UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The home and hegemony in everyday life Ruttle, Carole Celestine 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 R87.pdf [ 9.48MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095288.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095288-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095288-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095288-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095288-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095288-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095288-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095288-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095288.ris

Full Text

THE HOME AND HEGEMONY IN EVERYDAY L I F E by CAROLE CELESTINE RUTTLE B.Sc. Kings C o l l e g e , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ART i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f Geography We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1981 © C a r o l e C. R u t t l e , 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. tz Geography. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date January 1982. ABSTRACT Res e a r c h on t h e i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f homeowner-s h i p , sometimes c a l l e d t h e " i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s , " c o n s t i t u t e s t h e main p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . F o c u s s i n g on the a c t i v i t i e s o f the s t a t e , f i n a n c i a l and a l l o c a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , homeownership i s h e l d t o s a n c t i o n and s u s t a i n t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r because i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p s t a k e s i n i t s s u r v i v a l . P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and h i g h c o n s u m p t i o n , p r i v a t i s e d l i f e s t y l e s a r e emphasised and l e g i t i m i s e d , f a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y . A t i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e p o s i t s homeownership as a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y f o r c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . The t h e o r y o f i d e o l o g y , i m p l i c i t l y drawn upon by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i s c r i t i c i s e d as b e i n g s i m p l i s t i c , o v e r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l and p r e d i c a t e d upon an i n a d e q u a t e model o f man and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . I t c o n n o t e s f o r m a l , a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f systems t h a t e x p r e s s and j u s t i f y t h e i n t e r e s t s o f th e dominant c l a s s ( e s ) . I t i s tantamount t o d e c e p t i o n and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o c o n s p i r a t o r i a l a c c o u n t s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Those i n p o s i t i o n s o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n a p p e a r t o be t h e p a s s i v e p o s s e s s o r s o f f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The b a s i s o f a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n o f i d e o l o g y i s o u t l i n e d . I t i s th o u g h t t o co n n o t e a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n o r meaning c r e a t i o n , w h i c h , as a form o f d i s t o r t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , has the e f f e c t o f s a n c t i o n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o p o s i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , i d e o l o g y i s a l s o seen t o i n c l u d e l e s s s y s t e m a t i c , l e s s e a s i l y a r t i c u l a t e d , e v e r y -day forms o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t has a m a t e r i a l b a s i s i n d a i l y s o c i a l i i r e l a t i o n s and does n o t o r i g i n a t e p r i m a r i l y i n " r u l i n g c l a s s t r i c k s " o r a " n o n - s o c i a l " c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Those meanings and b e l i e f s t h a t a r e r e i f i e d a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . Loss o f a sense o f h i s t o r i c i t y and human c r e a t i v i t y c u l m i n a t e s i n the n a t u r a l i s a t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f a mutable s o c i a l system. A p p r e c i a t i o n of, the i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f homeownership i s seen t o r e q u i r e more than an a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e and h o u s i n g - r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . Even when h i s t o r i c a l l y grounded, such r e s e a r c h f a i l s t o tap t h e s o c i a l r o o t s o f i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . A t t e n t i o n must a l s o be upon t h e ways i n which e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f home, and r e l a t e d s p h e r e s o f d a i l y l i f e , c r y s t a l i s e , a r e u n d e r s t o o d and a r e made m e a n i n g f u l . These p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e o p e r a t i o n a l i s e d t h r o u g h i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 33 homeowners i n Vancouver t h a t e x p l o r e t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings a t t a c h e d t o home and t o p r i v a t e space i n g e n e r a l . The l a t t e r appear t o be p r e d i c a t e d upon an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f and s o c i a l r e a l i t y ; however, t h i s d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y from t h e "rugged i n d i v i d -u a l i s m " u s u a l l y h e l d t o c h a r a c t e r i s e c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . Most s i g n i f -i c a n t was the d e n i g r a t i o n o f ownership and m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s as a b a s i s f o r p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s and p r e s t i g e . The meaning o f homeownership c e n t r e s on t h e p r a g m a t i c e x i g e n c i e s o f "making good use o f one's money." I t i s n o t i n t r i n s i c a l l y v a l u e d and, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e l a t e d i s s u e o f i n v e s t m e n t , i t i s tempered and o v e r r i d d e n by t h e more e l u s i v e and s u b t l e meanings o f home. Here, t he i n d i v i d u a l , t h e f a m i l y , s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and s e l f - a c t u a l i s a t i o n , and t h e i s s u e s o f p r i v a c y , freedom and c o n t r o l a r e paramount. C o n t r a r y t o r e c e n t f i n d i n g s , t h e s e c o n c e r n s a r e more i i i dependent on h o u s i n g form r a t h e r than t e n u r e . Ownership enhanced but d i d n o t g u a r a n t e e o r n e c e s s a r i l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f home. A s p e c t s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e meanings a r e t h o u g h t t o r e f l e c t n a t u r a l i s e d views o f the " i n d i v i d u a l " and " i n d i v i d u a l needs" and a r e t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g i d e o l o g i c a l . These a r e r a r e l y , i f e v e r , q u e s t i o n e d and a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f s a t i s f y i n g p e r c e i v e d , b a s i c needs a r e n o t comprehended. The range o f a c t i o n t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e , and a c t u a l l y t a k e n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d n o t o n l y by i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ments but a l s o by r e i f i e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f s e l f and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The need f o r a more e t h n o g r a p h i c methodology i s s u g g e s t e d i n o r d e r t o ap p r e -c i a t e t h e d a i l y p r a c t i c e s t h a t combine t o make t h i s l i v e d system o f mean-i n g , r e c i p r o c a l l y c o n f i r m i n g . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x CHAPTER ONE: IDEOLOGY, SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF HOUSING 1 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Homeownership: A Review 3 1.3 Homeownership, I d e o l o g y and I n c o r p o r a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l 7 1.4 S u b j e c t i v e and O b j e c t i v e R e a l i t y : T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s 13 1.5 I d e o l o g y and the S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R e a l i t y 15 1.6 I d e o l o g y : A C o n c e p t u a l S y n t h e s i s 33 1.7 Recent Approaches t o Re s e a r c h on Housing and I d e o l o g y 41 i . R a k o f f - I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y : A Phen o m e n o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f American Housing 42 i i . Gray and Di c k e n s - I d e o l o g y and the S t a t e : The Core o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t y H ousing 52 v Page i i i . Rose - The P o l i t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Home-ownership i n B r i t a i n 57 1.8 The Home and Hegemony i n Ev e r y d a y L i f e : Endnote 64 F o o t n o t e s 67 CHAPTER TWO: METHODOLOGY 76 2.1 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s 76 2.2 I n t e r v i e w Form and C o n t e n t 78 2.3 Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 82 F o o t n o t e s 95 CHAPTER THREE: HOUSE AND HOME: SUBJECTIVE MEANINGS IN EVERYDAY LIFE ' 96 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 96 3.2 Homeownership: Some C o n t e x t u a l Comments 97 3.3 S u b j e c t i v e Meanings o f the Home i n Eve r y d a y L i f e 101 i . Ownership and Commonsense 101 i i . Ownership and Investment 108 i i i . The Many Faces o f Freedom 111 i v . The House as an E x p r e s s i v e Medium 120 v. I n d i v i d u a l i t y and A t t i t u d e s Toward C h i l d r e n ' s H o u s i n g Needs 126 v i . P r i v a c y and House Form 129 v i i . Home and t h e P r i v a t e I n d i v i d u a l 131 v i i i . S t a t u s and S u c c e s s : Some D i s s e n t i n g Views 135 i x . The Q u a l i t y and Meaning o f L i f e R e d e f i n e d 142 v i Page x. Home-Centredness and Community Involvement 150 3.4 House, Home and Homeownership: Endnote 157 F o o t n o t e s 163 CHAPTER FOUR: THE HOME AND HEGEMONY IN EVERYDAY L I F E : DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 165 4.1 C o n t e x t u a l Comments 165 4.2 I d e o l o g y and the C o n s t r u c t i o n o f S e l f 168 4.3 Home and Hegemony: Endnote 184 F o o t n o t e s 188 APPENDIX A 190 BIBLIOGRAPHY 195 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1 The Housing Requirements o f C h i l d r e n TABLE 3.2 V a l u e s P e r c e i v e d t o be T h r e a t e n e d by Z o n i n g Changes TABLE 3.3 A t t i t u d e s Toward Z o n i n g Changes and P r o p e r t y V a l u e s TABLE 3.4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Communal A c t i v i t i e s v i i i LIST OF FIGURES Page FIGURE 2.1 Vancouver Neighbourhoods i n which I n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e by Household 87 FIGURE 2.2 Age d i s t r i b u t i o n by age c a t e g o r y 88 FIGURE 2.3 Number o f c h i l d r e n p e r h o u s e h o l d 89 FIGURE 2.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s ages 89 FIGURE 2.5 E d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t 90 FIGURE 2.6 G e o g r a p h i c a l M o b i l i t y 91 FIGURE 2.7 Number o f houses owned by h o u s e h o l d 92 FIGURE 2.8 Number o f y e a r s i n p r e s e n t house by h o u s e h o l d 92 FIGURE 2.9 Tenure o f c h i l d h o o d homes 93 FIGURE 2.10 Household income by income c a t e g o r y 94 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o thank J i m Duncan f o r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and en c o u r a g e -ment t h r o u g h o u t the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s and Da v i d Ley f o r h i s c r i t i c a l and much a p p r e c i a t e d r e a d i n g o f the f i n a l manu-s c r i p t . I a l s o owe s p e c i a l thanks t o t h e 33 men and women who a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n my i n t e r v i e w s and were more generous w i t h t h e i r time and t h o u g h t f u l n e s s than I c o u l d have hoped f o r . Those f r i e n d s and i n t e r v i e w e e s who p r o v i d e d a c o n t i n u a l l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l c o n t a c t s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s p r o j e c t and I am g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r h e l p . In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e t o thank F l o r a B o v i s , w i t h o u t whom the p r o j e c t would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y h a r d e r t o i n i t i a t e . On a p e r s o n a l n o t e , I would l i k e t o say thank you t o Ben, E l l e n , Thorn and E u c a r i o G o n z a r l e s who were an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f "home" f o r me. A l s o t o Tom. F i n a l l y , thanks go t o I r e n e H u l l f o r t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t , Gary B a r r e t t f o r d r a f t i n g t h e d i a g r a m s , and Kay Anderson f o r her o r t h o g r a p h i c h e l p ! x CHAPTER ONE IDEOLOGY, SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF HOUSING 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In r e c e n t y e a r s the development and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g t e n u r e s has become a c e n t r a l theme f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s w o r k i n g from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f M a r x i a n p o l i t i c a l economy. The con-s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e l y owned home u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s was l a r g e l y m o t i v a t e d by d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r form t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h has t a k e n . B r i e f l y , the l a t t e r r e f l e c t s two b a s i c i n f l u e n c e s , one t h e m a t i c and one t h e o r e t i c a l , which have a l s o f u n d a -m e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d the development o f h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h i n g e n e r a l . H o u s i n g t e n u r e r e s e a r c h c o m p r i s e s one a s p e c t o f the a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s o f h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n under c a p i t a l i s m and t o more g e n e r a l l y t h e o r i s e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t and c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s . In p a r t , t h i s was a c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e t o urban c o n f l i c t and m a n a g e r i a l a p p r o a c h e s . ^ These, d e s p i t e an emphasis on c l a s s , on c o n s t r a i n t and power, and on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l and a l l o c a t i o n o f s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , were seen t o remain n a r r o w l y e m p i r i c a l f o c u s s i n g on d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 'how' r a t h e r than e x p l a n a t i o n s o f 'why 1. These s t u d i e s were seen t o l a c k a t h e o r e t i c a l base and t o a b s t r a c t managers, i n s t i t u t i o n s and the urban system from s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and h i s t o r y , thus i g n o r i n g and m y s t i f y i n g the u n d e r l y i n g economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t i v e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 2 S e c o n d l y , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e r e f l e c t s an exposure t o Mar x i a n urban s o c i o l o g y which seemed t o a d d r e s s t he s h o r t c o m i n g s o f urban c o n f l i c t t h e o r y and m a n a g e r i a l ism and w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e d a major t h e o r e t i -c a l b a s i s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , most s u b s e q u e n t h o u s i n g s t u d i e s have been u n d e r l a i n by the p r e m i s e t h a t under c a p i t a l i s m h o u s i n g o c c u p i e s a c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o s i t i o n a t t h e i n t e r f a c e o f the p r o c e s s e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . On the one hand, i t i s a commodity i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e and c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i l e , on the o t h e r hand, i t i s a l s o a b a s i c , s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y c r u c i a l t o the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power and c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Thus, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s economic r o l e , h o u s i n g i s a l s o o f p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . Subsequent e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l work has aimed t o h i s t o r i c a l l y ground the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s i n terms o f t h e s e " l e v e l s " o f the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s and c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e main a n a l y t i c a p p roach t o h o u s i n g t e n u r e s has c e n t r e d on q u e s t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , a t t e n -t i o n has f o c u s s e d upon the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by d i f f e r e n t t e n u r e s t o the development and maintenance o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t system and on the f a c i l i t a t o r y r o l e played, by the s t a t e , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r a l l o c a t i v e 3 i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r i v a t e homeownership has r e c e i v e d most c o n s i d e r a t i o n and i t i s t h i s s e t o f p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , sometimes c a l l e d t h e " i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s ; " 4 t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e main p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h i s t h e s i s . I t w i l l be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e on the p r i v a t e l y owned home e n t a i l s a s i m p l i s t i c , o v e r l y i n s t r u m e n t a l and l a r g e l y u n t h e o r i s e d c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y w h i c h , i n t u r n , r e f l e c t s an i n a d e q u a t e model o f man 3 and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . S e c t i o n s 1.2 and 1.3 o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o m p r i s e a r e v i e w and c r i t i q u e o f the " i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s . " S e c t i o n s 1.4 t o 1.6 attempt t o r e d r e s s some o f the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e by s u g g e s t i n g a b a s i s f o r a b r o a d e r , n o n - f u n c t i o n a l i s t approach t o t h e i s s u e s o f homeownership, i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . S e c t i o n 1.6 r e v i e w s and a p p r a i s e s some r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h a t i s b r o a d l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o the approach s u g g e s t e d h e r e . T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y , t h e o r e t i c a l c h a p t e r forms a p r e l u d e t o an e m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f home and homeownership i n e v e r y d a y l i f e which r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s e the p o s t u l a t e d c o n c e p t s o f i d e o l o g y . 1.2 The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Homeownership: A Review In t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n f o u r , h i g h l y i n t e r -r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s t h a t homeownership i s h e l d t o f u l f i l i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . F i r s t , and most o b v i o u s l y , as p r i v a t e ownership o f p r o p -e r t y , i t i s the "... i d e a l t e n u r e from t h e p o i n t o f view o f the r u l i n g e l i t e i n a c a p i t a l i s t economy" because i t emphasises and l e g i t i -mates t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s a s s o c i a t e d e n t i t l e -ments. The achievement o f homeownerhip on a l a r g e s c a l e i s seen t o c r e a t e a group w i t h a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s system o f p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s and, i n t u r n , t h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l o r d e r . S t a b i l i t y a t t h e "economic l e v e l o f the s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n " i s t h o u g h t t o be enhanced because homeownership embodies a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e -s t y l e — t h a t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n s u m e r — w h i c h i s based on " h i g h consumption o f e n e r g y , consumer d u r a b l e s and a u t o m o t i v e p r o d u c t s , 4 s u p p o r t e d by n e c e s s a r y , m a s s i v e p e r i p h e r a l e x p e n d i t u r e on p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , " a l l o f which b e n e f i t the c a p i t a l i s t p roduc-er t i o n p r o c e s s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t i s n e u t r a l i s e d because t h i s l i f e s t y l e i s h i g h l y p r i v a t i s e d and r e i n f o r c e s the e x p e r i e n c e o f home and work as s e p a r a t e , even opposed, r e a l m s , thus f u r t h e r m y s t i f y i n g t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s emphasis on home and l e i s u r e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s t e a d y employment as v i r t u a l l y a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o o w n e r s h i p , " r e i n f o r c e s both economism and c a u t i o n i n s t r u g g l e s a t t h e shop l e v e l , as w e l l as i m p o v e r i s h i n g the whole sp h e r e o f work."' 7 S t r u g g l e s tend t o become c e n t r e d on i s s u e s o f con-sumption w i t h t h e worker more i n c l i n e d t o p r o t e c t the system t h a t has made him a f f l u e n t . These i s s u e s impinge on t h e t h i r d , and p o s s i b l y most i m p o r t a n t , f u n c t i o n — t h e p r o m o t i o n o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . I d e o l o g i c a l l y , homeowner-s h i p i s h e l d t o be an e f f e c t i v e means o f f r a g m e n t i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s -ness and d i f f u s i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n thus s t r e n g t h e n i n g the c o n t r o l o f Q c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t s . I t i s , t o quote Harvey, a " g l o r i o u s t o o l t o g d i v i d e and r u l e " and t h i s o c c u r s i n s e v e r a l complementary ways. F i r s t , the c r e a t i o n o f t e n u r e f a c t i o n s — o w n e r s and t e n a n t s — m a s k s the commonality o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n as wage l a b o u r i n c o n f l i c t w i t h c a p i t a l . Second, t h i s o b f u s c a t i o n i s deepened by the f a i l u r e o f t h e s e " h o u s i n g c l a s s e s " t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t the problems t h e y f a c e as consumers o f h o u s i n g i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y have the same n a t u r e and s o u r c e s . I n s t e a d , homeowners a r e p l a c e d on the " s i d e o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y " and o f t e n a c t i v e l y oppose t e n a n t s i n t h e c o u r s e o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a p p r o p r i a t i n g v a l u e . ^ F i n a l l y , t he d e v i s i v e n e s s o f ownership i s l i k e n e d t o t h a t which ensues from t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between 5 mental and manual l a b o u r — t o the " c l a s s i c d i v i s i o n between c r a f t and g e n e r a l worker, between the rough and the r e s p e c t a b l e . " ^ F l e t c h e r summarises the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d o m e s t i c p r o p e r t y as b e i n g i t s " c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . .' t h a t f a i l s t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h o s e who a r e e n s n a r e d by the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r d o m e s t i c 12 s e c u r i t y a r e r e a l l y i n a. r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . " U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t t h e b u i l d i n g o f a l l i a n c e s t h a t m i ght a c t i v e l y change the c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . The f i n a l l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g has a l r e a d y been a l l u d e d t o and p e r -t a i n s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f homeownership f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s seen t o p e r p e t u a t e b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y t h r o u g h p r o m o t i o n o f an e t h i c o f ' p o s s e s s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m ' by p l a c i n g a premium on s e l f r e l i a n c e and s e l f h e l p , on hard work and p r i v a t e g a i n , 13 on d e l a y e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n and on p r i v a t i s m and t h r i f t . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p r i v a t i s m and consumerism, t h i s h e l p s c r e a t e a r e l a t i v e l y p a s s i v e w o r k f o r c e w i t h a l a r g e l y c o n s e r v a t i v e o u t l o o k on l i f e . Homeownership i s seen t o p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l i n c e n t i v e i n l i f e , a h e i g h t e n e d sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n v o l v e m e n t , and a m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g a n d - p r o t e c t i n g a p r o s p e r o u s and s t a b l e s o c i e t y . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s view i s c a p t u r e d by Harvey who s t a t e s t h a t a "worker mortgaged up t o 14 •the h i l t i s , f o r the most p a r t , a p i l l a r o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . " Thus, s o c i a l c o n t r o l and r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e seen t o r e s u l t from a f o r m o f i d e o l o g i c a l c l a s s ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n ' t h a t expands the commitment o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r t h r o u g h t h e development o f p e r s o n a l 15 « s t a k e s i n i t s s u r v i v a l . T h i s i s s u g g e s t e d t o have been a p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n i n the s p o n s o r s h i p o f homeownership by the s t a t e and i t has become common t o i n t e r p r e t h o u s i n g p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n i n terms 6 o f t h e i r s e r v i c e t o the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s and i n t e r e s t s . Homeownership i s h e l d t o be a p o w e r f u l i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l a g a i n s t s o c i a l i s t demands 1 g f o r p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p . T a k i n g t h i s l i n e o f argument t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , homeownership has a l s o been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a f u n c t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y f o r advanced c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i n g e n e r a l . ^ T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , a r i n g o f f a m i l i a r i t y t o most o f t h e s e pronouncements which i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t they a r e v e r y much p a r t o f our contemporary h o u s i n g r h e t o r i c . For example, i n t h e 1979 Canadian f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y d e s c r i b e d the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s o f homeownership as f o l l o w s : P e o p l e who own homes f e e l a g r e a t s t a k e i n the community and t h e c o u n t r y i n which t h e y l i v e . A s o c i e t y i n which a major p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n owns homes i s l i k e l y t o be a more s t a b l e , s e t t l e d and p r o d u c -t i v e s o c i e t y . P e o p l e who own homes have a r e a l i n c e n t i v e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y e a r n enough t o pay f o r i t - an i n c e n t i v e t o work f i v e days a week.18 H i s t o r i c a l l y , s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s have been e x p r e s s e d i n Canada and many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s by p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e a l e s t a t e , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e i s a l s o a r i n g o f t r u t h t o t h o s e views s i n c e homeowners do appear t o have been l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y m i l i t a n t than t e n a n t s , o r so the n e g l i g i b l e i n c i d e n c e o f s t r u g g l e s o v e r mortgage payments, e t c . , would s u g g e s t . I t may t h e n seem s t r a n g e t o t a k e i s s u e w i t h t h o s e v i e w s ; however, as B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n have c a u t i o n e d , we s h o u l d be " c r i t i c a l l y a l e r t e d when ou r commonsense appears i n tune w i t h o u r a n a l y t i c c a t e -g o r i e s " s i n c e t h i s a p p a r e n t homology may s i m p l y r e s u l t from a f a i l u r e t o be c r i t i c a l o f our e v e r y d a y c a t e g o r i e s and/or may i n v o l v e t h e i r 20 a b s t r a c t i o n as f i x e d and a h i s t o r i c a l forms. B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind, 7 i t w i l l be s u g g e s t e d t h a t , as a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the i n c o r p o r a -t i o n t h e s i s may be c r i t i c i s e d f o r i t s i n a d e q u a t e , and o f t e n i m p l i c i t , c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f human agency, i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . 1.3 Homeownership, I d e o l o g y and I n c o r p o r a t i o n : A C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l T h i s l i t e r a t u r e can be s e e n , a l b e i t t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t o adhere t o a f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n which Giddens 22 sees as q u i t e common where work has been i n f l u e n c e d by A l t h u s s e r . [ T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n view o f the i n f l u e n c e o f European urban 23 s o c i o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the work o f C a s t e l l s , upon h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h . ] T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e n b o r d e r s on b e i n g t e l e o l o g i c a l i n t h a t the e x i s t e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e o f both homeownership,and s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n i t s p r o v i s i o n a r e t h e o r i s e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l i t y f o r the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f the c a p i t a l i s t system. T h i s c o n f l a t i o n o f cause and e f f e c t e r r o n e o u s l y p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s a phenomenon has come t o p e r f o r m a t a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n as a l s o b e i n g the e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s g e n e s i s and d u r a t i o n . Such i n f e r -ence i s unwarranted w i t h o u t e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r con-t e n t i o n s and c a n n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y be used t o g e n e r a l i s e t h o s e f u n c t i o n s as n e c e s s a r y o r i n e v i t a b l e . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n poses t h e i s s u e o f s o c i a l change as an i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s problem. The e m p i r i c a l a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e con-t e n t i o n s can be s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d and Kemeny, f o l l o w i n g a s u r v e y o f s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s w i t h advanced c a p i t a l i s t economies, c o n c l u d e s t h a t homeownership may n o t be "an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t , l e t a l o n e a b a s i c 23 p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e m a intenance o f c a p i t a l i s m . " F o r example, i n c o n t r a s t t o the c o u n t r i e s such as B r i t a i n i n which t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e 8 has been d e v e l o p e d , many o t h e r s have e q u a l l y h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t economies but e x h i b i t much l e s s w i d e s p r e a d homeownership as i n the c a s e o f West Germany, S w i t z e r l a n d o r Sweden. E c h o i n g t h e p r e v i o u s argument, i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t the s o u r c e o f t h i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n l i e s i n the c o n f l a t i o n o f two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s — t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l which i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s between el e m e n t s o f a t h e o r y and the h i s t o r i c a l l e v e l which p e r t a i n s 24 t o the a c t u a l - h i s t o r i c a l development o f p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon. With r e f e r e n c e t o homeownership, d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f the l a t t e r ' s f u n c t i o n a l i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l system cannot be t hen used as grounds f o r s u g g e s t i n g u n i v e r s a l i t y . T h i s i g n o r e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e development and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and, t o quote Rose, c u l m i n a t e s i n a t e n d e n c y toward " t e n u r e f e t i s h i s m " t h r o u g h which homeownership i s d e f i n e d as a s t a t i c and a h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r y w i t h . . . 25 an u nchanging meaning. The i m p l i c a t i o n s : o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a r e then enormous f o r i t e f f e c t i v e l y c i r c u m s c r i b e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e t o c o ntemporary s o c i a l forms and s o c i a l change w i t h r e s p e c t t o both i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s and t o community a c t i v i s t s i n t e n t on c h a l l e n g i n g b o u r g e o i s hegemony. As Leach n o t e s , the a n a l y s t becomes c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g "how the machine works," t h e ways i n which i t c o n s t r a i n s and the i n j u s t i c e s i t p e r p e t u a t e s but o n l y i n a "way he can p r e d i c t but n o t a l t e r . " T o g e t h e r w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s , the l a t t e r can be seen t o stem from the d e t e r m i n i s t i c view o f human s u b j e c t i v i t y and agency t h a t i s l a r g e l y i m p l i c i t i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . 9 The i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f homeownership i s t h e o r i s e d w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s t e n u r e form. Thus, l a r g e l y by d e f a u l t , t h e homeowner appears t o be t h e p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t o f an i d e o l o g y imposed e n t i r e l y from above and who i s a l s o p o w e r l e s s t o r e s i s t t h e ' l o g i c Of t h e system.' In e s s e n c e , he has been bought o f f by a d egree o f a f f l u e n c e ( o r a t l e a s t the i l l u s i o n o f the l a t t e r ! ) . The i d i o m t h a t "men l i v e n o t by bread a l o n e " does n o t seem t o be r e l e v a n t i n t h a t the major m o t i v a t i o n s i n l i f e appear t o be m a t e r i a l i s t i c , based on the s i m p l e c a l c u l u s t h a t 27 d e p r i v a t i o n r e s u l t s i n u n r e s t and reward r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . P e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y a l s o appear t o be h i g h l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d s i n c e f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e n d e r s t h e homeowner i n c a p a b l e o f r e c o g -n i s i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which he i s c o e r c e d and m a n i p u l a t e d . T h i s d e p r e c i a t o r y view o f t h e homeowner's m e n t a l i t y stems not o n l y from h i s e x c l u s i o n as an o b j e c t o f a n a l y s i s but a l s o from t h e f a i l u r e t o t h e o r i s e the ways i n which t h e system and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t . • S o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n appears t o o c c u r u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y and i n e v i t a b l y , i m p l y i n g a s i m p l e homology between system needs and modes o f r e a l i s a t i o n . T h i s seems s t r a n g e l y d i v o r c e d from the M a r x i a n empha-s i s on the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s immanent i n the i n h e r e n t l y a n t a g o n i s t i c c l a s s r e l a t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . R ather wage l a b o u r appears t o r e s p o n d s i m p l y and d i r e c t l y t o e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i and even when a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e s i s t a n c e , s u c c e s s f u l outcomes appear t o be i l l u s o r y i n t h a t t h e y can a l s o be shown t o be f u n c t i o n a l t o the 28 system. The c o n c e p t o f ' i d e o l o g i c a l i n c o r p r o a t i o n ' does r e p r e s e n t an a t t empt t o p o s t u l a t e a p r o c e s s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n between s t r u c t u r e and 10 c o n s c i o u s n e s s . However, the n a t u r e o f t h e l a t t e r , t h e c o n c r e t e ways i n which i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d a r e not a n a l y s e d so t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s can o n l y be a p p r e c i a t e d as b e i n g ' f a l s e . 1 The c o n n e c t i o n s between s t r u c t u r e and the i n d i v i d u a l a r e i n f e r r e d r a t h e r than documented and the p o i n t can a g a i n be made t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l i t y does n o t c o n s t i t u t e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h which t h i s i s a c h i e v e d . One tends t o be l e d toward a c o n s p i r a c y t h e o r y o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i n which the s t a t e and c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t s appear t o be an " a l l knowing and smooth r u n n i n g n a t i o n w i d e o r g a n i s a -t i o n " t h a t u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y c o o p t s t h e worker by d i s s e m i n a t i n g r u l i n g 29 c l a s s i d e o l o g y " e v e n l y t h r o u g h time and s p a c e . " In f a c t , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e i n power i s as u n c l e a r as t h a t o f t h o s e who a r e s u b o r d i n a t e d . The M a c h i a v e l l i a n emphasis on d e c e p t i o n and c o o p t a t i o n imputes an u n r e a l i s t i c d egree o f c a l c u l a t e d d e c e p t i o n and i n t e n t i o n -a l i t y t o t h e f o r m e r so t h a t t h e y somehow appear t o be o u t s i d e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l y m y s t i f y i n g system t h e y c r e a t e . T h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h a t o f h o u s i n g consumers appea r s t o be f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t ; however, t h e i r a p p a r e n t autonomy i s u l t i m a t e l y i l l u s o r y f o r t h e y t o o s e r v e t h e l o n g term i n t e r e s t s o f c a p i t a l i s m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e f o c u s s e s on the n o t i o n o f a dominant i d e o l o g y t h a t i s t h e s o l e p r o p e r t y o f the r u l i n g c l a s s ( e s ) o r g r o u p s . Giddens has o b s e r v e d t h a t the te n d e n c y t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e impact o f the form e r i s n o t a c o i n c i d e n c e i n "forms o f s o c i a l t h e o r y t h a t have made l i t t l e o r no c o n c e p t u a l space f o r ag e n t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m s e l v e s , 30 and o f t h e i r s o c i a l c o n t e x t s . " T h i s view i s p a r t i c u l a r y u n t e n a b l e f o r , as Saunders has s u g g e s t e d , t h e s e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s would "presum-11 a b l y be so t r a n s p a r e n t l y b i a s e d t h a t no s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s would a c c e p t 31 them as t h e i r own." R a t h e r , t h e r e must always be a t l e a s t a degree o f c o ngruence between i d e o l o g y and i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The n o t i o n o f a dominant i d e o l o g y e x a g g e r a t e s the e x t e n t t o which i t p e r v a d e s s o c i e t y . I t o b s c u r e s the f a c t t h a t i t may be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a c c e p t e d by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups and i g n o r e s the complex p r o c e s s e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n t h a t e v e n t u a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n i n v o l v e s . The c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h i s p e r s -p e c t i v e and i t i s a l s o one o f i t s most p r o b l e m a t i c a s p e c t s . U n l i k e the i s s u e o f human agency which i s e s s e n t i a l l y b y p a s s e d , i d e o l o g y i s a p r i m a r y e x p l a n a t o r y c o n c e p t . However, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t i s commonly r e c o g n i s e d as b e i n g one o f the most e l u s i v e and ambiguous c o n c e p t s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e w i t h m a n i f o l d p o l e m i c a l and p e r f o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s i n t h e l a t t e r and e v e r y d a y l i f e , i t i s r a r e l y d e f i n e d , l e t a l o n e t h e o r i s e d . The i d e o l o g i c a l , and hence p o l i t i c a l , s i g n i f i c a n c e o f homeowner-s h i p i s a s s e r t e d p r i m a r i l y because i t engenders c e r t a i n v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , such as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and i n d i v i d u a l i s m , t h a t can be d i r e c t l y t i e d i n t o t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y . T h i s c h a r a c t e r -i s a t i o n i m p l i c i t l y i n v o k e s t h e o r t h o d o x M a r x i a n and, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , e y e r y d a y n o t i o n o f i d e o l o g y as a f o r m a l and a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f system t h a t can be r e a d i l y a b s t r a c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l u n i t s , such as a c l a s s o r o c c u p a t i o n a l group. T h i s t y p e o f emphasis c o n s t i t u t e s a v e r y l i m i t e d and c r u d e view o f i d e o l o g y t h a t i s i n c r e a s -i n g l y b e i n g d i s c r e d i t e d . W h i l e such b e l i e f systems may a c c u r a t e l y be d e s c r i b e d as " i d e o l o g i c a l " such a narrow f o c u s l e a d s t o the tendency t o c o n c e i v e o f i d e o l o g y as p e r t a i n i n g o n l y t o " i d e a s " d i v o r c e d from 12 t h e i r b a s i s i n , and d e t e r m i n a t i o n by, m a t e r i a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and r e l a t i o n s . C o n s c i o u s n e s s a l s o tends t o be p o r t r a y e d i n an i d e a l i s t and r e d u c t i o n i s t manner w i t h a d i s t u r b i n g l y c l o s e ' f i t ' b e i n g s u g g e s t e d between i n d i v i d u a l , o r even group, c o n s c i o u s n e s s and what amounts t o p o l i t i c a l dogma and propaganda. T h i s both r e f l e c t s and r e i n f o r c e s a p a s s i v e view o f human n a t u r e . Throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e comments on i d e o l o g y , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l p r e m i s e s a r e b e i n g i n v o k e d i n making t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s . Thus, b e f o r e p r o p o s i n g any a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the e x p l a n a t o r y and t h e o r e t i c a l impasses i s o l a t e d h e r e , I i n t e n d t o make t h e s e p r e m i s e s e x p l i c i t i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , they a l s o c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f home ow n e r s h i p . However, a t t h i s p o i n t a c a u t i o n a r y d i g r e s s i o n i s w a r r a n t e d . In p r e s e n t i n g the above c r i t i q u e i t has not been my i n t e n t i o n t o undermine the a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h and t h o s e comments were made i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n the l a t t e r has made t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . In p a r -t i c u l a r , i t r e p r e s e n t s a much needed attempt t o t r a n s c e n d s t a t i c and a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s e s o f s o c i a l and s p a t i a l forms and r a i s e s the f u n d a -mental p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b l e m o f t h e ways i n which d i f f e r -e n t s o c i a l o r d e r s a r e r e p r o d u c e d and m a i n t a i n e d . I n s t e a d , my aim has been t o d e m o n s t r a t e the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f a f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t i t p l a c e s on e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s e x p o s i t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t because the n o t i o n o f " f u n c t i o n a l i t y " seems t o have been a d o p t e d somewhat 13 u n c r i t i c a l l y w i t h o u t adequate a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o the l o g i c a l consequences o f such a p o s i t i o n . I f a n y t h i n g , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a l a c k o f t h e o r e t i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n f o r i t would be hard t o imagine even t he most c y n i c a l o f a n a l y s t s a d h e r i n g t o t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c model o f human s u b j e c t i v i t y and agency p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , no m a t t e r how c o n s t r a i n i n g 33 t h e system a p p e a r s t o be. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t g i v e n t h e e x p l i c i t l y p o l i t i c a l i n t e n t i o n s o f many o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s . However, f o r t h e s t u d i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h i s i m p l i c i t r e d u c t i o n i s m seems hard t o a v o i d . F o r example, Harvey i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a l l u d e s t o the a c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f l a b o u r i n t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s seen t o d e f i n e the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n terms o f use v a l u e s and "appeal t o some under-34 l y i n g and v e r y fundamental c o n c e p t i o n o f what i t i s t o be human." However, t h e s e i d e a s a r e n o t d e v e l o p e d and the c o n c l u s i o n i s r e a c h e d t h a t i n s o f a r as c a p i t a l i s m has s u r v i v e d , " c a p i t a l dominates l a b o u r n o t o n l y i n the p l a c e o f work but i n t h e l i v i n g space by d e f i n i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f l a b o u r and the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n p a r t t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t conform t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s 35 o f a c c u m u l a t i o n and commodity p r o d u c t i o n . " W h i l e t h i s may v e r y w e l l be a v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n , i t a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t b e h a v i o u r and p r a c t i c e s a r e l a r g e l y p r o d u c e d because no c o n c e p t u a l space has been made f o r th e human s u b j e c t . 1.4 S u b j e c t i v e and O b j e c t i v e R e a l i t y : T h e o r e t i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s The most b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h i s c r i t i q u e i s t h a t t h e human s u b j e c t and c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n n o t be p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g p a s s i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , human a c t i v i t y c a n n o t be t h e o r i s e d as b e i n g o n l y 'produced' f o r , w h i l e s o c i a l r e a l i t y may appear t o be an o b j e c t i v e f a c t i c i t y , i t i s n e v e r -14 the l e s s s o c i a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d by a c t i v e and c r e a t i v e human b e i n g s . The l a t t e r a r e n o t w h o l l y f r e e i n t h a t t h e y a r e born i n t o a pre e x i s t e n t s o c i a l r e a l i t y , but i t i s th r o u g h t h e i r a c t i v i t y t h a t t h e y p r o d u c e , r e p r o d u c e and change t h e v e r y system t h a t c o n s t r a i n s them. Thus, human b e h a v i o u r i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e o r i s e d as b e i n g " c o n s t i t u t i v e . " These s t a t e m e n t s c l e a r l y r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f t h e n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and s o c i e t y , between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t which i s an ongoing s o u r c e o f both p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l d e b a t e . They a l s o p o i n t t o an adherence t o a p o s i t i o n t h a t r e j e c t s t h e n o t i o n o f a d u a l i s m between man and s o c i e t y i n f a v o u r o f a p o s i t o n i n which s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s viewed as t h e h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l p r o d u c t o f human a c t i v i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s e n t a i l s , as Giddens e f f e c t i v e l y s t a t e s , an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e as "both t he medium and 37 outcome o f t h e p r a c t i c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h o s e s o c i a l s y s t e m s . " T h i s t y p e o f p o s i t i o n i s n o t i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a M a r x i a n p e r s -p e c t i v e and i s p r e c i s e l y t h e t y p e o f r e s o l u t i o n Marx sought i n con-38 s i d e r i n g t h e d u a l i s m between c o n s c i o u s n e s s and r e a l i t y . However, as a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , t h i s f a c e t o f M a r x i s t t h o u g h t tends t o be l o s t i n f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o p u r p o s i v e human b e h a v i o u r , t h e l a t t e r f a i l t o c a p t u r e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e i n t e r p l a y between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t and thus c o n s t i t u t e an i n c o m p l e t e t h e o r e t i c a l framework. At t h i s p o i n t an e x p o s i t i o n o f Marx's p h i l o s o p h i c a l - a n t h r o p o l i g i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s on human n a t u r e and p r a c t i c e m i ght be deemed a p p r o p r i a t e and t h i s has been a common approach amongst c r i t i c s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s t 39 p o s i t i o n s . However, p a r t l y t o a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n and p a r t l y because 15 s u c h e x e g e s i s have a c h i e v e d l i t t l e i n p r a c t i c a l t e r m s , I i n t e n d t o a p p r o a c h t h e s e i s s u e s from a d i f f e r e n t a n g l e by d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r t r e a t -ment by a s o c i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t draws h e a v i l y on Marx f o r i t s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s u p p o s i t i o n s , i s g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d as p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l . In p a r t i c u l a r , I s h a l l f o c u s on t h e work o f P e t e r 40 B e r g e r and Thomas Luckmann. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s approach l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t w h i l e s h a r i n g c e r t a i n b a s i c p r e m i s e s such as " p r o c e s s t h e o r y o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f man," the l a t t e r t r a d i t i o n has t o some e x t e n t gone beyond Marx's p h i l o s o p i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s by a t t e m p t i n g t o s p e c i f y the n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h w h i c h , f o r example, o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i s c r e a t e d . 4 1 A d d i t i o n -a l l y , t he work o f B e r g e r and Luckmann has been u t i l i s e d as the t h e o r e t i -c a l b a s i s o f one o f the few s t u d i e s t h a t has a n a l y s e d the i d e o l o g y o f 42 homeownership i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t s u g g e s t e d h e r e . Thus, an e x p o s i t i o n o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l a l s o s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r c r i t i -c a l l y a s s e s s i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h as w e l l as r a i s i n g i d e a s p e r t i n e n t t o c o n c e p t u a l i s i n g i d e o l o g y . 1.5 I d e o l o g y and the S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R e a l i t y In the S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f R e a l i t y , B e r g e r and Luckmann note the paradox t h a t w h i l e s o c i e t y may be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as b e i n g b u i l t up by s u b j e c t i v e l y m e a n i n g f u l a c t i v i t y (Weber), i t can a l s o be seen t o p o s s e s s o b j e c t i v e f a c t i c i t y ( D urkheim). In r e s p o n s e , t h e y aim t o a d d r e s s the q u e s t i o n : "How i s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t s u b j e c t i v e meanings 43 become an o b j e c t i v e f a c t i c i t y ? " Drawing on a d i v e r s e s e t o f t h e o r e t -i c a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e y s u g g e s t t h e need t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "man, the p r o d u c e r and t h e s o c i a l w o r l d , h i s p r o d u c t " i n terms 16 o f an "ongoing d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s composed o f t h e t h r e e moments o f e x t e r n a l i s a t i o n , o b j e c t i v a t i o n and i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n . " The "moments" a r e soon t o o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a temporal sequence. Each c o r r e s p o n d s t o an e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f the s o c i a l w o r l d : " S o c i e t y i s a human p r o d u c t . S o c i e t y i s o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . Man i s a 45 s o c i a l p r o d u c t . " An a d d i t i o n a l s e t o f c o n c e p t s a r e proposed t o e x p l a i n t h e c r e a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d - r e a l i t y t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s — h a b i t u a l i s a t i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and s o c i a l i s a t i o n — a n d t h e s e a r e 46 e x p l i c a t e d t h r o u g h a h y p o t h e t i c a l example o f r e a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g from a l a r g e l y Meadian c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l s e l f and o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , two i n d i v i d u a l s a r e seen t o produce common r o u t i n e s t h a t p r o v i d e o r d e r i n l i f e and t h a t become h a b i t u a l i s e d and 47 taken f o r g r a n t e d . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n i s t h e n h e l d t o o c c u r and when passed on t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n o r s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a c q u i r e the q u a l i t y o f h i s t o r i c i t y and a r e "now e x p e r i -enced as p o s s e s s i n g a r e a l i t y o f t h e i r own, a r e a l i t y t h a t c o n f r o n t s 48 t h e i n d i v i d u a l as an e x t e r n a l and c o e r c i v e f a c t . " Thus, the i n s t i t u -t i o n has become o b j e c t i f i e d and the extreme c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s 1 r e i f i c a t i o n 1 whereby human phenomena a r e apprehended as ' t h i n g s , 1 as non- o r even supra-human. O n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s i s bestowed on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f human a c t i v i t y and s i g n i f i c a t i o n and the w o r l d o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a p p e a r s t o merge w i t h t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e , becoming " n e c e s s a r y and f a t e . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s o c i a l w o r l d i s s t i l l a human c o n s t r u c t i o n . Moving away from t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l example, B e r g e r and Luckmann note t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n and i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n c a n n o t be assumed 17 t o o c c u r u n p r o b l e m a t i c a l l y and t h a t t h e r e i s "no a p r i o r i r e a s o n f o r assuming t h a t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y 'hang t o g e t h e r ' f u n c -49 t i o n a l l y , l e t a l o n e as a l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t system." However, e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h e c o n t r a r y and w h i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s may n o t , and need n o t , be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one c o h e s i v e system, t he "mean-i n g s " o f s e g r e g a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e s w i l l t e n d toward a t l e a s t "minimal c o n s i s t e n c y . " These meanings i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t e t he " l o g i c " o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l , o r d e r and d e r i v e from t he way the l a t t e r i s t r e a t e d i n r e f l e c t i o n r a t h e r than r e s i d i n g i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l l o g i c i s p a r t o f the s o c i a l s t o c k o f knowledge a v a i l a b l e t o , and t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l i n e v e r y d a y l i f e and passed on t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i s s t o c k o f knowledge i s d e f i n e d as " s e m a n t i c f i e l d s o r zones o f meaning" t h a t a r e b u i l t up t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e , s t r u c t u r e d i n terms o f " r e l e v a n c e s " and e n c o u n t e r e d as 50 s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . Thus, i t i s argued t h a t t he i n t e g r a t i o n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r can be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f the knowledge i t s members have o f i t and t h a t "language p r o v i d e s t he fundamental s u p e r -i m p o s i t i o n o f l o g i c on the o b j e c t i v a t e d s o c i a l w o r l d . " A d d i t i o n a l l y , the e d i f i c e o f l e g i t i m a t i o n , r e f e r r e d t o below, i s b u i l t upon language and uses t he l a t t e r as i t s p r i n c i p a l i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n i s a l s o t h o u g h t t o be p r o b l e m a t i c w i t h r e g a r d to t h e s o c i a l i s a t i o n o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . For t h e l a t t e r , t h e o r i g i n a l meaning o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h r e c o l l e c t i o n and d e s p i t e t he f a c t t h a t t h e y appear t o be e x t e r n a l and c o e r c i v e , t h e y must be i n t e r p r e t e d , e x p l a i n e d and j u s t i f i e d b e f o r e c o m p l i a n c e can be e x p e c t e d . Thus t o the p r o c e s s e s a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , the n o t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e g i t i m a t i n g f o r m u l a s must be added. The l a t t e r 18 must be comprehensive and c o n s i s t e n t and u l t i m a t e l y c r e a t e p l a u s i b i l i t y , o r d e r and l e g i t i m a t i o n by t e l l i n g t he i n d i v i d u a l what he s h o u l d do and 51 why t h i n g s a r e what t h e y a r e . L e g i t i m a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as a m u l t i f a c e t e d p r o c e s s t h a t c a n , 52 a n a l y t i c a l l y , be d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l , e m p i r i c a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g l e v e l s . Most b a s i c a l l y , t h e r e i s " i n c i p i e n t l e g i t i m a t i o n " t h a t i s p r e s e n t as soon as language i s i n t e r n a l i s e d and which encompasses a l l o f the s i m p l e t r a d i t i o n a l a f f i r m a t i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t " t h i s i s how t h i n g s a r e done." Next t h e r e a r e " r u d i m e n t a r y t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s " i n c l u d i n g p r o v e r b s , moral maxims and w i s e s a y i n g s , l e g e n d s and f o l k t a l e s . Both l e v e l s a r e d e s c r i b e d as " p r e t h e o r e t i c a l but a r e the f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l s e l f e v i d e n t knowledge c o n s t i t u t i n g p r i m a r y knowledge about the i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r upon which a l l s ubsequent t h e o r i e s must r e s t . The t h i r d l e v e l c o n s i s t s o f " e x p l i c i t t h e o r i e s " t h a t f u n c t i o n i n terms o f a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . b o d y o f knowledge t h a t r e s u l t s from an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and t h a t a r e f r e q u e n t l y e n t r u s t e d t o s p e c i a l -i s e d p e r s o n n e l f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e " s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e s " which c o n s i s t o f " b o d i e s o f t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t i n t e g r a t e d i f f e r -e n t p r o v i n c e s o f meaning and encompass t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r i n i t s s y m b o l i c t o t a l i t y . " T h i s i s t h e most comprehensive l e v e l t h a t i n t e -g r a t e s a l l human e x p e r i e n c e and d e l i n e a t e s the d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y . As i n the c a s e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e s do n o t a t t a i n o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s and once o b j e c t i v a t e d t h e y may a l s o r e q u i r e l e g i t i -m a t i o n i f r e n d e r e d p r o b l e m a t i c as i s l i k e l y i n a dynamic o r p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y where d e v i a n t o r a l t e r n a t i v e u n i v e r s e s can a r i s e : " A l l s o c i a l 53 r e a l i t y i s p r e c a r i o u s . . . c o n s t r u c t e d i n the f a c e o f c h a o s . " Thus, 19 " c o n c e p t u a l m a c h i n e r i e s f o r u n i v e r s e m a i n t e n a n c e " a r e a l s o p o s t u l a t e d and t h o s e f u n c t i o n t o e l i m i n a t e d e v i a t i o n s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s u s u a l l y t h r o u g h r e d e f i n i n g them i n terms o f the dominant s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e o r by n e u t r a l i s i n g them t h r o u g h a s s i g n m e n t o f i n f e r i o r o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s . The most c o n s p i c u o u s t y p e s o f c o n c e p t u a l m a c h i n e r y a r e seen t o be m y t h o l o g y , t h e o l o g y , p h i l o s o p h y and s c i e n c e , i n i n c r e a s i n g o r d e r 54 o f t h e o r e t i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . B e r g e r and Luckmann's c o n c e p t u a l schema r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t a t t e m p t t o g e n e r a l i s e beyond, f o r example, m i c r o - s o c i o l o g i c a l concep-t i o n s o f the s o c i a l s e l f as r e p r e s e n t e d by s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . These a c c o u n t s t e n d t o be o v e r l y s u b j e c t i v e and v o l u n t a r i s t i c and by e x a m i n i n g the s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f s u b j e c t i v e l y m e a n i n g f u l , s o c i a l a c t i v i t y t h e y aim t o move beyond t h e f o r m e r . However, b e f o r e r e l a t i n g t h e i r i d e a s t o t h e i s s u e o f i d e o l o g y and homeownership, a number o f c r i t i c a l comments and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r 55 e l a b o r a t i o n s need t o be made. Even i n t h e p r e c e d i n g , h i g h l y s i m p l i f i e d p r e c i s , the a b s t r a c t n e s s o f t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t and r e f l e c t s t h e i r aim t o shed l i g h t on the g e n e r a l ways i n which the " t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d c o n g e a l s 56 f o r the man i n t h e s t r e e t . " The need f o r c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y i s r e c o g n i s e d ; however, t h i s i s a l a r g e l y programmatic s t a t e m e n t and t h e i r a n a l y s i s m o s t l y p e r t a i n s t o , and i s i l l u s t r a t e d by, s c h e m a t i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s i n which a s i n g l e s y m b o l i c t r a d i t i o n m a i n t a i n s t h e u n i v e r s e and where a group o f e x p e r t s have an e f f e c t i v e monopoly o v e r a l l d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t forms o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and t h e i r e f f e c t upon the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y 20 i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r c o n c e r n t o d e v e l o p a p h i l o s o p h -i c a l , r a t h e r than an h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e . B r i e f m ention i s made o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f knowledge becoming s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d as the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n c r e a s e s and o f s p e c i a l i s e d p e r s o n n e l t a k i n g c h a r g e of i t s t r a n s m i s s i o n w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t l e g i t i m a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e a l i t y and t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t may a l s o 57 become s o c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . However, t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e n o t i n t e g r a l t o t h e i r a n a l y s i s . L i k e w i s e , t h e i s s u e o f power i s a l s o u n d e r t h e o r i s e d . In c o n s i d e r i n g the breakdown o f m o n o p o l i s t i c s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and power s t r u g g l e s between " r i v a l c o t e r i e s o f e x p e r t s " and e x p e r t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i s r e c o g n i s e d i n p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s . ^ The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f power i s a l s o acknowledge i n t h a t the s u c c e s s o f p a r t i c u l a r ' c o n c e p t u a l machin-e r i e s f o r u n i v e r s e maintenance* i s seen t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e power p o s s e s s e d by t h o s e who o p e r a t e them but a g a i n t h e s e i d e a s a r e n o t 59 d e v e l o p e d t o any e x t e n t . A l l s o c i a l systems can be seen t o embody some form o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h ich i n t u r n c r e a t e s s p e c i f i c i m b a l a n c e s i n t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e . As W i l l i a m s has n oted i n . r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t o f c u l t u r e , " t o say t h a t 'men' d e f i n e and shape t h e i r whole l i v e s i s o n l y t r u e i n a b s t r a c t i o n . In any a c t u a l s o c i e t y t h e r e a r e s p e c i f i c i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e means and t h e r e f o r e i n c a p a c i t y t o 60 r e a l i s e t h i s p r o c e s s . " The absence o f any s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s and power c r e a t e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y a " d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s " t a k i n g p l a c e i n a p o l i t i -61 c a l vacuum, a w h o l l y u n r e a l i s t i c view. F u r t h e r m o r e , t o t a l k o f s o c i a l m a i n t e n a n c e and l e g i t i m a t i o n a l s o e n t a i l s the i d e a o f s u s t a i n i n g 21 t h o s e i m b a l a n c e s and i n e q u i t i e s and r a i s e s t h e i s s u e s o f d o m i n a t i o n , s u b o r d i n a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n t r o l . R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i s e s s e n t i a l and the p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e i n s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l e x p l i -c a t i o n i n terms o f h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s o c i a l systems. Throughout B e r g e r and Luckmann's a n a l y s i s emphasis i s p l a c e d on v i e w i n g s o c i e t y as a human p r o d u c t d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f r e i f i c a t i o n may o b s c u r e o r negate c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s a c t u a l i t y . However, t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n r e s t s u n e a s i l y w i t h t h e i r r e l i a n c e on t h e p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l i s a t i o n and i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n t o e x p l a i n t h e t h i r d d i a l e c t i c a l moment—"man i s a s o c i a l p r o d u c t . " In t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f " s o c i e t y as s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , " i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e y do n o t adhere t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i s a t i o n paradigm i n which t he i n d i v i d u a l i s . s i m p l y moulded by s o c i e t y . In c o n t r a s t , t h e y draw on t h e Meadian n o t i o n o f the a c t i v e , s o c i a l s u b j e c t and s t r e s s t h e d i a l e c t i c between o b j e c t i v e l y a s s i g n e d and s u b j e c t i v e l y a p p r o p r i a t e d i d e n t i t y . However, i n common w i t h Mead and o t h e r s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t s , t h e y s h a r e t h e problem o f u t i l i s i n g t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o a w i d e r s o c i e t a l framework. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t s o c i e t y as s u b j e c t i v e and as o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y a r e d i s c u s s e d i n s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r s and the form e r p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e not a d e q u a t e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e l a t t e r a c c o u n t . Thus, s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h which s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s , f o r example, " r e t r o j e c t e d i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o r t h r o u g h which t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s " i n d u c t e d i n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d " g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n o f s o c i a l i s a t i o n i s b e i n g 63 i n v o k e d . T h i s f o c u s m a i n l y r e f e r s t o the " p r i m a r y s o c i a l i s a t i o n " o f 22 the c h i l d w h ich g i v e s too much s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the e x t e r n a l i t y and c o e r c i v e n e s s o f o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l r e a l i t y . As Giddens has p o i n t e d o u t , s o c i a l i s a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e c o n t i n u o u s l y t h r o u g h o u t one's l i f e c y c l e and a f f e c t s a l l t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s : " S i n c e the newborn i n f a n t i s so h e l p l e s s , and so'dependent on o t h e r s , n o r m a l l y i t s p a r e n t s , i t i s e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n t h a t c h i l d r e n ' c r e a t e p a r e n t s ' as w e l l as p a r e n t s 64 c r e a t i n g c h i l d r e n . " The tendency t o p o r t r a y s o c i a l i s a t i o n as a t e m p o r a l l y d i s c r e t e and u n i d i r e c t i o n a l p r o c e s s r e s u l t s i n an o v e r -emphasis on s o c i a l r e a l i t y as an o b j e c t i v e f a c t i c i t y d e s p i t e t h e i r s t r e s s on i t s human p r o d u c t i o n . They t e n d t o l o s e s i g h t o f the dynamic, d i a l e c t i c a l n a t u r e o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y . T h i s g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a s o c i a l w o r l d t h a t , once c r e a t e d , becomes s t a t i c and p a s s e d on as i s , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y r e p r o d u c e d and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , r e c o n -s t i t u t e d i n d a i l y l i f e . A s i m i l a r p o i n t i s made by Litchman w i t h r e g a r d t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f language t h a t i s worth r e i t e r a t i n g because o f i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y . For Beger and Luckmann, language i s a " f a c t i c i t y e x t e r n a l t o m y s e l f " t h a t has c o e r c i v e e f f e c t s upon the i n d i v i d u a l . However, o b j e c t i o n s a r e r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g t h i s e x t e r n a l i t y because language i s a l s o t h e : p r i n c i p a l medium t h r o u g h which I f o r m u l a t e my v e r y n o t i o n s o f ' s e l f , ' ' e x t e r n a l i t y , 1 ' f a c t i c i t y ' and c o n s e q u e n t l y m y s e l f and my w o r l d . Language i s not e x t e r n a l t o me because I am formed i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i t s u t i l i s a t i o n . When I f e e l c o m p e l l e d by the p a t t e r n s o f language i t can o n l y be because I f i n d a p a r t i c u l a r language f o r e i g n , o r u n s u i t a b l e t o my needs. I f p r o s e c o n f i n e s me, p o e t r y may s u f f i c e ; awareness o f i t s o r i g i n s i s n o t the measure o f i t s e f f i c a c y . I can be i t s c r e a t o r as w e l l as i t s c r e a t u r e , and both pos-s i b i l i t i e s a r e p a r t o f my s u b j e c t i v e range o f o p t i o n s i n a p p r o a c h i n g the world.65 23 T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t g i v e n the c e n t r a l i t y o f language i n c r e a t i n g meaning and i m p o s i n g " l o g i c " on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d e r . These comments a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f r e i f i -c a t i o n . The a t tempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s M a r x i a n n o t i o n i n t o a phenomeno-l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l l i f e i s i m p o r t a n t because i t goes some way toward t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e o f t e n n a i v e a c c o u n t s o f the s o c i a l s u b j e c t and n e u t r a l t y p i f i c a t i o n s by t a k i n g the i s s u e s o f a l i e n a t i o n and f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t o a c c o u n t . T h i s p e r m i t s acknowledgement o f the f a c t t h a t a c t i v i t y does n o t always have the c h a r a c t e r t h a t i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t o have and t h a t t h e r e a r e o f t e n d i s c r e p a n c i e s between " o b j e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e " and t h e way a s o c i e t y i s o f f i c i a l l y u n d e r s t o o d . However, r e i f i c a t i o n i s a p r o b l e m a t i c c o n c e p t l a r g e l y because i t i s o f t e n too c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h , and o f t e n p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g i d e n t i c a l t o o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i s not an uncommon ty p e o f e r r o r t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o , f o r example, Lukacs. B e r g e r and P o l l b e r g a l s o note t h a t Marx c r i t i c i s e d Hegel i n t h e s e t e r m s , however, i t a l s o a ppears t o be p e r t i n e n t t o t h e i r own c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n . ^ F o r example, i n a c q u i r i n g t h e q u a l i t i e s o f h i s t o r i c i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y t h r o u g h t r a n s m i s s i o n t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e ' e x p e r i e n c e d as e x i s t i n g o v e r and beyond the i n d i v i d u a l s who 'happen t o ' embody them a t t h e moment ... as p o s s e s s i n g a r e a l i t y o f t h e i r own, a r e a l i t y 69 t h a t c o n f r o n t s the i n d i v i d u a l as an e x t e r n a l and c o e r c i v e f a c t . " T h i s view i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the p r e v i o u s d e f i n i t i o n o f r e i f i c a t i o n as the a p p r e h e n s i o n o f human phenomena as i f t h e y a r e " t h i n g s . " As Litchman n o t e s , we have t o q u e s t i o n how d i f f e r e n t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e , f o r , "how would an i n s t i t u t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d as 'over and above i n d i v i d u a l s ' be apprehended i f n o t 'as i f i t were a t h i n g ? " ^ 24 O b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s h e l d t o be an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . However, the p o s i t i o n o f r e i f i c a t i o n i s l e s s c l e a r and one has t o t u r n t o the e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n by B e r g e r and P u l l b e r g f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In the l a t t e r , r e i f i c a t i o n and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n a r e more e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s b e i n g made: O b j e c t i v a t i o n i s " t h a t p r o c e s s whereby human s u b j e c t i v i t y embodies i t s e l f i n p r o d u c t s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o one's s e l f and one's fellowmen as elements o f a common w o r l d " and o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s the moment i n t h i s p r o c e s s i n which "man e s t a b l i s h e s d i s t a n c e from h i s p r o d u c i n g and h i s p r o d u c t s , such t h a t he can t a k e c o g n i z a n c e o f i t and make i t an o b j e c t o f h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " A l i e n a t i o n i s then d e s c r i b e d as the " p r o c e s s by which the u n i t y o f the p r o d u c e r and t h e p r o d u c t i s b r o k e n " and r e i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t moment when the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i n g h o o d becomes t h e s t a n d a r d o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . . . ( i t ) i s o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i n an a l i e n a t e d m o d e . I n terms o f n e c e s s i t y , o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s seen as an a p r i o r i o f human e x i s t e n c e i n t h a t the l a t t e r c o u l d n o t be c o n c e i v e d w i t h o u t i t . T h i s s t a t u s i s d e n i e d f o r the l a t t e r two c o n c e p t s , however, t h e y go on t o s t a t e t h a t : . . . i t i s s t i l l the c a s e t h a t r e i f i c a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the de f a c t o r e a l i t y o f most s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . . . i t would be a m i s t a k e to r e g a r d r e i f i c a t i o n as a c h r o n o -l o g i c a l l y l a t e r p e r v e r s i o n o f some o r i g i n a l s t a t e o f non-r e i f i e d e x i s t e n c e (as i n t h e p s e u d o - t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f p a r a d i s e , r e d e m p t i o n and f a l l o f v u l g a r marxism) o r even as a r a r e phenomenon i n s p e c i f i c s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s (as.Marx h i m s e l f a t l e a s t t e n d ed t o do i n h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f r e i f i c a t i o n i n terms o f t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y c a p i t a l i s t ' f e t i s h -ism o f c o m m o d i t i e s ' ) . As we have t r i e d t o show, because o f i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n a l i t y , r e i f i c a t i o n i s a c r o s s c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l l y r e c u r r e n t phenomenon.72 T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n i s h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c because t h r o u g h t h e a t t r i -b u t i o n o f a d egree o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y t o r e i f i c a t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y and the 25 p o s s i b i l i t y o f change t e n d t o be undermined e c h o i n g t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e -ness o f o v e r t l y p a s s i v e views o f human n a t u r e . As w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l i s a t i o n , t h e r e i s no a n a l y s i s o f how and why r e i f i c a t i o n a c t u a l l y o c c u r s o r o f what s o r t o f p r a c t i c e s a r e c a u s a l . I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c h a r a c t e r i s e r e i f i c a t i o n as the r e s u l t o f p e o p l e " f o r g e t t i n g " t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s , e t c . , a r e t h e i r own p r o d u c t and t h e q u e s t i o n o f why t h i s o c c u r s must a l s o be r a i s e d . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t t h e y c r i t i c i s e Marx's h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s i n f a v o u r o f an a b s t r a c t , t r a n s c u l t u r a l and t r a n s h i s t o r i c a l view o f t h e p r o c e s s f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y t h a t c u r t a i l s t h e e x p l a n a -t o r y u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e i r a n a l y s i s . R e i f i c a t i o n may v e r y w e l l o c c u r i n a l l h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s , and i n a l l c u l t u r e s , however, c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s i s u l t i m a t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o c o n f i r m t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n and t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s g e n e r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s which i n t u i t i v e l y seem l i k e l y t o d i f f e r between, f o r example, p r i m i t i v e and modern c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . R a t h e r than b e i n g o f t h e l i m i t e d n a t u r e t h e y s u g g e s t , Marx's a n a l y s i s seems t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e . R e i f i c a t i o n i s seen t o r e s u l t not p r i m a r i l y from t he f a c t t h a t human p r a c t i c e c r y s t a l l i s e s i t s e l f i n t o o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o r from man's ' f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i s e ' the l a t t e r as h i s p r o d u c t but from t he a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a -t i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e s p e c i f i c s o c i e t i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and i t s s e p a r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o s o c i a l c l a s s e s , t h e f a c t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f human l a b o u r and i t s p r o d u c t s i n t o commodities s u b o r d i n a t e d t o the 73 m arket, a r e h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s worth d i g r e s s i n g b r i e f l y t o c o n s i d e r t h e Marxian a n a l y s i s o f r e i f i c a t i o n due t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h i s c o n c e p t has f o r the d i s c u s s i o n o f i d e o l o g y t h a t w i l l be ta k e n up p r e s e n t l y . 26 The term r e i f i c a t i o n o r i g i n a t e s w i t h Lukacs r a t h e r than Marx and i s used by t h e f o r m e r t o c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e main consequences o f t h e ' f e t i s h i s m o f commodities,' an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . I s r a e l d e s c r i b e s i t as a " p a r t i a l p r o c e s s i n t h e g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f a l i e n a t i o n " and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a t r a n s i t i o n i n Marx's work from a s p e c u l a t i v e - p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f human n a t u r e t o an e x p l i c i t l y s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n w i t h e x i s t i n g economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t upon manJ^ The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r Marx's a n a l y s i s i s the v a l u e r e l a t i o n t h r o u g h which commodities a r e c o n s t i t u t e d as a r e s u l t o f o b j e c t s b e i n g r e l a t e d t o , and exchanged a g a i n s t , one a n o t h e r . T h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d i n the p r o d u c t ' s 'exchange v a l u e ' which i s d i s t i n c t f r o m , and i s d e t e r m i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f i t s 'use v a l u e 1 by t h e market system. Both human l a b o u r and i t s p r o d u c t s a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and under c a p i t a l i s m , t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s u l t i m a t e l y seen t o dominate t he whole o f s o c i e t y w i t h i t s development b e i n g l i n k e d t o t h e f a c t o r s mentioned above. The e f f e c t s o f commodity f e t i s h i s m a r e l a r g e l y t h e same as t h o s e t h a t B e r g e r and Luckmann a t t r i b u t e t o r e i f i c a t i o n . S o c i a l l y c r e a t e d p r o p e r t i e s o f o b j e c t s , such as t h e i r exchange v a l u e , a c q u i r e a n o n - s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r and appear t o be n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s on p a r w i t h t h e o b j e c t ' s p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F o r example, c a p i t a l i s seen t o be c a p a b l e o f " e a r n i n g " a p r o f i t and l a n d e d p r o p e r t y i s i n v e s t e d w i t h a n a t u r a l a b i l i t y t o produce r e n t . The s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n which t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s m a n i f e s t a r e a l s o masked so t h a t t h e l a t t e r a p p e a r s t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p among " t h i n g s " t h a t i s governed by n a t u r a l and e t e r n a l laws. In t u r n , s o c i e t y and h i s t o r y t a k e on the c h a r a c t e r o f a l i e n , i m p e r s o n a l f o r c e s d e t e r m i n i n g human b e h a v i o u r r a t h e r than b e i n g 27 t h e p r o d u c t s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Thus, u n l i k e B e r g e r and Luckman's a n a l y s i s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f commodity f e t i s h i s m b e g i n s t o p r o v i d e some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n t e r -a c t i o n s t h a t c u l m i n a t e i n t h i s d i s t o r t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . These r e i f i e d e n t i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e s c r i b e d , by Marx, as b e i n g " a p p e a r a n c e s " t h a t c o n c e a l t h e r e a l " e s s e n c e " t h a t i s , f o r example, d e f i n i t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s among men. T h i s i s n o t meant t o i m p l y t h a t t h e f o r m e r e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e way t h e y a r e c o n c e p t u a l i s e d , a r e i l l u s o r y . On the c o n t r a r y , "a r e a l i n v e r s i o n [ o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ] a t the l e v e l o f the e s s e n c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n v e r s i o n produced 7fi a t the l e v e l o f a p p e a r a n c e s . " As w i l l be noted below, t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f a d i s t o r t e d o r r e i f i e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Marx's c o n c e p t i o n o f i d e o l o g y . R e t u r n i n g t o B e r g e r and Luckmann and the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e i r i d e a s o f u n i v e r s e maintenance and l e g i t i m a t i o n must a l s o be seen t o i n v o l v e s u s t a i n i n g systems o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , i t i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f r e i f i c a t i o n makes a s i m i l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , t he l a t t e r can be r e l a t e d t o t h e tendency o f r e i f i c a t i o n t o " n a t u r a l i s e " h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Thus, t h i s p r o c e s s would appear t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o , and t o e n t a i l a c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y i n s o f a r as a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s u p p o r t and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l , o r d e r i s s u g g e s t e d as a minimum d e f i n i t i o n o f the l a t t e r . As mentioned above, t h e s e i d e a s a r e i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d i n Marx's a n a l y s i s o f r e i f i c a t i o n b ut a r e l a r g e l y a b s e n t i n the c a s e o f B e r g e r and Luckmann. B e r g e r and Luckmann, b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e the term i d e o l o g y w i t h t h a t o f power i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r u n i v e r s e 28 m a i n t e n a n c e " i n w h i c h , as mentioned above, a l l o w a n c e s a r e made f o r 78 competing d e f i n i t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e y s t a t e t h a t : "When a p a r t i c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n o f r e a l i t y comes t o be a t t a c h e d t o a c o n c r e t e power i n t e r e s t i t may be c a l l e d an i d e o l o g y . " T h i s i d e a i s not e l a b o r a t e d beyond n o t i n g t h a t t h e " d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f i d e o l o g y i s r a t h e r t h a t the same o v e r a l l u n i -v e r s e i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways depending upon c o n c r e t e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n . " The f a i l u r e t o e l a b o r a t e t h i s c o n c e p t o r t o r e l a t e i t t o o t h e r a s p e c t s ' o f t h e i r a n a l y s i s seems t o stem from t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f the problems t h a t ensue from d i v e r s e and o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n s o f i d e o l o g y which t h e y f e e l ". . . m i ght l e a d one t o d e s p a i r o f u s i n g i t i n any p r e c i s e manner a t a l l . We have d e c i d e d t o r e t a i n i t i n a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d s e n s e , because 79 i t i s u s e f u l i n the l a t t e r and p r e f e r a b l e t o a n e o l o g i s m . " The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n i s n o t e l a b o r a t e d o r j u s t i f i e d . T h i s r e t r e a t from d e v e l o p i n g a c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y i n u n i o n w i t h t h e i r o t h e r p r o c e s s e s f o r c r e a t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s u n f o r t u n a t e because t h e i r a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y c o n t a i n s some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l e lements o f a n o n e v a l u a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t h a t c o u l d u s e f u l l y supplement t h e i r a n a l y s i s and a l l o w f o r a s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and power on r e a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n . As Litchmann has s u g g e s t e d , t h e "model o f o b j e c t i v a t i o n i s s t r o n g e s t , d e s p i t e a l l i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e a p p a r e n t c o h e r e n c e and permanency o f the s o c i a l w o r l d . I t i s a model based on s u c c e s s f u l 80 i n s t a n c e s o f i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony." Keat and U r r y a l s o c o n s i d e r the n o t i o n o f r e i f i c a t i o n t o be "one s e t o f g e n e r a l t y p e s o f i d e o l o g i c a l 29 d i s t o r t i o n . " In p a r t i c u l a r , B e r g e r and Luckmann's emphasis on the importance o f meaning, language and r e f l e x i v i t y , on p r e t h e o r e t i c a l as w e l l as t h e o r e t i c a l l e g i t i m a t i n g f o r m u l a s , on a t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d s o c i a l r e a l i t y and s t o c k o f knowledge, on e v e r y d a y l i f e , and the ' n a t u r a l i s a -t i o n ' o f h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n v i a r e i f i c a t i o n a r e a l l i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u e n t s o f an adequate c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y as w i l l be made c l e a r i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I n s t e a d o f d e v e l o p i n g such a view o f i d e o l o g y , t h e y f a l l back on what amounts t o the c l a s s i c , o r t h o d o x M a r x i a n c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y not u n l i k e t h a t u t i l i s e d i n t h e ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s . ' T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i s a -t i o n d e r i v e s from two i n t e r r e l a t e d themes t h a t a r e d i s c e r n i b l e i n the German I d e o l o g y — i d e o l o g y as a system o f i l l u s o r y b e l i e f s ("In a l l i d e o l o g y men and t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s appear u p s i d e down as i n a camera o b s c u r a " ) and i d e o l o g y as an e x p r e s s i o n o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the dominant c l a s s i n t e r e s t s ("The r u l i n g i d e a s a r e i n e v e r y epoch t h e i d e a s o f the 82 r u l i n g c l a s s " ) . T h e r e has been a t e n d e n c y t o a b s t r a c t t h e s e i d e a s from t h e i r w i d e r m a t e r i a l i s t c o n t e x t i n which c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s seen as i n s e p a r a b l e from c o n s c i o u s e x i s t e n c e and, i n t u r n , m a t e r i a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . T h i s c u l m i n a t e s i n a r a t h e r c l i c h e d view o f i d e o l o g y as d e c e p t i o n and l e n d s s u p p o r t t o c o n s p i r a t o r i a l n o t i o n s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s and s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The l a t t e r t e n d s t o become t h e consequence o f i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , m a n i p u l a t i o n and c o e r c i o n . In t h i s r e s p e c t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t B e r g e r and Luckmann's d i s c u s s i o n o f power p e r t a i n s 83 m a i n l y t o m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h o f d i r e c t c o e r c i o n . As has a l r e a d y been s u g g e s t e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g "commodity f e t i s h i s m , " i d e o l o g y does n o t a r i s e as a pure i n v e n t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y n o r as the r e s u l t o f an o b j e c t i v e l y opaque r e a l i t y 30 which d e c e i v e s a p a s s i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o r , i t c o u l d be added, because OA o f r u l i n g c l a s s " t r i c k s . " R a t h e r , i t s s o u r c e i s seen t o l i e i n the n a t u r e o f the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n which a l l p a r t i c i p a t e . Thus, w h i l e i d e o l o g y may be seen t o s u p p o r t the dominant c l a s s ( e s ) and p e r p e t u a t e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , t h e s e f u n c t i o n s do n o t s o l e l y , o r even p r i m a r i l y , a c c r u e because t h o s e i n dominant p o s i t i o n s p r o m u l g a t e t h e s e i d e a s . More fundamental i s the f a c t t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s under which p r o d u c t i v e and r e p r o d u c t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s u s u a l l y embody the r u l e o f a d e f i n i t e c l a s s ( e s ) which h o l d s c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c l a s s e s . I d e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , by r e m a i n i n g f i x e d a t the l e v e l o f " a p p e a r a n c e s , " where t h e s e b a s i c r e l a t i o n s a r e d i s t o r t e d , w i l l t h e r e f o r e t e n d t o work i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the dominant c l a s s ( e s ) . In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e p r o c e s s o f r e i f i c a t i o n can be seen t o make an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the s a n c -t i o n i n g o f systems o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . I t i s s u g g e s t e d here t h a t B e r g e r and Luckmann's a n a l y s i s o f the c o h e r e n c e and obduracy o f the s o c i a l w o r l d i m p l i c i t l y i n v o k e s t h e s e i d e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t would be g r e a t l y enhanced by e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d i n g a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , d o m i n a t i o n and power and by c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r -i c a l c o n c r e t e n e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , a f o c u s on c l a s s i n e q u a l i t i e s and i d e o l o g y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e f l e x i v e meaning, t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d r e a l i t y , e t c . , l e a d s t o q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t view o f d o m i n a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n t r o l t o t h a t d e r i v i n g from " r u l i n g c l a s s " paradigms. These s u g g e s t i o n s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , r e f l e c t a s p e c t s o f G r a m s c i ' s c o n c e p t o f 'hegemony.' H i s work can be seen as p r o v i d i n g one o f the most f r u i t f u l a t t e m p t s t o r e v i y e and d e v e l o p Marx's i d e a s about i d e o l o g y 31 and c o n s c i o u s n e s s and r e p r e s e n t s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t both m e c h a n i s t i c and r e d u c t i o n i s t b a s e - s u p e r s t r u c t u r e models and views o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l as the p r o d u c t o f d i r e c t c o e r c i o n and r u l i n g c l a s s " t r i c k s . " C o e r c i o n i s seen t o be a p p r o p r i a t e p r i m a r i l y i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s when d o m i n a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n d i r e c t l y p o l i t i c a l forms. Hegemony, however, i s seen t o c h a r a c t e r i s e more normal s i t u a t i o n s i n which a complex i n t e r l o c k i n g o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s b r i n g s about s o c i a l c o n t r o l 86 and s u s t a i n s d o m i n a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f "spontaneous c o n s e n t . " The e s s e n c e o f t h i s c o n c e p t i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y c a p t u r e d by W i l l i a m s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . i t sees the r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e i r forms as p r a c t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as i n e f f e c t a s a t u r a t i o n o f the whole p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g - n o t o n l y o f p o l i t i c a l and economic a c t i v i t y , not o n l y o f m a n i f e s t s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , but o f t h e whole s u b s t a n c e o f l i v e d i d e n t i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o such a d e p t h t h a t the p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f what can u l t i m a t e l y be seen as a s p e c i f i c economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l system seem t o most o f us t o be the p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e and commonsense. . . I t i s a whole body o f p r a c t i c e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , o v e r the whole o f l i v i n g : our s e n s e s and a s s i g n m e n t s o f e n e r g y , our s h a p i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f o u r s e l v e s and our w o r l d . I t i s a l i v e d system o f meanings and v a l u e s - c o n s t i t u t i v e and c o n s t i t u t i n g - which as t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c e d as p r a c t i c e s appear as r e c i p r o c a l l y c o n f i r m i n g . . I t thus c o n s t i t u t e s a sense o f r e a l i t y f o r most p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y , a sense o f a b s o l u t e because e x p e r i e n c e d r e a l i t y beyond which i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r most members o f the s o c i e t y t o move, i n most a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s . 8 7 The c o m m o n a l i t i e s between t h i s c o n c e p t and B e r g e r and Luckmann's i d e a s a r e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n t h i s s y n o p s i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t r e s s on e v e r y d a y l i f e , meaning c o n t e x t s and t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d r e a l i t y . I d e o l o g y o r i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s o b v i o u s l y an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s " l i v e d p r o c e s s " but i t i s c o n c e i v e d i n a manner q u i t e 32 d i f f e r e n t t o the narrow v e r s i o n p r e v i o u s l y c r i t i c i s e d . R a t h e r than p e r t a i n i n g o n l y t o s y s t e m a t i c ways o f t h i n k i n g and f o r m a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f s y s t e m s , Gramsci a l s o s t r e s s e s the "lower l e v e l s " o f t h o u g h t which he d e s c r i b e s as "commonsense." The l a t t e r c o m p r i s e s an accumula-t i o n o f " p o p u l a r knowledge" which p r o v i d e a means f o r d e a l i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y l i f e and which i s d i s j o i n t e d , o f t e n i n t e r n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y oo and sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o a r t i c u l a t e . Thus, as W i l l i a m s p o i n t s o u t , t h i s view does not deny o r e x c l u d e t h e t y p e o f b e l i e f system u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as ' i d e o l o g y ' but i t does not "equate t h o s e w i t h 89 c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r r e d u c e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o them." I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t r e i f i c a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t element o f i d e o l o g y and hegemony i n t h a t the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system g a i n s a s ense o f the " n a t u r a l . " A g a i n commonsense t h o u g h t i s h e l d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e because i t s l a c k o f " c o n s c i o u s h i s t o r i c i t y , " and t h e r e -f o r e s e l f knowledge, p r o h i b i t s the q u e s t i o n i n g o f p o p u l a r b e l i e f s e f f e c t i v e l y d i s c o u n t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f change and n a t u r a l i s i n g the s o c i a l o r d e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , because i t i s not s y s t e m a t i c , c o n t r a d i c t o r y i d e a s can c o e x i s t o r be combined. Thus, i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l c o n t r o l a r e not seen t o o r i g i n a t e i n , and r e f l e c t , i m p o s i t i o n and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n by the f u l i n g c l a s s . I n s t e a d , t h e y a r e viewed as b e i n g a " l i v e d r e l a t i o n " between c l a s s e s t h a t i s grounded i n m a t e r i a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s and i n s o c i a l r e a l i t y . Ideas and p r a c t i c e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , seen t o be i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d , r e f l e c t i n g G r a m s c i ' s adherence t o Marx's more g e n e r a l views on c o n s -c i o u s n e s s and r e a l i t y mentioned above. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I i n t e n d t o b r i e f l y draw t o g e t h e r t h e i d e a s i n t r o d u c e d above t h a t a r e s u g g e s t e d as i m p o r t a n t elements o f a n o n e v a l u a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f i d e o l o g y b e f o r e g o i n g on t o r e l a t e them 33 t o the s p e c i f i c i s s u e s o f homeownership and r e p r o d u c t i o n . 1.6 I d e o l o g y : A C o n c e p t u a l S y n t h e s i s The a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y i n contemporary s o c i e t y i s b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e cacophony o f s i g n s and sounds o f a b i g c i t y s t r e e t than by t h e t e x t s e r e n e l y communicating w i t h a s o l i t a r y r e a d e r , o r t h e t e a c h e r o r T V - p e r s o n a l i t y a d d r e s s i n g a q u i e t , d o m e s t i c a t e d a u d i e n c e . 9 0 In l i g h t o f t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n , i d e o l o g y may then be seen as an e s s e n t i a l l y c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t t h a t c o n n o t e s a d i s t o r t e d under-s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y . However, t h i s does n o t e n t a i l i t s common, s i m p l i s t i c a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h e r r o r and f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n s t e a d , i t s h o u l d be seen t o denote a s p e c i f i c form o f e r r o r and may be b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as a form o f d i s t o r t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t has t h e e f f e c t o f s a n c t i o n i n g and s u s t a i n i n g the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r and t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s and p a t t e r n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n embodied i n t h e l a t t e r . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, t h i s does not imply t h a t a l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r a l l t y p e s o f e r r o r a r e i d e o l o g y . The q u e s t i o n s o f t r u t h and f a l s e -hood a r e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t than t h a t o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f i d e o l o g y w i t h 91 r e s p e c t t o s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i d e o l o g y i s c o n c e i v e d too n a r r o w l y i f i t i s equated o n l y w i t h f o r m a l and a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f systems. The l a t t e r c o m p r i s e o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l s t o c k o f knowledge t h a t i s drawn upon i n e v e r y d a y l i f e and, u l t i m a t e l y , may make a l e s s d e c i s i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o most hegemonic s i t u a t i o n s than the more s u b t l e and l e s s s y s t e m a t i c s e t s o f b e l i e f s , meanings and v a l u e s . I t i s the l a t t e r t h a t most e f f e c t i v e l y s t r u c t u r e e v e r y d a y l i f e and, as B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n s u g g e s t , t h e s e b a s i c s e p a r a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e make, both c o n c e p t u a l l y 34 and i n p r a c t i c e , a r e an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f o u r i d e o l o g y . The l a t t e r s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be seen t o encompass e v e r y d a y t h o u g h t and e x p e r i e n c e s as w e l l as p r o p o s i t i o n a l b e l i e f s . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e a s and t h e c o n c r e t e ways i n which d a i l y l i f e i s o r g a n i s e d , t h i s view o f i d e o l o g y f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t l y on the r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n hegemony r a t h e r than on a b s t r a c t e d b e l i e f s y s -tems . The r e s t r i c t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d d i s c o u r s e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c when attempts a r e made t o r e l a t e t h e l a t t e r t o a c t u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I d e o l o g y u s u a l l y appears t o be the p r o p e r t y o f one group t h a t i s imposed upon the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a n o t h e r and t h i s t e n d s toward a r e d u c t i o n i s t a c c o u n t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and s t a b i l -i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , adherence t o t h i s p o i n t o f view r e s u l t s i n the t e n d e n c y t o l o s e s i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l b a s i s o f i d e o l o g y , and o f t h o u g h t i n g e n e r a l and t o c o n c e i v e o f t h e l a t t e r as p e r t a i n i n g o n l y 93 t o " i d e a s . " However, i d e a s do n o t e x i s t o u t s i d e o f , and a r e e x p r e s s e d i n m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i d e o l o g y i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e g a r d e d as an "ongoing s o c i a l p r o c e s s " r a t h e r than as a " p o s s e s s i o n " 94 o r , as G e e r t z has s u g g e s t e d , as a " g h o s t l y happening i n the head." More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i d e o l o g y as both f o r m a l and e v e r y d a y t h o u g h t , i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d as b e i n g a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n - -t h e a c t i v e , s o c i a l c r e a t i o n o f meaning th r o u g h f o r m a l s i g n s which i s s t r u c t u r e d i n , and t h r o u g h language and i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n 95 a l l o t h e r s o c i a l , m a t e r i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Language, and hence s i g n i f i -c a t i o n a r e seen t o c o m p r i s e a p r a c t i c a l , c o n s t i t u t i v e a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than something t h a t i s taken up and used f o r communication. Conse-q u e n t l y , i t i s c e n t r a l t o the c r e a t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l l i f e , c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the human s e l f . F o l l o w i n g Weber, G e e r t z s t r e s s e s 35 the r e q u i s i t e n a t u r e o f the p r o c e s s and s t r u c t u r e s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n by n o t i n g t h a t "man i s an animal suspended i n webs o f s i g n i f i c a n c e he 96 h i m s e l f has spun." I t i s i n terms o f t h e s e h i e r a r c h i e s o f meaning s t r u c t u r e s t h a t communication and i n t e r a c t i o n i s made p o s s i b l e and t h a t b e h a v i o u r and s o c i a l a c t i o n a r e p r o d u c e d , i n t e r p r e t e d and u n d e r s t o o d . W i l l i a m s s t a t e s t h a t an adequate c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y r e q u i r e s some form o f emphasis on the s o c i a l , p r a c t i c a l p r o c e s s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n and t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y t h e approach adopted by G e e r t z i n 97 h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f I d e o l o g y as a C u l t u r a l System. For the l a t t e r , human b e h a v i o u r i s s y m b o l i c a c t i o n and t h o u g h t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d as the c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f symbol systems t h a t make l i f e m e a n i n g f u l and c o n c u r r e n t l y d e f i n e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f . In t h i s c o n t e x t , i d e o l o g y i s d e s c r i b e d as "systems o f i n t e r a c t i n g symbols, as p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r w o r k i n g meanings" t h a t p r o v i d e a " t e m p l a t e , " an e x t r i n s i c s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n terms o f which l i f e i s p a t t e r n e d and made m e a n i n g f u l . I d e o l o g y i s seen t o come most c r u c i a l l y i n t o p l a y when the i n f o r m a t i o n i t c o n t a i n s i s l a c k i n g when, f o r example, i n s i t u a t i o n s o f s o c i a l change and u p h e a v a l , " g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l " and/or "down t o e a r t h p r a g m a t i c " o r i e n t a t i o n s no l o n g e r work. S t r e s s i s p l a c e d on t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e s e symbol systems and they a r e seen t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y viewed as "metaphors" embracing s t r a t i f i e d and o f t e n d i s c o r d a n t , s o c i a l l y r o o t e d meanings above and beyond t h o s e s u g g e s t e d by a l i t e r a l r e a d i n g . The l a t t e r s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f i d e o l o g y a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t ; however, t h i s e x p o s i t i o n s t o p s s h o r t o f b e i n g t h e r a d i c a l r e c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t h a t an emphasis on s i g -n i f i c a t i o n s u g g e s t s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y a consequence o f r e t e n t i o n o f the 36 t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f symbol system; t h a t i s , w i t h a f o r m a l b e l i e f system t o be a p p r o p r i a t e d as needed r a t h e r than as i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l a c t i o n i t s e l f . G e e r t z r a n k s i d e o l o g y a l o n g s i d e r e l i g i o u s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , a e s t h e t i c and s c i e n t i f i c symbol systems b u t , t o r e i t e r a t e t he p o i n t made p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n i s too narrow, both e m p i r i c a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y , f o r , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c u l t u r a l and p r a g m a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n s n o t e d above, t h e s e systems may a l l p e r f o r m i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t i s r e f l e c t e d i n G i d d e n s ' s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f u n c t i o n s G e e r t z a t t r i b u t e s t o i d e o l o g y - - " m e t a -phor and metonymy, g e n e r a t i n g m u l t i v a l e n t l e v e l s o f meaning"--are 98 i n f a c t f e a t u r e s o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n and symbol systems i n g e n e r a l . I t would, thus seem t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e v e r s e G e e r t z ' s f o r m u l a -t i o n and t o r e g a r d i d e o l o g y as a l e v e l o f meaning r a t h e r than as a p a r t i c u l a r symbol system. In t h i s manner, commonsense t h o u g h t and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e can a l s o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . In c o n t r a s t t o G e e r t z , T h e r b o r n tends t o c a r r y t h i s l i n e o f a r g u -ment t o o f a r i n t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n by d e f i n i n g a l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s as i d e o l o g y . For example, the l a t t e r i s d e f i n e d as r e f e r r i n g t o " t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n under which human b e i n g s l i v e t h e i r l i v e s as c o n s c i o u s a c t o r s i n a w o r l d t h a t makes sense t o them t o v a r y i n g 99 d e g r e s s . " A g a i n the p o i n t can be made t h a t i d e o l o g y i s p r i m a r i l y a l e v e l o f meaning. I t s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a_ll_ p r o c e s s e s o f s i g n i f i -c a t i o n t e n d s t o r e d u c e i t s c r i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s and l o s e s s i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t n o t a l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h o u g h t i s i n e v i t a b l y i d e o -l o g i c a l and t h a t t h e r e a r e forms o f e r r o r which a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y o f t h i s g e n r e . F o r , as Giddens s t a t e s : "... t o t r e a t a symbol system 37 as i d e o l o g y i s t o s t u d y i t as i d e o l o g i c a l ; " t h a t i s , t o c r i t i c i s e i t on the grounds o f d i s t o r t i o n and t o s u g g e s t a r e l a t i o n between i t and the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r . ^ F i n a l l y , the i s s u e s o f the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i d e o l o g y and the ways i n which i t o p e r a t e s t o s u s t a i n p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l systems must be b r o a c h e d . U l t i m a t e l y , the answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , and t o t h e p r o b l e m o f how and why i d e o l o g y o c c u r s and i s s u s t a i n e d , w i l l depend on c o n c r e t e and h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s . How-e v e r , some g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s can be made, i n l i g h t o f the p r e v i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , t h a t seem r e l e v a n t f o r a t l e a s t contemporary, w e s t e r n s o c i e t i e s and which w i l l , h o p e f u l l y , r e c e i v e f u r t h e r s p e c i f i -c a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f homeownership p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r Two. As an a s p e c t o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n , i d e o l o g y can be seen t o be i n v o l v e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f meaning s t r u c t u r e s t h a t p r o v i d e ways o f d e a l i n g with, b a s i c e x i s t e n t i a l dilemmas. I t can be seen to be i n v o l v e d i n our c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f s e l f and the domains i n which we l i v e our l i v e s , i n the ways i n which s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d , and i n our a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l a t t e r . Above a l l , however, i t w i l l r e f e r t o the p a r t i c u l a r ways i n which t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l r e p r o d u c -t i o n . As s u g g e s t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , the p r o c e s s o f r e i f i c a t i o n i s c e n t r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the l a t t e r and, as B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n s u g g e s t , i t can be seen as one way o f d e s c r i b i n g the i s s u e o f i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i -101 c a t i o n . Thus, t o r e i t e r a t e , i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s can be seen t o e n t a i l l o s s o f a sense o f human, s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t s o f human a c t i v i t y , d a i l y p r a c t i c e s and s p h e r e s o f l i v i n g , and s o c i a l 38 r e l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . D i s c u s s i o n s o f r e i f i c a t i o n have sometimes been o v e r l y i n f l u e n c e d by the t e r m i n o l o g y used i n Marx's c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f commodity f e t i s h i s m w i t h the consequence t h a t t he p r o c e s s i s o f t e n c o n c e i v e d t o o n a r r o w l y . F or example, f o r M a r k o v i c , " t o 'be' r e i f i e d 102 means t o a c q u i r e o r a s c r i b e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t h i n g . " A l t h o u g h t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y i n v o l v e d , t h i s t y p e o f d e f i n i t i o n t e n d s t o d e t r a c t from t he more fundamental n e g a t i o n o f human agency and n a t u r a l -i s a t i o n o f i t s p r o d u c t s . Through n a t u r a l i s m , t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system, o r a t l e a s t a s p e c t s o f i t , t e n d s t o be apprehended as n a t u r a l and e t e r n a l r a t h e r than as h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c and mutable. In t u r n , t he range o f both t h o u g h t and a c t i o n tends t o become r e s t r i c t e d and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f change may be d i s c o u n t e d w i t h a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e d on m a n i p u l a t i n g , o r a t b e s t m o d i f y i n g , t h a t which a l r e a d y e x i s t s . The ways i n which l i f e i s s t r u c t u r e d may a l s o g a i n a sense o f the a b s o l u t e so t h a t , as i n the c a s e o f commodity f e t i s h i s m , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e s p h e r e s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e masked. T h i s p r o c e s s can a l s o extend t o d e f i n i t i o n s o f the q u a l i t i e s c o m p r i s i n g human n a t u r e so t h a t t h e y a l s o a c q u i r e a sense o f t i m e l e s s n e s s . F i n a l l y , t h e s o c i a l w o r l d and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s may ap p e a r as g i v e n and as governed by n a t u r a l laws and/or t he q u i r k s o f human n a t u r e t h a t d e t e r m i n e human b e h a v i o u r . R e i f i c a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e be t h o u g h t o f as encompassing many o f the g e n e r a l ways i n which s i g n i f i c a t i o n and the s a n c t i o n i n g o f systems o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d t h r o u g h i d e o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s . The e s s e n c e o f t h i s i n t e r p l a y i s c a p t u r e d i n W i l l i a m s ' e a r l i e r c i t e d comments on hegemony and i d e o l o g y as t h e p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h which: 39 . . . t h e p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f what can u l t i m a t e l y be seen as a s p e c i f i c economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l system seem t o most o f us t o be the p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e and commonsense.103 The consequences o f r e i f i c a t i o n have been p r e s e n t e d somewhat t e n t a t i v e l y , r e f l e c t i n g the p r e v i o u s l y noted need f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s -t i g a t i o n . To do o t h e r w i s e a t t h i s s t a g e runs the r i s k o f e n c o u n t e r i n g the problems f a c e d by B e r g e r and Luckmann i n g e n e r a l i s i n g r e i f i c a t i o n as a "de f a c t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n , " an a c c o u n t which 104 Litchmann f e e l s i s " i t s e l f r e i f i e d . " The c r u c i a l p o i n t t o remember i n both g e n e r a l and more c o n c r e t e commentaries i s t h a t i d e o l o g y and r e i f i c a t i o n a r e above a l l l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e produced and r e p r o d u c e d i n d a i l y p r a c t i c e and a r e i n t e g r a l l y t i e d t o the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t o f view, s o c i a l c o n t r o l , and d o m i n a t i o n a r e n o t seen t o r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y from i n c u l c a t i o n o r m a n i p u l a t i o n . R a t h e r , t h e y s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o a hegemonic s e t o f meanings, b e l i e f s and v a l u e s t o which i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i b u t e . These a r e r a r e l y q u e s t i o n e d by t h o s e i n both dominant and s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s and as g u i d e s f o r a c t i o n t h e y can be h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c a s , f o r example, 105 the r e c e n t s t u d y by S e n n e t t and Cobb s u g g e s t s . These l a t t e r a u t h o r s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e manner i n which b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , a t t e m p t i n g t o l i v e by the messages o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m which t h e y t a k e f o r g r a n t e d , a r e f r u s t r a t e d l a r g e l y by the c l a s s n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y . T h e i r f a i l u r e s , howeyer, a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s . The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f such a view o f i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from a newspaper a r t i c l e o u t l i n i n g one house b u y e r ' s c r i t i c a l s e l f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e a r c h p r o c e s s : 40 . . . I r e a l i s e i t sounds r a t h e r s t r a n g e , b u t the s e e m i n g l y i n d i v i d u a l a c t o f b u y i n g a home i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e g r a v e s t problems t h a t a f f e c t t h e e n t i r e s o c i a l f a b r i c o f t h i s c o u n t r y . . . . B e f o r e l o o k i n g f o r a house, I ne v e r gave s e r i o u s c o n s i d -e r a t i o n t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t l i n e s . T h a t n a i v e t e d i d not l a s t v e r y l o n g once t he s e a r c h began . . . b e f o r e l o n g and d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t my w i f e and I have no c h i l d r e n , I found m y s e l f g o i n g from d o o r t o door a s k i n g what s c h o o l s s e r v e d t h e n e i g h -bourhood. Whatever r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n s I came up w i t h , t h e u g l y t r u t h remained: I had become p a r t o f t h e web o f i n s t i t u -t i o n a l r a c i s m , pushed on by t h e gods o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s a l e v a l u e . I was t o o v u l n e r a b l e t o r e s i s t . Beyond r a c e , I a l s o f o u n d c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s e n t e r e d i n t o t h e e q u a t i o n o f house b u y i n g . As w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f r a c e , t h e o m n i p r e s e n t f i g u r e o f r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e l u r k e d c o n s t a n t l y around t h e c o r n e r . . . c l a s s and r a c e , r a c e and c l a s s , t h e s e i d e a s s w i r l e d i n my mind even as I examined e n e r g y e f f i c i e n t d o o r s and meas-ured wood-paneled f a m i l y rooms. They seemed t o be t h e c o n s t a n t s i n the f l u i d w o r l d o f f l o o r p l a n s and s q u a r e f o o t a g e . They were e n t h r o n e d and seemed u n c h a l l e n g a b l e . Y e t t h e y e x i s t e d n o t because o f c a b a l s and c o n s p i r a c i e s b u t because o f t h e s c r i p t s by which we l i v e o ur l i v e s . T h e r e were no v i l l a i n s , no seedy o p e r a t o r s m a n i p u l a t i n g my emo t i o n s . The a d v i c e o f f e r e d was h o n e s t , f o r t h r i g h t and f r i e n d l y . I t made s e n s e , l i k e t h e s u g g e s t i o n t o t a k e a s p i r i n f o r a c o l d . Everyone was c o n c e r n e d w i t h my b e s t i n t e r e s t and I a p p r e c i a t e d the f a c t . But i t was my b e s t i n t e r e s t s t h a t r e s t e d a t the h e a r t o f the problem. U n l i k e Adam Smith's d i c t u m , t h i s i s no ' i n v i s i b l e hand 1 t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e p u r s u i t o f p r i v a t e s e l f i n t e r e s t l e a d s t o the f u r t h e r a n c e o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o f a l l o f s o c i e t y . In g a i n i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r o p e r t y owner-s h i p f o r m y s e l f , I r e a l i s e d I was w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e c e r t a i n a b s t r a c t s o c i a l g o a l s . T h a t r e a l i s a t i o n has caused me a n g u i s h , f o r i t has p l a c e d me on the horns o f a t r u e dilemma. I am c e r t a i n t h a t l i k e so many o t h e r s , I w i l l soon r e s t my t i r e d and g u i l t y body i n t o a 'p r o p e r ' home. And I w i l l be happy because my w i f e and I have c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Y e t I cannot engage i n s e l f - d e l u s i o n o r c o n v e n i e n t l a p s e s i n memory, and thus I know I have become p a r t o f the problem r a t h e r than the s o l u t i o n . I w i l l make my d e c i s i o n s i n house b u y i n g and t h e y w i l l be t h e wrong d e c i s i o n s made f o r a l l t h e ' r i g h t ' r e a s o n s . 1 0 6 A t t e n t i o n w i l l now t u r n t o some r e c e n t s t u d i e s t h a t have, t o v a r y -i n g d e g r e e s , attempted t o u t i l i s e a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework s u g g e s t e d h e r e i n r e l a t i o n t o h o u s i n g t e n u r e s , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h , sugges-t i o n s w i l l be made f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e o l o g y and homeownership. 41 1.7 Recent Approaches t o Re s e a r c h on Hous i n g and I d e o l o g y Giddens has s u g g e s t e d t h a t "many o f t h o s e who have d e c l a r e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o f u n c t i o n a l ism i n p r i n c i p l e a r e th e m s e l v e s prone t o employ f u n c t i o n a l i s t arguments i n p r a c t i c e . " ^ T h i s d i c t u m may even be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h o s e e s p o u s i n g t h e ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s ' as was p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o Harvey's a t t e m p t t o a l l o w f o r an a c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s on b e h a l f o f l a b o u r . Thus, i t would seem t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n s i d e r t h e s u c c e s s o f some r e c e n t attempts t o t r a n s -cend the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l impasses p r e v i o u s l y i s o l a t e d as d e r i v i n g from f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and to t a k e heed o f t h e p i t f a l l s t h e y e n c o u n t e r . W i t h i n t he g e o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e has been s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n ' p e r s p e c t i v e a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t i t has been a " b e h i n d t he s c e n e s " t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n . The l a t t e r u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n a r i d e r t o the e f f e c t t h a t p r e c e d i n g comments on the s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s o f ho u s i n g t e n u r e s a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o i m p l y a f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n . F o r example, most r e c e n t l y B a s s e t t and S h o r t s t a t e t h a t : I t i s i m p o r t a n t n o t t o see o w n e r - o c c u p a t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e as somehow n e c e s s a r y f o r the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ... I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o emphasise t h a t what-e v e r t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a dvantages o f o w n e r - o c c u p a t i o n t h i s does n o t mean t h a t o w n e r - o c c u p i e d h o u s i n g i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o some f u n c t i o n a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . The b a l a n c e o f t e n u r e s . . . i s a l s o t he r e s u l t o f c o n f l i c t s r e f l e c t i n g a c h a n g i n g b a l a n c e o f c l a s s f o r c e s . Such e f f e c t s need t o be drawn o u t and e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f h o u s i n g p o l i c y i n each c o u n t r y . 1 0 8 The l a t t e r t y p e o f a n a l y s i s i s , however, most c o n s p i c u o u s i n i t s absence. 42 I n c l u s i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f c a u t i o n a r y s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t f u n c -t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e s t i l l p r o b l e m a t i c and t h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by Rose who f e e l s t h a t " d e s p i t e t h e v a l u a b l e r a d i c a l work o f r e c e n t y e a r s on the emergence o f h o u s i n g t e n u r e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the s o - c a l l e d economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l s , our under-s t a n d i n g i s s t i l l i n a d e q u a t e . " A g a i n , t h e need f o r a " s y s t e m a t i c and h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the m a t e r i a l bases o f , and t h e 109 p r o c e s s e s c r e a t i n g , t e n u r e group f r a g m e n t a t i o n " i s s u g g e s t e d . Thus, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s can be seen t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t u n l e s s accompanied by some v e r y b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n s . ( T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the work o f Gray and Di c k o n s d i s c u s s e d below.) To v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h i s p o i n t i s r e f l e c t e d i n each o f t h e p i e c e s o f r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e f i r s t by a p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t and t h e r e m a i n i n g two by g e o g r a p h e r s . i . R a k o f f - I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y : A Pheno m e n o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s  o f American H o u s i n g . ^ The f o l l o w i n g a p p r a i s a l o f R a k o f f ' s work w i l l be l i m i t e d t o the i s s u e s o f t h e o r y and methodology, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework u t i l i s e d t o a n a l y s e h o u s i n g and i d e o l o g y . R e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t o n l y i n s o f a r as i t e l u c i d a t e s t h e s e i s s u e s . S y n o p s i s . R a k o f f i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p o l i c y impact a n a l y s i s , a f i e l d he h o l d s t o be f r a u g h t w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems t h a t s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l i t s a n a l y t i c c a p a b i l i t i e s and p r a g m a t i c u t i l i t y . H i s c r i t i q u e i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h a t made i n geography i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e ' q u a n t i t a t i v e ' t r a d i t i o n i n t h a t , t h r o u g h adherence t o th e " a c c e p t e d canons o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , " a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e o f the 43 s o c i a l w o r l d i s produced by f o c u s i n g upon " a r b i t r a r i l y i s o l a t e d p a r t s and i g n o r i n g t h e p r e - e x i s t e n t s u b j e c t i v e and i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f wholeness and c o n t i n u i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , he argues f o r a p e r s -p e c t i v e t h a t would p e r m i t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o l i c y impact w i t h i n the "ongoing c o n t e x t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and ways o f t h i n k i n g t h a t p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e i n e v e r y d a y l i f e " i n o r d e r t o g e t some sense o f "how a s o c i a l o r d e r i s c o n s t r u c t e d and u n d e r s t o o d . " A t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h i s seen t o a l r e a d y e x i s t i n H u s s e r l i a n phenomenology and p a r t i c -u l a r l y t he work o f S c h u t z and B e r g e r and Luckmann. T o g e t h e r , t h e y a r e seen t o p r o v i d e a means o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e "ongoing m u l t i l e v e l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y " as a complex d i a l e c t i c o f i n d i v i d u a l , s u b j e c -t i v e meaning c o n s t i t u t i o n and o b j e c t i v e meaning c o n t e x t s " t h a t o r d e r 112 and make e v e r y d a y l i f e c o h e r e n t . T h i s p r o c e s s i s seen t o be p r o f o u n d l y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s t h o u g h t t o be i n h e r e n t i n t h a t t h r o u g h i t , a l l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y a r e s t r u c t u r e d and a l l o c a t e d o f t e n under the r u b r i c o f p o l i c y 113 making. The i m p l i c a t i o n o f both a l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n between g o v e r n -ment a c t i v i t y and s t r u c t u r i n g and c o n s p i r a t o r i a l paradigms o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s d e n i e d . I n s t e a d , he s u g g e s t s t h e importance o f a s h a r e d r and, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , commonly d e f i n e d s o c i a l r e a l i t y t h a t p r o v i d e s a g u i d e f o r and c o n t r o l s a c t i o n and i n terms o f which p o l i c y i s made. I d e o l o g y i s proposed as a s p h e r e o f m e d i a t i o n between p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s and e v e r y d a y l i f e i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s t h e c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t o f t h e f o r m e r and s t r u c t u r e s the l a t t e r : " I d e o l o g y i s thus p a r t o f the d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the s t r u c t u r i n g o f e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e and t o the e r e c t i o n o f h i g h e r o r d e r s y m b o l i c 114 u n i v e r s e s o f l e g i t i m a t i o n and r e a l i t y m a i n t e n a n c e . " T h i s concep-44 t u a ! i s a t i o n c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h a t o f both G e e r t z and B e r g e r and Luckmann and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n more d e t a i l below. R a k o f f c o n c l u d e s t h a t " i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the impact o f an a r e a o f p o l i c y on the s t r u c t u r e o f e v e r y d a y l i f e , we must seek t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e 'knowledge' p e o p l e have o f t h a t p a r t o f l i f e . " To t a p t h e s e l e v e l s o f e x p e r i e n c e , he o p t s f o r a methodology o f i n - d e p t h , u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g based on the S c h u t z i a n r a t i o n a l e t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e n d e d meaning and s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s i s maximised i n " f a c e t o f a c e " s i t u a -t i o n s . 1 1 5 E m p i r i c a l l y , a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s . In C h a p t e r Two, the s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t i n which h o u s i n g p o l i c y i s made i s mapped out and i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the g e o g r a p h i c , i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n a l y s e s t h a t f o c u s on the a c t i o n s o f , f o r example, f i n a n c e c a p i t a l , d e v e l o p e r s , e t c . , i n 116 s e c u r i n g p r o f i t and f o s t e r i n g the c i r c u l a t i o n o f c a p i t a l . T h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s i s seen to be "anonymous i n terms o f knowledge and b l o o d l e s s i n terms o f human a p p r e h e n s i o n and e x p e r i e n c e " and t o b r o a c h t h e s e i s s u e s he t u r n s t o the second e m p i r i c a l t h r u s t , an a n a l y s i s o f the s u b j e c t i v e meaning o f houses i n e v e r y d a y l i f e as d e r i v e d from h i s u s n t r u c t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s . " 1 1 ^ In the f i n a l c h a p t e r , the e x i s t e n t i a l r o o t s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e meanings a r e c o n s i d e r e d and a r e c o n n e c t e d t o . w i d e r s t r u c t u r e s o f meaning and a c t i o n such as l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y and Locke's t r e a t i s e on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . They a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s e d as p r o v i d i n g t h e c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t o f p o l i c y and, f i n a l l y , t h e i r e f f e c t on " p u b l i c l i f e " as an a r e n a o f f u l f i l m e n t , e t c . , . , 118 i s n o t e d . 45 A p p r a i s a l . T h e r e a r e a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s t o t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h i s h i g h l y g e n e r a l i s e d s y n o p s i s b l a n k e t s . F o r example, the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t " P u b l i c and p r i v a t e p o l i c y makers o p e r a t e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e s e symbol sy s t e m s , and t h e i r p o l i c i e s assume a s o c i a l w o r l d i n terms o f t h o s e meaning systems and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , aim t o c o n s t r u c t s h e l t e r and communities which make sense i n t h e s e terms" r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l y more s e n s i t i v e view than i s u s u a l . S i m i l a r l y , the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f houses a r e a means o f d e a l i n g w i t h e x i s t e n t i a l problems c r e a t e d by the a t t e m p t t o l i v e a c c o r d -119 i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r e m i s e s i s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e . However, when viewed as a whole, a number o f c o n c e p t u a l problems become a p p a r e n t t h a t p l a c e l i m i t a t i o n s on the s u c c e s s o f t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n l o o k i n g beyond the g e n e r a l programmatic s t a t e m e n t s , the manner i n which some o f t h e p o s t u l a t e d p r o c e s s e s a r e o p e r a t i o n a l i s e d r e s t s u n e a s i l y , and c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e f o r m e r . In p a r t , t h i s i s a r e s u l t o f an u n c r i t i c a l a d o p t i o n o f the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . R a k o f f ' s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y i s e s p e c i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c . R e f l e c t i n g h i s d e b t t o G e e r t z , i d e o l o g y i s d e s c r i b e d as a " s y m b o l i c t e m p l a t e " t h a t a c t s c o g n i t i v e l y and n o r m a t i v e l y t o p r o v i d e s c h e m a t i c images o f s o c i a l o r d e r whose c o n s t r u c t i o n makes man a p o l i t i c a l a n i m a l . The f o l l o w i n g e l a b o r a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d : I d e o l o g y i s more than o p i n i o n and l e s s than w o r l d view. O p i n i o n s a r e formed w i t h i n a p r e e x i s t e n t c o n t e x t o f meaning; i d e o l o g y i s p a r t o f t h a t c o n t e x t . World view encompasses the e n t i r e phenomenal w o r l d as w e l l as t r a n s c e n d e n t a l w o r l d s ; I d e o l o g y r e f e r s t o a r a t h e r more d e l i n e a t e d s p h e r e o f o b j e c t s and a c t i o n s . . . more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the w o r l d which i d e o l o g y s t r u c t u r e s i s the p o l i t i c a l w o r l d where v a l u e s a r e a l l o c a t e d and power i s d e f i n e d and used.120 46 The l a t t e r c l a i m i s j u s t i f i e d by r e f e r e n c e t o B e r g e r and Luckmann's e q u a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . I d e o l o g y i s a l s o seen t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e n t and c o n t e x t , o f p o l i c y p r i m a r i l y by " o f f e r i n g h i e r -a r c h i e s o f meaning and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r e x i s t i n g s o c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . " E m p i r i c a l l y , t h e main example p r o v i d e d i s t h a t o f ' l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y . The i n a d e q u a c i e s o f d e f i n i n g i d e o l o g y o n l y i n terms o f f o r m a l and a r t i c u l a t e d b e l i e f systems were d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y and can be seen t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y l i m i t i n g i n R a k o f f ' s s t u d y g i v e n the emphasis he p l a c e s on s u b j e c t i v e meanings. The s e p a r a t i o n t h a t i s m a i n t a i n e d between t h o s e l e v e l s o f d i s c o u r s e c r e a t e s a number o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t p ervade the a n a l y s i s . *« The most o b v i o u s problem i s t h e t e n s i o n t h a t e x i s t s between the a t t e m p t s to r e l a t e both i d e o l o g y and s u b j e c t i v e meanings t o p o l i c y making. A t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e s t u d y both symbol systems and a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d as p r o v i d i n g t h e c o n t e x t f o r , and c o n d i t i o n i n g the o u t -p u t s o f , the p o l i c y p r o c e s s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t b o t h a r e i n t e g r a l a s p e c t s o f the "sphere o f i d e o l o g i c a l m e d i a t i o n . " However, r a t h e r than d e v e l -o p i n g a n a l y s i s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , s u b j e c t i v e meanings a r e p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g " e x p r e s s i o n " o f , and " r e f l e c t i o n s " o f , f o r m a l i d e o l o g i e s which undermines the c r u c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y make t o a hegemonic s o c i a l 122 r e a l i t y . T h i s a l s o t e n d s t o c o n f l i c t w i t h R a k o f f ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t he i s n o t p o s i t i n g a l i n e a r c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n between h o u s i n g p o l i c y and e v e r y d a y l i f e . The b a s i s f o r t h i s d e n i a l l i e s i n the s h a r i n g o f a commonly d e f i n e d s o c i a l r e a l i t y . However, when s u b j e c t i v e meanings a r e p o r t r a y e d as r e f l e c t i o n s o f i d e o l o g y embodied i n t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s , an element o f d e t e r m i n i s m can be i n f e r r e d . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , con-47 t i n u i t i e s between f o r m a l b e l i e f systems and e v e r y d a y meanings f o r as Lane n o t e s : "Even the most a b s t r a c t i d e o l o g y , the most U t o p i a n scheme, has an e m p i r i c a l c o n t e n t t h a t must be sq u a r e d w i t h t h e s m a l l w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a c e d w i t h the problem o f f i n d i n g meaning 123 i n h i s w o r l d . " T h i s d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e , however, does n o t p r o v i d e grounds f o r p o s i t i n g a s i m p l e homologous r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e l e v e l s . S u b j e c t i v e meanings c a n n o t s o l e l y , o r even p r i m a r i l y , be seen t o r e f l e c t o r f u l f i l t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f f o r m a l b e l i e f s ystems. T h i s i m p l i e s a r e d u c t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o the l a t t e r and i g n o r e s the f a c t t h a t l e s s s y s t e m a t i c meanings and b e l i e f s can a l s o be i d e o l o g i c a l . R e t e n t i o n o f t h i s dichotomy a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o the t e n d e n c y t o r e l y on the n o t i o n o f a dominant v a l u e system i n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r s o c i a l c o h e s i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , such a view tends t o exag-g e r a t e the degree t o which t h e s e v a l u e s pervade s o c i e t y and the e x t e n t t o which t h e y a r e a c c e p t e d by v a r i o u s s o c i a l g r o u p s . R a k o f f ' s use o f " L i b e r a l - c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y " as t h e w i d e r meaning s t r u c t u r e t o w h i c h s u b j e c t i v e meanings a r e r e l a t e d , s u g g e s t s adherence t o t h i s p o i n t o f view. U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s d e t r a c t s from an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i d e o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f hegemony and may r e f l e c t a b a s i c c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l a t t e r . In a s i m i l a r manner, t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f the home t h a t emerge from the i n t e r v i e w , d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d as the c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the American home. Such a g e n e r a l i s a t i o n i s unwarranted i n view o f h i s h i g h l y h e t e r o g e n o u s sample o f o n l y 18 p e o p l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s a d i s t u r b i n g l y c l o s e f i t between t h e s e f i n d i n g s and t h e c l a s s i c s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e American homeowner. Th a t two r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t views o f the home, one r e l i g i o u s and one community o r i e n t e d , emerge 48 from such a s m a l l sample s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f o r m e r , somewhat extreme a t t i t u d e s m ight be tempered i n a l a r g e r group. A g a i n , t h i s i n d i c a t e s too g r e a t a r e l i a n c e on e a s i l y i s o l a t e d and g e n e r a l i s a b l e s e t s o f meanings and b e l i e f s r a t h e r than p r o b i n g t h o s e t h a t a r e more s u b t l e and l e s s r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d . The l a t t e r a r e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a c t u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and e v e r y d a y l i f e . Both a t t h e o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y , f o r m a l systems o f b e l i e f a r e p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g t o o o v e r a r c h i n g and a l l encompassing. When viewed i n t h i s manner, i d e o l o g y a p p e a r s t o be an e x t e r n a l and c o e r c i v e f o r c e and t h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h R a k o f f ' s b a s i c b e l i e f t h a t " i d e o l o g i e s and meanings do n o t j u s t happen and a r e n o t j u s t m a g i c a l l y o u t t h e r e i n the t h i n g s we b u i l d and use." More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he s t r e s s e s t h e f a c t t h a t "meanings a r e c r e a t e d by p e o p l e d a i l y i n t h e i r w o r k i n g and a c t i n g , f o r p r a g m a t i c and o t h e r r e a s o n s , and i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h l e a r n e d c u l t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s . " However, he i s u n a b l e t o extend t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o the o r i g i n s o f i d e o l o g y and s i m p l y r e f e r s t o the l a t t e r as c o l o u r i n g h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and t h e r e b y s t r u c t u r i n g t h e s o c i a l 124 and p h y s i c a l w o r l d . The d e f i n i t i o n o f i d e o l o g y as a " t e m p l a t e " makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o a l s o a p p r e c i a t e i t s b a s i s i n , and d e t e r m i n a t i o n by, m a t e r i a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s and u l t i m a t e l y l i m i t s i t s u t i l i t y i n e l u c i d a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e a s , and a c t i o n and b e h a v i o u r . Development o f t h e l a t t e r t y p e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c e r t a i n l y i n t e n d e d i n R a k o f f ' s g e n e r a l c o n c e p t u a l s t a t e m e n t s but i s p r o h i b i t e d by h i s u n c r i t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f the view o f i d e o l o g y d e v e l o p e d by G e e r t z and B e r g e r and Luckmann. The h o u s i n g p o l i c y p r o c e s s cannot be seen as p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c i n g and r e p r o d u c i n g an i d e o l o g y 49 and w o r l d view a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a p i t a l i s m . E v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g s i g n i f i c a t i o n , a l s o make a fundamental c o n t r i b u t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e meanings o f t h e home r e p r e s e n t an at t e m p t t o de a l w i t h t h e e x i s t e n t i a l dilemmas c r e a t e d by the attempt t o l i v e by i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r e m i s e s l o s e s i t s s u g g e s t i v e n e s s when t h e s e meanings ar e i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g a " r e s t a t e m e n t " o f l i b e r a l - c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y . The f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e t he i d e o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f s u b j e c t i v e meanings and e v e r y d a y p r a c t i c e s r e s u l t s not o n l y from t h i s u n c r i t i c a l b o r r o w i n g o f c o n c e p t s b ut a l s o from an i n a d e q u a t e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the ways i n which i d e o l o g y a c t u a l l y works t o j u s t i f y e x i s t i n g s o c i a l a r r a n g e -ments. S u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e i f i c a t i o n d e s p i t e i t s c e n t r a l i t y i n B e r g e r and Luckmann's a n a l y s i s and t h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a t t e r a u t h o r s do n o t attempt a s y n t h e s i s o f t h i s p r o c e s s w i t h a c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y . Pass-i n g m e n t i o n i s made o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e c o n c e p t s when R a k o f f n o t e s t h a t " i d e o l o g y m e d i a t e s between t he p o l i t i c a l economy 125 and t he i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y t o make what i s seem good." However, t h i s p o i n t i s n o t d e v e l o p e d and i s n o t i n t e g r a l t o h i s view o f i d e o l o g y o r h i s f i n a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s o m i s s i o n i s u n f o r t u n a t e because an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r e i f i c a -t i o n might a l s o a l l o w f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r i -b u t i o n o f e v e r y d a y t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e . For example, most o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d a r e seen t o p e r c e i v e no a l t e r n a t i v e t o the s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f the home o u t l i n e d o r t o the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p r e m i s e s i n terms o f which t h e y a c t . T h i s would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t some v e r y b a s i c a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i f e have been r e i f i e d but r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r i n g why t h i s p e r c e p t i o n e x i s t s , t h i s sense o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y i s seen t o be the 50 f u l f i l m e n t o f f o r m a l i d e o l o g y . R a k o f f i s not c r i t i c a l o f the c a t e g o r i e s p e o p l e i n v o k e t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f p r i v a t e space and, f o r example, the e q u a t i o n o f p r i v a c y and freedom i s not r e a l l y q u e s t i o n e d . Y e t , as B a r r e t t and S i l v e r m a n s u g g e s t , t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s and the v e r y way i n which we c a t e g o r i z e , a r e c e n t r a l t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i d e o l -ogy. In t h i s c o n t e x t , the s h a r i n g o f a commonly d e f i n e d s o c i a l r e a l i t y by a l l i n s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g p o l i c y makers, can be seen t o be i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y because p e o p l e " a c t i n terms o f i t and a r e e q u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by i t " but a l s o because a s p e c t s o f t h a t r e a l i t y a r e a p p r e -hended as g i v e n and i n e v i t a b l e . As s u g g e s t e d above, t h e use o f ' l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y ' as an e x p l a n a t o r y t o o l i s c o n c e p t u a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c , however, i t can a l s o be c r i t i c i s e d on more s u b s t a n t i v e grounds. T h i s b e l i e f system i s f l e s h e d o u t by r e f e r e n c e t o Locke's t r e a t i s e on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and the s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f t h e home a r e seen t o echo t h e s e p r o p o s i -127 t i o n s . However, t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be seen t o i n v o l v e an enormous i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a p . The s u b j e c t i v e meanings i d e n t i f i e d a r e t h o s e o f a v e r y s m a l l , c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c group o f p e o p l e and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n l y i n terms o f a 200 y e a r o l d t r e a t i s e seems unwarranted. Above a l l , i t i g n o r e s the f a c t t h a t both c a p i t a l i s m and l i b e r a l i s m have d r a s t i c a l l y changed d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . For example, we may s t i l l c h a r a c -t e r i s e contemporary s o c i e t y as p u r s u i n g an " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " l i f e s t y l e b u t , as r e c e n t r e s e a r c h has s u g g e s t e d , t h e l a t t e r has a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r t o the "rugged" i n d i v i d u a l i s m o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h 128 c e n t u r y . Locke's i d e a s may s u g g e s t the r o o t s o f modern b e l i e f s but on t h e i r own t h e e x p l a n a t i o n t h e y p r o v i d e i s r a t h e r empty. I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as t o how much u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s g a i n e d by the d e m o n s t r a t i o n 51 t h a t c o ntemporary, s u b j e c t i y e meanings o f the home " r e f l e c t " t h e s e i d e a s on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . The q u e s t i o n o f why s t i l l r emains t o be answered. W i t h o u t such knowledge i d e o l o g y a p p e a r s t o be t o o a l l embracing and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how, o r on what g r o u n d s , i t c o u l d be c h a l l e n g e d . I d e o l o g y i s p r o p o s e d as t h e s p h e r e o f m e d i a t i o n between p o l i c y p r o c e s s e s and e v e r y d a y l i f e . However, the manner i n which i t i s o p e r a -t i o n a l i s e d d e t r a c t s from i t s e x p l a n a t o r y p o t e n t i a l . In c o n c l u d i n g , i t may be s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o the i n c o n s i s t e n c e s noted above, the e m p i r i c a l approach R a k o f f a d o p t s a l s o p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s on the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the d i a l e c t i c o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . The s u b j e c t i v e meaning c o n t e x t s d e r i v e d from a v e r y s p e c i f i c group o f p e o p l e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y j u x t a p o s e d a g a i n s t a much more g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Beyond d e m o n s t r a t i n g the f a c t t h a t the l a t t e r a r e a l l g e ared toward the p r o m o t i o n o f homeownership and t h a t t h i s i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e l a t t e r f o r the s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s which r e v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y around a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings i d e n t i f i e s . U l t i m a t e l y , d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the manner i n which t h e s e two l e v e l s a r t i c u l a t e remains an u n r e s o l v e d problem t h a t p e r h a p s . r e q u i r e s a more s u b t l e a p p roach to t h a t t a k e n by R a k o f f . What may be n e c e s s a r y i s a v e r t i c a l s l i c e t h r o u g h time t h a t encompasses both l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y i n one c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n . For example, i t may be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o examine a s e t o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an attempt t o t a p the s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l s o f meaning o f 52 t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h o s e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i r r e s u l t s i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . In t h i s manner i t may be a b l e t o a v o i d p o r -t r a y i n g t he i n s t i t u t i o n a l w o r l d i n t h e anonymous manner u t i l i s e d by R a k o f f . Thus, l i k e B e r g e r and Luckmann's a n a l y s i s , R a k o f f ' s s t u d y c o n t a i n s many o f t h e r e q u i s i t e e l e m e n t s o f a broad d e f i n i t i o n o f i d e o l o g y and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i n a n o n - f u n c t i o n -a l i s t manner. However, a somewhat u n c r i t i c a l a d herence t o t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l view o f i d e o l o g y as a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f symbol system tends t o negate many o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and c r e a t e s a number o f t e n s i o n s between h i s programmatic s t a t e m e n t s and h i s s u b s t a n t i v e a n a l y s i s . The ty p e o f d i a l e c t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t i s espoused may be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s e but a b r o a d e r , more c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y would seem l i k e l y t o make a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n . i i . Gray and D i c k e n s - I d e o l o g y and t h e S t a t e : t he Case o f 129 L o c a l A u t h o r i t y H o u s i n g . S y n o p s i s . Gray and Di c k e n s c o n s i d e r , i d e o l o g y and t h e s t a t e t o be two o f the most n e g l e c t e d c o n c e p t s i n r e c e n t r a d i c a l work, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f the te n d e n c y toward economic d e t e r m i n i s m and f u n c t i o n a l ism. The l a t t e r i s seen t o r e f l e c t t o o c l o s e an adherence t o a " n e o p o l i t a n i c e t h e o r y " o f base and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e and t oo g r e a t a r e l i a n c e on the economic a s p e c t s o f M a r x i s t t h o u g h t . Both b r i n g an "unwelcome degree o f r i g i d i t y i n t h o u g h t and a n a l y s i s , " and a d e n i a l o f the " t r u e com-p l e x i t y o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p o l i t i c a l , economic and i d e o l o g i c a l " l e v e l s , and t h e "paramount im p o r t a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g 130 s o c i a l and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . " 53 In l i g h t o f t h i s , t h e y aim t o use the work o f Gramsci t o c o n s i d e r t h e " n a t u r e o f i d e o l o g y and t h e s t a t e i n B r i t a i n , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the c a s e o f c o u n c i l h o u s i n g . " In p a r t i c u l a r , they f o c u s on h i s c o n c e p t o f hegemony, t h e d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between t h e s t a t e and c i v i l s o c i e t y , and t h e view t h a t s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s more a p r o d u c t o f "nebulous and s u b t l e i d e o l o g i c a l moans" than d i r e c t c o e r c i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , they draw on the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Gramsci as d e r i v e d from Boggs: [Hegemony] i s the s a t u r a t i o n o f a l l s o c i e t y and i t s component s o c i a l c l a s s e s by a complete system o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , m o r a l i t y and so on, t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony becomes an ' o r g a n i s i n g p r i n c i p l e ' o f s o c i e t y . . . i n one way o r o t h e r s u p p o r t i v e o f , and s e r v i n g t o p e r p e t u a t e the i n t e r e s t s o f , t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r and c l a s s i n t e r e s t s t h a t dominate i t . The means o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h i s o r g a n i s i n g p r i n c i p l e i s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f a g e n c i e s , a l t h o u g h s t a t e a p p a r a t u s , such as t h e e d u c a t i o n system, t h e media, law and so on f i g u r e p r e e m i n e n t l y . The f u n c t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l d i f f u -s i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f hegemony i s t o s e r v e as a means o f l e g i t i m a t i o n and s o c i a l i s a t i o n , the consequences b e i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 1 3 1 T h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s c o n d u c t e d by drawing a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e c a t e g o r i e s we impose on s o c i e t y , such as the b a s e - s u p e r s t r u c t u r e model and t o t h e i r dynamic n a t u r e . C h a l l e n g e s 132 t o hegemony a r e a l s o n o t e d . T h e i r e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s a l s o l a r g e l y d e r i v a t i v e and f o c u s e s on two p e r i o d s i n the development o f c o u n c i l h o u s i n g — b e f o r e and a f t e r 133 World War I and the e a r l y 1920s. T h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f o r m e r p e r i o d c o n s i s t s o f t h e f a i r l y s t a n d a r d p i c t u r e o f s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n m o t i v a t e d by t h e f a i l u r e s o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o p r o v i d e low c o s t h o u s i n g and t h e r e s u l t a n t h e a l t h , c r i m e , c l a s s c o n f l i c t , and s o c i a l u n r e s t problems t h a t were t h o u g h t t o ensue. S o c i a l c o n t r o l i s seen as b e i n g d i r e c t and as r e p r e s e n t i n g an " e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s whereby 54 the s t a t e , w o r k i n g p r i n c i p a l l y on b e h a l f o f i n d u s t r i a l and banking o c a p i t a l , buys o f f the w o r k i n g c l a s s i n ways t h a t remain b r o a d l y com-p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l o r d e r and dominant mode o f pro d u c -t i o n . " T h i s p e r i o d i s a l s o seen t o have l a i d t h e seeds o f the c o n t r a d i c -t i o n s t h a t now s u r r o u n d c o u n c i l h o u s i n g , such as the o v e r t n e s s o f c o n t r o l , and t o have h e r a l d e d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f "newer, somewhat more s u b t l e forms o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony." The l a t t e r i d e a s c o m p r i s e the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t o f t h e i r a n a l y s i s and t h e y p o i n t t o t h e i d e a l i s a t i o n o f o w n e r - o c c u p a t i o n , t o the c o u n c i l h o u s i n g w a i t i n g l i s t as a s e l f - p o l i c i n g i n s t r u m e n t t h a t " d i v i d e d and r u l e d t h o s e w a i t i n g t o e n t e r t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r and t h o s e w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r " and t h a t d i s c r e d i t e d attempted d i r e c t a c t i o n by s q u a t t e r s as i m p i n g i n g t h e r i g h t s o f t h o s e on t h e l i s t , and f i n a l l y t o the p a s s i n g o f t h e S q u a t t e r s B i l l t h a t made the o c c u p a t i o n o f a l l p r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l , a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . The e f f i c a c y o f t h e s e forms o f c o n t r o l i s seen t o l i e i n t h e i r p o l a r i s a t i o n o f h o u s i n g and i n d u s t r i a l s t r u g g l e s and f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , both o f which h e l p e d d i f f u s e i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t . A p p r a i s a l . These l a t t e r p o i n t s do r e p r e s e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e advance o v e r t he more common n o t i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s b e i n g "bought o f f . " However, as a s t u d y o f hegemony, i t i s somewhat l e s s s u c c e s s f u l and i s u l t i m a t e l y an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e " i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s " c r i t i c i s e d above. T h i s can be seen t o be the consequence o f a fundamental m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f both hegemony and i d e o l o g y . Most b a s i c a l l y hegemony i s n o t seen as a l i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p grounded i n d a i l y p r a c t i c e s and m a t e r i a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s but as something imposed 55 by a m o n o l i t h i c s t a t e , as i s e v i d e n t i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Gramsci c i t e d above. S o c i a l c o n t r o l i s s t i l l seen t o r e s u l t from d o m i n a t i o n , a l b e i t more s u b t l e , r a t h e r t h a n from "spontaneous c o n s e n t . " T h e r e i s some r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f r e i f i c a t i o n i n t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the dominant i d e a s about h o u s i n g may be t h o u g h t o f as "normal r e a l i t y " and tend t o form t h e framework and l i m i t s w i t h i n 134 which s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s e s c h a l l e n g e the system, i s r e c o g n i s e d . However, t h e r e i s no d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s e f f e c t upon t h o s e who c o m p r i s e "the s t a t e . " The s t a t e s t i l l c o n t i n u e s t o be p o r t r a y e d i n c o n s p i r a t o r i a l and f u n c t i o n a l i s t terms d e s p i t e c l a i m s t o be a v o i d i n g both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . For example, they see t h e m s e l v e s as a v o i d i n g a f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n t h a t m ight s u g g e s t " t h a t a p p a r e n t s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y has o c c u r r e d because s t a t e h o u s i n g and o t h e r c o n c e s s i o n s have now s a t i s f i e d m a t e r i a l demands. R a t h e r , i n c o r p o r a t i o n has tended t o o c c u r ( s u b t l y and g r a d u -135 a l l y ) i n t h e r e a l m o f i d e a s . " However, t h i s can a l s o be seen as p r o b l e m a t i c because, a p a r t from the b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o r e i f i c a t i o n n o t e d above, i d e o l o g y c o n t i n u e s t o be " d e c e p t i v e " and a t o o l o f t h e s t a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t o t a l k o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n as o c c u r r i n g i n the r e a l m o f i d e a s g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s can be r a d i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d . Ideas about h o u s i n g emerge f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e l a t t e r and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h o s e i s s u e s r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h o s e s e e k i n g and o c c u p y i n g c o u n c i l h o u s i n g . The v a l i d i t y o f such an approach i s s u g g e s t e d by the most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t o f t h e i r e m p i r i c a l c o m m e n t s — t h e c o u n c i l h o u s i n g w a i t i n g l i s t as a s e l f - p o l i c i n g i n s t r u m e n t — w h i c h , t o a d e g r e e , t a k e s s u b j e c t i v e meanings and p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t . 56 As p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , many o f t h e s e problems stem from an i n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Gr a m s c i ' s i d e a s and, i n t u r n , t h i s can be seen t o r e f l e c t t h e i r r e l i a n c e on Boggs as t h e i r p r i m a r y t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e . The l a t t e r d e s c r i b e s hegemony i n terms o f the p e r m e a t i o n o f v a l u e systems t h a t can be d e f i n e d as an o r g a n i s i n g p r i n c i p l e o r w o r l d I Of. views d i f f u s e d by a g e n c i e s o f i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l and s o c i a l i s a t i o n . H a l l e t a l . c r i t i c s e t h i s t y p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s an example o f r e c e n t uses o f t h e c o n c e p t t h a t have "tended t o a s s i m i l a t e i t t o ' i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n ' and t o i n s t r u m e n t a l i s e i t by s u g g e s t i n g 137 a s i m p l e m i r r o r r e l a t i o n o f d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n . " T h i s i s h e l d t o be p r o b l e m a t i c because i t r e s u l t s i n a "Marcusean model o f s o c i a l c o n t r o T a n d as a c o r r e c t i v e t o the c o n f l a t i o n o f hegemony and i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n t h e y p r o pose t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : Hegemony, f o r G r a m s c i , i n c l u d e s t he i d e o l o g i c a l b u t i t cannot be r e d u c e d t o t h a t l e v e l ... i t r e f e r s t o the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s f o r c e s . I d e o l o g i c a l dominance and s u b o r d -i n a t i o n a r e n o t u n d e r s t o o d i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t always as one, though c r u c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t , a s p e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f c l a s s e s and c l a s s f r a c t i o n s a t a l l l e v e l s - economic and p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as c u l t u r a l / i d e o l o g i c a l ... I t i n v o l v e s the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f spontaneous consent.138 Gray and Di c k e n s c l e a r l y a t t e m p t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s e t he f o r m e r , p a r t i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f hegemony and t h i s r e s t s u n e a s i l y w i t h t h e i r programmatic s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t he need t o c o n s i d e r t he f l u c t u a t i n g s t r e n g t h s o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , c i v i l s o c i e t y , e t c . These c o n c e p t u a l i n a d e q u a c i e s t e n d t o undermine t h e i r much needed attempt t o t r a n s c e n d t h e problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n f u n c t i o n a l i s t approaches t o h o u s i n g and i d e o l o g y . 