s situated i n the Upper Elk River V a l l e y and i s 40 k i l o -meters north of Sparwood, which l i e s onL.the Southern Trans Canada Highway #3. E l k f o r d i s 175 highway kilometers east of Cranbrook, B.C. and 190 highway kilometers west of Lethbridge, Alberta. A. H i s t o r i c a l Context The Elk and Flathead River Valleys of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia contain a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the enormous coal seams which are located along the Great Divide stretching from Colorado to Northern Alberta. The f i r s t development of these coal f i e l d s was some 80 to 85 years ago when the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway b u i l t i t s southern branch from Fort MacLeod, Alberta to Kootenay Lake through the Crowsnest Pass. The demand for coal through the intervening years fluctuated considerably. Consequently, the communities i n the area were subject to great i n s t a b i l i t y . Their fates were t i e d almost s o l e l y to one a c t i v i t y - coal mining. At the turn of the century, according to old newspaper f i l e s , the futures of towns l i k e Natal, Michel and Corbin were guaranteed to be bright and unlimited. However, h i s t o r y has shown otherwise. Aft e r World War II there was a major change i n energy consumption patterns, from coal to h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power, natural o i l and gas. As a r e s u l t , the coal industry i n the Crowsnest area suffered a tremendous decline, and the economy of the e n t i r e area was depressed for many years. However, during the l a t e 1950's and 1960's the demand f o r high grade m e t a l l u r g i c a l coal used i n the production of s t e e l increased, and i n 1970 the Japanese s t e e l industry entered into several long-term contracts to purchase B r i t i s h Columbia coa l . Kaiser Resources Ltd. invested heavily i n developing an operation east FIGURE 1 - Location of Elkford ELKFORD to Sparwood - 40 km Blairmore - 70 km Fernie - 70 km Lethbridge - 190 km Cranbrook - 175 km Calgary - 340 km Vancouver - 1,080 km Spokane, Washington, USA - 500 km 12 of Sparwood which came into production i n 1969 and was at a f u l l output l e v e l of 6.7 m i l l i o n long tons annually i n 1971. As w e l l , Fording Coal Ltd., a subsidiary of Cominco Ltd., began developing a surface coal mine i n the Upper Elk .Valley i n 19.69-70 and was producing 3 m i l l i o n tons annually by 1972. Fording's operation lead to the construction of Elkford. Due to severe topographic and geological constraints i n the Elk Valley, townsite options were limited. However, i t was decided that the town should be b u i l t at the confluence of the Elk River and Boivin Creek, 30 kilometers south of the mine where Cominco owned land and where adjacent Crown land could be obtained as needed. The consulting firms of Associated Engineering and McCarter, Nairne & Partners (Unecon) were retained by Cominco i n late 1969 and given less than one month to prepare "a d i s t i n c t i v e l y modern and imaginative o v e r a l l townsite plan" for an "ultimate workforce" of 350. The early documents r e l a t i n g to the townsite plans show that primary emphasis was placed on housing the workforce and provision of the "hard" services. There appeared to be very l i t t l e appreciation or understanding of the needs of future residents, p a r t i c u l a r l y women and children. I t i s also clear that Cominco's plans were short-sighted, preferring to look at immediate development requirements rather than at a longer-term comprehensive approach to community development. The p r o v i n c i a l government took a "hands-off" position i n the i n i t i a l development of Elkford, as w e l l as i n the planning for the o v e r a l l development of the region. Elkford was incorporated i n 1971 under the p r o v i n c i a l government's "instant town" l e g i s l a t i o n . The purpose of the l e g i s l a t i o n was to allow an industry to b u i l d a new town which could be incorporated shortly after con-struction, thereby leaving the development of the community i n the hands of the residents through their elected representatives, rather than with the industry. I t was an attempt to remove the "company town" stigma. However, 13 then the municipality i s faced with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for providing the infrastructure to serve the needs of the community. In a slow growth community this r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s not a problem. But communities facing tremendous growth pressures as a direct result of substantial resource a c t i v i t i e s are i n a t o t a l l y different s i t u a t i o n . Such was the case for Elkford as wel l as the other two municipalities i n the area, Sparwood and Fernie. Severe stress was placed on these communities because they were not capable of absorbing the tremendous i n f l u x of new residents. Due to the increased world-wide demand and high market value for metall-u r g i c a l coal, combined with recent global energy problems,, i t became increas-ingly clear that the Elk and Flathead River Valleys would face mounting pressures for increased coal development and require major assistance i n planning for the s o c i a l , environmental and economic impacts. No less than seven major coal developments were contemplated for an area which i s also w e l l known for i t s ecological and environmental values. I t was not u n t i l the mid-1970's that the pr o v i n c i a l government began to take a more active role i n regulating coal development by establishing the Coal Development Guidelines. This provided the framework by which coal companies reported to.the government on the s o c i a l , environmental and.economic effects of their proposed develop-ments. I t also ensured increasing involvement by p r o v i n c i a l authorities i n assessing various stages of each proposal. As a r e s u l t , the pr o v i n c i a l govern-ment has become more involved i n the ove r a l l planning for this subregion of the East Kootenay. A great deal of technical and economic assistance i s being provided to the communities by the pr o v i n c i a l government. In Elkford's case, much of the reason for p r o v i n c i a l government assistance and involvement was a direct result of the desire by Elco Mining Limited to bu i l d a new town 50 kilometers north of Elkford. In July 1979, the Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s made an interim announcement as to the government's 14 preference for "expanding the V i l l a g e of Elkford to accomodate the a n t i c i p a -ted expansion of Fording, Kaiser Resources Ltd. (Greenhilis), Crowsnest Industries (Line Creek), and Elco's project. About a year l a t e r , a formal announcement was made by the Premier i n favour of Elkford's expansion. In less than ten years the concept of Elkford substantially changed from that of a small town of approximately" 1,500, supported solely by Fording, to the prospect of a community wel l over 10,000, supported by several coal companies. B. Description of Community The bulk of the research for t h i s study was conducted i n 1975 and 1976, when the community was barely f i v e years old. At that time Elkford was experiencing the problems of a small, new community with an extremely high rate of growth with no end i n sight ( T a b l e i l ) . As a r e s u l t , there were and are tremendous demands placed on the l i m i t e d services and f a c i l i -t i e s of the young and booming municipality. 1. Demographic Characteristics The population of Elkford r e f l e c t s a young age structure which i s t y p i c a l i n new resource communities. There i s a predominance of young and growing families; children abound. In 1976, 86.7% of Elkford's population was under 35, compared with 64.7% for the East Kootenay Region, and 58.7% for B r i t i s h Columbia (Table 2). The proportion of males to females was almost evenly s p l i t at 53.3% and 46.7% respectively. Most other single-industry resource communities have a much higher proportion of males to females because of the large number of single male employees. Employment i n Elkford revolved around Fording, with 75% of the labour force employed by the mining sector, 18% by the construction sector, and 7% by the service sector (Bancroft, 1975, p. 71). Women's employment opportunities were limited since jobs i n the primary industry and construe-15 TABLE 1 Population Growth of Elkford (1) Year Number % Annual Increase 1971 300 1972 750 150.0 1973 1,500 100.0 1974 2,125 42.0 1976 (2) 2,400 6.5 1979 3,000 7.7 Projected Future Growth (3) 1985 7,820 17.1 1987 9,500 10.2 1993 14,650 7.5 1999 17,250 2.8 (1) Estimates by Regional D i s t r i c t of East Kootenay, 1976 and 1979. (2) The 1976 Census of Canada counted 1873 people for Elkford. However, the Census was conducted during a lengthy s t r i k e when a large number of people were away from the community. Therefore, the Regional D i s t r i c t estimate was considered more accurate. (3) Estimates from Elkford's O f f i c i a l Community Plan (1980), which assumes that a l l existing and proposed mines w i l l be established or expanded at the scale and within the time frame projected by the resource companies. TABLE 2 Population by Age and Sex, 1976 (1) East Age Group Elkford . Kootenay B.C. Male Female Total 0 - 4 140 ( 7 .5%) 125 ( 6. 7%) 265 .(14 .2%) 8.9% 7 .0% 5 - 14 215 (11 .5%) 200 (10. 7%) 415 (12 .2%) 20.1% 18 .1% 15 - 24 175 ( 9 .3%) 195 (10. 4%) 370 (19 .7%) 19.2% 18 .6% 25 - 34 245 (13 .1%) 215 (11. 5%) 460 (14 .6%) 16.5% 16 .0% 35 - 44 115 ( 6 .1%) 60 ( 3. 2%) 175 ( 9 .3%) 11.5% 11 .3% 45 - 54 70 ( 3 .7%) 55 ( 2. 9%) 125 ( 6 .6%) 10.0% 10 .9% 55 - 64 30 ( 1 .6%) 25 ( 1. 3%) 55 ( 2 .9%) 7.-7% 9 .1% 65 + 10 ( o .5%) - 10 ( o .5%) 6.1% 12 .0% TOTAL: 1,000 (53.3%) 875 (46.7%) 1,875 (100.0%) 10Q.0% 100.0% (1) Source: Census of Canada, 1976. 17 tion a c t i v i t i e s were dominated by men, and the service and r e t a i l sector of the community was minor. According to the 1976 Census of Canada, the employ-ment p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of women i n Elkford was approximately 33%, w e l l below the East Kootenay, B r i t i s h Columbia and Canadian rates of 56.8% and 45% respectively. Income i n the mining sector i s high. In an analysis made by the B r i t i s h Columbia Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat i n 1975, i t was found that the average income i n Elkford was approximately $1,000 higher than the p r o v i n c i a l average (Hawksworth). 2. Services and F a c i l i t i e s In a 1975 study of a l l mining towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Bancroft), Elkford ranked i n the "most i s o l a t e d " category based on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of services and f a c i l i t i e s within the community and the distance to larger communities where the necessary services and f a c i l i t i e s are obtainable. Although there has been an improvement i n the l o c a l provision of services and f a c i l i t i e s since then, for the population of. the community, Elkford s t i l l i s lacking i n the di v e r s i t y and number of community establishments. As a re s u l t , most residents t r a v e l to the nearby c i t i e s of Sparwood, Fernie, Cranbrook, Blairmore, Lethbridge and Calgary for the majority of their shopping, medical, service and c u l t u r a l needs. a. Commercial Elkford lacks r e t a i l outlets and personal-professional services to the extent that most residents obtain most of their goods and services outside of the community. In 1976 the following commercial services were available i n Elkford: a supermarket, a drug and clothing store, a hardware and home furnishings store, a sport shop, a catalog mail order store, a gas st a t i o n , a liquor store, a bank, a barber and beauty shop, and an insurance dealer. Most of these businesses were located i n Elkford Square, an indoor mall which was constructed i n 1973-4. Fording has provided f i n a n c i a l assistance to the 18 businesses. The Elkford Motor Inn has a restaurant/coffee shop, a pub/lounge and 20 rooms and i s located adjacent to the mall. b. Medical Health care services and f a c i l i t i e s are at a minimum. At the time of the survey, Elkford had just recruited a husband-wife doctor team from Scotland. Prior to that, two doctors from Fernie and a public health nurse from Sparwood serviced Elkford on a part-time basis. Elkford's medical c l i n i c was a 12 by 14 foot t r a i l e r located adjacent to the municipal o f f i c e . In 19 77 a diagnos-t i c and treatment center was opened which included a doctor's o f f i c e , two examining rooms, three public health rooms, a multi-purpose room, three "hold-ing" beds, a laboratory and x-ray equipment. There i s also a dentist suite i n the centre-, but to date there i s not a resident dentist i n Elkford. The near-est hospital i s i n Sparwood and ambulance services are available i n case of an emergency. c. Transportation and Communication Located i n the narrow Elk Valley, Elkford i s surrounded to the east and west by steep mountain ranges. The two-lane highway from Sparwood ends i n Elkford, though there i s a road up to the mine. With one road serving both as entrance and e x i t to the community, i t s importance i s compounded especially i n bad weather and emergencies. There are no public transportation or t a x i services available. However, bus transportation to the minesite i s provided by the Company. The nearest airport i s i n Cranbrook, 175 kilometers away. Radio and t e l e v i s i o n communication services are l i m i t e d , with one radio station from Alberta, one t e l e v i s i o n channel from Alberta, and two t e l e v i s i o n channels from the United States. The Elkford Bugle stopped publication i n 1975. d. Recreation Recreation a c t i v i t i e s are p l e n t i f u l i n Elkford. The natural wilderness setting provides ample opportunity for a broad spectrum of outdoor recreational 19 pursuits, both winter and summer. In addition, there i s a community s k i h i l l , and a nine-hole golf course was under construction at the time of the survey; both were supported f i n a n c i a l l y by Fording. A new recreation complex was completed i n late 1975 and included an arena, curling rink, a multi-purpose room, kitchen, l i b r a r y and a c t i v i t y rooms. The ca p i t a l cost of the f a c i l i t y was shared equally by the municipality, the pr o v i n c i a l government and Fording. Elkford employs a recreation director who organizes sports and craft a c t i v i -t i e s . A wide variety of recreational, special interest and service organiza-tions also e x i s t . e. Education Due to the rapid increase of a young family population i n the area, the l o c a l school board has found i t d i f f i c u l t to provide school f a c i l i t i e s fast enough to meet the rapidly increasing demand. The elementary school i s inade-quate, and students must take lessons i n s h i f t s . In 1975, four additional classrooms were b u i l t . A l l junior and senior high school students are bussed the 40 kilometers (one way) to the Sparwood Secondary School. Adult education courses, academic and special i n t e r e s t , are available i n Elkford, subject to demand, from the East Kootenay Community College. E.K.C.C. operates a s a t e l l -i t e campus out of the Recreation Centre, with i t s core campus located i n Cranbrook. f. Other In 1976 there were no c h i l d care or pre-school programs. Although several church groups were organized, a l l church a c t i v i t i e s were held either at the Recreation Centre or i n homes. One home was converted into a church i n 1979, and i n 1980 a large church f a c i l i t y was under construction. Elkford does not have a community cemetery, a c r i t e r i o n i n judging whether a c o l l e c -tion of individuals constitutes a community (Queen's University, 1953, p. 199). Police protection for Elkford was handled out of the Sparwood detachment of the R.C.M.P. 20 3. Housing In Elkford, as i n a l l resource communities, housing i s viewed as the key factor i n attracting and retaining a stable work force. As such, Fording has been chiefly responsible for i t s provision. In 1976 bunkhouse accomodation was provided for single male employees, while married residents were housed i n apartments (60 units or 12% of the housing stock), mobile homes and t r a i l e r s (187 units or 39%), and conventional detached homes (246 units or 49%). Housing was i n extremely short supply and was very d i f f i c u l t for non-Fording employees to obtain. There were v i r t u a l l y no homes for sale and the vacancy rate for rental accommodation was zero. In 1975 i t was estimated that an additional 328 units would be required.for married employees by the end of 1976, an i n -crease of over 45% (Hawksworth, 1975). However, i t was also recognized that the sewer and water systems were nearly f u l l y taxed, and that there was a shortage of serviced land and lack of accommocation for housing construction personnel. Elkford i s additionally constrained by the lack of suitable land for urban development. Housing costs and.rental accommodation are comparable with the nearby communities of Fernie and Sparwood. C. Study Methodology 1. Research Design Obtaining information from the women residents about the quality of l i f e i n Elkford was f e l t to be a c r i t i c a l component of the case study for several reasons. F i r s t , i n their role as keeper of the home and family, women spend a large portion of th e i r time dealing with the strengths and weaknesses of the community on a daily basis. They have a special role as resident experts of the quality of l i f e i n resource communities and can provide the user viewpoint. Second, to enhance and improve the future planning of re-source communities with women's needs i n mind, i t was important to obtain i n -formation regarding the attitudes and perceptions of women i n these communities from the women themselves. Addi t i o n a l l y , a comprehensive spectrum of informa-21 tion and s t a t i s t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y dealing with women residents i n resource communities simply did not ex i s t . I t would have been i d e a l for the author to l i v e i n Elkford for a lengthy period of time to experience and understand l i f e i n the community for herself. However, due to time and budget constraints this was not possible. The author was able to v i s i t Elkford on two separate occasions i n August, 1975 and Janu-ary, 1976. These f i e l d experiences provided the author with a better under-standing of the existing l i t e r a t u r e , some personal insights into the nature of the community, as wel l as an opportunity to have discussions with the residents. The primary method of gathering information from the women residents i n Elkford was through a survey. According to Hyman (1955), the survey i s the primary means by which empirical data on s o c i a l l i f e and s o c i a l relations have been gathered. Survey techniques deal with the systematic c o l l e c t i o n of data from populations or samples of populations, and involve direct contact with people. Surveys can provide a broad range of direct information on "what," "how" and "why." S p e c i f i c a l l y , this involves questioning people about their socio-economic and personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , their attitudes, opinions, views, perceptions, actions, and so forth. The two most widely used survey methods are the questionnaire and the interview. According to Marans (1974), suitable survey questions cover major human attributes and experiences to which the respondent can give reasonably accur-ate responses. For the most part these characteristics are people's express-ions of approval or disapproval with phenomena i n the world around them, i n -cluding other persons, places, things or events which also can be considered i n r e l a t i o n to other attitudes, behaviors, or objective environmental condi-tions. Sommer (1969, p. 3) states that: 22 I have always assumed that i f a person i s asked a reasonable question i n a straightforward manner and has no reason to conceal his opinions, whether for self-aggrandizement or fear of the interviewer's reactions or society's r i d i c u l e or r e p r i s a l , he w i l l answer honestly and to the best of his a b i l i t y . What interests us i s the way people see the world, and their opinion about themselves and their environ-ments are v a l i d data from this standpoint.. In terms of existing community quality of l i f e and resident s a t i s f a c t i o n studies, the appropriateness of the survey technique i s widely recognized, accepted and used (M-arans and Rodgers, 1974; Matthiasson, 1970; and Lauder, 1977) . Surveys can help to explain, evaluate, predict and compare how people respond to certain phenomena i n the i r environment. When the phenomena involve attributes of the physical and s o c i a l environments that are subject to manipu-l a t i o n , the information becomes especially useful to planners, s o c i o l o g i s t s , environmental designers and decision-makers, among others. Freeman and Sher-wood (1970, p. 11) claim that "Survey research studies have provided the data for many of the corre l a t i o n a l analyses c r u c i a l to the planning process." Such information can become input into discussions of policy revolving around an existing or anticipated problem or issue. Information in..the form of survey r e s u l t s , however, cannot determine policy d i r e c t l y ; yet the results can sensi-t i z e those who make policy to the thoughts and a c t i v i t i e s of people who are l i k e l y to be affected by policy. Perhaps this i s the major reason why the use of surveys i n s o c i a l policy research has been expanding. The valuable r e l a t i o n -ship between survey research and policy implications was highly congruent with the major objectives of this study. However, a major l i m i t a t i o n i n using surveys i s that one cannot d i r e c t l y observe, measure and analyze ongoing processes. Surveys do not provide a natural or detailed picture of the dynamic interactions that take place among people i n an environmental setting. S i m i l a r l y , there are l i m i t a t i o n s i n 23 c o l l e c t i n g a t t i t u d i n a l data when there i s a probability that attitudes to-ward a particular environment are not f u l l y formulated by the respondent. 2. Survey Design Two alternative survey techniques for this study were considered: a) interviews could be conducted with women i n the community, and b) questionn-aires could be mailed or handed to Elkford's women residents. Both methods could provide direct information regarding women's exposure to and consequent s a t i s f a c t i o n with the day-to-day l i v i n g environment i n a new resource commun-i t y of single industry, a. Interview Survey The greatest advantage of the interview survey as a research method i s i t s f l e x i b i l i t y and spontaneity. The s k i l l e d interviewer can make sure that the respondent f u l l y understands the nature of the information that i s request-, ed, as w e l l as probe more deeply into the subject's responses. In addition, the interviewer may present v i s u a l materials which can help focus attention more completely on the subject of interest. Above a l l , however, the interview-er may establish and maintain rapport with the respondent during the course of the interview. Another advantage i s that interview surveys generally y i e l d a high response, usually between 80 to 90 percent (Weiss and Hatry, 1971). There are a number of disadvantages with the interview s i t u a t i o n , however, the most important of which i s the problem of over-rapport, leading to bias. The interviewer may be so successful i n establishing rapport that the respond-ent's replies may be affected. The respondent may give answers and express opinions of which she feels the interviewer would approve and expect to hear. The interviewer's tone of voice and appearance also may influence the responses. In addition, the interviewer's own expectations and selective understanding and recording of the answers may produce bias. Thus, because interviewers may re-act d i f f e r e n t l y to different respondents, uniformity i n the sample with respect to the interview s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain. Furthermore, the costs of 24 transportation, lodging and other expenses must be taken into consideration, b. Mail Questionnaire Survey The major advantage of the mail questionnaire survey as a research tech-nique i s that i t i s possible to reach a larger sample of the population and to cover geographic distances with less time and expense involved than i s possible by the use of the interview survey. This factor was extremely s i g n i -f i c ant i n r e l a t i o n to this research project since the investigator had l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources and l i v e d 650 miles from the study area during the bulk of the research. Also, the. mail questionnaire can be administered to a large number of individuals simultaneously, as opposed to the more time-consuming interview. I t i s argued that the respondent has greater confidence i n the self-administered questionnaire since anonymity i s seen to be assured. Further-more, the mail questionnaire can be answered at the respondent's convenience, rather than at the convenience of the interviewer, thereby causing as l i t t l e disruption to the respondent as possible. Also, the questionnaire method allows the respondent to mull over questions to which she might need to r e c o l l e c t past experiences or decisions. The questionnaire exerts no pressure on the respon-dent, and thus, a variety of problems associated with human errors and biases introduced i n an interview s i t u a t i o n i s avoided. Against these advantages i s the,great disadvantage that the response rates to mail questionnaire surveys rarely exceed 50 percent without extensive follow-ups (Weiss and Hatry, 1971). Therefore,_the people who do return questionn-aires may not be representative, and the sample may be distorted s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the degree of non-response. Further problems are that the respondent may misread or misinterpret questions, and there i s no interviewer available for correction or to probe for more information. Also the mail questionnaire may be considered impersonal and the respondent may react with indifference to i t . Both factors can lead to vague and often unacceptable r e p l i e s . Also, the mail questionnaire lacks the spontaneity and f l e x i b i l i t y of a personal interview; 25 i t must be r e l a t i v e l y simple, straightforward, and uniform. Above a l l , however, the v i t a l l i m i t a t i o n of. mail questionnaire surveys l i e s i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s of obtaining an adequate response, and hence, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of creating bias in.the findings. In r e f i n i n g an effective research methodology, a combination of factors were important considerations; namely, the constraints of time, geographical distance, and limited f i n a n c i a l resources, the nature of the survey research techniques, and the characteristics of the community i t s e l f . In the f i n a l analysis, the: mail questionnaire survey was selected over the interview survey. 3. Questionnaire Design In formulating the questionnaire, care was taken to keep the questions straightforward, the directions clear, and the length short. The prevalence of closed or fixed alternative questions (multiple choice) as opposed to open-ended questions was a result of a number of factors. F i r s t , a structured question i s readily amenable to coding for computer analysis, and second, there i s no room for i n d i v i d u a l bias affecting the data c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as there exists i n categorizing responses to open-ended questions for coding purposes. Most importantly, a structured question does not involve as much time i n answering i t as does a subjective, open-ended one, and thus, f a c i l i t -ates ease i n completing the whole questionnaire. Time, i t should be noted, i s a c r u c i a l factor to an i n d i v i d u a l confronted with the task of f i l l i n g i n a questionnaire, and as a r e s u l t , the e a s i e r . i t appears, the greater the chances are of a possible response ( M i l l e r , 1970). The questionnaire was designed to 'be completed i n f i f t e e n to twenty minutes. A number of open-ended questions, however, were included to allow the respondents to add their own comments about l i v i n g i n Elkford. Where expora-tory information on a p a r t i c u l a r issue was sought, open-ended questions allowed for qualifying statements. In a few instances, f i l t e r questions were used to exclude a respondent from a p a r t i c u l a r question sequence i f those questions 26 were irrelevant to her. For example, a series of questions were designed to be completed by those students attending secondary school, while another series of questions catered to working and/or married women. A cover l e t t e r from the researcher explaning the nature of the study was drafted to accompany the questionnaire. In addition, i t was f e l t that greater c r e d i b i l i t y for the study would be established i n the community i f a support-ing l e t t e r from the V i l l a g e Council was also included. As a r e s u l t , a l e t t e r of endorsement from the Mayor was added to the questionnaire mail packet. Copies of the questionnaire and both l e t t e r s are shown i n Appendix 1. Also enclosed i n each packet was a self-addressed, self-stamped envelope for the return of the questionnaire. 