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Remote sensing of off-road vehicle impacts to soil and vegetation on the Lac du Bois rangelands, Kamloops,… Allan, Grant Edward 1980

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REMOTE SENSING OF OFF-ROAD VEHICLE IMPACTS TO SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE LAC DU BOIS RANGELANDS, KAMLOOPS, BRITISH COLUMBIA  by  V»^__X  GRANT EDWARD ALLAN  B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y  o f Winnipeg,  1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES REMOTE SENSING / FORESTRY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1980  0  Grant Edward A l l a n , 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at  further  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it I  in p a r t i a l  freely  available  for  this  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  of  this  thesis for  It  financial  of  or  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l not  written permission.  Department  that  reference and study.  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e copying o f  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Land use management to p r o v i d e areas f o r o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e recreational activity,  and  to c o n t r o l and reduce  i n f o r m a t i o n on the r a p i d l y changing was  the ORV  conditions.  photographs  1975  and  photographs  1977,  two  The  ORV  impacts  photograph  a e r i a l photographs  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ORV  to map  The  of v a r i a t i o n s i n s o i l  and measure ORV  a e r i a l photographs third  was  impacts.  trails The  had  density values  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n a r e a s o f ORV developed  from  as a m u l t i s t a g e remote s e n s i n g  and a s s o c i a t e d zones of secondary  disturbance  stage u t i l i z e s v e r y l a r g e s c a l e  (1:600)  to sample the study a r e a and a s s e s s the e r o s i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  stage c o l l e c t s  ground i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s i s t s t a g e s and  the a e r i a l  photograph  to p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures  the changes to s e l e c t e d s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . To c o n s o l i d a t e the m o n i t o r i n g program i n f o r m a t i o n , an ORV  c o n d i t i o n s c a l e was v a r y i n g impact  the  activity.  photographs  second  an  carbon.  (1:4000) a e r i a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i r s t two of  aerial  i n m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t and o r g a n i c  f i r s t stage u t i l i z e s l a r g e s c a l e  w i t h i n a study a r e a .  The  range-  f a i l e d to provide c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s to permit  The m o n i t o r i n g program was approach.  formats o f  A ground s u r v e y program  R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of the s o i l v a r i a b l e s v e r s u s o p t i c a l  identification  and  t r a i l s , which were mapped from the a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s ,  i n c r e a s e i n b u l k d e n s i t y and a decrease  the 1979  to s o i l  o f the Lac du B o i s  s c a l e s and  were f l o w n i n the summer o f 1979.  d e s i g n e d to s u p p o r t the a e r i a l  ORV  study  Columbia.  To complement a v a i l a b l e a e r i a l l a n d study a r e a f o r 1971,  impacts, r e q u i r e s  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  to develop a remote s e n s i n g method to m o n i t o r  v e g e t a t i o n on the open l a n d s o f B r i t i s h  (ORV)  developed.  The  impact  simple f i v e p o i n t s c a l e summarizes  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n a study a r e a and can be used  g e n e r a l changes over time w i t h i n l a n d management u n i t s .  to assess  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  1.0  INTRODUCTION 1.1  2.0 3.0  4.0  Objective  .  'LITERATURE REVIEW  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  METHODS 3.1  Study A r e a and S i t e S e l e c t i o n  3.2  A e r i a l Photography  3.3  Ground Data C o l l e c t i o n  3.4  A e r i a l Photograph  . .  V i s u a l A n a l y s i s , Mapping  3.4.2  O p t i c a l Densitometry  Ground  DISCUSSION Survey  .  .  .  .  and Measurement . .  .  .  .  .  .  4.1.3  O r g a n i c Carbon  .  4.1.4  S o i l Erosion Transects  4.1.5  V e g e t a t i o n and Ground  4.1.6  D i s c u s s i o n o f Ground  .  .  .  S o i l Moisture  Densitometry  .  .  4.1.2  4.3  .  .  Bulk Density  A e r i a l Photograph  .  .  4.1.1  4.2  .  Interpretation  3.4.1  RESULTS AND 4.1  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Cover . Survey R e s u l t s  Interpretation .  .  .  5.0  RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1  5.2 6.0  .  ORV M o n i t o r i n g  . Program  .  5.1.1  Introduction  .  .  5.1.2  Stage I  .  .  5.1.3  Stage I I  .  .  5.1.4  Stage I I I  5.1.5  Summary o f ORV M o n i t o r i n g  ORV Impact C o n d i t i o n  .  .  .  .  .  . Program  Scale  SUMMARY  LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX A  -  E r o s i o n E v a l u a t i o n from A e r i a l  APPENDIX B  -  S o i l Compaction  Principles  Photographs  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  Bureau of Land Management ORV  2.  Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Ten P r i o r i t y  3.  Major Problems A s s o c i a t e d w i t h U n c o n t r o l l e d A c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia  4.  Ground  Survey T r a n s e c t Groups  Rangeland  Research S t r a t e g y ORV  4 6  Questions ORV  9  f o r the Lac du B o i s  Study A r e a  20  5.  A v a i l a b l e A e r i a l Photograph Coverage o f the Study A r e a  6.  The Composition of the D e n s i t o m e t r i c S p e c t r a l S i g n a t u r e of Each Ground  Survey Sample P o i n t  24  7.  B u l k D e n s i t y (g/cc)  -  By Study S i t e and ORV  8.  B u l k D e n s i t y (g/cc)  -  By S o i l C o n d i t i o n  9.  S o i l M o i s t u r e (% dry wt.)  -  By Study S i t e and ORV  10".  S o i l M o i s t u r e (% dry wt.)  -  By S o i l C o n d i t i o n  11.  O r g a n i c Carbon  (wt. %)  -  By Study S i t e and ORV  12.  O r g a n i c Carbon  (wt. %)  -  By S o i l C o n d i t i o n  13.  V e g e t a t i o n and Ground Cover - By Sample P o i n t L o c a t i o n V e g e t a t i o n and Ground Cover  14.  - By S o i l  I n c r e a s e o f ORV  16. 17.  Regression Analysis versus O p t i c a l Density ANOVA - Study S i t e B  18.  ORV  Impact  Trail  26 27 Trail  29 30  Trail  31 32  Characteristics Characteristics  Condition  15.  21  35 36  T r a i l L e n g t h (km)  -  Soil Physical  Condition Scale  1971 t o 1979  44  Variables 51 54 63  vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  2.  3.  Page Study Area Kamloops, B.C.  Lac du B o i s Rangelands,  S o i l Loss P r o f i l e s Along a S i n g l e - T r a n s e c t Group A  16 Trail 34  I n v a s i o n o f Bromus tectorum i n a Zone o f Secondary D i s t u r b a n c e  38  4.  ORV  T r a i l s at Study S i t e s C and D  -  June, 1975  45  5.  ORV  T r a i l s a t Study S i t e s C and D  -  June, 1977  46  6.  ORV  T r a i l s a t Study S i t e s C and D  -  August, 1979  47  7.  Area of Exposed S o i l f o r T r a n s e c t Group A^  49  8.  Exposure Curves of 1:1000 70mm C o l o u r - I n f r a r e d A e r i a l Photographs - J u l y 28, 1979  52  )  vii.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  author e x p r e s s e s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n  F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y and Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , Columbia, f o r h i s guidance d u r i n g the n e c e s s a r y a e r i a l  to Dr. P e t e r  A. Murtha,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  this project, his assistance  i n acquiring  photographs, and h i s encouragement and support  through-  out my e n t i r e graduate program. Sincere  thanks f o r t h e i r  time and a s s i s t a n c e a r e extended to the  t h e s i s committee members, D r . Robert J . Woodham, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y and Department o f Computer S c i e n c e ,  University of B r i t i s h  M. L a v k u l i c h , Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , and  Dr. P e t e r The  J . Dooling, funding  University of B r i t i s h  Columbia; Dr. L e s l i e  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia;  F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  f o r the f i e l d w o r k Columbia N a t u r a l  of t h i s  p r o j e c t , provided  and A p p l i e d  Sciences  Columbia.  by a  research  grant  under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f Dr. P e t e r A. Murtha, and the use o f the l a b o r a t o r y facilities  a t t h e A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Research S t a t i o n , Kamloops, B r i t i s h  Columbia, i s g r a t e f u l l y Final and  her typing  acknowledged.  thanks to my mother, H e l e n , f o r h e r c o n t i n u a l skills.  encouragement  1 1.0  INTRODUCTION The  p o p u l a r i t y of o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e (ORV)  r e c r e a t i o n i n North  America grew r a p i d l y d u r i n g the 1960s and m a i n t a i n e d out  the 1970s.  flicts  The  between ORV  i t s popularity  impact of ORV  a c t i v i t y on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  e n t h u s i a s t s and  o t h e r u s e r s of the l a n d was  U n i t e d S t a t e s C o u n c i l on E n v i r o n m e n t a l  and  throughthe  seen by  conthe  Q u a l i t y as  "... one of the most s e r i o u s p u b l i c l a n d use problems t h a t we f a c e . T h e r e f o r e , ways must be found to accommodate o f f road v e h i c l e s without s a c r i f i c i n g the i n t e g r i t y of the n a t u r a l environment or the r i g h t s of those who choose non-motorized forms of r e c r e a t i o n . " ( S h e r i d a n , 1979, p.iii). The  p o p u l a r i t y of ORVs i n s e v e r a l r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h  prompted the r e c o g n i t i o n of a problem on b o t h Kamloops, the 1976 identified  Lac du B o i s C o o r d i n a t e d  the u n c o n t r o l l e d use  problem to be s o l v e d  The  Greater  (GVRD) e s t a b l i s h e d a t a s k f o r c e on m o t o r i z e d f o r t r a i l b i k e s and  r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s i n the Lower Mainland vincial level,  an  Environment and ulated  in  Land Use  to p r o v i d e  groups and  'off-highway  environmental  levels.  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  to develop  a plan for  r e g i o n (GVRD, 1978).  v e h i c l e ' c o o r d i n a t o r was  At  (CRMP)  v e h i c l e s as a major District to  motorized At the  appointed  and  prothe  Committee (ELUC) Off-Highway V e h i c l e p o l i c y was governmental agencies  to overcome s p e c i f i c problems which may  the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e management r e g i o n s of the p r o v i n c e The  has  r e c r e a t i o n i n October 1978  f o r c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s by  individuals  provincial  Resource Management P l a n  of the area by m o t o r i z e d  (CRMP, 1976).  assess p o t e n t i a l s i t e s  l o c a l and  Columbia  be  form-  and p r i v a t e identified  (ELUC, 1978).  o b j e c t i v e of the ELUC Off-Highway V e h i c l e p o l i c y i s to c o n t r o l and  p r o p e r t y damage a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s between v e h i c l e o p e r a t o r s  and  t h i s r e q u i r e s a good s o u r c e  of i n f o r m a t i o n on  environmental  utility  damages.  The  improper v e h i c l e use  other resource users.  the p a s t , p r e s e n t  of remote s e n s i n g t e c h n i q u e s  and for  and  to  Meeting  future  ORV  informa-  tion  collection  statement  i s r e c o g n i z e d i n the development  p r o c e s s and  Historical  the assessment  a e r i a l photographs  conditions.  Subsequent  with repetitive  of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  of change over time  (Rosen,  changes can be e f f i c i e n t l y and o b j e c t i v e l y r e c o r d e d  a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h i c coverage.  (Davidson and Fox, 1974;  P r e v i o u s ORV  Webb e t a l . , 1978;  a t i c m o n i t o r i n g programs have n o t been developed  environmental  photographs.  1978) System-  ( S h e r i d a n , 1979).  Obj e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  to m o n i t o r ORV Columbia.  s t u d i e s i n the  W i l s h i r e et a l . ,  have not f u l l y u t i l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t of a e r i a l  1.1  1976).  p r o v i d e an o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d of p a s t b a s e l i n e  U n i t e d S t a t e s to measure q u a n t i t a t i v e l y p a s t and p r e s e n t ORV impacts  impact  impacts  thesis  i s t o develop a remote s e n s i n g method  to s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n on the open l a n d s of B r i t i s h  2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW T h i s t h e s i s concerns  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  by ORVs, o t h e r than snowmobiles. dates  to 1948  ( H i l l and K i r b y , 1948:  become a p o p u l a r s u b j e c t u n t i l U n i t e d S t a t e s began to boom. scientific  The  The  and v e g e t a t i o n  environmental  as c i t e d by S h e r i d a n , 1979)  the l a t e 1960s when the use e a r l y papers  e a r l y 1970s saw  but d i d n o t  of ORVs i n the  on ORVs were p o p u l a r , impacts  nonand  the  an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a r i t y of ORVs, an i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t of the l i t e r a t u r e , and  r e c o g n i t i o n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s government t h a t an ORV In 1972  impacts  by ORVs.  p u b l i c awareness of t h e i r impacts  existed.  l i t e r a t u r e on ORV  to s o i l  a r t i c l e s which drew a t t e n t i o n to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  r e c r e a t i o n c o n f l i c t s caused  official  The  impact  the U n i t e d S t a t e s P r e s i d e n t i a l E x e c u t i v e Order  d i r e c t e d a g e n c i e s w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n over p u b l i c  the  problem 11644  lands  "... t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s and p r o v i d e f o r p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w i l l ensure t h a t the use of o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s on p u b l i c l a n d s w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d so as t o p r o t e c t the r e s o u r c e s of those l a n d s , to promote the s a f e t y of a l l u s e r s of those l a n d s , and to m i n i m i z e c o n f l i c t s among the v a r i o u s u s e r s of those l a n d s . " (R. Nixon, 1972, p.2877). At the time of the E x e c u t i v e Order, L o d i c o s t r e t c h i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of a  'scientific  (1973) n o t e d  t h a t o n l y by  s t u d y ' , which she d e f i n e d as  "... any r e p o r t of r e s e a r c h which planned i n advance t o measure any e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact by an ORV and w h i c h i n c l u d e d a c o n t r o l a r e a where the ORV was not u s e d " ( L o d i c o , 1973, p . i ) , c o u l d i t be s a i d  that a s c i e n t i f i c  study had  been p u b l i s h e d on t h e e n v i r o n -  mental . e f f e c t s of o f f - r o a d r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s o t h e r than As a r e s u l t of the 1972  E x e c u t i v e Order  knowledge, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y i n Table  1.  information.  The  and  snowmobiles.  the l a c k o f  existing  organized a research strategy  s i x s t e p s of the s t r a t e g y a r e  listed  T a b l e 1.  Bureau o f Land Management ORV (McCool and Roggenbuck, 1974,  Research S t r a t e g y p.6)  1.  A s y s t e m a t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e needs o f ORV problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ORV use;  u s e r s and the r e a l  2.  A p r i o r i t i z a t i o n o f the i d e n t i f i e d needs, and problems f o r e v a l u a t i o n and r e s e a r c h ;  3.  The development o f r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s to r e s o l v e those i m p o r t a n t problems o r i s s u e s o f c o n f l i c t f o r which answers a r e not c u r r e n t l y available;  4.  The c o m p l e t i o n o f the n e c e s s a r y r e s e a r c h ;  5.  The development o f comprehensive ORV p o l i c y and m a n a g e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s based upon t h e s y s t e m a t i c problem a n a l y s i s and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , and  6.  A m e a n i n g f u l on-going feedback system to e v a l u a t e programs and  policies.  5. The BLM s u b s e q u e n t l y the f i r s t  c o n t r a c t e d Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y t o complete  t h r e e s t e p s of the r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y .  The major r e s u l t of the Utah  S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y study, which has h e l p e d t o d i r e c t ORV r e s e a r c h i n c l u d i n g t h e s i s , was the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t e n p r i o r i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , environmental The  impacts  i s s u e s concerned  with  this  ORV  and u s e r b e h a v i o r .  