57 i i i . Rose - The P o l i t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Homeownership i n 139 B r i t a i n . 0 3 S y n o p s i s . Rose n o t e s the ' s e e m i n g l y i r r e f u t a b l e , commonsense appeal o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s campaign f o r t h e s a l e o f c o u n c i l houses p r i o r t o t h e 1979 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n and o f the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e t h a t r e l a t e s t o t h i s programme, namely, t h e ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s ' p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l a t t e r i s t h o u g h t t o be p r o b -l e m a t i c from t h e p o i n t o f view o f both academics and community a c t i v i s t s because i f " h o u s i n g t e n u r e d i v i s i o n s a r e t h e o r i s e d o n l y i n terms o f t h e i r ' f u n c t i o n a l i t y ' f o r c a p i t a l i s m and/or a r e seen to be ' s t r u c t u r a l l y " and i n h e r e n t l y d i v i s i v e , t h i s i m p l i e s a major l i m i t a t i o n on t h e spaces 140 a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n e v e r y d a y l i f e f o r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h a t l o g i c . " T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o h e l d t o make homeownership i n t o a s t a t i c and a h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r y and e l s e w h e r e t h i s has been r e l a t e d t o the problems 141 o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m and t e l e o l o g y . Most b a s i c a l l y , t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e seen t o stem from a " w i d espread f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r t e n u r e forms as h i s t o r i c a l l y c r e a t e d p r o d u c t s , and o ngoing s i t e s , o f c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s " a bout both t h e i r p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e and s o c i a l meaning and from i n s u f f i -c i e n t s e r i o u s and t h e o r e t i c a l l y - i n f o r m e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e ways i n which p e o p l e t r y t o r e s i s t o r e s c a p e the l o g i c o f the system. In o r d e r t o r e d r e s s t h i s b a l a n c e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : . . . r a t h e r than f i t t i n g our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f owners' and t e n a n t s ' b e h a v i o u r i n t o p r e d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s , we need t o ask: what a r e p e o p l e s t r u g g l i n g f o r , and a g a i n s t , when t h e y s t r u g g l e o v e r h o u s i n g . . . W i t h r e s p e c t t o homeownership i t seems impera-t i v e t h a t o u r p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s be i n f o r m e d by a d e e p er under-s t a n d i n g o f what p e o p l e a r e t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e by t h i s way o f o c c u p y i n g h o u s i n g , as w e l l as an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e i r ' c h o i c e s ' . 1 4 2 58 She emphasises t h e f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r a s p i r a t i o n s nor s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n a b s t r a c t i o n . R a t h e r , an h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how the meanings and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f home a r e r e l a t e d t o , and s t r u c t u r e d by t h e dominant p r o c e s s e s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t f u n c t i o n a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f home and work i s r e q u i r e d . To e l u c i d a t e t h e s e i s s u e s some " h i s t o r i c a l n o t e s " c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r i o d from t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t o t h e end o f World War I a r e p r e -143 s e n t e d . . T h i s p e r i o d i s seen t o be u s u a l l y n e g l e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f a n a l y s i s o f the e x t e n s i o n o f mortgage c r e d i t and s t a t e propaganda campaigns i n t h e 1930s and i s deemed i m p o r t a n t because a t t h i s time homeownership was a c t i v e l y sought and s t r i v e d f o r w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t i n g c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than s o l e l y r e f l e c t i n g s t a t e s p o n s o r s h i p o r the i m p o s i t i o n o f m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s . B r i e f l y , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e p r e s s u r e s f o r the r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n and m e c h a n i s a t i o n o f the i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r p r o c e s s e s i n c r e a s e d m a i n l y due t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r m a r k e t s . In r e s p o n s e , l a b o u r s t r u g g l e s were p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d toward t h e s t a b i l i s a t i o n o f wage l e v e l s and s h o r t e r h o u r s , t h e l a t t e r r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e a s e d commuting times due t o s u b u r b a n i s a t i o n as w e l l as a d e s i r e f o r more l e i s u r e t i m e . O u t s i d e t h e work p l a c e , w o r k i n g c l a s s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s were g a i n i n g an i n f l u e n c e o v e r l o c a l governments and semi p u b l i c b o d i e s t h a t were i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t e d s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g and e v e r y d a y l i f e . A g r e a t e r impact c o u l d o f t e n be made here r a t h e r than i n the wage work p l a c e . Thus, t h e r e were s t r o n g t e n d e n c i e s f o r t h e s e s p h e r e s t o s e p a r a t e both p h y s i c a l l y and i n terms o f t h e meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f ' s e p a r a t e d n e s s 1 i n r e s p o n s e t o s t r u c t u r i n g and s h a p i n g by the c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . 59 W i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g , t h e s e changes i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s tended t o r e d u c e s k i l l d i f f e r e n t i a l s between workers which i n some c a s e s l a i d t he b a s i s f o r i n c r e a s e d s o l i d a r i t y but which a l s o p l a c e d many " s k i l l e d " w orkers i n danger o f s i n k i n g back i n t o t h e "mire" as a r e s u l t o f j o b l o s s . A g a i n s t t h i s , and r e f l e c t i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e q u a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h r i f t , b e t t e r o f f s e c t i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s may have sought homeownership so as t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e m s e l v e s by m a i n t a i n i n g ' r e s p e c t a b l e ' homes and t o r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n away from s t i g m a t i s e d slums. A s e c u r e and permanent home o f f e r e d r e a l m a t e r i a l advantages and ownership p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t e d a s t r u g g l e t o s u r v i v e and keep up a p p e a r a n c e s than a g o a l o f upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . The emerging s o c i a l meaning o f t h e home and r e s i d e n t i a l d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n a r e f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d t h r o u g h r e f e r e n c e t o the p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g shoe workers i n Northhampton i n t h e 1880s t o 1900s. Here, i n a d d i t i o n t o r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f the f a c t o r y system and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t l o s s o f c o n t r o l and t h r e a t s o f unemployment, s m a l l workshop p r o d u c t i o n a l s o p r e v a i l e d and was o f t e n f a c i l i t a t e d by p u r c h a s e o f a house. However, the l a t t e r form o f p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d not t a k e p l a c e i n i s o l a t i o n from c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e and c o n t r o l o v e r how t h e y worked and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e p u rposes o f work were i n c r e a s i n g l y l o s t d e s p i t e o wnership o f t h e i r means o f p r o d u c t i o n . Homeownership can p a r t l y . b e seen as a form o f s e l f p r o t e c t i o n and a v o i d a n c e o f t h e f a c t o r y system and i n c r e a s i n g l y t h o s e i n s t a n c e s o f l o s s o f c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d a p o w e r f u l m o t i v a t i o n t o : 60 . . . m a i n t a i n the home as a ' s e p a r a t e s p h e r e ' where time s p e n t i n c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d be used t o c r e a t e a space f o r l i f e - o u t s i d e - c a p i t a l i s t - p r o d u c t i o n - an e x p l i c i t l y non c a p i t a l i s t e n v i r o n m e n t . ... A sense o f s e c u r i t y , autonomy and c o n t r o l o v e r l i f e a t home, i n t h e f a m i l y , i n t h e community accompanied homeownership: g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i t p r o b a b l y c o u l d n o t have been g a i n e d i n any o t h e r way.144 These b e n e f i t s were n e i t h e r i l l u s o r y nor i n h e r e n t l y d i v i s i v e and o f t e n c r e a t e d c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n and r e s i s t a n c e . A n o t h e r f a c e t o f the s o c i a l meaning o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y can be seen t o be i n f l u e n c e d by developments i n the newer suburban communities where the new p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e ( s e r v i c e w o r k e r s , c l e r k s and o t h e r employees i n s t a t e and p r i v a t e b u r e a u c r a c y ) i n c r e a s i n g l y dominated community p o l i t i c s and c u l t u r a l l i f e as w e l l as the t r a d e u n i o n movement. Placement o f t h e l a t t e r on the s i d e o f 'mental l a b o u r ' i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g d i v i s i o n w i t h manual l a b o u r l e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r i n g o f the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and development o f s t a t u s d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the group and may a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the growth o f forms o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s based on " s o c i a l s t a t u s " i n t h e suburban communities. In t u r n , t h i s can be seen t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a c c e p t a n c e o f h o u s i n g and community s e r v i c e s as i s s u e s o f consumption t o be f o u g h t o v e r , p e r h a p s , i n a c o m p e t i t i v e , p o s s e s s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s t f a s h i o n , t o the e x p e r i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f home as a s p h e r e s e p a r a t e from t h e c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , and t o a n a r r o w i n g o f t h e range o f i s s u e s o v e r which o r g a n i s e d l a b o u r would t a k e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . The s i g n i f i -c a nce o f t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s i t u a t i o n s i n which i t d i d n o t o c c u r , such as company towns where u n r e s t was much more i n t e n s e . 61 From t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l n o t e s , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f h o u s i n g t e n u r e forms a r e n e i t h e r h i s t o r i c a l l y u n i v e r s a l nor t h e o r e t i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y n e u t r a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , homeowner-s h i p f o r the n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s viewed as a n a t u r a l mode o f l i f e t o which a l l have a r i g h t and has been n a t u r a l i s e d so t h a t i t a p p e a r s t o be s o c i a l p o l i c y . The e f f e c t o f t h i s m y s t i f i c a t i o n on women i s no t e d because t h e r o l e o f the ' i d e a l w i f e ' has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d as an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f the s c e n a r i o o f the ' i d e a l home'. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the same p r o c e s s e s t h a t e f f e c t i v e l y made homeownerhip a form o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e t o t a l d o m i n a t i o n o f l i f e by c a p i t a l i s t p r o c e s s a r e 145 a l s o seen t o r e i n f o r c e t h e entrapment o f women i n t h e home. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e " n o t e s , " w h i l e h a v i n g no p r e t e n s i o n s a b o u t p r o v i d i n g answers, do shed l i g h t on the complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e ' s a s p i r a t i o n s and t h e dominant p r o c e s s e s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y u n l i k e r i g i d , f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The l a t t e r a r e seen t o o v e r l o o k a ' s i g n i f i c a n t a m b i g u i t y 1 r e g a r d i n g t h e home and t o have, t h e r e f o r e , o b s c u r e d t h e p r o g r e s s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n d a i l y l i f e : In a s e n s e , t h e home, and r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , a r e ' s e p a r a t e s p h e r e s . ' W h i l e t h e y a r e s t r u c t u r e d and d e l i m -i t e d i n v a r i o u s and c h a n g i n g ways by t h e dominant p r o c e s s e s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s f u l l y c a p i t a l i s t . So w h i l e i n a sense t he f o r m a l freedoms and r i g h t s , such as t h o s e t h a t have commonly come t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h e achievement o f a 'home o f y o u r own,' a r e a s p e c t s o f b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y which c o n c e a l t h e r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f home and f a m i l y l i f e , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r sense i n which t h e ' c u l t u r a l s p a c e ' t h e y p r o v i d e i s v e r y r e a l . M a t e r i a l improvements and i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y i n the ' s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e ' can b r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c o l l e c t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f l i v i n g and working.146 62 A p p r a i s a l . Rose's e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s have been c i t e d a t some l e n g t h because t h e y r e l a t e most d i r e c t l y t o the problems e n c o u n t e r e d by the ' i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s ' and a r e h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e o f the p o t e n -t i a l i t i e s o f c o m bining an a n a l y s i s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e and a c t u a l human b e h a v i o u r w i t h a c o n c e r n f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , d e s p i t e the tremendous d a t a problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n h i s t o r i c a l l y r e s e a r c h i n g s u b j e c t i v e meanings and e x p e r i e n c e s , t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l y more i n s i g h t s r e g a r d i n g t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e and a c t i o n t h a n , f o r example, the work o f R a k o f f . T h i s Tends s u p p o r t t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d need f o r a n a l y s i s o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y a t a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n r a t h e r than j u x t a p o s i n g two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e i n i t s i n s i s t e n c e on the "openness" o f the p r o c e s s e s documented. T h e i r outcomes a r e n e i t h e r i n e v i t a b l e nor p r e d e t e r m i n e d and w h i l e t h e y may be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g s u p p o r t i v e o f and f u n c t i o n a l t o c a p i t a l ism, t h i s " e f f e c t " i s the c u l -m i n a t i o n o f a complex s e t o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . As Rose s t r e s s e s , t h e l a t t e r i n v o l v e r e s i s t a n c e as w e l l as a c q u i e s c e n c e and thus s u g g e s t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f change. T h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o an under-s t a n d i n g o f c a p i t a l i s t hegemony as a l i v e d p r o c e s s i n which d o m i n a t i o n r e f l e c t s the a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e who a r e t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , s u b o r d i n a t e d as w e l l as t h o s e i n p o s i t i o n s o f power. I t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o be o v e r l y c r i t i c a l o f work t h a t i s p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g ' p r e l i m i n a r y ' o r t h a t i s i n t e n d e d t o be ' s u g g e s t i v e , 1 however, some comments can be made r e g a r d i n g some o t h e r p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t might u s e f u l l y i n f o r m t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d above. Rose p r i m a r i l y c o n s i d e r s the emerging s i g n i f i -63 i c a n c e o f t h e home and homeownership w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f work e x p e r i e n c e and changes i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s . However, r e c e n t r e s e a r c h p o i n t s t o o t h e r non-economic i n f l u e n c e s t h a t were a l s o c r y s t a l -l i s i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and t h a t , w h i l e a l s o r e l a t e d t o the p r o c e s s e s o f c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , r e f e r more t o i s s u e s o f s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y and may be p e r t i n e n t t o t h e c h a n g i n g meaning o f t h e home. R i c h a r d S e n n e t t , f o r example, l o c a t e s the s o u r c e o f the contempor-a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f s e l f as u n ique and t e n d i n g toward n a r c i s s i s m , as b e i n g sometime d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and p o i n t s t o t h r e e , 147 h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d f o r c e s . F i r s t l y , he c i t e s a p r o c e s s o f p r i v a t i s m s i m i l a r t o t h a t s u g g e s t e d by Rose which l e d t o the g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f the f a m i l y and the home. S e c o n d l y , however, he p o i n t s t o m a t e r i a l c o n s e -quences o f c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , t o commodities,and t h e i r m y s t i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h mass p r o d u c t i o n and mass m e r c h a n d i s i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v e r t i s i n g . The e x i s t e n c e and e x p a n s i o n o f a market f o r mass'produced goods i s seen t o be made p o s s i b l e by the endowment o f o b j e c t s w i t h human q u a l i t i e s and, i n t u r n , t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o h i s t h i r d c o n d i t i o n , namely, the s e c u -l a r i s a t i o n o f t h o u g h t . The l a t t e r e n t a i l e d r e p l a c e m e n t o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l knowledge and a b e l i e f i n t h e o r d e r o f n a t u r e w i t h a b e l i e f i n immanence. T h i s e n t a i l e d the n o t i o n t h a t a l l appearances, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f i n a n i -mate o b j e c t s , c o u l d be s u g g e s t i v e o f , and r e v e a l , human meaning and p e r s o n a l i t y . O b v i o u s l y t h e s e i d e a s a r e h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r -a b l y more e m p i r i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, t h e y would appear t o s u g g e s t a b a s i s f o r contemporary i d e a s a b o u t , f o r example, 148 the house as a symbol o f s e l f . They a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e n a t u r e o f the c h a n g i n g s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y t h a t may have accompanied, and have 64 been r e l a t e d t o and shaped by the p r o d u c t i o n and l a b o u r p r o c e s s e s Rose d e t a i l s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s would l e a d toward a more complete and m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the home and homeowner-s h i p . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r work e x p e r i e n c e s o f the c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c -t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e s e p e o p l e a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e l a t t e r and, t h u s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o q u e s t i o n not o n l y how goods were produced but a l s o what was b e i n g produced and t h e manner o f consumption. 1.8 C o n c l u s i o n : The Home and Hegemony i n E v e r y d a y L i f e : Endnote In l i g h t o f t h e f o r e g o i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n , the e m p i r i c a l f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i s t o f an a t t e m p t t o o p e r a t i o n a l i s e t h e p o s t u l a t e d c o n c e p t o f i d e o l o g y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o homeownership and the e v e r y d a y t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e o f t h o s e who have a c t i v e l y s o u g h t and a c h i e v e d e n t r y i n t o t h i s t e n u r e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s a p p roach may shed l i g h t on t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t e n u r e i n North American s o c i e t y and may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r o l e i t p l a y s i n s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . My aims a r e much more modest than t h o s e o f , f o r example, R a k o f f . W h i l e t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings g l e a n e d from t h i s s t u d y may be s u g g e s t i v e , no p r e t e n s i o n s a r e h e l d as t o t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y o f d e f i n i t i v e l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . The l a t t e r may be i n f e r r e d b u t , as s u g g e s t e d , i t u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e s c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s o f a d i f f e r e n t form t o t h a t f o c u s s i n g on e v e r y d a y l i f e and s u b j e c t i v e meanings. F u r t h e r m o r e , as n o t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o R a k o f f ' s s t u d y , the i s s u e o f t h e meaning o f the home and homeownership i s s t i l l f a r from r e s o l v e d and r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n so as t o a v o i d p e r p e t u a t i n g and f a l l i n g back on s t e r e o t y p i c a l images o f t h e a v e r a g e (American) homeowner. 65 The f o c u s on e v e r y d a y l i f e r e f l e c t s t h e b e l i e f t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f i d e o l o g y r e q u i r e s more than an assessment o f t h e a c t i o n s o f the s t a t e and h o u s i n g r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r p e r p e t u a t i o n o f f o r m a l b e l i e f systems. Even when h i s t o r i c a l l y grounded t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s remains p a r t i a l because i t p r o v i d e s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d -i n g t h e s o c i a l r o o t s o f i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . L i k e Rose, I adhere t o the view t h a t t h e l a t t e r t y p e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the ways i n which h o u s i n g i s e x p e r i e n c e d a t s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n s and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f what p e o p l e a r e a c t u a l l y t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e as w e l l as an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c o n s t r a i n t s . As was s u g g e s t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o Gray and D i c k e n s ' a n a l y s i s , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e problems g e n e r a t e d by f u n c t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and narrow d e f i n i t i o n s o f i d e o l o g y remain i n a d e q u a t e w i t h o u t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g change i n e m p i r i c a l f o c u s . I t i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t a n a l y s i s o f t h e home and homeownership r e q u i r e s an ap p r o a c h t h a t i s broad and t h a t l o o k s beyond t h e s e immed-i a t e i s s u e s . The ways i n which the e x p e c t a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f home c r y s t a l l i s e , a r e u n d e r s t o o d and a r e made m e a n i n g f u l a r e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s p h e r e s o f d a i l y l i f e and can be seen r e c i p r o c a l l y t o i n f l u e n c e and shape one a n o t h e r . These i n t e r a c t i o n s u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o d e l i m i t i n g t h e forms o f a c t i o n t h a t a r e f e l t p o s s i b l e and a c t u a l l y taken 149 w i t h r e g a r d t o h o u s i n g i n d a i l y l i f e . As B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n s u g g e s t , our c o n s t r u c t i o n o f , and l i v i n g w i t h i n s e e m i n g l y d i s c r e t e , but i n e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d domains i s an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t o f o u r i d e o l o g y , 150 n o t a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e way t h i n g s a r e i n the w o r l d . To c o n s i d e r o n l y i d e a s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f home and homeownership would i g n o r e t h e i r w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t by which t h e y a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . 66 In C h a p t e r Two, the e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e e m p i r i c a l s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n and the methodology employed w i l l be d e t a i l e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d , i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , by an e x p o s i t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s o f t h e e m p i r i c a l s t u d y . F i n a l l y , i n C h a p t e r Four, t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i d e o l o g y and homeownership and a t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r a i s a l w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n . 67 F o o t n o t e s For examples o f the m a n a g e r i a l i s t a p p r o a c h s e e : R.E. P a h l , Whose C i t y (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1975); J . Rex and R. Moore, Race, Community and C o n f l i c t : A Study o f S p a r k b r o o k e d a l e ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967). F o r a c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e see M. H a r l o e , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " i n C a p t i v e C i t i e s (London: W i l e y , 1977), pp. 1-47. 2 F r e n c h urban s o c i o l o g y was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e work o f Manuel C a s t e l l s , The Urban Q u e s t i o n (London: Edward A r n o l d , 1977). He, i n t u r n , draws h e a v i l y on s t r u c t u r a l i s t M a r x i s t s such as A l t h u s s e r . See L o u i s A l t h u s s e r , F o r Marx (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1965). 3 F o r example s e e : M i c h a e l B a l l , "Owner O c c u p a t i o n , " i n Hous i n g  and C l a s s i n B r i t a i n , P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Housing-Workshop o f the C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l i s t E c o n o m i s t s (London: PEHW, 1976), pp. 24-9, h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as PEHW; M a r t i n Boddy, "The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Ho u s i n g : Mortgage F i n a n c e d Owner O c c u p a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , " A n t i p o d e , 8, No. 1 (1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 15-24; C a s t e l l s , Urban Q u e s t i o n ; Simon C l a r k e and Norman G i n s b u r g , "The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f H o u s i n g , " i n P o l i t i c a l  Economy and the Housing Q u e s t i o n , PEHW (London: PEHW, 1975), pp. 3-33; Community Development P r o j e c t I n f o r m a t i o n and I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t , P r o f i t s  A g a i n s t H o u s i n g (London: CDP 1976a), h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CDP; CDP, Whatever Happened t o C o u n c i l Housing (London: CDP 1976b); D a v i d Harvey, "Land, Labour and C l a s s S t r u g g l e Around t h e B u i l t Environment i n Advanced C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t i e s , " P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , 6, No. 3 (1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 265-95; D a n i e l L u r i a , " S u b u r b a n i s a t i o n , Homeownership and C l a s s C o n s c i o u s n e s s , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h e s e t t s , 1976; For a r e v i e w o f A u s t r a l i a n r e s e a r c h see J i m Kemeny, "A P o l i t i c a l S o c i o l o g y o f Homeownership i n A u s t r a l i a , " A u s t r a l i a n and New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y , 13, No. 1 (1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 47-52; F or a r e v i e w o f F r e n c h r e s e a r c h see C h r i s P i c k v a n c e , "Housing, R e p r o d u c t i o n o f Labour Power: Some r e c e n t F r e n c h work," A n t i p o d e , 8, No. 1 (1976 ) , pp. 249-55. 4 The i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p u b l i c o r c o u n c i l h o u s i n g has a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d , p r i m a r i l y i n B r i t a i n and Europe. L i k e homeownership, t h i s t e n u r e i s a l s o seen t o 'buy o f f t h e working c l a s s ' a l t h o u g h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y r a t h e r than c l a s s f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d . See CDP, Whatever Happened t o C o u n c i l H o u s i n g . 5 B a l l , p. 29; F r e d Gray, "The Management o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t y H o u s i n g , " i n Housing and C l a s s i n B r i t a i n , PEHW (London: PEHW 1976); pp. 75-86. 6 Boddy, p. 18; John A. Agnew, "Homeownership and Maintenance o f the C a p i t a l i s t S o c i a l O r d e r , " i n U r b a n i s a t i o n and Urban P l a n n i n g i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t i e s , ed. M i c h a e l Dear and A l l a n J . S c o t t (New York: Methuen, 1981), pp. 60-97. 68 7 L u r i a , p. 121. 8 C l a r k e and G i n s b u r g , p. 5. 9 Harvey, p. 273. 10 i b i d . 11 C l a r k e and G i n s b u r g , p. 5. 12 C o l i n F l e t c h e r , "The R e l e v a n c e o f Domestic P r o p e r t y t o S o c i o -l o g i c a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g , " S o c i o l o g y , 10 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 464. 1 3 C a s t e l l s , p. 182; CDP, P r o f i t s A g a i n s t H o u s i n g , p. 4; CDP, Whatever Happened t o C o u n c i l H o u s i n g , pp. 41-42; Gray, p. 84. 1 4 Harvey, p. 279. 15 Agnew, p. 60. 1 6 C a s t e l l s , p. 61; C l a r k e and G i n s b u r g , p. 25; CDP, Whatever  Happened t o C o u n c i l H o u s i n g , p. 29; Harvey, p. 272. 17 C a s t e l l s , Urban Q u e s t i o n ; Harvey, Land, Labour and C l a s s  S t r u g g l e . 18 P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f Canada. "Homeowners (and B u y e r s ) Deserve a Break," 1979. 19 For B r i t a i n see Boddy, p. 33; For North America see L u r i a , p. 281 and M i c h a e l S t o n e , "The H o u s i n g C r i s i s , Mortgage L e n d i n g and C l a s s S t r u g g l e , " A n t i p o d e , 7, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 22-37; For A u s t r a l i a see Kemeny, p. 48; For Canada, w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , see Deryck H o l d s w o r t h , "House and Home i n Vancouver: Images o f West C o a s t Urbanism," i n The Canadian C i t y , ed. G.A. S l e l t e r and A . F . J . A r t i b u s e ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1977), p. 7. 2 0 S t e v e B a r n e t t and M a r t i n G. S i l v e r m a n , I d e o l o g y and E v e r y d a y  L i f e : A n t h r o p o l o g y , Neo M a r x i s t Thought and the S o c i a l Whole (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1979), p. 25. 21 Elements o f t h i s c r i t i q u e have a l s o been e x p r e s s e d by D a m a i r i s Rose, "Toward a C r i t i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e P o l i t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Homeownership." Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Housing R e s e a r c h , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Geographers Annual M e e t i n g , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; P e t e r S a u n d e r s , Urban P o l i t i c s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1979); Kemeny, op. c i t . 22 Anthony G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems i n S o c i a l T h e o r y : A c t i o n  S t r u c t u r e and C o n t r a d i t i o n i n S o c i a l A n a l y s i s (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1979), p. 111. 69 " Kemony, p. 49. 24 R i c h a r d H a r r i s , " R e s i d e n t i a l S e g r e g a t i o n and U r b a n i s a t i o n Under C a p i t a l i s m : O b s e r v a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g t h e i r T h e o r e t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Housing R e s e a r c h , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Geographers Annual M e e t i n g , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia 1979. D a m a i r i s Rose a p p l i e s t h e s e i d e a s t o homeowner-s h i p i n Rose, "Toward A C r i t i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l . " 25 Rose, "Toward A C r i t i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l , " p. 4. 26 B r i d g i t L e a c h , "Geography, B e h a v i o u r and M a r x i s t P h i l o s o p h y , " A n t i p o d e , 10, No. 2 (.1978), pp. 33-7. 27 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o w o r k i n g c l a s s p o l i t i c s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America see R i c h a r d S e n n e t t and J o h n a t h a n Cobb, The Hidden I n j u r i e s o f C l a s s , (New York: V i n t a g e 1973), p. 5. 22 CDP, Whatever Happened t o C o u n c i l H o u s i n g , p. 29. 29 F r e d Gray and P e t e r D i c k e n s , " I d e o l o g y and the S t a t e : The Case o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t y H o u s i n g , " A n t i p o d e , 10, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 43. 30 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems, p. 72. 31 S a u n d e r s , p. 55. 32 i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t the dominant i d e o l o g y o f a s o c i e t y may f u n c t i o n more t o i n c o r p o r a t e d i f f e r e n t f a c t i o n s o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s than t o i n c o r p o r a t e s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s e s . See N i c h o l a s Aber-crombie and Bryan S. T u r n e r , "The Dominant I d e o l o g y T h e s i s , " B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 29, No. 2 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 149-169. 33 Due t o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y low degree o f t h e o r e t i c a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s -n e s s , I am h e s i t a n t t o l a b e l t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s a s , f o r example, S t r u c -t u r a l M a r x i s t s . 34 Harvey, p. 271. 3 5 Harvey, p. 279. 36 See Raymond W i l l i a m s , Marxism and L i t e r a t u r e ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), pp. 21-44. 37 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems, p. 39. 38 For d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t see J o a c h i m I s r a e l , A l i e n a t i o n : From Marx t o Modern S o c i o l o g y ( B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1971), pp. 30-96; J o r g e L a r r a i n , The Concept o f I d e o l o g y (London: H u t c h i n s o n & Co. L t d . , 1979), pp. 35-67; B e r t e l l O i l m a n , A l i e n a t i o n : Marx's  C o n c e p t i o n o f Man i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t y (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976), pp. 73-227; W i l l i a m s , pp. 55-71. 70 39 See, f o r example, Le a c h , "Geography." 40 P e t e r L. B e r g e r and Thomas Luckmann, The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f  R e a l i t y : A T r e a t i s e i n t h e S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge (New York: Doubleday & Company, I n c . , 1966). 41 See I s r a e l , p. 36, f o r comments on t h e p a r a l l e l s between the views o f human n a t u r e espoused by George H e r b e r t Mead and by.Marx. 42 R o b e r t M. R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y : A Phenomeno-l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f American H o u s i n g . " D i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1975. R o b e r t M. R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y i n Ev e r y d a y L i f e : The Meaning o f t h e House," P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , 7 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 85-104. 43 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 18. 44 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 129. In terms, o f t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e s , t h e y c i t e Marx f o r t h e i r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , S c h u t z f o r t h e i r views on the f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n e v e r y d a y l i f e , Durkheim whose view o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y t h e y m o d i f y by the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f a d i a l e c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e d e r i v e d from Marx, and Mead f o r t h e i r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . See B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 17. 46 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 61. 46 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 54-67. 47 f o r Mead, c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s p r o f o u n d l y s o c i a l and, as s u c h , c a n n o t be c o n c e i v e d as b e i n g an a b s t r a c t , p s y c h i c e n t i t y . C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s seen t o be composed o f two ele m e n t s - the " I " and t h e "Me." The l a t t e r can c o m p r i s e a s e l f t h a t i s l a r g e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s w i t h whom the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t s . 48 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 58. 49 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 63. 50 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 41-46. 51 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 61-93. 52 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 94-95. The c o n c e p t o f s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e can be seen as b e i n g comparable w i t h t h a t o f c u l t u r e ; t h a t i s , a system o f s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , s h a r e d p u b l i c meanings. 53 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 103. 54 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 104-116. 55 These comments p r i m a r i l y p e r t a i n t o t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f the i s s u e o f i d e o l o g y . F or a more complete c r i t i q u e see R i c h a r d L i t c h m a n , " S y m b o l i c I n t e r a c t i o n i s m and S o c i a l R e a l i t y : Some M a r x i s t Q u e r i e s , " B e r k l e y J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 15 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 75-94. 71 56 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 3. 57 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 116-123. 58 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 118-119. 59 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 108. 60 W i l l i a m s , p. 108. 61 S a u n d e r s , p. 51. 62 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 129-132. 63 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 61; p. 130. 64 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems, p. 130. 65 L i t c h m a n , p. 89. 66 L i t c h m a n , p. 79. 67 See R o i s f n McDonough, " I d e o l o g y as F a l s e C o n s c i o u s n e s s : Lukacs,' i n On the Concept o f I d e o l o g y , C e n t r e f o r Contemporary C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s (London: H u t c h i n s o n and Co. L t d . , 1978), p. 35. 68 p e t e r L. B e r g e r and S t a n l e y P u l l b e r g , " R e i f i c a t i o n and the S o c i o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s , " H i s t o r y and T h e o r y , 4 (1964-1965), p. 198. 69 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 58. 70 L i t c h m a n , p. 91. 7 1 B e r g e r and P u l l b e r g , pp. 199-200. 72 B e r g e r and P u l l b e r g , p. 208. 73 For d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t see I s r a e l , A l i e n a t i o n ; L a r r a i n , I d e o l o g y ; 01Iman, A l i e n a t i o n . 7 4 I s r a e l , p. 61; p. 91. 75 Olman, pp. 196-7. 7 6 L a r r a i n , p. 57; A l s o see R u s s e l l Keat and John U r r y , S o c i a l  T h e o r y as S c i e n c e (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1975). 7 7 L a r r a i n s u g g e s t s t h a t although- Marx does n o t use the term i d e o l o g y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n s o f e s s e n c e and appearance and o f commodity f e t i s h i s m , such a c o n c e p t i s s t i l l c l e a r l y b e i n g evoked. R e i f i e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t remains f i x e d a t the l e v e l o f appearances i s p r e c i s e l y t h e type o f d i s t o r t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s e d as i d e o l o g y i n t h e German I d e o l o g y o r t h e Theses on F e v e r b a c h . In both i n s t a n c e s , 72 c o n t r a d i c t o r y s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o d i s t o r t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h o s e r e l a t i o n s . See L a r r a i n , p. 57. 78 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 123. 7 9 B e r g e r and Luckmann, p. 8 0 4 f f . 8 0 L i t c h m a n , p. 87. 8 1 Keat and U r r y , p. 177. 8 2 Anthony G i d d e n s , " C u r r e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e s i n the T h e o r y o f I d e o l o g y , " Opening P l e n a r y S e s s i o n , C u r r e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e s i n the t h e o r y o f I d e o l o g y : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium, P o l y t e c h n i c o f C e n t r a l London, 29-31 May, 1981. Giddens p o i n t s o u t t h a t Marx's w r i t i n g s do not c o n t a i n a s y s t e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n o f i d e o l o g y , but n o t e s t h a t h i s c r i t i q u e o f p o l i t i c a l economy i s i n e s s e n c e a c r i t i q u e o f i d e o l o g y . A l s o see Keat and U r r y , p. 177; W i l l i a m s , pp. 55-71. 8 3 B e r g e r and Luckmann, pp. 108-9. 8^ L a r r a i n , p. 46. 85 L a r r a i n , p. 61; Keat and U r r y , p. 198. 86 For summaries o f Gramsci's t h o u g h t see C a r l Boggs, Gr a m s c i ' s  Marxism (London: P l u t o P r e s s , 1976); S t u a r t H a l l , Bob Lumley and Gregor McLennan, " P o l i t i c s and I d e o l o g y : G r a m s c i , " i n On I d e o l o g y , C e n t r e f o r Contemporary C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s (London: H u t c h i n s o n & Co. L t d . , 1978), pp. 45-76; W i l l i a m s , pp. 108-114. 87 W i l l i a m s , p. 110. 88 H a l l e t a l . , pp. 48-49. 8 9 W i l l i a m s , p. 110. 9 0 Goran T h e r b o r n , The I d e o l o g y o f Power and the Power o f I d e o l o g y (London: V e r s o , 1980), pp. v i i - v i i i . 9"1 T h i s view o f i d e o l o g y f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t h a t o f Marx and Gramsci and has r e c e n t l y begun t o be r e v i v e d , f o r example, by W i l l i a m s and G i d d e n s . In l a r g e p a r t i t r e f l e c t s the b e l i e f t h a t a p o l a r i t y between i d e o l o g y and s c i e n c e o r f a l s e and t r u e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s m i s g u i d e d i n t h a t s c i e n c e i t s e l f may be i d e o l o g i c a l i f i t f a i l s t o p e n e t r a t e s o c i e t i e s "phenomenal forms" o r " a p p e a r a n c e s . " S c i e n c e i s d i f f e r e n t from i d e o l o g y but n o t i t s a n t i t h e s i s . The r e l a t i o n between i d e o l o g i c a l and n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s n o t s i m p l y t h a t o f t r u t h v. f a l s e -hood and o t h e r forms o f e r r o n e o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d . For an e x t e n d e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e i s s u e s see G i d d e n s , " C u r r e n t Con-t r o v e r s i e s ; " L a r r a i n , pp. 172-210. 73 92 B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n , p. 20. 93 T h i s problem i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f community s t u d i e s by G B r o c k and Dan F i n n , "Working C l a s s Images o f S o c i e t y and Community S t u d i e s , " i n On I d e o l o g y , C e n t r e f o r Contemporary C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s (London: H u t c h i n s o n and Co. L t d . , 1978), pp. 125-143. 94 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , " I d e o l o g y as a C u l t u r a l System," i n The  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C u l t u r e s : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1973), p. 61; T h e r b o r n , p. 77. 95 G i d d e n s , C u r r e n t C o n t r o v e r s i e s ; W i l l i a m s , pp. 21-44. 96 C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , " T h i c k D e s c r i p t i o n : Toward an i n t e r p r e t i v e t h e o r y o f c u l t u r e " i n The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C u l t u r e s : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , 1973), p. 5. 97 G e e r t z , " I d e o l o g y , " pp. 47-76. 98 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems, p. 192. " T h e r b o r n , p. 2. 1 0 0 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l P r o b l e m s , p. 188. 101 B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n , p. 29. 102 M i h a i l o M a r k o v i c , "The Problem o f R e i f i c a t i o n and the V e r s t e h e n - E r k l a r e n C o n t r o v e r s y , " A c t a S o c i o l o g i e a , 15 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 29. 103 W i l l i a m s , p. 110. 1 0 4 L i t c h m a n , p. 92. 105 R i c h a r d S e n n e t t and Johnathan Cobb, The Hidden I n j u r i e s o f  C l a s s , 106 Norman P r o v i z e r , "Hi House; Goodbye I d e a l s , " New York Times, 21 June, 1978, 107 G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems, p. 7. 108 K e i t h B a s s e t t and John S h o r t , H o u s i n g and R e s i d e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1980), p. 211. 109 Daman's Rose, "Toward A R e - E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e P o l i t i c a l S i g -n i f i c a n c e o f Homeownership i n B r i t a i n , "Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Housing Workshop o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l i s t Economists," 3 Feb. 1979, M a n c h e s t e r , p. 1 11° R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " . H I R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 8-9. 74 1 1 2 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 10-11. 113 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 16. 114 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 18-20. 115 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 24-28. 116 See, f o r example, P e t e r Ambrose and Bob C o l e n u t t , The P r o p e r t y  Machine (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1975); Donald G u t s t e i n , Vancouver L t d . (.Toronto: J . L o r i m e r , 1975). 117 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 75; pp. 84-131. 1 1 8 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 141-159. 1 1 9 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 23; p. 148. 12° R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 20. 121 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 22; pp. 143-154. 122 F o r example, see R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 141. 123 R o b e r t Lane, P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y (New York: F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1962), p. 429. 124 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 156. 125 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " p. 142. 126 B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n , p. 36. 127 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y , " pp. 141-154. 128 s e e , f o r example, C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , The C u l t u r e o f N a r c i s s i s m :  American L i f e i n an Age o f D i m i n i s h i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1978); R i c h a r d S e n n e t t , The F a l l o f P u b l i c Man: On t h e S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y o f C a p i t a l i s m (New: V i t a g e , 1978). 129 Gray and D i c k e n s , " I d e o l o g y . " 130 Gray and D i c k e n s , pp. 38-39. 131 Gray and D i c k e n s , p. 39. 132 Gray and D i c k e n s , pp. 40-41. 133 Gray and D i c k e n s , pp. 41-43. 134 Gray and D i c k e n s , p. 40. 135 Gray and D i c k e n s , p. 43. 75 C a r l Boggs, G r a m s c i , c i t e d i n H a l l e t a l . , p. 73. 137 H a l l , e t a l . , p. 48. 138 H a l l , e t a l . , pp. 48-49. 139 Daman's Rose, "Toward a R e - E y a l u a t i o n o f t h e P o l i t i c a l S i g -n i f i c a n c e o f Homeownership i n B r i t a i n , " i n H o u s i n g , C o n s t r u c t i o n and the  S t a t e , PEHW (London: PEHW, 1980), pp. 71-76. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) . l 4 0 R o s e , "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , " p. 71. 141 Rose, "Toward a C r i t i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l . " 142 Rose, "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , H 3 Rose, "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , 144 Rose, "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , 145 Rose, "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , 146 Rose, "Toward a R e - E v a l u a t i o n ( b ) , 147 s e n n e t t , pp. 16-24. p. 72. pp. 72-74. p. 73. p. 75. p. 75. 148 See, f o r example, C l a i r e Cooper, "The House As Symbol o f S e l f , " i n D e s i g n i n g f o r Human B e h a v i o u r , eds. J . Lang e t a l . ( S t r o u d s b e r g , Penn: Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross, 1974), pp. 130-45; James S. Duncan and Nancy G. Duncan, "Housing as a P r e s e n t a t i o n o f S e l f and t h e S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i a l Networks," i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Knowing, ed. R e g i n a l d G. G o l l e d g e and Gary T. Moore ( S t r o u d s b e r g : Penn: Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross, 1976), pp. 247-57. 149 Paul C o r r i g a n and Norman G i n s b e r g , "Tenants S t r u g g l e s and C l a s s S t r u g g l e , " i n P o l i t i c a l Economy and the Housing Q u e s t i o n , PEHW (London: PEHW; 1975), p. 140. The imp o r t a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f under-s t a n d i n g i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t e n a n t s . 150 B a r n e t t and S i l v e r m a n , p. 20. 7 6 CHAPTER TWO METHODOLOGY 2.1 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l O r i e n t a t i o n s The s t r a t e g y adopted t o examine the i s s u e s o f i d e o l o g y and the meaning o f homeownership i n e v e r y d a y l i f e was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by (1) the manner i n which c o n s c i o u s n e s s was c o n c e p t u a l i s e d i n the t h e o r -e t i c a l work o f , f o r example, Giddens and W i l l i a m s , and (2) the more s u b s t a n t i v e work o f S e n n e t t and Cobb, Lane and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , R a k o f f . 1 In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the consequences o f r e d u c i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o f o r m a l i d e o l o g i e s ( n o t e d i n C h a p t e r One), W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f " a c t u a l men" as b e i n g " r e l a t i v e l y mixed, c o n f u s e d , i n c o m p l e t e and i n a r t i c u l a t e " and as b e i n g o v e r r i d d e n when equated 2 w i t h f o r m a l b e l i e f systems. S i m i l a r l y , Giddens has r a i s e d t h e i d e a o f a d i s t i n c t i o n between what he terms " p r a c t i c a l " and " d i s c u r s i v e " c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The f o r m e r p e r t a i n s t o t a c i t knowledge embodied i n "what a c t o r s know how t o do" but o f which t h e y may o n l y be a b l e t o g i v e i m p e r f e c t o r f r a g m e n t a r y a c c o u n t s , w h i l e the l a t t e r i s knowledge 3 t h a t can be a r t i c u l a t e d d i s c u r s i v e l y . These c o n t e n t i o n s appear t o f i n d e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t i n the work o f each o f t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l a u t h o r s c i t e d above, a l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t t h e i r e x p l i c i t p u r p o s e . For example, R a k o f f s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e meaning c o n t e x t s c r e a t e d and drawn upon by the homeowner a r e r i f e w i t h a r e a s o f a m b i v a l e n c e , c o n t r a d i c t i o n and con-t i n g e n c y and a s i m i l a r view i s taken by S e n n e t t and Cobb i n t h e i r d i s -4 c u s s i o n o f the s u b t l e t y o f t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s ' t h o u g h t s . Lane has a l s o 77 i n d i c a t e d t h a t many o f t h e u l t i m a t e l y i m p o r t a n t themes a r e l a t e n t , but 5 may emerge from d i s c u s s i o n . In l i g h t o f t h i s , S e n n e t t and Cobb, Lane and R a k o f f a l l espoused the b e l i e f t h a t a d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s u r v e y i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o p e n e t r a t e s u b j e c t i v e l e v e l s o f meaning. Most b a s i c a l l y t h i s l a t t e r form o f i n t e r v i e w i n g becomes pro b -l e m a t i c because the i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s and q u e s t i o n s tend t o be l a r g e l y p r e d e f i n e d . When t h i s o c c u r s , e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h l a r g e l y e n t a i l s o b t a i n i n g " a c c u r a t e e v i d e n c e on d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f p e o p l e among c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n d e s c r i p t i o n o r v e r i f i c a t i o n " r a t h e r than f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f and d i s c o v e r y o f t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s . In view o f the somewhat s t e r e o t y p i c a l images c o n j u r e d up by t h e i d e o l o g y o f home-owner and e v i d e n c e t h a t the commonly evoked meanings and v a l u e s a r e l e s s than u n i v e r s a l , i t seemed e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y t h a t was e x p l o r a t o r y and t o a v o i d a methodology t h a t might p e r p e t u a t e t h e s e images.^ A d d i t i o n a l l y , the p o s t u l a t e d n a t u r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s c i t e d above, both s u g g e s t e d the i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f an approach r e q u i r i n g d i r e c t , c o d i f i a b l e r e s p o n s e s t o d i s c r e t e q u e s t i o n s , i n which t h e range o f p o s s i b l e answers had t o a l a r g e e x t e n t been a n t i c i p a t e d . These a u t h o r s a l l o p t e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s t r u c -t u r e d methodology and more p r e c i s e l y f o r v a r i a n t s o f i n d e p t h , r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g . T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y t he approach adopted h e r e . As s u c h , i t i s viewed as b e i n g l a r g e l y i n d u c t i v e and as a i m i n g t o " d i s -c o v e r " r a t h e r than " t e s t " t h e n a t u r e o f the meaning c o n t e x t s evoked by homeowners. 