4. Population - Sample In 1976 Elkford was a r e l a t i v e l y small community with a population of 2,400. I t was estimated that there were approximately 440 women who were f i f -teen yeais of age and older at the time of the survey i n January, 1976. There-fore, the situation.was such that i t was en t i r e l y possible to survey the t o t a l study group or "population" through a mail questionnaire. The very nature of the study was such that inclusion of a l l women was very desirable from an i n f o r -mational standpoint. For s t a t i s t i c a l purposes, t o t a l coverage obviously was not necessary; however, i t i s the id e a l research s i t u a t i o n to be able to accom-p l i s h t o t a l , coverage sampling. There was no reason to exclude someone who wanted to be involved i n the survey, for a l l women could be given equal oppor-tunity to participate and to respond anonymously. I t was f e l t that by includ-ing every women i n Elkford, a general widespread community interest and open support of the study would r e s u l t , which i n turn might provide an impetus for more dialogue on community issues. The researcher f e l t that this strategy of inclusion was wel l received by the women of Elkford. To a certain extent, the response rate of over 50 percent was an indication of i t s effectiveness. I t i s interesting to note that a number of respondents remarked that the men i n town should receive a simi l a r questionnaire to f i l l out. One respondent i n pa r t i c u l a r mentioned that the male residents would answer d i f f e r e n t l y than the women, an assumption which the researcher made at the onset of the study. 5. Distr i b u t i o n of the Questionnaire Survey In laying the groundwork for the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaire, a v i s i t to Elkford was made January 5-7, 1976, providing an excellent opportunity for the author to publicly: ^introduce herself to the community-at-large. I t was also an- attempt for the author to learn and understand more about Elkford, to gain community support of the project, and to publicize the l a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaire. In so doing, i t was hoped that an adequate response rate to the questionnaire would be assured. During the v i s i t the researcher made a br i e f presentation to the V i l l a g e Council regarding.the general objectives of the study. A notice regarding the study was printed i n the quarterly municipal recreation brochure, and was distributed.to each household i n the community approximately one week before the questionnaire was mailed from Vancouver. Because of Elkford's rapid growth rate and high labour turnover, i t was necessary for the researcher to compile an up-to-date l i s t of the women r e s i -dents i n town f i f t e e n years of age and.older while i n Elkford. This l i s t was assembled from a combination of sources, but the constantly updated V i l l a g e U t i l i t y Directory served as the basic inventory of resident names and addresses. It..listed a l l permanent single-family dwellings and most mobile homes. The Directory, however, presented a number of li m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t , the l i s t i n g s i n the Directory were made under the name of the male member of the household. I t was necessary, therefore, to establish which r e s i -dences were occupied by women, and further, what the f i r s t names of the women were. A number of individuals from the Vi l l a g e Office and a few old-time r e s i -dents carefully made notations of name and marital status beside the l i s t i n g s 28 as they proceeded through the Directory. In a small community of 2,400 there i s a greater probability that one resident w i l l know another, or know of another, than i n a larger community. Thus, given the fact that there was not a comprehensive l i s t of community residents readily available, this method was a reasonable and direct way to obtain a l i s t of women residents. The researcher also scanned through the Municipal Voters L i s t to obtain additional f i r s t names. Second, by i t s very orientation with u t i l i t y hook-ups to detached r e s i d -ences, i t became obvious that apartment dwellers were not included i n the Directory. As a r e s u l t , the names of those women l i v i n g i n apartments were obtained from Fording's Housing Office since the three apartment blocks i n Elkford are owned and managed by Fording Coal Ltd. Third, i t was discovered that a.few mobile homes occupied by teachers located d i r e c t l y behind the elementary school were not l i s t e d i n the Directory. These units were hooked up to the school's u t i l i t y system. The names of these teachers or their wives were not known before the researcher's departure from the community. Therefore, when a l l the questionnaire packets were mailed, eight additional questionnaires were sent, to one known elementary teacher who in turn kindly distributed the questionnaires i n person to those teachers (or the wives of teachers) who were residents of the school's mobile homes. Further, i n order to complete the l i s t , the names of a l l Elkford female students i n Grade 9 through 12 were compiled by the researcher from the secon-dary school f i l e s i n Sparwood; a l l Elkford high school students are bussed daily to the Sparwood Senior Secondary School... The researcher recognized that not a l l of the eleven female students i n Grade 9 were 15 years old, the a r b i t -rary minimum age l i m i t for the study. However, because the researcher had no way of examining birthdates, the decision was made to include them a l l . Every attempt was made to make the l i s t as complete as possible; a l l con-ceivable sources of information were covered. However, an additional twenty-five 29 questionnaire packets were .sent to the Vi l l a g e Office where they could be picked up by those women, who for some reason, did not receive one i n the mail. So i n this regard, an effec t i v e "catch a l l " was provided i n the d i s t r i -bution of the questionnaire. Since only twelve of the twenty-five extra packets were picked up at the V i l l a g e Office, there i s reason to believe that almost a l l of the population was sampled. A l l of the questionnaires were mailed on January 22, 1976. Twelve posters were placed i n conspicuous locations throughout the .community to remind the women to complete and return the i r questionnaires. The f i r s t responses arrived on January 30th, and they continued to arrive u n t i l February 25th. Out of a survey t o t a l of 434, the rate of response was 235 (54.1%). Four of the re- . turned questionnaires could not be used: three were incomplete and one arrived i n March, too lat e to be included. The response rate was extremely good, expecially since follow-up l e t t e r s were not sent out. 6. S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The information gathered was coded, keypunched onto data cards, and analyzed by means of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social- Sciences (SPSS) system of computer programs at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. CHAPTER THREE 3 Q  STUDY FINDINGS In this chapter the results of the mail questionnaire survey of the women i n Elkford are presented. F i r s t , a br i e f demographic p r o f i l e of the respondents w i l l be given, followed by a discussion of general indicators of community s a t i s f a c t i o n . The bulk of the chapter w i l l be devoted to the discussion of respondent reactions to selected aspects of l i v i n g i n a single industry new town. These aspects serve as indicators of the quality of l i f e for women i n Elkford, and i n turn r e f l e c t the l e v e l of community s a t i s f a c t i o n . They are grouped into the following f i v e broad subject areas: 1. Employment; 2. Housing; 3. Geographic and Natural Environment; 4. So c i a l i z a t i o n and Perceptions of Community Life; and 5. Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s . The data are presented i n Tables 3 - 46 i n Appendix 2. Only the informa-tion which i s most pertinent i s summarized and discussed below. A. Demographic P r o f i l e 1. AGE Other studies (Queen's University, 1953; Lucas, 1971: Lauder, 1977; Robinson, 1962; and R i f f e l , 1975) point out that the age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n re-source communities i s skewed toward the young. Elkford appears to be no excep-ti o n , as the average age of the women i s 28, 134 (58%) of the 231 respondents are under 31 years of age while 194 (83.5%) are under 40 years. This age di s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r s markedly from the regional and pr o v i n c i a l averages shown i n Table 3. 2. FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS The roles of wife and mother are the major ones for the women i n Elkford. Two hundred and eight (90%) of the respondents are married (Table ,4) 31 and 166 (72%) have children (Table 5). Corresponding with the youthful age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the women i n the community i s a large population of young children (Table 5). F i f t y - s i x (34%) mothers have children whose ages are under f i v e while 94 (57%) mothers have children whose ages are nine and under. Ninety-eight (59%) mothers have one or two children while 43 (26%) have three or four children. I t i s clear that young and growing families comprise a major portion of Elkford's population. 4. INCOME Table 7 indicates the range of income d i s t r i b u t i o n among the respon-dents. The 1975 mean family income of the respondents was $16,860, very close to the East Kootenay regional average of $16,430 as estimated by. Canada Man-power regional economist. Even though wages are generally high i n single industry resource communities, the "average" family income i n Elkford can be attributed to the fact that there i s a lower proportion of families with two incomes. 5. REASON FOR MOVING TO ELKFORD The figures from Table 8 indicate the push and p u l l factors r e l a t i n g to the respondents' major reasons for moving to Elkford. Almost 90% mentioned that their move to Elkford was based upon the husband's or father's employment, with being transferred, and the a t t r a c t i o n of higher wages as the two key factors. B. Sense of Community Satisfaction Several different means of measuring a general sense of community s a t i s f a c -tion were used, both direct and i n d i r e c t . The most direct asked the respondent to rate her and her family's general s a t i s f a c t i o n with the community, on a f i v e -point scale. Less direct measures were obtained from questions concerning existing length of residence, anticipated future length of residence, and i f the respondent would move to Elkford i f she had to make the choice again. The majority of women are very s a t i s f i e d with Elkford. Taking a l l aspects 32 of the community into consideration, over three quarters of the women surveyed considered themselves and their families to be quite s a t i s f i e d . The enthusiasm which some women f e l t for thei r community was exci t i n g : "I have never been happier and found l i f e more s a t i s f y i n g than I do here. They can bury me here!!"; " I think Elkford i s a great place to l i v e and I would never want to move. I love i t here"; and "In spite of a l l the draw-backs, we r e a l l y love Elkford ... I f and when we leave Elkford, i t ' l l be with regret. We're enjoying the l i f e s t y l e we want, making good friends, and developing good memories." Other women were more philosophical: " L i f e i s what you make i t wherever you are. You can only take back what you put i n " ; and "People who can't or w i l l not be happy i n Elkford probably aren't happy anywhere." However, 25 (11.3%) women reported general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Elkford. Several comments were indicati v e of t h i s : "When I am on the road to Elkford i t i s l i k e an iron gate closes behind me and I am trapped at the end of the world"; "We are leaving Elkford and I am very happy"; and " I d i s l i k e Elkford from the word go." The results to this question on general community s a t i s f a c t i o n were used i n crosstabulations for the balance of this analysis. Several other less direct indicators were also used to assess general community s a t i s f a c t i o n . 1. Length of residence . Table 9 indicates that there i s almost an equal number of those who have l i v e d i n the f i v e year-old community less than three years compared to those who have l i v e d i n Elkford three years or longer. I t further shows the longer one has l i v e d i n Elkford the greater one'.s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the commun-i t y . , Clearly.,, then, length of residence i s an indicator of community s a t i s -faction. Of interest i s that the l e v e l of community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s lowest 33 among two year residents. Wiesman (1977, pp. 17-18) suggests that "... there may ... be a very high turnover i n the f i r s t year or two of residence, but a retention rate much closer to the B.C. average once the i n i t i a l commitment to stay i n the community has been made." Certainly, the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process i s at work. 2. Anticipated future length of residence Those who are s a t i s f i e d with Elkford have indicated a clear desire to remain i n the community longer than those who are d i s s a t i s f i e d (Table 10). There i s , however, a degree of uncertainty by 99 (42.8%) women regarding their future residence.in Elkford; they either had no idea or simply did not respond. One woman wrote: Elkford has grown considerably since our a r r i v a l , but not fast enough or wel l enough to make me want to spend another four years waiting for the things I want. Coming here was a d e f i -n i t e maturing experience, but i f the opportunity to leave presents i t s e l f , we w i l l most d e f i n i t e l y be going, but with fond memories. 3. Choose to move to Elkford again I f they had i t to do a l l over again, nearly two-thirds of the women would choose to move to Elkford again. There i s a d i s t i n c t p o l a r i -zation i n Table 11, representing a strong relationship between those who are s a t i s f i e d with Elkford and would move there again i f given the choice, and those who are d i s s a t i s f i e d and would not move to Elkford again. C. Employment (1) The most far-reaching change i n the l i v e s of women today i s the i r enor-mously increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work force. Nearly half of the women in Canada over the age of f i f t e e n are employed, a .dramatic increase from 33.6% (1) For discussion and s t a t i s t i c a l purposes, this section on employment does not include those eighteen respondents who were attending high school, with the exception of subsection 9. 34 in 1966, 37.1% i n 1971 and 45% i n 1976 (Government of Canada, 1978). More and more women want to work. They work to use their education and tr a i n i n g , to earn income for the family, and to enjoy the stimulation of other people and a c t i v i t i e s outside their homes. Working women contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to r a i s i n g the income levels of their families. A growing female work force i s primarily a response to the demand for new workers to f i l l service oriented jobs i n the government, r e t a i l , c l e r i c a l and service f i e l d s . Even though the so c i e t a l trend i s toward greater female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work force at a l l l e v e l s , this i s d i f f i c u l t to achieve i n a new single-industry resource town where employment i s dominated by the primary resource sector - "men's jobs" - while employment.-in the o f f i c e and commercial sectors -"women's jobs" - i s very lim i t e d . The narrow range and scarcity of employment opportunities serves to confine and r e s t r a i n the choice for many women and the i r role within the community. Given the broad s o c i a l trends and spectrum of jobs i n resource communities, an examination of the employment scene for women i n Elkford i s important when considering aspects related to community sa t i s f a c t i o n . 1. Number 67 (31.5%) of the respondents are employed. This figure i s low when com-pared with 1976 Census female employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates of 56.8% for the East Kootenay Region, 47.0% for the province of B.C., and 45% for Canada. Women's employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates i n single-industry communities are consistently less than those for economically d i v e r s i f i e d communities. 2. Age Over half (54%) of the women employed are between 21 and 30 years of age, a proportion which closely corresponds to the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample. 3. Family aspects Of the 67 working women, 64 (95.5%) are married. 41 (61%) have children 35 and nearly one-third of the working mothers have children who are pre-schoolers. Like most resource communities, Elkford does not have an organized c h i l d care service for day or after school care. Therefore, working mothers must make their own c h i l d care arrangements with private s i t t e r s . This has not deterred a number of mothers with very young children from working. A recent study of women\.employed i n the mining industry i n B.C. (Veit, 1976, p. 79) found that " i t i s very d i f f i c u l t for women with small children to consider even part-time work as a result of inadequate c h i l d care [ f a c i l i t e s ] i n the community." One of the major findings of Veit's study was that " [ c ] h i l d care i s perceived as one of the most essential community services i n resource communities"(p. 7 )•_. Even though c h i l d care i s a more broad s o c i e t a l and commu-ni t y concern, i t i s a key issue to women's employment. In response to the statement "Elkford needs a c h i l d day care centre," the greatest interest came from those women who are currently employed (Table 12). Not only do working women have to cope with c h i l d care arrangements, but also the stresses and strains of shiftwork on marital and family relationships (Table 13). The l i t e r a t u r e on single-industry, resource-based communities (Lucas, 1971; Robinson, 1962; Bancroft, 1975; Queen's University, 1953; and Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977) consistently mentions the hardships on family and community l i f e as a result of shiftwork. These hard-ships include disruption of family routines, i n a b i l i t y to spend prime daytime and weekend hours with f a m i l i e s , necessity of keeping the home and neighbor-hoods quiet for the sleeping workers, and the organization and scheduling of most s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and recreational and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s around permanent day s h i f t workers - mainly, o f f i c e and managerial s t a f f -which r e s t r i c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by shiftworkers. These problems with shiftwork can be much more severe for working mothers who have to make their own c h i l d care arrangements, as well as for spouses who work different s h i f t s . Sometimes, however, spouses work different s h i f t s so that one parent i s always at home 36 with the children. 4. Place of Employment, Occupations Fording Coal Ltd. employs only 25 (37%) of the working women compared with 91% of their husbands. These figures reveal that the r e t a i l outlets and l o c a l o f f i c e s at the Vil l a g e townsite are the prime employers of working women while employment i n the resource industry remains a male stronghold. I t i s clear that nearly a l l of Elkford's working women hold the lower paying jobs i n the service and c l e r i c a l f i e l d s , the t r a d i t i o n a l areas of female employment (Table 14). In 1962, Robinson wrote that "Jobs i n mines, m i l l s and other development works are men's jobs." Fourteen years l a t e r , Veit (1976) concluded that this s t i l l remains true of the mining industry i n B.C. She found that "Women are not an important part of the mining labour force i n the province" and make up a very small percentage of the t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l mine work force (p.' 5). The employment picture for women i n Elkford substantiates Veit's findings. At the time the writer was i n Elkford, there were f i f t e e n women working i n non-traditional^"'"^ jobs at the mine, comprising less than. 3% of the non-office minesite workers. In Elkford, as i n other single-industry towns, the vast majority of jobs i s i n the primary resource sector where male employment predominates and where the wages are high. Employment i n the secondary and t e r t i a r y sectors, where female employment predominates, i s very li m i t e d i n terms of the few jobs available, the few places of employment, and lower pay. Thus, the competition for these o f f i c e , service and commercial jobs among women i n Elkford i s keen. Lack of choice and scarcity of employment opportunities i n small resource (1) Using Veit's d e f i n i t i o n , "non-traditional" positions are those i n mining outside the o f f i c e which have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y held by men and includes a l l non-office and non-administrative personnel. communities r e s u l t i n many women having to stay at home, leading to depression and f r u s t r a t i o n . This problem has been discussed often i n the l i t e r a t u r e re-l a t e d to resource communities ( R i f f e l , 1976; Bancroft, 1976; Lucas, 1971). As one woman stated, there i s a "lack of jobs f or women ... Mostly friends and r e l a t i v e s are h i r e d f o r a very l i m i t e d number of p o s i t i o n s , and i f you don't f i t i n t h i s category, you aren't h i r e d whether you have experience or not." Another wrote, " I t ' s not what you know or what you can do. I t ' s your name and who you know as f a r as jobs go ..." Due to the dominance of male employment i n single-industry resource commun-i t i e s , an improvement i n the employment p i c t u r e f o r women i n E l k f o r d w i l l not change s u b s t a n t i a l l y without some f a i r l y major changes i n the thinking and structure of the community i t s e l f . These changes might include: 1) a. r e s t r u c t u r i n g and greater f l e x i b i l i t y of job opportunities which would lead to an increase i n the number of women who are trained and employed by Fording to hold " n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l " mining positions where the prospects f o r job a v a i l a b i l i t y are the greatest; 2) a large community population increase which would demand a wider array of l o c a l s e r v i c e s , thereby creating more female employment i n the service sector; and 3) a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economic base of the community which would lead to greater choice and create more employment opportunities f o r women and allow a closer resemblance to more d i v e r s i f i e d communities. 5. Length', of Employment 25 (37%) of the working respondents have been employed i n E l k f o r d less than a year and 43 (64%) have worked les s than two years (Table 15)". For El k f o r d women, length of employment i s c l o s e l y linked with childbearing and length of residence i n the community. 6. Level of Education Those who have had post high school education and/or t r a i n i n g have a 38 higher employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate than those who have not (Table 16); they comprise 43% of the sample but contribute 55% of the female labour force. This higher l e v e l of employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Elkford by better educated women can be attributed to two main factors: 1) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of jobs for professionals (teachers, nurses) and other s k i l l e d workers (key punch operators, secretaries); and 2) the fact borne out by labour s t a t i s t i c s that the. more education a woman has, the more l i k e l y she i s to work, regardless of family income l e v e l (Government of Canada, 1980). 7. Job Satisfaction There appears to be a high l e v e l of job s a t i s f a c t i o n among working women. When asked, "Do you enjoy your job?, 55 (82%) responded "most of the time." 8. Full-time Homemaker's Interest i n Employment Scene Of the 213 respondents not attending high school, 146 (68.5%) are f u l l -time homemakers. An attempt was made to discover the attitudes of these women towards potential employment and their responses are depicted i n Table 17. The figures from Table 17 reveal that there i s a substantial percentage of unemployed women i n Elkford who are interested i n some form of employment now or i n the future. Only a small percentage of women currently not employed would prefer not to work. These are probably f u l l - t i m e homemakers and mothers who w i l l not be open to employment opportunities of any type because they and their families hold b a s i c a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l views of women. 9. Interest i n Mining Training Program for Women Assuming that the coal mining industry w i l l continue to be the primary employer i n Elkford, Question #30 attempted to determine i f there was an interest i n a mining training program for women. According to Table 18, 77 (33.4%) respondents indicated an interest i n such a program while 103 (44.6%) did not. I t i s notable that over one-third of the respondents already employed are interested, a finding which corresponds with Veit(1976). Of those women 39 not employed, the greatest interest i n the mining training program for women came from those women who would l i k e to work f u l l - t i m e (69.2%), followed by those who "might" l i k e to work i n the future (35.7%), and those who are interested i n part-time employment (28%) (Table 19). Homemakers least i n t e r -ested i n mining employment were those women who prefer not to work outside the home. These findings suggest that there i s , i n fact, a substantial portion of women in Elkford who are interested i n the mining sector as a source of employ-ment. Veit (1976) found that women i n other resource communities have expressed an interest i n non-traditional employment as we l l . "In one small community," she writes, "women, s p e c i f i c a l l y unemployed wives, were encouraged to apply for openings at the l o c a l mining company. Despite l i m i t e d p u b l i c i t y , 69 women applied (p. 90)." In Elkford, this latent labor force might be actualized through the i n t r o -duction of a mining trai n i n g program for women. However, that i s not to say that i f a wide range of non-mining jobs were available from which to choose that these women might prefer them over mining jobs. A high l e v e l of interest i n a mining trai n i n g program for women was ex-pressed by the teenagers attending high school. They appear to be open to the p o s s i b i l i t y of holding non-traditional jobs i n the mine as a future source of employment, i f given the opportunity. This i s noteworthy i n that there are few non-traditional role models i n Elkford. However, the teenagers who are interested i n a mining trai n i n g program for women are more than l i k e l y aware of various aspects of mine work, including wages, from the i r fathers. 10. Community Satisfaction In a crosstabulation an attempt was made to see i f there i s a r e l a t i o n -ship between community s a t i s f a c t i o n and employment. The results i n Table 20 show that community s a t i s f a c t i o n was greater among employed women (79%) 40 compared with those women who are not working ( 7 3 % ) . In addition, non-working women indicated th e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Elkford much more strongly than working women, 15% to 6%. The results show that there i s a greater tendency for working women to be more s a t i s f i e d with Elkford than those women who are unemployed. Veit (1976, p. 87) suggests that This may r e f l e c t the fact that the unemployed women may be more aware of the assets and lack of assets i n the community because they are more dependent on them to provide a c t i v i t i e s for themselves and th e i r children. I t may also r e f l e c t the fact that unemployed women f e e l more isolated and unhappy i n resource commun-i t i e s compared to employed women who are integrated into a working community. Therefore, employment appears to be linked with o v e r a l l community s a t i s f a c t i o n . D. HOUSING Housing plays a key role i n the l i v e s of women i n resource communities. The home i s used for a broad range of purposes, not just shelter requirements. Since the majority of women are homemakers and spend most of their time i n the home with young children, s a t i s f a c t i o n with housing i s of central importance from a women's perspective. Where community services and f a c i l i t i e s for recrea-tion and s o c i a l i z a t i o n are l i m i t e d , and where the winters are long, the demands and importance of housing for women are accentuated. The term "cabin fever" i s often used to graphically describe a trapped, closed-in feeling which i s ex-perienced as a resul t of these combined factors; i t usually refers to women. Housing, then, i s seen as a key variable of community s a t i s f a c t i o n for women i n resource communities. I t may we l l be the most important variable for women. Although only three questions were asked d i r e c t l y about housing, the author found out a great deal more through the u n s o l i c i t e d , open-ended comments. At the time of the research, women were housed i n three kinds of dwelling units: perman-ent single-family detached homes ( 6 7 . 5 % ) , mobile homes (23.4%) and apartments ^ ( 9 . 