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Teaching sculpture : a rationale and resource kit 1983

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TEACHING SCULPTURE: A RATIONALE AND RESOURCE KIT by SUSANNE GAYLE McFEELY B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 (?) Susanne G a y l e M c F e e l y , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further Department of V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 lE-6 (3/811 ABSTRACT T h i s r e s o u r c e k i t p r e s e n t s r e a s o n s f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t s c u l p t u r e becomes an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l s ' a r t c u r r i c u l u m . An a p p r o a c h t o c r e a t i n g r e a d i n e s s , a g l o s s a r y , a c r i t e r i a - b a s e d d e f i n i t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e , and a s y s t e m o f c r i t - i c a l a n a l y s i s i s o f f e r e d . The r e s o u r c e k i t i s c o m p l e t e w i t h maps, s l i d e s , b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , c l a s s r o o m and f i e l d t r i p a c t i v i t i e s . I t s aim i s t o p r e s e n t , b a s e d on l o c a l r e s o u r c e s , an i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and p r o d - u c t i v e domains o f s c u l p t u r e . An e n t i r e s e c t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s r e v i e w s , as a model f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h , o v e r one h u n d r e d and f i f t y p i e c e s o f s c u l p t u r e f o u n d i n V a n c o u v e r . A n o t h e r s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e . One m e d i a i s d e v e l o p e d as a model f o r e a c h t e c h n i q u e . O t h e r m e d i a a r e l i s t e d w i t h p e r t i n e n t w r i t t e n and a u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s and e x a m p l e s o f s c u l p t o r s known f o r t h e i r work w i t h t h e s e m e d i a . The a p p e n d i x p r e s e n t s m a t e r i a l t o show the d i v e r s i t y o f s c u l p - t u r e , b o t h c o n t e m p o r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l , i n l o c a l and i n t e r n a - t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e k i t i s t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g what s c u l p t u r e can be, what s c u l p t u r e i s , and when, how, and why i t i s c r e a t e d . The hope i s t h a t t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n and o v e r v i e w o f t h i s v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a w i l l f a c i l i t a t e s c u l p t u r e b e c o m i n g an e q u i t a b l e p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s . i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS S e c t i o n Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 Reasons f o r the T h e s i s 1 Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g S c u l p t u r e 3 C o n t e n t s of t h i s S tudy 7 T a b l e I : An I n t e g r a t e d A p p r o a c h f o r T e a c h i n g S c u l p t u r e 10 I I . CREATING READINESS 12 T u n i n g I n : N a t u r a l and Man Made Forms . . . . 12 G l o s s a r y o f the Language o f S c u l p t u r e . . . . 14 D e f i n i n g S c u l p t u r e 43 C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s : Feldman's S y s t e m a t i c A p p r o a c h . 45 A p p r o a c h i n g the L o c a l Scene 48 A P r e f a c e to V a n c o u v e r S c u l p t u r e 49 I I I . VANCOUVER SCULPTURE 57 A r e a 1 - The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 60 A r e a 2 - S t a n l e y Park 83 A r e a 3 - The West End 98 A r e a 4 - Downtown A 116 A r e a 5 - Downtown B 136 A r e a 6 - VanDusen Gardens 156 IV. THE TECHNIQUES OF SCULPTURE 172 I n t r o d u c t i o n 172 T a b l e I I : A Model f o r I n t r o d u c i n g the Four T e c h n i q u e s 175 M a n i p u l a t i o n 176 S u b t r a c t i o n 20 1 S u b s t i t u t i o n 220 A d d i t i o n 230 i v . S e c t i o n Page V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 255 APPENDIX 259 V S L I D E S T H A T ACCOMPANY T H E MASTER O F E D U C A T I O N T H E S I S Q^S ^ f r t T E A C H I N G S C U L P T U R E t A R A T I O N A L E AND R E S O U R C E K I T j _ | i ^ 0 & • S e c t i o n I l l s A r e a 1 P . 63 1 - 2 0 6 4 21 • - 4 0 65 4 1 • - 4 5 S e c t i o n 1 1 1 : A r e a 2 P . 8 5 1 - 2 0 97 2 1 • - 22 S e c t i o n l l l i A r e a 3 P . 1 1 1 1 - 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 - 32 S e c t i o n l l l l A r e a 4 P . 1 1 9 1 - 20 1 2 0 21 - 35 S e c t i o n I l l s A r e a 5 P . 139 1 - 20 1 4 0 21 - 36 S e c t i o n 111J A r e a 6 P . 159 1 - 2 0 1 6 0 2 1 - 23 S e c t i o n I V : P a r t 1 P . 1 8 5 1 - 20 S e c t i o n IV t P a r t 2 P . 2 0 8 1 - 16 S e c t i o n _/« P a r t 3 P . 229 1 - 1 2 S e c t i o n TV t P a r t 4 P . 2 4 5 1 - 20 2 4 6 2 1 - 2 6 S u s a n n e M c F e e l y A p r i l , 1983 SECTION I Reasons f o r the T h e s i s T h i s p r o j e c t was c o n c e i v e d d u r i n g a g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s c o u r s e i n s c u l p t u r e — a n e x c i t i n g e n t r y i n t o t h e r e a l m of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l forms and t h e i r e f f e c t upon t h e i r s e t t i n g s . S i n c e t h a t c o u r s e , many h o u r s of r e s e a r c h have been i n v e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g what s c u l p t u r e can be, and how, when, and why i t i s c r e a t e d . As t h e r e s e a r c h p r o g r e s s e d , so d i d the y e a r n i n g t o c r e a t e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l work of my own, and so d i d the d e s i r e t o s h a r e the e x c i t e m e n t and knowledge of s c u l p t u r e w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s whose s e e m i n g l y i n f e c t i o u s e n t h u s i a s m i n my s c u l p t u r e workshops s u p p o r t e d , i n my mind a t l e a s t , the e f f i c a c y o f my r e s e a r c h , a r t i s t r y and t e a c h i n g . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d , my s c u l p t u r e s e n s i b i l i t i e s r a n g d i s c o r d a n t w i t h what I p e r c e i v e d as an i n e q u i t a b l e a r t c u r r i c u - l;um i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i t t l e ' s c u l p t u r e i s t a u g h t i n the e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Compared to t h e o t h e r a r e a s of v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n , s c u l p t u r e has been a n o n e n t i t y . T h i s p r o j e c t was p r e p a r e d to make t e a c h e r s aware of what t h e y and t h e i r s t u d e n t s a r e m i s s i n g i f s c u l p t u r e i s n o t a b a s i c p a r t o f a y e a r ' s a r t program. The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' s Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t . 1981 D r a f t - i n c l u d e s s c u l p t u r e as a v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a b u t such an i n - c l u s i o n does not e n a b l e t e a c h e r s i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n the a r e a of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t t h e m s e l v e s t o t e a c h s c u l p t u r e . A s s i s t a n c e i n v i e w i n g , d i s c u s s i n g , c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g , and making s c u l p t - ure i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s p r o j e c t e n d e a v o u r s t o p r o v i d e t h i s neces s a r y a s s i s t a n c e . Y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h i s s t u d y i s the c o n c e r n t h a t I f e l t f o r the l a c k of a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a s u r v e y of s c u l p t u r e . T h e r e i s a w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l i n the 'how t o 1 c a t e - g o r y of s p e c i f i c a r e a s such as boxed a s s e m b l a g e s , c a r v i n g t e c h - n i q u e s , e t c . , b u t v e r y l i t t l e i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s t h a t d e a l s w i t h the scope o f s c u l p t u r e o r how to i n t r o d u c e the s u b j e c t to s t u d e n t s who have had l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t . T h i s p r o j e c t p r o v i d e s one p o s s i b l e ap- p r o a c h t o such a s u r v e y c o u r s e . The f i n a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s s t u d y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i s the b e l i e f t h a t t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n a r t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d have as much o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y s c u l p t u r e as they do d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g , g r a p h i c s , d e s i g n , and c e r a m i c s . I n t h e s e o t h e r a r e a s of i n t e r e s t a t h r e e y e a r p r o g r a m of s t u d i e s i s p o s s i b l e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . S t u d e n t s who g r a d u a t e from t h e s e programs a r e g e n e r a l l y p r o f i c i e n t i n the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r own work and w e l l t r a i n e d to expose t h e i r f u t - ure s t u d e n t s t o t h e s e s p e c i f i c f i e l d s of s t u d y . Such an o p p o r - t u n i t y i s n o t p o s s i b l e i n s c u l p t u r e . H o p e f u l l y some day t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l change and s c u l p t u r e w i l l be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a r t programs t a u g h t i n e l e m e n t a r y , s e c o n d a r y and p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B e f o r e d e t a i l i n g the s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t s of t h i s s t u d y , r e a s o n s a r e o u t l i n e d as t o why s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . 3. Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g S c u l p t u r e Many r e a s o n s can be g i v e n f o r s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e , however, many of them a r e not e x c l u s i v e t o s c u l p t u r e s i n c e t h e y p e r t a i n as w e l l to the o t h e r a r t d i s c i p l i n e s . E n c o m p a s s i n g r e a s o n s a r e l i s t e d below f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of t h o s e more s p e c i f i c to s c u l p t u r e a l o n e . We s t u d y a l l a r t forms t o : 1. Communicate and e x p r e s s f e e l i n g s , t h o u g h t s , b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , f r u s t r a t i o n s , c o n c e r n s , c o n f l i c t s , h o p e s , dreams, f a n t - a s i e s , i n s p i r a t i o n s . 2. R e a c t t o e x p e r i e n c e s . 3. Read v i s u a l s t a t e m e n t s be they e x p r e s s i v e , u t i l i t a r - i a n , o r n a m e n t a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l or of a documentary n a t u r e . 4. D e v e l o p v i s u a l l i t e r a c y whereby we p e r c e i v e the e n v i r - onment anew i n o r d e r to be more c r i t i c a l l y aware, more s e l e c t - i v e , more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g , more c a p a b l e o f making w i s e v a l u e j udgments. 5. P r o v i d e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h c h a l l e n g e s a r e p o s e d , p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e made, i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n s a r e f o u n d . As i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t e : A f r i e n d has p o i n t e d out t h a t what I do i s 'more t h e r a p y t h a n i t i s a r t . ' I was, a t f i r s t , q u i t e c o n f u s e d about t h i s , f o r the word ' t h e r a p y ' i s a complex word o f t e n m i s u s e d and o c c a s i o n a l l y used as a put-down; e s p e c i a l l y when used w i t h the word ' a r t ' . I began to r e l a x about t h i s when I d i s - c o v e r e d t h a t the r o o t of the word ' t h e r a p y ' i s 't o c u r e . ' To c u r e , not i n the s e n s e of making w e l l s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s s i c k , b ut t o c u r e i n t h e s e n s e of t o r i p e n . To r i p e n as the s e e d r i p e n s i n t o the f r u i t , as the c h i l d r i p e n s i n t o the J a d u l t , as our v o i c e r i p e n s i n t o our song. I f t h i s i s what i t means t o be a t h e r a p i s t , to a i d i n the p r o c e s s of r i p e n i n g , t h e n i t i s s o m e t h i n g to work f o r . ( B e r e n s o h n , 1968, p. 146.) I b e l i e v e t h e s e r e a s o n s can b e s t be summarized by q u o t i n g McFee, She s t a t e s t h a t , "The key p u r p o s e of e d u c a t i o n i s the growth and d e v e l o p m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s from w h e r e v e r they may be t o w h e r e v e r t h e i r a p t i t u d e s f o r c r e a t i n g and c o m p r e h e n d i n g may l e a d " (1977, p. 323). The r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e the f o l l o w i n g : We l i v e i n a w o r l d f u l l of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l forms but we s e l d o m e x p l o r e them. The s c u l p t u r a l forms i n n a t u r e and i n our man-made e n v i r o n m e n t i f n o t i c e d go u n i n v e s t i g a t e d ; t o q u o t e Henry Moore, "Many more p e o p l e a r e ' f o r m - b l i n d ' t h a n c o l o u r - b l i n d " (1937, p. 4 4 9 ) . The s t u d y o f s c u l p t u r e i s the s t u d y o f form. S c u l p t u r e i s , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , p a r t o f our o b j e c t - f i l l e d w o r l d . Through th e s t u d y o f s c u l p t u r e we may be a b l e t o h e i g h t e n the s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s i v e n e s s to d e s i g n e d f o r m s - i n - s p a c e s u c h as a r c h i t e c t u r e , p r o d u c t d e s i g n , and c r e a t - i v e c r a f t s . I n d e e d , i t has been a r g u e d t h a t " S c u l p t u r e . . . ( i s ) the n e a r e s t and most i n t i m a t e a p p r o a c h o f the a r t s to l i f e s i n c e i t s e s s e n c e i s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y " ( R i c h , 1947, p. 9 ) . I n t e r e s t i n f o r m i s e v i d e n t i n young c h i l d r e n . M o r r i s ( 1 9 8 1 ) , i n h e r p a p e r P r e s c h o o l e r s Response to t h e V i s u a l E n v i r - onment , w r i t e s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n i n h e r s t u d y r e s p o n d e d a c t i v e l y and p o s i t i v e l y to t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i and to q u e s t i o n s and comments c o n c e r n i n g such s t i m u l i . T h i s e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t i m u l i needs t o be acknow- l e d g e d and e n c o u r a g e d by t e a c h e r s . The s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e has to do w i t h f o s t e r i n g i n s t u d e n t s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and h i s t o r y . S i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c time s c u l p t u r e has been an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f many c u l t u r e s . Gaunt w r i t e s , " ( s c u l p t u r e i s ) a v a s t and w o n d e r f u l r e p o s i t o r y of i d e a l s and i d e a s i n t a n g i b l e f o r m t h r o u g h a l l r e c o r d e d t i m e " (1957, F o r e - w o r d ) . He goes on to s t a t e t h a t , "as w e l l as b e i n g an e n t i t y i n i t s e l f ( i t ) i s a l s o a key t o h i s t o r y . . . a l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h w h i c h a l m o s t e v e r y c u l t u r e has r e v e a l e d i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , sometimes i n the a b s e n c e of a l l o t h e r t e s t i m o n y " ( I b i d . , p. 10). To c o n s i d e r a s t u d y of our a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e t h a t does not i n c l u d e s c u l p t u r e would t h e r e f o r e seem i n v a l i d . So f a r I have d e a l t w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l and c r i t i c a l r e a s o n s f o r l e a r n i n g about s c u l p t u r e . I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o p r e - s e n t r e a s o n s f o r s t u d e n t s to p r o d u c e t h e i r own t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t as an i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e i r s t u d y . One needs o n l y t o o b s e r v e a v e r y young c h i l d e x p l o r i n g h i s f o r m - f i l l e d w o r l d . A l l the c h i l d ' s s e n s e s , not j u s t t h a t of s i g h t , become i n v o l v e d i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y i t i s not a d e q u a t e to s i m p l y t a l k about form, i n c l u d i n g s c u l p t u r e . T h e r e i s a g r e a t need on the p a r t o f s t u d e n t s to t o u c h , model, pound, p u l l , c u t away, shape, mould, j o i n and b u i l d t h e i r own f o r m s — t o e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s the v a r i e t y o f t h r e e dimen- s i o n a l a r t . D'Amico and Buchman (1972) s u p p o r t t h i s s t a t e m e n t by a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t " F o r g e n e r a t i o n s c h i l d r e n have m a n i f e s t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s t h r o u g h t h e i r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o r by making sand s t r u c t u r e s on the b e a c h " (p. 7 ) . Rb'ttger ( 1962) s u p p o r t s t h i s c l a i m t h a t s t u d e n t s need to c r e a t e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l o b j e c t s when he m a i n t a i n s t h a t " c h i l d r e n e s p e c i a l l y have the urge and a b i l i t y to g i v e f o r m to any s h a p e l e s s mass" (p. 7 ) . 6 . A f u r t h e r r e a s o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g s c u l p t u r e i n t o an a r t p r o g r am i s t h a t t o o l s a r e few and m a t e r i a l s a r e i n e x p e n s i v e . A wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s when w o r k i n g w i t h the a d d i t i o n t e c h n i q u e (see G l o s s a r y ) i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e f r e e , thus e n a b l i n g b o t h the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s to work i n the r e l a x e d atmos- p h e r e o f n o t h a v i n g to c o n s i d e r the expense o f m a t e r i a l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , two o f the f o u r t e c h n i q u e s , m a n i p u l a t i o n and ad- d i t i o n p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the s t u d e n t to f r e e l y e x p e r i - ment. ' M i s t a k e s ' as t h e s t u d e n t may view them can r e a d i l y be ' e r a s e d ' t h r o u g h f u r t h e r m o d e l l i n g o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t e m p o r a r i l y a s s e m b l e d o b j e c t s . The s t u d e n t i s not committed to the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s f i r s t a t t e m p t s a t a p r o j e c t . As Reed and Towne (1974) have f o u n d , s t u d e n t s f e e l the use of f o u n d o b j e c t s i s " l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g t h a n b l a n k p a p e r " (p. 15). Many t e a c h e r s a r e a l r e a d y aware, f r o m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t s t u d e n t s may be r e l u c t a n t to draw a human f i g u r e whereas they are more apt to b u i l d , c a r v e or model one. A n o t h e r endorsement of the a d d i t i o n t e c h n i q u e , i s f o u n d i n L i d s t o n e and Bunch (1975) who d e c l a r e t h a t " t h e c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and e n t h u s i a s m s o f the c h i l d a r e n e v e r more f u l l y s a t i s f i e d t h a n when he i s w o r k i n g w i t h n a t u r a l and f o u n d m a t e r i a l s " (p. 10). T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f a c h i e v e m e n t and a s e n s e of m y s t e r y i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a l r e a d y formed f o u n d o b j e c t s . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o an ob- j e c t of the c h i l d ' s own making c o n t a i n s a s e n s e o f magic w h i c h i s h i g h l y i n t r i g u i n g to the s t u d e n t . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t to the view t h a t s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d be t a u g h t i n our s c h o o l s i s g a i n e d from D'Amico and Buchman ( 1 9 7 2 ) : 7. From the e x p e r i e n c e o f the a u t h o r s , and f r o m e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h made o v e r a p e r i o d of more t h a n t h i r t y y e a r s at the A r t C e n t e r of t h e Museum of Modern A r t , i t has been l e a r n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n o f a l l ages have i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , i n f a c t , a r e more t h r e e - t han t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i n t h e i r p e r - c e p t i o n , and e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r c r e a t i v e d e v e l o p - ment depends on the i n c l u s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e o u t - l e t s , (p . 7 . ) And f i n a l l y the s t u d y of s c u l p t u r e w i t h l o c a l works as i t s base (as i n t h i s s t u d y ) i s i n d i r e c t l y a d v o c a t e d by l o c a l a r t c r i t i c A r t P e r r y . In an a r t i c l e on the V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone S c u l p t u r e Symposium h e l d a t V a n c o u v e r ' s Van Dusen B o t a n - i c a l G arden, P e r r y r e f e r s to the p r o b l e m the g e n e r a l p u b l i c has i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t : The c o n c e p t o f s c u l p t u r e i s not i n the V a n c o u v e r a r t temperament. Few i n the l o c a l a r t a u d i e n c e r e a l l y a t t e m p t any c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t o b j e c t — p a i n t i n g a p p r e h e n s i o n i s the„ norm, and t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y what p e o p l e f e e l most c o m f o r t a b l e h a v i n g n e a r them. T h i s i s n o t i d i o s y n c r a t i c of j u s t B.C. I t i s an a c c e p t e d a e s t h e t i c p r o b l e m i n a l l a r t c e n t r e s . C a l l i t the ' t y r a n n y o f the r e c t a n g l e ' o r the ' f i x e d f r o n t a l i t y o f the f l a t f o r m a t ' o r j u s t p l a i n c o l d f e e t to any o b j e c t t h a t i n t r u d e s i n t o y o u r s p a c e . Whatever. The f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t s c u l p t u r e i s the most m i s - u n d e r s t o o d of a l l v i s u a l a r t f o r m s . ( G a l l e r y G a z e t t e , S e p t . 19 75 .) C o n t e n t s of T h i s Study T a b l e I i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s the c o n t e n t s of t h i s s t u d y . T h i s i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h f o r t e a c h i n g s c u l p t u r e i s b a s e d on the t h r e e d o m a i n s — h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and p r o d u c t i v e — t h a t E l l i o t t E i s n e r used i n The K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t (Hardiman and Z e r n i c h , 1974 , pp. 327-338). . Under t h e s e t h r e e h e a d i n g s the media, t e c h - n i q u e s , c o n c e p t s , e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , modes of e x p r e s s i o n , a l o c a l l y b a s e d a r t h e r i t a g e , and the r a t i o n a l e s o f s c u l p t u r e have been o r g a n i z e d to d e m o n s t r a t e one method o f s u r - v e y i n g the v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n a r e a o f s c u l p t u r e . S e c t i o n I b e i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the t h e s i s , S e c t i o n I I i s e n t i t l e d C r e a t i n g R e a d i n e s s . The a c t i v i t y of s e l e c t i n g and h a n d l i n g n a t u r a l and man made forms i s a d v o c a t e d i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b o t h the t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s to become f a m i l - i a r w i t h the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n . The g l o s s a r y and i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s i n c l u d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the a c q u i r i n g of the l a n g u a g e o f s c u l p t u r e . The d e f i n i t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e - - w h a t i t can and what i t must b e — i s n e x t . Edmund Feldman's s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , as p r e s e n t e d i n h i s book V a r i e t i e s o f V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e (1971) i s a l s o p a r t of t h i s c r e a t i n g r e a d i n e s s s e c t i o n . A p r e f a c e to a p p r o a c h i n g the l o c a l s c e n e c o n c l u d e s S e c t i o n I I and i n t r o d u c e s S e c t i o n I I I : V a n c o u v e r S c u l p t u r e . S e c t i o n IV i s b a s e d on T a b l e I I . As V a n c o u v e r s c u l p t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d as a mo de1 o n l y , so a l s o i s T a b l e I I , and as a r e - s u l t S e c t i o n IV a l s o becomes a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e model. The f o c i i a r e the f o u r t e c h n i q u e s of s c u l p t u r e and the v a r i o u s media t h a t c o u l d be used when w o r k i n g w i t h each t e c h n i q u e . The media l i s t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y w h i c h i n c l u d e s p r i n t m a t e r i a l s , a u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s and where p o s s i b l e , examples o f major s c u l p t o r s t h a t work w i t h t h a t media. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n the hope t h a t t e a c h e r s can d e v e l o p t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g the f o u r media o u t l i n e d i n d e t a i l as m o d e l s. The f o u r models i n - c o r p o r a t e the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l and p r o d u c t i v e domains of s c u l p t u r e e m p h a s i z e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s . In the summary and c o n c l u s i o n q u e s t i o n s a r e p o s e d not o n l y f o r the t e a c h e r but a l s o f o r s t u d e n t s . M e n t i o n i s made o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the r e s o u r c e k i t and a r e a s y e t to be d e v e l o p e d r e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f a c o m p l e t e s c u l p t u r e c u r - r i c u l u m . The a p p e n d i x i n c l u d e s a t h i r t y - e i g h t page c o m p i l a t i o n i n c h a r t f o r m o f the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l h e r i t a g e of s c u l p - t u r e . T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s an a t t e m p t to p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a l l t y p e s of s c u l p t u r e w i t h an emphasis on l o c a l and n a t i o n a l s c u l p t o r s . The h e a d i n g s i n c l u d e s c u l p - t o r , d a t e s , n a t i o n a l i t y , media, t e c h n i q u e , ' s t y l e ' , f e m a l e , l o c a l , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c u l p t u r e and the s c u l p t o r ' s ' t r a d e m a r k s . ' T a b l e I An I n t e g r a t e d A pproach f o r T e a c h i n g S c u l p t u r e P r o d u c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s * 1. m a n i p u l a t i o n 2. s u b t r a c t i o n 3. s u b s t i t u t i o n 4. a d d i t i o n Medi a 1. n a t u r a l 2. man made Concep t 1. i n t h e round 2. b as r e l i e f C r i t i c a l E l e ments 1. shape 5 . time 2. v a l u e 6 . t e x t u r e 3. space 7 . c o l o u r 4. l i n e 8. mas s volume Modes of E x p r e s s i o n 1. r e a l i s t i c 2. n a t u r a l i s t i c 3. i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c 4. e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c 5. a b s t r a c t P r i n c i p l e s 1. b a l a n c e 2. harmony 3. v a r i e t y 4. economy 5. p r o p o r t i o n 6. movement R a t i o n a l e s 1. f o r m a l i s t 2. f u n c t i o n a l 3. s e l f e x p r e s s i o n 4. r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o l i t i c a l 5. d o c u m e n t a t i o n 6. o r n a m e n t a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l S c u l p t ure i n V a n c o u v e r * * * becomes the b a s i s f o r T a b l e I I . ** f o c u s of S e c t i o n I I I ; r e f e r e n c e i s made to i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e i n S e c t i o n IV ( r e f e r a l s o to the a p p e n d i x ) . 1 1 R e f e r e n c e s f o r S e c t i o n I B e r e n s o h n , P. F i n d i n g one's way w i t h c l a y . New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1972. D'Amico, V., & Buchman, A. A s s e m b l a g e . A new d i m e n s i o n i n c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g i n a c t i o n . G r e e n w i c h : New Y o rk G r a p h i c S o c i e t y L t d . , 19 72. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A r t as image and i d e a . New York : H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , Pub., 1976. Gaunt, W. T e ach y o u r s e l f to s t u d y s c u l p t u r e . London: The E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s - P r e s s L t d . , 195 7. H ardiman, G.W., & Z e r n i c h , T. ( E d s . ) . C u r r i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n : r a t i o n a l e , d e v e l o p m e n t , and e v a l u a t i o n . Champaign: S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974. L i d s t o n e , J . , & Bunch, C. W o r k i n g b i g . A t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e to e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co. , 19 75 . McFee, J.K., & Degge, R.M. A r t , c u l t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t . A c a t a l y s t f o r t e a c h i n g . B e l m o n t : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 19 77. Moore, H. The s c u l p t o r s p e a k s . The L i s t e n e r , A u g u s t , 1937, X V I I I . Reed, C., & Towne, B. S c u l p t u r e f r o m f o u n d o b j e c t s . W o r c e s t e r : D a v i s P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1974. R i c h , J.C. The m a t e r i a l s and methods o f s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947. R o t t g e r , E. C r e a t i v e c l a y d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1962. 12. SECTION I I : CREATING READINESS T u n i n g I n : N a t u r a l and Man-made Forms T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s one a p p r o a c h to p r e p a r i n g the s t u d - e n t s t o be more r e c e p t i v e to s c u l p t u r e . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s each be g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i n g and b r i n g i n g i n t o the c l a s s r o o m e i t h e r o r b o t h n a t u r a l and man-made forms ( s e e l i s t s f o l l o w i n g f o r some recommended o b j e c t s ) . S t u d - e n t s s h o u l d choose forms t h a t i n t e r e s t them. Forms th e y f i n d on t r i p s t o the b e a c h , p a r k or v a c a n t l o t . Forms t h e y f i n d i n t h e i r own homes, a t garage s a l e s , or g r o c e r y s t o r e s . They may have t r e a s u r e s from p a s t h o l i d a y s t h a t they c o n s i d e r to be un- u s u a l o r i n t r i g u i n g . S t u d e n t s c o u l d s h a r e t h e i r p r i z e d c o l l e c t - i b l e s i n a s h o w - a n d - t e l l time and the n work t h r o u g h a c t i v i t i e s A and B, below. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e y c o u l d work i n s m a l l groups and make group p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the c l a s s . A l a b e l l e d d i s p l a y of t h e s e s t u d e n t - f o u n d o b j e c t s c o u l d form a summary of t h i s c r e a t i n g r e a d i n e s s a c t i v i t y and i n c l u d e some o f the terms l i s t e d i n t h e g l o s s a r y . N a t u r a l Forms bone s s h e l l s n u t s s e e d s pods A c t i v i t i e s : cones weeds d r i f t w o o d t w i g s f u n g i r o c k s b r a n c h e s gourds f r u i t ve ge t a b l e s 1. Ask y o u r s e l f what makes t h e s e forms c r e a t e d by n a t u r e so 13. f a s c i n a t i n g . Does one form r e m i n d you of a n o t h e r ? Why do you t h i n k a s e e d or s h e l l , e t c . has t h a t p a r t i c u l a r shape? 2. Look at each form i n d i v i d u a l l y and examine i t i n o r d e r t o f i n d t h e e l e m e n t s * and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n ( c o n s u l t T a b l e I and the g l o s s a r y ) . 3. Look a t e a c h f o r m from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of v i e w - - w a l k a r o u n d i t , change the p o s i t i o n / l e v e l o f the o b j e c t s so t h a t t h e y are h i g h e r / l o w e r / a t eye l e v e l . 4. Look a t the form under d i f f e r e n t l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , b o t h n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l . E x p e r i m e n t w i t h f o c u s e d l i g h t i n a d a r k e n e d room. R e c o r d some of t h e s e changes i n p e r c e p t i o n on f i l m and l a t e r n o t e how a change i n s c a l e , t h r o u g h s l i d e s p r o - j e c t e d on a s c r e e n f o r example, changes the i m p a c t of the form on the v i e w e r . 5. Repeat numbers 3 and 4, g r o u p i n g the n a t u r a l o b j e c t s i n c l u s t e r s of two o r more o b j e c t s . Note the s p a c e s between the f o r m s . What i n t e r e s t i n g n e g a t i v e shapes can be c r e a t e d ? B. Man-made Forms: egg c a r t o n s and o t h e r p l a s t i c , c a r d b o a r d , g l a s s , p a p e r c o n t a i n e r s e l e c t r i c a l components t o o l s f l a t w a r e t o y s t a b l e w a r e motors s m a l l a p p l i a n c e s machine p a r t s , g a d g e t s n u t s , b o l t s , screws ornaments u t e n s i l s * C o n s u l t the G l o s s a r y f o r d e f i n i t i o n s of u n d e r l i n e d words. 14 . A c t i v i t i e s : 1. Repeat numbers 2 to 5 of p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t i e s but u s i n g man-made f o r m s . S u mmarizing A c t i v i t y : Combine n a t u r a l and man-made o b j e c t s , s t r i v i n g t o compose a b a l a n c e between o r g a n i c and g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s . G l o s s a r y of t h e Language of S c u l p t u r e As s t a t e d i n the new s e c o n d a r y a r t c u r r i c u l u m i t i s i m p o r t - a n t t h a t "a s t u d e n t s h o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e knowledge o f and a b i l i t y to use v o c a b u l a r y i n s c u l p t u r e . " S t u d e n t s need to be a b l e to t a l k a b o u t , c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z e and ask q u e s t i o n s about s c u l p t u r e . None of t h i s i s p o s s i b l e u n l e s s t h e r e a r e common 'terms of r e f - e r e n c e . ' Not o n l y d e s c r i p t i v e words b ut t e c h n i q u e s , t o o l s , e q u i p m e n t , and s u p p l i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t . I t i s e v i d - e n t t h a t many more terms c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t ; some terms c o u l d be the b a s i s f o r volumes of m a t e r i a l b e i n g w r i t t e n . The g l o s s a r y i s not p r e s e n t e d as a co m p l e t e v o c a b u l a r y o f s c u l p - t u r e . I t i s , however, as s u c c i n c t and co m p l e t e as p o s s i b l e ; a r e s u l t of f i v e y e a r s as b o t h a s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r of s c u l p t u r e ; of v i e w i n g , o f r e a d i n g about and coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h terms t h a t needed d e f i n i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I t may be d i f f i c u l t f o r a t e a c h e r to d e c i d e how t o use su c h a l i s t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n I make the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s as to how t e a c h e r s can i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t v o c a b u l a r y i n s c u l p t u r e . I f an e x h i b i t i o n of a c t u a l s c u l p t u r e s done by s t u d e n t s or o t h e r s i s not a v a i l a b l e a r r a n g e a ' g a l l e r y w a l l ' or d i s p l a y o f f i f t e e n t o twenty p h o t o g r a p h s from m a g a z i n e s , e x h i b i t i o n 15. c a t a l o g u e s , p o s t e r s , and newspapers of a v a r i e t y of s c u l p t u r e . Each p h o t o g r a p h / w o r k c o u l d be ' l a b e l l e d ' by the t e a c h e r , g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s , or t h e c l a s s , u s i n g f l a s h c a r d s t h a t a d e q u a t e l y d e s - c r i b e each s c u l p t u r e ( c o n s u l t T a b l e I and the g l o s s a r y ) . These f l a s h c a r d s c o u l d be i n p l a c e f o r a week or w h a t e v e r time deemed n e c e s s a r y by the t e a c h e r f o r s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y the d e s c r i p t i v e words. The c a r d s s h o u l d t h e n be removed, and the s t u d e n t s a s k e d to d e s c r i b e a p h o t o g r a p h or a c t u a l s c u l p t u r e i n the d i s p l a y . C o n v e r s e l y , the t e a c h e r c o u l d r e a d one f l a s h c a r d at a time and ask a s t u d e n t to p o i n t t o the p h o t o g r a p h / s c u l p t u r e d e s c r i b e d . A n o t h e r a c t i v i t y would be t o d i s p l a y o n l y the f l a s h c a r d s and have s t u d e n t s c r e a t e a p l a s t i c i n e , c l a y , w i r e or p a p e r example of a d e s c r i p t i o n on any one of the f l a s h c a r d s . As a f o l l o w - u p t h e s e u n l a b e l l e d c r e a t i o n s c o u l d be l a b e l l e d by c l a s s m a t e s w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e f l a s h c a r d . A f i n a l s u g g e s t i o n i s t o c o n s u l t T a b l e I w h i c h i n c l u d e s key terms f o u n d i n t h e g l o s s a r y . The o r - g a n i z a t i o n of T a b l e I i n t o the p r o d u c t i v e , c r i t i c a l , and p r o d - u c t i v e domains of s c u l p t u r e , t h e i r s u b - h e a d i n g s , and terms of r e f e r e n c e c o u l d a s s i s t the t e a c h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g how t o i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' s c u l p t u r e v o c a b u l a r i e s . GLOSSARY 17. ab s t r a c t c o n s u l t T a b l e I - " I n c l u d e s a l l s c u l p t u r e , b e c a u s e the i n i t i a l c o n v e r s i o n f r o m n a t u r e to the i n a n i m a t e i s p r o b - a b l y the g r e a t e s t a b s t r a c t i o n o f a l l . But t e c h - n i c a l l y o n l y t h a t s c u l p t u r e w h i c h has i t s o r i g i n s i n n a t u r e and, l i k e r e a l i s m , i s t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , r e a r r a n g e m e n t , and e l a b o r a t i o n i s known as a b s t r a c t " (Coleman, 1968, p. 1 1 ) . - t h e o r i g i n a l d e v i c e , image, o r s o u r c e o f i n s - p i r a t i o n i s no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z a b l e , e.g. George N o r r i s ' U n t i t l e d s c u l p t u r e at P a c i f i c C e n t r e , S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A. - a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e can be g e o m e t r i e o r o r g a n i c a b s t r a c t p o p u l a r d u r i n g the 1950's and 1960's i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t U n i t e d S t a t e s when i m p r o v i s a t i o n , s p o n t a n e i t y , s c u l p t u r e and l o o s e s t r u c t u r e were combined w i t h new m a t e r i a l s a d d i t i o n c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; a t e c h n i q u e used i n o r d e r to' p r o d u c e s c u l p t u r e , d e v e l o p e d i n S e c t i o n IV -an a s s e m b l i n g ; a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a b r i c a t i o n s ; a p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r o f two o r more m a t e r i a l s , o f t e n d i s c a r d s -commonly r e f e r r e d to as a s s emblage 18, amorphous a r m a t u r e A r t Deco a s s e m b l a g e w i t h o u t d e f i n i t e f o rm; s h a p e l e s s a framework f o r s u p p o r t i n g m a l l e a b l e mater- i a l i n m o d e l l i n g "A s t y l e o f d e c o r a t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n the 1920's and 1930's and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by z i g - zag and g e o m e t r i c ornament. I t s name de- r i v e s f r o m t h a t of the E x p o s i t i o n de A r t s D e c o r a t i f s h e l d i n P a r i s i n 1925" (Kalman, 1978, p. 2 7 3 ) . see a d d i t i o n b a l a n c e Baroque a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r : c o n s u l t T a b l e I - u s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o w e i g h t o r g r a v i t y , and i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s o f o r d e r and t h e e l e m e n t s of d e s i g n a s t y l e o f a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e c h a r a c t e r - i z e d by much o r n a m e n t a t i o n and the use of c u r v e d l i n e s ; e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r d u r i n g 1550-1750 bas r e l i e f see i n r e l i e f b i o m o r p h i c form b i s q u e an abs t r a c t f o r m whose c o n t o u r s a r e more r e l a t e d t o p l a n t and a n i m a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a n t h e y a r e t o g e o m e t r i c shapes a c l a y o b j e c t t h a t has been f i r e d once 19. to s o l d e r w i t h a m e t a l t h a t has a h i g h m e l t i n g p o i n t an a l l o y c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y o f c o p p e r and t i n a c a r v i n g i n r e l i e f so t h a t the r a i s e d d e s i g n i s u s u a l l y i n a l a y e r o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r f r o m i t s b a c k g r o u n d the top p a r t o f a column or p i l a s t e r - t h e d e c o r a t i v e head o f an u p r i g h t s u p p o r t a p r o c e s s of r e d u c t i o n ; the r e m o v a l o f s u r p l u s m a t e r i a l f r o m a b l o c k , u n t i l the d e s i r e d shape i s a c h i e v e d a form t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m a w a t e r y m i x t u r e b e i n g p o u r e d i n t o a mould, a l l o w e d to become s o l i d , and t h e n removed a powdered s u b s t a n c e made o f b u r n e d l i m e and c l a y -when, mixed w i t h w a t e r and sand i t forms mo r t a r -when mixed w i t h w a t e r , sand and g r a v e l i t i s c a l l e d c o n c r e t e ; the m i x t u r e s h a r d e n l i k e s t o n e when d r i e d -a p a r t i c u l a r l y f i n e g r a i n e d cement i s known as ci m e n t f o n d u s c u l p t u r e i n c l a y t h a t has been f i r e d chas i n g c i m e n t f o n d u 20 . to ornament m e t a l by e n g r a v i n g ; e m b o s s i n g see cement c i r e p e r d u e l o s t wax c a s t i n g whereby t h e o r i g i n a l f i g - u re i s m o d e l l e d i n wax, e n c a s e d i n an i n v e s t m e n t compound, and t h e n b u r n e d out so t h a t i t can be r e p l a c e d by m o l t e n m e t a l c l a s s i c i s m a form of a r t d e r i v e d f r o m the s t u d y o f a n t i q u e , u s u a l l y Greco-Roman, e x e m p l a r s c o l l a g e an a r t f o r m i n w h i c h b i t s o f r a t h e r f l a t , l i g h t w e i g h t s u b s t a n c e s a r e p a s t e d on a s u r f a c e i n an u n u s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r s p e c i a l e f f e c t c o l o u r an el e m e n t o f d e s i g n and s c u l p t u r e w h i c h evokes e m o t i o n , mood, and at m o s p h e r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I - t h e n a t u r a l c o l o u r i s u s u a l l y p r e f e r r e d to a p p l i e d c o l o u r when p r o d u c i n g manipu- l a t i v e , s u b t r a c t i v e , o r c a s t s c u l p t u r e con cave h o l l o w and c u r v e d l i k e the i n s i d e h a l f o f a h o l l o w b a l l c o n c e p t u a l a r t t h e o r e t i c a l a r t t h a t i s r a r e l y r e a l i z e d o t h e r t h a n i n a b l u e p r i n t , d r a f t o r draw- i n g f o r m a t ; a l s o c a l l e d ' i d e a a r t ' 21 C o n s t r u c t i v i s m p r i n c i p a l l y a R u s s i a n movement wh i c h grew out o f c o l l a g e c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n t e n t c o n t o u r convex c r i t i c a l domain Cub i s m of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n o r t h i s decade the meaning o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a work o f a r t - i s p r o d u c e d by form but i s i n t a n g i b l e - i t c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d w i t h a c c u r a c y the o u t l i n e o r p e r i p h e r y o f a f i g u r e o r o b j e c t c u r v i n g o u t w a r d l i k e the s u r f a c e o f a s p h e r e E l l i o t t E i s n e r ' s term u s e d i n the K e t t e r - i n g P r o j e c t (1969) ; an a s p e c t o f s c u l p t u r e i n w h i c h m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h works of a r t a r e e n c o u r a g e d as s t u d e n t s l e a r n to a n a l y s e s y m b o l s , themes, m a t e r i a l s , and the a r t work's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the o t h e r a r t works " p a r e n t o f a l l a b s t r a c t a r t forms w h i c h grew out o f the e f f o r t s o f P i c a s s o and Braque to r e p l a c e the p u r e l y v i s u a l e f f e c t s of I m p r e s s i o n i s t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the sur- f a c e o f o b j e c t s w i t h a more i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n of form and c o l o u r " ( W a l k e r , 1973, p. 4 3 ) . 22. Dada ( F r e n c h : h o b b y - h o r s e ) d e v e l o p e d i n Z u r i c h d u r i n g W.W. I ; -a p r o d u c t o f a p e r i o d of h y s t e r i a and shock l a s t i n g between 1915-1922 wh i c h was d e l i b e r a t e l y a n t i - a r t and a n t i - s e n s e i n - t e n d e d to o u t r a g e and s c a n d a l i z e d e n s i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by how c l o s e l y s c u l p t u r a l forms a r e massed as w e l l as by the q u a n t - i t y r a t h e r t h a n the q u a l i t y of the mater- i a l u sed des i gn an a r r a n g e m e n t , an o r d e r i n g w h i c h commun- i c a t e s c o n t e n t d i s t o r t t o change the n o r m a l form or a p p e a r a n c e d o c u m e n t a t i o n a r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I -any a r t form w h i c h by i t s e x i s t e n c e d e c l a r e s t h a t an e v e n t t o o k p l a c e or a s c e r t a i n s what a c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l l o o k e d l i k e , e.g. George VI f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 1; L o r d S t a n l e y f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2. e c onomy a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I the p u r p o s e o f wh i c h i s t o a c h i e v e the maximum e f f e c t w i t h the s i m p l e s t d e s i g n 23. e l a b o r a t i o n the a d d i t i o n o f more d e t a i l s on a theme or a s u r f a c e embossed e n g r a v e d a d e s i g n c a r v e d i n t o an o b j e c t so t h a t the d e s i g n i s r a i s e d above the s u r f a c e a d e s i g n c a r v e d i n t o an o b j e c t w i t h a s h a r p t o o l so t h a t the d e s i g n i s c u t i n t o and below the s u r f a c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r t e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c f i g u r a t i v e t h a t w h i c h a l t e r s the l a n d s c a p e i n an a t - tempt to e s t a b l i s h a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p between s i t e and work a mode of e x p r e s s i o n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I -b a s e d on the a r t i s t ' s moods, o p i n i o n s , and e m o t i o n s so t h a t t h e r e i s i n h e r e n t o r im- p l i e d e m o t i o n r e c o g n i z a b l e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i . e . rep re s- e n t a t i o n a l - t h e o p p o s i t e b e i n g n o n - f i g u r a t i v e u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as a b s t r a c t f l u x f o r g e a s u b s t a n c e s u c h as b o r a x o r r o s i n , used to h e l p m e t a l s f u s e t o g e t h e r by p r e v e n t i n g o x i d a t i o n as i n s o l d e r i n g to f o r m o r shape m e t a l w i t h hammer blows a f t e r the m e t a l has been h e a t e d 24. 1. "The manner i n w h i c h the a r t i s t p r e s e n t s h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r c o n t e n t i n c r e a t i n g a work o f a r t . Form i s the p r o d u c t o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e s i g n , c o m p o s i t i o n , and man- i p u l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . 2. In the more common meaning o f the word, the i n d i v i d u a l masses, s h a p e s , o r g r o u p i n g s i n an a r t work a r e i t s forms," (Mayer, 1969 , p. 152) - i s t a n g i b l e , d i s c e r n i b l e one o f the r a t i o n a l e s f o r p r o d u c i n g s c u l p - t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I - t h e s c u l p t o r ' s main i n t e r e s t i s the work- i n g out o f f o r m s , t h e o r g a n i z i n g and d e s i g n i n g o f o b j e c t s , e.g. M i n i m a l s c u l p t u r e h a v i n g an i r r e g u l a r , u s u a l l y c u r v i l i n e a r o u t l i n e a r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e ; c o n - s u l t T a b l e I ; a n y t h i n g t h a t was at one time i n f l u e n c e d by an a r t i s t ' s d e s i g n and has a p r a c t i c a l use an a r t i s t i c movement o r i g i n a t i n g i n I t a l y i n 1909 - t h e F u t u r i s t s opposed t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and so u g h t to d e p i c t dynamic movement by 25 e l i m i n a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l form and b a l a n c e and by s t r e s s i n g the s p e e d and v i o l e n c e o f t h e machine age geome t r i e g l y p t i c l a n g u a g e one of 2 k i n d s of a b s t r a c t a r t c h a r a c t e r - i z e d by s t r a i g h t l i n e s , t r i a n g l e s , c i r - c l e s and s i m i l a r r e g u l a r forms i n c o n t r a s t to o r g a n i c a b s t r a c t a r t em p h a s i z e s the m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h t h e s c u l p t u r e i s b e i n g c r e a t e d , w h e t h e r the m a t e r i a l i s s t o n e , b r o n z e o r c l a y ; the t a c t i l e , c o l o u r , and' t e n s i l e q u a l i t i e s of the m a t e r i a l a r e r e t a i n e d G o t h i c greenware grog "Monumental s c u l p t u r e i n the round was r e v i v e d f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e a n t i q u i t y d u r i n g the G o t h i c p e r i o d . I t had a g r a c e - f u l , s i n u o u s e l e g a n c e and g r e a t e m o t i o n a l a p p e a l , a l t h o u g h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e showed a renewed c o n c e r n f o r w e i g h t and volume, as w e l l as f o r r e a l i s t i c o b s e r v a - t i o n : * (Mayer, 1969, p. 172). s h a p e d , d r i e d b u t u n f i r e d c l a y o b j e c t s ; known to be v e r y f r a g i l e c r u s h e d f i r e d c l a y t h a t i s added and t h o r - o u g h l y mixed i n t o unformed c l a y t o i n c r e a s e harmony h i s t o r i c a l domain h o l o g r a m s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c 26 . i t s s t r e n g t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r h a n d b u i l t s c u l p t u r e a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I i t i s the r e s u l t of the use o f e l e m e n t s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r e i s c o n f o r m i t y among the p a r t s p l u s good p r o p o r t i o n , u n i t y , and b a l a n c e E l l i o t t E i s n e r ' s term used i n the K e t t e r - i n g P r o j e c t ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; i n c l u d e s a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l a r t w o r k s , the a r t - i s t s ' b i o g r a p h y , the s t u d y o f a r t o b j e c t s i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , and t h e r e l e v - a n t h i s t o r y o f a r t l a s e r beams a r e used t o p r o d u c e t h r e e dim- e n s i o n a l images a mode of e x p r e s s i o n : c o n s u l t T a b l e I - p o s s e s s e s o n l y a vague v i s u a l semblance of a s u b j e c t t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g the o b s e r v e r t o i n t e r p r e t what he s ees - f o r example a p o r t r a i t or a f i g u r e s t u d y i n w h i c h c l u e s o n l y a r e g i v e n as to the s c u l p t u r e ' s c o n t e n t - e . g . The S k a t e r by Giacomo Manzu, f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End 27 . to show, as p e r f e c t o r more n e a r l y p e r f e c t t h a n i s t r u e c u t i n t o ; see e n g r a v e d bas r e l i e f (low r e l i e f ) ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I f o r e g r o u n d shapes or f i g u r e s p r o j e c t o u t - w a r d ' f r o m a c o n t i n u o u s b a c k g r o u n d p l a n e - a l t h o u g h the bas r e l i e f has the t h i r d d i m e n s i o n of d e p t h , t h i s d e p t h i s s h a l l o w ; i t does n o t i n c l u d e the back o f the c a r v i n g i . e . i t i s f r o n t a l a d e s i g n i s i n c i s e d , e t c h e d , o r e n g r a v e d i n t o a h a r d m a t e r i a l so t h a t i t i s below the s u r f a c e c o n s u l t T a b l e I - s c u l p t u r e t h a t i s m a n i p u l a t e d on a t l e a s t f o u r s i d e s - t h e r e a r e an i n f i n i t e number o f v i e w s , each v i e w l e a d i n g i n t o the o t h e r an o u t e r c o v e r i n g used i n c a s t i n g an a r t f o r m p o p u l a r i n Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the 1950's w h i c h was d e r i v e d f r o m K u r t S c h w i t t e r ' s use of s t r e e t d e b r i s (see S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - A d d i t i o n ) 28. k i n e t i c "any s c u l p t u r e w h i c h i s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of c h a n g e — a n y s c u l p t u r e t h a t i s n o t s t a t i c . I t can move, l i g h t , grow, ex- pand, f u s e , o r make a sound. The e n e r g y needed f o r change may be n a t u r a l , mechan- i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l , o r c h e m i c a l . The. change i t s e l f may t a k e a f r a c t i o n o f a s e c o n d , or i t may t a k e c e n t u r i e s . " ( C h i c h u r a , 1974 , P . 