78 2.2 I n t e r v i e w Form and C o n t e n t W h i l e a s t a n d a r d i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t u t i l i s e d , t he l i m i t e d scope o f the s t u d y and the l i m i t e d time and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e made c o m p l e t e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g o r an e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p roach u n f e a s i b l e . I n s t e a d , a p a r t l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g methodology was a d o p t e d . T h i s was g u i d e d by a s e r i e s o f t o p i c s t h a t a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y seemed t o be i m p o r t a n t , and by a s e t o f g e n e r a l , v e r y f l e x i b l e q u e s t i o n s t h a t were i n t e n d e d t o i n i t i a t e and promote d i s c u s s i o n where n e c e s s a r y . The t o p i c s t h o u g h t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t were l a r g e l y s u g g e s t e d by a q u i t e h e t e r o g e n o u s l i t e r a t u r e encompassing somewhat r e f l e c t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning o f home, more e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s y i e l d i n g c o n c e p t s such as t h e "home as r e f u g e , " s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o the n a t u r e o f home, f a m i l y o r p r i v a t e l i f e i n g e n e r a l , and f i n a l l y popu-l a r images drawn from, f o r example, the contemporary media and p o l i t i c a l 8 propaganda. These i s s u e s were broached from a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s and l e v e l s o f s p e c i f i c i t y and w h i l e some q u e s t i o n s , such as t h o s e r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l h o u s i n g h i s t o r y , were q u i t e s p e c i f i c , the m a j o r i t y were v e r y g e n e r a l and open ended and aimed a t i n i t i a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n . The i n t e r v i e w g u i d e t h a t was l o o s e l y f o l l o w e d can be found i n Appendix A. I t was c o m p i l e d i n a sequence t h a t seemed t o f a c i l i t a t e a d egree o f c o n t i n u i t y , g i v e n the d i v e r s i t y o f the t o p i c s c o n s i d e r e d , i n c a s e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n d u c t a r e l a t i v e l y f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w . However, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the o p e n i n g q u e s t i o n s on h o u s i n g h i s t o r y , t h i s s t r u c -t u r e was n o t adhered t o i n a r i g i d manner and i s s u e s were t a k e n up s p o n t a n e o u s l y as they a r o s e i n the c o u r s e o f d i s c u s s i o n . T h r o u g h o u t , emphasis was p l a c e d upon a l l o w i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o e x p r e s s and e x p l a i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s and b e l i e f s , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h , the l a t t e r c o u l d then be p u r s u e d , probed and c l a r i f i e d . 79 Of c o u r s e , even a r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d form o f i n t e r v i e w i n g i s an a r t i f i c i a l i n t r u s i o n i n t o p e o p l e ' s l i v e s and may r e s u l t i n the r e s e a r c h e r i m p o s i n g h i s own p r e c o n c e p t i o n s upon h i s r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s p i t f a l l would seem t o be m i n i m i s e d , however, where q u e s t i o n s a r e gen-u i n e l y open ended so t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t may "speak f o r h i m s e l f " and where the r e s e a r c h e r s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e s p e r s o n a l b i a s e s . T h i s r a t i o n a l e seems t o be r e a s o n a b l e i n r e t r o s p e c t f o r t h r o u g h o u t the i n t e r v i e w s i t was r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t when an i d e a o r s u g g e s t i o n was i n a p p l i c a b l e . T y p i c a l l y , a r e s p o n s e such a s , " W e l l , I t h i n k a l o t o f p e o p l e f e e l t h a t , but f o r m y s e l f I . . ." would be e l i c i t e d . Both t h e t o p i c s r a i s e d and t h e l e a d - i n q u e s t i o n s appear t o have been s u f f i -c i e n t l y open t o a l l o w the r e s p o n d e n t s t o e x p r e s s f r e e l y t h e i r o p i n i o n s . The group o f p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d was assembled t h r o u g h a system o f c o n t a c t s and r e f e r r a l s , i n i t i a l l y from f r i e n d s who knew homeowners and s u b s e q u e n t l y from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . W h i l s t o b v i o u s l y l a c k i n g t h e r i g o u r and p o t e n t i a l f o r g e n e r a l i s a t i o n y i e l d e d by, f o r example, random s a m p l i n g , t h i s method was t h o u g h t t o be most a p p r o p r i a t e g i v e n the aims and f o r m o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s t o be u n d e r t a k e n . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s i n v o l v e d a t r a d e o f f between t h e f o r m e r q u a l i t i e s and a d e s i r e f o r d e p t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y . A minimum i n t e r v i e w l e n g t h o f one hour t o one hour and t h i r t y m inutes seemed p r o b a b l e f o l l o w i n g a d r y run among f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . I t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t many p o s i -t i v e r e s p o n s e s would ensue from e i t h e r t e l e p h o n e o r d o o r s t e p r e q u e s t s f o r an appointment. I t a l s o became a p p a r e n t q u i t e e a r l y on t h a t t h i s l e n g t h c o u l d be g r e a t l y exceeded by a r e s p o n s i v e p e r s o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some o f the i s s u e s r a i s e d might have been p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g too p e r s o n a l t o d i s c u s s w i t h a s t r a n g e r . To an 80 e x t e n t , t h o s e i n t u i t i o n s were v a l i d a t e d by the manner i n which c o n t a c t s were made. In the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , p o t e n t i a l r e s p o n d e n t s were f i r s t c o n t a c t e d by t h e i r f r i e n d , o f t e n on t h e l a t t e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n , t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Only then would the names be p a s s e d on t o me. The o n l y r e f u s a l e n c o u n t e r e d d i d n o t f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n i n t h a t t h e " f r i e n d " was r e l u c t a n t t o do more than g i v e me a name because she f e l t she would be "imposing too much" on t h e f r i e n d -s h i p . Thus, a degree o f s a n c t i o n seemed t o be n e c e s s a r y t o f a c i l i t a t e c r e d i b i l i t y and l e g i t i m a c y . A l l t he i n t e r v i e w s were taped w i t h t h e p r i o r c o n s e n t o f the r e s -pondents who seemed t o f i n d i t n e i t h e r an unusual nor u n p l e a s a n t r e q u e s t . One woman was s l i g h t l y i r r i t a t e d a t the i d e a because she d i d n ' t l i k e t he sound o f her v o i c e on t a p e ; however, she t o l d me t o "go ahead anyway" because she r e a l i s e d she would n o t have t o l i s t e n t o i t ! I chose t o r e c o r d t h e i n t e r v i e w s f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . P r a g m a t i c a l l y , because I a n t i c i p a t e d l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n s , I was d u b i o u s as t o t h e e x t e n t t o which I c o u l d t r u s t my memory and was u n c e r t a i n whether e f f o r t s t o t a k e n o t e s would d i s r u p t the f l o w o f d i s c u s s i o n . In one i n s t a n c e , where a t e c h n i c a l breakdown o c c u r r e d , t h e l a t t e r d i d seem to. be the c a s e and i t was more d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w up i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , note t a k i n g a l s o seemed l i k e l y t o i n t r o d u c e an unwelcomed degree o f s e l e c t i v i t y t h a t m i ght undermine t h e e s s e n t i a l l y e x p l o r a t o r y aims o f the s t u d y . I t seemed l i k e l y t h a t a t l e a s t some o f t h e s i g n i f i -c a n t themes and i d e a s would o n l y appear t o be so i n r e t r o s p e c t and m i g ht be passed o v e r d u r i n g the e a r l y s t a g e s o f the s t u d y . S i m i l a r l y , I f e l t t h a t the c h o i c e o f words, p h r a s i n g , h e s i t a t i o n and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the s t y l e o f d i s c o u r s e m i ght be i m p o r t a n t and t h a t t h e s e nuances 81 m i g ht be l o s t t h r o u g h t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o my own t e r m i n o l o g y and s h o r t -hand. Both men and women were i n t e r v i e w e d and w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y were c o u p l e s , d i s c u s s i o n s always took p l a c e s e p a r a t e l y because i t was f e l t t h a t t h e y m i ght r e s t r i c t one a n o t h e r . A f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t c o n d u c t i n g a s i m i l a r form o f i n t e r v i e w i n g had noted t h a t the e n t r a n c e o f a n o t h e r f a m i l y member d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w o f t e n caused t h e r e s -pondent t o become l e s s v o c a l . In my own c a s e , e a r l y i n the s t u d y I made t h e m i s t a k e o f c o n d u c t i n g a j o i n t i n t e r v i e w when s c h e d u l i n g p l a n s broke down and I found m y s e l f s e a t e d a t the f a m i l y d i n n e r t a b l e w i t h , the a s s u r a n c e t h a t I s h o u l d " j u s t go r i g h t ahead and ask my q u e s t i o n s . " The r e s u l t s were d i s a s t r o u s and i n e v i t a b l y one p e r s o n tended t o m o n o p o l i s e the d i s c u s s i o n so t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the o t h e r c e a s e d t o p a r -t i c i p a t e i n more than a minimal manner. I chose n o t t o u t i l i s e t h i s i n t e r v i e w and p r o c e e d e d on the b a s i s o f my i n i t i a l i n t u i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g m u l t i p l e i n t e r v i e w s . A l l i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e i n the r e s p o n d e n t s ' homes, as much by t h e i r assumption as by my r e q u e s t . T h i s was f e l t t o be i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r t o maximise t h e i r sense o f ease and c o n t r o l . In a s k i n g f o r c o n t a c t s , my o n l y s t i p u l a t i o n s were t h a t they s h o u l d be homeowners and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d have w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s so t h a t , l o o s e l y d e f i n e d , I was b r o a d l y a i m i n g f o r a m i d d l e c l a s s sample. T h e r e were s e v e r a l m o t i v a t i o n s t o t h i s f o c u s . The i d e o l o g y o f home-ownership e n t a i l s i d e a s about embourgeoisment and t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f what i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h o u g h t t o be a m i d d l e c l a s s l i f e s t y l e . Achievement o f a s i n g l e f a m i l y , m i d d l e c l a s s home and l i f e s t y l e i s p o r t r a y e d as a u n i v e r s a l d e s i r e , a t l e a s t i n North A m e r i c a . T h i s . i s . a l s o the group o f p e o p l e most l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e 82 i n f l u e n c i n g h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n , so i t seemed i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning c o n t e x t s t h e y may b r i n g t o bear upon p o l i c y -making. F i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h amongst t h i s s o c i a l group has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r meanings o f the home may v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , s u g g e s t i n g t h e need t o p e n e t r a t e and move beyond t h e s t e r e o t y p i c a l images o f m i d d l e Q c l a s s homeowners. The c h o i c e r e g a r d i n g the e x a c t number o f i n t e r v i e w s t o be c o n d u c t e d was p r o b l e m a t i c . W h i l e not a i m i n g f o r a random sample and h a v i n g no p r e d e f i n e d t h r e s h o l d o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , I a l s o f e l t t h a t R a k o f f ' s sample o f 18 ( j o i n t l y c o n d u c t e d i n t e r v i e w s ) was t o o s m a l l p a r t i c u l a r l y when two c o u p l e s were e x c l u d e d from t h e main d i s c u s s i o n because o f t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s . ^ U l t i m a t e l y , I chose t o f o l l o w t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f G l a s e r and S t r a u s s w i t h r e g a r d t o the d i s t i n c t i o n t h e y draw between t h e o r e t i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l s a m p l i n g . The f o r m e r aims t o d i s c o v e r s i g n i f i c a n t t h e o r e t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s from the d a t a and i s g u i d e d by a c o n c e p t o f " s a t u r a t i o n " r a t h e r than a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample p o p u l a t i o n . S a t u r a t i o n can be seen t o be a c h i e v e d when "no a d d i t i o n a l d a t a a r e b e i n g found whereby t h e s o c i o l o g i s t can d e v e l o p the p r o p e r t i e s o f the c a t e g o r y . " ^ G i v e n the e x p l o r a t o r y aims o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s seemed t o be an a p p r o -p r i a t e s t r a t e g y and c u l m i n a t e d i n the group t o be d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 2.3 Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d were r e s i d e n t s o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h C olumbia: a west c o a s t Canadian c i t y w i t h a 1976 p o p u l a t i o n o f 410,000 and f o r m i n g p a r t o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1.2 m i l l i o n 83 (1976). N o t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : 1. An above a v e r a g e s h a r e o f w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s which c o m p r i s e d 70% o f t h e c i t y ' s j o b s i n 1971. 2. S e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s have r e s u l t e d i n a l o s s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l , s i n g l e wage e a r n e r households w i t h c h i l d r e n and t h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t by one o r two p e r s o n a d u l t h o u s e h o l d s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a r e more, and s m a l l e r , h o u s e h o l d s . 3. High d i s p o s a b l e incomes. The 1976 mean h o u s e h o l d income was e s t i m a t e d as b e i n g $14,600 i n 1976 but about a q u a r t e r o f ho u s e h o l d s e a r n e d i n e x c e s s o f $20,000. 4. In terms o f h o u s i n g , 4 7 1 were o w n e r - o c c u p i e d w h i l e t he r e m a i n i n g 53% were r e n t e d i n 1976 and 50% a r e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . 5. The dominant e t h n i c group (by e t h n i c o r i g i n ) i s t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s - 53% i n 1971. 6. I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a h i g h amenity c i t y . i n view o f t he q u a l i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f i t s p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g . When r e q u e s t i n g c o n t a c t s no s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f the c i t y were s p e c i f i e d , however, a l l b ut two c o u p l e s were l o c a t e d on the west s i d e o f t h e c i t y i n s o u t h e r n West P o i n t Grey and K i t s i l a n o , Dunbar and the n o r t h e r n f r i n g e s o f K e r r i s d a l e ( s e e F i g u r e 2.1). Those l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e s e n eighbourhoods were r e c e n t f i r s t t i me buyers who had been f o r c e d f u r t h e r e a s t by t h e r a p i d e s c a l a t i o n i n house p r i c e s and i n t e r e s t r a t e s i n 1980 and whose p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n was i n t h e s e w e s t e r n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h i s l o c a t i o n a l c l u s t e r i n g i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t he manner i n which the sample was assembled. 84 The group c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e ne x t c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f a t o t a l o f 33 p e r s o n s , 15 men and 18 women. The n u m e r i c a l d i s c r e p a n c y between sexes r e f l e c t s one s i n g l e woman and two women whose husbands were p e r s i s t e n t l y u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w p e r i o d . In terms o f h o u s e h o l d s , t h e r e were 14 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s , one c o h a b i t i n g c o u p l e , one s i n g l e p e r s o n and one d i v o r c e d p e r s o n , p l u s t h e two m a r r i e d women whose husbands were n o t i n t e r v i e w e d . Thus, t h e r e were 19 i n d i v i d u a l house-h o l d s . T h e i r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. T h e i r ages ranged from l a t e 20s t o e a r l y 60s w i t h the m a j o r i t y (44%) b e i n g i n t h e i r 30s. (See F i g u r e 2.2.) 2. F o u r t e e n o f the 19 hou s e h o l d s had f a m i l i e s , m o s t l y c o n s i s t i n g o f two c h i l d r e n under t h e age o f f i v e , o r o f grown c h i l d r e n . (See F i g u r e s 2.3 and 2.4.) 3. A l l t h o s e i n employment (20) had w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s and the for m e r o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g women were a l s o o f t h i s t y p e . Four-t e e n o f t h e women d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as homemakers and o n l y t h r e e were i n v o l v e d i n p a r t time j o b s , a g a i n w h i t e c o l l a r . 4. The m a j o r i t y had r e c e i v e d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h r e e d i d n o t complete t h e i r d e g r e e s . S i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d some form o f p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . (See F i g u r e 2.5.) 5. Over a t h i r d (36%) can be th o u g h t o f as b e i n g s o c i a l l y m o b i l e i n t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n was i n a b l u e c o l l a r j o b . 6. G e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y i s a l s o q u i t e h i g h w i t h o n l y 30% born i n V a n c o u v e r / B r i t i s h Columbia. The rem a i n d e r o r i g i n a t e e i t h e r i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada o r from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , most n o t a b l y B r i t a i n ( 6 7 % ) . (See F i g u r e 2.6.) 85 7. A l l but two c o u p l e s were p a y i n g o f f mortgages and t h o s e t h a t owned o u t r i g h t had p r e v i o u s l y f i n a n c e d t h e i r h o u s i n g i n t h i s manner. 8. S i x t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were i n t h e i r f i r s t homes and o v e r 70% had owned f o r l e s s than f i v e y e a r s . For a l l but f i v e , l e n g t h o f c u r r e n t house ownership m i r r o r s l e n g t h o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n c e . (See F i g u r e s 2.7 and 2.8.) 9. With two e x c e p t i o n s , a l l had l i v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f r e n t a l accom-modation p r i o r t o t h e i r p u r c h a s e o f a home. 10. In t h e i r c h i l d h o o d a l m o s t a l l had l i v e d i n owned homes ( 9 1 % ) . For t h e r e m a i n d e r , one had always l i v e d i n r e n t e d accommodation w h i l e two had l i v e d i n houses t h a t came w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s ' j o b s . The m a j o r i t y were s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . 11. A l l incomes exceeded $15,000 per h o u s e h o l d p e r y e a r , w i t h the m a j o r i t y f a l l i n g i n the $25-34,000 and $35-44,000 c a t e g o r i e s . Those i n the $45-54,000 c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t h o u s e h o l d s w i t h two wage e a r n e r s as d i d two i n s t a n c e s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g ($35-44,000) c a t e g o r y . Four o f t h e l a t t e r a l s o s p e c i f i e d t h e i r incomes as b e i n g e x a c t l y $35,000 so t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d s can be seen t o e a r n between $25-35,000 p e r y e a r . (See F i g u r e 2.10.) These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been p r e s e n t e d i n v e r y g e n e r a l terms and, f o r example, mention has n o t been made o f s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f j o b s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the promise o f anonymity made p r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g each i n t e r v i e w . In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f the home and homeownership a r t i c u l a t e d by t h i s group a r e p r e s e n t e d . In o r d e r t o f u r t h e r r e s p e c t t h i s promise o f anonymity, I i n t e n d t o , s i m i l a r l y , 86 make no r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s c i t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , my aim was t o i s o l a t e g e n e r a l meanings and themes and t h e s e seem t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u b s t a n -t i a t e d by e x t e n s i v e v e r b a t i m q u o t a t i o n s r a t h e r than by t h e c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f e l a b o r a t e v i g n e t t e s w i t h f i c t i o u s names and p e r s o n a l d e t a i l s . Emphasis l i e s w i t h t he broad themes r a t h e r than p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s o f t h e l a t t e r . A r e a s in w h i c h i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d B u r r a r d Inlet F i gu re 2.1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n te rv iews in V a n c o u v e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d s by H o u s e h o l d . S o u r c e - A d a p t e d f r o m J a n c e , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 . 00 18% 46 18 12 fey t f i l i ' J . T j . l - / . ' 20 30 40 Y e a r s 50 60+ M a l e F e m a l e ure 2.2 - A g e D i s t r i b u t i o n by A g e C a t e g o r 89 8 </> 12 J 10 O) in 3 o X - 6 o E 3 Z N u m b e r o f C h i l d r e n F i g u r e 2.3 - N u m b e r of C h i l d r e n per H o u s e h o l d . c V E 3 z 12-1 10-& 6 4 2 0 5 10 15 20 25+ A g e - ( y e a r s ) F i g u r e 2.4 - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n by A g e C a t e g o r y . 90 C o l / l OL 01 X) E Z 14 12 1CH 8 6 4 2 0> 3% 30 67 E l e m e n t a r y H i g h ,. . S c h o o l S c h o o l - U n i v e r s i t y M a l e F e m a l e ft ' . ^ l L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n F i g u r e 2.5 - E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t . 12 8 ± 10 a o a. 0) E Z 2 7 % a* > 3 O W c re > ft-4-* 0) u ° 2 «/> E re 3 0) — i - o re u 36 ! > , Z r ?^ :;;?^ o <n re re ^ •o re re c her Ca * J O 33 re "D re c re <J d) "D 3 o P l a c e o f B i r t h M a l e F e m a l e F i g u r e 2.6 - G e o g r a p h i c a l M o b i l i t y 92 14 •S 1 2 63% 21 10 0) m 3 O X) E Z 10 1 2 3 4 N u m b e r o f h o u s e s F i gure 2.7 - N u m b e r of H o u s e s O w n e d by H o u s e h o l d O -C V ) 3 o 0) X) E 8 l 6 4' 2 0 21% 16 26 11 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 14 15 19 20+ N u m b e r o f y e a r s in p r e s e n t h o u s e F i g u r e 2.8 - N u m b e r of Y e a r s in P r e s e n t H o u s e by H o u s e h o l d . 93 T e n u r e o f c h i l d h o o d h o m e ur e 2.9 - T e n u r e of C h i l d h o o d H o m e . 94 10i 16% 32 42 10 8 15 25 35 45 55 A n n u a l i n c o m e ($ x 1 0 0 ) F i gu re 2.10 - H o u s e h o l d Income 95 F o o t n o t e s 1 Anthony G i d d e n s , C e n t r a l Problems i n S o c i a l T h e o r y : A c t i o n ,  S t r u c t u r e and C o n t r a d i c t i o n i n S o c i a l A n a l y s i s (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r -s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1979); R o b e r t Lane, P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g y (New York: Free P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1962); Robert R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y and P u b l i c P o l i c y : A P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f American H o u s i n g , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1975; R i c h a r d S e n n e t t and Johnathan Cobb, The Hidden I n j u r i e s o f C l a s s (New York: V i n t a g e , 1973); Raymond W i l l i a m s , Marxism and L i t e r a t u r e ("Oxford: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977). 2 W i l l i a m s , p. 109. 3 G i d d e n s , p. 73. 4 R a k o f f , C h a p t e r 3. 5 Lane, p. 5. 6 Barney G l a s e r and Anselm S t r a u s , The D i s c o v e r y o f Grounded  Theory ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e , 1967). 7 For example, see the f i n d i n g s o f M. Cooper and T. B r i n d l e y , "Housing C l a s s e s and Housing V a l u e s , " S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 23 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 563-76. 8 Examples o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e Val Ross, " S q u e e z i n g t h e M i d d l e C l a s s , " M a c l e a n s , March 10th, 1980, pp. 48-53; Lee R a i n w a t e r , " F e a r and the House-as-Haven i n the Lower M i d d l e C l a s s , " J o u r n a l o f  the American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 32, No. 1 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 23-31; Y i Fu Tuan, T o p d p h i l i a , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1974; E l i Z a r e v s k y , C a p i t a l i s m , t h e F a m i l y and P e r s o n a l L i f e (London: H a r p e r and Row, 197677 9 For a r e v i e w see John A. Agnew, "Homeownership and I d e n t i t y i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t i e s , " i n H o u s i n g and I d e n t i t y , ed. James S. Duncan (London: Croom Helm, 1981), pp. 60-97. 10 R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y . " H G l a s e r and S t r a u s s , p. 62. I 2 These s t a t i s t i c s were drawn from D a v i d Ley, " L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and the P o s t i n d u s t r i a l C i t y , " A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f American  G e o g r a p h e r s , 70, No. 2 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 238-258; Chuck D a v i s ( e d . ) , The Vancouver Book ( V a n c o u v e r : E v e r g r e e n P r e s s L t d . , 1976); Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, U n d e r s t a n d i n g Vancouver 2 ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, 1977). 96 CHAPTER THREE HOUSE AND HOME: SUBJECTIVE MEANINGS IN EVERYDAY LIFE 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The house i s an i n s t i t u t i o n , not j u s t a s t r u c t u r e , c r e a t e d f o r a complex s e t o f p u r p o s e s . . . . Very e a r l y i n r e c o r d e d time t h e house became more than s h e l t e r f o r p r i m i t i v e man, and a l m o s t from t he b e g i n n i n g ' f u n c t i o n ' was much more than a p h y s i c a l o r u t i l i t a r i a n c o n c e p t . . . I f p r o v i s i o n o f s h e l t e r i s the p a s s i v e f u n c t i o n o f the house, then i t s p o s i t i v e p u r p o s e i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f an en v i r o n m e n t b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e way o f l i f e o f a p e o p l e - i n o t h e r words, a s o c i a l u n i t o f s p a c e . 1 These p r e f a c t o r y comments, t a k e n from Amos Rapoport's book, House Form and C u l t u r e , u n d e r s c o r e a form o f t h i n k i n g about houses t h a t has become q u i t e w i d e s p r e a d i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s . As i s s u g g e s t e d , t he house i s r e g a r d e d as more than a form o f s h e l t e r t h a t s a t i s f i e s e s s e n t i a l l y p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs and as more than a commodity t o be exchanged i n the market. W h i l e t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e r e c o g n i s e d as i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s , p r i m a r y emphasis tends t o be p l a c e d upon the c u l t u r a l o r s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f houses. The l a t t e r a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d as e x p r e s s i n g e x t e r n a l i s e d , s u b j e c t i v e meanings and e x p e r i e n c e s and, t o quote Marcus, as more b r o a d l y e x p r e s s i n g " . . . a good d e a l o f how (men) r e l a t e t h e m s e l v e s - o r how t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o -2 the w o r l d i n which they l i v e . " In t h i s c o n t e x t , the house has v a r i o u s l y been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c o s m o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e p t , o r as b e i n g some c o m b i n a t i o n o f the f o r m e r , a l t h o u g h s u b s t a n t i v e l y , a n a l y s i s has tended t o be somewhat p a r t i c u l a r -i s t i c as the wide v a r i e t y o f aphorisms s u g g e s t s . For example, t he 97 house has been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as b e i n g a " t e r r i t o r i a l c o v e , " a "haven" o r " r e f u g e , " an " o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p a l i n s p a c e , " a "symbol o f s e l f , " a " s t a t u s o b j e c t " and so on, and, as Hayward n o t e s , t h e r e t e n d s t o be l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e g e n r a l i t y o f t h e s e 3 meanings o r t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e . B r o a d l y , and i n l i g h t o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e a c c o r d e d t o s i g n i f i -c a t i o n i n C h a p t e r One, t h i s t y p e o f p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e house a l s o i n f o r m s t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . However, the l a t t e r aims t o be con-s i d e r a b l y more h o l i s t i c i n t h a t emphasis i s on the v a r i e t y and d i f -f e r e n t l e v e l s o f meaning t h a t a r e br o u g h t t o bear on the home and r e l a t e d s p h e r e s o f d a i l y l i f e r a t h e r than on p a r t i c u l a r meaning c o n t e x t s . 3.2 House. Ownership: Some C o n t e x t u a l Comments P r i o r t o d i s c u s s i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e l e v e l s o f s u b j e c t i v e meaning t h a t emerged from t h e p r e s e n t e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , i t seems u s e f u l t o " s e t t h e . s c e n e " by b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r i n g one o f the most common and c o n s i s t e n t l y a r t i c u l a t e d themes r e g a r d i n g t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f , o r s t r i v i n g f o r , a p r i v a t e l y owned, suburban home. Commentators, both w i t h i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e and w i t h i n more p o p u l a r t h o u g h t and l i t e r a t u r e , have s t r e s s e d , t h e i n t r i n s i c i m p o r t a n c e o f ownership p e r s e ; t h a t i s , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as an a c t o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n o r p o s s e s s i o n so t h a t the a c t u a l f a c t o f ownership a p p e a r s t o be a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as t h a t which i s owned. T h i s t y p e o f f o c u s has a l s o tended t o e n t a i l s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f t h i s a c t t o c o n f e r o r a l l o c a t e s t a t u s . Thus, f o r example, i n terms o f p o p u l a r s o c i o l o g y , P a c k a r d d e m o n s t r a t e s a t l e n g t h i n the S t a t u s S e e k e r s the manner i n which t he house has o v e r t a k e n t h e c a r as the major s t a t u s 98 symbol s i n c e t he 1950s. In t h e i r more academic s t u d y o f t h e f i c t i -t i o u s C a nadian s u b u r b , Crestwood H e i g h t s , S e e l e y , Sim and L o o s l e y des-c r i b e t h e meanings o f the home evoked by t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s as b e i n g c e n t r e d on the c o n c e p t s o f t h e "House as P r o p e r t y " and the "House as a St a g e " : P r o p e r t y i s an e s s e n t i a l component o f s t a t u s i n Crestwood H e i g h t s . The Crestwooder who owns an adequate house has become a s u b s t a n t i a l member o f t h e community and, as s u c h , i s r e s p e c t e d and admired by h i s p e e r s . The house and i t s f u r n i s h i n g s ; t h e s t r e e t and the s t r e e t number; the l o c a t i o n i n Crestwood - a l l a r e items which make up the t o t a l p r o p e r t y complex o f the house.5 T h i s backdrop Of the house i s , i n the minds o f a l l t h o s e who a r e i n t i m a t e w i t h o r know i t s owners, as permanent a symbol o f s t a t u s as i s the husband's income o r p o s i t i o n o r t he w i f e ' s b e a u t y , a c c e n t and c l o t h i n g . Thus, t he c e n t r a l theme o f a l l t he dramas the house s u p p o r t s becomes c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s o c i a l s t a t u s ... 6 More r e c e n t l y , an attempt has been made by Agnew t o p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e s e i d e a s by r e l a t i n g them t o the M a r x i a n c o n c e p t s o f e x c h a n g e - v a l u e and u s e - v a l u e . B r i e f l y , drawing upon Marx's a n a l y s i s i n G r u n d r i s s e , he argues t h a t an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t a c t i v i t i e s and p r o d u c t s a r e o f no v a l u e t o the i n d i v i d u a l u n l e s s t h e y can be used i n exchange f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and p r o d u c t s . T h i s i s seen t o a r i s e because t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r engenders " i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e p a r a t i o n and i n d i f f e r -ence" d e s p i t e i m p e r s o n a l dependence and i n t u r n t h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e " c r e a t i o n o f an o b j e c t i v e and q u a n t i f i a b l e measure o f v a l u e - t h e e x c h a n g e - v a l u e . " U l t i m a t e l y , t he t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s and p r o d u c t s i n t o e x c h a n g e — v a l u e s i s seen t o l e a d t o a n e g l e c t o f human, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s upon man's s e l f - i m a g e and 99 s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , the l a t t e r b e i n g viewed as one o f man's b a s i c needs t h a t i s m e d i a t e d by t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f o t h e r s . In view o f t h e b a s i c r e i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , however, t h e r e tends t o be l i t t l e r e a l b a s i s f o r t h i s t o t a k e p l a c e so t h a t : As a c o nsequence, p e o p l e t u r n t o the t h i n g s t h e y own o r use as a means o f s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . When t h e s e t h i n g s a r e r e l a -t i v e l y s c a r c e and a p p r e c i a t e d by o t h e r s , and one can t e l l by l o o k i n g a round, s t a t u s i s endowed and the b a s i c need o f s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n i s s a t i s f i e d . However, the o b j e c t s which endow s t a t u s have a c e r t a i n e x c h a n g e - v a l u e . They a c q u i r e use-v a l u e as a s t a t u s o b j e c t t h r o u g h t h e i r e x c h a n g e - v a l u e . In o t h e r words, one needs to.command e x c h a n g e - v a l u e t o o b t a i n o b j e c t s w i t h s t a t u s - v a l u e . In e v e r y d a y l i f e , t h e r e f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l s e v a l u a t e t h e m s e l v e s and a r e e v a l u a t e d by o t h e r s t h r o u g h o b j e c t s which have a c e r t a i n e x c h a n g e - v a l u e and s t a t u s - v a l u e . The q u e s t f o r f i n a n c i a l s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y i n o r d e r t o own o b j e c t s and the e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f t h r o u g h o b j e c t s a r e , t h e n , marks o f i d e n t i t y i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 7 T h i s p o s s e s s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s d e s c r i b e d as o f t e n a p p e a r i n g t o be p e r v a s i v e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s a l t h o u g h he a l s o goes on t o c o n s i d e r a v a r i e d s e l e c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t commitment t o t h i s e t h i c a p p e a r s t o be f a r from complete and t h a t o t h e r meanings o f the home a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . As i n d i c a t e d above, t h i s emphasis on s t a t u s and ownership i s o n l y one, a l b e i t a major theme i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f the home and even the a u t h o r s c i t e d here can be seen t o have i s o l a t e d o t h e r meaning c o n t e x t s . F o r example, S e e l e y e t a l . a l s o comment on the home as a r e f u g e i n a h o s t i l e w o r l d a l t h o u g h t h i s i s somewhat s e c o n d a r y t o t h e g e n e r a l i s a -o t i o n s noted e a r l i e r . Thus, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a t e n d e n c y , even where d i s p a r a t e and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g meanings have been i s o l a t e d , t o emphasise t h e i n t r i n s i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f ownership and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s r o l e i n a l l o c a t i n g s t a t u s . For example, R a k o f f ' s commentary on 100 the v a r i e t y and a m b i g u i t y o f the p o s s i b l e meanings o f the home i n the U.S.A. p o i n t s t o , f o r i n s t a n c e , the t e n s i o n s c r e a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the "house s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s y m b o l i s e s both permanence i n an u n c e r t a i n g w o r l d and m o b i l i t y i n a s u c c e s s o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , r e c o u r s e i s made t o t h e i n h e r e n t c e n t r a l i t y o f o w n e r s h i p : T h e r e has been an unmentioned, u n d e r l y i n g theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e v a r i o u s meanings o f the home; i n d e e d , i n a s e n s e , I have t a k e n t h e s e meanings o u t o f t h e i r u n i f y i n g c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e s e p a r a t e l e v e l s o f t h o u g h t and symbol i n v o l v e d i n p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f h o u s i n g . . . t h e r e i s a common, c e n t r a l phenomenon r u n n i n g a l l t h r o u g h t h e s e i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s o f meaning and p r o v i d i n g both a s y n t h e t i c f o c u s and a m o t i v a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t . T h a t phenomenon i s ownership.10 He draws t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "ownership seems t o r e p r e s e n t o r make p o s s i b l e some o f the most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f homes." 1 1 Thus, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a f a i r l y h i g h degree o f consensus r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n ownership p e r s e . T u r n i n g now t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e most s t r i k i n g and i n i t i a l l y most c o n f u s i n g theme t h a t emerged was p r e c i s e l y t h e absence o f t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e amongst t h e p e o p l e I t a l k e d t o . I t became q u i t e c l e a r d u r i n g a t t e m p t s t o make sense o f t h e f i r s t f i v e o r s i x i n t e r v i e w s t h a t t h i s was t o an e x t e n t a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t I a l s o h e l d and i t was o n l y when I moved away from t h i s n o t i o n o f the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f ownership i n my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a t h a t the l a t t e r began t o make some s e n s e . Thus, w h i l e r e m a i n i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g f o c a l p o i n t f o r d i s c u s s i o n , a n a l y t i c a l l y i t a p p e a r e d t o have l e s s i m p o r t a n c e . The meaning and i m p o r t a n c e o f "home" and o f "homeownership" d i d n o t appear t o be synonymous. N e i t h e r were t h e y n e c e s s a r i l y o r i n h e r e n t l y dependent upon one a n o t h e r . T h i s f i n d i n g was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y 101 a p p a r e n t o r r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d . I t became o b v i o u s o n l y when t h e d i s -c u s s i o n s were f i n a l l y broken down i n t o the themes o u t l i n e d i n the r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r . These themes a r e h i g h l y c o n t i n g e n t upon one a n o t h e r w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t . They a r e the p r o d u c t o f a r a t h e r c i r c u i t o u s r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n which the i d e a s and o p i n i o n s a r t i c u l a t e d c o n t i n u a l l y c o n t e x t u a l i s e and temper one a n o t h e r . In t h i s manner, s e e m i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y o f ambiv-a l e n t s t a t e m e n t s tended t o be r e c o n c i l e d . Thus, the themes f i n a l l y i s o l a t e d do n o t r e p r e s e n t a c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d , r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d s e t o f d i s c r e t e r e s p o n s e s t o the i s s u e s I r a i s e d . T h i s a s s e r t i o n perhaps r e q u i r e s some e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n . However, i t s i n t e n t w i l l hope-f u l l y become c l e a r i n the d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s and, a t t h i s p o i n t , I p r e f e r t o a v o i d pre-empting t h e c o n t e n t o f the l a t t e r . 3.3 S u b j e c t i v e Meanings o f t h e Home i n E v e r y d a y L i f e i . Ownership and Commonsense The f i r s t and most r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d a t t i t u d e r e g a r d i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f , o r r e a s o n s f o r , owning one's home were always e m i n e n t l y s e n s i b l e and p r a c t i c a l . Moreover, t h e y c o u l d h a r d l y be d i s p u t e d g i v e n t h e s t a t e o f t h e r e n t a l market i n Vancouver i n 1980. Most p a t e n t l y , t h e r e were no " p r i d e o f o w n e r s h i p " s e n t i m e n t s o r r e g a r d f o r s i m i l a r c l i c h e s t h a t abound i n the media o r p o l i t i c a l propaganda. For example, s h o r t l y b e f o r e I commenced i n t e r v i e w i n g , Macleans magazine r a n an a r t i c l e on the problems c r e a t e d by e s c a l a t i n g mortgage i n t e r e s t r a t e s . T h i s was used t o i n i t i a t e d i s c u s s i o n and the r e s p o n d e n t s were asked f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made by an O n t a r i o homeowner: "We've 102 been t a u g h t i n t h i s c o u n t r y t h a t owning a home i s next t o G o d l i n e s s . " Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t o many p e o p l e t h i s evoked images o f the "American Dream," "motherhood and a p p l e p i e . " However, w h i l e t h e s e n t i m e n t s were r e a d i l y r e c o g n i s a b l e , o n l y n i n e p e r c e n t f e l t owning a home had been a major g o a l i n t h e i r l i v e s and even t h e i r r e a s o n i n g was tempered i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f the group. F o r most ( 9 1 % ) , ownership was i m p o r t a n t b ut "not t h a t i m p o r t a n t " and was commonly des-c r i b e d as b e i n g "not the be a l l and end a l l " : W e l l , g o d l i n e s s d o e s n ' t rank v e r y h i g h l y on my s c a l e o f v a l u e s . ... . i t ' s i r r e l e v a n t r e a l l y , (pause) I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e t h i n g s f a r more i m p o r t a n t than owning a home but I t h i n k t h a t p r o b a b l y ( t h o s e t h i n g s ) . . . a r e enhanced by owning a home and t h a t ' s s o r t o f f a m i l y l i f e and . . . m a r r i a g e and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t ... I f i n d i t t o be impor-t a n t but .• . . i f t h e r e were a law s u d d e n l y passed d e c r e e -i n g t h a t no one c o u l d own t h e i r own home I wouldn't go jump o f f a b r i d g e . T h e i r f e e l i n g s tended t o c r y s t a l l i s e i n t o two major a t t i t u d e s , the f i r s t o f which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the words o f the p e r s o n c i t e d above and c o n c e r n s t h e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l i f e ( 2 4 % ) . The second group tended t o s t r e s s p r e c i s e l y which a s p e c t s o f ownership were i m p o r t a n t and p r i m a r i l y r e f e r r e d t o i s s u e s o f f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y (56%) as i s o b v i o u s i n the f o l l o w i n g : No, i t ' s d e f i n i t e l y not t h a t i m p o r t a n t ... I p r e f e r owning a home t o r e n t i n g because o f what I can do w i t h t he home . . . t h e r e p a i r s I can make and n o t f e e l t h a t I'm w a s t i n g my money d o i n g i t . (pause) What owning a home a l s o does i s g i v e me somehow the s e c u r i t y t o know t h a t t h e r e n t i s n ' t g o i n g t o keep g o i n g up . . . t h a t i n f a c t the c o s t o f the home i s g o i n g t o go down a l l t he time t h a t I own i t because . . . e v e r y y e a r as o t h e r t h i n g s r i s e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f my paycheque g o i n g t o the mortgage i s g o i n g t o be l e s s . Even though i t ' s t h e same amount o f d o l l a r s , i t ' s g o i n g t o be l e s s f o r t h e i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e . T h i n g s may change, however, I t h i n k they won't f o r a l o n g w h i l e . . . whereas i f y o u ' r e 103 r e n t i n g e v e r y y e a r i t goes up - t o a t l e a s t the same degree as t h e . . . paycheque does. So i n t h a t sense a t l e a s t i t ' s more s e c u r e but i t ' s r e a l l y n o t . . . i t ' s not my c a s t l e ! Thus, t o a c c o r d major i m p o r t a n c e t o ownership i t s e l f was v a r i o u s l y seen t o be a b i t e x c e s s i v e and o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n , as amusing, as r a t h e r o l d f a s h i o n e d , and as a p p l i c a b l e more t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' o r even g r a n d -p a r e n t s ' g e n e r a t i o n . I n s t e a d , t h e common sense o f owning was s t r e s s e d . To some e x t e n t , t h i s l a c k o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r ownership i s under-s t a n d a b l e g i v e n t h e i r backgrounds. The m a j o r i t y (91%), i n c l u d i n g t h o s e from b l u e c o l l a r b a c k g r o u n d s , had grown up i n owned homes and f o r most ( 8 2 % ) , the t e n u r e o f t h o s e homes was not something t h e y had even r e a l l y been aware o f . I t was v e r y much something t h a t t h e y had "never ques-t i o n e d " o r " t h o u g h t about," t h a t had been "taken f o r g r a n t e d " o r t h o u g h t o f as "normal and u n e x c e p t i o n a l " so t h a t the t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e t o my i n q u i r y as t o whether the t e n u r e o f the homes t h e y were d e s c r i b i n g had meant a n y t h i n g t o them, u s u a l l y took the f o l l o w i n g form: I t c e r t a i n l y d i d n ' t when we were r e n t i n g ( p a u s e ) . A t f i v e y e a r s I was o b v i o u s l y n o t aware o f i t . . . but l a t e r (pause) I'm s u r e i t had s u b t l e e f f e c t s on the whole f a m i l y atmosphere but I c a n ' t remember e v e r r e a l l y b e i n g t e r r i b l y c o g n i z a n t o f any d i f f e r e n c e ... I wasn't a l l t h a t s u r e what t h e h e l l homeownership meant . . . t h e d i f f e r e n c e between mortgage payments and r e n t and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t j u s t d i d n ' t . . . I wasn't r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d . . . No, I d o n ' t r e a l l y r e c a l l a n y t h i n g about t h a t a t a l l . The r e m a i n i n g 18% a l s o f e l t t h a t i t had been an u n i m p o r t a n t o r i n s i g -n i f i c a n t t o p i c p e r s o n a l l y but c o u l d remember t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r f a m i l y members: Di d y o u r p a r e n t s own o r r e n t t h e s e houses t h a t you l i v e d i n ? They owned them . . . always. 104 A t the time d i d t h a t mean a n y t h i n g t o you . . . d i d you t h i n k a n y t h i n g about i t ? No ... I never d i d (pause) a l t h o u g h I can remember e a r l y on the q u e s t i o n o f whether p e o p l e s h o u l d r e n t o r buy and my dad was emphatic t h a t you buy . . . you n e v e r r e n t e d a house . . . t h e money you put o u t was j u s t l o s t money so he always bought. I t was economics but a l s o he was an immigrant t o Canada and i n h i s day owning y o u r house was v e r y much a b i g t h i n g , c u l t u r a l l y . So I was aware o f t h i s b ut i t wasn't . . . w e l l , i t was t a l k e d about but I don't r e a l l y t h i n k t h a t i t meant much t o me. I d i d n ' t t h i n k about i t r e a l l y a t a l l . G e n e r a l l y , the m e r i t s o f , o r f a c t o f ownership were n o t t o p i c s o f f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n and v e r y few c o u l d remember any p a r t i c u l a r i d e a s t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s had about houses o r homes, so f o r 76%: "... t h e y n e v e r d i s c u s s e d t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I d o n ' t remember them t a l k i n g about -about money - e v e r y t h i n g was p a i d f o r so t h a t we n e v e r s o r t o f d i s c u s s e d i t . We n e v e r d i s c u s s e d t h e s e i d e a s . " Those w i t h r e c o l l e c t i o n s e i t h e r mentioned s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s - "I guess t h e y l i k e d t o l i v e i n . t h e c o u n t r y " o r "My mother wanted a p a t i o " - o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , f e l t t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s had d e m o n s t r a t e d what was i m p o r t a n t by the way i n which t h e y l i v e d : I t h i n k t h a t t h e y had p r e t t y much what they wanted t o have f o r t h e m s e l v e s . . . They wanted a l o t o f space i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the house. They had what t h e y wanted and I n e v e r heard them e x p r e s s any views r e a l l y ... o r d e s i r e s . I suppose you c o u l d j u s t see what t h e y l i k e d . Homeownership seems t o be v e r y much something they have c a r r i e d f o r w a r d i n t o t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s more as an a s s u m p t i o n , as an a s p e c t o f s e t t l i n g down r a t h e r than as a sought a f t e r , o r m o t i v a t i n g g o a l . W h i l e most f e l t t h e y had i n t e n d e d t o buy a home one day, 64% were q u i t e e q u i v o c a l as t o when t h e y ' d made, o r become aware o f , such a d e c i s i o n : 105 I t h i n k p r o b a b l y I always t h o u g h t t h a t someday I would . . . own a house but I had no i d e a where . . where o r where . . . I don't remember f e e l i n g b a d l y t h a t I wasn't i n an owned house. I t was something t h a t I t h o u g h t p r o b a b l y we would (pause) but I was not " l o o k i n g f o r w a r d " t o i t . G e n e r a l l y , i t was not p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g an i s s u e t h a t g e n e r a t e d i n t e r e s t o r c o n c e r n , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y were s i n g l e . As one woman summarised p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c i n c t l y , t h e r e was a sense t h a t one r e a c h e d a s t a g e where i t became a p p r o p r i a t e : You know, you s o r t o f r e a c h t h a t s t a g e - I mean, i t ' s f i n a n c i a l o f c o u r s e but a l s o . . . you have t o come t o a p o i n t when y o u ' r e r e a d y t o t a k e the p l u n g e . I was m a r r i e d and had been m a r r i e d f o r ... a w h i l e . I t h i n k y o u ' r e g o i n g t h r o u g h p r e s c r i b e d hoops maybe a l i t t l e b i t . You s o r t o f t h i n k , ' W e l l , I've been m a r r i e d t h i s l o n g ' and you s t a r t t h i n k i n g o f y o u r s e l f as a young s e t t l e d c o u p l e and you t h i n k o f g e t t i n g a house f o r one t h i n g . . . I t ' s a s t a g e o f r e a d i n e s s as much as a n y t h i n g . These f e e l i n g s were p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e amongst the men,who o f t e n a s s o -c i a t e d b u y i n g a house w i t h b e i n g m a r r i e d and s e t t l e d and/or r a i s i n g a f a m i l y (40% as opposed t o 27% o f t h e women): W e l l , a t u n i v e r s i t y I v e r y much took r e n t i n g f o r g r a n t e d so t h e r e wasn't much t o l i k e o r d i s l i k e . F o l l o w i n g t h a t . . . a g a i n I took i t f o r g r a n t e d because I knew t h e r e was no way I c o u l d t h i n k o f b u y i n g a p l a c e o r even know t h a t I would have the s t a b i l i t y . . . l i v e i n one p l a c e f o r s i x months. So . . . i t was a way o f l i f e and I t h i n k I a c c e p t e d i t such t h a t I d i d n ' t even t h i n k about the f a c t o f r e n t i n g u n t i l w e l l ... I suppose e v e r s i n c e I g o t m a r r i e d and s t a r t e d t h i n k i n g about a f a m i l y . For s e v e r a l o f the r e c e n t buyers ( 3 6 % ) , the contemporary e s c a l a t i o n i n h o u s i n g c o s t s a l s o seems t o have been a s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e t o make t h e move: 106 I had never made up my mind about owning because ... i t was always a s i t u a t i o n where ... i t was temporary but I began t o see t h a t . . . as i t m u l l e d o v e r i n my mind . . . I r e a l i s e d t h a t somehow t h i s money c o u l d be g o i n g toward b u y i n g a home and t h e r e was no r e a s o n why some o t h e r p e r s o n s h o u l d have t h e b e n e f i t s o f my money. F i n a l l y , o w nership seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e t o them and 76% d e s c r i b e d t he s e c u r i n g o f f i n a n c e s as something they d i d n ' t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i n k o r worry about: I p r e t t y w e l l took i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t we'd be a b l e t o g e t a mortgage . . . I d i d n ' t w o r r y about i t . . . i t ' s j u s t l i k e p a y i n g o u t r e n t , you have t o put t h i s c e r t a i n amount a s i d e each month. I t ' s j u s t something t h a t has t o be done. In g e n e r a l , o w n e r s h i p seemed t o be something they e x p e c t i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s . However, v e r y few a n t i c i p a t e e v e n t u a l , o u t r i g h t owner-s h i p o f t h e i r houses w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s . The deb t was viewed as b e i n g l o n g term and, p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g North American a t t i t u d e s toward c r e d i t , as b e i n g q u i t e an a c c e p t a b l e s i t u a t i o n t o be i n . T h i s i s o f c o u r s e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e among r e c e n t buyers f a c i n g e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s , however, i t was v e r y much a p e r v a s i v e a t t i t u d e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f l e n g t h o f own e r s h i p . Only n i n e p e r c e n t mentioned o u t r i g h t o wnership as a " g o a l " o r an " i d e a l " and even t h e y a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y o p t i m i s t i c about t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y : I guess t h a t would be something t h a t we'd ... a s p i r e t o . . . I guess you s o r t o f f e e l y o u ' l l n e v e r own because you f e e l y o u ' l l always have a mortgage. I d e a l l y , say i f we had a l o t t e r y f u n d we won, we'd p r o b a b l y pump i t i n t o t h e mortgage . . . Maybe I'm b e i n g m i s l e a d i n g by s a y i n g we're a s p i r i n g t o i t . . . I t ' s p r o b a b l y something t h a t w i l l n e v er happen but i f t h e r e was some way i t c o u l d . . . w e l l , i t would be n i c e . 107 For most i t seemed t o , as s u g g e s t e d by t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d p e r s o n , be " j u s t l i k e r e n t i n g " but w i t h o u t the c o n c o m i t a n t i n s e c u r i t i e s o f t e n u r e and f i n a n c e s . T h i s a t t i t u d e even seemed t o p r e v a i l amongst the two c o u p l e s who had p a i d o f f t h e i r mortgages and o n l y one p e r s o n mentioned b e i n g r e l i e v e d a t n o t t o have t o f a c e mortgage payments t o d a y . Thus, as has u n d o u b t e d l y become a p p a r e n t i n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s -s i o n , p r i m a r y emphasis was always p l a c e d upon the "commonsense" o f owning. I t was a good use o f one's money because c " i t ' s g o i n g toward s o m e t h i n g . " I t ' s "working f o r y o u r b e n e f i t and n t o the l a n d l o r d ' s . " As one woman p u t i t : ... i t d o e s n ' t r e a l l y mean a n y t h i n g ... I t c e r t a i n l y d o e s n ' t make you a s p e c i a l o r ... a b e t t e r p e r s o n . I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why p e o p l e t h i n k you have t o own a home i n o r d e r t o be someone. I j u s t don't r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t . I t makes more sense t o own r a t h e r than r e n t one. I t ' s l i k e owning y o u r own c a r i n s t e a d o f r e n t i n g o r . . . owning y o u r own shoes! Overwhelming, t h i s assessment r e s t e d upon t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s t h a t ensued and t h i s was t h e most commonly mentioned f a c t o r i n e x p l a n a t i o n s o f what was i m p o r t a n t about owning a home ( 6 7 % ) . Over and o v e r a g a i n p h r a s e s such as "you c a n ' t g e t away from the f a c t t h a t you have an e q u i t y , " " i t ' s always beaten i n f l a t i o n , " "you d o n ' t keep f a l l i n g f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r b e h i n d , " "you g e t a r e t u r n on y o u r money," accom-p a n i e d t h e i r r a t i o n a l e s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . R e n t i n g was seen t o be wasted money and t h i s a p p l i e d t o both t h e a c t u a l c o n t r a c t r e n t p a i d and t o money t h a t might be s p e n t on upkeep and maintenance as the f o l l o w -i n g a s s e s s m e n t o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f owning s u g g e s t s : 108 I t ' s s i m p l y f i n a n c i a l ( p a u s e ) , w e l l , no, I s h o u l d n ' t say t h a t but i t i s i m p o r t a n t . . . one i s f i n a n c i a l , t h a t house p r i c e s have gone up so f a s t t h a t we j u s t had t o jump i n t o g e t a house b e f o r e t h e r e n t s i n c r e a s e d o u t o f our range and t h e h o u s i n g p r i c e s i n c r e a s e d o u t o f our range . . . And t h e second t h i n g i s the p l a c e s we were r e n t i n g . . . The p l a c e we r e n t e d b e f o r e we came here was an o l d p l a c e t h a t t h e l a n d l o r d j u s t d i d n ' t f i x up. And I was w i l l i n g t o do l o t s o f work t o f i x i t up and I d i d but w i t h o u t any r e c o g n i t i o n from t he l a n d l o r d and i t was t h a t f e e l i n g o f f r u s t r a t i o n ... o f wanting t o g e t t h e work done and want-i n g t o f i x t h e r o o f and t h e d r a i n s and do e v e r y t h i n g e l s e but i t b e i n g a waste o f money, and a waste o f time and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e (pause) I guess money and the knowledge t h a t i f I f i x something up, i t s t a y s f i x e d up and i t ' s f o r us and i t ' s n o t f o r the l a n d l o r d . . . i t ' s not money poured down the d r a i n . i i . Ownership and Investment T h i s p r a g m a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e s , however, some q u a l i f i c a t i o n because i t d i d n o t , as might be e x p e c t e d , a l s o e n t a i l a commitment t o the "house as an i n v e s t m e n t " o r commodity p o i n t o f view. They were a l l v e r y much aware o f the i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r homes and, i n d e e d , c o u l d h a r d l y have f a i l e d t o be g i v e n t h e m a s s i v e e s c a l a t i o n o f house p r i c e s i n Vancouver i n the f a l l o f 1980 and t h e a t t e n d a n t p u b l i c i t y . I t became a p p a r e n t t h a t " i n v e s t m e n t " was q u i t e an ambiguous term and t h a t w h i l e i t m i ght be o f f e r e d a l m o s t u n t h i n k i n g l y as a m o t i v e f o r o w n e r s h i p , i t s meaning was v a r i e d and was f a r from b e i n g a model f o r a c t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e seemed t o be two main c o n n o t a t i o n s t o the term: 1. A house can be an i n v e s t m e n t because you a r e p u t t i n g y o u r money toward s o m e t h i n g , b u i l d i n g up an e q u i t y and k e e p i n g ahead o f i n f l a t i o n - the house as s e c u r i t y . 