t e n p r i o r i t y q u e s t i o n s , i d e n t i f i e d and o r d e r e d by BLM p e r s o n n e l ,  o t h e r governmental employees, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f r e s o u r c e u s e r groups and academicians, T a b l e 2.  d u r i n g a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and seminars  are l i s t e d i n  The t e n q u e s t i o n s have been u t i l i z e d by the BLM and o t h e r l a n d  management a g e n c i e s  to d i r e c t  t h e i r r e s e a r c h programs p r i o r t o the d e v e l o p -  ment of management p l a n s f o r a r e a s w i t h ORV r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . r e s e a r c h programs and t h e r e s u l t i n g L o d i c o , 1973) on the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s 7 and 1, w i t h o u t  s c i e n t i f i c papers impacts  The  ( u s i n g t h e term of  o f ORVs have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y  c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the m o n i t o r i n g  with  approach  of q u e s t i o n 4. Davidson  and Fox (1974) q u a n t i f i e d  v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l but W i l s h i r e and Nakata Webb _e_t al_. (1978) and S t u l l All  the impact  o f m o t o r c y c l e s on  (1976) , W i l s h i r e et_ a_l. (1978) ,  e_t_ a l . (1979) q u a n t i f i e d changes i n s o i l  only.  the above f i v e r e f e r e n c e s s t u d i e d changes between u n d i s t u r b e d and d i s -  t u r b e d a r e a s w i t h i n ORV a c t i v i t y a r e a s whereas V o l l m e r  e_t al_. (1976) , Weaver  and D a l e  (1978),  F o s t e r (1977) and L e i n i n g e r and Payne (1980) s t u d i e d changes  to s o i l ,  v e g e t a t i o n and w i l d l i f e b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r a c o n t r o l l e d  traffic  experiment. In q u a n t i f y i n g the ORV impacts, d a t a c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g ground sampling managers w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  techniques.  They have p r o v i d e d l a n d  of the i n t e n s i t y of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  of ORVs, b u t management programs "... need t o monitor  t h e r e s e a r c h has c o n c e n t r a t e d on  still  the e f f e c t s  of ORV use much more  effects  6 T a b l e 2.  Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Ten P r i o r i t y ORV (McCool and Roggenbuck, 1974, p.23)  1.  What a r e t h e r e l a t i v e n a t u r a l environment?  2.  What t e c h n i q u e s ORV  impacts  Questions  o f v a r i o u s types o f ORVs upon the  can be used t o more e f f e c t i v e l y  communicate w i t h  users?  3.  What c r i t e r i a s h o u l d a l a n d manager use t o d e c i d e whether an area s h o u l d be open, r e s t r i c t e d , o r c l o s e d t o ORV use?  4.  How can the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  5.  What k i n d s o f d a t a a r e needed t o g i v e a s o l i d b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g an ORV management plan?  6.  What k i n d s o f c o n f l i c t s a r e o c c u r r i n g between ORV u s e r s and o t h e r recreationists?  7.  How can e n v i r o n m e n t a l  8.  How can the l a n d manager d e c i d e when ORV use becomes m i s u s e or overuse?  9.  How can i n c r e a s e d c o o p e r a t i o n between f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l governmental a g e n c i e s be a c h i e v e d i n o r d e r to i n c r e a s e ORV opport u n i t i e s and t o reduce ORV impacts and c o n f l i c t s ?  10.  e f f e c t s o f ORV use b e s t be monitored?  damage due t o ORV use be q u a n t i f i e d ?  How can an e c o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l d a t a base be e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f ORV management d e c i s i o n s ?  c l o s e l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y than they have done to ( S h e r i d a n , 1979, p.57). The Recreation within  Los  Padres N a t i o n a l  Forest  (USFS, 1976)  and  date."  the Utah Outdoor  Agency (1977) s p e c i f i e d a n n u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g programs  t h e i r ORV  management p l a n s  to a s s i s t amending the management  to m i n i m i z e the adverse e f f e c t s of ORV developed.  The  scientific  o n l y m o n i t o r i n g program t h a t has  study by  Land Between The  noted  Valley Authority  area.  t r a n s e c t s and  The  and  to d e t e c t  a  Based on  changes i n  shrub m o r t a l i t y over a f o u r the approach of the  the  year  Tennessee  e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact assessment g u i d e l i n e s , the  on E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y recommended  non-  o n - t r a i l l o c a t i o n s were measured f o r  t r e e and  (McEwen, 1978).  no p r o c e d u r e s were  been attempted was  the Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y  Lakes ORV  changes i n e r o s i o n p e r i o d was  a c t i v i t y , but  policies  Council  that  "In a r e a s r e g u l a r l y used by ORVs a m o n i t o r i n g system should be employed so t h a t l a n d managers can a s s e s s the impact of ORVs on w i l d l i f e , s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n . Under such a system, s o i l l o s s at key check p o i n t s would be measured on a r e g u l a r b a s i s (a r e l a t i v e l y simple m a t t e r ) , w i l d l i f e counts would be u n d e r t a k e n p e r i o d i c a l l y , and changes i n v e g e t a t i o n biomass, s p e c i e s , and the area of coverage would be t r a c k e d . The e y e b a l l i n s p e c t i o n s of l a n d managers on the ground are s t i l l v i t a l , but a b a s i c m o n i t o r i n g system would p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e data on which to base f u r t h e r l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s and adjustments i n e x i s t i n g ORV use p l a n s . " ( S h e r i d a n , 1979, p.57). To United  t h i s p o i n t , the r e v i e w of the  States  s o u r c e s to j u s t i f y  m o n i t o r i n g program. open l a n d s  The  the o b j e c t i v e o f the  The  the  the  r e s u l t of the  a t t e n t i o n given  GVRD, 1978;  and  t h e s i s to develop a  activity  dealt with  development of p l a n s areas  the  information.  to ORVs i n B r i t i s h Columbia has  the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l ORV  ELUC, 1978).  presence of ORV  l a c k of s p e c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of problems, the the a c t i v i t y  drawn s o l e l y on  d e c i s i o n to develop the m o n i t o r i n g program f o r  of B r i t i s h Columbia was  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  l i t e r a t u r e has  (Powers, 1975;  the  to c o n t r o l CRMP,  1976;  The of ORVs has reports  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  v a r i e d w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  list  of ORV  f o r the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  Lac  du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s ,  and  t h e i r emphasis ( T a b l e 3 ) .  most concerned w i t h the C o o r d i n a t e d  Kamloops (CRMP, 1976) The  crops  problems i n p u b l i s h e d  (Powers, 1975)  i n d i c a t e s the v a r i e t y of  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  concerns  District  was  i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , whereas  f a c t o r s of i n c r e a s e d e r o s i o n and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the ORV a c t i v i t y and  placement of s i g n s and ORV  use'  fences  areas.  problems was  was  reduced  i n conjunction with  reduce the problems.  at i l l e g a l use To a s s i s t  areas  The  and  plans  the implementation  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and  The  use  or r e s t r i c t i o n ,  of the r e g i o n a l and  c o n s i d e r e d as s t e p s 1 and  5 of the BLM  s t e p s of i d e n t i f y i n g and  n e g l e c t e d but a r e v e r y  formulated  to  and  to p r o v i d e  improved  (ELUC, 1978).  d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t e n t i o n g i v e n  intermediate  the  e d u c a t i o n programs, to p r o v i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  l e g a l - d e s i g n a t i o n of l a n d f o r ORV enforcement procedures  plans  advocated  the s e l e c t i o n of  l o c a l p l a n s , the p r o v i n c i a l ELUC Off-Highway V e h i c l e p o l i c y was  The  f o r the  Resource Management P l a n f o r the Lac du B o i s rangelands  to c o n t r o l the ORV  can be  and  for livestock grazing.  The  'designated  Greater  the n o i s e d i s t u r b a n c e  most concerned w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l forage  The  the u n c o n t r o l l e d use  important  to ORVs i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  research strategy (Table 1).  conducting  r e s e a r c h have been  to p r o v i d i n g a proper  s t e p 6 u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a p r e - and  program e v a l u a t i o n at p o s t - p l a n time frame-  work. The  development of an e f f i c i e n t  ORV  f o r the open lands of B r i t i s h Columbia can use t i o n s by itoring  the C o u n c i l of E n v i r o n m e n t a l system ( S h e r i d a n ,  1979,  agement a r e a based on s p e c i f i c  environmental  monitoring  system  as a g u i d e l i n e the recommenda-  Q u a l i t y of the g e n e r a l needs of a mon-  p.57), which can be developed ground c o n d i t i o n s .  f o r each man-  Table  3.  Major Problems A s s o c i a t e d w i t h U n c o n t r o l l e d ORV i n B r i t i s h Columbia  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l (Powers, 1975, p.2-3) " 1. »  Activity  District  N o i s e annoyance o c c u r s when t e r r a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e s i d e n t i a l areas a r e nearby;  a r e n o t optimum  2.  T e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e o c c u r s when v e g e t a t i o n and s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s are eroded by overuse;  3.  I n j u r i e s o c c u r due t o l a c k o f s u p e r v i s i o n and d i s t a n c e t o immediate first aid;  4.  F i r e danger a r i s e s when v e h i c l e s a r e not equipped arrestors;  5.  R e c r e a t i o n use c o n f l i c t s o c c u r when v e h i c l e s use h i k i n g e q u e s t r i a n l a n e s , and s k i t o u r i n g t r a i l s , and  6.  I l l e g a l use o f t e n o c c u r s as most v e h i c l e s are i l l e g a l and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  i n most  N o i s e d i s t u r b a n c e i s by f a r t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n c o n t r o l l e d v e h i c l e use. "  problem  B.  L a c du B o i s Rangelands, Kamloops (CRMP, 1976) 1.  E r o s i o n problems caused by s c a r r i n g o f h i l l s i d e s ;  2.  Harassment of w i l d l i f e and domestic  3.  S p r e a d i n g o f weeds (eg. knapweed);  4.  Loss o f a e s t h e t i c  5.  Noise  6.  C o n f l i c t s w i t h range  7.  D e s t r u c t i o n of v e g e t a t i v e cover;  8.  C o n f l i c t s with research p r o j e c t s ;  9.  Interference with educational pursuits i n area;  stock;  viewing;  pollution; improvements;  10.  C o n f l i c t s w i t h o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r s , and  11.  Increased f i r e  hazard.  with  spark  trails,  parks  10 M o n i t o r i n g many forms of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c o n d i t i o n s and  r e c e n t l y begun'to u t i l i z e remote s e n s i n g t e c h n i q u e s c i e n c y of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n . ground d a t a sampling  A multistage  United  p h y s i c a l and tions.  the format of a m u l t i s t a g e  from the past  States.  The  experience  impacts o f ORV  chemical  property  combining and  c o l l e c t i o n f o r more  sampling  approach f o r remote  f o r the m o n i t o r i n g  of q u a n t i f y i n g ORV  program  was  impacts i n the w e s t e r n  a c t i v i t y on s o i l have been measured f o r  changes between o n - t r a i l and  off-trail  loca-  V a r y i n g degrees of change have been measured f o r s u r f a c e s t r e n g t h ,  bulk density, s o i l moisture, pH,  approach  effi-  (Reeves, 1975).  the c h o i c e of ground d a t a sampling  developed  sampling  as a b e n e f i c i a l method of d a t a  i n t e l l i g e n t management of r e s o u r c e s  sensing,  to i n c r e a s e the  has  w i t h remote s e n s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n of v a r i o u s s e n s o r s  s c a l e s has been r e c o g n i z e d  Within  impacts  and  infiltration,  soil  temperature, o r g a n i c  exchangeable c a l c i u m and magnesium c o n t e n t  Webb e_t al.  , 1978).  ORV  t r a i l s , has  for  entire h i l l s i d e s  An  additional soil  factor,  carbon,  ( W i l s h i r e e_t al^. ,  the volume o f s o i l  1978;  eroded  been c a l c u l a t e d w i t h e r o s i o n t r a n s e c t s f o r s i n g l e t r a i l s ( W i l s h i r e and Nakata, 1978;  S t u l l ejt al_. , 1979).  from and  The  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of changes to v e g e t a t i o n have been sampled f o r changes i n p l a n t number, changes i n p l a n t c o v e r ,  changes i n p e r c e n t  degrees of damage to shrubs (Davidson F o s t e r , 1977;  Weaver and  Dale,  1978;  S e v e r a l weaknesses e x i s t first  Fox,  off-trail  zone at the edge of the t r a i l . have i d e n t i f i e d  1974;  L e i n i n g e r and  i n the p r e v i o u s  i s t h a t the s t u d i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d  between o n - t r a i l and  to  and  on  l i t t e r cover Vollmer  varying  e t a l . , 1976;  Payne, 1980). r e s e a r c h programs.  The  the measurement of changes  l o c a t i o n s without  sampling  for a  transition  In a d d i t i o n , the s t u d i e s m e a s u r i n g  changes to e x i s t i n g p l a n t communities but  measure the i n v a s i o n of u n d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n i n t o  disturbance.  and  few  vegetation  a r e a s have  the zones of  ORV  had  11 Both of the above weaknesses c o u l d be  i n p u t i n t o the ground  data  sampling  scheme, which c o u l d a l s o draw upon i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from the  i o u s use  of remote s e n s i n g f o r ORV  s t u d i e s , or from the p r e v i o u s use  t h e o r y of remote s e n s i n g f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l  f o r ORV  a c t i v i t y monitoring  the  monitoring.  F i v e s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t an i n i t i a l sensing  or  prev-  stage  i n the u t i l i z a t i o n o f remote  f o l l o w i n g the 1974  s u g g e s t i o n by  Utah  State U n i v e r s i t y that a "... r e s e a r c h program e v a l u a t e s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l m o n i t o r i n g systems, which may i n c l u d e remote s e n s i n g , ERTS imagery, ground l e v e l photography, as w e l l as the more t r a d i t i o n a l methods of d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . " (McCool and Roggenbuck, 1974, p.37). Each of the ORV soil  r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s had  d a t a c o l l e c t i o n but not  Schultink  remote s e n s i n g technology  time.  ORV  barren areas  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no  and  coverage to d e l i n e a t e  to c a l c u l a t e the r a t e of denuda-  ground s t u d i e s on the changes of s o i l param-  eters- o r changes i n v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s or v i g o u r were done. Blanchard and  and  Doiron  Whithurst,  (1977) used c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photographs to l o c a t e  measure the l i n e a r  t i o n was  for  to the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l of remote s e n s i n g .  (1977) used a v a i l a b l e a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h i c  v e g e t a t i o n cover v e r s u s t i o n over  utilized  r e p o r t e d but  e x t e n t of marsh buggy r o u t e s . the a e r i a l photographs allowed  No  ground data  collec-  a q u a l i t a t i v e estimate  of  the growth stage of r e v e g e t a t e d  marsh t r a c k s p l u s the amount of compaction of  the marsh v e g e t a t i o n and  A third  soil.  study u t i l i z i n g remote s e n s i n g f o r  c o l l e c t i o n of q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n was Ground photographs of h i l l s i d e s s o i l , which p e r m i t t e d t r a n s e c t s and  b u l k d e n s i t y sampling.  The  project  ( F o s t e r , 1977)  1980) .  T h e i r r e s u l t s of the c o n t r o l l e d  and v e g e t a t i o n w i t h  Stull  e_t_ a_l.  (1979) .  a l l o w e d measurement of the a r e a of exposed  c a l c u l a t i o n of s o i l  and  done by  e r o s i o n l o s s e s from s o i l last  two  i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n over  ground sampling  and  traffic  erosion  studies represent  time ( L e i n i n g e r and  an  initial  Payne,  study measured changes to  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some on the ORV  soil  trails  c o u l d be seen on 1:6000 s c a l e normal c o l o u r and c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l  photo-  graphs. The  g e n e r a l approach o f the f i r s t  measure t h e exposed s o i l o f ORV t r a i l s . from t h e a e r i a l photographs i f t h e proper available.  