9) . k i t s c h d e r i v e s f r o m t h e German 1 V e r k i t s c h e m ' - - t o make cheap - a r t i s t i c r u b b i s h or 'low a r t ' t h a t apes the e f f e c t s o f p a s t f i n e a r t s t y l e s and i n the p r o c e s s cheapens them l a m i n a t i n g g l u i n g t o g e t h e r c u t s o f wood l i g n u m v i t a e a v e r y hard,., hardwood l i n e c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; an e l e m e n t o f d e s i g n - s c u l p t u r a l l i n e i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r o d u c e and t e n d s to be h i g h l y f o r m a l i n c l a y as i t i s s i m i l a r t o two d i m e n s i o n a l d r a w i n g ; w i t h w i r e i t becomes t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l -has the a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e movement and d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s the s u r f a c e and a r o u n d the b u l k o f a p i e c e o f s c u l p t u r e l i n e a r l a n g u a g e 29 . e n f o l d s s p a c e i n a l i n e - l i k e s u b s t a n c e , e.g. w i r e as opposed to g l y p t i c o r p l a s t i c 1anguage l o s t wax m a l l e a b l e m a l l e t m a n i p u l a t i o n maquette mass mat r i x see c i r e p e r d u e s u b s t a n c e t h a t can be hammered, pounded, o r p r e s s e d , p u s h e d and p u l l e d i n t o v a r i o u s shapes w i t h o u t b e i n g d e s t r o y e d a wooden hammer w i t h a s h o r t h a n d l e t h a t i s used f o r d r i v i n g a c h i s e l i n wood and s t o n e c a r v i n g a t e c h n i q u e used to p r o d u c e s c u l p t u r e : c o n s u l t T a b l e I -a m o d e l l i n g o r b u i l d i n g up o f form by one p l i a b l e m a t e r i a l w h i c h must m a i n t a i n i t s shape and s u p p o r t most of i t s w e i g h t ( a l - though an a r m a t u r e might be needed) a model or s k e t c h i n c l a y , wax, e t c . o f t e n c r e a t e d i n m i n i a t u r e compared to t h e s c a l e o f the f i n i s h e d s c u l p t u r e a d e s i g n e l e m e n t w h i c h r e f e r s to t h e im- p r e s s i o n o f w e i g h t and volume t h a t the v i e w e r may e x p e r i e n c e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I " t h a t w i t h i n w h i c h , o r w i t h i n and f r o m w h i c h s o m e t h i n g o r i g i n a t e s , t a k e s f o r m , o r 30 . d e v e l o p s , e.g. a d i e or mold f o r c a s t i n g o r s h a p i n g " ( G u r a l n i k , 1970, p. 8 7 5 ) . M i n i m a l S c u l p t u r e a l s o c a l l e d ABC A r t , A n t i - I l l u s i o n , o r Bare Bones A r t - s c u l p t o r s such as D o n a l d J u d d , S o l Le Wit t , . R o b e r t S m i t h s o n , R o n a l d B l a d e n , W a l t e r de M a r i a , Tony S m i t h , Dan F l a v i n and L a r r y B e l l r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the emo- t i o n a l s e l f e x p r e s s i o n of the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s - m i n i m a l s c u l p t u r e has a c l a r i t y and simp- l i c i t y t h a t i s more r e s i s t a n t to a s s i m i l a - t i o n t h a n more f i g u r a t i v e s c u l p t u r e m o b i l e an a r t f o r m i n v e n t e d i n 1932 by A l e x a n d e r C a l d e r and named by M a r c e l Duchamp; an o b j e c t c r e a t e d , a d a p t e d , and s e l e c t e d by the maker, t h e n a r r a n g e d and b a l a n c e d on one o r more w i r e arms t h e r e f o r e f r e e t o move i n s p a c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o or i n d e p e n d - e n t of one a n o t h e r mould a p a t t e r n , h o l l o w f o r m , o r m a t r i x f o r g i v - i n g a c e r t a i n f o r m to s o m e t h i n g i n a p l a s t i c o r m o l t e n s t a t e - t h e r e a r e f o u r t y p e s ; 1. f l e x i b l e mould - a mould e l a s t i c .31. enough so t h a t I t can be removed f r o m f a i r l y complex models w i t h - out damage t o t h e mould o r t o the model. T h i s t y p e o f mould i s 2. p i e c e mould - a mould made i n s e c t i o n s so t h a t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of more t h a n one c a s t o f the same model can be made. Reassemblage of c a s t s e c t i o n s can be d i f f i c u l t . 3. sand mould - s i m i l a r t o a waste mould w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y . 4. waste mould - the typ e of mould by w h i c h o n l y one c a s t can be made; t h e mould i s d e s t r o y e d i n the p r o c e s s o f r e m o v i n g the c a s t . T h i s i s the most a c c u r a t e t y p e o f mould. m o n o l i t h i c a l a r g e s i n g l e b l o c k monumental a p p e a r s l a r g e r t h a n l i f e s i z e s u b j e c t to c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t o r t i o n and s h r i n k a g e . - r e f e r s to the s c u l p t u r e ' s i m p a c t ; i t can convey f e e l i n g s of g r a n d e u r , n o b i l i t y and permanence m o t i f a theme; a r e p e a t e d f i g u r e o r d e s i g n movement a p r i n c i p l e of o r d e r ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I - l e a d s the eye i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s s u g - g e s t i n g m o t i o n ; t h e r e a r e two t y p e s of movement: 1 . i m p l i e d w i t h i n t h e o b j e c t ; draws v a r i - ous p a r t s o f the c o m p o s i t i o n t o g e t h e r , 32 n a t u r a l i s t i c n e g a t i v e s p a c e o rganx c o r n a m e n t a t i o n p a p i e r mache e.g. t h e t w i n f o u n t a i n s on Beach Avenue f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End 2. r e a l m o t i o n i n v o l v i n g t i m e , e.g. k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e a mode o f e x p r e s s i o n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I - i m i t a t e s an o b j e c t as f a i t h f u l l y as p o s s - i b l e ; i t i s a s p e c i f i c o b j e c t / i m a g e , e.g. R o b e r t Burns f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2 - S t a n l e y P a r k . the v o i d o r open s p a c e f o u n d w i t h i n and a r o u n d a f o r m i n i t s s e t t i n g h a v i n g some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l i v i n g o r g a n i s m ; a n o t h e r t e r m o f t e n used i s b i o m o r p h i c -one of the two t y p e s o f ab s t r a c t a r t , i n c o n t r a s t to g e o m e t r i e a b s t r a c t a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of s c u l p - t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I -whenever t h e a r t i s t d e c o r a t e s an o b j e c t or adds to i t s b e a u t y or a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y - s u c h d e c o r a t i o n i n c l u d e s body and e n v i r - o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e , j e w e l r y , e t c . F r . pp. o f macher ( L . m a s t i c a r e ) ; t o r e - duce t o a p u l p 33. p a t i n a pe diment p e r c e p t i o n p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o l i t i c a l r e l i g i o u s J p i c k l e -an a n c i e n t a r t f o u n d i n P e r s i a , J a p a n , C h i n a and Europe o v e r a l l s u r f a c e c o l o u r a t i o n made up of many s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s of c o l o u r and v a l u e of m e t a l l i c o b j e c t s a t r i a n g u l a r l y s haped l o w - p i t c h e d g a b l e on the f r o n t o f some b u i l d i n g s ; f l o u r i s h e d i n the G r e c i a n c l a s s i c a l s t y l e of a r c h i t e c t u r e the p r o c e s s o f making s e n s e out o f what we see r a t i o n a l e s f o r p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; o r as Feldman s t a t e s ' i n s t r u m e n t - a l i s t a r t ' . . . wh i c h the a r t i s t makes and uses as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r c h a n g i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s b e l i e f s s o c i a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y , and r e l i g i o u s l y ( S c h o o l A r t , v o l 75, #6, p. 20, Feb. 1976). - t h e s e r a t i o n a l e s a l s o h e l p e d to m a i n t a i n c u l t u r a l v a l u e s as i n the M i d d l e Ages when C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s were s c u l p t e d on the w a l l s , B a p t i s m a l f o n t s , e t c . f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of the i l l i t e r a t e c o n g r e g a t i o n a c h e m i c a l b a t h used to c l e a r m e t a l of s c a l e ; p r e s e r v e wood, e t c . 34. p i l a s t e r "a s h a l l o w r e c t a n g u l a r u p r i g h t s u p p o r t s e t i n t o a w a l l and used m a i n l y as d e c o r a t i o n " (Kalman, 1978, p. 2 7 5 ) . p l a n e "a s u r f a c e t h a t c o n t a i n s e v e r y s t r a i g h t l i n e j o i n i n g any two p o i n t s l y i n g i n i t " ( G u r a l n i k , 1970, p. 1088). p l a s t e r m a n u f a c t u r e d from gypsum formed by t h e d e p o s i t i n g o f s a l t s i n i n l a n d l a k e s ; a w h i t e m i n e r a l r o c k w i t h t h e s c i e n t i f i c name c a l c i u m s u l p h a t e d i h y d r a t e p l a s t i c l a n g u a g e f l u i d , m a l l e a b l e media a n d / o r f o r m - p l a s t i c media s u c h as c l a y and wa-x has g r e a t immediacy - t h e r e i s some d e g r e e o f a c t i o n or movement i n s c u l p t u r e t h a t p o s s e s s e s p l a s t i c l a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i v e domain E l l i o t t E i s n e r ' s t e r m f r o m the K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; has f o u r f a c t o r s whereby s t u d e n t s l e a r n t o manage m a t e r i a l s , i n v e n t f o r m s , p e r c e i v e q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c r e a t e s p a t i a l and a e s t h e t i c o r d e r ^ w i t h e x p r e s s i v e power p r o p o r t i o n a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I i t s p a r t to p a r t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n terms of s i z e ; i t r e q u i r e s judgment and i s t h e r e f o r e p e r s o n a l 35 r as p a rough f i l e w i t h r a i s e d p o i n t s used on wood a n d / o r s t o n e r a t i o n a l e s c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; " t h e e s s e n t i a l r e a s o n f o r s c u l p t u r e has been to e x p r e s s s o m e t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e to a commun- i t y ; to g i v e shape to i t s i d e a s and f o r c e s t h a t would have been f o r m l e s s o t h e r w i s e " (Gaunt, 1957 , p. 9) . r e a l i s t i c a mode of e x p r e s s i o n i n wh i c h the o b j e c t i s e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e b u t i t i s n o t a s p e c i f i c one o f a k i n d ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I e.g. The Postman, a bas r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A r e l i e f a s h a l l o w m a n i p u l a t i o n on one p l a n e and i s t h e r e f o r e v i e w e d o n l y f r o m the f r o n t - t h e r e a r e two t y p e s : a) i n t a g l i o i ) s i m p l e l i n e i i ) d e p r e s s i o n ( c o n c a v e ) b) cameo rep ous s e a r e l i e f f o r m w h i c h i s worked from b e h i n d t h e f a c e of the s c u l p t u r e rep r e s e n t a t i o n a l r e c o g n i z a b l e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; see f i g u r a - t i v e rhythm a r e p e a t e d m o t i f w h i c h v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the i n t e r v a l between r e p e t i t i o n s so one may 36 . speak of q u i c k , m o d e r a t e , measured o r slow rhythm Romanesque " d e s i g n a t i n g o r o f a s t y l e o f E u r o p e a n a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e 11th and 12th c e n t u r - i e s , b a s e d on the Roman and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use o f the round a r c h and v a u l t , t h i c k m a s s i v e w a l l s , i n t e r i o r b a y s , e t c . " ( G u r a l n i k , 1970, p. 1234). - t h e r e was a l s o a s t y l e of s c u l p t u r e t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e d to t h i s - - i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e l i g i o u s s o l e m n i t y , d e c o r a t i v e n e s s and s y m b o l i s m . s c a l e when p r o p o r t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r e - l a t i o n s h i p of the p a r t s t o the t o t a l s c u l p - t u r e o r the t o t a l s c u l p t u r e to i t s s u r r o u n d - i n g s ; a c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t when d e a l i n g w i t h s c u l p t u r e - r e f e r s t o the s i z e of the p i e c e i n r e f e r - ence to the human body s e l f e x p r e s s i o n a r a t i o n a l e f o r p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e ; c o n ^ . s u i t T a b l e I ; e x p r e s s i o n of the a r t i s t t r y i n g to communicate a f e e l i n g , a t t i t u d e , or i d e a s g r a f f i t o a method o f d e c o r a t i n g c r e a t e d by i n c i s i n g o r i n w h i c h a d e s i g n i s c u t t i n g l i n e s t h r o u g h 37. one l a y e r o f p l a s t e r o r s t u c c o t o r e v e a l the c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r o f an u n d e r l a y e r shape an e l e m e n t o f d e s i g n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I i t i s a g e n e r a l l y m e a s u r a b l e a r e a ; en- c l o s e d by c o n t o u r and c a u s e d by l i n e , c o n - t r a s t i n g c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , or v a l u e - u s u a l l y depends on the p o s i t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r and the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e o f i l l u m i n a t i o n s h i m a t h i n w a l l , o f t e n a m e t a l s h e e t , t h a t s e p - a r a t e s two p i e c e s of a mould from each o t h e r s i z e has a p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l meaning, i d e a , o r v i s i o n s l u r r y a w a t e r y m i x t u r e of a f i n e i n s o l u b l e m a t e r - i a l s uch as c l a y , cement, or p l a s t e r s o f t s c u l p t u r e i m p l i e s l i m p n e s s and p l i a b i l i t y l i k e human f l e s h - i n v o l v e s the t a c t i l e q u a l i t y and i t i s n o t so c o n c e r n e d w i t h p e r p e t u i t y ; C l a e s O l d e n b u r g was the f i r s t t o c r e a t e s u c h an a r t for m , e.g. S o f t T y p e w r i t e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) . s o l d e r a m e t a l a l l o y u s e d when m e l t e d f o r j o i n i n g o r p a t c h i n g m e t a l p a r t s o r s u r f a c e s 38. sound s c u l p t u r e s p a c e s p r u e s s tab 1 l e s t a g l n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r s u b s t i t u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t i m e - b a s e d a r t s u c h as k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e and P e r f o r m a n c e A r t an e l e m e n t of d e s i g n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I - " t h e d i s t a n c e , e x p a n s e , o r a r e a between, o v e r , w i t h i n , e t c . t h i n g s " ( G u r a l n i k , 1970, p. 1363). o p e n i n g s t h r o u g h w h i c h m o l t e n m e t a l i s p o u r e d i n t o a mould as w e l l as the waste m e t a l c a s t i n s u c h an o p e n i n g a r i g i d , f r e e s t a n d i n g f i g u r e r e f e r s to p l a n n i n g and e x e c u t i n g b o t h the p l a c e m e n t o f a work of s c u l p t u r e and t h e d e s i g n of t h e s e t t i n g so as to p r e s e n t each to i t s b e s t a d v a n t a g e " i s the theme o r s t o r y t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a work, and i s the o n l y component i n d e p - endent o f t h e o t h e r s , but when s u b j e c t mat- t e r i s used i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the o t h e r com- p o n e n t s ( i . e . f o r m and c o n t e n t ) the r e s u l t w i l l n o t be an a r t f o r m " (Coleman, 1968, p. 12). a t e c h n i q u e u s e d to p r o d u c e s c u l p t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I -a c a s t i n g , a r e p r o d u c i n g of a g i v e n shape by p o u r i n g a t e m p o r a r i l y f l u i d m a t e r i a l 39 i n t o a mould. The s o l i d i f i e d m a t e r i a l i s the r e p r o d u c t i o n . - i t i s an i m i t a t i v e d e v i c e s u b t r a c t i o n S u r r e a l i s m symb o1 symmetry t e r r a c o t t a t e x t u r e a t e c h n i q u e used to p r o d u c e s c u l p t u r e ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I -a c a r v i n g away; a p r o c e s s of r e d u c t i o n ; the r e m o v a l o f s u r p l u s m a t e r i a l f r o m a b l o c k u n t i l t h e d e s i r e d shape i s a c h i e v e d "the p r i n c i p l e s , i d e a l s , o r p r a c t i c e o f p r o d u c i n g f a n t a s t i c o r i n c o n g r u o u s i m a g e r y i n a r t or l i t e r a t u r e by means of u n n a t u r a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s " (Webster, 1971 , p. 2301). s o m e t h i n g t h a t s t a n d s f o r or r e p r e s e n t s s o m e t h i n g e l s e and makes v i s i b l e t h a t w h i c h o t h e r w i s e might n o t be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d s i m i l a r i t y o f form or a r r a n g e m e n t on e i t h e r s i d e of a d i v i d i n g l i n e or p l a n e I t a l i a n f o r 'baked e a r t h ' ; f i r e d c l a y , mod- e l l e d or moulded and baked u n t i l i t i s v e r y h a r d ; see b i s q u e an e l e m e n t of d e s i g n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I i t i s t h a t t a c t i l e q u a l i t y o f a s u r f a c e w h i c h a f f e c t s b o t h the s e n s e o f t o u c h and 40. the s e n s e o f l i g h t . T h e r e a r e two s o u r c e s : 1. i n d i g e n o u s to t h e m a t e r i a l 2. t h a t w h i c h the a r t i s t p r o d u c e s on the s u r f a c e " i t i s t h e s e a s o n i n g t h a t e n l i v e n s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n s ; i t i n v e s t s s u r f a c e s w i t h rhythm and movement and g i v e s s u b t l e t y and v a r i e t y to the p l a y o f l i g h t " ( S t e v e n s , 1965 , p . 56) . theme an i d e a or p o i n t o f view expanded on i n a work of a r t - i t i s the u n d e r l y i n g or e s s e n t i a l s u b j e c t of an a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i o n t i m e c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; an el e m e n t o f d e s i g n - t h e r e a r e t h r e e s o u r c e s of t i m e : 1. t h e time t a k e n by t h e v i e w e r to v i e w the p i e c e - - a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y beyond the c o n t r o l o f the a r t i s t 2. c o n t r o l l e d by the a r t i s t - - t h i s i s t h e time r e q u i r e d by the o b j e c t t o c o m p l e t e m o b i l i t y or change w i t h i n i t s e l f ; i t i s d e s i g n e d i n t o the s c u l p t u r e 3. t h e permanency of the p i e c e — e . g . some s c u l p t u r e has been c r e a t e d t o d e s t r o y i t s e l f o r to be a c t e d upon and sometimes d e s t r o y e d by i t s e n v i r o n m e n t / s e t t i n g . T h i s d e s t r u c - t i o n / d e t e r i o r a t i o n can t a k e p l a c e i n a few m i n u t e s or t a k e c e n t - u r i e s . 41. the a r t o f t r i m m i n g and t r a i n i n g s h r u b s or t r e e s i n t o o r n a m e n t a l shapes i s the e l e m e n t w h i c h p e r m i t s most s c u l p - t u r e to be v i s u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I ; i t i s the q u a l i t y of l i g h t w h i c h r a n g e s f r o m l i g h t t o dark and w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m the a b s o r p t i o n o r r e f l e c t i o n o f l i g h t by a s u r f a c e - o f t e n i t i s v a l u e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s a l l of the o t h e r e l e m e n t s e x c e p t time a p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I i t i s the d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f p a r t s and i s a c h i e v e d by u t i l i z i n g p a r t s o f c o n t r a s t i n g o r o p p o s i n g n a t u r e s , o r by e l a b o r a t i n g on p a r t s u n t i l t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y competes, or c o n t r a s t s w i t h o t h e r more s i m p l e p a r t s an e l e m e n t o f d e s i g n ; c o n s u l t T a b l e I t h e t o t a l f o r m , b o t h the s o l i d and the c o n t r o l l e d s p a c e 1. used i n c l a y - - m e a n i n g t o knead th e c l a y i n o r d e r t o combine the c l a y and w a t e r con- t a i n e d t h e r e i n c o m p l e t e l y ; a t t h e same time p r e v e n t i n g a i r b u b b l e s from b e i n g t r a p p e d i n t h e c l a y 2. used i n c a s t i n g — m e a n i n g a h a r d m a t e r - i a l t a p e r e d to a t h i n edge t h a t can be d r i v e n a l o n g a shim l i n e i n o r d e r to s e p a r a t e one o t h e r 42 . of a p i e c e mould s e c t i o n from an- w e l d to u n i t e p i e c e s o f m e t a l by h e a t i n g u n t i l m o l t e n and f u s e d o r u n t i l s o f t enough to hammer o r p r e s s t o g e t h e r 43. D e f i n i n g S c u l p t u r e S c u l p t u r e i s d e f i n i t e l y the te r m o f g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s of c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t s t u d e n t s c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d what s c u l p t u r e can be, i . e . , the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and what d i s t i n g u i s h e s s c u l p t u r e f r o m o t h e r t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l f o r m s . W i t h t h i s t h o u g h t i n mind I p r o p o s e the f o l l o w i n g a p p r o a c h to d e f i n i n g s c u l p t u r e . I t i s my e x p e r i e n c e t h a t most p e o p l e have a narrow vie w o f what s c u l p t u r e can be. In an a t t e m p t to b r o a d e n t h e s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s c u l p t u r e , a t e a c h e r c o u l d ask them t o b r i n g t o c l a s s a p h o t o g r a p h , a d e f i n i t i o n a n d/or an example of what the s t u d e n t b e l i e v e s s c u l p t u r e can be. F o l l o w i n g a s h a r i n g time and or b u l l e t i n b o a r d d i s p l a y i n w h i c h no r e f e r e n c e i s made as to the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of the examples c h o s e n , see how t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s compare w i t h the f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f what s c u l p t u r e can be : - a m e m o r i a l s t a t u e i n a p u b l i c p l a c e - a s t o n e c a r v i n g of a nude i n an a r t g a l l e r y o r museum; an a n g e l on a h e a d s t o n e i n a cem e t e r y - a f o u n t a i n i n f r o n t o f a bank - a s t a t u e t t e o r f i g u r i n e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l g a r d e n - a b r o n z e f i g u r i n e i n t h e f o y e r o f a t h e a t r e - an a d v e n t u r e p l a y g r o u n d on a s c h o o l ground - s o m e t h i n g worn ( j e w e l r y , body s c u l p t u r e ) ; e a t e n ( b r e a d , c o o k i e dough s c u l p t u r e s ) ; h e l d ( ' f e e l i e s ' ) ; e x p e r i e n c e d ( s a t i n , c l i m b e on, p l a y e d a r o u n d ) ; even s m e l l and sound can be i n v o l v e d . - s o m e t h i n g on a w a l l , h a n g i n g from a c e i l i n g , o r r e s t i n g on a l l k i n d s of s u r f a c e s ; i n d o o r s o r out 44. - s o m e t h i n g s o f t or h a r d , t e m p o r a r y o r permanent, m i n i a t u r e o r monument a l - s o m e t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d to be t r a d i t i o n a l or c l a s s i c a l , k i n e t i c , concep t u a l , cub i s t , m i n i m a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , or e n v i r o n m e n t a l - s o m e t h i n g c o n s i d e r e d to be i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c , r e a l i s t i c , n a t u r a l i s t i c , abs t r a c t , f i g u r a t i v e or n o n - f i g u r a t i v e A n o t h e r l i s t , r e l a t e d to what some say s c u l p t u r e i s , f o l - l o w s. T h i s l i s t c o u l d be i l l u s t r a t e d a f t e r a c a r e f u l s t u d y of h i s t o r y of a r t r e f e r e n c e b o o k s . Some say s c u l p t u r e i s : - t o c a r v e o r c u t out o f s t o n e as i n the L a t i n word ' s c u l p e r e ' . - s o m e t h i n g made by a s c i e n t i s t - a r t i s t ; one who o r d e r s and an- i m a t e s s p a c e and g i v e s i t meaning ( N o g u c h i , 1968, Foreword) - s o m e t h i n g c r e a t e d i n o r d e r to make v i s i b l e t h e e m o t i o n s of the a r t i s t ( R u s s i a n C o n s t r u c t i v i s t s ' M a n i f e s t , 1920) - a v a s t and w o n d e r f u l r e p o s i t o r y of i d e a l s and i d e a s i n t a n g - i b l e form t h r o u g h a l l r e c o r d e d t i m e (Gaunt, 1957, Foreword) - " f r o z e n m u s i c " ( I b i d . , p. 40) - s o m e t h i n g w h i c h , when w e l l made, w i l l n ot b r e a k i f r o l l e d down a h i l l ( c i r c a 1500) I t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t any d e f i n i t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e must a l l o w f o r t h i s range of what s c u l p t u r e can be. The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r - i o n o f what s c u l p t u r e must be ' d e f i n e s ' s c u l p t u r e . S c u l p t u r e must be: - an a c t u a l form o c c u p y i n g a c t u a l s p a c e and c a p a b l e of a f f e c t i n g the s pace a r o u n d i t - i n c l u d e the t h i r d d i m e n s i o n w h e t h e r m i n i m a l l y as i n bas r e l i e f or to a g r e a t e r d e g r e e as i n the r o u n d - c r e a t e d by man. I f i t i s meant to be f u n c t i o n a l i t must a l s o 45 . be more t h a n u s e f u l - a p r o d u c t of s k i l l u s i n g the e l e m e n t s : l i n e , s hape, s p a c e , c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , p a t t e r n , volume, mass, v a l u e and time p r i n c i p l e s : b a l a n c e , harmony, v a r i e t y , economy, p r o p o r t i o n , and movement - g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by l i g h t , the a n g l e , and the d i s t a n c e by w h i c h i t i s p e r c e i v e d - the embodiment of a s p e c i a l e s s e n c e t h a t makes one s t o p and ' s e e ' ; an e s s e n c e t h a t a f f e c t s and s t i m u l a t e s b o t h the mind and the s e n s e s . T h i s e s s e n c e , o r p r e s e n c e , i n c o r p o r a t e s p o e t i c v i s i o n ; i t has v i t a l p u r p o s e and f o r c e and d i s t i n g u i s h e s s c u l p - t u r e f r o m mass p r o d u c e d forms t h a t f i l l our e n v i r o n m e n t . C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s : Feldman's S y s t e m a t i c App r o a c h H a v i n g 'tuned i n t o ' s c u l p t u r e t h r o u g h a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h n a t u r a l and man-made f o r m s , and h a v i n g become s i m i l a r l y i n - v o l v e d w i t h i t s v o c a b u l a r y , the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of s c u l p t u r e becomes r e l e v a n t . I t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a r t c r i t i c i s m has not been a major i n g r e d i e n t o f s c h o o l a r t p r o g r a m s . I t i s not an a r e a many of us, as t e a c h e r s , f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e p r a c t i s i n g . T e a c h e r s a r e most l i k e l y t o spend c l a s s r o o m time on t h e p r o d u c t - i v e and, o c c a s i o n a l l y , h i s t o r i c a l domains of a r t . I f e e l i t i s now time to r e c o g n i z e the e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r o f t e a c h i n g c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s n o t o n l y of our own work and t h a t o f our p e e r s , but a l s o o f l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t i s t s . C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s i s l i k e l e a r n i n g any new s k i l l ; i t t a k e s t i m e , p r a c t i s e and d i s c i p l i n e . I s u g g e s t t h a t t e a c h e r s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r 46 . f a c i l i t y w i t h Feldman's s y s t e m s e v e r a l t i m e s b e f o r e a s s i g n i n g s t u d e n t s the t a s k . I t might be h e l p f u l , as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s y s t e m , f o r t e a c h e r s t o a n a l y z e a p i e c e o f t h e i r own work. Whenever p o s s i b l e , the s c u l p t u r e under r e v i e w s h o u l d be p r e s e n t and i n f u l l view of a l l c o n c e r n e d . Don't be d i s c o u r a g e d a t f e e l - i n g an i n i t i a l d i s c o m f o r t or embarrassment; s c u l p t u r a l a n a l y s i s i s a s k i l l t h a t i m p r o v e s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . An o u t l i n e i s g i v e n below o f Edmund Feldman's a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s f u l l y i n h i s book, V a r i e t i e s o f v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Feldman's s y s t e m i s b a s e d on f o u r s t a g e s : Des c r i p t i o n , F o r m a l A n a l y s i s , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . , and E v a l u a t i on. 1. Des c r i p t i o n . T h i s s h o u l d be a c o m p l e t e i n v e n t o r y of the s c u l p t u r e b e i n g v i e w e d i n w h i c h the c r i t i c names the t h i n g s t h a t a r e s e e n . In d e s c r i b i n g a p i e c e of s c u l p t u r e one s h o u l d c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e the t i t l e and t h e e l e m e n t s o f d e s i g n used s u c h as c o l o u r , s h a p e , e t c . ( c o n s u l t T a b l e I) as w e l l as g i v e an i n f o r m e d d e s c r i p t i o n of how t h e s c u l p t u r e i s made and a s s e m b l e d . The v i e w e r / c r i t i c s h o u l d not c r i t i c i z e and make i n f e r e n c e s about t h e v a l u e of the work. 2. F o r m a l A n a l y s i s . T h i s s h o u l d be an a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r how the s c u l p t u r e has been o r g a n i z e d , w h i c h i s t o s a y , how t h e p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , namely b a l a n c e , p r o p o r t i o n , harmony, v a r - i e t y , economy, movement, have been used or i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s c u l p t u r e . Feldman s u g g e s t s t h a t F o r m a l A n a l y s i s s h o u l d be a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the way i n w h i c h we p e r c e i v e f o r m s . 3. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s s h o u l d be an a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s the meanings of the s c u l p t u r e by d i s c o v e r i n g and r e l a t i n g i t s 47 . themes, and the a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b l e m s t h a t have been a d d r e s s e d w i t h i n the p i e c e . T h i s s t a g e , Feldman s a y s , " i n - c l u d e s s t a t i n g the r e l e v a n c e of t h e s e meanings to our l i v e s and t o the human s i t u a t i o n i n g e n e r a l " (p. 645). The i d e a s t h e s c u l p t u r e p r e s e n t s s h o u l d be a c k n o w l e d g e d and the i m p a c t i t has on our v i s i o n s h o u l d be examined. 4. E v a l u a t i o n . In t h i s s t a g e we rank the s c u l p t u r e i n r e l - a t i o n t o o t h e r works of i t s c l a s s and k i n d . We d e c i d e on the d e g r e e of i t s a r t i s t i c and a e s t h e t i c m e r i t . In j u d g i n g , we s h o u l d s p e c i f y the range of a r t o b j e c t s w h i c h have been c o n s i d - e r e d r e l e v a n t f o r making a judgment; t h a t i s to s a y , the c r i t i c s h o u l d r e l a t e the work t o the needs and o u t l o o k of t h e t i m e i n w h i c h the work was c r e a t e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t to be k n o w l e d g e a b l e of our a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e . F u r t h e r , we need to d e t e r m i n e the p u r p o s e / f u n c t i o n / r a t i o n a l e of the s c u l p t u r e and, f i n a l l y , g i v e i t a t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s h i g h l y recommended t h a t Feldman's a p p r o a c h t o a r t c r i t i c i s m be i n i t i a t e d and e n c o u r a g e d by the t e a c h e r , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t to acknowledge o t h e r ways of a p p r o a c h i n g or r e l a t - i n g t o s c u l p t u r e . To have a r e l a x e d d i s p o s i t i o n toward s c u l p t u r e and overcome the f e a r of not b e i n g a b l e to v e r b a l i z e what the a r t i s t i s t r y i n g to say i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t . The v i e w e r needs to have a r e l a x e d d i s p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r to be aware of the e x p e r i e n c e of the e f f e c t ; the i m p a c t of the s c u l p t u r e on t h e i r own s e n s i b i l - i t i e s . To e x p e r i e n c e and to 'see' a s c u l p t u r e t h e r e must be a u n i o n of the e f f e c t s the s c u l p t u r e has on o u r s e n s e of s i g h t , on o u r i n t e l l e c t , and on our e m o t i o n s . Each p e r s o n ' s 48. e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a work i s u n i q u e to t h a t p e r s o n . M o r e o v e r , t h i s e x p e r i e n c e may change w i t h time and w i t h v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; t h a t i s the 'magic' o f n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a r t . T h i s acknowledgement of the i m p o r t a n c e of e x p e r i e n c i n g s c u l p - t u r e , o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l a n g u a g e o f s c u l p t u r e , and of c r i t i c - a l l y a n a l y z i n g s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s f e e l p r e p a r e d to view a c t u a l works. With t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n mind the f o l l o w i n g ap- p r o a c h t o v i e w i n g works o f s c u l p t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d . A p p r o a c h i n g the L o c a l Scene Even though p h o t o g r a p h s of s c u l p t u r e a p p e a r on p o s t c a r d s , p o s t e r s , and i n b o o k s , and even though s l i d e s and f i l m s of s c u l p - t u r e a p p e a r i n p r o j e c t i o n s on a s c r e e n , the b e s t way to ' s e e 1 s c u l p t u r e i s to e x p e r i e n c e i t ' i n p e r s o n . ' E x p e r i e n c i n g s c u l p - t u r e i s t h e major r e a s o n f o r the f o c u s of t h i s p r o j e c t b e i n g on l o c a l l y d i s p l a y e d works. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t one's p e r c e p t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e i s i n c r e a s e d by: - w a l k i n g a r o u n d i t - v i e w i n g i t - f r o m d i f f e r e n t v a n t a g e p o i n t s - at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s of t h e day and y e a r - on many o c c a s i o n s - t o u c h i n g i t i n o r d e r to be aware o f t h e m a t e r i a l and how i t a f f e c t s the v i e w e r and enhances the p i e c e - b e i n g a b l e to r e l a t e to i t i n terms of one's own s i z e - b e i n g a b l e to t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c u l p t u r e and i t s s e t t i n g and how one a f f e c t s the o t h e r . More can be g a i n e d i n an i n t r o d u c t i o n to s c u l p t u r e from a s i n g l e w e l l - o r g a n i z e d f i e l d t r i p t h a n f rom an h o u r ' s r e a d i n g or 49 . l e c t u r e — w i t h or w i t h o u t s l i d e e x a m p l e s — a b o u t a s c u l p t u r e t h a t s t u d e n t s may n e v e r s e e , t o u c h , walk a r o u n d , r e l a t e to p e r s o n - a l l y , or e x p e r i e n c e . F i r s t hand, l o c a l v i e w i n g i s an a p p r o p - r i a t e s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r l e a r n i n g about s c u l p t u r e ; i t i s i n no way meant t o s u g g e s t t h a t the s t u d y of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e i s of l e s s e r b e n e f i t or i m p o r t a n c e . What i_s i n f e r r e d i s t h a t s c u l p t u r e not a v a i l a b l e on a f i r s t hand b a s i s i s b e s t l e f t u n t i l a f t e r the s t u d e n t has had an i n i t i a l e x p o s u r e to works t h a t a r e i n h i s 'own b a c k y a r d . ' F o r t h i s r e a s o n , I have c h o s e n V a n c o u v e r as the model f o r t h i s r e s o u r c e k i t , s i n c e i t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h w h i c h I am most f a m i l i a r . I t s h o u l d n o t be presumed t h a t l i v i n g i n a major c i t y i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o f i n d l o c a l s t i m u l i u s e f u l i n an i n t r o - d u c t i o n t o s c u l p t u r e . I hope, r a t h e r , t h a t t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l towns and c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t B.C. w i l l be i n s p i r e d to l o o k at t h e i r own s u r r o u n d i n g s w i t h a new and w i d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what s c u l p t u r e i s . I hope t h e y w i l l see t h a t i n and a round t h e i r o f f i c e s and b u i l d i n g s — p r i v a t e and government — a l o n g t h e i r main s t r e e t s , i n t h e i r s h o p p i n g m a l l s , i n t h e i r r e s i d - e n t i a l g a r d e n s , p u b l i c p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , t h e r e a r e r i c h r e s o u r c e s of bas r e l i e f and i n the r o u n d s c u l p t u r a l forms t h a t can s p a r k s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g a bout s c u l p t u r e . A P r e f a c e to V a n c o u v e r S c u l p t u r e V a n c o u v e r i t e s a r e f o r t u n a t e to have a c c e s s t o b o t h o u t d o o r 50 . and i n d o o r s c u l p t u r e . * Much of V a n c o u v e r ' s p e r m a n e n t l y d i s - p l a y e d and p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e s c u l p t u r e i s documented i n t h i s s t u d y . Bas r e l i e f s as s h a l l o w as s g r a f f i t o a r e m e n t i o n e d whereas m o s a i c m u r a l s a r e n o t , due to t h e i r l a c k of d e p t h i n a t h r e e dim- e n s i o n a l s e n s e . Woven w a l l h a n g i n g s have a l s o been o m i t t e d p a r - t i a l l y f o r the same r e a s o n . A r c h i t e c t u r a l and d e c o r a t i v e s c u l p - t u r e , N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t , l i t u r g i c a l a r t , s c u l p t u r e f o u n d i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s i s p r e s e n t e d as a s a m p l i n g o n l y . I t must a l s o be n o t e d t h a t the s c u l p t u r e r e f e r e n c e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s o n l y on permanent d i s p l a y t o the ex- t e n t t h a t i t i s e n j o y e d by i t s owner; i t may be removed by i t s owner a t any t i m e , f o r any r e a s o n , not the l e a s t o f w h i c h i s t h e g r o w i n g and c h a n g i n g n a t u r e of the c i t y . T h i s s c u l p t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the p i e c e s f o u n d o u t d o o r s — o f t e n more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t h a n work f o u n d i n s i d e b u i l d i n g s — s h o u l d be examined by t e a c h e r s and s t u d - e n t s . As R o b i n e t t e w r i t e s , " O u tdoor s c u l p t u r e , by v i r t u e of i t s s e t t i n g , i s p r o b a b l y the most p e o p l e o r i e n t e d of a l l u r b a n a r t " (1976, p. 9 0 ) . H u x t a b l e s t a t e s , "more p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e a r t ( o u t d o o r s ) t h a n i n g a l l e r i e s and museums" ( I b i d . ) . I t i s i n R e g a r d i n g i n d o o r s c u l p t u r e , no m e n t i o n i s made of the v a r - i o u s g a l l e r i e s and museums, b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , t h a t r e g u - l a r l y e x h i b i t l o c a l , C a n a d i a n , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s c u l p t o r s . Most of the g a l l e r i e s and museums have c a t a l o g u e s , b i o g r a p h i e s of a r t i s t s , and s l i d e d o c u m e n t a t i o n of t h e i r shows. C l a s s t o u r s a r e a p o s s i b i l i t y i f p r i o r a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e made. L o c a l newspapers and m a g azines l i s t and a d v e r t i s e e x h i b i t s . I t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s to become a member and/or be on the m a i l i n g l i s t s of V a n c o u v e r g a l l e r i e s and museums i n o r d e r t o show s u p p o r t f o r the l o c a l a r t community and be n o t i f i e d of show o p e n i n g s and s p e c i a l e v e n t s . 51. o r d e r to make t h i s o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s c u l p t u r e more mean- i n g f u l and c o n s e q u e n t i a l t h a t t h i s V a n c o u v e r model has been r e - s e a r c h e d and p r e s e n t e d . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h i s model i s t h a t t h e s c u l p t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r i s r a r e l y l a b e l l e d . The name of the s c u l p t o r , the t i t l e o f the work, the p a t r o n , i f any, the media, t e c h n i q u e , d a t e , d i m e n s i o n s , or a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p i e c e i s s e l d o m p r o v - i d e d on the s c u l p t u r e s i t e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n does l i t t l e to rem- edy the p r o b l e m of some s t u d e n t s , m a j o r i n g i n s c u l p t u r e a t i n s t i t u t i o n s s uch as the E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e o f A r t and D e s i g n , b e i n g u n a b l e to name t h r e e s c u l p t o r s beyond t h e i r m e n t i o n of Henry Moore.* F u r t h e r m o r e , s e c o n d a r y a r t t e a c h e r s have had few r e s o u r c e s t o c a l l upon t o e n a b l e them to i n c l u d e the r e c o g n i t i o n of l o c a l s c u l p t o r s as p a r t of t h e i r a r t p r o g r a m , w h i c h i s y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h i s V a n c o u v e r model as w e l l as the a p p e n d i x l i s t i n g numerous l o c a l s c u l p t o r s . R e s o u r c e s t h a t were used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the i n f o r m - a t i o n f o r t h e s i x s c u l p t u r e a r e a s of V a n c o u v e r a r e the f o l l o w i n g : - Peggy Imredy's A G.uide t o S c u l p t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r , p u b l i s h e d i n 1980. A l t h o u g h t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n i s p o o r l y i l l u s t r a t e d , i n a d e - q u a t e l y p r o o f r e a d and i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y t i t l e d , a more a p p r o p - r i a t e t i t l e b e i n g "A G uide t o the Landmarks of V a n c o u v e r , " t h i s p a p e r b a c k c o n t a i n s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n n o t o t h e r w i s e a v a i l a b l e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d i n a May 1982 c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Ruth B e e r , a s c u l p t o r and i n s t r u c t o r at t h e E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n . - S t a r t i n g w i t h Monuments: S t a n l e y P a r k , a V a n c o u v e r E n v i r o n - ment E d u c a t i o n a l P r o j e c t , a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a pub- l i c a t i o n i s m e n t i o n e d i n S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2. - D o r i s Munroe's t h e s i s , P u b l i c A r t i n V a n c o u v e r (1972) i s a c a t a l o g u e o f permanent a r t a c c e s s i b l e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . A r t f o u n d w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s of V a n c o u v e r , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f t h e i r u n v e i l i n g f r o m 1905-1971. The d a t e , i t e m , l o c a t i o n , a r t i s t , medium, s i z e and d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n l i s t e d i n the c a t a l o g u e was g a i n e d f r o m q u e s t i o n n a i r e s answered by a r t i s t s , a r c h i t e c t s , p a t r o n s , and government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . - E x p l o r i n g V a n c o u v e r 2. Ten T o u r s of the C i t y and i t s B u i l d - i n g s (1978) by H a r o l d Kalman, and - The P l e a s u r e of S e e i n g . A r c h i t e c t u r a l S c u l p t u r e and D e c o r a t - i v e A r t i n V a n c o u v e r (1982) by G e r a l d Formosa were two o t h e r r e s o u r c e s f o u n d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a s 3, 4, and 5. The l a s t t h r e e r e s o u r c e s r e f e r r e d t o , c i t e f u r t h e r examples o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l / o r n a m e n t a l s c u l p - t u r e t h a n t h o s e l i s t e d w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . On the o t h e r hand, t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s a more up to d a t e summation o f the bas r e l i e f as w e l l as i n t h e r o u n d s c u l p t u r e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The s i x s e l f - c o n t a i n e d p a r t s o f S e c t i o n I I I t h a t f o l l o w c o r r e s p o n d to s i x a r e a s of s c u l p t u r e i n V a n c o u v e r . The b o u n d a r - i e s of t h e s e a r e a s were c o n c e i v e d m a i n l y as a r e s u l t o f t r y i n g to d i v i d e e v e n l y the q u a n t i t y of p e r m a n e n t l y d i s p l a y e d s c u l p t u r e w i t h i n the c i t y . T h r e e o f the a r e a s , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S t a n l e y P a r k , and the VanDusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens a r e n a t u r a l l y ' s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ' and r e a d i l y f a c i l i t a t e the o r g a n i z a - t i o n o f f i e l d t r i p s . The s c u l p t u r e f o u n d i n The West End, Down- town A and B i s more w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d and i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s a c c e s s i b l e f o r c l a s s f i e l d t r i p s t h a n t h e y a r e f o r s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s . Recommendations f o r how to a p p r o a c h t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n each a r e a . The c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e s i x p a r t s of S e c t i o n I I I i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : - a map w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f each s c u l p t u r e c l e a r l y marked. S c u l p t u r e s n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d are n o t marked, however. - a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to each a r e a - c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c e n t r e on the use o f the s l i d e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h i t i s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t s l i d e s a r e an i n a d e q u a t e way to p e r c e i v e s c u l p t u r e , t h e y do f a c i l i t a t e a p r e v i e w of l o c a l works. V i e w i n g s l i d e s b e f o r e 'ex- p e r i e n c i n g ' the a c t u a l s c u l p t u r e w i l l e n a b l e s t u d e n t s to n o t e the d i f f e r e n c e between l o o k i n g at a s l i d e r e p r o d u c t i o n and s e e - i n g s c u l p t u r e f i r s t hand. They w i l l g a i n an i n s i g h t i n t o what i s m i s s e d i n terms o f a s e n s e o f s c a l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e t t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , the t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n , and the p o s s i b i l - i t i e s of v i e w i n g the work f r o m more t h a n one a n g l e . - l a b e l l e d s l i d e s and t a b u l a t e d b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s r e g a r d i n g e ach o f the s c u l p t u r e s c o u l d be used as a s c r i p t f o r the s h owing o f the s l i d e s . (Note the u n d e r l i n e d words c o n s i d - e r e d t o be key p o i n t s i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the work. These terms a r e d e f i n e d i n the g l o s s a r y . Note a l s o t h a t i n the 54. d e s c r i p t i v e n o t e s , v a l u e judgments and ' l o a d e d v o c a b u l a r y ' as to the q u a l i t y o f the s c u l p t u r e have been a v o i d e d . ) - f i e l d t r i p a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d be a t t e m p t e d on s i t e o r begun d u r i n g the f i e l d t r i p and c o m p l e t e d back i n the c l a s s r o o m . O f t e n l i b r a r y and a r t room f a c i l i t i e s a r e needed by the s t u d e n t s to c o m p l e t e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e the c r i t - i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l as w e l l as some of the p r o d u c t i v e domains o f the s c u l p t u r e ; more emphasis on the p r o d u c t i v e domain o f s c u l p - t u r e o c c u r s i n S e c t i o n IV. 55 . R e f e r e n c e s f o r S e c t i o n I I C h i c h u r a , D.B., & S t e v e n s , T.K. Super s c u l p t u r e . U s i n g s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y and n a t u r a l phenomena i n s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1974. Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: W.C. Brown Co., 1968. E i s n e r , E l l i o t t W. C u r r i c u l u m making f o r the wee f o l k : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ' s K e t t e r i n g P r o j e c t . In Hardiman, G.W., & Z e r n i c h , T. ( E d s . ) , C u r r i c u l u m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r v i s u a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n . R a t i o n a l e , d e v e lopment and e v a l u a - t i o n . Champaign: S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . A r t as image and i d e a . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1977. Formosa, G. The p l e a s u r e of s e e i n g . A r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e and d e c o r a t i v e a r t i n V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r : S k o r b a P u b l i s h e r s , 1982. Gaunt, W. Teach y o u r s e l f to s t u d y s c u l p t u r e . London: The E n g l i s h U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s L t d . , 1957. G u r a l n i k , D.B. ( E d . ) . W e b s t e r ' s New W o r l d D i c t i o n a r y . T o r o n t o : N e l s o n , F o s t e r and S c o t t , L t d . , 1970. Kalman, H. E x p l o r i n g V a n c o u v e r 2. Ten t o u r s of the c i t y and i t s b u i l d i n g s . V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1978. Mayer, R. A D i c t i o n a r y of A r t Terms and T e c h n i q u e s . New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Co., 1969. Munroe, D.C. P u b l i c a r t i n V a n c o u v e r , T h e s i s , F i n e A r t D e p a r t m e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l 1972. ( A v a i l a b l e i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ) New D i c t i o n a r y of Modern S c u l p t u r e . R o b e r t M a i l l a r d , g e n e r a l e d i t o r . New Y o r k : Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970. N o g u c h i , I. A s c u l p t o r ' s w o r l d . Tokyo: Thames and Hudson, 1968 . S c h o o l A r t s M a g a z i n e , Feb. 19 76, 75_(6) , 20. S t e v e n s , H. A r t i n the r o u n d . E l e m e n t s and m a t e r i a l s o f t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1965. W a l k e r , J.A. G l o s s a r y of a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and d e s i g n s i n c e 1945. London: C l i v e B i n g l e y , 1973. 57. S E C T I O N I I I : V A N C O U V E R S C U L P T U R E A l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y i t m a y s e e m a m a m m o t h t a s k f o r a t e a c h e r t o p e r u s e t h e s l i d e s , n o t e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e u n d e r - l i n e d t e r m s . f o u n d i n S e c t i o n I I I , I t h i n k i t w o u l d b e t i m e w e l l s p e n t . F o r a t e a c h e r w o r k i n g i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i t w o u l d b e o f b e n e f i t t o b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s c u l p t u r e a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y . S u c h f a m i l i a r i t y w o u l d a c q u a i n t t e a c h e r s n o t o n l y w i t h l o c a l s c u l p t u r e b u t w i t h l o c a l s c u l p t o r s a n d p a t r o n s , w i t h t h e m e d i a , t e c h n i q u e s , s t y l e s , r a t i o n a l e s , a n d m o d e s o f e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s e w o r k s . F o r t e a c h e r s w o r k i n g o u t s i d e c i t y l i m i t s s u c h a p e r u s a l w o u l d h e l p t h e m b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c l a s s r o o m / f i e l d t r i p - h i s t o r i c a l / c r i t i c a l / p r o d u c t i v e d o m a i n f o r m a t I h a v e u s e d . T h e y m a y f i n d t h i s f o r m a t u s e f u l f o r a s t u d y o f t h e s c u l p t u r e f o u n d i n t h e i r o w n c o m m u n i t y . A t t h e s a m e t i m e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s c u l p t u r e i s o n l y p a r t o f a y e a r ' s a r t p r o g r a m i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e r e f o r e d e c i s i o n s a n d o m i s s i o n s ( c o n s u l t t h e i n t r o - d u c t i o n t o s p e c i f i c a r e a s ) w i l l h a v e t o b e m a d e a s t o t h e q u a n - t i t y o f m a t e r i a l t h a t c a n b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t s a t a n y o n e t i m e . B e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g S e c t i o n I I I i t m a y b e o f i n t - e r e s t t o k n o w a n d u n d e r s t a n d : - w h a t v a l u e i s p l a c e d o n l o c a l s c u l p t u r e - w h a t r a t i o n a l e s w e r e u s e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r k s - w h a t ' s t y l e s ' a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f s o n t h e b u i l d i n g s i n d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r - w h a t r e c e p t i o n w a s g i v e n t o t h e w o r k a s i t w a s o r i g i n a l l y u n - v e i l e d - what n o t i c e i s g i v e n to the s c u l p t u r e at the p r e s e n t time (newspaper c l i p p i n g s , c i t y a r c h i v i s t s and l i b r a r i a n s can p r o v - i d e ' i n f o r m a t i o n ) - what the w e a t h e r , our c l i m a t e , our p o p u l a t i o n do to the s c u l p - t u r e s - how the s c u l p t u r e s a r e m a i n t a i n e d ; does the c i t y t e n d to the upkeep of o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e .  