2. A house can be an i n v e s t m e n t i f i t "makes y o u r money work f o r y o u . " T h i s seemed t o e n t a i l b u y i n g a house, r e n o v a t i n g i t and t u r n i n g i t o v e r a t a p r o f i t w i t h i n a few y e a r s and o f t e n r e p e a t i n g t h e p r o -c e d u r e w i t h t h e n e x t house - t h e house as a money maker. 109 As may be o b v i o u s now, the f o r m e r d e f i n i t i o n i s most a p p l i c a b l e here so t h a t w h i l e a l l were c o g n i z a n t o f t h e l a t t e r i t was c o n s i d e r e d unim-p o r t a n t o r a t b e s t a s e c o n d a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s t o buy. Thus, 82% commented on t h i s p o t e n t i a l but i n e v i t a b l y q u a l i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o : W e l l , a l o t o f p e o p l e buy homes f o r t h i s r e a s o n ... I have an . . . a c q u a i n t a n c e and t h e y move a l m o s t t w i c e a y e a r . . . and t h i s i s how he makes h i s money. So a home f o r them i s j u s t something t h a t you ( p a u s e ) . . T h e i n v e s t m e n t o c c u r r e d t o us but i t wasn't a " l e t ' s f i x i t up and s e l l i t " d e c i s i o n . No, I d o n ' t t h i n k so. I t h i n k homeownership (pause) I t h i n k I f u l l y r e a l i s e d t h a t i t was t h o s e t h i n g s but ... an apartment's n o t a p l a c e I'd want t o r a i s e a f a m i l y and r e n t s a r e now (pause) mortgage payments a r e about what our r e n t payments were s e v e r a l y e a r s ago. So I t h i n k I saw the economics o f i t . I t seemed the r i g h t t h i n g t o do f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . Many no t e d t h a t i t was v e r y much something t h e y had become aware o f , o r had begun t o a p p r e c i a t e w i t h h i n d s i g h t ( 3 6 % ) : "When we bought i t I d o n ' t t h i n k I d i d . I was j u s t so t h r i l l e d t o have a p l a c e t h a t was b i g g e r than the p l a c e we were moving o u t o f but now I c e r t a i n l y do." " P r i c e s have r i s e n so much i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s so' i t ' s d e f i n i t e l y i m p o r t a n t now." In a s e n s e , i t i s one o f t h o s e " e x t r a s " one a t t a i n s b ut d o e s n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y seek i n d e c i d i n g t o buy. In a d d i t i o n , some a l s o seemed to be q u i t e s k e p t i c a l about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a l i s i n g one's i n v e s t m e n t (18%) and added q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e i r i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e e l u s i v e n e s s o f p r o f i t : . . . O n l y i n s o f a r as i t was money ou t t h a t was g o i n g toward s o m e t h i n g , not r e a l l y 'heck, i f we buy now, you know, t h i s house i s g o i n g t o be worth . . .' (pause) d o n ' t know what the house i s worth now but i t d o e s n ' t mean a n y t h i n g because we're s t i l l l i v i n g i n i t and most p e o p l e no when t h e y s e l l t h e y ' r e l o o k i n g f o r something b e t t e r anyway so i t r e a l l y d o e s n ' t . . . the i n v e s t m e n t d o e s n ' t mean a n y t h i n g u n l e s s you s o r t o f go back t o l i v i n g i n a t e n t o r s o m e t h i n g , you know! ... I t s o r t o f i m p l i e s t h a t you c a s h i t i n l a t e r on, so f o r us I don't see i t as an i n v e s t m e n t a t a l l because i f you c a s h i t i n and you want t o s t a y i n the same a r e a you'd s i m p l y have t o pay o u t more . . . We d i d n ' t buy i t because we t h o u g h t i t was g o i n g t o be a money maker i n the l o n g r u n . I t was j u s t . . . w e l l , i t was a p l a c e t o l i v e and i t was . . . the money t h a t goes o u t was a t l e a s t g o i n g i n t o something. I t was not g o i n g t o someone e l s e . These r a t i o n a l e s appeared t o r e s t n o t o n l y upon a s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the home but a l s o on a p e r c e i v e d t e n s i o n o r c o n f l i c t between t h e s e two c o n n o t a t i o n s o f i n v e s t m e n t . T h i s was most k e e n l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e c a s e o f a young c o u p l e who had bought v e r y r e c e n t l y w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t they would "never be a b l e t o own i f we d i d n ' t do i t now." Here the i n v e s t m e n t p e r s p e c t i v e was espoused t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i n any o f the o t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s by t h e w i f e , a l t h o u g h as i s a p p a r e n t she i s f a r from c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i d e a : Yes, i t i s an i n v e s t m e n t . You c a n ' t buy y o u r dream home r i g h t away so a house can e i t h e r be an i n v e s t m e n t o r a p l a c e t o l i v e f o r e v e r . O b v i o u s l y you have t o g e t t o y o u r end g o a l somehow and on the way t h e houses you l i v e i n t e n d t o be i n v e s t m e n t s . H o p e f u l l y , t h e y ' l l a p p r e c i a t e so you can keep t u r n i n g them o v e r and r e a c h y o u r f i n a l g o a l e v e n t u a l l y , whereas you p r o b a b l y n e v e r would i f you j u s t r e n t e d . But, you know, I've become a t t a c h e d t o t h i s house a l t h o u g h we t h o u g h t o f i t as i n v e s t m e n t t o b e g i n w i t h ... i t has c h a r a c t e r and you g e t a t t a c h e d t o i t and e n j o y l i v i n g i n i t . So i t ' s n o t s o l e l y an i n v e s t m e n t I suppose (pause) I wouldn't want to see the p l a c e I was g o i n g t o l i v e i n i n t h o s e terms. I t ' s j u s t t o o hard t o keep s e l l i n g t h e house you l i v e i n . You know, you end up h a v i n g t o t r e a t i t l i k e a commodity and then you c a n ' t r e a l l y l o v e t h a t house because i f you d i d you'd n e v e r s e l l i t . I don't know, you s o r t o f end up b e i n g a house pimp and i t a l l g e t s so c u t t h r o a t ! in Here the n o t i o n o f a " s t a r t e r home" tends t o be evoked and t h i s i s s u e a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t m e n t f o r the re m a i n d e r o f the group i n t h a t 67% f e l t t h a t t h e y had n o t viewed t h e i r f i r s t homes i n t h e s e terms. T y p i c a l l y , t h e l a t t e r were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g " j u s t o u r f i r s t house," as s u i t i n g "our needs a t the t i m e , " o r as b e i n g "something we l i k e d " ; i n o t h e r words,, as always b e i n g more than a means o f g e t t i n g i n t o t h e market. F o r 70% n e i t h e r t h e s e f i r s t homes nor t h e i r p r e s e n t homes a r e h e l d t o be t h e i r dream homes and 64% a n t i c i p a t e a move i n the f u t u r e b ut i n a l l c a s e s t h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d as o c c u r r i n g i n o r d e r t o " s u i t our needs" - 14% a r e t h o u g h t t o be perhaps j o b r e l a t e d and 68% a r e s i z e r e l a t e d w i t h 42% r e q u i r i n g some-t h i n g l a r g e r and 26% r e q u i r i n g o r a n t i c i p a t i n g something s m a l l e r -13 r a t h e r than t o r e a l i s e a f i n a n c i a l g a i n . Thus, most b a s i c a l l y , t h e i r houses appear t o be p l a c e s t o l i v e i n and e n j o y and n o t commodities t o make money and adherence t o one a t t i -tude a p p a r e n t l y p r e c l u d e s t he o t h e r : " I f we'd been w i l l i n g t o - o r i f we'd had t h e e n e r g y t o put the time and money i n t o i t , we c o u l d have s o l d a t a good p r o f i t , b u t we weren't r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d . " i i i . The Many Faces o f Freedom Had t h e s e p r a g m a t i c c o n c e r n s c o m p r i s e d t he whole p i c t u r e t h e r e might perhaps have been l i t t l e b a s i s f o r p r o l o n g i n g t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s f o r i t would be hard t o q u i b b l e w i t h t h e view t h a t i n contemporary s o c i e t y owning makes b e t t e r s ense than r e n t i n g . However, as i s app a r -e n t , t h e s e p r a c t i c a l v i r t u e s were accompanied by, and c o n t e x t u a l i s e d by s e v e r a l o t h e r i d e a s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y p r o v i d e d c l u e s t o a de e p e r , more e l u s i v e , and l e s s r e a d i l y a r t i c u l a t e d s e t o f c o n c e r n s t h a t were f a r from b e i n g " s e n s i b l e . " 112 F i r s t l y , as noted above, apartments were u n i v e r s a l l y seen t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n . The m a j o r i t y (85%) f e l t t h a t t h e i r h o u s i n g c h o i c e had been a f f e c t e d , a t l e a s t t o a d e g r e e , by h a v i n g a f a m i l y - 58% f e l t t h i s had d e f i n i t e l y been the c a s e , w h i l e 27% f e l t i t was p a r t i a l l y v a l i d . In some c a s e s , the p r o s p e c t o f r a i s i n g a f a m i l y had p r o v i d e d the f i n a l impetus f o r them t o buy: We g o t m a r r i e d a f t e r l i v i n g t o g e t h e r f o r a w h i l e and we l i v e d i n an apartment and then my w i f e got p r e g n a n t and I ... o r r a t h e r , we d e c i d e d t o buy a house. An apartment wasn't s u i t a b l e . R e n t i n g was always something temporary. By the time we had our son . . .we were i n a r e a l l y s m a l l s u i t e and . . . he s l e p t i n t h e d i n e t t e so t h a t ... we d e f i n i t e l y needed a house. The most p r o b l e m a t i c a s p e c t s o f r e n t a l accommodation were t h e l a c k o f i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r space (61%) and p r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r t e n a n t s ( 4 0 % ) . B o t h were seen t o p l a c e e x t r a and undue r e s t r i c t i o n s upon t h e c h i l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t t e r c a s e where the n o i s e c r e a t e d by t h e c h i l d was l i k e l y t o c r e a t e c o n f l i c t s . As one woman put i t : " P e o p l e e x p e c t so much more o f c h i l d r e n i n apartments and i t can be r e a l l y hard f o r them and f o r you." These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l l p e r t a i n t o the form o f the r e n t e d d w e l l i n g r a t h e r t h a n i t s a c t u a l t e n u r e and t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n became v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e importance o f ownership when d i s c u s s i o n moved from apartments t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n an owned home. Wh i l e many i n i t i a l l y r esponded a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o t h i s n o t i o n i t became a p p a r e n t as the c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t i n u e d , t h a t t h e i r p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e was a r e n t e d house r a t h e r than an apartment: 113 No ... i t ' s n o t v i t a l . The o n l y p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n (pause) I t would be i n d i v i d u a l t h i n g s l i k e i f the p a r e n t s f e l t any s o r t o f burden o r worry because t h e y were r e n t i n g and t h a t ' s r e f l e c t e d i n t o the home. T h a t ' s the o n l y r e l a t i o n s h i p I can s e e . I t ' s j u s t l i k e when I was l i t t l e I n e v e r even tho u g h t about i t . I don't know, maybe I knew but ... I never w o r r i e d . I d o n ' t t h i n k my p a r e n t s r e a l l y d i s c u s s e d f i n a n c e s o r showed any s o r t o f c o n c e r n s . . . Maybe I'm u nique but I j u s t knew t h a t meals appeared on the t a b l e . So you'd f e e l okay about r a i s i n g y o u r k i d s i n an apartment? Oh, okay, s o r r y . I made an a s sumption ... I was t h i n k i n g o f e i t h e r a r e n t e d house o r an owned house. I wasn't t h i n k -i n g o f ... an apartment v e r s u s a house. S u r e , I t h i n k t h e r e would be more r e a s o n s t h e r e . I p e r s o n a l l y w ouldn't want t o b r i n g my k i d s up i n an apartment because I t h i n k you'd have t o be always c o n s c i o u s about the n o i s e . T h e r e m i g h t be e x t r a r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on them ... no y a r d . P r o b a b l y s p a c e . I guess t h o s e would be t h e main t h i n g s . . . p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e ' s so many p e o p l e around ... I was d e f i n i t e l y t h i n k i n g o f a r e n t e d house a t f i r s t . Thus, w h i l e a l l were unanimous as t o the u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f a p a r t -ments o f e i t h e r t e n u r e , 88% f e l t t h a t the a c t u a l ownership o f a house was u n i m p o r t a n t o r n o n - e s s e n t i a l from t h e c h i l d ' s p o i n t o f view u n l e s s e i t h e r t h e i r p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y were endangered (30%) o r t h e y were u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t r a i n e d by space o r o t h e r p e o p l e ( 4 5 % ) J 4 As i n d i c a t e d i n the above q u o t a t i o n , the e f f e c t on the p a r e n t s was t h o u g h t t o be more s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e i r f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e f o o l i s h n e s s o f r e n t i n g a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . W h i l e c h i l d r e n c o u l d q u i t e a d e q u a t e l y be r a i s e d i n a r e n t e d house, t h i s was not a v a l u e d o r p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h i s o p t i o n maximises a l l t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f r e n t i n g ( e x c e p t t h o s e p e r -t a i n i n g t o p r o p i n q u i t y ) and c o n s e q u e n t l y undermines t h e p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f a house. T h i s i s n o t s i m p l y a q u e s t i o n o f s u p p l y e i t h e r f o r 70% f e l t t h e y c o u l d have o b t a i n e d accommodation e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e i r p r e s e n t c h o i c e 114 i n t h e r e n t a l market. However, h a l f f e l t t h a t i t would be more expen-s i v e than p a y i n g a mortgage and, a g a i n , the f i n a n c i a l arguments d e t a i l e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n were r a i s e d : R e c e n t l y I've met q u i t e a few f a m i l i e s who have g o t some-where t o r e n t t h a t ' s comparable . . . the r e n t s a r e f a n t a s -t i c . T h e y ' r e f a r more than mortgage payments would be. So i t j u s t depends on whether ... on how much y o u ' r e p r e p a r e d t o pay. You can f i n d s o m e t h i n g . Thus, as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a s u i t a b l e d w e l l i n g f o r r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n and o f f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y , t h e y r a t h e r c i r c u i t o u s l y a r r i v e a t a p o s i t i o n where an owned home becomes i m p o r t a n t and v a l u e d . These comments r e g a r d i n g t h e h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n a l s o p o i n t t o t h e second s e t o f i d e a s t h a t accompanied t h e i r p r a g m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s about o w n e r s h i p . These i d e a s c e n t r e on a m u l t i f a c e t e d n o t i o n o f s e c u r i t y . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e s t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f s e c u r i t y a l r e a d y documented, however, o n l y 18% c i t e d t h i s as b e i n g t h e i r s o l e e x p e c t a t i o n . Many a l s o r e f e r r e d t o p s y c h i c and p h y s i c a l n o t i o n s o f s e c u r i t y which d e r i v e l a r g e l y from s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e and the p e r c e i v e d , and d e s i r e d , permanence and s t a b i l i t y i t a f f o r d s ( 4 9 % ) . In t u r n , t h e s e i d e a s i n t r o d u c e and a r e r e l a t e d t o the more p r e v a l e n t c o n c e r n s f o r i n d e -pendence and c o n t r o l (82%) o f which t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i s t y p i c a l : Knowing t h a t you won't have t o move i s one p o i n t . Knowing t h a t you can do what you want to the space w i t h o u t h a v i n g any h a s s l e s . I t ' s a much more i n d e p e n d e n t f e e l i n g . You can j u s t do something when i t ' s needed and you don't have t o c a r e what o t h e r p e o p l e t h i n k o r what y o u r l a n d l o r d t h i n k s . As t h e q u o t a t i o n s u g g e s t s , t h e s e i d e a s tended t o be h i g h l y i n t e r -r e l a t e d and somewhat c o n t i n g e n t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e y , i n t u r n , p o i n t t o , 115 and a r e a s p e c t s o f , a l a r g e l y l a t e n t theme t h a t u n d e r l i e s the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e meanings o f the home t h e y evoked but which emerged most p o i g n a n t l y i n t h e c o u r s e o f e l i c i t i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f p r i v a c y . To say t h a t p r i v a c y i s freedom would not be an o v e r s t a t e m e n t ( a l t h o u g h , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, t h i s i s n o t u n p r o b l e m m a t i c ) . T h i s appears t o be t h e c o n n e c t i n g and most b a s i c t h r e a d u n d e r l y i n g t h e meaning c o n t e x t s t h e y a r t i c u l a t e . As w i l l become a p p a r e n t , i t i s a m u l t i f a c e t e d n o t i o n w i t h b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s , c l o s e l y i n t e r t w i n e d so t h a t t h e y o f t e n appear t o be two s i d e s o f the same c o i n . For example, the p o s i t i v e freedom o f " d o i n g what one wants," e n t a i l s , and i s p a r t l y t h e consequence o f the more n e g a t i v e freedom o f "not h a v i n g t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . " In g e n e r a l , the c o n c e p t tended t o have more n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s - 73% c i t e d t h i s a s p e c t as opposed t o 58% who mentioned p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s - so t h a t i t was p r i m a r i l y freedom "from" something and i t s e s s e n c e i s e f f e c t i v e l y c a p t u r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g : . . . i t a l l g e t s back t o freedom. I t ' s t h e a b i l i t y t o s h u t o u t the r e s t o f the w o r l d and j u s t be a l o n e ... To be a b l e t o do what you want w i t h o u t f e e l i n g t h a t s o c i e t y o r p a r t o f s o c i e t y i s l o o k i n g o v e r y o u , w a t c h i n g y o u r moves . . . c r i t i c i s i n g , j u d g i n g ... o r q u e s t i o n i n g what you do. However, i t would be m i s l e a d i n g t o m a i n t a i n any r i g i d dichotomy between t h e s e c o n n o t a t i o n s s i n c e , t o a l a r g e " e x t e n t , t h e y tended t o be a r t i c u -l a t e d i n tandem, d e f i n i n g and q u a l i f y i n g one a n o t h e r i n t h e p r o c e s s . In terms o f the s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t o f t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f p r i v a c y , 18% f e l t i t was a " s t a t e o f mind" and was l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d t o p l a c e o r o t h e r p e o p l e . One c o u l d have p r i v a c y i n a v e r y p u b l i c p l a c e so l o n g as "nobody was t r y i n g t o g e t i n t o y o u r head." However, o n l y two p e o p l e saw p r i v a c y as s o l e l y e n t a i l i n g t h i s i d e a and t h e r e m a i n d e r a l s o espoused 116 the i d e a s common t o the r e s t o f the group.. These f e l l i n t o two c a t e -g o r i e s , the f i r s t o f which was more g e n e r a l and n ebulous and c e n t r e d on t h e n o t i o n ; o f the freedom o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y : I t means a p l a c e where (pause) I g e t t o make the d e c i s i o n s ( p a u s e ) . I t ' s a p l a c e where I d e c i d e what happens and where I can do j u s t as I l i k e , you know, be sad i f t h a t ' s how I f e e l o r j u s t . . . j u s t be any way I want. In p r i v a t e space one can b a s i c a l l y do whatever, and be whatever one wants whenever one wants to and t h e s e a c t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e because t h e y do n o t a f f e c t o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h i s s p a c e . These freedoms c o v e r e d a wide spectrum from c o n c r e t e a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e making n o i s e o r changes, t o more e l u s i v e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s , such as e s t a b l i s h i n g i d e n t i t y o r s e l f a c t u a l i s a t i o n . These freedoms were a l s o made p o s s i b l e because one was a l s o u n a f f e c -t e d by t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s and exemption from i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s c o m p r i s e d t h e second c a t e g o r y o f meaning. A g a i n , t h e r e was a wide range o f c o n c e r n s w i t h d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f s p e c i f i c i t y and a t the most s u b s t a n t i a l l e v e l i s s u e s such as l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t i n t e r a c t i o n were c i t e d , w h i l e a t t h e o t h e r extreme, more vague c o n c e r n s were e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g the p e r c e i v e d r e s t r i c t ! ' v e n e s s o f mere p r o p i n q u i t y : I guess i t ' s a b i t o f i s o l a t i o n so t h a t you d o n ' t have to w orry about the o t h e r p e o p l e i f y o u ' r e d o i n g something. F i r s t o f a l l , i t ' s a p o s i t i v e t h i n g . I t makes you f e e l f r e e . I t makes you f e e l y o u ' r e a b l e t o do t h i n g s . Now the u l t i -mate p r i v a c y i s a l m o s t v i s u a l i s o l a t i o n from p e o p l e so t h a t you c o u l d do a n y t h i n g . I wouldn't even have t o put my b a t h -robe on t o walk o u t s i d e . In a r e a l l y p r i v a t e p l a c e you c o u l d j u s t walk o u t s i d e . T h e r e ' s o t h e r l e v e l s too . . . where you c o u l d . . . t u r n t h e r a d i o o r t h e s t e r e o on as l o u d as you want and nobody b o t h e r s you and v i c e v e r s a . . . you c a n ' t hear the p e o p l e near y o u . I guess i t ' s j u s t s o r t o f freedom t o have . . . not t o have peace o f mind s h a t t e r e d by h a v i n g somebody e l s e i n t r u d e . 117 T h i s q u o t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e manner i n which t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f freedom a r e c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d i n an i n d i v i d -u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d need f o r p r i v a c y so t h a t i s o l a t i n g e i t h e r o f t e n becomes l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f emphasis. These s t a t e m e n t s o f p r i v a c y appear t o l e n d s u p p o r t t o the l i t e r a -t u r e mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e s the home as a r e f u g e o r haven. However, t h i s d i d n o t seem t o be e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e . When asked whether t h e y r e g a r d e d t h e i r homes as p l a c e s t h a t were open o r c l o s e d t o t h e w o r l d , t h e m a j o r i t y emphasised t h a t i t was a m i x t u r e o f both (55%) and o n l y 15% d e s c r i b e d i t as b e i n g c l o s e d : I guess t h e r e ' s a t i m e f o r b o t h , y e a h , b o t h . . . I r e a l l y l i k e t o come home . . . I'm l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o b e i n g a l o n e and i t i s my f a v o u r i t e p l a c e t o be a l o n e and t o lounge around. I know i t ' s a s o r t o f r e f u g e f o r me when I am home but a t the same time I r e a l l y e n j o y p e o p l e . . . h a v i n g p e o p l e drop by. I always l i k e t o s a y , ' j u s t come o v e r , you d o n ' t have t o phone, j u s t come,' and I l i k e i t when p e o p l e come o v e r . . . w e l l , most o f the time . . . I wouldn't want p e o p l e d r o p p i n g i n a l l the time (pause) y e s , i t ' s r e a l l y a b i t o f b o t h . Thus, most f e l t t h a t t h e i r homes were, o r tended t o be, open f o r , as one man put i t , "you s i m p l y c a n ' t s h u t the r e s t o f l i f e o u t t h a t e a s i l y . I t d o e s n ' t go away j u s t because I've s h u t my f r o n t d o o r . " However, as the q u o t a t i o n s u g g e s t s , t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s r e q u i r e some q u a l i f i c a t i o n and o n l y 18% were u n e q u i v o c a l about t h i s openness. I t became a p p a r e n t , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r e n t e r t a i n m e n t p a t t e r n s , t h a t t h e i r homes were o n l y open w i t h i n d e f i n i t e l i m i t s . The l a t t e r p e r t a i n t o both t h o s e a d m i t t e d , and t o the f r e q u e n c y o f v i s i t s The p a t t e r n s I i n t e n d t o d e s c r i b e a r e p r e s e n t e d somewhat t e n t a -t i v e l y because i n u t i l i s i n g an open ended q u e s t i o n t o t a p t h i s i s s u e , 118 s e v e r a l f u z z y a r e a s remained a f t e r a n a l y s i n g the r e s p o n s e s . For example, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e tends t o be an "open door p o l i c y f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d k i d s " and t h a t a good d e a l o f spontaneous " c o f f e e v i s i t s " t a k e p l a c e between the women d u r i n g the day a l t h o u g h not i n t h e form o f a " k a f f e e k l a t s c h " o r s i m i l a r o r g a n i s e d p a t t e r n s t h a t some a u t h o r s have i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s form o f s o c i a l i s i n g was l e s s e a s i l y a r t i c u l a t e d o r q u a n t i f i e d so t h a t w h i l e a s t a t e m e n t such as "and 'so and s o 1 some-tim e s d r o p s by i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s " were common, o n l y n i n e p e r c e n t ( t h r e e women) s p e c i f i e d t h i s as b e i n g a r e g u l a r o c c u r r e n c e . Thus, I make no c l a i m t o have o b t a i n e d a p r e c i s e i d e a o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r s o c i a l i s i n g p a t t e r n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was q u i t e c l e a r t h a t t h e i r own l i v e s tended t o be home-centred, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, and t h a t w h i l e t h e y saw t h e i r homes as open, t h i s i n v i t a t i o n was a p p l i c a b l e t o a f a i r l y s m a l l c i r c l e o f i n t i m a t e s composed l a r g e l y o f c l o s e f r i e n d s and f a m i l y . S i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t d e s c r i b e d t h e m s e l v e s as e n t e r t a i n i n g a " c o u p l e o f t i m e s a month" o r "once e v e r y c o u p l e o f weeks" w h i l e 12% 15 mentioned once a month and 21% c i t e d t h r e e o r more times a month. A l l c i t e d c l o s e f r i e n d s as b e i n g t h e i r main g u e s t s and 31.6% a l s o mentioned f a m i l y . B u s i n e s s r e l a t e d e n t e r t a i n i n g was mentioned o n l y on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s ( n i n e p e r c e n t ) and n o t as a r e g u l a r o c c u r r e n c e so t h a t e n t e r t a i n i n g was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n f o r m a l . F i n a l l y , most e s t i m a t e d t h a t , when s o c i a l i s i n g w i t h f r i e n d s , 70% t o 80% o f the time was s p e n t i n each o t h e r ' s homes w i t h the r e m a i n d e r t a k i n g p l a c e i n p u b l i c p l a c e s such as r e s t a u r a n t s . Only one p e r s o n mentioned a p r i v a t e c l u b . Thus, w h i l s t t h e i r homes were n o t b a s t i o n s a g a i n s t s o c i e t y , t h e y were o n l y open w i t h c e r t a i n l i m i t s and t o c e r t a i n p e o p l e , and t r a n s c e n d a n c e o f e i t h e r seemed l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n a d i s t u r b i n g l o s s o f c o n t r o l t h a t would compromise one's a b i l i t y t o e n j o y home and p r i v a c y . 119 . One o f my i n i t i a l , " i c e b r e a k i n g " q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d t h e i s s u e o f "what s o r t o f a t t r i b u t e s a p l a c e would have t o have f o r you t o f e e l i t was home"; i n o t h e r words, how d i d t h e y d e f i n e "home." The i s s u e s o f p r i v a c y and freedom d i s c u s s e d thus f a r were c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and were a major f a c i l i t a t o r o f t h e p r i m a r y a t t r i b u t e o f home, namely, t h a t i t s h o u l d be a p l a c e where one f e e l s " c o m f o r t a b l e . " T h e r e seemed t o be two a s p e c t s t o t h e l a t t e r , one p h y s i c a l and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , one p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; Most p e o p l e (84%) evoked a d j e c t i v e s such as c o s y , c a s u a l and c o m f o r t a b l e and/or d e s c r i b e d "home" as b e i n g a " p l a c e t o f e e l r e l a x e d , " " t h a t one i s f a m i l i a r w i t h , " " t h a t s u i t s me," " t h a t f i t s w i t h my l i f e s t y l e , " and so on. B a s i c a l l y "home" was a p l a c e moulded t o one's i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and t h i s was f a c i l i t a t e d p a r t l y by t h e p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s one g a t h e r s t o g e t h e r and p a r t l y by d e c o r a t i o n : W e l l , I must have t he sense t h a t i t ' s mine. Th a t I have some c o n t r o l o v e r i t . T h a t I'm c o m f o r t a b l e i n i t . (pause) I t h i n k f e e l i n g a t home i s . . . t h e sense o f r e l a x a t i o n as much as a n y t h i n g . F e e l i n g l i k e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s . . . s u i t me. I t ' s always s o r t o f f l a t t e r i n g t o t e l l someone e l s e t h a t you f e e l a t home i n t h e i r home because you f e e l c o m f o r t -a b l e and i t seems l i k e a p l a c e you'd be c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g . I suppose i t ' s b a s i c a l l y b e i n g s u r r o u n d e d by one's p o s s e s s i o n s and f a m i l y . A c e r t a i n amount o f f u r n i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g s t h a t a r e my own. I suppose p i c t u r e s , books, rugs . . . t h i n g s t h a t I l i k e around me ( p a u s e ) . Somewhere you can come back t o . 'Home i s where the f a m i l y i s . ' You know, the p e o p l e i n i t a r e p a r t o f what t h e home i s . As the l a t t e r s u g g e s t s , t h e p e o p l e s h a r i n g t h e home, t y p i c a l l y one's spouse and/or c h i l d r e n , c o m p r i s e d a n o t h e r major d i m e n s i o n o f "home." The tremendous i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d upon i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d and t h i s a l s o became a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether o r not a house a f f o r d e d e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . T h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f "home" c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t i t has much s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o mental 120 h e a l t h ; however, when c o n f r o n t e d d i r e c t l y , t h i s i d e a tended t o be p l a y e d down. Most f e l t t h a t one's home enhanced but d i d n o t p r o v i d e t h i s t ype o f s u p p o r t and t h e dominant f e e l i n g seemed to be t h a t the l a t t e r d e r i v e d from " p e o p l e n o t s t r u c t u r e s " ( 4 9 % ) : Yeah, t h e r e ' s t h e s o r t o f ' n i c e t o come home t o ' f e e l i n g . I've had t h a t b u t e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t ... I wouldn't say so. I t comes from f e e l i n g c o m f o r t a b l e . You draw y o u r s t r e n g t h from o t h e r t h i n g s , from o t h e r p e o p l e and y o u r s e l f - not f r o m a house. I t ' s j u s t t h a t f e e l i n g o f c o m f o r t . A g a i n t h i s u n d e r l i n e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r houses a r e not the "be a l l and end a l l " i n t h e i r l i v e s . i v . The House as an E x p r e s s i v e Medium T h a t the house i s e x p r e s s i v e o f s e l f o r o f i d e n t i t y i s a common, and r e c e n t l y p o p u l a r , theme i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and i n a d v e r t i s i n g and p o p u l a r m a g a z i n e s . 1 ^ T h i s c o n c e r n d i d seem t o be v a l i d a t e d h e r e . O n l y two p e o p l e , both men, f e l t t h a t i t was i n a p p l i c -a b l e w h i l e 67% u n e q u i v o c a l l y s u p p o r t e d the i d e a . The r e m a i n i n g 27% were i n agreement but u n c e r t a i n t o a d e g r e e . W h i l e the l a t t e r commonly made s t a t e m e n t s such as ". . . maybe i n ... I suppose, i t s the f u r n i -t u r e we've chosen and maybe i n the d e c o r a t i n g , " the f o l l o w i n g i s t y p i c a l o f the m a j o r i t y : S u r e , t h a t ' s t r u e . . . because where you l i v e you l i k e t o e x t e n d y o u r s e l f . How you manage y o u r l i f e i s how you manage y o u r house r e a l l y . . . how y o u r t h o u g h t s a r e (pause) I f y o u r t h o u g h t s a r e a l l u n t i d y and you n e v e r g e t g o i n g any-where o r never a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g , w e l l , y o u r house i s s u r e l y g o i n g t o r e f l e c t t h a t . So, I j u s t l i k e i t open and n o t t o o much ju n k and my husband i s the same. So I guess t h a t r e f l e c t s me. I d o n ' t l i k e t o have my mind c l u t t e r e d . 121 For most i t was the way i n which a p e r s o n d e c o r a t e d and " f i x e d a p l a c e " up t h a t gave a house t h i s q u a l i t y and w h i l e f i v e p e o p l e mentioned a s o r t o f vague f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a b l e t o walk i n t o a house and "know t h a t i t ' s r i g h t f o r y o u , " the house as a s t r u c t u r e was not seen t o be e x p r e s s i v e . A l l would agre e t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n t y p e s o f h o u s i n g t h e y l i k e d , but t h i s f e e l i n g was n o t u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p r e s s i v e -n e s s : W e l l , I t h i n k t h e r e ' s a l s o something i n the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e . . . i t ' s t he i d e a t h a t you can go i n t o a p l a c e and j u s t know t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g t o be c o m f o r t a b l e t h e r e . Even i f y o u ' r e l o o k i n g a t o t h e r p l a c e s and l o o k i n g a t p l a c e s t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g i n r i g h t now . . . you have ... a sense t h a t t h e r e ' s something about the space and the shape, t h a t i t ' s j u s t y ou. I came i n t o t h i s p l a c e and i m m e d i a t e l y had a sense t h a t t h i s was a p l a c e where I'd be c o m f o r t a b l e . I t f e l t r i g h t . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h a t i s i n h e r e n t l y e x p r e s s i v e i n a house, as might be e x p e c t e d i n a market o f l a r g e l y mass produced dwel-l i n g s , and t o a c h i e v e t h i s q u a l i t y one has t o "do t h i n g s " t o t h e house: I f i t ' s an e x t e n t i o n o f us, i t ' s because we've made i t so. We d i d n ' t buy i t because i t was an e x t e n s i o n . . . I t ' s what we've added . . . o r n e g l e c t e d . T h i s a c t i v i t y encompassed most u s u a l l y d e c o r a t i n g but some a l s o saw the need t o r e n o v a t e and r e d e s i g n and t o make s t r u c t u r a l changes i n o r d e r t o p e r s o n a l i s e a house: No, I don ' t t h i n k so . . . I'd have t o c o n f e s s t h a t t h i s house i s s t i l l v e r y much the p r e v i o u s owner's house i n the sense t h a t ... we haven't changed i t a l o t and we've always been . . . t o o busy d o i n g a l l s o r t s o f o t h e r t h i n g s t o b o t h e r t o do much. I t was adequate f o r our purpose and remained adequate f o r our pu r p o s e s and we haven't a l t e r e d i t t o con-form w i t h any g r e a t d e s i g n . 122 To a d e g r e e , the s t r e s s p l a c e d upon h a v i n g t o make changes i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a t e n s i o n t h a t emerged when d i s c u s s i o n t u r n e d t o the n a t u r e o f t h a t which houses e x p r e s s . W h i l e g e n e r a l l y , o r v e r y i m p e r s o n a l l y , the term " s e l f " c o u l d be, o r was evoked, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n o v e r e x a c t l y what houses c o u l d r e v e a l and t h i s l e d one woman t o q u e s t i o n my use o f the l a t t e r word: "Not r e v e a l i n g - t h a t ' s q u i t e a s t r o n g word. Maybe i t can t e l l you a few l i t t l e t h i n g s but not r e v e a l . " T h i s u n c e r -t a i n t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t some drew between one's p e r s o n a l i t y and one's t a s t e s , between "what I am" and "what I l i k e " and w h i l e i n t u i t i v e l y t h e y can be t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g i n t e r r e l a t e d , the l a t t e r a ppeared t o somehow be more o b j e c t i v e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p r e s s i o n : W e l l , the s t r u c t u r e , no, I don't t h i n k i t e x p r e s s e s a n y t h i n g a t a l l , and the way i t ' s s e t up ... I r e a l l y don't t h i n k so. I t h i n k i t ' s t h e p e o p l e and t h e i r t a s t e s and l i k e s and d i s -l i k e s , so . . . whether i t ' s e x p r e s s i v e o f me as a . . . o f whether I'm an a g g r e s s i v e o r p a s s i v e s o r t o f p e r s o n (pause) I'm q u i t e a g g r e s s i v e and I d o n ' t have b r i g h t g l a r i n g c o l o u r s a l l o v e r the w a l l . . . s o , i n t h a t c a s e , I suppose . . . no, I d o n ' t t h i n k i t r e a l l y e x p r e s s e s my c h a r a c t e r . S u p e r f i c i a l l y ... I suppose i n s m a l l ways t h e r e a r e t h i n g s t h a t I l i k e . . . t h a t r e f l e c t what I l i k e . I d o n ' t t h i n k i t r e f l e c t s what I am. T h e r e seemed t o be s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s t o t h i s c o n f u s i o n . P a r t l y i t r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t w h i l e t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y a f f l u e n t , the goods t h e y have a c c e s s t o a r e h i g h l y s t a n d a r d i s e d . T h i s a p p l i e s t o both houses and p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s and n e i t h e r c o u l d be viewed as t r u l y i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e m e n t s . A c c e s s t o the l a t t e r t y p e o f goods seemed t o be l a r g e l y l i m i t e d by f i n a n c e s : 123 I f i n d t h a t a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n . I don't know i f I haye a n y t h i n g t o say. You know, y o u r c h o i c e o f a house i s l i m i t e d fay so many t h i n g s b e s i d e s what you would l i k e t o buy. I mean i t ' s l i m i t e d by what you can a f f o r d and i t ' s l i m i t e d by y o u r own p r e j u d i c e s which a r e . . . governed by so many t h i n g s , l i k e the f a c t t h a t we'd l i v e d i n t h i s a r e a b e f o r e , t h a t we l i k e d the a r e a , t h a t t h i s house happened t o come on t h e market a t t h e r i g h t time . . . T h e r e a r e so many impond-e r a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p e r c e i v e d need t o make some s o r t o f changes was a l s o compromised by l a c k o f f u n d s and by l a c k o f e x p e r t i s e (42%) as i s r e f l e c t e d i n s t a t e m e n t s such a s : I a g r e e w i t h the i d e a but d epending on the f i n a n c e s a v a i l -a b l e . I d o n ' t t h i n k i n my s i t u a t i o n i t c o u l d become an e x t e n -s i o n o f my p e r s o n a l i t y . . . F o r one, I c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d i t and, two, the c h i l d r e n have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . I t has t o be r i g h t f o r them, t o o . I've begun t o t h i n k about t h a t a l o t ... I used t o t h i n k d e c o r a t i n g was j u s t a f u n c t i o n o f y o u r p e r s o n a l i t y . You c o u l d j u s t go t o i t but t h e r e ' s an awful l o t more t o i t t h a n t h a t . T h e r e ' s . . . money f o r s t a r t e r s . You c a n ' t e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f w i t h o u t some money. You can i n s o r t o f s m a l l ways but i f you r e a l l y want t o do i t up r i g h t i t t a k e s a l o t o f money t o do i t . Well ... I guess . . . you do what you can t o make i t as c o m f o r t a b l e as you can ... t o s u i t y o u r needs and y o u r f a m i l y ' s needs and you want i t t o be p l e a s a n t (pause) But I'm not ... I o f t e n know what I want but I'm n o t s u r e how t o g e t i t . I'm n o t an a r t i s t i c p e r s o n . I'm r e a l l y n o t , but I do l i k e t o have n i c e t h i n g s i f I can a f f o r d them. So you j u s t do t h e b e s t you can w i t h what you have and you do i t t o s u i t you and n o t t o s u i t anyone e l s e . . . I f I had a l o t o f money I'd do i t a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . W h i l e 42% d e s c r i b e d d e c o r a t i n g as an e n j o y a b l e o r p l e a s u r a b l e a c t i v i t y , t h e r e m a i n d e r u n d e r t o o k i t but were o n l y r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the end r e s u l t and 36% o f both groups s t a t e d t h a t i t was n o t something they were " v e r y good a t . " 124 A f u r t h e r s e t o f t e n s i o n s seems t o stem from t h e e q u a t i o n o f the s e l f w i t h a unique p e r s o n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n was t h o u g h t l i k e l y t o , o r seen as u n f e a s i b l e because o f c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e .who sh a r e d t h e home, e s p e c i a l l y t h e needs o f one's c h i l d r e n . T h e r e were i n t e r m i t t e n t comments r e g a r d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e home be f u n c -t i o n a l o r w o r k a b l e f o r the " k i d s " and as s u i t i n g t h e i r needs. Common-a l i t y w i t h one's own needs was n o t something t h a t c o u l d be a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumed. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p o i g n a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d by the dilemma f a c e d by one c o u p l e who had r e c e n t l y bought t h e i r f i r s t home as a r t i c u -l a t e d by the husband r e g a r d i n g h i s needs f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n : I t ' s a p l a c e where I g a t h e r a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o me around me ... I r e a l l y f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l and s e n s u a l t h i n g s o f l i f e . . . and t h e t h i n g s you g a t h e r around you . . . l i k e t h e c o l o u r o f y o u r r u g s , the c o l o u r o f y o u r w a l l s , t h e t e x t u r e o f y o u r s o f a s and t h e t a p e s t r i e s you have . . . t h o s e a r e r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s . My home i s a p l a c e where I can go and f e e l . . . and f e e l l i k e I'm i n some k i n d o f womb o r something l i k e t h a t . I d o n ' t have t h a t f e e l i n g r i g h t now. Is t h a t because you've o n l y j u s t moved i n ? I d o n ' t t h i n k i t ' s t h a t because I've moved i n t o p l a c e s b e f o r e and . . . had s i x months t o n e s t b u i l d and had b e t t e r r e s u l t s . I t h i n k i t ' s more a p r o d u c t o f t h e l i f e s p ace t h a t the woman I l i v e w i t h now and I a r e c r e a t i n g . She's t i d i e r than I am and . . . She l i k e s a more s t e r i l e e n v i r o n m e n t than I'd l i k e t o l i v e i n . R e a l l y i t ' s a c o n f l i c t t h a t h a s n ' t been r e s o l v e d ... I'm f a i r l y p e s s i m i s t i c . I t ' s r e a l l y h a r d . W h i l e t h i s may w e l l be a r a t h e r extreme i l l u s t r a t i o n , t h e need f o r compromise, and the problems t h o u g h t l i k e l y t o ensue, were a l l u d e d t o by 30% o f t h e group. The perhaps more "normal" s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e i s s u e s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l c a p t u r e d s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g the house and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n : 125 W e l l . . . t h a t ' s hard t o say because i d e a l l y I suppose i t s h o u l d be but one makes p r a g m a t i c d e c i s i o n s r e a l l y based on . . . how much money i s a v a i l a b l e t o put i n t o t h e s e t h i n g s .. . . o n how much c o n s u l t a t i o n has t o be gone i n t o i n d o i n g i t and how 'with i t ' e v e r y o n e who's c o n s u l t e d i s a t any g i v e n t i m e . So t h a t any l a r g e p u r c h a s e c o u l d j u s t as e a s i l y be a d i s a s t e r as be an e x t e n s i o n o f the way you r e a l l y f e e l about t h i n g s . So, some t h i n g s come o f f okay and some d o n ' t . They j u s t d o n ' t work and e v e n t u a l l y you g e t used t o t h a t . So, I g u e s s , I t e n d more t o f e e l t h a t ' s i n e v i t a b l y what happens. Ther e a r e v e r y p r a g m a t i c d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e d and t h e t e s t o f i t t e n d s t o be l u c k p r e t t y w e l l . I t h i n k maybe i f one were more f l e x i b l e f i n a n c i a l l y ... . but most p e o p l e a r e n ' t . They d o n ' t have t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y t o p i c k and c h o o s e . L i k e we d o n ' t . . . how many p e o p l e have t h e f l e x i b i l i t y t o go t o West Vancouver and buy a house f o r $500,000 and t e a r i t down t o b u i l d a new one. You know, you j u s t d o n ' t have t h a t . . . w e l l , I guess some do, but n o t g e n e r a l l y . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was an i s s u e r a i s e d by one p e r s o n but which seems worth m e n t i o n i n g g i v e n the contemporary d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e 1970s and 1980s as b e i n g the time o f the "me g e n e r a t i o n . " R a t h e r than a l a c k o f monetary r e s o u r c e s o r p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s , t h i s p e r s o n f o c u s s e d on an i n n e r u n c e r t a i n t y : I've been t o o t h e r p e o p l e ' s homes and I've r e a l i s e d t h a t . . . 'Yes, t h i s i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . ' T h i n g s a r e s e t up i n a c e r t a i n way t h a t does t h a t . I d o n ' t . . . you know . . . t h e b i g p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n g ... 'I d o n ' t know what I'm about' . . . so I . . . p e r s o n a l l y , I d o n ' t know who I am. You know, the o l d . . .'Go o u t and f i n d y o u r s e l f . . . c l i c h e . So I c a n ' t say t h a t . . . 'Yes, t h i s i s an e x t e n s i o n o f me' . . . because I don't f e e l c o n f i d e n t a c t u a l l y s a y i n g who o r what I am. So I presume someone who knows me c o u l d walk i n here and f e e l q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e i n h e r e because i t ' s an e x p r e s s i o n o f me but t o ask me . . . I c o u l d n ' t p o s s i b l y say what i t i s . Thus, t h e y c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d and espouse the i d e a t h a t o b j e c t s p r o v i d e a m i r r o r f o r , and d e f i n i t i o n o f , one's unique s e l f and t h a t t h e y m e d i a t e t h e e v a l u a t i o n s o f s e l f made by o t h e r s . However, t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and t h o s e o f f r i e n d s and the v e r y r e a l p e r s o n a l , 126 f a m i l i a l and f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s t h e y f a c e g e n e r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e c o n f u s i o n and s c e p t i c i s m . v. I n d i v i d u a l i t y and A t t i t u d e s Toward C h i l d r e n ' s Housing Needs These d e f i n i t i o n s o f , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e space r e s u r f a c e d most s t a r k l y i n d i s c u s s i n g the h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c h i l d r e n and t o a l a r g e degree t h e l a t t e r c o n s t i t u t e a microcosm o f t h e i r own p e r c e i v e d needs. The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s e n q u i r y a r e summarised below: T a b l e 3.1 The Housing Requirements o f C h i l d r e n H o u s i n g Requirements %' (n = 33) T h e i r own room/space 85 P r o x i m i t y t o S c h o o l s 76 A c c e s s t o open space - y a r d - 30% - p a r k s , woods - 46% 76 A "good, q u i e t , s a f e n e i g h b o u r h o o d " 46 Away from t r a f f i c 39 P r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n 36 P r o x i m i t y t o s e r v i c e s 30 S o u r c e : The a u t h o r . As i s a p p a r e n t , t h e major r e q u i r e m e n t o f the house i t s e l f was some form o f n o n - a d u l t s p a c e - - e i t h e r t h e i r own bedroom o r a playroom--where t h e y were f r e e t o do what t h e y want t o w i t h o u t f e e l i n g r e s t r i c t e d by e i t h e r t he p a r e n t s o r the p a r e n t s ' e n v i r o n m e n t : 127 D i d h a v i n g a f a m i l y a f f e c t the s o r t o f d e c i s i o n s you made? Yes, d e f i n i t e l y . T h i s i s the a r e a we wanted t o s t a y i n . . . i n and around L o r d Byng and Queen E l i z a b e t h ... We d e f i n i t e l y wanted a house w i t h a back y a r d ... a s o u t h e r n back y a r d so t h a t t h e r e ' s l o t s o f sun and space f o r t h e k i d s t o p l a y . We d e f i n i t e l y wanted a basement f o r the k i d s t o r i d e around i n when i t ' s r a i n i n g . These k i n d s o f t h i n g s were on my mind when I was r e n t i n g and t h i n k i n g t h a t we r e a l l y s h o u l d buy because p r i c e s were j u s t g o i n g t o keep g o i n g h i g h e r . I t was b a s i c a l l y , f o r t h e k i d s . . . the y a r d , p r o x i m i t y t o s c h o o l s around here . . . the house i t s e l f ... as l o n g as t h e r e were enough rooms (pause) I g u e s s , a l s o h a v i n g some o t h e r k i d s o f the same age w i t h i n the b l o c k a r e a . When the c h i l d r e n a r e between t h e ages o f f o u r t o t e n I t h i n k i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o have k i d s , w i t h i n t h e b l o c k anyway, i n the same age group . . . I d e f i n i t e l y t h i n k t r e e s t o c l i m b . ... We l i k e d t h i s n e i g h -bourhood because t h e Endowment Lands were so c l o s e . We d i d n ' t want to l i v e w i t h the k i d s i n apartments where . . . t h e y c a n ' t s i m p l y walk o u t and be o u t s i d e ... We d e f i n i t e l y d i d n o t want t o be where t h e r e weren't t r e e s o r f a i r l y q u i c k a c c e s s t o swimming p o o l s , p l a y g r o u n d s , a beach a r e a . T h a t ' s r e a l l y why we s t a y e d h e r e . What about the house i t s e l f ? F o r c h i l d r e n ? ... I g u e s s , space a g a i n . . . e s p e c i a l l y o u t s i d e f o r them t o run around i n . I'd choose n o t t o be on a busy s t r e e t so t h a t t h e y can p l a y on the s i d e w a l k . . . so t h e y can have a b i t more room t o p l a y around i n . . . . An a r e a t h e y can c a l l t h e i r own. A bedroom o r a p l a y r o o m where t h e y can be a l i t t l e c r e a t i v e and won't have t o worry about k e e p i n g i t c l e a n a l l the t i m e . They can have some l i t t l e a r e a t h a t i s t h e i r s as opposed t o someone e l s e ' s . For c h i l d r e n , and by e x t e n s i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l , p r i v a t e space s h o u l d a f f o r d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be a l o n e , f e e l r e l a x e d and u n r e s -t r a i n e d , t o be i m a g i n a t i v e and c r e a t i v e and t o d e v e l o p t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s and t a l e n t s . I t s h o u l d be a p l a c e f o r which they have some sense o f p o s s e s s i o n so t h a t t h e y w i l l a l s o f e e l " r e s p o n s i b l e " f o r i t as w e l l as f e e l i n g f r e e t o be " w i l d w i t h i n l i m i t s " : A p l a c e where k i d s can be k i d s . I t h i n k t h e r e ' s g o t t o be a p l a c e i n the home where k i d s can know t h a t i t ' s t h e i r space but t h a t t h e y have to c a r e . . . t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h a t space. I t ' s t h e i r s but i t s t i l l has t o be . . . i t ' s p a r t o f the home so i t ' s kept up. They 128 c a n ' t d e s t r o y i t but i t ' s t h e i r s and i t ' s s o r t o f l i k e t h e i r p r i v a t e space where t h e y can do what t h e y want t o do. I t ' s n o t a space where you have to worry a l l the t i m e . You know, make i t so t h a t t h e y can do t h i n g s u n t i l 'they're o l d enough to r e s p e c t t h e i r s p a c e . Each c h i l d s h o u l d have t h e i r own room i f i t ' s a t a l l p o s s i b l e so t h e y have somewhere to go and do whatever t h e y want. Where t h e y have a s o r t o f r e l a x e d f e e l i n g and . . . n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y c a n ' t t o u c h a n y t h i n g because i t ' s mum and dad's f u r n i t u r e o r whatever ... an a r e a where t h e y can s i t and s t u d y and e v e n t u a l l y have f r i e n d s o v e r and know t h a t i t ' s not the s o r t o f p l a c e where you have t o ask p e r m i s s i o n t o have them o v e r . . . you d o n ' t have to be s c a r e d i f you run y o u r b i k e i n t o the w a l l s . A s o r t o f f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y can grow up i n a r e l a x e d atmosphere. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , one o f t h e most commonly remembered f e a t u r e s o f the p a r e n t s ' c h i l d h o o d homes was whether o r n o t t h e y had had t h e i r own room ( 5 5 % ) . Throughout the d i s c u s s i o n s o f c h i l d r e a r i n g o n l y 24% mentioned t h e p r i m a c y o r i m p o r t a n c e o f the f a m i l y i t s e l f as opposed t o t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f the home. Nine p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t the l a t t e r was unim-p o r t a n t o r i n s i g n f i c a n t and t h a t the atmosphere o f the f a m i l y was a l l t h a t m a t t e r e d but the r e m a i n d e r tended t o view i t as a n o t h e r f a c t o r r a n k e d a l o n g w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n a l and space r e q u i r e m e n t s . These d e f i n i t i o n s o f , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a c y s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y s o l i t a r y o r " i n d i v i d u a l " phenomenon and t h i s appears t o e x a c e r b a t e t h e t e n s i o n d i s c u s s e d above, between the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e i r f u l f i l m e n t i n a space t h a t a l s o p r o v i d e s a base f o r the f a m i l y . The c h i l d ' s need f o r p r i v a t e space was sometimes d i s -c u s s e d i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g an "escape" and t h i s not o n l y e n t a i l e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c h i l d c o u l d get.away from t h e p a r e n t s but a l s o t h e r e v e r s e ( 2 7 % ) : 129 I t h i n k t h a t i n a house the p a r e n t s must have somewhere to e s c a p e . . . from t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Sometimes c h i l d r e n e s c a p e from t h e i r p a r e n t s , t o o ! But i t ' s d e f i n i t e l y a good i d e a t o have es c a p e r o u t e s f o r a l l the f a m i l y i n a house. I t h i n k t h a t f o r e v e r y b o d y ' s mental h e a l t h you need a p l a c e f o r t h e k i d s t o be a l o n e , . . . f o r each o f them t o be a b l e t o go i n t o t h e i r own space and s h u t t h e door b e h i n d them when t h e y ' r e angry o r when t h e y want t o be a l o n e ... a p l a c e t o p l a y t h a t ' s a p a r t from t h e normal l i v i n g a r e a . v i . P r i v a c y and House Form The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a c y t h a t p e r t a i n e d a t a l a r g e r s c a l e r e g a r d -i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e home u n i t t o the r e s t o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r community a l s o t e n d t o be a p p l i e d w i t h i n the home. Only s i x p e r c e n t a l s o e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t a home s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e adequate com-munal space f o r the f a m i l y : I t ' s e f f e c t e d m o s t l y . . . t h a t t h e r e ' s enough space f o r e v e r y o n e . . . both p r i v a t e space and communal s p a c e . T h a t ' s s u r p r i s i n g l y c r i t i c a l . When I l o o k around a t t h e s e new p l a c e s i t always amazes me t h a t t h e y can put so many bedrooms and n o t a common s p a c e , r e a l l y . A room f o r them t o be by t h e m s e l v e s . Everyone s h o u l d have t h e i r own room. T h a t was i m p o r t a n t t o me. A p l a c e where t h e y can e n t e r t a i n t h e i r own f r i e n d s , be i t a p l a y r o o m o r . . . but not v a s t l y removed from t h e r e s t o f t h e house . . . so i t ' s r e a l l y l i k e two homes w i t h g r e a t playrooms and whatnots d o w n s t a i r s so k i d s come i n and go down s t a i r s and t h a t ' s a l l t h e p a r e n t s see o f them. I t s h o u l d n ' t be so s e p a r a t e d o r removed. F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y women, saw t h e u l t i m a t e p r i v a c y as b e i n g a room o f t h e i r own w i t h i n the home i n which they c o u l d be a l o n e o r a r r a n g e i n t h e i r own way ( 3 6 % ) . However, t h e i r houses were u s u a l l y t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t t h i s and few were a b l e t o p o i n t t o rooms o r p a r t s o f the house t h a t they r e a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h -64% responded n e g a t i v e l y t o t h i s i d e a . 