1 % ) . The various forms of housing are pictured i n Figures' 2. ~ Table 21 indicates that 194 respondents (84.8%) generally are s a t i s f i e d bunkhouses mobile homes for teachers , with school i n background 44 with th e i r dwelling unit. I t further shows that, proportionately, permanent single-family residents c l e a r l y are the most s a t i s f i e d with th e i r units at 84.6%, followed by mobile home dwellers at 50%, with apartment dwellers the least s a t i s f i e d at 23.8%. In examining the relationship between the kind of dwelling unit and the l e v e l of community s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t was found that those most happy with Elkford are permanent single-family residents, followed by mobile home dwellers, with apartment dwellers the least happy (Table 22). Clearly the data show that community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s correlated with the type of dwelling unit. Table 23 examines the relationship between dwelling unit s a t i s f a c t i o n and community s a t i s f a c t i o n . The results show that community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s seem-... ingly dependent on s a t i s f a c t i o n with housing. Housing i s used as an incentive to a t t r a c t and r e t a i n workers and their families i n resource communities, primarily through very a t t r a c t i v e company sub-si d i e s . These incentives do enable many young families to purchase a home that they may have been unable to afford elsewhere. New resource towns often have a decided advantage i n this regard because of the new and modern homes i n clean neighborhoods which many of the prospective residents f i n d especially appealing. The provision of married housing i s of special importance to the company because married workers have greater job s t a b i l i t y than singles. Since resource communities are usually i n remote areas the resource company usually finds i t s e l f i n the position of having to provide part or a l l of the community housing stock, more out of necessity than by choice. A major portion of the problems i n the l i t e r a t u r e related to housing i n resource towns ( R i f f e l , 1975; Bancroft, 1975; Lucas, 1971) seem to be based on the company's involvement i n the housing sector. These problems include a v a i l a b i l i t y , management and a l l o -cation, choice, s u i t a b i l i t y to environment, and cost. In Elkford, the major housing problems appear to revolve around one key factor: a v a i l a b i l i t y . At the time of the survey there were v i r t u a l l y no homes for sale, and the vacancy rate 45 for rental accommodation was zero. Bancroft (1975; p. 25) concluded that " u n t i l a town grows to a size s u f f i c i e n t to attract private housing development and achieves a state of land ownership such that private l o t s can be purchased by anyone with money, small resource communities w i l l continue to have housing problems." I t i s endemic to them, and Elkford i s no exception. 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y As a new resource town experiencing rapid growth, Elkford i s faced with considerable demand for housing by incoming workers. According to Wiesman (1977, p. 24) " ... finding acceptable housing appears to be the key factor i n promoting a favourable i n i t i a l impression of the community." Over half of the respondents (125 or 54.1%) indicated that they didn't have any problems finding a permanent place to l i v e when they f i r s t arrived i n Elkford. However, the re-maining 105 (45.7%) who did have d i f f i c u l t i e s represents a substantial group and s i g n i f i e s the extent to which housing a v a i l a b i l i t y i s and has been a problem. Two of the f i r s t residents had v i v i d recollections of the early housing situation i n Elkford: "[My husband] started at Fording i n November 1969, and I li v e d i n Kimberley u n t i l Elkford was ready. There was nothing, and I mean nothing, but approximately two dozen t r a i l e r s to l i v e i n at the very beginning . ..."; and "Our stay i n Lethbridge was from the f i r s t temporary ... and [Leth-bridge] was the closest to Elkford where we could f i n d a place to l i v e . (I.jnust say that we never t r i e d a mobile home because we don't l i k e the idea.) And there we waited u n t i l our house was finished." Construction on the f i r s t 40 homes began i n October 1971, two years after the mine started. One woman reported that her husband had to l i v e i n the bunkhouse nine months, driving home to see the family on days of f , before they could get a t r a i l e r i n town. Another wrote: "We were promised housing - guaranteed a.house - s i x weeks after my husband started work. Six months l a t e r , we were f i n a l l y able to rent a t r a i l e r . " This woman had l i v e d i n Elkford 14 months and was 46 s t i l l i n a mobile home. Other comments were: "We had extreme problems i n finding accommodation. We l o s t a lot. of money because of t h i s . A l o t of people that I know would l i k e to move here but cannot because they have no place to stay"; and "We had to wait eight months to get a house." By these comments, i t i s evident that Fording has had d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping housing supply i n pace with the considerable demand, especially for conventional single-family homes. 2. _ Management and Allocation There appears to be a considerable degree of resentment i n Fording's exclusive involvement and management of the housing as well as the employment sectors, of being the landlord and the employer. One woman wrote: "Bring i n housing run by someone independent of Cominco; Cominco controls the l i v e s of the Elkford people too much." Others stated: " I t ' s your name and who you know as far as jobs and housing go"; "Cominco shouldn't have a hold on so much land development"; "... You f e e l l i k e you belong to Fording Coal 24 hours a day"; and "The Company has too much control over our l i v e s ...." Due to lim i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing, a l l o c a t i o n of housing units i s made on the basis of the s k i l l e d personnel needed at the mine. As a consequence, s k i l l e d workers i n demand have f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n housing a l l o c a t i o n , with second p r i o r i t y given to management personnel, followed by a waiting l i s t for a l l other workers. This has caused bitterness and f r u s t r a t i o n on occasions when a low p r i o r i t y person has been on the waiting l i s t for a house for over a year and a p r i o r i t y tradesman i s able to obtain one immediately. Not only do company housing p o l i c i e s cater to employees only, they also have the effect of l i m i t i n g the growth of the business and service sector, and regulating the s o c i a l structure. The company makes provision for the married worker, and single men are offered the bunkhouses, but accommodation for single women i s a problem. One single working woman wrote: " . . . [ I had] to f i g h t for a place to l i v e . " 47 Another wrote: "...[There was] no accommodation for single women when I arrived." The a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing for non-company employees i s extremely limi t e d . Several comments were: "The Company could ... help subsidize people not employed for them, l i k e teachers. I t would help keep teachers here and other people who could help the community"; and "Elkford i s a company-run ..town which makes i t very d i f f i c u l t for people not employed by Fording to buy their homes." 3. Choice and S u i t a b i l i t y to Environment Due to lim i t e d supply, there i s also li m i t e d choice, not only i n the range of housing available but also i n the type of housing desired. There i s v i r t u -a l l y no private land i n the area; what land i s not owned by Fording belongs to the Crown. Living on acreage l o t s i n the r u r a l area and being able to select a ru r a l l i f e s t y l e i s v i r t u a l l y unavailable to the residents of Elkford. One women called i t "space to breathe." By the number of comments received with p a r t i c u l a r reference to "houses", i t appears that women i n Elkford aspire to obtain a conventional single-family home, just as their counterparts elsewhere i n North America. A great majority of the women have been able to obtain their desired housing type. Chances are that many families who became frustrated over the i r i n a b i l i t y to obtain their own home have since l e f t Elkford. One woman stated: " I f Cominco would help . their employees get a house more people would stay." This research did not go far enough i n exploring to what extent high turnover i n the f i r s t year or two of residence would be reduced i f the desired housing type were available immed-ia t e l y or shortly after ones a r r i v a l i n Elkford. However, a crosstabulation was made of the length of residence i n the community by the kind of dwelling unit (Table 24). The data suggest that permanent single-family home dwellers have a seemingly longer length of residence i n Elkford than mobile home or apartment dwellers, and that many families have probably "moved up" from mobile 48 homes. It i s assumed that many of those who were unable to obtain t h e i r preferred housing type have since l e f t E l k f o r d ; otherwise they would have been around to f i l l out the questionnaire and disprove these r e s u l t s . Table 24 also points out that the two year old apartment blocks have absorbed newcomers to E l k f o r d . Over two-thirds of the apartment dwellers have l i v e d i n E l k f o r d l e s s than two years. Due to distances and ensuing costs of bringing contractors i n and the un-a v a i l a b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g supplies i n town, custom b u i l t homes or homes b u i l t by t h e i r owners are non-existent. Homes i n E l k f o r d , as a r e s u l t , are uniform i n appearance and design because they were constructed as i n an urban suburb for the mythical "average" Canadian family. Not that t h i s i s a housing "problem"; quite the opposite i s true because the women are quite s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r single-family homes. However, the circumstances do l i m i t choice and i n d i v i d u a l -i t y . Matthiasson (1970, p. 15) found i n h i s study of Fort McMurray, Alberta: ... that housing conditions ... are considered adequate by the majority of residents. This appears to be true despite the f a c t that the s p e c i a l lay-out of homes i n the community, and t h e i r outer appearances, are very s i m i l a r to those found i n new suburban areas i n c i t i e s ... [T]here i s suggestion here that residents bring with them a set of expectations about housing, and these expectations are to a large extent, s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met ... An attempt at r a d i c a l innovations i n housing ... may not have been w e l l received by residents, whose expecta-tions are conditioned by t y p i c a l working class a s p i r -ations brought with them. 4. Cost At the time of the survey i n 1976 the average cost of a..sirig-le-.family home i n E l k f o r d was $35,000 to $40,000. Since v i r t u a l l y a l l of the housing was new, the range of p r i c e was l i m i t e d , but comparable to the cost of new homes i n Fernie and Sparwood. A housing subsidy of $2.70 per $1,000 of mortgage was a v a i l a b l e to Fording employees, which worked out to $60 -. $80 per month per home. Recently the subsidy has been changed to a $13,000 i n t e r e s t - f r e e mort^ gage. Between 1976 and 1981 the housing prices have more than doubled, but 49 remain comparable with Fernie and Sparwood. Elkford's geographic location and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of construction crews and materials from nearby communities have helped to ensure that housing costs are moderate. This i s a unique s i t u a t i o n for most new single-industry resource towns. I t has been suggested that the cost of housing i n northern resource communities could run as high as 70 to 80 percent more than i n southern communities ( R i f f e l , 1975; and Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners, 1978). Even though the supply of homes i n Elkford i s l i m i t e d , the cost of a home i s within reach of most fa m i l i e s , especially with the help of the housing sub-sidy. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the attraction of young families to Elkford i n that a single-family home may not be affordable to them i n many other communities. One woman stated as much: "... We have our own home i n Elkford and I know we could never afford one i f we had stayed i n Toronto." However, other women were of a different opinion,: " I don't mind l i v i n g i n Elkford, but the company wants too much money for a house ..."; and "You.are pretty w e l l forced to buy a house at high prices, which i s probably the case since i t i s i n Fording's best interests to have you t i e d into a mortgage." Another wrote: "The Company could make i t easier for people to get houses and could certainly do better with their subsidizing of homes." E. GEOGRAPHIC AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT The effect of environmental givens such as climate, geographic location, and townsite setting are important factors r e l a t i n g to the aesthetic and q u a l i -tative aspects of community l i f e . The respondents revealed that the quality of the natural, park-like environment of Elkford i s a s i g n i f i c a n t contributor to community s a t i s f a c t i o n . When asked: "What two things do you l i k e most about Elkford?", 45 percent of the t o t a l responses revolved around the natural and geographic attributes of the community (Table 25). One woman suggested that a national park be developed i n the Elk.Valley area. Fording's huge open p i t 50 mines have no adverse impact on the community because they are located seven-teen miles away. As such, they are not v i s u a l l y a c cessible from the townsite. In addition, through t h e i r i n d i c a t i o n of favourite past-time a c t i v i t i e s (Tables 26 and 27) i t i s clear that the women enjoy and take advantage of Elkford's natural p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r summer and winter r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . These findings correspond with other studies of single-industry communities (Wiesman, 1977; Matthiasson, 1970; Porteous, 1976; Lauder, 1977; Robinson, 1976; R i f f e l l , 1975; and Bancroft, 1975) where the natural wilderness s e t t i n g and the outdoor recreation i t affords are highly valued by a large proportion of re-source town residents. R i f f e l l (1975, p. 22) points out that " f o r many, the desire to be close to nature i s a s i g n i f i c a n t incentive (second only to economic considerations) to move to and remain i n a resource town." 1. I s o l a t i o n Much has been written about the negative aspects of geographic i s o l a t i o n of resource communities. I s o l a t i o n can have very p o s i t i v e advantages r e l a t e d to the absence of undesirable aspects of l i v i n g i n large c i t i e s ( p o l l u t i o n , heavy t r a f f i c , crime, tension, noise, etc.) and to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of aspects commonly lacking i n large c i t i e s (wilderness, camping, f i s h i n g , s o l i t u d e , e t c . ) . However, there are accompanying disadvantages of i s o l a t i o n , l a r g e l y r e l a t e d to the l i m i t e d choice and a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l services and f a c i l i t i e s , and the distances i n -volved i n obtaining them. There are also considerably d i f f e r e n t perspectives on the perception of i s o l a t i o n . For example, to a Lower Mainlander, those l i v i n g outside of the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a metropolitan areas may be described as l i v i n g i n i s o l a t e d communities. On the other hand, many residents of smaller communities i n the southern i n t e r i o r of the province balk at being described as i s o l a t e d , r e f e r r i n g that the term instead to settlements " i n the North." The concept of i s o l a t i o n , then, appears to r e l a t i v e . Matthiasson (1970) made a s i m i l a r conclusion i n his study of Fort McMurray. 51 In his 1975 study of B r i t i s h Columbia mining towns, Bancroft developed an i s o l a t i o n typology for the communities based on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of services and f a c i l i t i e s , and the distance from larger centres. At the time, Bancroft c l a s s i f i e d Elkford i n the "most is o l a t e d " category which i s understandable since Elkford was just four years old. A considerable number of services and f a c i l i t i e s have been added since then to upgrade the physical and s o c i a l i n f r a -structure of the community. Bancroft concluded that i s o l a t i o n , to a large extent, i s dependent upon one's state of mind and expectations. He states that: " I f i s o l a t i o n i s only at the l e v e l expected beforehand, then there w i l l be few problems. The trouble being when there i s more i s o l a t i o n than expected (p. 34)." When asked to respond to the statement, "Geographically, I f e e l isolated i n Elkford", only one-third of the respondents were i n agreement (Table 28). In addition, 17 (7.4%) s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i s o l a t i o n i n the factors they l i k e least about Elkford (Table 29). Located i n the narrow Elk Valley, Elkford i s surrounded to the east and west by the steep Rocky Mountains and has one road which serves as the entrance and exit to the community. These factors are probably the major contributors to the fe e l i n g of geographic i s o l a t i o n expressed by one t h i r d of the respondents. However, i t remains that the large majority of women did not perceive Elkford as being geographically isolated. This may be due, i n large part, to the existence of many other communities nearby, as well as becoming accustomed to t r a v e l l i n g short and longer distances for various levels of services and f a c i l i t i e s ; there i s choice, although one has to travel for i t . Many women expressed the need to leave Elkford and v i s i t nearby communities from time to time. One's perception of i s o l a t i o n may also r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l value systems and the trading-off of urban amenities for the natural environment. Several women stated that they l i k e d being isolated. Elkford's geographic location i s viewed i n a positive way by the majority of women i n Elkford, and, thus, can be considered a contributing factor to 52 community s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. Climate Most resource communities have been described as having harsh and un-favorable weather and c l i m a t i c conditions. Even though E l k f o r d has long winters, a generous annual snowfall, a short growing season, and shorter day-l i g h t hours due to the close proximity of the mountains, les s than one-quarter of the respondents ind i c a t e d t h e i r d i s l i k e of the climate (Table 30). E l k f o r d has a s i m i l a r i f not superior climate to other southern Canadian c i t i e s and i s reasonably -close to a v a r i e t y of other communities i n the region. These two factors are not d i r e c t l y comparable with other new resource communities " i n the North" which are remote and have severe c l i m a t i c conditions. As a re-. : s u i t , the climate and geographic l o c a t i o n may be seen as p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of the community and not major sources of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t was found that there i s a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between those who d i s l i k e the climate and f e e l geograph-i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , and those who are generally d i s s a t i s f i e d with E l k f o r d . F. SOCIALIZATION AND PERCEPTIONS OF COMMUNITY LIFE The desire f o r human i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l contact i s basic to human needs. The s o c i a l dimension i s , therefore, an important aspect r e l a t e d to q u a l i t y of l i f e questions i n any community. In new s i n g l e industry resource communities, a good s o c i a l support system i s c r i t i c a l because many new residents a r r i v e without any s o c i a l t i e s . B u ilding a network of friends and r e l a t i o n s h i p s can b e . d i f f i c u l t without a c t i v i t i e s or f a c i l i t i e s which help to f a c i l i t a t e i n -i t i a l contact and lead to f a m i l i a r patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n . Those employed are able to i n t e r a c t with others i n the work place. Homemakers have a more d i f f i -c u l t time i n meeting people and developing s o c i a l contacts, and who, according to V e i t (1976, p. 59) "experience the i s o l a t i o n of the community and the lack of resources most a c u t e l y . Without a good support system f o r human i n t e r a c -ti o n and s o c i a l contacts, i t has been suggested that there i s more s t r a i n on m a r i t a l and family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which i n turn threatens the desire to stay 53 (Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1911). As a r e s u l t , special attention to the s o c i a l dimension of community l i f e for the women i n Elkford needs to be addressed. Factors related to the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process include adjustment to the community, s o c i a l i z i n g with friends, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n commun-i t y a c t i v i t i e s , and general perceptions of Elkford. 1. Adjustment Moving to another community can be a lonely and frightening experience for anyone. Adjustments to a new town, new neighbors, a new home, and a new job are required. For many this i s the f i r s t time away from family and friends. The Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force (1977) points out that adjusting to a small resource community can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t for women. To be able to adjust to another community i s c r u c i a l i n contributing to one's sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n and ultimate s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n that community. Several factors have an important bearing on one's a b i l i t y to adjust, including a. involvement i n the decision to move; b. awareness of the community before the move; c. past r e s i d e n t i a l environments; and d. personal t r a i t s and attitudes. These factors were examined i n the context of Elkford's women, a. Involvement i n the Decision to Move: The concept of choice - of having to have the a b i l i t y to control one's future - i s an important factor closely tied with one's sense of personal and emotional well-being. With respect to moving, one's acceptance of and s a t i s -faction with a new community could be related to this perceived l e v e l of i n -volvement i n the ultimate decision to move. Table 31 indicates how the res-pondent perceived her involvement i n the decision to move to Elkford. I t i s si g n i f i c a n t that 126 respondents (55%) revealed that their move to Elkford was based upon a mutual decision between them and their husbands, a factor which should contribute p o s i t i v e l y to community s a t i s f a c t i o n . 54 •h. Awareness of Elkford Pri o r to the Move; In response to the question, "How aware were you of the working and s o c i a l conditions i n Elkford before you moved here?" i t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t that 95% respondents (41.3%) claimed that they knew very l i t t l e or nothing about Elkford prior to the i r move. By these results i t i s clear that Ford-ing 's provision of information about the community to prospective residents was extremely li m i t e d at best. Since moving i s such a disorienting experience to begin with, not knowing much about Elkford and being unprepared about what to expect upon a r r i v a l probably caused additional emotional and mental stress for a great many women. However, as one of the f i r s t residents pointed out: "As far as I was concerned, there was not much to know about a non-existing town at the end of the road, at the end of the world." A crosstabulation was made to assess the significance of t h i s l e v e l of information variable to the l e v e l of the community s a t i s f a c t i o n variable. Table 32 v e r i f i e s that there i s a strong correlation between the two, for . ...... 91.7% of the women who knew a great deal about Elkford p r i o r to the move are s a t i s f i e d with the community compared with 67.3% of the women who knew very l i t t l e . C. Past Residential Environments Past r e s i d e n t i a l environments and experiences have a tremendous influence on the development of an i n d i v i d u a l . They help to shape and mold expectations, levels of s a t i s f a c t i o n , what one i s used to and f a m i l i a r with, one's a b i l i t y to cope, adjust and adapt, and one's evaluative framework. The r e l a t i v e l y new f i e l d of environmental psychology i s based on the premise that attitudes and behavioral patterns are a result of environmental conditions. 1) Childhood Residence: In the Third Annual Report (1970, p. 1976) of the University of Manitoba Centre for Settlement Studies, i t was reported that homemakers i n northern mining communities were most s a t i s f i e d with the i r roles i f they had been brought 55 up i n small towns or on farms, had been raised on the p r a i r i e s or i n another northern or mining town. In fact, one of the Elkford respondents stated as much: " I can make home most anywhere; I grew up on a farm i n central Saskat-chewan for 18 years and I can l i v e most anywhere." An attempt was made to see i f a simi l a r conclusion could be drawn for the women i n Elkford, a southern mining community. Although 142 (62%) of women i n Elkford grew up i n a r u r a l or small town environment compared to 79 (34%) who grew up i n a c i t y or suburbia, 78% of the former urban residents are s a t i s f i e d with Elkford compared to 79% of the former r u r a l residents and 73% of the former small town residents. These results d i f f e r from the con-clusions drawn by the Centre for Settlement Studies; instead they indicate that former urbanites have a comparable or an even greater tendency to be s a t i s f i e d with Elkford than former r u r a l and small town residents. One woman wrote that: "Although always c i t y f o l k i n England, we have adjusted very ea s i l y to V i l l a g e l i f e . " While former r u r a l and small town residents may be more fa m i l i a r with a s e l f - r e l i a n t l i f e s t y l e i n the face of limited services and f a c i l i t i e s , the former urban resident may be seeking a different and challenging l i f e s t y l e that i s slower paced, s o c i a l l y more simple, and closer to nature. Women wrote: " I t beats the rush ... of c i t y l i v i n g " ; "A person can get l o s t i n a big c i t y ... [Elkford] offers opportunities that are not available i n the c i t y " ; and "Our chi l d i s being raised away from the c i t y influences and p o l l u t i o n , and hope-f u l l y here we can teach her ideals that have no place and make no sense i n the city.'" However, there i s also an indication that former c i t y residents may be more tolerant and s a t i s f i e d with a variety of l i v i n g situations than are the former r u r a l and small town residents. In response to the statement "Big c i t i e s are too noisy and crowded for me," i t was found that 81% of the former r u r a l and small town residents agreed with the statement as opposed to 52% of the former c i t y and suburban residents. At any length, as one woman 56 wrote: "To l i v e i n E l k f o r d you have to be able to adjust to a small community and i t s surroundings." 2) Last Residence before E l k f o r d : The great majority of women held residence i n the general area p r i o r to the i r move to El k f o r d ; 165 (75%) women were from the neighboring communities of Fernie and Sparwood, elsewhere within the East Kootenay, the West Kootenay, B r i t i s h Columbia or Alberta (Table 33). Within the Kootenays, the d i r e c t i n f l u x of El k f o r d residents included 63 (27%) women from the West Kootenay, while 35 (15%) were from the East Kootenay. This strong Kootenay contingency can be at t r i b u t e d to the major mining a c t i v i t i e s of Cominco (Fording's mother company) i n the Kootenays. During Fording's f i r s t years of operation many Cominco employees were transferred from the well-established communities of T r a i l and Kimberley. I t i s important to r e a l i z e that many Kootenay f a m i l i e s have close t i e s and a strong sense of l o y a l t y to Cominco for employing members of t h e i r family i n the area f o r generations. This longer term commitment to Cominco i s evident i n Table 31, which compares how long one has l i v e d i n Elkf o r d by where one l i v e d previous to E l k f o r d . This Table shows that those who previously l i v e d i n the Kootenay Region have a tendency to remain i n E l k f o r d the longest. Since length of residence i s a strong i n d i c a t o r of community s a t i s f a c t i o n , these findings suggest that moving to another community within the region, being f a m i l i a r with the employer, and remaining i n close geographic proximity to friends and r e l a t i v e s have con-tributed p o s i t i v e l y to s a t i s f a c t i o n with E l k f o r d . This has strong implications for recruitment and h i r i n g p o l i c i e s i n the i n i t i a l establishment of a new re-source community, but diminishes as the community matures. 