60 . S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 1 - The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I t w o u l d be an i n t e r e s t i n g s u r v e y to ask g r a d u a t i n g s t u d - e n t s who have s p e n t f o u r or more y e a r s on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campus what th e y r e c a l l o f the more t h a n f o r t y s c u l p t u r e s to be f o u n d on the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s . Most g r a d u a t e s would p r o b a b l y have d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g t h a t f i g u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e work goes u n n o t i c e d not o n l y by s t u d e n t s but a l s o by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t y . When r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s a r e a i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t e x i s t i n g f i l e s f o r campus s c u l p t u r e were i n c o m p l e t e . U.B.C. i s the p r o v i n c e ' s l a r g e s t u n i v e r s i t y but one l o c a l newspaper r e p o r t e r / a r t c r i t i c r e p o r t e d t h a t U.B.C. has the most p o o r l y managed a r t c o l l e c t i o n o f any p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e . * A cam- pus p o l i c y a mounting to a c c e p t a l l g i f t s and a l l o w no b u d g e t has o n l y e x a c e r b a t e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n . U.B.C. a r t c o l l e c t i o n f i l e s a r e n o t k e p t by a c e n t r a l o v e r s e e i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r a t h e r t h e r e a r e a number of i n d i v i d u a l l y owned c o l l e c t i o n s s u c h as the d o n o r ' s c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e F a c u l t y C l u b , the F i n e A r t D e p a r t m e n t ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e m p o r a r y t e a c h i n g c o l l e c t i o n , the s t u d e n t owned c o l l e c t i o n begun i n the l a t e 1950's, the D e p a r t - ment of M e t a l l u r g y ' s B.C. p r i n t c o l l e c t i o n , and t h e G r a d u a t e C e n t r e ' s c o l l e c t i o n by members of the F i n e A r t s f a c u l t y . There i s no one i n d i v i d u a l at U.B.C. who i s aware o f a l l the a r t on campus. I n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d i n Susan M e r t e n ' s a r t i c l e , Grounds f o r A r t , The V a n c o u v e r Sun, F r i d a y , F e b r u a r y 12, 1982. .6 1. A n o t h e r r e a s o n i s t h e l a c k of community p r i d e t a k e n i n the s c u l p t u r e s . S e v e r a l works such as J a c k Harman's F e r t i l i t y and The M i n e r , and Germaine B e r g e r o n ' s Man, The Robot, and The V e n e t i a n , have had to be removed due to e x t e n s i v e damage i n f l i c - t e d on t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s . P l a q u e s i d e n t i f y i n g o t h e r works have f r e q u e n t l y been removed. A more r e s p e c t f u l a t t i t u d e on b e h a l f of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h i s v a n d a l i s m w i l l be b r o u g h t to a h a l t . Some g e n e r a l remarks can be made about the s c u l p t u r e f o u n d on t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campus: - i t has been c o m m i s s i o n e d or d o n a t e d by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s or group s - o n l y one work was done by a s c u l p t o r not r e s i d i n g l o c a l l y - t h e r e a r e twenty ' i n the r o u n d ' s c u l p t u r e s , t w e l v e bas r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e s , one f o u n t a i n , and t h r e e t o t e m p o l e s e x c l u s i v e of the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t f o u n d w i t h i n the Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y - f i v e works were c h o s e n as a r e s u l t of c o m p e t i t i o n s h e l d by the N o r t h w e s t I n s t i t u t e , now c a l l e d the S c u l p t o r s ' S o c i e t y of B r i t - i s h C o l u m b i a i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h th e E x t e n s i o n Department of the u n i v e r s i t y . C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n View the s l i d e s i n o r d e r to f a m i l i a r i z e y o u r s e l f w i t h the v a r i e t y of s c u l p t u r e a t U.B.C. F i n d the answers to t h e f o l l o w - i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. How many f i g u r a t i v e p i e c e s of s c u l p t u r e a r e t h e r e on campus ? 2. Which f o u r s c u l p t u r e s a r e examples o f the s u b t r a c t i o n of s t o n e ? 62 . 3. Name t h e e i g h t a r c h i t e c t u r a l / o r n a m e n t a l r e l i e f s and no t e the media t h a t were us e d . 4. Name the two s c u l p t o r s who d e p i c t the mother and c h i l d theme ? 5. Do you t h i n k the co m m i s s i o n e d s c u l p t u r e s commemorating B e l a B a r t o k , Dr. M a c K e n z i e , W a l t e r Gage, and K i n g George VI a r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e m o r i a l s ? S t a t e y o u r r e a s o n s . (Show the s l i d e s u s i n g the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 1 - The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . )    r 9 i-< -i v r ̂  r t, • i h • m< r.37 1 - 1 o D A T E i V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E D A T E V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E  SECTION I I I : AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A T S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N W a l t e r H a r r i s V e r n o n S t e p h e n s E a r l M u l d o e A r t S t e r r i t t - ' K s a n C a r v e r s ( f r o m H a z e l t o n , B . C . ) A r t h u r E r i c k s o n a r c h i e c t u r a l f i r m e n t r a n c e d o o r s - R a y o n i e r o f C a n a d a p r e s e n t e d t h e r e d c e d a r - U B C G r a d . C l a s s o f • 7 4 a n d t h e N a - t i o n a l M u s e u m o f C a n a d a h e l p e d f i n a n c e t h e p r o - j e c t r e d c e d a r b a s r e - l i e f - s u b - t r a c - t i o n H . 1 0 ' 6 " t h i c k 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 6 M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l - o g y , 6 3 9 3 N . W . M a r i n e D r i v e - N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n m o t i f s d e p i c t i n g t h e o r - i g i n o f t h e 3 m a i n t r i b e s o f t h e U p p e r S k e e n a R i v e r c a r v e d o n b o t h s i d e s ; t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f S k a w a h a n a n c i e n t m y t h o f t h e G i t s k a n p e o p l e . T h e m y t h r e c o u n t s h o w a y o u n g m a i d e n m a r r i e d t h e m a n s p i r i t f r o m t h e s u n a f t e r t h e a n i m a l s i n t h e f o r e s t f a i l e d t o g a i n h e r h a n d . S k a w a h h a d 6 c h i l d r e n w h o m t h e s u n d i v i d e d i n t o 3 t r i b e s - f r o g ; w o l f ; f i r e w o o d . - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g 0 1 3 6 B i l l R e i d , c r e a t e d t h e m i n i a t u r e v e r - s i o n - G e o r g e N o r r i s G a r r y E d e n s h a w G e o r g e R a m m e l l J i m H a r t R e g D a v i d s o n a s s i s t e d i n t h e c a r v i n g o f t h e l a r g e w o r k T h e R a v - e n a n d T h e F i r s t g i f t f r o m H a l t e r & M a r i a n n e K o e r n e r H u m a n s o r i g i n - a l l y a 4>i T m a n - m a d e b l o c k o f l a m i n - a t e d s u b t r - a c t i o n " i n t h e r o u n d " | A p r . 1 , 1 9 8 0 - t h e s p e c i - a l l y d e s i g - n e d r o t u n d a o f t h e M u s - e u m o f A n t h r o p o l - o g y - u n p a l n t e d - a s T e r r y N o b l e ( V a n c o u - v e r G u i d e l i n e , V o l . 10 2 3 - 2 9 , 1 9 8 1 ) i t ' s a 3 y e l l o w c e d a r - J o a n L o w n d e s ' N o . 3 5 , J a n . s t a t e s : " . . d i m e n s i o n a l s t o r y b o o k f o r c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s a l i k e . A g i a n t r a v e n i s p e r c h e d a t o p a c o l o s s a l c l a m s h e l l , f r o m w h i c h h u m a n i t y s t r u g g l e s t o f r e e I t s e l f a n d e n t e r t h i s w o r l d m a d e f r e s h a n d n e w b y t h e G r e a t F l o o d . A s t y l i z e d p i e c e d e r i v e d f r o m H a i d a L e g e n d . " a r t i c l e C h i l d o f t h e R a v e n : B i l l R e l d w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n t h e V a n g u a r d F e b . 1 9 8 2 , p p . 2 0 - 2 5 i s a u s e f u l r e s o u r c e f o r u n d - e r s t a n d i n g b o t h t h e s c u l p t o r a n d h i s w o r k . ^ S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 B i l l R e l d c o n t 1 d - t h e f i l m T h e R a v e n , i t s g e n e s i s a n d e v o l u - t i o n I s a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n F i l m - m a k e r s D i s t r i b u t i o n C e n t r e , 5 2 5 W . P e n d e r S t . V a n c o u v e r , V 6 B 1 V 5 ; 6 8 4 - 3 0 1 4 - c o n s u l t T h e H a i d a L e g e n d o f t h e R a v e n a n d t h e F i r s t H u m a n s a s r e t o l d b y B i l l R e l d , M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U B C , M u s e u m N o t e # 8 . 3 B i l l R e l d H a l d a B e a r b e q u e s t f r o m W a l t e r K o e r n e r c e d a r s u b t r a c - t i o n 1 0 1 " L , x 5 0 " H , 1 9 6 3 G r e a t H a l l , M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l - o g y - a c o n t e m p o r a r y " t o u c h - a b l e " c a r v i n g - n o t e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e b e a r ( t h e h e a v y m u z z l e , t e e t h a n d t o n g u e , s q u a r e e a r s a n d m a s s i v e b o d y ) - t h e t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e s k i l l f u l u s e o f t h e h a n d a d z e . 4 B i l l R e l d a s s i s t e d b y D o u g C r a n m e r C a n a d a C o u n c i l G r a n t c e d a r - H a i d a h o u s e & t o t e m p o l e - s u b t r a c H o n 1 9 6 2 - t h e r e i e n t i t l e d T h e f o i l M e t i s a i c a r v e r , I n d i a n t t r a n s f o t r i c h l y c t h e p e o p I s l a n d s . o u t s i d e t h e G r e a t H a l l , M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l - o g y s a l s o a N a B i l l R e l d o w i n g d e s c r t l s t B i l l R a t w o r k o n r a d l t l o n . m a t l o n o f a a r v e d p o l e , l e o f S k l d i " ( N . F . B . - p a r t o f a r e p l i c a o f a H a i d a V i l l a g e i n c l u d i n g a d w e l l i n g h o u s e , g r a v e h o u s e , d o u b l e a n d s i n g l e m o r t u a r y p o l e s , m e m o r i a l p o l e a n d t h e s e a w o l f f i g u r e . t l o n a l F i l m B o a r d f i l m ( 1 0 6 c 0 1 7 9 0 9 4 2 7 . 5 0 c o l o r ) , l p t l o n i s u s e f u l : " B . C . e l d , j e w e l l e r a n d w o o d a t o t e m p o l e i n t h e H a i d a T h e f i l m s h o w s t h e g r a d u a l b a r e c e d a r t r u n k i n t o a a g i f t o f t h e a r t i s t t o g a t e , Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e C a t a l o g u e , p . 5 0 ) o> 00 S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 5 10 M u n g o M a r t i n p l u s o t h e r s ; a " s a m p l i n g " o n l y o f N . W . C o a s t I n d i a n a r t c e d a r t o t e m p o l e s o n t h e g r o u n d s o u t - | s i d e T h e G r e a t H a l l o f T h e M u s - | e u m o f A n - t h r o p o l o g y - a f i l m r e c o m m e n d e d l n t h e A r t 8 - 1 2 C u r r i c u - l u m g u i d e I s T o t e m s N . F . B . f o r m e r l y f o u n d l n T o t e m P a r k . - f u l l v i e w s d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e r e f o r e d e - t a i l s o f p o l e s p r e s e n t e d l n s l i d e s . A - R 1 4 1 1 9 4 4 10 m i n u t e s c o l o u r - T h e M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y h a s b e e n r e f e r - r e d t o a s a ' t r e a s u r e h o u s e t h a t t e a c h e s . ' I t h o u s e s n o t o n l y a w e a l t h o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t b u t a l s o p r e s e n t s o b j e c t s o f c u l t - u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f r o m a r o u n d t h e w o r l d . N o t e t h a t a s w e l l a s v i s i t i n g t h i s m u s e u m a n d s t u d y i n g t h e a r t i f a c t s i n c l u d i n g t h e s p e c i a l t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t s , t h e m u s e u m a l s o o f f e r s v i d e o t a p e s . - t w o f i l m s t h a t m i g h t b e h e l p f u l a r e : A V e r y S p e c i a l B u i l d i n g 18 m i n u t e s ; c o l o u r ; C a n a d i a n F i l m m a k e r s D i s t r i b u t i o n C e n t r e , 5 2 5 W . P e n d e r S t . , V a n c o u v e r . U . B . C . M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y S O - 7 2 8 P E M C 1 9 7 6 30 m i n u t e s c o l o u r - c o n s u l t t h e G u i d e t o t h e U . B . C . M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y b y M a d e l i n e B r o n s d o n R o w a n a n d M a r g a r e t A . S t o t t , p p . 1 3 - 1 4 . i t b e c o m e s o b v i o u s t h a t a f i e l d t r i p t o t h e M u s e u m , I n d e p e n d e n t o f v i e w i n g t h e s c u l p t u r e o n t h e r e s t o f t h e c a m p u s i s a d v i s a b l e b e - c a u s e o f t h e t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e w e a l t h t h a t i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s m u s e u m . S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 11 E d w a r d A p t M e m o r i a l t o S o p r o n - c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y a g r o u p o f H u n g - a r i a n - C a n a d i a n s f r o m t h e a r e a o f S o p r o n , H u n g a r y l i m e - s t o n e r e l i e f s u b t r a c - t i o n 2 4 x 3 x 2 4 " 2 n d f l o o r c o r r i d o r , I n t e r n a - t i o n a l H o u s e - t w o h a n d s c l a s p e d t o - g e t h e r - c r u d e l y c a r v e d l e t t e r s " U . B . C . a d o p t e d S o p r o n 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 6 1 " - R e f e r e n c e s : F o r e s t e r s i n E x i l e , p u b . 1 9 7 0 A d a m o v i c h & 0 . L z i k l a i A l u m n i C h r o n i c l e , 1 9 6 1 , p p . 2 4 - 2 5 . 12 A l f r e d C a r l s e n M a d o n n a o f t h e C e d a r s w o o d s u b t r a c - t i o n H . 5 0 " 1 9 6 8 2 n d f l o o r l o u n g e , I n t e r n a - t i o n a l H o u s e - U n i v e r s i t y P u r c h a s e P r i z e - s m a l l p l a q u e i d e n t i f y i n g w o r k - s t y l i z e d f a c e s o f a m o t h e r a n d c h i l d - f r o n t a l : l o w r e l i e f 13 J a c k H a r m a n T r a n s - c e n d e n c e b r o n z e s a n d c a s t f o u n - t a i n - 4 f i g - u r e s w e l d e d t o g e t h e r 1 0 ' f i g u r e t o t a l h e i g h t 1 5 * M a y s 1 9 6 1 T h e a K o e r - n e r G r a d u - a t e S t u d - e n t C e n t r e f o u n t a i n s t a n d s i n a p o o l a t t h e s o u t h - e a s t c o r - n e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g - t h e d e s i g n w a s c h o s e n f r o m 5 s u b m i s s i o n s - c a s t i n H a r m a n ' s N o r t h V a n c o u v e r s t u d i o - 4 s i m p l i f i e d a n d d r a p e d f i g u r e s w i t h o u t s t r e t c h e d a r m s f a c e t h e r e s p e c t i v e p o i n t s o f t h e c o m p a s s ; p l a q u e i n p l a c e 14 G e r h a r d C l a s s T u n i n g F o r k A l f r e d B l u n d e l l $5 , 0 0 0 g i f t c o r t e n s t e e l w e l d e d , f r e e - s t a n d - i n g a b s t r a c t H . 2 3 ' S e p t . 1 9 6 8 - m a d e a t - l o w e r p w i n d f a c - i n c l u d e t h a t f o r s o u t h o f M u s i c B l d g . T r i M e t a l F o r t i o n h a s h t o r s a w e l l ; a m a s t h e m e t - f o r m a l i s t r a t i o n a l e - t h e w i n n i n g d e s i g n o f a . c o m p e t i t i o n h e l d a t U B C a b r i c a t o r s , V a n c o u v e r e a v l e r g a u g e s t e e l d u e t o d r a i n f o r r u s t p a r t i c l e s a l w e a t h e r s q S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 14 G e r h a r d C l a s s c o n t * d - t h e p i a n d i s e c e w a s w e l a l m o s t i m m u r L r e c e i v e d b y t h e p u b l i c i e t o v a n d a l i s m 15 C . V l n c e n z l U n t i t l e d M u s i c G r a d C l a s s o f 1 9 7 4 b r o n z e c a s t f i g u r e 1 9 7 4 i n s i d e t h e M u s i c B l d g . - s e l f e x p r e s s i o n r a t i o n - a l e - t h e u p t u r n e d h e a d , n e c k , s h o u l d e r , a n d a r m o f a m a n - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m o d e o f e x p r e s s i o n 16 J a c k H a r m a n B e l a B a r t o k 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 4 5 p r e s e n t e d t o U . B . C . a n d p e o p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e b y t h e H u n g a r i a n - C a n a d i a n s o f B . C . b r o n z e a n d m a r b l e b u s t s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 1%' p l i n t h 4 ' H . M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 8 1 i n s i d e t h e M u s i c B l d g . - m a r k s t h e c e n t u r y o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s b i r t h a n d t h e 2 5 t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e e v e n t s o f 1 9 5 6 i n H u n g a r y - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - t i o n 17 S h e r r y G r a u e r T h e M u s i c i a n g i f t o f M r . R i c h - a r d A . W y l l i e w i r e m e s h & a u t o p u t t y - m a n i p u - l a t i o n H . 3 « j ' a p p r o x . J u n e 1 9 6 8 C h a i r m a n o f t h e M u s i c D e p a r t m e n t O f f i c e , M u s i c B u i l d i n g - t h e w o r k i s m a d e o f d i f f e r e n t g a u g e s o f w i r e m e s h - n o t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t I t - : s e l f a n d t h e f a c i a l f e a t - u r e s o f t h e m u s i c i a n 18 O t t o F i s c h e r - C r e d o A s i a t i c H e a d w i f e d o n - a t e d t h e s c u l p t u r e t o U . B . C . c o n c - r e t e s u b s t i t - u t i o n H . 4 0 " 8 0 " d i a m . 1 9 5 8 u n d e r c o v - e r e d w a l k - w a y n e a r L a s s e r r e & s o u t h o f t h e F r e d e r - i c H o o d T h e a t r e - s h o w n a t 1 9 5 8 S c u l p t u r e S h o w h e l d a t U . B . C . b y t h e N . W . I n s t , o f S c u l p - t u r e a n d t h e E x t e n s i o n D e p t . - l a r g e s t y l i z e d w o m a n ' s h e a d S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E . S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 19 J a c k H a r t n a n D r . N o r - U . B . C . A l u m n i A s s o c . b r o n z e b u s t s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 3 0 " p l i n t h 5 2 " H . 1 9 7 6 b e t w e e n L a s s e r r e a n d t h e F r e d e r i c W o o d T h e a t r e n a t u r a l i s t i c man A . M . d o c u m e n t a t i o n M a c K e n z i e 2 0 F r a n k P e r r y F l o r e n - t i n e D o o r #2 p l a q u e s t a t e s R o t h m a n '-8 o f P a l l M a l l d o n o r b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n a b s t r - a c t H . 1 5 % " 4 ' b a s e - s e p a r i s t o n e - a n i n a n g u l a a c o m b : s t r a c t - n e g a t d e s i g n i n t h e c o r - n e r n e a r R o o m 4 0 1 A , 4 t h f l o o r L a s s e r r e B u i l d i n g i t e d f r o m 4 ' ; h t h i c k a r c h r b a s e - t h e L n a t i o n o f ge s h a p e s . L v e s p a c e i s o f t h e p i e c e - r o u g h f i n i s h - a p p e a r s t o b e p a i n t e d b l a c k a n d v a r n i s h e d r a t h e r t h a n l e f t t o p a t i n a n a t u r a l l y - e x h i b i t e d i n C e n t e n n i a l S c u l p t u r e 1 9 6 7 , V a n c o u - v e r . b a s e b y 1" j a d e - l i k e i s a t t a c h e d t o a r e c t - " b o d y " o f t h e d e s i g n i s o m e t r i c a n d o r g a n i c a b - i m p o r t a n t t o t h e o v e r a l l 2 1 J a n Z a c h R e c l i n i n g F i g u r e g i v e n b y t h e a r t - i s t t o W a l t e r K o e r n e r r e d s a n d - s t o n e f r e e - s t a n d - i n g s u b t r - a c t i o n H . 2 2 " x 3 6 " W . 1 9 6 7 n o r t h s i d e o f t h e L a s s e r r e B u i l d i n g - s t y l i z e d f i g u r e ; n o t e t h a t t h e r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e t h e m e w a s o f t e n u s e d b y o t h e r a r t i s t s s u c h a s H e n r y M o o r e 2 2 R o b e r t C l o t h i e r t h r e e F o r m s c a s t c o n c r e t e f r e e - s t a n d - i n g a b s t r - a c t . H . 5 % " f r o m b a s e 1 9 5 6 - o r g a n t u r e i i D e p a r t n o r t h s i d e o f t h e L a s s e r r e B u i l d i n g L z e d b y t h e N n c o l l a b o r a t e n e n t o f U . B . C - f o r m a l i s t r a t i o n a l e - w o n U n i v e r s i t y ' s P u r - c h a s e P r i z e i n 1 s t S c u l p - t u r e S h o w h e l d a t U B C i n 1 9 5 6 ( $ 4 0 0 ) • W . I n s t i t u t e o f S c u l p - o n w i t h t h e E x t e n s i o n to S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 23 G e o r g e N o r r i s B i l l R e l d ( d e s i g n e r s a n d c a r v e r s ) U n i v e r s - c o m m i s s - i o n e d b y U . B . C . y e w w i t h c o p p e r i n s e t b a s r e - l i e f s u b t r - a c t i o n a n d a d d i - t i o n O c t . 1959 s t o r e d i n t h e C e r e m - o n i e s O f f i c e - f u n c t i o n a l r a t i o n a l e i t y M a c e - m a d e o f n a t i v e B . C . m a t e r i a l s - N a t i v e I n d i a n d e s i g n s - c o p p e r i n s e t s u s e d , n o t s i l v e r a s o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d 24 G e r h a r d C l a s s C o n f i g u r - a t i o n s h e e t c o p p e r w e l d e d a n d s o l d e r - e d w a l l r e l i e f H . 6-7' x78" W. 1958 e x t e r i o r w a l l M a i n M a l l E n t - r a n c e , B u c h a n a n B u i l d i n g - C a n a d a C o u n c i l c o n t e s t w i n n e r 1958 ($2000) - C o m m i t t e e c h a i r e d b y B . C . 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N o r r i s M o t h e r a n d C h i l d d o n a t e d b y a n o n y m o u s d o n o r 1957 ( c o u l d h a v e b e e n C h a r l e s F . S c o t t , p r i n c i p a l o f V , S , A , ) b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 47" (39" H . w i t h o u t b a s e ) 1955 - e x h i b i a n d b o u b e t w e e n M a i n L i b - r a r y a n d P h y s i c s B u i l d i n g t e d a t t h e g h t b y t h e - i n t e n d e d f o r t h e e n t - r a n c e o f t h e n e w E d u c a - t i o n B u i l d i n g a l o n g w i t h a F a t h e r a n d C h i l d . T h e b u i l d i n g d i d n ' t g e t f i n - i s h e d f o r 10 y e a r s a f t e r t h e c o m m i s s i o n . 5 . C . S c u l p t u r e S h o w , 1958 d o n o r . »j S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N J o h n L e e s C r y s t a l T r e e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e D e p t . o f P h y s i c s b y M r s . D . T . L e e s g l a s s m a n i p u - l a t i o n J u l y 2 7 , 1 9 7 6 i n s i d e t h e m a i n e n t - r a n c e o f t h e H e n n - l n g s B l d g . ( t o o d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o - g r a p h ) S h e r r y G r a u e r S k y w i t h c o m m i s s - i o n e d b y a n d l n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f D r . F . A . K a e m p f - f e r w i r e m e s h & a l u m i n - um m a n i p u - l a t i o n P a r t I t 1 9 7 2 - 1 s e t g - s e r i e s p o o l whe p l a c e - p r e s e n t e t w o a n d R e a d i n g Rm. 0 3 1 1 , H e n n i n g s B l d g . h a l l o w ; t h e o f c u t - a w a y r e a c h a i n d i f f e r e n t p d - a c r o u c s e p a r a t e d b ( t o o d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o - g r a p h ) - p l a c i d p r e m i s e s - " t u c k e d a w a y " l o c a t i o n - 2 s e t s o f 4 v e r t i c a l p a n e l s o t h e r s e t 4 t i m e s d e e p e r s e c t i o n s o f a s w i m m i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i s t a k i n g o s l t l o n s o f t h e s w i m m e r h l n g f i g u r e i s s p l i t i n y n e g a t i v e s p a c e S w i m m e r s 5 . 5 m x . 84m x 1 . 5 m P a r t I I : 5 . 5m x 2 7 S h e r r y G r a u e r B o r e d F i g u r e c o l l . o f D r . F . A . K a e m p f f e r s t u f f e d c a n v a s , p l a s t e r w o o d r e l i e f a d d i - 1 8 8 x 7 1 x 4 6 cm 1 9 6 6 R m . 3 3 2 H e n n l n g s B l d g . , D r . K a e m p f f e r ' s o f f i c e - s t a n d i n g f i g u r e e n c a s e d i n a l o w r e l i e f ' s t a g e ' ; h a n d s l n p o c k e t s ; o n e f o o t o n t h e s e a t o f a w o o d e n c h a i r #2 t i o n 2 8 E l l e n & E d w a r d ( J o h n ? ) N e e l T h u n d e r - b i r d T o t e m K w a k l u t l b o u g h t b y A . M . S . c e d a r s u b t r - a c t i o n H . 1 2 ' d e d i - c a t e d i n 1 9 4 8 - r e p a i r s t h e i r ne - p l a q u e - r e m o v a b f o o t o f S t u d e n t U n i o n B l v d . t o w e a t h e r p h e w , D o u g r e m o v e d l e w i n g s l n - u n t i l 1 9 7 6 t h e p o l e w a s l n f r o n t o f B r o c k H a l l , - t e l l s o f t h e 5 t e s t s o f T s l k u m l n , c h i e f m a g i c i a n o f t h e R e d C e d a r B a r k D a n c e a n d f o u n d e r o f Q u i - O w a - S u t i n u k , a n c e s t o r s o f t h e c a r v e r , - d a m a g e d p o l e d o n e b y C r a n m e r . p l a c e ^, *- S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 8 E l l e n & E d w a r d ( J o h n ? ) N e e l c o n t ' d - m u c h o f t h e d e s i g n p a i n t e d o n w i t h b l a c k , g r e y , t u r q u o i s e b l u e , w h i t e , r e d a n d b r o w n p a i n t , - f r o n t a l p o l e - b a c k o f t h e p o l e r o u g h l y s h a p e d o n l y . - p o s i t i o n e d f a c i n g t h e s e a a n d b a c k t o t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e o f S . U . B . l n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e I n d i a n c u s t o m o f p l a c i n g t h e i r t o t e m s b e t w e e n t h e i r l o n g h o u s e s a n d t h e s e a . 2 9 J a c k H a r m a n W a l t e r b r o n z e G a g e b u s t s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 2 4 V 1 9 7 2 m a i n f o y e r o f G a g e R e s i d e n c e - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - t i o n - i n c o m m e m o r a t i o n o f W a l t e r G a g e ' s 5 0 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y 3 0 E l l e n N e e l o f A l e r t B a y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l W o r k b y t h e B . C . I n d i a n A r t s a n d W e l f a r e S o c i e t y c e d a r t o t e m H . 7 - 8 M a y 1 1 , 1 9 4 9 S t u d e n t " . . . g i v e n a s a s y m b o l o f L o u n g e l n t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n i n t h e t h e b a s e - f i e l d o f h i g h e r e d u c a - m e n t o f t i o n . " ( i n f o r m a t i o n t h e S c h o o l g a i n e d f r o m a f r a m e d o f S o c i a l p a p e r " p l a q u e " ) W o r k - p a i n t i n g a n d c a r v i n g w e l l p r e s e r v e d a s e x h i b - i t e d i n d o o r s , - w i n g s h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d a n d a r e s t o r e d i n t h e F a c u l t y L o u n g e , f r o n t a l p o l e . b l a c k , b r o w n a n d r e d . - 3 m a i n f i g u r e s ; - y e l l o w , g r e e n , w h i t e Ul S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 3 1 ' L i o n e l T h o m a s T h e L i o n A n d S t . M a r k c o m m i s s - i o n e d b y t h e a r c h - i t e c t s G a r d i n e r , T h o r n t o n , i G a t h e a n d A s s o c i a t e s b r o n z e a n d g o . l d l e a f w e l d e d w a l l r e l i e f l i n e a r 1 5 , x l 2 ' 1 9 5 7 S t . M a r k ' s T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e n e a r W e s - b r o o k M a l l a n d C h a n c - e l l o r B l v d . - i n c l u d e s t h e s t y l i z e d f i g u r e o f S t . M a r k , t h e s u n , a n d a l i o n , s y m b o l o f S t . M a r k t h e e v a n g e l - i s t i c . - r e f l e c t s t h e a f t e r n o o n s u n a n d g i v e s i n t e r e s t i n g s h a d o w e f f e c t s . 32 T o n y B i s i g C h r i s t b r o n z e s h e e t s w e l d e d 1 9 6 7 L u t h e r a n S t u d e n t C e n t r e C h a p e l - r e l i g i o u s a n d f u n c t i o n a l T h e K i n g r a t i o n a l e s - 3 d i m e n s i o n a l c r o s s a b o v e t h e a l t a r p l u s a c r o w n o f t h o r n s m o t i f f o r t h e o v e r h e a d l i g h t f i x t - u r e s . 3 3 T o n y B i s i g a C i r c u - l a r A l t a r b r o n z e s h e e t s w e l d e d - s y m b o l s o f t h e H o l y T r i n i t y a r e s u b t l y e m b o d - i e d I n t h e r e l i e f 34 T o n y B i s i g T h e T w e l v e A p o s t l e s g i f t f r o m t h e a r t - i s t f i b r e - g l a s s ? r e l i e f p r e s e n - t e d a t t h e o p - e n i n g o f t h e c e n t r e - s t y l i z e d g r o u p o f f i g - u r e s 35 R o b e r t W e g h s t e e n L a n g l e y , B . C . p l a q u e 8 t a t e s : " p r e s e n t e d b y t h e V a n . A l u m . C h a p t e r o f t h e A l p h a O m e g a F r a t . " g l a z e d c e r a m i c m u r a l - m a n i p - u l a t i o n M a y 1 9 7 1 M c D o n a l d B u i l d i n g , S o u t h E n t r . - a b s t r a c t s h a p e s a n d t e x t u r a l v a r i e t y - a r c h i t e c t u r a l / o r n a m e n t a l r e l i e f CT> S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 36 S i r C h a r l e s W h e e l e r K i n f i p r e s e n t e d t o U . B . C . b y t h e V a n . W a r A m p s . A s s . o t C a n a d a f u n d e d b y M r . P . A . & M r s . M . W o o d w a r d F o u n d a t i o n b r o n z e s t a t u e s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 9 ' J u n e 2 1, 1 9 5 8 W o o d w a r d B i o - M e d i c a l L i b r a r y , M a i n E n t r a n c e - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - G e o r g e t i o n V I - r e p l i c a o f t h e o n e o n t h e m a l l l e a d i n g t o B u c k i n g h a m P a l a c e i n L o n d o n . - w a s p r e v i o u s l y l o c a t e d a t t h e S . E . c o r n e r o f U . B . C . M e m o r i a l G y m n a s - i u m . 37 G e o r g e S c h m e r h o l z T h e F a m i l y C e n t r e f o r H u m a n D e - v e l o p m e n t , G o v ' t o f C a n a d a , D e p t . o f P u b l i c W o r k s , 1 9 7 6 H a b i t a t w o o d s u b t r - a c t l o n H . 5 x 3 ' S e p t . 1 9 8 0 4 t h f l o o r , L i b r a r y P r o c e s s i n g B u i l d i n g - 4 h e a d s e m e r g i n g f r o m a c h i s e l t e x t u r e d t r e e t r u n k - r o u n d e d , s m o o t h , s t y l - i z e d p o r t r a i t s - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m o d e o f e x p r e s s i o n . 3 8 P a u l D e g g a n , o f L i o n ' s B a y U n t i t l e d . p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e n e w E d u c a t i o n B u i l d i n g : t h e a w a r d o f $ 2 0 0 0 w a s g i v e n b y t h e B . C . T e a - c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n c o p p e r a l u m i n - um a n d b r a s s w a l l r e l i e f 3 p i e c - e s , t h e l a r g e s t 9 x 5 ' F e b . 1 9 6 5 S c a r f e B u i l d i n g E x t e r i o r , N o r t h w a l l - l i n e a r a b s t r a c t s h a p e s - d e s i g n w a s c h o s e n f r o m a c o m p e t i t i o n o r g a n i z e d a c r o s s C a n a d a - J u r y c h a i r e d b y P r o f . E l m o r e O z a r d - p r o b l e m w a s t o r e l a t e w o r k t o " u n s y m p a t h e t i c " w a l l o f l i g h t , g l a z e d b r i c k & d e e p g r e y m o r t a r & t o m a k e t h e s c u l p t u r e w i t h s t a n d p o s s i b l e v a n d - a l i s m S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R • T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 39 G e o r g e N o r r l s a n d J o h n F r a s e r m o s a i c b r i c k b r i c k w a l l m u r a l m a n i p u - l a t i o n 2 0 ' x 5 0 ' 1 9 6 8 F o r w a r d M e t a l l u r g y B u i l d i n g , n o r t h e n t - r a n c e , d e - s i g n o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e w a l l - m u l t i c o l o u r e d - a b s t r a c t o f h e x a g o n a l s y m m e t r y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m a n y m e t a l s . - s o m e b r i c k s h a d m e t a l l i c c o m p o n e n t s p r e s s e d i n t o t h e m b e f o r e f i r i n g - a r c h i t e c t s a s k e d t h e a r t i s t s t o d e s i g n a w a l l t h a t w o u l d a c c e n t u a t e t h e e n t r a n c e w h i c h w a s o t h e r - w i s e d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e 4 0 G e o r g e N o r r l s U n t i t l e d D e a n B l y - t h e a n d M r s . E a g l e s g r a n i t e s u b t r - a c t i o n H . 3* 1 9 6 7 M a c M i l l a n B u i l d i n g , T h e F o r e s - t r y a n d A g r i c u l t - u r a l Q u a d - r a n g l e - s m a l l c u r v e d s t y l i z e d f i g u r e o f man p l a n t i n g / p i c k i n g a s e e d l i n g , - d o n a t e d a s a m e m o r i a l t o M r . a n d M r s . E a g l e s ' p a r - e n t s w h o w e r e p i o n e e r s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f B . C . a n d a s a t o k e n o f h o m a g e t o a l l w h o h a v e l a b o u r e d t o i m p r o v e o u r a g r i c u l t - u r e . ( M a n A b o u t t o P l a n t o r P i c k A l f a l f a ) p l a s t e r s u b s t i - t u t i o n r e l i e f i n s c r - i p t i o n a l o n g 2 w a l l s o f t h e B o a r d - r o o m R o o m 3 4 8 , A g r i c u l t - u r a l B l d g . - t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n s t a t e s : : " C e r e s f i r s t t a u g h t m o r - t a l s t o p l o u g h t h e l a n d w h e n a c o r n s a n d w i l d s t r a w b e r r i e s f a i l e d " V e r g i l , G e o r g i e s I , 1 4 7 - 9 ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) Z e l j k o K u J u n d z l c , K e l o w n a T h u n d e r - l i g h t - w e i g h t c a s t c o n c r - e t e a r c h i - e a c h 6 ' x 6 ' ; w e i g h t 1 0 0 0 l b . 1 9 6 7 12 T h u n d - e r b i r d s a t o p s u p - p o r t i n g p o l e s o f T h u n d e r b i r d S t a d i u m - s t y l i z e d N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n m o t i f - V l a d m i r P l a v s i c , a f e l - l o w H u n g a r i a n , w a s t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t h e s t a d i u m , ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) £j b i r d s t e c t u r - a l ^ o r n - a m e n t a - t i o n S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 1 - T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S L I D E S C U L P T O R • T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 4 1 S i m o n C h a r l i e , S a l i s h H a n M e e t s p l a q u e s t a t e s w o r k m a d e p o s s i b l e b y c o l - l a b o r a - t i o n b e t - w e e n t h e r e s i d e n t s o f T o t e m P a r k a n d t h e H o u s - i n g A d - m i n i s t r a - t i o n U . B . C . w o o d t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 T o t e m P a r k R e s i d e n c e s - w e l c o m e p o l e - u n p a l n t e d ; f r o n t a l - t w o s i m p l i f i e d f i g u r e s . B e a r VO 80 . F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s Now t h a t you have been ' i n t r o d u c e d t o ' the s c u l p t u r e on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campus t h r o u g h s l i d e s , a r - r a n g e a v i s i t to the campus i n o r d e r to view t h e s c u l p t u r e f i r s t h and. ( R e f e r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n to S e c t i o n I I f o r the r e a s o n s t o view s c u l p t u r e ' i n p e r s o n . ' ) A map i s e n c l o s e d to h e l p you l o c a t e the s c u l p t u r e d e s c r i b e d and some o n - s i t e a c t i v i t i e s a r e recommended, such as the f o l l o w i n g : 1. Draw an d / o r p h o t o g r a p h a p i c t o r i a l e s s a y of The Raven f r o m d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view ( f r o m f a r and n e a r ; from ground l e v e l and f r om a h i g h e r t h a n eye l e v e l v a n t a g e p o i n t ; f r o m as many a n g l e s as p o s s i b l e ) . I f you are u s i n g a camera be a d v i s e d t h a t f l a s h i s a l l o w e d w i t h i n the museum, b u t i t i s r e q u e s t e d i t be used m i n i m a l l y , t h e r e f o r e a f i l m of 400 ASA i s recommended. A wide a n g l e l e n s might p r o v e v e r y u s e f u l . I f d r a w i n g i s t o be done, c o n s i d e r the use o f p a p e r t h a t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 x 60 cm i n s i z e . Imagine t h a t you a r e d r a w i n g and/or p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h i s monumental s c u l p t u r e f o r a f r i e n d t h a t l i v e s f a r away and who may n e v e r see The Raven. What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would you l i k e to convey to y o u r f r i e n d about t h i s s c u l p t u r e ? 2. Use Feldman's a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a c r i t i q u e to the c l a s s of G e r h a r d C l a s s 1 T u n i n g F o r k . 3. T h e r e a r e two c e r a m i c m u r a l s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a ; one done by George N o r r i s , the o t h e r by R o b e r t Weghsteen. What e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n do t h e y s h a r e ? How was each m u r a l c r e a t e d ? Why i s t h e ' f i n i s h ' f o r each m u r a l s u i t a b l e f o r the r e s p e c t i v e b u i l d i n g s ? ( A n o t h e r c e r a m i c m u r a l t h a t would s u i t s u c h a c o m p a r i s o n i s J o r d i B o n e t ' s The F a t h o m l e s s R i c h n e s s of the Seabed m u r a l f o u n d i n S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End.) 4. F i n d out as much as you can about t h e 'Ksan c a r v e r s f r o m H a z e l t o n , B.C. D e s c r i b e t h e i r most r e c e n t p r o j e c t s . (Con- s u l t S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End.) 5. Compare and c o n t r a s t * images o f the mother and c h i l d theme. Compare: - e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n - mood - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t - i m p a c t - c o n t e n t - s y m b o l i s m - t e c h n i q u e - s t y l e - i m a g e r y B e g i n w i t h an i n - d e p t h s t u d y of Mother and C h i l d by George N o r r i s at t h e s c u l p t u r e s i t e on campus. Compare and c o n t r a s t t h i s s c u l p t u r e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s : - S l i d e #42 - Madonna w i t h I n f a n t ( P i t t i Tondo) , SL m a r b l e r e l i e f done c i r c a 1500 by the a r t i s t M i c h e l a n g e l o , l o c a t e d i n F l o r e n c e at t h e B a r g e l l o N a t i o n a l Museum ( B e r t i , 1969, f i g . 12, p. 4 4 ) . - S l i d e #43 - M a t e r n i t e , a c a r v i n g i n t e a k , 32" x 24", c r e a t e d , by C a n a d i a n s c u l p t o r Suzanne G u i t e i n 1 9 6 0 . ( B o u l a n g e r , 1973, p. 55) . - S l i d e #44 - Mother and C h i l d (no. 4 ) , a b r o n z e c a s t done i n 1956 by Henry Moore. I t i s 17.2 cm h i g h and i n a p r i v a t e c o l l e c - t i o n (Moore, 1966, p. 2 4 ) . T h i s i s a s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t y f o u n d i n the Grades 8- A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t . 1981, D r a f t , p. 177. 12 Pr ov- - S l i d e #45 - Mother and C h i l d , 1941-45 , a b r o n z e c r e a t e d by- J a c q u e s L i p c h i t z . T h i s s c u l p t u r e i s l o c a t e d i n the Museum of Modern A r t S c u l p t u r e Garden i n New Y o r k . 6. D i s c o v e r who George Sawchuk i s and what he has done i n the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s . Newspaper c l i p p i n g s w i l l be u s e f u l as w e l l as B r u c e F e r g u s o n ' s a r t i c l e , A N a t u r a l P o l i t i c : George Sawchuk, a p p e a r i n g i n the V a n g u a r d , A p r i l 1981, pages 10-17. 7. B i l l R e i d i s one o f the b e s t known l o c a l a r t i s t s who works i n the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n . D e s c r i b e how R e i d ' s a s s i s t a n t s used the m i n i a t u r e r a v e n R e i d c r e a t e d f o r the c a r v i n g of the f o u r and a h a l f t o n b l o c k o f y e l l o w c e d a r to be f o u n d i n the Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y . MAP STANLEY PARK VANCOUVER, CANADA Lord Stanley, Governor General of Canada, dedicated Stanley Park in 1889. "...to the use and enjoyment of people of all colours, creeds and customs for all time..." BOARD OF PARKS AND RECREATION 2099 BEACH AVE. VANCOUVER, B.C. V6G 1Z4 1982 (Use of t h i s map p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h the p e r m i s s i o n of t h e B o a r d of P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.) ( U s e . o f t h i s map p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h the p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e B o a r d o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.) 84 S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2 - S t a n l e y Park C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n T h i s w o r l d famous p a r k i s v i s i t e d by t h o u s a n d s of p e o p l e a n n u a l l y and y e t how many of t h o s e v i s i t o r s c o u l d d e s c r i b e i n any d e t a i l one of the twenty s c u l p t u r e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s ? What s c u l p t u r e s have you c a r e f u l l y l o o k e d at? What do y o u remember of what you saw? D u r i n g y o u r v i e w i n g of the s l i d e s o f the s c u l p t u r e f o u n d w i t h i n t h i s a r e a , f i n d the answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. How many works ar e examples of n a t u r a l i s t i c document- a t i o n ? 2. How many works were commissioned? 3. Most of the s c u l p t u r e s a r e ' i n the r o u n d . ' Name t h r e e works t h a t i n c l u d e bas r e l i e f work. 4. G i v e s i x examples o f s t a t u e s and p l a q u e s t h a t have been p r o d u c e d by the b r o n z e c a s t i n g method. 5. Most o f the s c u l p t u r e has been d e s i g n e d and c r e a t e d by l o c a l s c u l p t o r s . Can you name o t h e r work i n our c i t y p r o d u c e d by C h a r l e s Marega o r E l e k Imredy? 6. What two works would you c l a s s i f y as examples of ab s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e ? (Show the s l i d e s u s i n g the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2 - S t a n l e y P a r k . ) JJL° z'z p. 85 gT* 2-3 it • tUUt-CT nun f * 1, a 0 s -1 z i • 5 M < 0 S > n UL'Z'lO •usjtcr . . g 3 n r ' 1 El'zm -nr-z'iz 7H: 2.:/3 M*2.*W JJL'-Z'15 SECTION I I I : AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 1 S y d n e y a n d V e r n o n M a r c h o f L o n d o n L o r d S t a n l e y M a J . J . S . M a t t h e w s , t h e C i t y A r c h i v i s t , h e l p e d t o r a i s e t h e m o n e y b r o n z e , g r a n i t e b a s e s t a t u e s u b s t i - t u t i o n S. 8 ' 6 " l*i T . M a r . 10, 1 9 6 0 - s t a t u e - t h e b r - a 4 y e - i n s c r i p e o p l e f o r a l l t h e s o u t h e n d o f t h e S t a n l e y P k c a u s e w a y c o m m l s s i o n e o n z e a r r l v e i a r c o n t r o v e i p t i o n : F o r o f a l l c o l o t ; t i m e . - a r m s s p r e a d l n w e l c o m e t o a l l - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - t i o n - p a r k d e d i c a t e d i n 1 8 8 9 b y L o r d S t a n l e y , G o v . G e n e r a l o f B . C . d l n 1 9 5 2 i n 1 9 5 6 s y o f w h e r e t o p l a c e i t t h e u s e a n d e n j o y m e n t o f i s , c r e e d s , a n d c u s t o m s 2 G e o r g e A . L a w s o n R o b e r t V a n c o u v e r B u r n s F e l l o w - s h i p b r o n z e ( $ 5 0 0 0 ) g r a n i t e p e d e s - t a l ( $ 2 0 0 0 ) n a t u r a l - A u g . 25, 1 9 2 8 G e o r g i a S t e n t r a n c e , c l o s e t o L o r d S t a n l e y - o n e o f 4 c o p i e s ; o n e o f w h i c h I s i n A y r , S c o t l a n d , B u r n s ' h o m e l a n d . - 3 b r o n z e l o w r e l i e f p l a q u e s d e p i c t 3 s c e n e s f r o m 3 o f h i s p o e m s ; a f o u r t h p l a q u e b e a r s t h e p o e t'8 n a m e a n d d a t e s . B u r n s i s t i c d o c u m e n - t a t i o n s t a t u e s u b s t i - t u t i o n 3 J a m e s B l o m f l e l d - d e s i g n e d t h e b r o n z e w o r k o n t h e m e m o r - 1 a l T h o m a s B r o c k , R . A . , s c u l p t o r o f t h e 1 8 9 7 J u b i l e e c o i n s - d e s i g n e d t h e m e d a l l i o n o f t h e q u e e n Q u e e n V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r a i s e d p a r t o f t h e f u n d s p l u s a p a t r i o t i c c o n c e r t w a s h e l d l n 1 9 0 2 b r o n z e - g r a n - i t e f r o m N e l s o n I s l a n d c a s t i n S a l f o r d E n g l a n d M a y 2 4 , 1 9 0 9 f a c e s R o w - i n g C l u b - f i r s t c o m m i s s i o n e d s c u l p - t u r e f o r V a n c o u v e r - r i g h t s i d e o f g r a n i t e , t h e E n g l i s h c o a t o f a r m s - l e f t s i d e o f g r a n i t e , V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s ' c o a t o f a r m s - f o u n t a i n w a s i n t e n d e d t o h a v e w a t e r b u t v a n d a l s s t o l e t h e 2 b r o n z e d r i n k - i n g c u p s - o r i g i n a l c o s t $ 1 8 5 0 . oo S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R C h a r l e s M a r e g a T I T L E H a r d i n g M e m o r i a l P A T R O N K i w a n i s C l u b membe r s c h a r g e d 50c e a c h M E D I A b r o n z e , g r a n i t e T Y P E l a l S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N S e p t . I - h o n o r s A m e r i c a n P r e s i d - 1 9 2 5 | n e a r M a l k i n e n t ' s v i s i t t o B . C . B o w l - I n c l u d e s a r e c o r d o f s o m e o f H a r d i n g ' s w o r d s s p o k e n J u l y 2 6 , 1 9 2 8 ; H a r d i n g d i e d o n e w e e k l a t e r - i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n o f t h e m o n u m e n t - b u i l t I n t h e s h a p e o f a s e m i - c i r c l e , t h e m e m o r i a l c o n t a i n s s p a c i o u s s t o n e s e a t s w h i c h a r e f l a n k e d b y 2 b r o n z e e a g l e s . I n t h e c e n t e r , m o u n t e d o n t h e p e d e s t a l b e t w e e n t h e b r o n z e f i g u r e s o f C o l u m b i a a n d C a n a d a , i s a r e l i e f p r o f i l e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t . f r o m t h e S k e e n a R i v e r a r e a d o n a t e d b y J a m e s F . G a r d e n c e d a r t o t e m 1 9 0 3 f i g u r e s u b t r - a c t i o n o p p o s i t e t h e b e a r p i t s - s t y l i z e d b u t w o r n f i g - u r e s h r o u d e d i n p l a n t g r o w t h J a m e s B e n z i e , l o c a l a r c h i - t e c t d e s i g n e d t h e m o n u m e n t J a p a n e s e W a r M e m o r i a l C a n a d i a n J a p a n e s e A s s o c i a - t i o n g r a n i t e o b e l i s k s u b t r - a c t i o n A p r i l 9,1 b e t w e e n t h e - t o c o m m e m o r a t e t h o s e o f 1 9 2 0 I C h i l d r e n ' s J a p a n e s e e x t r a c t i o n w h o Z o o a n d t h e t o o k p a r t i n W W . I A q u a r i u m - a t f i r s t t h e p a g o d a l a n t e r n o n t o p w a s l i t a t n i g h t 12 g r a n i t e p l a q u e s n a m e b a t t l e s - o n e b r o n z e p l a q u e n a m e s t h o s e k i l l e d ; t h e o t h e r t h o s e w h o r e t u r n e d - o r i g i n a l c o s t $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 - c h e r r y t r e e s a d d e d i n 1 9 3 2 B r o c k t o n P o i n t T o t e m P a r k A p l a q u e s t a t e s : " T h e t o t e m w a s t h e B . C . I n d i a n s ' ' c o a t o f a r m s . ' T o t e m p o l e s a r e u n i q u e t o t h e N . W . c o a s t o f B . C . a n d l o w e r A l a s k a . T h e y w e r e c a r v e d f r o m W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a n d e a c h c a r v i n g t e l l s o f a r e a l o r a m y t h i c a l e v e n t , T h e y w e r e n o t i d o l s , n o r o o S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N B r o c k t o n P o i n t T o t e m P a r k c o n t ' d w e r e t h e y w o r s h i p p e d . E a c h c a r v i n g o n e a c h p o l e h a s a m e a n i n g . T h e e a g l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e k i n g d o m o f t h e a i r , t h e w h a l e t h e l o r d - s h i p o f t h e s e a , t h e w o l f t h e g e n i u s o f t h e l a n d , a n d t h e f r o g t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n k b e t w e e n l a n d a n d s e a . " ( C o n s u l f . t h e b r o c h u r e , T o t e m P o l e s o f B r i t - i s h C o l u m b i a , S e r i e s I : S t a n l e y P a r k , b y S . W . A . G u n n , f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . ) A l e r t B a y K w a k l u t l W a k l u s c e d a r P o l e t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n 4 0 ' 1 8 9 9 B r o c k t o n P o i n t t o p T h u n d e r b i r d K i l l e r W h a l e W o l f U a n - w a - k a w l e M y t h i c a l B i r d G r i z z l y R a v e n R i v e r s I n l e t K w a k l u t l - r e s t o r a t i o n b y D o u g C r a n m e r Y a k d z i P o l e V a n c o u v e r J u b i l e e C o m m i t t e e c e d a r t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 3 6 B r o c k t o n P o i n t - r e p l i c a o f 1 8 9 4 o r i g i n a l - t o p E a g l e Y a k d z i ( C h i e f ) S e a M o n s t e r W h a l e G r i z z l y O c t o p u s - t h e Y a k d z i p o l e a p p e a r s s e c o n d f r o m t h e l e f t i n t h e s l i d e K i n g c o m b e I n l e t K w a k l u t l T s a - w e e - c e d a r n o h H o u s e P o s t h o r i z - o n t a l b e a m s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 2 7 i B r o c k t o n p l a c e d I P o i n t n e a r L u m b e r m a n ' s A r c h ; 1 9 6 3 m o v e d - m a d e f o r C h i e f T s a - w e e - n o h - T h u n d e r b i r d a n d G r i z z l y h o l d i n g a w o m a n oo vo S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 10 S e e - w i t o f B l u n d e n H a r b o u r K w a k i u t l N h e - i s - b l k ( T e t h - e r i n g P o l e ) b o u g h t b y G o l d e n J u b i l e e C o m m i t t e e c e d a r t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n 6 0 ' 1 8 9 2 B r o c k t o n P o i n t ' H o w t h e s a l m o n c a m e t o R i v e r s I n l e t ' t o p T h u n d e r b l r d C h i e f R a v e n S a l m o n W o l f W h a l e G r i z z l y M o n s t e r o f t h e f o r - e s t 11 C h a r l i e J a m e s , Y a a k u t l a s K w a k i u t l - m i n o r r e s t o r - a t i o n b y D o u g C r a n m e r i n 1 9 6 3 S i - s a - k a u l a s P o l e b o u g h t i n 1 9 3 6 b y t h e A r t , S c i e n t i f i c a n d H i s - t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r c e d a r t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n B r o c k t o n P o i n t t o p S i s t e r o f T h u n d e r - b i r d A n c e s t o r o f S l - s a - k a u l a s K i l l e r W h a l e S e a O t t e r S e a B e a r . H u m a n h e a d ( t h e S l - s a - k a u l a s P o l e a p p e a r s i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s l i d e ) 12 Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d , H a l d a S k e d a n M o r t u - a r y P o l e o b t a i n e d f r o m C h i e f H e n r y M o o d y b y t h e G o l d e n J u b i l e e C o m m i t t e e c e d a r t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n - o t h e r P r o s p e c c i r c u i t B r o c k t o n P o i n t t o t e m s i n S t P o i n t a n d - o l d e s t i n t h e g r o u p - f o r C h i e f S k e d a n - h i e r o g l y p h i c s o n t h e b a c k t e l l o f t h e c o s t - t o p M o o n M o u n t a i n g o a t H u m a n f a c e s G r l z z l y K i l l e r W h a l e t a n l e y P a r k a r e f o u n d a t i n t h e p a r k r a i l w a y to o S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 13 s t o n e p e t r o - g l y p h b a s r e l i e f s u b t r - a c t i o n a n i m a l s h a p e s 14 C h e h a l i s C r o s s e r e c t e d b y f r i e n d s a n d c r e w c o n - c r e t e c r o s s o n s t o n e b a s e m e m o r - i a l 1 9 0 6 d r i v e w a y p a s t B r o c k - t o n P o i n t - i n m e m o r y o f 8 p e o p l e w h o l o s t t h e i r l i v e s o n t h e s t e a m t u g C h e h a l i s J u l y 2 1 , 1 9 0 6 15 E l e k I m r e d y G i r l l n b r a i n c h i l d o f V a n - c o u v e r H a r b o u r I m p r o v e - m e n t S o c . b r o n z e o n b o u l d e r f i g u r a - 3 5 0 l b s . J u n e 1 0 , 1 9 7 2 " J u s t c l t y , s h g u a r a n t r e a l i t y ( V a n c o L V a n c o u v b e t w e e n B r o c k t o n P o i n t a n d L u m b e r m a n ' s A r c h f f t h e m a i m e ' s a c o n s t ' e e a m i d s o i a m i d s u c h i v e r S c u l p t u i rer G u i d e l i n e - l i k e C o p e n h a g e n ' s m e r - m a i d - r e p r e s e n t s V a n c o u v e r ' s d e p e n d e n c e o n t h e s e a - c o s t $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 - c a s t i n I t a l y s t r e a m o f b u s t l i n g h u m a n - a n t a m i d s o m u c h f l u x , a n u c h u n c e r t a i n t y , a c a l m i r a n t i c e x i s t e n c e . " re w i t h T e r r y N o b l e , s , V o l . 1 0 , M o . 3 5 , J a n . W e t s u i t t i v e ^ s u b s t i - t u t i o n 2 3 - 2 9 , y o u r r e 1 9 8 1 , p . 2 0 a s o n s . . ) Do y o u a g r e e ? G i v e 16 E m p r e s s o f J a p a n F i g u r e - h e a d T h e P r o v - i n c e , a V a n c o u v e r n e w s p a p e r r e s t o r e d I t f i b e r - g l a s s 1 9 6 0 - t h e s h i p p a s s e d t h i s p o i n t m a n y t i m e s b e t w e e n 1 8 9 1 - 1 9 2 2 - f i g u r e h e a d r e s t o r e d l n 1 9 2 8 - f i b e r g l a s s r e p l i c a i n 1 9 6 0 - o r i g i n a l I n V a n . M a r i - t i m e M u s e u m , vo *—• S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E 17 S C U L P T O R C h a r l e s M a r e g a T I T L E L i o n ' s G a t e B r i d g e l i o n s P A T R O N M E D I A c o n c r e t e T Y P E s t y l r l z e d s u b s t i - t u t i o n S I Z E e a c h 6 V T . D A T E J a n . 