130 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between ownership and t h e s e v a r i o u s meanings o f the home a r e complex and, as s u g g e s t e d i n d i s c u s s i n g t he i m p o r t a n c e o f an owned home f o r c h i l d r e n , t h e y c a n n o t be a u t o m a t i c a l l y e q u a t e d i n any d i r e c t , c a u s a l manner. W h i l e some a s p e c t s o f p r i v a c y a r e o b v i o u s l y p r e d i c a t e d upon o w n e r s h i p , such as s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e , t h e r e a r e many t h a t do n o t have t h i s dependence. S e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t ownership was n o t e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In o t h e r words, r e n t i n g an a p a r t -ment o r a house was n o t o b j e c t i o n a b l e u n t i l t h e i s s u e s o f r a i s i n g a f a m i l y and u s i n g one's money s e n s i b l y a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . As noted e a r l i e r , t h e i r d e c i s i o n making i s as much a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f d w e l l i n g u n i t - the d e t a c h e d house - as f o r a p a r t i c u l a r t e n u r e form and here a f i r m e r l i n k can be made w i t h such i s s u e s as p r i v a c y and freedom t h a t a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . In some r e s p e c t s t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r i d e a l o r dream homes. T h i s type o f image was n o t h e l d by a l l and o n l y 70% f e l t t h e y had a t l e a s t some p a r t i a l mental p i c t u r e . Of t h o s e who responded n e g a t i v e l y ( 3 0 % ) , 70% f e l l i n t o t he o l d e s t age groups (40 t o 60) and f e l t t h a t w h i l e t h e y p r o b a b l y d i d have an i d e a l home a t one t i m e , t h e y had c e a s e d t o dream and were now l a r g e l y c o n t e n t w i t h what they had. Those who o u t l i n e d t he images t h e y had h e l d d i d so i n terms l a r g e l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t he re m a i n d e r o f the group f o r whom the most c o n s i s t e n t d e s i r e was f o r a l a r g e r p r o p e r t y ; f o r some b i g g e r than t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e were two elements t o t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . 1 ' ' F i r s t l y , a l a r g e r house was d e s i r e d (48%) and t h i s was u s u a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p r e s e n t home, a l t h o u g h i n some c a s e s t h e y s i m p l y wanted something " b i g " . In e i t h e r e v e n t , s p a c i o u s n e s s , b i g rooms, l o t s 131 o f windows and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g rooms f o r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s such as a den, a work room, e t c . , were mentioned. S e c o n d l y , and more commonly, a l a r g e r p r o p e r t y was d e s i r e d (87%) e i t h e r i n terms o f a l a r g e r l o t w i t h f i g u r e s o f 60 t o 70 f e e t o f f r o n t a g e b e i n g m e n t i o n e d , i m p l y i n g an urban l o c a t i o n o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , a l e s s urban l o c a t i o n w i t h a " n i c e p i e c e o f l a n d , out o f the c i t y but n o t too f a r away." I n t e r e s t -i n g l y , one woman who had a l r e a d y owned a huge seven bedroom home, f e l t t h a t she had a l r e a d y had her dream home and t h a t she wouldn't want i t a g a i n . T h i s p r o p e r t y seems to be a l o n g the l i n e s o f t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by the r e m a i n d e r o f t h e group but t h i s woman p o i n t e d o u t the problems o f upkeep and t h e s i z e o f f a m i l y one would need t o make the p l a c e f e e l l i v e d i n and b a s i c a l l y f e l t she " c o u l d n ' t cope w i t h i t a g a i n . " For the m a j o r i t y , however, t h e s e i s s u e s do n o t appear t o be as p e r t i n e n t a s , f o r example, m a x i m i s i n g one's p r i v a c y and freedom. As one woman put i t : " I f I d e c i d e d t o move from here now i t would o n l y be t o g e t more p r i v a c y - t o somewhere more remote." As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , t h e s e i d e a l s o r dreams do n o t p r o v i d e a model f o r a c t i o n s i n c e o n l y 39% o f t h o s e e x p r e s s i n g t h e s e i d e a s f e l t t h a t t h e y were a s p i r i n g t o own such a p r o p e r t y . v i i . Home and the P r i v a t e I n d i v i d u a l A t t h i s p o i n t i t seems u s e f u l t o d i g r e s s b r i e f l y i n o r d e r t o make some p r e l i m i n a r y i n t e r p r e t i v e comments i n l i g h t o f t h e f o r e g o i n g summary. These may a l s o u s e f u l l y s e r v e t o c o n t e x t u a l i s e the r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s e x p o s i t i o n . The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e space documented thus f a r may seem u n c o n t e n t i o u s and u n e x c e p t i o n a l , however, as a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work has d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e y s h o u l d be 132 u n d e r s t o o d as b e i n g both a c u l t u r a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c j u x t a -p o s i t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g house f o r m s , Rapoport p o i n t s o u t t h a t w h i l e p r i v a c y i s viewed as a b a s i c human need i n our c u l t u r e , i t i s n e v e r t h e -l e s s a complex s o c i a l phenomenon t h a t may v a r y c r o s s c u l t u r a l l y w i t h , f o r example, " f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l worth" and a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g the 18 " p l a c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . " F u r t h e r m o r e , B r i t t a n a l s o n o t e s t h a t the n o t i o n o f " s e l f " i m p l i e d by t h e s e l a t t e r f a c t o r s i s a l s o a " s o c i a l i n v e n t i o n ; t h a t i s , a s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n which appears o n l y i n c e r t a i n 19 h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . " T h i s n o t i o n o f s e l f i s , i n a d d i t i o n , n o t a s t a t i c c a t e g o r y and, even i n i t s most e g o i s t i c form, i t i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s t h a t e x p r e s s e s , and has i m p l i c a t i o n s , f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s a t an i n t i m a t e and s o c i e t a l l e v e l . These i d e a s would seem t o u s e f u l l y i n f o r m t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e space o u t l i n e d can be seen t o p o i n t t o an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f and s o c i a l r e a l i t y r e m i n i s c e n t o f the c l a s s i c l i b e r a l view. B r i t t a n c i t e s , as a r e c u r r e n t theme, the u n i q u e n e s s and p r i v a c y o f the s e l f and d e s c r i b e s t h e c o n c e p t o f p r i v a c y as b e i n g i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n w e s t e r n t h o u g h t and e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e b o u r g e o i s i n d i v i d u a l and h i s 20 p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he s t a t e s t h a t i n t h i s view: . . . the p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l i s a p e r s o n who can o n l y f u l l y r e a l i s e h i m s e l f i f he i s n o t f e t t e r e d by the c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e ' p u b l i c s p h e r e , ' t h a t i s , he i s f r e e t o a c c u m u l a t e p r o p e r t y w i t h o u t t o o much s t a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e . P r i v a c y , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , r e l a t e s n o t o n l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n , but a l s o t o the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f p r o p e r t y . To r e s p e c t a p e r s o n ' s p r i v a c y , t h e r e f o r e , e n t a i l s r e s p e c t i n g h i s r i g h t t o p r o p e r t y . What I own and what I l a y c l a i m t o l i m i t s the e x t e n t o f my p r i v a c y . Hence, as an i n d i v i d u a l , I d e m o n s t r a t e my autonomy t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t my ownership o f p r o p e r t y a l l o w s me t o pursue my own i n t e r e s t s . 2 1 133 The l a t t e r s e n t e n c e p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a r s t o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the b e l i e f s e x p r e s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s summary. A d d i t i o n a l l y , Lukes a l s o n o t e s t h e c l o s e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between autonomy, p r i v a c y and s e l f d evelopment and d e s c r i b e s them as t h e " t h r e e f a c e s " o f freedom w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b e l i e f i n t h e i n h e r e n t d i g n i t y o f man, c o n s t i t u t e 22 t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m . To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h i s i s the l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g f o l l o w e d by R a k o f f i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e meaning o f the home and i d e o l o g y i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . The f o r m e r a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d as b e i n g p a r t o f our " c u l t u r e ' s r e c i p e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l t e n s i o n s c r e a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l -i s t i c view o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y " and both a r e h e l d t o be an e x p r e s s i o n o f and f u l f i l l m e n t o f l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y . In drawing t h e s e con-c l u s i o n s , R a k o f f t u r n s t o John Locke's s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g man's n a t u r a l r i g h t t o p e r s o n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f , and s e l f e x t e n s i o n i n , one's p r o p e r t y and sees t h i s as r e m a i n i n g a pow e r f u l a t t r a c t i o n t o d a y . Locke's f o r m u l a i s seen t o " c o n t i n u e t o m o t i v a t e us i n our t r e a t m e n t o f o w n e r s h i p " w h i c h , f o r t h e m a j o r i t y i n contemporary t i m e s , i s seen t o mean homeownership. G i v e n t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y t o p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s and a house f o r most p e o p l e , R a k o f f f e e l s t h a t i t "makes p e r f e c t sense t h a t t h e house (and perhaps the c a r , a l s o ) t a k e s on the f u l l range o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l i s m a s c r i b e d t o 23 l a n d e d p r o p e r t y . " W h i l s t t h e r e may w e l l be some j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o d e l i m i t i n g such i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from an e t y m o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view i n t h a t t h e above may c o n s t i t u t e t h e r o o t s o f contemporary b e l i e f s , t h i s argument i s h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . Not o n l y does i t c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r p r e t the modern meaning o f the home i n f u n c t i o n a l i s t terms, but i t a l s o 134 i g n o r e s t h e manner i n which s o c i e t y has changed s i n c e the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s when t h e s e pronouncements were made. L i k e t h e s o c i e t y i n which t h e y a r o s e and i n which t h e y r e t a i n meaning, c a t e g o r i e s such as t h e i n d i v i d u a l and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a r e n o t s t a t i c and unchanging and have been g r a d u a l l y and s u b t l y t r a n s f o r m e d so t h a t t h e y c o r r e s p o n d o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y t o t h e i r a n t e c e d e n t s . The r e c e n t p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s t u l a t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the w e s t e r n n o t i o n o f s e l f i s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h i s p o i n t . As L a s c h n o t e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the contemporary i n d i v i d u a l , t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f may s t i l l be d e s c r i b e d as i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c but i t bears o n l y a " s u p e r f i c i a l r e s e m b l a n c e , i n h i s s e l f a b s o r p t i o n and d e l u s i o n s o f g r a n d e u r , t o the ' i m p e r i a l s e l f so o f t e n c e l e b r a t e d i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y American 24 l i t e r a t u r e . " S i m i l a r arguments c o u l d be made w i t h r e g a r d t o the development o f c o r p o r a t e and s h a r e h o l d e r p r o p e r t y ownership and the p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f the modern c r e d i t system which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y , and i n c r e a s i n g l y , s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e g a r d t o d o m e s t i c p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . Thus, w h i l e R a k o f f ' s l i n e o f argument i n i t i a l l y a p p e a r s t o be e v o c a t i v e , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s i n v o l v e s a tremendous, and m y s t i f i c a t o r y l e a p i n l o g i c t h a t a p p e a r s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o r t e m p i r i c a l l y and h i s t o r -i c a l l y . In terms o f the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , w h i l e an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c view o f s e l f s u g g e s t s i t s e l f as i n t e g r a l t o t h e m u l t i v a l e n t meanings o f t h e home, something d i f f e r e n t t o the u s u a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n a l s o a p p e a r s t o be t a k i n g p l a c e . The l a t t e r i s s u g g e s t -ed most n o t a b l y by the d e n i g r a t i o n o f the i n t r i n s i c i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o p -e r t y and p r o p e r t y a p p r o p r i a t i o n . I t a l s o emerged f o r c i b l y i n d i s c u s s i o n o f t h o s e s p h e r e s o f l i f e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o , and bounding t h e home and i t s meaning and t o which a t t e n t i o n w i l l p r e s e n t l y be t u r n e d . 135 v i i i . S t a t u s and S u c c e s s : Some D i s s e n t i n g Views The t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o p e r t y and the a l l o c a t i o n o f s o c i a l s t a t u s was mentioned a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r and, as m i ght be a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e l a t t e r element o f t h i s r e l a -t i o n s h i p was a l s o c o n s i s t e n t l y downplayed. T h i s d e n i g r a t i o n p e r t a i n e d t o b o t h p e r s o n a l s u c c e s s and a c h i e v e m e n t ( w i t h t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i d e n t i t y ) and t o t h e more c r u d e c o n s p i c u o u s consumption. I t was an a t t i t u d e t h a t p r e v a i l e d d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i n the eyes o f the r e s t o f the c i t y , t h e y r e s i d e i n r e l a t i v e l y p r e s t i g i o u s a r e a s . I was aware, b e f o r e commencing i n t e r v i e w i n g , t h a t t h i s m i ght prove a d i f f i c u l t t o p i c t o probe i n view o f i t s p o p u l a r n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s n o b b i s h n e s s and p r e t e n t i o n and, o f c o u r s e , I c a nnot say d e f i n i t i v e l y t h a t the r e s -ponses I r e c e i v e d d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h i s a t t i t u d e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e was g r e a t c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r d i s a v o w a l o f t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t h a t ran t h r o u g h a l l t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t ways I a t t empted t o b r o a c h t h i s 25 t o p i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c -t i o n s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s i n o t h e r a r e a s o f d i s c u s s i o n a l s o l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h i s v i e w p o i n t . Thus, i n t h e e x p o s i t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , I i n t e n d t o t r u s t t h e s e i n t i u t i o n s and t a k e t h e i r o p i n i o n s a t f a c e v a l u e i n the hope, and b e l i e f , t h a t the e x t r a c t s from the c o n v e r s a t i o n s s u b s t a n t i a t e the g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s I draw. Most g e n e r a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t seems "to c a p t u r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e i r r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y o f , and i m p o r t a n c e o f , p r o p e r t y i n c o n f e r r i n g s t a t u s : No, I d o n ' t f e e l s p e c i a l because we've g o t i t . . . I g u e s s , a t times I f e e l l u c k y (pause) but I d o n ' t f e e l b e t t e r than anyone e l s e o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . . . j u s t f o r t u n a t e , I g u e s s . 136 T h e r e seem t o be s e v e r a l , i n t e r r e l a t e d s o u r c e s t o t h i s a t t i t u d e . In p a r t , i t may r e f l e c t the t e n d e n c y , n o t e d among C a n a d i a n s , t o a dhere t o a b e l i e f i n an e s s e n t i a l l y c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y : When Canadians a r e asked t o which c l a s s t h e y b e l o n g , they a r e i n c l i n e d t o answer e i t h e r t h a t t h e r e a r e no c l a s s e s i n Canada, o r t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the m i d d l e c l a s s . The g r e a t m i d d l e , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , encompasses a l m o s t e v e r y b o d y , and t h e lower and upper - which must e x i s t i f t h e r e i s a m i d d l e - can o n l y be d e f i n e d i n terms o f r e l a t i v e w e a l t h . A few may be r i c h , a few may be poor but most p e o p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s b e l i e f , a r e somewhere between t h e s e s m a l l g r o u p s . T h i s c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y i s a p e r v a s i v e b e l i e f and one renewed w i t h t h e d a i l y r e a d i n g o f the newspaper, t h e v i e w i n g o f t e l e -v i s i o n , t h e s t u d y o f l i t e r a t u r e , o r h i s t o r y , o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e . C e r t a i n l y t h e i r own l i v e s d i d n o t appear t o be e x c e p t i o n a l i n any way t o them and when s t a t u s was d i s c u s s e d i t d i d t e n d t o be i n terms o f w e a l t h . In d i s c u s s i n g the house as an e x p r e s s i v e medium o n l y 24% s p o n t a n e o u s l y r a i s e d the t o p i c o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h i s was the s o l e emphasis f o r o n l y n i n e p e r c e n t and the m a j o r i t y (91%) t a l k e d o f houses r e v e a l i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s o r t a s t e s , e.g., " I f a house i s f u l l o f books . . .," " I f i t ' s a r e a l l y modern house . . ." o r as r e v e a l i n g the degree t o w h i c h a p e r s o n i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r house, e.g., " I f the house i s r e a l l y w e l l kept up . . .". S t a t u s was u s u a l l y mentioned as p a r t o f the l a t t e r emphasis i n t h a t a p e r s o n who was r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r home might a l s o be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n "appear-a n c e s " o r "show." However, t h i s was s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e main view t h a t you c o u l d s i m p l y see how much time o r c a r e a p e r s o n d e v o t e d t o t h e house. In s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g s t a t u s , r e f e r e n c e was commonly made t o the e l i t e a r e a s o f t h e c i t y o r t o l a r g e and/or unusual houses and t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n s o f w e a l t h so t h a t , f o r example, one woman's r e s p o n s e t o 137 my i n q u i r y as t o what house r e v e a l e d c o n s i s t e d o f : " W e l l , a b i g house i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w e a l t h u s u a l l y . I suppose i t ' s a f a c t o f l i f e . " In o r d e r f o r many t o make t h i s s o r t o f c o n n e c t i o n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o make the a s sumption t h a t s t a t u s was a q u e s t i o n o f f i n a n c e s ( 5 5 % ) , a view t h e y d i d n o t seem t o espouse a l t h o u g h i t was p e r c e i v e d as an o p t i o n . A g a i n , a t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e above q u e s t i o n was: ... I t h i n k t h a t the p e o p l e who l i v e i n Shaughnessy have a c e r t a i n , d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s than the p e o p l e who l i v e on t h i s b l o c k and t h e p e o p l e t h a t l i v e on t h i s b l o c k have a d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s t o p e o p l e who l i v e i n S u r r e y ... I d o n ' t know how you d e f i n e s t a t u s but i f i t ' s i n terms o f the ' a l m i g h t y d o l l a r ' . . . w e l l , then i t c o s t s more t o l i v e h e r e than somewhere e l s e . T h e r e ' s more d o c t o r s and l a w y e r s i n Shaughnessy but i f you l i v e here then t h e r e ' s more bankers and a c c o u n t a n t s l i v i n g h e r e . So i t can be a c l u e t o f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and i t ' s s o r t o f u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h a t ' s o f t e n t h o u g h t o f as s o c i a l s t a t u s t o o . Thus, w h i l e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f houses r e v e a l i n g s t a t u s and s u c c e s s was r e c o g n i s e d , i t was an i s s u e t h a t was seen t o depend v e r y much upon the i n d i v i d u a l ( 5 2 % ) . I t was r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d t h a t use o f one's house, o r p e r c e p t i o n and a p p r a i s a l o f o t h e r s i n t h i s manner, was a m a t t e r o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e . T h i s was n o t t h e r o u t e t h e y had chosen w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r homes o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . One o l d e r woman d i d mention t h a t t h e i s s u e had been i m p o r t a n t when she was y o u n g e r but t h a t i t was no l o n g e r something she w o r r i e d about and, l i k e the r e s t , she espoused the a t t i t u d e t h a t she hoped t h a t i f she moved i t would be f o r "a b e t t e r r e a s o n than j u s t what p e o p l e t h o u g h t about me." Both t h e house and t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d as o b j e c t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f s t a t u s were a l s o d e v a l u e d because t h e y were h e l d t o be o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e i s a fundamental a m b i v a l e n c e as t o t h e 138 degree t o which t h e i r own houses a r e s e l f e x p r e s s i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , many a l s o p o i n t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s i n which such a judgement would have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e . These i n d i c a t o r s were seen t o be both p o t e n t i a l l y o v e r - and u n d e r s t a t e m e n t s o f s t a t u s o r p e r s o n a l worth d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l so t h a t judgement s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d t o p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n -t a n c e w i t h t h e l a t t e r : You know f o r some p e o p l e i t ' s an a n t i - s t a t e m e n t . . . some p e o p l e t r y t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s by b u y i n g t h e b i g g e s t and th e b e s t house w i t h t h e most rooms and t h e most c h a n d e l i e r s and t he view and so on and t h a t ' s an e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s power, whereas some p e o p l e do t h e complete o p p o s i t e . T h e y ' l l choose a v e r y modest p l a c e , i n f a c t , even run down t o go the o p p o s i t e way. To j u s t s o r t o f shun t h o s e t y p e s o f t r a p p i n g s . I know p e o p l e who a r e l i k e t h a t . I t ' s j u s t t h a t o t h e r t h i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o them. T h e i r houses j u s t a r e n ' t c e n t r a l . . . but t o some p e o p l e i t i s . . . . I do n ' t r e a l l y t h i n k so as a g e n e r a l r u l e t h a t you can say t h a t . . . the v a l u e o f p r o p e r t y j u s t changes so d r a s t i -c a l l y from a r e a t o a r e a t h a t somebody may ... be g o i n g t h r o u g h a bad f i n a n c i a l f i v e y e a r s and may be i n an a r e a t h a t r e a l l y d o e s n ' t e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s but t h e y r e a l l y c a n n o t p u t t h e m s e l v e s anywhere e l s e because o f bad f o r t u n e o r some o t h e r s o r t o f d i s a s t e r . So I don't r e a l l y t h i n k t h e r e ' s v e r y much i n i t . I mean t h e r e a r e s t e r e o t y p e s but t h e y d o n ' t mean much when i t comes down t o i t . Houses were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y seen t o e x p r e s s "who" the p e r s o n " r e a l l y was" and t h e r e was no n e c e s s a r y , p e r c e i v e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between s t a t u s d e f i n e d i n t h e s e terms and b e i n g a " n i c e p e r s o n " : I suppose a house i n K e r r i s d a l e i m p l i e s a l o t o f d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o houses i n Richmond a l t h o u g h , i n f a c t , n o t h i n g c o u l d be f u r t h e r from t he t r u t h f o r some o f the p e o p l e who l i v e around h e r e . Some o f them a r e r e a l i d i o t s . P e o p l e who at t e m p t e d t o dem o n s t r a t e s t a t u s i n t h i s manner were v a r i -o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d as b e i n g " p r e t e n t i o u s , " " o s t e n t a t i o u s , " " f a l s e " 139 and as i n t e r e s t e d i n "show" o r " a p p e a r a n c e s . " Such a d j e c t i v e s were evoked by 52% and a l l c a r r y t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f l a c k o f a u t h e n t i c i t y t h a t c o u l d be r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d : S u r e ... I guess someone who's v e r y keen on m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s would r e f l e c t t h a t i n t h e i r house. I t h i n k i f someone ... I guess i t ' s a q u e s t i o n o f s e c u r i t y and i n s e c u r i t y . . . the more p e o p l e a r e o s t e n t a t i o u s about t h e i r houses the l e s s . . . s e c u r e t h e y a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s . They c a n ' t j u s t l e t p e o p l e t a k e them as t h e y f i n d them. Presumably i f one i s s e c u r e i n one's s e l f knowledge, t h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n more g e n u i n e ways. F i n a l l y , t h e r e was a l s o the i m p l i c a -t i o n t h a t s t a t u s d e f i n e d i n terms o f o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a e n t a i l e d c on-f o r m i t y t o a n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d and t h i s was p e r c e i v e d as p o s s i b l y compromising t h e i r a p p r a i s a l o f both t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s as unique i n d i v i d u a l s . These i d e a s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the b e l i e f by 58% t h a t t h e i r i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h a p e r s o n would be u n a f f e c t e d by t h e t y p e o f house t h e l a t t e r owned and by 42%, t h a t t h i s might i n i t i a l l y be t h e c a s e but t h a t i t would soon p a s s : No, w e l l , maybe a l i t t l e b i t . I f i t was a r e a l l y ... a b i g house i n Shaughnessy I m ight f e e l a l i t t l e o u t o f my l e a g u e i n i t i a l l y , but o n l y a l i t t l e b i t . I t ' s n o t g o i n g t o a f f e c t my i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a p e r s o n t h a t much. I m ight be aware t h a t the t r a p p i n g s o f t h e i r l i f e s t y l e a r e around me but i t ' s n o t g o i n g t o a f f e c t the way I t h i n k about the p e r s o n o r t h e way I f e e l about a p e r s o n . . . once I g o t t a l k i n g t o them. No. O n l y n i n e p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n would d e f i n i t e l y be a f f e c t e d and a l l p r o v i d e d r a t i o n a l e s t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f somewhere " d i r t y " r a t h e r than a f e e l i n g o f i n t i m i d a t i o n due t o w e a l t h more commonly evoked. F o r most, the b a s i s f o r i n t e r -140 a c t i o n was seen t o l i e i n "who I am, not what I have" and the u n e a s i n e s s c r e a t e d by a p e r s o n ' s p o s s e s s i o n s was not seen t o p r e s e n t an i m p e n e t r a b l e b a r r i e r . As one p e r s o n n o t e d r e g a r d i n g p o s s e s s i o n s : "I do n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t ' s what makes a p e r s o n and i f p e o p l e d o n ' t l i k e what I've g o t - then I'm s o r r y . But i f t h e y want t o come and see me f o r me then I'm g l a d t o see them." Many a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e y tended t o know p e o p l e and t o e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d s h i p s p r i o r t o knowing where a p e r s o n l i v e d . In view o f the i n t i m a t e n a t u r e o f the e n t e r t a i n m e n t p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t a c q u a i n t a n c e s a r e br o u g h t t o the home. Hence s u p e r -f i c i a l judgements o f c h a r a c t e r , l i f e s t y l e o r t a s t e a r e a l s o u n l i k e l y t o be n e c e s s a r y o r i m p o r t a n t . The combined e f f e c t o f t h e s e o p i n i o n s i s , t h e r e f o r e , an extreme h e s i t a n c e t o make g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s about o t h e r s w i t h o u t p r i o r knowledge o f t he p e r s o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s a t t i t u d e seems t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r a s sessment o f t h o s e a t t e m p t i n g t o dem o n s t r a t e s t a t u s t h r o u g h t h e i r houses as i n some way f a l s e ; however, many do seem t o have some b a s i s f o r t h i s o p i n i o n i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s so t h a t , f o r example, one p e r s o n n o t e d t h a t : "You know I have f r i e n d s t h a t l i v e i n the B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s and t h e y ' r e no more ' B r i t i s h P r o p e r t y ' t y p e s than I am." A f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s toward s t a t u s and s u c c e s s p e r t a i n s t o t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e s p a c e . As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r t h e i r homes a r e v a l u e d as p l a c e s t o r e l a x and be o n e s e l f and a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g s t a t u s t h r o u g h t he house would a l l o w f o r the i n t r u s i o n o f many o f t h e p r e s s u r e s t h e y hope t o e x c l u d e , a t l e a s t t o a de g r e e . Most seem t o " f e e l s o r r y f o r p e o p l e c a u g h t up i n a l l t h a t " i n t h a t i t i n v o l v e s " too much p r e s s u r e " and f e e l g l a d t o have a v o i d e d i t . For 141 example, i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e N o r t h American tendency t o upgrade e v e r y few y e a r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e o f r e s p o n s e was common: H o p e f u l l y , I do n ' t f e e l p r e s s u r e d i n t o t h a t . H o p e f u l l y I'd l o o k f o r b e t t e r r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g i t l i k e g e t t i n g a more c o m f o r t a b l e p l a c e o r b e t t e r a m e n i t i e s . Somewhere more a t t r a c t i v e and c o m f o r t a b l e r a t h e r than j u s t because I f e l t some s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . A l m o s t a l l seem t o have e n c o u n t e r e d no d i f f i c u l t y i n p u r s u i n g and p r a c t i s i n g t h i s b e l i e f thus f a r , however, the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t i s s t i l l a r e l e v e n t a t t i t u d e i n s o c i e t y and the p o t e n t i a l f o r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t t h i s engenders a r e s u g g e s t e d by one man who had r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d p r o m o t i o n : I guess i n some r e s p e c t s I f e e l some p r e s s u r e s from work t o s o r t o f upgrade . . . T h e r e a r e . . . p r e s s u r e s t h a t a r e put on me ... I guess I'm r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n my f i e l d ... I can see i n a v e r y few y e a r s time I'm g o i n g t o have t o do a f a i r amount o f e n t e r t a i n i n g o f s e n i o r p e o p l e and t h i s i s n ' t t h e house t o do i t i n . I t ' s a b i t c r a z y i n a way. I s h o u l d n ' t r e s p o n d l i k e I am . . . I'm p r e t t y mixed up as t o whether I s h o u l d r e s p o n d b ut t h e r e ' s no doubt about i t t h a t I do f e e l some p r e s s u r e i n the work s i t u a t i o n . I d o n ' t l i k e i t . I t h i n k t h a t . . . i t ' s g e t t i n g l e s s s t r o n g but I s t i l l t h i n k t h e r e i s a p r e s s u r e . I t ' s c e r t a i n l y n e v e r spoken (pause) a l t h o u g h I do n ' t know, i t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y . I have f r i e n d s o f mine who a f t e r I took t h i s p o s i t i o n I was o f f e r e d ... we had some f r i e n d s around and t h e y s a i d t h e y assumed I'd need t o move i n t o a b i g g e r house. So i t i s t h e r e . I t ' s j u s t a q u e s t i o n o f how much a t t e n t i o n you pay t o i t . I d o n ' t want t o be c o n t i n u a l l y moving. I f we can g e t one good s i z e d house t h e n , as f a r as I'm c o n c e r n e d , i t ' s p o i n t -l e s s t o be c o n t i n u a l l y g o i n g on, you know, h i g h e r and h i g h e r . A s i m i l a r t y p e o f r e a s o n i n g a l s o seems t o a p p l y t o the p o t e n t i a l o f , and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e house as an i n v e s t m e n t i n t h a t t h e commitment o f time and e n e r g y r e q u i r e d t o make r e n o v a t i o n s , e t c . , and t o keep t u r n i n g p r o p e r t i e s o v e r i s a l s o p e r c e i v e d as e n t a i l i n g t o o much p r e s s u r e and as d e t r a c t i n g from t h e i r o t h e r , more v a l u e d a s p e c t s o f home. 142 i x . The Q u a l i t y and Meaning o f L i f e R e d e f i n e d These a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g s t a t u s a r e u n d e r l a i n by, and e n t a i l a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f the "purpose o f l i f e " and t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n s s t r e s s was p l a c e d on t h e im p o r t a n c e o f " q u a l i t y " r a t h e r than the more t r a d i t i o n a l economic advancement o r m a t e r i a l accumula-t i o n . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , emphasis was p l a c e d upon the i m p o r t a n c e o f m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y o v e r m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and t h e l a t t e r were not n e c e s s a r i l y h e l d t o d e f i n e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . Most f e l t t h a t t h e y had, t o an e x t e n t , been r a i s e d t o e x p e c t a r i s i n g s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , m a r r i a g e and a f a m i l y , however, 58% f e l t t h a t t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s had changed t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e : I t c e r t a i n l y was the . . . w e l l , I'm no d i f f e r e n t from l o t s o f o t h e r s and t h a t was the . . . l i f e s t y l e t h a t was p r e a c h e d . T h a t ' s t o o s t r o n g a word but i t ' s c e r t a i n l y p a r t o f my up-b r i n g i n g . The o l d P r o t e s t a n t h e r i t a g e and a l l t h a t s t u f f , you know, W.A.S.P. and so on (pause) I'm n o t s a y i n g t h a t I agree w i t h i t anymore but i t was t h e r e . T h a t was the North American Dream, you know, b i g g e r and b e t t e r . A b i g g e r and l a r g e r c a r and a l l t he s t u f f t h a t went w i t h i t but t h a t ' s r e a l l y changed. You know, p e o p l e j u s t a r e n ' t p r e p a r e d t o s a c r i f i c e any more. I t i s n ' t such a h i g h p r i o r i t y . P e o p l e a r e c h a n g i n g t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o l i f e ... t o what t h e y want o u t o f l i f e . L i f e seemed t o be p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g t o o s h o r t t o submit t o the p r e s s u r e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e type o f s t r i v i n g t h a t was t h o u g h t t o be n e c e s s a r y t o a t t a i n t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s was seen t o com-p r o m i s e , and t o an e x t e n t t o be c o n t r a r y t o the enjoyment o f l i f e so t h a t consumption tended t o be d e v a l u e d as a b a s i s f o r both p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s o r s u c c e s s . I t was m e r e l y seen t o enhance the o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t i n l i f e and was a f e e l i n g , as summed up i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n , t h a t you g e t t o a c e r t a i n l e v e l where y o u ' r e c o m f o r t a b l e and then you s i t back and e n j o y i t : 143 I t h i n k I'd f i g h t p r e t t y hard t o . . . not f a l l i n t o t h a t syndrome. Because I t h i n k t h a t no m a t t e r what c a t e g o r y you g e t y o u r s e l f i n t o t h e r e i s always g o i n g t o be someone t h a t ' s g o t more and t h a t ' s a r e a l danger, you know, always t r y i n g t o keep up. I t ' s a r e a l r a t r a c e i f you t r y t o . No, I t h i n k t h e r e ' s d e f i n i t e l y a p o i n t where y o u ' r e j u s t c o n t e n t t o be where you a r e . You know . . . s o r t o f q u a l i t y o f l i f e -j u s t s o r t o f b e i n g t h e r e and so what i f everyone e l s e i s i n a g r e a t b i g home. You know, so what, j u s t e n j o y l i f e . These o p i n i o n s h e l p make e x p l i c a b l e t h e f a c t t h a t w h i l e 70% h e l d some s o r t o f image o f an i d e a l o r dream home, t h i s d i d n o t p r o -v i d e a model f o r a c t i o n i n most c a s e s . Of t h i s g roup, 61% f e l t t h a t i t was n o t an i d e a l t h e y were r e a l l y a s p i r i n g t o i n the f u t u r e . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e y tended t o e n v i s a g e l a r g e , e x p e n s i v e p r o p -e r t i e s , w i t h v a l u e s o f about h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s b e i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y s p e c i f i e d . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e a r e t h o u g h t t o be l a r g e l y p i p e dreams r e a l i s a b l e o n l y t h r o u g h w i n n i n g a l o t t e r y o r th r o u g h some s i m i l a r w i n d f a l l . They a r e n o t t h o u g h t t o be f e a s i b l e i n terms o f one's p e r s o n a l e f f o r t s and t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t p r e p a r e d t o make the s a c r i f i c e s t h i s would e n t a i l : I n e ver have had a dream home ... I have seen homes and gone by homes and sometimes t o u r e d around homes o r seen p i c t u r e s . . . and s a i d , 'Oh my goodness i s n ' t t h a t f a n t a s -t i c 1 but I do n ' t t h i n k t h a t I c o n s c i o u s l y y e a r n o r have any g r e a t pipedreams about e v e r ... I do n ' t have any i l l u s i o n s about t h e t h i n g . Maybe i f I won a l o t t e r y o r somethin g . T h a t would be t h e s o r t o f money I'd be t r y i n g t o spend ... my money on. . . i f I d i d win a l o t t e r y . F o r most, the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t made w i t h r e g a r d t o the i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f houses seems t o c a p t u r e t he e s s e n c e o f t h e i r b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s : We t h o u g h t about our o b j e c t i v e s i n l i f e and we f e l t o ur p r i o r i t i e s were t o f i n d a n i c e p l a c e , t o e n j o y l i f e and be happy. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s n i c e and we've made a b i t but i t ' s not our prime o b j e c t i v e . 144 T h i s t y p e o f b e l i e f s e t was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by Ley i n h i s c o n s i d -e r a t i o n o f the development o f a new urban r e f o r m p a r t y and new l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y o f urban development i n Vancouver d u r i n g the e a r l y 1970s. A c h a l l e n g e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l commitment t o an i d e o l o g y o f growth, b o o s t e r i s m and e f f i c i e n t c i t y management was i d e n t i f i e d i n the e l e c t i o n o f TEAM - The E l e c t o r s A c t i o n Movement - c a n d i d a t e s t o c i t y c o u n c i l who espoused t h e l i b e r a l n o t i o n o f t h e " l i v e a b l e c i t y . " C e n t r a l c o n c e r n s t ended t o be w i t h the q u a l i t y o f l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h a e s t h e t i c s and w i t h c r e a t i n g a " l a n d s c a p e i n harmony w i t h human s e n s i -b i l i t y . " The s t y l e o f urban government and development i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g " r e c o g n i s e d l e s s by i t s p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s than by i t s consumption s t y l e s . " In e s s e n c e , TEAM pr o m i s e d t h a t "consumption s h o u l d h e n c e f o r t h f o l l o w t h e canons o f good t a s t e " and t h i s d i c t u m has c o n s i d -e r a b l e r e l e v a n c e f o r the a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g the purpose o f l i f e o u t -27 l i n e d above. The p r i m a c y a c c o r d e d t o an " a e s t h e t i c " l i f e s t y l e emerged p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d i s c u s s i o n s about neighbourhood and z o n i n g change and development. Amenity was h i g h l y v a l u e d i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h o i c e , as n o t e d above, f o r t h e i r own and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s ' b e n e f i t and was commonly p e r c e i v e d as the main m o t i v a t i n g c o n c e r n t h a t m i ght produce some s o r t o f community a c t i v i s m . A t t i t u d e s toward development and/or z o n i n g changes were v e r y f l e x i b l e and moderate w i t h 84% e x p r e s s i n g the view t h a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n would depend v e r y much upon t h e t y p e o f p r o j e c t p r o p o s e d . Only n i n e p e r c e n t were u n e q u i v o c a l i n t h e i r l i k e l y o p p o s i t i o n t o change. In a d d i t i o n , d i s t a n c e t o s e l f was a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r and many f e l t t h a t t h e r e were c e r t a i n t y p e s o f development t h a t would o n l y be o b j e c t i o n a b l e i f " r i g h t n e x t d o o r . " T h e r e appeared t o be l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r 145 n e i g h b o u r h o o d as a whole and a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s s e d l a r g e l y on e v e n t s i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . In g e n e r a l , t h e r e was a f e e l i n g t h a t development o r i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t i e s c o u l d o c c u r i n a n o n - d i s r u p t i v e manner so l o n g as t h e y remained c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c h a r a c t e r o f the a r e a . Many a l s o r e c o g -n i s e d t h a t change was n e c e s s a r y o r i n e v i t a b l e g i v e n the contemporary 28 p r e s s u r e s on urban l a n d and the s h o r t a g e s o f urban h o u s i n g ( 3 3 % ) . The t y p e s o f development t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t l y s u g g e s t e d as p r o v o k i n g a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e were t h o s e i n v o l v i n g some s o r t o f commercial f a c i l i t y ( 2 7 % ) , such as a 7-11 S t o r e , o r t h o s e c o n s i s t i n g o f s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e h i g h r i s e b l o c k s ( 5 8 % ) . In such i n s t a n c e s , t h e v a l u e s they t h o u g h t m i g h t be t h r e a t e n e d c r y s t a l l i s e d i n t o two i n t e r r e l a t e d themes t h a t t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n c e r n t h a t t h e " c h a r a c t e r o f the a r e a " s h o u l d n o t change. These v a l u e s a r e summarised i n T a b l e 3.2. The f i r s t theme i s e x p l i c i t l y a e s t h e t i c and c o n c e r n s i s s u e s such as a l o s s o f one's view, o f open space o r the p r e s e n c e o f u g l y b u i l d i n g s t h a t might become an " e y e s o r e " (36% o f t h e 55 i s s u e s r a i s e d ) . The second theme f o c u s s e s more on the consequences o f i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y which i n c l u d e d problems o f i n c r e a s e d n o i s e , t r a f f i c o r o f l o s s o f p r i v a c y o r s t a b i l i t y (.64% o f t h e 55 i s s u e s r a i s e d ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e i s s u e o f house and/or p r o p e r t y v a l u e s was mentioned s p o n t a n e o u s l y o n l y t h r e e t i m e s and t h i s r e f l e c t s t h e i r r e l e g a t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t t o a s e c -ondary c o n c e r n . In the r e m a i n d e r o f the c o n v e r s a t i o n s I had t o i n i -t i a t e t h i s as a t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n and even then most were q u i t e e q u i v o c a l about the t o p i c . T y p i c a l l y t h e y commented t h a t " p r o b a b l y , " o r a t l e a s t t h e y "supposed" i t would be a c o n c e r n ( s e e T a b l e 3.3). The f o l l o w i n g exchange o f i d e a s i s t y p i c a l o f the a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g development: 146 T a b l e 3.2 V a l u e s P e r c e i v e d t o be T h r e a t e n e d by Zoning Changes V a l u e s P e r c e n t a g e o f group r a i s i n g each i s s u e (n = 33) P e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l number o f c o n c e r n s r a i s e d (n - 5,5) A. A e s t h e t i c B u i l d i n g s o u t o f c h a r a c t e r w i t h the a r e a 27 Loss o f open space 12 G e n e r a l changes i n c h a r a c t e r o r atmosphere o f the a r e a 9 Loss o f view 6 Loss o f s u n l i g h t 6 B. D e n s i t y G e n e r a l d e s i r e t o a v o i d i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t y 36 I n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c and/Or p a r k i n g problems 21 N o i s e i n c r e a s e 18 Loss o f p r i v a c y 15 Loss o f s t a b i l i t y i n the a r e a 15 16 7 5 4 _4 36 22 13 11 9 _9 64 S o u r c e : The a u t h o r . 147 W e l l i t would r e a l l y depend. I t h i n k t h a t ... a h i g h r i s e would b o t h e r me, v e r y h i g h d e n s i t y . . . I f i t was r i g h t n e x t door and i t was v e r y h i g h d e n s i t y i t would b o t h e r me but I wouldn't . . . knowing how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r p e o p l e t o g e t i n t o h o u s i n g , I wouldn't a u t o m a t i c a l l y o b j e c t . I'd s a c r i f i c e a c e r t a i n amount o f my f e e l i n g s about d e n s i t y f o r "the needs o f mankind" you might s ay! I mean t h e r e a r e p e o p l e o u t t h e r e now t h a t a r e f i n d i n g i t a l o t h a r d e r than we d i d t o g e t i n t o h o u s i n g . So i f t h e r e were a p r o j e c t t h a t was . . . you know, I agree w i t h F a l s e Creek. I t ' s an e x c e l l e n t i d e a . I t ' s "moderate d e n s i t y . " What s o r t o f t h i n g s would you be b o t h e r e d by i f i t was something r i g h t n e x t door? Oh, n o i s e , t h e s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s i t puts on one when t h e r e ' s a l o t o f p e o p l e t o o c l o s e by. Loss o f my view, you know. Would you be w o r r i e d about y o u r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ? (pause) I do n ' t . . . w e l l , I suppose I would. You know s e e i n g as y o u r house i s an i n v e s t m e n t . I f i t was g o i n g t o d e v a l u e t h e house then . . . More than l i k e l y i t wouldn't u n l e s s i t was something t e r r i b l y commercial l i k e a gas s t a t i o n r i g h t n e xt door. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , o f the 61% who made some degree o f a f f i r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s b e i n g a f f e c t e d , j u s t o v e r h a l f (55%) f e l t t h a t t h e y ' d p r o b a b l y go up w h i l e o n l y one p e r s o n f e l t t h e y ' d go down: I f t h e y c o u l d put up one then they c o u l d e a s i l y p u t up a n o t h e r so p r o p e r t y v a l u e s would p r o b a b l y go t h r o u g h t he r o o f and then you'd p r o b a b l y be a b l e t o move somewhere e l s e . A f u r t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e emphasis p l a c e d upon the r e a l m o f meaning and e x p e r i e n c e o r , t o quote Ley, upon "man's e m o t i o n a l , s p i r i t u a l and a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e . " The d e s i g n a t i o n o f "home" as an a r e n a i n which s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e , d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , l e n d s some s u p p o r t t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e s e c o n c e r n s a r e an element o f t h i s group's "purpose o f l i f e . " 148 T a b l e 3.3 A t t i t u d e s Toward Z o n i n g Changes and P r o p e r t y V a l u e s Manner i n which t o p i c was r a i s e d (n = 33) By the i n t e r v i e w e r t o i n i t i a t e d i s c u s s i o n 91 S p o n t a n e o u s l y by the r e s p o n d e n t 9 100 Degree o f c o n c e r n f o r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s (n = 3 3 ) "Yes, I would be c o n c e r n e d . " 15 I | 61 "I suppose I p r o b a b l y would be c o n c e r n e d . " 46 ' "No, I wouldn't worry about t h a t . " 27 "I d o n ' t r e a l l y know i f I would be c o n c e r n e d . " 12 100 D i r e c t i o n o f change a n t i c i p a t e d i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s  by t h o s e e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n (n = 20) "They would most l i k e l y i n c r e a s e . " 55 "They would most l i k e l y d e c r e a s e . " 3 "I don't know what would happen." . _42 100 S o u r c e : The a u t h o r . In a d d i t i o n , Ley n o t e s t h a t a t t i t u d e s toward work tend t o be t r a n s -formed so t h a t , f o r example, s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t may be ranke d above c o n v e n t i o n a l forms o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a major employment g o a l . In B r i t i s h C o lumbia, a s u r v e y i n which "more than 60% o f r e s i d e n t s p l a c e d l i f e s t y l e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f i r s t p l a c e , w h i l e l e s s than 25% gave p r i m a c y 29 t o economic s u c c e s s " i s c i t e d . 149 Some t e n t a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e c o n t e n t i o n s can be i n f e r r e d from the i n t e r v i e w s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, t h e i s s u e o f work and t h e manner i n which i t m ight be r e l a t e d t o home l i f e was an ex-t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o p i c t o probe. I was sometimes asked what d i s -c u s s i n g t h e i r j o b s had t o do w i t h h o u s i n g o r homeownership w h i c h , i n some ways, i s s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i v u l g e some q u i t e p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r i s s u e s . T h i s would seem t o l e n d s u p p o r t t o the t h e s i s t h a t s t r e s s e s the p e r v a s i v e -ness o f t h e contemporary f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f home and work l i f e both 30 o b j e c t i v e l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y . The most c o n c l u s i v e theme t h a t d i d emerge from t h i s a r e a o f d i s c u s s i o n was t h a t t h e y d i d n o t view them-s e l v e s as w o r k i n g " j u s t f o r the paycheque." Home d i d n o t appear t o be b e i n g u t i l i s e d as a compensation f o r work and t h e a d j e c t i v e s u s e d , by t h e 61% i n employment, t o d e s c r i b e the l a t t e r were u s u a l l y s a t i s -f y i n g ( 4 5 % ) , c h a l l e n g i n g (25%) o r f u l f i l l i n g ( 2 5 % ) : I c e r t a i n l y d o n ' t l i k e t o work but I d o n ' t j u s t work t o l i v e . I g e t some s a t i s f a c t i o n o u t o f my j o b . I t ' s n o t d r u d g e r y g o i n g i n , t h e r e ' s c h a l l e n g e s t h e r e . Those who e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (9%) a l s o d i d so i n t h e s e terms and m e n t i o n e d , f o r example, l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and room t o use one's i n i t i a t i v e and t h e r e seemed t o be no f e a r o f c h a n g i n g j o b s i n m i d - c a r e e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , few seemed w i l l i n g t o go the r o u t e o f the t y p i c a l N orth American e x e c u t i v e and t h e o n l y p e r s o n i n the group who appeared t o have been i n t h i s t y p e o f j o b , had r e f u s e d a n o t h e r t r a n s f e r i n f a v o u r o f " s e t t l i n g down" i n one p l a c e w i t h h i s f a m i l y i n f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l d e t r i m e n t i t may do h i s c a r e e r . 150 ' x. Home-centredness and Community Involvement The d e v a l u a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s as r e g a r d s p e r s o n a l m o t i v a -t i o n and h a p p i n e s s and t h e s t r e s s p l a c e d upon i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s c o u l d p o s s i b l y c o n s t i t u t e an i n d i c a t i o n o f a move away from the h i g h l y p r i v a t i s e d , h i g h consumption l i f e s t y l e u s u a l l y t h o u g h t t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h homeownership. However, the p u r s u i t o f q u a l i t y s t i l l a p p e a r s t o e n t a i l a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l o f consumption and, more s a l i e n t l y , t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s do n o t a ppear t o be l e s s p r i v a t i s e d . Only s i x p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t t h e i r l i v e s were no t home-centred and n i n e p e r c e n t f e l t t h a t they were more o f a m i x t u r e . Thus, 85% f e l t t h a t t h e i r l i v e s were b e s t d e s c r i b e d as home-centred: Yeah, I guess so. We're no t a c t i v e i n any c l u b s o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t and I've g o t no g r e a t b u r n i n g d e s i r e t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h a t . We use the beaches and we g e t away a f a i r amount but b a s i c a l l y we a r e ... we a r e home c e n t r e d . You know, we v i s i t f r i e n d s and t h e y v i s i t us so we're not t o t a l l y homebodies b u t , i n g e n e r a l , y e s . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e i r s o c i a l networks appear t o be h i g h l y f r agmented and c e n t r e d on a few c l o s e , i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s and/or f a m i l y . These c o n s t i t u t e t h e i r main companions when s o c i a l i s i n g and t h e l a t t e r l a r g e l y o c c u r s i n each others,' homes. T h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p e c i f i c community a c t i v i t i e s i s t a b u l a t e d i n t a b l e 3.4 and, as i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s q u i t e low. The expense o f j o i n i n g c l u b s was o c c a s i o n a l l y mentioned (12%) and some a l s o saw them as r e s t r i c t i v e e i t h e r because t h e y "put you i n a mold" o r because r e g u l a r m e e t i n g t i m e s were a h a s s l e ( 9 % ) , however, f o r the m a j o r i t y d i s i n t e r e s t seemed t o be t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r . Of t h o s e c i t i n g a r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , h a l f saw t h e m s e l v e s as " f r i n g e C h r i s t i a n s " a t t e n d i n g c h u r c h o n l y f o r some s p e c i a l p u r p o s e such as C h r i s t m a s o r 151 T a b l e 3.4 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Communal A c t i v i t i e s A c t i v i t y % (n = 33) C u l t u r a l A c t i v i t i e s - v e r y much i n v o l v e d 21 - I n v o l v e d but o n l y t o a degree 58 79 C l u b Membership - a t h l e t i c 18 - Hobby 6 - U n i v e r s i t y Womens C l u b _3 27 V o l u n t a r y work 21 Church and Church O r g a n i s a t i o n s - a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y 9 - " f r i n g e C h r i s t i a n s " _9 18 I n f o r m a l , c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s - c h i l d r e l a t e d 12 - o t h e r _6 18 P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s 15 S o u r c e : The a u t h o r . E a s t e r . The c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s c i t e d a l l i n v o l v e d t h e women and f o c u s s e d on c h i l d c a r e , such as a baby s i t t i n g p ool o r a p l a y s c h o o l . T h i s was sometimes a l s o c i t e d as b e i n g v o l u n t a r y work ( 9 % ) . O t h e r i n v o l v e m e n t s were i n s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the J u n i o r League 152 o r t he B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d , o r i n s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , such as the U.B.C. h o s p i t a l h e a r t d r i v e . When d i s c u s s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c u l t u r a l l i f e o f the c i t y such as the t h e a t r e , g a l l e r i e s , e t c . , o n l y 21% were u n e q u i v o c a l l y a f f i r m a t i v e , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 21% f e l t t h a t i t was n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o them. The r e m a i n d e r (58%) f e l t t h a t , t o a d e g r e e , they were i n v o l v e d and m i g h t "go t o the t h e a t r e a c o u p l e o f t i m e s a y e a r " o r t h e " a r t g a l l e r y once i n a w h i l e " and most seemed t o c o n c u r w i t h the f o l l o w i n g a s s e s s m e n t : "Yes, but g u a r d e d l y . I t tends t o be more i n t h e o r y t h a n p r a c t i c e . " Some i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t o r t i o n s took p l a c e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e o f the a c t i v i t i e s c o m p r i s i n g each c a t e g o r y o f community i n v o l v e m e n t . These q u e s t i o n s were posed a l m o s t as a check l i s t and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some o f the f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e s may r e f l e c t an a t t e m p t t o make some r e s p o n s e , a l t h o u g h I have no grounds upon which t o make such a judgement. In e i t h e r e v e n t , t h e y do seem to be s u g g e s t i v e o f i n t e r e s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n a l d i s t o r t i o n s . Going o u t t o d i n n e r was sometimes s u g g e s t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e ' s l i v e s were perhaps l e s s home-centred (12%) even though i n t h e i r own c a s e s t h i s t a k e s p l a c e among i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y and m e r e l y p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i v e , and i n f r e q u e n t l o c a t i o n t o t h e i r own homes. The i n q u i r y about v o l u n t a r y work sometimes r e s u l t e d i n mention o f a n e i g h -bourhood d r o p i n c e n t r e (9%) f o r women w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n t h a t p r o -v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a y and c o n v e r s a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s i s a c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y i t does n o t have q u i t e the u s u a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f the word " v o l u n t e e r " i n t h a t i t s endeavours a r e s e l f - h e l p r a t h e r than c h a r i t a b l e and p h i l a n t h r o p i c ; t h a t i s , t h e b e n e f i t s a c c r u e t o t h o s e u s i n g the c e n t r e r a t h e r than the p u r s u i t o f some w i d e r s o c i a l g o a l . 153 S i m i l a r l y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o i n f o r m a l c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s one woman q u a l i f i e d her i n v o l v e m e n t i n a baby s i t t i n g pool by a d d i n g t h a t i t wasn't " r e a l l y a community t h i n g , i t ' s j u s t among f r i e n d s . " Member-s h i p i n a l o c a l community c e n t r e o r the Vancouver Aquarium were sometimes o f f e r e d as i n s t a n c e s o f c l u b membership (12%) and a g a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e n d s t o be i n d i v i d u a l i s e d and an end i n i t s e l f , r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e , i f any, commitment t o a p a r t i c u l a r group. Whatever the s t a t u s o f t h e s e comments, t h e y do seem t o u s e f u l l y r e l a t e t o t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s o f the "home as r e f u g e " i n which most tended t o view t h e i r homes as "open" a l t h o u g h i t l a t e r became c l e a r t h a t t h i s was l i k e l y t o be i n a h i g h l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d manner. For most p e o p l e , n o n - i n t i m a t e , s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t seems t o o c c u r t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d r e n so t h a t , f o r example, w h i l e d i s l i k i n g p u b l i c e v e n t s t h e m s e l v e s because " o f t h e crowds," t h e y w i l l o f t e n go t o the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n o r the Sea F e s t i v a l because t h e y " t a k e the k i d s . " T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by one o f the p e o p l e who d e f i n i t i v e l y f e l t t h e i r l i f e was n o t home-centred: No, not w i t h the p e o p l e we know o r o u r s e l v e s . We do spend a l o t o f time i n each o t h e r s ' homes e n t e r t a i n i n g but I t h i n k t h a t I seem more i n v o l v e d i n the community, a t l e a s t f o r o u r s e l v e s and the p e o p l e we know, than withdrawn from i t . Many more p e o p l e t h a t we know a r e g e t t i n g more i n v o l v e d w i t h s o c c e r and w i t h community c e n t r e a c t i v i t i e s . . . w i t h cubs and a l l t h e o t h e r k i n d s o f t h i n g s f o r c h i l d r e n . Maybe t h a t ' s because o f t h e group we're i n w i t h young f a m i l i e s . Because . . . ,yes, the m a j o r i t y a r e young f a m i l i e s . I see more and more o f our f r i e n d s g e t t i n g more i n v o l v e d than when t h e y were s i n g l e o r w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n . I t h i n k we had more p a r t y l i f e i n the home o r i n the apartments then than we do now. Much more i s g e a r e d towards p l a y s c h o o l o r s c h o o l o r so many o t h e r community t h i n g s . 154 Many no t e d t h i s e f f e c t t h a t c h i l d r e n had on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r t i c u l a r age o f t h e f a m i l y a l s o seemed t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n t h a t t h o s e w i t h v e r y s m a l l c h i l d r e n f e l t more t i e d t o t h e home bec a u s e , f o r example, parks l a c k e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r a s i x month o l d baby, and t h o s e w i t h grown f a m i l i e s n o t e d t h a t t h e y had been more i n v o l v e d when t h e i r c h i l d r e n were s m a l l e r . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e f a c t o r s f o r community i n v o l v e m e n t and, i n d e e d , any sense o f community i s v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y c a p t u r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e t o my i n q u i r y as t o whether p e o p l e i n the a r e a f e l t any s o r t o f s h a r e d sense o f commitment t o i t : Yes, v e r y much s o . They have a f e e l i n g o f . . . k e e p i n g i t up but as f a r as a f e e l i n g o f community, no. And t h a t ' s . . . i t ' s k i n d o f h a r d t o r e a l l y r e c o n c i l e t h o s e two t h i n g s b u t e v e r y b o d y keeps up a p p e a r a n c e , you know, l o o k s a f t e r t h e i r gardens and . . . w e l l , t h e y do whatever t h e y do but as f a r as a c t u a l l y b e i n g p a r t o f a community (pause) i t does v a r y a l i t t l e b i t because i f you have young ... o r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n then you t e n d t o be more a c t i v e i n . . . s o c c e r o r w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n i n one way o r a n o t h e r . I t h i n k t h a t ' s the key t o i t . . . as t o what age the c h i l d r e n a r e as t o how much you g e t i n v o l v e d (pause) you can go f o r weeks and . . . w e l l the s t o r y t h a t I t e l l and I'm n o t e s p e c i a l l y proud o f i t because you always end up s a y i n g , w e l l , I c o u l d have . . . T h e r e a r e two p e o p l e who've d i e d a l o n g here . . . and nobody knew. To me i t ' s t e r r i b l y sad because t h e y were both l o n g term t h i n g s and the f a c t t h a t t h e y . . . the p a r e n t s weren't g e t t i n g any s t r e n g t h or c o m f o r t from anybody much ... I t h i n k t h a t ' s r e a l l y sad because i t wasn't as i f you d i d n ' t t a l k . . . you know you might see them but t h e y n e v e r s h a r e d i t . I f e l t r e a l l y b a d l y (pause) So, no, t h e r e ' s no r e a l sense o f community. I d o n ' t have t h a t f e e l i n g . I t i s s a d . Now, I may be ... I may be wrong. Maybe o t h e r p e o p l e w o u l d n ' t see i t t h a t way but . . . the o n l y time p e o p l e a r e r o u s e d i s i f somebody wants t o r e d e v e l o p something but m o s t l y . . . you see p e o p l e j o g g i n g o r g o i n g f o r a walk. Everyone has c a r s and I suppose t h a t ' s i s o l a t i n g f o r a s t a r t . I t ' s n o t l i k e t h e suburban community I l i v e d i n where . . . w e l l , we had t o b u i l d f e n c e s so we had t o work t o g e t h e r and t h e r e were no . . . boy s c o u t s o r w h a t e v e r , so you had t o s t a r t them and p e o p l e d i d t h a t t o g e t h e r . T h e r e was, you know, the k a f f e e k l a t s c h and, much as i t was a b s u r d , i t d i d g e t you t o g e t h e r . Yeah, t h e r e p e o p l e seemed t o be more o r i e n t e d toward d o i n g t h i n g s . 155 T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n r e l a t e s back t o the e a r l i e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward redevelopment and t h e i r l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r o c c u r r e n c e s beyond t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . Only n i n e p e r c e n t o f p e o p l e were aware o f the e x i s t e n c e o f some s o r t o f p r o p e r t y owners' a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e i r a r e a and any s o r t o f a c t i v i s m was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g i s s u e o r i e n t e d . T h i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o a c t i v i s m i n f a c e o f r i s i n g i n t e r e s t r a t e s . I r a i s e d t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f a homeonwers' s t r i k e a g a i n s t h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s s h o u l d t he l a t t e r r e a c h what, a t t h e t i m e , seemed l i k e an u n p r e c e d e n t e d h i g h l e v e l . -20% o r 25%. W h i l e many th o u g h t t h i s was an i n t e r e s t i n g i d e a , o n l y 33% saw i t as a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y . Of the r e m a i n d e r , 27% t h o u g h t t h a t "perhaps" i t would be t h e ty p e o f a c t i o n taken w h i l e 39% c o u l d n o t see such an e v e n t o c c u r r i n g . The p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e seemed t o r e s t upon two ass u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g human n a t u r e and problems o f m o b i l i s a t i o n . In terms o f t h e f o r m e r t h e r e was a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g t h a t p e o p l e would t e n d t o "cope" o r g e t by ( 6 4 % ) : No, I do n ' t t h i n k s o . P e o p l e a c c e p t t h i n g s and l e a r n t o g e t by. I mean, l o o k a t the r i d i c u l o u s s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t a i n . W e l l , i t ' s one a l t e r n a t i v e t h e y ' d have and t h e r e ' d be a huge o u t c r y b u t , you know, p e o p l e a r e v e r y m a l l e a b l e and i f t h e y t h i n k t h a t ' s t he way i t has t o be, t h e y won't f i g h t . I c a n ' t r e a l l y see t h a t happening. I don't know how p e o p l e would g e t by but l i f e does seem t o go on i n s p i t e o f i n f l a -t i o n and nobody seems t o be g o i n g w i t h o u t . In terms o f m o b i l i s a t i o n , a s t r i k e f o c u s s i n g on mortgages was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g d i f f i c u l t t o o r g a n i s e because p e o p l e ' s l o a n s came due a t d i f f e r -e n t times and because o f a l a c k o f any s o r t o f l e g a l r i g h t s ( 5 5 % ) : 156 I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t would e v e r happen. I t ' s s e t up so t h a t e v e r y b o d y ' s mortgages come due a t d i f f e r e n t times and s t u f f l i k e t h a t , so you'd have a hard time m o b i l i s i n g p e o p l e . Your i n t e r e s t r a t e o n l y goes up when y o u r l o a n comes up. You'd have a hard time m o b i l i s i n g more than a s m a l l p e r c e n -t a g e o f homeowners and you'd r e a l l y need a l o t f o r i t t o have any e f f e c t . No, I c a n ' t see t h a t happening because you'd l o s e y o u r home. Th e r e ' s no l e g a l way you c o u l d keep i t . The mortgage com-p a n i e s , c r e d i t u n i o n s o r whoever c o u l d s i m p l y t a k e y o u r house and t h e r e ' s no way you c o u l d f i g h t t h a t a t a l l . P r o b a b l y t h e o n l y t h i n k t h a t you c o u l d do i s put p r e s s u r e on y o u r e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s t o b r i n g i n s t a b i l i s a t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t r a t e s o r s p e c i a l h e l p f o r homeowners but you c o u l d n ' t f i g h t the banks. Twenty-seven p e r c e n t s u g g e s t e d some s o r t o f p r e s s u r e group t o l o b b y the government as a more v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , however, as m e n t i o n e d , most saw p e o p l e as t a k i n g no a c t i o n . Nobody s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y p e r s o n a l l y would want t o i n i t i a t e o r be i n v o l v e d i n such an a c t i v i t y . In summary, the members o f t h i s group tend t o l e a d r a t h e r i n s u l a r l i v e s so t h a t , w h i l e not e n t i r e l y "homebodies," t h e i r f o c u s i s p r i m a r i l y upon the f a m i l y and a s m a l l network o f f r i e n d s . Involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the home tends t o be r e l a t i v e l y low and o c c u r s i n t h e c o u r s e o f p e r s o n a l r e c r e a t i o n and/or a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than as a form o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , when p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r s i t does n o t u s u a l l y i n v o l v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h non i n t i m a t e s . For example, c l u b membership was u s u a l l y a means o f g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o p a r -t i c u l a r a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s t o be u t i l i s e d w i t h f r i e n d s r a t h e r than a v e h i c l e f o r m e e t i n g p e o p l e and s o c i a l i s i n g . D i s i n t e r e s t i n both t h e i r l o c a l community and c i t y wide a c t i v i t i e s i s q u i t e h i g h and where p a r -t i c i p a t i o n does t a k e p l a c e , i t tends t o be i n o n l y one o r two a c t i v i t i e s . Only f o u r p e o p l e seemed t o have m u l t i p l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n the a c t i v i t i e s o u t l i n e d i n t a b l e 3.4. In many ways, t h e i r l i v e s seem t o be more 157 p r i v a t i s e d than the l i v e s o f t h o s e i n d i c a t e d i n the p o p u l a r s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e m a t e r i a l i s t i c , m i d d l e c l a s s , s t a t u s s e e k i n g homeowner i n t h a t the l a t t e r r e t a i n a d e g r e e o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e o p i n i o n s and judgements o f t h e community i n which t h e y l i v e . The group c o n s i d e r e d here appear t o be unconcerned about such judgements as became e v i d e n t i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about s t a t u s . 3.4 House, Home and Homeownership: Endnote In t h i s c h a p t e r , the main themes o f meaning r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s o f a group o f m i d d l e c l a s s homeowners have been documented. I have a v o i d e d t h e u s u a l tendency t o break them down i n t o summary c a t c h p h r a s e s - "the home as . . . ." - because i t seemed i m p o s s i b l e t o d e v i s e any c a t e g o r i e s t h a t remained m e a n i n g f u l and t h a t c a p t u r e d t h e c o m p l e x i t y and c o n t i n g e n c y o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g . To r e c a p i t u l a t e b r i e f l y , homeownership i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r a g m a t i c i s s u e and c o n c e r n . I t i s n o t t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g an e x c e p t i o n o r an i n h e r e n t l y " s p e c i a l " u n d e r t a k i n g but r a t h e r as b e i n g something t h a t "makes good s e n s e . " However, t h e money making a b i l i t y o f t h e house i s a s e c o n d a r y c o n c e r n . Ownership a l s o a f f o r d e d a sense o f s e c u r i t y and c o n t r o l w h i c h , when combined w i t h a d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g , make an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o "home." Ownership enhances but does n o t d e f i n e o r d e t e r m i n e t h e l a t t e r . T h e i r houses s h o u l d p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n w i t h r e g a r d t o p r o x i m i t y t o p a r k s , s c h o o l s , e t c . P r i m a r i l y , however, i t was p r i v a t e space t h a t c o u l d be moulded t o t h e unique needs and d e s i r e s o f both p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . In t h i s manner, "home" becomes a p l a c e t o f e e l a t e a s e , r e l a x e d and u n r e s t r a i n e d , t o be a l o n e and t o pursue i n t e r e s t s and e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s . 158 T h e i r l i v e s and c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e h i g h l y home c e n t r e d and somewhat i n s u l a r w i t h o n l y i n f r e q u e n t and f r a g m e n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community o r c i t y l i f e . A t t e n t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d toward one's f a m i l y and a s m a l l group o f i n t i m a t e s w i t h whom the home and community a c t i v i t i e s a r e s h a r e d . In e s s e n c e , t h e s e b e l i e f s a b o u t home and homeownership c o a l e s c e t o produce an e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e o f the contemporary phenomenon B r i t t a n d e s c r i b e s as " p r i v a t i s a t i o n . " The l a t t e r r e f l e c t s t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and r e a l i t y i n t o " r e l a t i v e l y autonomous compartments" and i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: P r i v a t i s a t i o n i n v o l v e s i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the f a m i l y , i n one's f r i e n d s , i n one's h o b b i e s , e t c . , e t c . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e w o r l d o f work i s b e l i e v e d t o be c o m p l e t e l y i n s u l a t e d from p r i v a t e l i f e , l e a d i n g t o a s p l i t between t he p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e l f . Hence the p r i v a t e s e l f becomes the f o c u s o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n . 3 1 The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and t h e view o f home l i f e summarised above i s q u i t e s t i k i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e "world o f work." The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e meanings t o i d e o l o g y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the s u b s e q u e n t , c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . Two i s s u e s , however, s t i l l remain t o be d i s c u s s e d . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e e f f e c t o f age and gender upon t he themes d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I had a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t b o t h f a c t o r s m i g h t c r e a t e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n meaning b u t t h i s does n o t appear t o have been a v a l i d a s s u m p t i o n . The c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which t h e s e a t t i t u d e s were h e l d , a c r o s s the group, was most s t r i k -i n g and the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t d i d emerge were e i t h e r o b v i o u s o r r e l a -t i v e l y t r i v i a l . In t h e f o r m e r i n s t a n c e , f o r example, t h o s e i n the o l d e r age groups were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o have an image o f a dream home and 159 j u s t i f i e d t h i s i n terms o f now b e i n g c o n t e n t e d w i t h what t h e y had. The manner i n which t h e y d i s c u s s e d the i d e a s t h e y used t o h o l d , however, was l a r g e l y t h e same as t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f the group. In terms o f t h e l a t t e r i s s u e , men and women tended t o emphasise d i f f e r -e n t a s p e c t s o f the home when t a l k i n g about t h e p l a c e s t h ey had l i v e d i n as c h i l d r e n . The men were more l i k e l y t o d e s c r i b e a r e a s o f open space o r t h e y a r d than the house i t s e l f ; however, t h i s seemed t o have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the r e m ainder o f the o p i n i o n s t h e y e x p r e s s e d . The r e l a t i v e u n i mportance o f t h e s e f a c t o r s was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f the home w i t h "female s p a c e . " O n l y 21% f e l t t h i s was a v a l i d g e n e r a l i s a t i o n i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n : Yeah, I t h i n k i n f a c t i t i s . I'm away f o r a t l e a s t e i g h t house a day and she i s n ' t . So the i n v e s t m e n t o f time by her i s much g r e a t e r . She's much more c o n s c i o u s o f c o l o u r and f u r n i t u r e , and so on, than I am. I'm j u s t n o t t h i n k i n g about t h o s e s o r t o f t h i n g s (pause) p e r s o n a l i t y - w i s e , t h o s e s o r t o f t h i n g s j u s t don't c o n c e r n me whereas they do her. A f u r t h e r 18% f e l t t h a t the men were "perhaps a b i t l e s s i n t e r e s t e d " a g a i n m e n t i o n i n g the t ime s p e n t i n t h e home by the woman: I suppose ... as a g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , t h a t ' s t r u e but I don't t h i n k I'm.that l e s s i n v o l v e d . I'm not as i n v o l v e d as . . . perhaps 60/40 because she spends a l l day here but I'm d e f i n i t e l y n o t d i v o r c e d from i t . Thus, 61% f e l t t h a t i n t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n the g e n e r a l i s a t i o n was i n a p p l i c a b l e and t h a t t h e male was e q u a l l y as i n t e r e s t e d i n the home. In two c a s e s , the s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t t h e male was perhaps more i n t e r e s t e d than the f e m a l e : No, most o f the men I know a r e q u i t e i n t o t h e i r homes . . . making t h e i r mark. I t h i n k t h a t ' s a g e n e r a l i s a t i o n t h a t p r o b a b l y i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l o t o f men . . . you know, 20 160 y e a r s ago . . . l i k e my p a r e n t s ... my mother would always d e c o r a t e and my f a t h e r would d e a l w i t h the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a c e . I c a n ' t imagine him t r y i n g t o . . . choose w a l l p a p e r o r d e c i d e what the g i r l s ' bedroom . . . how i t was g o i n g t o be done up. But t h a t ' s something t h a t ' s r e a l l y changed. I t h i n k as men g a i n t h e i r independence t o o , t h e y want t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s . I t can be a s t r u g g l e . . . You know, how do we combine? (pause) Where can we e x p r e s s o u r s e l v e s and how? Is one o f us g o i n g t o t a k e o v e r the o t h e r o r i s he g o i n g t o be too s t r o n g o r me t o o s t r o n g ? I t was q u i t e complex a t f i r s t . S i m i l a r l y t he i n t e r v i e w l e n g t h s d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between men and women and, i n f a c t , one o f t h e l o n g e s t i n t e r v i e w s ( f o u r hours) was w i t h a man. Thus, the t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy between male and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o the home would appear t o be b r e a k i n g down from the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s sample. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a l s o t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t y p i c a l t h i s group o f men and women i s w i t h r e s p e c t t o Vancouver i t s e l f and t o Canadian o r North American s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o respond:.to t h e s e i s s u e s i n more than a h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e manner. As s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r Two, an i n d u c t i v e methodology was a d o p t e d w i t h the aim o f e x p l o r i n g s u b j e c t i v e meanings r a t h e r than the d e d u c t i v e t e s t i n g o f h y p o t h e s e s . The s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e adopted was d e l i b e r a t e l y non-random i n o r d e r t o pursue a methodology o f i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w i n g and, as s u c h , i t p r o v i d e s no grounds f o r g e n e r a l i s i n g the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , the l a t t e r a r e q u i t e s p e c i f i c t o the 34 r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s group and a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f any l a r g e r group. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e d t o shed l i g h t on t h e s e i s s u e s . In s p i t e o f t h e s e c a v e a t s , however, some t e n t a t i v e comments can be made w i t h r e g a r d t o Vancouver. A s t u d y o f the home and home d e c o r a -t i o n amongst upper income f e m a l e homeowners, u n d e r t a k e n by G e r r y P r a t t , i s o l a t e d two d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l w o r l d s - one a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " t r a d i t i o n -161 a l i s m " and t h e o t h e r w i t h a more "modern" o r i e n t a t i o n . The l a t t e r b e a r s a number o f s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e group c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by d i f f u s e , fragmented s o c i a l networks i n which each woman's c o l l e c t i o n o f f r i e n d s tends t o be u n ique t o h e r s e l f . T h e i r l i v e s a r e q u i t e i n s u l a r and t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n few a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e the home. Involvements tends t o be f o r p r i v a t e g a i n r a t h e r than p h i l a n t h r o p i c r e a s o n s . They t e n d not t o have an a c t i v e commitment t o an i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v i n g s o c i a l group w i t h each t e n d i n g t o " s t a n d as an i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . " T h e i r homes bear few s i m i l a r -i t i e s t o t h o s e o f f r i e n d s and t h e i r houses a r e t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g symbols o f t h e i r own unique p e r s o n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y . T h i s s o c i a l network and community o r i e n t a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d above as a r e t h e s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r houses, i n d i v i d -u a l i t y and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n . These l a t t e r a t t i t u d e s a r e , however, more extreme than t h o s e o f the p r e s e n t group and e x h i b i t none o f t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t i e s as t o e x a c t l y what i t i s t h a t t h e i r homes e x p r e s s . In many ways, t h e group i d e n t i f i e d by P r a t t seems t o c o m p r i s e an i d e a l t y p e o f t h e manner i n which the members o f t h e p r e s e n t group might view t h e i r homes i f f a m i l i a l and/or f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s were removed. These comments a r e s p e c u l a t i v e but a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s t o a l a r g e r g r o u p i n g than t h a t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . In terms o f Canadian o r N o r t h American s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s . The s t e r e o t y p e o f the m a t e r i a l i s t i c , s t a t u s s e e k i n g , m i d d l e c l a s s homeowner d e r i v e s p r i m a r i l y from an American l i t e r a t u r e . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d here i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e x o t i c than t h a t u s u a l l y f o u n d i n s t u d i e s o f t h e meaning o f the home or homeowner-s h i p . The q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e s e d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t 162 d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e w o r l d views o f the two s o c i e t i e s i s i m p o r t a n t but unanswerable w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . In t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , the t e n t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t i v e comments made i n S e c t i o n 3.3 v i i above w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r as w i l l t h e r e l a -t i o n s h i p between t h o s e s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f the home and i d e o l o g y . 163 F o o t n o t e s 1 Amos Rapo p o r t , House Form and C u l t u r e (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968), p. 46. 2 S t e v e n Marcus, "Reading t he I l l e g i b l e , " i n The V i c t o r i a n C i t y , ed. J . Oyos and M. W o l f f (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1973), p. 264. 3 For examples o f t h e s e aphorisms see Dennis Chapman, The Home and  S o c i a l S t a t u s (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1955); C l a i r e Cooper, "The House as Symbol o f S e l f " i n D e s i g n i n g f o r Human B e h a v i o u r , ed. J . Lang ( S t r o u d s b e r y , Penn.: Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n and Ross, 1974), pp. 130-45; Kim Dovey, "Home: An O r d e r i n g P r i n c i p l e i n Space," Land- scape 22, No. 2 (1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 27-30; J . Douglas P o r t e o u s , "Home the T e r r i t o r i a l C o r e , " The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, 66, No. 4 (1976 ) , pp. 383-90; Lee R a i n w a t e r , "Fear and the House as Haven i n t h e Lower M i d d l e C l a s s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , 32, No. 1 (1 9 6 0 ) , pp. 23-31. Fo r an o v e r v i e w see G e o f f r e y 0. Hayward, "Home as an E n v i r o n m e n t a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n c e p t , " Landscape, 20, No. 1 (1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 3-9. 4 Vance P a c k a r d , The S t a t u s S e e k e r s ( M o n t r e a l : C a r d i n a l , 1959). 5 J.R. S e e l e y e t a l . , Crestwood H e i g h t s : A Study o f the C u l t u r e  o f Suburban L i f e (New York: W i l e y , 1963), p. 46. 6 S e e l e y , p. 52. 7 John A. Agnew, "Housing and I d e n t i t y i n C a p i t a l i s t S o c i e t i e s , " i n H o u s i n g and I d e n t i t y , ed. James S. Duncan (London: Croom Helm, 1981), pp. 61-62. 8 S e e l e y e t a l . , pp. 384-94. 9 R o b e r t M. R a k o f f , " I d e o l o g y i n E v e r y d a y L i f e : A Pheno m e n o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s o f American H o u s i n g , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1975, p. 146. "10 R a k o f f , pp. 117-118. 1 1 R a k o f f , p. 120. 1 2 Val Ross, " S q u e e z i n g t h e M i d d l e C l a s s , " M a c l e a n s , March 1 0 t h , 1980, pp. 48-53. 13 Here the p e r c e n t a g e s p e r t a i n t o t h e 64% o f the group who a n t i c i -p a t e a move i n t h e near f u t u r e . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e s e s i z e r e q u i r e -ments r e f l e c t t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the group. 14 These p e r c e n t a g e s r e f e r t o r e s p o n s e s t o a q u e s t i o n about t he im p o r t a n c e o f ownership i t s e l f and, t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from t h e r e s p o n s e s noted above t o a q u e s t i o n about r e n t i n g . 164 l b The f i g u r e s c i t e d here r e f e r t o p e r c e n t a g e o f h o u s e h o l d s , i . e . , n = 19. 15 Agnew, "Homeownership"; C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , The C u l t u r e o f N a r c i s - s i s m : American C u l t u r e i n an Age o f D i m i n i s h i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s (New York: W.W. N o r t o n , 1978); W i l l i a m L e i s s , The L i m i t s t o S a t i s f a c t i o n : An  E s s a y on the Problem o f Needs and Commodities ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1976). 1 7 The f i g u r e s c i t e d here r e f e r t o t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h some s o r t o f image o f an i d e a l home, i . e . , n = 23 o r 70%. 18 R a p o p o r t , p. 66. 19 A r t h u r B r i t t a n , The P r i v a t i s e d World (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1977), p. 48. 2 0 B r i t t a n , pp. 47-48. 21 B r i t t a n , p. 50. 2 2 S t e v e n Lukes, I n d i v i d u a l ism ( O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1973). 2 3 R a k o f f , pp. 143-145. 2 4 L a s c h , p. 35. A l s o see D a n i e l B e l l , The Coming o f P o s t Indus- t r i a l S o c i e t y (New York: B a s i c Books, 1973); R i c h a r d S e n n e t t , The  F a l l o f P u b l i c Man (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1974). 2 5 In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g asked t o comment d i r e c t l y upon the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between h o u s i n g and s t a t u s , t h i s t o p i c a l s o a r o s e i n g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e house as an e x p r e s s i v e medium, i n d i s c u s s i n g a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l i t y , , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f t h e l i f e c y c l e , and i n commenting g e n e r a l l y upon t he im p o r t a n c e o f own e r s h i p . In a l l c a s e s t h e need t o de m o n s t r a t e s t a t u s was d e n i g r a t e d . 2^ P a t r i c i a Marchak, I d e o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Canada ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Ryerson L t d . , 1975), pp. 14-15. 2 7 D a v i d Ley, " L i b e r a l I d e o l o g y and t h e P o s t I n d u s t r i a l C i t y , " A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American G e o g r a p h e r s , 70, No. 2 (1980) p. 239. 2 8 In Vancouver, house p r i c e s r a p i d l y e s c a l a t e d i n 1980 from an av e r a g e o f around $70,000 t o $140,000 p l u s i n t h e f a l l t h e r e n t a l v a c a n cy r a t e was c o n s i s t e n t l y l e s s than 0.1%. 2 9 Ley, p. 242. 30 See B r i t t a n , P r i v a t i s e d W o r ld. 31 B r i t t a n , p. 40 3 2 G e r a l d i n e P r a t t , "Home D e c o r a t i o n and t h e E x p r e s s i o n o f I d e n t i t y , " D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980, pp. 127-133. 165 CHAPTER FOUR THE HOME AND HEGEMONY IN EVERYDAY L I F E : DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 4.1 C o n t e x t u a l Comments In t he p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , the range o f s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f the home and homeownership a r t i c u l a t e d by a group o f m i d d l e income home-owners were d e s c r i b e d . These were t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t -i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f and s o c i a l r e a l i t y so t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e s e l a t t e r phenomena i s both h i g h l y p r i v a t i s e d and fra g m e n t e d . However, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below, t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r n e s from t h e "rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m " o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c a p i t a l i s m . These c o n t e n t i o n s appear t o be j u s t i f i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e o f , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , s p h e r e s o f d a i l y l i f e o t h e r t h a n t h e home. Indeed, c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r seems t o have been e s s e n t i a l and the s p e c i f i c meaning o f the home does no t appear t o be f u l l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e when i s o l a t e d from t h e s e a t t i -t udes and b e l i e f s . As Lane s u g g e s t s : "An o p i n i o n o r b e l i e f i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o t h e r o p i n i o n s , b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , f o r t h e y i l l u m i n a t e i t s meaning, make i t s b o u n d a r i e s , m o d i f y and q u a l i f y i t s f o r c e . " 1 1 T h i s s t a t e m e n t a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o the s u b j e c t s t o whom t h e s e o p i n i o n s o r b e l i e f s p e r t a i n . In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i t was r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e n a t u r e , and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the v a r i o u s themes o f s u b j e c t i v e meaning o n l y r e a l l y became c l e a r when c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o i d e a s about 'non-home. 1 Thus, w h i l e s o c i a l r e a l i t y may be p e r c e i v e d , and u n d e r s t o o d as 166 b e i n g c o m p r i s e d o f d i s c r e t e s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t y , t h e l a t t e r a r e n e v e r t h e -l e s s h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , a t l e a s t a t a c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f i s n o t a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y . R a t h e r , i t r e f l e c t s t h e manner i n which one r e l a t e s t o o t h e r s a t an i n t i m a t e and s o c i e t a l l e v e l w h i c h , i n t u r n , has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r , and r e f l e c t s t h e b a s i c s e p a r a t i o n s made i n d a i l y / l i f e . In o t h e r words, u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one sp h e r e o f l i f e r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f 2 s e l f t o t h e s o c i a l whole and o f t h e s p e c i f i c s p h e r e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . • B e f o r e commencing a d i s c u s s i o n o f i d e o l o g y , a comment r e g a r d i n g t h e form o f t h e l a t t e r i s w a r r a n t e d . The s u b j e c t i v e meanings i s o l a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c and a r e , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , h i s t o r i c a l l y e x p l i c a b l e . Indeed, a common i n t e r p r e -t i v e s t r a t e g y has been t o document the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t have combined t o c r e a t e t h e contemporary emphasis on the p r i v a t e l y owned, 3 d e t a c h e d home. R e f e r e n c e i s u s u a l l y made t o the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l changes b r o u g h t about by the growth o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i -t a l i s m and i t s r e s u l t a n t " s h a t t e r i n g o f t h e o l d f e u d a l hegemony i n which a l l s p h e r e s o c c u p i e d a f i x e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a g i v e n s e t o f 4 p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s . " S t r e s s tends t o be p l a c e d upon removal o f economic p r o d u c t i o n from t he home and h o u s e h o l d group, on the growing s e p a r a t i o n o f home and work, on the c h a n g i n g f u n c t i o n s and form o f the f a m i l y , and on the attempt t o c r e a t e a r e f u g e from a l i e n a t i n g work c o n d i t i o n s and i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p e r s o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y t h r o u g h which t he 5 home and f a m i l y become the f o c u s o f p e r s o n a l i s e d and p r i v a t i s e d l i f e . O t her f a c t o r s , such as the development o f the i d e o l o g y o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and i n d i v i d u a l i s m , t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments i n t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n and house b u i l d i n g t e c h n i q u e s , t h e growing degree o f s t a t e i n t e r -167 v e n t i o n i n h o u s i n g p r o v i s i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n , t he development o f h o u s i n g r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , mass m e r c h a n d i s i n g and consumption, a r e a l s o c i t e d i n a l e s s h o l i s t i c manner, as b e i n g c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e s upon con-temporary h o u s i n g forms and t e n u r e . T h i s form o f a n a l y s i s does have c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l i d i t y . However, i t i s n o t t h e method adopted h e r e . In l i g h t o f t h e t y p e o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n , a t t r i b u t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y t o t h e s e p r o c e s s e s w i t h o u t c o n c r e t e l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s would b r i n g about many o f t h e problems R a k o f f was seen t o f a c e i n C h a p t e r One i n e x p l a i n i n g contemporary s u b j e c t i v e meanings as ' r e f l e c t i o n s ' o f l i b e r a l c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y . Most b a s i c a l l y , ' a n a l y s i s would tend t o remain e q u a l l y as f u n c t i o n a l as t h a t o f t h e " i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h e s i s " i n t h a t c a u s a l i t y i s a t t r i b u t e d t o i m p e r s o n a l , d e t e r m i n a t e h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s such as i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . These p r o c e s s e s can be s u g g e s t i v e o f c a u s -a l i t y and can s e r v e t o c o n t e x t u a l i s e and ground contemporary phenomena b u t , i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o n c r e t e , h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , such as the one u n d e r t a k e n by Rose, a r e n e c e s s a r y . ^ F u r t h e r -more, t h e e m p i r i c a l a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e i d e a s may be q u e s t i o n e d i n l i g h t o f the r e c e n t s u g g e s t i o n s by, f o r example, M a c F a r l a n e , t h a t the o r i g i n s o f E n g l i s h i n d i v i d u a l i s m can be t r a c e d back as f a r as t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y r a t h e r than t h e commonly c i t e d e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Thus, w h i l e f u l l y r e c o g n i s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s and the s p e c i f i c i t y o f the s u b j e c t i v e meanings under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the i n t e r p r e t i v e s t r a t e g y adopted here r e f l e c t s the o v e r a l l aim o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y t o u n d e r s t a n d i d e o l o g y as a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n e v e r y d a y t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e r a t h e r t h a n s o l e l y as a s e t o f f o r m a l , 168 p r o p o s i t i o n a l b e l i e f s . A t t e n t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , f o c u s s e d upon t he m a t e r i a l bases o f the i d e a s o f home and the manner i n which t h e y may, o r may n o t , be t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g i d e o l o g i c a l . 4.2 I d e o l o g y and the C o n s t r u c t i o n o f S e l f The i m p o r t a n c e o f the d e f i n i t i o n o f , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e l f was a l l u d e d t o t h r o u g h o u t C h a p t e r T h r e e and a l s o i n the p r e s e n t d i s -c u s s i o n . The n a t u r e o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s u g g e s t e d as b e i n g c r u c i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g both t he meaning o f the home and i t s i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t . B r i e f l y , t h e n a t u r e o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f f o r t h e group p r e s e n t l y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d . The c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f home and the s o c i a l w o r l d i n g e n e r a l i s q u i t e c l e a r l y p r e d i c a t e d upon an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f s e l f and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . However, as s u g g e s t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t can be seen t o d i f f e r q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t he "rugged" i n d i v i d u a l i s m u s u a l l y h e l d t o c h a r a c t e r i s e c a p i t a l i s m and a l s o i n v o k e d by R a k o f f . R e c e n t l y , s e y e r a l commentaries have been made r e g a r d i n g changes i n t h e contempor-a r y , w e s t e r n n o t i o n o f s e l f and D a n i e l B e l l s t a t e s t h a t : "Western s o c i e t y i s i n the m i d s t o f a v a s t h i s t o r i c a l change i n which o l d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ( p r o p e r l y bound), e x i s t i n g power s t r u c t u r e ( c e n t r e d on n o t i o n s o f r e s t r a i n t and d e l a y e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n ) a r e b e i n g r a p i d l y g e r o d e d . " In a s i m i l a r but more s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l manner, R i c h a r d S e n n e t t and C h r i s t o p h e r Lasch have, r e s p e c t i v e l y , commented upon t h e s e t r e n d s and draw c o n c l u s i o n s a l o n g t h e l i n e s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by L a s c h : 169 Much c o u l d be w r i t t e n about the s i g n s o f new l i f e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s book, however, d e s c r i b e s a way o f l i f e t h a t i s d y i n g - the c u l t u r e o f c o m p e t i t i v e i n d i v i d -u a l i s m , which i n i t s decadence has c a r r i e d t h e l o g i c o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m t o t h e extreme o f a war o f a l l a g a i n s t a l l , t h e p u r s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s t o the dead end o f a n a r c i s s i s t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s e l f . S t r a t e g i e s o f n a r c i s s i s t i c s u r v i v a l now p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s as e m a n c i p a t i o n from t h e r e p r e s i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f the p a s t , thus g i v i n g r i s e t o a " c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n " t h a t r e p r o d u c e s t h e ^ w o r s t f e a r s o f t h e c o l l a p s i n g c i v i l i s a t i o n i t c l a i m s t o c r i t i c i s e . 1 0 As t h i s q u o t a t i o n i n d i c a t e s , both a r e c o n c e r n e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e con-t emporary c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r termed n a r c i s s i s m . The l a t t e r i s h e l d t o be t he most common form o f p s y c h i c d i s t r e s s d e a l t w i t h by t h e r a p i s t s and i s seen t o have r e p l a c e d t h e ty p e o f o b s e s s i o n a l n e u r o s i s documented by F r e u d . S e n n e t t - p r o v i d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f n a r c i s s i s m as a c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r : N a r c i s s i s m i n the c l i n i c a l s e nse d i v e r g e s from t h e p o p u l a r i d e a o f l o v e o f one's own beaut y ; more s t r i c t l y , and as a c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r , i t i s s e l f a b s o r p t i o n which p r e v e n t s one from u n d e r s t a n d i n g what b e l o n g s w i t h i n t h e domain o f s e l f and s e l f g r a t i f i c a t i o n and what be l o n g s o u t s i d e i t . 1 1 B e l l p r o v i d e s a more s o c i o l o g i c a l o r c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the " a n t i n o m i a n a t t i t u d e . " G e n e r a l l y , both c o n c e p t s c o m p r i s e a s p e c t s o f a Concern t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e and o r i g i n s o f h i s t o r i c a l changes i n the n o t i o n o f s e l f . The form taken by t h e arguments t h e s e a u t h o r s p r e s e n t i s p a r -t i c u l a r l y w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n Las c h ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f "Changing Modes o f Making I t : From H o r a t i o A l g e r t o the Happy Hooker" and t h e i r s u b s t a n -t i v e c o n t e n t has r e l e v a n c e t o t h e meanings o f the home p r e s e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d : 170 U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e P r o t e s t a n t work e t h i c s t o o d as one o f th e most i m p o r t a n t u n d e r p i n n i n g s o f American c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o the myth o f c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e , t h r i f t and i n d u s t r y h e l d t h e key t o m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s and s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . A m e r i c a ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a l a n d o f o p p o r t u n i t y r e s t e d on i t s c l a i m t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h e r e d i t a r y o b s t a c l e s t o advancement c r e a t e d c o n d i t i o n s i n which s o c i a l m o b i l i t y depended on i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e a l o n e . The s e l f made man, a r c h e t y p i c a l embodiment o f t h e American dream, owed h i s advancement t o h a b i t s o f i n d u s t r y , s o b r i e t y , m o d e r a t i o n , s e l f d i s c i p l i n e and a v o i d a n c e o f d e b t . He l i v e d f o r t h e f u t u r e , shunning s e l f i n d u l g e n c e i n f a v o u r o f p a t i e n t , p a i n s t a k i n g a c c u m u l a t i o n ; and as l o n g as t h e c o l l e c t i v e p r o s p e c t l o o k e d on the whole so b r i g h t , he found i n t h e d e f e r r a l o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n not o n l y h i s p r i n c i p a l g r a t i f i c a -t i o n but an abundant s o u r c e o f p r o f i t s . ... In an age o f d i m i n i s h i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , the P r o t e s t a n t v i r t u e s no l o n g e r e x c i t e e n t h u s i a s m . I n f l a t i o n e r o d e s i n v e s t m e n t s and s a v i n g s . A d v e r t i s i n g undermines t h e h o r r o r o f i n d e b t e d n e s s , e x h o r t -i n t t h e consumer t o buy now and pay l a t e r . As t h e f u t u r e becomes more menacing and u n c e r t a i n , o n l y f o o l s put o f f u n t i l tomorrow t h e f u n t h e y can have t o d a y . A p r o f o u n d s h i f t i n o u r sense o f time has t r a n s f o r m e d work h a b i t s , v a l u e s and th e d e f i n i t i o n o f s u c c e s s . S e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n has r e p l a c e d s e l f improvement as t h e g o a l o f e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e . . . . I f Robinson C r u s o e embodied t h e i d e a l t y p e o f economic man, t h e hero b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y i n i t s a s c e n d a n c y , t h e s p i r i t o f M o l l F l a n d e r s p r e s i d e s o v e r i t s dotage.12 Thus, i n con t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y , emphasis i s h e l d t o be p l a c e d upon p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and i n n e r needs, upon i n t i m a t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and on th e s e a r c h f o r s e l f d e f i n i t i o n and s e l f a c t u a l i s a t i o n r a t h e r than upon b e l i e f s i n t h r i f t , d e l a y e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n o r a v o i d a n c e o f d e b t . The f a m i l y and, by e x t e n s i o n , t h e home, w h i l s t a l r e a d y b e i n g p r i v a t i s e d , have come t o be seen as t h e main i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which t h e enhancement o f s e l f c a n , and s h o u l d , t a k e p l a c e . As S e n n e t t n o t e s : "We have t r i e d t o make t h e f a c t o f b e i n g i n p r i v a t e , a l o n e w i t h o u r s e l v e s and w i t h 13 f a m i l y and i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s , an end i n i t s e l f . " In e s s e n c e , t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p r i v a t i s a t i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n have become h e i g h t e n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r i c a l development w i t h p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o f o u n d consequences f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y so t h a t , f o r example: 171 As c o n c e r n f o r q u e s t i o n s o f s e l f h o o d has grown g r e a t e r , p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h s t r a n g e r s f o r s o c i a l ends has d i m i n i s h e d - o r t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p e r v e r t e d by t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n . In community g r o u p s , f o r i n s t a n c e , p e o p l e f e e l t h e need t o g e t t o know each o t h e r as p e r s o n s i n o r d e r t o a c t t o g e t h e r ; t h e y then g e t c a u g h t up i n m o b i l i s i n g p r o -c e s s e s o f r e v e a l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o each o t h e r as p e r s o n s , and g r a d u a l l y l o s e t h e d e s i r e t o a c t t o g e t h e r . 1 4 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e t r e n d s a r e d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a l o g i c a l consequence o f t h e manner i n which c a p i t a l i s m has d e v e l o p e d . L a s c h n o t e s t h a t : "Economic man h i m s e l f has g i v e n way t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l man o f o u r 15 t i m e s - t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t o f b o u r g e o i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m . " Both B e l l and S e n n e t t c i t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f mass p r o d u c t i o n and mass consumption i n u n d e r m i n i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e system though the z e a l o u s promotion o f a h e d o n i s t i c way o f l i f e . The l a t t e r a l s o comments on the e f f e c t s o f p r i v a t i s a t i o n and on t h e development o f a s e c u l a r , immanant, as opposed t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t code o f meaning. The r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e meanings o f home c o n s i d e r e d here i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o b v i o u s p a r a l l e l s t h a t can be drawn. F o r example, the emphasis p l a c e d upon " q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e , " on amenity and a e s t h e t i c s , on i n t i m a t e and f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s , on s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and the u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The d e n i g r a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f a c c u m u l a t i o n , economic advancement and commitment t o a form o f " p u b l i c l i f e " seem t o be more i n d i c a t i v e o f an " a n t i n o m i a n a t t i t u d e " than the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r a d i -t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "rugged" o r " p o s s e s s i v e " i n d i v i d u a l i s m . However, w h i l e p a r a l l e l s o f t h i s n a t u r e can be d i s c e r n e d , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s h o u l d n o t be seen t o e m p i r i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n a r c i s s i s t i c o r a n t i n o m i a n c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e per s e . Research, was n o t u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h i s aim i n mind b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , 172 some elements o f t h i s t h e s i s a l s o appear t o be m i s s i n g . Most o b v i o u s a r e t h e extreme c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a t h o l o g i c a l n a r c i s -s i s m : ". . . dependence on v i c a r i o u s warmth p r o v i d e d by o t h e r s com-b i n e d w i t h a f e a r o f dependence, a sense o f i n n e r e m p t i n e s s , b o u n d l e s s 17 i n n e r rage and u n s a t i s f i e d o r a l c r a v i n g s . " The absence o f t h e s e t r a i t s i s p r o b a b l y t o be e x p e c t e d g i v e n the p r e s e n t f o c u s on e v e r y d a y l i f e r a t h e r than c l i n i c a l c a s e s t u d i e s . More s a l i e n t e x c e p t i o n s p e r -t a i n , f o r example, t o t h e emphasis p l a c e d upon o b j e c t s i n t h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e . B e l l n o t e s t h a t : By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , c a p i t a l i s m sought t o j u s t i