3) Past Experience with Resource Town L i v i n g : Another factor which should contribute i n one's adjustment to a s i n g l e -industry town i s past experience with resource town l i v i n g . The majority of Elk f o r d women are f a m i l i a r with l i v i n g i n a single-industry community, as 137 57 (59%) had l i v e d previously i n other single industry communities (Table 34). Of these, 122 (90%) l i v e d i n a single industry minetown p r i o r to their move to Elkford (53% of the t o t a l sample). The former resource town residents were asked "In your mind, what single thing most distinguishes Elkford from the resource town where you used to l i v e ? " Nearly one-third chose not to answer the question. However, of those who did respond, the.newness of the community and Elkford's physical setting were mentioned most often. The writer found i t revealing that 9 out of 20 (45%) of the former T r a i l residents mentioned "clean, fresh a i r " as Elkford's distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Cominco's large smelter i s located i n T r a i l . An attempt was made to ascertain whether former single resource town r e s i -dents are more s a t i s f i e d with Elkford than former non-resource town residents. There i s no apparent correlation between the two; 105 out of 135 (78%) former single resource town residents indicates s a t i s f a c t i o n with Elkford as opposed to 70 out of 93 (75%) former non-resource town residents. One 3-1/2 year res-ident wrote: "This i s my f i r s t company town and i t takes quite a while to get used to i t , quite the experience." 4) Personal Traits and Attitudes: The way i n which one approaches l i f e and i s able to cope and adapt to various challenges i s greatly dependent upon one's i n d i v i d u a l personality and make-up. Those who are employed, outgoing, make friends e a s i l y and become involved i n community a c t i v i t i e s f i n d i t easiest to adjust to a single-industry resource community. Those who are shy and not outgoing, who find i t hard to j o i n organizations and who are not keen on sports have more d i f f i c u l t y adjust-ing (Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977). Lauder (1977, p. 201) wrote that she had been convinced by the residents of Leaf Rapids and MacKenzie "that most women who are bored at home and not getting involved are prevented from j o i n i n g groups by lack of self-confidence and the fear of meeting and not being accepted by new people." On a more philosophical l e v e l , i t has been 58 suggested that s a t i s f a c t i o n must come from within each i n d i v i d u a l , must be motivated from within rather than through external forces. This point was supported by a number of comments, in c l u d i n g : "Like any-where, i t ' s what oneself makes of i t " ; "People belly-ache about most company towns, I think, but they are discontent i n many situations";"People are peoplewherever you go"; " L i f e i s what you make i t wherever you are. You can only take back what you put i n " ; and " I f you have nothing on the go y o u ' l l be bored." In a new resource community, some people experience personal growth as the community experiences phy s i c a l growth. One woman wrote: I f e e l that as a person I grew along with E l k f o r d . I was very shy and withdrawn when we moved here... [I] found that coming to a place of some 20 f a m i l i e s or so I had to involve myself i n Elkford !s growth and experience her growing pains...[I] enjoy immensely any new achieve-ments and steps forward we make as a community. Her use of the word "we" i s i n d i c a t i v e of her involvement i n and very personal attachment to Elk f o r d . Another "oldtimer" wrote of her adjustment period: When I f i r s t moved to Elk f o r d I didn't want to stay. I cr i e d f o r about a week. There were about 20 f a m i l i e s here . . . i t took me at l e a s t s i x months to become adjusted... Now i f I had to move away I think I would cry a l l over again j u s t because I want to stay. There are others who found the adjustment j u s t as d i f f i c u l t . One woman wrote: "For one year I did nothing but stay i n the house and t a l k to the wa l l s . " Another wrote: "For the f i r s t two years I had to get out of here at l e a s t twice a month; th i s place drove me s t i r crazy." 2. S o c i a l i z i n g with Friends In t h e i r study of migration to northern mining communities, Jackson and Pouchinsky found that friendship with other residents i s the strongest s i n g l e c o r r e l a t e of residents' s a t i s f a c t i o n with a town (1971). Friendship appears to be a strong i n d i c a t o r of community s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Elk f o r d as w e l l . Second only to ph y s i c a l s e t t i n g , the women stated that i t i s the people of Elk f o r d and t h e i r f r i e n d l i n e s s which they l i k e d most about the 59 community (Table 25). As one woman stated: I'Elkford.isn't a bad p\lace, but i t ' s the people that make i t worthwhile." Community friendliness i n other resource communities i s deemed to be high as well (Matthiasson, 1971; Wies-man, 1977; Veit, 1976; Bancroft, 1975). When asked s p e c i f i c a l l y about Elk-ford's friendliness (Question #29a), 154 (66.7%) women agreed that Elkford i s a fri e n d l y town while 38 (16.5%) disagreed. Further, there i s a strong positive correlation between perception of friendliness and length of r e s i -dence; the older residents f e e l that Elkford i s more fr i e n d l y than the new-comers. However, several "old timers" f e l t that Elkford i s less frien d l y than i t used to be, probably a function of smaller size and the r e s u l t i n g banding together of the few residents. A pioneering s p i r i t developed. I t was also found that the women who are d i s s a t i s f i e d with Elkford have a much greater tendency to f e e l that Elkford i s unfriendly. Several women f e l t that there was limited s o c i a l interaction within the community: " I l i k e small towns, but the people here tend not to mix"; " I f people were more fri e n d l y i n the community instead of being ' c l i c k y ' i t would be a better place to l i v e " ; "[Elkford's] people seem to f a l l into defin-i t e s o c i a l classes which seldom mix with one another"; "This i s a hard town to become part of"; "There are the usual ' c l i c k y ' groups, but there have been worse"; and "Elkford would be a good place to l i v e i f the people would mix better." I t i s true that s o c i a l groupings may be more obvious i n a small community. However, Lucas (1971, p. 50) attributes t h i s to the s o c i a l s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n of a single industry town, where "the wage earners of each c l a s s i f i c -ation and their families associate more closely with each other than with other occupational groupings." He points out that there i s a strong tendency for "those who share the same work, the same vocabulary and problems" to associate together (p. 160). S h i f t work also contributes to this s o c i a l s t r a t -i f i c a t i o n . This cha r a c t e r i s t i c was confirmed i n Elkford, for the largest number of women (54.5%) indicated that they met most of their friends through 60 t h e i r husbands, h i s co-workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s (Table 35). This f i n d i n g r e f l e c t s the d i f f i c u l t y that women i n El k f o r d may have i n meeting people on th e i r own, p a r t i c u l a r l y without a common community meeting place. Women view the neighborhoods i n E l k f o r d as prime areas for making fr i e n d s , as 52.8% mentioned that t h e i r friendships started within the neigh-borhood s e t t i n g (Table 35). Probably many women became friends because t h e i r c h i l d r e n were playmates. A further i n s i g h t i n t o neighborhood i n t e r a c t i o n was gained by the response to the statement "Il.spend very l i t t l e time with my neighbors." 53.2% of the women disagreed with the statement while 38.1% agreed. Therefore, i t appears that the majority of women perceive t h e i r neighborliness to be at a high l e v e l . One's perception of f r i e n d l i n e s s and openness i s c e r t a i n l y r e l a t e d to the f a c i l i t i e s i n the community which lead to s o c i a l contact and i n t e r a c t i o n . In response to the question "Where i n E l k f o r d do you usually s o c i a l i z e with your f r i e n d s ? " i t i s i n d i c a t i v e that the home i s seen by the women as the major s e t t i n g f o r t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s (Table 34). P u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i n the community do not rate p a r t i c u l a r l y high. This f i n d i n g may help to explain why some women believe that there i s l i m i t e d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n E l k f o r d . This need for human i n t e r a c t i o n on a public scale was expressed w e l l by one woman who wrote that ".. . . most people go to the mall everyday even i f i t i s ju s t for a loaf of bread or mail. And there are a l o t of people that j u s t s i t i n the mall and chat for a while. For myself, I have to get out of t h i s apartment or else I would go crazy. Even i f i t ' s j u s t to the mall for some s i l l y thing. I am not one for the pub or lounge." I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y notable that 27.3% of the women indicated that they knew most of t h e i r friends before they moved to El k f o r d . This corresponds with the f a c t that nearly one-third of the women moved or were transferred to. Elk f o r d from other Cominco mining communities (namely Kimberley, Rossland and T r a i l ) , and that many friendships were c a r r i e d over..to Elkford:.. This 61 continuity of friends i s a positive reinforcement and probably helped many i n adjusting to Elkford, by having f a m i l i a r faces i n a brand new town. One woman f e l t t his f a m i l i a r i t y contributed to the cliques i n Elkford, however. She wrote: " I f you are not from T r a i l , Kimberley, etc., you can forget about meeting anyone." Nevertheless, making friends can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t for women, most of whom have no regular daily contacts with other adults, i n contrast to their working husbands. Establishing friendships takes time, but the new friendships are frequently not long l a s t i n g due to the turnover rate. Strikes every two years take the greatest t o l l . One woman wrote of a discussion she had with a friend: "One of my friends stated almost 2 years ago...'Elkford used to be such a fri e n d l y town. But quite a few of my close friends moved away and I fi n d i t d i f f i c u l t to make new friends.' That was after the s t r i k e and of course she missed her old friends..." Some women mentioned that many of the established residents already had their own .circle of friends and did not bother to meet newcomers. For homemakers who may be home a l l day with pre-schoolers, who may not have adequate housing for s o c i a l i z i n g , the need for a common public meeting ground, a place for casual encounter outside of the home, a place to see people and be seen, a comfortable place to meet new people and ta l k with friends i s especially important (Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977; Wiesman, 1977). At the time of this research, there was not a special centre for these combined purposes i n Elkford; they were fragmented among three separate f a c i l i t i e s : the brand new recreation centre, the mall and the pub-restaurant. S o c i a l i z a t i o n may be more d i f f i c u l t to achieve because of this fragmentation of f a c i l i t i e s . The most recent l i t e r a t u r e on resource town planning (Thompson,Berwick, Pratt & Partners, 1978) points to the need for a community centre,a common place with a steady stream of people and a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as a women's centre for i n f o r -mation, counselling and s o c i a l i z i n g . The town centre concept has been t r i e d i n other new resource towns with varying degrees of success, including Kitimat, B.C., Mackenzie, B.C., Leaf Rapids, 62 Manitoba, and Fermont, Quebec. A town centre i s on the drawing boards for B.C.' s new town-to-be, Tumbler Ridge. In the early 1950' s Kitimat was de-signed for a population of 50,000, a population l e v e l which has not material-ized. Also, the service, commercial and recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n the town centre are segregated. As a r e s u l t , there i s a large amount of vacant proper-ty i n the town centre area. Wiesman (1977, p. 23) describes Kitimat as having an "absence of v i t a l i t y or excitement and this i s associated with the lack of a r e a l l y successful focus i n the town centre." The town centre concept was t r i e d i n the early 1970's i n Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, a community for approximately 2,000 residents. Nearly a l l of the businesses, services and f a c i l i t i e s are located under one roof. According to a recent study of Leaf Rapids (Lauder, 1977), resident s a t i s f a c t i o n with the town centre was very strong. The advantages were i n terms of convenience and the provision of a community meeting place. Disadvantages with this town centre concept were more psychological: "only one place to go." The lack of div e r s i t y i n range of opportunities for outings was recognized. 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Community A c t i v i t i e s According to the survey r e s u l t s , the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involve-ment i n community a c t i v i t i e s i s a prime indicator of community s a t i s f a c t i o n . When asked about the amount of community a c t i v i t i e s available i n Elkford, over two-thirds responded that there were too many or just enough a c t i v i t i e s for them (Table 37). This i n turn relates to the l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n commun-i t y clubs and organizations. One hundred and th i r t y - f o u r (58%) responded that they act i v e l y p a r t i c i p ate i n community clubs, and 45 belong to more than one club (Table 38). There i s a strong correlation between these two community p a r t i c i p a t i o n variables: 101 out of 157 (64.3%) who belong to clubs f e e l that s u f f i c i e n t community a c t i v i t i e s are available, whereas 34 out of 64 (53.1%) who do not belong to clubs f e e l that there i s not enough to do. Further testing of the 63 two variables shows that perception of amount of community a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community organizations are strongly related to the l e v e l of community s a t i s f a c t i o n (Tables 39 and 40). Many of the comments from the women support these points further: " I f any woman says she's bored i t i s her own f a u l t ... there i s never enough time i n a day"; " I f e e l that there are many people who complain about how things are being done but don't want to help or participate i n planning or working to make things better"; and "The community-minded are the most s a t i s f i e d " . One woman was lengthy i n her comment on community p a r t i c i p a t i o n : There are certain people (quite a few, too) who have been, are and always w i l l be complaining there i s nothing to do ... i f I [had] another 100 years to l i v e , I ' l l s t i l l not be able to do everything I would l i k e to ... I t i s so funny that the people who complain that they are bored are never involved i n any of the volunteer things and, i f asked to do anything, don't f e e l l i k e i t or have any old excuse. The res u l t i t that I know of l o t s of women who are always busy and are always called upon to do more ... I could write a book about this point alone. Lucas (1971) points out that i n small communities of single industry that i n s t i t u t i o n a l o f f i c e and voluntary organization r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are accepted by a comparatively small group of people i n the community. This assertion was supported by several comments: "The same small group runs everything"; "The people running everything i n Elkford (sports, etc.) are usually the bosses at Fording. I t i s very unfair"; and "I f e e l that there are too many people holding positions i n [the community ... who] happened to be here at the ri g h t time...." Attempts were made to see i f there i s a relationship between length of residence and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Women who have l i v e d i n Elkford three years or more tend to be more s a t i s f i e d with the amount of community a c t i v i t i e s than those less-than-three-year residents (Table 41). However,„there i s no correlation between length of residence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community organiza-tions. Club members are distributed f a i r l y evenly between "oldtimers" and 64 "newcomers" a l i k e . Therefore, club p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears to be more a function of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s than how long one has l i v e d i n the community. Ad d i t i o n a l comments suggest that those who are most involved i n community a c t i v i t i e s take the greatest i n t e r e s t i n the development of the community are the "pioneers" of E l k f o r d . One "oldtimer" confirmed t h i s point e s p e c i a l l y w e l l : I f e e l the town w i l l only be what we make i t ... and there are c e r t a i n l y many things we can do to help make Elkf o r d a good place to l i v e . In E l k f o r d we have the chance to help b u i l d the community. You don't have to be anyone s p e c i a l but i f you are w i l l i n g to do a b i t of work the town i s ours to b u i l d . Those women who view t h e i r stay i n E l k f o r d as temporary are les s apt to exert the time, energy and commitment to E l k f o r d to be "community b u i l d e r s . " This i s a common conclusion reached by other l i t e r a t u r e on single-industry resource communities (Lucas, 1971; Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977; R i f f e l , 1975; V e i t , 1976 and 1978; Matthiasson, 1970; Bancroft, 1975; and Thompson, Berwick, Pr a t t & Partners, S o c i a l Plan, 1978). 4. Perceptions of E l k f o r d as a New Single Industry Resource Town As a new single-industry resource town, E l k f o r d has a number of factors which sets i t apart from w e l l established communities which have more diverse economies and have evolved over a longer period of time. Several of these factors were examined from a perceptual standpoint (Table 42). a. Newness of Community: Over 70% of the women disagreed with the statement " E l k f o r d i s too new for my l i k i n g " . This suggests that p h y s i c a l newness i s viewed as a very p o s i t i v e feature of the town; i t most l i k e l y served to a t t r a c t many residents. .. A number of women, however, recognized that as a new town E l k f o r d needs time to evolve more f u l l y i n a s o c i a l as w e l l as a p h y s i c a l sense. Comments i n -cluded: "People misunderstand [ E l k f o r d ] . I t ' s too new to expect too much. 65 We're tryin g " ; "These [problems] are only because Elkford i s a new community and i t does need improvement"; "Elkford i s a new v i l l a g e and given time and opportunity w i l l grow to a lovely town to be proud of"; and "We have a unique town i n that every building i s new ... s t i l l has growing pains, but as ... f a c i l i t i e s grow so w i l l a stable community." b. Sense of .'Community" Although a new town may be physically very w e l l developed right from the s t a r t , i t takes many years for the s o c i a l development of the town to catch up. The b u i l t environment has been created, but only the people l i v i n g within that b u i l t environment can create a sense of "community." The development of a new town into a "community" takes time. "Community" may be described as a group of people who have a sense of unity by sharing similar characteristics and b e l i e f s . A sense of "community" may be reflected i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the community, having pride i n the community and i t s accomplishments, becoming involved i n community a c t i v i t i e s , and caring for the community and i t s future. Therefore, one i s t i e d to the community on a s o c i a l and psychological l e v e l , not just on a physical l e v e l . R i f f e l suggests that there may be a great deal of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y and "neigh-boring" i n resource towns, but l i t t l e sense of community (1975, p. 10). Both Lucas (1971) and R i f f e l (1975) discuss the stages and characteris-t i c s of resource town development. Although the number and l a b e l l i n g of stages vary between the two, the description and analysis of the evolutionary processes are s i m i l a r . B a s i c a l l y , these stages of development include: construction, recruitment, t r a n s i t i o n and maturity. R i f f e l points out that: The l a s t stage, community maturity, takes the longest to achieve. In terms of quality of l i v i n g , t his stage may also be the most c r u c i a l , for this i s the stage i n which feelings of community and belongingness emerge. Some sociologists suggest that this takes about three generations to achieve. I t seems paradoxical that the quality of l i v i n g i n a town would become most s a t i s f y i n g at the time when one would expect that the resources around which the town was b u i l t become depleted (1975; p. 11). 66 At the time of this research, Elkford was barely f i v e years old and well into the recruitment stage. At th i s stage there i s rapid population growth, with resultant demands on townsite services and f a c i l i t i e s . Elkford i s not expected to have a well defined, strong sense of community at this stage. Even though sense of community i s d i f f i c u l t to gauge on a quantita-tiv e scale, several aspects of "community," including the concept of "home," the feeling of permanence and s t a b i l i t y , and commitment were examined. The concept of "home" and "hometown" usually has a warm connotation, referring to where one was born or reared (not applicable for Elkford), where one l i v e s , or where one l i k e s to be. I also can r e f l e c t one's interest i n or commitment to a community on a more permanent basis. Over 70% considered Elkford "home" while 15% did not. These results suggest, that there i s a strong sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the community as "home." When asked about community s t a b i l i t y and feeling of permanence, nearly half of the women f e l t that both were lacking i n Elkford, while 30.7% did not. However, this perceived lack of s t a b i l i t y i s not widely attributed to the more mobile sectors of the community, e.g., "the transients." Resident mobility appears to be more widespread, a major contributing factor being the length of str i k e s which seem to occur regularly every second year. Several women comm-ented: "There must be some way to make people f e e l this i s thei r permanent home. I t ' s the only way to get community involvement"; and "Make this town so people w i l l stay. There has to be some drastic changes i n both the working conditions and recreation conditions as no one stays too long. Elkford's r e s i -dents are always changing, and because of this you never have the same friends for long." The women were also asked i f they f e l t people i n Elkford r e a l l y cared what happens to the town, to which nearly 50% agreed and 27.7% disagreed. This suggests that there i s a moderately high l e v e l of interest i n and concern for the community. Although Elkford was barely f i v e years old and has had very l i t t l e chance to evolve, the women nevertheless do ex h i b i t that a c e r t a i n degree of "community" does e x i s t i n E l k f o r d . I t exi s t s more on a l e v e l of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and concern rather than through a continuity of residents. Wlesman (1977) drew the same conclusion from h i s study of the residents of Kitimat. He stated that "Most of the people ... were committed to Kitimat as t h e i r home but not nec e s s a r i l y permanently" (p. 17). c. Community Size and Growth P o t e n t i a l For most people the population of a community i s an important factor i n determining and assessing the q u a l i t y of the l i v i n g environment. I t a f f e c t s the p r o v i s i o n of services and f a c i l i t i e s , job opportunities, and the spectrum of residents, among others. Preferences about community s i z e are subjective and based on i n d i v i d u a l value systems. With t h i s i n mind, women were asked about an increase i n population and future growth prospects for E l k f o r d . Over 60% disagreed with the statement "El k f o r d i s growing too f a s t , " while 20.8% were i n agreement. This suggests that a majority of women view growth and population increase i n a p o s i t i v e way. Several described E l k f o r d as having "growing pains." This desire for growth was supported further i n response to a question on the prospects of another mine opening up i n the area, r e s u l t i n g i n a new employer as we l l as rapid community growth f o r E l k f o r d (Question #32). The p o s i t i v e reactions r e l a t e d to greater d i v e r s i t y i n employ-ment opportunities, commercial and i n s t i t u t i o n a l (e.g. education, medical) opportunities f o r E l k f o r d . Those with negative reactions were concerned with keeping E l k f o r d small and f r i e n d l y , upgrading community services and f a c i l i t i e s to meet high demands, and maintaining the natural.environment. d. Attitudes Toward Major Employer Resource towns often bear the "company town" stigma. Residents expect a cert a i n standard of services and f a c i l i t i e s , which t r a d i t i o n a l l y the company has provided. As a r e s u l t , the residents sense that the company controls not only t h e i r work l i f e but also t h e i r c i v i c and priv a t e welfare, creating anxiety 68 and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Dependence on.and resentment of the company i s a w e l l -known phenomenon of single-industry resource towns and i s a common basis f o r discussion i n the l i t e r a t u r e on resource towns (Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1953; Robinson, 1962; Lucas, 1971; Bancroft, 1975; R i f f e l , 1975). In an attempt to gain an understanding of. attitudes towards Fording, the women were asked what they thought of Fording as an employer and as a "commun-i t y c i t i z e n " . The responses to both questions were very s i m i l a r , as over h a l f of the respondents indicated a p o s i t i v e or moderately p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e to-wards Fording, while approximately one-quarter were negative i n t h e i r responses (Table 43). These r e s u l t s suggest that the majority of women are r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d with Fording, but also f e e l there i s room f o r improvement on both fr o n t s . No doubt the responses to these questions would have been markedly d i f f e r e n t a few months l a t e r when the community was i n the midst of a very lengthy s t r i k e . Hundreds of people l e f t town for good or to f i n d temporary employment elsewhere. This was the time when the 1976 Census was taken, causing p a r t i c u l a r chaos, i n that Census Canada population figures are used as the basis f o r p r o v i n c i a l revenue sharing grants to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s during the next f i v e years. The businesses i n E l k f o r d were very hard h i t . e. Family L i f e The family i s the basic s o c i a l unit and the basic c h i l d rearing u n i t , and as such plays an important r o l e i n our society. The importance of the family i s also recognized by many resource companies i n t h e i r recruitment and h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s , as married workers, e s p e c i a l l y those with c h i l d r e n , are assumed to become more r e a d i l y . e s t a b l i s h e d i n the community, thereby reducing costly labour turnover (Thompson, Berwick, Pra t t & Partners, 1978, S o c i a l Plan, p. 36). Much of the l i t e r a t u r e ( R i f f e l , 1975; Lucas, 1971; Bancroft, 1975; and Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977) discusses the stresses and s t r a i n s that resource town l i v i n g has on family l i f e . Contributing f a c t o r s 69 include lack of friends and an extended family, a lim i t e d s o c i a l support system, shiftwork, limited employment opportunities for women, limited community services and f a c i l i t i e s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r , c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s ) , and inadequate or undesirable housing. A l l of these factors have been discussed at length previously. Due to the woman's t r a d i t i o n a l role i n managing the home and nurturing the family as the basic s o c i a l unit, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of caring for the family with a combination of these added stresses and strains may be very d i f f i c u l t for many women to handle and cope with. In considering community s a t i s f a c t i o n variable, the importance of the family unit was recognized but not examined i n any great d e t a i l . The women were asked to respond to two basic but very direct statements: one about c h i l d rearing and the other about general family s a t i s f a c t i o n with the community. With respect to c h i l d rearing, 53.2% of the women agreed that "Compared with other towns or c i t i e s , Elkford i s a good place to rear children"; 23.4% disagreed. Upon further examination, i