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First agreement arbitration in British Columbia, 1974-1979 Cleveland, Deborah J. 1982

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FIRST AGREEMENT ARBITRATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1974 - 1979 by Deborah J . C l e v e l a n d B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d A p r i l 1982 (F) Deborah J . C l e v e l a n d 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t he r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag r ee t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag r ee t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 3 0 , 1982 i . ABSTRACT S e c t i o n s 70-72 o f t h e L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board w i t h the d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y t o impose a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement when t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r , emp loyees o r u n i o n a r e m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o t o t a l l y f r u s t r a t e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p r e v e n t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag r eemen t . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The d a t a i s based on t h e t h i r t y c a s e s i n v o l v i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a between 1974 and 1979 . R e s e a r c h was done by r e v i e w o f t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e Labou r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd and by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r each c a se c o m p l e t e d by an employee o f t h e B o a r d . Mos t S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s employed i n e i t h e r t h e s e r v i c e o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s o f t h e economy. The u n i o n s i n v o l v e d o r g a n i z e d on e i t h e r an i n d u s t r i a l o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s b a s i s and were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s was t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o be i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t e m p l o y e r s . The s i z e o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s was r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e when compared t o t h e s i z e o f a l l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s c e r t i f i e d d u r i n g the t ime p e r i o d o f t h e r e s e a r c h . In t h e c a s e s where t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was g r a n t e d t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t agreement was no t e f f e c t i v e i n a s s i s t i n g t h e e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h an e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l t h o u g h t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e ag reements e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements w h i c h o t h e r w i s e w o u l d n o t have been c o n c l u d e d , t h e i i . e m p l o y e r s c o n t i n u e d t o oppose r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i e d t r a d e u n i o n s . The b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s were u s u a l l y d e c e r t i f i e d a f t e r e x p i r y o f t h e f i r s t ag reement imposed u n d e r S e c t i o n 7 0 . In t h e c a s e s where t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s were s e t t l e d w i t h o u t a f o r m a l r u l i n g by t h e L abou r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n was m o d e r a t e l y e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g t h e emp loyees i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s gave t h e L abou r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd t h e e n t r e e t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e d i s p u t e s . Through m e d i a t i o n , t h e Labou r R e l a t i o n s Board was a b l e t o remedy t h e p a r t i e s ' i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n c l u d i n g f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . In many o f t h e s e c a s e s s e cond and t h i r d ag reements were s u b s e q u e n t l y n e g o t i a t e d by t h e e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s . The emphas i s p l a c e d by t h e L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s e t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t agreement w i t h o u t i s s u i n g a f o r m a l o r d e r i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . The ma jo r f a c t o r s w h i c h p r e v e n t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s were t h e m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n s had among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members a t t h e t ime o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n ; t h e c o n t i n u e d and p e r s i s t e n t o p p o s i t i o n by t h e e m p l o y e r s t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s ; a n d , t h e r o l e p l a y e d by s m a l l g roups o f emp loyees who d i d no t s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n . The u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n s were n o t a b l e t o s u r v i v e t h e comb ined i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s . i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i . T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i . L i s t o f T a b l e s v i . Acknowledgements x . C h a p t e r I I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r I I U n i o n R e c o g n i t i o n : O r g a n i z i n g , C e r t i f i c a t i o n and N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a F i r s t Agreement 4 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 - L e g a l Framework G o v e r n i n g Un ion R e c o g n i t i o n 8 - Emp loye r O p p o s i t i o n t o O r g a n i z a t i o n 11 - U n i o n and Employee V u l n e r a b i l i t y 15 - Summary 18 C h a p t e r I I I The L e g i s l a t i o n 23 - The Need f o r a Remedy 23 - The P r o v i s i o n s 24 - O b j e c t i v e s o f F i r s t Agreement A r b i t r a t i o n 27 - A s s u m p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e P r o v i s i o n s 28 - Summary 31 C h a p t e r IV M e t h o d o l o g y 34 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 34 - P o p u l a t i o n 34 - Data Measures 42 - Data C o l l e c t i o n 50 - Summary 54 i v . C h a p t e r V Page C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S e c t i o n 70 A p p l i c a t i o n s 58 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 58 - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Emp loye r s 59 - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Un ions and B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s 66 - Summary 73 C h a p t e r VI Emp loye r R e a c t i o n s , Un ion S u p p o r t and N e g o t i a t i o n s 76 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 76 - Emp loye r R e a c t i o n s 76 - Un ion S u p p o r t 82 - N e g o t i a t i o n s 89 - Work S toppages 92 - Summary 96 C h a p t e r V I I R e s u l t s 98 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 98 - Outcomes 98 - P r o v i s i o n s i n F i r s t Agreements 106 - J u r i s p r u d e n c e 114 - Summary 118 C h a p t e r V I I I D i s c u s s i o n 120 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 120 - Outcomes 120 - E f f e c t i v e n e s s 130 - A s s u m p t i o n s o f the S e c t i o n 70 P r o v i s i o n s 134 - F u r t h e r Comments on t h e R o l e o f S e c t i o n 70 as a D e t e r r e n t 138 - A l t e r n a t i v e s 141 - Summary 145 C h a p t e r IX C o n c l u s i o n s 148 - E f f e c t i v e n e s s 148 - P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s 150 - S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 151 V . Page B i b l i o g r a p h y 153 A p p e n d i c e s 1 - A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S e c t i o n 70 - 1980 and 1981 156 2 - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 159 VT . L IST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cases by Year o f A p p l i c a t i o n T a b l e 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cases by Yea r o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n T a b l e 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cases by D i s p o s i t i o n o f A p p l i c a t i o n T a b l e 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cases by Yea r o f A p p l i c a t i o n and by D i s p o s i t i o n o f A p p l i c a t i o n T a b l e 5 Case L i s t T a b l e 6 S o u r c e s o f Data T a b l e 7 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Emp loye rs (a ) Emp loye rs by i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (b) Emp loye r s by s k i l l l e v e l o f employees ( c ) Emp loye r s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s T a b l e 8 I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Emp loye rs I n v o l v e d i n C e r t i f i c a t i o n s 1974-1979 T a b l e 9 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Emp loye r s by D i s p o s i t i o n o f A p p l i c a t i o n s VII . Page T a b l e 10 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f U n i o n s and U n i t s (a ) Type o f U n i o n 68 (b) A f f i l i a t i o n o f Un ion 69 (c ) U n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s 69 (d) S i z e o f U n i t s 69 T a b l e 11 S i z e o f U n i t s C e r t i f i e d 1974-1979 71 T a b l e 12 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f U n i o n s / U n i t s by D i s p o s i t i o n o f A p p l i c a t i o n (a ) U n i t s i z e 72 (b) Type o f u n i o n 72 T a b l e 13 F r e q u e n c y o f U n f a i r L abou r P r a c t i c e s 81 T a b l e 14 F r e q u e n c y o f A p p e a l s A g a i n s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n 81 T a b l e 15 Degree o f Emp loye r O p p o s i t i o n 81 T a b l e 16 L e v e l o f Un ion S u p p o r t 84 T a b l e 17 M a r g i n a l i t y o f S u p p o r t 84 T a b l e 18 Changes i n Un ion S u p p o r t 88 V l l l . T a b l e 19 E l a p s e d Time f r o m N o t i c e t o B a r g a i n t o C o n c l u s i o n o f Work S toppage T a b l e 20 I n c i d e n c e o f Work S toppages T a b l e 21 D u r a t i o n o f Work S toppages T a b l e 22 S o u r c e o f L abou r D u r i n g Work S toppages T a b l e 23 Number o f F i r s t Agreements T a b l e 24 T o t a l Number o f Agreements T a b l e 25 S t a t u s o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n s T a b l e 26 Combined Outcomes by C a t e g o r y T a b l e 27 Un ion S e c u r i t y C l a u s e s T a b l e 28 Job S e c u r i t y C l a u s e s i x . Page T a b l e 29 Outcomes V e r s u s B a r g a i n i n g U n i t S i z e and S k i l l L e v e l 124 T a b l e 30 S u c c e s s Ra tes i n E s t a b l i s h i n g C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s 129 T a b l e 31 P e r c e n t o f B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s W i t h o u t F i r s t Agreeements E i g h t e e n Months A f t e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n 139 X . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t i s i m p o s s i b l e i n t h i s s h o r t space t o g i v e p r o p e r acknowledgement t o a l l t h o s e who p r o v i d e d t h e s u p p o r t , encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e w h i c h e n a b l e d me t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . I owe a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e members o f my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , Noe l H a l l , Mark Thompson and Dave M c P h i l l i p s . Thank y o u f o r y o u r g u i d a n c e , s u p p o r t and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . To Noe l and M a r k , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t hank you f o r y o u r c o n f i d e n c e i n s e e i n g me t h r o u g h t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . The d a t a f o r t h e r e s e a r c h w o u l d n o t have been c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t the a s s i s t a n c e o f Rod Germaine and J a c k i e J ohnson o f t h e Labour R e l a t i o n s Board and t h e m a n u s c r i p t w o u l d no t be i n i t s c o m p l e t e d f o r m w i t h o u t t h e c o u n t l e s s h o u r s s p e n t on t y p i n g by J ane F i1 g a s . My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o each o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . An i n d i v i d u a l does no t embark on a p o s t - g r a d u a t e p rog ram w i t h o u t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f e n t h u s i a s m and m o t i v a t i o n . My m o t i v a t i o n came f r o m t h e members o f my f a m i l y whose d i n n e r - t i m e d i s c u s s i o n s c r e a t e d t h e d e s i r e t o p u r s u e my e d u c a t i o n . The e n t h u s i a s m was mine b u t i t c o u l d n o t have been s u s t a i n e d i f t h e e x p e r i e n c e h a d n ' t been s h a r e d w i t h someone s p e c i a l . Words c a n n o t convey my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e s u p p o r t and l o v e p r o v i d e d by I r a , B o n n i e , K a t h y , Ron and G o r d o n . T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o "Thumper " who gave me t h e < f i n a l k i c k I needed t o c o m p l e t e i t . - 1 -CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION In 1971 t h e C a n a d i a n Un ion o f P u b l i c Employees a t t e m p t e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e emp loyees o f S and r i ngham H o s p i t a l . The u n i o n had been c e r t i f i e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e employees o f Sandr ingham f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The e m p l o y e r was r e q u i r e d t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n good f a i t h w i t h t h e u n i o n . In s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e e m p l o y e r ' s p e r s i s t e n t o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n t o t a l l y f r u s t r a t e d t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s o f t h e s e e m p l o y e e s . . . . t h e u n i o n was on s t r i k e f o r months i n an e f f o r t t o g a i n a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement b e f o r e t h e e m p l o y e r was f o u n d by t h e Board t o have f a i l e d t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y . . . F o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n where t h e r e was a f a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h , t h e r e was no means under t h e Labou r R e l a t i o n s A c t by w h i c h t h e p o l i c y o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e c o u l d be e f f e c t e d . D e s p i t e t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e H o s p i t a l had f a i l e d t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h , t h e Boa rd and t h e M i n i s t e r o f L abou r had t o s t a n d i d l y by and wa t ch t h e i n t e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n be c o m p l e t e l y t h w a r t e d and f r u s t r a t e d by an e m p l o y e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e a t r a d e u n i o n . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f s i t u a t i o n s such as Sand r ingham H o s p i t a l , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Labou r Code ( the Code) now g i v e s t h e L a bo u r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd ( t he B o a r d ) t h e power t o impose an a r b i t r a t e d f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . These p r o v i s i o n s , f o u n d i n S e c t i o n s 70 - 72 , a r e d e s i g n e d t o remedy s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e , a l t h o u g h t h e u n i o n i s c e r t i f i e d , i t i s u n a b l e t o e x e r c i s e t h e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s deemed t o f o l l o w f rom c e r t i f i c a t i o n because o f e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e c a s e s where t h e S e c t i o n 70 - 72 remedy has been a p p l i e d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e t h e s i s a r e t o d e s c r i b e t h e c a s e s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e outcomes and t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r no t t h e remedy has been e f f e c t i v e . - 2 -The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f o r g a n i z i n g and o u t l i n e s t h e g e n e r a l l e g a l f r amework g o v e r n i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s , employees and u n i o n s d u r i n g and a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The c h a p t e r a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e r e a s o n s why an e m p l o y e r may be i n c l i n e d t o oppose u n i o n i z a t i o n and why t h e employees and u n i o n s i n v o l v e d may r e q u i r e p r o t e c t i o n b o t h d u r i n g and a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I t s pu rpose i s t o e x p l a i n how a u n i o n o r g a n i z i n g d r i v e can i n i t i a t e a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s w h i c h g e n e r a t e a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f l i c t , u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r i n g e x t e n s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e Board t h r o u g h S e c t i o n s 70 - 7 2 , t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n . The t h i r d c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e S e c t i o n 70 - 72 p r o v i s i o n s i n d e t a i l . The p o l i c i e s b e h i n d t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , t h e a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h t h e p r o v i s i o n s a r e b a s e d , and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . C h a p t e r f o u r d e s c r i b e s how t h e d a t a f o r t h e c a s e s was o b t a i n e d and c h a p t e r f i v e summar izes t h e f i n d i n g s . The r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s d i s c u s s t h e f i n d i n g s i n d e t a i l . - 3 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I 1. G r andv i ew I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 2 . S e c t i o n ( 7 0 ) , (71) and ( 7 2 ) , L a bo u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . These s e c t i o n s were p r o c l a i m e d on J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1974 . - 4 CHAPTER I I - UNION RECOGNITION: ORGANIZING, CERTIFICATION AND NEGOTIATIONS FOR A FIRST AGREEMENT INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f u n i o n o r g a n i z i n g . I t o u t l i n e s why an e m p l o y e r i s l i k e l y t o oppose r e c o g n i z i n g a u n i o n and d i s c u s s e s how t h i s o p p o s i t i o n may be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e m p l o y e r ' s b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n and d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The c h a p t e r a l s o d e s c r i b e s why t h e employees a r e v u l n e r a b l e and s u b j e c t t o i n f l u e n c e by t h e i r e m p l o y e r . The l e g a l f r amework f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s o u t l i n e d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s e r i e s o f p r o t e c t i o n s , and t h e need f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s t a g e i s i d e n t i f i e d . " U n i o n o r g a n i z i n g can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o p r e - c e r t i f i c a t i o n and p o s t -c e r t i f i c a t i o n p e r i o d s . Each o f t h e s e p e r i o d s can be f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o two s e p a r a t e s t a g e s . The p r e - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s a r e : (1) i n i t i a l o r g a n i z i n g t o a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , and (2) a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p e n d i n g . The p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s a r e : (3) n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , and (4) p o s t s i g n i n g o f t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e two p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s , t h e s e c a n n o t be examined i n i s o l a t i o n . The f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e b e h a v i o u r o f an e m p l o y e r d u r i n g t h e p r e -c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s c o n t i n u e t o g o v e r n t h e b e h a v i o u r a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f o n l y t h e s e cond h a l f o f t h e s t o r y w o u l d be i n c o m p l e t e . - 5 -S tage One - I n i t i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n D r i v e T h i s s t a g e b e g i n s when t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t i s made between t h e Un ion and t h e e m p l o y e e s . The c o n t a c t can be i n i t i a t e d by e i t h e r t h e employees o r t h e u n i o n , and i f i n i t i a t e d by t h e emp loyees i s l i k e l y t o be t r i g g e r e d by a s p e c i f i c g r i e v a n c e o r s e t o f g r i e v a n c e s . ' ' ' S t age one c o n t i n u e s up t o t h e d a t e when t h e u n i o n makes an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e i t i s u s u a l f o r one o r more u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o meet w i t h some o f t h e employees away f r om t h e work p l a c e , g a i n a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e e d i n g i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campa ign a n d , i f t h i s i m p r e s s i o n i f f a v o u r a b l e , t o s i g n up employees as members i n t h e u n i o n . A t t h i s t i m e t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e l i k e l y t o e n l i s t t h e s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e o f s e v e r a l employees who w o u l d d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r i n f o r m a l l y w i t h c o - w o r k e r s and r e q u e s t them t o s i g n membersh ip c a r d s . The re may be c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i s s u e a t work and t h e r e w o u l d l i k e l y be s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s away f rom the work p l a c e t o r e p o r t upon t h e s t a t u s o f t h e membersh ip d r i v e . When t h e u n i o n has s i g n e d up a t l e a s t f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e e m p l o y e e s , t h e y may make a f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Labou r R e l a t i o n s Board f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . S t a g e two t h e n b e g i n s . S t a g e Two - A p p l i c a t i o n f o r C e r t i f i c a t i o n S t age two c o v e r s t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s p e n d i n g . I t i s u s u a l l y o f r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n . The e m p l o y e r i s f o r m a l l y n o t i f i e d by t h e Boa rd t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r u n i o n has a p p l i e d f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . E m p l o y e e s , b o t h t h o s e who a r e u n i o n members and t h o s e who a r e n o t , t h e u n i o n , and t h e e m p l o y e r a w a i t n o t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e outcome o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . The outcome i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e w i s h e s - 6 -o f the m a j o r i t y o f t h e employees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , as i n d i c a t e d by u n i o n membersh ip o r by t h e r e s u l t s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e . S t age Th ree - N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r F i r s t C o n t r a c t I f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s s u c c e s s f u l , t h e u n i o n a c q u i r e s e x c l u s i v e b a r g a i n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r emp loyees i n the c e r t i f i e d u n i t . Soon a f t e r the c e r t i f i c a t e i s a u t h o r i z e d , t h e u n i o n w i l l s e r v e n o t i c e t o t h e e m p l o y e r t o commence c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The p a r t i e s s u b s e q u e n t l y meet and d i s c u s s p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . A work s t o p p a g e and p i c k e t i n g may o c c u r d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e . The number o f m e e t i n g s h e l d , s cope and number o f t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d and the d u r a t i o n o f t h i s s t a g e v a r y g r e a t l y . S t age t h r e e c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e s i g n i n g o f the f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement between t h e p a r t i e s . S t age Fou r - P o s t F i r s t Agreement When t h e f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement has been n e g o t i a t e d , t h e p a r t i e s have a new s e t o f r u l e s , b o t h s u b s t a n t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l , w h i c h d e f i n e t h e c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e . Two p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . The f i r s t i s t h a t , f o r t h e pu rpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , employees have no t o b t a i n e d e f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e u n i o n has n o t a c h i e v e d r e c o g n i t i o n f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r u n t i l t h e f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s n e g o t i a t e d . The p u r p o s e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t o have t h e c e r t i f i e d u n i o n a c t as t h e b a r g a i n i n g agen t f o r t h e e m p l o y e e s . The u l t i m a t e goa l o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t o a c h i e v e a c o l l e c t i v e agreement and u n t i l t h a t g o a l i s a c h i e v e d t h e u n i o n ' s c e r t i f i c a t e i s a p i e c e o f pape r and c o l l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s w i t h o u t s u b s t a n c e . The second p o i n t i s t h a t no t a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campa igns r e a c h the end o f t h e t h i r d s t a g e ; e . g . , a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reement i s n o t c o n c l u d e d . - 7 -G i v e n t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l , t h e r e can be a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s why a f i r s t agreement i s n o t c o n c l u d e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e u n i o n and t h e e m p l o y e r may s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e o v e r i s s u e s such as u n i o n membersh ip o r demands f o r a s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t . N e g o t i a t i o n s b r e a k down a n d , as t h e m a t t e r d r a g s o n , t h e emp loyees a n d / o r t h e u n i o n l o s e i n t e r e s t . A n o t h e r r e a s o n , t h e f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , i s t h a t t h r o u g h d e t e r m i n e d o p p o s i t i o n t h e e m p l o y e r i s a b l e t o t o t a l l y f r u s t r a t e t h e u n i o n i n i t s a t t e m p t t o c o n c l u d e an a g r e e m e n t . A f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i c y o f t h e Code i s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g when i t i s t h e c h o i c e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s . One way i n w h i c h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e p a r t i e s , p r i m a r i l y t h e Un ion and t h e emp loyees d u r i n g t h e above s t a g e s . P r o t e c t i o n s p r o v i d e d t o employees d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e t h i r d s t a g e , p l a c e a d u t y upon the e m p l o y e r and t h e u n i o n t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n good f a i t h and t e m p o r a r i l y l i m i t t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a b i l i t y t o a l t e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e Code does n o t g u a r a n t e e t h a t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements w i l l be a c h i e v e d . In t h e absence o f such a g u a r a n t e e , a d i l emma i s c r e a t e d when an e m p l o y e r engages i n s u r f a c e b a r g a i n i n g w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f no t c o n c l u d i n g a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The b a l a n c e between g u a r a n t e e i n g emp loyees t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o engage t h e i r e m p l o y e r i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s b u t n o t g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e y w i l l a c h i e v e a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement , i s c l e a r l y u p s e t by t h e e m p l o y e r ' s b a r g a i n i n g b e h a v i o u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . S e c t i o n s 70 t h r o u g h 72 r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n s i n s t a g e t h r e e . By g i v i n g t h e Boa rd the power t o impose a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s do p r o v i d e a g u a r a n t e e t h a t a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement w i l l d i s c r e t i o n a r y power . - 8 -be o b t a i n e d when t h e Boa rd e x e r c i s e s t h i s LEGAL FRAMEWORK GOVERNING UNION RECOGNITION  S t a g e One D u r i n g s t a g e one t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e p a r t i e s i s r e g u l a t e d w i t h a v i e w t o f a c i l i t a t i n g p e a c e f u l o r g a n i z i n g and c r e a t i n g an e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e work p l a c e where emp loyees a r e f r e e t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r c h o i c e i n r e g a r d s t o u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . S e c t i o n s 3 and 5 o f t h e Code i d e n t i f y a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r w h i c h have t h e i m p a c t , o r t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t , o f i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h i s f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . These b e h a v i o u r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and as s u c h a r e p r o h i b i t e d . Because o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s t o t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e r e l e v a n t p r o v i s i o n s a r e q u o t e d i n f u l l : 3 . (1 ) An e m p l o y e r o r a p e r s o n a c t i n g on h i s b e h a l f s h a l l n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a t r a d e u n i o n o r c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r s u p p o r t t o i t . (2) An e m p l o y e r may, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , p e r m i t an employee o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a t r a d e u n i o n t o c o n f e r w i t h h im d u r i n g w o r k i n g hou r s o r t o a t t e n d t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n ' s b u s i n e s s d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s , w i t h o u t d e d u c t i n g t i m e so o c c u p i e d i n c o m p u t i n g t h e t i m e wo rked f o r t h e e m p l o y e r and w i t h o u t d e d u c t i n g wages f o r t h a t t i m e . (3 ) An e m p l o y e r o r a p e r s o n a c t i n g on h i s b e h a l f s h a l l n o t (a ) d i s c h a r g e , s u s p e n d , t r a n s f e r , l a y o f f o r o t h e r w i s e d i s c i p l i n e an e m p l o y e e , r e f u s e t o employ o r c o n t i n u e t o employ a p e r s o n o r d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t a p e r s o n i n r e g a r d t o employment o r a c o n d i t i o n o f employment b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n ( i ) i s o r p r o p o s e s t o become, o r s eeks t o i n d u c e a n o t h e r t o become, a member o r o f f i c e r o f a t r a d e u n i o n ; o r ( i i ) p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e p r o m o t i o n , f o r m a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a t r a d e u n i o n ; (b) impose a c o n d i t i o n i n a c o n t r a c t o f employment t h a t s e e k s t o r e s t r a i n an emp loyee f r o m e x e r c i s i n g h i s r i g h t s u n d e r t h i s A c t ; - 9 -•(c) seek by i n t i m i d a t i o n , by d i s m i s s a l , by t h r e a t o f d i s m i s s a l , o r by any o t h e r k i n d o f t h r e a t , o r by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a p e n a l t y , o r by a p r o m i s e , o r by a wage i n c r e a s e , o r by a l t e r i n g any o t h e r t e r m s o f employment t o compel o r t o i n d u c e an employee t o r e f r a i n f r o m b e c o m i n g , o r c o n t i n u i n g t o b e , a member o r o f f i c e r o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a t r a d e u n i o n ; (d) u s e , o r a u t h o r i z e o r p e r m i t t h e use o f , a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r i k e b r e a k e r o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r i k e b r e a k e r s ; o r (e ) r e f u s e t o a g r e e w i t h a t r a d e u n i o n , c e r t i f i e d as t h e b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t f o r h i s employees unde r t h i s A c t who have been engaged i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t o c o n c l u d e t h e i r f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , t h a t a l l employees i n t h e u n i t , w h e t h e r o r n o t members o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , b u t e x c l u d i n g t h o s e exempted unde r s e c t i o n 1 1 , w i l l pay u n i o n dues f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o t h e t r a d e u n i o n , b u t , e x c e p t as e x p r e s s l y p r o v i d e d , t h i s A c t s h a l l n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d t o . l i m i t o r o t h e r w i s e a f f e c t t h e r i g h t o f t h e e m p l o y e r t o ( f ) s u s p e n d , t r a n s f e r , l a y o f f o r d i s c h a r g e an employee f o r p r o p e r c a u s e ; (g) communica te t o an employee a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t o r o p i n i o n r e a s o n a b l y h e l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e m p l o y e r ' s b u s i n e s s ; o r (h) make a change i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s b u s i n e s s r e a s o n a b l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o p e r c o n d u c t o f t h a t b u s i n e s s . 5 . A p e r s o n s h a l l n o t use c o e r c i o n o r i n t i m i d a t i o n o f any k i n d t h a t c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y have t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p e l l i n g o r i n d u c i n g a p e r s o n t o become, r e f r a i n f r o m becoming o r c o n t i n u e o r c e a s e t o be a member o f a t r a d e u n i o n . S e c t i o n 4 p r o h i b i t s t h e u n i o n f r o m o r g a n i z i n g on t h e e m p l o y e r ' s p r e m i s e s d u r i n g w o r k i n g hou r s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e e m p l o y e r , and p r o h i b i t s t h e use o f p i c k e t i n g o r o t h e r a c t s w h i c h l i m i t p r o d u c t i o n o r s e r v i c e as t a c t i c s 3 f o r o r g a n i z i n g . Bo th p a r t i e s a r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m e n g a g i n g i n work s t o p p a g e s d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e . S t age Two The a c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i e s c o n t i n u e t o be r e g u l a t e d w h i l e t h e d i s -p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s p e n d i n g . The b e h a v i o u r s d u r i n g s t a g e two a r e s t i l l gove rned by S e c t i o n s , 3 , 4 , and 5. In a d d i t i o n , S e c t i o n 5 1 ( 1 ) c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s p r o h i b i t i n g t h e e m p l o y e r f r om i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g r a t e s o f pay o r a l t e r i n g o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f 4 employment f o r emp loyees a f f e c t e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n a t t e m p t s t o p r o t e c t emp loyees and t h e u n i o n f r o m a p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l v e h i c l e f o r - 10 -e m p l o y e r i n f l u e n c e . The p a r t i e s a r e s t i l l p r o h i b i t e d f r o m d e c l a r i n g o r e n g a g i n g i n a work s t o p p a g e o r p i c k e t i n g . S t age Th ree Upon c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h e u n i o n a c q u i r e s e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e m p l o y e e s , and t h e p a r t i e s a r e o b l i g a t e d t o commence b a r g a i n i n g . S e c t i o n 63 r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p a r t i e s meet and commence b a r g a i n i n g w i t h i n t e n 5 days o f t h e r e c e i p t o f n o t i c e . S e c t i o n 6 p l a c e s a d u t y upon t h e e m p l o y e r g and t h e u n i o n t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . I f an e m p l o y e r i s f o u n d t o have f a i l e d t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h , t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e Board i s t o i s s u e an o r d e r r e q u i r i n g t h e e m p l o y e r t o engage i n good f a i t h b a r g a i n i n g . When the e m p l o y e r has a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o do t h i s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s o r d e r and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e deg ree o f p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e d emp loyees d u r i n g b a r g a i n i n g f o r a f i r s t agreement i s c e r t a i n l y open t o c h a l l e n g e . T h i s t y p e o f o r d e r i s a l s o d e f i c i e n t i n t h a t i t does n o t remedy t h e damage done by t h e e m p l o y e r ' s f a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . A t a minimum t h e employees have been d e n i e d t h e b e n e f i t s o f a c o l l e c t i v e agreement f o r t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r a v o i d e d h i s d u t y t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . Where t h e e m p l o y e r has a v o i d e d t h i s d u t y f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e p e r i o d t h e absence o f t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m a c o l l e c t i v e agreement may have s e r i o u s l y unde rm ined s u p p o r t among t h e employees f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . D u r i n g t h i s s t a g e t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i e s a r e f u r t h e r r e g u l a t e d . S e c t i o n 6 1 ( l ) ( c ) ^ p r e v e n t s t h e e m p l o y e r f r o m i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g the r a t e s o f pay o f t h e emp loyees f o r a f o u r - m o n t h p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n , u n l e s s t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by means o f a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , o r p r i o r a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e B o a r d . Such u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r has been c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e f f e c t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e m p l o y e e s . o S e c t i o n 3 9 ( 2 ) ( a ) p r e v e n t s a n o t h e r u n i o n f r o m mak ing a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e same b a r g a i n i n g u n i t u n t i l s i x months have e l a p s e d 9 s i n c e t h e d a t e o f t h e o r i g i n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n , and S e c t i o n 5 2 ( 2 ) p r e v e n t s t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n u n t i l t e n months have e l a p s e d f r o m t h e d a t e t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was i s s u e d . These p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h a p e r i o d o f g r a c e o r p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g w h i c h t h e new ly c e r t i f i e d t r a d e u n i o n must d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e e m p l o y e e s , b o t h members and non-members, t h e u t i l i t y o f i t s p r e s e n c e i f i t i s t o r ema in a v i a b l e e n t i t y i n t h e company. In some i n s t a n c e s , t h e u n i o n i s u n a b l e t o do t h i s . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e Sand r i ngham H o s p i t a l c a s e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , and w i t h t h a t a g r e e m e n t , u n i o n s e c u r i t y c l a u s e s , and improvements i n t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment can be f r u s t r a t e d and u l t i m a t e l y p r e v e n t e d by an i n t r a n s i g e n t e m p l o y e r , d e t e r m i n e d t o r e s i s t t h e u n i o n i z a t i o n o f h i s e m p l o y e e s . EMPLOYER OPPOSITION TO ORGANIZATION Why i s an e m p l o y e r l i k e l y t o oppose t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s employees by a u n i o n ? G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e a s o n s can be g r o u p e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : i d e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , and s e c o n d l y , p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n . The s e cond c a t e g o r y can be s u b - d i v i d e d f u r t h e r i n t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t upon t h e p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f t h e f i r m , upon m a n a g e r i a l au tonomy , and upon t h e e m p l o y e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s e m p l o y e e s . I d e o l o g i c a l Reasons Thompson and M o o r e ^ and G o l d b e r g e t . a l . ^ i d e n t i f y and d i s c u s s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s . An e m p l o y e r m i g h t be f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed t o u n i o n i z a t i o n because o f b e l i e f s d e s c r i b e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e o f s t a t e m e n t s : " u n i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e i n c o m p e t e n t and l a z y " ; "I made i t t o t h e p o i n t o f own ing my own b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t a n y o n e ' s h e l p , why - 12 -c a n ' t t h e y " ; "A g o o d , h a r d - w o r k i n g employee g e t s p a i d what he d e s e r v e s " ; " U n i o n s a r e run by c o m m u n i s t s " ; " h a v i n g a u n i o n d e p r i v e s employees o f t h e i r f r e edom o f c h o i c e " . Such a t t i t u d e s a r e based upon d e e p l y h e l d b e l i e f s a n d , as G o l d b e r g 12 e t . a l . p o i n t o u t , a r e r i g i d and n o t s u s c e p t i b l e t o i n f l u e n c e . A t t i t u d e s based on i d e o l o g y a r e l i k e l y t o be r e i n f o r c e d by s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f e v e n t s and u n l i k e l y t o be a l t e r e d by an e x t e r n a l agen t o r f o r c e . Emp loye rs w i t h t h i s p ronounced a n t i - u n i o n a t t i t u d e do no t v i ew t r a d e u n i o n s as a l e g i t i m a t e a c t o r i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s y s t e m . In t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t h e r e i s no u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e web o f r u l e s , no r ' i s t h e r e g e n e r a l agreement on t h e r o l e 13 t o be p l a y e d by t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s . P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e Impact o f U n i o n i z a t i o n An e m p l o y e r may oppose t h e u n i o n i z a t i o n o f h i s employees because he v i e w s t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n as u n f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e company, and p o s s i b l y , f o r t h e employees as w e l l . These p e r c e p t i o n s can be h e l d a l o n g w i t h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i d e o l o g i c a l f r ame o f r e f e r e n c e , o r can be q u i t e s e p a r a t e f r o m i d e o l o g y . In t h e l a t t e r e x a m p l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a n t i - u n i o n a t t i t u d e t o be s i t u a t i o n a l and s p e c i f i c , t h a t i s ; u n i o n s i n g e n e r a l c o u l d be v i ewed as l e g i t i m a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , bu t no t r i g h t f o r h i s company because o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . (1) Impact on P r o f i t a b i l i t y I t i s g e n e r a l l y v i ewed t h a t wage r a t e s i n u n i o n i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e p a i d i n n o n - u n i o n f i r m s f o r c o m p a r a b l e j o b s . T h i s c o u l d be d e b a t e d and c h a l l e n g e d on a macro economic p l a n e , e x a m i n i n g t h e l o n g t e r m i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n on l a b o u r ' s s h a r e o f t h e g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t . 1 4 On a m i c r o l e v e l , howeve r , t h e s t a t e m e n t i s s u p p o r t e d by s a l a r y s u r v e y d a t a w h i c h i s r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r ^ u n i o n and n o n - u n i o n e m p l o y e r s . 1 5 An e m p l o y e r , f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n may p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f as - 13 -u n a b l e t o a f f o r d t h e h i g h e r wages and i m p r o v e d b e n e f i t s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , he may v i e w u n i o n i z a t i o n as a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g h i s c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n by p l a c i n g h im a t a r e l a t i v e c o s t d i s a d v a n t a g e compared t o o t h e r e m p l o y e r s i n t h e same p r o d u c t m a r k e t . T h i s w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i f a s m a l l number o f e m p l o y e r s i n t h e i n d u s t r y were u n i o n i z e d . I f t h e e m p l o y e r ,v iews u n i o n s as p r o v i d i n g p r o t e c t i o n t o i n c o m p e t e n t employees t h r o u g h l i m i t a t i o n s on d i s m i s s a l s , he may f e a r a d e c l i n e i n t h e q u a n t i t y . . a n d / o r q u a l i t y o f o u t p u t , w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t e r o s i o n o f ma rke t p o s i t i o n and p r o f i t a b i l i t y . (2) Impact on M a n a g e r i a l Autonomy In a d d i t i o n t o mone ta r y i t e m s such as wages and b e n e f i t s , c o l l e c t i v e ag reements c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t e d t o u n i o n s e e a n t y . , p r o c e d u r e s f o r h i r i n g new employees and mak ing p r o m o t i o n s , d i s c i p l i n i n g e m p l o y e e s , t e r m i n a t i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s , and f o r r e s o l v i n g g r i e v a n c e s r e g a r d i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . Dun lop d i s c u s s e s t h e v a r i o u s fo rms t h e s e r u l e s may t a k e and t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r u l e s . Whatever t h e i r f o r m , howeve r , t h e i r i m p a c t i s t o r e d u c e t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s t h e autonomy o f t h e e m p l o y e r . D e c i s i o n s w h i c h were p r e v i o u s l y made i n d e p e n d e n t l y by t h e manager o r owner a r e now made j o i n t l y t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and t h e p r o c e d u r e s i t e s t a b l i s h e s w h i c h o p e r a t e d u r i n g t h e t e r m o f t h e a g r e e m e n t . , I t i s l i k e l y t h a t an e m p l o y e r may v i ew t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s as e x c e s s i v e , t h e i r u l t i m a t e i m p a c t hamper ing h i s a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e t h e company as he knows i s t h e " b e s t w a y " . An e m p l o y e r w i t h t h i s p e r c e p t i o n f e a r s a l o s s o f c o n t r o l o v e r d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n mak ing and does no t v i ew t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n o f a u n i o n i n t o t h e m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n mak ing p r o c e s s as l e g i t i m a t e . (3) Impact on R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Employees An e m p l o y e r may v i e w u n i o n i z a t i o n as h a r m f u l t o what he c o n s i d e r s a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i m s e l f and h i s e m p l o y e e s . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s c e n t r e d - 14 -a r o u n d two comp lemen ta r y i d e a s . F i r s t l y , t h e e m p l o y e r may v i ew t h e u n i o n and t h e employees as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s ; t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t s i t s own i n t e r e s t s , n o t t h o s e o f t h e e m p l o y e e s , and t h e s e i n t e r e s t s do n o t c o r r e s p o n d . S p e c i f i c examples o f a t t i t u d e s w h i c h w o u l d f o l l o w f r om t h i s p e r c e p t i o n a r e : t h r o u g h u n i o n d u e s , money i s b e i n g t a k e n f r o m e m p l o y e e s , i t s e x p e n d i t u r e t o be d e t e r m i n e d by u n i o n e x e c u t i v e ; t h e u n i o n i n a t t e m p t i n g t o o r g a n i z e t h i s g roup o f employees wants t o b u i l d up a l a r g e and p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e employees w i l l be s u b j u g a t e d . The s e c o n d i d e a r e l a t e s t o what i s d e s c r i b e d as a p a t e r n a l i s t i c e m p l o y e r a t t i t u d e . The e m p l o y e r b e l i e v e s he knows what i s b e s t f o r h i s employees and he w i l l l o o k a f t e r them as he has i n t h e p a s t . Such p e r c e p t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y a r e a t odds w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e employees want t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e u n i o n , t h e y have i n v i t e d i t s p r e s e n c e . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s an e m p l o y e r may f e e l c o n f u s e d o r b e t r a y e d by h i s employees and may ask h i m s e l f , "Why d i d n ' t t h e y come t o me i f t h e y had a p r o b l e m ? " E i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s can be s u p p o r t e d and r e i n f o r c e d by employees who do n o t want t o become u n i o n members. Under t h e s e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s t h e e m p l o y e r does no t v i e w t h e u n i o n as b e n e f i c i a l t o e m p l o y e e s . B r i e f m e n t i o n s h o u l d be made t h a t t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s and t h e r e s u l t a n t a t t i t u d e s a r e l i k e l y t o be more s t r o n g l y a d h e r e d t o by t h e s m a l l owner/ o p e r a t e d b u s i n e s s t han by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l manager o f a l a r g e r f i r m . The p e r s o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s and i t s employees i s s t r o n g e r i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e . As m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a t t i t u d e s w h i c h have t h e i r b a s i s i n i d e o l o g y a r e u n l i k e l y t o change e a s i l y , w h i l e an a t t i t u d e o f o p p o s i t i o n based on p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i s m may be a l t e r e d more r e a d i l y t h r o u g h d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s . , The b e l i e f s d i s c u s s e d above r e s u i l t i n t h e e m p l o y e r v i e w i n g t h e u n i o n i z a t i o n o f " h i s " b u s i n e s s as a t h r e a t , o r p o s s i b l y an i n s u l t , and - 15 -c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where t h e e m p l o y e r i s l i k e l y t o t a k e s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s t o oppose t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n d r i v e . In t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s b o t h the emp loyees and t h e u n i o n may be i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n . UNION AND EMPLOYEE VULNERABILITY I m p l i c i t i n a s t a t e d need f o r p r o t e c t i o n i s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e p a r t y r e q u i r i n g t h e p r o t e c t i o n i s i n a v u l n e r a b l e s t a t e . In t h e s i t u a t i o n d i s c u s s e d h e r e , t h e u n i o n and t h e employees a r e v u l n e r a b l e w h i l e t h e e m p l o y e r has t h e r e l a t i v e power a d v a n t a g e . Why i s t h i s so ? B a s i s o f t h e E m p l o y e r ' s S t r e n g t h The s t r e n g t h o f the e m p l o y e r and h i s r e l a t i v e power p o s i t i o n i s f o u n d e d on f o u r ma jo r f a c t o r s . The e m p l o y e r c o n t r o l s a c c e s s t o employment and c o n t r o l s t h e c o n t i n u e d employment o f e m p l o y e e s , t h e r e f o r e h a v i n g c o n t r o l o v e r j o b s e c u r i t y . A l t h o u g h p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e Code q u o t e d e a r l i e r make i t an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e t o d i s m i s s an employee f o r u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p , ^ t h e numerous examp les o f e m p l o y e r s d o i n g t h i s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n s may c u r b t h i s power somewhat , t h e y do n o t p r e v e n t i t s e x e r c i s e . The e m p l o y e r a l s o c o n t r o l s w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and can make l i f e e i t h e r p l e a s a n t o r no t so p l e a s a n t f o r emp loyees t h r o u g h c h a n g i n g j o b a s s i g n m e n t s , w o r k i n g h o u r s , r a t e s o f pay o r v a r y i n g o t h e r j o b f a c t o r s as a " p u n i s h m e n t " f o r u n i o n a c t i v i t y . A g a i n , such a c t i o n s a r e c o n t r a r y t o the Code and a r e u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s because t h e i r i n t e n t i s t o i n f l u e n c e emp loyees 18 t o r e f r a i n f r o m becoming u n i o n members o r t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r member sh ip . I f t h e u n i o n f i l e s a c o m p l a i n t w i t h t h e Board i n t h e s e c a s e s , t h e e m p l o y e r w i l l l i k e l y be o r d e r e d t o c e a s e and d e s i s t f r o m t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . Such an o r d e r i s , h o w e v e r , d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s f u t u r e a c t i o n and i s l i k e l y t o have a m i n i m a l i m p a c t i n r e m e d y i n g any damage i n c u r r e d . Of p o s s i b l e l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a c c e s s t o e m p l o y e e s . P r i o r t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a n n o t o r g a n i z e a t t h e work r p l a c e w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e e m p l o y e r . The e m p l o y e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , has a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s a c c e s s t o emp loyees and h a s , t h e r e f o r e , a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r w i t h emp loyees o r t o u t i l i z e c e r t a i n f a v o u r e d emp loyees t o p r e s e n t h i s v i e w s . An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h i s c o n t a c t i s f o u n d i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w h i c h s u r r o u n d s t h e e m p l o y e r ' s r i g h t t o f r e e d o m o f speech i n p r e s e n t i n g h i s v i ews r e g a r d i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n . The f o u r t h f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e m p l o y e r ' s power i s t h e r e s p e c t i v e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i e s . In many c a s e s t h e e m p l o y e r i s i n a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n t o w i t h s t a n d a s t r i k e . Such a s t r i k e may impose immed i a t e f i n a n c i a l h a r d s h i p upon e m p l o y e e s , m o d i f i e d o n l y by t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e u n i o n i s a b l e t o p r o v i d e s t r i k e pay o r by f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e emp loyment . B a s i s o f Un ion and Employee Weakness C o n t r o l o v e r j o b s e c u r i t y , c o n t r o l o f w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , a c c e s s t o emp loyees and f i n a n c i a l s t r e n g t h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e m p l o y e r ' s s t r e n g t h . The a b s e n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e l a t i v e weakness o f t h e u n i o n . The u n i o n ' s power i s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y f r om t h e l e v e l o f employee s u p p o r t and t h e r e s u l t i n g d e g r e e o f c o h e s i o n w i t h i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . U n c e r t a i n t y amongst t h e emp loyees r e g a r d i n g t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d r i v e w i l l r e d u c e t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y i t s r e l a t i v e power . I n i t i a l l y , t h e u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d s t h e i s s u e o f whe the r o r n o t t h e - 17 -a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l . G i v e n t h a t i t i s s u c c e s s f u l , u n c e r t a i n t y r e m a i n s r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t u n i o n membersh ip w i l l r e s u l t i n improvements i n wages; a n d / o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Employees may h o l d n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e manner ijn w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r i s l i k e l y t o r e a c t when i n f o r m e d o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n . These e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a r e r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h c a s u a l h i n t s f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r when he f i r s t h e a r s o f t h e a c t i v i t y , o r by more d r a s t i c a c t i o n s such as d i s m i s s a l o f a key u n i o n member. These e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a c t i n u n i s o n t o p o s s i b l y d e t e r emp loyees f r o m g o i n g o u t on a l i m b t o s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n , o r r e s u l t i n s u p p o r t w h i c h a l t h o u g h p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l l y , i s t enuous and d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n , and i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o i n f l u e n c e by t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e v e n t s . Whereas an employee was w i l l i n g t o become a member o f t h e u n i o n , he may r e c o n s i d e r t h a t membersh ip i f t h e c o s t i s h i s j o b . o r h i s pay c h e q u e . The p i c t u r e w h i c h i s p a i n t e d i s one o f employees becoming members o f t h e u n i o n and v o t i n g i n f a v o u r o f u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i f a v o t e i s n e c e s s a r y . T h e i r c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t , howeve r , i s based upon a f a v o u r a b l e 20 c o s t / b e n e f i t e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r member sh ip . The b e n e f i t s a r e d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f t h e i m p a c t u n i o n i z a t i o n w i l l have upon wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; t h e c o s t s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i d e a o f u n i o n i z a t i o n and t o t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n , p o s s i b l y i n c l u d i n g a s t r i k e , t o c o n c l u d e t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . The c o s t s a r e i n c u r r e d up f r o n t ; t h e b e n e f i t s r e a l i z e d o n l y a f t e r t h e agreement i s s i g n e d and i m p l e m e n t e d . The e m p l o y e e s ' u n c e r t a i n t y abou t t h e outcome o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e improvements i n wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h e y w i l l a c h i e v e t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , and t h e i r p o s s i b l y f e a r f u l e x p e c -t a t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s r e a c t i o n s combine t o r e s u l t i n a h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and low deg ree o f a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e u n i o n . T h i s i n t u r n p l a c e s t h e u n i o n i n a low power p o s i t i o n . - 18 -SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e e s , t h e union?, and p a r t i c u a r l y o f t h e e m p l o y e r , d u r i n g and i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I t has a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h e p a r t i e s d u r i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campa ign and p r e s e n t e d a p i c t u r e o f t h e e m p l o y e r o p e r a t i n g f r o m a r e l a t i v e power a d v a n t a g e v i s - a -v i s t h e emp loyees and t h e u n i o n . F i n a l l y t h e c h a p t e r has e x p l a i n e d why an e m p l o y e r may oppose an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n . The s cene i s s e t f o r an e m p l o y e r , opposed t o u n i o n i z a t i o n , t o t a k e s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s t o r e s i s t t h e u n i o n i z a t i o n o f h i s e m p l o y e e s . These a c t i o n s can range f r o m r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n upon t h e b u s i n e s s t o t h r e a t s o f c l o s u r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s o r d i s m i s s a l o f employees f o r u n i o n a c t i v i t y . T a k i n g a n o t h e r a p p r o a c h t h e e m p l o y e r can p r o m i s e i n c r e a s e s i n wages i f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a t t e m p t i s d e f e a t e d , o r may r e c t i f y t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e impe tus f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e m p l o y e r may e f f e c t i v e l y use employees who do n o t s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n t o r e i n f o r c e t h e s e messages and t h e a n t i - u n i o n s e n t i m e n t s . . Once c e r t i f i c a t i o n has been g r a n t e d t h e e m p l o y e r can a t t e m p t t o f r u s t r a t e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by d e l a y i n g m e e t i n g s , r e f u s i n g t o meet or, by mak ing o f f e r s d i r e c t l y : to t h e employees w h i l e r e f u s i n g t o d i s c u s s them a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e . Some o f t h e s e t a c t i c s may be l e g a l ; many a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s ; w h i l e o t h e r s a r e i n a g r e y a r e a somewhere i n b e t w e e n . The number o f c o m p l a i n t s o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s made t o t h e Boa rd s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e a c t i o n s 22 i n e i t h e r t h e i l l e g a l o r g r e y c a t e g o r y . The pu rpose o f t h e s e a c t i o n s i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t o t h e employees t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e u n i o n w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o f n o t s u p p o r t i n g t h e u n i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s made t h a t t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e - 19 -e m p l o y e r w i l l have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e d e c i s i o n s made by employees r e g a r d i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n . The e m p l o y e r , t h r o u g h c o n t r o l o v e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and employment i s seen t o be i n a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e . One s t u d y w o u l d d i s p u t e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . In a s t u d y o f b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e s G o l d b e r g e t . a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t e m p l o y e r a c t i o n s had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e outcome o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n t o j o i n a u n i o n , and t h e c h o i c e made i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e a r e based upon 23 b a s i c and u n c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t owa rds u n i o n s i n g e n e r a l . The s t u d y does no t however f o l l o w t h e s e c a s e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n s o f t he e m p l o y e r i n f l u e n c e d emp loyees t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n s . W h i l e t h e i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s may have an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s , a s u b s e q u e n t d e c i s i o n o f whe the r o r n o t t o s t r i k e i n s u p p o r t o f c o n t r a c t p r o p o s a l s o r t o c o n t i n u e t o s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g c o - w o r k e r s d i s m i s s e d f o r such a c t i v i t i e s i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . In c o n c l u d i n g , i t i s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e n o t t y p i c a l o f t he v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n c a m p a i g n s . T h i s a t y p i c a l s c e n a r i o i s c o n c i s e l y summar ized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : A u n i o n has made i t s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e w i t h an e m p l o y e r and has o r g a n i z e d a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l u n i t . The e m p l o y e r opposed c e r t i f i c a t i o n by one d e v i c e o r a n o t h e r , pe rhaps mak ing v e i l e d t h r e a t s abou t t h e consequences o f u n i o n i z a t i o n o r even g o i n g t o t h e l e n g t h s o f f i r i n g a u n i o n s u p p o r t e r . Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s o p p o s i t i o n , t h e u n i o n r e c e i v e s c e r t i f i c a t i o n f r om t h e B o a r d , b u t i t s b a r g a i n i n g a u t h o r i t y i s t e n u o u s . From t h a t p o s i t i o n i t must t r y t o n e g o t i a t e a f i r s t c o n t r a c t . The e m p l o y e r may d r a g t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s o u t , c o n s e n t i n g t o t a l k o n l y abou t t h e l a n g u a g e and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a g r e e m e n t , and r e f u s i n g t o pu t any mone ta r y o f f e r s on t h e t a b l e u n t i l a l l t h e s e d e t a i l s a r e s e t t l e d . M e a n w h i l e , some members o f management may have h i n t e d t o t h e employees t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e c e i v e a s u b s t a n t i a l pay i n c r e a s e w i t h o u t t h e u n i o n . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e u n i o n , u n a b l e t o s e c u r e an a g r e e m e n t , c a l l s a s t r i k e . However , some e m p l o y e e s , b o t h t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y opposed t o t h e u n i o n and t h o s e now d i s e n c h a n t e d by t h e l a c k o f t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s , r e f u s e t o go o u t . Those who s t r i k e a r e e a s i l y r e p l a c e d because o f t h e s m a l l s i z e - 20 -o f t h e u n i t and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e employees a r e n o t h i g h l y s k i l l e d . In t h a t s i t u a t i o n , t h e u n i o n has no economic l e v e r a g e t o budge t h e e m p l o y e r , n e g o t i a t i o n s and m e d i a t i o n a r e f u t i l e and t h e e m p l o y e r can w a i t t h e u n i o n o u t . E v e n t u a l l y , a d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n becomes t i m e l y and t h o s e who a r e t h e n w o r k i n g may be a s u f f i c i e n t m a j o r i t y t o a c h i e v e t h a t r e s u l t . 2 4 In r e s p o n s e t o t h i s s c e n a r i o , t h e l e g i s l a t u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o go beyond t h e r e g u l a t o r y p r o h i b i t i o n s p l a c e d upon t h e b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e e m p l o y e e s , u n i o n and e m p l o y e r c o n t a i n e d i n t h e Code r e g a r d i n g u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t p l a c e d upon t h e p a r t i e s t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . When t h e S e c t i o n 70-72 p r o v i s i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d , t h e B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L abo u r s t r o n g l y d e c l a r e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . Pau l W e i l e r , a p r e v i o u s Cha i rman o f t h e B o a r d , p o i n t e d ou t t h a t t h e B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L abou r . . . l e d t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e s t a t u t o r y i n n o v a t i o n . Though i t s members w o u l d be t h e p r i m a r y b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n t h i s s p e c i a l c o n t e x t , t h e F e d e r a t i o n f e a r e d t h a t i t w o u l d be a p r e c e d e n t , ' t h e t h i n edge o f t h e w e d g e ' , f o r t h e g r o w i n g use o f l e g a l c o m p u l s i o n e l s e w h e r e . T h i s i s s u e p r o d u c e d one o f t h e p i t c h e d b a t t l e s between B i l l K i n g , t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r , and t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , i n the f i e r c e p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e o v e r who w o u l d shape t h e new NDP l a b o u r p o l i c y . " The S e c t i o n 70-72 p r o v i s i o n s ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s ) a c t t o r e i n f o r c e t h e u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e p r o v i s i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x t e n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i e s ' b e h a v i o u r t o t h e p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . These p r o v i s i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I 1. I f t h e c o n t a c t i s i n i t i a t e d by t h e emp loyees t h e impe tus i s p r o v i d e d by a p e r c e p t i o n among some o r a l l emp loyees o f a b e n e f i t t o be g a i n e d t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a s o n s f o r s e e k i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n , see I. C h a f e t z , " D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x p e r i e n c e " ( M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 ) , PP . 1 8 - 3 7 . 2 . S e c t i o n s (3) and ( 5 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 3 . S e c t i o n ( 4 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 4 . S e c t i o n 5 1 ( 1 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 5 . S e c t i o n ( 5 3 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 6 . S e c t i o n ( 6 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 7 . S e c t i o n 6 1 ( l ) ( c ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 8 . S e c t i o n 3 9 ( 2 ) ( a ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 9 . S e c t i o n 5 2 ( 2 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 0 . M. Thompson and L. M o o r e , " M a n a g e r i a l A t t i t u d e s Towards I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s : A U .S . - C a n a d i a n C o m p a r i s o n . " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 1 9 7 5 , V o l . 3 0 , #3. The f i r s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t ems i n t h i s s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s u n i o n s r e l a t e t o t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f u n i o n s as a f o r c e i n t h e work p l a c e . Answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s were based on a t t i t u d e s , a f f e c t e d a t l e a s t p a r t l y by i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , and e g a l i t a r i a n i s m . 1 1 . S. G o l d b e r g , J . Ge tman , and J . Herman, U n i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n E l e c t i o n s :  Law and R e a l i t y (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . 1 2 . I b i d . 1 3 . J . D u n l o p , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Sys tems (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t & Company, 1 9 5 8 ) . 1 4 . A . R e e s , The Economics o f Work and Pay (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 5 . V a n c o u v e r B o a r d o f T r a d e , C l e r i c a l S a l a r y S u r v e y ( V a n c o u v e r : Boa rd o f T r a d e , 1 9 8 1 ) . 1 6 . D u n l o p , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s S y s t e m s . 1 7 . S e c t i o n s (3 ) a n d ( 5 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 8 . I b i d . 1 9 . S e c t i o n 4 ( 1 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 2 0 . I. C h a f e t z , " D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x p e r i e n c e " , PP . 1 8 - 3 7 . 2 1 . D u n l o p , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s S y s t e m s . - 22 -2 2 . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1978 t h e r e were 220 c o m p l a i n t s o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s f i l e d w i t h t h e B o a r d . L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1 9 7 8 , p. 5 0 . 2 3 . G o l d b e r g , Getman, and Herman, Un ion R e p r e s e n t a t i o n E l e c t i o n s : Law and  R e a l i t y . 2 4 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 4 . 2 5 . P. W e i l e r , R e c o n c i l a b l e D i f f e r e n c e s : New D i r e c t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n Labour Law ( T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l Co . L t d . 1980) p. 5 2 . - 23 -CHAPTER I I I - THE LEGISLATION THE NEED FOR A REMEDY The u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e p r o v i s i o n s p r o t e c t employees f r om i n t i m i d a t i o n by t h e i r e m p l o y e r and f r o m i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e i r f r e edom t o become members o f u n i o n s . The s t a n d a r d remedy f o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s i s i s s u a n c e o f a c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r . The Code i n 1 2 S e c t i o n s 4 3 ( 3 ) and 8 ( 4 ) e c o n t a i n s an a d d i t i o n a l remedy t o be u t i l i z e d i n ex t r eme c a s e s where t h e e m p l o y e r ' s i n t i m i d a t i o n has made i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the t r u e w i s h e s o f t h e employees r e g a r d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n can be d e t e r m i n e d . T h i s r emedy , a p p l i e d i n t h e ' p r e - c e r t i f i c a t i o n p e r i o d g i v e s the Board t h e a u t h o r i t y t o i s s u e a c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o u n i o n membersh ip c a r d s o r t o t h e r e s u l t s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e . A p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t p l a c e d upon t h e e m p l o y e r t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . The s t a n d a r d c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r emedy , and t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a r e a remedy f o r ex t r eme c a s e s . The ex t reme remedy i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e employees t o engage t h e i r e m p l o y e r i n good f a i t h b a r g a i n i n g a r e p r o t e c t e d . The f undamen ta l p r e m i s e o f t h e s t a t u t e i s t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s t o be f a c i l i t a t e d when i t i s t h e c h o i c e o f t h e m a j o r i t y . The r e a l i t y i s t h a t a l a r g e number o f s m a l l u n i t s , a l t h o u g h o r g a n i z e d and c e r t i f i e d , n e v e r s u c c e e d i n r e a c h i n g a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The re i s a s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t i n S e c t i o n 6 o f t h e Code t h a t p a r t i e s s h o u l d b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h b u t e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t t h i s does no t c a s t a f i n e enough n e t t o d e a l w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f methods by w h i c h bona f i d e and r e a s o n a b l e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may be f r u s t r a t e d . What t h e l e g i s l a t u r e has p r o p o s e d i n S e c t i o n 70 i s a p o s i t i v e remedy w h i c h i t i s hoped w i l l do a b e t t e r j o b t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i c e o f c ease and d e s i s t o r d e r s . 3 - 24 -Another fundamental premise o f the Code i s t h a t the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment should be s e t t l e d by mutual agreement of the 4 p a r t i e s concerned, not imposed from the o u t s i d e under l e g a l a u t h o r i t y . The Section 70 p r o v i s i o n s , which c o n t r a d i c t t h i s premise, acknowledge both the s e v e r i t y o f the problem and the n e c e s s i t y f o r an extreme remedy to accomplish the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e of encourage c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . THE PROVISIONS The r e l e v a n t p r o v i s i o n s o f the Code are as f o l l o w s : 70(1) Where a trade-union c e r t i f i e d as bargaining agent and an employer have been engaged i n c o l l e c t i v e bargaining with a view to concluding t h e i r f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement and have f a i l e d to conclude an agreement, the m i n i s t e r may, a t the request of e i t h e r party and a f t e r such inves-t i g a t i o n as he considers necessary or a d v i s a b l e , d i r e c t the board to i n q u i r e i n t o the dispute and, i f the board considers i t a d v i s a b l e , to s e t t l e the terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r the f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement. (2) The board s h a l l proceed as d i r e c t e d by the m i n i s t e r and, i f the board s e t t l e s the terms and c o n d i t i o n s , those terms and c o n d i t i o n s s h a l l be deemed to c o n s t i t u t e the c o l l e c t i v e agreement between the trade-union and the employer and binding on them and the employees, except to the extent to which they agree i n w r i t i n g to vary any or a l l of those terms and c o n d i t i o n s . 71. In s e t t l i n g the terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement under s e c t i o n 70, the board s h a l l give the p a r t i e s an oppor-t u n i t y to present evidence and make re p r e s e n t a t i o n and may take i n t o account among other t h i n g s , (a) the extent to which the p a r t i e s have, or have not, bargained i n good f a i t h i n an e f f o r t to conclude a f i r s t agreement; and (b) the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of employment, i f any, negotiated through c o l l e c t i v e b a rgaining f o r comparable employees performing the same or s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s i n the same or r e l a t e d circumstances. 