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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teaching sculpture : a rationale and resource kit McFeely, Susanne Gayle 1983-04-15

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TEACHING SCULPTURE: A RATIONALE AND RESOURCE KIT by SUSANNE GAYLE McFEELY B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 (?) Susanne Gayle McFeely, 1983 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. it freely available for reference and study. I further Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 lE-6 (3/811 ABSTRACT This resource kit presents reasons for ensuring that sculpture becomes an integral part of British Columbia schools' art curriculum. An approach to creating readiness, a glossary, a criteria-based definition of sculpture, and a system of crit ical analysis is offered. The resource kit is complete with maps, slides, background information, classroom and fieldtrip activities. Its aim is to present, based on local resources, an integrated approach to the historical, critical, and prod uctive domains of sculpture. An entire section of the thesis reviews, as a model for this approach, over one hundred and fifty pieces of sculpture found in Vancouver. Another section focuses on the technical aspects of producing sculpture. One media is developed as a model for each technique. Other media are listed with pertinent written and audio visual resources and examples of sculptors known for their work with these media. The appendix presents material to show the diversity of sculp ture, both contemporary and historical, in local and interna tional environments. The intention of the resource kit is to provide teachers with information concerning what sculpture can be, what sculpture is, and when, how, and why it is created. The hope is that this introduction and overview of this visual expression area will facilitate sculpture becoming an equitable part of British Columbia school art programs. iii . TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 Reasons for the Thesis 1 Reasons for Studying Sculpture 3 Contents of this Study 7 Table I: An Integrated Approach for Teaching Sculpture 10 II. CREATING READINESS 12 Tuning In: Natural and Man Made Forms .... 12 Glossary of the Language of Sculpture .... 14 Defining Sculpture 43 Critical Analysis: Feldman's Systematic Approach . 45 Approaching the Local Scene 8 A Preface to Vancouver Sculpture 49 III. VANCOUVER SCULPTURE 57 Area 1 - The University of British Columbia 60 Area 2 - Stanley Park 83 Area 3 - The West End 98 Area 4 - Downtown A 116 Area 5 - Downtown B 13Area 6 - VanDusen Gardens 156 IV. THE TECHNIQUES OF SCULPTURE 172 Introduction 17Table II: A Model for Introducing the Four Techniques 175 Manipulation 176 Subtraction 20 1 Substitution 220 Addition 23iv. Section Page V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 255 APPENDIX 259 V SLIDES THAT ACCOMPANY THE MASTER OF EDUCATION THESIS Q^S ^frt TEACHING SCULPTUREt A RATIONALE AND RESOURCE KIT j_|i^0& • Section Ills Area 1 P. 63 1 - 20 64 21 • - 40 65 41 • - 45 Section 111: Area 2 P. 85 1 - 20 97 21 • - 22 Section llli Area 3 P. 111 1 - 20 112 21 - 32 Section llll Area 4 P. 119 1 - 20 120 21 - 35 Section Ills Area 5 P. 139 1 - 20 140 21 - 36 Section 111J Area 6 P. 159 1 - 20 160 21 - 23 Section IV: Part 1 P. 185 1 - 20 Section IV t Part 2 P. 208 1 - 16 Section _/« Part 3 P. 229 1 - 12 Section TV t Part 4 P. 245 1 - 20 246 21 - 26 Susanne McFeely April, 1983 SECTION I Reasons for the Thesis This project was conceived during a graduate studies course in sculpture—an exciting entry into the realm of three dimensional forms and their effect upon their settings. Since that course, many hours of research have been invested in learning what sculpture can be, and how, when, and why it is created. As the research progressed, so did the yearning to create three dimensional work of my own, and so did the desire to share the excitement and knowledge of sculpture with other teachers and students whose seemingly infectious enthusiasm in my sculpture workshops supported, in my mind at least, the efficacy of my research, artistry and teaching. Throughout this period, my sculpture sensibilities rang discordant with what I perceived as an inequitable art curricu-l;um in British Columbia. Little' sculpture is taught in the elementary and secondary schools in this province. Compared to the other areas of visual expression, sculpture has been a nonentity. This project was prepared to make teachers aware of what they and their students are missing if sculpture is not a basic part of a year's art program. The Ministry of Education's Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/ Resource Book, Province of British Columbia, Sept. 1981 Draft-includes sculpture as a visual expression area but such an in clusion does not enable teachers inexperienced in the area of three dimensional art themselves to teach sculpture. Assistance in viewing, discussing, critically analyzing, and making sculpt ure is necessary. This project endeavours to provide this neces sary assistance. Yet another reason for this study is the concern that I felt for the lack of adequate information regarding a survey of sculpture. There is a wealth of material in the 'how to1 cate gory of specific areas such as boxed assemblages, carving tech niques, etc., but very little is readily available to teachers that deals with the scope of sculpture or how to introduce the subject to students who have had little or no experience with three dimensional art. This project provides one possible ap proach to such a survey course. The final reason for this study being undertaken is the belief that teachers trained in art education should have as much opportunity to study sculpture as they do drawing and painting, graphics, design, and ceramics. In these other areas of interest a three year program of studies is possible at the University of British Columbia's Faculty of Education. Students who graduate from these programs are generally proficient in the creation of their own work and well trained to expose their fut ure students to these specific fields of study. Such an oppor tunity is not possible in sculpture. Hopefully some day this situation will change and sculpture will be an integral part of art programs taught in elementary, secondary and post-secondary institutions in British Columbia. Before detailing the specific contents of this study, reasons are outlined as to why sculpture should be studied in the first place. 3. Reasons for Studying Sculpture Many reasons can be given for studying sculpture, however, many of them are not exclusive to sculpture since they pertain as well to the other art disciplines. Encompassing reasons are listed below followed by a discussion of those more specific to sculpture alone. We study all art forms to: 1. Communicate and express feelings, thoughts, beliefs, values, frustrations, concerns, conflicts, hopes, dreams, fant asies, inspirations. 2. React to experiences. 3. Read visual statements be they expressive, utilitar ian, ornamental, philosophical, religious, political or of a documentary nature. 4. Develop visual literacy whereby we perceive the envir onment anew in order to be more critically aware, more select ive, more discriminating, more capable of making wise value j udgments. 5. Provide problem solving situations in which challenges are posed, personal decisions are made, individual solutions are found. As in the following quote: A friend has pointed out that what I do is 'more therapy than it is art.' I was, at first, quite confused about this, for the word 'therapy' is a complex word often misused and occasionally used as a put-down; especially when used with the word 'art'. I began to relax about this when I dis covered that the root of the word 'therapy' is 'to cure.' To cure, not in the sense of making well something that is sick, but to cure in the sense of to ripen. To ripen as the seed ripens into the fruit, as the child ripens into the J adult, as our voice ripens into our song. If this is what it means to be a therapist, to aid in the process of ripening, then it is something to work for. (Berensohn, 1968, p. 146.) I believe these reasons can best be summarized by quoting McFee, She states that, "The key purpose of education is the growth and development of individuals from wherever they may be to wherever their aptitudes for creating and comprehending may lead" (1977, p. 323). The reasons for studying sculpture in particular are the following: We live in a world full of three dimensional forms but we seldom explore them. The sculptural forms in nature and in our man-made environment if noticed go uninvestigated; to quote Henry Moore, "Many more people are 'form-blind' than colour-blind" (1937, p. 449). The study of sculpture is the study of form. Sculpture is, by its very nature, part of our object-filled world. Through the study of sculpture we may be able to heighten the students' responsiveness to designed forms-in-space such as architecture, product design, and creat ive crafts. Indeed, it has been argued that "Sculpture . . . (is) the nearest and most intimate approach of the arts to life since its essence is three dimensionality" (Rich, 1947, p. 9). Interest in form is evident in young children. Morris (1981), in her paper Preschoolers Response to the Visual Envir onment , writes that the majority of the children in her study responded actively and positively to three dimensional stimuli and to questions and comments concerning such stimuli. This early interest in three dimensional stimuli needs to be acknow ledged and encouraged by teachers. The second reason for studying sculpture has to do with fostering in students an understanding of the relationship between art and history. Since prehistoric time sculpture has been an important part of many cultures. Gaunt writes, "(sculpture is) a vast and wonderful repository of ideals and ideas in tangible form through all recorded time" (1957, Fore word). He goes on to state that, "as well as being an entity in itself (it) is also a key to history ... a language through which almost every culture has revealed its essential character, sometimes in the absence of all other testimony" (Ibid., p. 10). To consider a study of our artistic heritage that does not include sculpture would therefore seem invalid. So far I have dealt with the historical and critical reasons for learning about sculpture. It is equally important to pre sent reasons for students to produce their own three dimensional art as an inherent part of their study. One needs only to observe a very young child exploring his form-filled world. All the child's senses, not just that of sight, become involved in his explorations. Similarly it is not adequate to simply talk about form, including sculpture. There is a great need on the part of students to touch, model, pound, pull, cut away, shape, mould, join and build their own forms—to experience for themselves the variety of three dimen sional art. D'Amico and Buchman (1972) support this statement by acknowledging that "For generations children have manifested their interest in three dimensions through their fascination with building blocks or by making sand structures on the beach" (p. 7). Rb'ttger ( 1962) supports this claim that students need to create three dimensional objects when he maintains that "children especially have the urge and ability to give form to any shapeless mass" (p. 7). 6 . A further reason for incorporating sculpture into an art program is that tools are few and materials are inexpensive. A wide variety of activities when working with the addition technique (see Glossary) in particular, are free, thus enabling both the teacher and students to work in the relaxed atmos phere of not having to consider the expense of materials. Furthermore, two of the four techniques, manipulation and ad dition provide opportunities for the student to freely experi ment. 'Mistakes' as the student may view them can readily be 'erased' through further modelling or the reorganization of temporarily assembled objects. The student is not committed to the preservation of his first attempts at a project. As Reed and Towne (1974) have found, students feel the use of found objects is "less frightening than blank paper" (p. 15). Many teachers are already aware, from personal experience, that students may be reluctant to draw a human figure whereas they are more apt to build, carve or model one. Another endorsement of the addition technique,is found in Lidstone and Bunch (1975) who declare that "the creative abilities and enthusiasms of the child are never more fully satisfied than when he is working with natural and found materials" (p. 10). There is a sense of achievement and a sense of mystery in the transformation of already formed found objects. This transformation into an ob ject of the child's own making contains a sense of magic which is highly intriguing to the student. Further support to the view that sculpture should be taught in our schools is gained from D'Amico and Buchman (1972): 7. From the experience of the authors, and from extensive studies and research made over a period of more than thirty years at the Art Center of the Museum of Modern Art, it has been learned that children of all ages have interests and abilities that necessitate three dimensional expression. Certain individuals, in fact, are more three- than two-dimensional in their per ception, and expression of their creative develop ment depends on the inclusion of appropriate out lets, (p . 7 . ) And finally the study of sculpture with local works as its base (as in this study) is indirectly advocated by local art critic Art Perry. In an article on the Vancouver International Stone Sculpture Symposium held at Vancouver's Van Dusen Botan ical Garden, Perry refers to the problem the general public has in dealing with three dimensional art: The concept of sculpture is not in the Vancouver art temperament. Few in the local art audience really attempt any comprehension of the three dimensional art object—painting apprehension is the„ norm, and that is basically what people feel most comfortable having near them. This is not idiosyncratic of just B.C. It is an accepted aesthetic problem in all art centres. Call it the 'tyranny of the rectangle' or the 'fixed frontality of the flat format' or just plain cold feet to any object that intrudes into your space. Whatever. The fact remains that sculpture is the most mis understood of all visual art forms. (Gallery  Gazette, Sept. 19 75 .) Contents of This Study Table I immediately follows the contents of this study. This integrated approach for teaching sculpture is based on the three domains—historical, critical and productive — that Elliott Eisner used in The Kettering Project (Hardiman and Zernich, 1974 , pp. 327-338). . Under these three headings the media, tech niques, concepts, elements and principles of design, modes of expression, a locally based art heritage, and the rationales of sculpture have been organized to demonstrate one method of sur veying the visual expression area of sculpture. Section I being the introduction to the thesis, Section II is entitled Creating Readiness. The activity of selecting and handling natural and man made forms is advocated in order to provide an opportunity for both the teacher and students to become famil iar with the elements and principles of design. The glossary and its introduction that follows is included to facilitate the acquiring of the language of sculpture. The definition of sculpture--what it can and what it must be—is next. Edmund Feldman's systematic approach to critical analysis, as presented in his book Varieties of Visual Experience (1971) is also part of this creating readiness section. A preface to approaching the local scene concludes Section II and introduces Section III: Vancouver Sculpture. Section IV is based on Table II. As Vancouver sculpture is presented as a mo de1 only, so also is Table II, and as a re sult Section IV also becomes a representative model. The focii are the four techniques of sculpture and the various media that could be used when working with each technique. The media listed in this section are presented in conjunction with an annotated bibliography which includes print materials, audio visual resources and where possible, examples of major sculptors that work with that media. This information is provided in the hope that teachers can develop their own activities using the four media outlined in detail as models. The four models in corporate the historical, critical and productive domains of sculpture emphasized throughout this thesis. In the summary and conclusion questions are posed not only for the teacher but also for students. Mention is made of the limitations of the resource kit and areas yet to be developed regarding the provision of a complete sculpture cur riculum. The appendix includes a thirty-eight page compilation in chart form of the cultural and historical heritage of sculp ture. This reference is an attempt to provide teachers with information regarding all types of sculpture with an emphasis on local and national sculptors. The headings include sculp tor, dates, nationality, media, technique, 'style', female, local, and a description of the sculpture and the sculptor's 'trademarks.' Table I An Integrated Approach for Teaching Sculpture Productive Techniques* 1. manipulation 2. subtraction 3. substitution 4. addition Medi a 1. natural 2. man made Concep t 1. in the round 2. b as relief Critical Elements 1. shape 5 . time 2. value 6 . texture 3. space 7 . colour 4. line 8. mas s volume Modes of Expression 1. realistic 2. naturalistic 3. impressionistic 4. expressionistic 5. abstract Principles 1. balance 2. harmony 3. variety 4. economy 5. proportion 6. movement Rationales 1. f ormali s t 2. functional 3. self expression 4. religious philosophical political 5. documentation 6. ornamentation His torical S c ulp t ure  in Vancouver** * becomes the basis for Table II. ** focus of Section III; reference is made to international sculpture in Section IV (refer also to the appendix). 11 References for Section I Berensohn, P. Finding one's way with clay. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972. D'Amico, V., & Buchman, A. Assemblage. A new dimension in creative teaching in action. Greenwich: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 19 72. Feldman, E.B. Varieties of visual experience. Art as image and idea. New York : Harry N. Abrams, Inc. , Pub., 1976. Gaunt, W. Teach yourself to study sculpture. London: The English Universities - Press Ltd., 195 7. Hardiman, G.W., & Zernich, T. (Eds.). Curricular considerations for visual arts education: rationale, development, and evaluation. Champaign: Stipes Publishing Co., 1974. Lidstone, J., & Bunch, C. Working big. A teacher's guide to environmental sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , 19 75 . McFee, J.K., & Degge, R.M. Art, culture and environment. A catalyst for teaching. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc., 19 77. Moore, H. The sculptor speaks. The Listener, August, 1937, XVIII. Reed, C., & Towne, B. Sculpture from found objects. Worcester: Davis Publishers, Inc., 1974. Rich, J.C. The materials and methods of sculpture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947. Rottger, E. Creative clay design. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1962. 12. SECTION II: CREATING READINESS Tuning In: Natural and Man-made Forms This section presents one approach to preparing the stud ents to be more receptive to sculpture. It is suggested that students each be given the responsibility of collecting and bringing into the classroom either or both natural and man-made forms (see lists following for some recommended objects). Stud ents should choose forms that interest them. Forms they find on trips to the beach, park or vacant lot. Forms they find in their own homes, at garage sales, or grocery stores. They may have treasures from past holidays that they consider to be un usual or intriguing. Students could share their prized collect ibles in a show-and-tell time and then work through activities A and B, below. Alternatively, they could work in small groups and make group presentations to the class. A labelled display of these student-found objects could form a summary of this creating readiness activity and include some of the terms listed in the glossary. Natural Forms bone s shells nuts seeds pods Activities: cones weeds driftwood twigs fungi rocks b ranches gourds fruit ve ge tables 1. Ask yourself what makes these forms created by nature so 13. fascinating. Does one form remind you of another? Why do you think a seed or shell, etc. has that particular shape? 2. Look at each form individually and examine it in order to find the elements* and principles of design (consult Table I and the glossary). 3. Look at each form from different points of view--walk around it, change the position/level of the objects so that they are higher/lower/at eye level. 4. Look at the form under different light conditions, both natural and artificial. Experiment with focused light in a darkened room. Record some of these changes in perception on film and later note how a change in scale, through slides pro jected on a screen for example, changes the impact of the form on the viewer. 5. Repeat numbers 3 and 4, grouping the natural objects in clusters of two or more objects. Note the spaces between the forms. What interesting negative shapes can be created? B. Man-made Forms: egg cartons and other plastic, cardboard, glass, paper containers electrical components tools flatware toys tablewarmotors small appliances machine parts, gadgets nuts, bolts, screws ornaments utensils *Consult the Glossary for definitions of underlined words. 14 . Activities: 1. Repeat numbers 2 to 5 of previous activities but using man-made forms. Summarizing Activity: Combine natural and man-made objects, striving to compose a balance between organi c and geometric shapes. Glossary of the Language of Sculpture As stated in the new secondary art curriculum it is import ant that "a student should demonstrate knowledge of and ability to use vocabulary in sculpture." Students need to be able to talk about, critically analyze and ask questions about sculpture. None of this is possible unless there are common 'terms of ref erence.' Not only descriptive words but techniques, tools, equipment, and supplies are included in this list. It is evid ent that many more terms could be included in this list; some terms could be the basis for volumes of material being written. The glossary is not presented as a complete vocabulary of sculp ture. It is, however, as succinct and complete as possible; a result of five years as both a student and teacher of sculpture; of viewing, of reading about and coming in contact with terms that needed defining and understanding. It may be difficult for a teacher to decide how to use such a list. For this reason I make the following suggestions as to how teachers can increase student vocabulary in sculpture. If an exhibition of actual sculptures done by students or others is not available arrange a 'gallery wall' or display of fifteen to twenty photographs from magazines, exhibition 15. catalogues, posters, and newspapers of a variety of sculpture. Each photograph/work could be 'labelled' by the teacher, groups of students, or the class, using flashcards that adequately des cribe each sculpture (consult Table I and the glossary). These flashcards could be in place for a week or whatever time deemed necessary by the teacher for students to study the descriptive words. The cards should then be removed, and the students asked to describe a photograph or actual sculpture in the display. Conversely, the teacher could read one flashcard at a time and ask a student to point to the photograph/sculpture described. Another activity would be to display only the flashcards and have students create a plasticine, clay, wire or paper example of a description on any one of the flashcards. As a follow-up these unlabelled creations could be labelled by classmates with an appropriate flashcard. A final suggestion is to consult Table I which includes key terms found in the glossary. The or ganization of Table I into the productive, critical, and prod uctive domains of sculpture, their sub-headings, and terms of reference could assist the teacher in determining how to increase students' sculpture vocabularies. GLOSSARY 17. ab s t ract consult Table I -"Includes all sculpture, because the initial conversion from nature to the inanimate is prob ably the greatest abstraction of all. But tech nically only that sculpture which has its origins in nature and, like realism, is the result of interpretation, generalization, simplification, rearrangement, and elaboration is known as abstract" (Coleman, 1968, p. 11). -the original device, image, or source of ins piration is no longer recognizable, e.g. George Norris' Untitled sculpture at Pacific Centre, Section III: Area 4 - Downtown A. -abstract sculpture can be geometrie or organic abstract popular during the 1950's and 1960's in the expressionist United States when improvisation, spontaneity, s culp t ure and loose structure were combined with new materials addition consult Table I ; a technique used in order to' produce sculpture, developed in Section IV -an assembling; a construction of fabrications; a putting together of two or more materials, often discards -commonly referred to as assemblage 18, amorphous armature Art Deco assemblage without definite form; shapeless a framework for supporting malleable mater ial in modelling "A style of decoration prevalent in the 1920's and 1930's and characterized by zig zag and geometric ornament. Its name de rives from that of the Exposition de Arts Decoratifs held in Paris in 1925" (Kalman, 1978, p. 273). see addition b alance Baroque a principle of order: consult Table I -used in relation to weight or gravity, and in relation to the other principles of order and the elements of design a style of art and architecture character ized by much ornamentation and the use of curved lines; especially popular during 1550-1750 bas relief see in relief biomorphic form bisque an abs tract form whose contours are more related to plant and animal configurations than they are to geometric shapes a clay object that has been fired once 19. to solder with a metal that has a high melting point an alloy consisting chiefly of copper and tin a carving in relief so that the raised design is usually in a layer of different colour from its background the top part of a column or pilaster -the decorative head of an upright support a process of reduction; the removal of surplus material from a block, until the desired shape is achieved a form that results from a watery mixture being poured into a mould, allowed to become solid, and then removed a powdered substance made of burned lime and clay -when, mixed with water and sand it forms mo rt ar -when mixed with water, sand and gravel it is called concrete ; the mixtures harden like stone when dried -a particularly fine grained cement is known as ciment fondu sculpture in clay that has been fired chas ing ciment fondu 20 . to ornament metal by engraving; embossing see cement cire perdue lost wax casting whereby the original fig ure is modelled in wax, encased in an investment compound, and then burned out so that it can be replaced by molten metal classicism a form of art derived from the study of antique, usually Greco-Roman, exemplars collage an art form in which bits of rather flat, lightweight substances are pasted on a surface in an unusual relationship, for special effect colour an element of design and sculpture which evokes emotion, mood, and atmosphere; consult Table I -the natural colour is usually preferred to applied colour when producing manipu lative, subtractive, or cast sculpture con cave hollow and curved like the inside half of a hollow ball conceptual art theoretical art that is rarely realized other than in a blueprint, draft or draw ing format; also called 'idea art' 21 Constructivism principally a Russian movement which grew out of collage contemporary content contour convex critic al domain Cub ism of this generation or this decade the meaning or significance of a work of art -is produced by form but is intangible -it cannot be described with accuracy the outline or periphery of a figure or object curving outward like the surface of a sphere Elliott Eisner's term used in the Ketter ing Project (1969) ; an aspect of sculpture in which meaningful experiences with works of art are encouraged as students learn to analyse symbols, themes, materials, and the art work's relationship with the other art works "parent of all abstract art forms which grew out of the efforts of Picasso and Braque to replace the purely visual effects of Impressionist preoccupation with the sur face of objects with a more intellectual conception of form and colour" (Walker, 1973, p. 43). 22. Dada (French: hobby-horse) developed in Zurich during W.W. I; -a product of a period of hysteria and shock lasting between 1915-1922 which was deliberately anti-art and anti-sense in tended to outrage and scandalize density is determined by how closely sculptural forms are massed as well as by the quant ity rather than the quality of the mater ial used des i gn an arrangement, an ordering which commun icates content distort to change the normal form or appearance documentation a rationale for producing sculpture; consult Table I -any art form which by its existence declares that an event took place or ascertains what a certain individual looked like, e.g. George VI found in Section III: Area 1; Lord Stanley found in Section III: Area 2. e c onomy a principle of order; consult Table I the purpose of which is to achieve the maximum effect with the simplest design 23. elaboration the addition of more details on a theme or a surface embossed engraved a design carved into an object so that the design is raised above the surface a design carved into an object with a sharp tool so that the design is cut into and below the surface environmental art expressionistic figurative that which alters the landscape in an at tempt to establish a reciprocal relation ship between site and work a mode of expression; consult Table I -based on the artist's moods, opinions, and emotions so that there is inherent or im plied emotion recognizable subject matter, i.e. rep re s-entational -the opposite being non-figurative usually referred to as abstract flux forge a substance such as borax or rosin, used to help metals fuse together by preventing oxidation as in soldering to form or shape metal with hammer blows after the metal has been heated 24. 1. "The manner in which the artist presents his subject matter or content in creating a work of art. Form is the product of his organization, design, composition, and man ipulation of materials. 2. In the more common meaning of the word, the individual masses, shapes, or groupings in an art work are its forms," (Mayer, 1969 , p. 152) -is tangible, discernible one of the rationales for producing sculp ture; consult Table I -the sculptor's main interest is the work ing out of forms, the organizing and designing of objects, e.g. Minimal sculpture having an irregular, usually curvilinear o utline a rationale for producing sculpture; con sult Table I ; anything that was at one time influenced by an artist's design and has a practical use an artistic movement originating in Italy in 1909 -the Futurists opposed traditionalism and sought to depict dynamic movement by 25 eliminating conventional form and balance and by stressing the speed and violence of the machine age geome trie glyptic language one of 2 kinds of abstract art character ized by straight lines, triangles, cir cles and similar regular forms in contrast to organic abstract art emphasizes the material from which the sculpture is being created, whether the material is stone, bronze or clay; the tactile, colour, and' tensile qualities of the material are retained Gothic greenware grog "Monumental sculpture in the round was revived for the first time since antiquity during the Gothic period. It had a grace ful, sinuous elegance and great emotional appeal, although the International Style showed a renewed concern for weight and volume, as well as for realistic observa tion:* (Mayer, 1969, p. 172). shaped, dried but unfired clay objects; known to be very fragile crushed fired clay that is added and thor oughly mixed into unformed clay to increase harmony historical domain holograms impressionistic 26 . its strength, particularly useful for handbuilt sculpture a principle of order; consult Table I it is the result of the use of elements in such a way that there is conformity among the parts plus good proportion, unity, and balance Elliott Eisner's term used in the Ketter ing Project (1969); includes a systematic study of individual art works, the art ists' biography, the study of art objects in their cultural context, and the relev ant history of art laser beams are used to produce three dim ensional images a mode of expression: consult Table I -possesses only a vague visual semblance of a subject thereby allowing the observer to interpret what he sees -for example a portrait or a figure study in which clues only are given as to the sculpture's content -e.g. The Skater by Giacomo Manzu, found in Section III: Area 3 - The West End 27 . to show, as perfect or more nearly perfect than is true cut into; see engraved bas relief (low relief); consult Table I foreground shapes or figures project out-ward'from a continuous background plane -although the bas relief has the third dimension of depth, this depth is shallow; it does not include the back of the carving i.e. it is frontal a design is incised, etched, or engrave d into a hard material so that it is below the surface consult Table I -sculpture that is manipulated on at least four sides -there are an infinite number of views, each view leading into the other an outer covering used in casting an art form popular in Europe and the United States during the 1950's which was derived from Kurt Schwitter's use of street debris (see Section IV: Part 1 - Addition) 28. kinetic "any sculpture which is involved in the process of change—any sculpture that is not static. It can move, light, grow, ex pand, fuse, or make a sound. The energy needed for change may be natural, mechan ical, electrical, or chemical. The. change itself may take a fraction of a second, or it may take centuries." (Chichura, 1974 , P . 9) . kitsch derives from the German 1Verkitschem'--to make cheap -artistic rubbish or 'low art' that apes the effects of past fine art styles and in the process cheapens them laminating gluing together cuts of wood lignum vitae a very hard,., hardwood line consult Table I; an element of design -sculptural line is difficult to produce and tends to be highly formal in clay as it is similar to two dimensional drawing; with wire it becomes three dimensional -has the ability to create movement and direction across the surface and around the bulk of a piece of sculpture linear language 29 . enfolds space in a line-like substance, e.g. wire as opposed to glyptic or plastic 1anguage lost wax malleable mallet manipulation maquette mass mat rix see cire perdue substance that can be hammered, pounded, or pressed, pushed and pulled into various shapes without being destroyed a wooden hammer with a short handle that is used for driving a chisel in wood and stone carving a technique used to produce sculpture: consult Table I -a modelling or building up of form by one pliable material which must maintain its shape and support most of its weight (al though an armature might be needed) a model or sketch in clay, wax, etc. often created in miniature compared to the scale of the finished sculpture a design element which refers to the im pression of weight and volume that the viewer may experience; consult Table I "that within which, or within and from which something originates, takes form, or 30 . develops, e.g. a die or mold for casting or shaping" (Guralnik, 1970, p. 875). Minimal Sculpture also called ABC Art, Anti-Illusion, or Bare Bones Art -sculptors such as Donald Judd, Sol Le Witt,. Robert Smithson, Ronald Bladen, Walter de Maria, Tony Smith, Dan Flavin and Larry Bell reacted against the emo tional self expression of the Abstract Expressionists -minimal sculpture has a clarity and simp licity that is more resistant to assimila tion than more figurative sculpture mobile an art form invented in 1932 by Alexander Calder and named by Marcel Duchamp; an object created, adapted, and selected by the maker, then arranged and balanced on one or more wire arms therefore free to move in space with respect to or independ ent of one another mould a pattern, hollow form, or matrix for giv ing a certain form to something in a plastic or molten state -there are four types ; 1. flexible mould - a mould elastic .31. enough so that It can be removed from fairly complex models with out damage to the mould or to the model. This type of mould is 2. piece mould - a mould made in sections so that the reproduction of more than one cast of the same model can be made. Reassemblage of cast sections can be difficult. 3. sand mould - similar to a waste mould with the additional feature of limited complexity. 4. waste mould - the type of mould by which only one cast can be made; the mould is destroyed in the process of removing the cast. This is the most accurate type of mould. monolithic a large single block monumental appears larger than lifesize subject to considerable distortion and shrinkage. -refers to the sculpture's impact; it can convey feelings of grandeur, nobility and permanence motif a theme; a repeated figure or design movement a principle of order; consult Table I -leads the eye in certain directions sug gesting motion; there are two types of movement: 1 . implied within the object; draws vari ous parts of the composition together, 32 naturalistic negative space o rganx c ornamentation papier mache e.g. the twin fountains on Beach Avenue found in Section III: Area 3 - The West  End 2. real motion involving time, e.g. kinetic sculpture a mode of expression; consult Table I -imitates an object as faithfully as poss ible; it is a specific object/image, e.g. Robert Burns found in Section III: Area 2 - Stanley Park. the void or open space found within and around a form in its setting having some of the characteristics of a living organism; another term often used is biomorphic -one of the two types of ab s tract art, in contrast to geometrie abstract a rationale for the production of sculp ture; consult Table I -whenever the artist decorates an object or adds to its beauty or aesthetic quality -such decoration includes body and envir onmental sculpture, jewelry, etc. Fr. pp. of macher (L. masticare); to re duce to a pulp 33. patina pe diment perception philosophical political religious J p i ckle -an ancient art found in Persia, Japan, China and Europe overall surface colouration made up of many subtle variations of colour and value of metallic objects a triangularly shaped low-pitched gable on the front of some buildings; flourished in the Grecian classical style of architecture the process of making sense out of what we see rationales for producing sculpture; consult Table I; or as Feldman states 'instrument alist art' . . . which the artist makes and uses as an instrument for changing other people's beliefs socially, politically, and religiously (School Art, vol 75, #6, p. 20, Feb. 1976). -these rationales also helped to maintain cultural values as in the Middle Ages when Christian ideals were sculpted on the walls, Baptismal fonts, etc. for the instruction of the illiterate congregation a chemical bath used to clear metal of scale; preserve wood, etc. 34. pilaster "a shallow rectangular upright support set into a wall and used mainly as decoration" (Kalman, 1978, p. 275). plane "a surface that contains every straight line joining any two points lying in it" (Guralnik, 1970, p. 1088). plaster manufactured from gypsum formed by the depositing of salts in inland lakes; a white mineral rock with the scientific name calcium sulphate dihydrate plastic language fluid, malleable media and/or form -plastic media such as clay and wa-x has great immediacy -there is some degree of action or movement in sculpture that possesses plastic language productive domain Elliott Eisner's term from the Kettering Project (1969); has four factors whereby students learn to manage materials, invent forms, perceive qualitative relationships, and create spatial and aesthetic order^with expressive power proportion a principle of order; consult Table I its part to part relationships in terms of size; it requires judgment and is therefore personal 35 r as p a rough file with raised points used on wood and/or stone rationales consult Table I ; "the essential reason for sculpture has been to express something considered of vital importance to a commun ity; to give shape to its ideas and forces that would have been formless otherwise" (Gaunt, 1957 , p. 9) . realistic a mode of expression in which the object is easily recognizable but it is not a specific one of a kind; consult Table I e.g. The Postman, a bas relief sculpture found in Section III: Area 4 - Downtown A relief a shallow manipulation on one plane and is therefore viewed only from the front -there are two types: a) intaglio i) simple line ii) depression (concave) b) cameo rep ous s e a relief form which is worked from behind the face of the sculpture rep resentational recognizable subject matter; see f i g u r a -tive rhythm a repeated motif which varies according to the interval between repetitions so one may 36 . speak of quick, moderate, measured or slow rhythm Romanesque "designating or of a style of European architecture of the 11th and 12th centur ies, based on the Roman and characterized by the use of the round arch and vault, thick massive walls, interior bays, etc." (Guralnik, 1970, p. 1234). -there was also a style of sculpture that corresponded to this--its characteristics are religious solemnity, decorativeness and symbolism. scale when proportion is concerned with the re lationship of the parts to the total sculp ture or the total sculpture to its surround ings; a critical concept when dealing with s culp ture -refers to the size of the piece in refer ence to the human body self expression a rationale for producing sculpture; con^ . suit Table I; expression of the artist trying to communicate a feeling, attitude, or idea sgraffito a method of decorating created by incising or in which a design is cutting lines through 37. one layer of plaster or stucco to reveal the contrasting colour of an underlayer shape an element of design; consult Table I it is a generally measurable area; en closed by contour and caused by line, con trasting colour, texture, or value -usually depends on the position of the viewer and the direction of the source of illumination shim a thin wall, often a metal sheet, that sep arates two pieces of a mould from each other size has a physical and emotional meaning, idea, or vision slurry a watery mixture of a fine insoluble mater ial such as clay, cement, or plaster soft sculpture implies limpness and pliability like human flesh -involves the tactile quality and it is not so concerned with perpetuity; Claes Oldenburg was the first to create such an art form, e.g. Soft Typewriter (1963). solder a metal alloy used when melted for joining or patching metal parts or surfaces 38. sound sculpture space sprues s tab 1le s taglng subject matter substitution especially important in time-based art such as kinetic sculpture and Performance Art an element of design; consult Table I -"the distance, expanse, or area between, over, within, etc. things" (Guralnik, 1970, p. 1363). openings through which molten metal is poured into a mould as well as the waste metal cast in such an opening a rigid, free standing figure refers to planning and executing both the placement of a work of sculpture and the design of the setting so as to present each to its best advantage "is the theme or story that is represented in a work, and is the only component indep endent of the others , but when subject mat ter is used independently of the other com ponents (i.e. form and content) the result will not be an art form" (Coleman, 1968, p. 12). a technique used to produce sculpture; consult Table I -a casting, a reproducing of a given shape by pouring a temporarily fluid material 39 into a mould. The solidified material is the reproduction. -it is an imitative device subtraction Surrealism symb o1 symmetry terracotta texture a technique used to produce sculpture; consult Table I -a carving away; a process of reduction; the removal of surplus material from a block until the desired shape is achieved "the principles, ideals, or practice of producing fantastic or incongruous imagery in art or literature by means of unnatural juxtapositions and combinations" (Webster, 1971 , p. 2301). something that stands for or represents something else and makes visible that which otherwise might not be clearly understood similarity of form or arrangement on either side of a dividing line or plane Italian for 'baked earth'; fired clay, mod elled or moulded and baked until it is very hard; see bisque an element of design; consult Table I it is that tactile quality of a surface which affects both the sense of touch and 40. the sense of light. There are two sources: 1. indigenous to the material 2. that which the artist produces on the surface "it is the seasoning that enlivens three dimensional designs; it invests surfaces with rhythm and movement and gives subtlety and variety to the play of light" (Stevens, 1965 , p . 