t was found that mothers have a tendency to be more positive about c h i l d rearing i n Elkford that the non-mothers. Even though the majority of women f e l t positive about the rearing of children i n Elkford, the results were: not overwhelming. This information suggests d e f i n i t e implications for resident and job s t a b i l i t y , i n that the opportunities women desire for th e i r children may push families from Elkford and p u l l them to other communities. In response to the statement "Generally, my family and I are happy with Elkford as a place to l i v e , " 76.2% were i n agreement while 11.3% disagreed. These results indicate very cl e a r l y that there i s strong personal and family s a t i s f a c t i o n with Elkford. f. Social Problems This research did not include a quantitative examination of s o c i a l prob-lems within the community such as mental d i s t r e s s , drug abuse, family breakups, and violent behavior. I t i s not known, then, to what extent these problems 70 exist i n Elkford. However, from the amount of discussion i n the l i t e r a t u r e on single industry resource towns and various unsolicited comments from the women who responded to the questionnaire, there i s l i t t l e doubt that these s o c i a l problems exist to a certain degree i n Elkford as w e l l . The perceptions of the women regarding s o c i a l problems i n Elkford v i s -a-vis more diverse communities was examined i n Question #23. In response to the statement "New resource towns have higher levels of crime, alcoholism, mental breakdowns, and family problems than more diverse communities," 91 (39.4%) agreed and 119 (51.5%) disagreed. When further asked i f they believed the statement was s p e c i f i c a l l y true of Elkford, 96 (41.6%) agreed and 114 (49.3%) disagreed. These results suggest that the majority of Elkford's women disagree with a strongly held premise that resource communities are ridden with s o c i a l malaise. Additional support to this finding was obtained when 52% disagreed with the statement "Elkford i s a community with more problems than other places I have l i v e d , " while 30.7% agreed. Several women mentioned that s o c i a l problems are more noticeable i n smaller communities where there i s greater f a m i l i a r i t y than i n larger commun-i t i e s where there i s anonymity. Hence, residents of resource communities may have the impression that there are more problems because of th e i r own f a m i l i a -r i t y with people and events. However, i t appears that despite this f a m i l i a r -i t y , the majority of Elkford's women may attribute s o c i a l problems to be more of a function of the broader society than are peculiar to resource communities i n general, or Elkford i n p a r t i c u l a r . G. COMMUNITY SERVICES AND FACILITIES. I t i s the general aim of the resource industry to provide modern urban services and f a c i l i t i e s to attra c t and retain the workers and their families. However, a common source of discontentment i n most resource communities, par-t i c u l a r l y new resource communities, i s the lack of l o c a l services and f a c i l -i t i e s , both public and private. Since the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of 71 managing and caring for the home and family are primarily l e f t to the women i n resource communities, a low l e v e l of community services and f a c i l i t i e s creates problems and hardships on women's a b i l i t y to perform their nurturing r o l e . Women spend more time i n a resource community than their male counter-parts, and therefore, are more severely affected by lim i t e d community services and f a c i l i t i e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y and quality of community services and f a c i l -i t i e s has an important bearing on community s a t i s f a c t i o n levels for women. This certainly appears to be the case i n Elkford. When asked: "What two things do you l i k e least about Elkford?" w e l l over half of the t o t a l responses per-tained to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with community services and f a c i l i t i e s . The three most s i g n i f i c a n t d i s l i k e s were 1) inadequate shopping f a c i l i t i e s , mentioned by 88 (38.1%) respondents; 2) deficiencies i n both elementary and secondary education f a c i l i t i e s , mentioned by 37 (16%) respondents; and 3) the lack of adequate medical and dental services and f a c i l i t i e s , mentioned by 24 (10.4%) respondents (Table 29). Additional insight regarding o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with community services and f a c i l i t i e s was gained by the response to the following question: " I f you had the power to add, change or a l t e r any one thing i n Elkford to make i t a better place to l i v e , what would i t be and why?" Even though a number of res-pondents included more than one response, improvement i n shopping f a c i l i t i e s was mentioned most often, with 75 (32.5%) responses. An improvement i n educa-tion f a c i l i t i e s and the construction of a swimming pool were seen to be of prime concern with 42 (18.2%) and 38 (16.5%) responses respectively. Movie entertainment and improvement i n medical services and f a c i l i t i e s followed with 26 (11.3%) and 24 (10.4%) respectively. A more s p e c i f i c breakdown of women's s a t i s f a c t i o n with the broad array of community services and f a c i l i t i e s was obtained from the survey. I t was an attempt to discover how the women rated the various services and f a c i l i t i e s i n 72 Elkford, which i n turn i s reflected i n levels of community s a t i s f a c t i o n . The results are displayed i n Table 44 and discussed as follows. 1. Shopping The provision of adequate shopping services and f a c i l i t i e s i s d i f f i c u l t i n new single-industry resource towns. The operation of a business i n these communities involves some unavoidable problems, including a small market, increased transportation costs, lower turnover of merchandise, d i f f i c u l t i e s ...in obtaining financing, and st r i k e s or the fear of s t r i k e s . Therefore, attracting businesses to locate i n new single-industry resource towns can be very d i f f i c u l t because the economic r i s k s are greater. As a r e s u l t , the cost . of goods ik..higher',: the selection of goods i s le s s , and there .are few .busin-esses. Since women are dependent upon the quality arid a v a i l a b i l i t y of goods to feed and clothe the i r f a m i l i e s , as w e l l as to decorate and maintain the i r homes, the adequate provision of shopping services and f a c i l i t i e s i n helping women perform these domestic tasks i s extremely important. The homemaker may be accustomed to the choice and selection of goods i n a larger centre and may be thoroughly frustrated when confronted with the lack of competition and prices which are i n f l a t e d because of transportation costs and higher r i s k s . She may be quick to compare l o c a l prices with those of larger communities, to buy through mail order and to make numerous shopping t r i p s outside the commun-i t y , a l l the while i n s i s t i n g that l o c a l merchants are exploiting their captive market. This general description of the shopping s i t u a t i o n i n a single-industry resource town seems to.be very accurate of Elkford as w e l l . Shopping f a c i l i t i e s i n the community were rated poorly, where nearly 90% of the responses were at the lower end of the scale. Respondents attributed th e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with l o c a l shopping to high prices, lack of competition, lim i t e d choice and/or t o t a l u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of personal services and r e t a i l s h o p s S h o p p i n g i n Elkford i s lim i t e d and t r i p s to larger centres, especially 73 Lethbridge, Blairmore, Fernie, Cranbrook and Calgary (Figure 1, pJ-1) for shopping purposes are frequent and the accepted norm. These shopping t r i p s to other c i t i e s are often co-ordinated with medical appointments, recreation and entertainment items, and provide the chance to "get away". The fact that children's clothing could not be purchased i n the commun-i t y seemed to frustrate a number of young mothers. One mother wrote: "There i s not a clothing store for children under the age of 6. You wouldn't believe how many children here are under 6." Another mother stated: "I would l i k e to be able to buy my c h i l d a pair of socks or pants without having to go to Fernie." Several respondents mentioned the high cost of goods i n Elkford. This i s a common complaint i n other resource communities (Lucas, 1971; Bancroft, 1975; Northern B r i t i s h Columbia Women's Task Force, 1977; and Lauder, 1977). One woman wrote: "The shopping here would not be too bad, but i n general, the prices range 10 - 30% higher than Fernie, Cranbrook and other areas. I f e e l that some additional freight charges may be responsible, but I do not enjoy l i n i n g someone else's pockets unnecessarily." Another wrote: "...every business started i n Elkford wants to make a l l their money i n the f i r s t week of operation. They could have a good thing, but people don't support them because they don't want to be 'ripped o f f . " This feeling of being "ripped o f f " i s in d i c a t i v e of the suspicion which mounts against l o c a l merchants because there i s no immediate competition. Whether or not the charges are true i s irrelevant. The fact remains that those feelings which involve per-ceived lack of choice within the l o c a l business community are widespread. One woman was very graphic i n her description of the a v a i l a b i l i t y and quality of commercial goods i n Elkford. She wrote that: Shopping here'is unreal. We seem to have a shortage of everything. Therstore runs out of products and could be out for two weeks. Meat's green - or goes green i n 24 hours. Bread's often stale or mouldy. The clothing store's expensive and f a i r to poor quality. What every business here needs i s competition, but Elk-ford's too small. Hopefully, as the v i l l a g e expands, FIGURE 3 The recreation centre, with the medical c l i n i c t r a i l e r i n the foreground i t ' l l improve. In the meantime, I ' l l shop elsewhere whenever I can ... She probably expresses the thoughts of many other women i n Elkford. Certainly this stigma and resulting lack of loyalty to Elkford businesses poses problems for the existing businesses, as w e l l as i n the attraction of new businesses to the community. Even with a captive market and high wages, there i s tremendous leakage of disposable income outside of the community. As one women perceptively stated: "There needs [to be] more stores to make good competition for the existing shopping mall. This would also create more employment for the females i n this town." Relating shopping s a t i s f a c t i o n to community s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t was found that those women who are happy with Elkford as a place to l i v e are more s a t i s -f i e d with the community shopping f a c i l i t i e s than those who are unhappy with Elkford by a rate of two to one. 2. Medical Services and F a c i l i t i e s Good health and long l i f e are basic human desires and of concern to a l l people. The l i t e r a t u r e on new resource communities points out the special problems of delivering health care services, including remoteness, small population, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e c r u i t i n g and keeping medical personnel, and the lack of a f u l l range of f a c i l i t i e s . According to Riffel.(1975, p. 42), the adequacy of medical services i n resource communities i s "a major concern of residents ... and a source of some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . " Since much of the res-p o n s i b i l i t y for the health of the family f a l l s on the wife and mother, women have part i c u l a r concerns about the quality and a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l health care. Concern over the adequacy of medical services and f a c i l i t i e s i n Elkford was.made clear when nearly 80% of the women indicated their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Much of this d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n probably can be attributed to the fact that .there was not a permanently constructed medical c l i n i c at the time the survey was 76 taken. With a great deal of perseverence and long distance negotiation on the part of the municipal council, a f u l l time young husband and wife doctor team immigrated d i r e c t l y to Elkford from Scotland i n mid 1975. They provided medical services to the residents out of a twelve by fourteen foot t r a i l e r . Previous to that, part-time doctors came from Fernie a few days each week. Periodic v i s i t s to the community were made by other health care personnel, including the public health nurse (once a week), the regional psychologist (once every two weeks), and the p r o v i n c i a l mobile dental t r a i l e r (twice each year, but used primarily for preventative dental care in s t r u c t i o n for the school children). In 1978 a diagnostic and treatment centre was opened. The nearest hospi-t a l i s 25 miles away i n Sparwood. For regular dental services and other health care, Elkford residents must travel to the larger c i t i e s i n the v i c i n i t y . Several respondents mentioned that they had to use t h e i r holiday time or take the day off work to obtain medical care. The lack of public t r a n s i t , i n addition to the problems with road mainten-ance during the winter, are barriers for many of Elkford's residents i n obtain-ing proper medical treatment which can lead to severe physical and psychological stress. This si t u a t i o n i s especially d i f f i c u l t i n medical emergencies, indust-r i a l accidents, and p a r t i c u l a r l y for expectant mothers. One woman wrote: "I was scared to have my baby here." 3. Transportation and Communication According to R i f f e l (1975) and Matthiasson (1970), the perceived inade-quacy of communications and transportation services are most frequently mention-ed as sources of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n resource communities. This appears to hold true for Elkford as w e l l . a. Transportation Transportation services and f a c i l i t i e s were rated very poorly. Nearly 90% of the women indicated the i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with roads and highways i n 77 and around Elkford. The highway from Sparwood dead-ends i n Elkford, with the exception of the road up to the mine. With one road serving both as entrance and exit to the community, i t s importance i s compounded especially i n bad weather and emergencies. Table 45 shows that there was overwhelming agreement (72.3%) concerning the perceived need for a regular bus service from Elkford to Sparwood or Fernie. Given the fact that there i s no form of scheduled public t r a n s i t service to and from Elkford, a great deal of dependence i s placed on the private automobile. Since Fording busses i t s workers the seventeen miles to and from work each day, the family car can remain at home at the disposal of the homemaker. This helps with i n t e r - c i t y mobility as w e l l as i n t r a - c i t y mobility. However, those women who do not drive at a l l or who do not have access to a vehicle are at an even greater disadvantage because thei r mobility i s severely li m i t e d by the lack of public t r a n s i t . The author did not have access to an automobile during her v i s i t to Elkford i n January 1976, so she r e l i e d on public t r a n s i t to Sparwood by Greyhound and was lucky enough to catch the school bus bound for Elkford. The private car i s v i t a l to perceived and actual mobility. Some Elkford women even consider i t to be of importance from a recreation standpoint, pro-viding a means to "escape" from the community for a while. Bancroft (1975) and Robinson (1962) made simi l a r observations. I t i s an accepted fact that Elkford residents must t r a v e l to neighboring communities for a good portion of th e i r shopping, personal and professional services. However, i n bad weather, few w i l l venture out to Sparwood and Fernie for non-essentials. The importance of improving mobility and maximizing access to and from the community can help to increase community s a t i s f a c t i o n by ef f e c t -i v e l y reducing perceived distances, both on a physical and psychological scale. From his survey of Fort McMurray, Matthiasson concluded that "... one of the most obvious ways i n which resident s a t i s f a c t i o n with the quality of l i f e i n resource f r o n t i e r communities may be maximized i s through the provision of 78 regular opportunities to 'get out'" (Matthiasson, 1970, p. 17). This need for a change of environment was voiced very strongly by one respondent who wrote: "For the f i r s t two years I had to get out of here at least twice a month; th i s place drove me s t i r crazy." Several women mentioned the limited number of sidewalks i n Elkford. As a r e s u l t , pedestrians must use the streets, increasing the potential for ped-estrian - vehicular c o n f l i c t s . In a small community with a preponderence of young children and where the walking distances are minimal, there i s need for a safe, well-developed pedestrian system. Such a system could include not only sidewalks, but also natural t r a i l s i n and around the community. A great deal of walking i s done i n Elkford. Fording workers walk to a central location to catch the company busses which take them the seventeen miles to work. Mothers walk with their pre-schoolers to neighbor's homes, push baby buggies to the shopping centre. School children walk to and from school. There i s very l i t t l e need to use an automobile within Elkford. The lack of a good pedestrian system i s of par t i c u l a r concern to women, who are most closely involved with the safety of their children i n the home, neighborhood and community on a dai l y basis. A number of the respondents expressed their concern about the number of children playing i n the streets. This concern relates not only to the lack of sidewalks, but also to the pro-v i s i o n of outdoor play areas for children, an item which was poorly rated i n the survey. The provision of a good pedestrian system can provide benefits besides safe mobility for pedestrians by encouraging easy family outings, safe and simple exercise, better awareness of the neighborhood and community through f a m i l i a r i t y , and a method to help meet other people. Furthermore, i t can discourage the use of automobiles within the community, b. Communication In an age of profound reliance on the various forms of communication for information and entertainment, limited a v a i l a b i l i t y can serve as a major source 79 of alienation and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n resource communities. In Elkford, there was marked d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with communication services. Eighty-two percent of the women indicated their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the quality of te l e v i s i o n services and 92.5% rated radio services on the low end of the scale. With the help of cablevision, three channels are received i n Elkford: two from the United States and one from Alberta. Without high frequency equipment, radio reception comes through on only one station, from Alberta. At the time of the survey Elkford's weekly newspaper, The Bugle, had just ceased publication. This void i n l o c a l written media was p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d by the regionally-oriented Fernie Free Press. Newspapers from B.C. and Alberta are available one or two days after publication. Both Wiesman (1977) and Thompson, Berwick, Pratt & Partners (Concep-tual Plan, 1978) suggest that a good l o c a l newspaper can help b u i l d community s p i r i t and foster a sense of community, i n addition to providing a vehicle for disseminating information about events and issues. A good l o c a l news-paper i n Elkford might also help to dampen the amount of "gossip", about which many women remarked. The near t o t a l lack of spoken, v i s u a l and written communication with the rest of B r i t i s h Columbia i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t presents a strong psycholog-i c a l problem of increasing the perception of distances, as wel l as the problems of p r o v i n c i a l information dissemination. According to one respondent: "We r e a l l y don't f e e l l i k e part of B.C. because of radio, TV and newspapers...." Another stated: "There i s no communication l i n k within Elkford or with the province." The lack of pr o v i n c i a l information makes i t d i f f i c u l t for the people of Elkford to associate themselves with B r i t i s h Columbia. More impor-tant, though, i s the lack of an information sharing system within Elkford, which can discourage the feeling of belongingness and e f f e c t i v e l y stunt the s o c i a l growth of the community. 80 4. Recreation Services and F a c i l i t i e s The bright spot for community services and f a c i l i t i e s was i n the pro-v i s i o n of public recreational f a c i l i t i e s . For a community of i t s s i z e , Elk-ford has an unusually good supply of public recreational f a c i l i t i e s , largely a result of generous f i n a n c i a l support from Fording. These f a c i l i t i e s include a recreation centre, a s k i h i l l and a golf course. The recreation centre received a high rating by the respondents, with 80% indicating their s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t i s the foc a l point of the community and serves as a multi-purpose f a c i l i t y for a broad spectrum of community a c t i v i t i e s including sporting events (skating and curling i n p a r t i c u l a r ) , banquets, dances church services, club meetings, the showing of films, and classes. The l i b r a r y also housed i n the recreation centre, was rated highly by 75% of the respondent Staffing and operation of the recreation centre on an around-the-clock basis to accommodate s h i f t workers i s a major problem, however. As discussed previously, Elkford i s set i n the midst of a superb outdoor recreation playground, of which most residents take advantage i n the summer and winter. Enjoyment of recreational attributes, both indoor and outdoor, i s an important indicator of community s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Elkford. As one woman stated: "There are so many things to do i f you are sports-minded, which i s what th i s community o f f e r s . " Since the majority of women have pre-school children, a child-minding f a c i l i t y i n or near the recreation centre would probably f a c i l i -tate greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n recreation and leis u r e a c t i v i t i e s on a regular basis. Without being s p e c i f i c a l l y asked, a s i g n i f i c a n t number (42 or 18.2%) of the respondents mentioned their desire for a community swimming pool. Swimming has a wide, year-round a t t r a c t i o n to a l l age and sex groups of the community, compared with the more limited age, sex and interest groupings which are more ac t i v e l y involved i n organized gymnasium and arena sporting events. Since the survey i t i s the author's understanding that the community i s seriously considering the construction of a swimming pool. FIGURE 4 81 b a l l diamond, with new housing i n background 82 As far as le i s u r e programs and f a c i l i t i e s for the children are concerned, mothers were most s a t i s f i e d with the community recreation a c t i v i t i e s , with over 70% of the t o t a l responses rating them either "excellent" or "good" (Table 44). Youth organizations were rated much less favourably, with " f a i r " and "poor" responses at nearly 60%. The mothers were least s a t i s f i e d with out-door play areas for the i r children, as 86.6% of the t o t a l responses were i n the " f a i r " and "poor" categories. In addition, the lack of c h i l d care f a c i l -i t i e s was noted, with 89 (.53.6%) i n favour of the establishment of a day care center i n town (Table 46). Other commercial recreational f a c i l i t i e s , namely the motor inn dining room, lounge and pub were rated poorly by 90% of the women. As a re s u l t , few women expressed an interest i n s o c i a l i z i n g with friends there. I t may be that women f e e l uncomfortable i n a f a c i l i t y which i s primarily a male hangout, cater-ing to a male c l i e n t e l e . Some women indicated that there was an overemphasis on physically active recreation. They wished to see more c u l t u r a l and "mentally stimulating" a c t i v -i t i e s , including music and adult education classes. Nearly two-thirds of the women responded that they would be interested i n attending adult education pro-grams, with pa r t i c u l a r interest expressed for handicrafts, sewing and secretar-i a l courses. Some women expressed a desire for upgrading s k i l l s and to f i n i s h high school. Since this survey was conducted, the East Kootenay Community College has been involved i n the provision of a broad range of educational and personal interest courses i n Elkford. 5. Educational F a c i l i t i e s As mentioned previously, the women i n Elkford expressed deep concern with the school f a c i l i t i e s for their children. Of the respondents who rated the e l -ementary school (kindergartern through Grade 7), 57% considered the f a c i l i t i e s to be "excellent" or "good." I t i s d i f f i c u l t for the school d i s t r i c t to keep pace with increases i n elementary school enrollment as one mother v e r i f i e d : 83 Our school i s w e l l run but the building i s always too small. By the time we get a new addition b u i l t the school i s already too small. We need to be able to get more rooms when we need them without going through so much red tape. Due to limited classroom space and the large number of children, the elementary school runs on two s h i f t s . Recruiting and keeping teachers i s d i f f i c u l t ; turnover i s high. Housing the teachers i s also a problem due to severe lack of housing for non-Fording employees. At the time of t h i s research, several t r a i l e r s near the school building housed some of the teachers. These t r a i l e r s belonged to the School D i s t r i c t (Figure 2, p. 43). There was overwhelming d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with secondary education f a c i l i t i e s ; 92% of the respondents rated the secondary school f a c i l i t i e s to be "poor" or " f a i r . " Since the secondary students are bussed to and from Sparwood every day (80 kilometers round t r i p ) , t his response was anticipated. Mothers expressed strong aversion to long-distance bussing and i t s affect on the education and psychological process of thei r children. One woman stated: "They leave i n the dark and come home i n the dark." Another wrote: " . . . [ i t ' s ] a long day for a c h i l d . If he misses the bus, well i t i s a school day l o s t . Last year the weather was bad; the busses.never ran for a week and a h a l f . " Another mother was skeptical of the teaching s t a f f at the secondary school i n Sparwood. Be-cause of the distances, i t i s d i f f i c u l t for the parents to become acquainted with the teachers or to get involved i n parent-teacher a c t i v i t i e s at the school. In addition, the children are not able to take part i n many extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s . In 1980 the construction of a new junior secondary school i n Elkford had received approval after many years of discussion. Worth noting i s the fact that two young women, one who i s a mother and one who i s not, mentioned that from what they know about the school f a c i l i t i e s they would not care to rear the i r .children i n Elkford. As mentioned previously, d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with educational f a c i l i t i e s and opportunities for their children 84 may be an important "push" factor i n fa m i l i e s moving from E l k f o r d . 6. Religious F a c i l i t i e s Due to the fa c t that.there were no permanent church bu i l d i n g s i n El k f o r d at the time of the survey, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that nearly two-thirds of the respondents ind i c a t e d a " f a i r " or "poor" r a t i n g of the church f a c i l i t i e s . Church services were held i n the recreation center or i n homes. In 1979 the f i r s t permanent church structure was established i n a house, and i n 1980 ,a major church f a c i l i t y was under construction. H. SUMMARY OF STUDY FINDINGS The research showed that the majority of women i n E l k f o r d express consid-erable s a t i s f a c t i o n with the community. E x i s t i n g length of residence, a n t i c i -pated future length of residence, and whether one would choose to move to Elk-ford again were i n d i c a t i v e measures of community s a t i s f a c t i o n . Other factors which are lin k e d to women's s a t i s f a c t i o n with E l k f o r d include: . employment f o r women; . s a t i s f a c t i o n with dwelling u n i t ; . enjoyment of the natural wilderness s e t t i n g and the recreation i t affords; . knowledge of "the state of the community" p r i o r to moving; . residency i n the Kootenay Region p r i o r to moving to E l k f o r d ; . p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a c t i v i t i e s ; and . the a b i l i t y to enjoy a small, new community. Factors which contribute to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n include: . l i m i t e d employment opportunities for women; . l i m i t e d desirable housing; . l i m i t e d community services and f a c i l i t i e s (with the exception of recreation) for shopping, health care, education, transport-a t i o n , communication and non-sports-oriented recreation; and . the absence of a common meeting place f o r informal discussions. Other relationships that were i d e n t i f i e d as l i k e l y to show correla-tions did not materialize from the analysis. No s i g n i f i c a n t correlation was found between s a t i s f a c t i o n levels and factors such as previous exper-ience l i v i n g i n a single industry new town or the type of community i n which one grew up. Nor did the great majority of women fi n d Elkford to be geographically isolated or to have a harsh climate. A further summary of the research findings i s located i n Appendix 3. 