1 9 3 9 L O C A T I O N o n t h e e a s t a n d w e s t s i d e o f t h e ! s o u t h e r n e n d o f t h e b r i d g e D E S C R I P T I O N - b r i d g e o p e n e d i n 1 9 3 8 - l a s t p i e c e s o f s c u l p t - u r e d o n e b y M a r e g a - t h e r e w a s p u b l i c c r i t - i c i s m t h a t t h e l i o n s w e r e t o o s t y l i z e d a n d t o o c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d t h e s p h i n x 18 C h i e f J o e C a p i l a n o S q u a m i s h t r i b e o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h T h u n d e r - c e d a r t o t e m 1 9 3 6 b i r d P r o s p e c t P o i n t D y n a s t y P o l e - t h e o n l y p o l e t h a t s t a n d s a t t h e o r i g i n a l s i t e o n w h i c h I t w a s r a i s e d t o p S o n o f T h u n d e r b l r d D a u g h t e r o f T h u n d - e r b l r d M o t h e r o f T h u n d e r - b i r d G i a n t D r a g o n - c o m m e m o r a t e s m e e t i n g o f S q u a m i s h p e o p l e w i t h C a p t . V a n c o u v e r i n B u r r a r d I n l e t i n 1 7 9 2 . 19 d e s i g n e d b y J a m e s M c L e o d H u r r y P a u l i n e J o h n s o n M e m o r i a l Women ' 8 C a n a d i a n C l u b n a t u r a l c a i r n r o c k - l o w f r o m a r - r e l i e f o u n d S i - o f p o e t w a s h a n d R o c k c r o s s e d f e a t h e r a n d a r - r o w s u b t r - a c t i o n M a y 1 9 , 1 9 2 2 b e t w e e n T h i r d B e a c h a n d F e r g - u s o n P o i n t h e r p o r t r a i t , a c r o s s e d f e a t h e r a n d a r r o w o n o n e s i d e , a n d a c a n o e o n t h e o t h e r , i s c a r v e d i n l o w r e l i e f i n t o t h e n a t u r a l r o c k - d e p i c t s o n e o f h e r p o e m s , S o n g My P a d d l e S i n g s . a n d t i t l e o f h e r b o o k , F l i n t a n d F e a t h e r - I n c l u d e s a s h e s a n d b o o k s - i n s c r i p t i o n : " E . P . J o h n s o n 1 8 6 1 - 1 9 1 3 T e k a h i o n w a k e " S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 2 - S T A N L E Y P A R K S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 20 C h a r l e s M a r e g a D a v i d m o n e y r a i s e d f r o m g e n - e r a l p u b - l i c a s a t r i b u t e b r o n z e o n g r a n - i t e p e d e s t a l b u s t Us t i m e s l i f e - s i z e D e c . 14, 1 9 1 1 n e a r B e a c h A v e n u e e x i t o f S t a n l e y P a r k - w a s s e c o n d m a y o r o f V a n c o u v e r a n d a l s o t h e m a i n f o r c e b e h i n d r e s e r v - i n g t h e l a n d f o r t h e p a r k O p p e n - h e l m e r s u b s t i - t u t i o n \ 94. F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s I n o r d e r to h e l p s t u d e n t s f o c u s on and ' s e e ' a p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e , i t i s recommended t h a t some p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g o r s h o r t l y a f t e r a f i e l d t r i p . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a r e : 1. Draw an d / o r p h o t o g r a p h a p i c t o r i a l e s s a y o f a p a r t i c - u l a r s c u l p t u r e f r o m d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view ( f r o m f a r and n e a r ; from g r o u n d l e v e l , eye l e v e l , and from h i g h e r v a n t a g e p o i n t s ; f r o m the s i d e s , the f r o n t , and the r e a r of the s c u l p t u r e ) . I f you a r e u s i n g a camera change the l i g h t s e t t i n g and n o t e the d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . C o n s i d e r t a k i n g c o l o u r e d p r i n t s , s l i d e s or b l a c k and w h i t e p r i n t s t h a t c o u l d be 'blown up.' I n c l u d e ' s h o t s ' of the s c u l p t u r e and i t s s e t t i n g ; the e n t i r e s c u l p t u r e and de- t a i l s of the s c u l p t u r e o n l y . 2. Use Feldman's a p p r o a c h t o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a c r i t i q u e to t h e c l a s s of a p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e . 3. Who was R o b e r t B u r n s ? P a u l i n e Johnson? L o r d S t a n l e y ? D a v i d Oppenheimer? P r e s i d e n t H a r d i n g ? Queen V i c t o r i a ? Why a r e th e y h o n o u r e d i n S t a n l e y Park? 4. The m a j o r i t y of the s c u l p t u r e s f o u n d i n S t a n l e y P a r k a r e c o m m i s s i o n e d and p o r t r a y famous p e o p l e i n the na t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a t i o n manner b u t t h e r e i s a l s o a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t . What f i g u r e s can you r e c o g n i z e among the totems a t B r o c k t o n P o i n t ? What do you know about House P o s t s ? The K w a k i u t l , T l i n g i t , and H a i d a bands a r e r e p r e s - e n t e d . What s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s do you n o t i c e among the v a r i o u s examples? 95. 5. Compare and c o n t r a s t * images u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f c r i t - e r i o n s u c h a s : - e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s - t e c h n i q u e o f d e s i g n - mood - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t - i mp a c t - c o n t e n t - s y m b o l i s m - s t y l e - i m a g e r y The f o l l o w i n g examples a r e recommended f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y : - G i r l i n W e t s u i t w i t h The Mermaid ( t h e s t u d y o f t h i s famous landmark w i t h i n Copenhagen's h a r b o u r i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h a p h o t o g r a p h o n l y ) . - the b u s t o f D a v i d Oppenheimer w i t h Edward K i e n h o l z ' s J o hn Doe ( S l i d e #21); an assemblage c o m p l e t e d i n 1959. (Assemblage i n C a l i f o r n i a , 1968, f i g . 6, p. 18.) - L o r d S t a n l e y w i t h R o n a l d McDonald ( S l i d e #22) as s e e n at the e n t r a n c e t o t h e p l a y a r e a o f t h e No. 3 Road r e s t a u r a n t i n R i chmond. - the l i o n s at the s o u t h end o f L i o n ' s Gate B r i d g e w i t h the l i o n s a t the s i t e o f the new V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , G e o r g i a S t r e e t f a c - ade ( c o n s u l t S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A ) . 6. P r o d u c e a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t form t h a t has a s i m i l a r r a t i o n a l e to a s c u l p t u r e a d m i r e d w i t h i n the p a r k : e.g., a s c u l p - t u r e t h a t commemorates an e v e n t such as the J a p a n e s e War M e m o r i a l . 7. Make n o t e s on a group of s c u l p t u r e s t h a t you t h i n k might be o f i n t e r e s t to a f r i e n d v i s i t i n g you f r om out o f town. P r e p a r e T h i s i s a s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t y f o u n d i n the Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B.C., S e p t . 1981, D r a f t , p. 177. m a t e r i a l e n a b l i n g y ou to g i v e an i n f o r m e d m i n i a r t t o u r f o r t h a t f r i e n d : e.g., be f a m i l i a r w i t h some o f R o b e r t B u r n s ' p o e t r y ; know the h i s t o r y b e h i n d the C h e h a l i s C r o s s a nd/or t h Empress of Japa n f i g u r e h e a d . 8. Use the V a n c o u v e r E n v i r o n m e n t E d u c a t i o n a l P r o j e c t , U.B.C. p u b l i c a t i o n S t a r t i n g w i t h Monuments: S t a n l e y P a r k , t f u r t h e r y o u r s t u d y o f t h e p a r k and the landmarks w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s .   S e c t i o n I I I : Area 3 - The West End This area r e f e r s to the p a r t of the c i t y bounded by: - B u r r a r d S t r e e t on the e a s t - S t a n l e y Park on the west - B u r r a r d I n l e t on the n o r t h - E n g l i s h Bay on the s o u t h . Classroom A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n When you are p r e v i e w i n g the s l i d e s , the background i n f o r m - a t i o n n o t e s , the q u e s t i o n s to ask i n the c l a s s r o o m and d u r i n g the f i e l d t r i p , determine how much m a t e r i a l c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y covered i n the time you can a f f o r d to spend on t h i s a r e a . I t i s recommended t h a t you cover l e s s m a t e r i a l w e l l , r a t h e r than t r y to d i s c u s s a l l the s c u l p t u r e i n the West End. During your v i e w i n g of the s l i d e s , f i n d the answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t - i o n s : 1. The commemorative s c u l p t u r e i n t h i s area has more to do w i t h l o c a l h i s t o r y than those i n S t a n l e y Park. Give reasons why the Joe F o r t e s M e m o r i a l , the s u n d i a l at E n g l i s h Bay, the B e n t a l l b u s t , and the s c u l p t u r e on B u r r a r d B r i d g e were commis- s i oned. 2. Where would you go to f i n d I n u i t s c u l p t u r e s i n the West End? What images would you expect to f i n d ? 3. Why i s L u t z P i ' s c r e a t i o n c a l l e d the ' I n v i s i b l e Foun- t a i n ' ? 4. What media were used to c o n s t r u c t the f o u r f o u n t a i n s found i n t h i s area? How does our c l i m a t e a f f e c t each of these f o u n t a i n s ? Which media seem to be b e s t s u i t e d to our c l i m a t e ? 100. 5. Compare and c o n t r a s t how L u t z P i and Tsutakawa use w a t e r . How does t h i s use a f f e c t the f o u n t a i n ? The p a s s e r b y ? 6. L u t z P i ' s and P a u l Deggan's f o u n t a i n ( c o n s u l t S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 5 - Downtown B) have some e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n i n common. What ar e t h e y ? 7. How does the C h a r l e s B e n t a l l b u s t d i f f e r from t h e b u s t s of Dr. M a c K e n z i e ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 1 - The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia) and D a v i d Oppenheimer ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 2 - S t a n l e y P a r k ) ? How a r e the t h r e e b u s t s v e r y s i m i l a r ? 8. L i o n e l Thomas' t w i n f o u n t a i n s 'resemble a s w i r l i n g mass.' How i s t h i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by the a r t i s t ? 9. What i s s g r a f f i t o ? (Show the s l i d e s u s i n g t h e S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End.) SECTION I I I : AREA 3 - THE WEST END S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A c e m e n t T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 1 G r e t a D a l e , d e s i g n e r a n d c a r v e r 4 s g r a f - f i t o p a n e l s s u b t r a c - t i o n b a s r e - l i e f m u r a l s 1 9 6 0 2 0 3 3 C o m o x , T h e W h i t e H o u s e - 4 s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s d e - p i c t e d i n 3 o u t d o o r s c e n e s ; 2 o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e s h o w n l n t h e s l i d e . T h e s h a d o w s a n d p l a n t g r o w t h t e n d t o o b s c u r e t h e r e l i e f m u r a l . W h i c h t o o l s d o y o u t h i n k w e r e u s e d t o c r e a t e t h e l i n e a r r e l i e f ? 2 J o r d l B o n e t , G e r a l d H a m i l t o n a n d A s s o c i a t e s , a r c h i t e c t s c a s t c o n - c r e t e b a s r e - l i e f w a l l p a n e l s I960 8 4 5 C h i l c o , L o s t L a g o o n T e r r a c e l i n e a r ; o r n a m e n t a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f : r e p e a t e d m o t i f f r o m g r o u n d t o t o p f l o o r o f t h e h i g h - r i s e a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g . - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 1 1 6 3 L u t z K . H a u f s c h l l d a l u m i n - um , m a c h - i n e d & e t c h e d d o o r p a n - e l s , b a s r e l i e f 8 1 5 C h i l c o - l i n e a r ; t e x t u r a l - o r g a n i c s h a p e s - m e t a l l i c c o l o u r s 4 G e r h a r d C l a s s p r e s e n t e d b y C u n - n i n g h a m S t o r e L t d . w h o s e f i r s t s t o r e w a s o p e n e d a t D e n m a n & N e l s o n l n 1 9 1 1 b r o n z e g r a n i t e c a s t s u n - d i a l c a r v e d b a s e g r a n i t e c o l u m n s 5 ' 1 9 6 7 E n g l i s h B a y b e a c h , B e a c h A v e . - " T h i s s u n d i a l c o m m e m o r - a t e s t h r e e E n g l i s h g r e e n - h o r n s — S a m u e l B r l g h o u s e , J o h n M o r t o n & W i l l i a m H a i l s t o n e w h o i n 1 8 6 2 f i l e d t h e f i r s t c l a i m a n d p l a n n e d t h e f i r s t h o m e a n d I n d u s t r y , I n t h e t h e n h e a v i l y w o o d e d a r e a n o w b o u n d e d b y B u r r a r d I n l e t , S t a n l e y P a r k , E n g l i s h B a y a n d B u r r a r d S t . , t o w h i c h •—* o to S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N G e r h a r d C l a s s c o n t ' d - e r e c t e d t a u s p i c e s c C e n t e n n i a l o f V a n c o u \ c o o p e r a t l c t h e P a r k s i n d e r t h e >f t h e C o m m . r e r i n >n w i t h B o a r d t h e y r e c e i v e d t i t l e i n 1 8 6 7 . " ( i n s c r i p t i o n o n a p l a q u e o n s i t e ) - s t r a i g h t a n d c u r v e d g e o - m e t r i c d e s i g n s h a v e b e e n c a r v e d i n t h e g r a n i t e b a s e w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s u n - r i s e , m i d d a y , s u n s e t a n d m i d n i g h t - t h e s u n d i a l i s o n a r a i s e d c i r c u l a r p l a t f o r m . 5 C h a r l e s M a r e g a J o e F o r t e s K i w a n i s o r g a n i z e d a p u b l i c s u b s c r i p - t i o n - r a i s e d $ 5 , 0 0 0 c o n c r e t e b r o n z e r e l i e f d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n F e b . 15, 1 9 2 6 A l e x a n d r a P a r k , B e a c h A v e . - d e p i c t s " J o e ' s " p o r t r a i t & 3 c h i l d r e n s p l a s h i n g l n t h e w a v e s i n t h e b r o n z e l o w r e l i e f p l a q u e - h o n o u r s S e r a p h i n F o r t e s , V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t l i f e - g u a r d a t E n g l i s h B a y - f u n c t i o n a l a s w e l l a s d o c u m e n t a t i o n r a t i o n a l e s M e m o r i a l p i a q u e 6 E g o n M i l l n k o v l c h T o m C a m p b e l l l i m e - s t o n e p a i n t e d w h i t e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 6 2 1 2 5 5 B i d - w e l l , I m p e r i a l A p t s . - s o l i t a r y f i g u r e - o n e h a n d b e h i n d i t s h e a d : s t y l i z e d 7 L i o n e l T h o m a s B l o c k B r o s . s t e e l t u b i n g & b r a z e d c o p p e r w a t e r j e t s t w i n f o u n t - a i n s 1 9 6 5 1 6 0 0 B e a c h A v e . , B e a c h T o w - e r s - c u r v i l i n e a r - r e s e m b l e s a s w i r l i n g m a s s o UI S E C T I O N I I I : A B E A 3 - T H E WEST E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 8 G e o r g e N o r r i s T h e S w i m m e r w e l d e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , b r o n z e - c o l o u r e d f r e e s t a n d - i n g a b s t r - a c t N o v . 1 9 7 7 1 0 5 0 B e a c h A v e . , V a n - c o u v e r A q u a t i c C e n t r e - w e l d e d s e c t i o n s f r o m c i r c l e s o r g a n i z e d t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f m o v e - m e n t t h r o u g h w a t e r - r i s e s o u t o f a r o c k g a r d e n C h a r l e s M a r e g a a r t 1 s t , J . R . G r a n t e n g i n e e r , S h a r p & T h o m p s o n c o n - s u l t i n g a r c h i - t e c t s C o a t o f A r m s , 16 l i o n ' s h e a d s , C a p t . V a n c o u v e r b u s t , C a p t . S i r H a r r y B u r r a r d b u s t c e m e n t p a r t i a l r e l i e f a r c h i - t e c t u r e a d o r n - m e n t 1 1 9 3 3 B u r r a r d B r i d g e ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) - t h e s a m e i m a g e s a t b o t h t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h e n d s o f t h e c e n t r e s e c t i o n o f t h e b r i d g e - c e n t r a l w o r k l s V a n c o u v - e r ' s s e c o n d c o a t o f a r m s - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g . 0 1 2 4 & 0 1 2 6 9 C h i e f W a l t e r H a r r i s , C h i e f A l f r e d J o s e p h , E a r l M u l d o e K e n M o w e t t A r t S t e r r l t t ' K B a n M u r a l R o y a l B a n k W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r h a n d p a i n t e d b a s r e l i e f 1 2 0 ' x 8 ' - 9 p a n - e l s , 3 m a s s i v e c e n t r a l d e s i g n s f l a n k e d o n e a c h s i d e b y 3 s u b - s i d i a r y p a n e l s - e a c h p a n e l c e d a r f r a m e d 1 9 7 2 B u r r a r d & G e o r g i a '. m e z z a n i n e • f l o o r o f : t h e R o y a l B a n k - d e p i c t s t h e m a n y e x p l - o i t s o f W e g e t , o r M a n R a v e n , t h e l e g e n d a r y c u l - t u r e - h e r o o f t h e G l t k s a n - t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e w o r k d o n e i n H a z e l t o n ; i t t o o k 5 c a r v e r s 3 m o n t h s t o c o m p l e t e - c o n s u l t T h e R o y a l B a n k o f C a n a d a ' s b r o c h u r e T h e i K s a n M u r a l , a v a l l a h l e a t t h e s i t e _ — m u r a l S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 10 J a c k H a r m a n C h a r l e s c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y h i s s o n s - b r o n z e - s l a b o f m a r b l e b u s t D e c . 4 , 1 9 7 7 B e n t a l l C e n t r e , 5 0 0 B u r r - a r t S t r e e t - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - B e n t a l l s u b s t i - t u t i o n tion - u n i q u e - f o r - V a n c o u v e r m o u n t i n g o f t h e b u s t o n a l a r g e h o r i z o n t a l l y p l a c e d m a r b l e s l a b 11 G e o r g e T s u t a k a w a , S e a t t l e F o u n t a i n B e n t a l l f a m i l y f i r m , D o m i n i o n C o n s t r u c - t i o n - s i l i c o n b r o n z e p l a t e - w a t e r f o u n t - 1 5 ' x 9 ' J u n e 12 , 1 9 6 9 - t h e a r f o r m s h : " A f o u n e a r t h , i t h i n g i t c o m e s f m a k e s a a n d m y s i s t ' s s i P r o v i n c e a n d 1 3 ) 5 0 0 B u r r - a r d S t r e e t t l s t s c u l p t i L s s h a p e s t a i n i n v o l v e u n d w a t e r . 3 — s p a c e ; e i r o n — b r o n z e f o u n t a i n i f t e r l o u s e l e i t a t e m e n t ab< i ( V a n c o u v e i - t h e a r t i s t ' s 2 7 t h f o u n - t a i n , h i s 4 t h f o u n t a i n i n C a n a d a - " t r i b u t e t o t h o s e p e o p l e w h o p i o n e e r e d t h i s g r e a t p r o v i n c e a n d w h o s e v i s i o n c o u r a g e a n d h a r d w o r k h a r n e s s e d t h e m i g h t y r i v - e r s a n d h u s b a n d e d t h e t o w e r i n g f o r e s t s , t h a t we w h o f o l l o w m i g h t e n j o y a t r u l y b o u n t i f u l l a n d . " » w i t h w a t e r ; t h e m e t a l ; s 3 e l e m e n t s : h e a v e n , H e a v e n i s w h e r e e v e r y - i r t h i s w h e r e t h e m a t e r i a l o r s t o n e ; w h a t r e a l l y i w a t e r , t h e m o s t e l u s i v e s e n t o f a l l . " — t h e a r t - ) u t t h e f o u n t a i n ( T h e r ) , A p r i l 3 , 1 9 6 9 , p p . 12 o f t h e P i o n e e r s a i n 12 M c C a r t e r a n d N a l r n e a r c h i - t e c t u r a l f i r m b u i l t b y S t l m s o n s O f f i c e H o l d i n g C o . b r i c k 8 t o n e b r o n z e p l a s t e r w o o d c l a y - s t a i n e d - l n t r l c a e l e v a t o r i b a s r e l i e f a r c h i - t e c t u r a l o r n a m e n - a t l o n g l a s s w i n d o w s t e w o o d - i n l a y 3 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 0 M a r i n e B u i l d i n g , B u r r a r d & H a s t i n g s - e x t e r i o r a n d i n t h e l o b b y - A r t D e c o p e r i o d ; c a r v - i n g s d e p i c t t h e h i s t o r y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d d i s c o v e r y o n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t & m a r i n e m o t i f s - o v e r t h e a r c h o f t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e t h e s u n i s p o r t r a y e d s e t t i n g o v e r _ t h e L i o n ' s G a t e B r i d g e ° S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E WEST E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' M c C a r t e r a n d N a i r n e c o n t ' d T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A S I Z E - o r n a m e n t a l p l a s t e r c e l l i n g - t e r r a c o t t a f r i e z e s - s a n d c a s t d o o r s m a d e l n V a n c o u v e r - m e t a l g r i l l w o r k D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N a n d t h e O r i e n t , w i t h w i l d g e e s e a n d a f u l l y - r i g g e d s h i p a s p a r t o f t h e s c e n e - t o t a l c o s t $ 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 3 3 G u i n e s s b o u g h t t h e b u i l d i n g - H e r i t a g e s t a t u s 1 9 7 5 - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 1 - 9 13 J o r d i B o n e t T h e F a t h o m - g l a z e d c e r a m i c m u r a l 1 8 ' x 3 2 l e s s m a n i p u - l a t i o n R i c h n e s s o f t h e S e a b e d O c t . 2 2 j 1 0 5 5 W e s t " B y t h e a b s t r a c t t r e a t - 1 9 6 9 1 H a s t i n g s , m e n t o f h i s s u b j e c t t h e G u i n e s s s e a , w i t h c o l o u r a n d t e x - T o w e r , t u r e , h e h a s p r o d u c e d a s M a i n L o b b y h e s a y s , ' t h e t e x t u r e s a n d r e l i e f s o f w a v e s o f r i p p l i n g s a n d , t h e d e l i - c a t e b r a n c h e s o f c o r a l r e e f s , t h e a i r y l i k e n e s s o f a s p o n g e , t h e s w i f t s t r e n g t h o f t h e u n d e r w a t e r c u r r e n t s , " ( i n f o r m a t i o n o n s i t e ) - t h e m u r a l i s m a d e u p o f r e c t a n g l e s o f a p p r o x . 1 4 x 2 0 " - g l a z e s a r e i n t h e b e i g e a n d b l u e r a n g e 14 J o r d i B o n e t R e s u r g - a l u m i n u m s u b s t i - t u t i o n m u r a l 1 9 7 7 O c e a n l c P l a z a , 1 0 6 6 W e s t H a s t i n g s l n t h e M a i n L o b b y - ' d e p i c t s t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e o f m a n ' s c r e a t i v - i t y , n a t u r a l f o r m s a n d r e m n a n t s a r e s y m b o l i c a l l y r e s u r r e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e a s c e n d i n g c e n t r a l f i g u r e t o t h e g r e a t i n s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e m i n d . I t i s c a s t i n t h e s a m e a l u m i n u m m a t - e r i a l a s t h e b u i l d i n g ' s c l a d d i n g ' ( i n f o r m a t i o n o n s i t e ) . S E C T I O N I I I ; A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 15 L u t z P i , d e s i g n e r - b u i l t b y H a r t m u t K r i e g e r " I n v i s - i b l e F o u n t a i n " t r a n s l u - l c e n t p l e x i - g l a s s f o u n - t a i n S e p t . 1 9 7 4 1 0 5 0 W e s t P e n d e r - t r i a n g u l a r a n d 4 - s i d e d p l a n e s o f p l e x i g l a s s J o i n e d t o f o r m g e o m e t r i c c o l u m n s - t h e w a t e r q u i e t l y f l o w s o v e r t h e s e s u r f a c e s i n t o a s m a l l p o o l - p o l l u t i o n h a s c a u s e d t h e p l e x i g l a s s t o b e - c o m e y e l l o w - c o s t $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 M c C l e a r y D r o p e W i n n i p e g ( # 1 6 - 2 2 ) 16 H o m a g e t o H e l i o s V 17 18 19 H o m a g e t o H e l i o s I H o m a g e t o H e l i o s I I H o m a g e t o R . C . B a x t e r C o l l e c - t i o n H e l i o s I I I c o r t e n s t e e l 7 f r e e s t a n d i n g ] s c u l p t - u r e s - w e l d e d a n d c a s t ! v a r y f r o m t o 7 ' 1 1 1 1 W e s t H a s t i n g s , P l a z a o f t h e B a x t e r B u i l d i n g - w o r k s w e r e c h o s e n b y t h e a r c h i t e c t a n d p a t r o n f r o m s o m e 2 0 p i e c e s t h e a r t i s t c o m p l e t e d f r o m 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 , t o b e p l a c e d i n t h i s p l a n n e d r e s t a r e a - a l l 7 s c u l p t u r e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d b y p l a q u e s V - " s t a n d i n g l n r e a d i n e s s f o r t o m o r r o w h e w i l l a g a i n t r a n s v e r s e t h e h e a v e n s " - o n e o f | a s e r i e s o f t o t e m l c - l i k e f i g u r e s - s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n l l f e s l z e - s e t i n s h a l l o w h o l d i n g t r a y s f i l l e d w i t h s t o n e s s o t h a t t h e p a t i o a r o u n d t h e b u i l d i n g d o e s n o t g e t s t a i n e d f r o m t h e c o r r o d i n g s t e e l I - " t h e w a t c h f u l g i v e r o f l i g h t i s f o r e v e r p r e s e n t " 1 9 6 7 I I - " e a c h d a y t h e s t r u g g l e t o a r i s e i s r e n e w e d " I I I - " t h e w i n g s a r e s p r e a d t o b e a r t h e l i g h t a c r o s s t h e h e a v e n s " S E C T I O N I l l s A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E 2 1 2 2 S C U L P T O R T I T L E H o m a g e t o H e l i o s IVI U n t i t l e d L o v e r s P A T R O N M E D I A c o r t e n s t e e l c a s t c o n c r e t e T Y P E S I Z E f r e e s t a n d i n g s c u l p t u r e a b s t r a c t D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N " T h e s c u l p t u r a l f o r m s h a v e e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t h e a r t i s t ' s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s u s e d . T h e f o r m s a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e g e o m e t r y o f n a t u r e s o m e t i m e s r e f l e c t i n g t h e f o r m a l a s p e c t s b u t m o r e o f t e n r e v e a l i n g t h e i n n e r c o r e . A c o n s t r u c t i v e m o n u m e n t a l - i t y t r a n s c e n d s a l l f o r m s . " - a n a r t c r i t i c d e s c r i b e s t h e m a s s p i k e y c o n - f i g u r a t i o n s o f o r g a n i c g r o w t h r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e f o r m s i n t h e p a i n t i n g o f G r a h a m S u t h e r - l a n d ( T h e S u n ( V a n c o u v e r ) , A u g . 2 5 , 2 9 6 7 , p . 4 a . ) - 2 i n d i v i d u a l f o r m s , r e d a n d b l a c k t w i s t s , " c o m b i n e d l n a s t a t e o f o n e n e s s . " 2 3 T u n u K a n g e a k , B a f f i n I s l a n d E s k i m o F a m i l y B o a r d o f T r a d e s t o n e s u b t r - a c t i o n w i t h O w l 1 1 7 7 W e s t H a s t i n g s , i n s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g - s i m p l i f i e d f i g u r e s - f r o n t a l ; s h a l l o w r e l i e f 24 E . S c h u l t e B e c h a m c o m m i s - s i o n e d i n 1 9 1 4 b y • S c o t t i s h N a t i o n a l a n d U n i o n I n s u r a n c e C o . b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n 1 9 6 9 1 1 5 5 W e s t P e n d e r , R o y a l G e n - e r a l I n s u r - a n c e C o . a p a i r o f l i o n s g u a r d i n g t h e e n t r a n c e - o n e p a w r e s t s o n a a s h i e l d b e a r i n g a c o a t o f a r m s , a t o p - o f w h i c h i s a c r o w n - t h e w e l l k n o w n t u r q u o i s e p a t i n a h a s c o a t e d t h e b r o n z e 2 5 G e o r g e N o r r l s c o p p e r p a n e l s t h r e e r e - p o u s s e m u r a l s 1 0 ' x l O 6 ' x 8 ' ; 9 ' x 8 ' 1 9 6 4 1 2 0 1 W e s t P e n d e r , i n - s i d e t h e l o b b y o f t h e E a s t A s i a t i c B u i l d i n g - s e a l i f e a n d b i r d t h e m e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s h o r e l i n e a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g o ce S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E W E S T E N D S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 6 G e r h a r d C l a s s p r e - c o n s t i - t u t e d m a r b l e c a s t i n a p l a s - t e r m o u l d - a s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l t o t h a t u s e d i n t h e f a c - i n g o f t h e b u i l d i n g f r e e s t a n d i n g a b s t r a c t s c u l p t - u r e w i t h - i n a r e - f l e c t i n g p o o l 7 ' 1 9 6 6 E a s t A s i a t i c B u i l d i n g - o r g a n i c , f l o w i n g c u r v i - l i n e a r l i n e s - n e g a t i v e s p a c e a n i m - p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s s c u l p t u r e - t h e p y r a m i d a l s h a p e d s c u l p t u r e h a s r o u n d e d o f f e d g e s 2 7 G l a c o m o M a n z u T h e S k a t e r p u r c h a a e d b y a r c h i - t e c t a b r o n z e f i g u r a - 4 ' 7 V p l u s p e d e s - t a l 1 9 5 7 ( p l a c e d i n p r e - s e n t s i t e i n 1 9 6 8 ) 1 0 7 5 W e s t G e o r g i a , M a c M l l l a n B l o e d e l B u i l d i n g , l n t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e l o b b y - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c t i v e - e y e s c l o s e d , d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n f a c i a l e x p r e s - s i o n - p l u s t h e r e a r e 6 0 w o r k s i n t h i s b u i l d i n g d o n e b y a r t i s t s f r o m a l l t h e m a j o r c r e a t i v e c e n t r e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c ( n o t o n p u b l i c d i s p l a y ) . ( G r a n d e P a t t i n a - t r l c e ) c a s t l n I t a l y 2 8 R o b e r t M u r r a y P u e b l o p e r m a n e n t c o l l e c - t i o n , V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l . s t e e l , p a i n t e d y e l l o w u e l d e d 1 9 6 8 1 1 4 5 W e s t G e o r g i a - i n s t o r a g e J u n e , 1 9 8 2 a s t h e u p k e e p w h e n o u t d o o r s l s a p r o b l e m ( i t n e e d s t o b e p a i n t e d r e g u l a r l y ) . 29 M i a W e s t e r l u n d C o r n e r S e r i e s p e r m a n e n t c o l l e c - t i o n , V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l . c o p p e r / 8 t e e l s h e e t s , c o n c r e t e & a c i d s 1 9 7 8 1 1 4 5 W e s t G e o r g i a - d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r h e r - s e l f t o b e a m i n i m a l i s t e v e n t h o u g h h e r s h a p e s a r e g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s a n d l i k e " p r i m a r y s t r u c t u r e s . " »—• o S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 3 - T H E WEST END S L I D E S C U L P T O R M i a W e s t e r l u n d c o a t ' d T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N - s h e " p a i n t s w i t h m a t e r i a l s " a n d w o r k s f r o m m a q u e t t e s s m a l l e n o u g h t o h o l d i n y o u r h a n d - h e r w o r k h a s a p r e s e n c e I t w o u l d b e o f i n t e r e s t t o c o n s u l t A n n M o r r i s o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t f o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s c u l p t u r e i n t h e P e r m a n e n t C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y . 30 G e o r g e N o r r l s C o a t o f A r m s C r o w n L i f e I n s u r a n c e c o n c r e t e 1 5 5 0 W e s t G e o r g i a C r o w n L i f e I n s u r a n c e B u i l d i n g - m i n i m a l r e l i e f ; s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s 31 M c C l e a r y D r o p e c o r t e n s t e e l w e l d e d f r e e s t a n d - i n g s c u l p - t u r e j u s t v e s t o f t h e B a y s h o r e H o t e l • s o l i t a r y t o t e m i c f i g u r e    113, F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s i In o r d e r t o h e l p the s t u d e n t s f o c u s on and t r u l y ' s e e ' a p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e , i t i s recommended t h a t some ' f o c u s i n g ' a c t i v i t y t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g a f i e l d t r i p o r s h o r t l y a f t e r a f i e l d - t r i p has t a k e n p l a c e . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a r e : 1. Which H e r i t a g e B u i l d i n g i n t h i s a r e a i s known f o r i t s A r t Deco m o t i f s ? At what time was t h i s ' s c h o o l ' of a r t most p o p u l a r i n Canada? In Europe? Where d i d i t o r i g i n a t e ? Who were i t s l e a d i n g e x p o n e n t s ? B e s i d e s a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f s , what o t h e r o b j e c t s d i d t h e s e a r t i s t s d e s i g n ? 2. Where would you f i n d The S k a t e r no m a t t e r what time o f y e a r ? Do you t h i n k t h a t i s an a p p r o p r i a t e t i t l e ? Why? Why n o t ? C o n s u l t modern a r t t e x t s to f i n d o ut what o t h e r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c work Giacomo Manzu has c r e a t e d . What do you c o n s i d e r to be h i s ' t r a d e m a r k s ' r e g a r d i n g s e l e c t i o n of image, e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t , c o m p o s i t i o n , and de v e l o p m e n t of image? 3. The 'Ksan M u r a l ( i t i s p o s s i b l e to l i n k t h i s m u r a l w i t h the s u b s t i t u t i o n l e s s o n on r e l i e f i n S e c t i o n I V ) . - Why do you t h i n k the R o y a l Bank o f Canada c o m m i s s i o n e d t h i s work ? - How was i t c r a f t e d ? - What s t o r i e s does the m u r a l t e l l about Weget? - What o t h e r c u l t u r e s have m i s c h i e v o u s c r e a t u r e s as p a r t of t h e i r f o l k l o r e ? What a r e t h e i r names? B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e some of t h e i r e s c a p a d e s . P l a n a r e l i e f f o r one su c h l e g e n d u s i n g w h i t e p a p e r and b l a c k l i n e and sh a d e d a r e a s to i n d i c a t e what would and would n o t be c a r v e d away i f you were t o use t h i s p l a n f o r the c a r v i n g o f a wood p a n e l . 114. - What o t h e r a r t forms t e l l s t o r i e s ? - What e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n a r e o b v i o u s w i t h i n t h i s work? - Which c r e a t u r e s among the n i n e p a n e l s do you c o n s i d e r most e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e ? - Why do you t h i n k the s i x s m a l l e r p a n e l s are so h i g h l y s t y l i z e d ? D r a f t a d e s i g n of an a n i m a l you have s t u d i e d i n some d e t a i l , w i t h i n a s i m i l a r f o r m a t , a g a i n k e e p i n g i n mind t h a t s u c h a d r a f t c o u l d be used f o r a wooden r e l i e f c a r v i n g . 4. What ' f a t h o m l e s s r i c h n e s s of the s e a b e d ' can you f i n d i n J o r d i B o n e t ' s c e r a m i c mural? - In what o t h e r ways b e s i d e s m o t i f s i s t h i s m u r a l r i c h ? - Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h i s mural? Why? ( i . e . , i s i t shown to b e s t a d v a n t a g e ? ) - Who i s J o r d i Bonet? What o t h e r works d i d he c o m p l e t e f o r c l i e n t s i n the c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ? ( C o n s u l t S l i d e Notes of t h i s a r e a . ) - What does t h i s m u r a l add t o the l o b b y of t h i s b u i l d i n g ? - How many p e o p l e u s i n g t h i s b u i l d i n g seem to be aware of t h i s m u r a l ? P e r h a p s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n d u c t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a s s e r s b y t o see what p e o p l e know about t h i s m u r a l . P o s s i b l e q u e s t i o n s to ask a r e : - What i s t h e name of the a r t i s t ? - What i s the t i t l e of the r e l i e f ? - What y e a r was i t p l a c e d on t h i s s i t e ? - What im a g e r y can be seen i n the mural? - What m e d i a / t e c h n i q u e has been used? - What p u r p o s e does the m u r a l s e r v e ? - What s k i l l s a r e e v i d e n t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s r e l i e f ? How do you t h i n k i t was f a b r i c a t e d ? - Compare and c o n t r a s t t h i s m u r a l w i t h George N o r r i s ' l o c a t e d i n the E a s t A s i a t i c b u i l d i n g r e g a r d i n g i m a g e r y , media, t e c h n i q u e and s e t t i n g . 5. How does The Swimmer's s e t t i n g a f f e c t the s c u l p t u r e ? What changes would you make i f you had enough money t o make some a l t e r a t i o n s ? 6. Next time you c r o s s B u r r a r d B r i d g e n o t e what images a r e p r e s e n t . What can you i m a g i n e a c r e a t u r e from o u t e r space t h i n k - i n g i f the o n l y a r t l e f t i n the w o r l d was t h a t on the b r i d g e ? What c o n c l u s i o n s do you t h i n k he would make about our c u l t u r e ? 7. Who i s M c C l e a r y Drope? Where does the theme Homage to H e l i o s o r i g i n a t e ? - What i s c o r t e n s t e e l ? How can i t be used? - Why i s i t a s u i t a b l e media f o r o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e ? - S c a l e i s i m p o r t a n t t o a l l s c u l p t u r e . Can you i m a g i n e t h i s s e r i e s b e i n g l a r g e r i n s c a l e ? Do you t h i n k s o m e t h i n g w o u l d be g a i n e d or l o s t i f t h i s s e r i e s was d o u b l e d i n h e i g h t , w i d t h , and depth? Why? 8. Compare and c o n t r a s t the s c u l p t u r e o f C h a r l e s B e n t a l l w i t h the s i g n f r o m the McDonald's r e s t a u r a n t i n Richmond ( S l i d e #32), n o t i n g f o r each t h e : - r a t i o n a l e s - media - modes of e x p r e s s i o n - t e c h n i q u e - f o r m a t - s e t t i n g  S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A T h i s a r e a i s bounded by: - Main S t r e e t on the e a s t - B u r r a r d S t r e e t on the west - B u r r a r d I n l e t on the n o r t h - F a l s e Creek on the s o u t h . Once a g a i n the a r e a i s l a r g e and the v a r i e t y of s c u l p t u r e w i t h i n i t s l i m i t s s u b s t a n t i a l . I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the t e a c h e r to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s c u l p t u r e s would be o f most i n t e r e s t to the s t u d e n t s and how b e s t t o v i s i t t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s i n an o r g a n i z e d f i e l d t r i p . In t h i s r e g a r d i t would be h e l p f u l to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r or not any of the s c u l p t u r e s c o u l d become a p a r t of a r e a d i n g , h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , s c i e n c e , o r c u r r e n t e v e n t s program. A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s the t o p i c of h e r o w o r s h i p b e i n g i n c o r p o r - a t e d i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n group i n a h u m a n i t i e s c l a s s . The s c u l p - t u r e s t h a t h o nour and commemorate n o t a b l e p e o p l e would t h e n be a p p r o p r i a t e s c u l p t u r e s t o view and s t u d y w i t h i n t h i s a r e a . More- o v e r , i f t h e t e a c h e r has a l r e a d y d e c i d e d on t h e t e c h n i q u e , m edia, theme, c o n c e p t , mode of e x p r e s s i o n a n d / o r r a t i o n a l e ( s e e T a b l e I) to be u s e d i n the p r o d u c t i v e p a r t of the s c u l p t u r e .unit t h e n i t would be a d v i s a b l e to view and s t u d y examples of such s c u l p t u r e w i t h i n t h i s a r e a . C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n D u r i n g the v i e w i n g o f the s l i d e s f i n d the answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. Name the two m e m o r i a l s t h a t h o nour t h o s e who d i e d i n W o r l d War I and I I . 2. Few s c u l p t u r e s i n t h i s a r e a r e a l i s t i c a l l y d e p i c t the human f i g u r e . Can you name f i v e t h a t do so? Only two f i g u r e s a r e o f s p e c i f i c p e o p l e , i . e . , n a t u r a l i s t i c . Name t h e s e two s c u l p t u r e s . 3. Where a r e the two l o c a t i o n s o f the b i r d s to be f o u n d i n Downtown A? 4. Why d o e s n ' t George N o r r i s ' B r i d g e Marker 'work'? 5. What do the C a n a d i a n Coat of Arms and N o r r i s ' U n t i t l e d s c u l p t u r e a t P a c i f i c C e n t r e have i n common? 6: There a r e f o u r f o u n t a i n s w i t h i n Downtown A. Name the s c u l p t o r s t h a t c r e a t e d them. 7. What s i x s c u l p t u r e s do you c o n s i d e r a b s t r a c t ? 8. Why do you t h i n k groups such as the German-Canadian Committee donate a s c u l p t u r e g i f t to the c i t y ? (Show the s l i d e s u s i n g the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A.) W ^ 3~• "̂ [Jul P 119 nV¥5i DATE . V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E TJL-q*5 CI 11 ' t mm o o f o V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E    SECTION I I I : AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 1 L i o n e l T h o m a s a s s i s t e d b y F . L a c h n i t S y m b o l s f r o m t h e C u n e i - p a i d f o r b y 75 c i t - i z e n s & t h e L i b - r a r y B o a r d b r o n z e w i t h p a r t s o f t h e s u r f a c e c o v e r e d w i t h g o l d l e a f & p l e x i - g l a s s i l l u m - i n a t e d n u r a l 5 ' x l 6 ' 1 9 6 1 7 5 0 B u r r a r d , V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c L i b - r a r y - c o n s i s t s o f 6 u p r i g h t f o r m a t o w h i c h a r e a t t - a c h e d 4 5 b r o n z e p l a n e s , s y m b o l s o f m a n s p e a k i n g - b a s e d o n t h e a n c i e n t B a b y l o n i a n & A s s y r i a n c u n e i f o r m s - c o s t $ 7 , 0 0 0 ; w o r k e x e c u - t e d i n V e n i c e , I t a l y f o r m s 2 M i k e B a n w e l l P r i m a r y N o . 9 m u l t i - c o l o u r e d ( p a i n - t e d ) s t e e l s h e e t s w e l d e d M a y 1 9 8 1 R o b s o n S q u a r e - m a n u f a c t u r e d b y E b c o I n d . L t d . - g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s - n e g a - t i v e s p a c e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e w o r k - c a n w a l k i n t o a n d t h r o u g h t h e p i e c e 3 A l a n C h u n g H u n g " S p r i n g " r e d p a i n t e d s t e e l w e l d e d M a y 1 9 8 1 R o b s o n S q u a r e - m a n u f a c t u r e d b y E b c o I n d . L t d . - a t t a c h e d t o P l a z a a t 3 p o i n t s , t h i s c o l l e d s p r i n g i s a n e x a m p l e o f m o n u m e n t a l a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e - i t i s a l s o m i n i m a l - l i k e i n s t y l e 4 - s m a l l p i e c e b y I n u i t a r t - i s t E t u n g a t ( 1 6 3 / 4 " i - J a c k H a r m a n ' 8 f o u n d r y c a s t t h e e n l a r g e m e n t B i r d o f D e v o n i a n F o u n d a t i o n o f C a l g a r y f i n a n c e d t h e p r o j - e c t b r o n z e s t y l - i z e d A u g . 3 , 1 9 7 9 R o b s o n S q u a r e - c o p y a l s o m a d e f o r C a l g a r y S p r i n g " p r e g - n a n t b i r d " s u b s t i - t u t i o n 5 J a c k H a r m a n T h e m i s - G o d d e s s o f J u s t -ice P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n H . 9 ' 1 9 8 2 R o b s o n S q . 4 t h f l o o r o f L a w C o u r t s - c a s t i n H e r m a n ' s N . V a n - c o u v e r f o u n d r y - o n a 1 m e t r e b a s e ^ - f i g u r a t i v e , r e a l l s t i c i o a n d s i m p l i f i e d !° 1 ' : r S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N C h a r l e s M a r e g a K i n g E d - w a r d V I I F o u n t a i n d o n a t e d b y t h e I m p e r i a l O r d e r o f t h e D a u g h t e r s o f t h e E m p i r e c o n c r e t e f a c a d e b r o n z e M a y 6 , 1 9 1 2 r e l i e f w e s t o f t h e C o u r t h o u s e / A r t G a l l e r y ( 1 9 8 3 ) o f t h e K i n g - I n s c r i p t i o n I n M e m o r y o f E d w a r d V I I 1 8 4 1 - 1 9 1 0 N o t m o n u m e n t a l s t o n e p r e s e r v e s o u r f a m e N o r s k y - a s p i r i n g p y r a m i d s o u r n a m e T h e m e m o r y o f h i m f o r w h o m t h i s s t a n d s S h a l l o u t l i v e m a r b l e a n d d e f a c e r s h a n d s , S h a k e s p e a r e - o r i g i n a l l y f a c i n g G e o r - g i a S t r e e t - f o u n t a i n n o l o n g e r l n u s e - i n c l u d e s 6 T u s c a n c o l - u m n s a n d a l i o n ( - b e h i n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n f e n c e a s o f J u n e , 1 9 8 3 ) J o h n B r u c e , a s s i s t e d b y T i m o t h y B a s s - F . M . R a t t e n - b u r y , a r c h i - t e c t u r a l f i r m 2 l i o n s g r a n i t e f r o m N e l s o n I s l a n d r e a l - i s t i c s u b t r - a c t i o n I S t o n s l e a c h 1 9 1 1 8 0 0 W e s t G e o r g i a S t , - g r a c e f u l f l o w o f l i n e g i v e s t h e f e e l i n g o f r h y t h m a n d m o v e m e n t - s y m b o l s o f B r i t i s h J u s t - i c e - c o p i e s o f t h o s e a t T r a f a l g a r S q u a r e - m a d e a t t h e w o r k s h o p o f J . A . a n d C A . M a c D o n a l d , 1 5 7 1 M a i n S t r e e t - h a u l e d t o t h e C o u r t h o u s e b y h o r s e a n d s e t i n p l a c e w i t h a 2 0 t . d e r r i c k a n d a s t e a m e n g i n e - o n S e p t . 8 , 1 9 3 9 t h e l i o n s w e r e d e s e c r a t e d w i t h p a i n t e d s w a s t i k a s - o n N o v . 3 , 1 9 4 2 o n e l i o n w a s b l a s t e d w i t h d y n a m i t e ; i t s h i n d q u a r t e r s w e r e d e s t r o y e d b u t t h e d a m a g e w a s r e p a i r e d b y H e r b e r t E d e a n d J a m e s H u r r y - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g #92 R . H . S a v e r y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p t . o f P u b l i c W o r k s m a d e t h e m a q - u e t t e - w o r k c a r r i e d o u t b y C o u n t g i f t f r o m t h e P r o v . G o v ' t t o c o m m e m o r - a t e B . C . C e n t e n - l a l b l a c k C a r r a r a m a r b l e m o s a i c t i l e s - r e p r e - s e n t s t h e o c e a n s u b t r - a c t i o n f o u n - t a i n w i t h c a r v e d p i l l - a r s f o u n t a i n c o m p l e x i s 7 2 ' x 3 6 ' ; t h e c e n - t e r b a - I s l n 1 0 ' d i a m e t e r O c t . 1 9 6 6 8 0 0 b l o c k W . G e o r g i a - s y m b o l i c ; r e a l i s t i c f i g - u r e s i n r e l i e f - r o u g h l y c a r v e d l i k e B . C . ' s c o a s t l i n e - T h e c a r v i n g s a r e " b a s e d o n l e g e n d s o f t h e C e l t s o r G a e l s , t h e f o r e b e a r s ^ o f e a r l y B . C . " u> S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' A l e x a n d e r v o n S v o b o d a o f C o n n A r t S t u d i o s , T o r o n t o c o n t ' d T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N - t h e 2 ' - t h e r e w a s c o n t r o v e r s y m a i n p l l - o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e l a r s 1 7 ' s h o u l d b e a B . C . a r t i s t l n h t . & c h o s e n t o d e s i g n t h e m e m - 8 ' l n o r l a l c l r c u m - - o n e s u c h c r i t i c i s m : f e r e n c e " I t h a s t o b e t h e m o s t a t t h e o v e r p r o g r a m m e d f o u n t a i n b a s e l n t h e w o r l d r e p l e t e w i t h c h a n g i n g j e t p a t t e r n s , e l a b o r a t e m o s a i c s h i g h - l i g h t e d w i t h g i l t , h e a v y s y m b o l i s m a n d h y d r a u l i c b o m b a s t . " " F r o m a d i s t a n c e y o u s e e 2 r o u g h - h e w n c o l u m n s , s e e m - i n g l y a s a n c i e n t a s S t o n e h e n g e . B u t u p c l o s e , l o o k - i n g t h r o u g h t h e f o a m a n d s p r a y , y o u ' l l d i s c o v e r : a w i z a r d , a d a g g e r , a n y m p h o r 2 , a m y s t e r i o u s o r b , a n i m m o r t a l , a j e s t e r , a n d n u m e r o u s c r e a t u r e s f r o m . . . s o m e w h e r e ! T h i s l s a w o r k o f m a g i c & m y s t e r y , w h i m s y & w o n d e r . " ( V a n c o u v e r S c u l p t u r e w i t h T e r r y N o b l e . V a n c o u v e r G u i d e l i n e , v o l . 1 0 , n o . 3 5 , J a n . 2 3 - 2 9 , D E S C R I P T I O N 1 9 8 1 , p . 1 9 ) a n o n y m o u s s t o n e m a s o n s A r c h i b a l d a n d S c h o f l e l d , a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m b l o c k g r a n i t e f r o m Q u e e n C h a r - l o t t e I s l a n d s s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 2 9 9 0 0 W e s t G e o r g i a H o t e l V a n - c o u v e r - a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r n a m e n t a - t i o n - i n c l u d e e a g l e s , l i o n s , g r i f f i n s , g o a t s - m a n y o f t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e r e p r o - d u c t i o n s o r a d a p t a t i o n s o f 1 1 t h & 1 2 t h c e n t u r y c a t h e d r a l c a r v i n g s . T h o m a s G a r r o w , S c o t t i s h s t o n e c a r v e r , d i d g a r g o y l e s o n l y - i n t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l t r a d i t i o n . C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n , W e l s h , A r m e n i a n , S c o t t i s h & T u r k i s h c a r v e r s e n r i c h e d c a p i t a l s o n t h e p i l a s t e r s o f t h e b r a c k e t s " a n d v o l u t e s - a h e l m e t e d h e a d o f T u r k i s h i n s p i r a t i o n , w i n g e d d r a g - o n s e a t i n g f i r e , a f e s t o o n e d b e a r a n d I n d i a n p o r t - r a i t s a r e a m o n g t h e o t h e r r e l i e f c a r v i n g s - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 7 9 - 8 7 . £ S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 10 a n o n y m o u s a r t i s t s p l u s : J . F . W a t s o n , C . Y o u n g a n d J . D . H u n t e r , a r t i s t s - M c C a r t e r a n d N a l r n e , a r c h i - t e c t u r a l f i r m b r i c k , t e r r a c o t t a , 8 t o n e , p l a s t e r m a n i p u - l a t i o n & s u b - t r a c t i o n b a s r e l i e f f i g u r a - 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 2 9 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 2 9 9 2 5 W e s t G e o r g i a M e d i c a l D e n t a l B i d . a r o u n d t h e e n t r a n c e d o o r s a n d o n t h e s i d e s o f t h e b u i l d - i n g 1 0 t h f l o o r c o r n e r s s y m b o l i c o f t h e m e d i c a l a n d d e n t a l p r o f e s s i o n - o t h e r s c e n e s a r e d e p i c - t e d a b o v e t h e d o o r . W h a t d o t h e y r e p r e s e n t ? ( w o r k - i n g c h e m i s t s , w i n g e d h o r s e s &• a c a d u c e u s ) s t y l i z e d n u r s e s I n a r m y t i v e u n i f o r m - S e a t t l e f i r m w o r k e d f r o m m a q u e t t e s - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 7 5 - 7 8 11 G e o r g e N o r r i s U n t i t l e d p u r c h a s e d b y P a c i f - i c C e n t r e L t d . p o l i s h e d s t a i n - l e s s s t e e l l i n e a r " A s w e l : g a s p i n g I t s t o r i t h i n k s c A s w e l l d i s t r a c t t h e c l a l t a p s t h e - N o r r i s t o c l a r i s u r r o u n c c o n c e r n ! . . . a r y s i s , " S e p t . 1 9 7 4 a s i t « f o r l i f < i m o u t h ] >f i t s pc a s h e c i : e d b y t l : t e r , th< ! p u r e si s a y s : L f y , h e i | l i n g s i n L n g t h e | i d d o n ' t c o r n e r o f G e o r g i a a n d G r a n - v i l l e , P a c i f i c C e n t r e : a n , t h e h o o t h r e s h i n g l a r c h e d , g r l ? o l a g a i n , i n t h e p o e t , ie g r o a n i n g i c l a s h o f t ) u r c e o f s o n ' T h e r o l e o f ; h t e n a n d ex w h i c h i t i s > i e c e : " R e l w o r r y a b o u t - c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t t o s u r - r o u n d i n g h i g h r i s e b u i l d - i n g s ; a r t i s t w a n t e t h e p i e c e t o s a y s o m e t h i n g s p e c i a l t o e a c h v i e w e r - f e e l i n g o f e x c e r p t b y A . D . H o p e : k e d f i s h w h i l e i t d i e s , i n t e r r o r a n d p a i n , t l n I t s d e l i c a t e e y e s , b l i n d , b e t r a y e d , m i l l a m o n g t h e j o s t l e o f s l a v e s , r a d e , g • a r t i n a r c h i t e c t u r e i s t e n d t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e s i t u a t e d . " y o n y o u r g u t r e a c t i o n s a n y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a n a l - a b s t r - ac t^ w e l d e d S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S I I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 11 G e o r g e N o r r l s c o n t ' d . " N o r r i s l e f t t h i s w o r k u n t i t l e d p u r p o s e l y t o a l l o w o u r m i n d s t o l a b e l a n d d e f i n e i t . S t u d y i n g i t - - t a l l p e d e s t a l l e g s , a s p i n d l e b o d y , e x p a n s i v e , d e l i c a t e w i n g s , a s p i n e y t a i l l o o p i n g o u t b e h i n d — i t c a l l s t o m i n d a m a j e s t i c , g l i s t e n i n g , g i a n t d r a g o n f l y , b o w i n g g r a c e f u l l y t o a l l w h o p a s s . " ( V a n c o u v e r S c u l p t u r e w i t h T e r r y N o b l e , V a n c o u v e r G u i d e l i n e . V o l . 1 0 , N o . 3 5 , J a n . 2 3 - 2 9 , 1 9 8 1 . ) P a t r i c i a W h e e l e r s i s a l w o o l ( m i r r - o r s ) w a l l & c e i l i n g h a n g i n g w r a p - p e d , b o u n d , b u n d l e d a d d i t i o s o f t s c a r c h i t e i u l p t u r e c t u r a l o 1 9 7 6 r n a m e n t a C a p i t o l 6 , 8 2 0 G r a n - v i l l e S t . t i o n - l i n e a r : c o l o u r f u l - f o c u s o f t h e t h e a t r e l o b b y ; t h e h a n g i n g i s c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e c a r p e t s a n d t h e d r a p e s - H o p p i n g , K o v a c h a n d G r i n n e l l D e s i g n C o n s u l t - a n t s L t d . ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) 12 J a c k H a r m a n H o r s e b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n J u n e 1 9 7 6 4 7 5 W e s t G e o r g i a B . C . T u r f B u i l d i n g " 2 l e g g e d " a b s t r a c t f i g u r e - c a s t b y t h e O s b o r n e P r o p e l l e r C o . - s h r u b b e r y h a s a l m o s t o b - s t r u c t e d t h e s c u l p t u r e f r o m v i e w 13 P a u l H u b a T h e P o s t m a n r e d g r a n i t e b a s r e l i e f 1 6 ' 1 9 5 6 H o m e r S t . e n t r a n c e Why d o y o u t h i n k t h e a r t - i s t w o r k e d l n t h i s s c a l e ? s u b t r - a c t i o n f i g u r a - t i v e 14 P e a r s o n I r o n W o r k s C a n a d - i a n C o a t o f c a s t a l u m i n u m s u b s t i - t u t i o n l i n e a r H . 1 9 ' 3 0 0 b l o c k W e s t G e o r g i a , M a i n P o s t O f f i c e W h a t 2 a n i m a l s & o t h e r e m b l e m s / s y m b o l s d o y o u s e e ? Who d e s i g n e d t h e C a n a d i a n C o a t o f A r m s a n d w h e n ? A r m s ro S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E 15 S C U L P T O R F r a n k P e r r y T I T L E F l o r e n - t i n e D o o r & W a l l #3 P A T R O N M E D I A b l a c k e n e d b r o n z e T Y P E S I Z E f r e e s t a n d - i n g s u b s t i - t u t i o n D A T E 1 9 6 7 L O C A T I O N 6 0 0 b l o c k H a m i l t o n D E S C R I P T I O N - f i r s t p r i z e a t t h e C e n - t e n n i a l S c u l p t u r e S h o w 1 9 6 7 - p o s i t i o n e d a t e y e l e v e l , t h i s w o r k h a s 2 f a c e s , t h e d e p t h o f t h e s c u l p - t u r e i s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t 16 G e r h a r d C l a s s c e n t e n n - i a l g i f t f r o m G e r - m a n C a n - a d i a n C o m m i t t e e t o t h e c i t y b r o n z e , s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a n d w a t e r c a s t f o u n t a i n 2 0 ' D e c . 