56) . theme an idea or point of view expanded on in a work of art -it is the underlying or essential subject of an artist's creation time consult Table I; an element of design -there are three sources of time: 1. the time taken by the viewer to view the piece--almost completely beyond the control of the artist 2. controlled by the artist--this is the time required by the object to complete mobility or change within itself; it is designed into the sculpture 3. the permanency of the piece—e.g. some sculpture has been created to destroy itself or to be acted upon and sometimes destroyed by its environment/setting. This destruc tion/deterioration can take place in a few minutes or take cent uries . 41. the art of trimming and training shrubs or trees into ornamental shapes is the element which permits most sculp ture to be visually understood; consult Table I; it is the quality of light which ranges from light to dark and which results from the absorption or reflection of light by a surface -often it is value which describes all of the other elements except time a principle of order; consult Table I it is the dissimilarity of parts and is achieved by utilizing parts of contrasting or opposing natures, or by elaborating on parts until their complexity competes, or contrasts with other more simple parts an element of design; consult Table I the total form, both the solid and the controlled space 1. used in clay--meaning to knead the clay in order to combine the clay and water con tained therein completely; at the same time preventing air bubbles from being trapped in the clay 2. used in casting—meaning a hard mater ial tapered to a thin edge that can be driven along a shim line in order to separate one other 42 . of a piece mould section from an-weld to unite pieces of metal by heating until molten and fused or until soft enough to hammer or press together 43. Defining Sculpture Sculpture is definitely the term of greatest significance in this thesis. It is of crucial importance that students clearly understand what sculpture can be, i.e., the range of possibilities, and what distinguishes sculpture from other three dimensional forms. With this thought in mind I propose the following approach to defining sculpture. It is my experience that most people have a narrow view of what sculpture can be. In an attempt to broaden the students' understanding of sculpture, a teacher could ask them to bring to class a photograph, a definition and/or an example of what the student believes sculpture can be. Following a sharing time and or bulletin board display in which no reference is made as to the aesthetic quality of the examples chosen, see how their cont ributions compare with the following list of what sculpture can be : - a memorial statue in a public place - a stone carving of a nude in an art gallery or museum; an angel on a headstone in a cemetery - a fountain in front of a bank - a statuette or figurine in a residential garden - a bronze figurine in the foyer of a theatre - an adventure playground on a school ground - something worn (jewelry, body sculpture); eaten (bread, cookie dough sculptures); held ('feelies'); experienced (sat in, climbe on, played around); even smell and sound can be involved. - something on a wall, hanging from a ceiling, or resting on all kinds of surfaces; indoors or out 44. - something soft or hard, temporary or permanent, miniature or monument al - something considered to be traditional or classical, kinetic, concep tual, cub i s t, minimal, architectural, or environmental - something considered to be impressionistic, expressionistic, realistic, naturalis tic, abs tract, figurative or non-figurative Another list, related to what some say sculpture is, fol lows. This list could be illustrated after a careful study of history of art reference books. Some say sculpture is: - to carve or cut out of stone as in the Latin word 'sculpere'. - something made by a scientist-artist; one who orders and an imates space and gives it meaning (Noguchi, 1968, Foreword) - something created in order to make visible the emotions of the artist (Russian Constructivists' Manifest, 1920) - a vast and wonderful repository of ideals and ideas in tang ible form through all recorded time (Gaunt, 1957, Foreword) - "frozen music" (Ibid., p. 40) - something which, when well made, will not break if rolled down a hill (circa 1500) It becomes apparent that any definition of sculpture must allow for this range of what sculpture can be. The following criter ion of what sculpture must be 'defines' sculpture. Sculpture must be: - an actual form occupying actual space and capable of affecting the space around it - include the third dimension whether minimally as in bas relief or to a greater degree as in the round - created by man. If it is meant to be functional it must also 45 . be more than useful - a product of skill using the elements: line, shape, space, colour, texture, pattern, volume, mass, value and time principles : balance, harmony, variety, economy, proportion, and movement - greatly affected by light, the angle, and the distance by which it is perceived - the embodiment of a special essence that makes one stop and 'see'; an essence that affects and stimulates both the mind and the senses. This essence, or presence, incorporates poetic vision; it has vital purpose and force and distinguishes sculp ture from mass produced forms that fill our environment. Critical Analysis: Feldman's Systematic  App roach Having 'tuned into' sculpture through active involvement with natural and man-made forms, and having become similarly in volved with its vocabulary, the critical analysis of sculpture becomes relevant. It must be acknowledged that art criticism has not been a major ingredient of school art programs. It is not an area many of us, as teachers, feel comfortable practising. Teachers are most likely to spend classroom time on the product ive and, occasionally, historical domains of art. I feel it is now time to recognize the equally important matter of teaching critical analysis not only of our own work and that of our peers, but also of local, national and international artists. Critical analysis is like learning any new skill; it takes time, practise and discipline. I suggest that teachers demonstrate their 46 . facility with Feldman's system several times before assigning students the task. It might be helpful, as an introduction to this system, for teachers to analyze a piece of their own work. Whenever possible, the sculpture under review should be present and in full view of all concerned. Don't be discouraged at feel ing an initial discomfort or embarrassment; sculptural analysis is a skill that improves with experience. An outline is given below of Edmund Feldman's approach to critical analysis which he describes fully in his book, Varieties of visual experience (1971). Feldman's system is based on four stages: Des crip tion, Formal Analysis, Interpretation., and Evaluati on. 1. Des crip tion. This should be a complete inventory of the sculpture being viewed in which the critic names the things that are seen. In describing a piece of sculpture one should categorically state the title and the elements of design used such as colour, shape, etc. (consult Table I) as well as give an informed description of how the sculpture is made and assembled. The viewer/critic should not criticize and make inferences about the value of the work. 2. Formal Analysis. This should be an attempt to discover how the sculpture has been organized, which is to say, how the principles of design, namely balance, proportion, harmony, var iety, economy, movement, have been used or incorporated into the sculpture. Feldman suggests that Formal Analysis should be a description of the way in which we perceive forms. 3. Interpretation. This should be an attempt to express the meanings of the sculpture by discovering and relating its 47 . themes, and the artistic and intellectual problems that have been addressed within the piece. This stage, Feldman says, "in cludes stating the relevance of these meanings to our lives and to the human situation in general" (p. 645). The ideas the sculpture presents should be acknowledged and the impact it has on our vision should be examined. 4. Evaluation. In this stage we rank the sculpture in rel ation to other works of its class and kind. We decide on the degree of its artistic and aesthetic merit. In judging, we should specify the range of art objects which have been consid ered relevant for making a judgment; that is to say, the critic should relate the work to the needs and outlook of the time in which the work was created. It is therefore important to be knowledgeable of our artistic heritage. Further, we need to determine the purpose/function/rationale of the sculpture and, finally, give it a technical evaluation. While it is highly recommended that Feldman's approach to art criticism be initiated and encouraged by the teacher, it is also important to acknowledge other ways of approaching or relat ing to sculpture. To have a relaxed disposition toward sculpture and overcome the fear of not being able to verbalize what the artist is trying to say is also important. The viewer needs to have a relaxed disposition in order to be aware of the experience of the effect; the impact of the sculpture on their own sensibil ities. To experience and to 'see' a sculpture there must be a union of the effects the sculpture has on our sense of sight, on our intellect, and on our emotions. Each person's 48. experience with a work is unique to that person. Moreover, this experience may change with time and with varying conditions; that is the 'magic' of non-verbal communication and art. This acknowledgement of the importance of experiencing sculp ture, of understanding the language of sculpture, and of critic ally analyzing sculpture should help students feel prepared to view actual works. With this objective in mind the following ap proach to viewing works of sculpture is presented. Approaching the Local Scene Even though photographs of sculpture appear on postcards, posters, and in books, and even though slides and films of sculp ture appear in projections on a screen, the best way to 'see1 sculpture is to experience it 'in person.' Experiencing sculp ture is the major reason for the focus of this project being on locally displayed works. It is evident that one's perception of sculpture is increased by: - walking around it - viewing it - from different vantage points - at different times of the day and year - on many occasions - touching it in order to be aware of the material and how it affects the viewer and enhances the piece - being able to relate to it in terms of one's own size - being able to take into account the relationship between the sculpture and its setting and how one affects the other. More can be gained in an introduction to sculpture from a single well-organized fieldtrip than from an hour's reading or 49 . lecture—with or without slide examples—about a sculpture that students may never see, touch, walk around, relate to person ally, or experience. First hand, local viewing is an approp riate starting place for learning about sculpture; it is in no way meant to suggest that the study of international sculpture is of lesser benefit or importance. What i_s inferred is that sculpture not available on a first hand basis is best left until after the student has had an initial exposure to works that are in his 'own backyard.' For this reason, I have chosen Vancouver as the model for this resource kit, since it is the area of the province with which I am most familiar. It should not be presumed that living in a major city is necessary in order to find local stimuli useful in an intro duction to sculpture. I hope, rather, that teachers in small towns and communities throughout B.C. will be inspired to look at their own surroundings with a new and wider understanding of what sculpture is. I hope they will see that in and around their offices and buildings—private and government — along their main streets, in their shopping malls, in their resid ential gardens, public parks and playgrounds, there are rich resources of bas relief and in the round sculptural forms that can spark student interest in learning about sculpture. A Preface to Vancouver Sculpture Vancouverites are fortunate to have access to both outdoor 50 . and indoor sculpture.* Much of Vancouver's permanently dis played and publicly accessible sculpture is documented in this study. Bas reliefs as shallow as sgraffito are mentioned whereas mosaic murals are not, due to their lack of depth in a three dim ensional sense. Woven wall hangings have also been omitted par tially for the same reason. Architectural and decorative sculp ture, Northwest Coast Indian art, liturgical art, sculpture found in residential areas, parks and playgrounds is presented as a sampling only. It must also be noted that the sculpture referenced in this study is only on permanent display to the ex tent that it is enjoyed by its owner; it may be removed by its owner at any time, for any reason, not the least of which is the growing and changing nature of the city. This sculpture, particularly the pieces found outdoors — often more readily available to the general public than work found inside buildings—should be examined by teachers and stud ents. As Robinette writes, "Outdoor sculpture, by virtue of its setting, is probably the most people oriented of all urban art" (1976, p. 90). Huxtable states, "more people experience art (outdoors) than in galleries and museums" (Ibid.). It is in Regarding indoor sculpture, no mention is made of the var ious galleries and museums, both public and private, that regu larly exhibit local, Canadian, and internationally recognized sculptors. Most of the galleries and museums have catalogues, biographies of artists, and slide documentation of their shows. Class tours are a possibility if prior arrangements are made. Local newspapers and magazines list and advertise exhibits. It is advantageous to become a member and/or be on the mailing lists of Vancouver galleries and museums in order to show support for the local art community and be notified of show openings and special events. 51. order to make this outdoor experience with sculpture more mean ingful and consequential that this Vancouver model has been re searched and presented. Another reason for this model is that the sculpture in Vancouver is rarely labelled. The name of the sculptor, the title of the work, the patron, if any, the media, technique, date, dimensions, or a description of the piece is seldom prov ided on the sculpture site. This situation does little to rem edy the problem of some students, majoring in sculpture at institutions such as the Emily Carr College of Art and Design, being unable to name three sculptors beyond their mention of Henry Moore.* Furthermore, secondary art teachers have had few resources to call upon to enable them to include the recognition of local sculptors as part of their art program, which is yet another reason for this Vancouver model as well as the appendix listing numerous local sculptors. Resources that were used in the preparation of the inform ation for the six sculpture areas of Vancouver are the following: - Peggy Imredy's A G.uide to Sculpture in Vancouver, published in 1980. Although this publication is poorly illustrated, inade quately proofread and is inappropriately titled, a more approp riate title being "A Guide to the Landmarks of Vancouver," this paperback contains useful information not otherwise available to the general public. Information gained in a May 1982 conversation with Ruth Beer, a sculptor and instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design. - Starting with Monuments: Stanley Park, a Vancouver Environ ment Educational Project, a University of British Columbia pub lication is mentioned in Section III: Area 2. - Doris Munroe's thesis, Public Art in Vancouver (1972) is a catalogue of permanent art accessible to the general public. Art found within the city limits of Vancouver, the University of British Columbia and the Vancouver International Airport are listed according to the chronological order of their unveiling from 1905-1971. The date, item, location, artist, medium, size and descriptive information listed in the catalogue was gained from questionnaires answered by artists, architects, patrons, and government representatives. - Exploring Vancouver 2. Ten Tours of the City and its Build ings (1978) by Harold Kalman, and - The Pleasure of Seeing. Architectural Sculpture and Decorat ive Art in Vancouver (1982) by Gerald Formosa were two other resources found to be particularly useful in the preparation of Section III: Areas 3, 4, and 5. The last three resources refer red to, cite further examples of architectural/ornamental sculp ture than those listed within this study. On the other hand, this study provides a more up to date summation of the bas  relief as well as in the round sculpture currently available to the general public. The six self-contained parts of Section III that follow correspond to six areas of sculpture in Vancouver. The boundar ies of these areas were conceived mainly as a result of trying to divide evenly the quantity of permanently displayed sculpture within the city. Three of the areas, the University of British Columbia, Stanley Park, and the VanDusen Botanical Gardens are naturally 'self-contained' and readily facilitate the organiza tion of fieldtrips. The sculpture found in The West End, Down town A and B is more widely dispersed and is therefore less accessible for class fieldtrips than they are for small group activities. Recommendations for how to approach these three areas are presented within each area. The contents of these six parts of Section III include the following: - a map with the location of each sculpture clearly marked. Sculptures not photographed are not marked, however. - a brief introduction to each area - classroom activities which centre on the use of the slides contained within this study. Although it is acknowledged that slides are an inadequate way to perceive sculpture, they do facilitate a preview of local works. Viewing slides before 'ex periencing' the actual sculpture will enable students to note the difference between looking at a slide reproduction and see ing sculpture first hand. They will gain an insight into what is missed in terms of a sense of scale, the relationship between setting and sculpture, the tactile sensation, and the possibil ities of viewing the work from more than one angle. - labelled slides and tabulated background information sheets regarding each of the sculptures could be used as a script for the showing of the slides. (Note the underlined words consid ered to be key points in the description of the work. These terms are defined in the glossary. Note also that in the 54. descriptive notes, value judgments and 'loaded vocabulary' as to the quality of the sculpture have been avoided.) - fieldtrip activities which could be attempted on site or begun during the fieldtrip and completed back in the classroom. Often library and art room facilities are needed by the students to complete these activities. These activities include the crit ical, historical as well as some of the productive domains of the sculpture; more emphasis on the productive domain of sculp ture occurs in Section IV. 55 . References for Section II Chichura, D.B., & Stevens, T.K. Super sculpture. Using science, technology and natural phenomena in sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974. Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: W.C. Brown Co., 1968. Eisner, Elliott W. Curriculum making for the wee folk: Stanford University's Kettering Project. In Hardiman, G.W., & Zernich, T. (Eds.), Curriculum considerations for  visual arts education. Rationale, development and evalua tion. Champaign: Stipes Publishing Co., 1974. Feldman, E.B. Varieties of visual experience. Art as image  and idea. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1977. Formosa, G. The pleasure of seeing. Architectural sculpture  and decorative art in Vancouver. Vancouver: Skorba Publishers, 1982. Gaunt, W. Teach yourself to study sculpture. London: The English Universities Press Ltd., 1957. Guralnik, D.B. (Ed.). Webster's New World Dictionary. Toronto: Nelson, Foster and Scott, Ltd., 1970. Kalman, H. Exploring Vancouver 2. Ten tours of the city and  its buildings. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Press, 1978. Mayer, R. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1969. Munroe, D.C. Public art in Vancouver, Thesis, Fine Art Department, University of British Columbia, April 1972. (Available in Special Collections, University of British Columbia.) New Dictionary of Modern Sculpture. Robert Maillard, general editor. New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1970. Noguchi, I. A sculptor's world. Tokyo: Thames and Hudson, 1968 . School Arts Magazine, Feb. 19 76, 75_(6) , 20. Stevens, H. Art in the round. Elements and materials of three  dimensional design. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1965. Walker, J.A. Glossary of art, architecture, and design since  1945. London: Clive Bingley, 1973. 57. SECTION III: VANCOUVER SCULPTURE Although initially it may seem a mammoth task for a teacher to peruse the slides, notes and activities including the under lined terms .found in Section III, I think it would be time well spent. For a teacher working in the city of Vancouver it would be of benefit to become familiar with the sculpture available locally. Such familiarity would acquaint teachers not only with local sculpture but with local sculptors and patrons, with the media, techniques, styles, rationales, and modes of expression of these works. For teachers working outside city limits such a perusal would help them become familiar with the classroom/ fieldtrip-historical/critical/productive domain format I have used. They may find this format useful for a study of the sculpture found in their own community. At the same time it is recognized that sculpture is only part of a year's art program in the elementary and secondary schools, therefore decisions and omissions (consult the intro duction to specific areas) will have to be made as to the quan tity of material that can be made available to the students at any one time. Before introducing Section III it may be of int erest to know and understand: - what value is placed on local sculpture - what rationales were used for the creation of the works - what 'styles' are represented in the architectural reliefs on the buildings in downtown Vancouver - what reception was given to the work as it was originally un veiled - what notice is given to the sculpture at the present time (newspaper clippings, city archivists and librarians can prov ide' information) - what the weather, our climate, our population do to the sculp tures - how the sculptures are maintained; does the city tend to the upkeep of outdoor sculpture. 60 . Section III: Area 1 - The University of British Columbia It would be an interesting survey to ask graduating stud ents who have spent four or more years on the University of British Columbia campus what they recall of the more than forty sculptures to be found on the University Endowment Lands. Most graduates would probably have difficulty accepting that figure. The majority of the work goes unnoticed not only by students but also by the administration of the university. When researching this area it became apparent that existing files for campus sculpture were incomplete. U.B.C. is the province's largest university but one local newspaper reporter/art critic reported that U.B.C. has the most poorly managed art collection of any post secondary educational institution in the province.* A cam pus policy amounting to accept all gifts and allow no budget has only exacerbated this situation. U.B.C. art collection files are not kept by a central overseeing administration, rather there are a number of individually owned collections such as the donor's collection at the Faculty Club, the Fine Art Department's international contemporary teaching collection, the student owned collection begun in the late 1950's, the Depart ment of Metallurgy's B.C. print collection, and the Graduate Centre's collection by members of the Fine Arts faculty. There is no one individual at U.B.C. who is aware of all the art on campus. Information found in Susan Merten's article, Grounds for Art, The Vancouver Sun, Friday, February 12, 1982. .6 1. Another reason is the lack of community pride taken in the sculptures. Several works such as Jack Harman's Fertility and The Miner, and Germaine Bergeron's Man, The Robot, and The  Venetian, have had to be removed due to extensive damage inflic ted on these sculptures. Plaques identifying other works have frequently been removed. A more respectful attitude on behalf of the general public is necessary before this vandalism will be brought to a halt. Some general remarks can be made about the sculpture found on the University of British Columbia campus: - it has been commissioned or donated by private individuals or group s - only one work was done by a sculptor not residing locally - there are twenty 'in the round' sculptures, twelve bas relief sculptures, one fountain, and three totem poles exclusive of the three dimensional art found within the Museum of Anthropology - five works were chosen as a result of competitions held by the Northwest Institute, now called the Sculptors' Society of Brit ish Columbia in conjunction with the Extension Department of the university. Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation View the slides in order to familiarize yourself with the variety of sculpture at U.B.C. Find the answers to the follow ing questions: 1. How many figurative pieces of sculpture are there on campus ? 2. Which four sculptures are examples of the subtraction of s tone ? 62 . 3. Name the eight architectural/ornamental reliefs and note the media that were used. 4. Name the two sculptors who depict the mother and child theme ? 5. Do you think the commissioned sculptures commemorating Bela Bartok, Dr. MacKenzie, Walter Gage, and King George VI are appropriate memorials? State your reasons. (Show the slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 1 - The  University of British Columbia.) r 9 i-< -i v r ^ r t, • i h • m< r.37 1 - 1 o DATE i VIEW FROM THIS SIDE DATE VIEW FROM THIS SIDE SECTION III: AREA 1 -THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SECTION III: AREA 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA T SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Walter Harris Vernon Stephens Earl Muldoe Art Sterritt - 'Ksan Carvers (from Hazelton, B.C. ) Arthur Erickson archiectural firm entrance doors -Rayonier of Canada presented the red cedar - UBC Grad. Class of •74 and the Na tional Museum of Canada helped finance the pro ject red cedar bas re lief - sub trac tion H. 10' 6" thick 1974-1976 Museum of Anthropol ogy, 6393 N.W. Marine Drive - Northwest Coast Indian motifs depicting the or igin of the 3 main tribes of the Upper Skeena River carved on both sides; tells the story of Skawah an ancient myth of the Gitskan people. The myth recounts how a young maiden married the man spirit from the sun after the animals in the forest failed to gain her hand. Skawah had 6 children whom the sun divided into 3 tribes - frog; wolf; firewood. - consult The Pleasure  of Seeing 0136 Bill Reid, created the miniature ver sion -George Norris Garry Edenshaw George Rammell Jim Hart Reg Davidson assisted in the carving of the large work The Rav en and The First gift from Halter & Marianne Koerner Humans origin ally a 4>i T man-made block of lamin-ated subtr action "in the round" |Apr. 1, 1980 -the speci ally desig ned rotunda of the Mus eum of Anthropol ogy -unpalnted -as Terry Noble (Vancou ver Guideline, Vol. 10 23-29, 1981) it's a 3 yellow cedar -Joan Lowndes' No. 35, Jan. states: ".. dimensional story book for children and adults alike. A giant raven is perched atop a colossal clam shell, from which humanity struggles to free Itself and enter this world made fresh and new by the Great Flood. A stylized piece derived from Haida Legend." article Child of the Raven: Bill Reld which appeared in the Vanguard Feb. 1982, pp. 20-25 is a useful resource for und erstanding both the sculptor and his work.^ SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 2 Bill Reld cont1 d -the film The Raven, its genesis and evolu tion Is available from the Canadian Film makers Distribution Centre, 525 W. Pender St. Vancouver, V6B 1V5; 684-3014 -consult The Haida Legend of the Raven and the First Humans as retold by Bill Reld, Museum of Anthropology, UBC, Museum Note #8. 3 Bill Reld Halda Bear bequest from Walter Koerner cedar subtrac tion 101" L, x50" H, 1963 Great Hall, Museum of Anthropol ogy -a contemporary "touch able" carving -note the characteristics of the bear (the heavy muzzle, teeth and tongue, square ears and massive body) -the textured surface is a result of the skillful use of the hand adze. 4 Bill Reld assisted by Doug Cranmer Canada Council Grant cedar -Haida house & totem pole -subtrac Hon 1962 -there i entitled The foil Metis ai carver, Indian t transfot richly c the peop Islands. outside the Great Hall, Museum of Anthropol ogy s also a Na Bill Reld owing descr tlst Bill R at work on radltlon. matlon of a arved pole, le of Skldi " (N.F.B. -part of a replica of a Haida Village including a dwelling house, grave house, double and single mortuary poles, memorial pole and the sea wolf f igure. tlonal Film Board film (106c0179 094 27.50 color), lptlon is useful: "B.C. eld, jeweller and wood a totem pole in the Haida The film shows the gradual bare cedar trunk into a a gift of the artist to gate, Queen Charlotte Catalogue, p. 50) o> 00 SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 5 10 Mungo Martin plus others; a "sampling" only of N.W. Coast Indian art cedar totem poles on the grounds out-| side The Great Hall of The Mus-| eum of An thropology - a film recommended ln the Art 8-12 Curricu lum guide Is Totems N.F.B. formerly found ln Totem Park. -full views difficult to photograph therefore de tails of poles presented ln slides. A-R 141 1944 10 minutes colour - The Museum of Anthropology has been refer red to as a 'treasure house that teaches.' It houses not only a wealth of Northwest Coast art but also presents objects of cult ural significance from around the world. Note that as well as visiting this museum and studying the artifacts including the special travelling exhibits, the museum also offers videotapes. - two films that might be helpful are: A Very Special Building 18 minutes; colour; Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre, 525 W. Pender St., Vancouver. U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology SO-728 PEMC 1976 30 minutes colour - consult the Guide to the U.B.C. Museum of  Anthropology by Madeline Bronsdon Rowan and Margaret A. Stott, pp. 13-14. it becomes obvious that a field trip to the Museum, Independent of viewing the sculpture on the rest of the campus is advisable be cause of the time necessary to appreciate the wealth that is contained within this museum. SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 11 Edward Apt Memorial to Sopron -commis sioned by a group of Hung arian-Canadians from the area of Sopron, Hungary lime stone relief subtrac tion 24x3 x24" 2nd floor corridor, Interna tional House -two hands clasped to gether -crudely carved letters "U.B.C. adopted Sopron 1956-1961" -References: Foresters in Exile, pub. 1970 Adamovich & 0. Lziklai Alumni Chronicle, 1961, pp. 24-25. 12 Alfred Carlsen Madonna of the Cedars wood subtrac tion H. 50" 1968 2nd floor lounge, Interna tional House -University Purchase Prize -small plaque identifying work -stylized faces of a mother and child -frontal: low relief 13 Jack Harman Trans cendence bronze sand cast foun tain -4 fig ures welded together 10' figure total height 15* May s 1961 Thea Koer-ner Gradu ate Stud ent Centre fountain stands in a pool at the south east cor ner of the building -the design was chosen from 5 submissions -cast in Harman's North Vancouver studio -4 simplified and draped figures with outstretched arms face the respective points of the compass; plaque in place 14 Gerhard Class Tuning Fork Alfred Blundell $5 ,000 gift corten steel welded, free-stand ing abstract H. 23' Sept. 1968 -made at -lower p wind fac -include that for south of Music Bldg. Tri Metal F ortion has h tor s a well; a m as the met -formalist rationale -the winning design of a . competition held at UBC abricators, Vancouver eavler gauge steel due to drain for rust particles al weathers q SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 14 Gerhard Class cont *d -the pi and is ece was wel almost immur L received by the public ie to vandalism 15 C. Vlncenzl Untitled Music Grad Class of 1974 bronze cast figure 1974 inside the Music Bldg. -self expression ration ale -the upturned head, neck, shoulder, and arm of a man -impressionistic mode of expression 16 Jack Harman Bela Bartok 1881-1945 presented to U.B.C. and people of the province by the Hungarian-Canadians of B.C. bronze and marble bust substi tution H. 1%' plinth 4' H. March 25, 1981 inside the Music Bldg. -marks the century of the composer's birth and the 25th anniversary of the events of 1956 in Hungary -naturalistic documenta tion 17 Sherry Grauer The Musician gift of Mr. Rich ard A. Wyllie wire mesh & auto putty -manipu lation H. 3«j' approx. June 1968 Chairman of the Music Department Office, Music Building -the work is made of different gauges of wire mesh -note the instrument It- : self and the facial feat ures of the musician 18 Otto Fischer-Credo Asiatic Head wife don ated the sculpture to U.B.C. conc rete substit ution H. 40" 80" diam. 1958 under cov ered walk way near Lasserre & south of the Freder ic Hood Theatre -shown at 1958 Sculpture Show held at U.B.C. by the N.W. Inst, of Sculp ture and the Extension Dept. -large stylized woman's head SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE . SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 19 Jack Hartnan Dr. Nor U.B.C. Alumni Assoc. bronze bust substi tution H. 30" plinth 52" H. 1976 between Lasserre and the Frederic Wood Theatre naturalistic man A.M. documentation MacKenzie 20 Frank Perry Floren tine Door #2 plaque states Rothman '-8 of Pall Mall donor bronze substi tution abstr act H. 15%" 4' base -separi stone -an in angula a comb: stract -negat design in the cor ner near Room 401A, 4th floor Lasserre Building ited from 4' ;h thick arch r base - the Lnation of ge shapes. Lve space is of the piece -rough finish - appears to be painted black and varnished rather than left to patina naturally -exhibited in Centennial Sculpture 1967, Vancou ver. base by 1" jade-like is attached to a rect-"body" of the design is ometric and organic ab-important to the overall 21 Jan Zach Reclining Figure given by the art ist to Walter Koerner red sand stone free-stand ing subtr action H. 22" x36" W. 1967 north side of the Lasserre Building -stylized figure; note that the reclining figure theme was often used by other artists such as Henry Moore 22 Robert Clothier three Forms cast concrete free-stand ing abstr act. H. 5%" from base 1956 -organ ture ii Depart north side of the Lasserre Building Lzed by the N n collaborate nent of U.B.C -formalist rationale -won University's Pur chase Prize in 1st Sculp ture Show held at UBC in 1956 ($400) •W. Institute of Sculp-on with the Extension to SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 23 George Norris Bill Reld (designers and carvers) Univers commiss ioned by U.B.C. yew with copper inset bas re lief subtr action and addi tion Oct. 1959 stored in the Cerem onies Office -functional rationale ity Mace -made of native B.C. materials -Native Indian designs -copper insets used, not silver as originally proposed 24 Gerhard Class Configur ation sheet copper welded and solder ed wall relief H. 6-7' x78" W. 1958 exterior wall Main Mall Ent rance, Buchanan Building -Canada Council contest winner 1958 ($2000) -Committee chaired by B.C. Binning -patina the result of weathering 25 George Thornton Sharp, archi tect of the architectural firm of Sharp & Thompson Monkey and the Bearded Man stone plaques subtr action 1923-1925 Main Ent rance of Main Library -(too small and difficult to photograph) -reminder of the famous 'monkey' trial of 1925 and a challenge to reason and progress. (perhaps Charles Marega was the sculp tor) stone plaques subtr action Main Ent rance of Main Library' -Crest, 4 floral emblems, and horse with rider -architectural ornaments, -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #134 26 George A. Norris Mother and Child donated by anonymous donor 1957 (could have been Charles F. Scott, principal of V,S,A,) bronze substi tution H. 47" (39" H. without base) 1955 -exhibi and bou be tween Main Lib rary and Physics Building ted at the ght by the -intended for the ent rance of the new Educa tion Building along with a Father and Child. The building didn't get fin ished for 10 years after the commission. 5.C. Sculpture Show, 1958 donor. »j SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION John Lees Crystal Tree presented to the Dept. of Physics by Mrs. D. T. Lees glass manipu lation July 27, 1976 inside the main ent rance of the Henn lngs Bldg. (too difficult to photo graph) Sherry Grauer Sky with commiss ioned by and ln the collection of Dr. F. A. Kaempf-fer wire mesh & alumin um manipu lation Part It 1972 -1 set g -series pool whe place -presente two and Reading Rm. 0311, Hennings Bldg. hallow; the of cut-away re a chain different p d - a crouc separated b (too difficult to photo graph) -placid premises -"tucked away" location -2 sets of 4 vertical panels other set 4 times deeper sections of a swimming of activities is taking osltlons of the swimmer hlng figure is split in y negative space Swimmers 5.5m x . 84m x 1.5m Part II: 5. 5m x 27 Sherry Grauer Bored Figure coll. of Dr. F.A. Kaempffer stuffed canvas, plaster wood relief addi 188x71x 46 cm 1966 Rm. 332 Hennlngs Bldg., Dr. Kaempf fer's office -standing figure encased in a low relief 'stage'; hands ln pockets; one foot on the seat of a wooden chair #2 tion 28 Ellen & Edward (John?) Neel Thunder-bird Totem Kwaklutl bought by A.M.S. cedar subtr action H. 12' dedi cated in 1948 -repairs their ne -plaque -removab foot of Student Union Blvd. to weather phew, Doug removed le wings ln -until 1976 the pole was ln front of Brock Hall, -tells of the 5 tests of Tslkumln, chief magician of the Red Cedar Bark Dance and founder of Qui-Owa-Sutinuk, ancestors of the carver, -damaged pole done by Cranmer. place ^, *-SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 28 Ellen & Edward (John?) Neel cont' d -much of the design painted on with black, grey, turquoise blue, white, red and brown paint, -frontal pole-back of the pole roughly shaped only. -positioned facing the sea and back to the main entrance of S.U.B. ln keeping with the Indian custom of placing their totems between their longhouses and the sea. 29 Jack Harman Walter bronze Gage bust substi tution H. 24V 1972 main foyer of Gage Residence -naturalistic documenta-tion - in commemoration of Walter Gage's 50 years of service to the University 30 Ellen Neel of Alert Bay presented to the School of Social Work by the B.C. Indian Arts and Welfare Society cedar totem H. 7-8 May 11, 1949 Student "...given as a symbol of Lounge ln the Native Indian in the the base- field of higher educa-ment of tion." (information the School gained from a framed of Social paper "plaque") Work -painting and carving well preserved as exhib ited indoors, -wings have been removed and are stored in the Faculty Lounge, frontal pole. black, brown and red. -3 main figures; -yellow, green, white Ul SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 31 ' Lionel Thomas The Lion And St. Mark commiss ioned by the arch itects Gardiner, Thornton, iGathe and Associates bronze and go.ld leaf welded wall relief linear 15,xl2' 1957 St. Mark's Theological College near Wes-brook Mall and Chanc ellor Blvd. -includes the stylized figure of St. Mark, the sun, and a lion, symbol of St. Mark the evangel istic. -reflects the afternoon sun and gives interesting shadow effects. 32 Tony Bisig Christ bronze sheets welded 1967 Lutheran Student Centre Chapel -religious and functional The King rationales -3 dimensional cross above the altar plus a crown of thorns motif for the overhead light fixt ures . 33 Tony Bisig a Circu lar Altar bronze sheets welded -symbols of the Holy Trinity are subtly embod ied In the relief 34 Tony Bisig The Twelve Apostles gift from the art ist fibre-glass? relief presen ted at the op ening of the centre -stylized group of fig ures 35 Robert Weghsteen Langley, B.C. plaque 8 tates: "presented by the Van. Alum. Chapter of the Alpha Omega Frat." glazed ceramic mural -manip ulation May 1971 McDonald Building, South Entr. -abstract shapes and textural variety -architectural/ornamental relief CT> SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 36 Sir Charles Wheeler Kinfi presented to U.B.C. by the Van. War Amps. Ass. ot Canada funded by Mr. P.A. & Mrs. M. Woodward Foundation bronze statue substi tution H. 9' June 2 1, 1958 Woodward Bio-Medical Library, Main Entrance -naturalistic documenta George tion VI -replica of the one on the mall leading to Buckingham Palace in London . -was previously located at the S.E. corner of U.B.C. Memorial Gymnas ium . 