86 CHAPTER FOUR RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS The results of the survey indicate that, on the whole, the majority of women were very s a t i s f i e d with l i v i n g i n Elkford. However, several factors were i d e n t i f i e d which are major sources of discontent and where improve-ments are necessary. Although this study examined the attitudes arid per-ceptions of women i n one new town of single industry, i t i s possible to generate some recommendations for more sensitive, innovative and responsive planning to meet the needs of women residents i n resource communities. These reommendations assume that making resource community l i f e more desir-able i s i n the best interests of the three main actors: the residents, the resource company, and a l l levels of government. They are derived primarily from the survey, but also are based on the author's observations and inform-ation gathered from the l i t e r a t u r e . Since the results of the survey have been organized into f i v e broad subject areas, the recommendations and conclusions w i l l be presented i n a consistent format. 87 A. EMPLOYMENT From the survey results i t i s clear that Elkford's women are considerably involved and interested i n employment: over 30% are employed while an addition-a l 40% are interested i n some form of present or future employment. Fu l l y one-th i r d of the women are interested i n non-traditional mining employment. I t i s also true that, many women i n Elkford f i n d f u l f i l l i n g work i n the home. However, community s a t i s f a c t i o n was considerably higher for working women than for f u l l -time homemakers, a finding which corresponds with the l i t e r a t u r e . There are other d e f i n i t e benefits to the employment of women i n resource communities, including more disposable income per family, less demand on housing and s o c i a l services, and the creation of spin-off jobs for other women such as baby-s i t t i n g and housecleaning. Given the fact that t r a d i t i o n a l areas of employment for women i n single-industry resource communities are l i m i t e d and that the greatest source of jobs i s the resource employer, job opportunities for women w i l l not change substan-t i a l l y without some changes i n the employment practices of the major industry. Such changes can be encouraged, supported, and even i n i t i a t e d by government. Increasing employment opportunities for women i n the resource sector could include: 1. a commitment and active program on the part of the resource industry to h i r e and integrate women i n a l l phases of their operations; 2. encouragement of on-the-job tra i n i n g programs which help women develop s k i l l s while they earn a l i v i n g ; 3. development of apprenticeship programs aimed at involving women i n s k i l l e d trades which are i n such high demand by the resource sector; 4. development of an educational program which encourages women's involve-ment i n non-traditional jobs; 5. recruitment and h i r i n g of husband and wife teams; 88 6. creation of more part-time jobs through job sharing programs (e.g. work every other week); and 7. provision of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s which help f a c i l i t a t e women's par t i c i p a t i o n i n the labor force. Several methods of increasing employment opportunities for women outside of the resource sector are much more d i f f i c u l t to apply after-the-fact, but would be most successful i f addressed at the i n i t i a l stages of community development plans. These methods might include: 1. d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economic base of the community which would lead to greater choice, s t a b i l i t y , and po t e n t i a l l y create more employment opportunities for women; 2. a t t r a c t i o n of another industry employing mainly women (e.g. a t e x t i l e plant); and 3 . development or further expansion of the community's population which would increase the demand for a wider array of l o c a l services, creating more female employment i n the service sector. Other methods of creating more jobs for women i n single-industry resource communities include: 1. encouragement of one-women home occupations which can supply and add to the provision of goods and personal services offered i n the community without adversely affecting neighbors (e.g. hair cutting, dog trimming, photography studio, seamstress, cake decorating, babysitting); 2. the teaching of special interest and s k i l l s courses (e.g. exercise, music, dance and craft classes); and 3 . development of small scale cottage industries where groups of women can make and s e l l t h e i r products (e.g. food catering, c r a f t s , green-houses) . 89 B. HOUSING The survey r e s u l t s show that the majority of women i n E l k f o r d are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r housing and aspire to a t t a i n s i ngle-family accommodation. S a t i s f a c t i o n with housing i s linked with community s a t i s f a c t i o n and i s highest among permanent single-family residents, followed by mobile home residents, with apartment residents being the l e a s t s a t i s f i e d . The home plays a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n the l i v e s of women i n E l k f o r d . The home provides more than j u s t s helter; i t i s of primary importance i n a woman's a b i l i t y to perform h e r . t r a d i -t i o n a l r o l e as keeper of the home and family.. Homes are used very heavily for s o c i a l i z i n g , entertainment and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s due to l i m i t e d community services and f a c i l i t i e s . The majority of women are f u l l - t i m e homemakers who spend most of t h e i r time i n the home with very young c h i l d r e n , i t i s the "workplace" f o r most women. The home serves as an expression of the family's i d e n t i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , although d i v e r s i t y of housing types i s l i m i t e d . The home i s an i n d i c a t o r of commitment to the community, with s i n g l e - f a m i l y residents being the most permanent. Housing i n E l k f o r d i s supplied by Fording and i s a key fac t o r i n a t t r a c t i n g new workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s to the community. Since the demand for housing i s strong but the supply very l i m i t e d , there i s considerable resentment towards Fording's involvement i n the housing sector and accommodation for non-Fording employees i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain. The development of housing f o r new resource communities should include the following considerations, most of which r e l a t e to the general p r o v i s i o n of housing: 1. Advanced planning and construction of housing should be completed p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the bulk of new residents to ensure adequate supply and ease the period of adjustment. 2 . The resource company should ensure that the supply f o r housing keeps pace with the demand f o r a l l sectors of the community, not j u s t those i n t h e i r employ. 90 3. The sale of company-built homes should be on the open market. In addition,.re-purchase guarantees by the company should be ensured. 4. The special needs of young and growing families should be kept at the forefront i n the design of homes and housing developments. Considera-tion should be made for the inclusion of mud rooms and roughed-in basements which could be developed into bedrooms or family entertain-ment areas. 5. The development of self-contained suites i n single-family homes should be considered as a method of augmenting the housing supply at minimal expense. Suites provide greater choice for renters, provide extra income for the homeowner, and^help to integrate the population. I t could be of p a r t i c u l a r benefit to single women resource workers who may not have the option of bunkhouse accommodation which i s available to single men, as w e l l as to employees i n the service sector, such as teachers and nurses. 6. In the provision of housing i t should be recognized that the majority of families aspire to own a permanent single-family dwelling. 7. The d i v e r s i t y of housing l i f e s t y l e s should be broadened by creating a small portion of large (f i v e acres and up), unserviced l o t s for those who desire a secluded, r u r a l environment. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that these large l o t s are subdivided i n such a ;way that they do not detract from the o v e r a l l enjoyment of the natural wilderness setting so highly treasured, and where they w i l l not i n t e r -fere with future urban development plans of the community. A Crown Land subdivision may be developed for this purpose. 8. Lots should be made available throughout the community for those who wish to b u i l d t h e i r own homes. 9. Housing developments should take maximum advantage of natural landscape features, including views, vegetation, contours and exposure. Tree 91 planting, landscaping and gardening should be encouraged. C. GEOGRAPHIC AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT The results of the survey c l e a r l y show that the wilderness environment of Elkford and the d i v e r s i t y of outdoor recreation opportunities i t affords are highly valued by the women and contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to community sa t i s f a c t i o n . Climate and geographic i s o l a t i o n were not considered problems by the majority of women i n Elkford, two factors which are major sources of discontentment i n other resource communites. Considerations for enhancing the enjoyment of the natural environment could include the following actions: 1. Residents should establish an outdoor club to organize group outings, as w e l l as provide in s t r u c t i o n i n wilderness recreation and survival techniques. 2. A t r a i l system should be developed i n and around the community and be used for walking i n the summer and cross-country skiing i n the winter. The t r a i l system should be incorporated with natural vegetation buffers. 3. Maps of the area should be available which provide residents with i n f o r -mation on the location of special geographic attributes (e.g. lakes, rivers) and how access can be gained to them. 4. A public park, preferably adjacent to a body of water, should be developed near the community for boating, swimming, picnicking, and group a c t i v i t i e s . Access to the park might be a part of the community t r a i l system which was suggested above. 5. The a c t i v i t i e s of the resource industry should be located far enough from the townsite so that there i s no adverse affect on enjoyment of the natural setting. 6. A woman's enjoyment of wilderness recreation a c t i v i t i e s should be strongly considered i n a resource company's recruitment and h i r i n g practices. 92 7. In the development and construction of the community, great care should be taken to maximize the use of natural landscape assets, p a r t i c u l a r l y trees, to enhance resident enjoyment of the natural setting. D. SOCIALIZATION A woman's l e v e l of community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s largely dependent upon her s o c i a l support system. In a new single-industry resource community where family and friends can be f a r away and where the a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s which f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l contact can be l i m i t e d , adjustment and s o c i a l i z a t i o n into the community for women can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , especially for someone who i s shy and lacking self-confidence. S o c i a l i z a t i o n factors i n Elkford which affect the adjustment process and contribute p o s i t i v e l y to community s a t i s f a c t i o n include: involvement i n the decision to move, pr i o r knowledge about the "state of the community", residence within the region p r i o r to the move, continuity of friends, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community organizations. Factors which did not have a bearing on adjustment as i t relates to community s a t i s f a c t i o n include: the size of the community where one.was reared and previous residence i n a single-industry resource town. Elkford's people and their friendliness ranked high among the women, second only to the physical s e t t i n g , as the community's most desirable a t t r i -bute. However, the d i f f i c u l t y of meeting people i n the community i s demon-strated c l e a r l y from the survey r e s u l t s , i n that women meet most of their friends through their husbands and do most of thei r s o c i a l i z i n g i n the home. Means for improving better adjustment and s o c i a l interaction for women in new single-industry resource communities could include the following: 1. An honest portrayal of the working and s o c i a l conditions i n the community should be given while r e c r u i t i n g and h i r i n g so that new residents are f u l l y aware of what to expect when they arri v e . 93 Recruitment practices should always involve the spouse. I f possible, women should be included on the team of recruiters to personally meet with and answer questions that potential women residents may have. 2. An information packet providing a wide assortment of up-to-date information on community a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s should be given to each family p r i o r to th e i r move so that they can prepare themselves i n advance. A special brochure on the community from a woman's perspec-tive - written for women by other women - might be useful to include. In addition, receiving recent copies of the l o c a l newspaper might be p a r t i c u l a r l y informative and prepare new residents about grocery prices, community issues and upcoming events. 3. The resource company should recognize the importance of family and so c i a l t i e s i n strengthening community socialization.and development processes by re c r u i t i n g groups of friends, those with family or friends already i n the community, extended kinship f a m i l i e s , and those who already l i v e within the region. 4. Recruitment practices should not only assess employment s k i l l s but also human s k i l l s which are fundamental .to the social.development of the community. Full-time homemakers t r a d i t i o n a l l y play a major role i n the service and s o c i a l aspects of community l i f e . Homemakers who are outgoing, community-minded and participate i n community a c t i v i t i e s are prime candidates. 5. In order to ease adjustment, orientation to the new community should be done i n groups. This would be p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l for women, providing the vehicle to meet new people rig h t away, while also learning about the community. A s l i d e show about the history of the community might be one aspect of the orientation, along with a pi c n i c or family potluck. 94 6. A "Welcome Wagon" service should be established by l o c a l residents and organized to help ease the adjustment period for women. An existing resident might be paired with a "newcomer" to provide greater i n d i v i d u a l attention and personal sharing of information. This would also help to f a c i l i t a t e increased s o c i a l integration through the mixture of both new and established residents. 7. A l l clubs and organizations should ensure that t h e i r new attenders are warmly welcomed and that the groups do not become cliques. 8. The community should hi r e a s o c i a l development o f f i c e r whose resp o n s i b i l - ., i t y i t would be to oversee, coordinate and organize s o c i a l , entertainment, and recreational services and a c t i v i t i e s i n the community. This position would extend beyond the duties of a recreation director and would involve i n i t i a t i n g , activating and motivating. The provision of community services and f a c i l i t i e s by themselves w i l l not ensure that people w i l l make f u l l use of them. Good s o c i a l and recreation leadership must relate to and be associated with the active as well as passive s o c i a l and recreational needs of the residents. This i s c r i t i c a l for women i n single-industry resource communities. 9. To f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and human interaction a community resources centre, a strong and vibrant focus for community a c t i v i t i e s , should be established. I t can provide an informal common ground for women to meet, s o c i a l i z e , share ideas and information, and have coffee away from the home. I t should be located within the central community centre and should be a major part of the delivery services of the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r . Special features of this centre might include counselling services and information, a sewing pattern " l i b r a r y " , a "rider board" to encourage carpooling when driving to a nearby community, scheduled speakers, group discussions, a community "human resources f i l e " , as w e l l as a place to hold craft and special interest classes. The centre should provide a r e a l focus for women's a c t i v i t i e s and interests i n the community, and provide a very special place with which a l l women in the community can id e n t i f y and f e e l welcome. I f possible, i t should be open on a drop-in basis. 10. A comprehensive volunteer program should be developed by the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r to ass i s t i n the provision of s o c i a l and recrea-t i o n a l services and a c t i v i t i e s . Full-time homemakers, many of whom have university and technical school t r a i n i n g , have a wide range of s k i l l s and serve as a large pool for potential volunteer person-power. For example, there are several women i n Elkford with nurses training who might be able to help with pre-, post- and peri-natal classes. A "human resources f i l e " could be developed on this basis and serve as a method for a c t i v e l y involving women i n the community at the outset. E. COMMUNITY SERVICES AND FACILITIES With the exception of recreation, the survey results c l e a r l y indicate major d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the li m i t e d provision of community services and f a c i l i -t i e s i n Elkford. Most s i g n i f i c a n t discontentment was with shopping, followed by educational and health care services and f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , women are faced with t r a v e l l i n g regularly to other c i t i e s i n the area to meet their own and their family needs, physical as well as psychological. There i s no public transportation to or from Elkford, and te l e v i s i o n and radio contact with the rest of the Province i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent, factors which c o n t r i -bute to r e a l and perceived alienation and i s o l a t i o n . Child care f a c i l i t i e s do not e x i s t , although there i s a recognized need, p a r t i c u l a r l y as expressed by working women. The provision of an adequate range of community services and f a c i l i t i e s i s c r i t i c a l to a woman's a b i l i t y to manage and care for her family and home, 96 as w e l l as to her own self-development. I t i s an important support system to her in d i v i d u a l well-being and i n performing her work w e l l . Since women are the main users of community services and f a c i l i t i e s and spend most of their time within the community set t i n g , the lack of t h i s support system affects them most d i r e c t l y . Problems of providing an adequate range of community services and f a c i l i -t i e s are endemic to new single-industry towns, including: small s i z e , thresh-hold l e v e l s , geographic location, labour unrest, dependence upon one-industry, attracting the service sector, and newness. Consequently, there i s l i t t l e hope of achieving an adequate provision of even some basic services and f a c i l i t i e s i n a new single-industry resource community without some form of resource industry or government subsidy. Either the services and f a c i l i t i e s should be made readily available within the community Tor easy access to obtain them should be provided, the former being much more preferable to the l a t t e r . The following general improvements i n the provision of community services and f a c i l i t i e s i n new single-industry resource towns are recommended: 1. Basic community services and f a c i l i t i e s should be planned and constructed w e l l i n advance of the a r r i v a l of the bulk of the residents, including schools, medical f a c i l i t i e s , stores, roads to and from the community, and recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Proper pre-planning i s c r i t i c a l on the part of the industry and government to ensure that the f a c i l i t i e s w i l l meet the needs and demands of a young and growing population. Otherwise, the community w i l l be continually faced with playing "catch up", and more often than not, without the necessary funds or interest from senior levels of government. 2. A set percentage of p r o v i n c i a l and federal taxes or roya l t i e s on resources should be returned to the community or region of their o r i g i n i n the form of direct payments. This would allow residents of the resource-rich hinterland to make th e i r own decisions as to how and where the money i s spent. Chances are i t w i l l be on the provision of services and f a c i l i t i e s i n their community. This method of revenue sharing would also allow the residents of resource towns to benefit d i r e c t l y from the f r u i t s of their labour, labour which i s needed to develop the resource for the economic prosperity of the company and the senior levels of government. This prosperity should be shared with those people who have had a hand i n i t s development, rather than benefitting urban areas with the greatest population. This form of income sharing with l o c a l residents could provide an incentive to increased production, ultimately benefitting the three partners i n development: the resource company, the government, and the residents of resource towns. Another method of r e f l e c t i n g " i s o l a t i o n " could be through personal income tax benefits, although this might be much more d i f f i c u l t to recapture i n the provision of desired community services and f a c i l i t i e s . A body of knowledge should be developed by the pr o v i n c i a l government concerning the basic services and f a c i l i t i e s that should be provided depending on location, s i z e , type and growth of the new community of single industry. A community resources centre should be located c e n t r a l l y inuthe community to provide a multi-use f a c i l i t y for the integrated delivery of human serv-ices. This might include recreation a c t i v i t i e s , health services, meeting rooms, a l i b r a r y , child-minding, a refreshment area, and an area for d i s -plays. I t should be an a t t r a c t i v e , vibrant and i n v i t i n g f a c i l i t y and provide a strong focus for community a c t i v i t i e s . There should be several gaps i n the provision of certain f a c i l i t i e s (e.g. swimming pools) so that the residents can work together towards developing these f a c i l i t i e s on thei r own, thereby bonding them as a community of residents to achieve a common goal. 6. Good quality modular or mobile units could be used i n the community to house a variety of uses demanded by the community over the years, including movie, theatres, union h a l l s or c h i l d care services. Their f l e x i b i l i t y i n use and mobility are important. 7. The physical provision of community f a c i l i t i e s i s important, but i t i s equally important to provide adequate st a f f with leadership and organizational c a p a b i l i t i e s to t i e i n the f a c i l i t i e s with s o c i a l objectives. More s p e c i f i c recommendations related to improvement i n the provision of community services and f a c i l i t i e s are„as follows: 1. Shopping a. Despite the inherent problems with the provision of goods and services i n new resource communities, homemakers should be made to f e e l that they are receiving the best quality, choice and price for the goods which can be supported by the l o c a l market. The l o c a l Chamber of Commerce and businesses can provide informa-tion to educate consumers i n this regard so that mistrust of merchants can be minimized. Greater understanding and loy a l t y to l o c a l businesses might r e s u l t . b. Merchants, the union, and groups of interested residents should consider the advantages of bulk buying. Bulk orders could be made . on a quarterly or semi-annual basis. c. Some businesses need to be attracted to the community to increase l o c a l spending and decrease leakage, ultimately leading to greater di v e r s i t y and more jobs for women in_the service sector. Methods for encouraging businesses to locate i n a new single-industry re-source town might include: 1) establishing a system of financing new businesses, possibly through government, since financiers may be unwilling to take 99 the r i s k ; 2) providing l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and federal tax incentives or subsidies; 3) providing r e t a i l f l o o r space at reasonable rates, possibly through the development of a non-profit shopping mall or by paying for rental space on the basis of a set percentage of the p r o f i t or gross sales; and 4) making municipal, p r o v i n c i a l and company lands available to businesses at a very low cost. d. Convenient, centrally located indoor shopping malls should be construc-ted. They are of par t i c u l a r benefit to women shopping with young children, especially during the winter months. e. The establishment of a good quality second-hand store by an enter-p r i s i n g business person.should be considered. This might be of special value to those people not wanting to take heavy appliances with them when they move, to recycle children's clothing, or to s e l l used outdoor recreation equipment. f. Merchants should be sensitive to the large number of young children i n new resource communities and provide a selection of clothing and other goods for t h i s age group. g. Shopping t r i p s to larger c i t i e s should be scheduled p e r i o d i c a l l y , especially during the winter. These could be one day or over night t r i p s which are sponsored by the resource industry. A c h i l d minding c service might be a necessary adjunct to this a c t i v i t y . h. To help d i v e r s i f y the range of services provided i n the community, women should be encouraged to practice and make available their sale-able s k i l l s . These s k i l l s might include hair cutting, photography, carpentry, small appliance repairs and dressmaking, and could be 100 home-based. i . Monthly or quarterly "business f a i r s " for specialized goods could be held i n cooperation with merchants from within the region. 2. Health Care a. The approach to health care in. new single-industry resource commun-i t i e s should be based on mental as wel l as physical health concerns. Emphasis, therefore, should be on both prevention and cure. Family counselling, self-help therapy groups, alcohol and drug awareness should be as much a part,of the health centre as the hard core provi-sion of medical and dental f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s important that the centre be staffed on a team basis, and be strongly co-ordin-ated with the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r and the community resources f a c i l i t y mentioned i n e a r l i e r recommendations. b. Att r a c t i v e incentives should be provided by the p r o v i n c i a l government to encourage medical personnel to locate i n the community. These might include: 1) offering generous scholarships to medical and dental students who, upon graduation, must work a specified number of years i n an area of the province which i s i n need of medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s ; 2) providing medical personnel with very a t t r a c t i v e s a l a r i e s , generous holiday and educational leaves; and 3) providing a completely equipped and well-established practice, which can be p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e for a young pra c t i t i o n e r . c. Para-professional health care personnel should be used to augment the professionally-trained s t a f f . 