1 9 7 1 19 2 0 0 b l o c k W e s t G e o r g i a , Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h T h e a t r e - c u r v e d s t e e l r i b s - p o l e a n d c i r c u l a r c e n t r e m a d e o f b r o n z e - a b a l a n c e o f p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e s p a c e c a s t i n S t r a s s a k e r , G e r m a n y - " T h e c o n c e p t , w h i c h r e s e m b l e s n o t h i n g a s m u c h a s a g i a n t g y r o t o p , a s s u m e s a n a d d e d r e s p e c t a b i l i t y s i n c e i t i n c o r p o r a t e s a f o u n - t a i n a s a s o r t o f u t i l i t a r i a n a d j u n c t t o c o m p l i m e n t t h e s c u l p t u r a l t h e m e . ' T h i s s y m - p h o n y o f w a t e r w h e e l s w i t h i n w h e e l s p e r f o r m - i n g a r o u n d t h e c l o c k , w i t h i t s p e d e s t a l f i r m l y i m p l a n t e d i n i t s w a t e r y s t a g e , i s i n c o m p l e t e a c c o r d w i t h t h e m u s i c a l a n d l i v e s t a g e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t r a n s p i r i n g n i g h t l y w i t h i n . " ( V a n c o u v e r ' s P u b l i c S c u l p t u r e : P e r s o n a l V i e w p o i n t s b y L e o n a r d M e y e r s . A r t s W e s t . V o l . 6 , N o . 6 , J u n e , 1 9 8 1 , p . 3 1 . 17 R i c h a r d H u n t T i m P a u l c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e C B C & t h e P r o v - i n c i a l M u s e u m w o o d t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n A p r i l , 1 9 8 2 7 0 0 b l o c k H a m i l t o n , C B C B u i l d - i n g - T h u n d e r b l r d a n d 3 o t h e r f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d - b r o w n , b l a c k , r e d , t u r - q u o i s e , g r e e n , y e l l o w a n d t h e u n p a l n t e d w o o d a r e t h e c o l o u r s - t h e r e a r e 4 n e g a t i v e s p a c e s c a r v e d i n t o e a c h w i n g - t h e b a c k o f t h e t o t e m i s m i n i m a l l y d e c o r a t e d w i t h b l a c k & b r o w n p a i n t - n e w p o l e h a s l a r g e £ c r a c k s - J S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N l o b b y o f t h e C B C B u i l d i n g D E S C R I P T I O N 18 N o r m a n W h i t e S p l l s h - c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e C B C l i g h t k i n e t i c - t h e s o u n d w a s t u r n e d o f f s o o n a f t e r S p l i s h -S p l a s h S p l a s h w a s i n s t a l l e d B o b D a v i d s o n I n t e r p r e - t a t i o n - R e a l i t y c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e C B C w o o d b a s r e l i e f s u b t r - a c t i o n i n a s e c o n d f l o o r o f f - i c e , t h e C B C B l d g . - n e c e s s a r y t o m a k e a n a p p o i n t m e n t t o v i e w t h e w o r k - N . W . C o a s t I n d i a n m o t i f s - i n t h e p a s t C B C h a s a l s o " r e n t e d " s c u l p t u r e f r o m t h e A r t B a n k a n d d i s p l a y - e d t h e w o r k s i n a n d a r - o u n d t h e i r b u i l d i n g , ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) 19 G e o r g e N o r r i s p l e x i - g l a s s b r o n z e a d d i - t i o n g e o m e t - r i c a b - s t r a c t H . 8 ' 1 9 7 2 n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f G e o r g i a a n d B e a t t y , A b u t m e n t P a r k - b e a c o n - l i k e b r i d g e m a r - k e r m a d e o f g l a s s s p h e r e s c o n t a i n s l i q u i d - p o l l u t i o n m a k e s t h e r e - f l e c t i o n o f t r a f f i c i m - p o s s i b l e - t h e c i t y r e n e g e d o n i t s p r o m i s e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s c u l p t u r e 2 0 a n o n y m o u s a r t i s t s - W . T . W h l t e w a y a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m t e r r a c o t t a " a r t n o u v - e a u " f i g u r e s m a n i p u - l a t i o n 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 1 2 - t h e upp - e a c h he a r m s r a l - l o w e r p - s a m e c c - h i g h l y - c o n s u l t 1 0 0 W e s t P e n d e r , S u n T o w e r e r t o r s o s o I d s a d r a p e s e d a r t o f " b o d i l o u r a s b r l a d o r n e d t o w i T h e P l e a s u - 9 s c u l p t u r e d m a i d e n s ( c a r y a t i d s ) s u p p o r t t h e b a s e f o o t i n g f o r t h e t o w e r o f t h i s H e r i t a g e B u i l d i n g ( 8 t h f l o o r ) - 5 a r e f o u n d o n t h e B e a t t y S t . s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g f t h e m a i d e n s a r e d e p i c t e d r y ; b o t h e l b o w s a r e b e n t , f" b e c o m e s a f l u t e d c o l u m n : k b u i l d i n g ir r e o f S e e i n g # 7 1 . M oo S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E 1 9 2 4 L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 1 C e n o t a p h g r a n i t e o b e l i s k H a s t i n g s a n d G a m b l e , V i c t o r y S q u a r e - s w o r d , l a u r e l , p o p p y w r e a t h i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h m a p l e l e a v e s p l u s W . W . I h e l m e t s 2 2 J a c k H a m b l e t o n M r s . D o n a l d S t e w a r t , h o n o u r i n g h e r s o n , N o r m a n s t o n e m e m o r - 1 9 6 0 V i c t o r y S q u a r e f u n c t i o n a l i a l d r i n k - i n g f o u n t - a i n 2 3 G e r h a r d C l a s s P r o v i n c e N e w s - p a p e r M e m o r i a l P r o v i n c e N e w s p a p e r s o l i d c a s t a l u m i n u m g r a n i t e p e d e s t a l t o t a l H . 5 ' 1 9 6 7 s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e S q u a r e - a s t y r o f o a m p a t t e r n w a s u s e d f o r t h e l e t t e r s V a n d P - d e d i c a t e d a s a m e m e n t o t o t h e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e s q u a r e a n d t h e 6 7 y e a r s o f p u b l i s h i n g , 1 8 9 8 - 1 9 6 5 l n t h i s a r e a o f t h e c i t y 24 m a d e l n t h e M a r c h b r o t h e r s f o u n d r y l n E n g l a n d b r o n z e b a s r e l i e f p l a q u e - f o r e s t s i n s c r i p t - t h e e r e a l s o i n s s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f H a m i l t o n & H a s t i n g s r e p r e s e n t e e i o n a r e l i k e s t " B y s e a a c r i b e d i n t o - c o m m e m o r a t e s t h e s p o t w h e r e L a c h l a n H a m i l t o n b e g a n h i s s u r v e y f o r t h e C . P . R . i n 1 8 8 5 — " i n t h e s i l e n t s o l i t u d e o f t h e p r i m e v a l f o r e s t h e d r o v e a w o o d e n s t a k e i n t h e e a r t h a n d c o m m e n c e d t o m e a s u r e a n e m p t y l a n d i n t o t h e s t r e e t s o f V a n c o u v e r . " o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h i s c o l u m n s n d l a n d we p r o s p e r " i s t h e p l a q u e 2 5 V e r n S i m p s o n " G a s s y J a c k " a V a l e n - t i n e D a y g i f t t o t h e p e o p l e C4 a r e a b u c o p p e r b r o n z e f r o m T o i s i n e s s t n e i w e l d e d *n G r o u p O H . 7 ' L t d . 1 9 7 0 C a r r a l l , W a t e r , a n d P o w e l l S t , M a p l e t r e e S q u a r e - m e m o r i a l t o C a p t . J o h n D e i g h t o n - e r e c t e d w i t h o u t p e r m i s - s i o n o f c i t y o f f i c i a l s <- to VO S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A S L I D E 2 6 S C U L P T O R C o u e r d e L i o n M c C a r t h y T I T L E A n g e l o f V i c t o r y P A T R O N M E D I A b r o n z e m a r b l e a n d B t o n e b a s e T Y P E w a r m e m o r - i a l S I Z E 1 3 ' x 5 ' 3 5 0 0 l b s . D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N A p r . 2 8 , 1 6 0 0 C o r d - - d e p i c t s a n a n g e l c a r r y - 1 9 2 2 | o v a S t . , i n g a s o l d i e r h e s v e n w a r d C . P . R . - a t r i b u t e t o t h e C . P . R . S t a t i o n e m p l o y e e s l o s t l n W . W . I ( a n d W . W . I I d a t e s a d d e d ) - c h o s e n f r o m a c o m p e t i - t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n s c u l p - t o r s - c a s t l n M t . V e r n o n , N . Y . , i d e n t i c a l o n e s i n M o n t r e a l a n d W i n n i p e g - i n 1 9 6 7 c i t i z e n s ' c l e a n e d ' t h e " d i r t y " s c u l p t u r e a n d b a d l y s c r a t c h e d t h e s u r f a c e C . P . R . S t a t i o n - c l a s s i c a l p l a s t e r w o r k a t t h e t o p o f t h e w a l l s o f t h i s H e r i t a g e B u i l d i n g n e w l y p a i n t e d a s o f J u n e 1 9 8 2 - h i d d e n l i g h t i n g ; e v e n s o , t o o d i f f i c u l t t o p h o t o g r a p h - r e c e s s e d c e i l i n g p a n e l s d i v i d e d i n t o 6 s e c t i o n s 2 7 M i c h a e l P h l f e r C . P . R . c o l u m n s o f s q u a r e d t i m b e r n o r t h e n d - a g e o m e t r i c a b s t r a c t o f G r a n - o f t h e f o r e s t s i n B . C . v i l l e S t . , - t h e w o o d c o l u m n s a r e c u t P l a z a 2 0 0 a t d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s - s i g n s t a t e s t h a t t h e s c u l p t u r e i s d a n g e r o u s t o c l i m b — p e r h a p s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a. c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s c u l p t o r ; t h e p l a z a d o e s n e e d m o r e s e a t i n g a r r a n g e - m e n t s f o r b u s y l u n c h h o u r s - I n c i s e d a n d f e l t p e n n e d g r a f f i t i m a r k s a r e e v i d e n t - l i g h t i n g e q u i p m e n t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e p i e c e i - t h e 3 t a l l e s t p o l e s a r e m i n i m a l l y d e s i g n e d a t t h e t o p . W h a t d o y o u t h i n k t h e s e m a r k s r e p r e s e n t ? »—• u> . O S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 4 - DOWNTOWN A « S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 8 E l z a M a y h e w c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y a r c h - i t e c t W . W . R e n r i T h o m p s o n , a n d P r a t t b r o n z e i e o f B e r w i c k h i g h r e l i e f p a n e l s u b s t i - t u t i o n 1 3 ' 2 " x 9 ' 2 " x 1 4 " A p r . 2 1 , 1 9 6 8 9 0 0 W e s t H a s t i n g s , B a n k o f C a n a d a , e n d w a l l o f l o b b y a b s t r a c t t o t e m i c c o l u m n s - t h e a r t i s t s t a t e s , " A l t h o u g h i t i s a b s t r a c t i t i s a b o u t p e o p l e ; w h e r e t h e y l i v e a n d g o . " ( T h e S u n ( V a n c o u v e r ) , A p r i l 2 2 , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 1 & 2 ) - c a s t i n E u g e n e , O r e g o n 2 9 S o r e l E t r o g 1 1 T r a n - b r o n z e a b s t r - a c t i n t h e r o u n d s c u l p - t u r e b u t f r o n t a l 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 8 8 0 0 W e s t P e n d e r , G u a r a n t y T r u s t - i n t e r l o c k i n g l i n k s s e t I n t o a n o r g a n i c s h a p e q u i l l o - s m o o t h & t e x t u r e d s u r - f a c e s - c u r v e s & b e n d s g i v e t h e p i e c e a f e e l i n g o f m o t i o n 3 0 R o b e r t Dow R e i d , K e l o w n a f i b r e - g l a s s f i g u r a - t i v e s t y l - i z e d 1 9 7 6 T h i s s c s l l g h t l f r o m t h i s n o m s c u r i t y o f a f l e x t e n d e u n d u l y ( V a n c o u 7 0 0 W e s t P e n d e r , P e n d e r P l a c e u l p t u r e i s i y a b s t r a c t t e r e a d i l y r e y s t i c s y m b o ] h e r e . I t b i g h t o f g r a c d , t a k i n g t c s y m b o l i c o r v e r P u b l i c S " C a n a d a g e e s e i n m i g r a - t o r y f o r m a t i o n s t a r t l e d f r o m t h e i r i d y l l i c w a t e r y f e e d i n g g r o u n d & t a k i n g t o t h e a i r f r o m a n i l l u m - i n a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r p o o l , n t r i g u i n g b e c a u s e t h e r e a t m e n t d o e s n o t d e t r a c t c o g n i z a b l e f o r m s . T h e r e i s m , o r s u r r e a l i s t i c o b - o a s t s a c o n j o i n e d c o n c e p t e f u l b i r d s , w i t h w i n g s t h e a i r w i t h o u t b e i n g e x c e s s i v e l y a l l e g o r i c a l . " c u l p t u r e : P e r s o n a l V i e w - p o i n t s b y L e o n a r d M e y e r . A r t s W e s t , V o l . 6 , N o . 6 , J u n e 1 9 8 1 , p . 3 1 . ) a n o n y m o u s s t o n e m a s o n s a r c h i - t e c t u r a l o r n a m e n t - a t i o n & C r a f i ( t o o d i - t h e mu o f t h e u n a d o r n 5 7 6 S e y - m o u r , A r t s s B u i l d i n g f f i c u l t t o p s e s a r e w h i t j r i c k c o l o u i e d e x c e p t f c - 4 m u s e s a r e p o r t r a y e d o n t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e 6 t h f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g h o t o g r a p h ) e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s _ t e d b u i l d i n g ; b u i l d i n g u> >r t h e s e f i g u r e s . J"" 132. F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s In o r d e r to h e l p the s t u d e n t s f o c u s and 'see' a p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e i t i s recommended t h a t some p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g o r s h o r t l y a f t e r a f i e l d t r i p . Some s u g g e s t i o n s a r e : 1. George N o r r i s i s one o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s most p r o l i f i c s c u l p t o r s . H i s work can be s e e n t h r o u g h o u t V a n c o u v e r and the p r o v i n c e . U n t i t i e d has been s a i d to be one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s most n o t e w o r t h y c o n t e m p o r a r y s c u l p t u r e s . Do you a g r e e w i t h N o r r i s ' i d e a of n o t naming the s c u l p t u r e ? Why? - D e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s c u l p t u r e and i t s s e t - t i n g . How does one a f f e c t the o t h e r ? - Why i s the p o l i s h e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l to use f o r t h i s s c u l p t u r e ? - What does the f o r m r e m i n d or make you t h i n k o f ? - C o n s u l t t e x t s t h a t d e s c r i b e w e l d e d s c u l p t u r e . F i n d work done by s c u l p t o r s t h a t c r e a t e l i n e a r forms such as George R i c k e y , Ibram Lassaw, Seymour L i p t o n , R i c h a r d L i p p o l d and H e r b e r t F e r b e r . Compare and c o n t r a s t the k i n d s o f l i n e s , the movement, and the rhythms t h a t a r e c r e a t e d by t h e s e a r t i s t s . Compare P a t r i c i a W h e e l e r ' s w a l l h a n g i n g w i t h t h e s e w e l d e d l i n e a r f o r m s . - Use Feldman's a p p r o a c h to c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s to a n a l y z e N o r r i s ' Un t i t l e d s c u l p t u r e . 2. Two o p p o s i n g views r e g a r d i n g the C e n t e n n i a l f o u n t a i n i n the 800 b l o c k West G e o r g i a a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the d e s c r i p t i v e n o t e s . Do you a g r e e w i t h e i t h e r p o s i t i o n ? Why? - T h e r e ar e o t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i e s r e g a r d i n g l o c a l s c u l p t u r e , f o r example, R o b e r t M u r r a y ' s Cumbria s c u l p t u r e on the way to 133 V a n c o u v e r ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t ; A l a n Chung Hung's Gateway at V a n i e r P a r k . Why do y o u s u ppose th e o f t e n a p a t h e t i c p u b l i c g e t s i n v o l v e d i n such h e a t e d arguments o v e r a r t ? 3. The c h o i c e of M i c h a e l P h i f e r to c r e a t e the wooden s c u l p - t u r e at P l a z a 200 has been c r i t i c i z e d by some V a n c o u v e r c i t i z e n s b e c a u s e he i s n o t a l o c a l C a n a d i a n s c u l p t o r . What a r e y o u r views on the i s s u e of s u p p o r t i n g C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s f i r s t ? ( T h i s i s s u e has a r i s e n i n the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s as w e l l . ) 4. S o r e l E t r o g i s a f a i r l y w e l l known C a n a d i a n s c u l p t o r . What o t h e r work has he done? How would you d e s c r i b e h i s imag- e r y ? What makes you t h i n k you c o u l d ' r e c o g n i z e ' h i s work? Use the e n c l o s e d s l i d e , #31, Moses, Mother and C h i l d t o h e l p you answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r work was i n f r o n t of the C a n a d i a n P a v i l i o n a t the 4 3 r d V e n i c e B i e n n a l e i n 1966 (Withrow, 1967, p. 6 0 ) . 5. A r t h u r E r i c k s o n ' s C o u r t h o u s e complex has many p o t e n t i a l ' s i t e s ' f o r s c u l p t u r e : on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , i n p o o l s , and amongst the l a n d s c a p e d g a r d e n s . Examine t h i s l o c a t i o n c a r e f u l l y and d e s i g n a s c u l p t u r e w i t h a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g i n mind. The d e s i g n can be a d r a w i n g or a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l maquette made of p l a s t i c e n e . Be s u r e to i n d i c a t e s c a l e . A p h o t o g r a p h o f y o u r p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g would e n a b l e y o u r c l a s s m a t e s to ' p i c t u r e ' what y o u r i d e a would be l i k e i n s i t u . 6. Compare and c o n t r a s t * images u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f c r i t - e r i o n : T h i s i s a s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t y f o u n d i n the Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v - i n c e o f B.C., S e p t . 1981, D r a f t , p. 177. ' . 134. - e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f - i m p a c t des i gn - s y m b o l i s m - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t - s t y l e - c o n t e n t - i m a g e r y - t e c h n i q u e - mood The f o l l o w i n g examples of s o f t s c u l p t u r e a r e recommended f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y : - Compare P a t r i c i a W h e e l e r ' s Cinema 6 w a l l h a n g i n g (not p h o t o - graphed) w i t h : C l a i r e Z e i s l e r ' s C o i l S e r i e s #4 ( S l i d e #32) c r e a t e d i n 1978 by w r a p p i n g n a t u r a l hemp, wool and p o l y e s t e r ; 9'8" x 6' x 5' ( C o n s t a n t i n e & L a r s e n , 1981, p. 4 1 ) . C h r i s t o ( J a v a c h e f f ' s ) Running Fence ( S l i d e #33) c r e a t e d i n 1976 o f n y l o n canvas 18' x 24% m i l e s l o n g , i n s t a l l e d f o r t h r e e days i n Sonoma and M a r i n C o u n t i e s , C a l i f o r n i a ( C o n s t a n t i n e & L a r s e n , 1981, p. 2 3 4 ) , and Magda A b a k a n o w i c z ' s E x h i b i t i o n , at the A r t G a l l e r y , New South Wales, Sydney i n 1976 ( S l i d e #34) ( I b i d . , p. 4 7 ) . 7. What i s the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between Norman W h i t e ' s S p l i s h S p l a s h and a s c u l p t u r e c r e a t e d by the a r t i s t Dan F l a v i n the n o m i n a l t h r e e ( t o W i l l i a m of Ockham) ( S l i d e #35) c r e a t e d i n 1963 o f c o o l w h i t e f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t ; 8' h i g h , The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, Ottawa ( G e l d z a h l e r , 1969, p. 7 4 ) . 8. Compare and c o n t r a s t the o r i g i n a l B i r d , c r e a t e d by Abraham E t u n g a r ( p h o t o g r a p h e n c l o s e d ) of g r e e n s t o n e , h e i g h t 16", w i t h J a c k Harman's b r o n z e c a s t , B i r d of S p r i n g , n o t i n g the i n f l u - ence o f media, t e c h n i q u e , s c a l e and s e t t i n g on the two s c u l p t u r e s Do you have a p r e f e r e n c e ? S t a t e y o u r r e a s o n s . MARION SCOTT LTD.« GALLERY OF THE ARTS Drawings and Paintings by KEN THURLBECK October 11-30,1981 Gallery 0 589 Markham Street Toronto, Ontario Tel: (604) 534-2141 O C T O B E R EXHIBITIONS <2) O C T . 1 - O C T . 14 O C T . 8 - N O V . 4 L e e B y n g & Bill B r a n d t Phyll is M a r g o l i n W a t e r c o l o u r s P h o t o g r a p h s O C T . 2 2 N O V . 4 A r c t i c s h o w p a i n t i n g s b y N a n c y Wr igh t , Dor is M c C a r t h y & V a l e r i e H a s s e l l , P h o t o g r a p h s b y R i c h a r d H o l d e n a n d n e w Innuit S c u l p t u r e K E N S I N G T O N F I N E A R T G A L L E R Y 006, 513 - 8TH AVENUE S.W. C A L G A R Y , ALBERTA T2P 1G3 (403) 266 -7565 When in Montreal Visit: DOMINION GALLERY The Dominion Gallery with Rodin's "Burgher of Ca la is" and Henry Moon's "Uprighl Motive" in front of its building, has 17 rooms on 4 floors GREAT E U R O P E A N ARTISTS 19th A N D 20th CENTURY OLD MASTERS OVER 200 CANADIAN ARTISTS DOUG BIDEN " H I E R O G L Y P H I C S " C O L O U R E D I N T A G L I O & C O L L A G R A P H Y O C T O B E R 2 0 - 3 1 P A P E R W O R K S 1944 West 4th Avenue. Vancouver. B.C. V6J 1M5 - 732-7033 Gallery Hours: Tuesday to Saturday. 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. CANADA'S LARGEST ELECTION^ FINE PAINTINGS ANDCULPTURE- IN CANADA'S L3GEST £ ART DEALER GLLERY r CABLE: DOMGALLEF, MONTREA. 1438 Sherbrooke W., Mrtreal H3G 1K TEL: (514) 845-747 845-7833  137. S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 5 - Downtown B T h i s a r e a i s bounded by : - the F r a s e r R i v e r on the s o u t h - F a l s e Creek and B u r r a r d I n l e t on the no r t h - B l a n c a on the west - Boundary Road on the e a s t . C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n As you can see f r o m the map, Downtown B i s i m p o s s i b l e to v i s i t i n one or even s e v e r a l f i e l d t r i p s ; i t c o v e r s such a wide a r e a . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r the t e a c h e r to e i t h e r d e t - e r m i n e what s c u l p t u r e s a r e c l o s e s t to h e r s c h o o l o r w h i c h ' c l u s - t e r ' o f s c u l p t u r e s w i t h i n Downtown B would be most f e a s i b l e to v i s i t , i . e . , a ' m i n i - t o u r . ' I f you choose to v i s i t s c u l p t u r e s c l o s e to y o u r s c h o o l t h a t a r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s , use T a b l e I as a g u i d e l i n e to h e l p you f i n d o ut as much as you can about ' y o u r ' s c u l p t u r e . M o r e o v e r , l o o k at t h i s a r e a and the o t h e r f i v e a r e a s w i t h i n S e c t i o n I I I i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e what k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s can be a s k e d about s c u l p t u r e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n to S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 4 - Downtown A c o u l d a l s o h e l p t e a c h e r s u t i l i z e s c u l p t u r e s f o u n d w i t h i n t h i s a r e a . R e g a r d l e s s o f what s c u l p t u r e s you s t u d y i t would be p r o f i t a b l e to p r e v i e w Downtown B s c u l p t u r e i n g e n e r a l v i a s l i d e s . D u r i n g the v i e w i n g o f the s l i d e s f i n d t h e answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. The human f i g u r e i s d e p i c t e d i n e i g h t s c u l p t u r e s . Name t h e s e works. 2. The b u s t o f G e r a l d G r a t t a n McGeer i s v e r y much l i k e 138 o t h e r b u s t s w i t h i n the c i t y : D a v i d Oppenheimer, S t a n l e y P a r k ; Dr. M a c K e n z i e , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.; and C h a r l e s B e n t a l l , The West End. What words d e s c r i b e t h e s e b u s t s ? C o n s u l t T a b l e I and the g l o s s a r y . 3. What e v e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s h i s t o r y has P a u l Deggan d e p i c t e d i n h i s m u r a l at Cambie and 12th? 4. What i s the major d i f f e r e n c e between Cap t . George V a n c o u v e r as c r e a t e d by C h a r l e s Marega, f o u n d at C i t y H a l l , and A l a n Chung Hung's M e m o r i a l to Capt. V a n c o u v e r , f o u n d a t V a n i e r P ark? 5. D e s c r i b e the mood/impact o f L e t h a K e a t e ' s C o n t i n u i t y . 6. Th e r e i s a n o t h e r woman s c u l p t o r r e p r e s e n t e d i n Down- town B. What i s h e r name and where i s h e r m u r a l t o be found? 7. What f i v e works would you c l a s s i f y as b e i n g commemorat- i v e ? (Show s l i d e s u s i n g the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 5 - Down- town B. ) ZED5-2 — | \ < o S > < PI 31 0 z H X iii u 5 n nr.-s-i < 0 V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E 77D 5 - fO P- L 2 > ? ZQ:-5-3 • o o V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E 221 :5 ' 1 '.0 V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E  wo UL' 5*.2I O » TI V I E W F R O M THIS S I D E DATE V I E W F R O M T H I S S I D E UL S-2.1 0 o T77 -5-28 0 BP 5-3>« n TIT'S'- 3 2 . JUT* 5*34 SECTION I I I : AREA 5 - DOWNTOWN B S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 - DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R • T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E b a s r e l i e f o n a f r e e s t a n d - i n g 3 p i e c e s c u l p - t u r e S I Z E 3 f o r m s v a r y i n g f r o m 5 % ' t o 8 ' D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 1 G e r h a r d C l a s s H a s t i n g s M i l l C o m m e m - o r a t i v e V a n c o u v e i H i s t o r - i c a l S o c i e t y C e n t e n - n i a l P r o j e c t B . C . g r a n i t e 1 9 6 6 n o r t h e n d o f D u n l e v y S t . a d j a c - e n t t o N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s B u i l d i n g - l i n e a r , s t y l i z e d d e s i g n s r e p r e s e n t i n g 3 s t a g e s o f t h e m i l l s o p e r a t i o n a r e i n c i s e d i n t o t h e 3 g e o - m e t r i c f o r m s o f t h i s l a n d - m a r k - c o m m e m o r a t e s t h e 1 0 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f t h e b u i l d - i n g o f t h e H a s t i n g s M i l l , w h i c h w a s o n e o f t h e f i r s t b u i l d i n g s t o b e c o n s t r u c t e d i n V a n c o u v e r 2 L e o n a r d E p p 3 p a n - e l s o f p r e - s t r e s - s e d c o n - c r e t e m u r a l e a c h p a n e l 1 6 ' x 9 ' 1 9 6 9 - f i s h , l n b a s l n t e r e s c o n c r e t - c o n s u l 8 0 3 E a s t H a s t i n g s , G u l f & F r a s e r F i s h e r m a n ' E C r e d i t U n i o n B l d g . f l s h b o a t s , n r e l i e f o f v a t i n g s h a d o w e t T h e P l e a s u r e p r e s e n t s t h e 3 m a i n t y p e s o f c o m m e r c i a l f l s h - i n g - - g i l n e t t l n g , s e i n i n g , t r o l l i n g - f e e l i n g o f k i n e t i c m o t i o n - d e s i g n c h o a e n b y t h e a r c h i t e c t R . F . H a r r i s o n a n d A s s o c i a t e s f r o m a c l o s e d c o m p e t i t i o n e t s a n d f l o a t m o t i f s a r e r y i n g d e p t h s w h i c h c r e a t e e f f e c t s o n t h e w h i t e r e o f S e e i n g #64 3 J a c k H a r m a n R o g e r B a n n i s t e J o h n L a n d y r b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n - b a s e 1 0 ' - f i g - u r e s 1 0 ' S e p t . 2 7 , 1 9 6 7 3 1 0 0 E a s t H a s t i n g s , B r i t i s h E m p i r e S t a d i u m - H a r m a n w o r k e d f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h t a k e n b y C h a r l e s W a r r e n a t t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e G a m e s , 1 9 5 4 - t h e s c u l p t o r c a s t t h e o v e r - l i f e s l z e f i g u r e s i n h i s o w n f o u n d r y 4 E l e k I m r e d y c a s t a l u m i n u m f i g u r e a p p r o x . H . 4 ' 1 9 7 0 1 4 5 7 E . 1 3 t h O u r L a d y o f F a t i m a C h u r c h , o u t - B i d e w a l l - l i n e a r o o r t r a v a l o f O u r L a d y o f F a t i m a »—' *» ro S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 - DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 5 S a m C a r t e r F l o w e r T o t e m s N e i g h b o r - h o o d I m - p r o v e m e n t P r o j e c t f o r K e n s - i n g t o n m e t a l b r i g h t l y p a i n t e d w i t h 3 p r i m a r y c o l o u r s , y e l l o w , b l u e a n d r e d K l n g s w a y & K i n g E d w a r d a n o p e n a i r c o m p e t i t i o n w a s h e l d - t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e 3 " t o t e m s " w e r e r e m o v e d a s o f S e p t . 1 , 1 9 8 2 . 6 7 J a c k H a r m a n b r o n z e m o s a i c t i l e I n - s e t s ; g o l d p a i n t e d h i g h - l i g h t s w e l d e d w a l l s c u l p - t u r e a p p r o x . H . 8 ' 1 9 6 2 6 3 5 0 N a n a i - m o , C o r p u s C h r l s t l , e x t e r i o r r e p r e s e n t s t h e A p o s t l e s s g r a f - f i t o b a s r e l i e f i n t e r i o r w a l l s r e p r e s e n t s t h e G o s p e l s - b e i g e w a l l s ; b r o w n l i n e d r a w i n g s w i t h p a i n t e d g o l d h i g h l i g h t s b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n a b o v e t h e a l t a r - a c r u c i f i x ; l i f e s i z e r e a l i s t i c ; n o t p h o t o - g r a p h e d 8 G e r h a r d C l a s s H o r i z o n s c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y F . C a m e r - o n W i l k - i n s o n f a b r i c - a t e d c o r t e n s t e e l w e l d e d g e o - m e t r i c 2 0 ' x 2 6 ' 7 0 0 0 l b J u n e 1 5 , 1 9 7 0 - s y m m e t i - 3 l a r g e w a r d s I n o n 3 p o i c r e t e be - p l a q u e 6 0 t h A n n 8 8 8 S . E . M a r i n e D r . , W i I k l n s o n C o . L t d . l e a l & g r a c e w i n g s s t r e l g e o m e t r i e s n t e d t i p s wt s e h i d d e n i i p r o c l a i m s "< i v e r s a r y o f - c u b i s m i n m e t a l ; 3 d i m - e n s i o n a l g e o m e t r i c s y m - b o l i s m o n a l a r g e s c a l e - a b s t r a c t s t u d y o f l i n e , f o r m & g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r - t i o n s f u l s i m p l i c i t y : c h i n g u p w a r d s a n d o u t - L p l a n e s . T h e w i n g s r e s t l i c h a r e s e c u r e d t o a c o n - I t h e g r a s s . t r e a t e d t o c o m m e m o r a t e t h e t h e W i l k i n s o n C o . L t d . ' ^ *- S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 - DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E 1 9 6 2 ( p l a c e d o n p r e - s e n t s i t e D e c . 6, 1 9 6 9 ) L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 9 H e n r y M o o r e K n i f e E d g e g i f t t o t h e c i t y f r o m M r . a n d M r s . P r e n t i c e B l o e d e l b r o n z e f r e e s t a n d - i n g w e l d e d 1 2 ' l o n g H . R . M a c - M l l l a n C o n - s e r v a t o r y , Q u e e n E l i z - a b e t h P a r k , n e a r 3 3 r d & C a m b l e - 2 p i e c e m o n o l i t h - b l o m o r p h i c s h a p e s - r o u n d e d a n d s h a r p e d g e s - o v e r l l f e s l z e - s c a r r e d s u r f a c e l s s c r a t c h e d , c u t , d r a w n o n , s c r i b b l e d , j a g g e d l y I n - c i s e d w i t h t h e a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l c a l l i g r a p h y - o n e o f 3 c a s t s - a f a v o u r i t e ' p l a y t h i n g ' o f t h e y o u n g 10 G e o r g e N o r r i s S t a t i o n s l e a d s u b s t i - t u t i o n m o l d e d f i g u r e s s t y l - i z e d s i m p l i - f i e d 1 9 6 4 4 9 2 5 C a m b l e H o l y Name P a r i s h , p l a c e d b e - f o r e t h e w i n d o w s - p l u s o f t h e C r o s s j a d e - l i k e m a r b l e a l t a r r e l i e f t h e s a m e a s e x t e r - i o r d e s i g n C h r i s t o n c r u c i f i x l s e l o n g a t e d & e m a n c i p a t e d 11 E l e k I m r e d y s g r a f - f i t o 1 9 6 9 ' 4 9 5 0 H e a t h - e r , n e a r 3 3 r d A v e . , Y o u v i l l e R e s i d e n c e e x t e r i o r - s y m b o l i c o f t h e S i s t e r ' s c a r e o f h u m a n i t y — o p e n h a n d w i t h man s t a n d i n g o n p a l m — b o t h s h a p e s e n c i r - c l e d b y a r i n g 12 P a u l D e g g a n p r e - c a s t c o n c r e t e & g l a s s m o s a i c t i l e s r e l i e f m u r a l a d d i - t i o n 9 ' 6 " x 6 0 ' 1 9 7 0 " P l a z a 5 i s o b s C l d i m e n s i c i c a l mot a n a b s t t C a m b l e & 1 2 t h , P l a z a 5 0 0 H o t e l 0 0 " b e c o m e s i r e d . T h e wc n a l ; c l o s e , i f s i n m o s a J a c t r e l i e f ; d e p i c t s t h e e v e n t s o f V a n c o u v e r ' s h i s t o r y - t h e a r t i s t s t a t e s , " t h e s i t e c a l l e d f o r a r i c h l y s c u l p t u r e d r e l i e f t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f s l a n t i n g s u n l i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e m o r n i n g . l e g i b l e o n l y w h e n t h e s u n t k i s c o n c e p t u a l l y t h r e e I t i s a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r - . c ; m i d d l e d i s t a n c e i t l s a n d f a r d i s t a n c e i t £ •c- S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 ~ DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N P a u l D e g g a n c o n t ' d b e c o m e s a s i g n r e a d i n g t h e n a m e o f t h e h o t e l " ( l n a n s w e r t o D o r i s C . M u n r o e ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s a p p e a r s i n h e r A p r i l , 1 9 7 2 t h e s i s , P u b l i c A r t i n V a n c o u v e r . ) 13 Y a n k a G e r a l d c o m m i s - b r o n z e O c t . 1 8 , C a m b l e a n d - n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - B r a y o v i t c h , G r a t t a n s i o n e d b y g r a n i t e 1 9 4 8 1 2 t h , C i t y t i o n f r o m Y u g o s l a v i a M c G e e r a g r o u p H a l l , - M c G e e r w a s t w i c e m a y o r o f b u s i n - e s s m e n a s a t r i b u t e t o M c G e e r s o u t h s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e h e w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t C i t y H a l l ; w a s a m e m b e r o f t h e B . C . l e g i s - l a t u r e ; a m e m b e r o f t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s ; a n d a S e n a t o r 14 G e r h a r d J u c h u m L o v e r I I d o n a t e d b r o n z e l i f e - 1 9 7 2 C a m b l e S t . t h e s c u l p t u r e w a s f i r s t b y t h e a r t i s t t o C i t y H a l l s i z e s i d e o f C i t y H a l l p l a c e d w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n b y t h e a r t i s t o n P a r k s B o a r d p r o p e r t y b e t w e e n S u n s e t B e a c h a n d E n g l i s h B a y - C i t y H a l l p r o v i d e d a p e r m a n e n t b a s e ; t h e S . S . B . C . p r o v i d e d a p l a q u e i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s c u l p t u r e 15 V a n c o u v - s t o n e s u b t r - n o r t h a n d l i n e a r a n d d e p r e s s i o n e r 1 s a c t i o n . s o u t h s i d e r e l i e f s o f t h e C o a t o f C o a t o f s u r a l o f C i t y A r m s , p l u s a d e p i c t i o n A r m s Das H a l l o f t h e C i t y H a l l B u i l d i n g r e l i e f c l o u d s , m o u n t a i n s a n d b i r d s w i t h 2 t r e e s ' b o r d - e r i n g ' t h i s m u r a l 16 C h a r l e s M a r e g a C a p t . c a m p a i g n b r o n z e f i g u r a - 8 ' f i g - A u g . 20 , n o r t h s i d e n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a - G e o r g e f o r f u n d s g r a n i t e t i v e u r e 1 9 3 6 o f C i t y t i o n ; e r e c t e d b y t h e c i t - V a n c o u - m a i n l y s u b s t i - 7 ' b a s e H a l l i z e n s o f V a n c o u v e r t o v e r t h e e f f - t u t i o n c o m m e m o r a t e t h e G o l d e n _ o r t o f S e n a t o r G . G . M c G e e r t h e n m a y o r o f V a n c o u v e r t J u b i l e e o f t h e c i t y *• S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D I S C U L P T O R • T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N p l u s : A l l a n C . K e l l y , d e s i g n e r , F r e d T o w n l e y & M a t h e s o n , a r c h - i t e c t u r a l f i r m m e t a l r e l i e f p a n e l s d o o r s A r t D e c o s t y l e o f s u n r a y s , f l y i n g s e a g u l l s , m o u n t a i n s , w a t e r a n d t h e f o r e s t s - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 1 4 3 # 1 4 4 - a n A z t e c w i n g & w a v e c r e s t f r i e z e o u t l i n e s t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e b u i l d i n g ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) 17 B e a t r i c e L e n n i e c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e D o m - i n i o n C o n s t r u c - t i o n C o . , a r c h i t e c - t u r a l f i r m c a s t a t o n e 5 p a n - e l s , m u r a l b a s r e l i e f 7' x 3 0 ' ; 6 t o n s 1 9 4 9 - t h e s u i t h i s r e r i a l l a l - c o n s u l 3 0 7 W e s t B r o a d w a y , L a b o u r T e m p l e , a b o v e t h e m a i n e n t - r a n c e i ' s r a y s f r s i l i s t i c p o r t s o u r t T h e P l e a s u - t h e c e n t r a l f o c a l p o i n t i s a g r e a t w h e e l o f i n d - u s t r y - o t h e r m o t i f s i n c l u d e a b e a v e r , a m a p l e l e a f , " T . L . C . , " 2 f i g u r e s s h a k - i n g h a n d s , w a r a n d p e a c e , c i t y a n d c o u n t r y s y m b o l s , a z e p p e l i n , C a n a d a a n d t h e U . S . A . , a map o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , a n d " A . F . L . " g m e n t t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n r a y a l o f C a n a d i a n i n d u s t - i r e o f S e e i n g # 1 3 9 1 8 P a u l D e g g a n c a s t c o n c r e t e u n i t s f o u n - t a i n 1 9 8 0 6 0 1 W e s t B r o a d w a y , B r o a d w a y P l a z a - t o t e m i c - g e o m e t r i c - a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r n a m e n t - a t i o n 19 G e o r g e N o r r i s s t a i n - l e s s s t e e l r o d s w e l d e d 7 2 0 W e s t B r o a d w a y , H e a t h e r M e d i c a l a l i n e a r a b s t r a c t o f t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n ' s s y m b o l s S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 0 L i o n e l T h o m a s , A . R . C . A . , A r c h i t e c t , C . B . K . v a n N o r m a n a n d A s s o c i a t e s N a t u r e ' s Own G e o m e t r y c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e a r c h - i t e c t c o p p e r b a s r e l i e f w e l d e d r e l i e f m u r a l 1 1 ' i 9 ' ; e n t r a n c e w a l l 7* x 6 ' ; 2 p a i r s o f p u s h p l a t e s 7 " x 7 " J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 6 5 2 6 9 5 G r a n - v i l l e , B l o c k B l d g . o n e x t e r i o r w a l l a b o v e d o o r w a y " A l l s o l i d i n o r g a n i c m a t - t e r f o u n d o n e a r t h , w h a t - e v e r i t s s i z e , b e l o n g s t o o n e o f t h e 7 b a s i c t y p e s . T h e s e t y p e s a r e a s f o l - l o w s : c u b i c , t e t r a g o n a l , r h o m b i c , m o n o c l i n i c , t r l - c l i n i c , t r i g o n a l & h e x a - g o n a l . T h i s l s t h e t h e m e f o r t h e b a s r e l i e f & t h e e n a m e l l e d g l a s s o n t h e c o p p e r w a l l . " ( p l a q u e o n s i t e ) 2 1 J a c k H a r m a n T h e F a m i l y - b r o n z e - b l a c k m a r b l e b a s e s u b s t i - t u t i o n f a t h e r 1 2 ' 5 " , 1 7 0 0 l b . m o t h e r w i t h b a b y 11 • 6 " ; 1 6 0 0 l b . s o n 9 ' : 9 0 0 l b . - 4 f i g - u r e s r e s t o n 6 ' s q u - a r e m a r - b l e b a s e 1 9 6 6 - o t h e r s r l a t e , e 1 2 2 5 0 G r a n - v i l l e , P a c i f i c P r e s s B l d g . f e l t t h a t t . g . , t h e n u 1 - l a r g e r t h a n l i f e f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l b u t e l o n g a t e d . " T h i s g i v e s t h e m m o r e s p i r i t u a l i t y ; s t o p s t h e m b e i n g d w a r f e d b y t h e m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c - t u r e b e h i n d . " ( W e s t e r n H o m e s a n d L i v i n g / V a n c o u v - e r L i f e , A p r i l 1 9 6 9 . p . 1 8 . ) - f i g u r e s w e r e c a s t i n H a r m a n ' 8 o w n N o r t h V a n - c o u v e r f o u n d r y - d e s i g n c h o s e n f r o m a c o m p e t i t i o n b e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g w a s f i n i s h e d - s o m e f e l t t h e s c u l p t u r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e p i c t e d t h e r o l e o f a n e w s p a p e r i n t h e f a m i l y a n d t h e i m - p o r t a n c e o f t h e f a m i l y i n t h e c o m m u n i t y i e s c u l p t u r e w a s I n a p p r o p - de b o y w a s d a m a g e d S E C T I O N I l l s A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R ' T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 2 2 B i l l K o o c h i n b l a c k g r a n i t e c a r v e d f o u n - t a i n p a r t o f t h e g a r d e n a t t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c P r e s s B l d g . - a b s t r a c t ; o r g a n i c - n o l o n g e r f u n c t i o n s a s a f o u n t a i n 2 3 G e o r g e N o r r i s S p i r i t o f C o m m u n i - c a t i o n - b e a t e n c o p p e r f i g u r e - a c a n - o p y o f b r a s s f r e e s t a n d - i n g s c u l p - t u r e w e l d e d 8 ' 1 9 6 6 - t h e f i r e m i n d s - t y p o g i a n d f o r g r a v e d o p y i s - " t y p e ' s i e e d ] - t h e a i t h e n o n e n s l o n e { T h e S u n i n t h e l o b - b y o f t h e P a c i f i c P r e s s B l d g . g u r e ' s m o u t l t h e v i e w e r a p h i c a l p l a l e i g n l a n g u a f i n c o p p e r t c m a d e o f c u t - i s a l s o u s e e f t a r m o f 1 t i s t s a i d , ' e - t o o - g e n t 1 < 1 l i f e i n t o , V a n c o u v e r " a m a l e f i g u r e l e a n s h e a v i l y b a c k w a r d s & s i d e - w a y s , a s t h o u g h t o r e s i s t b e i n g c a r r i e d o f f b y t h e b i l l o w i n g o p e n w o r k c a n o p y t o w h i c h h e i s a t t a c h e d b y a h a r n e s s . " ( T h e P r o v i n c e , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 3 ) i i s o p e n i n a c r y w h i c h o f a n e w s v e n d o r : e s f r o m e a r l y V a n c o u v e r ;e n e w s p a p e r s , p h o t o - e n - > f o r m a c o l l a g e ; t h e c a n - - u p m a t s ; f o u n d r y c a s t i d f o r t h e t o r s o & o v e r - : h e f i g u r e ' I t c o u l d b e t h o u g h t o f a s ! t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f 3 d i m - 2 d i m e n s i o n a l p r i n t . " , M a r c h 1 4 , 1 9 6 6 , p . 2 . ) 2 4 G e o r g e N o r r i s , a r t i s t - G a r d i n e r , T h o r n t o n & D a v i d s o n , a r - c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m F e d e r a l G o v ' t . 1% b u i l d i n g c o s t f o r a r t " c a s t - i n - p l a c e " b a s r e l i e f 5 ' x 9 5 ' 1 9 6 6 2 4 0 S P i n e S t . , P o s t a l S t a t i o n ' D ' - a b s t r a c t - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f a r c h i - S e e i n g # 1 3 1 t e c t u r - a l b o r - d e r u n d e r t h e c o r n i - c e s - " m o u l d e d v o r t e x f r i e z e s h o w s c o n s t a n t c h a n g e " 1 S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R • T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N 1 8 0 7 W e s t 1 0 t h A v e . , A c a d e m y o f M e d i c i n e D E S C R I P T I O N 25 B e a t r i c e L e n n i e a r t i s t - M e r c e r 4 M e r - c e r , a r c h i t e c t - u r a l f i r m H i p p o c - r a t e s c e m e n t , m a r b l e d u s t , s a n d , & w a t e r - p r o o f i n g m u r a l b a s r e l i e f 2 0 0 0 l b . 1 9 5 1 m e d i c a l s y m b o l o f h e a l e r h o l d i n g a s c e p t r e & d r a k e - c o n s u l t T h e P l e a s u r e o f S e e i n g # 1 2 9 26 L u t z H a u f s c h i l d W i n d f i b r e - g l a s s 19 75 1 3 t h & F i r , s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r 2 o r g a n i c g o l d e n y e l l o w B l o w n s h a p e s p l u s n e g a t i v e M o u n d s s p a c e 2 7 E d w a r d A p t G i r l W a i t i n g f o r S c h o o l - b u s c e m e n t f o n d u 1 9 6 1 B u r r a r d a n d C o r n w a l l - a m o s t c o n t r o v e r s i a l p i e c e w h e n i t w a s u n - v e i l e d - s i m p l i f i e d f i g u r e 2 8 c o n c r e t e P a r k v i e w T o w e r s , B u r r a r d a n d C o r n w a l l t h e l a r g e s t s u n d i a l i n t h e c i t y 29 G e o r g e N o r r i s T h e C r a b t h i s f o u n - t a i n s c u l p t u r e w a s c o m - m i s s i o n e d b y t h e W o m e n ' s A c o f t h e C e n o f V a n c o u v t h e c i t i z e ( $ 2 7 , 0 0 0 ) - $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 C C o m m i t t e e s t a i n - l e s s s t e e l w a t e r J e t s t i v i t i e s t e n n i a l e r a s a n s o f V a e n t e n n i a w e l d e d f o u n - t a i n g r o u p C o m m i t t e g i f t t o n c o u v e r . 1 2 2 ' x 1 7 ' Ih t o n s e 1 9 6 8 - i n c l u d e i n s c r i p t c a p s u l e J u l y 1 , H a i d a I n a n d i s a p e r i o d fa d a y . P l a n e t a r i u m a n d M u s e u m , V a n l e r P a r k s a r e f l e c t i o n : B e n e a t o b e o p e n e 1 0 6 7 . T h e d i a n s a s t h l s o t h e s i g e g l n n l n g J u - a c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h a 6 m a n J u r y w a s h e l d - t h e c u r v e s o f t h e c r a b e c h o t h e c u r v e s o f t h e P l a n e t a r i u m i n g p o o l a n d 7 s p r a y J e t s t h t h i s p l a q u e i s a t i m e d o n C a n a d a ' s B i c e n t e n n i a l c r a b w a s l o o k e d o n b y t h e e g u a r d i a n o f t h e h a r b o u r a o f t h e z o d i a c f o r t h e l y 1 s t - C a n a d a ' s b i r t h - 30 G e o r g e P r a t t " C h i l d - r e n C l i m b i n g R o c k " s t o n e s u b t r - a c t i o n V a n l e r P a r k - s l m p l l f l e d f i g u r e s 1 JS. S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 3 1 D 1 8 C U 6 d o n a t e d b y G l a d - a t o n e c h a p t e r C J - 6 , O r d e r o f A l p h a o n b e h a l f o f t h e " H e l e n e s " b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n N o v . 1 9 6 9 n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f t h e n u s e u t n - w i t h i n a r e f l e c t i n g p o o l a r e p l i c a o f t h e c l a s s - i c a l G r e e k d i s c u s t h r o w e r 3 2 A l a n C h u n g H u n g M e m o r i a l t o C a p t , V a n c o u - ver " T h e G a t e t o t h e N o r t h - w e s t P a s s a g e " H i s t o r i c S i t e s a n d M o n u m e n t s G o v ' t o f C a n a d a c o r t e n s t e e l J u n e Inorth o f - a w i n n i n g e n t r y l n t h e 1 9 8 0 | t h e m u s e u m , c o m p e t i t i o n V a n l e r P a r k - a b s t r a c t a r c h p l a q u e s t a t e s : " C a p t . G . V a n c o u v e r , R . N . 1 7 5 8 - 1 7 9 8 . A v e t e r a n o f C a p t . C o o k ' s v o y a g e s o f 1 7 7 2 - , 1 7 7 5 a n d 1 7 7 6 - 1 7 8 0 , V a n c o u v e r w e n t o n t o b e c o m e o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e x p l o r e r s o f C a n a d a ' s w e s t c o a s t . I n 1 7 9 1 h e w a s g i v e n c o m m a n d o f a n e x p e d i - t i o n t o t h e N . W . c o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g B r i t i s h s o v e r - e i g n t y h e r e & e x p l o r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of e n o r t h w e s t p a s s a g e . O n t h i s v o y a g e 1 7 9 2 - 9 4 h e c h a r t e d m u c h o f t h e c o a s t n o r t h o f t h e 3 0 t h p a r a l l e l , s a i l i n g u p t h e i n s i d e p a s s - a g e , c i r c u m n a v i g a t i n g V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d & e x - p l o r i n g m a n y o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s of t h e a r e a . " M u n g o M a r t i n c e d a r t o t e m O c t . 1 9 5 8 M a r i t i m e M u s e u m , H a d d e n P a r k ) n o r t h e n d o f C y p r e s s S t r e e t - t h e h i g h e s t i n V a n c o u - v e r - a r e p l i c a o f t h e p o l e i s l n E n g l a n d - i t h o n o r s t h e K w a k l u t l n a t i o n Ln O S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 5 — DOWNTOWN B S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N M u n g o M a r t i n c o n t * d f r o m t h e t o p : C h i e f w i t h h a t B e a v e r O l d M a n T h u n d e r b i r d S e a O t t e r R a v e n W h a l e D o u b l e h e a d e d S n a k e H a l i b u t C e d a r M a n ( n o t p h o t o g r a p h e d ) 3 3 L e t h a K e a t e C o n t i n - b r o n z e s u b s t i - S e p t . 3 9 7 5 P t . f i g u r e s o f a y o u n g b o y u i t y t u t i o n 1 9 7 8 G r e y R o a d , B r o c k R o u s e a n d g i r l w a l k i n g o n a l o g 152 . F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s Some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r o n - s i t e a c t i v i t i e s a r e : 1. Study J a c k Harman's The F a m i l y t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : - e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n - mood - i m p a c t - h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t - s y m b o l i s m - c o n t e n t - s t y l e - t e c h n i q u e - i m a g e r y Compare and c o n t r a s t * what you have l e a r n e d about H a r m a n ' s . F a m i l y w i t h the s u c c e e d i n g examples o f the f a m i l y : a ) * Amenhotep IV w i t h h i s W i f e ( N o f r e t e t e ) and D a u g h t e r s ( S l i d e #34), E g y p t i a n , c i r c a 1360 B.C., a c a r v e d r e l i e f o f " f a m i l y l i f e d e p i c t e d i n i t s most i n t i m a t e and happy moments. Here the P h a r a o h , whose u n p l e a s i n g p h y s i c a l a p p e a r - ance i s e v o k e d w i t h s y s t e m a t i c e x a g g e r a t i o n , embraces one of h i s d a u g h t e r s , w h i l e r a y s from the s u n - d i s c h o l d out symbols o f l i f e ( t h e ankh) to p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n " ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 74, p. 113). b ) v Henry Moore's F a m i l y Group ( S l i d e #35), model- l e d i n 1945; c a s t i n 1949, b r o n z e 60" h i g h E d i t i o n o f 4 (Read, 1965, f i g . 139, p. 161). Moore l o o k e d at a r e a l f a m i l y and used h i s T h i s i s a s u g g e s t e d R e s o u r c e Book, D r a f t of S e a c t i v i t y f o u n d i n A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / p t . 1981, p. 177. 153. i m a g i n a t i o n and what e x p e r i e n c e s you the v i e w e r has of a f a m i l y i n o r d e r to c r e a t e t h i s work. What makes the mother and f a t h e r seem so s t r o n g ? What makes you t h i n k t h a t t h e y might p r o t e c t the c h i l d ? What makes you t h i n k t h a t the c h i l d might depend on h i s mother? c) M a r i s o l ' s ( E s c o b a r ) The F a m i l y ( S l i d e #36) c o n s t r u c t i o n of p a i n t e d wood and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s done i n 1962. The s c u l p t u r e i s from the Museum of Modern A r t , New York ( C h i l d c r a f t A n n u a l , 1968, p. 3 7 ) , and i s an example of the a d d i t i o n t e c h - n i q u e . 2. A n o t h e r c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t u s i n g the same c r i t e r i a t h a t a p p e a r e d i n #1 (above) c o u l d be made between two s c u l p t u r e s f o u n d w i t h i n Downtown B: a) Ho r i z ons by G e r h a r d C l a s s b) K n i f e Edge by Henry Moore 3. Draw and/or p h o t o g r a p h a p i c t o r i a l e s s a y of one o f V a n c o u v e r ' s b e s t known l a n d m a r k s ; George N o r r i s ' The C r a b . Study t h e s c u l p t u r e from as many a n g l e s and p o i n t s o f view as p o s s i b l e . I f you a r e u s i n g a camera use d i f f e r e n t l e n s e s when p o s s i b l e . C o n s i d e r t a k i n g c o l o u r e d p r i n t s , s l i d e s or b l a c k and w h i t e p r i n t s t h a t c o u l d be 'blown up.' I n c l u d e ' s h o t s ' of the s c u l p t u r e and i t s s e t t i n g s ; the e n t i r e s c u l p t u r e , and d e t a i l s o n l y . k • t.: six 9 8 . , p . - F i n d out about George N o r r i s and what o t h e r commissions he has had t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . See i f t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f him v i s i t i n g y o u r s c h o o l and g i v i n g a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s work i n a s c h o o l a s s e m b l y . (The E d u c a t i o n Department o f the V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y c o u l d h e l p i n t h i s r e g a r d . ) 4. Use Feldman's a p p r o a c h t o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a c r i t i q u e t o the c l a s s o f Henry Moore's K n i f e Edge. 5. B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e the e i g h t a r c h i t e c t u r a l / o r n a m e n t a l r e l i e f s f o u n d w i t h i n Downtown B u s i n g T a b l e I as y o u r g u i d e l i n e . 6. Where do you s t a n d i n the c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r A l a n Chung Hung's M e m o r i a l to C a p t a i n V a n c o u v e r ? Why? Those f o r Those a g a i n s t - T h i s m e m o r i a l was c h o s e n o v e r 32 o t h e r d e s i g n s ; i t was j u d g e d to b e s t r e p r e s e n t the i d e a t h a t 'the p i e c e i s n o t t o be a s t a t u e i n the l i k e n e s s of the man but s h o u l d c l e a r l y be a commemorative s c u l p t u r e . ' - The f o r m s u g g e s t s Capt. V a n c o u v e r ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s ; he was the one t h a t d e t e r - mined the d i s c o n t i n u i t y between the P a c i f i c and the At 1ant i c. - I t s y m b o l i z e s the s e a r c h f o r the N o r t h West P a s s a g e - The a b s t r a c t a r c h - g a t e w a y i s i n the f o r m o f two 18th c e n t u r y n a v i g a t i o n i n s t r u - ments . - S u p p o r t e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t work b e c a u s e i t i s open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , making t h e s c u l p t u r e s e x c i t i n g (as i n N o r r i s ' U n t i t i e d s c u l p t u r e at P a c i f i c C e n t r e ) . - "Looks l i k e a c h i l d w a l k i n g p i g e o n - t o e d " f r o m an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by P e t e M c M a r t i n en- t i t l e d " S c u l p t u r e i n V a n i e r Park a P u z z l e to M o st," ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, A p r i l 22, 1980, p. A 3 ) . - A " b i t b l e a k " s t a t e d Andrew S c o t t i n The V a n c o u v e r Sun, Nov. 10, 1979, p. DI. - M i c h a e l Duncan, C h i e f C u r a t o r of the M a r i t i m e Museum has c a l - l e d i t "a b l o o d y m o n s t r o s i t y " ( A i l e e n C a m p b e l l ' s a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e , Mar. 18, 1980, p. A 5 ) . - Mike T y t h e r l e i g h q u o t e d some V a n c o u v e r i t e s ' r e s p o n s e s to the s c u l p t u r e : " s q u a s h e d MacDonald a r c h e s " ; " f o u l e d up a n c h o r s " ; "a p e r c h f o r s e a g u l l s " ; "a b l o o d y waste of money"; " N e l s o n would have t u r n e d a b l i n d eye to i t " ; "Ottawa's revenge",, ( P a t C a r n e y , a C o n s e r v a t i v e , won a s e a t i n the f ede r a l e l e c t i o n ; n o t A r t P h i l — l i p s ) ; "a b i l l c l i p " ; "4 t o n s o f r e d r u s t . " 7. The h i s t o r y of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c u l p t u r e and 154. a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a f a s c i n a t i n g one. C o n s u l t h i s t o r y t e x t s t o l e a r n how c l o s e l y the a r c h i t e c t and s c u l p t o r have worked i n the p a s t ; how i n t e g r a l a p a r t o f the b u i l d i n g s c u l p t u r e has been at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , e.g., the A s s y r i a n s , E g y p t - i a n s , the G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l s i n E u r o p e . What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e as s e e n : - between George N o r r i s and B a r r y Downes i n P o s t a l S t a t i o n 'D'? - between Chung Hung and A r t h u r E r i c k s o n i n the C o u r t h o u s e complex? - i n w a l l r e l i e f s i n the C.P.R. S t a t i o n ? - i n the c e i l i n g i n the M a r i t i m e B u i l d i n g l o b b y ? 