37 George Schmerholz The Family Centre for Human De velopment , Gov't of Canada, Dept. of Public Works, 1976 Habitat wood s ub t r-actlon H. 5x3' Sept. 1980 4th floor, Library Processing Building -4 heads emerging from a chisel textured tree trunk -rounded, smooth, styl ized portraits -impressionistic mode of expression. 38 Paul Deggan, of Lion's Bay Untitled .purchased for the opening of the new Education Building: the award of $2000 was given by the B.C. Tea chers ' Federation copper alumin um and brass wall relief 3 piec es , the largest 9x5' Feb. 1965 Scarfe Building Exterior, North wall -linear abstract shapes -design was chosen from a competition organized across Canada -Jury chaired by Prof. Elmore Ozard -problem was to relate work to "unsympathetic" wall of light, glazed brick & deep grey mortar & to make the sculpture withstand possible vand alism SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR • TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 39 George Norrls and John Fraser mosaic brick brick wall mural manipu lation 20'x50' 1968 Forward Metallurgy Building, north ent rance, de sign on both sides of the wall -multicoloured -abstract of hexagonal symmetry, characteristic of many metals. -some bricks had metallic components pressed into them before firing -architects asked the artists to design a wall that would accentuate the entrance which was other wise difficult to locate 40 George Norrls Untitled Dean Bly-the and Mrs . Eagles granite subtr action H. 3* 1967 MacMillan Building, The Fores try and Agricult ural Quad rangle -small curved stylized figure of man planting/ picking a seedling, -donated as a memorial to Mr. and Mrs. Eagles' par ents who were pioneers in the settlement of B.C. and as a token of homage to all who have laboured to improve our agricult ure . (Man About to Plant or Pick Alfalfa) plaster substi tution relief inscr iption along 2 walls of the Board room Room 348, Agricult ural Bldg. -this inscription states:: "Ceres first taught mor tals to plough the land when acorns and wild strawberries failed" Vergil, Georgies I, 147-9 (not photographed) Zeljko KuJundzlc, Kelowna Thunder- light weight cast concr ete archi each 6' x 6' ; weight 1000 lb. 1967 12 Thund-erbirds atop sup porting poles of Thunderbird Stadium -stylized Northwest Coast Indian motif -Vladmir Plavsic, a fel low Hungarian, was the architect of the stadium, (not photographed) £j birds tectur al^ orn-amenta-tion SECTION III: AREA 1 - THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SLIDE SCULPTOR • TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 41 Simon Charlie, Salish Han Meets plaque states work made possible by col labora tion bet ween the residents of Totem Park and the Hous ing Ad ministra tion U.B.C. wood totem subtr action 1975 Totem Park Residences -welcome pole -unpalnted; frontal -two simplified figures. Bear VO 80 . Fieldtrip Activities Now that you have been 'introduced to' the sculpture on the University of British Columbia campus through slides, ar range a visit to the campus in order to view the sculpture first hand. (Refer to the introduction to Section II for the reasons to view sculpture 'in person.') A map is enclosed to help you locate the sculpture described and some on-site activities are recommended, such as the following: 1. Draw and/or photograph a pictorial essay of The Raven from different points of view (from far and near; from ground level and from a higher than eye level vantage point; from as many angles as possible). If you are using a camera be advised that flash is allowed within the museum, but it is requested it be used minimally, therefore a film of 400 ASA is recommended. A wide angle lens might prove very useful. If drawing is to be done, consider the use of paper that is approximately 45 x 60 cm in size. Imagine that you are drawing and/or photographing this monumental sculpture for a friend that lives far away and who may never see The Raven. What characteristics would you like to convey to your friend about this sculpture? 2. Use Feldman's approach to critical analysis and present a critique to the class of Gerhard Class1 Tuning Fork. 3. There are two ceramic murals within this area; one done by George Norris, the other by Robert Weghsteen. What elements  and principles of design do they share? How was each mural created? Why is the 'finish' for each mural suitable for the respective buildings? (Another ceramic mural that would suit such a comparison is Jordi Bonet's The Fathomless Richness of  the Seabed mural found in Slide Notes Section III: Area 3 - The  West End.) 4. Find out as much as you can about the 'Ksan carvers from Hazelton, B.C. Describe their most recent projects. (Con sult Slide Notes Section III: Area 3 - The West End.) 5. Compare and contrast* images of the mother and child theme. Compare: - elements and principles of design - mood - historical context - impact - content - symbolism - technique  style - imagery Begin with an in-depth study of Mother and Child by George Norris at the sculpture site on campus. Compare and contrast this sculpture with the following examples: - Slide #42 - Madonna with Infant (Pitti Tondo) , SL marble relief done circa 1500 by the artist Michelangelo, located in Florence at the Bargello National Museum (Berti, 1969, fig. 12, p. 44). - Slide #43 - Maternite, a carving in teak, 32" x 24", created , by Canadian sculptor Suzanne Guite in 1960.(Boulanger, 1973, p. 55) . - Slide #44 - Mother and Child (no. 4), a bronze cast done in 1956 by Henry Moore. It is 17.2 cm high and in a private collec tion (Moore, 1966, p. 24). This is a suggested activity found in the Grades 8- A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, ince of British Columbia, Sept. 1981, Draft, p. 177. 12 Pr ov-- Slide #45 - Mother and Child, 1941-45 , a bronze created by-Jacques Lipchitz. This sculpture is located in the Museum of Modern Art Sculpture Garden in New York. 6. Discover who George Sawchuk is and what he has done in the University Endowment Lands. Newspaper clippings will be useful as well as Bruce Ferguson's article, A Natural Politic: George Sawchuk, appearing in the Vanguard, April 1981, pages 10-17. 7. Bill Reid is one of the best known local artists who works in the Northwest Coast Indian tradition. Describe how Reid's assistants used the miniature raven Reid created for the carving of the four and a half ton block of yellow cedar to be found in the Museum of Anthropology. MAP STANLEY PARK VANCOUVER, CANADA Lord Stanley, Governor General of Canada, dedicated Stanley Park in 1889. "...to the use and enjoyment of people of all colours, creeds and customs for all time..." BOARD OF PARKS AND RECREATION 2099 BEACH AVE. VANCOUVER, B.C. V6G 1Z4 1982 (Use of this map possible through the permission of the Board of Parks and Recreation, Vancouver, B.C.) (Use.of this map possible through the permission of the Board of Parks and Recreation, Vancouver, B.C.) 84 Section III: Area 2 - Stanley Park Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation This world famous park is visited by thousands of people annually and yet how many of those visitors could describe in any detail one of the twenty sculptures located within its boundaries? What sculptures have you carefully looked at? What do you remember of what you saw? During your viewing of the slides of the sculpture found within this area, find the answers to the following questions: 1. How many works are examples of naturalistic document ation? 2. How many works were commissioned? 3. Most of the sculptures are 'in the round.' Name three works that include bas relief work. 4. Give six examples of statues and plaques that have been produced by the bronze casting method. 5. Most of the sculpture has been designed and created by local sculptors. Can you name other work in our city produced by Charles Marega or Elek Imredy? 6. What two works would you classify as examples of ab s tract sculpture? (Show the slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 2 -Stanley Park.) JJL° z'z p. 85 gT* 2-3 it • tUUt-CT nun f * 1, a 0 s -1 z i • 5 M < 0 S > n UL'Z'lO •usjtcr . . g 3 n r ' 1 El'zm -nr-z'iz 7H: 2.:/3 M*2.*W JJL'-Z'15 SECTION III: AREA 2 -STANLEY PARK SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 1 Sydney and Vernon March of London Lord Stanley MaJ. J.S. Matthews, the City Archivist, helped to raise the money bronze, granite base statue substi tution S. 8'6" l*i T. Mar. 10, 1960 -s tatue -the br -a 4 ye -inscri people for all the south end of the Stanley Pk causeway commlssione onze arrlvei ar controvei ption: For of all colot ;time . -arms spread ln welcome to all -naturalistic documenta tion -park dedicated in 1889 by Lord Stanley, Gov. General of B.C. d ln 1952 in 1956 sy of where to place it the use and enjoyment of is, creeds, and customs 2 George A. Lawson Robert Vancouver Burns Fellow ship bronze ($5000) granite pedes tal ($2000) natural Aug. 25, 1928 Georgia St entrance, close to Lord Stanley -one of 4 copies; one of which Is in Ayr, Scotland, Burns' homeland. -3 bronze low relief plaques depict 3 scenes from 3 of his poems; a fourth plaque bears the poet'8 name and dates. Burns istic documen tation statue substi tution 3 James Blomfleld -designed the bronze work on the memor-1 al Thomas Brock, R.A., sculptor of the 1897 Jubilee coins -designed the medallion of the queen Queen Victoria Memorial school children raised part of the funds plus a patriotic concert was held ln 1902 bronze -gran ite from Nelson Island cast in Salford England May 24, 1909 faces Row ing Club -first commissioned sculp ture for Vancouver -right side of granite, the English coat of arms -left side of granite, Vancouver schools' coat of arms -fountain was intended to have water but vandals stole the 2 bronze drink ing cups -original cost $1850. oo SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR Charles Marega TITLE Harding Memorial PATRON Kiwanis Club membe rs charged 50c each MEDIA bronze, granite TYPE lal SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Sept. I -honors American Presid-1925 |near Malkin ent's visit to B.C. Bowl -Includes a record of some of Harding's words spoken July 26, 1928; Harding died one week later -international competition for the design of the monument -built In the shape of a semi-circle, the memorial contains spacious stone seats which are flanked by 2 bronze eagles. In the center, mounted on the pedestal between the bronze figures of Columbia and Canada, is a relief profile of the President. from the Skeena River area donated by James F. Garden cedar totem 1903 figure subtr action opposite the bear pits -stylized but worn fig ure shrouded in plant growth James Benzie, local archi tect designed the monument Japanese War Memorial Canadian Japanese Associa tion granite obelisk subtr action April 9,1 between the -to commemorate those of 1920 I Children's Japanese extraction who Zoo and the took part in WW.I Aquarium -at first the pagoda lantern on top was lit at night 12 granite plaques name battles -one bronze plaque names those killed; the other those who returned -original cost $15,000 -cherry trees added in 1932 Brockton  Point  Totem Park A plaque states: "The totem was the B.C. Indians' 'coat of arms.' Totem poles are unique to the N.W. coast of B.C. and lower Alaska. They were carved from Western red cedar and each carving tells of a real ora mythical event, They were not idols, noroo SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Brockton Point Totem Park cont' d were they worshipped. Each carving on each pole has a meaning. The eagle represents the kingdom of the air, the whale the lord ship of the sea, the wolf the genius of the land, and the frog the transitional link between land and sea." (Consulf. the brochure, Totem Poles of Brit ish Columbia, Series I: Stanley Park, by S.W.A. Gunn, for further information.) Alert Bay Kwaklutl Waklus cedar Pole totem subtr action 40' 1899 Brockton Point top Thunderbird Killer Whale Wolf Uan-wa-kawle Mythical Bird Grizzly Raven Rivers Inlet Kwaklutl - restoration by Doug Cranmer Yakdzi Pole Vancouver Jubilee Committee cedar totem subtr action 1936 Brockton Point -replica of 1894 original -top Eagle Yakdzi (Chief) Sea Monster Whale Grizzly Octopus -the Yakdzi pole appears second from the left in the slide Kingcombe Inlet Kwaklutl Tsa-wee- cedar noh House Post horiz ontal beam subtr action 1927 iBrockton placed IPoint near Lumberman's Arch; 1963 moved -made for Chief Tsa-wee-noh -Thunderbird and Grizzly holding a woman oo vo SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 10 See-wit of Blunden Harbour Kwakiutl Nhe-is-blk (Teth ering Pole) bought by Golden Jubilee Committee cedar totem sub tr action 60' 1892 Brockton Point 'How the salmon came to Rivers Inlet' top Thunderblrd Chief Raven Salmon Wolf Whale Grizzly Monster of the for est 11 Charlie James, Yaakutlas Kwakiutl -minor restor ation by Doug Cranmer in 1963 Si-sa-kaulas Pole bought in 1936 by the Art, Scientific and His torical Society of Vancouver cedar totem subtr action Brockton Point top Sister of Thunder-bird Ancestor of Sl-sa-kaulas Killer Whale Sea Otter Sea Bear. Human head (the Sl-sa-kaulas Pole appears in the centre of the slide) 12 Queen Charlotte Island, Halda Skedan Mortu ary Pole obtained from Chief Henry Moody by the Golden Jubilee Commit tee cedar totem subtr action -other Prospec circuit Brockton Point totems in S t Point and -oldest in the group -for Chief Skedan -hieroglyphics on the back tell of the cost -top Moon Mountain goat Human faces Grlzzly Killer Whale tanley Park are found at in the park railway to o SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 13 stone petro-glyph bas relief subtr action animal shapes 14 Chehalis Cross erected by friends and crew con crete cross on stone base memor ial 1906 driveway past Brock ton Point -in memory of 8 people who lost their lives on the steam tug Chehalis July 21, 1906 15 Elek Imredy Girl ln brainchild of Van couver Harbour Improve ment Soc. bronze on boulder figura 350 lbs. June 10, 1972 "Just c lty, sh guarant reality (VancoL Vancouv between Brockton Point and Lumberman's Arch ff the maim e's a const' ee amid so i amid such iver Sculptui rer Guideline -like Copenhagen's mer maid -represents Vancouver's dependence on the sea -cost $25,000 -cast in Italy stream of bustling human-ant amid so much flux, a nuch uncertainty, a calm irantic existence." re with Terry Noble, s, Vol. 10, Mo. 35, Jan. Wetsuit tive^ substi tution 23-29, your re 1981, p. 20 as ons. .) Do you agree? Give 16 Empress of Japan Figure head The Prov ince , a Vancouver newspaper restored It fiber glass 1960 -the ship passed this point many times between 1891-1922 -figurehead restored ln 1928 -fiberglass replica in 1960 -original In Van. Mari time Museum, vo *—• SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE 17 SCULPTOR Charles Marega TITLE Lion ' s Gate Bridge lions PATRON MEDIA concrete TYPE stylr lzed substi tution SIZE each 6V T. DATE Jan. 1939 LOCATION on the east and west side of the! southern end of the bridge DESCRIPTION -bridge opened in 1938 -last pieces of sculpt ure done by Marega -there was public crit icism that the lions were too stylized and too closely resembled the sphinx 18 Chief Joe Capilano Squamish tribe of the Coast Salish Thunder- cedar totem 1936 bird Prospect Point Dynasty Pole -the only pole that stands at the original site on which It was raised top Son of Thunderblrd Daughter of Thund erblrd Mother of Thunder-bird Giant Dragon -commemorates meeting of Squamish people with Capt. Vancouver in Burrard Inlet in 1792 . 19 designed by James McLeod Hurry Pauline Johnson Memorial Women ' 8 Canadian Club natural cairn rock -low f rom a r- relief ound Si- of poet wash and Rock crossed feather and ar row subtr action May 19, 1922 between Third Beach and Ferg uson Point her portrait, a crossed feather and arrow on one side, and a canoe on the other, is carved in low relief into the natural rock -depicts one of her poems, Song My Paddle  Sings. and title of her book, Flint and Feather -Includes ashes and books -inscription: "E. P. Johnson 1861-1913 Tekahionwake" SECTION III: AREA 2 - STANLEY PARK SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 20 Charles Marega David money raised from gen eral pub lic as a tribute bronze on gran ite pedestal bust Us times life-size Dec. 14, 1911 near Beach Avenue exit of Stanley Park -was second mayor of Vancouver and also the main force behind reserv ing the land for the park Oppen-helmer subs ti-tution \ 94. Fieldtrip Activities In order to help students focus on and 'see' a particular sculpture, it is recommended that some purposeful activity take place during or shortly after a fieldtrip. Some suggestions are: 1. Draw and/or photograph a pictorial essay of a partic ular sculpture from different points of view (from far and near; from ground level, eye level, and from higher vantage points; from the sides, the front, and the rear of the sculpture). If you are using a camera change the light setting and note the different results. Consider taking coloured prints, slides or black and white prints that could be 'blown up.' Include 'shots' of the sculpture and its setting; the entire sculpture and de tails of the sculpture only. 2. Use Feldman's approach to critical analysis and present a critique to the class of a particular sculpture. 3. Who was Robert Burns? Pauline Johnson? Lord Stanley? David Oppenheimer? President Harding? Queen Victoria? Why are they honoured in Stanley Park? 4. The majority of the sculptures found in Stanley Park are commissioned and portray famous people in the nat urali s tic  documentation manner but there is also a good representation of Northwest Coast Indian art. What figures can you recognize among the totems at B rockton Point? What do you know about House Posts? The Kwakiutl, Tlingit, and Haida bands are repres ented. What similarities and differences do you notice among the various examples? 95. 5. Compare and contrast* images using a variety of crit erion such as: - elements and principles - technique of design - mood - historical context - i mp a c t - content - symbolism - style - imagery The following examples are recommended for this activity: - Girl in Wetsuit with The Mermaid (the study of this famous landmark within Copenhagen's harbour is possible through a photograph only). - the bust of David Oppenheimer with Edward Kienholz's John Doe (Slide #21); an assemblage completed in 1959. (Assemblage in  California, 1968, fig. 6, p. 18.) - Lord Stanley with Ronald McDonald (Slide #22) as seen at the entrance to the play area of the No. 3 Road restaurant in Ri chmond. - the lions at the south end of Lion's Gate Bridge with the lions at the site of the new Vancouver Art Gallery, Georgia Street fac ade (consult Section III: Area 4 - Downtown A). 6. Produce a three dimensional art form that has a similar rationale to a sculpture admired within the park: e.g., a sculp ture that commemorates an event such as the Japanese War Memorial. 7. Make notes on a group of sculptures that you think might be of interest to a friend visiting you from out of town. Prepare This is a suggested activity found in the Grades 8-12 A  Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Province of B.C., Sept. 1981, Draft, p. 177. material enabling you to give an informed mini art tour for that friend: e.g., be familiar with some of Robert Burns' poetry; know the history behind the Chehalis Cross and/or th Empress of Japan figurehead. 8. Use the Vancouver Environment Educational Project, U.B.C. publication Starting with Monuments: Stanley Park, t further your study of the park and the landmarks within its boundaries. Section III: Area 3 - The West End This area refers to the part of the city bounded by: - Burrard Street on the east - Stanley Park on the west - Burrard Inlet on the north - English Bay on the south. Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation When you are previewing the slides, the background inform ation notes, the questions to ask in the classroom and during the fieldtrip, determine how much material could be successfully covered in the time you can afford to spend on this area. It is recommended that you cover less material well, rather than try to discuss all the sculpture in the West End. During your viewing of the slides, find the answers to the following quest ions : 1. The commemorative sculpture in this area has more to do with local history than those in Stanley Park. Give reasons why the Joe Fortes Memorial, the sundial at English Bay, the Bentall bust, and the sculpture on Burrard Bridge were commis-s i oned. 2. Where would you go to find Inuit sculptures in the West End? What images would you expect to find? 3. Why is Lutz Pi's creation called the 'Invisible Foun tain' ? 4. What media were used to construct the four fountains found in this area? How does our climate affect each of these fountains? Which media seem to be best suited to our climate? 100. 5. Compare and contrast how Lutz Pi and Tsutakawa use water. How does this use affect the fountain? The passerby? 6. Lutz Pi's and Paul Deggan's fountain (consult Section  III: Area 5 - Downtown B) have some elements and principles of design in common. What are they? 7. How does the Charles Bentall bust differ from the busts of Dr. MacKenzie (Section III: Area 1 - The University of  British Columbia) and David Oppenheimer (Section III: Area 2 -S tanley Park)? How are the three busts very similar? 8. Lionel Thomas' twin fountains 'resemble a swirling mass.' How is this accomplished by the artist? 9. What is sgraffito? (Show the slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 3 -The West End.) SECTION III: AREA 3 -THE WEST END SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR' TITLE PATRON MEDIA cement TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 1 Greta Dale, designer and carve r 4 sgraf fito panels subtrac tion bas re lief murals 1960 2033 Comox, The White House -4 stylized figures de picted in 3 outdoor scenes; 2 of the figures are shown ln the slide. The shadows and plant growth tend to obscure the relief mural. Which tools do you think were used to create the linear relief? 2 Jordl Bonet, Gerald Hamilton and Associates, architects cast con crete bas re lief wall panels I960 845 Chilco, Lost Lagoon Terrace linear; ornamental architectural relief: repeated motif from ground to top floor of the high-rise apartment building. -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #116 3 Lutz K. Haufschlld alumin um , mach ined & etched door pan els, bas relief 815 Chilco -linear; textural -organic shapes -metallic colours 4 Gerhard Class presented by Cun ningham Store Ltd. whose first store was opened at Denman & Nelson ln 1911 bronze granite cast sun dial carved base granite columns 5' 1967 English Bay beach, Beach Ave. -"This sundial commemor ates three English green horns—Samuel Brlghouse, John Morton & William Hailstone who in 1862 filed the first claim and planned the first home and Industry, In the then heavily wooded area now bounded by Burrard Inlet, Stanley Park, English Bay and Burrard St., to which •—* o to SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Gerhard Class cont'd -erected t auspices c Centennial of Vancou\ cooperatlc the Parks inder the >f the Comm. rer in >n with Board they received title in 1867." (inscription on a plaque on site) -straight and curved geo metric designs have been carved in the granite base which illustrate sun rise, midday, sunset and midnight -the sundial is on a raised circular platform. 5 Charles Marega Joe Fortes Kiwanis organized a public subscrip tion -raised $5,000 concrete bronze relief drinking fountain Feb. 15, 1926 Alexandra Park, Beach Ave. -depicts "Joe's" portrait & 3 children splashing ln the waves in the bronze low relief plaque -honours Seraphin Fortes, Vancouver's first life guard at English Bay -functional as well as documentation rationales Memorial piaque 6 Egon Millnkovlc h Tom Campbell lime stone painted white subtr action 1962 1255 Bid-well, Imperial Apts. -solitary figure - one hand behind its head: stylized 7 Lionel Thomas Block Bros . steel tubing & brazed copper water jets twin fount ains 1965 1600 Beach Ave . , Beach Tow ers -curvilinear -resembles a swirling mass o UI SECTION III: ABEA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 8 George Norris The Swimmer welded stainless steel, bronze-coloured free stand ing abstr act Nov. 1977 1050 Beach Ave., Van couver Aquatic Centre -welded sections from circles organized to give the impression of move ment through water -rises out of a rock garden Charles Marega art 1st, J.R. Grant engineer, Sharp & Thompson con sulting archi tects Coat of Arms, 16 lion's heads , Capt. Vancouver bus t, Capt. Sir Harry Burrard bus t cement partial relief archi tecture adorn ment 1 1933 Burrard Bridge (not photographed) -the same images at both the north and south ends of the centre section of the bridge -central work ls Vancouv er's second coat of arms - consult The Pleasure of Seeing. 0124 & 0126 9 Chief Walter Harris, Chief Alfred Joseph, Earl Muldoe Ken Mowett Art Sterrltt 'KB an Mural Royal Bank Western red cedar hand painted bas relief 120' x 8'-9 pan els , 3 massive central designs flanked on each side by 3 sub sidiary panels -each panel cedar framed 1972 Burrard & Georgia '. mezzanine • floor of : the Royal Bank -depicts the many expl oits of Weget, or Man Raven, the legendary cul ture-hero of the Gltksan -the largest single work done in Hazelton; it took 5 carvers 3 months to complete -consult The Royal Bank of Canada's brochure The iKsan Mural, avallahle at the site _— mural SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 10 Jack Harman Charles commis sioned by his sons -bronze -slab of marble bust Dec. 4, 1977 Bentall Centre, 500 Burr-art Street -naturalistic documenta Bentall substi tution tion -unique-for-Vancouver mounting of the bust on a large horizontally placed marble slab 11 George Tsutakawa, Seattle Fountain Bentall family firm, Dominion Construc tion -silicon bronze plate -water fount 15'x9' June 12, 1969 -the ar forms h: "A foun earth, i thing it comes f makes a and mys ist's si Province and 13) 500 Burr ard Street tlst sculpti Ls shapes tain involve und water. 3 — space ; ei ron—bronze fountain if terlous elei tatement ab< i (Vancouvei -the artist's 27th foun tain, his 4th fountain in Canada -"tribute to those people who pioneered this great province and whose vision courage and hard work harnessed the mighty riv ers and husbanded the towering forests, that we who follow might enjoy a truly bountiful land." » with water; the metal ;s 3 elements: heaven, Heaven is where every-irth is where the material or stone; what really i water, the most elusive sent of all."—the art-)ut the fountain (The r), April 3, 1969, pp. 12 of the Pioneers ain 12 McCarter and Nalrne archi tectural firm built by Stlmsons Office Holding Co. brick 8 tone bronze plaster wood clay -stained -lntrlca elevatori bas relief archi tectural ornamen-atlon glass windows te wood-inlay 3 1929-1930 Marine Building, Burrard & Hastings -exterior and in the lobby -Art Deco period; carv ings depict the history of transportation and discovery on the Pacific coast & marine motifs -over the arch of the main entrance the sun is portrayed setting over _ the Lion's Gate Bridge ° SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR ' McCarter and Nairne cont'd TITLE PATRON MEDIA SIZE -ornamental plaster celling -terra cotta friezes -sand cast doors made ln Vancouver -metal grill work DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION and the Orient, with wild geese and a fully-rigged ship as part of the scene -total cost $2,500,000 -1933 Guiness bought the building -Heritage status 1975 -consult The Pleasure of  Seeing #1-9 13 Jordi Bonet The Fathom-glazed ceramic mural 18'x32 less manipu lation Richness of the Seabed Oct. 2 2j 1055 West "By the abstract treat-1969 1 Hastings, ment of his subject the Guiness sea, with colour and tex-Tower, ture, he has produced as Main Lobby he says, 'the textures and reliefs of waves of rippling sand, the deli cate branches of coral reefs, the airy likeness of a sponge, the swift strength of the underwater currents," (information on site) -the mural is made up of rectangles of approx. 14x20" -glazes are in the beige and blue range 14 Jordi Bonet Resurg- aluminum substi tution mural 1977 Oceanlc Plaza, 1066 West Hastings ln the Main Lobby -'depicts the driving force of man's creativ ity, natural forms and remnants are symbolically resurrected through the ascending central figure to the great inspirations of the mind. It is cast in the same aluminum mat erial as the building's cladding' (information on site) . SECTION III; AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 15 Lutz Pi, designer -built by Hartmut Krieger "Invis ible Fountain" translu-l cent plexi-glass foun tain Sept. 1974 1050 West Pender -triangular and 4-sided planes of plexiglass Joined to form geometric columns -the water quietly flows over these surfaces into a small pool -pollution has caused the plexiglass to be come yellow -cost $25,000 McCleary Drope Winnipeg (#16-22) 16 Homage to Helios V 17 18 19 Homage to Helios I Homage to Helios II Homage to R. C. Baxter Collec tion Helios III corten steel 7 free standing] sculpt ures -welded and cast! vary from to 7' 1111 West Hastings, Plaza of the Baxter Building -works were chosen by the architect and patron from some 20 pieces the artist completed from 1966-67, to be placed in this planned rest area -all 7 sculptures are identified by plaques V-"standing ln readiness for tomorrow he will again transverse the heavens" -one of| a series of totemlc-like figures -slightly less than llfeslze -set in shallow holding trays filled with stones so that the patio around the building does not get stained from the corroding steel I-"the watchful giver of light is forever present" 1967 II-"each day the struggle to arise is renewed" III-"the wings are spread to bear the light across the heavens" SECTION Ills AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE 21 22 SCULPTOR TITLE Homage to Helios IVI Untitled Love rs PATRON MEDIA corten steel cast concrete TYPE SIZE free standing sculpture abstract DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION "The sculptural forms have evolved through the artist's close relationship with the materials used. The forms are influenced by the geometry of nature sometimes reflecting the formal aspects but more often revealing the inner core. A constructive monumental-ity transcends all forms." -an art critic describes them as spikey con figurations of organic growth reminiscent of the forms in the painting of Graham Suther land (The Sun (Vancouver), Aug. 25, 2967, p. 4a.) -2 individual forms, red and black twists, "combined ln a state of oneness." 23 Tunu Kangeak, Baffin Island Eskimo Family Board of Trade stone subtr action with Owl 1177 West Hastings, inside the building -simplified figures -frontal; shallow relief 24 E. Schulte Becham commis sioned in 1914 by • Scottish National and Union Insurance Co. bronze substi tution 1969 1155 West Pender, Royal Gen eral Insur ance Co. a pair of lions guarding the entrance -one paw rests on a a shield bearing a coat of arms, atop- of which is a crown -the well known turquoise patina has coated the bronze 25 George Norrls copper panels three re pousse murals 10'xlO 6'x8' ; 9'x8' 1964 1201 West Pender, in side the lobby of the East Asiatic Building -sealife and bird themes relating to the shoreline and the location of the building o ce SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR ' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 26 Gerhard Class p re consti tuted marble cast in a plas ter mould-a similar material to that used in the fac ing of the building free standing abstract sculpt ure with in a re flecting pool 7' 1966 East Asiatic Building -organic, flowing curvi linear lines -negative space an im portant part of this sculpture -the pyramidal shaped sculpture has rounded off edges 27 Glacomo Manzu The Skater purchaaed by archi-tecta bronze figura 4'7V plus pedes tal 1957 (placed in pre sent site in 1968) 1075 West Georgia, MacMlllan Bloedel Building, ln the south-west corner of the lobby -impressionistic tive -eyes closed, difficult to discern facial expres sion -plus there are 60 works in this building done by artists from all the major creative centres of the Canadian Arctic (not on public display). (Grande Pattina-trlce) cast ln Italy 28 Robert Murray Pueblo permanent collec tion , Vancouver Art Gall. steel, painted yellow uelded 1968 1145 West Georgia -in storage June, 1982 as the upkeep when outdoors ls a problem (it needs to be painted regularly). 29 Mia Westerlund Corner Series permanent collec tion , Vancouver Art Gall. copper/ 8 teel sheets, concrete & acids 1978 1145 West Georgia -does not consider her self to be a minimalist even though her shapes are geometric solids and like "primary structures." »—• o SECTION III: AREA 3 - THE WEST END SLIDE SCULPTOR Mia Westerlund coat' d TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION -she "paints with materials" and works from maquettes small enough to hold in your hand -her work has a presence It would be of interest to consult Ann Morrison of the Education Department for more information regarding the sculpture in the Permanent Collection of the Vancouver Art Gallery. 30 George Norrls Coat of Arms Crown Life Insurance concrete 1550 West Georgia Crown Life Insurance Building -minimal relief; stylized figures 31 McCleary Drope corten steel welded free stand ing sculp ture just vest of the Bayshore Hotel •solitary totemic figure 113, Fieldtrip Activities i In order to help the students focus on and truly 'see' a particular sculpture, it is recommended that some 'focusing' activity take place during a fieldtrip or shortly after a field-trip has taken place. Some suggestions are: 1. Which Heritage Building in this area is known for its Art Deco motifs? At what time was this 'school' of art most popular in Canada? In Europe? Where did it originate? Who were its leading exponents? Besides architectural reliefs, what other objects did these artists design? 2. Where would you find The Skater no matter what time of year? Do you think that is an appropriate title? Why? Why not? Consult modern art texts to find out what other impressionistic work Giacomo Manzu has created. What do you consider to be his 'trademarks' regarding selection of image, expressive intent, composition, and development of image? 3. The 'Ksan Mural (it is possible to link this mural with the substitution lesson on relief in Section IV). - Why do you think the Royal Bank of Canada commissioned this work ? - How was it crafted? - What stories does the mural tell about Weget? - What other cultures have mischievous creatures as part of their folklore? What are their names? Briefly describe some of their escapades. Plan a relief for one such legend using white paper and black line and shaded areas to indicate what would and would not be carved away if you were to use this plan for the carving of a wood panel. 114. - What other art forms tell stories? - What elements and principles of design are obvious within this work? - Which creatures among the nine panels do you consider most easily recognizable? - Why do you think the six smaller panels are so highly stylized? Draft a design of an animal you have studied in some detail, within a similar format, again keeping in mind that such a draft could be used for a wooden relief carving. 4. What 'fathomless richness of the seabed' can you find in Jordi Bonet's ceramic mural? - In what other ways besides motifs is this mural rich? - Are you satisfied with the positioning of this mural? Why? (i.e., is it shown to best advantage?) - Who is Jordi Bonet? What other works did he complete for clients in the city of Vancouver? (Consult Slide Notes of this area.) - What does this mural add to the lobby of this building? - How many people using this building seem to be aware of this mural? Perhaps it is possible to conduct interviews with passersby to see what people know about this mural. Possible questions to ask are: - What is the name of the artist? - What is the title of the relief? - What year was it placed on this site? - What imagery can be seen in the mural? - What media/technique has been used? - What purpose does the mural serve? - What skills are evident in the construction of this relief? How do you think it was fabricated? - Compare and contrast this mural with George Norris' located in the East Asiatic building regarding imagery, media, technique and setting. 5. How does The Swimmer's setting affect the sculpture? What changes would you make if you had enough money to make some alterations ? 6. Next time you cross Burrard Bridge note what images are present. What can you imagine a creature from outer space think ing if the only art left in the world was that on the bridge? What conclusions do you think he would make about our culture? 7. Who is McCleary Drope? Where does the theme Homage to  Helios originate? - What is corten steel? How can it be used? - Why is it a suitable media for outdoor sculpture? - Scale is important to all sculpture. Can you imagine this series being larger in scale? Do you think something would be gained or lost if this series was doubled in height, width, and depth? Why? 8. Compare and contrast the sculpture of Charles Bentall with the sign from the McDonald's restaurant in Richmond (Slide #32), noting for each the: -rationales - media - modes of expression - technique - format - setting Section III: Area 4 - Downtown A This area is bounded by: - Main Street on the east - Burrard Street on the west - Burrard Inlet on the north - False Creek on the south. Once again the area is large and the variety of sculpture within its limits substantial. It is necessary for the teacher to determine which sculptures would be of most interest to the students and how best to visit these sculptures in an organized fieldtrip. In this regard it would be helpful to determine whether or not any of the sculptures could become a part of a reading, history, geography, science, or current events program. Another possibility is the topic of hero worship being incorpor ated into a discussion group in a humanities class. The sculp tures that honour and commemorate notable people would then be appropriate sculptures to view and study within this area. More over, if the teacher has already decided on the technique, media, theme, concept, mode of expression and/or rationale (see Table I) to be used in the productive part of the sculpture .unit then it would be advisable to view and study examples of such sculpture within this area. Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation During the viewing of the slides find the answers to the following questions: 1. Name the two memorials that honour those who died in World War I and II. 2. Few sculptures in this area realis tically depict the human figure. Can you name five that do so? Only two figures are of specific people, i.e., naturalis tic. Name these two s culp tures. 3. Where are the two locations of the birds to be found in Downtown A? 4. Why doesn't George Norris' Bridge Marker 'work'? 5. What do the Canadian Coat of Arms and Norris' Untitled sculpture at Pacific Centre have in common? 6: There are four fountains within Downtown A. Name the sculptors that created them. 7. What six sculptures do you consider abstract? 8. Why do you think groups such as the German-Canadian Committee donate a sculpture gift to the city? (Show the slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 4 -Downtown A.) W ^ 3~• "^[Jul P 119 nV¥5i DATE . VIEW FROM THIS SIDE TJL-q*5 CI 11 ' t mm o o f o VIEW FROM THIS SIDE SECTION III: AREA 4 -DOWNTOWN A SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 1 Lionel Thomas assisted by F. Lachnit Symbols from the Cunei paid for by 75 cit izens & the Lib rary Board bronze with parts of the surface covered with gold leaf & plexi glass illum inated nural 5'xl6' 1961 750 Burrard, Vancouver Public Lib rary -consists of 6 upright forma to which are att ached 45 bronze planes, symbols of man speaking -based on the ancient Babylonian & Assyrian cuneiforms -cost $7,000; work execu ted in Venice, Italy forms 2 Mike Banwell Primary No. 9 multi coloured (pain ted) steel sheets welded May 1981 Robson Square -manufactured by Ebco Ind. Ltd. -geometric shapes - nega tive space important to the work - can walk into and through the piece 3 Alan Chung Hung "Spring" red painted steel welded May 1981 Robson Square -manufactured by Ebco Ind. Ltd. -attached to Plaza at 3 points, this colled spring is an example of monumental abstract sculpture -it is also minimal-like in style 4 -small piece by Inuit art ist Etungat (16 3/4"i -Jack Harman'8 foundry cast the enlargement Bird of Devonian Foundation of Calgary financed the proj ect bronze styl ized Aug. 3, 1979 Robson Square -copy also made for Calgary Spring "preg nant bird" substi tution 5 Jack Harman Themis-Goddess of Just ice Province of British Columbia bronze substi tution H. 9' 1982 Robson Sq. 4th floor of Law Courts -cast in Herman's N. Van couver foundry -on a 1 metre base ^ -figurative, reallsticio and simplified !