3. Transportation and Communication a. Every attempt should be made to f a c i l i t a t e adequate provision of high quality transportation and communication l i n k s to new single-industry resource communities to decrease physical and psychological feelings 101 of alienation. b. A regular form of public transportation shouldi.be provided to and from the resource community. Due to ridership, a mini-bus or van might be most appropriate. In Elkford's case, a company bus could be scheduled to tra v e l to and from Sparwood and Fernie several times a week. The t r i p s could be scheduled so as not to interfere with the transporting of workers to the minesite, and i f at a l l possible, l i n k up with Greyhound bus schedules. c. Due to the fact that many residents t r a v e l often to various c i t i e s to obtain goods and services, i t might be possible to encourage a carpooling system by the establishment of a "rid e r board" at the community resources centre. Residents who plan to drive to other communities and those who would l i k e rides to those communities can be teamed together i n this manner. d. Roads to and from the communities should be well-constructed and w e l l -maintained throughout the year, and p a r t i c u l a r l y during the winter. e. Sidewalks and a natural t r a i l system should be incorporated into the physical design and construction of new resource communities. For the safety of small children, women with baby buggies or sleighs, and workers walking to catch the company bus, a well developed pedest-ri a n system should be considered a necessity i n a small, new resource community. Further, i t s provision encourages safe and simple exercise for a l l age groups, decreases dependence upon the automobile, and gives a more human and personal perspective to the community. f. A high quality and selection of radio and t e l e v i s i o n services should be provided, possibly through "video dishes" to p u l l i n signals from communication s a t e l l i t e s , or through cable t e l e v i s i o n and radio. Every e f f o r t should be made to ensure that i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l communica-... tion i s available. g. I f the resource community does not have a radio or t e l e v i s i o n station of the i r own, a l o c a l correspondent should supply news-worthy items to the closest radio or t e l e v i s i o n station. This might provide the basis for a short program or newscast scheduled for the same time each day. h. A l i v e l y newspaper should be established to provide l o c a l news, discuss community issues and help create community in t e r e s t . By having a good public forum for dispensing information and creating public awareness, perceptions of a " c l i c k y " and "gossipy" community could be avoided. I n i t i a l l y such a newspaper might be the responsi-b i l i t y of the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r or a volunteer group with public subsidy, transferring to private hands when the community i s large enough to support i t s own newspaper. i . Several community b u l l e t i n boards should be located i n main public buildings (e.g. the shopping mall, community resources centre, municipal o f f i c e ) posting a composite schedule of community events for the upcoming week or month. Other notices or information of general interest might be posted there as w e l l . Public Recreation Services and F a c i l i t i e s a. The provision of community recreation a c t i v i t i e s should include a strong program orientation, rather than being just f a c i l i t y oriented. This could be assisted through the h i r i n g of a s o c i a l development o f f i c e r who would be responsible for the delivery of a l l s o c i a l , recreation and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , as discussed previously. b. More non-sports recreation and l e i s u r e learning a c t i v i t i e s could be provided, including: 1) the regular showing of recent f i l m s , as w e l l as holding children's matinees; 2) a wide variety of special interest classes, workshops and speakers organized through the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r and the community college within the region; 3) a children's story hour at the l i b r a r y ; 4) the organization of a choir or "Sweet Adelines" singing group; 5) the organization of family-related a c t i v i t i e s such as pot lucks, picnics and recreational a c t i v i t i e s ; 6) the holding of "coffeehouses" p e r i o d i c a l l y to provide exposure for l o c a l or regional talent; 7) a community swimming pool which attracts a l l ages and can be enjoyed both by the ind i v i d u a l or the group; 8) a bowling a l l e y ; and 9) the construction of sidewalks as well as t r a i l s within the community for enjoyable and safe walking. Residents should be involved i n the planning, development, administra-tion and delivery of s o c i a l and le i s u r e services, possibly through a citi z e n s advisory committee. This group could provide valuable help to the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r . Volunteerism should be encouraged and promoted by this committee and through the establishment of a "human resources f i l e " . The provision of outdoor play areas for children could be f a c i l i t a t e d through the preservation and maintenance of naturally treed areas i n the design and development of the community. Permanent neighborhood playgrounds and tot l o t s should be established. In addition, mobile playground equipment could be placed on vacant l o t s within neighborhoods and then be removed when construction on the l o t i s imminent. This might work well i n conjunction with the scattering of l o t s throughout the community for those who wish to b u i l d their own homes. 104 f. Company recruitment practices should give strong consideration to those who derive great enjoyment from recreational a c t i v i t i e s , for « recreation i s the major strength of most resource communities. 5. Education a. The Community College i n conjunction with the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r should establish a j o i n t program of adult education courses. There should be a broad range of class offerings, most of which can be taught by l o c a l residents. Personal interest and recreation courses could include handicrafts, exercises and parenting. S k i l l t raining courses, such as f i r s t - a i d and typing, could also be taught. Academic and upgrading courses could be taught by q u a l i f i e d instructors who commute to the community to give the classes as a res u l t of s u f f i -cient demand, or audio-visual tapes can be used. b. Workshops, seminars and guest speakers could be provided i n the community on various subjects from time to time. They could be co-ordinated . . through the s o c i a l development o f f i c e r . c. The Open Learning I n s t i t u t e and correspondence schools should be encouraged to make resource town residents aware of the i r courses. d. The Community College within the region should take active involvement i n vocational education by tra i n i n g l o c a l men and women to become the s k i l l e d workers and tradespeople needed by the l o c a l resource industry. e. Homemakers who are c e r t i f i e d teachers and already l i v e i n the community should be strongly considered for part-time teaching employment or job sharing. f. More information on career opportunities for women i n resource industries should be prepared and made available within the school system. g. Since new single industry resource communities attr a c t young fa m i l i e s , every e f f o r t should be made to ensure that the schools are w e l l equipped 105 and staffed to ensure r e a l growth and development opportunities for the children, physically and mentally. 6. Other Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s a. Child Care Due to the high proportion of young children i n new single industry resource communities, c h i l d care services should be developed to accommodate the needs of two-income families as w e l l as f u l l - t i m e homemakers. The provision of c h i l d care services can enable women to take-advantage of. s o c i a l , rrecreatlonaL;and^employment.opportunities, i n addition to providing a break from the constant r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of parenthood since family and friends may be unavailable. The provision of c h i l d care services and f a c i l i t i e s can cover a broad range of needs, including: 1) 24 hour day care for s h i f t workers; 2) family day care i n homes to handle several children; 3) nursery schools for pre-school children, perhaps even organized on a cooperative basis; 4) child-minding for children of a l l ages, including infants or children who require after-school supervision; and 5) a registry l i s t i n g available babysitters. b. Restaurant 1) To provide variety from the regular menu, the l o c a l restaurants might be able to feature an international dinner one night each week. 2) A fast food outlet could be encouraged to locate i n the community. A good c l i e n t e l e exists with single workers and young families. 106 F. GENERAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS 1. Government and industry should be committed to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the planning, development and delivery of services and f a c i l i t i e s i n resource communities. This should include a strong contingent of women who l i v e i n resource towns. Since women spend more time than men dealing with the physical and s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n resource communities, they are the ones who are affected most severely; they have the greatest stake. Women can pro-vide the user viewpoint to those who may not be conscious of resource town l i v i n g from a women's perspective. Women are the experts on community l i f e and should be involved i n the decisions which shape these communities, for they are the ones who w i l l have to l i v e with the results. Resource community planning must be done i n dialog with women, not to or for them. 2. There must be a commitment to comprehensive planning and development of resource communities by the p r o v i n c i a l government and the resource company. The p r o v i n c i a l government needs to provide a strong leadership role by develop-ing p o l i c i e s and guidelines for..new.;and-.existing...resource. communities. L These*; .y p o l i c i e s and guidelines should r e f l e c t the changing role of women i n society as we l l as the p a r t i c u l a r r o l e women play i n single-industry resource towns. The p r o v i n c i a l government must accept i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by ensuring that those who l i v e i n resource communities have an adequate range and l e v e l of necessary services and f a c i l i t i e s . Since the wealth of the province i s largely a result of resource extraction i n the hinterland, attention should be focussed on the residents of resource communities i n the hinterland who are instrumental i n developing the province's wealth. A comprehensive development agreement should be negotiated between the p r o v i n c i a l government and the resource company to outline the objectives, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , timing and f i n a n c i a l commitment of each party. This should ensure that a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l of services and infrastructure i s provided and that the residents of the town and region are 107 not faced with the heavy economic burden of meeting the basic demands of existing and future residents. 3. Decisions on resource development and where to accommodate the work-force and thei r families should be based on a broad regional context. Region-a l development planning should ensure that resource development maximizes s o c i a l and economic benefits and. minimizes s o c i a l and economic costs. Since the f i n a n c i a l costs of building a permanent new town are enormous and the s o c i a l benefits to the residents are questionable, with women bearing the greatest s o c i a l costs, alternatives to the development of permanent single-industry resource towns should be considered. These alternatives include: the development of a large regional centre with a d i v e r s i f i e d base which could serve as the commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l base for several resource indus-t r i e s ; the expansion of an existing c i t y i n the area; the establishment of a non-permanent community which could be moved to other s i t e s when resource operations cease; and the establishment of a hostel camp near the resource s i t e where the workers are housed for extended s h i f t s of seven or ten days and then tr a v e l back to thei r homes i n larger c i t i e s to spend the next seven or ten days with their families. 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September. 114 APPENDIX 1 COVER LETTERS AND QUESTIONNAIRE 117 ELKFORD QUESTIONNAIRE January, 1976 How long have you l i v e d i n Elkford? years months What was your l a s t place of residence before Elkford? town or c i t y province or state country How much longer do you expect to reside i n Elkford? years months Where did your l i v e most of the time when you were younger than 20 years old? i n the country i n a suburb i n a small town. i n a c i t y Why did you move to Elkford? my husband's (or father's job; PLEASE CIRCLE THE REASON WHY — a. better pay b. l i k e s word better c. higher position d. transferred to Elkford e. l a i d - o f f old job my (or mother's) job; PLEASE CIRCLE THE REASON WHY — a. better pay b. l i k e s work better c. higher position d. transferred to Elkford e. l a i d - o f f at old job recreational and environmental opportunities members of family l i v e d i n town other (please specify ) Elkford i s a new "resource town" with a single major industry. I t i s a community whose economic a c t i v i t y i s dependent upon the extrac-tion and primary processing of one natural resource- coal. Have you l i v e d i n a single industry resource town ( i . e . logging, mining, hydroelectric power) at any time prior to your move to Elkford? yes; what was the major industry? no; GO TO QUESTION #7 In your mind, what single thing most distinquishes Elkford from the resource town where you used to li v e ? Did you take part i n the discussion and ultimate decision to move to Elkford? _my husband decided alone my husband and I decided _I decided alone the family decided as a group my parents .decided received a company transfer _other (please specify ) 118 How aware were you of the working and s o c i a l conditions i n Elkford before you moved here? knew much about Elkford before moving here knew some about Elkford before moving here knew very l i t t l e or nothing about Elkford before moving here Did you have any problems finding a permanent place to l i v e when you f i r s t arrived i n Elkford? yes no In what kind of dwelling unit do you presently l i v e ? apartment single-family (other than mobile home) mobile home other (specify ) Are you s a t i s f i e d with your dwelling unit? yes somewhat no How do you f e e l about community l i f e i n Elkford? there are too many things to do i n town; I am usually very busy the number of things to do i n town i s just about right for me there are not anough things to do i n town; I am bored What two things do you l i k e most about Elkford? and What two things do you l i k e least about Elkford? and What are your three most important recreational or l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n summer and i n winter? Rank i n order of th e i r importance to you. SUMMER WINTER 1) !)• 2) 2) 3) 3) ; Are there any clubs or organizations i n town i n which you actively participate? yes no. I f "yes", which organizations are they? How did you meet most of your friends i n Elkford? (Check any of the following that apply to you.) i n the neighborhood at work through recreational a c t i v i t i e s at school I knew them before we moved here through my children through my husband (his co-workers and their families) other (please specify ' ) 119 17. Where i n Elkford do you usually s o c i a l i z e with your friends? Select the two most important to you by marking "1" or "2" i n the blank. at work i n my home or i n their home at the recreation center at the motor inn restaurant at the pub/lounge at the mall other (please specify ) 18. How many times did you leave the Fernie-Sparwood-Elkford area i n 1975? WHERE DID YOU GO? FOR HOW LONG? REASON FOR TRIP? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) ETC. 19. 20. When you wish to have a good time on the week-ends or your days off , where do you go? Select one.. _I stay i n Elkford I go to Sparwood _I go to the countryside _ohter (please specify 1 I go to Fernie I go to Calgary I go to Cranbrook How do you rate the following communication and transportation f a c i l i t i e s i n the Elkford area? EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR POOR a) t e l e v i s i o n b) radio c) roads and highways d) public t r a n s i t ( i . e . buses) How do you rate the following f a c i l i t i e s i n Elkford? a) shopping b) recreation centre c) medical and health services d) l i b r a r y e) chuches f) dining and lounge f a c i l i t i e s 21. If you had the power to add, change or a l t e r any one thing i n Elkford to make i t a better place to l i v e , what would i t be and why? 120 22. Considering what you know now about Elkford, would you move to Elkford i f you had i t to do a l l over again? yes, d e f i n i t e l y yes, with some reservations not sure no 23. "New resource towns have higher levels of crime, alcoholism, mental breakdowns, and family problems than more diverse communities." Do you agree with this statement? yes no. Do you think that . this statement i s true s p e c i f i c a l l y of Elkford? yes no. ANSWER QUESTION #24 IF YOU PRESENTLY ATTEND HIGH SCHOOL 24. What do you think y o u ' l l probably do right after you f i n i s h high school? attend technical or vocational school attend a community college or university get a f u l l - t i m e job other (please specify ) -In what town or c i t y do you expect to l i v e s i x months after you f i n i s h high school? ( f i l l in) -Do you participate i n any after-school a c t i v i t i e s (clubs or a t h l e t i c s ) yes; please name them -Does taking the bus to and from school affect your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any after-school a c t i v i t i e s ? yes no. I f "yes", what are the after-school a c t i v i t i e s i n which you would l i k e to participate? ANSWER QUESTIONS #25-28 IF YOU DO NOT PRESENTLY ATTEND HIGH SCHOOL 25. Are you presently employed outside of the home? yes no If "yes", answer Section A. I f "no", answer Section B only. SECTION A — How long have you been employed since you moved to Elkford? years months — Are you employed by Fording? yes no — What i s your present occupation? — Do you enjoy your job? most of the time part of the time hardly ever IF YOU ARE WORKING AND MARRIED, PLEASE ANSWER THE NEXT QUESTION; IF NOT, GO TO QUESTION #26 121 — Do you and your husband have d i f f e r e n t s h i f t s ? yes; most of the time sometimes no; none of the time (GO TO QUESTIION #26) — Does t h i s c o n f l i c t i n s h i f t s cause any problems between you and your husband? very often sometimes hardly ever — Does t h i s c o n f l i c t i n s h i f t s cause any problems with other members of the family? very often sometimes hardly ever SECTION B Please check which statement most c l o s e l y r e l a t e s to how you f e e l . I prefer not to work outside of the home I prefer not to work at the present time, but i n a few months or years I might want to work outside of the home I would l i k e to work on a part-time basis, but there j u s t doesn't seem to be any part-time j/obs around I would l i k e to work on a part-time basis i n my own home I would l i k e to work f u l l - t i m e , but there j u s t aren't any jobs a v a i l a b l e i n which I am int e r e s t e d . 26. Do you have any children? yes no (GO TO QUESTION #28) If "yes", what are t h e i r ages? Please c i r c l e the ages of the ones who DO NOT l i v e i n E l k f o r d . 27. How do you rate the following community f a c i l i t i e s and programs which r e l a t e to the growth and development of your children? EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR POOR a) elementary school b) secondary school c) post-secondary education d) r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e) youth organizations f) outdoor play areas 28. Would you attend any adult education programs i f they were offered i n Elkford? yes no. If "yes", what subject areas or classes would i n t e r e s t you? 122 29. Below are a number of statements dealing with, how someone might f e e l about c e r t a i n aspects of l i f e i n E l k f o r d . Please i n d i c a t e how you f e e l about each statement by marking an "X" i n one of the f i v e boxes to the r i g h t . STRONGLY UNSURE n T S A r R F 1 7 STRONGLY AGREE A G R E E NEUTRAL D I S A G R E E DISAGREE El k f o r d i s a f r i e n d l y town. E l k f o r d needs a c h i l d day-care center. The transients i n town these days are disrupting the community l i f e f o r the more permanent residents. I consider E l k f o r d "home". Most people i n E l k f o r d r e a l l y care what happens to the town. El k f o r d i s too new f o r my l i k i n g . I enjoy the weather and climate i n E l k f o r d . Generally, my family and I are happy with E l k f o r d as a place to l i v e . E l k f o r d i s growing too f a s t . There i s need f o r a regular bus service from E l k f o r d to Sparwood or Fernie. Big c i t i e s are too noisy and crowded f o r me. E l k f o r d i s a community with more problems than other places I have l i v e d . There i s a lack of community s t a b i l i t y and f e e l i n g of permanence i n E l k f o r d . Geographically, I f e e l i s o l a t e d i n E l k f o r d . Compared with other towns or c i t i e s , E l k f o r d i s a good place to rear c h i l d r e n . I spend very l i t t l e time with my neighbors. 123 30. The-.mining industry employs the following personnel " i n the f i e l d " : tradesmen ( e l e c t r i c i a n s , welders, e t c . ) , equipment operators, mine b l a s t e r s , beltmen, surveyors and analysts, coal preparation oper-ators, supervisors and managers, engineers and geologists. I f there were a t r a i n i n g program leading to the employment of women- i n these po s i t i o n s , would you be extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n t e r e s t e d not sure or neutral not intere s t e d 31. What do you think of Fording Coal Ltd. as an employer? What do you think of Fording Coal Ltd. as a "community c i t i z e n " ? 32. I f the proposed Scurry Rainbow coal development "comes on l i n e " , i t i s estimated that the population of E l k f o r d w i l l be 10,000 i n 1981. How do you f e e l about this? That's j u s t about everything except for a few background items. 33. How o l d are you? 14 - 20 41 - 50 21 - 30 51 - 60 31 - 40 61 or over 34. What i s the highest l e v e l of formal education that you have completed? Grade 1 - 4 te c h n i c a l or vocational school Grade 4 - 8 community college Grade 9 - 12 u n i v e r s i t y post-graduate masters or PhD 35. What i s your m a r i t a l status? sin g l e ' common law married separated/divorced widowed IF YOU ARE MARRIED, PLEASE ANSWER PARTS A, B AND C A. Is your husband employed by Fording yes no B. What i s h i s occupation? •  C. Does your husband enjoy his job? most of the time part of the time hardly ever 124 Approximately., what was your to taxes i n 1975? $4,999 and under $5,000-$9,999 $10,000-$14,999 $15,000-$19,999 Are there any a d d i t i o n a l comment! concerning Elkford? Please f e e l sheet of paper i f you don't have family income before $20,000-$24,999 $25,000-$29,999 $30,000 and over you would l i k e to make free to attach an a d d i t i o n a l enough space below. THANK YOU FOR YOUR HELP AND SUPPORT OF MY STUDY! 125 APPENDIX 2 TABLES 3 - 4 6 126 TABLE 3 AGES OF RESPONDENTS  El k f o r d Women East Kootenay Population B.C. Population Ages Numb er Percentage Percentage Percentage 14 - 20 25 10.8% 19.3% 17.0% 21 - 30 109 47.2 21.1 19.6 31 - 40 59 25.5 19.1 17.6 41 - 50 25 10.8 14.6 14.3 51 - 60 11 4.8 12.2 12.9 61 or over 0 0.0 13.7 18.6 No response 2 0.9 - -231 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% (1) Source: Census of Canada, 19 76 (reaggregation of age groups assuming an equal number i n each age). TABLE 4 MARITAL STATUS Single — attending high school 18 — working 3 Married (1) — working — not working 64 144 No response Number Percentage 21 208 2 9.1% 90.0 0.9 231 100.0% (1) Includes one widow, one woman who i s separated, and f i v e common law wives. 127 TABLE 5 NUMBER AND AGES OF CHILDREN Women with ch i l d r e n Women without children Women attending high school No response Number 166 43 18 4_ . 231 Percentage 71.9% 18.6 7.8 1.7 100.0% Number of chil d r e n per family 1 or 2 ch i l d r e n 3 or 4 chil d r e n 5 or more chi l d r e n No response 98 43 .14 11 59.1% 25.9 8.4 6.6 LI 6 6 100.0% Age groups of chil d r e n per family One or more c h i l d ( r e n ) : 0 - 4 years 56 33.8% 5 - 9 years 9 5.4 10 -14 years 7 4.2 15 -19 years 2 1.2 20's and over 10 6.0 Two or more c h i l d r e n : 9 years and under 29 17.5 14 years and under 21 12.7 19 years and under 11 6.6 20's and under 10 6.0 No response 11 6.6 166 100.0% 128 TABLE 6 EDUCATION Less than Grade 9 Grade 9 - 1 2 Technical, Business or Vocational School Community College U n i v e r s i t y No response E l k f o r d Women Number Percentage 6 130 46 16 30 3 2.6% 56.3 19.9 6.9 ) ) 13.0 ) 1.3 231 100.0% (1) Canadian Women  Percentage 25.6% 45.8 15.2 13.4 100.0% (1) Source: Census of Canada, 1976 TABLE 7  FAMILY INCOME _ J 5,000 - 9,999 10,000 - 14,999 15,000 - 19,999 20,000 - 24,999 25,000 - 29,999 30,000 and over No response -Number Percentage 16 6.9% 63 27.3 74 32.0 35 15.1 5 2.2 2 15.6 36 231 100.0% 129 TABLE 8 REASON FOR MOVING TO ELKFORD Number Percentage Husband's (or father's) job - better pay 50 21.6 - l i k e s work better 21 9.1 - higher p o s i t i o n 11 4.8 - transferred 60 26.0 - l a i d - o f f previous job 22 9.5 - combination of above factors 21 9.1 - no s p e c i f i c f a c t o r mentioned 22 9.5 207 89.6% Respondent's (or mother's) job 8 3.5 Recreational and environmental opportunities 3 1.3 Members of family l i v e d i n El k f o r d 3 1.3 Husband l i v e d i n E l k f o r d 3 1.3 Other 6 2.6 No response 1 231 0.4 100.0% TABLE 9 CROSSTABULATION OF Ql LENGTH OF RESIDENCE BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satis f i e d Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total Ql- 1 13 5 1 1 0 21 Less than 1 yr. 4.8 61.9 23.8 4.8 4.8 0.0 9.1 2.1 10.1 17.9 5.6 12.5 0.0 0.4 5.6 2.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 6 32 6 5 1 1 51 1-1 yr. 11 mos. 11.8 62.7 11.8 9.8 2.0 2.0 22.1 12.8 24.8 21.4 27.8 12.5 100.0 2.6 13.9 2.6 2.2 0.4 0.4 * 11 20 7 5 4 0 47 2-2 yrs. 11 mos. 23.4 42.6 14.9 10.6 8.5 0.0 20.3 23.4 15.5 25.0 27.8 50.0 0.0 4.8 8.7 3.0 2.2 1.7 0.0 11 37 5 2 2 0 57 3-3 yrs. 11 mos. 19.3 64.9 8.8 3.5 3.5 0.0 24.7 23.4 28.7 17.9 11.1 25.0 0.0 4.8 16.0 2.2 0.9 0.9 0.0 17 20 5 4 0 0 46 4-4 yrs. 11 mos. 37.0 43.5 10.9 8.7 0.0 0.0 19.9 36.2 15.5 17.9 22.2 0.0 0.0 7.4 8.7 2.2 1.7 0.0 0.0 5 yrs. and over COLUMN TOTAL 1 .11.1 2.1 0.4 7 77.8 5.4 3.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 11.1 5.6 0.4. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9 3.9 47 20.3 129 55.8 28 12.1 18 7.8 8 3.5 1 0.4 231 100.0 TABLE 10 CROSSTABULATION OF Q3 EXPECTED FUTURE RESIDENCE IK ELKFORD BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total Q3 4 11 5 5 3 0 28 Less Chan 1 yr. 14.3 39.3 17.9 17.9 10.7 0.0 12.1 8.5 8.5 17.9 27.8 37.5 0.0 1.7 4.8 2.2 •2.2 1.3 0.0 3 27 8 2 3 0 43 1-3 yrs. 11 mos. 7.0 62.8 .18.6 4.7 7.0 0.0 18.6 6.4 20.9 28.6 11.1 37.5 0.0 1.3 11.7 3.5 0.9 1.3 0.0 5 13 2 1 0 0 21 4-6 yrs. 11 mos. 23.8 61.9 9.5 4.8 0.0 0.0 9.1 10.6 10.1 7.1 5.6 0.0 0.0 2.2 5.6 . 0.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 1 3 1 0 0 0 5 7-9 yrs. 11 mos. 20.0 60.0 20.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.1 2.3 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 12 23 0 0 0 0 35 10 yrs. and over 34.3 65.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.2 25.5 17.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 17 3 4 1 0 31 No Response 19.4 54.8 9.7 12.9 3.2 0.0 13.4 12.8 13.2 10.7 22.2 12.5 0.0 2.6 7.4 1.3 1.7 0.4 1.0 16 35 9 6 1 1 68 Did Not Know 23.5 51.5 13.2 8.8 1.5 1.5 29.4 34.0 27.1 32.1 33.3 12.5 100.0 6.9 15.2 3.9 2.6 0.4 0.4 COLUMN 47 129 28 18 8 1 231 TOTAL 20.3 55.8 12.1 7.8 3.5 0.4 100.0 TABLE 11 CROSSTABULATION OF Q22 CHOOSE TO MOVE TO ELKFORD AGAIN EY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Q29H Very Satisfied Satisfied Unsure or Neutral Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied No Row Response Total Q22 Yes Definitely 38 46.9 80.9 16.5 42 51.9 32.6 18.2 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 1.2 5.6 0.4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 81 35.1 Yes with Reservations 6 9.2 12.8 2.6 50 76.9 38.8 21.6 6 9.2 21.4 2.6 3 4.6 16.7 1.3 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 65 28.1 Not Sure 2 5.0 4.3 0.9 25 62.5 19.4 10.8 11 27.5 39.3 4.8 1 2.5 5.6 0.4 1 2.5 12.5 0.4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 40 17.3 No 1 2.4 2.1 0.4 11 26.2 8.5 4.8 9 21.4 32.1 3.9 13 31.0 72.2 5.6 7 16.7 87.5 3.0 J. 2.4 100.0 . 