72. In no event s h a l l the c o l l e c t i v e agreement s e t t l e d by the board under s e c t i o n 70 be f o r a p e r i o d exceeding one year from the date the board s e t t l e s the terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement under that section.5 An a p p l i c a t i o n under t h i s s e c t i o n can be made by e i t h e r the employer or the union, and i s made to the M i n i s t e r o f Labour who has the d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y to do several t h i n g s . He can order an i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; he can deny the a p p l i c a t i o n o u t r i g h t ; he can r e f e r the matter t o the Labour Rela t i o n s Board f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , with or without conducting a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; - 25 -o r he can a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e . Once t h e m a t t e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e B o a r d , t h e Boa rd i s unde r an o b l i g a t i o n t o f o l l o w t h e d i r e c t i o n g i v e n by t h e M i n i s t e r and c o n d u c t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e m a t t e r . T h i s e s t a b l i s h e s a t w o - s t a g e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s . A p p l i c a t i o n s a r e i n i t i a l l y s c r e e n e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f L abou r and s u b s e q u e n t l y , i f t h e M i n i s t e r d i r e c t s , by t h e L abou r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d . T h i s p r o c e s s d i f f e r s f r o m t h e normal p r o c e s s whereby a p p l i c a t i o n s and c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n , u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s , s t r i k e s , p i c k e t i n g and o t h e r m a t t e r s w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t he Board a r e made d i r e c t l y t o the B o a r d . One p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h i s d u a l s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i s t h a t t h e outcome o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n may e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e an e m p l o y e r and a u n i o n t o e n t e r i n t o a b i n d i n g c o n t r a c t . T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a d e c i s i o n o f t o o g r e a t a m a g n i t u d e t o be l e f t e x c l u s i v e l y i n the hands o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l as t h e B o a r d . Once t h e a p p l i c a t i o n has been r e f e r r e d t o t h e B o a r d , and a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e Board has the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power t o impose a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . In e x e r c i s i n g t h i s d i s c r e t i o n t h e Board i s no t g i v e n s p e c i f i c g u i d a n c e by the w o r d i n g o f S e c t i o n s 7 0 - 7 2 . T h i s g u i d a n c e i s f o u n d , howeve r , i n S e c t i o n 27 (1 ) 11 w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e Board s h o u l d e x e r c i s e i t s g e n e r a l p o w e r s , among w h i c h i s i t s power unde r S e c t i o n 70 t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r o r n o t a c o l l e c t i v e agreement s h o u l d g be i m p o s e d . " 2 7 . (1) The b o a r d , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t as w e l l as t h e r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f p a r t i e s b e f o r e i t , may e x e r c i s e i t s powers and s h a l l p e r f o r m t h e d u t i e s c o n f e r r e d o r imposed on i t unde r t h i s A c t so as t o d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f a c h i e v i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e w e l l b e i n g o f t h e p u b l i c . Fo r t h o s e p u r p o s e s , t h e b o a r d s h a l l have r e g a r d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p u r p o s e s and o b j e c t s : (a) s e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l p e a c e , and f u r t h e r i n g ha rmon ious r e l a t i o n s between e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e e s ; (b) i m p r o v i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g between e m p l o y e r s and t r a d e u n i o n s as t h e f r e e l y chosen r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e m p l o y e e s ; and - 26 -( c ) p r o m o t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e o r d e r l y and c o n s t r u c t i v e s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s p u t e s between e m p l o y e r s and emp loyees o r t h e i r f r e e l y chosen t r a d e u n i o n s . ' S e c t i o n 71 g i v e s t h e Boa rd d i r e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g two f a c t o r s t h e y may c o n s i d e r i n s e t t l i n g t h e t e rms o f a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t : (1) t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s have o r have n o t b a r g a i n e d i n good f a i t h , and (2) c o m p a r a b l e t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment n e g o t i a t e d f o r s i m i l a r emp loyees i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . A t t h e B o a r d ' s d i s c r e t i o n , t h e s e c r i t e r i a may be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f an agreement imposed v i a S e c t i o n 7 0 . S e c t i o n 71 a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e Boa rd p r o v i d e t h e e m p l o y e r and t h e u n i o n w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e and make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e a g r e e m e n t . S e c t i o n 72 l i m i t s t h e d u r a t i o n o f any c o l l e c t i v e agreement imposed unde r S e c t i o n 70 t o a o n e - y e a r t e r m . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e -d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e Code t o w a r d s s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f employment d i r e c t l y by t h e p a r t i e s w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f an o u t s i d e , t h i r d p a r t y . In t h e London Drugs c a s e , t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e where t h e Board imposed a o f i r s t agreement t h e y were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a u s e o f t h a t agreement i n t e rms o f t h e o n e - y e a r d u r a t i o n o f g a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t . In i t s d e c i s i o n t h e Board r u l e d t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e w o r d i n g o f t h a t c l a u s e , t h e agreement c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e i n e f f e c t p a s t i t s o n e - y e a r e x p i r y d a t e . The f i r s t ag reement a r b i t r a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s a p p l y o n l y t o new ly c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s who a r e b a r g a i n i n g f o r a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . - 27 -OBJECTIVES OF F IRST AGREEMENT ARBITRATION The o b j e c t i v e s o f S e c t i o n s 70 t h r o u g h 72 were o u t l i n e d by t h e Board i n a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t i s s u e d i n t h e f i r s t d e c i s i o n made unde r t h e p r o v i s i o n s . The o v e r r i d i n g and most g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , as s t a t e d by t h e n Cha i rman Pau l W e i l e r , i s t o g e t a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p unde rway , and t h r o u g h an e n f o r c e d o n e - y e a r t r i a l m a r r i a g e , t o f o s t e r an e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 1 In a t y p i c a l S e c t i o n 70 s i t u a t i o n , where e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t l i k e l y t o be t h e outcome o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t h e i m m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e i s t o i n t e r v e n e i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . A c e r t i f i c a t i o n o n l y g i v e s t h e u n i o n t h e l i c e n c e t o b a r g a i n . S e c t i o n 70 g i v e s them a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , i n s p i t e o f e m p l o y e r a c t i o n s t a k e n t o f r u s t r a t e t h i s e n d . A l t h o u g h t h e Code does n o t i n any way g u a r a n t e e t h a t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements w i l l a l w a y s be a c h i e v e d between t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s , n e i t h e r can t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i g n o r e a c t i o n s , o f one o f t h e s e p a r t i e s w h i c h a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y o b s t r u c t i o n i s t a n d , i n most s i t u a t i o n s , p r o h i b i t e d by t h e Code . Through the i m p o s i t i o n o f a one-year agreement the employees are able to experience the b e n e f i t s o f c o l l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b e n e f i t s they are e n t i t l e d to as a r e s u l t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , but would not l i k e l y have achieved without t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form of t h i r d party i n t e r v e n t i o n . Given the o b j e c t i v e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r e l a t i o n s h i p , the manner i n which the Code addresses the problem has two d i s t i n c t elements. The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s are designed to provide a d i s i n c e n t i v e or de t e r r e n t to behaviours which are p r o h i b i t e d under the Code, and to provide a remedy when the d e t e r r e n t f a i l s . As a d e t e r r e n t , the p r o v i s i o n s deprive an offe n d i n g party o f the b e n e f i t s o f t h e i r i l l e g a l conduct. As a remedy, Se c t i o n 70 seeks to r e p a i r the damage done by the employer; t h i s damaga i s d e f i ned as the absence of a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement. I f , however, - 28 -t h e i n a b i l i t y t o c o n c l u d e a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement i s o n l y a symptom, t h e r e a l damage b e i n g e r o s i o n o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n and t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e r e m e d i a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i s n o t o b v i o u s . * ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE PROVISIONS I f t h e S e c t i o n 70 remedy i s t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , a number o f a s s u m p t i o n s must have been made by t h o s e who w r o t e t h e p r o v i s i o n s . These a s s u m p t i o n s need t o be e x a m i n e d . Many o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , r e l a t i n g t o t h e e m p l o y e r , t h e u n i o n , and t h e e m p l o y e e s , were a l l u d e d t o i n t h e London Drugs d e c i s i o n . 1 1 R e l a t i n g t o t h e Employer U n d e r l y i n g t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s and p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s i s t he p r e m i s e t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r i s i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n and c a n , t h r o u g h h i s a c t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e an e m p l o y e e ' s c h o i c e i n r e g a r d s t o t h e d e c i s i o n o f w h e t h e r o r no t t o s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r e m i s e was p r o v i d e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . The r a t i o n a l e o f S e c t i o n 70 assumes t h a t t h i s i n f l u e n c e has o c c u r r e d , t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e emp loyees and t h e u n i o n . A c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s t h e v i e w t h a t i n t h e absence o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s i n f l u e n c e and a n t i - u n i o n b e h a v i o u r a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e m s e l v e s make no a s s u m p t i o n r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e m p l o y e r w i l l c o n t i n u e h i s a t t e m p t s a t i n t e r f e r e n c e s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . - 29 -A s e c o n d a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i s t h a t an e n f o r c e d , o n e - y e a r " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " w i l l remove enough o f t h e d i s t r u s t and b i t t e r n e s s f e l t by t h e e m p l o y e r , t o whom u n i o n i z a t i o n i s a new and unwelcome f a c t o f l i f e , so t h a t m e a n i n g f u l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w i l l be p o s s i b l e when i t i s t i m e t o renew t h e a g r e e m e n t . I f t h e e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r t h e f i r s t ag reement i s t o e r a s e t h e f e a r s and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n upon h i s b u s i n e s s (one r e a s o n c i t e d e a r l i e r upon w h i c h e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n c o u l d be based ) t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h e ag reement must n o t l i v e up t o t h e f e a r f u l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The a s s u m p t i o n r e s t s on t h e i d e a o f t h e s e f e a r s h a v i n g t h e i r r o o t s i n t h e l a c k o f f i r s t h a n d know ledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a l i t i e s o f l i v i n g on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s w i t h a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The i d e a u n d e r l y i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o p e r a t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t assumes t h a t an e m p l o y e r , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f h i s a n t i - u n i o n e f f o r t s may be t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , w i l l c h o o s e a l e s s u n a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e ; p r e s u m a b l y t o s i t down, meet w i t h t h e u n i o n and n e g o t i a t e t e rms more f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e e m p l o y e r t h a n t h o s e w h i c h may be imposed by a t h i r d p a r t y i n t h e r o l e o f a r b i t r a t o r . T h i s ' r a t i o n a l man' a s s u m p t i o n a p p l i e s t o a l l t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e s o f i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n . R e l a t i n g t o t h e U n i o n The i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reement g i v e s t h e u n i o n i n v o l v e d a b r e a t h e r , an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e y c an r e g r o u p and c o n s o l i d a t e s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . I f , i n f a c t , t h i s i s t o o c c u r , two a s s u m p t i o n s must be made. F i r s t l y , i t must be assumed t h a t t h e u n i o n w i l l c o n s c i o u s l y seek t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s power . I f u n i o n power i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f s u p p o r t among t h e employees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i e s t h e u n i o n e m b a r k i n g on a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n ( s ) w h i c h w i l l ' g a i n 1 new members f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e non-members w h i l e r e t a i n i n g s u p p o r t among e x i s t i n g members. - 30 -I t a l s o assumes t h a t g i v e n such a s t r a t e g y , t h e u n i o n i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e employees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t t h r o u g h r ewa rds a n d / o r s a n c t i o n s o r t h r o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f u n i o n i z a t i o n . To be s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g s u p p o r t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e u n i o n and i t s s u p p o r t e r s w o u l d have t o e x c e e d t h a t h e l d by t h e e m p l o y e r and t h e v o c i f e r o u s non-members. R e l a t i n g t o t h e Employees One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s , i n t h e i r r e m e d i a l a s p e c t , i s t o r e s t o r e t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n among t h e employees t o t h e l e v e l w h i c h p r e v a i l e d when t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was made. The e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s remedy assumes t h a t l i v i n g unde r t h e t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement f o r one y e a r w i l l be a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r e m p l o y e e s ; one w h i c h can c o u n t e r a c t t h e p r e v i o u s , and p e r h a p s c o n t i n u i n g , i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e m p l o y e r . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n h i n g e s on a s e c o n d ; t h e employees w i l l v i e w any improvements i n w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and wages c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i a r b i t r a t e d agreement t o be v i s i b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e u n i o n ' s p r e s e n c e . In s i t u a t i o n s where t h e r e i s t u r n o v e r among u n i o n members , t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h i s l i n k i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t o a t t r a c t u n i o n s u p p o r t e r s among t h e new e m p l o y e e s . As many o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e a n t i c i p a t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e p a r t i e s o f t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " , i t i s p r o b a b l y i m p o r t a n t when r e v i e w i n g t h e c a s e s unde r S e c t i o n 70 t o examine the t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t s , and t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e p a r t i e s d u r i n g the m a r r i a g e . - 31 -SUMMARY In t h i s c h a p t e r t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t he S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s have been d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r c o n t e x t o f l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n wh i ch r e c o g n i z e s t h e n e e d , i n t h i s c a s e o f t h e employees and t h e u n i o n , f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r w h i c h can have a d e t r i m e n t a l i m p a c t upon an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d r i v e . The d i s c u s s i o n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n t i n u e d need f o r p r o t e c t i o n , may c o n t i n u e i n t o t h e p o s t - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . R e c o g n i t i o n o f a t r a d e u n i o n by an e m p l o y e r does n o t f o l l o w a u t o m a t i c a l l y upon c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s were d e v e l o p e d as a remedy f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n where c o n t i n u e d e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e t enuous b a r g a i n i n g a u t h o r i t y o f t h e u n i o n w o u l d have t h e d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e f e a t i n g t h e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s deemed t o f o l l o w c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h the l e g i s l a t i o n i s based were d i s c u s s e d , p r i m a r i l y f r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e i m p a c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " c o u l d have upon t h e r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s . A t t h i s p o i n t we c o u l d expand upon t h e s c e n a r i o d e s c r i b e d i n t h e summary o f t h e second c h a p t e r : The u n i o n has c a l l e d t h e employees o u t on s t r i k e i n an a t t e m p t t o use i t s economic l e v e r a g e t o f o r c e t h e e m p l o y e r t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . Some o f t h e employees have been on s t r i k e f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s , b u t t h e e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e s t o o p e r a t e , u s i n g management p e r s o n n e l , emp loyees h i r e d a f t e r the s t r i k e began and t h o s e employees who d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n i n i t i a l l y . The e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e s t o r e f u s e t o d i s c u s s p r o p o s a l s f o r s e t t l i n g t h e s t r i k e and a t t he same t i m e p r o m i s e s t h o s e emp loyees who a r e now w o r k i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n wages i f t h e y w i l l make an a p p l i c a t i o n t o have t h e u n i o n ' s b a r g a i n i n g c e r t i f i c a t e c a n c e l l e d . W h i l e t h e employees a r e w a i t i n g f o r such an a p p l i c a t i o n t o be t i m e l y , t h e u n i o n , f e a r i n g t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n wou ld be s u c c e s s f u l , makes a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n unde r S e c t i o n 7 0 . ^ - 32 -The n e x t s t e p i n a s s e s s i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o examine t h e c a s e s where i t has been a p p l i e d and t o i d e n t i f y t h e outcomes o f t h e s e c a s e s . B e f o r e d o i n g s o , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e t h e manner i n w h i c h the c a s e d a t a were g a t h e r e d . I t i s a l s o u s e f u l t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e outcomes unde r v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . These a r e the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r . - 33 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1. S e c t i o n 4 3 ( 3 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 2 . S e c t i o n 8 ( 4 ) ( e ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 3 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 4 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 3 . 5. S e c t i o n s ( 7 0 ) , ( 7 1 ) , and ( 7 2 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 6 . Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #32/1976. 7. S e c t i o n 2 7 ( 1 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 8 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 9 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #80/1975. 1 0 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 6 . 1 1 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 1 2 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 1 3 . - 34 -CHAPTER IV - METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION The o b j e c t i v e s o f the research are to de s c r i b e the cases where Se c t i o n 70 has been a p p l i e d , d e s c r i b e the outcomes o f these cases, and determine whether or not the Sect i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s are e f f e c t i v e i n r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t s caused by continued employer o p p o s i t i o n to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The research s t r a t e g y s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study i s a l o n g i t u d i n a l case a n a l y s i s . T h i s chapter o u t l i n e s the population i n c l u d e d i n the study, the type o f data gathered, and the methods used to gather the data. POPULATION The population i n c l u d e s a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r b i t r a t i o n of a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement t h a t were r e f e r r e d to the Board between January 1974, when the new code was enacted, and December 31, 1979. The four a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d to the Board between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 1981 were not include d i n the sample because i n s u f f i c i e n t time has passed s i n c e the Board d e a l t with these cases to i d e n t i f y t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e outcomes. A summary of these cases i s contained i n Appendix l . 1 A p p l i c a t i o n s submitted to the M i n i s t e r , but not r e f e r r e d to the Board are not included i n the population because d e t a i l e d information on these cases, approximately t h i r t y - f i v e i n number, i s not a v a i l a b l e . I t i s a l s o reasonable to assume that i f these a p p l i c a t i o n s warranted f u r t h e r examination and involvement o f the Board i n order to determine whether a r b i t r a t i o n o f a f i r s t agreement was necess?ry, they would have been r e f e r r e d 2 to the Board. - 35 -The p o p u l a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h r e v i e w o f t h e B o a r d ' s Annua l R e p o r t s , p u b l i s h e d d e c i s i o n s and l e t t e r d e c i s i o n s and a c a s e l i s t was p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e B o a r d . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i r t y c a s e s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e s i x - y e a r p e r i o d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a t e on w h i c h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o t h e B o a r d , as o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 1. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a s e s o v e r t h i s s i x - y e a r p e r i o d r e q u i r e s some e x p l a n a t i o n . Rev iew o f T a b l e 2 shows t h a t t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i r t e e n o f t h e c a s e s were i s s u e d p r i o r t o 1974 . F i r s t ag reements had no t been n e g o t i a t e d i n t h e s e c a s e s and i t a p p e a r e d . a s t h o u g h many o f t h e e m p l o y e r s were opposed t o t h e i d e a o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e r e w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a b a c k l o g o f c a s e s t o be d e a l t w i t h by t h e Boa rd unde r new l e g i s l a t i o n as no channe l had p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t e d t o r e s o l v e t h e s e d i s p u t e s . Ten o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s were i s s u e d d u r i n g 1974 . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o t h e Board i n 1974 and 1975 c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n " t e s t i n g " o f t he new p r o v i s i o n s by t h e u n i o n s . The re have been s u r p r i s i n g l y few c a s e s r e f e r r e d t o t h e Boa rd s i n c e 1974 . D u r i n g t h i s same t i m e p e r i o d o v e r f o u r t h o u s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r 3 c e r t i f i c a t i o n were f i l e d w i t h t h e B o a r d . I t i s e v i d e n t f r om t h i s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s no t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . A S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n i s r a r e . T h i s may i n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e o f o p e r a t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t . The p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . These c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h o s e 4 used by t h e Board i n t h e i r Annua l R e p o r t s . The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s , GRANTED and DENIED, i n c l u d e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n w h i c h the Board a d j u d i c a t e d t h e m e r i t s o f t he a p p l i c a t i o n and d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e a r b i t r a t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement w a s , o r was n o t , a p p r o p r i a t e . The B o a r d ' s d e c i s i o n s i n t h e s e - 36 -a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d i n e i t h e r d e t a i l e d p u b l i s h e d d e c i s i o n s o r i n u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r d e c i s i o n s . The t h i r d c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a p p l i c a t i o n s d e f i n e d by t h e Boa rd as SETTLED. T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a r b i t r a t i o n o f a f i r s t ag reement was w i t h d r a w n f o l l o w i n g some i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f e i t h e r an I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o r a pane l o f t h e B o a r d . The f i n a l c a t e g o r y , WITHDRAWN, i n c l u d e s a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were w i t h d r a w n a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e a p p l i c a n t p r i o r t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f an I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r o r p a n e l o f t h e B o a r d . T a b l e 3 summar izes t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e were e l e v e n c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED and s i x w h i c h were DENIED. E l e v e n c a s e s were SETTLED and two c a s e s were WITHDRAWN. The d i v i s i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o t h e s e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s was done p r i m a r i l y f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s m a l l number o f c a s e s i n each c a t e g o r y makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o draw g e n e r a l i z a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m such c o m p a r i s o n s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d f r o m a s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s has v a l u e . The a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c a s e s among t h e c a t e g o r i e s , and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o u t c o m e s . T a b l e 4 summar i zes t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o b o t h t h e d a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was made t o t h e M i n i s t e r , and t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n among t h e c a t e g o r i e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two y e a r s was r e l a t i v e l y e v e n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y l ow i n c i d e n c e o f c a s e s i n 1976 t h r o u g h 1979 was n o t because t h e u n i o n s p e r c e i v e d t h a t a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d . T a b l e 5 c o n t a i n s a c a s e l i s t w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e e m p l o y e r and t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n each c a s e . - 37 -TABLE 1 DISTRIBUTION OF CASES BY YEAR OF APPLICATION Y e a r o f A p p l i c a t i o n No. o f Cases 1974 17 1975 9 1976 0 1977 . 1 1978 3 1979 0 T o t a l ~^0~ S o u r c e : L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t s , 1974-1979 . TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF CASES BY YEAR OF CERTIFICATION Y e a r o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n No . o f Cases p r i o r t o 1973 1 1973 12 1974 10 1975 3 1976 1 1977 3 T o t a l 30 TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF CASES BY DISPOSITION OF APPLICATION C a t e g o r y No . o f Cases g r a n t e d 11 d e n i e d 6 s e t t l e d 11 w i t h d r a w n 2 T o t a l ~ 3 1 T - 38 -TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF CASES BY YEAR OF APPLICATION AND BY DISPOSITION OF APPLICATION C A T E G O R Y Y e a r n o . g r a n t e d n o . d e n i e d n o . s e t t l e d n o . w i t h d r a w n t o t a l s 1974 5 3 7 2 17 1975 3 3 3 9 1976 . . . 0 1977 1 1 1978 3 - - - 3 1979 - -T o t a l 11 6 11 2 30 S o u r c e : L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t s , 1974 - 1979 TABLE 5 CASE L IST Employer Adanac Lumber L t d . A r m o r l i t e I n d u s t r i e s L t d . Bond B r o t h e r s ' S awmi l l L t d . Bu r roughs B u s i n e s s Mach ines L t d . Cannery S ea food R e s t a u r a n t L t d . C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l L t d . Chevron Canada L t d . C h i l d r e n s 1 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n & C e r e b r a l P a l s y A s s o c i a t i o n C y p r e s s D i s p o s a l L t d . Dayton T i r e s L t d . Domin ion C h a i n Company L t d . Domin ion D i r e c t o r y Company L t d . Un ion R e t a i l , W h o l e s a l e and Depar tment S t o r e U n i o n , L o c a l 580 U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , L o c a l 2655 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f A m e r i c a , L o c a l 1-424 I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l W o r k e r s , L o c a l 213 H o t e l , R e s t a u r a n t & C u l i n a r y Employees & B a r t e n d e r s ' U n i o n , L o c a l 40 ( H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' Un ion ) H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' U n i o n , L o c a l 40 I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a c h i n i s t s & A e r o s p a c e W o r k e r s , A u t o m o t i v e L o d g e , No . 1857 H e a l t h S c i e n c e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e r v i c e E m p l o y e e s ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n , L o c a l 244 T e a m s t e r s , L o c a l 351 U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , L o c a l 2952 F e d e r a t i o n o f T e l e p h o n e Workers o f B r i t i s h Columb C l e r i c a l D i v i s i o n Employer Grandview Industries L t d . Kelowna D a i l y Courier Kidd Brothers Produce Ltd. Kootenay Hotel L t d . London Drugs Marpole One-Hour Cleaners L t d . McCoy Bros. Ltd. Medieval Inns ( V i c t o r i a ) L t d . Metropolitan Bus Pickup Ltd. Mexicana Motor Inn L t d . M & H Machinery & Iron Works L t d . Parta Industries L t d . Sandman Inn (Kelowna) Sandman Inn (Revelstoke) TABLE 5 (cont'd) CASE LIST Union Teamsters, Local 351 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Typographical Union, Local 226 & The Vancouver-New Westminster Newspaper G u i l d , Local 115 Teamsters, Local 351 Hotel Employees' Union, Local 40 Teamsters, Local 351 Teamsters, Local 351 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of Operating Engineers, Local 115 Hotel Employees' Union, Local 40. Teamsters, Local 31 Hotel Employees' Union, Local 40 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union of Operating Engineers, Local 115 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America, Local 1-423 Hotel Employees' Union, Local 40 Hotel Employees' Union, Local 40 TABLE 5 ( c o n t ' d . ) CASE L IST Sandman M o t e l s ( C r a n b r o o k ) L t d . U n i t e d Food S e r v i c e s L t d . Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g V i c t r o R e g i s t r y H o t e l Emp loyees ' U n i o n , L o c a l 40 H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' U n i o n , L o c a l 40 I n t e r n a t i o n a l T y p o g r a p h i c a l U n i o n , L o c a l 226 S e r v i c e E m p l o y e e s ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i o n , L o c a l 244 i i—• i - 42 -DATA MEASURES The d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r I I r e l a t e d t o o r g a n i z i n g , t h e p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s o f an e m p l o y e r d u r i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a m p a i g n , and t h e r e l a t i v e power p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i e s , i d e n t i f i e d some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d y . The p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e B o a r d , t h e B o a r d ' s s t a t e m e n t o f t h e - c r i t e r i a w h i c h wou ld be u t i l i z e d i n a p p l y i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n and the d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e London Drugs 5 case a l s o a s s i s t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . A f t e r c o m p i l i n g a l e n g t h y l i s t o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t , t he i t e m s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g roups d e p e n d i n g on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t he d a t a . Those i t e m s f o r w h i c h d a t a c o u l d be r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d were r e t a i n e d , p r o v i d e d the i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d add t o t h e g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a s e s . The re were two key f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t e d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t he d a t a . The i n f o r m a t i o n was e i t h e r no t r e c o r d e d , o r was u n a v a i l a b l e due t o c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f Boa rd r e c o r d s . The v a r i a b l e s f o r w h i c h d a t a were c o l l e c t e d a r e i d e n t i f i e d b e l o w , as a r e t h e r e a s o n s f o r i n c l u s i o n o f each v a r i a b l e . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d were d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e e m p l o y e r s , e m p l o y e e s , u n i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s , t h e c o n t e x t , and t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . A r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d s t u d y by George B a i n has u t i l i z e d many o f t h e same v a r i a b l e s t o d e v e l o p a f ramework f o r e x a m i n i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , f i r s t ag reements and d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . 6 Boa rd D e c i s i o n s The d i s p o s i t i o n o f each a p p l i c a t i o n was a l l o c a t e d t o one o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s used by the Boa rd d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . Each a p p l i c a t i o n was c l a s s i f i e d as WITHDRAWN, SETTLED, DENIED o r GRANTED. The a l l o c a t i o n o f the c a s e s t o one o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s f o rmed t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o u t c o m e s . - 43 -Outcomes I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e outcomes o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s was one pu rpose o f t h e r e s e a r c h . Outcomes were c a t e g o r i z e d as d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , no agreement c o n c l u d e d , f i r s t agreement o n l y , f i r s t and s e cond a g r e e m e n t s , and more t h a n two a g r e e m e n t s . The outcomes were a l s o d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , i . e . a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , dormant c e r t i f i c a t i o n and d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Dormant c e r t i f i c a t i o n s encompassed outcomes where the p r e v i o u s c o l l e c t i v e agreement had e x p i r e d more t han t w e l v e months p r e v i o u s b u t t h e r e was no d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , o r where t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was s t i l l i n e f f e c t b u t no c o l l e c t i v e ag reement had been c o n c l u d e d . M u l t i p l e outcomes were p o s s i b l e ; t h e p a r t i e s c o u l d , f o r e x a m p l e , s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n c l u d e two c o l l e c t i v e ag reements and t h e u n i o n c o u l d s u b s e q u e n t l y be d e c e r t i f i e d . The outcomes were d i s c u s s e d i n t e rms o f t h e number o f f i r s t ag reements c o n c l u d e d ; t h e number o f ag reements n e g o t i a t e d by t h e p a r t i e s a f t e r d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n ; t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n ; and i n t e rms o f what t h e outcomes i n d i c a t e d a b o u t the p r o p e n s i t y t o r e m a i n u n i o n i z e d . 7 S u p p o r t f o r t h e Un ion Data were c o l l e c t e d on t h e s i z e o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t ; numbers o f u n i o n s u p p o r t e r s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by u n i o n membersh ip o r t h e r e s u l t s o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e ; s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n , r e f l e c t e d by s u p p o r t f o r a n o t h e r u n i o n o r a s s o c i a t i o n , an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , o r t u r n o v e r among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members; and w h e t h e r o r n o t b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members worked f o r t h e e m p l o y e r d u r i n g a work s t o p p a g e . C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e d e s c r i b e che l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. - 44 -Because the l e v e l of support f o r the union i s subject to increases and decreases over time, the data measures were constructed to r e f l e c t the dynamics of t h i s v a r i a b l e . The relevance o f support f o r the union was i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I . In order to be a v i a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the bargaining u n i t members i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the union maintain the m a j o r i t y support i t has at the time of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The importance of maintaining m a j o r i t y support, and i r o n i c a l l y the d i f f i c u l t y i n doing so, i s increased by the extent to which the employer i s determined to undermine t h i s support. Comparisons of d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of support f o r the union among the cases with t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e outcomes may provide some i n s i g h t i n t o a d e f i n i t i o n of marginal support. Employer Reactions Chapter II a l s o discussed p o s s i b l e r e a c t i o n s of an employer when faced with p o t e n t i a l u n i o n i z a t i o n and the impact of these r e a c t i o n s upon the employees and t h e i r support f o r the union. Data c o l l e c t e d to d e s c r i b e the r e a c t i o n o f the employer to u n i o n i z a t i o n were: employer appeals o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n (yes/no and frequency); u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s committed by the employer ( t h e i r number, nature and t i m i n g ) ; and v i o l a t i o n s of other s e c t i o n s of the code ( t h e i r number, nature and t i m i n g ) . Negotiations Data d e s c r i b i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s between the p a r t i e s were d e s i r a b l e f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes and because of the reference made by the Board i n London Drugs to an employer using drawn out n e g o t i a t i o n s and delays 8 9 as a t a c t i c to continue r e s i s t a n c e to the c e r t i f i c a t i o n . S ection 71(a) a l s o makes s p e c i f i c reference to the n e g o t i a t i o n s between the p a r t i e s . - 45 -Of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s study was the presence of a l l e g a t i o n s made by the unions and/or f i n d i n g s of f a i l u r e to bargain i n good f a i t h ; i n d i c a t i o n s of delays i n the bargaining process; and whether or not a t h i r d party was involved i n an attempt to mediate settlements. A v i o l a t i o n o f S e c t i o n 6 ^ the requirement to bargain i n good f a i t h , was d e f i n e d by a formal r u l i n g by the Board t h a t a v i o l a t i o n had occurred. The time l i m i t by which the p a r t i e s are r e q u i r e d to commence bargaining a f t e r s e r v i n g of n o t i c e to bargain^was used to i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e delays i n b a r g a i n i n g . Repeated delays i n arranging meetings are one of the t a c t i c s whi an employer can u t i l i z e to f r u s t r a t e c o l l e c t i v e bargaining before i t even gets s t a r t e d . Work Stoppages The use o f , d u r a t i o n , and impact of work stoppages are useful to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i v e power p o s i t i o n s of the p a r t i e s . To the extent that s t r i k e s i n v o l v i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreements can be termed as s t r i k e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n of them i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance to t h i s study. Work stoppages were defined as s t r i k e s or lockouts and by t h e i r l e g a l i t y o r lack t h e r e o f . Duration o f the work stoppages was measured i n number o f calendar days. The impact upon the employer, the employees and the union was assessed by whether the employer continued to operate during the s t r i k e , and i f so, f o r how long; and by the source of labour u t i l i z e d to operate during the s t r i k e . Labour sources i n t u r n were defined as non-bargaining u n i t members, members of the bargaining u n i t , and new employees h i r e d to replace those on s t r i k e . Contract P r o v i s i o n s Through a r b i t r a t i o n of a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement and the r e l a t e d enforced one-year " t r i a l marriage" the S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s attempt to remedy a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the employees by the c e r t i f i e d trade union w i l l s u r v i v e . A f i r s t - 46 -c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o t h e employees o f t h e t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The Code r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l ag reements c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s : r e l a t e d t o 12 g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and r e l a t e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . These g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s p r o v i d e t h e u n i o n w i t h a v e h i c l e t o r e v i e w and c h a l l e n g e management d e c i s i o n s such as d i s m i s s a l o f b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. D u r i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campa ign t h e employee ( u n i o n ) can o n l y c h a l l e n g e a d i s m i s s a l t h r o u g h t h e u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e c o d e . Once a c o l l e c t i v e ag reement i s s i g n e d , d i s m i s s a l s can be c h a l l e n g e d t h r o u g h t h e g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s on t h e much b r o a d e r g rounds o f u n j u s t c a u s e . The e m p l o y e e s ' j o b s e c u r i t y i s o g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d . F i r s t ag reements a l s o c r e a t e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n s f o r u n i o n membersh ip and payment o f dues t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e u n i o n ' s s u p p o r t b a s e . As d i s c u s s e d by W e i l e r , p r o v i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g emp loyees t o j o i n t h e u n i o n a f t e r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d o r t h o s e r e q u i r i n g u n i o n membersh ip p r i o r t o b e i n g h i r e d by t h e company p r o v i d e t h e Un ion w i t h a deg r ee o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e members i n c r u c i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as 13 s t r i k e s and p i c k e t i n g . In a c l o s e d o r u n i o n s h o p , membersh ip i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c o n t i n u e d employment . W i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e u n i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e d u t y o f f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and m a j o r i t y r u l e , t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o v e r j o b s e c u r i t y can s h i f t f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r t o t h e u n i o n , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e power o f t h e u n i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e e m p l o y e r and t h e e m p l o y e e s . S u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n may be i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t among e x i s t i n g employees i n t h e u n i t r e s u l t i n g f r om improvements i n wages , b e n e f i t s and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h e a g r e e m e n t . These improvements s h o u l d r e i n f o r c e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e u n i o n - 47 -i n t h e eyes o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. Da t a were examined f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s : u n i o n s e c u r i t y , i n c l u d i n g membersh ip p r o v i s i o n s , c h e c k - o f f and s t e w a r d s r i g h t s ; j o b s e c u r i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e r o l e o f s e n i o r i t y i n p r o m o t i o n s , l a y - o f f s and r e c a l l s and c o n t r a c t i n g o u t . The c o n t r a c t p r o v i s i o n s were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n 14 N e g o t i a t e d Wo rk i ng C o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h c o m p a r i s o n o f p r o v i s i o n s f o r v a c a t i o n , s t a t u t o r y h o l i d a y s , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s and wages was d e s i r a b l e , an a n a l y s i s was beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . S u b j e c t i v e comments r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p a c t o f u n i o n i z a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s p r o v i d e d i n i n t e r v i e w s o r i n Boa rd d e c i s i o n s were made where p o s s i b l e . G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n F o r p o s s i b l e use i n c o m p a r i n g t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n t o t h o s e i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , and t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e c a s e s 15 f i t t h e s c e n a r i o o u t l i n e d i n t h e London Drugs c a s e , d a t a measures were d e f i n e d w h i c h a r e d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c a s e s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f s k i l l l e v e l , t y p e o f u n i o n and t y p e o f i n d u s t r y were bo r rowed f r o m C h a f e t z 1 6 , w i t h m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s . The a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e u n i o n , t o a p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l f e d e r a t i o n was a l s o i n c l u d e d as d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e t y p e o f u n i o n . The B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L abou r has gone on r e c o r d o p p o s i n g S e c t i o n 70 a t each o f i t s annua l c o n v e n t i o n s s i n c e 1 9 7 4 . 1 7 The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o whe the r o r n o t t h e F e d e r a t i o n a t t e m p t e d t o p r e v e n t i t s members f r o m u t i l i z i n g t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s . Were t h e r e r e l a t i v e l y few a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m a f f i l i a t e s o f t h e B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o r was t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n a s t a n c e t a k e n o n l y i n p u b l i c ? A f f i l i a t i o n o f u n i o n s i s - 48 -19 r e p o r t e d i n t h e B .C . L a b o u r D i r e c t o r y w h i c h was used as t h e s o u r c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . From t h e London Drugs s c e n a r i o i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d t end t o employ u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r . As the s e r v i c e and t r a d e s e c t o r s employ p r e d o m i n a n t l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r , i t i s a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be more S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e s e i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a n i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . From t h e same s c e n a r i o i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and t h a t S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l come p r i m a r i l y f r om i n d u s t r i a l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s u n i o n s . The a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s i s one o f t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V. E f f e c t i v e n e s s A n o t h e r o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e 20 S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e on o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y c o n t a i n s many a p p r o a c h e s t o d e f i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , t h e r e b e i n g no c o n s e n s u s on t h e one b e s t way. F o r t h i s s t u d y s e v e r a l measures were s e l e c t e d . A s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o f o s t e r an e n d u r i n g b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p a r t i e s . F o r S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED, a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s e cond a g r e e m e n t . N e g o t i a t i o n o f s u b s e q u e n t ag reements i n d i c a t e s w i t h a g r e a t e r deg r ee o f c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h i s o b j e c t i v e has been m e t . T h e r e f o r e , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t e second a n d / o r s u b s e q u e n t a g r e e m e n t s , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n can be a s s e s s e d as e f f e c t i v e . T h i s assumes t h a t t h e s e ag reements w o u l d n o t have been a c h i e v e d i n t h e absence o f the S e c t i o n 70 - 49 -p r o v i s i o n s . A d i r e c t measurement o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t p o s s i b l e . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d t o be r e m e d i a l and n o t p u n i t i v e . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h e i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d v i e w i t as p u n i t i v e , h o w e v e r , and t h e r e f o r e s o m e t h i n g t o be a v o i d e d , a l s o p r o v i d e s a measure o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s . The u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e p a r t i e s w o u l d a v o i d S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s by n o t c o m m i t t i n g a c t i o n s w h i c h l e a d up t o an a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t i s a p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure d i r e c t l y b e c a u s e t h e c a s e s w h i c h c o u l d have ended up i n a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n , b u t d i d n o t , a r e unknown. As p r o x i e s f o r t h i s measure t h e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y i n c l u d e d d a t a i n t h r e e a r e a s . The f i r s t i s a c o m p a r i s o n f o r t h e y e a r s 1974 - 1 9 7 9 , i n c l u s i v e , o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f new b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s w i t h o u t a f i r s t ag reement a f t e r e i g h t e e n m o n t h s . A d e c r e a s e i n t h e s e numbers may i n d i c a t e o p e r a t i o n o f a d e t e r r e n t . Because o f t h e p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o f a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s on t h e t i m e t o a c h i e v e an agreement o t h e r measures were r e q u i r e d . The s e c o n d , e x i s t e n c e o f c a s e s w h i c h were SETTLED, may i n i t s e l f be t a k e n as i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t . Under t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e B o a r d , and w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a S e c t i o n 70 agreement b e i n g i m p o s e d , t h e p a r t i e s i n t h e s e c a s e s r e a c h e d a v o l u n t a r y a c c o r d w h i c h t h e y may no t have a c h i e v e d o t h e r w i s e . A f i n d i n g o f e s t a b l i s h e d b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e p a r t i e s w o u l d f u r t h e r l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . A t h i r d method used t o a s s e s s t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o examine and compare t h e outcomes i n s e v e r a l w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d o r g a n i z i n g d i s p u t e s w h i c h have o c c u r r e d s i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t o t h o s e o c c u r r i n g p r i o r t o i t s a d o p t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e absence o f such d i s p u t e s may a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t . - 50 -DATA COLLECTION Once t h e d a t a measures a r e d e f i n e d , a m e t h o d ( s ) must be s e l e c t e d f o r g a t h e r i n g t h e d a t a . The c h o i c e o f method i n t h i s s t u d y was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p u b l i s h e d documents o f t h e Board w h i c h d e t a i l t h e d e c i s i o n s f o r many, b u t n o t a l l c a s e s ; t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e d a t a i n t h e n o n - p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s o f t h e B o a r d ; t h e s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e t o p i c , and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . In t h i r t e e n i n s t a n c e s t h e Boa rd p u b l i s h e d d e t a i l e d d e c i s i o n s on t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . These c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a s e s , t h e c r i t e r i a r e l a t e d t o t h e m e r i t s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s and t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e B o a r d . In a f u r t h e r f o u r i n s t a n c e s t h e Boa rd i s s u e d l e t t e r d e c i s i o n s w h i c h c o n t a i n l e s s b a c k g r o u n d . In t h e SETTLED and WITHDRAWN c a s e s where t h e r e a r e no p u b l i s h e d o r l e t t e r d e c i s i o n s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s no t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . I t c an be o b t a i n e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e p a r t i e s , o r f r o m t h e r e c o r d s and u n p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e Board f i l e s . Because o f t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f t h e s e f i l e s d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e d a t a was n o t p o s s i b l e . I t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p l e t e d by s t a f f o f t h e B o a r d . Due t o c o n s t r a i n t s on r e s o u r c e s f o r d a t a g a t h e r i n g , t h e h i g h q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e t a i n e d on f i l e by t h e B o a r d , and t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f s e v e r a l e m p l o y e r s t o c o n s e n t t o i n t e r v i e w s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e method was f a v o u r e d o v e r t h e i n t e r v i e w a p p r o a c h . The s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n on many o f t h e c a s e s was u t i l i z e d t o d e v e l o p a d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s d r a f t was p r e - t e s t e d u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t h i r t e e n p u b l i s h e d d e c i s i o n s and r e v i s e d t o c l a r i f y d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s and t o i n c o r p o r a t e m a r g i n a l n o t e s made i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e d r a f t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n c o m p l e t e d by a s e c o n d - 51 -i n d i v i d u a l using the same cases. This step was important to remove any remaining ambiguities i n the questions. A f t e r f u r t h e r minor r e v i s i o n s the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e was forwarded to the Board f o r completion. A copy o f the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i s found i n Appendix 2. While the qu e s t i o n n a i r e method of gathering data i s d e s i r a b l e due to i t s unobtrusive nature and i t s r e l a t i v e l y low requirements i n terms of resources f o r data c o l l e c t i o n , i t has one major drawback. Although care was taken i n designing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n s e l e c t i n g items f o r i n c l u s i o n , the development of a qu e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r e s a pre-focusing of a t t e n t i o n on s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s to the p o s s i b l e e x c l u s i o n of others which may be r e l e v a n t . To minimize the impact o f t h i s p r e - f o c u s i n g , and to add depth to the study, data from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was supplemented by interviews with one union and one employer involved i n the cases. The union was s e l e c t e d to maximize the p o t e n t i a l f o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e interviewed was from a union i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s . The employer was s e l e c t e d on the basis of w i l l i n g n e s s to discuss the subject and to s o l i c i t the views of an employer in v o l v e d i n an a p p l i c a t i o n which was i n a category other than GRANTED. L e t t e r s o f i n t r o d u c t i o n were forwarded to the s e l e c t e d interviewees which i d e n t i f i e d the researcher and the purpose of the study, and assured the interviewee o f anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f the information exchanged i n the interv i e w . An unstructured format was chosen f o r the interviews and open-ended questions u t i l i z e d to provide the interviewee with maximum f l e x i b i l i t y to discuss what he perceived as important issues and events. - 52 -The d a t a on c o n t r a c t p r o v i s i o n s was e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e c t i v e ag reements on f i l e i n t h e o f f i c e s o f t he Board and t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r . A t o t a l o f s e v e n t e e n agreements were e x a m i n e d . T a b l e 6 summar izes t h e s o u r c e s o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d by t h e s e m e t h o d s . - 53 -TABLE 6 SOURCES OF DATA P u b l i s h e d I n f o r m a t i o n - n o . o f S e c t i o n 70 d e c i s i o n s . . . . 13 - n o . o f r e l a t e d Boa rd d e c i s i o n s 24 - n o . o f c o l l e c t i v e ag reements 17 U n p u b l i s h e d I n f o r m a t i o n - n o . o f l e t t e r d e c i s i o n s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 2 ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 4 c a s e s ) 30 I n t e r v i e w s - n o . o f c a s e s 10 - n o . o f u n i o n s 1 - n o . o f e m p l o y e r s 1 - 54 -SUMMARY The d e f i n i t i o n s o f d a t a measures c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r e n a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g e m p l o y e r r e a c t i o n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n , t h e consequences o f e m p l o y e r i n f l u e n c e and t h e r e l a t i v e power p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i e s t o be r e s t a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f two p r o p o s i t i o n s . P r o p o s i t i o n 1 Cases i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e a l o w e r r a t e o f s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e SETTLED o r DENIED c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r s e cond and t h i r d ag reements i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y t h a n i n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dependen t t o a l a r g e d e g r e e upon t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e p a r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e e m p l o y e r , t o a c c e p t t h e p r o c e d u r e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as l e g i t i m a t e . T h i s a c c e p t a n c e i s u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h t h e p a r t i e s r e a c h i n g a v o l u n t a r y a ccommoda t ion t h r o u g h t h e g i v e and t a k e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . By d e f i n i t i o n , S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e GRANTED i n v o l v e an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as a l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e d u r e . By c o n t r a s t t h i s n o n - a c c e p t a n c e i s n o t f o u n d i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were DENIED. In t h e c a s e s w h i c h were SETTLED t h e p a r t i e s have d e m o n s t r a t e d , u s u a l l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e B o a r d , some deg ree o f v o l u n t a r i s m . O t h e r w i s e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y have been r e s o l v e d v i a t h e B o a r d ' s a d j u d i c a t i o n . A q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y i n r e g a r d s t o t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . Use o f t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y as d e m o n s t r a t i n g v o l u n t a r i s m and t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t a n c e o f u n i o n i z a t i o n assumes t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e e m p l o y e r r e f l e c t s h i s a t t i t u d e c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h i s - 55 -i s n o t t r u e and t h e e m p l o y e r was on h i s ' b e s t ' b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n a n d / o r w h i l e t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was p e n d i n g , and i s r e a l l y b i d i n g t i m e u n t i l o u t f r o m unde r t h e s p o t l i g h t o f t h e B o a r d , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . P r o p o s i t i o n 2 Where t h e e m p l o y e r d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n t i n u e d and d e t e r m i n e d o p p o s i t i o n t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t h e e m p l o y e r ' s i n f l u e n c e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s w o u l d be i n d i c a t e d by a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i n c a s e s where t h e e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e d t o commit u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and commit o t h e r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e Code a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n t h a n i n t h e c a s e s where t h i s d i d n o t o c c u r . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e u n i o n i s a b l e t o e x e r t s i g n i f i c a n t c o u n t e r v a i l i n g p o w e r , t h r o u g h i t s a c t i o n s o r t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e i m p a c t o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s i n f l u e n c e w i l l be m o d e r a t e d . In many o f t h e c a s e s t h e outcomes w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o p e r a t i o n o f b o t h t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s u n i o n i z a t i o n , and w h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s , and by t h e r e l a t i v e power b a l a n c e between t h e p a r t i e s . I t may, t h e r e f o r e , be d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e two p r o p o s i t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , an a p p l i c a t i o n may be GRANTED i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r i s opposed t o u n i o n i z a t i o n . We wou ld t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o P r o p o s i t i o n 1, t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s e cond c o l l e c t i v e agreement upon e x p i r y o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 f i r s t agreement w o u l d be u n l i k e l y . I f , howeve r , d u r i n g the t e r m o f t h a t agreement t h e u n i o n i s a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s u s e f u l n e s s by s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g i n g a d i s m i s s a l v i a t h e g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e , t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e membersh ip c o u l d be c o n s o l i -d a t e d and t h e c o u n t e r v a i l i n g power o f t h e u n i o n c o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o w i t h s t a n d a l e n g t h y s t r i k e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a second a g r e e m e n t . I t i s - 56 -c l e a r l y g o i n g t o be d i f f i c u l t t o draw g e n e r a l i z a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s o r t o p r e d i c t t h e o u t c o m e s . What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s o p e r a t e i n t h e c a s e s t o l e a d t o t h e d i f f e r i n g o u t c o m e s . - 57 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER IV 1. In one c a s e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s s t i l l b e f o r e the B o a r d . A p p e n d i x 1 c o n t a i n s a b r i e f summary o f t h e s e r e c e n t c a s e s . 2 . P. W e i l e r , R e c o n c i l a b l e D i f f e r e n c e s : New D i r e c t i o n s i n Canad i an  L abou r Law ( T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l Co . L t d . 1980) p. 5 3 . 3 . L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t s 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 9 , T a b l e 3. 4 . L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1 9 7 5 , p. 3 9 . 5 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 6 . G. B a i n , C e r t i f i c a t i o n s , F i r s t Agreements and D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s :  An A n a l y t i c a l Framework ( O t t a w a : L abou r Canada , 1 9 8 1 ) . 7. I b i d . B a i n d i s c u s s e s the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e e m p l o y e r and government a c t i o n upon t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o r ema in u n i o n i z e d . 8 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p. 13 . 9 . S e c t i o n 7 1 ( a ) , Labour Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 0 . S e c t i o n ( 6 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 1 . S e c t i o n ( 6 3 ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 2 . S e c t i o n s (93) and ( 7 4 ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 3 . W e i l e r , R e c o n c i l a b l e D i f f e r e n c e s , p p . 7 4 - 7 9 . 1 4 . M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , N e g o t i a t e d Work ing C o n d i t i o n s ,  1 9 8 0 , ( V i c t o r i a : P rogram S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 u X 1 5 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974. 16 . I. C h a f e t z , " D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x p e r i e n c e " , p. 4 0 . 1 7 . B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , Summary o f P r o c e e d i n g s : 2 1 s t Annua l  C o n v e n t i o n ( V a n c o u v e r : B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , 1 9 7 6 ) . 18 . M i n i s t r y o f L abou r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B .C . L abou r D i r e c t o r y 1980 ( V i c t o r i a : R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g B r a n c h , 1 9 8 0 ) . 19 . R. S t e e r s and L. P o r t e r , M o t i v a t i o n and Work B e h a v i o u r ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a n - H i l l Book Company, 1 9 7 5 ) . - 58 -CHAPTER V CHARACTERISTICS OF SECTION 70 APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e m p l o y e r s , u n i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . These g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e compared t o t h e s c e n a r i o d e s c r i b e d i n t h e London Drugs c a s e . * To p r o v i d e a sense o f p e r s p e c t i v e some o f t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o compared t o t h o s e o f new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s g r a n t e d o v e r t h e same t i m e p e r i o d . S i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among t h r e e o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s (DENIED, GRANTED and SETTLED) a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f ramework f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e outcomes o f t h e c a s e s i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . Compa r i sons a r e no t made t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c a s e s i n t h e WITHDRAWN c a t e g o r y because t h e r e a r e o n l y two c a s e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Emp loye r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e g rouped by s t a n d a r d i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s k i l l l e v e l o f employees and i n v o l v e m e n t i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s . The u n i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t e rms o f t h e t y p e o f l o c a l , a f f i l i a t i o n o f t h e u n i t , s i z e o f b a r g a i n i n g u n i t and i n v o l v e m e n t i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s . F o r c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , t h e i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r and the s i z e o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t a r e e x a m i n e d . - 59 -CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYERS I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d t e n d t o employ u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r and w o u l d be p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r o m t h e t r a d e and m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s . (1) I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Emp loye r s T a b l e 7 ( a ) shows t h e i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r s . As e x p e c t e d , t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r had t h e l a r g e s t number o f c a s e s . E i g h t o f t h e f o u r t e e n e m p l o y e r s i n t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y were i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r t h e h o t e l o r r e s t a u r a n t b u s i n e s s . T h i s i s c l e a r l y t h e dominan t t y p e o f b u s i n e s s r e p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s . The m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r had n i n e c a s e s , compared t o f i v e i n t h e t r a d e s e c t o r . The re were no a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S e c t i o n 70 i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r , a l t h o u g h t h i s s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e u n i o n i z e d 2 w o r k f o r c e . The absence o f S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f i n d u s t r y - w i d e c o n t r a c t s among t h e v a r i o u s u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s . In most c o n s t r u c t i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , once t h e u n i t i s c e r t i f i e d t h e s t a n d a r d c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s a p p l i e d t o the u n i t w i t h l i t t l e o r no r e q u i r e m e n t f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s and w i t h l i t t l e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e u n i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i t s b a r g a i n i n g a u t h o r i t y . The p e r c e n t o f S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n w o u l d be i n d i c a t e d by t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e u n i o n i z e d w o r k -f o r c e i n t h a t i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The s e r v i c e s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c a se s and o n l y f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e u n i o n i z e d w o r k f o r c e . 3 The s e r v i c e s e c t o r a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n i t s s h a r e o f c a s e s when compared t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ( T a b l e 8 ) . The s e r v i c e s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s f o r t y -one p e r c e n t o f new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s and a c c o u n t s f o r f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e - 60 -e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f S e c t i o n 70 e m p l o y e r s among t h e o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n s t h e y r e p r e s e n t i n new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . As t h e r e were no a p p l i c a t i o n s f r om t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s f r om t h i s s e c t o r were d e l e t e d f r o m t h e t o t a l s b e f o r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e s were c a l c u l a t e d . As new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a r e a measure o f o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y , we can c o n c l u d e t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s can be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h a t i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n s f r om the s e r v i c e s e c t o r w i l l o c c u r a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r a t e t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e l e v e l o f o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h a t s e c t o r . (2) S k i l l L e v e l S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s employed u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r ( T a b l e 7 (b ) ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f t h e s e u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s were emp loyed i n t h e h o t e l o r r e s t a u r a n t b u s i n e s s . As u n s k i l l e d emp loyees t r a d i t i o n a l l y have a l o w e r b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r , due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e ease w i t h w h i c h t h e y can be r e p l a c e d , t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n was t o be e x p e c t e d . S i x o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d c a t e g o r y had emp loyees b e l o n g i n g t o c r a f t u n i o n s . These u n i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y have a h i g h deg ree o f b a r g a i n i n g power . The i n v o l v e m e n t o f c r a f t u n i o n s i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s was n o t a n t i c i p a t e d g i v e n t h e low s k i l l l e v e l 4 d e p i c t e d i n s c e n a r i o o u t l i n e d i n t h e London Drugs c a s e . (3) I n v o l v e m e n t i n M u l t i p l e A p p l i c a t i o n s Of t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t e m p l o y e r s , o n l y one was i n v o l v e d i n more t h a n one a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s e m p l o y e r was i n v o l v e d i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s . TABLE 7 CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYERS (a ) Employers by i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n MANUFACTURING M & H M a c h i n e r y P a r t a I n d u s t r i e s Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Bond B r o s . S awmi l l G r anv i ew I n d u s t r i e s Bu r roughs B u s i n e s s Mach ines Ke lowna D a i l y C o u r i e r Domin ion C h a i n A r m o r l i t e I n d u s t r i e s TRADE London Drugs McCoy B r o s . K i d d B r o s . P roduce Dayton T i r e s Adanac Lumber NO. OF APPLICATIONS = 9 PERCENT OF TOTAL =(30%) (17%) SERVICE V i c t r o R e g i s t r y Sandman Inns - Ke lowna - Reve l s t o k e - C r a n b r o o k Domin ion D i r e c t o r y C e n t u r y P l a z a M e d i e v a l Inns - V i c t o r i a Koo tenay H o t e l C h i l d r e n s ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Canne ry R e s t a u r a n t M e x i c a n a M o t o r Inn M a r p o l e C l e a n e r s U n i t e d Food S e r v i c e C y p r e s s D i s p o s a l 14 (47%) OTHER Chev ron M e t r o Bus P i c k u p (7%) - 62 -TABLE 7 ( c o n t ' d ) (b ) Emp loye r s by s k i l l l e v e l o f emp loyees UNSKILLED London Drugs V i c t r o R e g i s t r y Sandman Inns - Ke lowna - Reve l s t o k e - C r a n b r o o k Domin ion D i r e c t o r y C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l M e d i e v a l Inns - V i c t o r i a K i d d B r o s . P roduce Koo tenay H o t e l Day ton T i r e s Adanac Lumber Cannery R e s t a u r a n t M e x i c a n a M o t o r Inn M a r p o l e C l e a n e r s U n i t e d Food S e r v i c e s M e t r o Bus P i c k u p C y p r e s s D i s p o s a l NO. OF ' '' • " ' APPLICATIONS =JL8 PERCENT OF TOTAL(60%) ( c ) Emp loye r s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s NO. OF EMPLOYERS (%) One A p p l i c a t i o n . . . . 27 (96%) Two A p p l i c a t i o n s . . . 0 T h r e e A p p l i c a t i o n s . . 