° 1 ' : r SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Charles Marega King Ed-ward VII Fountain donated by the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire concrete facade bronze May 6, 1912 relief west of the Courthouse/ Art Gallery (1983) of the King -Inscription In Memory of Edward VII  1841-1910 Not monumental stone preserves our fame Nor sky-aspiring pyramids our name The memory of him for whom this stands Shall outlive marble and defacers hands, Shakespeare -originally facing Geor gia Street -fountain no longer ln use -includes 6 Tuscan col umns and a lion (-behind the construction fence as of June, 1983) John Bruce, assisted by Timothy Bass -F.M. Ratten-bury, archi tectural firm 2 lions granite from Nelson Island real istic subtr action IS tons leach 1911 800 West Georgia St, -graceful flow of line gives the feeling of rhythm and movement -symbols of British Just ice -copies of those at Trafalgar Square -made at the workshop of J.A. and CA. MacDonald, 1571 Main Street -hauled to the Courthouse by horse and set in place with a 20 t. derrick and a steam engine -on Sept. 8, 1939 the lions were desecrated with painted swastikas -on Nov. 3, 1942 one lion was blasted with dynamite; its hind quarters were destroyed but the damage was repaired by Herbert Ede and James Hurry -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #92 R.H. Savery of the Provincial Dept. of Public Works made the maq-uette -work carried out by Count gift from the Prov. Gov't to commemor ate B.C. Centen-lal black Carrara marble mosaic tiles -repre sents the ocean subtr action foun tain with carved pill ars fountain complex is 72' x 36' ; the cen ter ba-Isln 10' diameter Oct. 1966 800 block W. Georgia -symbolic; realistic fig-ures in relief -roughly carved like B.C.'s coastline -The carvings are "based on legends of the Celts or Gaels, the forebears^ of early B.C." u> SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR ' Alexander von Svoboda of Conn Art Studios, Toronto cont' d TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION -the 2 ' -there was controversy main pll- over whether or not there lars 17' should be a B.C. artist ln ht. & chosen to design the mem-8' ln orlal clrcum- -one such criticism: ference "It has to be the most at the over programmed fountain base ln the world replete with changing jet patterns, elaborate mosaics high lighted with gilt, heavy symbolism and hydraulic bombast." "From a distance you see 2 rough-hewn columns, seem ingly as ancient as Stonehenge. But up close, look ing through the foam and spray, you'll discover: a wizard, a dagger, a nymph or 2, a mysterious orb, an immortal, a jester, and numerous creatures from . . . somewhere! This ls a work of magic & mystery, whimsy & wonder." (Vancouver Sculpture with Terry Noble. Vancouver Guideline, vol. 10, no. 35, Jan. 23-29, DESCRIPTION 1981, p. 19) anonymous stone masons Archibald and Schofleld, architectural firm block granite from Queen Char lotte Islands subtr action 1929 900 West Georgia Hotel Van couver -architectural ornamenta tion -include eagles, lions, griffins, goats - many of these figures are repro ductions or adaptations of 11th & 12th century cathedral carvings. Thomas Garrow, Scottish stone carver, did gargoyles only - in the Gothic Revival tradition. Czechoslovakian, Welsh, Armenian, Scottish & Turkish carvers enriched capitals on the pilasters of the brackets "and volutes -a helmeted head of Turkish inspiration, winged drag ons eating fire, a festooned bear and Indian port raits are among the other relief carvings -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #79-87 . £ SECTION III: AREA 4 DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR ' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 10 anonymous artists plus : J.F. Watson, C. Young and J.D. Hunter, artists -McCarter and Nalrne, archi tectural firm brick, terra cotta, 8tone , plaster manipu lation & sub traction bas relief figura 1928-1929 1928-1929 925 West Georgia Medical Dental Bid. around the entrance doors and on the sides of the build ing 10th floor corners symbolic of the medical and dental profession -other scenes are depic ted above the door. What do they represent? (work ing chemists, winged horses &• a caduceus) stylized nurses In army tive uni form -Seattle firm worked from maquettes -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #75-78 11 George Norris Untitled purchased by Pacif ic Centre Ltd. polished stain less steel linear "As wel: gasping Its tori thinks c As well distract the clal taps the -Norris to clari surrounc concern! . . . ar ysis," Sept. 1974 as it « for lif< i mouth ] >f its pc as he ci :ed by tl :ter, th< ! pure si says: Lfy, hei| lings in Lng the | id don't corner of Georgia and Gran ville, Pacific Centre :an, the hoo threshing larched, grl ?ol again, in the poet, ie groaning i clash of t )urce of son 'The role of ;hten and ex which it is >iece: "Rel worry about -complete contrast to sur rounding high rise build ings; artist wante the piece to say something special to each viewer -feeling of excerpt by A.D. Hope: ked fish while it dies, in terror and pain, t ln Its delicate eyes, blind, betrayed, mill among the jostle of slaves, rade, g • art in architecture is tend the spirits of the situated." y on your gut reactions any self-conscious anal-abstr act^ welded SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SIIDE SCULPTOR' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 11 George Norrls cont'd. "Norris left this work untitled purposely to allow our minds to label and define it. Studying it--tall pedestal legs, a spindle body, expansive, delicate wings, a spiney tail looping out behind—it calls to mind a majestic, glistening, giant dragonfly, bowing gracefully to all who pass." (Vancouver Sculpture with Terry Noble, Vancouver Guideline. Vol. 10, No. 35, Jan. 23-29, 1981.) Patricia Wheeler sisal wool (mirr ors ) wall & ceiling hanging wrap ped, bound, bundled additio soft sc archite i ulpture ctural o 1976 rnamenta Capitol 6, 820 Gran ville St. tion -linear: colourful -focus of the theatre lobby; the hanging is co-ordinated with the carpets and the drapes -Hopping, Kovach and Grinnell Design Consult ants Ltd. (not photographed) 12 Jack Harman Horse bronze substi tution June 1976 475 West Georgia B.C. Turf Building "2 legged" abstract figure -cast by the Osborne Propeller Co. -shrubbery has almost ob structed the sculpture from view 13 Paul Huba The Pos tman red granite bas relief 16' 1956 Homer St. entrance Why do you think the art ist worked ln this scale? subtr action figura tive 14 Pearson Iron Works Canad ian Coat of cast aluminum substi tution linear H. 19' 300 block West Georgia, Main Post Office What 2 animals & other emblems/symbols do you see? Who designed the Canadian Coat of Arms and when? Arms ro SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE 15 SCULPTOR Frank Perry TITLE Floren-tine Door & Wall #3 PATRON MEDIA blackened bronze TYPE SIZE free stand ing substi tution DATE 1967 LOCATION 600 block Hamilton DESCRIPTION -first prize at the Cen tennial Sculpture Show 1967 -positioned at eye level, this work has 2 faces, the depth of the sculp ture is less significant 16 Gerhard Class centenn ial gift from Ger man Can adian Committee to the city bronze , stainless steel and water cast fountain 20' Dec. 1971 19 200 block West Georgia, Queen Elizabeth Theatre -curved steel ribs -pole and circular centre made of bronze -a balance of positive  and negative space cast in Strassaker, Germany -"The concept, which resembles nothing as much as a giant gyro top, assumes an added respectability since it incorporates a foun tain as a sort of utilitarian adjunct to compliment the sculptural theme.' This sym phony of water wheels within wheels perform ing around the clock, with its pedestal firmly implanted in its watery stage, is in complete accord with the musical and live stage presentations transpiring nightly within." (Vancouver's Public Sculpture: Personal Viewpoints by Leonard Meyers. Arts West. Vol. 6, No. 6, June, 1981, p. 31. 17 Richard Hunt Tim Paul commis sioned by the CBC & the Prov incial Museum wood totem subtr action April, 1982 700 block Hamilton, CBC Build ing -Thunderblrd and 3 other figures are represented -brown, black, red, tur quoise, green, yellow and the unpalnted wood are the colours -there are 4 negative spaces carved into each wing -the back of the totem is minimally decorated with black & brown paint -new pole has large £ cracks -J SECTION III: AREA 4 DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION lobby of the CBC Building DESCRIPTION 18 Norman White Spllsh- commis sioned by the CBC light kinetic -the sound was turned off soon after Splish-Splash Splash was installed Bob Davidson Interpre tation -Reality commis sioned by the CBC wood bas relief subtr action in a second floor off ice, the CBC Bldg. -necessary to make an appointment to view the work -N.W. Coast Indian motifs -in the past CBC has also "rented" sculpture from the Art Bank and display ed the works in and ar ound their building, (not photographed) 19 George Norris plexi glass bronze addi tion geomet ric ab stract H. 8' 1972 north-east corner of Georgia and Beatty, Abutment Park -beacon-like bridge mar ker made of glass spheres contains liquid -pollution makes the re flection of traffic im possible -the city reneged on its promise to maintain the sculpture 20 anonymous artists -W.T. Whlteway architectural firm terra cotta "art nouv-eau" figures manipu lation 1911-1912 -the upp -each he arms ral -lower p -same cc -highly -consult 100 West Pender, Sun Tower er torsos o Ids a drape sed art of "bodi lour as brl adorned towi The Pleasu -9 sculptured maidens (caryatids) support the base footing for the tower of this Heritage Building (8th floor) -5 are found on the Beatty St. side of the building f the maidens are depicted ry; both elbows are bent, f" becomes a fluted column :k building ir re of Seeing #71. M oo SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE 1924 LOCATION DESCRIPTION 21 Cenotaph granite obelisk Has tings and Gamble, Victory Square -sword, laurel, poppy wreath intertwined with maple leaves plus W.W. I helmets 22 Jack Hambleton Mrs. Donald Stewart, honouring her son, Norman stone memor 1960 Victory Square functional ial drink ing fount ain 23 Gerhard Class Province News paper Memorial Province Newspaper solid cas t aluminum granite pedestal total H. 5' 1967 south-west corner of the Square -a styrofoam pattern was used for the letters V and P -dedicated as a memento to the early days of the square and the 67 years of publishing, 1898-1965 ln this area of the city 24 made ln the March brothers foundry ln England bronze bas relief plaque -forests inscript -the ere also ins south-west corner of Hamilton & Hastings representee ion are like st "By sea a cribed into -commemorates the spot where Lachlan Hamilton began his survey for the C.P.R. in 1885 — "in the silent solitude of the primeval forest he drove a wooden stake in the earth and commenced to measure an empty land into the streets of Vancouver." on either side of this columns nd land we prosper" is the plaque 25 Vern Simpson "Gassy Jack" a Valen tine Day gift to the people C4 area bu copper bronze from Toi sinesstnei welded *n Group O H. 7' Ltd. 1970 Carrall, Water, and Powell St, Mapletree Square -memorial to Capt. John Deighton -erected without permis sion of city officials <-to VO SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A SLIDE 26 SCULPTOR Couer de Lion McCarthy TITLE Angel of Victory PATRON MEDIA bronze marble and B tone base TYPE war memor ial SIZE 13'x5' 3500 lbs. DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Apr. 28,1600 Cord- -depicts an angel carry-1922 |ova St., ing a soldier hesvenward C.P.R. -a tribute to the C.P.R. Station employees lost ln W.W.I (and W.W.II dates added) -chosen from a competi tion for Canadian sculp tors -cast ln Mt. Vernon, N.Y., identical ones in Montreal and Winnipeg -in 1967 citizens 'cleaned' the "dirty" sculpture and badly scratched the surface C.P.R. Station -classical plaster work at the top of the walls of this Heritage Building newly painted as of June 1982 -hidden lighting; even so, too difficult to photograph -recessed ceiling panels divided into 6 sections 27 Michael Phlfer C.P.R. columns of squared timber north end -a geometric abstract of Gran- of the forests in B.C. ville St., -the wood columns are cut Plaza 200 at different angles -sign states that the sculpture is dangerous to climb—perhaps this possibility should have been a. consideration of the sculptor; the plaza does need more seating arrange ments for busy lunch hours -Incised and felt penned graffiti marks are evident -lighting equipment is incorporated into the piece i -the 3 tallest poles are minimally designed at the top. What do you think these marks represent? »—• u> . O SECTION III: AREA 4 - DOWNTOWN A « SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 28 Elza Mayhew commis sioned by arch itect W.W. Renri Thompson, and Pratt bronze ie of Berwick high relief panel substi tution 13'2" x 9'2" x 14" Apr. 21, 1968 900 West Hastings, Bank of Canada, end wall of lobby abstract totemic columns -the artist states, "Although it is abstract it is about people; where they live and go." (The Sun (Vancouver), April 22, 1968, pp. 1&2) -cast in Eugene, Oregon 29 Sorel Etrog 11 Tran-bronze abstr act in the round sculp ture but frontal 1967-1968 800 West Pender, Guaranty Trust -interlocking links set Into an organic shape quillo -smooth & textured sur faces -curves & bends give the piece a feeling of motion 30 Robert Dow Reid, Kelowna fibre-glass figura tive styl ized 1976 This sc sllghtl from th is no m scurity of a fl extende unduly (Vancou 700 West Pender, Pender Place ulpture is i y abstract t e readily re ystic symbo] here. It b ight of grac d, taking tc symbolic or ver Public S "Canada geese in migra tory formation startled from their idyllic watery feeding ground & taking to the air from an illum inated rectangular pool, ntriguing because the reatment does not detract cognizable forms. There ism,or surrealistic ob-oasts a conjoined concept eful birds, with wings the air without being excessively allegorical." culpture: Personal View-points by Leonard Meyer. Arts West, Vol. 6, No. 6, June 1981, p. 31.) anonymous stone masons archi tectural ornament ation & Crafi (too di -the mu of the unadorn 576 Sey mour, Arts s Building fficult to p ses are whit jrick coloui ed except fc -4 muses are portrayed on the corners of the 6th floor of the building hotograph) e in contrast to the res_t ed building; building u> >r these figures. J"" 132. Fieldtrip Activities In order to help the students focus and 'see' a particular sculpture it is recommended that some purposeful activity take place during or shortly after a fieldtrip. Some suggestions are: 1. George Norris is one of British Columbia's most prolific sculptors. His work can be seen throughout Vancouver and the province. Unti tied has been said to be one of Vancouver's most noteworthy contemporary sculptures. Do you agree with Norris' idea of not naming the sculpture? Why? - Describe the relationship between the sculpture and its set ting. How does one affect the other? - Why is the polished stainless steel a particularly suitable material to use for this sculpture? - What does the form remind or make you think of? - Consult texts that describe welded sculpture. Find work done by sculptors that create linear forms such as George Rickey, Ibram Lassaw, Seymour Lipton, Richard Lippold and Herbert Ferber. Compare and contrast the kinds of lines, the movement, and the rhythms that are created by these artists. Compare Patricia Wheeler's wall hanging with these welded linear forms. - Use Feldman's approach to critical analysis to analyze Norris' Un titled sculpture. 2. Two opposing views regarding the Centennial fountain in the 800 block West Georgia are presented within the descriptive notes. Do you agree with either position? Why? - There are other controversies regarding local sculpture, for example, Robert Murray's Cumbria sculpture on the way to 133 Vancouver's International Airport; Alan Chung Hung's Gateway at Vanier Park. Why do you suppose the often apathetic public gets involved in such heated arguments over art? 3. The choice of Michael Phifer to create the wooden sculp ture at Plaza 200 has been criticized by some Vancouver citizens because he is not a local Canadian sculptor. What are your views on the issue of supporting Canadian artists first? (This issue has arisen in the performing arts as well.) 4. Sorel Etrog is a fairly well known Canadian sculptor. What other work has he done? How would you describe his imag ery? What makes you think you could 'recognize' his work? Use the enclosed slide, #31, Moses, Mother and Child to help you answer this question. This particular work was in front of the Canadian Pavilion at the 43rd Venice Biennale in 1966 (Withrow, 1967, p. 60). 5. Arthur Erickson's Courthouse complex has many potential 'sites' for sculpture: on different levels, in pools, and amongst the landscaped gardens. Examine this location carefully and design a sculpture with a specific setting in mind. The design can be a drawing or a three-dimensional maquette made of plasticene. Be sure to indicate scale. A photograph of your particular setting would enable your classmates to 'picture' what your idea would be like in situ. 6. Compare and contrast* images using a variety of crit erion: This is a suggested activity found in the Grades 8-12  A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Prov ince of B.C., Sept. 1981, Draft, p. 177. ' . 134. - elements and principles of - impact des i gn - symbolism - historical context - style - content - imagery - technique - mood The following examples of soft sculpture are recommended for this activity: - Compare Patricia Wheeler's Cinema 6 wall hanging (not photo graphed) with : Claire Zeisler's Coil Series #4 (Slide #32) created in 1978 by wrapping natural hemp, wool and polyester; 9'8" x 6' x 5' (Constantine & Larsen, 1981, p. 41). Christo (Javacheff's) Running Fence (Slide #33) created in 1976 of nylon canvas 18' x 24% miles long, installed for three days in Sonoma and Marin Counties, California (Constantine & Larsen, 1981, p. 234), and Magda Abakanowicz's Exhibition, at the Art Gallery, New South Wales, Sydney in 1976 (Slide #34) (Ibid., p. 47). 7. What is the basic difference between Norman White's Splish Splash and a sculpture created by the artist Dan Flavin the nominal three (to William of Ockham) (Slide #35) created in 1963 of cool white fluorescent light; 8' high, The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (Geldzahler, 1969, p. 74). 8. Compare and contrast the original Bird, created by Abraham Etungar (photograph enclosed) of green stone, height 16", with Jack Harman's bronze cast, Bird of Spring, noting the influ ence of media, technique, scale and setting on the two sculptures Do you have a preference? State your reasons. MARION SCOTT LTD.« GALLERY OF THE ARTS Drawings and Paintings by KEN THURLBECK October 11-30,1981 Gallery 0 589 Markham Street Toronto, Ontario Tel: (604) 534-2141 OCTOBER EXHIBITIONS <2) OCT.1 - OCT. 14 OCT.8 - NOV.4 Lee Byng & Bill Brandt Phyllis Margolin Watercolours Photographs OCT. 22 NOV.4 Arctic show paintings by Nancy Wright, Doris McCarthy & Valerie Hassell, Photographs by Richard Holden and new Innuit Sculpture KENSINGTON FINE ART GALLERY 006, 513 - 8TH AVENUE S.W. CALGARY, ALBERTA T2P 1G3 (403) 266-7565 When in Montreal Visit: DOMINION GALLERY The Dominion Gallery with Rodin's "Burgher of Calais" and Henry Moon's "Uprighl Motive" in front of its building, has 17 rooms on 4 floors GREAT EUROPEAN ARTISTS 19th AND 20th CENTURY OLD MASTERS OVER 200 CANADIAN ARTISTS DOUG BIDEN "HIEROGLYPHICS" COLOURED INTAGLIO & COLLAGRAPHY OCTOBER 20-31 PAPERWORKS 1944 West 4th Avenue. Vancouver. B.C. V6J 1M5 - 732-7033 Gallery Hours: Tuesday to Saturday. 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. CANADA'S LARGEST ELECTION^ FINE PAINTINGS ANDCULPTURE-IN CANADA'S L3GEST £ ART DEALER GLLERY r CABLE: DOMGALLEF, MONTREA. 1438 Sherbrooke W., Mrtreal H3G 1K TEL: (514) 845-747 845-7833 137. Section III : Area 5 - Downtown B This area is bounded by : - the Fraser River on the south - False Creek and Burrard Inlet on the no rth - Blanca on the west - Boundary Road on the east. Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation As you can see from the map, Downtown B is impossible to visit in one or even several fieldtrips; it covers such a wide area. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to either det ermine what sculptures are closest to her school or which 'clus ter' of sculptures within Downtown B would be most feasible to visit, i.e., a 'mini-tour.' If you choose to visit sculptures close to your school that are not specifically mentioned in the following suggestions, use Table I as a guideline to help you find out as much as you can about 'your' sculpture. Moreover, look at this area and the other five areas within Section III in order to determine what kinds of questions can be asked about sculpture. The introduction to Section III: Area 4 -Downtown A could also help teachers utilize sculptures found within this area. Regardless of what sculptures you study it would be profitable to preview Downtown B sculpture in general via slides. During the viewing of the slides find the answers to the following questions: 1. The human figure is depicted in eight sculptures. Name these works. 2. The bust of Gerald Grattan McGeer is very much like 138 other busts within the city: David Oppenheimer, Stanley Park; Dr. MacKenzie, University of B.C.; and Charles Bentall, The West End. What words describe these busts? Consult Table I and the glossary. 3. What events in Vancouver's history has Paul Deggan depicted in his mural at Cambie and 12th? 4. What is the major difference between Cap t. George  Vancouver as created by Charles Marega, found at City Hall, and Alan Chung Hung's Memorial to Capt. Vancouver, found at Vanier Park? 5. Describe the mood/impact of Letha Keate's Continuity. 6. There is another woman sculptor represented in Down town B. What is her name and where is her mural to be found? 7. What five works would you classify as being commemorat ive ? (Show slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 5 - Down town B. ) ZED5-2 —| \ < o S > < PI 31 0 z H X iii u 5 n nr.-s-i < 0 VIEW FROM THIS SIDE 77D 5-fO P- L2>? ZQ:-5-3 • o o VIEW FROM THIS SIDE 221:5'1 '.0 VIEW FROM THIS SIDE wo UL' 5*.2I O » TI VIEW FROM THIS SIDE DATE VIEW FROM THIS SIDE UL S-2.1 0 o T77-5-28 0 BP 5-3>« n TIT'S'- 32. JUT* 5*34 SECTION III: AREA 5 -DOWNTOWN B SECTION III: AREA 5 - DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR • TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE bas relief on a free stand ing 3 piece sculp ture SIZE 3 forms varying from 5%' to 8' DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 1 Gerhard Class Hastings Mill Commem orative Vancouvei Histor ical Society Centen nial Project B.C. granite 1966 north end of Dunlevy St. adjac ent to National Harbours Building -linear, stylized designs representing 3 stages of the mills operation are incised into the 3 geo metric forms of this land mark -commemorates the 100th anniversary of the build ing of the Hastings Mill, which was one of the first buildings to be constructed in Vancouver 2 Leonard Epp 3 pan els of pre-stres-sed con crete mural each panel 16'x 9' 1969 -fish, ln bas lnteres concret -consul 803 East Hastings, Gulf & Fraser Fisherman'E Credit Union Bldg. flshboats, n relief of va ting shadow e t The Pleasu represents the 3 main types of commercial flsh-ing--gilnettlng, seining, trolling -feeling of kinetic motion -design choaen by the architect R.F. Harrison and Associates from a closed competition ets and float motifs are rying depths which create effects on the white re of Seeing #64 3 Jack Harman Roger Banniste John Landy r bronze substi tution -base 10' -fig ures 10' Sept. 27, 1967 3100 East Hastings, British Empire Stadium -Harman worked from a photograph taken by Charles Warren at the British Empire Games, 1954 -the sculptor cast the over-lifeslze figures in his own foundry 4 Elek Imredy cast aluminum figure approx. H. 4' 1970 1457 E.13th Our Lady of Fatima Church, out-Bide wall -linear oortraval of Our Lady of Fatima »—' *» ro SECTION III: AREA 5 - DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 5 Sam Carter Flower Totems Neighbor hood Im provement Project for Kens ington metal brightly painted with 3 primary colours, yellow, blue and red Klngsway & King Edward an open air competition was held -the upper part of the 3 "totems" were removed as of Sept. 1, 1982. 6 7 Jack Harman bronze mosaic tile In sets ; gold painted high lights welded wall sculp ture approx. H. 8' 1962 6350 Nanai-mo, Corpus Chrlstl, exterior represents the Apostles sgraf fito bas relief interior walls represents the Gospels -beige walls; brown line drawings with painted gold highlights bronze substi tution above the altar -a crucifix; lifesize realistic; not photo graphed 8 Gerhard Class Horizons commis sioned by F. Camer on Wilk inson fabric ated corten steel welded geo metric 20' x 26' 7000 lb June 15, 1970 -symmeti -3 large wards In on 3 poi crete be -plaque 60th Ann 888 S.E. Marine Dr., WiIklnson Co. Ltd. leal & grace wings strel geometries nted tips wt se hidden ii proclaims "< iversary of -cubism in metal; 3 dim ensional geometric sym bolism on a large scale -abstract study of line, form & geometric propor tion sful simplicity :ching upwards and out-L planes. The wings rest lich are secured to a con-I the grass. treated to commemorate the the Wilkinson Co. Ltd.'^ *-SECTION III: AREA 5 - DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE 1962 (placed on pre sent site Dec. 6, 1969) LOCATION DESCRIPTION 9 Henry Moore Knife Edge gift to the city from Mr. and Mrs. Prentice Bloedel bronze free stand ing welded 12' long H.R. Mac Mlllan Con servatory , Queen Eliz abeth Park, near 33rd & Camble -2 piece monolith -blomorphic shapes -rounded and sharp edges -over llfeslze -scarred surface ls scratched, cut, drawn on, scribbled, jaggedly In cised with the artist's personal calligraphy -one of 3 casts -a favourite 'plaything' of the young 10 George Norris Stations lead substi tution molded figures styl ized simpli fied 1964 4925 Camble Holy Name Parish , placed be fore the windows -plus of the Cross jade-like marble altar relief the same as exter ior design Christ on crucifix ls elongated & emancipated 11 Elek Imredy sgraf fito 1969 ' 4950 Heath er, near 33rd Ave., Youville Residence exterior -symbolic of the Sister's care of humanity—open hand with man standing on palm—both shapes encir cled by a ring 12 Paul Deggan pre-cast concrete & glass mosaic tiles relief mural addi tion 9'6" x 60' 1970 "Plaza 5 is obsCl dimensic ical mot an abstt Camble & 12th, Plaza 500 Hotel 00" becomes ired. The wc nal; close, ifs in mosaJ act relief; depicts the events of Vancouver's history -the artist states, "the site called for a richly sculptured relief to take advantage of slanting sunlight throughout the morning. legible only when the sun tk is conceptually three It is a series of histor-.c; middle distance it ls and far distance it £ •c-SECTION III: AREA 5 ~ DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Paul Deggan cont'd becomes a sign reading the name of the hotel" (ln answer to Doris C. Munroe's questionnaire as appears in her April, 1972 thesis, Public Art in Vancouver.) 13 Yank a Gerald commis bronze Oct. 18, Camble and -naturalistic documenta Brayovitch, Grattan sioned by granite 1948 12th, City tion from Yugoslavia McGeer a group Hall, -McGeer was twice mayor of busin essmen as a tribute to McGeer south side of Vancouver during which time he was responsible for the building of the present City Hall; was a member of the B.C. legis lature; a member of the House of Commons; and a Senator 14 Gerhard Juchum Lover II donated bronze life- 1972 Camble St. the sculpture was first by the artist to City Hall size side of City Hall placed without permission by the artist on Parks Board property between Sunset Beach and English Bay -City Hall provided a permanent base ; the S.S.B.C. provided a plaque identifying the sculpture 15 Vancouv stone subtr north and linear and depression er 1 s action. south side reliefs of the Coat of Coat of sural of City Arms, plus a depiction Arms Das Hall of the City Hall Building relief clouds, mountains and birds with 2 trees 'bord ering' this mural 16 Charles Marega Capt. campaign bronze figura 8' fig Aug. 20, north side naturalistic documenta George for funds granite tive ure 1936 of City tion; erected by the cit Vancou mainly substi 7' base Hall izens of Vancouver to ver the eff tution commemorate the Golden _ ort of Senator G.G. McGeer then mayor of Vancouver t Jubilee of the city *• SECTION III: AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDI SCULPTOR • TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION plus : Allan C. Kelly, designer, Fred Townley & Matheson, arch itectural firm metal relief panels doors Art Deco style of sun rays, flying seagulls, mountains, water and the forests -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #143 #144 - an Aztec wing & wave crest frieze outlines the shoulders of the building (not photographed) 17 Beatrice Lennie commis sioned by the Dom inion Construc tion Co. , architec tural firm cast atone 5 pan els, mural bas relief 7' x 30' ; 6 tons 1949 -the sui this re rial lal -consul 307 West Broadway, Labour Temple, above the main ent rance i's rays frs ilistic port sour t The Pleasu -the central focal point is a great wheel of ind ustry -other motifs include a beaver, a maple leaf, "T.L.C.," 2 figures shak ing hands, war and peace, city and country symbols, a zeppelin, Canada and the U.S.A., a map of North America, and "A.F. L." gment the background in rayal of Canadian indust-ire of Seeing #139 18 Paul Deggan cast concrete units foun tain 1980 601 West Broadway, Broadway Plaza -totemic -geometric -architectural ornament ation 19 George Norris stain less steel rods welded 720 West Broadway, Heather Medical a linear abstract of the medical profession's symbols SECTION III: AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 20 Lionel Thomas, A.R.C.A., Architect, C.B. K. van Norman and Associates Nature's Own Geometry commis sioned by the arch itect copper bas relief welded relief mural 11'i 9'; entrance wall 7* x 6'; 2 pairs of push plates 7" x 7" June 11, 1965 2695 Gran ville , Block Bldg. on exterior wall above doorway "All solid inorganic mat ter found on earth, what ever its size, belongs to one of the 7 basic types. These types are as fol lows: cubic, tetragonal, rhombic, monoclinic, trl-clinic, trigonal & hexa gonal. This ls the theme for the bas relief & the enamelled glass on the copper wall." (plaque on site) 21 Jack Harman The Family -bronze -black marble base substi tution father 12'5", 1700 lb. mother with baby 11 • 6 " ; 1600 lb. son 9': 900 lb. -4 fig ures rest on 6' squ are mar ble base 1966 -others rlate, e 1 2250 Gran ville, Pacific Press Bldg. felt that t . g., the nu 1 -larger than life figures are representational but elongated. "This gives them more spirituality; stops them being dwarfed by the monolithic struc ture behind." (Western Homes and Living/Vancouv er Life, April 1969. p. 18.) -figures were cast in Harman'8 own North Van couver foundry -design chosen from a competition before the building was finished -some felt the sculpture appropriately depicted the role of a newspaper in the family and the im portance of the family in the community ie sculpture was Inapprop-de boy was damaged SECTION Ills AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR' TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 22 Bill Koochin black granite carved foun tain part of the garden at the main entrance of the Pacific Press Bldg. -abstract; organic -no longer functions as a fountain 23 George Norris Spirit of Communi cation -beaten copper figure -a can opy of brass free stand ing sculp ture welded 8' 1966 -the fi reminds -typogi and for graved opy is -"type' sieed ] -the ai the non enslone {The Sun in the lob by of the Pacific Press Bldg. gure's moutl the viewer aphical plal eign languaf in copper tc made of cut is also use eft arm of 1 tist said, ' e-too-gent1< 1 life into , Vancouver "a male figure leans heavily backwards & side ways, as though to resist being carried off by the billowing openwork canopy to which he is attached by a harness." (The Province, Vancouver, April 17, 1966, p. 13) i is open in a cry which of a news vendor :es from early Vancouver ;e newspapers, photo-en-> form a collage; the can--up mats; foundry cast id for the torso & over-:he figure 'It could be thought of as ! transformation of 3 dim-2 dimensional print." , March 14, 1966, p. 2.) 24 George Norris, artist -Gardiner, Thornton & Davidson, ar chitectural firm Federal Gov't. 1% building cost for art "cast-in-place" bas relief 5'x 95' 1966 240S Pine St. , Postal Station 'D' -abstract -consult The Pleasure of archi Seeing #131 tectur al bor-der under the corni ces -"moulded vortex frieze shows constant change" 1 SECTION III: AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR • TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION 1807 West 10th Ave., Academy of Medicine DESCRIPTION 25 Beatrice Lennie artist -Mercer 4 Mer cer, architect ural firm Hippoc rates cement, marble dust, sand, & water proofing mural bas relief 2000 lb. 1951 medical symbol of healer holding a sceptre & drake -consult The Pleasure of Seeing #129 26 Lutz Haufschild Wind fibre-glass 19 75 13th & Fir, southwest corner 2 organic golden yellow Blown shapes plus negative Mounds space 27 Edward Apt Girl Waiting for School-bus cement f ondu 1961 Burrard and Cornwall -a most controversial piece when it was un veiled -simplified figure 28 concrete Parkview Towers, Burrard and Cornwall the largest sundial in the city 29 George Norris The Crab this foun tain sculpture was com missioned by the Women's Ac of the Cen of Vancouv the citize ($27,000) -$20,000 C Committee stain less steel water Jets tivities tennial er as a ns of Va entennia welded foun tain group Committe gift to ncouver. 1 22'x 17' Ih tons e 1968 -include inscript capsule July 1, Haida In and is a period fa day. Planetarium and Museum, Vanler Park s a reflect ion: Benea to be opene 1067. The dians as th lso the sig eglnnlng Ju -a competition with a 6 man Jury was held -the curves of the crab echo the curves of the Planetarium ing pool and 7 spray Jets th this plaque is a time d on Canada's Bicentennial crab was looked on by the e guardian of the harbour a of the zodiac for the ly 1st - Canada's birth-30 George Pratt "Child ren Climbing Rock" stone subtr action Vanler Park -slmpllfled figures 1 JS. SECTION III: AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 31 D18CU6 donated by Glad-atone chapter CJ-6 , Order of Alpha on behalf of the "Helenes" bronze substi tution Nov. 1969 northeast side of the nuseutn -within a reflecting pool a replica of the class ical Greek discus thrower 32 Alan Chung Hung Memorial to Capt, Vancou ver "The Gate to the North west Passage" Historic Sites and Monuments Gov't of Canada corten steel June Inorth of -a winning entry ln the 1980 |the museum, competition Vanler Park -abstract arch plaque states: "Capt. G. Vancouver, R.N. 1758-1798. A veteran of Capt. Cook's voyages of 1772-,1775 and 1776-1780 , Vancouver went on to become one of the most important explorers of Canada's west coast. In 1791 he was given command of an expedi tion to the N.W. coast of North America for the purpose of establishing British sover eignty here & exploring the possibility of e northwest passage. On this voyage 1792-94 he charted much of the coast north of the 30th parallel, sailing up the inside pass age, circumnavigating Vancouver Island & ex ploring many of the geographic features of the area." Mungo Martin cedar totem Oct. 1958 Maritime Museum, Hadden Park) north end of Cypress Street -the highest in Vancou ver -a replica of the pole is ln England -it honors the Kwaklutl nation Ln O SECTION III: AREA 5 — DOWNTOWN B SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION Mungo Martin cont *d from the top: Chief with hat Beaver Old Man Thunderbird Sea Otter Raven Whale Doubleheaded Snake Halibut Cedar Man (not photographed) 33 Letha Keate Contin bronze substi Sept. 3975 Pt. figures of a young boy uity tution 1978 Grey Road, Brock Rouse and girl walking on a log 152 . Fieldtrip Activities Some suggestions for on-site activities are: 1. Study Jack Harman's The Family taking into account the following criteria: - elements and principles of design - mood - impact - historical context - symbolism - content - style - technique - imagery Compare and contrast* what you have learned about Harman's.Family with the succeeding examples of the family: a)* Amenhotep IV with his Wife (Nofretete) and  Daughters (Slide #34), Egyptian, circa 1360 B.C., a carved relief of "family life depicted in its most intimate and happy moments. Here the Pharaoh, whose unpleasing physical appear ance is evoked with systematic exaggeration, embraces one of his daughters, while rays from the sun-disc hold out symbols of life (the ankh) to parents and children" (Bazin, 1976, fig. 74, p. 113). b)v Henry Moore's Family Group (Slide #35), model led in 1945; cast in 1949, bronze 60" high Edition of 4 (Read, 1965, fig. 139, p. 161). Moore looked at a real family and used his This is a suggested Resource Book, Draft of S e activity found in A Curriculum Guide/ pt. 1981, p. 177. 153. imagination and what experiences you the viewer has of a family in order to create this work. What makes the mother and father seem so strong? What makes you think that they might protect the child? What makes you think that the child might depend on his mother? c) Marisol's (Escobar) The Family (Slide #36) construction of painted wood and other materials done in 1962. The sculpture is from the Museum of Modern Art, New York (Childcraft Annual, 1968, p. 37), and is an example of the addition tech nique . 2. Another comparison and contrast using the same criteria that appeared in #1 (above) could be made between two sculptures found within Downtown B: a) Ho ri z ons by Gerhard Class b) Knife Edge by Henry Moore 3. Draw and/or photograph a pictorial essay of one of Vancouver's best known landmarks; George Norris' The Crab. Study the sculpture from as many angles and points of view as possible. If you are using a camera use different lenses when possible. Consider taking coloured prints, slides or black and white prints that could be 'blown up.' Include 'shots' of the sculpture and its settings; the entire sculpture, and details only. k • t.: six 9 8 . , p . - Find out about George Norris and what other commissions he has had throughout the province. See if there is a possibility of him visiting your school and giving a slide presentation of his work in a school assembly. (The Education Department of the Vancouver Art Gallery could help in this regard.) 4. Use Feldman's approach to critical analysis and present a critique to the class of Henry Moore's Kni fe Edge. 5. Briefly describe the eight architectural/ornamental reliefs found within Downtown B using Table I as your guideline. 6. Where do you stand in the controversy over Alan Chung Hung's Memorial to Captain Vancouver? Why? Those for Those against - This memorial was chosen over 32 other designs; it was judged to best represent the idea that 'the piece is not to be a statue in the likeness of the man but should clearly be a commemorative sculpture.' - The form suggests Capt. Vancouver's accomplishments; he was the one that deter mined the discontinuity between the Pacific and the At 1ant i c. - It symbolizes the search for the North West Passage - The abstract arch-gateway is in the form of two 18th century navigation instru ments . - Supporters maintain that it is a significant work because it is open to interpretation, making the sculptures exciting (as in Norris' Untitied sculpture at Pacific Centre). - "Looks like a child walking pigeon-toed" from an article written by Pete McMartin en titled "Sculpture in Vanier Park a Puzzle to Most," (Vancouver  Sun, April 22, 1980, p. A3). - A "bit bleak" stated Andrew Scott in The Vancouver Sun, Nov. 10, 1979, p. DI. - Michael Duncan, Chief Curator of the Maritime Museum has cal led it "a bloody monstrosity" (Aileen Campbell's article in The Province, Mar. 18, 1980, p. A5). - Mike Tytherleigh quoted some Vancouverites' responses to the sculpture: "squashed MacDonald arches"; "fouled up anchors"; "a perch for seagulls"; "a bloody waste of money"; "Nelson would have turned a blind eye to it"; "Ottawa's revenge",, (Pat Carney, a Conservative, won a seat in the f ede ral election; not Art Phil— lips); "a bill clip"; "4 tons of red rust." 7. The history of the relationship between sculpture and 154. architecture is a fascinating one. Consult history texts to learn how closely the architect and sculptor have worked in the past; how integral a part of the building sculpture has been at different times throughout history, e.g., the Assyrians, Egypt ians, the Gothic cathedrals in Europe. What is the relationship between sculpture and architecture as seen: - between George Norris and Barry Downes in Postal Station 'D'? - between Chung Hung and Arthur Erickson in the Courthouse complex? - in wall reliefs in the C.P.R. Station? - in the ceiling in the Maritime Building lobby? 8. Consult the appendix in order to learn about ten local, Canadian and/or internationally recognized women sculptors. Make a note of the media, techniques, imagery, modes of expres sion, and rationales they use. Ask for assistance from the librarians of either the Vancouver Art Gallery or the Fine Arts Division at the Main Public Library in order to see photographs of the work these sculptors have exhibited. Local galleries such as the Equinox, the Bau-xi, the Artists'; Gallery, ICarnegie Centre, Cartwright Street Gallery, Charles H. Scott Gallery, the Marion Scott Gallery, the Richmond Arts Centre, Surrey Art Gal lery, Western Front, the Women in Focus Gallery, and the Burnaby Art Gallery might also be of some assistance regarding slides of work and/or exhibition catalogues of local artists and reviews of the sculptors' recent shows. 9. Compare and contrast the 1886-1936 Vancouver Coat of Arms with the Coat of Arms we've adopted as of 1969. 10. Compare and contrast McCleary Drope's Lovers (Section  III: Area 3 - The West End) with Gerhard Juchum's Lover II, examining the: - content - mood - i mp a c t - symbolism. Section III: Area 6 - VanDusen Botanical Gardens, 5251 Oak While Area 5 - Downtown B is the most difficult area of the city in which to plan a fieldtrip, Area 6 - VanDusen Botanical  Gardens is the easiest. It is a 'contained' area that enables the viewer to see with little effort outdoor sculptures of con siderable aesthetic value. It is a highly recommended field-trip particularly for students studying the subtraction tech nique, ab s tract form, and the elements and principles of design. First of all, we need a brief account of how eleven of the sculptures came to be placed within this superb setting. Debro Construction Specialities donated thirty-two blocks of Turkish marble and travertine to the Emily Carr College of Art and Design, known then as the Vancouver School of Art. These blocks were stored in the open on the south bank of False Creek for some time. Seventeen of these blocks were split up for a ten year supply for students at the college. Fifteen 5' x 6' chunks—three to seven tons each—were made available for an international stone sculpture symposium. Peter Paul Ochs, pres ident of the British Columbia Sculptor's Society and a small panel chose participants for the symposium—twelve sculptors from seven countries. These sculptors worked during July and August of 1975 on eleven pieces of sculpture (one work was done by the husband and wife team Kubach-Wilmsen). Not only did Vancouver gain a valuable permanent collection of large outdoor sculpture, the participating artists took advantage of an op portunity for cultural and aesthetic interchange. 157. Two references are: The Vancouver International Stone Sculpture Symposium - a book let that provides information concerning who the sculptors are, where they are from, their education, and their previous exhib itions. It has photographs of recent work done by the artists. Vancouver International Stone Sculpture Symposium - includes introductions by Art Perry, writer, artist, and columnist of The Vancouver Province newspaper and Diana Caldwell, co-ordin ator of the symposium, plus a visual and verbal documentation of the symposium. (These booklets are available from Gerhard Class, instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design; from the Curriculum Library, Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia; and from the Fine Arts Division of the Main Library at U.B.C.) There are also two excellent films available: Art 10-1 Sculpture VT.1-3.6 Stone Sculpture Symposium 1975 AC 25 minutes colour int-jh-sh. This film depicts the stone sculp tures and how they were created for the VanDusen Botanical Gardens. Vancouver International Stone Symposium, a PEMC film, is a documentation of the same event from a different perspective (A 362 30 min. col/sec). Classroom Activities and Slide Presentation During your viewing of the slides of the sculpture within the gardens find the answers to the following questions: 1. What words found in Table I and the glossary would you use to describe many of the forms you see within the gardens? 2. Name the sculptors whose work is a particularly good 158. example of one or more of the elements of design: line shape texture value mass/volume line colour time or of the p rinciples of design: balance economy harmony proportion variety movement (Show the slides using the Slide Notes Section III: Area 6 -VanDusen Botanical Gardens.) CO to l5<? 