0.4 42 18.2 No Response COLUMN1 TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 47 20.3 1 33.3 0.8 0.4 129 55.8 2 66.7 7.1 0.9 28 12.1 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 18 7.8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8 3.5 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 0.4 3 1.3 231 100.0 TABLE 12 CROSSTABULATION OF Q25 PRESENTLY EMPLOYED BY Q29B ELKFORD NEEDS CHILD DAY-CARE CENTRE COUNT Q29B ROW PCT COLUMN PCT Strongly Unsure or Strongly TOTAL PC'i \ Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree No Response Row Total 225 21 23 16 A 1 2 67 Yes No No Response COLUMN TOTAL 31.3 34.3 23.9 6.0 1.5 3.0 31.5 36.2 40.4 26.7 16.0 12.5 40.0 9.9 10.8 7.5 1.7 0.4 0.9 36 32 42 21 7 3 14 26.1 22.5 29.6 14.8 4.9 2.1 66.2 62.1 56.1 70.0 84.0 87.5 60.0 16.9 15.0 18.1 9.9 3.3 1.4 1 2 2 0 0 0 5 16.7 33.3 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 1.7 3.5 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.9 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 58 57 60 25 8 5 213 27.2 26.8 28.2 11.7 3.8 2.3 100.0 134 TABLE 13 SHIFTWORK D i f f e r e n t . S h i f t than Husband Number Percentage Most of the time 16 23.9% Sometimes 11 16.4 None of the time 32 47.8 No response 8 11.9 67 100.0% Problems with C o n f l i c t i n g S h i f t s Problems with husband: Very often 2 7.4% Sometimes 10 37.0 Hardly ever 12 44.5 No response 3 11.1 27 100.0% Problems with family: Very often 2 9.5 Sometimes 9 42.9 Hardly ever 8 38.1 No response 2 9.5 21 100.0% 135 TABLE 14 OCCUPATIONS Numb er Percentage Secretary/Clerk 23 34.3% Pro f e s s i o n a l (School teachers, nurses) 8 11.9 Bookkeepers/bank t e l l e r s 7 10.4 Janitoress 4 6.0 Businesswoman 3 4.5 Dispatcher 3 4.5 Food services 3 4.5 Mine b l a s t e r 2 3.0 L i b r a r i a n 2 3.0 Other 7 10.4 No response 5 7.5 67 100.0% TABLE 15 LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT Number Percentagi Less than 1 year 25 37.3% 1 year - 1 year 11 months 18 26.9 2 years - 2 years 11 months 9 13.4 3 years - 3 years 11 months 9 13.4 4 years - 4 years 11 months 2 3.0 No response 4 6.0 67 100.0% TABLE 16 CROSSTABULATION OF Q34 EDUCATION OF RESPONDENT BY Q25 PRESENTLY EMPLOYED COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Q25 Yea No No Response Row Total Q34 Grade 4-8 1 20.0 1.5 0.5 3 60.0 2.1 1.4 1 20.0 20.0 0.5 5 2.3 Grade 9-12 29 25.2 43.3 13.6 82 71.3 58.2 38.5 4 3.5 80.0 1.9 115 54.0 Technical, business or vocational school 14 31.1 20.9 6.6 31 68.9 22.0 14.6 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 45 21.1 Community College 10 62.5 14.9 4.7 6 37.5 4.3 2.8 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16 7.5 University 13 43.3 19.4 6.1 17 56.7 12.1 8.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 30 14.1 No Response COLUMN TOTAL 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 67 31.5 2 100.0 1.4 0.9 141 66.2 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 2.3 2 0.9 213 100.0 137 TABLE 17 ATTITUDE OF FULL-TIME HOMEMAKERS TOWARD POTENTIAL EMPLOYMENT Prefer not to work Might work i n the future Would l i k e a part-time job now Would l i k e a f u l l - t i m e job now No response Number 31 56 25 13 21 146 Percentage 21.2% 38.4 17.1 8.9 14.4 100.0% TABLE 18 INTEREST IN NON-TRADITIONAL MINING POSITIONS Extremely i n t e r e s t e d Interested Not sure or n e u t r a l Not intere s t e d No response Number 23 54 44 103 7 Percentage 10.0% 23.4 19.0 44.6 3.0 231 100.0% 138 TABLE 19 ATTITUDES TOWARD NON-TRADITIONAL POSITIONS BY POTENTIAL WORKFORCE (1) Women who might work i n the future Women who would l i k e part-time work now Women who would l i k e f u l l - t i m e work now Women who are already employed High school students T o t a l Number 56 25 13 67 18 .179 Numb er Interested i n Mining P o s i t i o n 20 (35.7%) 7 (28.0%) 9 (69.2%) 25 (37.3%) 11 (61.1%) 72 (1) Includes women already employed, those f u l l - t i m e homemakers who are interested i n present or future employment, and high school students. TABLE 20 CROSSTABULATION OF Q25 PRESENTLY EMPLOYED BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Q29H Very Satisfied Satisfied Unr.ure or Neutral Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied No Response Row Total Q25 Yes No No Response COLUMN TOTAL 15 38 9 1 3 1 67 22.4 56.7 13.4 1.5 4.5 1.5 31.5 34.9 32.5 33.3 5.9 37.5 • 100.0 7.0 17.8 4.2 0.5 1.4 0.5 27 76 17 16 5 0 141 19.1 53.9' 12.1 11.3 3.5 0.0 66.2 62.8 65.0 63.0 94.1 62.5 0.0 12.7 35.7 8.0 7.5 2.3 0.0 1 3 1 0 0 0 5 16.7 66.7 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.3 2.6 3.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 43 117 27 17 8 1 213 20.2 54.9 12.7 8.0 3.7 0.5 100.0 TABLE 21 CROSSTABULATION OF COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Q l l Satisfied P a r t i a l l y Satisfied Not Satisfied No Response Row Total QIO 5 5 10 1 21 Apartment 23.8 23.8 47.6 4.8 9.1 3.0 16.1 29.4 50.0 2.2 2.2 4.3 0.4 27 14 13 0 54 Mobile Home 50.0 25.5 24.1 0.0 23.4 16.5 45.2 38.2 0.0 11.7 6.1 5.6 0.0 132 12 11 1 156 Single Family 84.6 7.7 7.1 0.6 67.5 80.5 38.7 32.4 50.0 57.1 5.2 4.8 0.4 COLUMN TOTAL 164 71.0 31 13.4 34 14.7 •2 0.9 231 100.0 TABLE 22 CROSSTABULATION OF QIO DWELLING UNIT BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION C 0 U N T 029H ROW PCT w COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total QIO 1 11 3 2 A 0 21 Apartment A.8 52.4 14.3 9.5 19.0 . 0.0 9.1 2.1 8.5 10.7 11.1 50.0 0.0 0.4 . 4.8 1.3 0.9 1.7 0.0 10 23 14 5 2 0 54 Mobile Home 18.5 42.6 25.9 9.3 3.7 0.0 23.4 21.3 17.8 50.0 27.8 25.0 0.0 A.3 10.0 6.1 2.2 0.9 0.0 36 95 11 11 2 1 156 Single Family 23.1 60.9 7.1 7.1 1.3 0.6 67.5 76.6 73.6 39.3 . 61.1 25.0 100.0 15.6 41.1 A.8 A.8 0.9 O.A COLUMN 47 129 28 18 8 1 231 TOTAL 20.3 55.3 12.1 7.8 3.5 0.4 100.0 TABLE 23 CROSSTABULATION OF Ql l SATISFACTION WITH DWELLING BV Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT Q 2 9 H COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total Q l l Al 99 11 9 3 1 164 Satisfied 25.0 60.4 6.7 5.5 1.8 0.6 . 71.0 87.2 76.7 39.3 50.0 37.5 100.0 17.7 42.9 4.8 3.9 1.3 0.4 2 18 9 2 0 0 31 P a r t i a l l y Satisfied 6.5 58.1 29.0 6.5 0.0 0.0 13.4 4.3 14.0 32.1 11.1 0.0 0.0 0.9 7.8 3.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 4 11 8 7 4 0 34 Not Satisfied 11.8 32.4 23.5 20.6 11.8 0.0 14.7 8.5 8.5 28.6- 38.9 50.0 0.0 1.7 4.8 3.5 3.0 1.7 0.0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 No Response 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 COLUMN 47 129 28 18 8 1 ' 231 TOTAL 20.3 55.8 12.1 7.8 3.5 0.4 100.0 TABLE 24 COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Ql Less than 1 Yr. CROSSTABULATION OF QIO DWELLING UNIT BY Ql LENGTH OF RESIDENCE 1-1 Yr. 11 Mos. 2 Yrs. 1.1 Mos. 3-3 Yrs. 11 Mos. 4 Yrs. 11 Mos. 5 Yrs. And Over Row Total QIO Apartment 6 28.6 28.6 2.6 7 33.3 13.7 3.0 3 14.3 6.4 1.3 3 14.3 5.3 1.3 1 4.8 2.2 0.4 1 4.8 11.1 0.4 21 9.1 Mobile Home 4 7.4 19.0 1.7 13 24.1 25.5 5.6 15 27.8 31.9 6.5 13 24.1 22.8 5.6 7 13.0 15.2 3.0 2 3.7 22.2 0.9 54 23.4 Single Family COLUMN TOTAL 11 7.1 52.4 4.8 21 9.1 31 19.9 60.8 13.4 51 22.1 18.6 61.7 12.6 47 20.3 41 26.3 71.9 17.7 57 24.7 38 24.4 82.6 16.5 46 19.9 6 3.8 66.7 2.6 9 3.9 156 67.5 231 100.0 144 TABLE 25 Attr i b u t e s of E l k f o r d Most Liked (1) Number Environment - geographic a t t r i b u t e s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g 126 climate and weather 18 clean a i r and water 16 quietness 12 w i l d l i f e 9 near large c i t i e s 3 i s o l a t i o n 2 186 Percentage of Respondents 45.7% S o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s of community people-friendliness easy pace - freedom good place to r a i s e a family community s p i r i t many young people 69 9 5 4 3 90 22.0 Recreational a t t r i b u t e s recreation center and i t s programs outdoor recreation opportunities s k i h i l l 26 27 11 64 15.7 Phy s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s small town 19 houses - my home 9 everything within walking distance 5 newness 3 growth of community 3 stree t s 2 mall 2_ 43 10.6 Employment a t t r i b u t e s enjoy job high wages 6. Other 7. No response [55] Tota l Responses 10 14 407 2.5 3.4 100.0% (1) Respondents were asked to l i s t two items. 145 TABLE 26 MOST IMPORTANT. SUMMER LEISURE ACTIVITIES (1) Percentage Number. of Respondents Camping 93 40.3 Swimming 79 34.2 Gardening 54 23.4 Fishin g 27 20.3 Hiking 39 16.9 Tennis/badminton 33: 14.3 Walking 30 13.0 T r a v e l l i n g / d r i v i n g 26 11.3 Picnics/barbeques 24 10.4 B a s e b a l l / s o f t b a l l 19 8.2 B i c y c l i n g 17 7.4 Golfing 14 6.1 Motor bike riding/4-wheel d r i v i n g 14 6.1 Sunbathing 14 6.1 Waterskiing/boating 12 5.2 V i s i t i n g friends 9 3.9 Reading 7 3.0 Handicrafts/hobbies 7 3.0 Other 41 13.4 Tot a l Responses 528 (1) Respondents were asked to l i s t up to a maximum of three f a v o r i t e summer past-time a c t i v i t i e s . 146 TABLE 27 MOST IMPORTANT WINTER LEISURE ACTIVITIES (1) Ice skating Skiing Handicrafts/hobbies Curling Snowmobiling Walking Reading Cards/games Spectator sports V i s i t i n g friends Tobogganing Bowling Clubs B a s k e t b a l l / v o l l e y b a l l Dancing Snowshoeing Badminton Broomball T r a v e l l i n g / d r i v i n g Other Tot a l Responses Percentage Number . of Respondents 107 46.3 61 26.4 57 24.7 52 22.5 34 14.7 34 14.7 25 10.8 18 7.8 18 7.8 17 7.4 14 6.1 9 3.9 8 3.5 7 3.0 7 3.0 . 7 3.0 5 2.2 5 2.2 5 2.2 38 16.4 528 (1) Respondents were asked to l i s t up to a maximum of three f a v o r i t e winter past-time a c t i v i t i e s . . . TABLE 28 FEELING OF ISOLATION "Geographically, I f e e l i s o l a t e d i n E l k f o r d " . Numb er Percentage Strongly agree 34 14.7% Agree 45 19.5 Unsure or neutral 24. 10.4 Disagree 98 42.4 Strongly disagree 30 13.0 No response 0 0.0 231 100.0% 148 TABLE 29 ATTRIBUTES OF ELKFORD LEAST LIKED (1) Numb er Services and f a c i l i t i e s (non-recreational) inadequate shopping 88 inadequate educational f a c i l i t e s 37 lack of medical/dental services 24 lack of good restaurant 5 no churches 2 no p o l i c e 2 158 Percentage of Respondents 40.1% Recreation/entertainment f a c i l i t e s lack entertainment no swimming pool lack teen f a c i l i t i e s lack non-sports recreation no theatre lack summer recreation no bowling a l l e y other 21 7 6 6 3 3 2 3 51 12.9 3. Social/personal a t t r i b u t e s gossip d i s l i k e some people cliques powerlessness/lack of choice boredom would l i k e more s i n g l e women 17 4 3 2 42 10.7 Community concerns company con t r o l stray animals municipal government 18 14 6 38 9.7 Phys i c a l a t t r i b u t e s not enough housing no sidewalks E l k f o r d growing too f a s t d i s l i k e bunkhouses d i s l i k e overhead wiring E l k f o r d too small 11 6 6 4 3 2 32 8.1 Cont'd 149 Percentage Number of Respondents Environmental/geographic a t t r i b u t e s i s o l a t i o n 17 long winter - short summer 7 climate and weather 4 28 7.1 Transportation and communication condition of Elkford/Sparwood Highway 6 lack of pu b l i c t r a n s i t 5 poor t e l e v i s i o n reception 2 13 3.3 8. Employment conditions shiftwork 4 other 4 8 2.0 9. Other 24 6.1 10. No response ; [68] Tota l Responses 394 100.0% (1) Respondents were asked to l i s t two items. 150 TABLE 30 ENJOYMENT OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE "I enjoy the weather and climate i n El k f o r d " • Number Percentagi Strongly agree 40 17.3% Agree 107 46.3 Unsure or neutral 32 13.9 Disagree 35 15.2 Strongly disagree 16 6.9 No response 1 0.4 231 100.0% TABLE 31 INVOLVEMENT IN DECISION TO MOVE TO ELKFORD Number Percentage Respondent and husband decided together 127 55.0% Received a company transfer 35 15.2 Family decided as a group 19 8.2 Husband decided alone 15 6.5 Parents decided 14 6.1 Respondent decided alone 10 4.3 Husband worked i n Elk f o r d already 5 2.1 Other 4 1.7 No response 2 0.9 231 100.0% TABLE 32 CRCSSTABULATION OF Q8 AWARENESS OF ELKFORD BEFORE MOVE BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT Q29H COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total Q8 1A 19 2 1 0 0 36 Knew Much 38.9 52.8 5.6 2.8 0.0 0.0 15.6. 29.8 1A.7 7.1 5.6 0.0 0.0 6.1 8.2 0.9 O.A 0.0 0.0 17 60 13 5 3 0 . 98 Knew Some 17.3 61.2 • 13.3 5.1 3.1 0.0 A2.A 36.2 A6.5 A6.A 27.8 37.5 0.0 7.A 26.0 5.6 2.2 1.3 0.0 16 A8 13 12 5 1 95 Knew L i t t l e 16.8 50.5 13.7 12.6 5.3 1.1 A l . l 3A.0 37.2 A6.A 66.7 62.5 100.0 6.9 20.8 5.6 5.2 2.2 O.A 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 No Response 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 COLUMN ' A7 129 28 18 8 1 231 ' TOTAL 20.3 55.8 12.1 7.8 3.5 O.A 100.0 152 TABLE 33 LAST RESIDENCE BEFORE ELKFORD East-West Kootenays Elsewhere i n B.C. Alberta Manitoba or Saskatchewan Elsewhere i n Canada Outside Canada No response Number 98 35 33 29 24 Percentage 42.5% 15.1 14.3 12.6 10.4 3.4 1.7 Percentage who have l i v e d i n Elkf o r d 3 y r s . or more  50.9% 10.7 11.6 13.4 9.8 0.9 2.7 231 100.0% 100.0% TABLE 34 PAST EXPERIENCE WITH SINGLE-INDUSTRY RESOURCE COMMUNITIES Number Percentage Yes; have l i v e d i n a resource town before — mining town 122 — f o r e s t r y town 9 — other 3 — no data 1 135 58.4% No; have not l i v e d i n a resource town before No response 93 3 40.3 1.3 231 100.0% 153 TABLE 35 HOW MET FRIENDS IN ELKFORD (1) Number Percentage of Percentage of Responses Total Responses Respondents Through husband 126 24.8% 54.5 In neighborhood 122 24.0 52.8 Through r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s 71 14.0 30.7 Knew them before moving to Elk f o r d 63 12.4 27.3 At work 49 9.65 21.2 At school 28 5.5 12.1 Other 49 9.65 21.2 508 100.0% (1) Respondents could check as many categories as they wished. TABLE 36  WHERE SOCIALIZE WITH FRIENDS Percentage Percentage F i r s t Second Total of Total of Choice Choice Responses Responses Respondents In homes 183 16 199 43.1% 86.1 At recreation centre 16 77 93 20.1 40.3 At the mall 3 34 37 8.0 16.0 At work 13 16 29 6.3 12.5 At the pub/lounge 3 25 28 6.0 12.1 Other 12 18 30 6.5 0.0 No response 0 0 4 6 1 0 < 0 2 0 > 0 230 186 462 100.0 TABLE 37 CROSSTABULATION OF Q12 NUMBER OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES BY Q15A PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZATIONS COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Yes No No Response Row Total Q12 22 2 1 25 Too Many 88.0 8.0 4.0 10.8 16.4 2.2 16.7 9.5 0.9 0.4 79 49 4 132 About Right 59.8 37.1 3.0 57.1 59.0 53.8 66.7 34.2 21.2 1.7 29 34 1 64 Not Enough 45.3 53.1 1.6 27.7 21.6 37.4 16.7 12.6 14.7 0.4 4 6 • 0 10 No Response 40.0 60.0 0.0 4.3 3.0 6.6 0.0 1.7 2.6 0.0 COLUMN TOTAL 134 53.0 91 39.4 6 4.3 231 100.0 155 TABLE 38 PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS P a r t i c i p a t i o n Number Percentage Yes; I p a r t i c i p a t e 134 58.0% No; I do not p a r t i c i p a t e 91 39.4 No response 6 2.6 231 100.0% Kinds of Organizations Number Percentage Combination of two or more 45 33.6% Recreational 31 23.1 So c i a l - service 17 12.7 Youth 13 9.7 Church 8 6.0 C i v i c 4 3.0 Other 14 10.4 No response 2 1-5 134 100.0% TABLE 39 CROSSTA3ULATI0N OF Q15A PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZATIONS BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT Q29H COLUMN PCT Very Unsure or Very No Row TOTAL PCT Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Response Total Q15A 31 77 14 9 2 1 134 Yes 23.1 57.5 ' 10.4 6.7 1.5 0.7 58.0 66.0 59.7 50.0 50.0 25.0 100.0 13.A 33.3 6.1 3.9 0.9 0.4 16 47, 14 8 6 0 91 No 17.6 51.6 15.4 8.8 6.6 0.0 39.4 34.0 36.4 50.0 44.4 75.0 0.0 6.9 20.3 6.1 3.5 2.6 0.0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 No response 0.0 83.3 0.0 16.7 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 3.9 0.0 5.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 COLUMN 47 129 28 18 8 1 231 TOTAL 20.3 55.8 12.1 7.8 3.5 0.4 100.0 TABLE 40 CROSSTABULATION OF Q12 NUMBER OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES BY Q29H COMMUNITY SATISFACTION COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Q29H Very Satisfied Satisfied Unsure or Neutral Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied No Response Row Total Q12 Too Many About Right Not Enough No response COLUMN TOTAL 9 13 .1 1 0 1 25 36.0 52.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 4.0 10.8 19.1 10.1 3.6 5.6 0.0 100.0 3.9 5.6 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 31 82 9 8 2 0 132 23.5 62.1 6.8 6.1 1.5 0.0 57.1 66.0 63.6 32.1 44.4 25.0 0.0 13.4 35.5 3.9 3.5 0.9 0.0 6 28 17 8 5 0 64 9.4 43.8 26.6 12.5 7.8 0.0 27.7 12.8 21.7 60.7 44.4 62.5 0.0 2.6 12.1 7.4 3.5 2.2 0.0 1 6 1 1 1 0 110 10.0 60.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 0.0 4.8 2.1 4.7 3.6 5.6 12.5 0.0 0.4 2.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 47 129. 28 18 8 1 231 20.3 55.8 12.1 7.8 3.5 0.4 100.0 TABLE 41 CROSSTABULATION OF Q12 NUMBER OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES BY QI LENGTH OF RESIDENCE COUNT ROW PCT COLUMN PCT TOTAL PCT Ql Less Than 1 Yr. 1-1 Yr. 11 Mos. 2-2 Yrs. 11 Mos. 3-3 Yrs. 11 Mos. 4-4 Yrs. 11 Mos. 5 Yrs. And Over Row Total Q12 0 5 3 7 6 4 25 Too Many 0.0 20.0 12.0 28.0 24.0 16.0 10.8 0.0 9.8 6.4 12.3 13.0 44.4 0.0 2.2 1.3 3.0 2.6 1.7 13 27 26 34 29 3 132 About right 9.8 20.5 19.7 25.8 22.0 2.3 57.1 61.9 52.9 55.3 59,6 63.0 33.3 5.6 11.7 11.3 14.7 12.6 1.3 7 17 16 13 11 0 64 Not enough 10.9 26.6 25.0 20.3 17.2 0.0 27.7 33.3 33.3 34.0 22.8 23.9 0.0 3.0 7.4 6.9 5.6 4.8 0.0 1 2 2 3 0 2 10 No response 10.0 20.0 20.0 30.0 0.0 25.0 4.3 4.8 3.9 4.3 5.3 0.0 22.2 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.0 0.9 COLU>[N 21 51 47 57 46 9 231 TOTAL 9.1 22.1 20.3 • 24.7 19.9 3.9 100.0 TABLE 42 GENERAL PERCEPTIONS OF Unsure Strongly or Agree Agree Neutral "Elkford i s too new for my l i k i n g " . 12 22 30 (5.2%) (9.52) (13.0%) "I consider Elkford 'home'". 61 106 27 (26.4%) (45.9%) (11.7%) "There is a lack of community s t a b i l i t y and feeling of permanence in Elkford". 34 81 44 (14.7%) (35.1%) (19.1%) "Transients are disrupting community l i f e for the more permanent residents". 16 41 74 (6.9%) (17.7%) (32.0%) "Most people, r e a l l y care what happens to the town". 23 90 52 (10.0%) (38.9%) (22.5%) "Elkford is growing too f a s t " . 15 33 39 (6.5%) (14.3%) (16.9%) "Elkford. i s a good place to rear children". 38 85 51 (16.4%) (36.8%) (22.1%) "Generally, my family and I are happy with Elkford as a place to l i v e " . 47 129 28 (20.4%) (55.8%) (12.1%) ' Strongly No Disagree Disagree Response Total 113 50 4 231 (48.9%) (21.7%) (1.7%) (100.0%) 20 15 2 231 (8.6%) (6.5%) (0.9%) (100.0%) 64 (27.7%) 7 (3.0%) 1 (0.4%) 231 (100.0%) 74 (32.0%) 18 (7.8%) 8 (3.5%) 231 (100.0%) 48 (20.8%) 115 (49.8%) 16 (6.9%) 28 (12.1%) 2 (0.9%) 1 (0.4%) 231 (100.0%) 231 (100.0%) 29 25 3 231 (12.6%) (10.8%) (1.3%) (100.0%) 18 (7.8%) 8 (3.5%) 1 (0.4%) 231 (100.0%) 160 TABLE 43 ATTITUDES TOWARD FORDING Fording as employer P o s i t i v e Moderately p o s i t i v e ; some misgivings Neutral or not sure Negative No response Number 37 87 18 53 36 Percentage 16.0% 37.7 7.8 22.9 15.6 Fording as community c i t i z e n P o s i t i v e Moderately p o s i t i v e ; some misgivings Neutral or not sure Negative No response 231 100.0% 51 22.1 71 30.7 12 5.2 61 26.4 36 15.6 231 100.0% 161 TABLE 44 RATING OF COMMUNITY SERVICES AND FACILITIES . . - J....: .I". No Excellent Good F a i r Poor Response Tot a l Shopping 1 20 102 105 3 231 (0.4%) (8.7%) (44.1%) (45.5%) (1.3%) doo.o%) Medical and health 5 41 105 79 1 231 (2.2%) (17.7%) (45.5%) (34.2%) (0.4%) (100.0%) Roads and highways 0 23 96 110 2 231 (0.0%) (10.0%) (41.5%) (47.6%) (0.9%). (100.0%;) T e l e v i s i o n 4 35 88 102 2 231 (1.7%) (15.1%) (38.1%) (44.2%) (0.9%) (100.0%) Radio 3 10 28 186 4 231 (1-3%) (4.4%) (12.1%) (80.5%) (1.7%). (100.0%) Recreation center 66 119 39 6 1 231 (28.6%) (51.5%) (16.9%) (2.6%) (0.4%) (100.0%) Library 36 136 45 6 8 231 (15.6%) (58.9%) (19.5%) (2.6%) (3.4%) (100.0%) Dining and lounge f a c i l i t i e s 4 12 61 147 7 231 (1.7%) (5.2%) (26.5%) (63.6%) (3.0%) (100.0%) Churches 3 54 81 68 25 231 (1.3%) (23.4%) (35.1%) (29.4%) (10.8%) (100.0%) Rating of Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s for Children by Mothers No Excellent Good Fair Poor Response Tot a l Youth recreation 38 57 37 1 33 166 (22.9%) (34.3%) (22.3%) (0.6%) (19.9%) (100.0%) Youth organizations 14 35 47 23 47 166 (.8.4%) (21.1%) (28.3%) (13.9%) (28.3%) (100.0%) Outdoor play areas 4 14 39 77 32 166 (2.4%) (8.4%) (23.5%) (46.4%) (19.3%) (100.0%) Elementary school 10 59 36 16 45 166 (6.0%) (35.5%) (21.7%) (9.6%) (27.1%) (100.0%) Secondary school 2 6 20 73 65 166 (1.2%) (3.6%) (12.0%) (44.0%) (39.2%) (100.0%) 162 TABLE 45 NEED FOR BUS SERVICE "There i s need f o r a regular bus service from E l k f o r d to Sparwood or Fernie." Number Percentage Strongly agree 85 36.8% Agree 82 35.5 Unsure or neutral 26 11.3 Disagree 32 13.8 Strongly disagree 5 2.2 No response 1 0.4 231 100.0% TABLE 46  NEED FOR CHILD DAY-CARE CENTRE "Elkf o r d needs a c h i l d day-care centre." Number Percentage Strongly agree 63 27.3% Agree 63 27.3 Unsure or neutral 64 27.7 Strongly disagree . 1 0 4.3 No response 6_ 2.6 231 .100.0% 163 APPENDIX 3 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 164 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS A. Demographic P r o f i l e 1. The average age of women i n E l k f o r d i s 28. 2. F o u r - f i f t h s of the women are married and most have young child r e n . 3. On the whole, Elkford's women are w e l l educated. 4. The mean family income i n E l k f o r d c l o s e l y resembles the regional average. 5. Employment was the primary reason for moving to E l k f o r d . 6. Nearly h a l f of the women have l i v e d i n El k f o r d three years or more while the other h a l f have l i v e d i n El k f o r d l e s s than three years. B. Employment 1. Nearly one-third of the women are employed, w e l l below the regional, p r o v i n c i a l and fe d e r a l female p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates. 2. Mothers, ^ comprise 61% of the female labour force, however there are no organized c h i l d care services i n E l k f o r d . 3. Employment i n the resource industry i s dominated by males. Fording employs 37% of the working women compared with 91% of the respondents' husbands. 4. Elkford's working women hold lower paying jobs i n the service and c l e r i c a l f i e l d s , t r a d i t i o n a l areas of female employment. 5. Those who have had post high school education and/or t r a i n i n g have a higher employment p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate than those who have not. 6. Nearly two-thirds of the women not employed indi c a t e d an in t e r e s t i n p o t e n t i a l employment. 7. Considerable i n t e r e s t was expressed i n n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l employment i n the mining sector by the women i n Elk f o r d . 8. Community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s greater among employed women than non-employed women. C. Housing 1. The great majority of women are s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r dwelling u n i t s , with permanent single-family residents most s a t i s f i e d at 84.6%, followed by mobile home dwellers at 50%, and apartment dwellers the l e a s t s a t i s f i e d at 23.8%. 165 2. Community s a t i s f a c t i o n i s correlated with the type of dwelling unit and s a t i s f a c t i o n with housing, with permanent sin g l e - f a m i l y residents being the most s a t i s f i e d . 3. New and company subsidized housing are major incentives to a t t r a c t and maintain workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n E l k f o r d . 4. Elkford's housing problems are re l a t e d to a v a i l a b i l i t y and keeping up with constant demand. 5. There i s resentment i n Fording's exclusive involvement i n and management of housing i n the community. 6. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r non-Fording employees to obtain housing, causing problems for those involved i n the business and service sectors. 7. Women i n El k f o r d aspire to obtain a conventional s i n g l e - f a m i l y home. I n a b i l i t y to obtain t h e i r own home may contribute s u b s t a n t i a l l y to movement from E l k f o r d . 8. Choice and i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n housing types are l i m i t e d . D. Geographic and Natural Environment 1. The nat u r a l p a r k - l i k e s e t t i n g of E l k f o r d and the abundant outdoor recreation opportunities i t affords are s i g n i f i c a n t Contibutors to community s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. The majority of women do not perceive that E l k f o r d i s geographically i s o l a t e d . 3. Those women who d i s l i k e the climate and f e e l i s o l a t e d i n E l k f o r d have a greater tendency to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with the community. E. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Perceptions^ofCommunity L i f e 1. Over two-thirds of the respondents were involved i n the decision to move to El k f o r d , which should contribute p o s i t i v e l y to community sat-i s f a c t i o n . 2. There i s a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between community s a t i s f a c t i o n and knowing about the "state of community" p r i o r to moving to E l k f o r d . 3. Former urbanites have a comparable or an even greater tendency to be s a t i s f i e d with E l k f o r d than former r u r a l and small town residents. 4. Those women who resided i n the Kootenay Region p r i o r to moving to El k f o r d have l i v e d i n E l k f o r d the longest time. 5. Over h a l f of the respondents have l i v e d i n a si n g l e industry mine-town previous to E l k f o r d . However, there i s no apparent c o r r e l a t i o n between , community s a t i s f a c t i o n and previous residence i n a sing l e industry resource town. 166 6. Over two-thirds of the respondents perceive E l k f o r d to be a f r i e n d l y community, with the.older residents f e e l i n g that E l k f o r d i s more f r i e n d l y than the newcomers. 7. The majority of women indicated that they met most of t h e i r friends through t h e i r husbands, h i s co-workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 8. Over one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they knew most of t h e i r friends before they moved to El k f o r d . This continuity of friends i s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of l i v i n g i n Cominco mining communities previously (e.g., T r a i l , Rossland and Kimberley). 9. The home i s the major s e t t i n g for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , with p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s r a t i n g low. 10. Those women who perceive there i s an adequate amount of community a c t i v i t i e s and are active p a r t i c i p a n t s have a much greater tendency to be s a t i s f i e d with E l k f o r d than those who perceive there i s not enough to do and do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n community a c t i v i t i e s . 11... . There .is..no..correlation ..between length of: .residence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a c t i v i t i e s ; therefore, club p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears to be more a function of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s than how long one has l i v e d i n E l k f o r d . 12. Elkford's newness i s viewed as a p o s i t i v e , a t t r a c t i v e asset. 13. A sense of "community" does e x i s t i n E l k f o r d , however, i t i s more on a l e v e l of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and concern than through a continuity of residents. 14. The majority of women viewed growth and population increase i n a p o s i t i v e way. 15. The majority of women indic a t e d a p o s i t i v e or moderately p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e about Fording as employer arid corporate c i t i z e n , but also f e e l there i s room for improvement on both f r o n t s . 16. The majority of women f e e l that E l k f o r d i s a good place to rear c h i l d r e n . 17. The strongly held premise that new resource communities are ridden with widespread s o c i a l problems i s not shared by the majority of women i n El k f o r d , nor do the women believe that a disproportionate share of s o c i a l problems ex i s t s i n El k f o r d compared with more diverse communities. F. Community Services and F a c i l i t i e s 1. With the exception of recreation, l i m i t e d l o c a l services and f a c i l i - ; . t i e s was the primary source of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among E l k f o r d women. Most s i g n i f i c a n t discontentment was with the shopping f a c i l i t i e s , followed by educational services and f a c i l i t i e s , and health care services and f a c i l i t i e s . 167 2. Elkford's women are used to t r a v e l l i n g often to other c i t i e s f o r shopping, medical, and r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits; these jaunts also provide a psychological break. 3. Shopping was the chief source of discontentment, with low q u a l i t y , l i m i t e d quantity and a v a i l a b i l i t y , lack of choice and d i v e r s i t y , and the high cost of goods as the reasons c i t e d most often. 4. Limited health care services and f a c i l i t i e s within the community are of major concern to Elkford's women. Given the distances which are necessary to t r a v e l f o r health care treatment, coupled with lack of pub l i c t r a n s i t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r many women and th e i r f a m i l i e s to receive proper and regular medical care. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a problem, i n medical emergencies and f o r expectant mothers. 5. Transportation and communication services and f a c i l i t i e s were rated poorly by 90% of Elkford's women. Both factors compound a sense of i s o l a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , t e l e v i s i o n and radio communication with the rest of B r i t i s h Columbia i s almost non-existent . 6. The recreation center serves as the f o c a l point of E l k f o r d and i s highly regarded by the women. Enjoyment of r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , both indoor and outdoor, i s an important i n d i c a t o r of community s a t i s f a c t i o n i n E l k f o r d . 7. Despite problems with increases i n elementary school enrollment, n e c e s s i t a t i n g two s h i f t s , women indicated s a t i s f a c t i o n with the elementary school f a c i l i t i e s . There was strong d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with secondary school f a c i l i t i e s , as the secondary students are bussed d a i l y to Sparwood. Other factors which a f f e c t the growth and development, of t h e i r c h i l d r e n were of concern to E l k f o r d mothers, i n c l u d i n g youth organizations, outdoor play areas,..arid the lack of a c h i l d mindingreenter. Women were most s a t i s f i e d with the re c r e a t i o n a l programs f o r c h i l d r e n . 

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