1 (4%) SEMI-SKILLED/SKILLED M & H M a c h i n e r y McCoy B r o s . •< P a r t a I n d u s t r i e s Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Bond B r o s . S a w m i l l G randv i ew I n d u s t r i e s B u r r o u g h s B u s i n e s s Mach ines Ke lowna D a i l y C o u r i e r C h i l d r e n s ' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Chev ron Domin ion C h a i n A r m o r ! i t e I n d u s t r i e s 12 (40%) PERCENT OF APPLICATIONS (%) 27 (90%) 0 3 (10%) - 63 -SIC Manufacturing Trade S e r v i c e Other TABLE 8 INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYERS INVOLVED IN CERTIFICATIONS 1974-1979 CERTIFICATIONS NO. PERCENTAGE 713 (33%) 371 (17%) 903 (42%) 175 ( 8%) TOTAL •excluding C o n s t r u c t i o n 2162* (100%) S o u r c e : M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , B .C . L a b o u r D i r e c t o r y , 1 9 8 0 . - 64 -When company c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a n a l y s e d i n t e rms o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s were GRANTED o r DENIED, some d i f f e r e n c e s were i d e n t i f i e d ( T a b l e 9 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s , i t a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED and f o r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w h i c h were DENIED. S i m i l a r l y t h e t r a d e s e c t o r , r e p r e s e n t i n g s e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s , a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w h i c h were DENIED. A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , r e p r e s e n t i n g f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s , a c c o u n t e d f o r s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED. The u n s k i l l e d c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t e d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED t h a n t h e i r f r e q u e n c y i n t h e sample w o u l d i n d i c a t e ; s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED, v e r s u s s i x t y p e r c e n t o f a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s . In summary, e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s a r e most l i k e l y t o be i n t h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r , f o l l o w e d by t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r . They emp loy p r e d o m i n a n t l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r a l t h o u g h more e m p l o y e r s t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d emp loyed s e m i - s k i l l e d o r s k i l l e d l a b o u r . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e m p l o y e r s i n c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED c o r r e s p o n d more c l o s e l y t o t h e g e n e r a l s c e n a r i o t h a n do t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e m p l o y e r s i n t h e SETTLED o r DENIED c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s was no t s u r p r i s i n g . The g e n e r a l s c e n a r i o d e s c r i b e d t h e t y p e o f u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s who w o u l d most l i k e l y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h an imposed f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . - 65 -TABLE 9 CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYERS BY DISPOSITION OF APPLICATION (a) D i s p o s i t i o n versus i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n SIC Category Manufacturing Trade S e r v i c e Other no.granted (%) 2(18%) 2(18%) 7(64%) 0(0%) no.denied (X) 3(50%) 2(33%) 1(17%) 0(0%) n o . s e t t l e d (%) 3(27%) 1( 9%) 5(45%) 2(18%) no.withdrawn(%) 1(50%) 0( 0%) 1(50%) 0( 0%) T o t a l 9(30%) 5(17%) 14(47%) 2( 7%) (b) D i s p o s i t i o n versus s k i l l l e v e l Semi-ski l i e d / Category U n s k i l l e d s k i l l e d no. granted (%) 8(73%) 3(27%) no. denied (%) 3(50%) 3(50%) no. s e t t l e d (%) 6(55%) 5(45%) no. withdrawn(%) 1(50%) 1(50%) To t a l 18(60%) 12(40%) - 66 -CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIONS AND BARGAINING UNITS In chapter f o u r i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that the bargaining u n i t s involved i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those which were GRANTED, would be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . I t was a l s o s t a t e d t h a t S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s would come p r i m a r i l y from i n d u s t r i a l and miscellaneous unions. Because o f the B.C. Federation o f Labour's o p p o s i t i o n t o S e c t i o n 70, we would expect r e l a t i v e l y few a p p l i c a t i o n s from unions a f f i l i a t e d with the Federation. (1) Types of Union I n d u s t r i a l unions, l e d by the Hotel Employees' Union, had the highest degree of involvement i n Sec t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , followed c l o s e l y by miscellaneous unions. C r a f t unions, r e p r e s e n t i n g h i g h l y s k i l l e d employees, were involved i n only twenty percent of the a p p l i c a t i o n s (Table 1 0 ) . This d i s t r i b u t i o n was as a n t i c i p a t e d except f o r the involvement of c r a f t unions i n the Section 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . These unions normally have a f a i r l y high degree of bargaining power. Instead o f being e a s i l y replaced i f they go on s t r i k e , members o f unions such as the Operating Engineers o r IBEW are more l i k e l y t o c l o s e down an e n t i r e o p e r a t i when they withdraw t h e i r s e r v i c e s . (2) A f f i l i a t i o n of Unions Although i t i s impossible to s t a t e whether or not the stance taken by the B.C. Federation o f Labour had the e f f e c t of reducing the number of Sect i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , the high number of B.C. Federation a f f i l i a t e s i n the sample could be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s d i d not occur. Of the t h i r t y a p p l i c a t i o n s , twenty-three or seventy-seven percent involved B.C. Federation a f f i l i a t e s . A l l of these twenty-three u n i t s were a l s o a f f i l i a t e s o f the CLC and a l l but one were a f f i l i a t e s of the AFL/CI0. There were seven a p p l i c a t i o n s made by independent ( n o n - a f f i l i a t e d ) unions. - 67 -(3) I n v o l v e m e n t i n M u l t i p l e A p p l i c a t i o n s The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e u n i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e number o f u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s . The H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' Un ion a c c o u n t e d f o r n i n e a p p l i c a t i o n s , o r t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . The Teams te r s a c c o u n t e d f o r s i x a p p l i c a t i o n s , w h i l e f i v e u n i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n two a p p l i c a t i o n s e a c h . The r e m a i n i n g f i v e u n i o n s were i n v o l v e d i n o n l y one a p p l i c a t i o n e a c h . Two u n i o n s t h e r e f o r e a c c o u n t f o r f i f t y p e r c e n t o f a l l S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . The H o t e l Emp loyees ' Un ion o r g a n i z e s on an i n d u s t r i a l b a s i s i n an i n d u s t r y w h i c h i s no t h i g h l y u n i o n i z e d . T h i s u n i o n a p p e a r s t o have b u i l t S e c t i o n 70 i n t o i t s o r g a n i z i n g s t r a t e g y . The h o t e l and r e s t a u r a n t i n d u s t r y i s a d i f f i c u l t one t o o r g a n i z e . The re i s h i g h t u r n o v e r among b o t h t h e e m p l o y e r s and the employees and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e emp loyees a r e u n s k i l l e d . In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i f t h e u n i o n i s a l s o f a c e d w i t h an i n t r a n s i g e n t e m p l o y e r t h i s s t r a t e g y i s l i k e l y n e c e s s a r y . TABLE 10 CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIONS AND UNITS (a) Type of Union C r a f t Operating Engineers Local 115 (2 a p p l i c a t i o n s ) ITU Local 226 (2 a p p l i c a t i o n s ) IBEW Local 213 Health Sciences Assocation I n d u s t r i a l Hotel Employees' Union Local 40 (9 a p p l i c a t i o n s ) Miscellaneous Teamsters Local 351 (5 a p p l i c a t i o n s ) Federation o f Telephone Workers Teamsters of B.C. C l e r i c a l D i v i s i o n IWA Local 1-423 IWA Local 1-424 USW Local 2952 USW Local 2655 Local 31 Servi c e Employees In t e r n a t i o n a l Local 244 (2 a p p l i c a t i o n s ) RWDSU Local 580 Machinists (Automotive Lodge) No. 1857 CD 0 0 NO. OF APPLICATIONS = £ PERCENT OF TOTAL = (20%) 14 (47%) 10 (33%) - 69 -TABLE 10 ( c o n t ' d ) (b) A f f i l i a t i o n o f Un ion I ndependen t B .C . F e d . T o t a l No. o f a p p l i c a t i o n s 7 23 30 P e r c e n t o f t o t a l 23% 77% 100% S o u r c e : M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , B .C . L abou r D i r e c t o r y , 1980 . ( c ) U n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s No. o f U n i t s No. o f . A p p l i c a t i o n s (%) One A p p l i c a t i o n Two A p p l i c a t i o n s S i x A p p l i c a t i o n s N i n e A p p l i c a t i o n s T o t a l 5 (42%) 5 (42% ) 1( 8%) 1( 8%) 12(100%) 5 (17%) 10(33%) 6 (20%) 9 (30%) 30 (100% ) (d) S i z e o f U n i t s P e r c e n t a g e N o . O f Members N o . O f U n i t s Of T o t a l U n i t s 00-10 10 33% 11-20 5 • 17% 21-30 5 17% 31-40 5 17% 41-50 2 7% 51-60 1 3% 61-70 1 3% 71-80 0 0% 81-90 1 3% T o t a l 30 100% Ave r age No. 25 Med i an c l a s s 11-20 Range 3-85 S o u r c e : L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board f i l e s . - 70 -(4) S i z e o f B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . T h i s was no t t h e c a s e . W h i l e o n e - t h i r d o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d u n i t s between one t o t e n e m p l o y e e s , t h e a v e r a g e u n i t s i z e o f t w e n t y - f i v e employees i s l a r g e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e s i z e u n i t c e r t i f i e d i n any o f t h e y e a r s 1974 t h r o u g h 1 9 7 9 , i n c l u s i v e . The med ian c l a s s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , e l e v e n t o t w e n t y e m p l o y e e s , i s a l s o h i g h e r t h a n t h e median c l a s s o f new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s o v e r t h e same t i m e p e r i o d . The c o m p a r i s o n o f med ians d i s c o u n t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e t h r e e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e u n i t s w i t h o v e r f i f t y members and i s t h e r e f o r e a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r o f r e l a t i v e s i z e . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f u n i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s v a r y somewhat a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s . The med ian c l a s s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were GRANTED exceeds t h e med ian f o r each o f t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s and f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n . I t 5 w o u l d a p p e a r , c o n t r a r y t o t h e t y p i c a l s c e n a r i o i n London D r u g s , t h a t t h e s m a l l e s t b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s have n o t been t h e ones most l i k e l y t o have a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n GRANTED. When c o m p a r i n g t y p e o f u n i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n ( T a b l e 1 2 ) , i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c r a f t u n i o n s among t h e GRANTED, DENIED and-SETTLED c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d s t o the p r o p o r t i o n c r a f t u n i t s r e p r e s e n t i n the s a m p l e . I n d u s t r i a l u n i o n s have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e DENIED and SETTLED c a t e g o r i e s . In p a r t , t h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' Un ion w h i c h has had f i v e 6 o f i t s n i n e a p p l i c a t i o n s g r a n t e d . M i s c e l l a n e o u s u n i t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , have a r e l a t i v e l y low r e p r e s e n t i o n i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y and a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y . - 71 -TABLE 11 S IZE OF UNITS CERTIFIED ' 1974-1979 Yea r Ave rage s i z e Med ian C l a s s 1974 6 1 * ° " 1 0 1975 20 0-10 1976 13 0-10 1977 15 0-10 1978 13 0-10 1979 16 0-10 *The a v e r a g e s i z e u n i t i s u n u s u a l l y l a r g e due t o the i n c l u s i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 5 , 0 0 0 P r o v i n c i a l Government emp loyees i n t h r e e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . S o u r c e : L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t s , 1974 - 1979 . - 72 -TABLE 12 CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIONS/UNITS BY DISPOSITION OF APPLICATION !a) U n i t s i z e No . o f members C A T No . No . g r a n t e d d e n i e d E G O No. s e t t l e d R Y No. w i t h d r a w n t o t a l 0-10 2 3 5 0 10 11-20 2 1 1 1 5 21-30 2 1 1 1 5 31-40 3 0 2 0 5 41-50 1 0 1 0 2 51-60 1 0 0 0 1 61-70 0 0 1 0 1 71-80 0 1 0 0 1 Ave r age 27 23 23 19 25 Med ian c l a s s 21-30 0-10 11-20 na 11-20 Range 7-58 5-85 3-70 15-23 3-85 (b) Type o f u n i o n c r a f t i n d u s t r i a l m i s c e l l a n e o u s t o t a l No. g r a n t e d (%) 2 (18%) 7 (64%) 2 (18%) 11 No. d e n i e d (%) 1 (17%) 2 (33%) 3 (50%) 6 No. s e t t l e d (%) 3 (27%) 4 (36% ) 4 (36%) 11 No. w i t h d r a w n (%) 0( 0%) 1 (50%) 1(50%) 2 T o t a l s 6 (20% ) 14 (47%) 10(33%) 30 - 73 -SUMMARY The e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 c a s e s t e n d t o be f r o m t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , and w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s . The e m p l o y e r s t e n d t o employ u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r and a r e no t n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d i n more t h a n one S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n . The b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s a r e s l i g h t l y l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e f o r new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s and b a r g a i n i n g a g e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o be a f f i l i a t e d t o the B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r . The u n i o n s i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n d u s t r i a l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s l o c a l s a l t h o u g h a s u r p r i s i n g number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d c r a f t u n i o n s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f u n i o n s i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s i s t h e i r s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o be i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h d i f f e r e n t e m p l o y e r s . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t , b a sed on t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 7 0 , t h e y v i e w t h e remedy o f an imposed f i r s t ag reement p o s i t i v e l y as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e when a l l o t h e r a t t e m p t s t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t agreement a r e f r u s t r a t e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e H o t e l Emp loyees ' Union., and t h e Teams te r s may v i ew a S e c t i o n 70 agreement as t h e l e s s e r o f two e v i l s , and as the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o e v e n t u a l l o s s o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g c e r t i f i c a t e . On t h e w h o l e , w i t h t h e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n o f u n i t s i z e , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e u n i o n s / u n i t s and e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e q u i t e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e g e n e r a l s c e n a r i o i n t h e London Drugs d e c i s i o n . ^ T r e a t m e n t o f W i thdrawn A p p l i c a t i o n s B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h i s c h a p t e r , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b r i e f l y d i s c u s s t h e two a p p l i c a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d as WITHDRAWN. One a p p l i c a t i o n was made - 74 -w h i l e an a p p e a l o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was b e i n g made t o t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and f i n a l l y t o t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l s ' d e c i s i o n t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e emp loyees o f C y p r e s s D i s p o s a l was q u a s h e d ? hence t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S e c t i o n 70 was w i t h d r a w n . In t h e s e c o n d i n s t a n c e , A r m o r ! i t e I n d u s t r i e s , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was w i t h d r a w n as t h e company i n v o l v e d c e a s e d o p e r a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As t h e b u s i n e s s was n o t s o l d o r t r a n s f e r r e d , no s u c c e s s o r s t a t u s was i n v o l v e d . These two WITHDRAWN a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l no t be d i s c u s s e d i n f u r t h e r c h a p t e r s . The r e m a i n i n g sample has t h e r e f o r e been r e d u c e d t o t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s . One f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e samp le i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e e x a m i n i n g Q t h e c a s e s and t h ^ i r outcomes i n more d e t a i l . In t h e K i d d B r o t h e r s ' c a s e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S e c t i o n 70 was DENIED a l t h o u g h t h e Boa rd s t a t e d i n i t s d e c i s i o n t h a t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n d i c a t e d t h e c a s e was an a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o n t r a c t . In e x p l a i n i n g t h e d e n i a l o f t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t h e Boa rd r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e b e h i n d t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s was t o r e s t o r e t o t h e u n i o n some o f t h e s u p p o r t among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members w h i c h t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r had d e s t r o y e d . The Boa rd d e t e r m i n e d t h a t i n K i d d B r o t h e r s ' t h i s wou ld no t be t h e l i k e l y r e s u l t i f t h e y were t o impose t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . I t w o u l d r a t h e r p e n a l i z e t h o s e now employed i n t h e u n i t . As S e c t i o n 70 i s i n t e n d e d t o be r e m e d i a l and n o t p u n i t i v e , an a l t e r n a t i v e remedy o f a makewhole o r d e r was i m p o s e d . 1 0 F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i t w o u l d seem more a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t o i n c l u d e t h i s c a s e i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y , as a l l o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e outcomes w i l l be more c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h i s c a t e g o r y o f c a s e s . Of t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s t h e r e f o r e , t h e breakdown by d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as f o l l o w s : GRANTED = 1 2 , DENIED = 5 , SETTLED = 1 1 . - 75 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V 1. London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 4 . 2 . M i n i s t r y o f L abou r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B .C . L a b o u r D i r e c t o r y , 1980 ( V i c t o r i a : R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g , 1980) p . 1 0 . 3. I b i d . 4 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 4 . 5. I b i d . 6 . One o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s made by t h e H o t e l Emp loyees ' Un ion was DENIED; t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e were SETTLED. 7. London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974, p . 4 . 8 . The Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s m i s s e d t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a p p e a l o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n on December 3 , 1 9 7 3 . The e m p l o y e r a p p e a l e d i n t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l s . T h i s s econd appea l was a l l o w e d on O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1974 . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f r o m Boa rd f i l e s . 9 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #53/1976. 10 . I b i d . - 76 -CHAPTER VI EMPLOYER REACTIONS, UNION SUPPORT AND NEGOTIATIONS INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a on e m p l o y e r r e a c t i o n s , u n i o n s u p p o r t and n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . The d a t a d e s c r i b e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r s a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d t h e u n i o n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e m p l o y e e s . They a l s o d e s c r i b e t h e i m p a c t t h e s e a c t i o n s had upon t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t and the u n i o n s ' a b i l i t y t o n e g o t i a t e f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . EMPLOYER REACTIONS Data were g a t h e r e d r e g a r d i n g a p p e a l s a g a i n s t t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s , v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h , and o t h e r v i o l a t i o n s o f the l a b o u r code t o d e s c r i b e t h e e m p l o y e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . Examples o f b e h a v i o u r i n each o f t h e s e a r e a s a r e used t o measure t h e deg ree o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e o r n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f u n i o n i z a t i o n . By d e f i n i t i o n , i n t h e c a s e s where t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was GRANTED, t h e e m p l o y e r s ' r e a c t i o n s can be d e s c r i b e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a h i g h deg ree o f n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u n i o n s as l e g i t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e e m p l o y e e s . A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e c o n t i n u u m , i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were DENIED o r SETTLED, a l t h o u g h t h e e m p l o y e r s may have a d o p t e d h a r d and i n f l e x i b l e b a r g a i n i n g s t a n c e s , t h e i r r e a c t i o n s w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e a g r e a t e r deg ree o f a c c e p t a n c e . The q u e s t i o n s answered i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e : (1 ) To what e x t e n t do t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s d i f f e r among t h e GRANTED, DENIED and SETTLED c a t e g o r i e s ; (2) Do t h e i n i t i a l n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s p e r s i s t once c e r t i f i c a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d ? - 77 -U n f a i r Labour P r a c t i c e s A b r i e f mention should be made t h a t there were no orders issued i n the cases with respect to u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s committed by unions. On the other hand, there were a t o t a l of seventeen such orders issued aga i n s t the employers i n v o l v e d i n Section 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . For two reasons t h i s i s l i k e l y an understatement of the actual number of u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s committed by the employers. F i r s t of a l l , only approximately twelve percent of complaints r e l a t e d to u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s are concluded with a formal order. Approximately f o r t y percent of these complaints are s e t t l e d by the Board without the requirement to issue an o r d e r . 1 Secondly, one order f r e q u e n t l y involves m u l t i p l e v i o l a t i o n s of the code. The actual number of v i o l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n these seventeen orders i s not known but, based upon a review of the published d e c i s i o n s , i t i s estimated t h a t there are on average two to three v i o l a t i o n s per case. This r e s u l t s i n an estimated number of v i o l a t i o n s between t h i r t y - f o u r and f i f t y - o n e . The seventeen orders represent approximately fourteen percent of the u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e orders issued by the Board over the s i x - y e a r time frame of the study. On the other hand, these twenty-eight cases represent l e s s than one percent o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a p p l i e d f o r over 2 the same time p e r i o d . In r e l a t i v e terms the incidence of u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s committed by t h i s group o f employers i s high. Table 13 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s among the three c a t e g o r i e s and according to whether or not the r e l a t e d orders were issued p r i o r to or subsequent to the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of the bargaining u n i t . The cases where the Section 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was GRANTED have a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s when compared to the - 78 -other two c a t e g o r i e s . While these cases account f o r f o r t y - t h r e e percent of the sample they represent seventy-one percent o f the u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s . According to the London Drugs sce n a r i o summarized i n chapter two, i n the GRANTED category we would expect to f i n d i n d i c a t i o n s i n the employers' behaviour of a continued campaign to defeat the union. Support f o r t h i s i s found i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n , and i n the increased frequency, of u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s a f t e r the c e r t i f i c a t i o n has been achieved. An example best serves to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In i t s lengthy d e c i s i o n concerning the Kidd Brothers' case the Board summarized the behaviour of the employer as f o l l o w s : When t h i s conduct i s examined i n i t s t o t a l i t y a p i c t u r e emerges of an employer who was prepared to go to almost any lengths to undermine and destroy the Union's support among i t s employees, the support upon which the Union's a u t h o r i t y and e f f o r t s a t the bargaining t a b l e depended. 