0 o o o • f r HE M'L'ID SECTION III: AREA 6 -VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS 37th Ave. and Oak Street SECTION III: AREA 6 — VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS - 37th Ave. and Oak Street SLIDE SCULPTOR . TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 1 Per Nllsson Uat, Swedish donated by the Swedish Community "In mem ory of the Swed ish pion eers of this great province" R bronze panels substi tution foun tain cut out grill-work Aug. 30 1975 entrance to the garden depicts Swedish involve ment in B.C.'a indust ries. Which industries are depicted? -cast in Sweden 2 Arthur Sterrltt Al of the Gis-pudwada Black-bear (Al] Crest of the Killer-whale Tribe -commis sioned by the Van couver Botanical Gardens Assoc. -unveiled during Habitat cedar totem subtr action 10' June 2, 1976 -human mountai black b -human ly vill helped -bear f before -human that be given o tem.) -unpain back—a -what d ing out entrance to the garden form at the ns to hunt ear and assi lead in top ager who tot tiim when no igure at bo being turne head in bea ar figure ii n the plaqU< ted; fronta ttached to o you think the pole? "this pole carved by Arthur Sterrltt, a Gltk san from the Upper Skeena River area of B.C. incor porates the following 4 figures: top—man who went into goat and was captured by a jthed the bear form. flgure'a stomach—friend-3k the bear man in and one else would. :tom—represents bear man i into human form, r's stomach indicates 9 bear man." (information ; at the baae of the to-L; hollowed out from the the covered walkway is the purpose of hollow-3 George Norris donated by Gordon, Kathleen & Sheila Farrell B.C. Jade foun tain subtr action Farrell Pool -2 abstract, organic forms ON to SECTION III: AREA 6 - VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE LOCATION DESCRIPTION 4 Dave Backstrom designer, form erly with the Parks Board in memory of Mabel Whiting Young B.C. Jade drink ing foun tain 1976 -geometric abstract -functional sculpture -water runs over the asymmetrically angled planes of jade 5 Gerhard Juchum The Fisher man ("Fish er") bronze? substi tution? Aug. 28 1976 -seated male nude highly textured 6 Gerhard Class commis sioned by and a gift from Mrs. Hazel Kitchen B.C. Jade bronze sundial 1975 the original form was wood and then the sundial was sandcast 7 -floral Sept. 9 1979 The Child ren ' B Garden -ln celebration of the Year of the Child and the Family in B.C. 8 Sas-quatch Ogopogo wire frames topiary -are Just 2 of the examp les (informative plaques in place) 9 Unknown Wolf donated by Tommy Tompkins, natural ist wood stained black subtr action -carved with a chain saw . 1979 inside the kiosk (gazebo) -painted black -open mouth -Do you find him friend ly? Why do you think he is in the garden? 10 Andrea del Verrocchlo (1435-1488) Puttino Mr. & Mrs. P. Pitcher bronze substi tution foun tain replica 1980 -bronze original at Palazzo Vecchio, Florence Italy -infant holding fish that has a water spout ln Its mouth ON lj SECTION III: AREA 6 - VAN DIISEN BOTANICAL GARDENS SLIDE SCULPTOR. TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE DESCRIPTION 11 Sebastian The Throne from Mexico to the people of Vancouver red painted metal welded geomet July 1978 of Wezahual Coyott ric 12 The Maze 2000 Eastern Arbor-vitae 100' in diameter June 20 1982 -could be considered a participatory and/or an environmental sculpture -the best view is from the top of the terrace. What is the history of the Maze? Why was one construc ted at Van Dusen Gardens? 13 Mathlas Hletz, Austria In Memorlam marble sewer grid subtr action + add ition July 1 to Aug. 31 1975 Vancouver International Stone Sculpture Symposium (V.I.S.S.S.) Tellhard de Chardin -12 sculptors from 7 countries around the world participated in the 2 month event -11 stone sculptures were created The following notes are taken from the symposium catalogue: -the sculptor had no ready made design but several ideas -the sewer grid is pure chance; it represents incarnation, imprison ment, a barred way -the black sphere suggests eternal mystery -the 2 openings are like the light that Chardin brought to bear through the 2 sciences -the enclosing form suggests inner values found in man -the colour, line, form are similar to our own energies and sensations 14 Joan D. Gambloli, Vancouver Trave r-tlne marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -concerned more with human inter ests; desires more human scale to some of our imposing but often overwhelming buildings ~ *» SECTION III: AREA 6 - VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE DESCRIPTION Joan D. Gambioli, cont'd -people who occupy buildings should experience a sense of belonging -expresses her own tremendous excite ment in the power and beauty of nat ural and human forms and composition, balance, rhythm, and space -works both from material to subject or vice versa 15 Kiyoshi Takahashl, Japan marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -believes stone sculpture should merge with the environment, e.g. put casually in public gardens ". . . should be an Informal kind of form in which the character of its medium takes up the environment's spatial energy and then lets it settle into the ground upon which it is placed— a sense of familiarity radiating an intimate atmosphere, a mysterious potentiality and magical capability— a 'being' which reminds one of some strict austere order revealing a ' vertical, centrifugal expanse." 16 (Plqtoukun) David Ruben, N.W.T. Observ ing Your Society marble subtr action \ 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -memories of the artist's childhood and of people in general -a northern outlook upon the way of life in the south -3 faces/directions--skyward, east, west -watching the directions of growth and progress of our society; the eyes constantly observing 17 Adolf Ryszka, Poland Traver tine marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -sculptor works with intuition, Im agination, and vision. "I believe in wisdom and Buffering, self-sacri fice and love, modesty, and kindness. *— o\ Ln SECTION III: AREA 6 - VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE DESCRIPTION Adolf Ryezka, cont'd -wishes to search for truth ln his work -sculptor feels the symposium is ideal for it enables him to concen trate in a proper atmosphere 18 Olga Janic, Yugoslavia marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -sculptor believes that sculpture is always a mystery especially If it is directly done in stone; the sculp ture seems to strike up a friendship with the surrounding countryside and starts a quiet life of its own 19 Wolfgang Kubach Germany Anna-Harla Kubach-Wilmsen, Germany marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -symposiums enable the sculptor to leave the studio and work under the open sky to make statements in stone with parallel concerns for landscap ing; an environmental design of urban living space 20 Hlroml Aklyama, France marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -similarly this artist feels liber ated out of his studio and that symposiums such as this one release the sculpture from museums; there is a participation in a real human en vironment 21 Jiro Sugawara, Italy marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -the sculptor feels that symposiums are an artistic testimony to man's existence in nature; that they stim ulate cultural life ln the community and may result ln fine permanent sculpture; that there is a valuable interchange among artists on how to speak to society using works not words o\ SECTION III: AREA 6 - VAN DUSEN BOTANICAL GARDENS SLIDE SCULPTOR TITLE PATRON MEDIA TYPE SIZE DATE DESCRIPTION 22 Michael Prentice, France marble subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -discusses the discovering of forms and then the tedious details of per fecting lines and tightening up the sculpture -feels there is an irony of being an artist; of being both egocentric to maintain confidence versus humility and an openness to produce good work -to him creativity is a form of religion, "each new piece is like a rite in its formation, development and eventual life -the artist is constantly being faced with decisions that render the piece real and integral -carving stone is gut level truth fulness Just because the physical effort is so great." 23 David Marshall, Vancouver 2 red Traver tine blocks subtr action 1975 V.I.S.S.S. -the piece Involves many thoughts and feelings about family life and the Fibonacci Series -there is a variety of plane and shape; a contrast rather than formal unity, e.g.: -the lower blocks are vertical; the upper horizontal -the west/sunset--a flat wall with projectiona and indentations; east/ sunrise—organic, round -bottom block 2 forms (1) geometric/ flat/masculine, (2) upper smaller form supported like a child by Its parents -unifying element 2 planes W dif ference therefore the profile has an irregular rhythm -the sculptor has an Interest ln stone vail constructions of the Pre-Columbians in South America >-ON 168 Fieldtrip Activities It is particularly valuable to note the differences in per ception between seeing these sculptures via slides (taken in 1978, three years after the sculptures were completed) projected on a screen, and viewing them at the Gardens now, after eight years of weathering. In order to help the students focus on a particular sculpture, it is recommended that some on-site act ivity take place during or shortly after a fieldtrip. Some sug gestions are : 1. Draw and/or photograph a pictorial essay of a particu lar sculpture from as many different vantage points as possible (from far and near; the complete sculpture; and details only). Consider taking coloured prints, slides, and black and white prints that could be 'blown up.' Charcoal and/or coloured chalks would be good drawing utensils. 2. Use Feldman's approach to critical analysis and present a critique to the class of a sculpture that held a special fas cination for you. 3. Find out as much as you can about the two local sculp tors that took part in the symposium: Joan Gambioli David Marshall. Include information about their training, their imagery, their chosen media and techniques, their exhibitions. Joan Gambioli is a member of the Sculptors' Society of British Columbia, 5245 - 11th Avenue, Delta, B.C., V4M 1Z1. Her studio address is 6415 Wellington Street, West Vancouver (telephone: 921-7315; 922-6437). David Marshall is an Instructor at Capilano College, North Vancouver. His studio address is 2541 East 40th Avenue, Vancou ver (telephone: 435-5426). He is also an active member of the Sculptors' Society of British Columbia. 4. The setting/sculpture relationship is among the best in the city. - What do the sculpture and setting offer each other? - What do you think the individual sculptors had in mind when they chose the sites for their sculptures? Pick one sculpture and analyze its site in detail. - Can you name other locations in Vancouver that have been used to good advantage for sculpture? - What sites can you imagine being particularly 'open' to receiv ing sculpture in the future? Why? - Where do you think sculpture 'does the most good' for people who live in a city such as Vancouver? - How important do you think setting is to a piece of sculpture? A large percentage of sculpture discussed in Se ction III is out door sculpture but take into account indoor settings as well, if you can, when answering this question. 5. Do you consider Jiro Sugawara's piece an example of Minimalis t art? Why? 6. Mathias Hietz of Austria used a found object—a sewer grid—in his stone sculpture. Name other found objects that these famous artists have used: - Marcel Duchamp - Kurt Schwitters - Man Ray - Alex Wyse - RauS/Chenburg - John Chamberlain - Joseph Cornell - Louise Nevelson 7. How did the stone, the available tools, and the length of time of the symposium affect the decisions and the designs of the sculptors? (It would be helpful to see the film Van couver International Stone Sculpture Symposium first before answering this question.) 8. Investigate the history of stone sculpture in order to find out: - the choice of imagery that was and is popular - the tools and equipment used throughout time - the international trends regarding styles. 1.71. References for Section III Assemblage in California. Works from the late '50's and early ' 60 ' s . Irvine, Regents of the University of California, 1968. Bazin, G. The history of world sculpture. Secaucus: Chartwell Books, Inc., 19 76. Berti, L. All the works of Michelangelo. Florence: Bonechi Editore, 1969. Boulanger, R. La sculpture de Suzanne Guite. Montreal: Editions Aquila Limitee, 1973. Childcraft Annual. Look again. Toronto: Field Enterprises Educational Corp., 1968. Constantine, M., & Larsen, J.L. The art fabric: Mainstream. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981. Formosa, G. The pleasure of seeing. Architectural sculpture and decorative art in Vancouver. Vancouver: Skorba Publishers, 1982. Geldzahler, H. New York painting and sculpture. 1940-70. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., Inc., in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969. Mentor-Unesco Art Book. Henry Moore: Mother and child. Toronto: The New American Library, 1966. Read, H. Henry Moore. London: Thames and Hudson, 1965. Withrow, W.J. Sorel Etrog, sculpture. Toronto: Wilfeld Publishing Co. Ltd., 1967. 172. SECTION IV: THE TECHNIQUES OF SCULPTURE As stated earlier it is maintained by this researcher that sculpture 'experienced' rather than sculpture 'looked at' on a screen or in a book is an essential component of an introduc tion to sculpture. This need to experience sculpture resulted in the focus of Section III being local sculpture. In Section  III reference was made to the vocabulary, the critical analysis, and to the historical domain of sculpture. This historical ref erence continues to be developed in Section IV but the main focus is the p roduction of sculpture: becoming familiar with the techniques of manipulation, subtraction, substitution, and addition. As in Section III, Section IV is divided into parts, each part being self-contained. This compartmentalizing is hazardous as it is likely to make the reader believe that each technique is entirely separate from the other three. Such an assumption is erroneous. The reason that the four techniques are presented in packages is simply to assist teachers using this study in isolating a workable body of information. Such categorization is necessary as the range of what producing sculpture means is so vast. While it is necessary to categor ize sculpture according to technique it must be acknowledged that these categories are not being isolated from each other. One sculptor can work with a number of techniques in one sculp ture. Similarly one technique such as manipulation, i.e., the building up of form, can include the technique of subtractionj i.e., the carving away of form. Another disadvantage is that the rationale as to where to categorize processes such as weld ing becomes difficult. Welding is often the use of one material —metal rods or sheets for example. It could therefore be cat egorized within the technique of manipulation. At the same time welding is also considered an additive process whereby metal ob jects are combined and assembled. Welding is therefore included in both the manipulation and addition techniques. Even though labelling, i.e. creating artificial 'bodies' of information has taken place for ease of transmitting information, the information necessarily a part of each technique is still considerable. In Section IV: Part 1 - Manipulation, for exam ple, there are fourteen media listed. The development of only one of these media has been undertaken due to time limitations in the preparation of this project. The development of the use of one media is meant to be a model whereby teachers can become familiar with the integration of the historical, critical, and productive domains of sculpture. Assistance in the form of written and audio visual resources, as well as examples of re nowned sculptors working with the specific media and technique is provided in the hope that teachers will develop other media in a similar fashion. Another model in the form of Table II reorganizes some of the information presented in Table I. The four techniques rather than the three domains of sculpture have become the focus of this table. The reasons for the four media choices, i.e., clay rather than any of the other thirteen choices listed in manipulation, are stated within the four parts of this section. The critical and historical components of Table II are a result of an attempt to incorporate four different modes of expression, at least four elements and principles of design and as many rationales of sculpture as possible. The themes animals, ab stract s /b i omo rphi c forms, reliefs, heads, and the human figure were chosen because they are highly representative of much of the sculpture done throughout the ages and throughout the world. Table II represents only one approach for the development of the four media. It is important to note that there are countless other possible combinations. Table II A Model for Introducing the Four Techniques of Sculpture Manipulation Subtraction Substitution Addition Productive - media clay plaster clay/plaster 'soft' me dia Critical - modes of expression - concept - elements - principles - rationales realistic/stylized animals 'in the round' shape proportion formalis t organic abstracts 'in the round' space b alance formalis t impressionistic heads/bas relief colour, value e conomy ornamentation expressionistic human figures 'in the round' texture varie ty self expression His tori cal animals s ty1ization s tone biomorphic plaster relief heads soft sculpture human figure -Ln 176 . Section IV: Part 1 - Manipulation Manipulation refers to the technique of building up form by one pliable material which must maintain its shape and sup port most of its weight although an armature might be needed. Modelling also refers to this technique. Media *1. Clay - water - oil - self-hardening 2. Doughs - bread - cookie - inedible 3. Wi re 4. Papier Mache/Paper Pulp 5. Wax 6 . P ap e r 7. Metal 8. Plaster/Plaster Bandages 9. Acrylics/Plastics 10. Glass 11. Cement 12. Air 13. Light 14. Earth Refers to the model lesson developed in Part 1 177 . Part 1 - Manipulation - Realistic, stylized clay animals - a model lesson Within the technique of manipulation as with subtraction, substitution, and addition there is a profusion of media to use. Where does one begin? A single choice had to be made for all four techniques due to the length and breadth of this study but the decision was difficult. The asterisk indicates which media was chosen for each technique. Clay was chosen as the mo de1 to be developed in depth for the manipulation technique. The reasons for this choice are the following: - Clay is easily accessible and relatively inexpensive. - Clay is a medium familiar to most teachers, this resear cher, and students; the preparation of (kneading, wedging); the use of (pinch pot, coil, slab methods) ; the drying, firing, .and glazing of clay are skills within most art teachers' range of e xp e ri en ce. - Clay has been used by people around the world and through out time. Clay is used by many fine local and Canadian sculp tors. An excellent film about Joe Fafard's use of clay is avail able. Examples of clay objects as well as ceramic sculpture are readily available. The second choice concerns what suggestion to make regarding imagery. For this purpose the themes used throughout the ages were examined. One theme is animal imagery. Animals - in relief - in the round 178, - used in an architectural and ornamental context, for example gargoyles on rooftops or faithful pets carved in stone that guard their deceased masters in crypts. Animals created in all four techniques and media; in all modes of expression; for all rationales. Animals as solitary figures, in pairs, in groups, and with man. Animals were considered an appropriate theme for yet an other reason. Pet ownership is common among students and there is a general interest in animals of all types. Further it was considered advisable to start with figurative, realistic imag ery before dealing with abstract, non-figurative motifs. It would be an interesting assignment for students to dis cover how animals have been depicted in different cultures and by various artists throughout time. In particular suggest that they look at: Ancient Near Eastern art: - Sumerian, Assyrian (2500 B.C.; 800-860 B.C.) - especially the - earthenware from the'. Caspian region, - glazed bricks from Nebuchadnezzar's Processional Way in Babylon, 6th century B.C. Greek and Roman Art, for example: - a bronze horse, 8th century B.C. - the Hellinistic period - the Roman equestrian statues. Egyp tian Islamic - especially the terracotta animals from northern Iran. Phoenician Benin bronzes Peruvian gold and silver llamas. Italian - from the 16th century. A.P. Proctor John B. Flannagan Gutzon Borglum Marino Marini Frederic Remington Pablo Picasso Elie Nadelman Elizabeth Frink What characteristics of the animals were depicted? exag gerated? Why do you think that specific animal was chosen by that s culp tor ? What purpose do you think the animal served? Why is the material used appropriate? inappropriate? Slide Presentation Note how the animals are portrayed in the slides you are about to see. What techniques, media, modes of expression, rationales and concepts were used? 1. Clay bison relief, 13,000-10,000 B.C., 23" L. (Bazin 1976, fig. 9, p. 91). 2. This 5" ivory Bear has been created by a sculptor closer to our own time and place. The Inuit carver's name is Paulassie and he is from Lake Harbour. Notice the simplicity; the s tylization and the artist's feeling for scale : there is a feeling of monumentality. 3. From Inuit to Islamic - a 11V L. bronze Incense  Burner of the llth-12th century (Bazin, 1976, fig. 378, p. 215) - it has a feline head 180. - its mouth is half open and its tongue is out - the ears are pricked up - the beast's tail is bent over its back - the back, neck and chest are all perforated with linear, stylized, decorative grillwork - on the animal's chest there is an inscription meaning "valour, power and glory." 4. Here are 3 horses created by the sculptor Alexander Calder which demonstrate a completely different approach to animal imagery. Calder has used.walnut (15%" H.) 1928 ; wire (11%" L.) 1918; wax cast into bronze (8 1/8" L.) 1944 to try and capture the essence of what a horse is (Lipman, 1972, p. 100). What words accurately describe each of these horses? 5. This is the first of a series of equestrian statues. It is a glazed terracotta statuette from the Chinese T'ang Dyn asty (618-907 A.D.) (Bazin, 1976, fig. 506, p. 259). - the Persian influence is shown in the rider's robes, - the statuette has accurate proportions; it is a realis tic de piction of a horse. 6. The second figure is a very different stance. This bronze monument is honouring General Bartelommeo Colleoni cre ated more than 500 years ago by the sculptor Andrea del . _ Verrocchio (Look Again, 1968, p. 153). - notice how the sculptor portrays the pride and dignity of both the horse and rider, 7. whereas this bronze equestrian statue portrays a 'wild man from the west' and his horse straining every muscle to free himself of his rider. This horse is full of energy and life, and is entitled The Bronco Buster, by Frederic Remington (Look  Again, 1968, p. 152) . The second series on animal imagery is about the lion. 8. The first lion is from northern Syria. It was carved from basalt during the 9th century B.C. (Bazin, 1976, fig. 96, p. 120). - Notice that its body is covered with Hittite hieroglyphics similar to the incense burner's overall decoration. - It is rather a crude form; the basic shapes of the head, neck, body, and legs are roughly formed in shallow relief. 9. (Bazin, 1976, fig. 376, p. 215). This lion (Islamic as was the incense burner) is situated in Alhambra, Spain and is part of a gigantic fountain supported by twelve such lions built in the second half of the 14th century. It again has roughly carved forms and a rather undignified pose with water streaming out of its mouth continually. As the inscription states, "These lions have no soul; have no feari they can not assuage their anger." 10. (Weiss, 1956). This seated stone lion is Chinese, again from the T'ang Dynasty; he appears trying to be a guardian but his ferocity is unconvincing. 11. This pair of garden-variety lions can be seen in many neighbourhoods. Why do you suppose people choose to place these statuettes on their property? There are at least three pairs of lions in Downtown Vancouver. Can you name their locations and determine why they are placed on those sites? (consult Slide Notes Section III: Areas 3 & 4). What characteristics do you associate with lions? - catlikeness - majesty - fierceness - intelligence - strength - dignity - energy - reputation as king of the beasts - grace - usefulness as 'guardians' When you choose your own animal to model in clay decide on what characteristics of that animal you want to portray, distort, exaggerate. Two references that might be helpful are: Barr, B. Wonders, Warriors and Beasts Abounding. How the Art ist Sees His World. New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1967; Chase, A.E. Looking at Art. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966. The next seven slides demonstrate one possible approach to modelling clay animals. Feel free to model entirely different animals using other methods. It is a suggestion only that the animals be stylized, simplified, and realistic. 12. This hippo was done by a 13-year-old student; there is very limited use of details (Rbttger, 1962, fig. 202, p. 72), 13. This goat was done by an 11-year-old student. Note the student's use of pellets and appendages of clay (Ibid., fig. 248, p. 90). 14. This Haniwa figure of a horse demonstrates a basic shape with simplified details (Weisberg, 1975, fig. 79). 15. Another Haniwa figure is depicted, this time a Haniwa  dog, 46.3 cm H. (Miki, 1974, fig. 44, p. 53). 16. This Haniwa figure represents a wild razorback boar 51 cm H. Note the similarities and the subtle differences between numbers 15 and 16. What distinguishes one animal from the other? (Miki, 1974, fig. 94 , p. 92) . 17. Dog from Colima (Fernandez, 1976, fig. 6). - The fattened dogs are one of the most typical figures of Mex ican Western art. The erect ears and tail which are at the same time the opening of the jug, have a singular charm and their staring eyes have an uncanny effect. 18. This is a 13th century storage vessel made of clay, from northern Iran (Editions des Musees Mationaux, 1971, Reprod uction interdite Genese imp. Paris, AD-17). If a stylized, simplified, realistic animal of this type is desired, consider the following procedure: - Knead and wedge the clay to a soft almost buttery state. - Form two pinch pots of similar size and shape. Hold both \ pots in your hands and join them to form a hollow ball. Com pletely seal the entire circumference by 'pulling' the clay with your finger. Extra water and clay should not be necessary at this point. - Shape this hollow ball with fingers or tools such as a black board brush, spoon, stick, etc. forming as much of the body as you can (the trapped air facilitates this shaping). - Shape separate legs, tail, neck, and head if necessary, out of cut slabs, coils, or miniature pinch pots. - Combine all forms after holes have been cut into the hollow ball body to accommodate these additions. Join thoroughly using as little water as possible. 184. - Support your animal form during the drying period if necessary. Dry completely. - Bisque fire the greenware. - Consider finishes: glaze, burnish, stain. - Display thoughtfully: consider positioning, lighting, setting. Apply critical strategies to sculptures* of one's own and those of peers, relating to: - expressive intent - selection of image - composition - development of image - completion - materials use - tools and equipment use , - sequence of processes - technical competence - experience Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book. Ministry of Education, Province of B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft, p. 183. (85 185 cu 186 . 1. Clay - water, oil and self-hardening - Bibliography Arundell, J. Exploring sculpture. London, Mills and Boon, 1971. - "My aim in writing this book is to explain some of the easy effective ways of making sculpture that are avail able to everyone. It is not my concern to make aesthetic evaluations" p. 7. - includes carving, modelling, casting, folding, expanding, building, constructing, and architectural sculpture - limited use for young children Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishing, 1968. - one of the best books I've found - very systematic ap proach to studying sculpture in depth; borders on being a sculptor's 'Bible'; includes kinds, qualities, elements, principles of sculpture - Part 2 - technical methods - often too complicated for elementary school - includes papier mache, wax, clay, metal and aeryli cs Dawson, R. Practical sculpture. Creating with plastic media. New York: The Viking Press, 1970. - highly recommended Dawson, R. & J. Sculpture with simple materials. Menlo Park: Lane Books, 1966. Eliscu, F. Sculpture technique in clay, wax, slate. Philadel phia: Chilton Co. Book Division, 1959. - for the amateur, 'Sunday' sculptor - not for children 187. Gray, J. Elementary school ceramics: Observations and Explan ations . B.C.T.F. Lesson Aid No. 9661. Lucchesi, B. Terracotta sculpture. New York: Watson-Gup till Publishers, 1977. - highly recommended for portraiture and hollow ceramic sculpture Marrits, L.E. Modeled portrait sculpture. New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1970. Mills, J.W. Head and figure modelling. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1977. "My objective is to encourage confidence by confiding tech nical facts, so that the student might seek to achieve images that truly reflect his own personality and not that of others" (p. 11). - for the more advanced students. Price, C. Arts of clay. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977 (j). - drawings only with the text; mainly utilitarian objects that incorporate animal imagery. Rottger, E. Creative clay design. New York: Reinhold Pub lishing Corp., 1962. - stresses order of activities - good introduction to possibilities when dealing with clay - excellent photographs Slade, R. Modeling in clay, plaster, and papier mache. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co., Inc., 1967. - first 20 pages are not very inspiring. - some good ideas that are merely introduced - few photographs, no drawings Weiss, H. Clay, wood and wire. A how to do it book of sculp-t ure. Reading, Mass.: 1956 (j) . Zaidenberg, A. The new and classical sculpture methods. New York: World Publishing, 1972. Examples: 1. Local sculptors -2. Canadian sculptors -3. Internationally reco (Consult the appendix fo Persimmon Blackbridge Gathie Falk Lyn Graves Sally Michener Phyllis Green Victor Cicansky Joe Fafard John Fillion David Gilhooly gnized sculptors — Af rican Chines e Iranian Japanese Mexi can Pe ruvian Prehistoric Robbia family, Italian r further examples.) 189. Audio Visual Resources: I don't have to work that big. A film about Joe Fafard; 27:20, col. N.F.B., 16 mm 106c 0173 143. "Joe Fafard knows cows--the way they tuck in their forelegs to lie down, ruminate, the way a calf romps in the barn yard. He also knows p_e_op_le - - a 11 his friends and neighbors of the farming community of Pense, Sask. And he sculpts them all in clay, in eloquent little mini atures. Joe's work has been exhibited throughout Western Canada as well as in Paris and New York. Here you see what he does" (N.F.B. Catalogue, 1981, p. 134). Give 'em a half turn. A N.F.B. film 10:27, col. 106c 0179 182 "Russ Yuristy, the funky sculptor from Silton, Sask., has just finished a wooden buffalo commissioned by the city councillors of Swift Current. This film is about Yuristy's 3 ton buffalo, its 150 mile trip from studio to park and the comments of the bystanders who react to the buffalo's unusual looks. This lighthearted film shows one of the prairie's most unusual artists." 2. Doughs - bread, cookie, and inedible - Consult Johnson, I., & Hazelton, N.S. Cookies and breads. The baker's art. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1967. - an excellent resource; it focuses on the visual interest of shapes and decorations, long and surviving traditions, and holiday rituals - it includes recipes 190. - Ruth Asawa Is a sculptor renowned for her creation of a bronze fountain in San Francisco, the result of a community project us ing dough as the original model. 3. Wire - Bibliography Brommer, G.F. Wire sculpture and other three dimensional cons truction . Worcester: Davis Publishing, Inc., 1968. - addressed to changing techniques in sculpture that can be carried out in the classroom - a springboard for real experimentation - emphasis - additive - sets typical problems - excellent book; best for secondary art Dawson, R. & J. Sculpture with simple materials. Meno Park: Lane Books, 1966. (Sunset) - "(teaches) design skills and craft skills at the same time (while) presenting a basic element of design which will exploit the qualities of each new medium" (p. 5), e.g., wire, papier mache, plaster, clay. Gallop, E. Simple wire sculpture. New York: Watson-Gupti11. - excellent introduction, good technical drawings, not too many "recipes" - most techniques suitable for the classroom Lidstone, J. Building with wire. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 19 72. - includes wire delineating space, wire used as an arma ture, wire that creates circles, shadows, jewellry, wire that moves, that tells a story - it also includes examples from Vancouver schools 1.91. Ullrich, H., & Klante, D. Creative metal craft. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1968. - using wire, wire fabrics, working with tin, solder and rive ts Weiss, H. Clay, wood, and wire. A how-to-do-it book of sculp ture . Reading: Young Scott Books, 1956. "It shows you how other people have made sculpture, and it shows you how to get started making your own sculpture out of many different materials" (p. 3). Examples: Alexander Calder's Circus Seymour Lipton's The Sun Sherry Grauer (consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 1 - U.B.C.) Audio Visual Resources: Wire sculpture PEMC A374 col. 1973 13 min. sec/post sec A sculptor with an acetylene torch shapes a piece of steel wire into a lifelike human head. During the process he comments about his technique, art form, and philosophy. (Recommended in the Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource  Book, Ministry of Education, Victoria, B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft . ) 4. Papier Machg/Paper Pulp - Bibliography Dawson, R. & J. Sculpture with simple materials. Menlo Park: Lane Books, 1966. (Consult Wire - Bibliography.) 19 2. Mills, J.W. Head and figure modelling. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1977. "My objective is to encourage confidence by confiding tech nical facts, so that the student might seek to achieve im ages that truly reflect his own personality and not that of others" (p. 11). - for the more advanced students Slade, R. Modeling in clay, plaster, and papier mache. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co. Inc., 1967. (j) - first 20 pages are not very inspiring - some good ideas that are merely introduced - few photographs, no drawings Studley, V. The art and craft of handmade paper. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1977. Examples: Local artists - Diana Caldwell Lynn Howes Deborah Clapton Margaret Lawther Sherry Cooper Carol Anthony, an American artist, creates papier mache dolls. 5. Wax - Bibliography Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dub uque: William C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. - one of the best books I've found; very systematic ap proach to studying sculpture in depth—borders on being a sculptor's 'Bible'. - includes kinds, qualities, elements and principles of s culp ture - Part 2 - Technical Methods are often too complicated for elementary school use. Eliscu, F. Sculpture technique in clay, wax, slate. Philadel phia: Chilton Co. Book Division, 1959. - for the amateur 'Sunday' sculptor, not children Miller, R. Figure sculpture in wax and plaster. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers, 1971. Examples: Medaro Rosso Edgar Degas 6. Paper - Bibliography Fabri, R. Sculpture in paper. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers, 1968. - "fundamental principles of the art of paper sculpture by explaining in words and pictures how to design it, how to construct the main forms you're ever likely to need and how to add the most important finishing touches" (p. 2) . - excellent illustrations Johnson, P. Creating with paper. Basic forms and variations. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1958. Lidstone, J., & Bunch, C. Working big. A teacher's guide to environmental sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , 19 75 . - authors maintain "the more art in the classroom is like play, the more effective it is likely to be" (p. 10). - subjects: air art, building big with cardboard, light, working walls, working big outdoors, children and artists work together - includes working with air and light Made with paper. The Museum of Contemporary Crafts of the Amer ican Craftsmen's Council. New York: Container Corporation of America, 196 7. Ogawa, H. Forms of paper. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1971. - superb photographs (white on black background) "This book inquires into the quintessence of forms which paper can be given" (p. 10). - includes patterns for all the photographs R'ottger, E. Creative paper design. New York: Reinhold Pub lishing Corp., 1961. Audio Visual Resources: Designing with everyday materials: corrugated paper PEMC Videotape VA 38a HRW 1971 12 min. col int/jr Paper in art videotape VA 17a GWF 1968 17 min. col int/jr Origami. A N.F.B. film 8:35 col 106c 0167 120 - The Japanese art of paper folding, as practised both by skilled fingers and the less adept hands of children. That anyone can learn and experiment and take pleasure from the results is evident from the variety of shapes and figures being conjured out of coloured paper. 195. 7. Metal - Bibliography Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: William C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. Hale, N.C. Welded sculpture. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1968. Meilach, D.Z., & Seiden, D. Direct metal sculpture. Creative techniques and appreciation. New York: Crown Publishing Inc., 1966. - excellent; includes the historical aspect from 1914 to the present - the "without heat" section is most applicable to the classroom Ullrich, H., & Klante, D. Creative metal craft. London: B.T. Bats ford Ltd. , 196 8. - using wire, wire fabrics, working with tin, solder and rivets Examples: Anthony Caro David Smith Theodore Roszak Ibram Lassaw Julio Gonzales Audio Visual Resources: Hand forging PEMC 1978 15 min. colour Braze welding UC 1972 13 min. colour - both are recommended in the Grades 8-12 A Curriculum  Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Victoria, B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft. The bronze zoo VT 1-3.5 TF 16 min. col int/jh/sh - A warm and unusually personal introduction to sculpture 196. through Shay Rieger's extraordinary bronze animals; striking combinations of realism, fantasy, and sculp tural craft and imagination. The art of metal sculpture VT 1-3.7 1958 PEI 22 min. col jh/sh - Follows design and construction of large metal sculpture executed by Tom McClure for permanent display at a large shopping centre. Creative tools employed include weld ing torch, handsaw, anvil, vise and hammer. Closeups show metal under intense heat being worked as a fluid. 8. Plaster/Plaster Bandages - Bibliography Clarke, G., & Cornock, S. A sculptor's manual. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1968. - good sections on plaster, cement and ciment fondu, stone, and wood. Dawson, R., & J. Sculpture with simple materials. Menlo Park: Lane Books, 1966. (Sunset) Farnworth, W. Creative work with plaster. London: B.T. Bats-ford Ltd. , 19 75 . - good section on armatures; more than just three dimen sional plaster work. Miller, R. Figure sculpture in wax and plaster. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers, 1971. Stevens, H. Art in the round, elements and materials of three dimensional design. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1965 . Part 1 - elements of form that convey three dimensional images to the eye 197 Part 2 - ways in which these elements can be combined to make three dimensional statements - good photographs, many examples, but no step-by-step recipes - highly recommend this resource book Examples: Claes Oldenburg Elisabeth Frink Alexander Archipenko Kenneth Armitage George Segal Joan Miro Charles Despiau Alberto Giacometti Barbara Hepworth Henry Moore Elek Imredy 9. Acrylics/Plastics - Bibliography Bunch, G. Acrylic for sculpture and design. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. Chichura, D.B., & Stevens, T.K. Super sculpture. Using science technology and natural phenomena in sculpture. Toronto : Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974. - for creating, understanding and appreciating kinetic s culp ture Part 1 - background information, history, contemporary development, application in the classroom Part 2 - variety of approaches - for secondary and post secondary use Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishing, 1968. 198 Examples: Mike Banwell Cesar Max Bill Naum Gabo Antoine Pevsner Audio Visual Resources : Plastic and fibreglass: Fiberglass ITE 1967 13 min. colour A 356 Plastic and fiberglass: Thermoplastics ITE 1967 13 min. colour A 357 - both recommended in Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/ Resource Book. Ministry of Education, Victoria, B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft. 10. Glass Examples: Ed Zelenak Jamie Kelley Harvey K. Littleton Larry Bell Robert Morris Lise Lemieux Sylvia Stone Audio Visual Resources: Glassblowing S0-764 PEMC 1978 13 min. colour - recommended in Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource  Book, Ministry of Education, Victoria, B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft. 11. Cemen t - consult Clarke, G., & Cornock, S. A sculptor's manual. 199 New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1968. - good sections on plaster, cement and ciment fondu, stone and wood - An article by Olson, L. Direct cement sculpture. Building  four-legged figures, from Arts and Activities, April 1979, pp. 52 pp. 52-66 is also recommended. 12. Air - Bibliography Hiroi, T. Kites. Sculpting in the sky. A practical and aes thetic guide to making kites. New York: Pantheon Books, 19 78. Lidstone, J., & Bunch, C. Working big. A teacher's guide to  environmental sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1975. - authors maintain "the more art in the classrooms is like play, the more effective it is likely to be" (p. 10). - subjects: air art, building big with cardboard, light, working walls, working big outdoors, children and artists work together Examples: R.C.A.T. (the Vancouver Art Gallery has slides of their work) - Otto Piene and Dr. Billy Kluver are two artists cited in Feldman, E.B. Varieties of visual experience. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1971 (p. 519; p. 523). - kites flying in the park and at the beach 200 . 13. Light - Consult Lidstone, J., & Bunch, C. Working big. A teacher's  guide to environmental sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. , 19 75. Examples: Georgianna Chappell Norman White Dan Flavin James Turrell 14. Earth - Bibliography Beardsley, J. Probing the earth. Contemporary land projects. Washington, D.C.: Horshhorn Museum, Smithsonian Press, 1977. Feldman, E.B. Varieties of visual experience. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1971 (pp. 519-523). Examples: Robert Morris Walter de Maria Robert Smithson James Turrell Michael Heizer Audio Visual Resources: The sand castle A N.F.B. film MEC 35 and 16 mm colour 13 min. 12 sec. 106c 0077 050 1977. 2.0 1. Section IV: Part 2 - Subtraction Subtraction refers to a process of reduction, the removal of surplus material from a block until the desired shape is achieved. Carving also refers to this technique. Soft Media *1. Plaster 2. Clay - water, oil base and self-hardening 3. Wax 4 . Balsa wood 5. Salt blocks 6 . Soap 7. Polystyrene/Polyurethane/Plastic foam 8. Chalk 9. Apples 10. Earth Medium - Hard Media 11. Wood 12. Stone 13. Building blocks/Bricks Miscellaneous 14. Bone 18. Plastics 15. Ivory 19. Cement and ciment fondu 16 . Shell 20 . Acrylic 17. Horn 21. Aerated concrete Refers to the model lesson developed in Part 2. 202 . Part 2 - Subtraction - Plaster, abstract sculpture - a model lesson The model used for this technique is a two-fold one. First of all, stone sculpture is presented in slides, and a fieldtrip to VanDusen Botanical Gardens is recommended. The media chosen for the production part of the lesson is, however, carving plas ter that has been partially pre-formed in plastic bags. Stone or wood carving in the classroom is possible but the time element is a problem. Stone and wood carving, even on a small scale, is very time consuming. Months of class time are required to carve either media--a time span not usually practical in a school situation. Carving plaster is much less time consuming, it is inexpensive and very adequately gives the students the experi ence of the taking away process. Slide Presentation First an introduction to stone and similar media sculpture in general. Throughout time man has carved wondrous shapes. Prehistoric man carved exquisite miniatures such as: 1. The Venus of Lespugue, a 15 cm ivory figure (Bazin, 1976, fig. 15, p. 92), and the 2. Venus of Willendorf, an 11.5 cm limes tone statuette (Bazin, 1976, fig. 14, p. 92), both dated approximately 21,000 B.C. Classical Greek sculpture was for centures held as the ideal to which all sculptors should strive: 3. The Victory of Samothrace, marble, Hellenistic, ca 190 B.C. (Bazin, 1976, fig. 205, p. 158), and 203. 4. Laokoon and His Sons, marble, Hellenistic, 1st century B.C. (Bazin, 1976, fig. 208, p. 159), are two such examples. 5. Michelangelo's Pieta, H. 5'8" marble, 1499 (Bazin, 19 76 , fig. 762, p. 346) is probably the most famous realistic stone sculpture in the Western world. It took pioneers like Brancusi to break from the tradition of such figurative realistic sculp ture and experiment with modern abstract three dimensional art. But Constantin Brancusi's forms were not entirely 'new'. Notice how he was influenced by the streamlined, refined 6. Cycladic Marble Figure of a Woman, H. 49 cm of 2500-2000 B.C. (The British Museum Postcard) in his work 7. The Kiss of 1908 limestone (Arts Council of Great Britain, 1973, p. 54). In Canada we have a rich heritage of Inuit sculpture, for ex ample : 8. Bird, a favorite motif, here used as an amulet. It was carved by Adamie from Povungnituk (source: a calendar, par ticulars unknown). Other examples of simplified, streamlined, refined forms are found in the Northwest Coast Indian's use of argillite. Some of the finest stone sculpture is referred to as ab-s t rac t, non-figurative, organic, biomorphic--sculpture that celebrates the elements and principles of design, i.e. Formalis t. Some of the sculptors that have worked with this rationale are jean (Hans) Arp , Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and Isamu Noguchi. Here are some examples: 9. Woman, 1957-8, bronze by Henry Moore (Read, 1965, fig. 204, p. 2 19). 204, 10. Composition, 1931, Green Hornton stone H. 19" (Read, 1965, fig. 59, p. 82) is also by Moore. 11. Forme sur trois points marble dim. 2' x 1' is by Armand Filion, a sculptor from Quebec (Quebec Sculptors Assoc. Exemplaire No. 162, 1970, p. 31). 12. Human Concretion, 1934, marble (Bazin, 1976, fig. 1000, p. 437) is by Jean Arp. 13. Pelagos, 1946 , wood with colour and strings H. 16" (40.5) is by Barbara Hepworth. Coll. of the artist. Photo: John Webb, London (Read, 1964, fig. 210, p. 196). 14. Black Sun by Isamu Noguchi, 1969, Brazilian Granite 76.5 cm H. is in front of the Seattle Art Museum, Volunteer Park, Seattle, Wash, (photograph published by Ellis Postcard Co., Arlington, Wash. 98223). We are fortunate to have within Vancouver examples of or ganic, abstract, biomorphic sculpture: Gerhard Class' cast stone sculpture, East Asiatic Building (Section III: Area 3 -The We s t End) ; Henry Moore's Kni fe Edge , Queen Elizabeth Park (Section III: Area 5 - Downtown B); and Lutz Haufschild's Wind  Blown Mounds (Section III: Area 5 - Downtown B) are three ex amples. Furthermore, The Vancouver International Stone Sculp ture Symposium of 1975 held at the VanDusen Botanical Gardens resulted in the creation of eleven fine examples of abstract sculpture. A visit to the Gardens is highly recommended. (Con sult Slide Notes, Section III: Area 6). And now to think about what forms the students themselves can create. A possible approach: 205 It is hoped that one day students will have the opportun ity to carve stone be it soft soapstone or hard B.C. or Carrara marble, limestone or argillite. For the time being, however, it is recommended that students carve plaster as the time involved makes it a much more feasible project for the classroom. More over, simple everyday tools are sufficient to enable them to carve most pleasing forms in plaster. When mixing and working with plaster remember: 1. Always use clean, cold water and a thoroughly clean mixing container. 2. Always use completely dry plaster that has been kept sealed and stored in a warm, dry place. The shelf life of plaster is limited. 3. Always add plaster to water, never water to plaster. 'Sifting' one handful of plaster into the water at a time allows the plaster to absorb water naturally. 4. Plaster usually sets in about fifteen minutes. Plas ter to be used for casting should be poured while it is still thin and creamy. The milk carton is a common container for plaster carvings. More often than not the finished carving has the readily recog nizable form of a milk carton. It is therefore encouraged that sturdy transparent plastic bags be used to help pre-form abs tract shapes while the plaster is still in a fluid state. It might be helpful for the students to work in pairs; one to mix and pour the plaster, and tie the bag closed with a twist tie; the other to hold and support the plastic bag filled with plas ter until it sets. The person pouring the plaster should try 206 . to avoid getting air bubbles by pouring the plaster down the side of the bag. Sketches or some thoughts regarding the basic shape desired would be helpful, making the hold or supports of the bag the first step in determining the general form. Pil lows, bean or sand bags, foam, soft material, even clay or plasticine are good support substances. Although plaster sets quickly, carving should be postponed for twenty-four hours. Further sketches could be made at this point, taking into ac-cout the shape of the solid plaster-filled bag. Note the useful tools and carving procedures described in the reference books. Some tools can be found in the kitchen— utensils such as a serrated knife, a grapefruit spoon, melon scoops, and potato peelers can shave, scrape, cut into, and cut away plaster. Experiment with tools to see which ones work best for you. Coating the work surface with newspaper before work begins is helpful for cleanup purposes. Remove the plastic bag with care as the plaster will still be moist. . If a crease of plastic is caught within the plaster cut around the plastic and later decide to incorporate this 'defect' in your design or carve into the form at that point, thereby removing the plastic. Here are some excellent examples of abstract carving done by Jim MacDonald's and Doris Livingstone's Arte 100 students in the Art Department, Faculty of Education, The University of Brit ish Columbia: #15 and #16. Note how the students have worked with both positive and negative shapes and fully designed all five sides. (Modelling turntables are most helpful in this re gard.) There has been careful attention paid to all the elem ents and principles of design. Mind that students do not carve too fragile an edge or too long and thin an extension that would break easily. Remember also that when they are carving it is best to be slow and thoughtful—once removed, the plaster can not be replaced. (If, however, a serious break occurs, LePage's Bondfast Glue can repair completely dried plaster.) Note also that a smooth finish can be achieved by sanding the plaster with 300, 400, and 600 grit sandpaper and/or steel wool. In order to 'finish' the plaster, it is advisable that these organic shapes be sealed with polymer or diluted white glue only, after at least a week's exposure to dry, warm air. The simplic ity of the white plaster enhances the successful incorporation of the elements and principles of design found within the form. (The element of colour is focused on in Section IV: Part 3 -Substitution.) - Display your work to advantage considering height, lighting, and background material. - Apply critical strategies to the sculptures of one's own and those of peers, relating to:* expressive intent materials use selection of image tools and equipment use composition sequence of processes development of image technical competence completion experience This is a suggested activity found in the Grades 8-12  A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Prov ince of British Columbia, Sept. 1981 Draft, p. 183. 208 209 . *1. Plaster (and other dry mixes) - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76. - detailed information about traditional tools and tech niques - good diagrams, pictures - includes salt, soap, balsa wood, clay, wax, foamed plastics, new materials, stone, wood, chalk, plaster, plaster based products, building blocks, brick, acrylic paste - an excellent book although more useful for students in England regarding suppliers and terminology Leyh, E. Children make sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. - shows children involved in making sculpture - author believes the sculptures do not have to be artistic, finished, or good; rather the activity itself matters and the knowledge gained by the child of form and materials - sculptures done by 3-17 year olds (not labelled) - author concerned that children should be encouraged to produce their own work in their own way, free of adult aesthetic standards. Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques, and  app re ciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. - no patterns to follow; none of the techniques absolute "The methods shown are meant to open your eyes and mind to the approach of others" (Foreword). - includes clay, wax, soap, plastic foam, apples, plaster, 210 . wood, stone, bone, ivory, shell, horn, and plastic. Rich, J.C. The materials and methods of sculpture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1947. "This book is an attempt to present a comprehensive pic ture of the anatomy of sculpture, with specific references to the materials used, the properties of these materials, and the methods employed in their use, together with pert inent historical and other notes, and a recording of the trends in contemporary sculpture. The whole is colored by the point of view of the most advanced modern sculptors: the indissoluble relationship of materials to the subject and treatment" (p. vii). - too technical and the information is dated Stone, A. Sculpture. New ideas and techniques. London: G. Bell and Sons Ltd., 1976. - good introduction but a mediocre technical section Examples: Alexander Archipenko Elisabeth Frink Kenneth Armitage Barbara Hepworth Lynn Chadwick Henry Moore Charles Despiau Joan Miro Auguste Rodin 2. Clay - water, oil base and self-hardening - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76 . Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishing, 1968. - one of the best books I've found—very systematic ap proach to studying sculpture in depth; borders on being a sculptor's 'Bible', includes kinds, qualities, elements, principles of sculpture 2.11. - includes exploration of clay, wood, stone, plastics, and cement Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques, and  appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. 3. Wax - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76 . Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques, and  appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. Examples: John Kearney Edgar Degas Medaro Rosso 4. Balsa wood and 5. Salt blocks - Consult Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76. 6. Soap - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1976 . Gaba, L. Soap sculpture. New York: Franklin Watts Inc., 1969. (j) - a dreadful cover but the book is full of common sense concerning the techniques of soap carving - actual photographed projects not recommended for children 212. Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques, and  appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. 7. Polystyrene/Polyurethane/Plastic foam - Bibliography Arundell, J. Exploring sculpture. London: Mills and Boon, 1971. - "My aim in writing this book is to explain some of the easy effective ways of making sculpture that are avail able to everyone. It is not my concern to make aesthetic evaluations" (p. 7). - includes carving, modelling, casting, folding, expanding, building, constructing, and architectural sculpture. - discusses plastic foam, aerated concrete, and acrylic Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1976 . Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques, and  appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. Audio Visual Resource: Bronze 13 min. 13 sec. colour, a N.F.B. film, 35 mm: 105c 0169 105; 16 mm: 106c 0169 105 "Here the viewer shares with the sculptor the conception and execution of a work of art. The film shows the crea tion of a monumental bronze work by Montreal sculptor Charles Daudelin, which now stands outside the National Arts Centre in Ottawa. The real work is at the s ty ro f oam stage when the model is shaped with knife, saw and blow torch in the exact form the finished bronze is to take. The 213. film is without words but with music to evoke the mood. 8. Chalk - Consult Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1976. 9. Apples - Consult Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, tech niques, and appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. 10. Earth - Consult Beardsley, J. Probing the earth. Contemporary land  pro j ects. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institute, 19 77 , and an article by Waldman, D. Holes without history. Art News, May 1971, pp. 44-68. Examples: Michael Heizer's Double Negative James Turrell's Roden Crater 11. Wood - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76. Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: William C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. Meilach, D.Z. Contemporary art with wood. Creative techniques and appreciation. New York: Crown Publishing Inc., 1968. Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Materials, techniques and appreciation. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. 214. Weiss, H. Clay, wood and wire. Reading: Young Scott Books, 1956 . Examples: African Ernst Barlach Constantin Brancusi Dudley Carter Alan Chung Hung Chaim Gross Suzanne Guite Barbara Hepworth Anne Kahane Bill Koochin Roy Lewis Mao r i Henry Moore New Guinea - Northwest Coast Indian art, some specific sculptors being Robert Davidson, Tony and Richard Hunt, Mungo Martin, and Bill Reid. - also note wood sculptures that resulted from the Wood Symposium held at Klee Wyck in West Vancouver in 1977. Audio Visual Resources: Celebration of the raven, a film about Bill Reid, distributed by Canadian Filmmakers Distribution Centre, 525 W. Pender St., Vancouver. Woodman: David Nash, sculptor AC-14 35 min. colour sr. sec./ adult. Thomas Howe Assoc. Ltd. Rental Films. John Hooper's way with wood 17:43 colour 106c 0177 281, a N.F.B. film - This is not a film about technique but a philosophy about living things and the interaction between the artist and his material, from selecting seasoned woods to fabricating techniques, to sculpting. 215 . Makonde on Curzon Street. MEC Art-Africa 003852 14 min. 1973. Makonde Scupture. MEC Art-Africa 003853 8 min. 'Ksan. MEC Arts and Crafts 001048 27 min. Tony Hunt, Kwakiutl. MEC 001374 10 min. 1976. 12. S tone - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 19 76. Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. Dancyger, I. Clay models and stone carving. London: Pelham Craft Series, 1974. Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969 . Meilach, D.Z. Contemporary stone sculpture. Aesthetics, methods, and appreciation. New York: Crown Publishers, 19 70 . Example s: Jean Arp Assyrian B ernini Max Bill Gutzon Borglum Brancusi Cambodian Canova Clodion East Indian Charles Edenshaw Egypt i an Joan Gambioli Gaudier-Brzeska Gerhaert Ghiberti Greek Inuit Jacques Lipchitz David Marshall Elsa Mayhew Mi chelangelo George Minne Modigliani Henry Moore No guchi Prehistoric 216 . Cycladic Islamic George Rammel Donatello Wilhelm Lehmbruck Roman Easter Island Roy Lewis Sumerian Audio Visual Resources: The following filmstrips are available from the Curriculum Lab., Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia: AV 4-7309 H588 1961:30 Michelangelo AV 4-7371 E85 S3 Eskimo sculpture. Prehistoric, historic , modern AV 4-7371 E85 C3 Eskimo carvings AV 4-737 1 H35 A7 Haida argillite carvings in the National Mus e um of Canada. Le* ;end of the raven. A PEMC film, A-336 CFL 1958 15 min. colour in t/s e c. "Using authentic Eskimo carvings, the legend of the raven is acted out. The legend explains how the raven lost his ability fo speak because of his selfishness." Spirit in a landscape. The people beyond. A N.F.B. film 106c 0 176 30 1 - about Inuit art from the Dorset/Thule cultures Images stone B.C. 8:23 col 106c 0177 544 8 min. 23 sec. "An exhibition of 136 small Indian stone sculptures lent by collectors and museums in B.C., the U.S. and France, tour ing parts of Canada. The sculptures are representative of Northwest Coast Art but are not homogeneous as they origin ated in Alaska as well as the southern tip of Vancouver Island and inland as far as the Kamloops area. Their ages are estimated from 1000 B.C. to the 19th century A.D. The late Wilson Duff was the consultant for the exhibition and the film." Haida carver. VT 1-3.3 1964, a N.F.B. film 12 min. col int/jh/sh 0164 079 "On Canada's Pacific Coast this film finds a young Haida Indian artist shaping miniature totems from argillite. The film follows the artist to the island where he finds the stone and then shows how he carves it in the manner of his grandfather who taught him the craft." The living stone. A N.F.B. film VT 1-3.1 1958 30 min. col int/ jh/sh 35 mm: 105c 0158 027 16 mm: 106c 0158 027 "The film shows the inspiration, often related to belief in the supernatural, behind Eskimo sculpture. The Eskimo's approach to the work is to release the image he sees impris oned in the rough stone. The film centres around an old legend about the carving of the image of a sea spirit to bring food to a hungry camp." Sculpture-process of discovery. VT 1-3.4 1975 11 min. col jh/sh "Presents sculptor Norm Hines discussing his approach to creativity, explaining how he works with no preconceived form but follows the shape which is indicated by the rock itself." - a highly recommended film Joe Jacobs: Stone carver. MEC 001027 10 min. 1976. Sananguagat: Inuit masterworks. A N.F.B. film 24 min. 51 sec. colour 35 mm: 105c 0174 525 16 mm: 106c 0174 525 "An exhibition of Eskimo carvings from public and private collections brought together by the Canadian Eskimo Arts 218. Council. This is the true art of the Inuit, the express ion in stone, ivory, and bone of their life and the animal co-dwellers of their Arctic domain. Alternating between close-ups of the exhibits are views of the daily life in the Iglootik Settlement of the N.W.T. where the outdoor scenes were filmed" (p. 180). 1 3. Building blocks/Bricks - Consult Beecroft, G. Carving techniques. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1976; and Leyh, E. Children make sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. 14. Bone Example: Inuit (whalebone) 15 . Ivo ry Examples: Benin Prehistoric Chinese Tommaso Macri Audio Visual Resource: • o Ivory carving through the ages AV 4-7007 A78 C7, a available from the Curriculum Library, Faculty University of British Columbia. 16 . Shell and 17. Horn - Consult Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. films trip of Education, 219. 1 8. Plastics - Consult Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for  students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. Meilach, D.Z. Creative carving. Chicago: Reilly and Lee, 1969. 19. Cement/Ciment fondu - Consult Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for  s tudents. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. 20. Acrylic - Consult Arundell, D. Exploring sculpture. London: C.T. Bransford Co., 1971; Bunch, C. Acrylic for sculpture and  design. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 19 72 . 21. Aerated Concrete - Consult Arundell, J. Exploring sculpture. London: C.T. Bransford Co., 19 71. 220 . Section IV: Part 3 - Substitution Substitution refers to the technique of reproducing a given shape by pouring a temporarily fluid material into a mould. The solidified material is the reproduction. Casting also refers to this imitative device. There are four types of moulds: 1. flexible 3. sand 2. piece 4.waste - consult the glossary in Section II for definition of terms. An example of the waste mould technique--clay to plaster, is developed as a model. Other examples of media for the substitu tion technique are: 2. Wax (or other combustible material) to metal - Bibliography Beecroft, G. Casting techniques for sculpture. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1979. Edwards, K. Lost wax casting of jewellery. An introduction to investment casting. London: Mills and Boon Ltd., 1974. - an excellent resource book for centrifugal casting Mills, J.W. The technique of casting for sculpture. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1967. O'Connor, H. Procedures and formulas for metal craftsmen. Calgary: McAra Printing Ltd., 1976. von Neuman, R. The design and creation of jewelry. Philadelphia: Chilton Book Co., 1972. 3. Plaster to fibreglass 4. Clay to papier mache 5. Clay to cement or ciment fondu 22 1. 6. Sand or clay to wax 7. Aeryli c - Consult Bunch, C. Acrylic for sculpture and design. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972. 8. Slip casting Subs t it ut ion - Bibliography Bell, R. Taking casts in sand. Toronto: The Pergamon English Library, 1970. Chaney, C, & Skee , S. Plaster mold and model making. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1973. - there is a good chapter on piece moulds Coleman, R.L. S culp ture. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publisher, 1968. Dawson, R. Starting with sculpture. The elements of modelling  and casting. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers, 1968. Dawson, R., & J. Sculpture with simple materials. Menlo Park: Lane Books, 1966. - "(teaches) design skills and craft skills at the same time presenting a basic element of design which will exploit the qualities of each new medium" (p. 5); e.g., wire, papier mache, plaster and clay. Kowal, D., & Meilach, D.Z. Sculpture casting. Mold techniques  and materials. Metals, plastics and concrete. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1972. "This book is designed to help corroborate current enthus iasm for cast sculpture. It illustrates the technical know-how needed for working with a variety of materials. It 222 . offers historical examples to show the heritage of casting and contemporary ideas. In addition to offering technology for the serious student and professional it is an important book for anyone interested in the various processes of the art" (p. 8). Marks, M.K. Sand sculpting. New York; The Dial Press, 1962. Sternbergs, J. Images in sand. The University Press of Kentucky, 1977. Examples: - many bronze casts, both naturalistic documentation and ab s t ra c t, can be found in the city of Vancouver (consult Slide Notes  Section III). - some of these local examples were created by: Jack Harman Charles Marega Elek Imredy David Marshall Roy Lewis Frank Perry Henry Moore Giacomo Manzu - other fine examples of the casting technique: Antoine-Louis Barye Umberto Boccioni Giovanni da Bologna Constantin Brancusi Cesar Raymond Duchamp-Villon Sir Jacob Epstein Sorel Etrog Lorenzo Ghiberti Francis Loring William McElcheran Aristide Maillol Marino Marini Henri Matisse Nigerian (Ife, Benin) Eduardo Paolozzi Pe ruvi an Pollaiuolo Bros. 223. Alberto Giacometti Mark Prent Jap ane s e Frederic Remington Gaston Lachaise Renoi r Wilhelm Lehmbruck Rodin Jacques Lipchitz George Segal - an excellent resource book for additional examples is by Leisinger, H. Romanesque bronzes. Church portals in medieval  Europe. London: Phoenix House Ltd., 1956. Part 3 - Substitution - Clay to plaster - bas relief - heads So far we have been examining sculpture in the round. We are now going to focus on the frontal bas relief concept of sculpture using the image of the human head. Slide Presentation First of all we will take a brief look at bas relief from around the world using slides: 1. This alabaster plaque taken from the Assyrian palace of Dur Sharrukin of the 8th century B.C., is a relief of The Hero  Gilgamesh (an epic legend). The artist uses the convention, well known in Egypt and common also in Assyrian reliefs, of the body seen frontally, the feet in profile (Bazin, 1976, fig. 99, p. 121). 2. This next example is a stone stele from Monte Alban, Mexico. It is a mixture of figurative and decorative shapes (Fraser, 1962, fig. 149, p. 251). - a model lesson 224. 3. This architectural relief known as Pharaoh's Treasure  House is found in Petra, southern Jordan. Carved in red sand stone cliffs this relief forms the entire facade of the 'build ing'; i.e., the interior is a cave (postcard - Zkaili Trading Agencies, P.O. Box 1866, Amman, Jordan). 4. Weird and wonderful images have decorated the exteriors and interiors of buildings throughout the ages. Consider this medieval relief depicting a Fabulous Beast Devouring a Naked Man, a detail of a capit al ca. 1140-50. It is an example of a scene of infernal torment where the monsters are terrifying. The mons ter here portrayed is seen with the two profiles of its body stretched out on either side of its head, a Romanesque perspect ive device wholly appropriate to the shape of the capital (Salvini, 1969, fig. 114, p. 326). What interior and exterior architectural reliefs have you noticed in your own community? Consult the Slide Notes Section  III. What media and techniques were used to create these reliefs? Now to change the subject matter of the slides and look at six examples of the human head. This image was chosen as it has been a theme explored by man throughout time and by most cultures around the world. As you look at these slides, try to think of how the facial features could first be formed in a negative way so that fluid plaster could fill these cavities, set, and be re moved from the clay negative in order to form a plaster positive. It would be helpful if slides 5-10 could be shown two at a time, for example, 5&6, 7&8, 9&10. 5. One of the most famous heads in the western world is The Gold Mask from the Treasures of Tutankhamun (postcard -225 . George Rainbird Ltd.). A comparison can be made with this mask and the 6. Royal Head with ornaments showing 16th century Portu guese emissaries, Benin, Nigeria. H. 9%" . This ivory carving has the same clean lines and stylized decorations of the Egyptian mask (postcard - The British Museum). Slides 7 and 8 can also be compared and contrasted: Slide #7 being the Egyptian plaster Death Mask of Amenhotep 1370 B.C. (Bazin, 1976, fig. 72, p. 112), and Slide #8 being created by Ernst Barlach. Head (bronze) is a detail of Barlach's famous War Monument in Gustrow Cathedral (Johnson, 1960, p. 29). What do these two 'heads' have in com mon? 9. This is a Bella Bella Moon Mask from a Kwakiutl shaman's burial house. H. 14%". It has an interesting 'collar' that might prove to be an interesting addition to your cast head. Provincial Museum, Victoria (Fraser, 1962, fig. 173, p. 291). 10. Another example of a Mask that has an open mouth is from the Congo. H. 70 cm (Postcard Editions des Musees Nationaux 1971. Reproduction interdite—Genese imp. Paris). What would you have to do to your clay negative in order to have such an 'open' mouth, i.e., a negative space in your plaster cast? The last two slides deal with the technique for creating plaster reliefs. These plaster casts are done by Marcia Pitch's students at Moscrop Secondary School in Burnaby. Her students used animal imagery but the technique is the same as the one pre sented in this study. 226 . 11. 12. Method - A study of the human skull would be useful. - Suggestions: create a self portrait, do this activity after an extended session of drawing the face, consider the impressionistic mode of expression, emphasize the lines and textures of the face. - A 'bed' of soft clay placed on a board is dug out, indented and built up to create the opposite of the final form you desire. For example: Clay negative Plaster positive - Build up four walls of at least 6 cm, sealing the bottom of the walls to the bed of the clay carefully. These walls will dam the plaster and provide an appropriate thickness of plaster; less than 3 cm would be too fragile unless the head was very small. A relief of 8 cm from the tip of the nose to the back ground is a suggested maximum depth. Avoid very thin, long pinched clay edges. - Consider how naturalistic you wish your head to be. You may wish to s tylize or simplify the facial features. The following 227 Audio Visual Resources might be useful for that purpose: Curriculum Lab., Faculty of Education filmstrip, AV 4-7370 M38 N6 N.F.B. Masks of the North American Indian. The loon's necklace A-312 CFL 1948 10 minutes color Indian folklore as told by filming masks carved by Salish Indians of British Columbia (recommended in A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book) . Behind the masks N.F.B. 36:40 color 106c 0173152. - A visit to the Museum of Anthropology, The University of B.C., in order to study and sketch the masks on display is another possibility. - When two or three students have completed their clay negatives, supervise the plaster mixing, again following the instructions enclosed in Section III: Part 2 - Subtraction. - A demonstration on pouring a thin slurry of plaster in order to completely cover the clay should be given; this 'coat' is the one that will pick up any fine detail. - No time should be wasted after pouring the first coat. Pour the desired thickness and as the plaster begins to set, insert a wire hook ^Sb. ^ cm from the top of the head; use more than one hook if the head is especially large. - Plaster does set in twenty minutes but great care should be taken to separate the clay from the plaster, particularly if any undercuts are apparent. For example: 228. Inverting the board/clay/plaster before separation begins is ad vised. - Clean the plaster surface with soapy water and a brush if necessary. - Dry thoroughly: the plaster will become lighter in colour and weight . - Seal with shellac, white glue or clear polymer; more than one coat might be necessary (Marcia's students used thinned shellac). (Decide how realistic you wish the colour to be. Edward Kienholz's Derelicts and Mark Prent's figures evoke a strong reaction from viewers partially due to the fact that the colour used is 'super-real'). - Stain with diluted oil paints, wood stains, or commercial patinas such as Rub 'n' Buff or Sculpmetal; apply liberally allowing the liquid stain to flow into the incised lines. - Wipe raised surfaces to achieve highlights.. - Display the work to advantage; consider the background material to be used (its texture and colour) and the lighting. - Have the students apply critical strategies to their own re liefs and those of peers, relating to* - expressive intent - materials use - selection of image - tools and equipment use - composition - sequence of processes - development of image - technical competence - completion - experience Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book. Ministry of Education, Province of B.C., Victoria, B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft, p. 183. -11 ''..•'•V.»f-'i,y''*''iin 2 30 . Section IV: Part 4 - Addition Addition refers to the technique of assembling and construct ing fabrications with two or more media, often discards. Media and types of addition sculpture *1. Soft Sculpture (also refer to #8, #9, #10) 2. Paper and cardboard objects 3. Wire and other materials 4. Papier mache/Plaster bandages and 'finishing touches' 5. Metal objects 6. Wooden objects 7. Plastic objects 8. Dolls 9. Puppets 10. Toys 11. Kinetic Sculpture 12. Boxed assemblage 13. Masks and Body Sculpture 14. Dioramas 15. Conceptual art 16. Mixed media Refers to the model lesson developed in Part 4. Addit ion - Bibliography Arundell, J. Exploring sculpture. London: Mills and Boon, 197 1. "My aim in writing this book is to explain some of the easy effective ways of making sculpture that are available to everyone. It is not my concern to make aesthetic evalua tions " (p. 7) . - includes carving, modelling, casting, folding, expanding, building, constructing, and architectural sculpture - limited use for young children Brommer, G.F. Wire sculpture and other three dimensional cons t ruet ion. Worcester: Davis Publishers Inc., 1968. - addressed to changing techniques in sculpture that can be carried out in the classroom - a springboard for real experimentation - emphasis additive; sets typical problems - excellent book but best for secondary art Coleman, R.L. Sculpture. A basic handbook for students. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers, 1968. - one of the best books I've found; a systematic approach t studying sculpture in depth D'Amico, V., & Buchman, A. Assemblage. A new dimension in creative teaching in action. Greenwich: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1972. - 78 projects using the arts of collage and construction for children and young people from 4-14 years. "The proj ects are designed to integrate idea, aesthetic concept, 232 . tools, and materials with the creative interests and abilities of the respective age levels" (p. 33). Laxton, M. Using construction materials. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 19 74. LeFevre, G. Junk sculpture. Don Mills: Saunders of Toronto Ltd., 1973. - simple to the more complicated; specific instructions for the design and construction of each sculpture - excellent history of Junk Sculpt ure but I don't recommend the projects as they are outlined in this book Leyh, E. Children make sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 19 72. - shows children involved in making sculpture; author believes the sculptures do not have to be artistic, fin ished, or good rather the activity itself matters and the knowledge gained by the child of form and materials - unlabelled sculptures done by 3-17 year olds; author con cerned that children should be encouraged to produce their own work in their own way, free of adult aesthetic stand ards Meilach, D.Z., & Hoor, E.T. Collage and found art. New York: Reinhold Book Corp., 1964. Meilach, D.Z. Creating art from anything. Ideas, materials and technology. New York: Galahad Books, 1968. - includes an assemblage and glue chart Payne, G.C. Fun with sculpture. London: Kaye and Ward, 1971. - includes balsa wood, wire and plaster, constructions, dis cussion of found objects, assemblages, threads, paper, 233. mobiles, foamed plastics and polyester resins; excellent illustrations Rasmusen, H., & Grant, A. Sculpture from junk. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1967. - a brief history and technical information Reed, C., & Towne, B. Sculpture from found objects. Worcester: Davis Publishers Inc., 1974. - visual resource on the use of found objects and contain ers, including sand, thread, yarn, fabrics, paper cups, egg cartons, wire and metal - an idea book; photographs more valuable than written ma t te r Robertson, S. Using natural materials. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 19 74. Weiss, H. Collage and construction. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Inc., 1970. - includes useful mechanical tricks for paper and other constructions Audio Visual Resources Thingumaj igs, a N.F.B. film 6:01 col 106c 0376 274 int/jh This is a film about creations, and their inventors who ride them, drive them, row them and look at them. Designing with everyday materials VA-38a HRW 1971 12 min. colour - a film recommended in Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/ Resource Book, Sept. 1981 Draft. 234. Part 4 - Addition The last technique of sculpture developed in this study, addition, is the most contemporary of the four processes. Dat ing from the time of the Dada and Surrealists, 'junk' sculpture has been created since 1910 only. Contrary to sculptors manipu lating or subtracting a single medium or substituting one medium for another, addition is the assembling, the constructing, the fabricating, the combining of more than one medium. This revo lutionary way of creating sculpture uses the following methods: gluing taping tying nailing wedging binding screwing fastening soldering welding hooking sewing Addition often means the recycling of discards, objects used and discarded by man, unused objects that have their purpose altered, and found 'nature'., objects. Such media can.be found in dumps, attics, basements, thrift stores, wreckers, school 'shops', vacant lots, construction sites, garage sales, rummage sales, salvage companies, auctions and friends and relations' places of wo rk . This technique has the advantages of: - freedom from structural limitations, - manipulative intimacy, . - comparative rapidity of execution, - inexpensive and readily available materials commonly available in our materialistic/throw-away society, - objects themselves which suggest form and content, 235 . - being temporarily assembled before final arrangement is de te rmine d, - using found objects that may be less frightening for the students to work with than a blank paper, - transferring which objects can be similar to child's play and magic. 1. Soft Sculp ture - The Human Figure - a model lesson Soft sculpture was chosen as the model of the addi tion tech nique to demonstrate the integration of the historical, critical, and productive domains of sculpture because it holds a special fascination for this researcher. There are so many possibilit ies of using: rubber leather feathers wire mesh vinyl fiber plastics polystyrene polyurethane in combination with other hard and soft materials. Not only can: binding quilting braiding stitching stuffing knitting embroidery crocheting weaving twisting sewing be used for the design of textile arts that celebrate the elem ents and principles of design, but these techniques can be used by contempoary sculptors as well. Sculptors can not only create sculpture of a f o rmalis t, functional and ornamental nature, they can use soft sculpture as a means to be self expressive, to document events, and to make religious, philosophical, and polit ical statements. The possibility of using the 'feminine arts' 236 . for these rationales of sculpture is an important one for the students to consider and one to which they should be exposed. It opens up the question concerning the lack of 'women artists recognized throughout the history of the visual arts as well as the debate of what is art? what is craft? Slide Presentation The contributors to the brief history of soft sculpture are: 1. Cesar, Jeans, 19 75 compressed cotton (Constantine/ Larsen, 1980, p. 12). 2. Man Ray, Enigma of Isidore Ducasse, 1920 (Constantine/ Larsen, 1980, p. 13). 3. Christos, Wrapped Coast (in progress), 19 7 1, Little Bay, Sydney, Australia. (Vanguard, The Vancouver Art Gallery, Nov. 19 7 7 , 6_(8), 17.) Christos is also famous for his Running  Fence, 1976, nylon canvas, 18' x 24% miles long, installed in Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, as well as other propos als to wrap and package buildings. Robert Morris, who is more widely known for his environ mental and conceptual art has also worked with heavy slabs of industrial grey felt. Claes Oldenburg has done much to bring attention to soft sculpture. Two examples of his work follow: 4. Sof t Bathtub, 1966 , vinyl, polyurethane, liquitex, wood, and rubber, 80 x 30 x 30". Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Roger Davidson, Toronto. Photo: Eric Pollitzer (Johnson, 1971, fig. 19, p. 31), and 5. Shoestring Potatoes Spilling from a Bag, 1965-66 can vas, kapok, glue, liquitex, 108 x 46 x 42". Walker Art Centre, 237. Minneapolis. Photo: Eric Pollitzer (Johnson, 1971, fig. 40, P. 55) . 6. Bed, by Robert Rauschenberg, is another example of the use of soft media. The term applied to this type of art is 'combine painting'. - mixed media 1955, 75% x 31% x 6%" Coll.: Mr. and Mrs. Leo Castelli, New York (Forge, 1969, fig. 180). "A composition that includes such pedestrian household furnishings as a pillow, sheet, and patchwork quilt bespattered with paint. This is a highly charged emotional object in which the elements no longer have a usefulness but are preserved. Rauschenberg's loving irreverance for fabric, fabric objects, and fabric painting called attention to fabric as a medium and the potential within it" (Constantine/Larsen, 1980, p. 17). The next four examples are done by internationally recog nized fabric artists: 7. Yayoi Kusama from Japan created Couch and Canvas assemb lage; cotton, c. 35" x 83" x 35" Coll.: Dartmouth College, New Hampshire . Hundreds of variously shaped and sized cloth packages are first stuffed, then stitched to a couch frame. The whole is then sprayed white. The form is familiar, the function not (Ibid., p. 127). 8. Magdalena Abakanowicz from Poland created Human  Structure Images, part of her Cycle "Alterations" 1974-75 (Ibid., p. 33). 9. Ritzi and Peter Jacobi from Romania, who now live in Germany, created Transylvania I, 19 72 , a tapes try/drawing made from goat hair, horse hair, and paper, 18' x 20' x 5'. "Throughout the 70's the Jacobis have combined woven work 238. with drawing on paper. The combination is unified by the palette and image—especially the fiber-like drawing and the drawing-like fringes" (Ibid., p. 61). 