8. C o n s u l t the a p p e n d i x i n o r d e r to l e a r n about t e n l o c a l , C a n a d i a n and/or i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d women s c u l p t o r s . Make a n o t e o f the media, t e c h n i q u e s , i m a g e r y , modes of e x p r e s - s i o n , and r a t i o n a l e s t h e y use. Ask f o r a s s i s t a n c e f r o m the l i b r a r i a n s of e i t h e r the V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y or t h e F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n a t the Main P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n o r d e r to see p h o t o g r a p h s of the work t h e s e s c u l p t o r s have e x h i b i t e d . L o c a l g a l l e r i e s such as the E q u i n o x , the B a u - x i , the A r t i s t s ' ; G a l l e r y , I C a r n e g i e C e n t r e , C a r t w r i g h t S t r e e t G a l l e r y , C h a r l e s H. S c o t t G a l l e r y , the M a r i o n S c o t t G a l l e r y , the Richmond A r t s C e n t r e , S u r r e y A r t G a l - l e r y , W e s t e r n F r o n t , the Women i n Focus G a l l e r y , and the Burnaby A r t G a l l e r y might a l s o be o f some a s s i s t a n c e r e g a r d i n g s l i d e s of work and/or e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e s of l o c a l a r t i s t s and r e v i e w s o f the s c u l p t o r s ' r e c e n t shows. 9. Compare and c o n t r a s t t h e 1886-1936 V a n c o u v e r Coat o f Arms w i t h the Coat o f Arms we've a d o p t e d as o f 1969. 10. Compare and c o n t r a s t M c C l e a r y Drope's L o v e r s ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The West End) w i t h G e r h a r d Juchum's L o v e r I I , e x a m i n i n g t h e : - c o n t e n t - mood - i mp a c t - s y m b o l i s m . S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 6 - VanDusen B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n s , 5251 Oak W h i l e A r e a 5 - Downtown B i s the most d i f f i c u l t a r e a o f the c i t y i n w h i c h to p l a n a f i e l d t r i p , A r e a 6 - VanDusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens i s the e a s i e s t . I t i s a ' c o n t a i n e d ' a r e a t h a t e n a b l e s the v i e w e r to see w i t h l i t t l e e f f o r t o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e s o f co n - s i d e r a b l e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . I t i s a h i g h l y recommended f i e l d - t r i p p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g the s u b t r a c t i o n t e c h - n i q u e , ab s t r a c t f o r m , and the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n . F i r s t of a l l , we need a b r i e f a c c o u n t of how e l e v e n of the s c u l p t u r e s came to be p l a c e d w i t h i n t h i s s u p e r b s e t t i n g . Debro C o n s t r u c t i o n S p e c i a l i t i e s d o n a t e d t h i r t y - t w o b l o c k s of T u r k i s h m a r b l e and t r a v e r t i n e to the E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e of A r t and D e s i g n , known t h e n as the V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f A r t . These b l o c k s were s t o r e d i n the open on the s o u t h bank of F a l s e Creek f o r some t i m e . S e v e n t e e n o f t h e s e b l o c k s were s p l i t up f o r a t e n y e a r s u p p l y f o r s t u d e n t s at the c o l l e g e . F i f t e e n 5' x 6' c h u n k s — t h r e e to s e v e n t o n s e a c h — w e r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t o n e s c u l p t u r e symposium. P e t e r P a u l Ochs, p r e s - i d e n t of the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c u l p t o r ' s S o c i e t y and a s m a l l p a n e l chose p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the s y m p o s i u m — t w e l v e s c u l p t o r s f r o m s e v e n c o u n t r i e s . These s c u l p t o r s worked d u r i n g J u l y and August o f 1975 on e l e v e n p i e c e s o f s c u l p t u r e (one work was done by the husband and w i f e team K u b a c h - W i l m s e n ) . Not o n l y d i d V a n c o u v e r g a i n a v a l u a b l e permanent c o l l e c t i o n o f l a r g e o u t d o o r s c u l p t u r e , the p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r t i s t s took a d v a n t a g e of an op- p o r t u n i t y f o r c u l t u r a l and a e s t h e t i c i n t e r c h a n g e . 157. Two r e f e r e n c e s a r e : The V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone S c u l p t u r e Symposium - a book- l e t t h a t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g who the s c u l p t o r s a r e , where th e y a r e from, t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , and t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x h i b - i t i o n s . I t has p h o t o g r a p h s o f r e c e n t work done by t h e a r t i s t s . V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone S c u l p t u r e Symposium - i n c l u d e s i n t r o d u c t i o n s by A r t P e r r y , w r i t e r , a r t i s t , and c o l u m n i s t o f The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e newspaper and D i a n a C a l d w e l l , c o - o r d i n - a t o r of the symposium, p l u s a v i s u a l and v e r b a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n of the symposium. (These b o o k l e t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m G e r h a r d C l a s s , i n s t r u c t o r a t the E m i l y C a r r C o l l e g e o f A r t and D e s i g n ; f r o m the C u r r i c u l u m L i b r a r y , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; and f r o m the F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n of the Main L i b r a r y a t U.B.C.) The r e a r e a l s o two e x c e l l e n t f i l m s a v a i l a b l e : A r t 10-1 S c u l p t u r e VT.1-3.6 Stone S c u l p t u r e Symposium 1975 AC 25 m i n u t e s c o l o u r i n t - j h - s h . T h i s f i l m d e p i c t s the s t o n e s c u l p - t u r e s and how t h e y were c r e a t e d f o r the VanDusen B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n s . V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone Symposium, a PEMC f i l m , i s a d o c u m e n t a t i o n of the same e v e n t f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e (A 362 30 min. c o l / s e c ) . C l a s s r o o m A c t i v i t i e s and S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n D u r i n g y o u r v i e w i n g of t h e s l i d e s o f the s c u l p t u r e w i t h i n the g a r d e n s f i n d the answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What words f o u n d i n T a b l e I and t h e g l o s s a r y w o u l d you use t o d e s c r i b e many of the forms you see w i t h i n the g a r d e n s ? 2. Name the s c u l p t o r s whose work i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y good 158. example o f one or more of the e l e m e n t s o f d e s i g n : l i n e shape t e x t u r e v a l u e mass/volume l i n e c o l o u r time o r o f the p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n : b a l a n c e economy harmony p r o p o r t i o n v a r i e t y movement (Show the s l i d e s u s i n g the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 6 - VanDusen B o t a n i c a l G a rdens.) CO to l5<? 0 o o o • f r HE M'L'ID   SECTION I I I : AREA 6 - VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS 37th Ave. and Oak S t r e e t S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 — V A N D U S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S - 3 7 t h A v e . a n d O a k S t r e e t S L I D E S C U L P T O R . T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 1 P e r N l l s s o n U a t , S w e d i s h d o n a t e d b y t h e S w e d i s h C o m m u n i t y " I n m e m - o r y o f t h e S w e d - i s h p i o n - e e r s o f t h i s g r e a t p r o v i n c e " R b r o n z e p a n e l s s u b s t i - t u t i o n f o u n - t a i n c u t o u t g r i l l - w o r k A u g . 3 0 1 9 7 5 e n t r a n c e t o t h e g a r d e n d e p i c t s S w e d i s h i n v o l v e - m e n t i n B . C . ' a i n d u s t - r i e s . W h i c h i n d u s t r i e s a r e d e p i c t e d ? - c a s t i n S w e d e n 2 A r t h u r S t e r r l t t A l o f t h e G i s - p u d w a d a B l a c k - b e a r ( A l ] C r e s t o f t h e K i l l e r - w h a l e T r i b e - c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y t h e V a n - c o u v e r B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n s A s s o c . - u n v e i l e d d u r i n g H a b i t a t c e d a r t o t e m s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 0 ' J u n e 2 , 1 9 7 6 - h u m a n m o u n t a i b l a c k b - h u m a n l y v i l l h e l p e d - b e a r f b e f o r e - h u m a n t h a t b e g i v e n o t e m . ) - u n p a i n b a c k — a - w h a t d i n g o u t e n t r a n c e t o t h e g a r d e n f o r m a t t h e n s t o h u n t e a r a n d a s s i l e a d i n t o p a g e r w h o t o t t i i m w h e n n o i g u r e a t b o b e i n g t u r n e h e a d i n b e a a r f i g u r e i i n t h e p l a q U < t e d ; f r o n t a t t a c h e d t o o y o u t h i n k t h e p o l e ? " t h i s p o l e c a r v e d b y A r t h u r S t e r r l t t , a G l t k - s a n f r o m t h e U p p e r S k e e n a R i v e r a r e a o f B . C . i n c o r - p o r a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g 4 f i g u r e s : t o p — m a n w h o w e n t i n t o g o a t a n d w a s c a p t u r e d b y a j t h e d t h e b e a r f o r m . f l g u r e ' a s t o m a c h — f r i e n d - 3 k t h e b e a r man i n a n d o n e e l s e w o u l d . : t o m — r e p r e s e n t s b e a r m a n i i n t o h u m a n f o r m , r ' s s t o m a c h i n d i c a t e s 9 b e a r m a n . " ( i n f o r m a t i o n ; a t t h e b a a e o f t h e t o - L; h o l l o w e d o u t f r o m t h e t h e c o v e r e d w a l k w a y i s t h e p u r p o s e o f h o l l o w - 3 G e o r g e N o r r i s d o n a t e d b y G o r d o n , K a t h l e e n & S h e i l a F a r r e l l B . C . J a d e f o u n - t a i n s u b t r - a c t i o n F a r r e l l P o o l - 2 a b s t r a c t , o r g a n i c f o r m s ON to S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 - V A N D U S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E L O C A T I O N D E S C R I P T I O N 4 D a v e B a c k s t r o m d e s i g n e r , f o r m - e r l y w i t h t h e P a r k s B o a r d i n m e m o r y o f M a b e l W h i t i n g Y o u n g B . C . J a d e d r i n k - i n g f o u n - t a i n 1 9 7 6 - g e o m e t r i c a b s t r a c t - f u n c t i o n a l s c u l p t u r e - w a t e r r u n s o v e r t h e a s y m m e t r i c a l l y a n g l e d p l a n e s o f j a d e 5 G e r h a r d J u c h u m T h e F i s h e r - m a n ( " F i s h - e r " ) b r o n z e ? s u b s t i - t u t i o n ? A u g . 2 8 1 9 7 6 - s e a t e d m a l e n u d e h i g h l y t e x t u r e d 6 G e r h a r d C l a s s c o m m i s - s i o n e d b y a n d a g i f t f r o m M r s . H a z e l K i t c h e n B . C . J a d e b r o n z e s u n d i a l 1 9 7 5 t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m w a s w o o d a n d t h e n t h e s u n d i a l w a s s a n d c a s t 7 - f l o r a l S e p t . 9 1 9 7 9 T h e C h i l d - r e n ' B G a r d e n - l n c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e Y e a r o f t h e C h i l d a n d t h e F a m i l y i n B . C . 8 S a s - q u a t c h O g o p o g o w i r e f r a m e s t o p i a r y - a r e J u s t 2 o f t h e e x a m p - l e s ( i n f o r m a t i v e p l a q u e s i n p l a c e ) 9 U n k n o w n W o l f d o n a t e d b y Tommy T o m p k i n s , n a t u r a l - i s t w o o d s t a i n e d b l a c k s u b t r - a c t i o n - c a r v e d w i t h a c h a i n s a w . 1 9 7 9 i n s i d e t h e k i o s k ( g a z e b o ) - p a i n t e d b l a c k - o p e n m o u t h - D o y o u f i n d h i m f r i e n d - l y ? Why d o y o u t h i n k h e i s i n t h e g a r d e n ? 10 A n d r e a d e l V e r r o c c h l o ( 1 4 3 5 - 1 4 8 8 ) P u t t i n o M r . & M r s . P . P i t c h e r b r o n z e s u b s t i - t u t i o n f o u n - t a i n r e p l i c a 1 9 8 0 - b r o n z e o r i g i n a l a t P a l a z z o V e c c h i o , F l o r e n c e I t a l y - i n f a n t h o l d i n g f i s h t h a t h a s a w a t e r s p o u t l n I t s m o u t h ON l j S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 - V A N D I I S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S S L I D E S C U L P T O R . T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E D E S C R I P T I O N 11 S e b a s t i a n T h e T h r o n e f r o m M e x i c o t o t h e p e o p l e o f V a n c o u v e r r e d p a i n t e d m e t a l w e l d e d g e o m e t - J u l y 1 9 7 8 o f W e z a h u a l C o y o t t r i c 12 T h e M a z e 2 0 0 0 E a s t e r n A r b o r - v i t a e 1 0 0 ' i n d i a m e t e r J u n e 20 1 9 8 2 - c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i c i p a t o r y a n d / o r a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e - t h e b e s t v i e w i s f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e t e r r a c e . W h a t i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e M a z e ? Why w a s o n e c o n s t r u c - t e d a t V a n D u s e n G a r d e n s ? 13 M a t h l a s H l e t z , A u s t r i a I n M e m o r l a m m a r b l e s e w e r g r i d s u b t r - a c t i o n + a d d - i t i o n J u l y 1 t o A u g . 3 1 1 9 7 5 V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t o n e S c u l p t u r e S y m p o s i u m ( V . I . S . S . S . ) T e l l h a r d de C h a r d i n - 1 2 s c u l p t o r s f r o m 7 c o u n t r i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e 2 m o n t h e v e n t - 1 1 s t o n e s c u l p t u r e s w e r e c r e a t e d T h e f o l l o w i n g n o t e s a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e s y m p o s i u m c a t a l o g u e : - t h e s c u l p t o r h a d n o r e a d y m a d e d e s i g n b u t s e v e r a l i d e a s - t h e s e w e r g r i d i s p u r e c h a n c e ; i t r e p r e s e n t s i n c a r n a t i o n , i m p r i s o n - m e n t , a b a r r e d w a y - t h e b l a c k s p h e r e s u g g e s t s e t e r n a l m y s t e r y - t h e 2 o p e n i n g s a r e l i k e t h e l i g h t t h a t C h a r d i n b r o u g h t t o b e a r t h r o u g h t h e 2 s c i e n c e s - t h e e n c l o s i n g f o r m s u g g e s t s i n n e r v a l u e s f o u n d i n man - t h e c o l o u r , l i n e , f o r m a r e s i m i l a r t o o u r o w n e n e r g i e s a n d s e n s a t i o n s 14 J o a n D . G a m b l o l i , V a n c o u v e r T r a v e r - t l n e m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - c o n c e r n e d m o r e w i t h h u m a n i n t e r - e s t s ; d e s i r e s m o r e h u m a n s c a l e t o s o m e o f o u r i m p o s i n g b u t o f t e n o v e r w h e l m i n g b u i l d i n g s ~ *» S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 - V A N D U S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E D E S C R I P T I O N J o a n D . G a m b i o l i , c o n t ' d - p e o p l e w h o o c c u p y b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g - e x p r e s s e s h e r o w n t r e m e n d o u s e x c i t e - m e n t i n t h e p o w e r a n d b e a u t y o f n a t - u r a l a n d h u m a n f o r m s a n d c o m p o s i t i o n , b a l a n c e , r h y t h m , a n d s p a c e - w o r k s b o t h f r o m m a t e r i a l t o s u b j e c t o r v i c e v e r s a 15 K i y o s h i T a k a h a s h l , J a p a n m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - b e l i e v e s s t o n e s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d m e r g e w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , e . g . p u t c a s u a l l y i n p u b l i c g a r d e n s " . . . s h o u l d b e a n I n f o r m a l k i n d o f f o r m i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s m e d i u m t a k e s u p t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ' s s p a t i a l e n e r g y a n d t h e n l e t s i t s e t t l e i n t o t h e g r o u n d u p o n w h i c h i t i s p l a c e d — a s e n s e o f f a m i l i a r i t y r a d i a t i n g a n i n t i m a t e a t m o s p h e r e , a m y s t e r i o u s p o t e n t i a l i t y a n d m a g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y — a ' b e i n g ' w h i c h r e m i n d s o n e o f s o m e s t r i c t a u s t e r e o r d e r r e v e a l i n g a ' v e r t i c a l , c e n t r i f u g a l e x p a n s e . " 16 ( P l q t o u k u n ) D a v i d R u b e n , N . W . T . O b s e r v - i n g Y o u r S o c i e t y m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n \ 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - m e m o r i e s o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c h i l d h o o d a n d o f p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l - a n o r t h e r n o u t l o o k u p o n t h e w a y o f l i f e i n t h e s o u t h - 3 f a c e s / d i r e c t i o n s - - s k y w a r d , e a s t , w e s t - w a t c h i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f g r o w t h a n d p r o g r e s s o f o u r s o c i e t y ; t h e e y e s c o n s t a n t l y o b s e r v i n g 17 A d o l f R y s z k a , P o l a n d T r a v e r - t i n e m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - s c u l p t o r w o r k s w i t h i n t u i t i o n , I m - a g i n a t i o n , a n d v i s i o n . " I b e l i e v e i n w i s d o m a n d B u f f e r i n g , s e l f - s a c r i - f i c e a n d l o v e , m o d e s t y , a n d k i n d n e s s . *— o\ Ln S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 - V A N D U S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E D E S C R I P T I O N A d o l f R y e z k a , c o n t ' d - w i s h e s t o s e a r c h f o r t r u t h l n h i s w o r k - s c u l p t o r f e e l s t h e s y m p o s i u m i s i d e a l f o r i t e n a b l e s h i m t o c o n c e n - t r a t e i n a p r o p e r a t m o s p h e r e 18 O l g a J a n i c , Y u g o s l a v i a m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - s c u l p t o r b e l i e v e s t h a t s c u l p t u r e i s a l w a y s a m y s t e r y e s p e c i a l l y I f i t i s d i r e c t l y d o n e i n s t o n e ; t h e s c u l p - t u r e s e e m s t o s t r i k e u p a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e a n d s t a r t s a q u i e t l i f e o f i t s o w n 19 W o l f g a n g K u b a c h G e r m a n y A n n a - H a r l a K u b a c h - W i l m s e n , G e r m a n y m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - s y m p o s i u m s e n a b l e t h e s c u l p t o r t o l e a v e t h e s t u d i o a n d w o r k u n d e r t h e o p e n s k y t o m a k e s t a t e m e n t s i n s t o n e w i t h p a r a l l e l c o n c e r n s f o r l a n d s c a p - i n g ; a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n o f u r b a n l i v i n g s p a c e 2 0 H l r o m l A k l y a m a , F r a n c e m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - s i m i l a r l y t h i s a r t i s t f e e l s l i b e r - a t e d o u t o f h i s s t u d i o a n d t h a t s y m p o s i u m s s u c h a s t h i s o n e r e l e a s e t h e s c u l p t u r e f r o m m u s e u m s ; t h e r e i s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e a l h u m a n e n - v i r o n m e n t 2 1 J i r o S u g a w a r a , I t a l y m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - t h e s c u l p t o r f e e l s t h a t s y m p o s i u m s a r e a n a r t i s t i c t e s t i m o n y t o m a n ' s e x i s t e n c e i n n a t u r e ; t h a t t h e y s t i m - u l a t e c u l t u r a l l i f e l n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d m a y r e s u l t l n f i n e p e r m a n e n t s c u l p t u r e ; t h a t t h e r e i s a v a l u a b l e i n t e r c h a n g e a m o n g a r t i s t s o n h o w t o s p e a k t o s o c i e t y u s i n g w o r k s n o t w o r d s o\ S E C T I O N I I I : A R E A 6 - V A N D U S E N B O T A N I C A L G A R D E N S S L I D E S C U L P T O R T I T L E P A T R O N M E D I A T Y P E S I Z E D A T E D E S C R I P T I O N 2 2 M i c h a e l P r e n t i c e , F r a n c e m a r b l e s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - d i s c u s s e s t h e d i s c o v e r i n g o f f o r m s a n d t h e n t h e t e d i o u s d e t a i l s o f p e r - f e c t i n g l i n e s a n d t i g h t e n i n g u p t h e s c u l p t u r e - f e e l s t h e r e i s a n i r o n y o f b e i n g a n a r t i s t ; o f b e i n g b o t h e g o c e n t r i c t o m a i n t a i n c o n f i d e n c e v e r s u s h u m i l i t y a n d a n o p e n n e s s t o p r o d u c e g o o d w o r k - t o h i m c r e a t i v i t y i s a f o r m o f r e l i g i o n , " e a c h n e w p i e c e i s l i k e a r i t e i n i t s f o r m a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v e n t u a l l i f e - t h e a r t i s t i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g f a c e d w i t h d e c i s i o n s t h a t r e n d e r t h e p i e c e r e a l a n d i n t e g r a l - c a r v i n g s t o n e i s g u t l e v e l t r u t h - f u l n e s s J u s t b e c a u s e t h e p h y s i c a l e f f o r t i s s o g r e a t . " 2 3 D a v i d M a r s h a l l , V a n c o u v e r 2 r e d T r a v e r - t i n e b l o c k s s u b t r - a c t i o n 1 9 7 5 V . I . S . S . S . - t h e p i e c e I n v o l v e s m a n y t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s a b o u t f a m i l y l i f e a n d t h e F i b o n a c c i S e r i e s - t h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f p l a n e a n d s h a p e ; a c o n t r a s t r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l u n i t y , e . g . : - t h e l o w e r b l o c k s a r e v e r t i c a l ; t h e u p p e r h o r i z o n t a l - t h e w e s t / s u n s e t - - a f l a t w a l l w i t h p r o j e c t i o n a a n d i n d e n t a t i o n s ; e a s t / s u n r i s e — o r g a n i c , r o u n d - b o t t o m b l o c k 2 f o r m s ( 1 ) g e o m e t r i c / f l a t / m a s c u l i n e , ( 2 ) u p p e r s m a l l e r f o r m s u p p o r t e d l i k e a c h i l d b y I t s p a r e n t s - u n i f y i n g e l e m e n t 2 p l a n e s W d i f - f e r e n c e t h e r e f o r e t h e p r o f i l e h a s a n i r r e g u l a r r h y t h m - t h e s c u l p t o r h a s a n I n t e r e s t l n s t o n e v a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e P r e - C o l u m b i a n s i n S o u t h A m e r i c a >- ON 168 F i e l d t r i p A c t i v i t i e s I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e to n o t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r - c e p t i o n between s e e i n g t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s v i a s l i d e s ( t a k e n i n 1978, t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r the s c u l p t u r e s were c o m p l e t e d ) p r o j e c t e d on a s c r e e n , and v i e w i n g them at the Gardens now, a f t e r e i g h t y e a r s of w e a t h e r i n g . In o r d e r to h e l p the s t u d e n t s f o c u s on a p a r t i c u l a r s c u l p t u r e , i t i s recommended t h a t some o n - s i t e a c t - i v i t y t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g or s h o r t l y a f t e r a f i e l d t r i p . Some s u g - g e s t i o n s a r e : 1. Draw and/or p h o t o g r a p h a p i c t o r i a l e s s a y of a p a r t i c u - l a r s c u l p t u r e f r o m as many d i f f e r e n t v a n t a g e p o i n t s as p o s s i b l e ( f r o m f a r and n e a r ; the c o m p l e t e s c u l p t u r e ; and d e t a i l s o n l y ) . C o n s i d e r t a k i n g c o l o u r e d p r i n t s , s l i d e s , and b l a c k and w h i t e p r i n t s t h a t c o u l d be 'blown up.' C h a r c o a l a n d / o r c o l o u r e d c h a l k s would be good d r a w i n g u t e n s i l s . 2. Use Feldman's a p p r o a c h t o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a c r i t i q u e t o t h e c l a s s o f a s c u l p t u r e t h a t h e l d a s p e c i a l f a s - c i n a t i o n f o r you. 3. F i n d out as much as you can about the two l o c a l s c u l p - t o r s t h a t t o o k p a r t i n the symposium: Joan G a m b i o l i D a v i d M a r s h a l l . I n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r t r a i n i n g , t h e i r i m a g e r y , t h e i r c h o s e n media and t e c h n i q u e s , t h e i r e x h i b i t i o n s . J o a n G a m b i o l i i s a member of the S c u l p t o r s ' S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 5245 - 11th Avenue, D e l t a , B.C., V4M 1Z1. Her s t u d i o a d d r e s s i s 6415 W e l l i n g t o n S t r e e t , West V a n c o u v e r ( t e l e p h o n e : 921-7315; 922-6437). D a v i d M a r s h a l l i s an I n s t r u c t o r at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . H i s s t u d i o a d d r e s s i s 2541 E a s t 40th Avenue, Vancou- v e r ( t e l e p h o n e : 435-5426). He i s a l s o an a c t i v e member of the S c u l p t o r s ' S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4. The s e t t i n g / s c u l p t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s among the b e s t i n the c i t y . - What do the s c u l p t u r e and s e t t i n g o f f e r each o t h e r ? - What do you t h i n k the i n d i v i d u a l s c u l p t o r s had i n mind when they chose the s i t e s f o r t h e i r s c u l p t u r e s ? P i c k one s c u l p t u r e and a n a l y z e i t s s i t e i n d e t a i l . - Can you name o t h e r l o c a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r t h a t have been used to good a d v a n t a g e f o r s c u l p t u r e ? - What s i t e s can you i m a g i n e b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y 'open' to r e c e i v - i n g s c u l p t u r e i n the f u t u r e ? Why? - Where do you t h i n k s c u l p t u r e 'does the most good' f o r p e o p l e who l i v e i n a c i t y s u c h as V a n c o u v e r ? - How i m p o r t a n t do you t h i n k s e t t i n g i s to a p i e c e of s c u l p t u r e ? A l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of s c u l p t u r e d i s c u s s e d i n Se c t i o n I I I i s o u t - door s c u l p t u r e but t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i n d o o r s e t t i n g s as w e l l , i f you c a n , when a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n . 5. Do you c o n s i d e r J i r o Sugawara's p i e c e an example o f M i n i m a l i s t a r t ? Why? 6. M a t h i a s H i e t z o f A u s t r i a used a f o u n d o b j e c t — a sewer g r i d — i n h i s s t o n e s c u l p t u r e . Name o t h e r f o u n d o b j e c t s t h a t t h e s e famous a r t i s t s have u s e d : - M a r c e l Duchamp - K u r t S c h w i t t e r s - Man Ray - A l e x Wyse - RauS/Chenburg - John C h a m b e r l a i n - J o s e p h C o r n e l l - L o u i s e N e v e l s o n 7. How d i d the s t o n e , the a v a i l a b l e t o o l s , and the l e n g t h o f time of the symposium a f f e c t the d e c i s i o n s and the d e s i g n s of the s c u l p t o r s ? ( I t would be h e l p f u l to see the f i l m Van- c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone S c u l p t u r e Symposium f i r s t b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n . ) 8. I n v e s t i g a t e t h e h i s t o r y of s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i n o r d e r to f i n d o u t : - the c h o i c e of i m a g e r y t h a t was and i s p o p u l a r - the t o o l s and equipment used t h r o u g h o u t time - the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e n d s r e g a r d i n g s t y l e s . 1.71. R e f e r e n c e s f o r S e c t i o n I I I Assemblage i n C a l i f o r n i a . Works from the l a t e '50's and e a r l y ' 60 ' s . I r v i n e , R e g e n t s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1968. B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y of w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . S e c a u c u s : C h a r t w e l l Books, I n c . , 19 76. B e r t i , L. A l l the works of M i c h e l a n g e l o . F l o r e n c e : B o n e c h i E d i t o r e , 1969. B o u l a n g e r , R. La s c u l p t u r e de Suzanne G u i t e . M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s A q u i l a L i m i t e e , 1973. C h i l d c r a f t A n n u a l . Look a g a i n . T o r o n t o : F i e l d E n t e r p r i s e s E d u c a t i o n a l C o r p . , 1968. C o n s t a n t i n e , M., & L a r s e n , J . L . The a r t f a b r i c : M a i n s t r e a m . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1981. Formosa, G. The p l e a s u r e o f s e e i n g . A r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e and d e c o r a t i v e a r t i n V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r : S k o r b a P u b l i s h e r s , 1982. G e l d z a h l e r , H. New Y o rk p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . 1940-70. New Y o r k : E.P. D u t t o n and Co., I n c . , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , 1969. M e n t o r - U n e s c o A r t Book. Henry Moore: Mother and c h i l d . T o r o n t o : The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1966. Read, H. Henry Moore. London: Thames and Hudson, 1965. Withrow, W.J. S o r e l E t r o g , s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : W i l f e l d P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , 1967. 172. SECTION IV: THE TECHNIQUES OF SCULPTURE As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i t i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t h a t s c u l p t u r e ' e x p e r i e n c e d ' r a t h e r t h an s c u l p t u r e ' l o o k e d a t ' on a s c r e e n or i n a book i s an e s s e n t i a l component o f an i n t r o d u c - t i o n to s c u l p t u r e . T h i s need to e x p e r i e n c e s c u l p t u r e r e s u l t e d i n the f o c u s o f S e c t i o n I I I b e i n g l o c a l s c u l p t u r e . In S e c t i o n I I I r e f e r e n c e was made to t h e v o c a b u l a r y , the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and to the h i s t o r i c a l domain o f s c u l p t u r e . T h i s h i s t o r i c a l r e f - e r e n c e c o n t i n u e s to be d e v e l o p e d i n S e c t i o n IV b u t t h e main f o c u s i s the p r o d u c t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e : b ecoming f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e c h n i q u e s of m a n i p u l a t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i o n , and a d d i t i o n . As i n S e c t i o n I I I , S e c t i o n IV i s d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t s , each p a r t b e i n g s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . T h i s c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z i n g i s h a z a r d o u s as i t i s l i k e l y to make the r e a d e r b e l i e v e t h a t each t e c h n i q u e i s e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m the o t h e r t h r e e . Such an a s s u m p t i o n i s e r r o n e o u s . The r e a s o n t h a t the f o u r t e c h n i q u e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n p a c k a g e s i s s i m p l y to a s s i s t t e a c h e r s u s i n g t h i s s t u d y i n i s o l a t i n g a w o r k a b l e body of i n f o r m a t i o n . Such c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y as the range o f what p r o d u c i n g s c u l p t u r e means i s so v a s t . W h i l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c a t e g o r - i z e s c u l p t u r e a c c o r d i n g t o t e c h n i q u e i t must be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a r e not b e i n g i s o l a t e d f r o m each o t h e r . One s c u l p t o r can work w i t h a number of t e c h n i q u e s i n one s c u l p - t u r e . S i m i l a r l y one t e c h n i q u e s u c h as m a n i p u l a t i o n , i . e . , the b u i l d i n g up o f form, can i n c l u d e the t e c h n i q u e o f s u b t r a c t i o n j i . e . , the c a r v i n g away of form. A n o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e i s t h a t the r a t i o n a l e as t o where to c a t e g o r i z e p r o c e s s e s such as w e l d - i n g becomes d i f f i c u l t . W e l d i n g i s o f t e n the use o f one m a t e r i a l — m e t a l r o d s or s h e e t s f o r example. I t c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be c a t - e g o r i z e d w i t h i n t h e t e c h n i q u e o f m a n i p u l a t i o n . At the same time w e l d i n g i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d an a d d i t i v e p r o c e s s whereby m e t a l ob- j e c t s a r e combined and a s s e m b l e d . W e l d i n g i s t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n b o t h the m a n i p u l a t i o n and a d d i t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Even though l a b e l l i n g , i . e . c r e a t i n g a r t i f i c i a l ' b o d i e s ' o f i n f o r m a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e f o r ease of t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y a p a r t o f each t e c h n i q u e i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e . In S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n , f o r exam- p l e , t h e r e a r e f o u r t e e n media l i s t e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t of o n l y one o f t h e s e media has been u n d e r t a k e n due to time l i m i t a t i o n s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t . The d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e use of one media i s meant to be a model whereby t e a c h e r s can become f a m i l i a r w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and p r o d u c t i v e domains o f s c u l p t u r e . A s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f o r m o f w r i t t e n and a u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s , as w e l l as examples o f r e - nowned s c u l p t o r s w o r k i n g w i t h the s p e c i f i c media and t e c h n i q u e i s p r o v i d e d i n t h e hope t h a t t e a c h e r s w i l l d e v e l o p o t h e r media i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . A n o t h e r model i n t h e f o r m o f T a b l e I I r e o r g a n i z e s some of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I. The f o u r t e c h n i q u e s r a t h e r t h a n the t h r e e domains o f s c u l p t u r e have become the f o c u s of t h i s t a b l e . The r e a s o n s f o r the f o u r media c h o i c e s , i . e . , c l a y r a t h e r t h a n any of the o t h e r t h i r t e e n c h o i c e s l i s t e d i n m a n i p u l a t i o n , a r e s t a t e d w i t h i n the f o u r p a r t s of t h i s s e c t i o n . The c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l components of T a b l e I I a r e a r e s u l t o f an a t t e m p t to i n c o r p o r a t e f o u r d i f f e r e n t modes of e x p r e s s i o n , a t l e a s t f o u r e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n and as many r a t i o n a l e s o f s c u l p t u r e as p o s s i b l e . The themes a n i m a l s , ab- s t r a c t s /b i omo r p h i c f o r m s , r e l i e f s , h e a d s , and the human f i g u r e were c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y a r e h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f much of the s c u l p t u r e done t h r o u g h o u t the ages and t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . T a b l e I I r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one a p p r o a c h f o r the de v e l o p m e n t of the f o u r media. I t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e c o u n t l e s s o t h e r p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s . T a b l e I I A Model f o r I n t r o d u c i n g the Four T e c h n i q u e s of S c u l p t u r e M a n i p u l a t i o n S u b t r a c t i o n S u b s t i t u t i o n A d d i t i o n P r o d u c t i v e - media c l a y p l a s t e r c l a y / p l a s t e r ' s o f t ' me d i a C r i t i c a l - modes of e x p r e s s i o n - c o n c e p t - e l e m e n t s - p r i n c i p l e s - r a t i o n a l e s r e a l i s t i c / s t y l i z e d a n i m a l s ' i n the round ' shape p r o p o r t i o n f o r m a l i s t o r g a n i c a b s t r a c t s ' i n the r o u n d ' s p a c e b a l a n c e f o r m a l i s t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c h e a d s / b a s r e l i e f c o l o u r , v a l u e e conomy o r n a m e n t a t i o n e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c human f i g u r e s ' i n the r o u n d ' t e x t u r e v a r i e ty s e l f e x p r e s s i o n H i s t o r i c a l a n i m a l s s t y 1 i z a t i o n s tone b i o m o r p h i c p l a s t e r r e l i e f heads s o f t s c u l p t u r e human f i g u r e - Ln 176 . S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n M a n i p u l a t i o n r e f e r s to the t e c h n i q u e of b u i l d i n g up form by one p l i a b l e m a t e r i a l which must m a i n t a i n i t s shape and sup- p o r t most of i t s w e i g h t a l t h o u g h an a r m a t u r e might be needed. M o d e l l i n g a l s o r e f e r s to t h i s t e c h n i q u e . M e dia *1. C l a y - w a t e r - o i l - s e l f - h a r d e n i n g 2. Doughs - b r e a d - c o o k i e - i n e d i b l e 3. Wi re 4. P a p i e r Mache/Paper P u l p 5. Wax 6 . P ap e r 7. M e t a l 8. P l a s t e r / P l a s t e r Bandages 9. A c r y l i c s / P l a s t i c s 10. G l a s s 11. Cement 12. A i r 13. L i g h t 14. E a r t h R e f e r s t o t h e model l e s s o n d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t 1 177 . P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n - R e a l i s t i c , s t y l i z e d c l a y a n i m a l s - a model l e s s o n W i t h i n the t e c h n i q u e of m a n i p u l a t i o n as w i t h s u b t r a c t i o n , s u b s t i t u t i o n , and a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s a p r o f u s i o n of media to use. Where does one b e g i n ? A s i n g l e c h o i c e had t o be made f o r a l l f o u r t e c h n i q u e s due to the l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f t h i s s t u d y b u t the d e c i s i o n was d i f f i c u l t . The a s t e r i s k i n d i c a t e s w h i c h media was c h o s e n f o r each t e c h n i q u e . C l a y was c h o s e n as t h e mo de1 to be d e v e l o p e d i n depth f o r the m a n i p u l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s c h o i c e a r e the f o l l o w i n g : - C l a y i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e . - C l a y i s a medium f a m i l i a r to most t e a c h e r s , t h i s r e s e a r - c h e r , and s t u d e n t s ; the p r e p a r a t i o n o f ( k n e a d i n g , w e d g i n g ) ; the use o f ( p i n c h p o t , c o i l , s l a b methods) ; the d r y i n g , f i r i n g , .and g l a z i n g o f c l a y a r e s k i l l s w i t h i n most a r t t e a c h e r s ' range of e xp e r i en c e . - C l a y has been u s e d by p e o p l e a r o u n d the w o r l d and t h r o u g h - out t i m e . C l a y i s used by many f i n e l o c a l and C a n a d i a n s c u l p - t o r s . An e x c e l l e n t f i l m about Joe F a f a r d ' s use o f c l a y i s a v a i l - a b l e . Examples o f c l a y o b j e c t s as w e l l as c e r a m i c s c u l p t u r e a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . The s e c o n d c h o i c e c o n c e r n s what s u g g e s t i o n to make r e g a r d i n g i m a g e r y . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e the themes used t h r o u g h o u t the ages were examined. One theme i s a n i m a l i m a g e r y . A n i m a l s - i n r e l i e f - i n the r o u n d 178, - used i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l and o r n a m e n t a l c o n t e x t , f o r example g a r g o y l e s on r o o f t o p s or f a i t h f u l p e t s c a r v e d i n s t o n e t h a t g u a r d t h e i r d e c e a s e d m a s t e r s i n c r y p t s . A n i m a l s c r e a t e d i n a l l f o u r t e c h n i q u e s and media; i n a l l modes of e x p r e s s i o n ; f o r a l l r a t i o n a l e s . A n i m a l s as s o l i t a r y f i g u r e s , i n p a i r s , i n g r o u p s , and w i t h man. A n i m a l s were c o n s i d e r e d an a p p r o p r i a t e theme f o r y e t an- o t h e r r e a s o n . P e t o w n e r s h i p i s common among s t u d e n t s and t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n a n i m a l s o f a l l t y p e s . F u r t h e r i t was c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e to s t a r t w i t h f i g u r a t i v e , r e a l i s t i c imag- e r y b e f o r e d e a l i n g w i t h a b s t r a c t , n o n - f i g u r a t i v e m o t i f s . I t w ould be an i n t e r e s t i n g a s s i g n m e n t f o r s t u d e n t s to d i s - c o v e r how a n i m a l s have been d e p i c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and by v a r i o u s a r t i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t i m e . In p a r t i c u l a r s u g g e s t t h a t they l o o k a t : A n c i e n t Near E a s t e r n a r t : - S u m e r i a n , A s s y r i a n (2500 B.C.; 800-860 B.C.) - e s p e c i a l l y the - e a r t h e n w a r e f r o m the'. C a s p i a n r e g i o n , - g l a z e d b r i c k s f r o m N e b u c h a d n e z z a r ' s P r o c e s s i o n a l Way i n B a b y l o n , 6th c e n t u r y B.C. Greek and Roman A r t , f o r example: - a b r o n z e h o r s e , 8th c e n t u r y B.C. - the H e l l i n i s t i c p e r i o d - the Roman e q u e s t r i a n s t a t u e s . Egyp t i a n I s l a m i c - e s p e c i a l l y t h e t e r r a c o t t a a n i m a l s from n o r t h e r n I r a n . P h o e n i c i a n B e n i n b r o n z e s P e r u v i a n g o l d and s i l v e r l l a m a s . I t a l i a n - f r o m the 16th c e n t u r y . A.P. P r o c t o r John B. F l a n n a g a n Gutzon B o r g l u m M a r i n o M a r i n i F r e d e r i c Remington P a b l o P i c a s s o E l i e Nadelman E l i z a b e t h F r i n k What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the a n i m a l s were d e p i c t e d ? exag- g e r a t e d ? Why do you t h i n k t h a t s p e c i f i c a n i m a l was ch o s e n by t h a t s c u l p t o r ? What p u r p o s e do you t h i n k the a n i m a l s e r v e d ? Why i s the m a t e r i a l used a p p r o p r i a t e ? i n a p p r o p r i a t e ? S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n Note how the a n i m a l s a r e p o r t r a y e d i n the s l i d e s you a r e about to s e e . What t e c h n i q u e s , media, modes o f e x p r e s s i o n , r a t i o n a l e s and c o n c e p t s were used? 1. C l a y b i s o n r e l i e f , 13,000-10,000 B.C., 23" L. ( B a z i n 1976, f i g . 9, p. 9 1 ) . 2. T h i s 5" i v o r y Bear has been c r e a t e d by a s c u l p t o r c l o s e r to our own time and p l a c e . The I n u i t c a r v e r ' s name i s P a u l a s s i e and he i s from Lake H a r b o u r . N o t i c e the s i m p l i c i t y ; the s t y l i z a t i o n and the a r t i s t ' s f e e l i n g f o r s c a l e : t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g o f m o n u m e n t a l i t y . 3. From I n u i t to I s l a m i c - a 1 1 V L. b r o n z e I n c e n s e B u r n e r o f the l l t h - 1 2 t h c e n t u r y ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 378, p. 215) - i t has a f e l i n e head 180. - i t s mouth i s h a l f open and i t s tongue i s out - the e a r s a r e p r i c k e d up - the b e a s t ' s t a i l i s b e n t o v e r i t s back - the back, neck and c h e s t a r e a l l p e r f o r a t e d w i t h l i n e a r , s t y l i z e d , d e c o r a t i v e g r i l l w o r k - on the a n i m a l ' s c h e s t t h e r e i s an i n s c r i p t i o n meaning " v a l o u r , power and g l o r y . " 4. Here a r e 3 h o r s e s c r e a t e d by t h e s c u l p t o r A l e x a n d e r C a l d e r w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h to a n i m a l i m a g e r y . C a l d e r has u s e d . w a l n u t ( 1 5 % " H.) 1928 ; w i r e ( 1 1 % " L.) 1918; wax c a s t i n t o b r o n z e (8 1/8" L.) 1944 to t r y and c a p t u r e the e s s e n c e o f what a h o r s e i s (Lipman, 1972, p. 100). What words a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e each of t h e s e h o r s e s ? 5. T h i s i s the f i r s t o f a s e r i e s of e q u e s t r i a n s t a t u e s . I t i s a g l a z e d t e r r a c o t t a s t a t u e t t e f r o m the C h i n e s e T'ang Dyn- a s t y (618-907 A.D.) ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 506, p. 2 5 9 ) . - the P e r s i a n i n f l u e n c e i s shown i n the r i d e r ' s r o b e s , - t h e s t a t u e t t e has a c c u r a t e p r o p o r t i o n s ; i t i s a r e a l i s t i c de- p i c t i o n o f a h o r s e . 6. The s e c o n d f i g u r e i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t s t a n c e . T h i s b r o n z e monument i s h o n o u r i n g G e n e r a l Bartelommeo C o l l e o n i c r e - a t e d more than 500 y e a r s ago by the s c u l p t o r A n d r e a d e l . _ V e r r o c c h i o (Look A g a i n , 1968, p. 153). - n o t i c e how the s c u l p t o r p o r t r a y s the p r i d e and d i g n i t y of b o t h the h o r s e and r i d e r , 7. whereas t h i s b r o n z e e q u e s t r i a n s t a t u e p o r t r a y s a ' w i l d man f r om the w e s t' and h i s h o r s e s t r a i n i n g e v e r y muscle to f r e e h i m s e l f of h i s r i d e r . T h i s h o r s e i s f u l l of en e r g y and l i f e , and i s e n t i t l e d The Bron c o B u s t e r , by F r e d e r i c Remington (Look A g a i n , 1968, p. 152) . The s e c o n d s e r i e s on a n i m a l imagery i s about the l i o n . 8. The f i r s t l i o n i s f r o m n o r t h e r n S y r i a . I t was c a r v e d from b a s a l t d u r i n g t h e 9 t h c e n t u r y B.C. ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 96, p. 120). - N o t i c e t h a t i t s body i s c o v e r e d w i t h H i t t i t e h i e r o g l y p h i c s s i m i l a r to the i n c e n s e b u r n e r ' s o v e r a l l d e c o r a t i o n . - I t i s r a t h e r a c r u d e form; the b a s i c shapes o f the head, n e c k , body, and l e g s a r e r o u g h l y formed i n s h a l l o w r e l i e f . 9. ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 376, p. 2 1 5 ) . T h i s l i o n ( I s l a m i c as was the i n c e n s e b u r n e r ) i s s i t u a t e d i n Alhambra, S p a i n and i s p a r t of a g i g a n t i c f o u n t a i n s u p p o r t e d by t w e l v e s u c h l i o n s b u i l t i n t he s e c o n d h a l f of the 14th c e n t u r y . I t a g a i n has r o u g h l y c a r v e d forms and a r a t h e r u n d i g n i f i e d pose w i t h w a t e r s t r e a m i n g out of i t s mouth c o n t i n u a l l y . As the i n s c r i p t i o n s t a t e s , "These l i o n s have no s o u l ; have no f e a r i t h e y can not a s s u a g e t h e i r a n g e r . " 10. ( W e i s s , 1956). T h i s s e a t e d s t o n e l i o n i s C h i n e s e , a g a i n from the T'ang D y n a s t y ; he a p p e a r s t r y i n g to be a g u a r d i a n b u t h i s f e r o c i t y i s u n c o n v i n c i n g . 11. T h i s p a i r o f g a r d e n - v a r i e t y l i o n s can be s e e n i n many n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . Why do you suppose p e o p l e choose to p l a c e t h e s e s t a t u e t t e s on t h e i r p r o p e r t y ? There a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e p a i r s of l i o n s i n Downtown V a n c o u v e r . Can you name t h e i r l o c a t i o n s and d e t e r m i n e why t h e y a r e p l a c e d on t h o s e s i t e s ? ( c o n s u l t S l i d e N otes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a s 3 & 4 ) . What c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do you a s s o c i a t e w i t h l i o n s ? - c a t l i k e n e s s - m a j e s t y - f i e r c e n e s s - i n t e l l i g e n c e - s t r e n g t h - d i g n i t y - e n e r g y - r e p u t a t i o n as k i n g o f the b e a s t s - g r a c e - u s e f u l n e s s as ' g u a r d i a n s ' When you choose y o u r own a n i m a l to model i n c l a y d e c i d e on what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h a t a n i m a l you want to p o r t r a y , d i s t o r t , e x a g g e r a t e . Two r e f e r e n c e s t h a t might be h e l p f u l a r e : B a r r , B. Wonders, W a r r i o r s and B e a s t s A b o u n d i n g . How the A r t - i s t Sees H i s W o r l d . New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y and Co., I n c . , 1967; Chase, A.E. L o o k i n g at A r t . New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Co., 1966. The n e x t s e v e n s l i d e s d e m o n s t r a t e one p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h t o m o d e l l i n g c l a y a n i m a l s . F e e l f r e e t o model e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s u s i n g o t h e r methods. I t i s a s u g g e s t i o n o n l y t h a t the a n i m a l s be s t y l i z e d , s i m p l i f i e d , and r e a l i s t i c . 12. T h i s h i p p o was done by a 1 3 - y e a r - o l d s t u d e n t ; t h e r e i s v e r y l i m i t e d use of d e t a i l s ( R b t t g e r , 1962, f i g . 202, p. 72), 13. T h i s goat was done by an 1 1 - y e a r - o l d s t u d e n t . Note the s t u d e n t ' s use o f p e l l e t s and appendages of c l a y ( I b i d . , f i g . 248, p. 9 0 ) . 14. T h i s Haniwa f i g u r e of a h o r s e d e m o n s t r a t e s a b a s i c shape w i t h s i m p l i f i e d d e t a i l s ( W e i s b e r g , 1975, f i g . 79). 15. A n o t h e r Haniwa f i g u r e i s d e p i c t e d , t h i s time a Haniwa dog, 46.3 cm H. ( M i k i , 1974, f i g . 44, p. 5 3 ) . 16. T h i s Haniwa f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s a w i l d r a z o r b a c k b o a r 51 cm H. Note the s i m i l a r i t i e s and the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between numbers 15 and 16. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s one a n i m a l from the o t h e r ? ( M i k i , 1974, f i g . 94 , p. 92) . 17. Dog from C o l i m a ( F e r n a n d e z , 1976, f i g . 6 ) . - The f a t t e n e d dogs a r e one o f t h e most t y p i c a l f i g u r e s o f Mex- i c a n W e s t e r n a r t . The e r e c t e a r s and t a i l w h i c h a r e a t the same time the o p e n i n g of the j u g , have a s i n g u l a r charm and t h e i r s t a r i n g eyes have an uncanny e f f e c t . 18. T h i s i s a 13th c e n t u r y s t o r a g e v e s s e l made of c l a y , f r o m n o r t h e r n I r a n ( E d i t i o n s des Musees M a t i o n a u x , 1971, R e p r o d - u c t i o n i n t e r d i t e Genese imp. P a r i s , AD-17). I f a s t y l i z e d , s i m p l i f i e d , r e a l i s t i c a n i m a l o f t h i s t y p e i s d e s i r e d , c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e : - Knead and wedge the c l a y to a s o f t a l m o s t b u t t e r y s t a t e . - Form two p i n c h p o t s o f s i m i l a r s i z e and shape. H o l d b o t h \ p o t s i n y o u r hands and j o i n them t o form a h o l l o w b a l l . Com- p l e t e l y s e a l the e n t i r e c i r c u m f e r e n c e by ' p u l l i n g ' the c l a y w i t h y o u r f i n g e r . E x t r a w a t e r and c l a y s h o u l d n o t be n e c e s s a r y at t h i s p o i n t . - Shape t h i s h o l l o w b a l l w i t h f i n g e r s o r t o o l s s u c h as a b l a c k - b o a r d b r u s h , spoon, s t i c k , e t c . f o r m i n g as much o f the body as you can ( t h e t r a p p e d a i r f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s s h a p i n g ) . - Shape s e p a r a t e l e g s , t a i l , n e c k , and head i f n e c e s s a r y , out of c u t s l a b s , c o i l s , or m i n i a t u r e p i n c h p o t s . - Combine a l l forms a f t e r h o l e s have been c u t i n t o t h e h o l l o w b a l l body to accommodate t h e s e a d d i t i o n s . J o i n t h o r o u g h l y u s i n g as l i t t l e w a t e r as p o s s i b l e . 184. - S u p p o r t y o u r a n i m a l form d u r i n g t h e d r y i n g p e r i o d i f n e c e s s a r y . Dry c o m p l e t e l y . - B i s q u e f i r e the g r eenware . - C o n s i d e r f i n i s h e s : g l a z e , b u r n i s h , s t a i n . - D i s p l a y t h o u g h t f u l l y : c o n s i d e r p o s i t i o n i n g , l i g h t i n g , s e t t i n g . A p p l y c r i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t o s c u l p t u r e s * of one's own and t h o s e of p e e r s , r e l a t i n g t o : - e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t - s e l e c t i o n o f image - c o m p o s i t i o n - d e v elopment o f image - c o m p l e t i o n - m a t e r i a l s use - t o o l s and equipment use , - s equence of p r o c e s s e s - t e c h n i c a l competence - e x p e r i e n c e Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t , p. 183. (85 185 cu 186 . 1. C l a y - w a t e r , o i l and s e l f - h a r d e n i n g - B i b l i o g r a p h y A r u n d e l l , J . E x p l o r i n g s c u l p t u r e . London, M i l l s and Boon, 1971. - "My aim i n w r i t i n g t h i s book i s to e x p l a i n some o f the easy e f f e c t i v e ways o f making s c u l p t u r e t h a t a r e a v a i l - a b l e to e v e r y o n e . I t i s not my c o n c e r n to make a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a t i o n s " p. 7. - i n c l u d e s c a r v i n g , m o d e l l i n g , c a s t i n g , f o l d i n g , e x p a n d i n g , b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e - l i m i t e d use f o r young c h i l d r e n Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h i n g , 1968. - one o f t h e b e s t books I've f o u n d - v e r y s y s t e m a t i c ap- p r o a c h to s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e i n d e p t h ; b o r d e r s on b e i n g a s c u l p t o r ' s ' B i b l e ' ; i n c l u d e s k i n d s , q u a l i t i e s , e l e m e n t s , p r i n c i p l e s of s c u l p t u r e - P a r t 2 - t e c h n i c a l methods - o f t e n too c o m p l i c a t e d f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l - i n c l u d e s p a p i e r mache, wax, c l a y , m e t a l and a e r y l i cs Dawson, R. P r a c t i c a l s c u l p t u r e . C r e a t i n g w i t h p l a s t i c media. New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1970. - h i g h l y recommended Dawson, R. & J . S c u l p t u r e w i t h s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s . Menlo P a r k : Lane Books, 1966. E l i s c u , F. S c u l p t u r e t e c h n i q u e i n c l a y , wax, s l a t e . P h i l a d e l - p h i a : C h i l t o n Co. Book D i v i s i o n , 1959. - f o r the amateur, 'Sunday' s c u l p t o r - n o t f o r c h i l d r e n 187. G r a y , J . E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c e r a m i c s : O b s e r v a t i o n s and E x p l a n - a t i o n s . B.C.T.F. L e s s o n A i d No. 9661. L u c c h e s i , B. T e r r a c o t t a s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : Watson-Gup t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1977. - h i g h l y recommended f o r p o r t r a i t u r e and h o l l o w c e r a m i c s c u l p t u r e M a r r i t s , L.E. M o deled p o r t r a i t s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : A.S. B a r n e s and Co., 1970. M i l l s , J.W. Head and f i g u r e m o d e l l i n g . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1977. "My o b j e c t i v e i s t o e n c o u r a g e c o n f i d e n c e by c o n f i d i n g t e c h - n i c a l f a c t s , so t h a t t h e s t u d e n t might seek t o a c h i e v e images t h a t t r u l y r e f l e c t h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y and not t h a t of o t h e r s " (p. 11). - f o r the more advanced s t u d e n t s . P r i c e , C. A r t s o f c l a y . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1977 ( j ) . - d r a w i n g s o n l y w i t h t h e t e x t ; m a i n l y u t i l i t a r i a n o b j e c t s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e a n i m a l i m a g e r y . R o t t g e r , E. C r e a t i v e c l a y d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d Pub- l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1962. - s t r e s s e s o r d e r o f a c t i v i t i e s - good i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p o s s i b i l i t i e s when d e a l i n g w i t h c l a y - e x c e l l e n t p h o t o g r a p h s S l a d e , R. M o d e l i n g i n c l a y , p l a s t e r , and p a p i e r mache. New Y o r k : L o t h r o p , Lee and S h e p a r d Co., I n c . , 1967. - f i r s t 20 pages a r e not v e r y i n s p i r i n g . - some good i d e a s t h a t a r e m e r e l y i n t r o d u c e d - few p h o t o g r a p h s , no d r a w i n g s W e i s s , H. C l a y , wood and w i r e . A how to do i t book of s c u l p - t u r e . R e a d i n g , Mass.: 1956 ( j ) . Z a i d e n b e r g , A. The new and c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e methods. New Y o r k : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g , 1972. Examples: 1. L o c a l s c u l p t o r s - 2. C a n a d i a n s c u l p t o r s - 3. I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o ( C o n s u l t the a p p e n d i x f o Persimmon B l a c k b r i d g e G a t h i e F a l k Lyn Graves S a l l y M i c h e n e r P h y l l i s Green V i c t o r C i c a n s k y Joe F a f a r d John F i l l i o n D a v i d G i l h o o l y g n i z e d s c u l p t o r s — Af r i c a n C h i n e s e I r a n i a n J a p a n e s e Mexi can Pe r u v i a n P r e h i s t o r i c R o b b i a f a m i l y , I t a l i a n r f u r t h e r examples.) 189. A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : I don't have to work t h a t b i g . A f i l m about Joe F a f a r d ; 27:20, c o l . N.F.B., 16 mm 106c 0173 143. "Joe F a f a r d knows cows--the way t h e y t u c k i n t h e i r f o r e l e g s to l i e down, r u m i n a t e , the way a c a l f romps i n the b a r n - y a r d . He a l s o knows p_e_op_le - - a 11 h i s f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s o f the f a r m i n g community o f Pense, Sask. And he s c u l p t s them a l l i n c l a y , i n e l o q u e n t l i t t l e m i n i a t u r e s . J o e ' s work has been e x h i b i t e d t h r o u g h o u t W e s t e r n Canada as w e l l as i n P a r i s and New Y o r k . Here you see what he d o e s " (N.F.B. C a t a l o g u e , 1981, p. 134). G i v e 'em a h a l f t u r n . A N.F.B. f i l m 10:27, c o l . 106c 0179 182 "Russ Y u r i s t y , the f u n k y s c u l p t o r f r o m S i l t o n , S ask., has j u s t f i n i s h e d a wooden b u f f a l o c o m m i s s i o n e d by the c i t y c o u n c i l l o r s of S w i f t C u r r e n t . T h i s f i l m i s a bout Y u r i s t y ' s 3 t o n b u f f a l o , i t s 150 m i l e t r i p f r o m s t u d i o to p a r k and the comments of the b y s t a n d e r s who r e a c t to the b u f f a l o ' s u n u s u a l l o o k s . T h i s l i g h t h e a r t e d f i l m shows one o f the p r a i r i e ' s most u n u s u a l a r t i s t s . " 2. Doughs - b r e a d , c o o k i e , and i n e d i b l e - C o n s u l t J o h n s o n , I . , & H a z e l t o n , N.S. C o o k i e s and b r e a d s . The b a k e r ' s a r t . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1967. - an e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e ; i t f o c u s e s on the v i s u a l i n t e r e s t of shapes and d e c o r a t i o n s , l o n g and s u r v i v i n g t r a d i t i o n s , and h o l i d a y r i t u a l s - i t i n c l u d e s r e c i p e s 190. - Ruth Asawa Is a s c u l p t o r renowned f o r h e r c r e a t i o n of a b r o n z e f o u n t a i n i n San F r a n c i s c o , the r e s u l t o f a community p r o j e c t u s - i n g dough as the o r i g i n a l model. 3. Wire - B i b l i o g r a p h y Brommer, G.F. W i r e s c u l p t u r e and o t h e r t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s - t r u c t i o n . W o r c e s t e r : D a v i s P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1968. - a d d r e s s e d to c h a n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n s c u l p t u r e t h a t can be c a r r i e d out i n the c l a s s r o o m - a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r r e a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n - emphasis - a d d i t i v e - s e t s t y p i c a l p r o b l e m s - e x c e l l e n t book; b e s t f o r s e c o n d a r y a r t Dawson, R. & J . S c u l p t u r e w i t h s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s . Meno P a r k : Lane Books, 1966. ( S u n s e t ) - " ( t e a c h e s ) d e s i g n s k i l l s and c r a f t s k i l l s at the same time ( w h i l e ) p r e s e n t i n g a b a s i c e l e m e n t o f d e s i g n w h i c h w i l l e x p l o i t the q u a l i t i e s o f each new medium" (p. 5 ) , e.g., w i r e , p a p i e r mache, p l a s t e r , c l a y . G a l l o p , E. S i m p l e w i r e s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i 1 1 . - e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n , good t e c h n i c a l d r a w i n g s , n o t too many " r e c i p e s " - most t e c h n i q u e s s u i t a b l e f o r the c l a s s r o o m L i d s t o n e , J . B u i l d i n g w i t h w i r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 19 72. - i n c l u d e s w i r e d e l i n e a t i n g s p a c e , w i r e used as an arma- t u r e , w i r e t h a t c r e a t e s c i r c l e s , shadows, j e w e l l r y , w i r e t h a t moves, t h a t t e l l s a s t o r y - i t a l s o i n c l u d e s examples from V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s 1.91. U l l r i c h , H., & K l a n t e , D. C r e a t i v e m e t a l c r a f t . L o n don: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1968. - u s i n g w i r e , w i r e f a b r i c s , w o r k i n g w i t h t i n , s o l d e r and r i v e t s W e i s s , H. C l a y , wood, and w i r e . A h o w - t o - d o - i t book o f s c u l p - t u r e . R e a d i n g : Young S c o t t Books, 1956. " I t shows you how o t h e r p e o p l e have made s c u l p t u r e , and i t shows you how to get s t a r t e d making y o u r own s c u l p t u r e out of many d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s " (p. 3 ) . E x a m ples : A l e x a n d e r C a l d e r ' s C i r c u s Seymour L i p t o n ' s The Sun S h e r r y G r a u e r ( c o n s u l t S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 1 - U.B.C.) A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : Wire s c u l p t u r e PEMC A374 c o l . 1973 13 min. s e c / p o s t s e c A s c u l p t o r w i t h an a c e t y l e n e t o r c h shapes a p i e c e o f s t e e l w i r e i n t o a l i f e l i k e human he a d . D u r i n g the p r o c e s s he comments about h i s t e c h n i q u e , a r t form, and p h i l o s o p h y . (Recommended i n the Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t . ) 4. P a p i e r Machg/Paper P u l p - B i b l i o g r a p h y Dawson, R. & J . S c u l p t u r e w i t h s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s . Menlo P a r k : Lane Books, 1966. ( C o n s u l t Wire - B i b l i o g r a p h y . ) 19 2. M i l l s , J.W. Head and f i g u r e m o d e l l i n g . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1977. "My o b j e c t i v e i s to e n c o u r a g e c o n f i d e n c e by c o n f i d i n g t e c h - n i c a l f a c t s , so t h a t the s t u d e n t might seek to a c h i e v e im- ages t h a t t r u l y r e f l e c t h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y and not t h a t of o t h e r s " (p. 11). - f o r the more a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s S l a d e , R. M o d e l i n g i n c l a y , p l a s t e r , and p a p i e r mache. New Y o r k : L o t h r o p , Lee and S h e p a r d Co. I n c . , 1967. ( j ) - f i r s t 20 pages a r e n o t v e r y i n s p i r i n g - some good i d e a s t h a t a r e m e r e l y i n t r o d u c e d - few p h o t o g r a p h s , no d r a w i n g s S t u d l e y , V. The a r t and c r a f t o f handmade p a p e r . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1977. Examples : L o c a l a r t i s t s - D i a n a C a l d w e l l Lynn Howes Deborah C l a p t o n M a r g a r e t L a w t h e r S h e r r y Cooper C a r o l A nthony, an A m e r i c a n a r t i s t , c r e a t e s p a p i e r mache d o l l s . 5. Wax - B i b l i o g r a p h y Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dub uque: W i l l i a m C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. - one o f the b e s t books I've f o u n d ; v e r y s y s t e m a t i c ap- p r o a c h to s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e i n d e p t h — b o r d e r s on b e i n g a s c u l p t o r ' s ' B i b l e ' . - i n c l u d e s k i n d s , q u a l i t i e s , e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f s c u l p t u r e - P a r t 2 - T e c h n i c a l Methods a r e o f t e n too c o m p l i c a t e d f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l use. E l i s c u , F. S c u l p t u r e t e c h n i q u e i n c l a y , wax, s l a t e . P h i l a d e l - p h i a : C h i l t o n Co. Book D i v i s i o n , 1959. - f o r the amateur 'Sunday' s c u l p t o r , n o t c h i l d r e n M i l l e r , R. F i g u r e s c u l p t u r e i n wax and p l a s t e r . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. E xamples: Medaro Rosso Edgar Degas 6. Paper - B i b l i o g r a p h y F a b r i , R. S c u l p t u r e i n p a p e r . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. - " f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f the a r t o f p a p e r s c u l p t u r e by e x p l a i n i n g i n words and p i c t u r e s how to d e s i g n i t , how to c o n s t r u c t the main forms y o u ' r e e v e r l i k e l y t o need and how t o add the most i m p o r t a n t f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s " (p. 2) . - e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s J o h n s o n , P. C r e a t i n g w i t h p a p e r . B a s i c forms and v a r i a t i o n s . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1958. L i d s t o n e , J . , & Bunch, C. W o r k i n g b i g . A t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co. , 19 75 . - a u t h o r s m a i n t a i n " t h e more a r t i n the c l a s s r o o m i s l i k e p l a y , the more e f f e c t i v e i t i s l i k e l y to be" (p. 10). - s u b j e c t s : a i r a r t , b u i l d i n g b i g w i t h c a r d b o a r d , l i g h t , w o r k i n g w a l l s , w o r k i n g b i g o u t d o o r s , c h i l d r e n and a r t i s t s work t o g e t h e r - i n c l u d e s w o r k i n g w i t h a i r and l i g h t Made w i t h p a p e r . The Museum of Contemporary C r a f t s of the Amer- i c a n C r a f t s m e n ' s C o u n c i l . New Y o r k : C o n t a i n e r C o r p o r a t i o n of A m e r i c a , 196 7. Ogawa, H. Forms o f p a p e r . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1971. - s u p e r b p h o t o g r a p h s ( w h i t e on b l a c k b a c k g r o u n d ) " T h i s book i n q u i r e s i n t o the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f forms w h i c h p a p e r can be g i v e n " (p. 10). - i n c l u d e s p a t t e r n s f o r a l l t h e p h o t o g r a p h s R'ottger, E. C r e a t i v e p a p e r d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d Pub- l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1961. A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : D e s i g n i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y m a t e r i a l s : c o r r u g a t e d p a p e r PEMC V i d e o t a p e VA 38a HRW 1971 12 min. c o l i n t / j r P a p e r i n a r t v i d e o t a p e VA 17a GWF 1968 17 min. c o l i n t / j r O r i g a m i . A N.F.B. f i l m 8:35 c o l 106c 0167 120 - The J a p a n e s e a r t of p a p e r f o l d i n g , as p r a c t i s e d b o t h by s k i l l e d f i n g e r s and the l e s s a d e p t hands of c h i l d r e n . That anyone can l e a r n and e x p e r i m e n t and take p l e a s u r e f r o m the r e s u l t s i s e v i d e n t f r o m the v a r i e t y of shapes and f i g u r e s b e i n g c o n j u r e d out o f c o l o u r e d p a p e r . 195. 7. M e t a l - B i b l i o g r a p h y Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: W i l l i a m C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. H a l e , N.C. Welded s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l , 1968. M e i l a c h , D.Z., & S e i d e n , D. D i r e c t m e t a l s c u l p t u r e . C r e a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1966. - e x c e l l e n t ; i n c l u d e s the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t from 1914 t o the p r e s e n t - the " w i t h o u t h e a t " s e c t i o n i s most a p p l i c a b l e to the c l a s s r o o m U l l r i c h , H., & K l a n t e , D. C r e a t i v e m e t a l c r a f t . London: B.T. Bats f o r d L t d . , 196 8. - u s i n g w i r e , w i r e f a b r i c s , w o r k i n g w i t h t i n , s o l d e r and r i v e t s E x amples: Anthony Caro D a v i d Smith Theodore Roszak Ibram Lassaw J u l i o G o n z a l e s A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : Hand f o r g i n g PEMC 1978 15 min. c o l o u r B r a z e w e l d i n g UC 1972 13 min. c o l o u r - b o t h a r e recommended i n the Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t . The b r o n z e zoo VT 1-3.5 TF 16 min. c o l i n t / j h / s h - A warm and u n u s u a l l y p e r s o n a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to s c u l p t u r e 196. t h r o u g h Shay R i e g e r ' s e x t r a o r d i n a r y b r o n z e a n i m a l s ; s t r i k i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f r e a l i s m , f a n t a s y , and s c u l p - t u r a l c r a f t and i m a g i n a t i o n . The a r t o f m e t a l s c u l p t u r e VT 1-3.7 1958 PEI 22 min. c o l j h / s h - F o l l o w s d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e m e t a l s c u l p t u r e e x e c u t e d by Tom M c C l u r e f o r permanent d i s p l a y a t a l a r g e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e . C r e a t i v e t o o l s employed i n c l u d e w e l d - i n g t o r c h , handsaw, a n v i l , v i s e and hammer. C l o s e u p s show m e t a l under i n t e n s e h e a t b e i n g worked as a f l u i d . 8. P l a s t e r / P l a s t e r Bandages - B i b l i o g r a p h y C l a r k e , G., & C o r n o c k , S. A s c u l p t o r ' s manual. New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1968. - good s e c t i o n s on p l a s t e r , cement and c i m e n t f o n d u , s t o n e , and wood. Dawson, R., & J . S c u l p t u r e w i t h s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s . Menlo P a r k : Lane Books, 1966. ( S u n s e t ) F a r n w o r t h , W. C r e a t i v e work w i t h p l a s t e r . London: B.T. B a t s - f o r d L t d . , 19 75 . - good s e c t i o n on a r m a t u r e s ; more than j u s t t h r e e dimen- s i o n a l p l a s t e r work. M i l l e r , R. F i g u r e s c u l p t u r e i n wax and p l a s t e r . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. S t e v e n s , H. A r t i n the r o u n d , e l e m e n t s and m a t e r i a l s of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1965 . P a r t 1 - e l e m e n t s of f o r m t h a t convey t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l images to the eye 197 P a r t 2 - ways i n w h i c h t h e s e e l e m e n t s can be combined to make t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s - good p h o t o g r a p h s , many examples, b ut no s t e p - b y - s t e p r e c i p e s - h i g h l y recommend t h i s r e s o u r c e book Examples: C l a e s O l d e n b u r g E l i s a b e t h F r i n k A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o Kenneth A r m i t a g e George S e g a l Joan M i r o C h a r l e s D e s p i a u A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i B a r b a r a Hepworth Henry Moore E l e k Imredy 9. A c r y l i c s / P l a s t i c s - B i b l i o g r a p h y Bunch, G. A c r y l i c f o r s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1972. C h i c h u r a , D.B., & S t e v e n s , T.K. Super s c u l p t u r e . U s i n g s c i e n c e t e c h n o l o g y and n a t u r a l phenomena i n s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1974. - f o r c r e a t i n g , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e P a r t 1 - b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , h i s t o r y , c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , a p p l i c a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m P a r t 2 - v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s - f o r s e c o n d a r y and p o s t s e c o n d a r y use Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h i n g , 1968. 198 Examples: Mike B a n w e l l C e s a r Max B i l l Naum Gabo A n t o i n e P e v s n e r A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : P l a s t i c and f i b r e g l a s s : F i b e r g l a s s I TE 1967 13 min. c o l o u r A 356 P l a s t i c and f i b e r g l a s s : T h e r m o p l a s t i c s ITE 1967 13 min. c o l o u r A 357 - b o t h recommended i n Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., Se p t . 1981 D r a f t . 10. G l a s s Examples: Ed Z e l e n a k Jamie K e l l e y Harvey K. L i t t l e t o n L a r r y B e l l R o b e r t M o r r i s L i s e Lemieux S y l v i a Stone A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : G l a s s b l o w i n g S0-764 PEMC 1978 13 min. c o l o u r - recommended i n Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t . 11. Cemen t - c o n s u l t C l a r k e , G., & Co r n o c k , S. A s c u l p t o r ' s manual. 199 New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1968. - good s e c t i o n s on p l a s t e r , cement and ciment f o n d u , s t o n e and wood - An a r t i c l e by O l s o n , L. D i r e c t cement s c u l p t u r e . B u i l d i n g f o u r - l e g g e d f i g u r e s , f r o m A r t s and A c t i v i t i e s , A p r i l 1979, pp. 52 pp. 52-66 i s a l s o recommended. 12. A i r - B i b l i o g r a p h y H i r o i , T. K i t e s . S c u l p t i n g i n the s k y . A p r a c t i c a l and a e s - t h e t i c g u i d e to making k i t e s . New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n Books, 19 78. L i d s t o n e , J . , & Bunch, C. W o r k i n g b i g . A t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e to e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1975. - a u t h o r s m a i n t a i n "the more a r t i n the c l a s s r o o m s i s l i k e p l a y , the more e f f e c t i v e i t i s l i k e l y to be" (p. 10). - s u b j e c t s : a i r a r t , b u i l d i n g b i g w i t h c a r d b o a r d , l i g h t , w o r k i n g w a l l s , w o r k i n g b i g o u t d o o r s , c h i l d r e n and a r t i s t s work t o g e t h e r E x a mples : R.C.A.T. ( t h e V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y has s l i d e s of t h e i r work) - O t t o P i e n e and Dr. B i l l y K l u v e r are two a r t i s t s c i t e d i n Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . P u b l i s h e r s , 1971 (p. 519; p. 5 2 3 ) . - k i t e s f l y i n g i n the p a r k and a t the b e a c h 200 . 13. L i g h t - C o n s u l t L i d s t o n e , J . , & Bunch, C. W o r k i n g b i g . A t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e to e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co. , 19 75. Examples: G e o r g i a n n a C h a p p e l l Norman White Dan F l a v i n James T u r r e l l 14. E a r t h - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e a r d s l e y , J . P r o b i n g the e a r t h . Contemporary l a n d p r o j e c t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: H o r s h h o r n Museum, S m i t h s o n i a n P r e s s , 1977. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . P u b l i s h e r s , 1971 (pp. 519-523). Examples: R o b e r t M o r r i s W a l t e r de M a r i a R o b e r t S m i t h s o n James T u r r e l l M i c h a e l H e i z e r A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : The sand c a s t l e A N.F.B. f i l m MEC 35 and 16 mm c o l o u r 13 min. 12 s e c . 106c 0077 050 1977. 2.0 1. S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 2 - S u b t r a c t i o n S u b t r a c t i o n r e f e r s to a p r o c e s s o f r e d u c t i o n , the r e m o v a l o f s u r p l u s m a t e r i a l f r o m a b l o c k u n t i l the d e s i r e d shape i s a c h i e v e d . C a r v i n g a l s o r e f e r s to t h i s t e c h n i q u e . S o f t M e d i a *1. P l a s t e r 2. C l a y - w a t e r , o i l base and s e l f - h a r d e n i n g 3. Wax 4 . B a l s a wood 5. S a l t b l o c k s 6 . Soap 7. P o l y s t y r e n e / P o l y u r e t h a n e / P l a s t i c foam 8. C h a l k 9. A p p l e s 10. E a r t h Medium - Hard Media 11. Wood 12. Stone 13. B u i l d i n g b l o c k s / B r i c k s M i s c e l l a n e o u s 14. Bone 18. P l a s t i c s 15. I v o r y 19. Cement and c iment f o n d u 16 . S h e l l 20 . A c r y l i c 17. Horn 21. A e r a t e d c o n c r e t e R e f e r s to the model l e s s o n d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t 2. 202 . P a r t 2 - S u b t r a c t i o n - P l a s t e r , a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e - a model l e s s o n The model used f o r t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a t w o - f o l d one. F i r s t o f a l l , s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n s l i d e s , and a f i e l d t r i p to VanDusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens i s recommended. The media c h o s e n f o r the p r o d u c t i o n p a r t o f the l e s s o n i s , however, c a r v i n g p l a s - t e r t h a t has been p a r t i a l l y p r e - f o r m e d i n p l a s t i c b a g s . Stone or wood c a r v i n g i n the c l a s s r o o m i s p o s s i b l e but the time e l e m e n t i s a p r o b l e m . Stone and wood c a r v i n g , even on a s m a l l s c a l e , i s v e r y time consuming. Months o f c l a s s t i m e a r e r e q u i r e d to c a r v e e i t h e r media--a time span n o t u s u a l l y p r a c t i c a l i n a s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n . C a r v i n g p l a s t e r i s much l e s s time consuming, i t i s i n e x p e n s i v e and v e r y a d e q u a t e l y g i v e s the s t u d e n t s th e e x p e r i - ence o f the t a k i n g away p r o c e s s . S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n F i r s t an i n t r o d u c t i o n to s t o n e and s i m i l a r media s c u l p t u r e i n g e n e r a l . T h r o u g h o u t time man has c a r v e d wondrous s h a p e s . P r e h i s t o r i c man c a r v e d e x q u i s i t e m i n i a t u r e s such a s : 1. The Venus o f L e s p u g u e , a 15 cm i v o r y f i g u r e ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 15, p. 9 2 ) , and the 2. Venus o f W i l l e n d o r f , an 11.5 cm l i m e s tone s t a t u e t t e ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 14, p. 9 2 ) , b o t h d a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21,000 B.C. C l a s s i c a l Greek s c u l p t u r e was f o r c e n t u r e s h e l d as t h e i d e a l to w h i c h a l l s c u l p t o r s s h o u l d s t r i v e : 3. The V i c t o r y o f S a m o t h r a ce , m a r b l e , H e l l e n i s t i c , ca 190 B.C. ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 205, p. 158), and 203. 4. Laokoon and H i s Sons, m a r b l e , H e l l e n i s t i c , 1st c e n t u r y B.C. ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 208, p. 159), a r e two such e x a m p l e s . 5. M i c h e l a n g e l o ' s P i e t a , H. 5'8" m a r b l e , 1499 ( B a z i n , 19 76 , f i g . 762, p. 346) i s p r o b a b l y the most famous r e a l i s t i c s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i n the We s t e r n w o r l d . I t took p i o n e e r s l i k e B r a n c u s i to b r e a k from the t r a d i t i o n o f such f i g u r a t i v e r e a l i s t i c s c u l p - t u r e and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h modern a b s t r a c t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l a r t . But C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i ' s forms were n o t e n t i r e l y 'new'. N o t i c e how he was i n f l u e n c e d by the s t r e a m l i n e d , r e f i n e d 6. C y c l a d i c M a r b l e F i g u r e o f a Woman, H. 49 cm of 2500- 2000 B.C. (The B r i t i s h Museum P o s t c a r d ) i n h i s work 7. The K i s s of 1908 l i m e s t o n e ( A r t s C o u n c i l o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1973, p. 5 4 ) . In Canada we have a r i c h h e r i t a g e o f I n u i t s c u l p t u r e , f o r ex- ample : 8. B i r d , a f a v o r i t e m o t i f , h e r e used as an a m u l e t . I t was c a r v e d by Adamie f r o m P o v u n g n i t u k ( s o u r c e : a c a l e n d a r , p a r - t i c u l a r s unknown). O t h e r examples o f s i m p l i f i e d , s t r e a m l i n e d , r e f i n e d forms a r e fo u n d i n the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n ' s use o f a r g i l l i t e . Some o f the f i n e s t s t o n e s c u l p t u r e i s r e f e r r e d to as ab- s t r a c t , n o n - f i g u r a t i v e , o r g a n i c , b i o m o r p h i c - - s c u l p t u r e t h a t c e l e b r a t e s the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n , i . e . F o r m a l i s t . Some of the s c u l p t o r s t h a t have worked w i t h t h i s r a t i o n a l e a r e j e a n (Hans) Arp , Henry Moore, B a r b a r a Hepworth, and Isamu N o g u c h i . Here a r e some ex a m p l e s : 9. Woman, 1957-8, b r o n z e by Henry Moore (Read, 1965, f i g . 204, p. 2 19). 204, 10. C o m p o s i t i o n , 1931, Green H o r n t o n s t o n e H. 19" (Read, 1965, f i g . 59, p. 82) i s a l s o by Moore. 11. Forme s u r t r o i s p o i n t s marble dim. 2' x 1' i s by Armand F i l i o n , a s c u l p t o r f r o m Quebec (Quebec S c u l p t o r s A s s o c . E x e m p l a i r e No. 162, 1970, p. 3 1 ) . 12. Human C o n c r e t i o n , 1934, m a r b l e ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 1000, p. 437) i s by Jean A r p . 13. P e l a g o s , 1946 , wood w i t h c o l o u r and s t r i n g s H. 16" (40.5) i s by B a r b a r a Hepworth. C o l l . o f the a r t i s t . P h o t o : John Webb, London (Read, 1964, f i g . 210, p. 196). 14. B l a c k Sun by Isamu N o g u c h i , 1969, B r a z i l i a n G r a n i t e 76.5 cm H. i s i n f r o n t of the S e a t t l e A r t Museum, V o l u n t e e r P a r k , S e a t t l e , Wash, ( p h o t o g r a p h p u b l i s h e d by E l l i s P o s t c a r d Co., A r l i n g t o n , Wash. 98223). We a r e f o r t u n a t e to have w i t h i n V a n c o u v e r examples o f o r - g a n i c , a b s t r a c t , b i o m o r p h i c s c u l p t u r e : G e r h a r d C l a s s ' c a s t s t o n e s c u l p t u r e , E a s t A s i a t i c B u i l d i n g ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 3 - The We s t End) ; Henry Moore's K n i f e Edge , Queen E l i z a b e t h Park ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 5 - Downtown B ) ; and L u t z H a u f s c h i l d ' s Wind Blown Mounds ( S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 5 - Downtown B) a r e t h r e e ex- amples. F u r t h e r m o r e , The V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stone S c u l p - t u r e Symposium o f 1975 h e l d at the VanDusen B o t a n i c a l Gardens r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of e l e v e n f i n e examples o f a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e . A v i s i t to the Gardens i s h i g h l y recommended. (Con- s u l t S l i d e N o t e s , S e c t i o n I I I : A r e a 6 ) . And now to t h i n k about what forms the s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s can c r e a t e . A p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h : 205 I t i s hoped t h a t one day s t u d e n t s w i l l have the o p p o r t u n - i t y to c a r v e s t o n e be i t s o f t s o a p s t o n e or h a r d B.C. o r C a r r a r a m a r b l e , l i m e s t o n e o r a r g i l l i t e . F o r the time b e i n g , however, i t i s recommended t h a t s t u d e n t s c a r v e p l a s t e r as the time i n v o l v e d makes i t a much more f e a s i b l e p r o j e c t f o r the c l a s s r o o m . More- o v e r , s i m p l e e v e r y d a y t o o l s a r e s u f f i c i e n t to e n a b l e them to c a r v e most p l e a s i n g forms i n p l a s t e r . When m i x i n g and w o r k i n g w i t h p l a s t e r remember: 1. Always use c l e a n , c o l d w a t e r and a t h o r o u g h l y c l e a n m i x i n g c o n t a i n e r . 2. Always use c o m p l e t e l y dry p l a s t e r t h a t has been k e p t s e a l e d and s t o r e d i n a warm, dry p l a c e . The s h e l f l i f e o f p l a s t e r i s l i m i t e d . 3. Always add p l a s t e r to w a t e r , n e v e r w a t e r to p l a s t e r . ' S i f t i n g ' one h a n d f u l o f p l a s t e r i n t o the w a t e r at a time a l l o w s the p l a s t e r to a b s o r b w a t e r n a t u r a l l y . 4. P l a s t e r u s u a l l y s e t s i n about f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . P l a s - t e r to be used f o r c a s t i n g s h o u l d be p o u r e d w h i l e i t i s s t i l l t h i n and creamy. The m i l k c a r t o n i s a common c o n t a i n e r f o r p l a s t e r c a r v i n g s . More o f t e n t h a n n o t the f i n i s h e d c a r v i n g has the r e a d i l y r e c o g - n i z a b l e f o r m o f a m i l k c a r t o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e e n c o u r a g e d t h a t s t u r d y t r a n s p a r e n t p l a s t i c bags be used to h e l p p r e - f o r m a b s - t r a c t shapes w h i l e the p l a s t e r i s s t i l l i n a f l u i d s t a t e . I t might be h e l p f u l f o r the s t u d e n t s to work i n p a i r s ; one to mix and pour the p l a s t e r , and t i e the bag c l o s e d w i t h a t w i s t t i e ; the o t h e r to h o l d and s u p p o r t the p l a s t i c bag f i l l e d w i t h p l a s - t e r u n t i l i t s e t s . The p e r s o n p o u r i n g the p l a s t e r s h o u l d t r y 206 . to a v o i d g e t t i n g a i r b u b b l e s by p o u r i n g the p l a s t e r down the s i d e of t h e bag. S k e t c h e s o r some t h o u g h t s r e g a r d i n g the b a s i c shape d e s i r e d would be h e l p f u l , making the h o l d or s u p p o r t s o f the bag the f i r s t s t e p i n d e t e r m i n i n g the g e n e r a l form. P i l - l o w s , bean or sand b a g s , foam, s o f t m a t e r i a l , even c l a y or p l a s t i c i n e a r e good s u p p o r t s u b s t a n c e s . A l t h o u g h p l a s t e r s e t s q u i c k l y , c a r v i n g s h o u l d be p o s t p o n e d f o r t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . F u r t h e r s k e t c h e s c o u l d be made at t h i s p o i n t , t a k i n g i n t o a c - c o u t the shape of the s o l i d p l a s t e r - f i l l e d bag. Note the u s e f u l t o o l s and c a r v i n g p r o c e d u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n the r e f e r e n c e b ooks. Some t o o l s can be f o u n d i n the k i t c h e n — u t e n s i l s s u c h as a s e r r a t e d k n i f e , a g r a p e f r u i t s p o o n , melon s c o o p s , and p o t a t o p e e l e r s can s h a v e , s c r a p e , c u t i n t o , and c u t away p l a s t e r . E x p e r i m e n t w i t h t o o l s to see wh i c h ones work b e s t f o r y o u . C o a t i n g the work s u r f a c e w i t h newspaper b e f o r e work b e g i n s i s h e l p f u l f o r c l e a n u p p u r p o s e s . Remove the p l a s t i c bag w i t h c a r e as the p l a s t e r w i l l s t i l l be m o i s t . . I f a c r e a s e o f p l a s t i c i s c a u g h t w i t h i n the p l a s t e r c u t a r o u n d the p l a s t i c and l a t e r d e c i d e to i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s ' d e f e c t ' i n y o u r d e s i g n o r c a r v e i n t o the form a t t h a t p o i n t , t h e r e b y r e m o v i n g the p l a s t i c . Here a r e some e x c e l l e n t examples of a b s t r a c t c a r v i n g done by J i m MacDonald's and D o r i s L i v i n g s t o n e ' s A r t e 100 s t u d e n t s i n the A r t Department, F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t - i s h C o l u m b i a : #15 and #16. Note how the s t u d e n t s have worked w i t h b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e shapes and f u l l y d e s i g n e d a l l f i v e s i d e s . ( M o d e l l i n g t u r n t a b l e s a r e most h e l p f u l i n t h i s r e - g a r d . ) T h e r e has been c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n p a i d to a l l the elem- e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s of d e s i g n . Mind t h a t s t u d e n t s do not c a r v e too f r a g i l e an edge o r too l o n g and t h i n an e x t e n s i o n t h a t would b r e a k e a s i l y . Remember a l s o t h a t when they a r e c a r v i n g i t i s b e s t to be slow and t h o u g h t f u l — o n c e removed, the p l a s t e r can n o t be r e p l a c e d . ( I f , however, a s e r i o u s b r e a k o c c u r s , LePage's B o n d f a s t Glue can r e p a i r c o m p l e t e l y d r i e d p l a s t e r . ) Note a l s o t h a t a smooth f i n i s h can be a c h i e v e d by s a n d i n g the p l a s t e r w i t h 300, 400, and 600 g r i t s a n d p a p e r and/or s t e e l w o o l . In o r d e r to ' f i n i s h ' the p l a s t e r , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e s e o r g a n i c shapes be s e a l e d w i t h p o l y m e r o r d i l u t e d w h i t e g l u e o n l y , a f t e r a t l e a s t a week's e x p o s u r e to d r y , warm a i r . The s i m p l i c - i t y o f the w h i t e p l a s t e r enhances the s u c c e s s f u l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the e l e m e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n f o u n d w i t h i n the form. (The e l e m e n t o f c o l o u r i s f o c u s e d on i n S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 3 - S u b s t i t u t i o n . ) - D i s p l a y y o u r work t o a d v a n t a g e c o n s i d e r i n g h e i g h t , l i g h t i n g , and b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l . - A p p l y c r i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s to the s c u l p t u r e s o f one's own and t h o s e of p e e r s , r e l a t i n g t o : * e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t m a t e r i a l s use s e l e c t i o n of image t o o l s and equipment use c o m p o s i t i o n s equence o f p r o c e s s e s d e v e lopment of image t e c h n i c a l competence c o m p l e t i o n e x p e r i e n c e T h i s i s a s u g g e s t e d a c t i v i t y f o u n d i n the Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v - i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e p t . 1981 D r a f t , p. 183. 208  2 0 9 . * 1 . P l a s t e r (and o t h e r d r y m i x e s ) - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . L o n d o n : B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76. - d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s and t e c h - n i q u e s - good d i a g r a m s , p i c t u r e s - i n c l u d e s s a l t , s o a p , b a l s a wood, c l a y , wax, foamed p l a s t i c s , new m a t e r i a l s , s t o n e , wood, c h a l k , p l a s t e r , p l a s t e r b a s e d p r o d u c t s , b u i l d i n g b l o c k s , b r i c k , a c r y l i c p a s t e - an e x c e l l e n t book a l t h o u g h more u s e f u l f o r s t u d e n t s i n E n g l a n d r e g a r d i n g s u p p l i e r s and t e r m i n o l o g y L e y h , E. C h i l d r e n make s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1972. - shows c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g s c u l p t u r e - a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h e s c u l p t u r e s do n o t have t o be a r t i s t i c , f i n i s h e d , o r good; r a t h e r t h e a c t i v i t y i t s e l f m a t t e r s and t h e k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d by t h e c h i l d o f f o r m and m a t e r i a l s - s c u l p t u r e s done by 3-17 y e a r o l d s ( n o t l a b e l l e d ) - a u t h o r c o n c e r n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o p r o d u c e t h e i r own work i n t h e i r own way, f r e e o f a d u l t a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s . M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and app r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. - no p a t t e r n s t o f o l l o w ; none o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s a b s o l u t e "The methods shown a r e meant t o open y o u r eyes and mind t o t h e a p p r o a c h o f o t h e r s " ( F o r e w o r d ) . - i n c l u d e s c l a y , wax, s o a p , p l a s t i c foam, a p p l e s , p l a s t e r , 210 . wood, s t o n e , bone, i v o r y , s h e l l , h o r n , and p l a s t i c . R i c h , J.C. The m a t e r i a l s and methods of s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947. " T h i s book i s an a t t e m p t to p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c - t u r e o f the anatomy o f s c u l p t u r e , w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to the m a t e r i a l s u s e d , the p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s e m a t e r i a l s , and the methods employed i n t h e i r use, t o g e t h e r w i t h p e r t - i n e n t h i s t o r i c a l and o t h e r n o t e s , and a r e c o r d i n g of the t r e n d s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s c u l p t u r e . The whole i s c o l o r e d by t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e most a d v a n c e d modern s c u l p t o r s : the i n d i s s o l u b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m a t e r i a l s to the s u b j e c t and t r e a t m e n t " (p. v i i ) . - t o o t e c h n i c a l and the i n f o r m a t i o n i s d a t e d S t o n e , A. S c u l p t u r e . New i d e a s and t e c h n i q u e s . London: G. B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1976. - good i n t r o d u c t i o n but a m e d i o c r e t e c h n i c a l s e c t i o n E x a m ples : A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e n k o E l i s a b e t h F r i n k K enneth A r m i t a g e B a r b a r a Hepworth Lynn Chadwick Henry Moore C h a r l e s D e s p i a u Joan M i r o A u g u s t e R o d i n 2. C l a y - w a t e r , o i l base and s e l f - h a r d e n i n g - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76 . Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h i n g , 1968. - one of the b e s t books I've f o u n d — v e r y s y s t e m a t i c ap- p r o a c h to s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e i n d e p t h ; b o r d e r s on b e i n g a s c u l p t o r ' s ' B i b l e ' , i n c l u d e s k i n d s , q u a l i t i e s , e l e m e n t s , p r i n c i p l e s o f s c u l p t u r e 2.11. - i n c l u d e s e x p l o r a t i o n o f c l a y , wood, s t o n e , p l a s t i c s , and cement M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. 3. Wax - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76 . M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. E x a m p l e s : John K e a r n e y E d g a r Degas Medaro Rosso 4. B a l s a wood and 5. S a l t b l o c k s - C o n s u l t B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76. 6. Soap - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . L o ndon: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1976 . Gaba, L. Soap s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : F r a n k l i n Watts I n c . , 1969. ( j ) - a d r e a d f u l c o v e r but the book i s f u l l of common s e n s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f soap c a r v i n g - a c t u a l p h o t o g r a p h e d p r o j e c t s n o t recommended f o r c h i l d r e n 212. M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and Lee, 1969. 7. P o l y s t y r e n e / P o l y u r e t h a n e / P l a s t i c foam - B i b l i o g r a p h y A r u n d e l l , J . E x p l o r i n g s c u l p t u r e . London: M i l l s and Boon, 1971. - "My aim i n w r i t i n g t h i s book i s to e x p l a i n some of the e asy e f f e c t i v e ways of making s c u l p t u r e t h a t a r e a v a i l - a b l e to e v e r y o n e . I t i s not my c o n c e r n to make a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a t i o n s " (p. 7 ) . - i n c l u d e s c a r v i n g , m o d e l l i n g , c a s t i n g , f o l d i n g , e x p a n d i n g , b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e . - d i s c u s s e s p l a s t i c foam, a e r a t e d c o n c r e t e , and a c r y l i c B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1976 . M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e : B r o n z e 13 min. 13 s e c . c o l o u r , a N.F.B. f i l m , 35 mm: 105c 0169 105; 16 mm: 106c 0169 105 "Here the v i e w e r s h a r e s w i t h th e s c u l p t o r the c o n c e p t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f a work o f a r t . The f i l m shows the c r e a - t i o n of a monumental b r o n z e work by M o n t r e a l s c u l p t o r C h a r l e s D a u d e l i n , w h i c h now s t a n d s o u t s i d e the N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e i n Ottawa. The r e a l work i s at t h e s t y ro f oam s t a g e when the model i s s haped w i t h k n i f e , saw and blow- t o r c h i n the e x a c t f o r m the f i n i s h e d b r o n z e i s to t a k e . The 213. f i l m i s w i t h o u t words b ut w i t h music to evoke the mood. 8. C h a l k - C o n s u l t B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1976. 9. A p p l e s - C o n s u l t M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h - n i q u e s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. 10. E a r t h - C o n s u l t B e a r d s l e y , J . P r o b i n g the e a r t h . Contemporary l a n d p r o j e c t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e , 19 77 , and an a r t i c l e by Waldman, D. H o l e s w i t h o u t h i s t o r y . A r t News, May 1971, pp. 44-68. Examples: M i c h a e l H e i z e r ' s Double N e g a t i v e James T u r r e l l ' s Roden C r a t e r 11. Wood - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76. Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: W i l l i a m C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. M e i l a c h , D.Z. Contemporary a r t w i t h wood. C r e a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1968. M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . M a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i q u e s and a p p r e c i a t i o n . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969. 214. W e i s s , H. C l a y , wood and w i r e . R e a d i n g : Young S c o t t Books, 1956 . Examples: A f r i c a n E r n s t B a r l a c h C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i D u d l e y C a r t e r A l a n Chung Hung Chaim G r o s s Suzanne G u i t e B a r b a r a Hepworth Anne Kahane B i l l K o o c h i n Roy L e w i s Mao r i Henry Moore New G u i n e a - N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t , some s p e c i f i c s c u l p t o r s b e i n g R o b e r t D a v i d s o n , Tony and R i c h a r d Hunt, Mungo M a r t i n , and B i l l R e i d . - a l s o n o t e wood s c u l p t u r e s t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m the Wood Symposium h e l d at K l e e Wyck i n West V a n c o u v e r i n 1977. A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : C e l e b r a t i o n o f the r a v e n , a f i l m a bout B i l l R e i d , d i s t r i b u t e d by C a n a d i a n F i l m m a k e r s D i s t r i b u t i o n C e n t r e , 525 W. Pender S t . , V a n c o u v e r . Woodman: D a v i d Nash, s c u l p t o r AC-14 35 min. c o l o u r s r . s e c . / a d u l t . Thomas Howe A s s o c . L t d . R e n t a l F i l m s . John Hooper's way w i t h wood 17:43 c o l o u r 106c 0177 281, a N.F.B. f i l m - T h i s i s not a f i l m about t e c h n i q u e but a p h i l o s o p h y about l i v i n g t h i n g s and the i n t e r a c t i o n between the a r t i s t and h i s m a t e r i a l , from s e l e c t i n g s e a s o n e d woods to f a b r i c a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , to s c u l p t i n g . 215 . Makonde on C u r z o n S t r e e t . MEC A r t - A f r i c a 003852 14 min. 1973. Makonde S c u p t u r e . MEC A r t - A f r i c a 003853 8 min. 'Ksan. MEC A r t s and C r a f t s 001048 27 min. Tony Hunt, K w a k i u t l . MEC 001374 10 min. 1976. 12. S tone - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 19 76. Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. D a n c y g e r , I. C l a y models and s t o n e c a r v i n g . London: Pelham C r a f t S e r i e s , 1974. M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and L e e , 1969 . M e i l a c h , D.Z. Contemporary s t o n e s c u l p t u r e . A e s t h e t i c s , methods, and a p p r e c i a t i o n . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h e r s , 19 70 . Example s: J e a n Arp A s s y r i a n B e r n i n i Max B i l l G u t z o n B o r g l u m B r a n c u s i Cambodian Canova C l o d i o n E a s t I n d i a n C h a r l e s Edenshaw Egypt i an J o a n G a m b i o l i G a u d i e r - B r z e s k a G e r h a e r t G h i b e r t i Greek I n u i t J a c q u e s L i p c h i t z D a v i d M a r s h a l l E l s a Mayhew Mi c h e l a n g e l o George Minne M o d i g l i a n i Henry Moore No g u c h i P r e h i s t o r i c 216 . C y c l a d i c I s l a m i c George Rammel D o n a t e l l o W i l h e l m Lehmbruck Roman E a s t e r I s l a n d Roy Lewis Sumerian A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : The f o l l o w i n g f i l m s t r i p s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e C u r r i c u l u m Lab., F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : AV 4-7309 H588 1961:30 M i c h e l a n g e l o AV 4-7371 E85 S3 Eskimo s c u l p t u r e . P r e h i s t o r i c , h i s t o r i c , modern AV 4-7371 E85 C3 Eskimo c a r v i n g s AV 4-737 1 H35 A7 H a i d a a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g s i n the N a t i o n a l Mus e um of Canada. Le* ;end of the r a v e n . A PEMC f i l m , A-336 CFL 1958 15 min. c o l o u r i n t / s e c. " U s i n g a u t h e n t i c Eskimo c a r v i n g s , the l e g e n d of the r a v e n i s a c t e d o u t . The l e g e n d e x p l a i n s how the r a v e n l o s t h i s a b i l i t y f o speak b e c a u s e o f h i s s e l f i s h n e s s . " S p i r i t i n a l a n d s c a p e . The p e o p l e beyond . A N.F.B. f i l m 106c 0 176 30 1 - about I n u i t a r t from the D o r s e t / T h u l e c u l t u r e s Images s t o n e B.C. 8:23 c o l 106c 0177 544 8 min. 23 s e c . "An e x h i b i t i o n o f 136 s m a l l I n d i a n s t o n e s c u l p t u r e s l e n t by c o l l e c t o r s and museums i n B.C., the U.S. and F r a n c e , t o u r - i n g p a r t s of Canada. The s c u l p t u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of N o r t h w e s t C o a s t A r t b u t a r e n o t homogeneous as t h e y o r i g i n - a t e d i n A l a s k a as w e l l as the s o u t h e r n t i p of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and i n l a n d as f a r as the Kamloops a r e a . T h e i r ages are e s t i m a t e d from 1000 B.C. to the 19th c e n t u r y A.D. The l a t e W i l s o n D u f f was the c o n s u l t a n t f o r the e x h i b i t i o n and the f i l m . " H a i d a c a r v e r . VT 1-3.3 1964, a N.F.B. f i l m 12 min. c o l i n t / j h / s h 0164 079 "On Canada's P a c i f i c C o a s t t h i s f i l m f i n d s a young H a i d a I n d i a n a r t i s t s h a p i n g m i n i a t u r e totems from a r g i l l i t e . The f i l m f o l l o w s the a r t i s t to the i s l a n d where he f i n d s the s t o n e and t h e n shows how he c a r v e s i t i n the manner of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r who t a u g h t him the c r a f t . " The l i v i n g s t o n e . A N.F.B. f i l m VT 1-3.1 1958 30 min. c o l i n t / j h / s h 35 mm: 105c 0158 027 16 mm: 106c 0158 027 "The f i l m shows the i n s p i r a t i o n , o f t e n r e l a t e d to b e l i e f i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l , b e h i n d Eskimo s c u l p t u r e . The Eskimo's a p p r o a c h to the work i s t o r e l e a s e the image he s e e s i m p r i s - oned i n the rough s t o n e . The f i l m c e n t r e s a r o u n d an o l d l e g e n d about the c a r v i n g of the image o f a s e a s p i r i t to b r i n g f o o d t o a hungry camp." S c u l p t u r e - p r o c e s s of d i s c o v e r y . VT 1-3.4 1975 11 min. c o l j h / s h " P r e s e n t s s c u l p t o r Norm H i n e s d i s c u s s i n g h i s a p p r o a c h t o c r e a t i v i t y , e x p l a i n i n g how he works w i t h no p r e c o n c e i v e d form but f o l l o w s the shape w h i c h i s i n d i c a t e d by the r o c k i t s e l f . " - a h i g h l y recommended f i l m Joe J a c o b s : Stone c a r v e r . MEC 001027 10 min. 1976. S a n a n g u a g a t : I n u i t m a s t e r w o r k s . A N.F.B. f i l m 24 min. 51 s e c . c o l o u r 35 mm: 105c 0174 525 16 mm: 106c 0174 525 "An e x h i b i t i o n o f Eskimo c a r v i n g s f r o m p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by the C a n a d i a n Eskimo A r t s 218. C o u n c i l . T h i s i s t h e t r u e a r t o f t h e I n u i t , the e x p r e s s - i o n i n s t o n e , i v o r y , and bone o f t h e i r l i f e and the a n i m a l c o - d w e l l e r s o f t h e i r A r c t i c domain. A l t e r n a t i n g between c l o s e - u p s o f t h e e x h i b i t s a r e vi e w s o f the d a i l y l i f e i n the I g l o o t i k S e t t l e m e n t o f the N.W.T. where the o u t d o o r s c e n e s were f i l m e d " (p. 180). 1 3. B u i l d i n g b l o c k s / B r i c k s - C o n s u l t B e e c r o f t , G. C a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1976; and L e y h , E. C h i l d r e n make s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1972. 14. Bone Example: I n u i t (whalebone) 15 . Ivo ry E xamples: B e n i n P r e h i s t o r i c C h i n e s e Tommaso M a c r i A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e : • o I v o r y c a r v i n g t h r o u g h t h e ages AV 4-7007 A78 C7, a a v a i l a b l e f r o m the C u r r i c u l u m L i b r a r y , F a c u l t y U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 16 . S h e l l and 17. Horn - C o n s u l t M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and Le e , 1969. f i l m s t r i p of E d u c a t i o n , 219. 1 8. P l a s t i c s - C o n s u l t Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i v e c a r v i n g . C h i c a g o : R e i l l y and Lee, 1969. 19. Cement/Ciment f o n d u - C o n s u l t Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. 20. A c r y l i c - C o n s u l t A r u n d e l l , D. E x p l o r i n g s c u l p t u r e . London: C.T. B r a n s f o r d Co., 1971; Bunch, C. A c r y l i c f o r s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 19 72 . 21. A e r a t e d C o n c r e t e - C o n s u l t A r u n d e l l , J . E x p l o r i n g s c u l p t u r e . London: C.T. B r a n s f o r d Co., 19 71. 220 . S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 3 - S u b s t i t u t i o n S u b s t i t u t i o n r e f e r s to the t e c h n i q u e of r e p r o d u c i n g a g i v e n shape by p o u r i n g a t e m p o r a r i l y f l u i d m a t e r i a l i n t o a mould. The s o l i d i f i e d m a t e r i a l i s the r e p r o d u c t i o n . C a s t i n g a l s o r e f e r s to t h i s i m i t a t i v e d e v i c e . There a r e f o u r t y p e s of moulds: 1. f l e x i b l e 3. sand 2. p i e c e 4 . w a s t e - c o n s u l t the g l o s s a r y i n S e c t i o n I I f o r d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s . An example of the waste mould t e c h n i q u e - - c l a y to p l a s t e r , i s d e v e l o p e d as a model. O t h e r examples o f media f o r the s u b s t i t u - t i o n t e c h n i q u e a r e : 2. Wax ( o r o t h e r c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l ) t o m e t a l - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e e c r o f t , G. C a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1979. Edwards, K. L o s t wax c a s t i n g o f j e w e l l e r y . An i n t r o d u c t i o n to i n v e s t m e n t c a s t i n g . London: M i l l s and Boon L t d . , 1974. - an e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e book f o r c e n t r i f u g a l c a s t i n g M i l l s , J.W. The t e c h n i q u e o f c a s t i n g f o r s c u l p t u r e . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1967. O'Connor, H. P r o c e d u r e s and f o r m u l a s f o r m e t a l c r a f t s m e n . C a l g a r y : McAra P r i n t i n g L t d . , 1976. von Neuman, R. The d e s i g n and c r e a t i o n o f j e w e l r y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : C h i l t o n Book Co., 1972. 