three s t u d i e s was t o i d e n t i f y and  More s o i l  i n f o r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d  s c a l e and date of photography a r e  T u e l l e r and Booth (1975) found t h a t l a r g e s c a l e (1:600 t o 1:1000)  70mm normal c o l o u r a e r i a l photographs can be used t o d e t e c t  and i n v e n t o r y  soil  e r o s i o n and movement, p l u s " A e r i a l photography i s n o t l i m i t e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y , a l l o w s f o r a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d sample s i z e at s i m i l a r c o s t , p r o v i d e s a permanent r e c o r d , and i s more o b j e c t i v e . " ( T u e l l e r and Booth, 1975, p.709). For r a n g e l a n d  areas, which r e c e i v e pressure  u l a r ORV s i t e s  (such as t h e L a c du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s ) ,  of ground o b s e r v a t i o n s g u i d e l i n e s allowed as:  from c a t t l e g r a z i n g and a r e popthey  found t h a t a system  combined w i t h a e r i a l photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n keys and  f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f s e v e r a l s o i l  s u r f a c e f a c t o r s , such  flow p a t t e r n s , wind e r o s i o n , l i t t e r movement, v e s i c u l a r h o r i z o n s ,  ground and r i l l s  and g u l l i e s .  agement f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n f a c t o r c a n be a l t e r e d by ORV To  A l l these  f a c t o r s a r e important  of vegetation  complement the s o i l  recorded  s i t y values 1974).  to range man-  c o n d i t i o n and t r e n d p l u s  each  disturbances. erosion information, variations i n s o i l  p r o p e r t i e s and c o n d i t i o n s may be i d e n t i f i e d formation  bare  from t h e s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e i n -  by t h e a e r i a l photographs and r e p r e s e n t e d  by o p t i c a l den-  (Gaucher e_t a l . , 1975; C i h l a r and P r o t z , 1977 ; P i e c h and Walker,  Webb e_t a l . (1978) and W i l s h i r e et a l . (1978) measured p h y s i c a l and  chemical  changes i n s o i l  p r o p e r t i e s as an e f f e c t  of ORV a c t i v i t y .  p r o p e r t i e s measured, a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e s u r f a c e p r o p e r t i e s of s o i l organic matter content  Of the moisture,  and exchangeable magnesium a r e known t o a f f e c t  soil  s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e ( S h i e l d s e_t a l . , 1968; S c h r e i e r , 1977; H o f f e r , 1978; Stoner  e_t a l . , 1980) .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h has s t u d i e d s o i l  spectral re-  f l e c t a n c e using spectroradiometers  over a wavelength range o f 0.5 um to 2.4  um, t h e r e a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n the s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e of s o i l s w i t h i n the sensitivity  range o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m  red f i l m r e c o r d s the continuous its  (0.5 um t o 0.9 um).  The c o l o u r - i n f r a -  t h e s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e on t h r e e f i l m dye l a y e r s i n s t e a d o f  sampling mode of a s p e c t r o r a d i o m e t e r .  Each ground f e a t u r e has  s p e c t r a l s i g n a t u r e composed o f t h r e e o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s  by a d e n s i t o m e t e r .  Therefore  the three o p t i c a l density values  (Gaucher e_t al_. , 1975; L i l l e s a n d tions  as measured or t h e i r  et_ al_. , 1975) may be used t o i d e n t i f y  ratios varia-  i n ground f e a t u r e s which a r e a r e s u l t o f a l t e r e d s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . The  formation  use o f a e r i a l photographs can a l s o a s s i s t  needs o f an ORV m o n i t o r i n g  t i o n species" and p e r c e n t  ground cover  system.  the v e g e t a t i o n i n -  ORV induced  changes t o v e g e t a -  a r e among t h e v e g e t a t i o n  parameters  which have been s t u d i e d f o r t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f a e r i a l photography f o r rangel a n d i n v e n t o r y and m o n i t o r i n g . C a r n e g g i e and Reppert scale  F o r herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n , Carneggie  (1969) and T u e l l e r (1977) a l l found t h a t v e r y  (1968), large  (1:600) a e r i a l photographs were s u i t e d f o r a wide range of i n t e r p r e t a -  t i o n s and measurements, such a s : "... v e g e t a t i o n and s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , p l a n t s p e c i e s mapping, v e g e t a t i o n mapping, p l a n t cover d e t e r m i n a t i o n , p l a n t d e n s i t y counts, biomass or range p r o d u c t i v i t y det e r m i n a t i o n s , v e g e t a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n , p l a n t v i g o r and phenology, range r e a d i n e s s , e r o s i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , rodent a c t i v i t y , o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e use and/or damage, e v a l u a t i n g h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s , range c o n d i t i o n and t r e n d and e v a l u a t i n g and measuring e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact." ( T u e l l e r , 1977, p.1507). Large t o medium s c a l e (1:4000 to 1:20,000) normal c o l o u r and c o l o u r infrared ity  a e r i a l photographs a r e a l s o u s e f u l f o r v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s and commun-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and mapping and have been t e s t e d on the Lac du B o i s  lands  f o r n a t i v e c l i m a x v e g e t a t i o n and f o r i n v a d i n g v e g e t a t i o n  species  (Watson, 1977). To  summarize the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e use of remote  sensing  range-  14. technology  to supplement a ground d a t a sampling  development of a method to e f f i c i e n t l y monitor v e g e t a t i o n f o r the open l a n d s of B r i t i s h  program s h o u l d a l l o w f o r the ORV  Columbia.  impacts  to s o i l  and  3.0  METHODS  3.1  Study Area The Lac  and  Site Selection  du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s ,  Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia  ( F i g u r e 1)  were used as a s t u d y a r e a r e p r e s e n t i n g the open l a n d s of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The  classifica-  a r e a was  chosen subsequent to the development of a r a n g e l a n d  t i o n by Watson (1977) which r e q u i r e d the i n c l u s i o n o f a t e r r a i n v e h i c l e damage' c l a s s w i t h i n the The  rangelands  have an i r r e g u l a r  topography formed from the  the bedrock of the i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u  t r i d e n t a t a N u t t . , Agropyron spicatum P r e s l climax vegetation off-road of  t r a v e l by the m o t o r c y c l e  Kamloops and  i t s surrounding  Within  the study  and  t r a t e d ORV  activity.  the r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . Coordinated  inerroe H e l l e r and  sites  to  very  to  city  a ground r e c o n n a i s s a n c e ,  to r e p r e s e n t  which' have r e c e i v e d v a r y i n g h i s t o r i e s of concen-  fourth s i t e represents  the l o n g e s t and most i n t e n s i v e ORV  The  secunda  ( F i g u r e 1) were s e l e c t e d ,  a c t i v i t y areas  the 1976  'designated  ORV  development and  activity.  Lac du  chosen by Bois  area'.  Study s i t e A r e p r e s e n t s the area of rangeland  ists.  Poa  4-wheel d r i v e e n t h u s i a s t s from the  a r e a , f o u r study  Resource Management P l a n ' s  suburban housing  Artemisia  does not o f f e r any n a t u r a l b a r r i e r s  Three of the s i t e s were ORV The  The  population.  u s i n g ' e x i s t i n g a e r i a l photographs and s e c t i o n s of the r a n g e l a n d  thin  which v a r i e s i n t h i c k -  (Watson, 1977).  Pursh v a r .  (Watson, 1977)  and a l l  legend.  l a y e r of wind-blown l o e s s c o v e r i n g the d r u m l i n i z e d t i l l ness over  'motorcycle  which has r e c e i v e d  I t i s immediately  adjacent  to a  s e r v e s as a f i r s t s t o p f o r most r e c r e a t i o n -  t e r r a i n p r o v i d e s a complete range of topography from g e n t l y r o l l i n g  steep and  has  the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e s t a b l i s h e d t r a i l s .  Study s i t e B r e p r e s e n t s the  'designated  700  a c r e s of v a r i a b l e topography s p e c i f i c a l l y  and  o r g a n i z e d ORV  competitions.  ORV  a r e a ' which p r o v i d e s  for concentrated  ORV  activity  16.  F i g u r e 1.  Study Area - Lac du B o i s Rangelands, Kamloops,  C o l o u r I n f r a r e d A e r i a l Photograph  N o r t h Thompson River  B.C.  Stereo T r i p l e t  To Kamloops  North  S c a l e = 1:83,000  Date of Photography  Study S i t e A  -  I n t e n s i v e use ORV  Study S i t e B  -  'Designated ORV  area  area'  = Sept,  Study S i t e C  -  ORV  Study S i t e D  -  Light  1975  Hillclimb use ORV  area area  Study s i t e C i s a l a r g e h i l l steep and v e r y s t e e p s l o p e s .  The  on the r a n g e l a n d s  site  i s near  with both  the m i d d l e  of t h e  moderately  rangelands  and r e q u i r e s e x t r a t r a v e l l i n g time f o r a c c e s s . Study s i t e D i s a g e n t l y r o l l i n g The  area adjacent to study  s i t e has r e c e i v e d l e s s use than the o t h e r s i t e s b u t had b e e n used  motocross r a c e s i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s of r e c e i v i n g ORV the o n l y one for  site  ORV  C. for  r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  of the f o u r study s i t e s which i s w i t h i n the r e s t r i c t e d use  r e c r e a t i o n , as d e s i g n a t e d i n 1978  under the P r o v i n c e o f  ORV  It i s zone  British  Columbia Land A c t .  3.2  Aerial Two  f o u r study  Photography  s c a l e s and  sites.  of a e r i a l photographs were a c q u i r e d f o r a l l  Both p h o t o g r a p h i c m i s s i o n s used Kodak Aerochrome I n f r a r e d  2443 f i l m which was itive  formats  developed  to a p o s i t i v e transparency.  t r a n s p a r e n c i e s were used  g r a p h i c m i s s i o n on J u l y 28,  for a l l interpretations.  1979  1979  The  original  first  pos-  photo-  photographed the s t u d y s i t e s a t a s c a l e of  1:1000 u s i n g w i n g - t i p mounted, V i n t e n 70mm cameras. August 1,  The  The  second m i s s i o n  on  photographed the study s i t e s at a s c a l e of 1:4000 u s i n g a Z e i s s  2 23cm  3.3  s t a n d a r d s u r v e y camera w i t h a 305.3mm f o c a l l e n g t h l e n s .  Ground Data The  Collection  ground survey program f o r s o i l  and v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r , was the a e r i a l photographs. s e l e c t e d ORV  trails.  cent to the t r a i l s  and  completed The  erosion, selected s o i l properties  immediately  sampling  f o l l o w i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of  scheme c o n s i s t e d o f t r a n s e c t s a c r o s s the  Each t r a n s e c t began and  ended i n u n d i s t u r b e d a r e a s a d j a -  p o i n t sampled f o r o f f - t r a i l , t r a i l - e d g e and  on-trail  c o n d i t i o n s of s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n p l u s i n c l u d e d a s o i l  erosion transect for  the o n - t r a i l p o r t i o n s of the t r a n s e c t .  sampled w i t h a s e t of  Each t r a i l was  t r a n s e c t s r a n g i n g i n number from two s l o p e changes of the t r a i l . trails  w i t h i n the study The  A t o t a l of 31 t r a n s e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d  on-trail soil  e r o s i o n t r a n s e c t s were used to e s t i m a t e  to  The  and  A t h i r t y meter s u r v e y i n g tape  the p r e s e n t s u r f a c e was  The  a r e a of s o i l  a l o n g a s i n g l e t r a i l was the c r o s s - t r a i l  removed from each c r o s s s e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d  calculated  t r a n s e c t s , and  removed per t r a i l  d e n s i t y of the eroded  p o r t i o n s of o f f - t r a i l , B u l k d e n s i t y was  The  A final  removed m u l t i p l i e d  by the  bulk  location.  o n - t r a i l sample p o i n t s a t each t r a n s e c t .  c a l c u l a t e d f o r the s u r f a c e 7.5cm.  S o i l samples were  measured w i t h a i r - d r i e d sand.  taken using  S o i l moisture  was  from the b u l k d e n s i t y samples f o l l o w i n g oven d r y i n g a t 105°C f o r  24 hours at the A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Kamloops Research S t a t i o n . p r o p e r t y , o r g a n i c carbon, was and  removed  value, of the mass of  u s i n g the e x c a v a t i o n method because the degree of compaction p r e v e n t e d  determined  the  t e s t s were used to d e t e r m i n e the s u r f a c e p r o -  t r a i l - e d g e and  a c o r e r , then the volume was  soil  the area of exposed s o i l , measured w i t h a  s o i l as measured a t an o f f - t r a i l soil  volume o f s o i l  tape  from the a r e a of s o i l removed, as measured  i s the volume of s o i l  Three s t a n d a r d  was  was  measured a t 50cm i n t e r v a l s a l o n g the  dot g r i d on the 1:1000 s c a l e a e r i a l photographs. soil  soil  the d i s t a n c e between the h y p o t h e t i c a l former  e r o s i o n c o n d i t i o n f o r a s e c t i o n of the h i l l s l o p e .  in  the  p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a of  removed.  ORV  method assumed t h a t the o r i g i n a l s u r f a c e  l e v e l a c r o s s the t r a i l .  s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s the t r a i l s u r f a c e and  eight  area.  removal from the h i l l s i d e s . approximately  to e i g h t depending on the l e n g t h and  s o i l moisture  The  third  soil  measured f o r each sample s i t e of bulk - d e n s i t y 1  u s i n g the Le'co A n a l y z e r  i n the U n i v e r s i t y of  British  Columbia S o i l S c i e n c e Department l a b o r a t o r y . The  v e g e t a t i o n ground cover was  l o c a t i o n u s i n g ground photographs of lm  2  determined plots.  a t each s o i l  sample  The v e g e t a t i o n was  identified  19 by  s p e c i e s and  the s u r f a c e cover p r o p o r t i o n s of v e g e t a t i o n , l i t t e r and  s o i l were measured w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia F o r e s t  exposed  Harvesting  9830 d i g i t i z e r . The  v a l u e s of each s o i l  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t r a i l - e d g e and the  transects.  - by and  study  and  (ANOVA) f o r s i g n i f i c a n t  off-trail The  property  s u r f a c e c o v e r were, t e s t e d by  d i f f e r e n c e s between  sample p o i n t l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n v a r i o u s g r o u p i n g s  t r a n s e c t s were grouped t h r e e ways based on  s i t e , by ORV  trail,  and  by  soil  condition.  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d  3.4  on-trail,  The  their  location  transect  i s shown i n T a b l e  of  groupings  4.  A e r i a l Photograph I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 3.4.1  V i s u a l A n a l y s i s , Mapping and The  a c q u i s i t i o n of the 1979  Measurement a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s was  supple-  mented w i t h e x i s t i n g a e r i a l photographs of v a r i o u s f i l m types  and  p r o v i d e a h i s t o r y of ORV  available aerial  photographs, by d a t e , Table  a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the study a r e a .  f i l m type,  s c a l e and  The  a r e a of coverage a r e l i s t e d  in  5. The  v i s u a l a n a l y s i s was  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  photographs f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f zones o f v e g e t a t i o n and and  s c a l e s to  the i n v a s i o n  of undesirable v e g e t a t i o n species.  soil  aerial  disturbance  Combining t h e  vegetation  i n f o r m a t i o n of the ground photographs and  the i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i e s  iden-  tification  f o r the Lac  (Watson, 1977)  iden-  tification  of d i s t u r b e d and  du B o i s rangelands  The changes between 1971  and  invading  mapping and 1979.  allowed  the  vegetation. measurement o f ORV  Most ORV  trails  trails  recorded  the  were easy t o i d e n t i f y on  the  a e r i a l photographs because of the c o n t r a s t i n s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e between the exposed s o i l o f the ORV rangeland.  trails  and  the v e g e t a t i o n of the  undisturbed  20. Ground Survey T r a n s e c t Groups f o r the Lac du B o i s Rangeland Study A r e a  T a b l e 4.  Transect Group  Number o f Transects  Representative Condition By Study  Site  study s i t e A. The a r e a o f r a n g e l a n d which has r e c e i v e d the l o n g e s t and most i n t e n s i v e ORV a c t i v i t y . study s i t e B. ORV a r e a ' .  The motocross t r a c k w i t h i n the ' d e s i g n a t e d  study s i t e C. rangeland.  