10. Another example created by Magdalena Abakanowicz is Heads, 1974-75 wrapping, sisal, stitching, jute sacking, 47" x 23" x 31" (Ibid., p. 130). "The heads shown here are from Abakanowicz's long series entitled Alterations 1974-75. All involved wrapped sisal; most were covered with pieces of jute or linen sacking. Direct, primitive stitching is common to most, while wrapping similar to mummy bundles happens less frequently. For her environmental exhibitions, she usually composes groups of these heads to portray the mute frustrations of modern man" (Ibid., pp. 32-33). Another part of the rationale for choosing soft sculpture is that there are a number of local women artists that work with soft media, artists that sometimes receive little recognition. Some examples: Evelyn Roth - creates body sculptures for performances. Joanna Staniszkis - weaves fibres that incorporate the third dimension. Marcia Pitch - uses soft and hard media in her interior envi r onmen ts. Liz Magor's A Concise History and Compost Figures incorpor ated soft media. Joey Morgan - her one woman show Breathings incorporated garments and fibers, U.B.C. Fine Arts Gallery, March 1979. Fern Helfand's stuffed and stitched wall hangings were part of the On the Surface show at Presentation House, North Vancouver, June 1981. Lorraine Konst - creates dolls. 239 . Katherine Dickerson's The Forest is a three dimensional weaving around the steps of the Department of Public Works, Victoria. Camerose Ducote - uses cloth, rhoplex, paint, fibrefill moulded around chicken-wire armatures to construct her soft zoos full of life-size and larger-than-life animals exhibited at the Burnaby Art Gallery, March 1983 . Other Canadian women artists using soft media include: Aiko Suzuki Irene Whittome Setsuko Piroche Colette Whiten. Joyce Wieland At the same time as students are experimenting with combin ing soft media it is feasible and desirable that they work with the most common image in the history of world sculpture: the human figure. An excellent resource that discusses this history is the filmstrip-tape series on Elements of Sculpture Part,I. The Human Image. This first of a four part series "surveys the human figure—the primary subject of sculpture throughout hist ory. Figures from Europe, Egypt, Greece, Africa, India, the Far East and the Americas present a full range of styles from extreme realism to total abstraction" (1978, Educational Audio Visual Inc., Pleasantville, N.Y. 10570 7KF 0060/7RF 0060 Library of Congress Catalog No. 78-730251). As you look at the following slides (if possible use two slide projectors at once, facilitating a comparison and contrast of images) think about expressionistic sculpture and what emo tions you would like your figure to depict. How did the following artists depict the human figure? Why? Try to imagine why these sculptures were created: 11. Pis cobolos Roman copy after a bronze original ca. 450 B.C. by Myron marble H. 58V (Spencer, 1975, fig. 371, p. 489). 13. Umberto Boccioni's Unique  Forms of Continuity in  Space 1913 bronze (Bazin, 12. Woman with Laundry Basket by Duane Hanson, mixed media 1974 (Hanson, fig. 42 , p . 95) . 14. Man in Open Air c. 1915 by Elie Nadelman, Museum of Moden Art, New York, bronze 1976, fig. 989, p. 432). In the other sections of this study you have seen the female fig ure depicted in various media and techniques. In the following series try and imagine what these sculptures could be saying about women: 15. August Renoir The Washer woman 1917 The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 17. Marisol Women and Dog wood, plaster, paint and miscellaneous materials 1964 (Bazin, 1976, fig. 1023, p. 448). 19. Edward Kienholz Jane Doe 1959 mixed media (Assemb lage in Calif., 1968, fig. 7, p. 19). 16. Gaston Lachaise S tanding  Woman 1932 bronze. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. 18. School of Jacob de Gerines - Anne of Burgundy as Humili ty, bronze Flemish 1445 or 1476 (Bazin, 1976, fig. 678, p. 315). 20. What does the media tell us about women, i.e., the fashion industry, T.V. com me r cials -- fo r example an 241. - the figure is absurd, Eaton's mannequin, humorous, pathetic, corny and tragic, as are the materials used in the mak ing of this 'person'. What emotions are expressed in these examples? 21. The Kaddish by the stud- 22. Der Mann im Stock, Ernst ent Lauren Gubbau, aged Barlach 1918 Eiche, H. 730 15, clay (Hoover, 1967, cm, Kunsthalle, Hamburg fig. 11). (Stubbe, 1959, fig. 34). What do you think these sculptors are trying to say about the disabled and the elderly? 23. another work by Ernst 24. George Segal's Old Woman at Barlach, Ekstatische Frau the Window 1965 plaster, 1920 oder fruher. Gips chrome, wood, glass and unter schellack H. 377 cm board 96 x 36 x 48" Coll. Nachlaf, Gustrow (Stubbe, Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Hirsh, 1959, fig. 42). Beverly Hills, Calif. (Seitz , 19 72 , fig. 50) . Lastly, consider the media used in the depiction of these human figures: 25. Setsuko Piroche Metamor- 26. Alexander Calder's Sword phosis, Vanguard June/July Swallowe r from his Circus 1977, V(5), p. 21. Photo: collection (Lipman, 1972, R. Keziere. Made with p. 88), made with wire, threads and feathers. fabric and mixed media. Before you begin your own work think about how the human figure is depicted in Vancouver. Some examples are: 242. Are a 1 - Girl in Wetsuit Are a 2 - King George VI Area 3 - The Skater Area 4 - Angel of Victory Are a 5 - Continuity - what media was used; how did that media influence the 'style'? - what techniques and traditions were used? - what symbolism do you notice? - what was the rationale for the sculpture? - what emotions are represented by these sculptures? What kind of figure do you wish to create? - miniature/lifesize - female/male - old/young - self portrait, friend, member of the family - folk or sport hero - a doll, puppet, toy, wall hanging, mobile, a kinetic piece of sculpture What emotion/feeling do you wish to depict? - joy/sorrow - concern/envy - fright/courage - excitement/apathy - greed/compassion - sadness/happiness - anger/pleasure - humility/bravado - isolation/camaraderie - love/hate Sketches of your ideas for facial expressions will need to be complemented with a knowledge of body language so that the entire figure depicts the feeling/emotion. Collect and sort the necessary discards. A list of poss ible media can be found in the introduction to this model les son. Use the references and the introduction to ascertain what skills of addition you wish to use for your figure. Particular attention should be paid to staging your figure upon completion. Decide on whether to display singly or in groups. Create an environment, interior or outdoor, using found objects. The importance of mood, impact and lighting is illust rated in the film If Brains were Dynamite You Wouldn't Have  Enough to Blow Your Nose N.F.B. 28:30 minutes. "Creation of Montreal sculptor Mark Prent--a sculpture of a naked male quadruple amputee sitting in a wheel chair. The film shows the step-by-step construction of the unusual work, from the plaster casting on the artist himself to the insertion of realistic eyes (glass). Reactions of amazement and sometimes shock on the part of the viewers of the exhibition at a Toronto art gallery indicate that Prent's work is often condemned but also respected" (catalogue). Be sure to preview this film; it would not be suitable for some students or situations. Another film that has to do with media and technique is: Woven in Time, Evelyn Roth, CFD 000072 1977 10 minutes Sculpture MEC. Have the students apply critical strategies to their own creations and those of their peers, relating to:* - expressive intent - materials use - selection of image - tools and equipment use Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Province of B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft, p. 183. composition development of image completion - sequence of processes - technical competence - experience '-0 IV *\ 3* z*t6 as :3 I 10 iVm- II IV'-** :W-ft fc'^AAV EKTACHROME GAGEL PHOTO SERVICE LTD. 9t :fr-*Af 247. 1. Soft Sculpture - Bibliography Bakke, K. The sewing machine as a creative tool. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1976. Constantine, M., & Larsen, J.L. The art fabric: Mainstream. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980. Coutts, L. Baskets and beyond. New uses for traditional basketry techniques. New York: Watson-Guptill Publishers, 19 77 . The Evelyn Roth recycling book. Vancouver: Talon Books, Hemlock Printers, 1975. Hall, C.V. Soft Sculpture. Don Mills: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1981. Meilach, D.Z. Macrame. Creative design in knotting. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1971. Meilach, D.Z. Soft sculpture and other soft art forms. New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1974. Waller, I. Textile sculptures. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1977. - recommended in Grades 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource  B ook, Ministry of Education, Province of B.C., Sept. 1981 Draft. Examples: Local, Canadian, and international sculptors are listed within the soft sculpture model lesson. Further examples: Al-Hilali, Neda Morris, Robert (used heavy felt) de Amaral, Olga Peruvian dolls Buic, Jagoda Samaras, Lucas 248. Di Mare, Dominic Sekimachi, Kay Hicks, Sheila Tawney, Lenore Jacobi, Ritzi and Peter Winsor, Jackie Zeisler, Claire 2. Paper and Cardboard Objects including containers, cartons, boxes, rolls, tubes and cups. Example: Kurt Schwitters Audio Visual Resource: Paper construction AV 4 7008 A 78 1972 3:4, a filmstrip avail able from the Curriculum Lab, Faculty of Education, The University of British Columbia. 3. Wire and other materials such as liquid metal, plastic resins, sheet metal, enamelled metal, wire screen and mesh, glass and found objects. Examples: An Whitlock Sherry Grauer 4. Papier mache/Plaster bandages and 'finishing touches' - Bibliography (Consult Section IV: Part 1 - Manipulation #4 and #8.) Examples: George Segal Mark Prent Edward Kienholz Duane Hanson Audio Visual Resource: Papier Mache AV 4 7008 A78 1972, 3:2, a filmstrip available from the Curriculum Lab, Faculty of Education, The Univer sity of British Columbia. 5. Metal objects - welded, brazed, soldered - Bibliography (Consult Section IV: Part 1 - Manipulation #7.) Examples: Mark di Suvero Anthony Caro David Smith 6. Wooden objects joined with rivets, screws, lock joints, nails, glue, dowels, pegging and bolting. - Consult Meilach, D.Z. Contemporary art with wood. New York . Crown Publishers Inc., 1968. Examples: Louise Nevelson Marisol 7. Plastics including containers, cloth, sheets, bottles - Bibliography (Consult Section IV: Part 1 - Manipulation #9.) 8. Dolls - Bibliography Glubok, S. Dolls. Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1975. Laury, J.R. Doll making. A creative approach. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1970. 250 . 9. Puppe ts  Audio Visual Resources: Puppets AV 4 7008 A 78 1972, 3:3 Puppetry - miniatures for theatre AV 4 7400 P865 1978 1:2:3 - two filmstrips available from the Curriculum Lab, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia. 10. Toys 11. Kinetic Sculpture (also refer to #7, #8, and #9) - Bibliography Chichura, D.B., & Stevens, T.K. Super sculpture. Using science, technology and natural phenomena in sculpture. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974. Selz, P. Directions in kinetic sculpture. Berkeley: The University Art Museum, University of California, 1966. Examples: Robert Breer Len Lye Pol Bury Charles Mattox Alexander Calder George Rickey Hans Haacke Takis Harry Kramer Jean Tinguely Audio Visual Resource: Kinetic art #6 14 15 min. colour and Dim. Corp., Stamford, Conn. s ound f i1ms trip, Educational 251. 12. Boxed Assemblages - Bibliography Capon, R. Making three dimensional pictures. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1976. Feldman, E.B. Varieties of visual experience. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1971. Niches, boxes, and grottoes, pp. 493-501. Examples: Mary Bauermeister Joseph Cornell Marcel Duchamp Al McWilliams Louise Nevelson 13. Masks and Body Sculpture 14. Dioramas - Michael Foster, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, is an excellent resource person. 15. Conceptual Art 16 Mixed Media Examples: Barry Cogswell Naum Gabo Michael Hayden Picasso Richard Prince Raus chenbe rg Simon Rodia Michael Snow Colette Whiten Alan Wood Alex Wyse Badanna Zack 252. References for Section IV Part 1 - Manipulation Reference list for slides in the model lesson: Clay Animals Bazin, G. The history of world sculpture. Secaucus: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1968. Fernandez, J. Mexico's prehispanic sculpture. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, 1976. Lipman, J. (Ed.). Calder's circus. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Inc. , 19 72. Look again, The 1968 Childcraft Annual. Toronto: Field Enter prises Educational Corp., 1968. Miki, F. Arts of Japan 8: Haniwa. New York: Weatherhill, 19 74. Rottger, E. Creative clay design. New York: Reinhold Publish ing Corp., 1962. Weisberg, G.P., & Janson, H.W. Traditions and revisions. Themes from the history of sculpture. Kent: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975. Weiss, H. Clay, wood and wire. Reading, Mass.: Young Scott Books, 1956 (j). Part 2 - Subtraction Reference list for slides in the model lesson: Plaster, abstract sculpture Armand Filion sculpteur. Quebec Sculptors' Association Exemplaire 253 . no. 162, 1970. Bazin, G. The history of world sculpture. Secaucus: Chartwell Books Inc., 1968. Pioneers of modern sculpture. London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1973. Read, H. A concise history of modern sculpture. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964. Read, H. Henry Moore. A study of his life and work. London: Thames and Hudson, 1965. Part 3 - Substitution Reference list for slides in the model lesson: Clay to plaster heads in bas relief Bazin, G. The history of world sculpture. Secaucus: Chartwell Books Inc., 1968. Fraser, D. Primitive art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1962. Johnson, L. The basic methods and materials - sculpture. New York: David McKay Co. Inc., 1960. Salvini, R. A history of western sculpture. Greenwich, N.Y.: New York Graphic Society, 1969. Part 4 - Addition Reference list for slides in the model lesson: Soft  sculpture and the human figure Assemblage in California. '60's . Art Gallery, 1968. Works from the late '50's and early Regents of the University of California, 254 Bazin, G. The history of world sculpture. Secaucus: Chartwell Books Inc., 1968. Constantine, M., & Larsen, J.L. The art fabric: Mainstream. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980. Forge, A. Raus chenb erg. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 1969. Hanson, D. Erste Retrospektive des Amerikanischen Bildhauers. Travelling exhibition, Stuttgart, Aacken, Berlin, 1974. Hoover, L. (Ed.). Young sculptors. Worcester: Art Resource Publication, Division of Davis Publishers Inc., 1976. Johnson, E.H. Claes Oldenburg. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1971. Lipman, J. (Ed.). Calder's circus. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co. Inc., 19 72. Seitz, W.C. Segal. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc. Publishers, 19 72. Spencer, H. The image maker. Man and his art. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975. Stubbe, W. Ernst Barlach plastik. Munich: R. Piper and Co., 1959 . 255 . SECTION V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This study attempts to answer some important questions. It states why sculpture should be considered as an essential component in a school art program. It gives one approach as to how sculpture should be introduced. It presents a glossary so that teachers and their students can develop common terms of reference for discussing and analyzing sculpture. An answer to the question—what is sculpture?--is the key to the resource kit. Reasons are given as to why local resources should in itially be studied and how this study should be conducted. Four models are developed regarding the four techniques of sculpture. The intention of the project--to provide teachers with a survey of the diversity and breadth of sculpture based on the historical, critical, and productive domains—has hope fully been realized. While this resource kit should prove help ful to the art and classroom teacher alike, the limitations of the material must be noted. No direction has been given in using the kit for any spec ific age group. It is left to the teacher's discretion as to the quantity and the manner by which this information is made available to the students. More assistance in using the resource kit would be possible if mini lessons were developed using the enclosed slides. Examples of such mini lessons would be to con centrate on the rationales only, the modes of expression only, or the elements and principles of design only. An extension of this mini lesson idea would be to provide slides with accompany ing dialogue that demonstrate and support the weighty significance of different points of view, i.e., angles, distance, and differ ent light conditions when viewing sculpture. Another possible extension is to concentrate on residential and commercial sculp ture as a starting point for the study. Themes were introduced in the fieldtrip activities and in the four model lessons in Section IV but many more mini lessons based on other themes are possible. For example, the human figure could be developed into a series of mini lessons that could focus on the solitary figure reclining, sitting or standing, or fragments only of the figure*, the couple and groups of figures, e.g., the family, people at work, people at play, people in crowds. These mini lessons ex posing cross-cultural differences and similarities could be en lightening. Mini lessons on the different 'styles' of sculpture would benefit secondary art students, e.g., lessons in which classical, kinetic, expressionistic, conceptual, constructivist, cubist, Futurist, minimal, Surreal, architectural or environ mental sculpture could be explored in depth. While I believe that this resource kit is a good initiation into the study of sculpture in general, a critical area that still needs to be explored is the whole question of the relation ship between art and history. Teachers and students need to decide for themselves the real relationship between art (with sculpture a key component) and life. This relationship can best be explored by asking pertinent questions. What role did sculp ture play in various cultures of the past and what role does it play in various cultures around the world today? How do social events such as the civil rights movement, the womens' movement and the peace movement influence the sculptor? How does the 25 7. sculptor influence social events--as a social-change agent or as an image maker who strives to maintain values held by the society in which he lives? What is happening in sculpture today in Van couver, in British Columbia, in Canada? What is happening to it in Western cultures, in Eastern cultures, in 'primitive' societ ies? Is contempoary sculpture relevant to today's society or independent of it? How can sculpture be a form of visual commun ication? Does sculpture need to be a form of visual communica tion? These questions are of paramount importance in art educa tion. In conclusion, I am able to state that the wealth of sculp ture—what it can tell us about our past and present and about our culture and ourselves—validates the study of it. I posit that this previously unavailable, all-in-one resource kit, intro duction and approach to sculpture will be an asset to teachers who do not have the time to research this area of visual expres sion themselves. While the resource kit has been used in my own teaching during a winter and a summer session at the University of British Columbia, it has yet to be tested in elementary and secondary classrooms. I hope to offer workshops to teachers in the future that will demonstrate the usefulness and value of this resource kit. Perhaps someone will, in the future, incorp orate some of the ideas I have proposed into a fully researched and developed sculpture curriculum. Even more important is the idea that some day sculpture will be such an equitable part of all art programs that it will not have to be an isolated area of study but an integral and vital part of the art curriculum in British Columbia's schools. APPENDIX APPENDIX The charts comprising this appendix are an attempt to comp rehensively display the diversity of sculpture. These charts alphabetically list noteworthy sculptors, and nationalities, and cultures renowned for their sculpture, against information col-umnized under headings designed for easy retrieval of topical information. All periods of history are represented. Selection of sculptors has been regulated in order to facilitate the widest possible range of media, techniques, elements and principles of design, modes of expression, 'styles', and rationales. There is also an emphasis on Canadian and, specifically, lower mainland sculptors, in order to support my dictum on the importance of studying the 'local and contempoary' before the 'international and historic' (see Section II). A special column indicating female sculptors is included in order to bolster recognition of inadequately recognized artists. The information in these charts was garnered from the exhib iting artists files at the Vancouver Art Gallery and the Fine Arts Library; the University of British Columbia; the Ministry of Education's Grades 8-12 Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Sept. 1981 Draft; the slide catalogue of the Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education, Faculty of Education, U.B.C; the historical 'landmarks' of three dimensional art from art histor ian H.W. Janson's History of Art (1969); and lectures entitled Canadian Sculpture 1970-1980, and Canadian Women Sculptors given respectively by Doreen Walker and Avis Lang Rosenberg at the Fine Arts Department of the University of British Columbia. A list of codes which reference all these sources as they appear throughout the charts, immediately follows these appendix notes. Further and considerable factors in the compilation of these charts are my experience as a sculptor and my association with the Sculptor's Society of British Columbia. Refining this list of sculptors and sculptures to lucid and manageable proportions has been a difficult and time-consuming task. Space would not allow the complete 'encyelopedic'-sized Canadian (not to mention world) list of artists and therefore omissions have been necessarily made in order to provide a clear and functional list for beginning students of this art form. It is hoped that these charts and the Slide Notes of Section III will give ample assistance to teachers wanting to knowledgeably and enhtusiastically teach sculpture. 26 1. APPENDIX KEY refers to the sculptors listed in the Grade; 8-12 A Curriculum Guide/Resource Book, Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Sept. 1981 Draft. refers to the information gained from attending Doreen Walker's lecture Canadian Sculpture: 1970-1980. refers to H.W. Janson's landmarks in sculpture cited in his Synoptic Tables found in the History of Art. A Survey of the Major Visual  Arts from the Dawn of History to the Present  Day. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1969, pp. 580-593. refers to the slides available in the Slide Collection of the Department of the Visual and Performing Arts, Faculty of Education, the University of British Columbia. refers to sculptors mentioned in Artists in Canada. Ottawa: The National Gallery Associa tion, 1982. Codes for Media a architecture j jewelry an animation m metal b batik mm mixed media 262 . c ceramics, pottery cm coins, medals co costume d drawing e enamel f film g glass, s t aine d glass gr graphic design h holography i illumination, illustration mo mosaic mu mural p painting per performance ph photography po portrait pr printmaking s sculpture v video w weaving, wall hang ings wc water colour Codes for Provinces A BC M NB NFL NS NWT 0 PEI Q S Y (a pair of quotation marks refers to titles of sculptures) SCULPTOR DATES NATION-] MEDIA ALITY TECH NIQUE 1 STYLE' Abakanowicz, Magdalena Benin Ife Luba Gabon Cameroons Congo Nigerian 1930- Polish fibre AFRICAN ivory wood clay metal manipu lation subtrac tion manipu lation substit ution 1150-1400 AD - First Ife bronzes, including naturalistic portrait heads cast by the lost wax process Andre, Carl 1935-Archambault, Louis Archipenko, Alexander 1915-1887-1964 American) Canadian] b. in Russia Ukrain-ian-Americari wood metal styro-f oam bricks metal clay plaster! manipu lation manipu lation manipu lation subs tit ution minimal cubist DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'Keys' "Heads" 1974-75 wrapping aisal, stitching Jute sacking The Art Fabric: Mainstream, pp. 130-1. - African art greatly influenced Modern Art of the developed countries - a sampling only: "Chief's Stool" carved wood, Luba, En. Congo "Spirit Mask" carved wood, Gabon "Ancestor Screen" carved wooden relief, Nigeria "Royal Head with Ornaments" ivory, Benin - in the 1500's the Bini court artists produced stylized bronze cast portrait heads, relief plaques, and exquisite ivory work "Representative of Lilwa society member" wood with rafia "Head of a Woman" terra cotta, Nigeria; very similar to the bronze heads of the Benin culture "Mask," Congo "Terra cotta Group," Nigeria "Masked Youth Dancing," Wn. Congo "Beaded Mask," Cameroons "Nail Fetish," Lower Congo - 'sculpture as place' - 'form=structure=space' "Joint" 1968 baled hay, 183 units, 274* long; destroyed *s,mu/Q "Olseau de fer" 1950 Wall at the Canadian Pavilion, Brussels Inter national Exposition, 1958 - one of the first cubist sculptors; also known as a Russian Constructlvist - interested in the void, a new spatial concept "Boxers" 1914 plaster a counter-balance of forms around a void - the breaking up of solids in a dynamic way 20th cent,. ro o> to SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Armitage, Kanneth 1916- English wood plaster metal manipu lation substitu tion - noted for his thin figures and sail-like forms that incorporate a sense of movement "Seated Group Listening to Music" 1952 bronze Arneson , Robert 1930- American clay manipu lation D.W. "Typewriter" 1965 ceramic, 10"xl2" Arp, Hans (Jean) 1887-1966 French stone bronze subtrac tion substitu tion abstract organic bio-morohic - painter, sculptor and in 1916, co-founder of Dada "Torso" 1931 marble "Cyprlana" 1955 marble, H. 17" National Gallery, Ottawa Curr. Guide "Human Concretion" 1934 marble 20th cent. Banwell, Michael 1943- Canadian plastics light wood steel minimal concept X - a graduate of the Vancouver School of Art, 1970 ual environ - instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art - took part in the Commonwealth Sculpture mental Symposium 1978 "Houses for a Vacant Lot" 1980 3 hills between 3520-3528 Commercial Dr. "Landscape for Ian Wallace's Studio" June/July 1979 Barlach, 1870- German wood subtrac expres - known for his solitary figures of peasants, Ernst 1938 bronze tion sionist beggars, etc. that were Inspired by a visit substitu tion to Russia - his figures embody a great tragic power and pessimism "Hovering Angel" 1927 detail of the bronze work, Gustrow Memorial "Singing Boy" 1928 in both wood and bronze "Prodigal Son" (detail) wood ."Beggar" 1937 Barye, An toine-Louis 1796- French bronze substitu romantic 19th cent. 1875 tion - violent animal imagery *734J "The Jaguar" 1850-5 1 bronze 16»s"x37»j" "Thesus Slaying the Minotaur"- 1846 bronze; careful attention to anatomical detail "Walking Tiger" bronze H. 8»s" National Gallery, Ottawa £ SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' [LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OP SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR Including 'keys' Baskin , Leonard 1922- Americar bronze substitu tion impres sion istic "Seated Man with Owl" 1959 (compare to Egyptian sculpture) - stylized rotund male figures Baxter, Iain & Ingrid 1936- English avant garde X *mm,pr,mic/BC - president of the N.E. Thing Co. established in 1966; it regards itself as an alternative device for exploiting cultural knowledge - V.S.I, provides Visual Sensitivity Informa tion for all art products "Pool Flower" 1967 inflatable plastic Beer, Ruth 1947- Canadian mixed media - metal, rod & sheets addition substitu tion X X - linear assemblages utilizing reflected light - shown across Canada & abroad including the Edinburgh International Festival *s/A Bell, Larry 1939- American glass minimal - the sculptor's use of reduction is so comp lete that no interior spaces are divided; all views are identical - the solid though transparent boxes are both closed and empty; they do not refract or absorb light Bentham, Douglas 1947- Canadian steel welding tradi tional ist D.W. *77s - like Gonzales, Picassso, Caro and David Smith Bentham creates collages built up of steel; a stacking procesa at first along the ground and at other times vertical as in creating figures - Bentham is an objectmaker whereby he increases our awareness of our environment. "Open Series" 1976-77 Emma Lake Workshops with Anthony Caro, 1977 "Prairies" 1977 Be mini 1598- Italian 8 tone subtrac baroque Curr. Guide "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa," Gianlorenzo 1680 tion Cornaro Chapel, Rome 1652 *609J "Apollo and Daphne" 1625 "St. Longinus" 1633 K, "Tomb for Urban VIII," a Baroque masterpiececr. Ln SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Bill, Max 1908- Swiss stone subtrac abstract 20th cent. plastic tion minimal - a painter, writer, architect as well as metal manipu plastic sculptor lation "Unit in 3 Equal Volumes" 1965, black granite "Endless Loop No. 1" 1947-49 gilded copper on a crystalline base 9x28x8" Blackbrldge, 1951- Canadian clay manipu X X *c,s/BC Persimmon lation often co with tem paint Loured lera - involved in the concerns of the women's community "Circus,' Women in Focus Gallery, Vancouver Bladen, Ronald 1918- Canadian (Vancou ver) steel manipu lation minimal - now lives in N.Y. "The X" 1967 "3 Elements" 1965 painted aluminum and wood fig. 291, p. 198 "200 Years of American Sculpture" *s/BC Blogg, Irene c. 1920-Canadian bronze substi tution • X President of the Sculptor's Society of Canada in 1978. Participated in the S.S. of Canada's Travelling Exhibition in 1971-72 "Gates of Perception" in bronze Boccioni, 1887- Italian bronze substi futur 20th cent. Umberto 1916 tution ist Curr. Guide *J "Unique Forms of Continuity in Space" 1913 dynamic form aimed at expressing the idea of the movement of the body in space by an lnterpenetra tion of planes and the use of forms intended to suggest the turbulence of movement vibrating in space 44"H. Boccioni signed both the Futurist Manifesto of 1910 and the Manifesto for Futurist Sculpture in 1912 Bologna, Giovanni 1524-1608 Italian bronze clay s tone subtrac tion substi tution *J "Rape of the Sablnes" 1579-83 bronze; the violent movement foreshadows the Baroque style - Bologna was the most famous sculptor ln Florence after the death of Michelangelo ro ON ON SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Borglum, 1867- American stone subtrac docu "Mt. Rushmore" 1927-43 S. Dakota H. 60' from Gutzon 1941 tion menta the figures' chin to forehead tion Bourdelle , 1861- French bronze substitu express - atudied Greek and Gothic sculpture Antoine 1919 tion ive - was a pupil of Rodin "The Virgin of Alsace" 1920 "Beethoven" grand masque tragique 1901 H. 32" Brancusl, 1867- Rumanian- stone subtrac abstract along with Rossi and Rodin, Brancusl was a Constant in 1957 French wood metal tion subati-tutlon pioneer of Modern Sculpture - re-worked Images such as the head, the bird, and the kiss "Sleeping Muse" 1906, 1909-10 "The Kiss" 1908 limestone "Adam and Eve" 1921 "Bird" 1912 marble on marble base 24"; a simple highly polished shape "Torso of a Young Man" 1924 "Bird ln Space" 1919 "Portrait of George" 1911 marble 9" H. "Mademoiselle Pogany" 1913 20th cent. Curr. Guide *J Bury, Pol 1922- Belgian wood kinetic "18 Superimposed Balls" 1965 Butler, Reg 1913- English metal forged or cons- "Woman Walking" 1951 bronze cas t truct- "Project for the Monument to the Unknown 'ivlst later more figura tive Political Prisoner" 1951-52 bronze wire and metal maquette, welded onto stone 17V H. Calder , Alexander 1898-1976 American wire metal manip u-lation stab iles mobiles - famous for his kinetic circus - his stabiles and mobiles which he began creat ing in 1931 are examples of a marriage of engineering and sculpture to SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR Including 'keys' Calder (cont'd! - Calder is also a painter and illustrator of children's books "The Whale" Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. Curr. Guide 20th cent. 843- CAMBODIAN stone subtrac Angkor Thorn 900AD tion Angkor Wat Canova, Antonla 1757-1822 Italian stone subtrac tion Neo-class 19th cent. Curr. Guide ical *J "Tomb of Maria Christina Pauline Bonaparte Borghese" 1808 - 1790 designed the tomb for Clement XIII - Imitated the masters to achieve greatness and 'modern' from the 'ancient classics' -.modelled clay and plaater and exhibited these for replicas to be made in marble or bronze Caro, Anthony 1924- English metal welded 20th cent. - during the 1950's Caro 's sculpture dealt with the human figure in a very expressive manner - in 1960 he began to work with monumental metal conatructions "Mid-Day" 1960 steel; brightly painted girders; flat smooth rectangular parts put loosely together "Homage to David Smith" 1966 "Midnight Gap" 1980 Ace Gallery, Vancouver "India" 3 tons rusted steel, 2 Irregularly curved rectangular sheets which lean against each other at a slight tilt, Wn. Wash. Univ., Belllngham, Wash. Carter, 1891- Canadlan cedar subtrac X "Garry" 1961 Dudley stump8 tion "Chief Spokan" 1974 participated in the Vaughan Residence exhibition in 1970; "Ram" and "Voice of the Waves" *S/BC £ OO SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Cellini, Benvenuto 1500-1571 Italian metal substitu tion 16th cent. Curr. Guide *J "Saltcellar of Francis I" 1540-43 gold "Perseus with the Head of Medusa" 1554 bronze, Florence - lived ln the shadow of Michelangelo Cesar (Baldaccinl) J921- French metal plexi glass *J "The Thumb" 1963 bronze "Mobil Compression" 1960 "Compression Plastlque" 1971 plexiglass - works with 20th century materials such as crushed cars Chadwick, Lynn 1914 English metal plaster glass manipula tion geomet ric abs tracts 20th cent.; Curr. Guide - trained as an architect - at first constructed mobiles but now does not exploit movement "Two Watchers" 1958 iron and plaster with iron chips "The Watchers" 1960 bronze 233.5 cm "Winged Figures" 1962 painted Iron 305x549 cm. Chamberlain, 1927- American auto manipula *J "Essex" 1960 painted auto parts and other John bodies tion painted metal Chappe11, Georgianna 1928- born in the U.S. light X X D.W. createa both objects' and environments created interior environment for UBC Fine Arts Gallery, Vancouver, Sept. 1980 exhibited in the Women in Focus Gallery showw Womanslze, 1981; held One Woman Show of poly-chromed constructions at the Surrey Arts Centre *mm/BC Chicago, 1939- American mixed political X "The Dinner Party" - a celebration of women's Judy media rationale contribution to western civilization CHINESE clay fabric clay manipula "Seated Lion" stone T'ang Dynasty b ronze J ade ivory stone tion subtrac tion s ubs tit u-"Horse" pottery "Long tongued protective figure" painted wood late Chou Period Sn. China N> ON VO SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE STYLE' CHRISTIAN 400-550 AD] 550-750 1015 1170-1200 1178 1245 wood stone bronze Chris tos , Javacheff 1935- Bulgarlan American Chung Hung, Alan 1946- Canadlan wood metal Cicansky, Victor 1935- Canadian clay subtrac tion substitu tion reliefs archi tecture al soft concep-I tual earth works environmental manipu lation welding manipu lation mlnim-alistlcl forms DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' - early Christian sculpture depicts themes from the Old Testament Longobard goldsmith's art flourishes - Bishop Bernward establishes bronze casting workshops - miniature liturgical objects crafted in France - figures for the Royal Portal of Chartes Cathedral completed - Benedetto Antelaml designs relief for Parma Cathedral depicting the "Descent from the Cross" - "Annunciation" and "Visitation" groups for Rhelms Cathedral completed "Flight into Egypt" 1190-95 bronze relief "The Sisters Lamenting" 1150 stone Chichester Cathedral "Humility" 1445 or 1476 bronze "Assumption of the Virgin" 1505-1510 limewood "Wrapped Coastline" Australia "Running Fence" 1976 nylon canvas 18'x24>$ miles through Sonoma and Marin Counties, California The Art Fabric: Mainstream, p. 234. - one man show "Infinity vs. Limit," Charles H. Scott Gallery, Vancouver, Feb. 1982 - "Gateway" tribute to George Vancouver, Vanier Park - bright red "Spring," Robson Square Lawcourts - large wood & bolt construction, Ambleside Pk., West Vancouver participated in the Contemporary American Ceramic Exhibition held ln Seattle, 1973 exhibited in the Museum of Modern Art in Paris, 1973 - works available on loan through the Art Bank *c,s/S Na o SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys* Class, Gerhard 1924- Canadian metal substit ution manipu lation X numerous works in and around Vancouver; consult slide Information sheets - instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design Clodlon, 1738- French stone subtrac Curr. Guide Claude Michel 1814 bronze tion manipu lation "Cupid and Psyche" 1790 marble "Candelabrum" gilt bronze and gray marble - noted for his sweet statuettes and clock ornaments Cogswell, Barry 1939- Canadian wood glass light press-board addition X "Brittany Landscape," Vancouver Art Gallery 1981 "Ethiopian Landscape," Charles H. Scott Gallery, E.C.C.A. 1981 *s/BC Cornell, Joseph 1903-1972 American found obj ects addition - created 'boxed assemblages' "Habitat Group for a Shooting Gallery' 1943 cabinet, cutouts of parrots, cards and papers behind shattered glass Corsault, Share 1947- Canadian X X *ph,pr,s/BC 2400- CYCLADIC marble subtrac "Lyre Player" 2000 BC tion "Female Figure playing a double flute" "Female Figure" Davidson, Robert 1947- Canadian wood subtrac tion X *s,J,pr,m/BC - relief panels for the boardroom of the CBC, Vancouver Degas, Edgar 1834-1917 French wax manipu lation 19th cent. - Degas created 74 wax pieces which he consid ered to be 'sketches' - many of these pieces have been cast in bronze since his death - as in his drawings and paintings, Degas worked with two themes; ballet dancers and horses; figures ln motion "Little Dancer aged 14," 1880-81 painted wax and tissue; cast in bronze and part of the Permanent Collection at the Tate Gallery, London; "Horse" to Curr, Guide ^ SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' De Maria, 1935- American earth "Mile Long Drawing" 1968 Mohave Desert chalk Walter works lines 3" wide and 12' apart 200 Years of American Sculpture, p. 186. De Riviera, Jose 1904- American metals -rods and sheets ' forged linear - famous for his curves in space "Construction 047" 1957 steel Despiau, Charles 1874-1946 French clay plaster manipu lation class ical - worked for Rodin - had a calm reserved temperament - his portraits have an inner life; his nudes a rhythm "Assia" 1938 Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. "Portrait of de Monsieur Arnaud" acquired by National Gallery, Ottawa, in 1955 Donatello 1386-1466 Italian stone subtrac tion 15th cent. Curr. Guide *J "David" 1430-35 blends naturalism and classicism "St. Mark" "St. George" - ls considered the greatest Florentine sculptor before Michelangelo and the most influential artist of the 15th cent. Drope, McCleary Dubuffet, Jean 1931- Canadian steel welded *p,d,pr ,s/M consult Section III: Area 3 - The West End 1901- French "Papa Loustic" 1967 polyester head 127 cm. Duchamp, Marce1 1887-1968 French addition Dada "In Advance of a Broken Arm" 1915 - the first Ready made - a snow shovel "The Large Glass" 1915-23 oil and leadfoll on glass 20th cent.: Curr. Guide ro ro SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE ' STYLE1 ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Duchamp- 1876- French bronze substit cubist - was first under the Influence of Rodin; later Villon, Raymond 1918 ution sympathized with Cubist ideals *J "Great Horse" 1914 1912-14 a series of bronze horses were created whereby the artist transformed basic animal energy Into solid form - this series became a landmark in Cubist sculpture Ducote, c. Canadian fibre addition X X "Soft Zoo" exhibited at the Fitch Gallery, 1982 Came rose 1947- *s/B.C. Easter Is land stone wood bark-cloth subtrac tion manipu lation famous for the large clan ancestor figures carved out of the volcanic atone "Protective ancestor figure placed outside house" painted bark cloth 15V' H. Edenshaw, Charles 1839-1924. 