3. P l a s t e r to f i b r e g l a s s 4. C l a y t o p a p i e r mache 5. C l a y to cement o r c i m e n t f o n d u 22 1. 6. Sand or c l a y to wax 7. A e r y l i c - C o n s u l t Bunch, C. A c r y l i c f o r s c u l p t u r e and d e s i g n . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1972. 8. S l i p c a s t i n g Subs t i t ut i o n - B i b l i o g r a p h y B e l l , R. T a k i n g c a s t s i n s a n d . T o r o n t o : The Pergamon E n g l i s h L i b r a r y , 1970. Chaney, C , & Skee , S. P l a s t e r mold and model making. T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1973. - t h e r e i s a good c h a p t e r on p i e c e moulds Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r , 1968. Dawson, R. S t a r t i n g w i t h s c u l p t u r e . The e l e m e n t s o f m o d e l l i n g and c a s t i n g . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. Dawson, R., & J . S c u l p t u r e w i t h s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s . Menlo P a r k : Lane Books, 1966. - " ( t e a c h e s ) d e s i g n s k i l l s and c r a f t s k i l l s a t t h e same time p r e s e n t i n g a b a s i c e l e m e n t o f d e s i g n w h i c h w i l l e x p l o i t the q u a l i t i e s o f each new medium" (p. 5 ) ; e.g., w i r e , p a p i e r mache, p l a s t e r and c l a y . Kowal, D., & M e i l a c h , D.Z. S c u l p t u r e c a s t i n g . Mold t e c h n i q u e s and m a t e r i a l s . M e t a l s , p l a s t i c s and c o n c r e t e . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1972. " T h i s book i s d e s i g n e d to h e l p c o r r o b o r a t e c u r r e n t e n t h u s - i a s m f o r c a s t s c u l p t u r e . I t i l l u s t r a t e s the t e c h n i c a l know- how needed f o r w o r k i n g w i t h a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s . I t 222 . o f f e r s h i s t o r i c a l e x a m p l e s t o show t h e h e r i t a g e o f c a s t i n g and c o n t e m p o r a r y i d e a s . I n a d d i t i o n t o o f f e r i n g t e c h n o l o g y f o r t h e s e r i o u s s t u d e n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l i t i s an i m p o r t a n t book f o r anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s o f t h e a r t " ( p . 8 ) . M a r k s , M.K. Sand s c u l p t i n g . New Y o r k ; The D i a l P r e s s , 1962. S t e r n b e r g s , J . Images i n s a n d . The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f K e n t u c k y , 1977. E x a m p l e s : - many b r o n z e c a s t s , b o t h n a t u r a l i s t i c d o c u m e n t a t i o n and ab s t r a c t , can be f o u n d i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( c o n s u l t S l i d e N o t e s S e c t i o n I I I ) . - some o f t h e s e l o c a l e x a m p l e s were c r e a t e d b y : J a c k Harman C h a r l e s M a r e g a E l e k Imredy D a v i d M a r s h a l l Roy L e w i s F r a n k P e r r y H e n r y Moore Giacomo Manzu - o t h e r f i n e e x a m p l e s o f t h e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e : A n t o i n e - L o u i s B a r y e Umberto B o c c i o n i G i o v a n n i da B o l o g n a C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i C e s a r Raymond D u c h a m p - V i l l o n S i r J a c o b E p s t e i n S o r e l E t r o g L o r e n z o G h i b e r t i F r a n c i s L o r i n g W i l l i a m M c E l c h e r a n A r i s t i d e M a i l l o l M a r i n o M a r i n i H e n r i M a t i s s e N i g e r i a n ( I f e , B e n i n ) E d u a r d o P a o l o z z i Pe r u v i an P o l l a i u o l o B r o s . 223. A l b e r t o G i a c o m e t t i Mark P r e n t Jap ane s e F r e d e r i c Remington G a s t o n L a c h a i s e R e n o i r W i l h e l m Lehmbruck R o d i n J a c q u e s L i p c h i t z George S e g a l - an e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e book f o r a d d i t i o n a l examples i s by L e i s i n g e r , H. Romanesque b r o n z e s . Church p o r t a l s i n m e d i e v a l E u r o p e . London: P h o e n i x House L t d . , 1956. P a r t 3 - S u b s t i t u t i o n - C l a y t o p l a s t e r - bas r e l i e f - heads So f a r we have been e x a m i n i n g s c u l p t u r e i n the r o u n d . We ar e now g o i n g to f o c u s on the f r o n t a l bas r e l i e f c o n c e p t o f s c u l p t u r e u s i n g the image of the human head. S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n F i r s t o f a l l we w i l l t a k e a b r i e f l o o k at bas r e l i e f from a r o u n d the w o r l d u s i n g s l i d e s : 1. T h i s a l a b a s t e r p l a q u e t a k e n from the A s s y r i a n p a l a c e o f Dur S h a r r u k i n of the 8th c e n t u r y B.C., i s a r e l i e f of The Hero G i l g a m e s h (an e p i c l e g e n d ) . The a r t i s t uses the c o n v e n t i o n , w e l l known i n Egyp t and common a l s o i n A s s y r i a n r e l i e f s , o f the body seen f r o n t a l l y , the f e e t i n p r o f i l e ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 99, p. 121). 2. T h i s n e x t example i s a s t o n e s t e l e f r o m Monte A l b a n , M e x i c o . I t i s a m i x t u r e of f i g u r a t i v e and d e c o r a t i v e shapes ( F r a s e r , 1962, f i g . 149, p. 2 5 1 ) . - a model l e s s o n 224. 3. T h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f known as P h a r a o h ' s T r e a s u r e House i s f o u n d i n P e t r a , s o u t h e r n J o r d a n . C a r v e d i n r e d s a n d - s t o n e c l i f f s t h i s r e l i e f forms the e n t i r e f a c a d e o f the ' b u i l d - i n g ' ; i . e . , the i n t e r i o r i s a cave ( p o s t c a r d - Z k a i l i T r a d i n g A g e n c i e s , P.O. Box 1866, Amman, J o r d a n ) . 4. W e i r d and w o n d e r f u l images have d e c o r a t e d the e x t e r i o r s and i n t e r i o r s o f b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h o u t the a g e s . C o n s i d e r t h i s m e d i e v a l r e l i e f d e p i c t i n g a F a b u l o u s B e a s t D e v o u r i n g a Naked Man, a d e t a i l o f a c a p i t a l c a . 1140-50. I t i s an example o f a s c e n e of i n f e r n a l t orment where the m o n s t e r s a r e t e r r i f y i n g . The mons- t e r h e r e p o r t r a y e d i s seen w i t h the two p r o f i l e s o f i t s body s t r e t c h e d out on e i t h e r s i d e o f i t s h e a d , a Romanesque p e r s p e c t - i v e d e v i c e w h o l l y a p p r o p r i a t e to the shape of the c a p i t a l ( S a l v i n i , 1969, f i g . 114, p. 326). What i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e l i e f s have you n o t i c e d i n y o u r own community? C o n s u l t the S l i d e Notes S e c t i o n I I I . What media and t e c h n i q u e s were us e d to c r e a t e t h e s e r e l i e f s ? Now to change the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the s l i d e s and l o o k at s i x examples o f the human he a d . T h i s image was c h o s e n as i t has been a theme e x p l o r e d by man t h r o u g h o u t time and by most c u l t u r e s a r o u n d the w o r l d . As you l o o k at t h e s e s l i d e s , t r y t o t h i n k of how the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s c o u l d f i r s t be formed i n a n e g a t i v e way so t h a t f l u i d p l a s t e r c o u l d f i l l t h e s e c a v i t i e s , s e t , and be r e - moved from the c l a y n e g a t i v e i n o r d e r to form a p l a s t e r p o s i t i v e . I t w ould be h e l p f u l i f s l i d e s 5-10 c o u l d be shown two at a t i m e , f o r example, 5&6, 7&8, 9&10. 5. One o f t h e most famous heads i n t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d i s The G o l d Mask f r o m the T r e a s u r e s of Tutankhamun ( p o s t c a r d - 225 . George R a i n b i r d L t d . ) . A c o m p a r i s o n can be made w i t h t h i s mask and the 6. R o y a l Head w i t h ornaments showing 16th c e n t u r y P o r t u - guese e m i s s a r i e s , B e n i n , N i g e r i a . H. 9%" . T h i s i v o r y c a r v i n g has t h e same c l e a n l i n e s and s t y l i z e d d e c o r a t i o n s o f the E g y p t i a n mask ( p o s t c a r d - The B r i t i s h Museum). S l i d e s 7 and 8 can a l s o be compared and c o n t r a s t e d : S l i d e #7 b e i n g the E g y p t i a n p l a s t e r Death Mask of Amenhotep 1370 B.C. ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 72, p. 112), and S l i d e #8 b e i n g c r e a t e d by E r n s t B a r l a c h . Head ( b r o n z e ) i s a d e t a i l o f B a r l a c h ' s famous War Monument i n Gustrow C a t h e d r a l ( J o h n s o n , 1960, p. 2 9 ) . What do t h e s e two 'heads' have i n com- mon? 9. T h i s i s a B e l l a B e l l a Moon Mask from a K w a k i u t l shaman's b u r i a l h o u s e . H. 14%". I t has an i n t e r e s t i n g ' c o l l a r ' t h a t might p r o v e to be an i n t e r e s t i n g a d d i t i o n to y o u r c a s t head. P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a ( F r a s e r , 1962, f i g . 173, p. 291). 10. A n o t h e r example o f a Mask t h a t has an open mouth i s from the Congo. H. 70 cm ( P o s t c a r d E d i t i o n s des Musees N a t i o n a u x 1971. R e p r o d u c t i o n i n t e r d i t e — G e n e s e imp. P a r i s ) . What would you have to do t o y o u r c l a y n e g a t i v e i n o r d e r t o have such an 'open' mouth, i . e . , a n e g a t i v e s p a c e i n y o u r p l a s t e r c a s t ? The l a s t two s l i d e s d e a l w i t h the t e c h n i q u e f o r c r e a t i n g p l a s t e r r e l i e f s . These p l a s t e r c a s t s a r e done by M a r c i a P i t c h ' s s t u d e n t s at Moscrop S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l i n Burnaby. Her s t u d e n t s used a n i m a l i m a g e r y but the t e c h n i q u e i s the same as the one p r e - s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 226 . 1 1 . 12. Method - A s t u d y o f the human s k u l l w ould be u s e f u l . - S u g g e s t i o n s : c r e a t e a s e l f p o r t r a i t , do t h i s a c t i v i t y a f t e r an e x t e n d e d s e s s i o n of d r a w i n g the f a c e , c o n s i d e r the i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c mode of e x p r e s s i o n , emphasize the l i n e s and t e x t u r e s o f the f a c e . - A 'bed' of s o f t c l a y p l a c e d on a b o a r d i s dug o u t , i n d e n t e d and b u i l t up t o c r e a t e the o p p o s i t e of the f i n a l f o r m you d e s i r e . F o r example: C l a y n e g a t i v e P l a s t e r p o s i t i v e - B u i l d up f o u r w a l l s o f at l e a s t 6 cm, s e a l i n g the b o t t o m of the w a l l s t o t h e bed o f the c l a y c a r e f u l l y . These w a l l s w i l l dam the p l a s t e r and p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e t h i c k n e s s of p l a s t e r ; l e s s t h a n 3 cm would be t o o f r a g i l e u n l e s s the head was v e r y s m a l l . A r e l i e f o f 8 cm from the t i p o f t h e nose t o t h e ba c k - ground i s a s u g g e s t e d maximum d e p t h . A v o i d v e r y t h i n , l o n g p i n c h e d c l a y e d g e s . - C o n s i d e r how n a t u r a l i s t i c y o u w i s h y o u r h e a d t o be. You may w i s h t o s t y l i z e o r s i m p l i f y the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . The f o l l o w i n g 227 A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s might be u s e f u l f o r t h a t p u r p o s e : C u r r i c u l u m L a b., F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n f i l m s t r i p , AV 4-7370 M38 N6 N.F.B. Masks o f the N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n . The l o o n ' s n e c k l a c e A-312 CFL 1 9 4 8 10 m i n u t e s c o l o r I n d i a n f o l k l o r e as t o l d by f i l m i n g masks c a r v e d by S a l i s h I n d i a n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (recommended i n A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book) . B e h i n d the masks N.F.B. 36:40 c o l o r 106c 0173152. - A v i s i t t o the Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , The U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., i n o r d e r t o s t u d y and s k e t c h the masks on d i s p l a y i s a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y . - When two or t h r e e s t u d e n t s have c o m p l e t e d t h e i r c l a y n e g a t i v e s , s u p e r v i s e the p l a s t e r m i x i n g , a g a i n f o l l o w i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s e n c l o s e d i n S e c t i o n I I I : P a r t 2 - S u b t r a c t i o n . - A d e m o n s t r a t i o n on p o u r i n g a t h i n s l u r r y o f p l a s t e r i n o r d e r to c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r the c l a y s h o u l d be g i v e n ; t h i s ' c o a t ' i s the one t h a t w i l l p i c k up any f i n e d e t a i l . - No time s h o u l d be w a s t e d a f t e r p o u r i n g the f i r s t c o a t . Pour the d e s i r e d t h i c k n e s s and as the p l a s t e r b e g i n s t o s e t , i n s e r t a w i r e hook ^Sb. ^ c m f r o m t h e top o f t h e head; use more t h a n one hook i f the head i s e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e . - P l a s t e r does s e t i n twenty m i n u t e s but g r e a t c a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n t o s e p a r a t e the c l a y f r o m the p l a s t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f any u n d e r c u t s a r e a p p a r e n t . F o r example: 228. I n v e r t i n g the b o a r d / c l a y / p l a s t e r b e f o r e s e p a r a t i o n b e g i n s i s ad- v i s e d . - C l e a n t h e p l a s t e r s u r f a c e w i t h soapy w a t e r and a b r u s h i f n e c e s s a r y . - Dry t h o r o u g h l y : the p l a s t e r w i l l become l i g h t e r i n c o l o u r and w e i g h t . - S e a l w i t h s h e l l a c , w h i t e g l u e or c l e a r p o l y m e r ; more t h a n one c o a t might be n e c e s s a r y ( M a r c i a ' s s t u d e n t s used t h i n n e d s h e l l a c ) . ( D e c i d e how r e a l i s t i c you w i s h the c o l o u r to be. Edward K i e n h o l z ' s D e r e l i c t s and Mark P r e n t ' s f i g u r e s evoke a s t r o n g r e a c t i o n f r o m v i e w e r s p a r t i a l l y due to the f a c t t h a t the c o l o u r used i s ' s u p e r - r e a l ' ) . - S t a i n w i t h d i l u t e d o i l p a i n t s , wood s t a i n s , or c o m m e r c i a l p a t i n a s s u c h as Rub 'n' B u f f or S c u l p m e t a l ; a p p l y l i b e r a l l y a l l o w i n g the l i q u i d s t a i n to f l o w i n t o the i n c i s e d l i n e s . - Wipe r a i s e d s u r f a c e s t o a c h i e v e h i g h l i g h t s . . - D i s p l a y the work t o a d v a n t a g e ; c o n s i d e r the b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l to be used ( i t s t e x t u r e and c o l o u r ) and the l i g h t i n g . - Have the s t u d e n t s a p p l y c r i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s to t h e i r own r e - l i e f s and t h o s e of p e e r s , r e l a t i n g t o * - e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t - m a t e r i a l s use - s e l e c t i o n of image - t o o l s and equipment use - c o m p o s i t i o n - s e q u e n c e of p r o c e s s e s - d e v elopment of image - t e c h n i c a l competence - c o m p l e t i o n - e x p e r i e n c e Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of B.C., V i c t o r i a , B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t , p. 183. -11 ' ' . . • ' • V . » f - 'i,y''*''iin 2 30 . S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 4 - A d d i t i o n A d d i t i o n r e f e r s to the t e c h n i q u e o f a s s e m b l i n g and c o n s t r u c t - i n g f a b r i c a t i o n s w i t h two o r more media, o f t e n d i s c a r d s . M e d i a and t y p e s o f a d d i t i o n s c u l p t u r e *1. S o f t S c u l p t u r e ( a l s o r e f e r to #8, #9, #10) 2. P a p e r and c a r d b o a r d o b j e c t s 3. W ire and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s 4. P a p i e r m a c h e / P l a s t e r bandages and ' f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s ' 5. M e t a l o b j e c t s 6. Wooden o b j e c t s 7. P l a s t i c o b j e c t s 8. D o l l s 9. P u p p e t s 10. Toys 11. K i n e t i c S c u l p t u r e 12. Boxed assemblage 13. Masks and Body S c u l p t u r e 14. Dioramas 15. C o n c e p t u a l a r t 16. M i x e d media R e f e r s t o the model l e s s o n d e v e l o p e d i n P a r t 4. A d d i t i o n - B i b l i o g r a p h y A r u n d e l l , J . E x p l o r i n g s c u l p t u r e . London: M i l l s and Boon, 197 1. "My aim i n w r i t i n g t h i s book i s t o e x p l a i n some of the e a s y e f f e c t i v e ways of making s c u l p t u r e t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e to e v e r y o n e . I t i s n o t my c o n c e r n t o make a e s t h e t i c e v a l u a - t i o n s " (p. 7) . - i n c l u d e s c a r v i n g , m o d e l l i n g , c a s t i n g , f o l d i n g , e x p a n d i n g , b u i l d i n g , c o n s t r u c t i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e - l i m i t e d use f o r young c h i l d r e n Brommer, G.F. Wire s c u l p t u r e and o t h e r t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l cons t r u e t i o n . W o r c e s t e r : D a v i s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1968. - a d d r e s s e d to c h a n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n s c u l p t u r e t h a t can be c a r r i e d out i n the c l a s s r o o m - a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r r e a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n - emphasis a d d i t i v e ; s e t s t y p i c a l p r o b l e m s - e x c e l l e n t book but b e s t f o r s e c o n d a r y a r t Coleman, R.L. S c u l p t u r e . A b a s i c handbook f o r s t u d e n t s . Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. - one o f the b e s t books I've f o u n d ; a s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t s t u d y i n g s c u l p t u r e i n d e p t h D'Amico, V., & Buchman, A. A s s e m b l a g e . A new d i m e n s i o n i n c r e a t i v e t e a c h i n g i n a c t i o n . G r e e n w i c h : New Y o rk G r a p h i c S o c i e t y L t d . , 1972. - 78 p r o j e c t s u s i n g the a r t s o f c o l l a g e and c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n and young p e o p l e from 4-14 y e a r s . "The p r o j e c t s a r e d e s i g n e d to i n t e g r a t e i d e a , a e s t h e t i c c o n c e p t , 232 . t o o l s , and m a t e r i a l s w i t h the c r e a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s of the r e s p e c t i v e age l e v e l s " (p. 3 3 ) . L a x t o n , M. U s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 19 74. L e F e v r e , G. Junk s c u l p t u r e . Don M i l l s : S aunders o f T o r o n t o L t d . , 1973. - s i m p l e to the more c o m p l i c a t e d ; s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e ach s c u l p t u r e - e x c e l l e n t h i s t o r y o f Junk S c u l p t ure but I d on't recommend the p r o j e c t s as they a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h i s book L e y h , E. C h i l d r e n make s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 19 72. - shows c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n making s c u l p t u r e ; a u t h o r b e l i e v e s the s c u l p t u r e s do not have to be a r t i s t i c , f i n - i s h e d , o r good r a t h e r the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f m a t t e r s and the knowledge g a i n e d by the c h i l d o f f o r m and m a t e r i a l s - u n l a b e l l e d s c u l p t u r e s done by 3-17 y e a r o l d s ; a u t h o r con- c e r n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to p r o d u c e t h e i r own work i n t h e i r own way, f r e e of a d u l t a e s t h e t i c s t a n d - a r d s M e i l a c h , D.Z., & Hoor, E.T. C o l l a g e and f o u n d a r t . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d Book C o r p . , 1964. M e i l a c h , D.Z. C r e a t i n g a r t f r o m a n y t h i n g . I d e a s , m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n o l o g y . New Y o r k : G a l a h a d Books, 1968. - i n c l u d e s an assemblage and g l u e c h a r t Payne, G.C. Fun w i t h s c u l p t u r e . L o ndon: Kaye and Ward, 1971. - i n c l u d e s b a l s a wood, w i r e and p l a s t e r , c o n s t r u c t i o n s , d i s - c u s s i o n o f f o u n d o b j e c t s , a s s e m b l a g e s , t h r e a d s , p a p e r , 233. m o b i l e s , foamed p l a s t i c s and p o l y e s t e r r e s i n s ; e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s Rasmusen, H., & G r a n t , A. S c u l p t u r e from j u n k . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1967. - a b r i e f h i s t o r y and t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n Reed, C., & Towne, B. S c u l p t u r e f r o m f o u n d o b j e c t s . W o r c e s t e r : D a v i s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1974. - v i s u a l r e s o u r c e on the use o f f o u n d o b j e c t s and c o n t a i n - e r s , i n c l u d i n g s a n d , t h r e a d , y a r n , f a b r i c s , p a p e r c u p s , egg c a r t o n s , w i r e and m e t a l - an i d e a book; p h o t o g r a p h s more v a l u a b l e t han w r i t t e n ma t te r R o b e r t s o n , S. U s i n g n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 19 74. W e i s s , H. C o l l a g e and c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e a d i n g : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1970. - i n c l u d e s u s e f u l m e c h a n i c a l t r i c k s f o r p a p e r and o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n s A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s Thingumaj i g s , a N.F.B. f i l m 6:01 c o l 106c 0376 274 i n t / j h T h i s i s a f i l m about c r e a t i o n s , and t h e i r i n v e n t o r s who r i d e them, d r i v e them, row them and l o o k a t them. D e s i g n i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y m a t e r i a l s VA-38a HRW 1971 12 min. c o l o u r - a f i l m recommended i n Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, S e p t . 1981 D r a f t . 234. P a r t 4 - A d d i t i o n The l a s t t e c h n i q u e o f s c u l p t u r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a d d i t i o n , i s the most c o n t e m p o r a r y o f the f o u r p r o c e s s e s . Dat- i n g from the time o f the Dada and S u r r e a l i s t s , ' j u n k ' s c u l p t u r e has been c r e a t e d s i n c e 1910 o n l y . C o n t r a r y to s c u l p t o r s manipu- l a t i n g or s u b t r a c t i n g a s i n g l e medium or s u b s t i t u t i n g one medium f o r a n o t h e r , a d d i t i o n i s t h e a s s e m b l i n g , the c o n s t r u c t i n g , the f a b r i c a t i n g , the c o m b i n i n g o f more than one medium. T h i s r e v o - l u t i o n a r y way o f c r e a t i n g s c u l p t u r e uses th e f o l l o w i n g methods: g l u i n g t a p i n g t y i n g n a i l i n g wedging b i n d i n g s c r e w i n g f a s t e n i n g s o l d e r i n g w e l d i n g h o o k i n g s e w i n g A d d i t i o n o f t e n means the r e c y c l i n g of d i s c a r d s , o b j e c t s used and d i s c a r d e d by man, unused o b j e c t s t h a t have t h e i r p u r p o s e a l t e r e d , and f o u n d 'nature'., o b j e c t s . Such media can.be f o u n d i n dumps, a t t i c s , b a s e m e n t s , t h r i f t s t o r e s , w r e c k e r s , s c h o o l ' shops', v a c a n t l o t s , c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s , garage s a l e s , rummage s a l e s , s a l v a g e c o m p a n i e s , a u c t i o n s and f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s ' p l a c e s of wo rk . T h i s t e c h n i q u e has the a d v a n t a g e s o f : - f r e e d o m f r o m s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , - m a n i p u l a t i v e i n t i m a c y , . - c o m p a r a t i v e r a p i d i t y o f e x e c u t i o n , - i n e x p e n s i v e and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s commonly a v a i l a b l e i n our m a t e r i a l i s t i c / t h r o w - a w a y s o c i e t y , - o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h s u g g e s t f o rm and c o n t e n t , 235 . - b e i n g t e m p o r a r i l y a s s e m b l e d b e f o r e f i n a l a r r a n g e m e n t i s de te rmine d, - u s i n g f o u n d o b j e c t s t h a t may be l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g f o r t h e s t u d e n t s to work w i t h t h a n a b l a n k p a p e r , - t r a n s f e r r i n g which o b j e c t s can be s i m i l a r to c h i l d ' s p l a y and magic. 1. S o f t S c u l p t u r e - The Human F i g u r e - a model l e s s o n S o f t s c u l p t u r e was chosen as the model o f the a d d i t i o n t e c h - n i q u e to d e m o n s t r a t e the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and p r o d u c t i v e domains o f s c u l p t u r e b e c a u s e i t h o l d s a s p e c i a l f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . There a r e so many p o s s i b i l i t - i e s o f u s i n g : r u b b e r l e a t h e r f e a t h e r s w i r e mesh v i n y l f i b e r p l a s t i c s p o l y s t y r e n e p o l y u r e t h a n e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r h a r d and s o f t m a t e r i a l s . Not o n l y c a n : b i n d i n g q u i l t i n g b r a i d i n g s t i t c h i n g s t u f f i n g k n i t t i n g e m b r o i d e r y c r o c h e t i n g w e a v i n g t w i s t i n g s e w i n g be used f o r the d e s i g n of t e x t i l e a r t s t h a t c e l e b r a t e the elem- e n t s and p r i n c i p l e s o f d e s i g n , b u t t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s can be used by contempoary s c u l p t o r s as w e l l . S c u l p t o r s can not o n l y c r e a t e s c u l p t u r e of a f o r m a l i s t , f u n c t i o n a l and o r n a m e n t a l n a t u r e , t h e y can use s o f t s c u l p t u r e as a means to be s e l f e x p r e s s i v e , to document e v e n t s , and to make r e l i g i o u s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and p o l i t - i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g the ' f e m i n i n e a r t s ' 236 . f o r t h e s e r a t i o n a l e s of s c u l p t u r e i s an i m p o r t a n t one f o r the s t u d e n t s to c o n s i d e r and one to w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d be e x p o s e d . I t opens up the q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the l a c k of 'women a r t i s t s r e c o g n i z e d t h r o u g h o u t the h i s t o r y of the v i s u a l a r t s as w e l l as the d e b a t e o f what i s a r t ? what i s c r a f t ? S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n The c o n t r i b u t o r s to the b r i e f h i s t o r y o f s o f t s c u l p t u r e a r e : 1. C e s a r , J e a n s , 19 75 compressed c o t t o n ( C o n s t a n t i n e / L a r s e n , 1980, p. 1 2 ) . 2. Man Ray, Enigma of I s i d o r e D u c a s s e , 1920 ( C o n s t a n t i n e / L a r s e n , 1980, p. 13). 3. C h r i s t o s , Wrapped C o a s t ( i n p r o g r e s s ) , 19 7 1, L i t t l e Bay, Sydney, A u s t r a l i a . ( V a n g u a r d , The V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , Nov. 19 7 7 , 6_(8), 17.) C h r i s t o s i s a l s o famous f o r h i s R unning F e n c e , 1976, n y l o n c a n v a s , 18' x 24% m i l e s l o n g , i n s t a l l e d i n Sonoma and M a r i n C o u n t i e s , C a l i f o r n i a , as w e l l as o t h e r p r o p o s - a l s t o wrap and package b u i l d i n g s . R o b e r t M o r r i s , who i s more w i d e l y known f o r h i s e n v i r o n - m e n t a l and c o n c e p t u a l a r t has a l s o worked w i t h heavy s l a b s of i n d u s t r i a l g r e y f e l t . C l a e s O l d e n b u r g has done much t o b r i n g a t t e n t i o n to s o f t s c u l p t u r e . Two examples of h i s work f o l l o w : 4. Sof t B a t h t u b , 1966 , v i n y l , p o l y u r e t h a n e , l i q u i t e x , wood, and r u b b e r , 80 x 30 x 30". C o l l e c t i o n o f Mr. and Mrs. Roger D a v i d s o n , T o r o n t o . P h o t o : E r i c P o l l i t z e r ( J o h n s o n , 1971, f i g . 19, p. 3 1 ) , and 5. S h o e s t r i n g P o t a t o e s S p i l l i n g f r o m a Bag, 1965-66 c a n - v a s , kapok, g l u e , l i q u i t e x , 108 x 46 x 42". W a l k e r A r t C e n t r e , 237. M i n n e a p o l i s . P h o t o : E r i c P o l l i t z e r ( J o h n s o n , 1971, f i g . 40, P. 55) . 6. Bed, by R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , i s a n o t h e r example of the use o f s o f t media. The te r m a p p l i e d t o t h i s t y p e o f a r t i s 'combine p a i n t i n g ' . - mixed media 1955, 75% x 31% x 6%" C o l l . : Mr. and Mrs. Leo C a s t e l l i , New York ( F o r g e , 1969, f i g . 180). "A c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s such p e d e s t r i a n h o u s e h o l d f u r n i s h i n g s as a p i l l o w , s h e e t , and pa t c h w o r k q u i l t b e s p a t t e r e d w i t h p a i n t . T h i s i s a h i g h l y c h a r g e d e m o t i o n a l o b j e c t i n w h i c h t h e e l e m e n t s no l o n g e r have a u s e f u l n e s s b u t a r e p r e s e r v e d . R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s l o v i n g i r r e v e r a n c e f o r f a b r i c , f a b r i c o b j e c t s , and f a b r i c p a i n t i n g c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n to f a b r i c as a medium and the p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n i t " ( C o n s t a n t i n e / L a r s e n , 1980, p. 17). The n e x t f o u r examples a r e done by i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g - n i z e d f a b r i c a r t i s t s : 7. Y a y o i Kusama from Japan c r e a t e d Couch and Canvas assemb- l a g e ; c o t t o n , c. 35" x 83" x 35" C o l l . : Dartmouth C o l l e g e , New Hampshire . Hundreds o f v a r i o u s l y s haped and s i z e d c l o t h p a c k a g e s a r e f i r s t s t u f f e d , t h e n s t i t c h e d to a couch f r a m e . The whole i s t h e n s p r a y e d w h i t e . The form i s f a m i l i a r , the f u n c t i o n n o t ( I b i d . , p. 127). 8. Mag d a l e n a Abakanowicz from P o l a n d c r e a t e d Human S t r u c t u r e Images, p a r t o f h e r C y c l e " A l t e r a t i o n s " 1974-75 ( I b i d . , p. 3 3 ) . 9. R i t z i and P e t e r J a c o b i f r o m Romania, who now l i v e i n Germany, c r e a t e d T r a n s y l v a n i a I , 19 72 , a t a p e s t r y / d r a w i n g made from goat h a i r , h o r s e h a i r , and p a p e r , 18' x 20' x 5'. "T h r o u g h o u t the 70's the J a c o b i s have combined woven work 238. w i t h d r a w i n g on p a p e r . The c o m b i n a t i o n i s u n i f i e d by the p a l e t t e and i m a g e — e s p e c i a l l y the f i b e r - l i k e d r a w i n g and t h e d r a w i n g - l i k e f r i n g e s " ( I b i d . , p. 6 1 ) . 10. A n o t h e r example c r e a t e d by Magdalena Abakanowicz i s Heads, 1974-75 w r a p p i n g , s i s a l , s t i t c h i n g , j u t e s a c k i n g , 47" x 23" x 31" ( I b i d . , p. 130). "The heads shown h e r e a r e f r o m A b a k a n o w i c z ' s l o n g s e r i e s e n t i t l e d A l t e r a t i o n s 1974-75. A l l i n v o l v e d wrapped s i s a l ; most were c o v e r e d w i t h p i e c e s o f j u t e o r l i n e n s a c k i n g . D i r e c t , p r i m i t i v e s t i t c h i n g i s common to most, w h i l e w r a p p i n g s i m i l a r t o mummy b u n d l e s happens l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . F o r h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x h i b i t i o n s , she u s u a l l y composes groups o f t h e s e heads to p o r t r a y the mute f r u s t r a t i o n s of modern man" ( I b i d . , pp. 32-33). A n o t h e r p a r t of the r a t i o n a l e f o r c h o o s i n g s o f t s c u l p t u r e i s t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of l o c a l women a r t i s t s t h a t work w i t h s o f t media, a r t i s t s t h a t sometimes r e c e i v e l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n . Some ex a m p l e s : E v e l y n Roth - c r e a t e s body s c u l p t u r e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s . J o a n n a S t a n i s z k i s - weaves f i b r e s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e the t h i r d d i m e n s i o n . M a r c i a P i t c h - uses s o f t and h a r d media i n h e r i n t e r i o r e n v i r onmen t s . L i z Magor's A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y and Compost F i g u r e s i n c o r p o r - a t e d s o f t media. J o e y Morgan - h e r one woman show B r e a t h i n g s i n c o r p o r a t e d garments and f i b e r s , U.B.C. F i n e A r t s G a l l e r y , March 1979. F e r n H e l f a n d ' s s t u f f e d and s t i t c h e d w a l l h a n g i n g s were p a r t of the On t h e S u r f a c e show at P r e s e n t a t i o n House, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , June 1981. L o r r a i n e Konst - c r e a t e s d o l l s . 239 . K a t h e r i n e D i c k e r s o n ' s The F o r e s t i s a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l w e a v i n g a r o u n d the s t e p s o f the Department o f P u b l i c Works, V i c t o r i a . Camerose Ducote - uses c l o t h , r h o p l e x , p a i n t , f i b r e f i l l moulded a r o u n d c h i c k e n - w i r e a r m a t u r e s to c o n s t r u c t h e r s o f t zoos f u l l o f l i f e - s i z e and l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e a n i m a l s e x h i b i t e d at the Burnaby A r t G a l l e r y , March 1983 . O t h e r C a n a d i a n women a r t i s t s u s i n g s o f t media i n c l u d e : A i k o S u z u k i I r e n e Whittome S e t s u k o P i r o c h e C o l e t t e W h i t e n . J o y c e W i e l a n d At the same time as s t u d e n t s a r e e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h combin- i n g s o f t media i t i s f e a s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e t h a t they work w i t h the most common image i n the h i s t o r y o f w o r l d s c u l p t u r e : the human f i g u r e . An e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e t h a t d i s c u s s e s t h i s h i s t o r y i s t he f i l m s t r i p - t a p e s e r i e s on E l e m e n t s of S c u l p t u r e P a r t , I . The Human Image. T h i s f i r s t o f a f o u r p a r t s e r i e s " s u r v e y s t h e human f i g u r e — t h e p r i m a r y s u b j e c t o f s c u l p t u r e t h r o u g h o u t h i s t - o r y . F i g u r e s from E u r o p e , E g y p t , G r e e c e , A f r i c a , I n d i a , the F a r E a s t and t h e A m e r i c a s p r e s e n t a f u l l range o f s t y l e s from extreme r e a l i s m t o t o t a l a b s t r a c t i o n " (1978, E d u c a t i o n a l A u d i o V i s u a l I n c . , P l e a s a n t v i l l e , N.Y. 10570 7KF 0060/7RF 0060 L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s C a t a l o g No. 78-730251). As you l o o k at the f o l l o w i n g s l i d e s ( i f p o s s i b l e use two s l i d e p r o j e c t o r s a t once, f a c i l i t a t i n g a c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t of images) t h i n k about e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c s c u l p t u r e and what emo- t i o n s you would l i k e y o u r f i g u r e to d e p i c t . How d i d the f o l l o w i n g a r t i s t s d e p i c t the human f i g u r e ? Why? Try to i m a g i n e why t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s were c r e a t e d : 11. P i s c o b o l o s Roman copy a f t e r a b r o n z e o r i g i n a l c a . 450 B.C. by Myron marb l e H. 5 8 V ( S p e n c e r , 1975, f i g . 371, p. 4 8 9 ) . 13. Umberto B o c c i o n i ' s Unique Forms o f C o n t i n u i t y i n Space 1913 b r o n z e ( B a z i n , 12. Woman w i t h L a u n d r y B a s k e t by Duane Hanson, mixed media 1974 (Hanson, f i g . 42 , p . 95) . 14. Man i n Open A i r c. 1915 by E l i e Nadelman, Museum of Moden A r t , New Y o r k , b r o n z e 1976, f i g . 989, p. 4 3 2 ) . In the o t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y you have seen the f e m a l e f i g - ure d e p i c t e d i n v a r i o u s media and t e c h n i q u e s . In the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s t r y and i m a g i n e what t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s c o u l d be s a y i n g about women: 15. August R e n o i r The Washer- woman 1917 The Museum o f Modern A r t , New Y o r k . 17. M a r i s o l Women and Dog wood, p l a s t e r , p a i n t and m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a t e r i a l s 1964 ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 1023, p. 4 4 8 ) . 19. Edward K i e n h o l z Jane Doe 1959 mixed media (Assemb- l a g e i n C a l i f . , 1968, f i g . 7, p. 19). 16. G a s t o n L a c h a i s e S t a n d i n g Woman 1932 b r o n z e . The Museum o f Modern A r t , New Y o r k . 18. S c h o o l of Jacob de G e r i n e s - Anne of Burgundy as H u m i l i t y , b r o n z e F l e m i s h 1445 o r 1476 ( B a z i n , 1976, f i g . 678, p. 315). 20. What does the media t e l l us about women, i . e . , the f a s h i o n i n d u s t r y , T.V. com- me r c i a l s -- fo r example an 241. - the f i g u r e i s a b s u r d , E a t o n ' s mannequin, humorous, p a t h e t i c , c o r n y and t r a g i c , as a r e the m a t e r i a l s used i n the mak- i n g of t h i s ' p e r s o n ' . What em o t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s e examples? 21. The K a d d i s h by the s t u d - 22. Der Mann im S t o c k , E r n s t ent L a u r e n Gubbau, aged B a r l a c h 1918 E i c h e , H. 730 15, c l a y ( H o o v e r , 1967, cm, K u n s t h a l l e , Hamburg f i g . 11). ( S t u b b e , 1959, f i g . 3 4 ) . What do you t h i n k t h e s e s c u l p t o r s a r e t r y i n g to say about the d i s a b l e d and the e l d e r l y ? 23. a n o t h e r work by E r n s t 24. George S e g a l ' s O l d Woman at B a r l a c h , E k s t a t i s c h e F r a u the Window 1965 p l a s t e r , 1920 oder f r u h e r . G i p s chrome, wood, g l a s s and u n t e r s c h e l l a c k H. 377 cm b o a r d 96 x 36 x 48" C o l l . N a c h l a f , Gustrow ( S t u b b e , Mr. and Mrs. M e l v i n H i r s h , 1959, f i g . 4 2 ) . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f . ( S e i t z , 19 72 , f i g . 50) . L a s t l y , c o n s i d e r t h e media used i n the d e p i c t i o n o f t h e s e human f i g u r e s : 25. S e t s u k o P i r o c h e Metamor- 26. A l e x a n d e r C a l d e r ' s Sword p h o s i s , V a n g u a r d J u n e / J u l y Swallowe r from h i s C i r c u s 1977, V ( 5 ) , p. 21. P h o t o : c o l l e c t i o n ( Lipman, 1972, R. K e z i e r e . Made w i t h p. 8 8 ) , made w i t h w i r e , t h r e a d s and f e a t h e r s . f a b r i c and mixed media. B e f o r e you b e g i n y o u r own work t h i n k about how the human f i g u r e i s d e p i c t e d i n V a n c o u v e r . Some examples a r e : 242. Are a 1 - G i r l i n W e t s u i t Are a 2 - K i n g George VI A r e a 3 - The S k a t e r A r e a 4 - A n g e l of V i c t o r y Are a 5 - C o n t i n u i t y - what media was u s e d ; how d i d t h a t media i n f l u e n c e the ' s t y l e ' ? - what t e c h n i q u e s and t r a d i t i o n s were used? - what s y m b o l i s m do you n o t i c e ? - what was the r a t i o n a l e f o r the s c u l p t u r e ? - what e m o t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s ? What k i n d o f f i g u r e do y o u w i s h t o c r e a t e ? - m i n i a t u r e / l i f e s i z e - f e m a l e / m a l e - o l d / y o u n g - s e l f p o r t r a i t , f r i e n d , member o f t h e f a m i l y - f o l k o r s p o r t h e r o - a d o l l , p u p p e t , t o y , w a l l h a n g i n g , m o b i l e , a k i n e t i c p i e c e of s c u l p t u r e What e m o t i o n / f e e l i n g do you w i s h to d e p i c t ? - j o y / s o r r o w - c o n c e r n / e n v y - f r i g h t / c o u r a g e - e x c i t e m e n t / a p a t h y - g r e e d / c o m p a s s i o n - s a d n e s s / h a p p i n e s s - a n g e r / p l e a s u r e - h u m i l i t y / b r a v a d o - i s o l a t i o n / c a m a r a d e r i e - l o v e / h a t e S k e t c h e s of y o u r i d e a s f o r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i l l need to be complemented w i t h a knowledge of body l a n g u a g e so t h a t the e n t i r e f i g u r e d e p i c t s the f e e l i n g / e m o t i o n . C o l l e c t and s o r t the n e c e s s a r y d i s c a r d s . A l i s t o f p o s s - i b l e media can be f o u n d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s model l e s s o n . Use the r e f e r e n c e s and the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a s c e r t a i n what s k i l l s of a d d i t i o n you w i s h to use f o r y o u r f i g u r e . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d to s t a g i n g y o u r f i g u r e upon c o m p l e t i o n . D e c i d e on w h e t h e r to d i s p l a y s i n g l y o r i n g r o u p s . C r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t , i n t e r i o r or o u t d o o r , u s i n g f o u n d o b j e c t s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f mood, imp a c t and l i g h t i n g i s i l l u s t - r a t e d i n the f i l m I f B r a i n s were Dynamite You Wouldn't Have Enough to Blow Your Nose N.F.B. 28:30 m i n u t e s . " C r e a t i o n o f M o n t r e a l s c u l p t o r Mark P r e n t - - a s c u l p t u r e of a naked male q u a d r u p l e amputee s i t t i n g i n a w h e e l - c h a i r . The f i l m shows the s t e p - b y - s t e p c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n u s u a l work, from the p l a s t e r c a s t i n g on the a r t i s t h i m s e l f to the i n s e r t i o n o f r e a l i s t i c eyes ( g l a s s ) . R e a c t i o n s of amazement and sometimes shock on t h e p a r t of the v i e w e r s o f the e x h i b i t i o n at a T o r o n t o a r t g a l l e r y i n d i c a t e t h a t P r e n t ' s work i s o f t e n condemned but a l s o r e s p e c t e d " ( c a t a l o g u e ) . Be s u r e to p r e v i e w t h i s f i l m ; i t would not be s u i t a b l e f o r some s t u d e n t s or s i t u a t i o n s . A n o t h e r f i l m t h a t has to do w i t h media and t e c h n i q u e i s : Woven i n Time, E v e l y n R o t h , CFD 000072 1977 10 m i n u t e s S c u l p t u r e MEC. Have the s t u d e n t s a p p l y c r i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s to t h e i r own c r e a t i o n s and t h o s e of t h e i r p e e r s , r e l a t i n g t o : * - e x p r e s s i v e i n t e n t - m a t e r i a l s use - s e l e c t i o n o f image - t o o l s and equipment use Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e Book, M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t , p. 183. c o m p o s i t i o n d e v e lopment of image c o m p l e t i o n - s e q u e n c e o f p r o c e s s e s - t e c h n i c a l competence - e x p e r i e n c e '-0 IV * \ 3* z*t6 as :3 I 10 iVm- II IV'-** :W- ft fc'^AAV EKTACHROME GAGEL PHOTO SERVICE LTD. 9t :fr-*Af  247. 1. S o f t S c u l p t u r e - B i b l i o g r a p h y Bakke, K. The s e w i n g machine as a c r e a t i v e t o o l . Englewood C l i f f s , N . J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1976. C o n s t a n t i n e , M., & L a r s e n , J . L . The a r t f a b r i c : M a i n s t r e a m . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1980. C o u t t s , L. B a s k e t s and beyond. New uses f o r t r a d i t i o n a l b a s k e t r y t e c h n i q u e s . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i s h e r s , 19 77 . The E v e l y n Roth r e c y c l i n g book. V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n Books, Hemlock P r i n t e r s , 1975. H a l l , C.V. S o f t S c u l p t u r e . Don M i l l s : F i t z h e n r y & W h i t e s i d e , 1981. M e i l a c h , D.Z. Macrame. C r e a t i v e d e s i g n i n k n o t t i n g . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1971. M e i l a c h , D.Z. S o f t s c u l p t u r e and o t h e r s o f t a r t f o r m s . New Y o r k : Crown P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1974. W a l l e r , I. T e x t i l e s c u l p t u r e s . New Y o r k : T a p l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977. - recommended i n Grades 8-12 A C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e / R e s o u r c e B ook, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of B.C., S e p t . 1981 D r a f t . E xamples: L o c a l , C a n a d i a n , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c u l p t o r s a r e l i s t e d w i t h i n the s o f t s c u l p t u r e model l e s s o n . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s : A l - H i l a l i , Neda M o r r i s , R o b e r t ( u s e d heavy f e l t ) de A m a r a l , O l g a P e r u v i a n d o l l s B u i c , J a g o d a Samaras, L u c a s 248. D i Mare, D o m i n i c S e k i m a c h i , Kay H i c k s , S h e i l a Tawney, L e n o r e J a c o b i , R i t z i and P e t e r W i n s o r , J a c k i e Z e i s l e r , C l a i r e 2. P aper and C a r d b o a r d O b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g c o n t a i n e r s , c a r t o n s , b o x e s , r o l l s , t u b e s and c u p s . Example: K u r t S c h w i t t e r s A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e : Paper c o n s t r u c t i o n AV 4 7008 A 78 1972 3:4, a f i l m s t r i p a v a i l - a b l e f r o m the C u r r i c u l u m Lab, F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 3. Wire and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s such as l i q u i d m e t a l , p l a s t i c r e s i n s , s h e e t m e t a l , e n a m e l l e d m e t a l , w i r e s c r e e n and mesh, g l a s s and f o u n d o b j e c t s . E xamples: An W h i t l o c k S h e r r y G r a u e r 4. P a p i e r m a c h e / P l a s t e r bandages and ' f i n i s h i n g t o u c h e s ' - B i b l i o g r a p h y ( C o n s u l t S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n #4 and #8.) E x a m ples : George S e g a l Mark P r e n t Edward K i e n h o l z Duane Hanson A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e : P a p i e r Mache AV 4 7008 A78 1972, 3:2, a f i l m s t r i p a v a i l a b l e from the C u r r i c u l u m L ab, F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 5. M e t a l o b j e c t s - w e l d e d , b r a z e d , s o l d e r e d - B i b l i o g r a p h y ( C o n s u l t S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n #7.) Examples : Mark d i Su v e r o Anthony Caro D a v i d Smith 6. Wooden o b j e c t s j o i n e d w i t h r i v e t s , s c r e w s , l o c k j o i n t s , n a i l s , g l u e , d o w e l s , p e g g i n g and b o l t i n g . - C o n s u l t M e i l a c h , D.Z. Contemporary a r t w i t h wood. New York . Crown P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1968. Examples: L o u i s e N e v e l s o n M a r i s o l 7. P l a s t i c s i n c l u d i n g c o n t a i n e r s , c l o t h , s h e e t s , b o t t l e s - B i b l i o g r a p h y ( C o n s u l t S e c t i o n IV: P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n #9.) 8. D o l l s - B i b l i o g r a p h y G l u b o k , S. D o l l s . C h i c a g o : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1975. L a u r y , J.R. D o l l making. A c r e a t i v e a p p r o a c h . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1970. 250 . 9. Puppe t s A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e s : P u p p e t s AV 4 7008 A 78 1972, 3:3 P u p p e t r y - m i n i a t u r e s f o r t h e a t r e AV 4 7400 P865 1978 1:2:3 - two f i l m s t r i p s a v a i l a b l e f r o m the C u r r i c u l u m Lab, F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 10. Toys 11. K i n e t i c S c u l p t u r e ( a l s o r e f e r to #7, #8, and #9) - B i b l i o g r a p h y C h i c h u r a , D.B., & S t e v e n s , T.K. Super s c u l p t u r e . U s i n g s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y and n a t u r a l phenomena i n s c u l p t u r e . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1974. S e l z , P. D i r e c t i o n s i n k i n e t i c s c u l p t u r e . B e r k e l e y : The U n i v e r s i t y A r t Museum, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. E xamples: R o b e r t B r e e r Len Lye P o l Bury C h a r l e s M a t t o x A l e x a n d e r C a l d e r George R i c k e y Hans Haacke T a k i s H a r r y Kramer J e a n T i n g u e l y A u d i o V i s u a l R e s o u r c e : K i n e t i c a r t #6 14 15 min. c o l o u r and Dim. C o r p . , S t a m f o r d , Conn. s ound f i1ms t r i p , E d u c a t i o n a l 251. 12. Boxed Assemblages - B i b l i o g r a p h y Capon, R. Ma k i n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t u r e s . London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1976. Feldman, E.B. V a r i e t i e s of v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. N i c h e s , b o x e s , and g r o t t o e s , pp. 493-501. Examples : Mary B a u e r m e i s t e r J o s e p h C o r n e l l M a r c e l Duchamp A l M c W i l l i a m s L o u i s e N e v e l s o n 13. Masks and Body S c u l p t u r e 14. Dioramas - M i c h a e l F o s t e r , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s an e x c e l l e n t r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . 15. C o n c e p t u a l A r t 16 Mixed Media E x a m p l e s : B a r r y C o g s w e l l Naum Gabo M i c h a e l Hayden P i c a s s o R i c h a r d P r i n c e Raus chenbe r g Simon R o d i a M i c h a e l Snow C o l e t t e W h i t e n A l a n Wood A l e x Wyse Badanna Zack 252. R e f e r e n c e s f o r S e c t i o n IV P a r t 1 - M a n i p u l a t i o n R e f e r e n c e l i s t f o r s l i d e s i n the model l e s s o n : C l a y A n i m a l s B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y o f w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . S e c a u c u s : C h a r t w e l l Books, I n c . , 1968. F e r n a n d e z , J . M e x i c o ' s p r e h i s p a n i c s c u l p t u r e . M e x i c o : I n s t i t u t o N a c i o n a l de A n t r o p o l o g i a e H i s t o r i a , 1976. Lipman, J . ( E d . ) . C a l d e r ' s c i r c u s . New Y o r k : E.P. D u t t o n & Co. I n c . , 19 72. Look a g a i n , The 1968 C h i l d c r a f t A n n u a l . T o r o n t o : F i e l d E n t e r - p r i s e s E d u c a t i o n a l C o r p . , 1968. M i k i , F. A r t s o f J a p a n 8: Haniwa. New Y o r k : W e a t h e r h i l l , 19 74. R o t t g e r , E. C r e a t i v e c l a y d e s i g n . New Y o r k : R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h - i n g C o r p . , 1962. W e i s b e r g , G.P., & J a n s o n , H.W. T r a d i t i o n s and r e v i s i o n s . Themes from the h i s t o r y o f s c u l p t u r e . K e n t : The C l e v e l a n d Museum of A r t , 1975. W e i s s , H. C l a y , wood and w i r e . R e a d i n g , Mass.: Young S c o t t Books, 1956 ( j ) . P a r t 2 - S u b t r a c t i o n R e f e r e n c e l i s t f o r s l i d e s i n the model l e s s o n : P l a s t e r , a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e Armand F i l i o n s c u l p t e u r . Quebec S c u l p t o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n E x e m p l a i r e 253 . no. 162, 1970. B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y of w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . S e c a u c u s : C h a r t w e l l Books I n c . , 1968. P i o n e e r s o f modern s c u l p t u r e . L o ndon: A r t s C o u n c i l of G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1973. Read, H. A c o n c i s e h i s t o r y of modern s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1964. Read, H. Henry Moore. A s t u d y o f h i s l i f e and work. London: Thames and Hudson, 1965. P a r t 3 - S u b s t i t u t i o n R e f e r e n c e l i s t f o r s l i d e s i n the model l e s s o n : C l a y to p l a s t e r heads i n bas r e l i e f B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y of w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . S e c a u c u s : C h a r t w e l l Books I n c . , 1968. F r a s e r , D. P r i m i t i v e a r t . London: Thames and Hudson, 1962. J o h n s o n , L. The b a s i c methods and m a t e r i a l s - s c u l p t u r e . New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay Co. I n c . , 1960. S a l v i n i , R. A h i s t o r y o f w e s t e r n s c u l p t u r e . G r e e n w i c h , N.Y.: New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1969. P a r t 4 - A d d i t i o n R e f e r e n c e l i s t f o r s l i d e s i n the model l e s s o n : S o f t s c u l p t u r e and the human f i g u r e A ssemblage i n C a l i f o r n i a . '60's . A r t G a l l e r y , 1968. Works f r o m the l a t e '50's and e a r l y Regents o f the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 254 B a z i n , G. The h i s t o r y o f w o r l d s c u l p t u r e . S e c a u c u s : C h a r t w e l l Books I n c . , 1968. C o n s t a n t i n e , M., & L a r s e n , J . L . The a r t f a b r i c : M a i n s t r e a m . T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d Co., 1980. F o r g e , A. Raus chenb e r g . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . P u b l i s h e r s , 1969. Hanson, D. E r s t e R e t r o s p e k t i v e des A m e r i k a n i s c h e n B i l d h a u e r s . T r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n , S t u t t g a r t , Aacken, B e r l i n , 1974. H o o v e r , L. ( E d . ) . Young s c u l p t o r s . W o r c e s t e r : A r t R e s o u r c e P u b l i c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f D a v i s P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1976. J o h n s o n , E.H. C l a e s O l d e n b u r g . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1971. Lipman, J . ( E d . ) . C a l d e r ' s c i r c u s . New Y o r k : E.P. D u t t o n and Co. I n c . , 19 72. S e i t z , W.C. S e g a l . New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams I n c . P u b l i s h e r s , 19 72. S p e n c e r , H. The image maker. Man and h i s a r t . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1975. S t u b b e , W. E r n s t B a r l a c h p l a s t i k . M u n i c h : R. P i p e r and Co., 1959 . 255 . SECTION V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s to answer some i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s . I t s t a t e s why s c u l p t u r e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an e s s e n t i a l co