A popular h i l l c l i m b  11  a r e a o f the middle  study s i t e D. A g e n t l y r o l l i n g a r e a w i t h a p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y o f motocross r a c e s and i n f r e q u e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l use.  By ORV  Trail  an i n t e n s i v e l y used  steeply sloping hillclimb  an i n t e n s i v e l y used t r a i l of t h e h i l l t o p a r e a .  6  a c c e s s i n g t h e r o l l i n g topography  2  a very steep h i l l c l i m b area with a l a r g e area of invading undesirable vegetation.  3  same a B o f t h e study s i t e  8  group.  a l o n g steep h i l l c l i m b  area with a north aspect.  4  a s h o r t steep h i l c l i m b  a r e a w i t h a south west a s p e c t .  2  a s e c t i o n o f a f l a t ORV  trail  a s e c t i o n o f a f l a t ORV t r a i l  By  area  through bunchgrass range.  4  through  2  a Poa secunda swale.  S o i l Condition  BR  the a r e a o f the lower r a n g e l a n d w i t h the Brown Chernozem s o i l g r e a t group. The s o i l area corresponds to group A.  11  DKBR  t h e a r e a o f the middle r a n g e l a n d w i t h the Dark Brown Chernozem s o i l g r e a t group. The s o i l area corresponds to B , C , C , and D^.  18  2  SW  t h e a r e a o f a s m a l l Poa secunda swale w i t h G l e i Rego Brown Chernozem s o i l . The s o i l a r e a c o r r e s p o n d s to D^.  Table  Film  Black  Available  5.  Date  Type  &  White  A e r i a l Photograph Coverage of t h e Study Area  Scale  Study S i t e Coverage A  B  X  X  X  X  J u l y 24/71  1:12,000  Normal C o l o u r (Kodak 2445)  June  9/75  1:8,000  Colour Infrared (Kodak 2443)  Sept  6/75  1:63,360  Normal C o l o u r (Kodak 2445)  June 10/77  1:12,000  Colour Infrared (Kodak 2443)  J u l y 28/79  1:1,000  X  X  Colour Infrared (Kodak 2443)  Aug  1:4,000  X  X  1/79  X  C  D  X  X  X  X  X  X  22 The 1979 base map  f o r ORV  1:4000 s c a l e a e r i a l photographs were used as a  t r a i l measurement.  The t r a i l s  u s i n g a Bausch and Lomb Zoom S t e r e o s c o p e . the  1979  The c u l t u r a l  The  on  existing  to 1977 were matched to the base'map s c a l e o f t h e  a e r i a l photographs u s i n g a Bausch and Lomb S t e r e o Zoom T r a n s f e r Scope  the  ORV  For  each study s i t e and y e a r of a v a i l a b l e a e r i a l  trails  l e n g t h of ORV the  scale  features v i s i b l e  a e r i a l photographs were a l s o mapped on the base map.  a e r i a l photographs from 1971 1979  were mapped a t a c o n t a c t  and  v i s i b l e a t the r e s o l u t i o n of the a e r i a l photographs were mapped.  trails,  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r changes  p h o t o g r a p h i c c o v e r a g e the over t i m e , were measured w i t h  9830 d i g i t i z e r . I n c l u d e d as a second s t e p of the mapping and measurement  of  ORV  t r a i l s was  the c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a of exposed  a r e a i n study s i t e A.  The measurement of t r a i l  soil  the a r e a of exposed s o i l  from a f o u r times enlargement  70mm a e r i a l photograph u s i n g a dot g r i d to  sample  l e n g t h does not c o n s i d e r  i a t i o n s i n the w i d t h of exposed s o i l on i n d i v i d u a l t r a i l s . of  for a  The  var-  calculation  o f a 1:1000 s c a l e  (329 dots per square i n c h ) was  done  demonstrate an a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e .  3.4.2  O p t i c a l Densitometry The l a s t p o r t i o n o f the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was  the measure-  ment of the f i l m o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s f o r each dye l a y e r o f t h e 1:1000 s c a l e a e r i a l photographs.  A MacBeth TR-524 spot d e n s i t o m e t e r w i t h a 1mm  diameter  a p e r t u r e measured the y e l l o w , magenta and cyan d y e - l a y e r d e n s i t i e s of each sample p o i n t as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e i n t h e green, r e d and near i n f r a r e d r e g i o n s of the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum. sample of  p o i n t was  f i e l d markers  Each  a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d on the a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s w i t h t h e a i d and the ground photographs and the o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s  were e n t e r e d i n t o a computer  f i l e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  o p t i c a l density  v a l u e of each dye  t h r e e times and  averaged to r e p r e s e n t  s p e c t r a l region  of the  spectral reflectance  data to negate the  f i l m exposure a c t i n g  and  K i e f e r , 1979)  The  are  and  the  e f f e c t of any  s o i l and  the  an  six density analysis  density  values.  film  the  sensitivity  of s i x d e n s i t y  film  in  (Lillesand  values  densitometer f i l t e r s ,  the  c a l c u l a t i o n of the densitometric  for  devel-  dye-forming  vegetation.  The  between the  analysis  on-trail,  spectral signatures,  information  and  included  the  a correlation against  spectral signature,  t r a i l - e d g e and  the  physical  of each s o i l p r o p e r t y  v a l u e components of each sample p o i n t  of v a r i a n c e  each  6.  m a t r i x of a l l v a r i a b l e s , a backwards r e g r e s s i o n the  data of  extraneous f a c t o r s  s p e c t r a l s e n s i t i v i t y of the  used to a n a l y z e the  of the  measured  S p e c t r a l r a t i o i n g of  i n a spectral signature  Following  properties  film.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the  given i n Table  computer was  spectral reflectance  i n a l l wavelengths of  resulted  oped f i l m d y e - l a y e r s , layers  the  colour-infrared  the  each sample p o i n t .  l a y e r f o r each sample p o i n t was  and  off-trail optical  24, T a b l e 6.  The C o m p o s i t i o n o f the D e n s i t o m e t r i c S p e c t r a l S i g n a t u r e o f Each Ground Survey Sample P o i n t  Densitometer Filter  Colour Infrared F i l m Dye L a y e r  Blue  Yellow  Green  Green  Magenta  Red  Red  Green Blue  Cyan  Magenta Yellow  F i l m Dye L a y e r Spectral S e n s i t i v i t y  near  Infrared  Red Green  Red, Green  Cyan Magenta  near  Infrared Red  Red Blue  Cyan Yellow  near I n f r a r e d Green  •4.0  .  RESULTS AND  4.1  Ground  DISCUSSION  Survey  4.1.1  Bulk  Density  Table ments f o r b u l k d e n s i t y .  7 shows the r e s u l t s The  on-trail,  of the ground survey  t r a i l - e d g e and  are grouped f o r t h e i r t r a n s e c t l o c a t i o n by study  measure-  o f f - t r a i l measurements  s i t e and  by  individual  ORV  trails. W i t h i n each group, the mean b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e s show an increase for o n - t r a i l  locations.  l o n g e s t h i s t o r y of ORV  activity,  t r a i l - e d g e to o n - t r a i l . o n - t r a i l versus  The  Only  study  A, B,  and  r e c e i v e d the  shows a t r a n s i t i o n from o f f - t r a i l  impact  a t the o t h e r  through  study s i t e s are c o n f i n e d to  off-trail. The ANOVA f o r each study  significant  s i t e A, which has  site indicates s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n c r e a s e s from o f f - t r a i l o r t r a i l - e d g e to o n - t r a i l f o r s t u d y  C.  Study s i t e D, which has  sents' a r e l a t i v e l y  flat  sity  activity.  f o l l o w i n g ORV  r e c e i v e d l e s s ORV  a r e a , does not  a c t i v i t y and  show a s i g n i f i c a n t  sites  repre-  change i n b u l k den-  T a b l e 8 i n d i c a t e s changes i n b u l k d e n s i t y f o r the t r a n s e c t groups r e p r e s e n t i n g the t h r e e s o i l data was  analyzed  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the study a r e a .  f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between o n - t r a i l and  edge p l u s o f f - t r a i l )  o n l y , s i n c e T a b l e 7 d i d not  cant d i f f e r e n c e s between the t r a i l - e d g e and  out-of-trail  find s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (trailsignifi-  o f f - t r a i l measurements.  The  table  shows t h a t d i f f e r e n t  o u t - o f - t r a i l conditions exist  the g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t  i n c r e a s e i n b u l k d e n s i t y o c c u r r e d i n the area of g r e a t e s t  ORV  activity,  4.1.2  the Brown Chernozemic s o i l  Soil The  f o r each s o i l  The  g r e a t group of study  c o n d i t i o n and  site  A.  Moisture r e s u l t s of the s o i l m o i s t u r e  measurements are shown i n  26. Table  Bulk Density  7,  (g/cc)  -  ANOVA  Sample P o i n t  -  Pairwise  Strata  Trail  Off-  Trail-Edge  N  Trail  -Edge  Trail  F  55  1.70  1.41  1.28  12.98  .01  19.51.  .01  2.31  30  1. 76  1.43  1.35  11.24  .01  15.81  .01  0.69  8  1.76  1.55  17  1.51  1.32  7.52  .01  3.37  33  1.45  1.01  23  1.29  1.05  5  1.69  1.72  33  1.35  1.17  1.18  23  1.48  1.31  10  0.96  0.86  Signif.  Trail-Off  Trail  On-  Transect Group  By Study S i t e and ORV  F  Signif.  Edge-Off F  1.85 1.05  2.24  32.74  .01  5.71  .05  2.09  0.15  2.62  2.25  0.01  1.34  2.23  1.46  0.08  0.87  0.28  0.24  0.00  1.10  0.03  Signif.  Bulk Density  T a b l e 8.  (g/cc)  Sample On-Trail  By  Soil  Condition  Point  T r a n s e c t Group  N  Brown (BR)  55  1.70  1.37  + 24.09  .01  Dark Brown (DKBR)  84  1.43  1.17  +22.22  .01  Swale (SW)  10  0.96  0.87  + 10.34  F  Signif.  AN OVA Pairwise Strata On-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW  10.11 12.92  .01 .01  5.55  .05.  11.42 22.74  .01 .01  8.88  .01  On-Trail - Out-of-Trail BR 16.13 DKBR 17.68 SW 0.20  .01 .01 —  Out-of-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW  Out-of-Trail  % Change  Signif.  28. T a b l e 9. trail  There i s a g e n e r a l t r e n d of a l o s s of m o i s t u r e  to o n - t r a i l  nificant  sample p o i n t s but  differences.  The  two  the h i g h l e v e l of v a r i a n c e p r e v e n t s  areas w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t  t e n t can be e x p l a i n e d t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y . a steep n o r t h - f a c i n g slope. v e g e t a t i o n to r e d u c e  The  reduced  amounts of d i r e c t areas.  I n t e r a c t i o n i s o c c u r r i n g at the t r a n s e c t group D^. s m a l l swale w i t h a t h i c k sod l a y e r of Poa  The indicates  that moisture  group are s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n - t r a i l and  grouping  con-  a r e l o c a t e d on sunlight  allows  the  The same v e g e t a t i o n t r a n s e c t s are i n a  secunda which i s r e d u c i n g sample p o i n t  of the study a r e a t r a n s e c t s by  the  locations.  s o i l condition  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the o u t - o f - t r a i l l o c a t i o n s i n each different  out-of-trail  4.1.3  The  e v a p o r a t i o n at the o f f - t r a i l  sig-  changes i n m o i s t u r e  T r a n s e c t s i n group  e v a p o r a t i o n on the o f f - t r a i l  amount of s o i l m o i s t u r e  c o n t e n t from o f f -  but  locations  Organic  significant  changes do not o c c u r between  ( T a b l e 10).  Carbon  T a b l e 11 shows the r e s u l t s of the o r g a n i c carbon measurements and  i n d i c a t e s the same n o n s i g n i f i c a n t  c o n t e n t had between o f f - t r a i l of  decreased  significant  o r g a n i c carbon  and  on-trail  downward t r e n d t h a t the areas.  The  negative c o r r e l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d  i n the two  compaction  significant  c o n t e n t o c c u r r e d i n study s i t e s A and B.  l e v e l of organic c a r -  condition.  significantly significant  soil  activity. T a b l e 12 i n d i c a t e s the change of o r g a n i c c a r b o n  soil  organic  s t u d y s i t e s which have r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t amount of  from ORV  areas A  between b u l k d e n s i t y and  carbon w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x e x p l a i n s the decreased bon  two  moisture  Again,  different  f o r each  the o u t - o f - t r a i l v a l u e s f o r each t r a n s e c t group a r e but o n l y the Brown Chernozem s o i l  decrease of o r g a n i c carbon  a r e a measured a  for o n - t r a i l conditions.  29 Table  Soil  9,  Moisture  (% d r y wt.)  Pairwise  Off-  Trail  -Edge  Trail  55  1.75  1.73  1.99  0.00  0.04  0.06  30  1,25  1.38  1.71  0.03  0.35  0.22  8  2.41  1.54  17  2.28  2.24  0.26  0.40  33  4.58  4.67  23  5.58  8.59  5  3.80  4.50  33  7.98  10.84  10.40  23  5.68  7.38  10  14.85  18.64  F  Signif.  Trail-Off  Strata  Trail  . N  Trail-Edge  -  Trail  On-  Transect  D,  By Study S i t e and ORV  ANOVA  Sample P o i n t  Group  -  F  Signif.  Edge-Off F  0.54 2.92  0.00  0.02  .01  7.54  4.26  .05  2.94  0. 13  6.40  3.85  .05  0.66  1.50  18.39  7.10  .01  6.20  8.28  15.97  .01  0.10  0.22  .05  0.05  Signif.  30. S o i l Moisture  Table* 10.  (% d r y wt.)  Sample  -  By S o i l  Condition  Point  On-Trail  Out-of-Trail  55  1.75  1.81  -  Dark Brown (DKBR)  84  5.01  6.46  -22.46  Swale (SW)  10  14.85  18.51  - 19.77  T r a n s e c t Group  N  Brown (BR)  AN OVA Pairwise Strata  F  Signif.  On-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW . Out-of-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW  9.31 25.84  ,01 ,01  15.60  .01  41.35 158.63  ,01 ,01  85.67  ,01  On-Trail - Out-of-Trail BR 0.00 DKBR 3.62 SW 1.83  % Change 3.43  Signif.  Table  O r g a n i c Carbon  11.  (wt. %)  Group  D  Off-  By Study S i t e and ORV  ANOVA  Sample P o i n t Transect  -  Trail-Edge  -  Pairwise  Trail-Off  Trail  Strata Edge-Off  On-  Trail  N  Trail  -Edge  Trail  55  1.37  2.07  2.65  3.23  7.96  .01  2.11  30  1.27  1.74  2.23  1.09  4.13  .05  1.29  8  1.04  1.26  17  1.83  2.86  8.52  .01  3.36  33.  3.15  4.00  23  3.54  3.75  5  2.16  2.72  33  2.97  3.46  .3.61  23  2.33  2.59  •10  4.87  5.41  F.  Signif.  F  Signif.  F  0.09 4.06  2.99  5.96  .01  0.00  0.17  0.84  1.38  0.09  2.93  0.24  1.22  0.48  4.97  0.39  0.01  0.40  3.50  0.02 0.38  Signif.  T a b l e 12.  O r g a n i c Carbon (wt. %)  Sample T r a n s e c t Group  .  N  -  By S o i l  Condition  Point  On-Trail  Out-of-Trail  .% Change  Brown (BR)  55  1.37  2.26  - 39.38  Dark Brown (DKBR)  84  3.05  3.42  - 10.82  Swale  10  4.87  5.19  -  AN OVA Pairwise Strata  F  Signif.  On-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW '-Trail BR DKBR SW DKBR SW  19.06 14.17  .01 .01  4.10  .05  19.98 37.66  .01 .01  14.20  .01  On-Trail - Out-of-Trail BR 5.62 DKBR 1.83 SW 0.11  .05  6.17  Signif. .05  33. 4.1.4  S o i l Erosion  Transects  F i g u r e 2 shows a sequence of s o i l - l o s s p r o f i l e s along s i n g l e t r a i l i n study t a t i v e of the ORV The  s i t e A,  t r a n s e c t group A^.  The  p r o f i l e s are  represen-  t r a i l c r o s s s e c t i o n f o r the s e l e c t e d s l o p e on the  t o t a l s o i l mass removed from the a r e a of b a r e s o i l of the ORV  a  hillside.  trail  was  2 estimated  at 349  metric An  confirms  tons or 114  kg/m  .  a d d i t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n from the s o i l e r o s i o n t r a n s e c t s  t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s o i l  ness of s l o p e .  The  e r o s i o n and  amount of s o i l removed per u n i t t r a i l w i d t h f o r a l l 31  t r a n s e c t s c o r r e l a t e s to the t r a n s e c t s l o p e w i t h a c o e f f i c i e n t o f  4.1.5  Vegetation Table  cover  for o n - t r a i l ,  s o i l decreases with in proportions plant cant  cover  steep-  and  0.70.  Ground Cover  13 i n d i c a t e s the change i n average p e r c e n t  t r a i l - e d g e and  o f f - t r a i l locations.  the d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r e of the  The  ground  amount of exposed  t r a i l and  i s s i g n i f i c a n t between a l l t h r e e sample p o i n t s .  the  The  percent  i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the amount o f exposed s o i l , w i t h  changes i n p l a n t cover  o c c u r r i n g between o n - t r a i l and  t r e n d toward an i n c r e a s e between t r a i l - e d g e and  proportions  i s the s i g n i f i c a n t  Chernozem and  Dark Brown Chernozem s o i l  litter  and  plant.  The  f o r the ground cover  Brown Chernozem s o i l  p l a n t cover  areas  adjacent  The  inter-  proportions The  proportions  of l i t t e r and  of  plant  change i n p r o p o r t i o n  c o r r e s p o n d s to a d i f f e r e n c e i n t r a i l - e d g e v e g e t a -  t i o n s p e c i e s between the Brown and The  ground  d i f f e r e n c e which e x i s t s between the Brown  a r e the i n v e r s e o f the Dark Brown Chernozem s o i l . of l i t t e r and  a  o f f - t r a i l locations.  i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s based on s o i l c o n d i t i o n .  esting result  signifi-  t r a i l - e d g e and  T a b l e 14 i n d i c a t e s the r e s u l t s of s e p a r a t i n g the cover  change  the Dark Brown Chernozem s o i l  to the h e a v i l y used t r a i l s  great  i n the Brown Chernozem  groups.  soil  Figure  2.  The  S o i l Loss P r o f i l e s Along a S i n g l e - T r a n s e c t Group A^  four s o i l  4 = base of t r a i l )  erosion t r a n s e c t s along were combined w i t h  compute a t o t a l mass s o i l  0  2  l o s s of 349  4  Trail  a single t r a i l  (1 = top of  the measured area metric  trail;  of exposed s o i l 2 tons or 114 kg/m .  J  1  I  L  6  8  10  12  W I D T H  (m)  to  35. V e g e t a t i o n and Ground Cover C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s By Sample P o i n t L o c a t i o n  T a b l e 13.  