4000-Canadian EGYPTIAN argil-lite subtrac tion X *s,i/BC "Bear Mother Delivered by Caesarean Section" 1875-1900 simplistic fertility figurines 3000 B.C. 3500-3000 2680-2150 B.C. 2130-1600 1570-1085 "Narmer Palette" first sculpture with historical subject "Great Sphinx" and pyramids at Giza new naturaliam ln sculpture, e.g. "Seated Scribe' "Prince Rahotes and his wife Nofert" painted limestone 2650 B.C. - reliefs use perspective for the first time colossal statues of the last pharaohs are erected "The Gold Mask" Treasures of Tutankhamum "Queen Nafretete" painted limestone 1360 B.C. -"Amenhotep IV with his Wife Nafretete and Daughters" gold relief celebrates new religion, the divinity of the sun - includes a depiction of family life • ro u> SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE • STYLE' L-OCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Epstein, 1880- English- bronze substit 20th cent. Sir Jacob 1959 American ution "Mask of Billle" this Rodlnesque work caused an uproar "Rockdrill" bronze H. 28" National Gallery, Ottawa acquired a copy in 1956; the original was modelled ln 1913-14 "The Visitation" bronze 65"xl8«g"xl8" 1926 Ernst, Max 1891- German- collage addition surreal Curr. Guide 1976 French bronze substit ution - introduced the Dada movement into Cologne,1919 "The King Playing with the Queen" 1944 bronze 87 cm. Etrog, Sorel 1933- Rumanian-Canadian bronze wood fibre-glass welded "Society of Triangles" 1954-55 painted cons truction *s,mic/0 Fafard, 1942- Canadian clay manipu D.W. Joseph lation - works available through the Art Bank - his small figures of older people and cows have a sense of presence *c,s/S excellent NFB movie I Don't Have to Work that Falconet, Et ienne-Mauri ce 1716-1791 French bronze substit ution class ical "Equestrian Monument of Peter the Great" 1776-78 bronze, Leningrad Falk, Gathie 1928- Canadian clay plywood manipu x X *s,c,mm/BC and a painter works with everyday themes such aa piles of lation addition fruit, picnics, animals, articles of clothing "Herd of Horses" painted plywood hung from the ceiling - a static mobile of 24 figures "Picnic with Pile of Maple Leaves and Blue Sky" airy lie, varnish & wood, ceramic, 25x24*5x22" 1977 Fateaux Andre 1946- Canadian metal *s/0 M DJi, £ dynamic linear movement; complex configurations. SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ¥ LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Featherstone William 1927- Canadian - lives in Victoria *s ,pr ,p,d/BC "White Construction" 1966 marine ply, epoxy resin, steel and aluminum H. 8' Fillion, 1933- Canadian clay manipu *s/0 John lation - creates male figures only; rough textured surfaces "Male Torso" 1966 cement fondu H. 40" Flavin, 1933- American URht manipu- minimal "3 Fluorescent Tubes" red and gold 1963 H. 48" Dan lation "the nominal 3" (to William 0g Ockham) 1963 cool white fluorescent light 8' H., The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa Frink, Elizabeth 1930- English plaster concrete bronze substit ution X - most notable female sculptor of her generation ln Great Britain - drawn to the heroic and a sense of conflict, mutilation and death; subjects often cats, horses, birds - creates rough surfaces "Firebird" 1962 bronze "Harbinger Bird III" bronze 43.5 cm Gabo , 1890- Russian me tal addition 20th cent. Naum 1966 glass Curr. Guide plastic "Constructed Head 02" stainless steel 45 cm 1916 wood Gambioll Joan 1920- Canadian s tone subtrac tion abst ract X X *s/BC - participant in the Vancouver International Stone Symposium consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 6 - Van Dusen Gaudier-Brzeska, Henri 1891-1915 French stone subtrac tion - involved in the Vortist Movement "Head of Brodzky" bronze 26 3/4" acquired by The National Gallery, Ottawa, 1957 Gauguin, Paul 1848-1903 French wood subtrac tion "Adam and Eve" 1891-93 wooden relief Gerhaert, 1463- Dutch stone subtrac real - the last great German Gothic sculptor in thero Nikolaus 1473 tion ist realist tradition rjj N. "Splf Pnrrralf" 1467 pxnresslve SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys* Ghiberti, Lorenzo 1378-1455 Italian bronze substit ution 15th cent. Curr. Guide "Gates of Paradise" 1425-52 bronze *J - two of the three doors of the Baplstry in Florence - the zenith of his art; he uses all possible gradations of relief thereby suggesting deep space Glacometti, Alberto 1901-1966 Swiss plaster on wire founda tion substit ution addition 20th cent. Curr. Guide - was a painter and poet as well as a sculptor - influenced by Brancusl - was a Surrealist in the 1930's - ln 1948 he introduced his elongated impres sionistic linear figures to the public ".Palace at 4 a.m." 1932-33 construction of wood, glass, wire and string 'a still life sculpture' "Woman with Throat Cut" 1932 bronze 34V L. Museum of Modern Art, N.Y., 1965 "The Nose" 1947 bronze 15 3/8" H. Guggenheim, N.Y. Gilhooly , David 1943- Canadian clay wood concrete manipu lation *c/0 - part of the International Clay Connection, a group of artists that possess an irreverent, satirical, amusing attitude to life in their ceramic art. "Young Queen Vic" 17" part of his frog cosmol ogy theme Gonzales, 1876- Spanish metal welded cubist 20th cent. Julio 1942 "Woman Combing her Hair" 1936 wrought iron purchased by the Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. - influenced by Archipenko - was a pioneer in welded sculpture greatly in fluencing English and American sculptors Gouj on, Jean 1510-1568 French stone subtrac tion "Fountaine des Innocents" 1547-49 stone elong ated, elegant figures created in the classical tradition ho cn SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTQR including 'keya' Grauer, 1939- Canadian mixed addition X X *p,mm,8,pr/BC Sherry 2130- GREEK media includ ing wire mesh man-ipulat'n "...So Far..." Surrey Art Gallery, 1980 - one woman show - 3 examples of her work can be viewed at U.B.C. - consult Slide Notes, Section III: Area 1 - Minoan sculptors model snake priestess figur 1600 B.C. 1550-1100 B.C. 1000 B.C. 700-500 B.C. 525 B.C. 480-50B.C. ines and carve intricate designs on steallte - gold mortuary masks and repousse cups by Mycenaean artists I - Geometric sculptors create a profusion of bronze animals; "Mare suckling her foal" 750-700 B.C. bronze stylized to the barest essentials of form - Doric temple and first Greek Kouros emerge, Archaic Period - "The Sphinx of the Naxlans" 560 B.C. - discovery of the process of hollow bronze casting - "Kritios Boy" modelled for Athenian Acropolis - "Jupiter's carrying of Ganimedos" 470 B.C. Early Greek Classical Period: 460-5 IB.C 447-3 IB.C. - pediment groups and reliefs for the Olympian Temple of Zeus - Polykleltos' athletic ideal in the "Spear Bearer" - Phidias supervises sculptural decoration of the Parthenon - "Woman's Head" from the West Pediment of the Heraion at Argos circa 420 B.C. Greek Classical Style: 410-407 350-300 300-200 B.C. -Marble Victories of the Temple of Athena Nike - Praxiteles, Scopes, Lysippus refine style of the pre-Hellenic Period - Rhodian sculptors create "Laocoon Group" marble late 2nd or 1st century B.C. - a frontal piece of sculpture of 3 figures intertwined with snakes; tensions are estab lished as the father and son die on the left; the elder son on the right is trying to pull £J himself free; it is triangular in shape SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE * STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' GREEK cont'd. - "The Victory of Samothrace" marble circa 190 B.C. noted for its feeling of rushing movement and the complex rhythms of her draperies Gross, Chaim 1904- Aus trlan- wood subtrac American tion "Tight Rope Dancer" 1933 Lignum vitae Gulte , Suzanne 1926-1981 Canadian metal wood subtrac tion X "Christ Noir" 1962 black walnut H. 5' "Maternite" Tek 32x24" 1960 (Mother and Child s tone glass manipu lation theme Section III: Area 1 - U.B.C.) Haacke, 1936- German- kinetic "Ice Stick" 1966 vertical refrigeration tube Hans Amerlcan Hanson, 1925- American polyes addition super "Rocker" 1972 Duane ter Tea11am "Woman with Laundry Basket" 1974 resin fibre-glas - solitary figures that 'document' contemporary society Hardman, Jack 1923- Canadi an terra cotta cast cement X - both a printmaker and sculptor "The Group" totemlc baroque 1964 H. 50" Harman, Jack 1927- Canadian bronze substi X *i,s/BC tution - creates in the tradition of the Greeks, Romans, Henry Moore and Sir Jacob Epstein - commissioned to design and executes various works in the Lower Mainland: consult Slide Notes - maintains his own foundry and has been an instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design Hayden, Michael 1943- Canadian X *s/BC - maintains that he creates products not art D.W. - 'products' available through the Art Bank "Audlohydrokinetic Presentation" 1967 "Subway Ceiling" 500' long Spidina, Toronto ^ - neon tubing ^ - interested in technology and colour; was a SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Heizer, 1944- American earth "Double Negative" 1969-70 Virgin River Mesa Michael works 1600x50x30' displacement of 240,000 tons of earth - created a negative yet very tangible space - the 2 cuts face each other with a chasm sep arating them - created a new place in nature that is both modest, simple and grand - the local architect Ian Davidson has visited the sites of Heizer's and James Turrell's work and has slides of their projects Hepworth, 1903- English wood subtrac abstr X 20th cent. 1 Barbara stone tion act Curr. Guide plaster - ln 1931 she began piercing holes ln her sculpture and hollowed out the forms - string and wire were added to some of her works giving them the appearance of musical lnst ruments Hicks, 1934- American fibre manipu soft X "Bas-relief wall" 1975 sewn, stuffed, wrapped Sheila living in Paris lation tubes of silk The Art Fabric: Mainstream, pp. 220-221 Houdon, Jean-Antolne 1741-1828 French *J "Voltaire" 1781 18th cent. most celebrated French sculptor of the 18th century Hunt, Tony 1942- Canadian wood subtrac Kwaklut 1 X *s/BC tion - exhibition of masks, bowls, and rattles at Images Gallery, Vancouver, November 1981 Imredy, Elek 1912- b. in Hungary, lives in Vancouver bronze plaster polyes ter substi tution X *s/BC - has been commissioned to do various religious projects in the lower mainland "Girl in Wetsuit" 1972 bronze, consult Slide Notes, Section III: Area 2 INDIANS: Central America 800-400B.C 550-75 A.D wood j ade Preclasslcal period ln Mesoamerica - massive Olmec stone heads carved at La Venta - temple sculpture at Teotlhuacan depicts rain-gods and plumed serpents K> Mask of Qtietzakatl turquoise mosaic inlaid ^ with wood SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE* ? < u o DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Central Amer. cont'd - Mixtec 1300-1450 "Aztec death god Xolotl" jade H. 9" East 350-300B.C. 200-100B.C. 50A.D. 78 320-480 550-750 stone bronze - Imperial Mauryan sculptural style; carved yakshas and yakshis represented its secular style - narrative reliefs on stupa at Bharhut recount life of Buddha - gateways of the great stupa at Sanchi carved with anthropomorphic representation of Buddha - Kushana school develops first humanized Buddha images - Hindu Gupta artists develop first 'interna tional style' of Buddhist art; a standardization of Buddha's image -Shiva and Vishnu Images emerge in central India "Head" of Buddha limestone 5th-6th century "Shiva as Lord of the Dance" bronze 12th-13th century North America 1000 wood subtrac - Ohio valley Adena-Hopewell Indians work copper e.g., North B.C. stone tion into ornaments and produce massive burial mounds west Coast: Haida, Sallsh "Cedar eagle mask" Tsimshian "Kwatkiutl wildman mask" painted wood with Tsimshian, Bella Coola, Tlingit, Nootka , Kwaklutl horsehair 12" South America clay "Inlaid plaque" Peru inlaid with semi-precious stone metal stones and gold 2h" "Peruvian single spout bottle" burnished, leatherhard clay slips circa 200-500 Nazca's combination of pots with sculpture - highly formalized decoration, complex animal and human representations and the elaborate, monumental architecture in stone of the Chavin style - metal masks, stone and bone inlay, engraved sea shell - Chlmu and Inca high cultures in Peru ro CO O SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE INUIT Btone subtrac tion ISLAMIC 550- JAPANESE clay 750 A.D. 710-784 1053 8 tone b ronze 1185-1333 Judd, Donald 1928- American wood minimal me tal Kahane, Anne 1924- Canadian wood subtrac tion Kienholz, 1927- Ame ri can found addition expres Edward objects sionist lc DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys ' "Grotesque Eskimo Mask" Alaska wood with fur 13" "The Fisherman" by Oshaweetuk, Cape Dorset stone detail of an incense burner bronze ll-12th cent, lion on the fountain of the Harem Court in the Alhambra 1350-1400 - functional and architect ural works earliest Buddhist images colossal bronze Buddha carved for Todai-ji in Nara marks the height of Buddhist art in Japan Jocho carves statue of Amltabha for the Phoenix Hall in Kyoto Kei school develops naturalistic sculptural style manifested in the work of Unkei & Kaikei "House with primitive gable roof" clay 47.8 cm "Cross-legged male figure" clay 91 cm "Untitled" 1965 galvanized iron, 7 elements, each element 9x40x31" *8,d,pr,wc/Q - has called herself a 'carpenter who makes sculpture' - her work makes a comment on the human condi tion "Runners" 1967 cedar H. 52V "Jane Doe" 1959 wooden sewing chest, head and neck of a mannequin, skirt of white bridal dress "John Doe" 1959 mannequin in child's perambu lator; compare and contrast to "Village fetish figure" with small images att ached. Songe En. Congo, wood with beads, metal horn, snakeskin and hide H. 35V colour is a most important element in his work, e.g., "The Beanery," "The Derelicts" co SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' % LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Koochin, Bill 1927- Canadian wood stone bronze subtrac tion substit ution X - instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design - figurative work of birds and the female form - represented ln numerous private collections Kolianyk, Peter 1934- Canadian metal minimal *s/0 "Three Part Ground Outline" metal rods Kuj undzlc, Zeljko 1920- Canadian wood concrete X *c,pr,w,s,p/BC works in the N.W. Coast Indian tradition, e.g., "Thunderbirds," U.B.C. Stadium Lachalse, 1882- French- bronze substit 20th cent. Gaston 1935 American ution female nudes, dolphins and peacocks have an opulence and a dynamic drive "Standing Woman" 1932 bronze Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. Lass aw, 1913- American - metal welded linear 20th cent. lb ram "Kwannon" 1952 Laurena , Henri 1885-1954 French marble bronze wood collage "Autumn" 1948 white marb'le Lehmb ruck, Wilhelm 1881-1919 German stone subtrac tion - Influenced by Rodin and Malllol 20th cent. *J "Standing Youth" 1913 a combination of elongated forma and Gothic expressiveness Lemieux, Llse 1956- Canadian wax glass addition X X *s,mm,g/BC Lewis, Roy c 1935-Canadian clay wood stone b ronze subtrac tion substit ution X - active member of the Sculpture Society of British Columbia - participated in the "Diversity" exhibition, Robson Media Centre, Vancouver - Associate Prof, of Design and Sculpture, U.B.C. *s/BC ro 00 to SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE * ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Llpchitz, 1891- French- metal substit Curr. Guide Jacques American ution 20th cent. "Mother and Child" 1941-45 bronze Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. Lippold, 1915- American metal welded linear "Variation no. 7: Full Moon" 1949-50 Richard Lip ton, 1903- American metal welded abstr 20th cent. Seymour act "Sea Ring" 1956 silver plated nickel Loring, 1887- Canadian bronze subtrac docu- X designed war memorials and depicted factory Frances 1968 wood tion menta- workers during the war years ln her bronze substit tion reliefs ution *s/0 "Noon Hours in a Munitions Plant" "Head of Sir Frederic Banting" 1949 acquired by The National Gallery, Ottawa McElcheran, William 1927- Canadian bronze substit ution *s/0 concerned with the shape of the crowd; tries to express the inter-relationships between the individual and the crowd "The Race" 1967 bronze 18" McWilllams, 1944- Canadian wood addition boxed X "Walnut Pieces from a Game" 1973 Allan found assemb "Mise en Scene" exhibition, Vancouver Art Gal objects lages lery, May 1982 (a French theatre term which translates as "production values," "staging," or representation - currently an Instructor ln the Foundation Program at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design Magor, Liz 1948- Canadian found addition X X *mm,s/BC objects D.W. work Incorporates human concerns and the order of life, e.g., "Time and Mrs. Tiber" wood, glass and food 85x36x11" 1976 "Mise en Scene" exhibition, Vancouver Art Gal lery, May 1982 ro CO SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Maillol, Aria tide 1861-1944 French bronze substit ution 20th cent. Curr. Guide - devoted to the female nude; returned to the Ideals of 5th century Greek art - stressed static and monumental qualities - sensual like the female nudea of Renoir *J "Mediterranee" 1901 Manzu, 1908- Italian bronze subs tit- impres 20th cent. Giacomo ution sionist Curr. Guide ic - Influenced by Rosso, Rodin, Maillol and Donatello - exploited the very low relief and the feeling for drama "The Skater" bronze MacMlllan Bloedel Building, Vancouver - consult Slide Notes, Section III: Area 3 -The West End MAORI froin 350 A.D. wood subtrac - high relief on functional objects but 11 aurvi\ 1860 ttle res pre-tion - representation of ancestor and other protect ive figures - dramatic and virile forms Marega, Charles 1876-1939 bronze concrete substit ution x consult Slide Notes Section III *s,po/BC Marini, Marino 1901- Italian bronze wood substit ution 20th cent. Curr. Guide - a painter and printmaker as well - created numerous versions of the horse-rider theme - Influenced by Archaic Greek art "Horse Rider" 1946-47 bronze Marlsol, 1930- Venezue- wood subtrac X Curr. Guide Es cobar lan- found tion - very personal and original style with elements Ame r1 can objects combined of Folk Art, Surrealism, and Pop Art with a s semb-lage - portrays life-size human figures, often with the artist's own face Incorporated into the image, with wit and a sense of chic - her work is filled with pungent criticism of New York life in the 1960's "Women and Dog" wood, plaster, paint and misce,},-aneous items 1964 72x82x16" oo SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Marshall, David 1928- Canadian stone wood metal subtrac tion substit ution X *s/BC - active member of the Sculptor's Society of British Columbia - instructor at Capilano College - participant in the Vancouver International Stone Symposium, consult Slide Notes. Section III: Area 6 - Van Dusen - exhibited ln numerous local shows within the last few years "Upturned Head" 1953 Martin, 1881- Canadian wood subtrac N.W. X *s/BC Mungo t 1963 tion Coast Indian totems - film available showing Martin working on a totem that is now situated outside the Great Hall of the Museum of Anthropology, U.B.C. Matisse, Henri 1869-1954 French bronze substit ution 20th cent. - associated with the Fauve group, the Expres sionist and Cubist movements - most famous sculptures include "The Back" 1930-9, bronze - a series of reliefs; another series "Jeanette" I, III, IV, V - 1910 bronze Mayhew, Elsa 1916- Canadian stone bronze subtrac tion substit ution X X *s/BC - "Guardian I" 1959 stone conglomerate - Bank of Canada building, 900 West Hastings St. Vancouver - a bronze abstract, totemlc columns 13'2"x9'2"x 14" 1968 consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 4 - Down town A MESOPOTAMIAN 10 ,000 4000B . 3500-3000B . 2680-2 150 2130-1600B. C C C s tone - first cylinder seals - first commemorative stelae and inlaid worship per statuettes, "The God Abu" 3000-2500 B.C. Mosul marble very schematized - new naturalism "Naram Sin" Victory Stele red sandstone Akkadian 2500-2000 B.C. - Neo-Sumerlan votive figures "Votive Statue of Gudea" from Lagash diorite 2100 B.C, K, 09 Ln SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' MESOPOTAMIAN Babylonian "Stele of Laws" with Hammurabi's cont *d 1600-1150B.C 935-612B.C. 884-626B.C. judicial code - Kaasites rule in Babylon and introduce the Kudurru or boundary stone - Assyrian lamassu and martial wall reliefs embellish Mesopotamian temple complexes "Winged Man-headed Bull" chalk alabaster Assyr ian 8th cent. B.C. found near Khorasabad - man. eagle, bull - on either side of the main ent rance doors; guardian spirits with 5 legs so that from the front and side views the 'bull' would appear complete - Assyrian "A Priest of Assur before Sacred Tree" relief Meunier, 1831- Belgian bronze substit roman 20th cent. Constantln 1905 ution tic ideal "The Docker" 1905 bronze ism Michelangelo, 1475- Italian stone subtrac - genius of the High Renaissance, father of Buonarroti 1564 tion Baroque, creator of Mannerism Curr. Guide "Moses," "Bound Slave," "Dying Slave," "Tomb of Pope Julius II" 1513-16 "David" detail 1504 *J "Pleta" 1501 Mi chene r, 1935- Canadian clay manipu totemic X X *c,s/BC Sally lation abstr "Black Winged Column No. 1" - acts - instructor at the Emily Carr College of Art and Design Minne, George 1866-1941 Belgian stone subtrac tion *J "Kneeling Boy" 1896 marble Miro, Joan 1893- Spanish clay manipu Sur 20th cent. plaster lation realist X "Projet Pour un Monument" 1972 maquette en platre 51x38.5x25 K> co SCULPTOR DATES NATI0N-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE ' STYLE1 ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR Including 'keys' Modlgllani , 1884- Italian- stone subtrac 20th cent. Amedeo 1920 French tion "Cellist" 1910 style based on African sculpt ure, the influence of Cezanne, Picasso, and an Italian heritage "Head" 28 3/4" typical of Modigliani's elongated necks Moholy-Nagy, Laszlo 1895-1946 Hungarian-American - experimented with new materials, for example plexiglass - used Industrial techniques for his construc tion - "Space Modulators" have interchangeable elements Moore, Henry 1898- British stone wood subtrac tion 20th cent. Curr. Guide bronze substit ution *J "Atom Piece" 1964 bronze "Knife Edge" consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 5 - Downtown B "Composition" 1931 Green Hornton stone carved 1930 - the reclining figure and mother and child themes used extensively; works placed outdoors most often Morris, Robert 1931- American metal felt -minimal earth works "Untitled" glass panes positioned in a group in the earth - a Harden in West Vancouver; depicts entropy "Observatory" 1971 earth, timber, steel, water, granite, Umvlden, The Netherlands Murray, Jackie 1946- Canadian stone bronze subtrac tion substit ution addition X X *s/BC - 1983 graduate from Emily Carr College of Art and Design Murray, Robert 1931- Canadian metal welded and painted X D.W. *s,mu,p/BC "Kodiak" colored metal elegant, curvilinear; a feeling of lightness even though the piece is made of metal; AA Bank loan to CBC - 2 other works to be found locally; one in ts> CO SCULPTOR Murray, Robert cont'd Nadelman, Elie Nanni, de Banco Nevelson, Louise Noguchl, Isamu Norris, Geo rge DATES 1882-1946 c. 1384-1421 1900-1904-1928-NATION-ALITY Polish-American Italian Russian-American Japanese' American Canadian MEDIA bronze wood atone clay steel wood metal c lay TECH NIQUE substitu tion addition subtrac tion addition subtrac tion welded substitu tion manipula tion 1 STYLE envir onmen tal designs abstr actions DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' front of the old Vancouver Art Gallery; the other close to the Vancouver International Airport - often creates monumental foils against archi tecture - unifies his work with color; gives his pieces a luminosity - was a painter before becoming a sculptor - does not consider himself a minimalist "Man in the Open Air' 1915 15th cent. "Four Saints" for the Stone and Woodcutter's Guild 1410 "Totality Dark" Gallery, N.Y. - painted wood Curr. Guide 1962 248.8x322.6x9.1 cm Pace - famous for her monochromatic boxed assemblages Curr. Guide - combines European modernism with traditional Japanese idioms - made stage sets for Martha Graham - noted for his space-creating sculpture and his concern for assimilating art into everyday life - designed furniture, lighting, gardens and public sculpture *a/BC B.C.'s most prolific sculptor; consult Slide Notes Section IIT co CO SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' OCEANIA Polynesia Micronesia Melanesia Indonesia wood stone clay "Mask"' tortoise shell Polynesia New Guinea Island of Dewar bark sewn together; an Intermediary through which supernatural beings communicate with the living "Owl Mask" used to put children under supernat ural protection New Britain cane and bark cloth Oldenburg, 1929- American vinyl soft Curr. Guide Claes corten monu "Lipstick on Caterpillar Tracks" (for Yale Unlv steel mental ersity) 1969 corten steel, wood epoxled and plaster plexi playful concep painted "Clothespin" 1974 corten stainless steel 10' glass tual "Giant Pool Balls" 1967 16 plexiglass balls 24" each, woodrack "Dual Hamburgers" enamel paint on plaster 1962 7'xl4 3/4" Oppenhelm, Me ret 1913- Swiss mixed media x "Object" (Fur Lined Teacup) 1936 mixed media. Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. acquired the work in 1962 Paolozzi, Eduardo 1924- Scottish-English metal engin eered constr uctions 20th cent. - created functionless machines/tools derived from the rational order of technology - these 'idols' are like the fetishes from the Congo "Hermaphrodite Idol No. 1" 1962 Perry, Frank 1923- Canadian bronze substitu tion X *s/BC "Florentine Door"; consult Slide Notes Section III: Areas 1 t> 4 Pevsner, Antoine 1886-1962 Ukranian-French wood plastic 20th cent. Curr. Guide me t al "Column Symbolizing Peace" 1954 bronze Phidias 5th cent. Greek 5th cent. Curr. Guide B.C. - between 447-438 B.C. Phidias made a huge cult statue "Athena Parthenos" gold and ivory elem ents on a wooden framework, plus colour ^ co SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Phidias cont'c "The Zeus of Olympia" made also in ivory and gold on a wooden base; hailed in ancient times as the masterpiece of masterpieces; one of the seven wonders of the world - the original was 45' high representing the god seated on a throne adorned with innumerable sculpted and painted figures - its great bulk once filled the entire rear part of.the cella of the temple - it was removed by the Christians to Constant inople, there destroyed by fire Picasso, 1881- Spanish- found addition 20th cent. Pablo 1973 French objects substit Curr. Guide ution *J "She Goat" 1950 bronze highly textured Museum of Modern Art, N.Y. "Head of a Bull (Metamorphosis)" 1943 "Woman's Head" 1909 portrays Cubist aesthetics H. 16" Pisano, Italian subtrac reliefs 14th cent. Giovanni 1245- tion Curr. Guide Nicola Andrea 1314 1220-1284 -1348 *J the four great pulpits - "Madonna and Child" for the High Altar of Pisa Cathedral, 1314 - depicts scenes from the life of John the Baptist for the Florence Bapistry 1302-1312 Pitch, Marcia 1946- Canadian addition X X - numerous local and Canadian shows within the last few years, e.g., "Wargames," "Fearscapes" Pollaluolo, brothers Antonio Piero 1432-1498 1441-1496 Italian bronze substit-tlon Curr. Guide *J "Hercules and Antaeus" 1475 Powers, Hiram 1805- American stone subtrac class "The Greek Slave" 1847 marble, 200 Years of 1873 tion ical American Sculpture, p, 40 K, o SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Praxiteles £1. Greek marble subtrac class 14th cent. 14th tion ical Curr. Guide cent. B.C. "Hermes Carrying Infant Dionysus" Temple of Hera, Olympla 365-340 B.C. H. 85" - it could be a copy; in his right hand he probably held a bunch of grapes, fruit coveted by small Dionysus sitting on his left arm, which rests on a tree trunk, hidden under drapery - there is a dialogue between Hermes and the child but also an awkwardness ln rendering the Infant's anatomy - there ls a curve in Hermes' body and an in tentional contrast between the play of light over the softly modelled nude bodies and the deeply cut folded masses of drapery PREHISTORIC I. Paleollthl c 32,000 10,000 B.C. stone clay ivory subtrac tion manipu lation - cave art found in southwestern Europe - first sculptural artifacts were tools and small stone Venus figurines "Bifacially flaked point" 300,000 B.C. France "Clay Bison" in the Tuc d'Audoubert Cave 13,000-10.000 B.C. 23" long, a relief modelled in crude clay "Venus of Lespugue" 6" ivory-contrasts with the expressive realism of "Venus of Willendorf" but has the same stress on sexual forms, the same suppression of facial features, and the same positioning of the arms - the legs, shoulders, and head are smaller, thereby accentuating the middle part of the body "Venus of Willendorf" 21,000 B.C. limestone statuette 4%" H. from lower Austria - first known school of statuary art; very full female body with abbreviated limbs and feature less head, curly hair; a combination of aes thetic ideals and religious symbolism promoting human fertility "Venus of Laussel" circa 21,000 B.C. bas relief 15" H. full face holding a bison's horn as an offering?; the buttocks are shifted to the side limestone and red ochre ro VO SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE* LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' II. Neolithic III. Prehlsto 10,000 -4,000 B.C. ric i - clay fertility statuettes - bas reliefs of animals on temple walls "Elk shaped ritual axe" 4000 B.C. refined polishing "Head of a large figure" terra cotta from Yugo slavia - an image of the Great Goddess of fertility - 7"; has a dramatic quality because of the enlargement of the eyes and rather expressive stylization "Statuette of an archer" from Sardinia 7th-5th century B.C. - wearing a short tunic and quiver on his back, a helmet, breastplate and dagger bronze 7V restrained pose "The Stag God" in the Gundestrup Cauldron-Buddha-like pose; ln one hand a torque, the other a serpent - surrounded by animals; 28" ln diameter - a group of gilt silver plates, 7 outside, 5 inside circa 1st century B.C. "Reclining Woman" Malta 2300-1450 B.C. - a sleeping priestess on a couch of wood and reeds - disproportion of head; small in relation to the rounded arms - wearing a long fringed skirt - enormous volume of the hips and thighs "Mother Goddess" Cyprus 14th-13th century B.C., late Bronze Age - schematic, quite flattened; red varnished terra cotta - has a bird's beak, huge pierced ears with movable rings - most likely a fertility goddess holding a child in her slender arms "Female figure" from Boeotia-8th century B.C. terra cotta - bell shaped tunic movable legs details of dress and ornaments are depicted in reddish ro brown paint r- feet painted with high laced footgear, tunic with rosettes and a row of dancing women 33" H. SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Prent, Mark 1947- Canadian mixed inter *s/Q media ior - his work is highly provocative envir onments mise en - there ls a National Film Board documentary 'If Brains were Dynamite' available; again highly controversial subject matter scene "Death in the Chair" 1973 "Hanging ie Very Important" 1973 Prince, Richard 1949- Canadian addition X D.W. *mm,s/BC - Interested in formal concerns, ordering, frag menting "The Wind Machine" - project that allows the wind to work Inside the house; whimsical - box ing natural forces - precise construction, 1973, Collection: Ian Davidson "Shield I" 1976 copper, bones, leather 21>tx 14 3/4x3>s" part of an exhibition at the Equinox Gallery, April-May, 1977 Rab inowi tch, David 1943- Canadian 81 e e 1 - both David and his twin brother Royden live in New York - much of his work is considered to be 'floor-pieces ' "Rotational Sculpture of Four Scales" 1974 Rabinowitch, Royden 1943- Canadian sand blasted steel tack welded "Kharakorum" Ramme1, George 1952- Canadian stone subtrac tion X *s/BC "Catastrophe" 1977 Carrara marble llfeslze "portraying human emotion in the metaphysical, with the structural properties of the material." - on view at the Burnaby Art Gallery Raus chenbe rg, Robert 1925- American addition kinetic combine "Soundings" 1968 "Monogram" 1959 combine painting with stuffed paint angora goat ings "Odalisk" 1955-58 wood structure with magazine cons truc tions clippings 81x25x25" ro vo Ul SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ¥ LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Ray, Man 1890- French- Dada "Indestructible Object" metronome with cutout 1978 American kinetic first mobiles photo of an eye on pendulum 1958 "Present" 1921 laundry iron and nails Redinger, Walter 1940- Canadian fibre-glass opaque plexi glass *s/0 D.W. - wants his work to grow out of the earth like a 20th century Stonehenge - works on loan from the Art Bank Reld, Bill 1920- Canadian wood silver gold subtrac tion X *pr,s,J,m/BC D.W. "The Raven" 1981 Museum of Anthropology U.B.C. cedar consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 1 "Sterling Bear Spoon" c. 1959 9.5 cm long "Bracelet" c. 1964 gold and fossil ivory Tschumos diameter 8 cm x 5.3 cm "Red Cedar Screen" part of the "Legacy" exhibi tion at the Museum of Anthropology, U.B.C. 1982; carved in 1967, it Incorporates negative spaces into the overall design Remington, 1861- American bronze substit equest "The Bronco Buster" c. 1895 bronze 200 Years of Frederic 1909 ution rian American Sculpture, p. 69, compare to -"Equestrian Monument" of General Bartolomeo Colleonl by Andrea del Verrocchlo bronze late 1400's St. John and St. Paul Square, Venice and "Equestrian Statuette" glazed terra cotta 618-907 A.D. T'ang Dynasty Renoir, Augus te 1841-1919 French bronze substit ution neo-class-ical 19th cent. "Mother and Child" 1915 "Venus" "The Washerwoman" 1917 roman tic Richler, 1904- French X 20th cent. Germaine 1959 "The Storm" 1947-48 bronze - after 1940 her art expressed a world of anxiety, upheaval and poetic feeling through a very personal technique - in "The Storm" man is a debased creature, swollen and at the same time drawn and tense N> SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR Including 'keys' Richier, Ge rmaine cont'd 1 - forms belong to the animal and vegetable king doms; they are threatening and mysterious; they evoke power and the secrets of nature H. 6^' Rickey , 1907- Scottish- metal 1 welded kinetic - monumental outdoor sculpture George imerican "Column of Triangles" 1968 stainless steel Robbia, Italian glazed manipu Curr. Guide Andrea della, 1435- terra lation - great Innovator at the beginning of the 15th 1525 cotta century with Ghibertl and Donatello Luca della 1400-1482 *J "Cantoris" 1430-35 Florence Cathedral terra cotta sculpture with vitrified lead glass Rodia, Simon circa 1915-American addition - an example of 'folk art', naive or vernacular art "Watts Towers" 1921-54 Los Angeles cement, steel, glass and wood 99>s' tower and spires Rodin, 1840- French plaster manipu 19th cent. Auguste 1917 clay lation Curr. Guide bronze substit ution - a pioneer at the turn of the century along with Rosso and Brancusi - used 'fragments' of the human body, expressed emotion and movement; used symbolism and dis tortion; sensitive modelling and rough texturing 210- ROMANS - plundering and diffusion of Greek art forms \00 B.C. 27B.C-14A.D PI 116 180-92 220-323 results ln hybrid Greco-Roman tradition - first Roman Republican portraits and narrative reliefa appear - portraits of Augustus from Prima Porta commis sioned by the Emperor-distinct Roman style and creation of Gemma Augustae, an elaborate cameo - relief from Arch of Titus depicts Roman vict ory over Jerusalem in A.D. 70 - Column of Trojan ln Rome; first such triumphal column - romantic elements begin to modify classical Roman style - column of Marcus Aurelius; transformation to the late Antique period - disintegration of traditional Roman sculptural forms - Badminton sarcophagus and portrait of Treboni-anus Gallus produced K SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE ' STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' 312- ROMANS - Arch of Constantine recapitulates the entire 315 800 cont'd history of the Roman style "The Tetrarcha" (?) porphyry, Roman late 3rd or early 4th century; S.W. corner facade of St. Mark's, Venice - 4 Roman generals bestowing the accolade on each other (2x2); haa a stylistic vigor within the simple forms - faces are types rather than individuals par tially because the porphyry is such a hard stone; fine detail is not possible Carollnglan sculptors model an equestrian statue in the likeness of Charlemagne Rosso , 1858- Italian wax manipu impres 20th cent. Medardo 1928 lation sion - pioneer in the late 19th century along with istic Rodin and Brancusl; fascinated by the play of light on surfaces - preferred a single viewpoint, i.e.. frontal pieces "The Bookmaker" 1894 wax over plaster "Conversation in a Garden" 1893 Roszak , 1907- Polish- metal welded 20th cent. Theodore American "Thorn Blossom" 1947 steel brazed "Spectre of the Kitty Hawk" 1945-47 steel, bronze, and copper spiky metal; tormented symbolism Roth, Evelyn 1936- Canadian discards addition wear X X *w,s,mm/BC (video tape , etc. makes ecolog ical state ment) ables body sculpt ure "live" D.W. - gets out of the gallery - group dance perform ances, e.g., "Salmon Sculpture, "Homage to Haidas" Rude , Francois 1784-1855 French bronze subs ti t-ution "La Marseillaise Arc de Triomphe," Paris 1832-36 - major sculptor of the early 19th century - romantic like Delacroix as well as classical - this work is filled with patriotic enthusiasm N> VO CTV SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ¥ LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR Including 'keys' Sawchuck, 1927- Canadian wood addition X *s/BC George - utilitarian objects are juxtaposed within living trees or in combination with fallen logs - exhibitions at the Fine Art Gallery, U.B.C. and the Bau-Xi Gallery, Vancouver works can also be found within the forests of the University Endowment Lands. Saxe, Henry 1937- Canadian metal *s,p,pr/Q D.W. "Over and Under" balanced metal; the floor is the background - work available from the Art Bank "Comtras" 1968 aluminum - ia a craftsman interested in the finish of the metal Schwltters, 1887- b. Germ found addition "Herz Construction" 1921 painted wood, wire, Kurt 1948 any British obj ects neah, paper and cardboard 15x8!$x2>i'" - "Merzbau" a house collage destroyed in 1943 Segal, George 1924- American plaster manipu Curr. Guide wood found lation addition - presents individual white plaster figures without identity or history objects - fixes the figures in everyday situations; depicts banality - presents an uncomfortable Image of ourselves - the sculptor remains completely remote from the subject "Old Woman at a Window" 1965 plaster, chrome, wood, glass, and board Smedley, 1927- English wood construe archi X - professor of Fine Arts, U.B.C. Geoffrey metal tions tect "The Name of the Piece" exhibition at the ural Vancouver Art Gallery, January-February 1982 *s/BC Smith, David 1906- American metal welded 20th cent. 1965 *J Cubi Series 1961-64 "Cubi XIX" steel 1964 burnished therefore the environment 'colours' the piece'; the surface acts as a reflector of the sky and surroundings - in the 1930's and '40's his images were Surreal-like >° VO SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE •STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Smith, David - greatly Influenced by Gonzales and Picasso con t' d - later became more geometric and showed more concern for surface - from 1933 worked in wrought iron; ln the 1960's changed to work in stainless steel - "Tanktotems" 1950's - Zig series - often referred to as the Father of Metal Sculpture Smith, Tony 1912- American sheet minimal "Cigarette" 1966 roughly finished, painted metal black - enclosed volumes of regular and eccentric shapes - minimal form-maximum scale - have been called man-sized spatial organizers "Wandering Rocks" 5 polyhedrons which suggest the possibility of changing relationships - not fixed positions, Wn. Wash. Univ., Bellingham Smlthson, 1938- American earth "Spiral Jetty 1970, Great Salt Lake, black Robert 1973 works rock, salt crystals, earth and red water - coil 457.20 m long; 4.57 m wide - has become the logo for post-gallery, post-minimal, and post-formalist art Snow, Michael 1929- Canadian mixed media *p,f,s,ph,d,mm/0 "Walking Woman" 1966-67 wood and aluminum Stanklewlcz, 1922- American metal welded 20th cent. Richard found - uses old boilers, steam fittings, and bent ob1ects pipes; worn out fragments of a machine technol ogy - creates collages like Schwltters with humour and force thereby his work has a sense of optimism di Suvero, 1933- American metal welded "Blue Arch for Matisse" 1962 steel, painted Mark 132" H. "For Handel" 1975 Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, Wash, invites audience participation and creates a relationship with the surrounding envi ronment N> VO CO SCULPTOR DATES NATION-ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 1 •STYLE' LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Tatlin, Vladimir 1885-1953 Russian - founded Russian Constructivism "Monument to the 3rd International" proposed project 1919-20 wood, iron, glass Tawney , 1925- Ame rlcan fibre weaver soft X "Cloud Series" 1979 strands suspended from Lenore canvas. dyed and painted. The Art Fabric: Mainstream, p. 218. Thibert, Patrick A. 1943- Canadian "Infrastructure #16" welded steel 1977 Tlnguely , 1925- Swiss- kinetic 20th cent. Je an French "Homage to New York" A Self-constructing, Self-destroying Work of Art, an assemblage in motion activated March 17, 1961 Turrell, 1943- American light earth The Roden Crater Project, Nn. Arizona - a 20th James works century Stonehenge that interacts with the space of the sky and the eventa which occur within that space Valllancourt, Armand 1932- Canadian clay wood scrap iron "Vaillancourt" a N.F.B. film is available Urquhart, Tony 1934- Canadian D.W. *wc,p,s,pr/0 "Broken II" acrylic resin, plywood, and masonite - was a landscape painter - has a mysterious quality to his work Ve rrocchio, 1435- Italian 15th cent. Renaissance Andrea del 1486 Curr. Guide *J "Bartolommeo Colleoni Equestrian Monument" 1481-88 bronze 13' H. "Putto with Dolphin" 1470 a most endearing work "David" 1488 Westerlund, Mia 1942- b. New York cement metal poly ester X *a ,d/0 "Corner Series" in front of the Vancouver Art Gallery, consult Slide Notes Section III: Area 3 - The West End. resin - colour is an essential element of her work M VO SCULPTOR PATES NATION-AUTY MEDIA TECH NIQUE ' STYLE LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Westerlund, Mia cont'd "Flank II" 1978 two 12' long triangular modules of pigmented concrete, steel and copper - built Inside the V.A.G. and then placed on the grounds pf Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. - explores the uses of solidifying and metallic materials White, Norman 1938- Canadian *s,mm,p/0 - states "I use the most sophisticated tools of applied technology to the most useless ends." - his work has an assembly look to it - his work ls available from the Art Bank "Spllsh Splash" was on view in the CBC Building - exhibition at the V.A.G., 1975 Whiten, Colette 1945- English, resides in Toronto X - uses plaster casts of human forms "Paul III" 1980 burlap, plaster, wood, graphite 249x89x78 cm on display at the Carmen Lamanna Gallery, Toronto, 1980 Whitlock, An 1944 Canadian X X - uses Inexpensive, common materials, e.g., pins string, cheesecloth, wire screening, thread, rubber - creates intricate, textural and light reflect ing objects - works with systemlzation "Not Titled" 1977 aluminum screen, wooden dowels, string - 3 pieces, each 13'xlO'xl5' - part of the Four Places exhibition at the Vancouver Art Gallery, 1977 Whit tome, I rene 1942- Canadian X "Irene Whittome 1975-1980" 4-part exhibit at the Vancouver Art Gallery, 1981 I. "The White Museum I and II" - wrapped and bound repetitive forms II. "Vancouver" - geometric volumes coated with encaustic III. "Paperworks" - dividing and ordering space IV. "Classroom/Chapel" - interior environments - work available from the Art Bank *s,pr/Q LO O o SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 1 STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Wieland, Joyce 1931- Canadian fabric X - quilted cloth assemblages created for her one-woman show at the National Gallery, Ottawa "Young Woman's Blues" 1964 painted construction *d,s,ph,f,p/0 Wise, Jack 1928- Canadian addition X *p ,s ,wc/BC Wood, Alan 1935- Canadian addition X *mmas,p/BC "Ranch" 1981 mixed media - exhibit at the Charles H. Scott Gallery, E.C.C.A., Vancouver Wyle, Florence 1881-1968 Canadian bronze substit ution X *s/0 -•created figurative, documental sculpture "Munitions Worker" 1918 "A.Y. Jackson" bust "Torso" 1933 Wyn-Wood, Elizabeth 1903- Canadian stone bronze subtrac tion substit ution X "Head of Negress" bronze acquired by the National Gallery, Ottawa ln 1927 "Passing Rain" marble relief acquired by the National Gallery, Ottawa, 1930 Wyse, Alex 1938- Canadian X *P,s/0 - some of his images are Surreal-like - his painted wood constructions are precise and painstaking - often whimsical and narrative "Rural Angel Recycling Machine" 1979-80 painted construction 274x208x235 cm Equinox Gallery, Vancouver Zach, Jan 1914- Czecho-slovakian Canadian X X *m,s,mu,p,g/BC "Wlldflower" 1967 stainless steel 7' H. Zack, Badanna 1933- Canadian X *s ,d,pr/Q "Homage to Picasso" wood, styrofoam, vinyl, nails, chrome 183x60 cm Zadklne, Osslp 1890-1964 Polish-American wood s t one subtrac tion 20th cent. - deals with figures from Greek mythology - they are quasi-representational, large sil houettes with cut out shapes u> o t—• SCULPTOR DATES NATION ALITY MEDIA TECH NIQUE 'STYLE' ? LOCAL DESCRIPTION: OF SCULPTURE and/or SCULPTOR including 'keys' Zadkine , Osslp cout'd "The Destroyed City" Rotterdam 1948-51 bronze "The Return of the Prodigal Son" bronze 48" H. acquired by the National Gallery, Ottawa in 1956 Zeisler, 1903- American fibre soft X "Page 1" 1976 machine stitched chamois cotton Claire The Art Fabric: Mainstream, p. 151. Zelenak, Edward 1940- Canadian fibre-glass metal D.W. *s/0 "U-Split" CBC Building, Vancouver until 1982 "Untitled" lead plates with soldered copper and tin Zorach, William 1887-1966 Lithuan ian-American wood stone bronze - nudes, torsos, motherhood, children, animals are his favourite subjects - classical like Egypt and the Middle East "Spirit of Dance" 1932 Radio City Music Hall, N.Y. o 303 APPENDIX REFERENCE LIST Constantine, M., & Larsen, J.L. The art fabric: Mainstream. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1980. 200 years of American sculpture. New York: Godine, D.R. Publishers, Whitney Museum of American Art, 1976. 


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