Ground Cover  Proportions  Sample Point  N  Soil  Litter  On-Trail  50  0.82  0.06  0.06  0.05  Trail-Edge  70  0.25  0.38  0.28  0.09  Off-Trail  29  0.09  0.36  0.38  0.13  Plant  Green P l a n t  ANOVA Soil Pairwise  Strata  On-Trail Trail-Edge Off-Trail Trail-Edge Off-Trail  F  Signif.  Litter F  135.81 140.34  .01 .01  37.68 21.12  7.56  .01  0.08  Signif.  .01 .01  Plant F  18.55 25.02  2.81  Signif.  .01 .01  Green F  0.87 2.36  0.71  Plant Signif.  36. T a b l e 14.  V e g e t a t i o n and Ground Cover C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - By S o i l C o n d i t i o n  Ground Cover P r o p o r t i o n s : Litter Plant  Transect Group  N  Soil  Brown  55  0.44  0.21  0.30  0.049  Dark Broxm  84  0.43  0.34  0.19  0.021  Swale  10  0.02  0.00  0.16  0.830  :  Green P l a n t  AN OVA Soil Pairwise Strata  F  Signif.  Litter F  Signif.  Plant F  Signif.  Green P l a n t F  Signif.  Brown D a r k Brown Swale Dark Brown Swale  0.01 8.97  — .01  6.35 4.39  .01 .05  5.30 2.05  .05 —  2.52 450.32  .01  9.06  .01  11.53  .01  0.11  —  508.05  .01  j  37. area  (Study s i t e A) have a p a r t i a l v e g e t a t i o n cover of Bromus t e c t o r u m L.  13. tectorum i s an annual g r a s s which  grows as a s o d - l i k e ground  cover w i t h a  l e s s o b v i o u s p r o p o r t i o n of s u r f a c e l i t t e r .  I t s most s i g n i f i c a n t  area of  growth i s at t r a n s e c t group A^  The  i n the Dark  (Figure 3).  trail-edge sites  Brown Chernozem s o i l a r e a s have m a i n t a i n e d the v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r of n a t i v e bunchgrasses,  a l t h o u g h the p r o p o r t i o n s of exposed  s o i l and  l i t t e r have  increased.  4.1.6  D i s c u s s i o n o f Ground Survey R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of the s o i l  ORV  s u r f a c e sampling i n d i c a t e  that  a c t i v i t y on the Lac du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s caused an i n c r e a s e i n b u l k d e n s i t y  and a d e c r e a s e i n s o i l m o i s t u r e and o r g a n i c carbon. p e r t i e s are p a r t i a l l y  correlated,  Although the three pro-  the combined e f f e c t can a l t e r  the b i o l o g -  i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s o i l . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has s t u d i e d  the e f f e c t  o f changes i n  b u l k d e n s i t y , s o i l m o i s t u r e and o r g a n i c carbon on the c o n d i t i o n of the and on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and development and  quantitative  of v e g e t a t i o n i n b o t h  l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t  of s o i l  i n c r e a s e s i n b u l k d e n s i t y , on a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s and reviewed by the American The  qualitative  terms. The  1971).  soil  impetus  compaction,  or  t h e i r p l a n t growth  was  S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s (Barnes et_ al_. ,  of t h e i r  study was  the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t  the  "Fundamental knowledge of (1) the b e h a v i o r of s o i l when s u b j e c t e d to f o r c e s , (2) the e f f e c t of the s o i l ' s b e h a v i o r on i t s s u i t a b i l i t y as a r o o t environment, and (3) t h e r e sponse of p l a n t s t o t h i s environment i s l a c k i n g and i s needed." (Barnes e_t a l . , 1971, p . i i i ) . T h e i r monograph d i s c u s s e s s o i l  compactions  b e n e f i c i a l and d e t r i m e n t a l terms and p r o v i d e s q u a l i t a t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n on m o d i f i c a t i o n s to s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n .  One  i n both quantitative  detrimental effect  38. F i g u r e 3.  I n v a s i o n o f Bromus tectorum i n a Zone of Secondary D i s t u r b a n c e  The illustrates  c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d ground photograph o f t r a n s e c t group  the v i s u a l  spicatum, Bromus  c o n t r a s t between three v e g e t a t i o n  tectorum and Centaurea d i f f u s a .  June 9, 1979, the A. s p i c a t u m i s r e p r e s e n t e d top o f the h i l l s l o p e .  On t h e date o f photography,  by the d u l l  The jB. tectorum has invaded  s p e c i e s - Agropyron  brown c o l o u r a t t h e  t h e ORV  disturbed  a r e a o f the m i d d l e and lower s l o p e s and i s a l i g h t amber c o l o u r . diffusa  i s the magenta c o l o u r o c c u r r i n g as narrow s t r i p s  edges of the middle  slope.  along  soil  The C.  the t r a i l  of s o i l  compaction, s t a t e d i n the r e v i e w by H a r r i s  ( i n Barnes et_ a l . , 1971)  i s t h a t heavy compaction w i l l reduce s o i l water i n f i l t r a t i o n and i n c r e a s e s u r f a c e r u n o f f and e r o s i o n because when a s o i l d i s t r i b u t i o n tends toward a s m a l l e r detrimental  Stewart and P o r t e r ,  ately  p r o p o r t i o n of l a r g e r pores.  from the s o i l o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l  i n Barnes e_t al_. , 1971).  by the i n c r e a s e i n b u l k  t h e i r focus  on a g r i c u l t u r a l  Also  Both d e t r i m e n t a l  (Kemper, e f f e c t s may  d e n s i t y caused by ORV a c t i v i t y . soils  q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s to the rangeland area.  A second  e f f e c t i s t h a t s o i l compaction r e s u l t s i n a d e c r e a s e of the  amounts o f n u t r i e n t s m i n e r a l i z e d  be i n d u c e d  i s compressed the p o r e - s i z e  restricts  Unfortun-  the e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h e i r  c o n d i t i o n s of the Lac du B o i s  t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e q u a l i f i e d by an i n d i c a t i o n of the  study  complexity  of s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n s . " I n order to f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the r e a c t i o n s o f a p l a n t growing i n a compacted s o i l i t i s mandatory t h a t we f i r s t understand p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p l a n t and the responses of t h e p l a n t to o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . ... A p l a n t can appear t o respond n o r m a l l y as l o n g as a l l i t s c u r r e n t needs a r e s a t i s f i e d . S i n c e s o i l compaction can a l t e r the a b i l i t y o f the s o i l t o supply the c u r r e n t needs t o the r o o t s and the a b i l i t y o f the r o o t s t o absorb these c u r r e n t needs from the s o i l , s o i l compaction can e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t p l a n t development. What c o n s t i t u t e s an e f f e c t i v e a l t e r a t i o n to the s u p p l y i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f the r o o t system depends upon the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p l a n t and the a e r i a l environment." (Trouse, i n Barnes e t a l . , 1971). A search of range v e g e t a t i o n  of the l i t e r a t u r e  compaction  in vegetation  on the a b i l i t y  t o meet i t s growth requirements under compacted  i n d i c a t e s a l a c k o f s p e c i f i c knowledge. soil  f o r information  Studies  on the e f f e c t o f g r a z i n g on  (Beke, 1961; Laycock and Conrad, 1967) d i d not i d e n t i f y  growth or y i e l d  under the compacted s o i l s .  Studies  1966; F r y r e a r and M c C u l l y , 1972) f a i l e d  to c o n d i t i o n s o f ORV compaction. roots  to provide,information  F r y r e a r and M c C u l l y  grew under each p l a n t and t h a t the g r a s s  change  on s e e d l i n g  emergence, growth and r o o t development as i n f l u e n c e d by compaction al.,  conditions  (Barton et_ relevant  (1972) found t h a t  r o o t s were s h a l l o w e r  fewer  and w i t h  limited  development through  road r o l l e r .  The  road r o l l e r  magnitude to the ORV ly  the s o i l p r o f i l e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a c t i o n by a t e n  trails  may  have s i m u l a t e d  s u r f a c e compaction s i m i l a r i n  w i t h i n the Lac du B o i s study a r e a b u t  the a u t h o r s d i d not r e p o r t any measurements on the amount o f B a r t o n et_ al.  c a u s i n g the changes. and  found  that y i e l d  but u n l i k e ORV  of seed and  impact  the s u r f a c e and  s e e d l i n g s without  any  e f f e c t s from the compacted  for  compacted to 1.76  t o compaction  f o u r i n c h e s below  soil.  not be a b l e to meet i t s growth  the  requirements  l e a v e s i n doubt the s e r i o u s n e s s of the measured  i n c r e a s e i n s u r f a c e compaction due s i t e A,  compaction  the l i t e r a t u r e a l l o w s s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t  Lac du B o i s range v e g e t a t i o n w i l l t r a i l s , but  compaction  p r o v i d e d a seedbed f o r the emergence of  As a r e s u l t ,  a l o n g the ORV  inversely related  c o n d i t i o n s , the compacted l a y e r was  the s u r f a c e s o i l  unfortunate-  (1966) measured the amount o f  f o r a g e was  ton  to ORV  activity.  Will  g/cc on the s u r f a c e 7.5cm f a i l  g r a s s s p e c i e s or r e s t r i c t  the s o i l  i n study  to p r o v i d e a seedbed  t h e i r development f o l l o w i n g an a b i l i t y  e s t a b l i s h themselves on the ORV  trail?  Can  to  the i n c r e a s e i n b u l k d e n s i t y be  termed damage to f u t u r e v e g e t a t i o n growth or i s i t j u s t an impact  to  existing  vegetation? The on the ORV  trails  changes i n the s o i l m o i s t u r e  are a cause and  density.  Negative  bon.  same e f f e c t was  The  a c t i v i t y and  a resulting  compaction.  Conrad  i s reduced.  p l a n t growth, and w i l l  decrease  (1967) d u r i n g  temperature  A reduced  reduce the s u p p l y of phosphorus, s u l p h u r and can h o l d and  organic  car-  their  With the removal o f v e g e t a t i o n  increase i n surface s o i l  c r e a s e the amount of water a s o i l  values  s i t u a t i o n w i t h the change i n b u l k  measured by L a y c o c k and  1974), the o r g a n i c matter of the s o i l matter w i l l  o r g a n i c carbon  c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between b u l k d e n s i t y and  study of g r a z i n g e f f e c t s on s o i l by ORV  effect  and  l e v e l of  (Brady, organic  nitrogen, w i l l  de-  the p r o p o r t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r  the supply of energy to s o i l  microorganisms  for  biochemical  activity  development of new  attributed  the s o i l a l t e r s infiltration  w h i c h can  combine to r e s t r i c t  decrease of s o i l m o i s t u r e as a r e s u l t of ORV  to s e v e r a l f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  The  Voorhees, 1977), and  can be  soil  a critical  the study  area.  reduces  Hanson, 1966), the removal of v e g e t a t i o n by ORV  t u r b a n c e exposes the s o i l which i n c r e a s e s the temperature and  a b i l i t y of the  activity  compaction o f  the pore spaces which i n c r e a s e s s u r f a c e r u n o f f and  (Rauzi and  (Brady, 1974;  the  p l a n t growth. The  can be  (Brady, 1974)  to h o l d water  evaporation  the r e d u c t i o n of o r g a n i c matter reduces (Brady, 1974) .  A reduction i n s o i l  f a c t o r to p l a n t growth i n the s e m i - a r i d L a y c o c k and  P r i c e (1970) i d e n t i f i e d  grassland  m a t u r i n g of p l a n t s which i n t u r n h a s t e n s s e a s o n a l reduces the n u t r i t i v e v a l u e of the  an e a r l y s e a s o n a l  In a d d i t i o n to the i n d i r e c t changes on v e g e t a t i o n , most o b v i o u s d i r e c t  the d i r e c t  effect  are v e r y b r i t t l e  and  e f f e c t s are a l s o important.  e r o s i o n can remove p l a n t and  Following  composi-  induced The  i s the m e c h a n i c a l a b r a s i o n of ORVs on  e a s i l y damaged.  and  yield.  e f f e c t of ORV  e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the senescence p e r i o d of J u l y and  soil  initial  August when the  expose the s o i l  and  vegetation, grasses  the a b r a s i o n , wind and  l i t t e r m a t e r i a l and  of  drying  changes i n c h e m i c a l  reduced  the  moisture  region  of s o i l under drought c o n d i t i o n s as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e a r l y d r y i n g  t i o n and  dis-  water  to f u r t h e r  erosion. A second e f f e c t vegetation  cover  and  desirable vegetation  v i g o u r and species.  The  f o r g r a z i n g and  Columbia, a l l t h r e e have s i m i l a r lands  the v e g e t a t i o n ,  caused by the  the d i s t u r b e d s o i l , i s the  t e c t o r u m , Centaurea d i f f u s a L. and are u n d e s i r a b l e  on  main i n v a d e r s  f o r the  semi-arid  invasion habits.  i n v a s i o n of  i n the study  Centaurea maculosa L.  reduced  area  are Bromus  A l l three  r e g i o n of i n t e r i o r From r e s e a r c h  on  of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia, Watson (1972) c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  un-  species British the  range-  invasion  h a b i t s of b o t h Centaurea  species.  "The s o i l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Centaurea s p e c i e s r e a d i l y c o l o n i z e d i f f e r e n t s o i l s w i t h a wide range o f chemi c a l p r o p e r t i e s . P l a n t d e n s i t y of C_. d i f f u s a and _C. maculosa c o u l d o n l y be s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P= 0.05) c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the degree of d i s t u r b a n c e of the s o i l . The g r e a t e r the degree of d i s t u r b a n c e , the h i g h e r the p l a n t ' d e n s i t y of the knapweed species. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e ... t h a t any s o i l i n the dry i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h a d i s t u r b e d A h o r i z o n i s s u b j e c t to knapweed i n f e s t a t i o n . " (Watson, 1972, p.13). Watson (1972) a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a b i l i t y s p e c i e s to invade species and  d i s t u r b e d s i t e s and  i s a t t r i b u t e d to i t s a l l e l o p a t h i c  t h e i r uselessness  pioneer  competition  effects.  Centaurea  from other  plant  This a l l e l o p a t h i c  effect  as a f o r a g e p l a n t reduces t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y as a u s e f u l  s p e c i e s f o r e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and The  Harris  withstand  of  o r g a n i c matter b u i l d up  on ORV  trails.  i n v a s i o n h a b i t s of Bromus tectorum were d e s c r i b e d  (1967) f o r the r a n g e l a n d s of i n t e r i o r Washington.  by  B_. tectorum i s not  as u n d e s i r a b l e  as the Centaurea s p e c i e s  g r a z i n g source  e a r l y i n i t s growing season p r i o r to the development of i t s  spiny  seed awls.  s i n c e i t does p r o v i d e  H a r r i s (1967) i n d i c a t e d t h a t dominance of B_. tectorum  A g r o p y r o n s p i c a t u m s i t e s i s o n l y known to occur disturbance activity.  - which has  i s not  supply date  itself  occurs  i n study  i n the l a t e f a l l  This allows  prior  s i t e A, study  as the r e s u l t  The  ability  moisture content  of the  s o i l was  of t h i s t h e s i s .  With r e f e r e n c e  t r a i l - e d g e of t r a n s e c t group A^,  on  of some form of  du B o i s rangelands by  ORV  e x p l a i n s the a b i l i t y of 15.  e s p e c i a l l y t r a n s e c t group A^,  sites.  B_. tectorum's growth  yet  and  to e a r l y s p r i n g when m o i s t u r e i s not  the B_. tectorum r o o t s to exhaust the  to the needs of the A.  ( H a r r i s , 1967) .  on the Lac  from H a r r i s ' study  as prominent i n the o t h e r  reproduction limiting.  been p r o v i d e d  Additional results  t e c t o r u m to m a i n t a i n it  a palatable  soil  moisture  spicatum p l a n t s at i t s l a t e r  maturity  of the B_. tectorum p l a n t s to reduce the documented d u r i n g the ground survey  to T a b l e 9, which has  program  the average m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t  at  the l a r g e s t i n v a s i o n of 13. tectorum  in  a l l the study s i t e s , was  o n - t r a i l and o f f - t r a i l  reduced below the m o i s t u r e  sample p o i n t s .  The  c o n t e n t of both  i n v a s i o n o f ]3. t e c t o r u m  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n study s i t e C, t r a n s e c t group C^, w h i c h has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as group A^, due  may  be  t o i t s l o c a t i o n i n the m i d d l e  group.  The  the  i n smaller  similar  the r e s u l t o f a g r e a t e r m o i s t u r e  site content  g r a s s l a n d Dark Brown Chernozem s o i l  great  reduced m o i s t u r e s t r e s s on the A. s p i c a t u m p l a n t s p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r  c o m p e t i t i o n to the i n v a d i n g _B. tectorum s e e d l i n g s .  4.2  A e r i a l Photograph  Interpretation  The v i s u a l a n a l y s i s of the 1971 a h i s t o r y of the areas o f ORV summarizes the i n c r e a s e of ORV were d i v i d e d  impact trail  i n t o s i n g l e and double  to 1979  aerial  photographs  on the Lac du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s . l e n g t h s f o r each  study s i t e .  provided Table  The  trails  t r a c k s d u r i n g the mapping s t a g e , a l t h o u g h  each t r a i l  type does not s p e c i f y use by o n l y motorcycle- or 4-wheel d r i v e  vehicles.  Many d o u b l e - t r a c k t r a i l s  of  of  The  double-track t r a i l s  P r e s e n t l y i t has  adopted  which have decreased  trails.  T h i s i s shown  over time w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y .  study s i t e A r e c e i v e d the e a r l i e s t  the g r e a t e s t l e n g t h o f t r a i l s ,  -length o c c u r r e d between 1977 increase i n t r a i l  as ORV  to v a r i o u s r e g i o n s  e a r l y h i s t o r y of the study s i t e s had h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n s  From T a b l e 15,  est  began as a c c e s s roads  the r a n g e l a n d s but were s u b s e q u e n t l y  w i t h i n the t a b l e .  15  and  1979,  the time p e r i o d o f the g r e a t C, and D.  The h i s t o r y of the  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of s i t e s C and D i s shown i n F i g u r e s 4, 5, f i g u r e s a r e r e d u c t i o n s of the maps used date sequence i l l u s t r a t e s  for t r a i l  the p a t t e r n of ORV  trail  climb a r e a of the n o r t h f a c i n g s l o p e i n study s i t e To complement the t r a i l the v a r y i n g w i d t h of the ORV  activity.  a l t h o u g h no i n c r e a s e i n t r a i l  which was  l e n g t h f o r study s i t e s B,  ORV  and  6.  l e n g t h measurement and expansion  on  the s t e e p  The the hill  C.  l e n g t h measurements which do not c o n s i d e r  trails,  a s e c t i o n of s t u d y s i t e A,  encompassing  44. I n c r e a s e of ORV T r a i l Length (km)  T a b l e 15.  F i l m Date S c a l e ; Type  Trail  Type  -  1971 to 1979  Study S i t e A  Study S i t e B  Study S i t e C & D  Aug, 1979 1:4,000 ; CIR  Double Single  11.4 22.7  0.8 19.3  1.9 21.7  June, 1977 1:12,000; NC  Double Single  11.4 22.7  3.4 4.0  2.2 9.9  June, 1975 1:8,000 ; NC  Double Single  * *  * *  3.5 6.9  J u l y , 1971 1:12,000; B/W  Double Single  7.2 5.9  0.5 0.0  *  1.3  1.0  0.8  Study S i t e Area (km ) 2  CIR NC B/W *  -  C o l o u r I n f r a r e d Photographs Normal C o l o u r Photographs B l a c k and White Photographs A e r i a l Photograph Coverage Not A v a i l a b l e  Figure  4.  ORV  Trails  at Study S i t e s C and D  -  June,  1975  ORV T r a i l s  F i g u r e 5.  at Study S i t e s C and D  -  June,  1977  S c a l e = 1:7150  S i n g l e T r a c k ORV  Trails  Contour  Double  Trails  I n t e r v a l = 20m  T r a c k ORV  Area of A e r i a l Photograph  ~ = = =  Access Roads  Coverage  =  Main Roads  - 1975 , 1977 , 1979  =  47  F i g u r e 6.  X  -  1979  ORV  Transect  Trails  Locations  at Study S i t e s C and D  -  August,  1979  transect  group A^, was measured f o r i t s area of exposed s o i l  dot  provided  grid  a t e d i o u s but u s e f u l way o f measuring the area o f exposed  s o i l when the 1:1000 s c a l e a e r i a l photograph was e n l a r g e d enlargement a l l o w e d The  technique  ( F i g u r e 7 ) . The  f o u r times.  The  f o r an e a s i e r assessment of exposed s o i l u s i n g a dot g r i d .  can be a p p l i e d when enlargements a r e a v a i l a b l e o r when v e r y  l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l photographs a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r areas o f ORV a c t i v i t y varying t r a i l The soil  widths. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the a e r i a l  disturbance  exposed s o i l ,  identified  two types  photographs f o r v e g e t a t i o n and  of disturbance.  The major t r a i l s a r e  compacted and w i t h a t h i n mantle o f l o e s s on the s u r f a c e .  have r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f ORV t r a f f i c . of  disturbance  ally  with  l i e adjacent  The secondary zones  t o o r between the major ORV t r a i l s and o c c a s i o n -  a r e major ORV t r a i l s which have been abandoned.  Not a l l major  have a secondary zone of d i s t u r b a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. zones a r e i d e n t i f i e d  They  by a trampled  trails  The secondary  appearance o f the n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n , an  i n v a s i o n o f u n d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s , p r i m a r i l y B. tectorum r e a d i l y v i s i b l e on the c o l o u r i n f r a r e d a e r i a l  which i s  photographs as a l i g h t  yellow  to b e i g e hue and a l s o Centaurea s p e c i e s which appear l i g h t magenta, p l u s a rutted  soil  s u r f a c e w i t h a reduced  l i t t e r cover.  Ground photographs o f t r a n -  s e c t group A^, i n d i c a t e s the l a r g e s t zone o f secondary d i s t u r b a n c e . zone i s v i s i b l e on both graphs a l t h o u g h photograph grasses. aerial climb  the 1:1000 and 1:4000 J u l y / A u g u s t  Smaller  prior  photo-  ground  to the summer senescence o f most  zones of secondary d i s t u r b a n c e a r e v i s i b l e on the 1:4000  photographs w i t h i n study areas.  1979 a e r i a l  not as pronounced as on the June c o l o u r i n f r a r e d  ( F i g u r e 3) which was taken  This  In study  sites  A and C, and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  s i t e B the areas  adjacent  the h i l l -  to the major t r a i l s and  motocross c i r c u i t have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e impact to t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a tion,  p r i m a r i l y m e c h a n i c a l a b r a s i o n , but i t has not r e s u l t e d i n an i n v a s i o n  49 F i g u r e 7.  Area of Exposed S o i l f o r T r a n s e c t  T h i s photograph i s a 1.8 original  times enlargement o f the  70mm c o l o u r i n f r a r e d a e r i a l  which had been e n l a r g e d  Group A_,  4.0  photograph  times t o measure the  area of exposed s o i l u s i n g a s t a n d a r d  dot  S c a l e = 1:2470 Date o f Photography = J u l y 28, Area of Exposed S o i l = 10,850 m = 16.4  1979 2  % of the image  grid.  of  undesirable vegetation species.  4.3  Densitometry The  r e s u l t s o f the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s to t e s t  colour i n f r a r e d  photographs  the p o t e n t i a l o f  t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a t i o n s i n ground c o n d i t i o n s w i t h 2  in  areas of ORV  a c t i v i t y are shown i n T a b l e 16.  c i e n t s of r e g r e s s i n g the s o i l v a l u e s and  p h y s i c a l parameters  t h e i r r a t i o s are l i s t e d  bon  and  correlation  group. 2  2  c o r r e l a t i o n s , R =.247 and  p h y s i c a l parameters  coeffi-  v e r s u s the o p t i c a l d e n s i t y  f o r each d a t a set  For the e n t i r e d a t a s e t , poor e x i s t e d between the s o i l  The R  of b u l k d e n s i t y and  the o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s , w i t h o n l y a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r  R =.397, organic car-  correlation,  2 R =.583, e x i s t e d  f o r the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t v a l u e s .  Grouping  of the d a t a s e t by o n - t r a i l ,  sample p o i n t s improved  the c o r r e l a t i o n s .  t r a i l - e d g e and  off-trail  B u l k d e n s i t y c o n s i s t e n t l y had  lowest c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and  the m o i s t u r e  c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s from the i n i t i a l  a n a l y s i s of the e n t i r e data s e t .  moisture  content and  sample p o i n t s .  o r g a n i c carbon had  This result  content m a i n t a i n e d  the b e s t c o r r e l a t i o n a t the  does not support  addition,  t h e r e was  no  t r i e d i n an attempt  The restricted  d a t a was  ly  grouped  to study s i t e B.  sure c u r v e s on overexposed,  exposure  curve.  off-trail for  conditions.  The  ORV  In  film  (Figure 8).  t h a t the average  The  optical  to g r o u p i n g  the a n a l y s i s based  the  was  on the expo-  f i l m had been  slight-  density values f o r  l i n e p o r t i o n , but near  of o p t i c a l d e n s i t y  den-  correlations.  c h o i c e of study s i t e B was  the s t r a i g h t  range  approach  a c c o r d i n g to study s i t e but  The  w i t h the r e s u l t  A second  to improve the o n - t r a i l  the c o l o u r i n f r a r e d  each study s i t e are not On log  Both  c o n s i s t e n t s e l e c t i o n of h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d o p t i c a l  s i t y v a l u e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . d a t a s e t was  the b e t t e r  the use of d e n s i t o m e t r y  areas because the i n f o r m a t i o n i s most needed f o r o n - t r a i l  the  the toe o f  values f o r study s i t e s  the A,  51. T a b l e 16.  Regression Analysis  -  Soil Physical Variables versus O p t i c a l Density  S o i l Physical Bulk D e n s i t y Data Group  All  149  OnTrail T  R  "Edge 11-  Trail  Study Site B  5  0  2  ,  3  6  S o i l Moisture  S i g n i f . Density Values  .247  7  Variables  R  ltf*?  S i g n i f . Density Values  .583  r  Y, M, C, M/Y, C/M.  2  '  3  O r g a n i c Carbon  7  R  Y,M,C.  2  S i g n i f . Density Values  -397  Y, M, M/Y, C/M.  °  J^.M/Y.  M, C, M/Y, C/M, C/Y.  70 .187  C/M.  .588 1//'^' C/M.  -345  M/Y,. C/Y.  29  C/Y.  .841  .667  * C/Y.  33  .356  4  M  /  y  >  <  7  1  8  Y, M, C/Y.  c  C  /  Y  i  >  8  4  2  M  M  /  Y  '  C,, M/Y, C/M, C/Y.  Y  -  y e l l o w dye l a y e r o f the c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m ; s e n s i t i v e t o r e f l e c t e d energy i n t h e green s p e c t r a l r e g i o n o f the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum.  M  -  magenta dye l a y e r o f the c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m ; s e n s i t i v e t o r e f l e c t e d energy i n the r e d s p e c t r a l r e g i o n of the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum.  C  -  cyan dye l a y e r o f the c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m ; s e n s i t i v e t o r e f l e c t e d energy i n the n e a r - i n f r a r e d s p e c t r a l r e g i o n of the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum.  52. F i g u r e 8.  Exposure  Curves  o f 1:1000 70mm C o l o u r - I n f r a r e d  A e r i a l Photograph  -  July  28, 1979  YELLOW Dye L a y e r  CYAN Dye L a y e r  MAGENTA Dye L a y e r  O p t i c a l Density Values by Dye  L a y e r and Study  Site  B Maximum T  Mean  x  . inW 1  Minimum Y MC  YM C  T x  1  YMC  L O G  E X P O S U R E  53. C, and D a r e n e a r e s t o p t i c a l density  to the toe o f the l o g exposure curve where t h e reduced  o f the f i l m p r e v e n t s r e l a t i n g the f i l m d e n s i t y  r e f l e c t a n c e and hence to the p h y s i c a l ground d a t a v a r i a b l e s . has  t o the s p e c t r a l Study s i t e B  a range of o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s f a r t h e s t from the t o e o f t h e exposure  curve.  I t has the g r e a t e s t  p o t e n t i a l f o r r e l a t i n g the f i l m d e n s i t y  t o the  p h y s i c a l ground d a t a v a r i a b l e s and a l s o has the l a r g e s t sample s i z e a l o n g a s i n g l e ORV  trail. C o r r e l a t i o n s d i d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y improve when the s t u d y s i t e B  on-trail  and t r a i l - e d g e sample p o i n t s were a n a l y z e d .  was i d e n t i f i e d soil and  A possible  explanation  from the ANOVA f o r the s i x o p t i c a l d e n s i t y v a l u e s and the three  parameters  (Table  17).  The ground s u r v e y program f o r b o t h b u l k  density  o r g a n i c "carbon had s i g n i f i c a n t changes between o n - t r a i l and t r a i l - e d g e  conditions off-trail  but t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e o n - t r a i l and o p t i c a l density values,  despite  the p r e s e n c e o f v e g e t a t i o n  on the  trail-edge. The density tions only on  a n a l y s i s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s between s o i l v a r i a b l e s and o p t i c a l  values f a i l e d  to provide c o n s i s t e n t  f o r s o i l m o i s t u r e and o r g a n i c study s i t e B, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  the u s e f u l n e s s  o f the approach.  results.  A l t h o u g h the c o r r e l a -  carbon d i d improve w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s of to p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e c o n c l u d i n g  statements  The major drawback o f the a n a l y s i s i s the  over-exposure o f the a e r i a l photographs which l i m i t e d the u s e f u l sample s i z e to one o f the f o u r  study s i t e s .  identifying variations i n s o i l type o f the study a r e a . the p e r i o d  Another l i m i t i n g f a c t o r t o the s u c c e s s of conditions  f o l l o w i n g ORV a c t i v i t y  i s the s o i l  A l t h o u g h the a e r i a l photographs were a c q u i r e d  o f g r a s s senescence when the e f f e c t o f v e g e t a t i o n  on s o i l  during reflect-  ance was minimized  ( S i e g a l and Goetz, 1977), the h i g h l y r e f l e c t i v e nature o f  the  p o r t i o n o f the r a n g e l a n d s o i l  soil  air-dried s i l t variations.  e f f e c t i v e l y masked the w i t h i n  T a b l e 17.  ANOVA  -  Study S i t e B  ANOVA  Sample P o i n t  Signif.  On-Trail  Trail-Edge  F  33  1.45  1.01  32.74  .01  S o i l Moisture  33  4.58  4.67  0.02  —  O r g a n i c Carbon  33  3.15  4.00  5.96  . 01  Variable  N .  Bulk Density  1  Yellow  33  0.733  0.675  1.17  —  Magenta .  33  0.632  0.598  0.40  —  Cyan  33  0.748  0.714  0.57  —  Magenta Yellow  33  0.865  0.888  0.79  —  Cyan Magenta  33  1.189  1.197  0.01  —  Cyan Yellow  33  1.029  1.064  0.63  —  Tf  The  densitometric  t i o n a l analysis using the  soil  approach should not be d i s c o u n t e d w i t h o u t an a d d i -  properly  exposed photography and a t a time p e r i o d  i s not completely a i r - d r i e d .  when  The a n a l y s i s o f study s i t e B i n d i c a t e s  a p o t e n t i a l f o r d e n s i t o m e t r y to i d e n t i f y v a r i a t i o n s due t o s o i l m o i s t u r e and o r g a n i c carbon and the c o r r e l a t i o n s t o b u l k d e n s i t y ,  which i s t h e most  i c a n t e f f e c t o f ORVs, may a l s o improve to a more a c c e p t a b l e  level.  signif-  5.0  RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1  ORV M o n i t o r i n g 5.1.1  Program  Introduction The  procedures and r e s u l t s o f t h i s t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , and  the m o d i f i c a t i o n s developed d u r i n g t h e f i e l d research, to s o i l  can be drawn t o g e t h e r  and v e g e t a t i o n .  ing m u l t i s t a g e general  r e s e a r c h and from o t h e r  t o form a method f o r m o n i t o r i n g  The most e f f i c i e n t  format u t i l i z e s  sampling approach t o c o l l e c t data  ORV impacts  the remote sens-  as a continuum from the  t o the s p e c i f i c . 5.1.2  Stage I At stage  I , l a r g e - s c a l e a e r i a l photographs can p r o v i d e  i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o n d i t i o n o f an e n t i r e study and  recent  area plus allow  f o r mapping  measuring t h e l e n g t h of a l l ORV t r a i l s w i t h i n and out o f s p e c i f i c  sites.  New areas  o f ORV a c t i v i t y can be i d e n t i f i e d  i g n a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l study scale for monitoring  sites.  i n order  to allow  The s e l e c t i o n o f an a e r i a l  i s a management d e c i s i o n which should  a e r i a l photographs t o reduce the c o s t w i l l the a b i l i t y  be governed by  limit  versus  the s c a l e of the  the r e s o l u t i o n .  T h i s governs  o f t h e i n t e r p r e t e r t o i d e n t i f y new ORV t r a i l s which have r e c e i v e d  o n l y minimum t r a f f i c affected  Decreasing  des-  photograph  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e optimum s c a l e f o r maximum i n f o r m a t i o n content the c o s t o f t h e a e r i a l photograph a c q u i s i t i o n .  study  and s e r v e as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s to major t r a i l s .  i s the a b i l i t y  to i d e n t i f y new areas  Also  of i n v a d i n g u n d e s i r a b l e  t i o n which a r e e a s i e s t t o c o n t r o l a t t h e e a r l y stages  of competition  vegetafor  dominance. An during  e n t i r e range o f f i l m s c a l e s , types  and dates were used  t h i s r e s e a r c h to compile a h i s t o r y of ORV a c t i v i t y on the Lac du B o i s  rangelands.  Many ORV t r a i l s were v i s i b l e on c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l  photographs  at t h e s m a l l s c a l e o f 1:63,360 because o f the s p e c t r a l c o n t r a s t between the  exposed s o i l on the ORVs and t h e o f f - t r a i l  vegetation.  For the L a c du B o i s study  area which e x p e r i e n c e s  an annual  midsummer d r y p e r i o d and g r a s s senescence, the optimum date f o r a e r i a l g r a p h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ORV t r a i l s healthy undisturbed  n a t i v e grasses  e x i s t s among the u n h e a l t h y , annual g r a s s e s  w i t h c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d f i l m i s June.  a r e approaching  reflective air-dried  maturity  damaged or dead n a t i v e g r a s s e s ,  such as Broraus tectorum  dormancy, and t h e areas  and a c o n t r a s t the i n v a d i n g  which has begun i t s p e r i o d of summer  o f exposed s o i l which have n o t reached  the h i g h l y  s e l e c t i o n o f June as the optimum date d i f f e r s  a e r i a l photographs a c q u i r e d a t the end of J u l y f o r t h i s study. was an^attempt  t o reduce the e f f e c t  w i t h a m u l t i p l e use approach.  Unfortunately  o f v e g e t a t i o n on the s o i l  the s l i g h t  f i l m and the l a c k o f c o n t r a s t between the a i r - d r i e d  from the  The 1979  r e f l e c t a n c e p r o p e r t i e s and to r e d u c e the c o s t o f a e r i a l photograph  v e g e t a t i o n reduced  The  p e r i o d of midsummer. The  c h o i c e o f dates  photo-  acquisition  overexposure o f the  s i l t s and the dormant  the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e a e r i a l photographs.  The s e l e c t i o n o f  June i s based on the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t  o f the c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d ground photo-  graphs taken  f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , on the i n f o r m a t i o n  content  during f i e l d  reconnaissance  o f the e x i s t i n g June a e r i a l photographs f o r the study a r e a , on the  recommendations by Watson (1977) f o r v e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and on the r e c e n t r e s e a r c h by L e i n i n g e r and Payne (1980) that s e l e c t e d June as the best  time o f c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d photography t o i d e n t i f y ORV t r a i l s  ceived only l i g h t  use d u r i n g a c o n t r o l l e d The  monitoring  traffic  which had r e -  experiment.  s e l e c t i o n of 1:4000 as an optimum s c a l e f o r ORV  was based on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e  trail  of mapping the ORV  his-  t o r y o f L a c du B o i s w i t h 1:4000, 1:8000 and 1:12,000 a e r i a l photographs.  The  r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e 1:4000 a e r i a l photographs p e r m i t t e d  e a s i e r and more a c c u r -  a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the secondary zones o f ORV d i s t u r b a n c e , p l u s the s c a l e  58. is  l a r g e enough to a l l o w the mapping of most secondary zones of  w i t h i n the c a r t o g r a p h i c l i m i t s is  a l s o supported  on the Lac  aerial  photographs.  For v e g e t a t i o n  du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s ,  for species  identification.  The  colour-infrared aerial eight t r i p s  tification  of two  trails.  Aird  but  tion  The  from a 600  approximately  result  of medium t o and  classifica-  trail  identifica-  to  vegetation  the r e s o l u t i o n l i m i t e d the  correlated this  i s the recommendation of a e r i a l  metre a l t i t u d e above ground l e v e l  1:4000 s c a l e ) f o r m o n i t o r i n g  was  Payne (1980) found t h a t 1:6000  (1980) matched the a e r i a l  ground r e s o l u t i o n to s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s and graph s c a l e .  scale  i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1:4000 s c a l e  photographs c o u l d d e t e c t d i s t u r b a n c e s  along a s i n g l e t r a i l trip  c h o i c e of  identification  r e c e n t work on ORV  on Montana r a n g e l a n d s by L e i n i n g e r and  after  The  Watson (1977) recommended 1:10,000 s c a l e  photographs f o r v e g e t a t i o n mapping but  required tion  photographs.  by r e s e a r c h t e s t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t  large-scale aerial tion  of the a e r i a l  disturbance  iden-  photograph  to the a e r i a l photograph  photo-  acquisi-  (0.16m ground r e s o l u t i o n o r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts from p i p e l i n e  construction. "For e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g , a minimum ground r e s o l u t i o n of 16cm i s e s s e n t i a l i n order to o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d c o v e r a g e . T h i s degree of ground r e s o l u t i o n ensure t h a t v e h i c l e t i r e t r a c k s , e r o s i o n g u l l i e s , stones or any l a r g e r f e a t u r e would be r e c o r d e d and c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d . Any i n c r e a s e i n a l t i t u d e would r e s u l t i n the l o s s of d e t a i l e s s e n t i a l to p r o v i d e the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . " ( A i r d , 1980, Appendix I ) . The  u t i l i z a t i o n o f the 1:4000 s c a l e c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l  photographs f o r m o n i t o r i n g identifiable nature  of the  changes i n ORV  t r a i l s be mapped and task.  t r a i l s does not r e q u i r e t h a t a l l  measured, due  Mapping of major t r a i l s  and  to the p o t e n t i a l l y  providing sequential  photographs as a permanent r e c o r d of changes to the minor t r a i l s , development to major t r a i l s , would be  i n v a s i o n of u n d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n or  an e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the a e r i a l  smaller-scale a e r i a l  photographs to map  enormous  photographs.  The  aerial  through recovery use  of  the major t r a i l s would r e s t r i c t  the  m o n i t o r i n g o f the minor  5.1.3  trails.  Stage I I At s t a g e I I o f the m o n i t o r i n g system, v e r y l a r g e - s c a l e  a e r i a l photographs can p r o v i d e more d e t a i l e d w i t h i n the study a r e a .  i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t u d y  Recommendation o f 1:600 s c a l e 70mm normal  sites  colour or  c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photographs  i s based on the p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on  rangeland  s u p p o r t e d by the 1979 70mm a e r i a l  graphs.  i n v e n t o r y and i n d i r e c t l y T u e l l e r and Booth  photo-  (1975) e v a l u a t e d s e v e r a l a e r i a l photograph  l a r g e r than 1:1000 and found t h a t 1:600 s c a l e s e q u e n t i a l a e r i a l  scales  photographs  i n s t e r e o p a i r s c o u l d be used t o d e t e c t and i n v e n t o r y s o i l movement and e v a l u ate e r o s i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  The 1979 1:1000 s c a l e 70mm c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d  photographs o f t h e s t u d y s i t e s a t L a c du B o i s were a t the l i m i t  aerial  ofacceptable  r e s o l u t i o n f o r e r o s i o n e v a l u a t i o n under c o n d i t i o n s o f good c o n t r a s t and Booth, 1975). graphy r e s u l t e d  Unfortunately the s l i g h t  (Tueller  overexposure and d a t e o f photo-  i n poor c o n t r a s t on t h e 1979 a e r i a l  photographs and p r e v e n t e d  the e v a l u a t i o n o f e r o s i o n c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ORV a c t i v i t y a r e a s on the L a c du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s . scale w i l l  A c q u i s i t i o n o f June a e r i a l  p h o t o g r a p h s a t 1:600  a l l o w f o r e r o s i o n e v a l u a t i o n w i t h T u e l l e r and Booth's  (1975) method  (Appendix A) and the p r o v i s i o n o f a permanent r e c o r d o f t h e c h a n g i n g The i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s stage o f data c o l l e c t i o n which  s h o u l d attempt  on t h e e f f i c i e n c y Booth  (1975) and A i r d  i n a method  to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a minimum o f expense  o f data c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g remote  sensing.  conditions.  i s based  Both T u e l l e r and  (1980) a s s e s s e d the c o s t s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  from ground  s u r v e y and from l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l photographs and c o n c l u d e d t h a t remote  sens-  i n g was c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s expensive and p r o v i d e d a permanent o b j e c t i v e d a t a source. British  The a c t u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f the a e r i a l photographs  f o r open l a n d s i n  Columbia c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d a t a reduced c o s t by c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h  the new f o r e s t and range i n v e n t o r y program developed M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s (1979). s e n s i n g m u l t i s t a g e sampling of  very large-scale  for  sampling  The i n v e n t o r y program proposes  program which i n c l u d e s as i t s stage  study s i t e s d u r i n g the f l i g h t s  Columbia  t o u s e a remote  (1:200 t o 1:1000) f i x e d base 70mm a e r i a l  Photography of s e l e c t e d ORV forest  by the B r i t i s h  II, collection  photographs.  t o o r from the  s i t e s would be the most c o s t e f f e c t i v e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n method  any ORV r e s e a r c h .  5.1.4  Stage I I I The  t h i r d stage o f the m o n i t o r i n g program i s ground  c o l l e c t i o n w i t h i n each study s i t e .  The sample s i t e s  s h o u l d be based  data  on ORV  management p l a n s , and the sample s i t e s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a r e a s of a c t i v e ORV use, r e s t r i c t e d ORV use and a r e a s c l o s e d t o ORVs t o a l l o w f o r s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n recovery.  F o l l o w i n g the procedures  f o r m a t i o n on s o i l  erosion, s o i l The  an ORV t r a i l  o f the ground survey f o r t h i s t h e s i s , i n -  c o n d i t i o n and v e g e t a t i o n cover  i s collected.  e r o s i o n t r a n s e c t s s h o u l d be permanently l o c a t e d a l o n g  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c o n d i t i o n s i n the study s i t e .  should r e p r e s e n t a s e c t i o n o f s l o p e a l o n g a s i n g l e t r a i l v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements which c a n be used  Each . t r a n s e c t  and be used  i n conjunction with erosion  e v a l u a t i o n s and measurements from the stage I I l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l The ing  photographs.  c o n d i t i o n measurements s h o u l d m a i n t a i n a m o n i t o r -  program of b u l k d e n s i t y , s o i l m o i s t u r e  horizons. of  soil  to pro-  and o r g a n i c carbon  The date of measurement should s t i l l  f o r the s u r f a c e  coincide with the a c q u i s i t i o n  the a e r i a l photographs b u t s h o u l d a l s o be t e s t e d f o r v a r i a t i o n s due t o  sampling  date,  such as the monthly sampling  (1980).  T h i s sampling  l i c a b i l i t y o f the s o i l site  conditions.  schedules o f L e i n i n g e r and Payne  schedule would p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on the appcompaction  principles  (Appendix  B) t o s p e c i f i c  Some o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g compaction  study  t o m o i s t u r e con-  61. t e n t , o r g a n i c carbon, t e x t u r e and by management to c o n t r o l ORV maximum impact  from ORV  initial  d e n s i t y should be  a c t i v i t y at s p e c i f i c  a c t i v i t y would  t e s t e d and  times of the year when  occur.  The v e g e t a t i o n s u r v e y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e to p r o v i d e t i o n , r e g a r d i n g v e g e t a t i o n type and and b a r e graph  soil  f o r improving  interpretation  informa-  s u r f a c e p r o p o r t i o n s of v e g e t a t i o n ,  the a c c u r a c y and  for soil  used  reliability  and v e g e t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  of the a e r i a l Ground  g r a s s e s and  ence to ensure  The  e x i s t i n g a e r i a l photographs s h o u l d be used as a  t h a t the t r a n s e c t s extend  the u n d i s t u r b e d range a r e a s . r e s e a r c h of 1979 the ORV  surveys  a l s o p r o v i d e permanent r e c o r d s of changes a l o n g the permanent  erosion transects.  near  photo-  photographs,  p r e f e r a b l y s t e r e o p a i r s , are an e f f i c i e n t method f o r v e g e t a t i o n cover of  litter  f a r enough from  the t r a i l  D i f f i c u l t i e s were e x p e r i e n c e d  refer-  to r e a c h  d u r i n g the  field  i n l o c a t i n g the most a p p r o p r i a t e u n d i s t u r b e d v e g e t a t i o n s i t e  t r a i l w h i l e s t a n d i n g on the ground.  A t t e n t i o n should a l s o  g i v e n to l o c a t i n g sample p o i n t s to r e c o r d the edge e f f e c t s of the major trails,  s i n c e the edges of t r a i l s  i n c r e a s e d ORV  can m i g r a t e  a c t i v i t y o r towards the t r a i l  away from  the t r a i l  be ORV  centre with  centre with revegetation encroach-  ment.  5.1.5  Summary of ORV  M o n i t o r i n g Program  As a summary, the recommended procedure ORV  for monitoring  a c t i v i t y on open l a n d s i n c l u d e s t h r e e stages of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n .  Stage I u t i l i z e s  1:4000 June, c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photographs to p r o v i d e  an overview  of the study area and  l e n g t h s and  zones of secondary  permit mapping and measuring ORV  disturbance.  Stage I I u t i l i z e s  trail  70mm  1:600  s c a l e June, normal c o l o u r or c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d a e r i a l photographs f o r d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n of s p e c i f i c in  study s i t e s and s p e c i f i c a l l y  their erosion conditions.  the e v a l u a t i o n o f changes  Stage I I I i s the ground d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  to  support the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b o t h stage I and  I I a e r i a l photographs  p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements of the volume of s o i l the  and to  e r o s i o n , changes i n  s o i l v a r i a b l e s of b u l k d e n s i t y , s o i l m o i s t u r e and o r g a n i c carbon, and  changes i n the s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n cover  5.2  ORV  proportions.  Impact C o n d i t i o n S c a l e  The purpose  of d e v e l o p i n g an impact  c o n d i t i o n s c a l e i s to draw  t o g e t h e r the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by the m o n i t o r i n g program f o r use a t a r a n g e l a n d management l e v e l .  The impact  c o n d i t i o n s c a l e can be used to main-  t a i n an i n v e n t o r y o f the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n each of the t h r e e popular management u n i t s : The for  open, r e s t r i c t e d , and  s c a l e was  closed.  developed from the i d e a s of an impact  i m p r o v i n g the management of w i l d e r n e s s campsites  F r i s s e l l , 1978).  Frissell  ORV  (1978) i d e n t i f i e d  condition  (Merriam et a l . ,  scale  1973;  a p a t t e r n of change w i t h i n a camp  s i t e as i t d e t e r i o r a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g use, and p r o v i d e d s u g g e s t i o n s of poss i b l e management a c t i o n s at each of f i v e approach by Merriam  et a l . (1973), which  condition classes. Frissell  more a p p l i c a b l e to the q u a n t i t a t i v e approach program.  Merriam  (1978) had  The  earlier  simplified, i s  developed as the ORV  ejt al_. (1973) measured changes i n f i v e  monitoring  campsite  conditions.  Each of the f i v e c o n d i t i o n s were r a t e d on an impact  stage v a l u e of 1 to 5 and  the  s t a g e , I to V.  average s t a g e v a l u e s c o r e determines the impact The ORV  impact  condition scale  ( T a b l e 18) was  ment i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n the m o n i t o r i n g program.  Each of the f i v e  r e p r e s e n t measured changes from an u n d i s t u r b e d o f f - t r a i l 1:4000 stage I a e r i a l photographs w i t h i n the study a r e a and ORV  impact  can be used  developed f o r measure indicators  location.  The  to i d e n t i f y homogeneous u n i t s  the m o n i t o r i n g system procedures used to a s s e s s the  c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n each  unit.  T a b l e 18.  ORV Impact  Condition  Scale  Measurement Length o f ORV T r a i l s per km^  Indicators  Area o f Secondary Disturbance % p e r km^  Erosion Condition Class  Percent Increase i n Bulk Density  (c)  (d)  (e)  (b)  Percent Decrease i n Organic Carbon .(f)  Impact Stage Value (a)  (a)  1  0.0-4.9  0.0  Stable  0.0  0.0  2  5.0-9.9  0.1-2.9  Slight  0.1-4.9  0.1-4.9  3  10.0-17.9  3.0-9.9  Moderate  5.0-14.9  5.0-19.9  4  18.0-24.9  10.0-24.9  Critical  15.0-29.9  20.0-39.9  5  25.0 +  25.0 +  Severe  30.0 +  40.0 +  Add the stage v a l u e s c o r e s o f a l l measurement i n d i c a t o r s used. average stage v a l u e s c o r e determines t h e Impact Stage. Impact Stage I II ' III IV V  Average  The  Impact Stage V a l u e 1.0-1.99 2.0-2.99 3.0-3.99 4.0-4.59 4.6-5.00  (b)  Measured  on Stage I , 1:4000 C o l o u r - I n f r a r e d a e r i a l  photographs.  (c)  Measured  on Stage I , 1:4000 C o l o u r - I n f r a r e d  photographs.  (d)  A s s e s s e d from Stage I I , 1:600 a e r i a l photographs u s i n g T u e l l e r and Booth's (1975) methodology (Appendix A ) ; or a s s e s s e d from s o i l e r o s i o n t r a n s e c t s .  (e)  Measured d u r i n g Stage I I I ground and o f f - t r a i l sample p o i n t s .  survey as the d i f f e r e n c e between  on-trail  (f)  Measured d u r i n g Stage I I I ground survey as the d i f f e r e n c e between and o f f - t r a i l sample p o i n t s .  on-trail  aerial  6.0  SUMMARY The L a c du B o i s r a n g e l a n d s have become a p o p u l a r a r e a f o r ORV  recreation a c t i v i t i e s .  The r e s u l t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l  impacts  t o s o i l and  v e g e t a t i o n has f o r c e d management a g e n c i e s t o develop p o l i c i e s c o n t r o l the a c t i v i t y Proper ing  and reduce  t o attempt  to  i t s impacts.  p o l i c y development and subsequent r e v i s i o n s t o meet chang-  c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e s a m o n i t o r i n g program which can a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t and  degree of ORV impacts. British  An ORV m o n i t o r i n g program f o r the open l a n d s o f  Columbia has been developed  rangelands. sampling  from the c o n d i t i o n s c n t h e L a c du B o i s  The m o n i t o r i n g program u t i l i z e s  the remote s e n s i n g m u l t i s t a g e  approach and has t h r e e s t a g e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n .  Stage I  uses 1:4000 s c a l e a e r i a l photographs t o i d e n t i f y and map ORV t r a i l s a study a r e a .  Stage I I a s s e s s e s  within  the e r o s i o n c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n s e l e c t e d  sites  and stage I I I c o l l e c t s  graph  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of stage I and I I and t o p r o v i d e q u a n t i t a t i v e measures  of  ground I n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s i s t  the a e r i a l  study  photo-  the changes t o s e l e c t e d s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Based on the i n f o r m a t i o n measured by the m o n i t o r i n g program, an ORV  impact  c o n d i t i o n s c a l e was developed.  The s i m p l e f i v e p o i n t s c a l e p r o v i d e s a  summary o f the v a r y i n g impact  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n a study a r e a .  be used a t a management l e v e l  t o a s s e s s g e n e r a l changes i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f  areas d e s i g n a t e d e i t h e r open, r e s t r i c t e d , o r c l o s e d t o ORV  The s c a l e c a n  traffic.  65. LITERATURE CITED  A i r d , W.J.  1980. U t i l i z a t i o n o f A e r i a l Photography f o r M o n i t o r i n g E n v i r o n mental Impacts from P i p e l i n e C o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c . S i x t h Cdn. Symp. Remote S e n s i n g , Cdn. A e r o . Space I n s t . , Ottawa ( i n p r e s s ) .  Barnes, K.K., W.M. C a r l e t o n , H.M. T a y l o r , R.I. Throckmorton, and G.E. Vanden B e r g . 1971. Compaction o f A g r i c u l t u r a l S o i l s . ASAE Monograph, Amer. Soc. A g r i . Eng., S t . Joseph, M i c h i g a n , 471p. B a r t o n , H., W.G. M c C u l l y , H.M. T a y l o r and J . E . Box J r . 1966. Influence of S o i l Compaction on Emergence and F i r s t - Y e a r Growth of Seeded G r a s s e s . J . Range Mgmt., 19(2):118-121. Beke,  G.J.  1961. The E f f e c t s o f Heavy G r a z i n g on Some S o i l s and t h e i r Veget a t i o n o f the G r a s s l a n d s i n the Southern I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B.Sc. T h e s i s , Dept. S o i l S c i . , U.B.C., Vancouver, B.C., 67p.  Brady, N.C. 1974. The Nature and P r o p e r t y o f S o i l s . Co., New York, 639p.  8 t h Ed., M a c m i l l a n Pub.  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . 1979. F o r e s t and Range I n v e n t o r y : paper f o r d i s c u s s i o n . B.C. Min. o f F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , 15p.  A  C a r n e g g i e , D.M. 1968. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C o l o r Photography f o r Range Management, pp. 408-409, i n Smith J r . , J.T. and A. Anson, ( e d . ) . Manual of C o l o r A e r i a l Photography, Amer. Soc. Photogramm. C a r n e g g i e , D.M. and J.N. R e p p e r t . 1969. L a r g e S c a l e 70mm A e r i a l C o l o r Photos. Photogramm. Eng., 35(3):249-257. C i h l a r , J . and R. P r o t z . 1977. C o l o r - F i l m D e n s i t i e s f o r S o i l s P.I. gramm. Eng., 38(11):1091-1098. CRMP.  Photo-  1976. C o o r d i n a t e d Resource Management P l a n f o r Lac du B o i s / B a t c h e l o r Hills. B.C. Min. o f F o r e s t s , Kamloops.  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Special Color Analysis of Runway C o n d i t i o n s . Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 41(10)1259-1268.  1978. M o t o r i z e d R e c r e a t i o n Task F o r c e : An Assessment B i k e S i t e s . G t r . Vane. Reg. D i s t . : P a r k s .  of P o t e n t i a l  Trail  H a r r i s , G.A. 1967. Some C o m p e t i t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s between Agropyron spicatum and Bromus tectorum. E c o l . Monog., 37:89-111. Hill,  R.R.  and F.L. K i r b y . 1948. Comm., 10(7):11-12.  T r e a d Ruts Lead to G u l l i e s . C o l o r a d o Conserv.  H o f f e r , R.M. 1978. B i o l o g i c a l and P h y s i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n A p p l y i n g Computer A i d e d A n a l y s i s Techniques to Remote Sensor Data - Chapter 5, i n Swain, P.H. and S.M. D a v i s (ed.) Remote S e n s i n g : The Q u a n t i t a t i v e Approach. McGraw H i l l , I n c , 396p. Laycock, W.A. and D.A. P r i c e . 1970. E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n f l u e n c e s on N u t r i t i o n a l V a l u e o f Forage P l a n t s , pp.37-47, i n Range and W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t E v a l u a t i o n - A Research Symposium. U.S.D.A. F o r . S e r v . M i s c . Pub. 1147. Laycock, W.A, and P.W. Conrad. 1967. E f f e c t s o f G r a z i n g on S o i l Compaction as Measured by B u l k D e n s i t y on a High E l e v a t i o n C a t t l e Range. J , Range Mgmt., 20(3):136-140. L e i n i n g e r , W.C. and G.F. Payne. 1980. The E f f e c t s o f O f f Road V e h i c l e T r a v e l on Rangeland i n S o u t h e a s t e r n Montana. Montana A g r i . E x p t . S t n . , Montana S t a t e Univ., Bozeman, Res. Report 153, 47p. L i l l e s a n d , T.M., R.H. Brock, J . L . R o b e r t s and W.L. Johnson. 1975. Tree S t r e s s D e t e c t i o n through S p e c t r a l R a t i o i n g o f C o l o r F i l m Records. 5th Workshop, C o l o r A e r i a l Photography i n P l a n t S c i . , Amer. Soc. Photogramm.: 79-108. Lillesand,  T.M. and R.W. K i e f e r . 1979. Remote S e n s i n g and Image I n t e r p r e t ation. John W i l e y and Sons, New York, 612p.  L o d i c o , N.J. 1973. E n v i r o n m e n t a l E f f e c t s o f O f f Road V e h i c l e s : A Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e . Res. Serv. Br., O f f i c e of L i b . Serv., U.S.D.I., Wash. D.C., B i b l i o g . S e r i e s No. 29, 112p. Lull,  H.W.  McCool,  1959. S o i l Compaction o f F o r e s t and Range Lands. U.S. O f f i c e , U.S. F o r . S e r v . M i s c . Pub. 768, 33p.  Govt.  Print.  S.F. and J.W. Roggenbuck. 1974. O f f Road V e h i c l e s and P u b l i c Lands: A Problem A n a l y s i s . Dept. F o r e s t , and Outdoor Rec. and I n s t , f o r Study o f Outdoor Rec. and Tourism, Utah S t a t e Univ., Logan, 109p.  McEwen, D.N. 1978. Turkey Bay ORV A r e a a t Land Between The Lakes: An Example of New O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Managers and R i d e r s . South. 111. Univ. Carbondale, Dept. R e c , Res. Report No. 1, C a r b o n d a l e , 64p. Merriam,  L.C., C.K. Smith, D.E. M i l l e r , C . t . Huang, J.C. T a p p e i n e r , K. Goeckerman, J.A. Bloemendal and T.M. C o s t e l l o . 1973. Newly Developed Campsites i n the Boundary Waters Canoe A r e a : A Study o f 5 Years Use. Minn. A g r i . S t n . B u l l . 511, U n i v . of Minn., Minn., 27p.  67. N i x o n , R.  1972. Use of Off Road V e h i c l e s on the P u b l i c L a n d s , • Order 11644. Fed. R e g i s t e r , 7(27) :2877-2878.  P i e c h , K.R.  and J . E . Walker. 40(1):87-94.  Powers, M.G. 1975. Vane. Reg. Rauzi,  1974.  Executive  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S o i l s . Photogramm.  R e c r e a t i o n V e h i c l e s : S i t e Inventory D i s t . , Vane. B.C.,  and  Analysis.  F. and C.L. Hanson. 1966. Water Intake and Runoff as A f f e c t e d I n t e n s i t y of G r a z i n g . J . Range Mgmt., 19(6):351-356.  Reeves, R.G. (ed.). 1975. Manual of Remote S e n s i n g . F a l l s Church, Va. Rosen, S.J. 1976. Inc., New  Amer. Soc.  Eng.,  Gtr.  by  Photogramm.,  Manual f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact E v a l u a t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Jersey.  S c h r e i e r , H. 1977. Q u a n t i t a t i v e P r e d i c t i o n s of Chemical S o i l C o n d i t i o n s from M u l t i s p e c t r a l A i r b o r n e , Ground and L a b o r a t o r y Measurements. Proc. 4th Cdn. Symp. Remote S e n s i n g , Cdn. Aero. Space I n s t . , Ottawa, 106-112. S c h u l t i n k , G. 1977. Impact A n a l y s i s of Off-Road V e h i c l e Use on V e g e t a t i o n i n the Grand Mere Dune Environment. P r o c . 6th Workshop A e r i a l C o l o r Photo, i n P l a n t S c i . , Amer. Soc. Photogramm.:132-140. Sheridan,  D. 1979. Off-Road V e h i c l e s on P u b l i c Lands. C o u n c i l on Env. Wash. D.C., 84p.  Qual.,  S h i e l d s , J.A., E.A. P a u l , R.J. St. Arnaud, and W.K. Head. 1968. Spectrophotom e t r i c Measurements of S o i l C o l o r and I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o M o i s t u r e and O r g a n i c M a t t e r . Cdn. J . S o i l S c i . , 48(10):271-280. S i e g a l , B.S. and A.F.H. Goetz. 1977. E f f e c t of V e g e t a t i o n on Rock and S o i l Type D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Photogramm. Eng. Remote S e n s i n g , 43(2) : 191-196. S t o n e r , E.R., M.F. Baumgardner, L.L. B i e h l and B.F. Robinson. 1980. S o i l Reflectance Properties. A g r i . Expt. Stn. Res. B u l l . Purdue U n i v . , West L a f a y e t t e , Ind. , 75p. S t u l l , R.,  S. S h i p l e y , E. H o v a n i t z , S. Thompson and K. H o v a n i t z . of Off-Road V e h i c l e s i n B a l l i n g e r Canyon, C a l i f o r n i a .  A t l a s of 962,  1979. Effects G e o l . 7(1):19-21.  T u e l l e r , P.T. 1977. Large S c a l e 70mm Photography f o r Range R e s o u r c e A n a l y s i s i n the Western U n i t e d S t a t e s . P r o c . 11th I n t . Symp. Remote S e n s i n g of Env., Ann A r b o r , Mich.:1507-1514. T u e l l e r , P.T. and D.T. Booth. 1975. L a r g e S c a l e Color Photography f o r E r o s i o n E v a l u a t i o n on Rangeland Watersheds i n the Great B a s i n . P r o c . F a l l Conv., Amer. Soc. Photogramm., Phoenix, A r i z . : 7 0 8 - 7 5 3 . USFS.  1976. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Report - O f f Road V e h i c l e Management P l a n - Los Padres N a t i o n a l F o r e s t . U.S. F o r . Serv., C a l i f . R e g i o n , 51p.  Utah Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n Agency. 1977. Utah Off-Highway R e s o u r c e and OHV u s e r . S t a t e of Utah, Dept. Nat. Res., 68p.  Inventory  68. V o l l m e r , A.T., B.G. Maza, P.A. Medica, F.B. Turner and S.A. Bamberg. .1976. The Impact of O f f Road V e h i c l e s on a D e s e r t E c o s y s t e m . Env. Mgmt., 1(2) :115-129. Voorhees, W.B. 1977. S o i l Compaction: how i t i n f l u e n c e s m o i s t u r e , y i e l d , r o o t growth. Crops and S o i l s , 29:7-10.  temperature,  Watson, A.K. 1972. The B i o l o g y and C o n t r o l of Centaurea D i f f u s a Lam, and Centaurea Maculosa Lam. M.Sc. T h e s i s , Dept. P l a n t S c i . , U.B.C., Vane, lOlp. Watson, E.K. 1977. A Remote S e n s i n g Based M u l t i l e v e l Rangeland C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the Lac du B o i s Rangelands, Kamloops, B.C. M.Sc. T h e s i s , Dept. S o i l S c i . , U.B.C., V a n e , 85p. Weaver, T. and D. D a l e . 1978. H o r s e s i n Meadows and Webb, R.H.,  T r a m p l i n g E f f e c t s of H i k e r s , M o t o r c y c l e s F o r e s t s . J . A p p l . E c o l . , 15:451-457.  and  H.C. Ragland, W.H. Godwin and D. J e n k i n s . 1978. Environmental E f f e c t s of S o i l P r o p e r t y Changes w i t h Off Road V e h i c l e Use. Env. Mgmt., 2(3):219-233.  W h i t e h u r s t , C A . , W.A. B l a n c h a r d and L.N. D o i r o n . 1977. The Use of C o l o r I n f r a r e d Imagery f o r the Study of Marsh Buggy T r a c k s . Photogramm. Eng. Remote S e n s i n g , 43(8):1049-1050. W i l s h i r e , H.G. and J.K. Nakata. 1976. Off Road V e h i c l e E f f e c t s .Mojave D e s e r t . C a l i f . G e o l . , 29(6) : 123-132.  on  California's  W i l s h i r e , H.G., J.K. Nakata, S. S h i p l e y and K. P r e s t e g a a r d . 1978. Impact of V e h i c l e s on N a t u r a l T e r r a i n a t Seven S i t e s i n the San F r a n c i s c o Bay A r e a . Env. G e o l . , 2(5):295-319.  APPENDIX A Erosion Evaluation P.T.  T u e l l e r and D.T.  The methodology explains  From A e r i a l  Photographs  Booth,  1975  developed f o r e r o s i o n e v a l u a t i o n d e f i n e s  and  e r o s i o n and e r o s i o n a l terms and r a t i n g s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e  to t h e i r d e t e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on l a r g e s c a l e a e r i a l Seven condition class.  soil  s u r f a c e f a c t o r s a r e used t o determine the e r o s i o n  Each f a c t o r i s r a t e d a c c o r d i n g  which are i d e n t i f i e d  photographs.  to i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and/or measured on the a e r i a l photographs.  sum o f the seven r a t i n g s determines the e r o s i o n  The  condition class.  The  seven f a c t o r s and t h e i r r a t i n g s c a l e s are shown i n the t a b l e below.  Eroeicn Condition Class  Bare Ground  Vesicular Crust  Litter  Stable*  Slight  SI o r less Rating 3  10  15  20  30  40  45  50  60  65  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  Nora  Seme present but «5%  5-101  0  4-5  6-7  ft m t t u s it  Slight Movement  <4  4  win! JSroeion  ricw Patterns  tto  5  Moderate  6  '  Critical  11-20% B-9  Severe  21-40%  G u l l i e s and B.C.  <4  Bttrtre movement  Little ronaining  7  IS  8 ?  11  Active drifts  6  7  10  8  9  11  12  12  Moveraent occurs w/ each, event  4  10  7  8  9  11  rills  1 interval > 50 f t .  interval 20-50 f t .  interval 5-20 f t .  0  4  7  10  Stable condition  Sere erosion  3  4  5  6  6  8  9  no* 7  8  U  12  10  11  14  13  14  Becoming channeled or large Barren Fans 13 14 IS interval < 5 ft.  U  10 to 50% 9  13  Active sand dunes  Removal and/ Moderate s o i l or d i s p o s i t i o n movement  5  14  Deposited  Sane drifting  6  13  Above 40% 13-14  Barground  5  75+  10-11-12  erosion  Rills  70  12  13  14  >50 Headcutting 13  14  15  •Statue - an erosion condition class of "stable", does not mean the range i s i n stable condition; i t means as f a r as pan be detected from the photography there l a no recent erosion. Erosion Condition Classesi Stable O-JOrSITght 21-40) Moderate 41-60i C r i t i c a l 61-60) Severe 81-100  70. APPENDIX B S o i l Compaction P r i n c i p l e s By H.W.  Lull,  1959  (p.25)  The amount of compaction w i l l depend on the degree to which the s t r e s s a p p l i e d to the s o i l overcomes the r e s i s t a n c e the s o i l o f f e r s to d e f o r m a t i o n . The r e s i s t a n c e t h a t the s o i l o f f e r s depends on i t s m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , t e x t u r e , s t r u c t u r e , d e n s i t y and o r g a n i c c o n t e n t . As t h i s r e s i s t a n c e i s overcome, the e f f e c t i s to pack i n d i v i d u a l s o i l p a r t i c l e s c l o s e r t o g e t h e r and to crush s o i l agg r e g a t e s , thus r e d u c i n g pore space. R e s u l t a n t a d d i t i o n a l s o l i d m a t e r i a l s per u n i t volume i n c r e a s e the r e s i s t a n c e of the s o i l to d e f o r m a t i o n to a p o i n t where r e s i s t a n c e and s t r e s s are i n e q u i l i b r i u m and no f u r t h e r compaction occurs. As s o i l m o i s t u r e content i n c r e a s e s , r e s i s t a n c e to s t r e s s dec r e a s e s and compaction can be acheived w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e l y reduced l o a d s . Maximum d e n s i t y i s o b t a i n e d at a m o i s t u r e content about midway between f i e l d c a p a c i t y and w i l t i n g p o i n t . I n c r e a s i n g m o i s t u r e content beyond that p o i n t f u r t h e r lowers the r e s i s t a n c e to compaction and reduces the maximum d e n s i t y . S o i l s t h a t have the g r e a t e s t range of p a r t i c l e - s i z e ( i . e . , medium-textured s o i l s ) compact to g r e a t e s t d e n s i t i e s , f i n e r p a r t i c l e s f i l l i n g the v o i d s between c o a r s e r p a r t i c l e s . The l e s s dense the s o i l , the g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r compaction . The g r e a t e r the o r g a n i c c o n t e n t , the s m a l l e r the maximum comp a c t i o n and the g r e a t e r the m o i s t u r e content r e q u i r e d f o r maximum compaction. S o i l f r e e z i n g tends to compact s o i l by b r e a k i n g down waters t a b l e aggregates and tends to l o o s e n compacted s o i l s . D u r a t i o n of compaction depends l a r g e l y on the s t r e s s e s the s o i l undergoes by s w e l l i n g and s h r i n k i n g from changes i n m o i s t u r e content and temperatures. Compaction i n c r e a s e s b u l k d e n s i t y , reduces t o t a l pore space by the same p r o p o r t i o n , reduces n o n c a p i l l a r y pore space a g r e a t e r amount, and has i t s g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on i n f i l t r a t i o n and p e r c o l a t i o n .  

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