3 The u n f a i r labour p r a c t i c e s committed by the employer i n t h i s case began p r i o r to the c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f the Teamsters with the d i s m i s s a l of two employees because of t h e i r support f o r the union. The Board r u l e d that the d i s m i s s a l s v i o l a t e d Section 3 of the code and, i n December 1974, ordered t h a t the two employees be r e i n s t a t e d with compensation f o r l o s t 4 wages. As of June 16, 1975 the employer had not complied with the order f o r reinstatement. The Board's order was f i l e d with the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia and on J u l y 25, 1975 the employer was found to be contempt. On J u l y 29 one of the employees reported f o r work i n accordance with the Court order; he worked t h a t day and was again dismissed on J u l y 30. The second employee was no longer i n t e r e s t e d i n r e t u r n i n g . In t h i s case the bargaining u n i t had f i v e members, one o f whom was a r e l a t i v e of the owner. I t i s impossible to o v e r s t a t e the impact t h a t these two d i s m i s s a l s and t h e i r eventual outcomes had on the support f o r the union among the remaining employees. - 79 -Subsequen t t o t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Teams te r s t h e e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e d t o r e s i s t t h e u n i o n and a t t e m p t e d t o c o e r c e t h e r e m a i n i n g emp loyees i n t o w i t h d r a w i n g t h e i r u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p . The e m p l o y e r i n s i s t e d on a t t e n d i n g a u n i o n m e e t i n g h e l d t o c o n d u c t a s t r i k e v o t e ; t h r e a t e n e d and r e p r i m a n d e d two emp loyees f o r a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h one o f t h e d i s m i s s e d emp loyees a n d , f i n a l l y , v i s i t e d one o f t h e s e employees a t home, c o n v i n c i n g h im t o r e s i g n f r o m t h e u n i o n . The s o l e r e m a i n i n g u n i o n member w i t h d r e w h e r membersh ip s e v e r a l days l a t e r . In a d d i t i o n t h e e m p l o y e r imp lemen ted a u n i l a t e r a l wage i n c r e a s e d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e r e f u s i n g t o d i s c u s s wages and o t h e r u n i o n demands a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e . The e m p l o y e r t e s t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e Board h e a r i n g s on t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t he d i d no t want t o d e a l w i t h a u n i o n , no r d i d he want t o c o n c l u d e 5 a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The b e h a v i o u r o f t h e e m p l o y e r i n K i d d B r o t h e r s ' , w h i l e somewhat more ex t r eme t h a n t h a t o f e m p l o y e r s i n many o f t h e o t h e r c a s e s , i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o n d u c t o f e m p l o y e r s i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED. A p p e a l s A g a i n s t C e r t i f i c a t i o n by Emp loye rs One o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e avenues open t o an e m p l o y e r t o c h a l l e n g e t h e u n i o n ' s p r e s e n c e i s t o a p p e a l t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . W h i l e t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h an a p p e a l may be g r a n t e d a r e n a r r o w , t h i s p r o v i d e s e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s r e a c t i o n . R e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f t h e e l e v e n a p p e a l s made by e m p l o y e r s , s even were f i l e d by e m p l o y e r s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . These seven a p p e a l s r e p r e s e n t s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e a p p e a l s w h i l e t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t o n l y f o r t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e . In f o u r c a s e s more t h a n one a p p e a l was made. In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h e e m p l o y e r s c o u p l e d t h e i r a p p e a l s w i t h d e l a y s i n m e e t i n g w i t h t h e u n i o n s t o commence c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The - 80 -r a t i o n a l e t h e y employed was t h a t t h e y were n o t r e q u i r e d t o meet w i t h t h e u n i o n u n t i l t h e a p p e a l p r o c e s s was e x h a u s t e d . In t h e i r d e c i s i o n s u p h o l d i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , t h e B o a r d ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e d e l a y s was t o r em ind t h e e m p l o y e r s o f t h e i r d u t y t o meet w i t h t h e u n i o n s and commence b a r g a i n i n g . In answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n s posed a t t h e s t a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s d i f f e r between t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y d e m o n s t r a t e a g r e a t e r deg r ee o f n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s . S e c o n d l y , i n t h e c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y , t h i s i n i t i a l n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n c o n t i n u e s p a s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h i s can a l s o be s a i d o f t h e c a s e s i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y . The deg ree o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ' n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s i s most c l e a r l y shown i n T a b l e 15 w h i c h i n c l u d e s o t h e r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e code i n a d d i t i o n t o u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and a p p e a l s a g a i n s t c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Of a t o t a l o f t h i r t y - t h r e e i n c i d e n t s o f b e h a v i o u r i n d i c a t i n g n o n - a c c e p t a n c e , twen t y-t h r e e o r s e v e n t y p e r c e n t a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r by the t w e l v e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . - 81 -TABLE 13 FREQUENCY OF UNFAIR LABOUR PRACTICES C A T E G O R Y No. o f U . L . P . ' s g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l No. b e f o r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n 4 1 2 7 No. a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n _ 8 0 2 10 T o t a l 12 1 4 17 TABLE 14 FREQUENCY OF APPEALS AGAINST CERTIFICATION C A T E G O R Y No. o f A p p e a l s g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l No. o f c a s e s w i t h 1 a p p e a l 5 1 1 7 No. o f c a s e s w i t h more t han 0 , . . 1 appea l £ I I _ i T o t a l . . . 7 2 2 11 TABLE 15 DEGREE OF EMPLOYER OPPOSITION ( I n c l u d i n g O t h e r V i o l a t i o n s o f t h e Code) C A T E G O R Y No. o f I n c i d e n t s g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l No. o f U . L . P . b e f o r e c e r t i f i c a t i o n 4 1 2 7 No . o f U . L . P . a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n 8 0 2 10 No. o f a p p e a l s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n 7 2 2 11 No. o f v i o l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 6 2 0 0 2 No. o f o t h e r v i o l a t i o n s 2 1 0 3 T o t a l . . . 23 4 6 33 - 82 -UNION SUPPORT Data were g a t h e r e d r e l a t e d t o the deg ree o f u n i o n s u p p o r t p r e s e n t a t t he t i m e o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n and r e l a t e d t o s u b s e q u e n t i n d i c a t e s o f changes i n t h i s l e v e l o f s u p p o r t . The q u e s t i o n s answered i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e : (1) Do any o r a l l o f t h e c a s e s i n v o l v e m a r g i n a l l e v e l s o f u n i o n s u p p o r t ; (2) does t h e deg ree o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n d i f f e r among t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f c a s e s ; and (3) a r e t h e r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t s u b s e q u e n t t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n ? L e v e l o f Un ion S u p p o r t The q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r o v i d e d two methods f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n ; s u p p o r t i n d i c a t e d by t h e number and p e r c e n t a g e o f emp loyees i n the u n i t v o t i n g i n f a v o u r o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a n d , s u p p o r t as i n d i c a t e d by u n i o n membersh ip c a r d s when t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n was made. A c a t c h a l l was a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r " o t h e r " i n d i c a t i o n s . In a l l bu t two c a s e s , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l measure was u n i o n membersh ip c a r d s . The re were no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e s h e l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In one i n s t a n c e t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was g r a n t e d i n 1964 and t h e r e was no r e c o r d a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t a t t h a t t i m e . In t h e r e m a i n i n g c a s e , t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was g r a n t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h S e c t i o n 8 ( 4 ) ( e ) o f t h e Code^ as t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t c o u l d no t be d e t e r m i n e d because o f e m p l o y e r i n f l u e n c e . C o m p a r i s o n o f the a v e r a g e and med ian f o r each c a t e g o r y t o t h a t f o r t h e sample shows l i t t l e r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e v e l o f u n i o n s u p p o r t ( T a b l e 1 6 ) . The s u p p o r t i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s t h a n i n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . Comparab le i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i s s u e d o v e r t h e 1974-1979 t i m e p e r i o d so t h e r e l a t i v e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t i n t h e - 83 -c a s e s c a n n o t be compared t o t h a t f o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . A second way t o a s s e s s t h e l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t i n the c a s e s i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e number o f employees i n each c a s e who wou ld have t o change t h e i r minds abou t t h e b e n e f i t s o f u n i o n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t t o the p o i n t where m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n no l o n g e r e x i s t s . When t h i s o c c u r s t h e u n i o n i s i n dange r o f l o s i n g i t s c e r t i f i c a t e s i n c e an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l . T a b l e 17 p r o v i d e s s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t i n t o the l e v e l s o f s u p p o r t i n t h e c a s e s . In s i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s , o n l y one o r two employees w o u l d have t o change t h e i r m inds t o e r o d e t h e m a j o r i t y s u p p o r t ; i n f i f t y -two p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s one employee i s s u f f i c i e n t . I f t h i s i s used as the d e f i n i t i o n o f m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t , c l e a r l y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e s i t u a t i o n s where s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n i s m a r g i n a l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u n i t s h a v i n g m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t v a r i e s s l i g h t l y f r om t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n among t h e c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y no t t h e GRANTED o n e , howeve r , t h a t has a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t . W h i l e t h e SETTLED c a s e s r e p r e s e n t t h i r t y -seven p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e , t h e y r e p r e s e n t f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s h a v i n g m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t . The GRANTED c a s e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t he s a m p l e , a c c o u n t f o r o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t c a s e s . - 84 -TABLE 16 LEVEL OF UNION SUPPORT No. o f Cases i n Each C a t e g o r y g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l 50-55% 4 2 3 9 (33%) 56-60% 4 - - 4 (15% ) 61-65% 2 - - 2( 7%) 66-70% 1 - 2 3 (11%) 71-75% - 1 2 3 (11%) 76-80% 1 2 1 4 (15% ) 81-85% - - - -86-100% - - 2 2( 7%) T o t a l . . 1 2 5 10 *27 (100% ) A v e r a g e . . 60% 67% 69% 65% Med ian . . 56-60 71-75 66-75 61-65 *Da t a were no t a v a i l a b l e on one c a s e . TABLE 17 MARGINALITY OF SUPPORT No. o f Cases i n Each C a t e g o r y g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l change by 1 employee 6 3 5 14(52%) change by 2 emp loyees 0 1 3 4 (15% ) change by more t h a n 2 emp loyees _ 6 _ _1_ _Z_ 10(37%) T o t a l . . 12 5 10 *27 (100% ) * D a t a were n o t a v a i l a b l e on one c a s e . - 85 -Changes i n Un ion S u p p o r t The p r e v a l e n c e o f m a r g i n a l u n i o n s u p p o r t combined w i t h e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n i n o v e r h a l f o f t h e c a s e s s h o u l d r e s u l t i n a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f d e m o n s t r a t e d changes i n u n i o n s u p p o r t . S u p p o r t f o r a n o t h e r u n i o n , t u r n o v e r , a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n and " o t h e r " were t h e i t e m s used t o a s s e s s changes i n t h e degree o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n . T a b l e 18 summar izes t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . The re were n i n e t e e n s e p a r a t e i n c i d e n t s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d a d e c l i n e i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n . As one c a se i n v o l v e d two s e p a r a t e i n c i d e n t s , a d e c l i n e i n s u p p o r t was f o u n d i n e i g h t e e n o r s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c a s e s i n v o l v i n g m a r g i n a l u n i o n s u p p o r t and i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n . The l a t t e r can p o s s i b l y be e x p l a i n e d by t h e u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e o c c u r r a n c e o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . • (1) A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n The most s t a r t l i n g e v i d e n c e o f changes i n u n i o n s u p p o r t i s f o u n d i n the f i f t e e n a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h were made f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e u n i o n s . In London D r u g s , M e d i e v a l I n n s , Domin ion D i r e c t o r y , McCoy B r o s . , C e n t u r y P l a z a and Bond B r o s , c a s e s ^ , t h e d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s were s p e a r h e a d e d by one o r more d i s s i d e n t emp loyees who d i d no t w i s h t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e u n i o n . Rev iew o f t h e s e p u b l i s h e d d e c i s i o n s l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e s e d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s were s p o n s o r e d by emp loyees who , a l t h o u g h i n c l u d e d i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , were c l e a r l y more c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s . In some i n s t a n c e s t h e s e emp loyees o c c u p i e d f a v o u r e d p o s i t i o n s and were g i v e n p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t by t h e e m p l o y e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t a s k a s s i g n m e n t s , s h i f t w o r k , and o t h e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . - 8 6 -In s e v e r a l o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e i n i t i a l i d e a f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n came f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r who a c t i v e l y s o u g h t t o i n f l u e n c e i t s o u t c o m e . One o o f t h e c l e a r e s t examples o f t h i s i s f o u n d i n Domin ion D i r e c t o r y . In t h i s c a s e one employee was used by t h e e m p l o y e r t o convey a p r o m i s e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t wage i n c r e a s e i f t h e employees w o u l d s i g n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n g f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In a second i n s t a n c e , McCoy B r o s . , t h e e m p l o y e r ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was combined w i t h s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n , and c e r t i f i c a t i o n , o f a r i v a l e m p l o y e e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n . The employee a s s o c i a t i o n was f o u n d be e m p l o y e r - d o m i n a t e d and t h e r e f o r e d i d no t f a l l w i t h i n t h e C o d e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f T r a d e U n i o n . 1 0 (2) T u r n o v e r I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t due t o t h e e m p l o y e r s ' c o n t r o l o f t h e h i r i n g p r o c e s s a n d , t o a l e s s e r b u t s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , t e r m i n a t i o n s , t u r n o v e r w o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n s . W h i l e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i d e n t i f i e d t u r n o v e r as s i g n i f i c a n t i n o n l y one c a s e , r e v i e w o f t h e p u b l i s h e d 11 d e c i s i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t p l a y e d a r o l e i n a t l e a s t f i v e c a s e s . In t h e s e c a s e s t h e t u r n o v e r was u s u a l l y a c compan i ed by a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e l a t t e r r e a s o n , b e i n g more e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , was r e p o r t e d . 12 In Day ton T i r e t h e c e r t i f i e d b a r g a i n i n g u n i t had seven e m p l o y e e s , f o u r o f w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h e u n i o n . Th ree o f t h e s e employees were s u b s e q u e n t l y l a i d o f f , l e a v i n g t h e u n i o n w i t h o n l y one member. In t h i s c a s e t h e r e was no a l l e g a t i o n o r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e l a y o f f s c o n s t i t u t e d an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e . 13 In M e d i e v a l Inns t h e r e were o r i g i n a l l y t w e n t y employees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t ; a b a r e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e emp loyees were members i n good s t a n d i n g a t t h e t i m e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 - 87 -a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t had t w e n t y - s i x e m p l o y e e s , howeve r , o n l y f i v e o f t h e s e emp loyees were i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t a t t h e t i m e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , and t h e r e was o n l y one o f t h e o r i g i n a l u n i o n members s t i l l e m p l o y e d . In t h i s i n s t a n c e f o u r d i s m i s s a l s were r u l e d t o be u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and t h e emp loyees were o f f e r e d r e i n s t a t e m e n t . The e m p l o y e r u t i l i z e d t i m e and p o s s i b l y s e l e c t i v e r e c r u i t i n g p r a c t i c e s t o a l t e r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . When e x a m i n i n g changes i n u n i o n s u p p o r t among t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g i s t h a t a l l o f t h e c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y d e m o n s t r a t e d examples o f r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t . The i n c i d e n c e was c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r i n t h e DENIED and SETTLED c a t e g o r i e s . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e changes i n u n i o n s u p p o r t i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s t o o k p l a c e a f t e r t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was d e c i d e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a f t e r t h e f i r s t agreement was i n p l a c e , t h e i d e a s o f t h e u n i o n c o n s o l i d a t i n g i t s s u p p o r t and t h e employees r e a l i z i n g t h e b e n e f i t s of u n i o n i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t e r m o f t h e f i r s t agreement a r e no t v a l i d . The measure o f t h i s , d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a f t e r e x p i r y o f t h e f i r s t agreement i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . In answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s ( s i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t ) i n v o l v e d m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n . The l e v e l o f s u p p o r t v a r i e s o n l y s l i g h t l y among t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f c a s e s . The re were i n d i c a t i o n s o f r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f u n i o n s u p p o r t i n s i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s and t h i s w a s ' m o s t p ronounced i n t h e c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y where e v e r y c a s e d e m o n s t r a t e d e v i d e n c e o f a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. The re were f i f t e e n a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s . - 88 -TABLE 18 CHANGES IN UNION SUPPORT C A T E G O R Y g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l S u p p o r t f o r a n o t h e r u n i o n / e m p l o y e e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n 1 1 0 2 A p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n 10 1 4 15 T u r n o v e r - 1 - 1 O t h e r 1 - 0 1 T o t a l . . 12 3 4 19 P e r c e n t o f c a s e s i n c a t e g o r y 100% 4 0 % * 36% 64% * T h i s r e p r e s e n t s o n l y two c a s e s as i n one c a s e t h e r e were two examp les i n d i c a t i n g changes i n u n i o n s u p p o r t . - 89 -NEGOTIATIONS The n a t u r e o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e p a r t i e s was examined t o d e s c r i b e some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by t h e u n i o n and employees i n c o n c l u d i n g a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . T h i s r e v i e w i n c l u d e d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p a r t i e s exchanged p r o p o s a l s , d e l a y s i n a r r a n g i n g t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g , 14 i n v o l v e m e n t o f a m e d i a t o r , and v i o l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 6 , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . The good f a i t h r e q u i r e m e n t was v i e w e d as p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t due t o t h e r e f e r e n c e made t o i t i n 15 S e c t i o n 7 1 . . N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e f i r s t ag reements commenced i n s i m i l a r w a y s . The u n i o n s i n v o l v e d s e r v e d n o t i c e t o b a r g a i n and a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g p r o v i d e d t h e e m p l o y e r s w i t h a s e t o f demands f o r t h e ' t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s t o be c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . In t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s t h e e m p l o y e r r e s p o n d e d a t some p o i n t w i t h c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s on some o r a l l i s s u e s . D e l a y s ' in t h e F i r s t M e e t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n on the d a t e s f o r t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g between t h e p a r t i e s was u n a v a i l a b l e i n t e n c a s e s . The L a b o u r Code c o n t a i n s a p r o v i s i o n r e q u i r i n g t h e p a r t i e s t o meet w i t h i n t e n days a f t e r n o t i c e t o b a r g a i n 1 c has been s e r v e d . U s i n g t h i s as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , T a b l e 19 summar izes t h e t i m e between p r o v i s i o n o f n o t i c e and t h e d a t e o f t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g c a s e s . In a l l b u t t h r e e o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e t e n - d a y t i m e l i m i t was n o t met . In e i g h t case's t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g d i d n o t o c c u r w i t h i n t h i r t y days a f t e r n o t i c e to b a r g a i n was s e r v e d . The a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f t i m e between s e r v i n g o f n o t i c e and t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g i s t h e g r e a t e s t i n t h e c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . A l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n q u i r e i n t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e l a y s i n m e e t i n g s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i s h e d - 90 -c a s e s , and t h e f a c t t h a t n o t i c e was a l w a y s g i v e n by t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d , p o i n t s t o t h e d e l a y s b e i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e e m p l o y e r s . In some i n s t a n c e s t h i s a p p e a r s t o have been a b a r g a i n i n g t a c t i c used t o f r u s t r a t e t h e u n i o n s . A d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f t h e C e n t u r y P l a z a d e c i s i o n 1 7 p r o v i d e s t h e most d r a m a t i c example o f an e m p l o y e r ' s use o f d e l a y s t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e u n i o n ' s a t t e m p t t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y . In C e n t u r y P l a z a t h e u n i o n s e r v e d n o t i c e t o commence b a r g a i n i n g on J u l y 2 3 , 1974 . The e m p l o y e r r e p l i e d t h a t t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n was b e i n g a p p e a l e d and made no r e f e r e n c e t o s e t t i n g a d a t e t o meet w i t h t h e u n i o n . The f i r s t m e e t i n g d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 7 5 , more t h a n s i x months a f t e r t h e o r i g i n a l n o t i c e was s e r v e d . T h i s m e e t i n g o c c u r r e d o n l y a f t e r r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s by t h e u n i o n t o a r r a n g e s u i t a b l e d a t e s and t i m e s t o m e e t , a f t e r t h r e e r e m i n d e r s f r o m t h e Boa rd o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s d u t y t o b a r g a i n and f i n a l l y a f t e r a f o r m a l Board o r d e r was i s s u e d and f i l e d w i t h t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 18 A l e s s ex t r eme example i s f o u n d i n McCoy B r o s . The u n i o n s e r v e d n o t i c e on A p r i l 1 5 , 1975 and t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o c c u r r e d September 8 , 1 9 7 5 . In t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e e m p l o y e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a busy s c h e d u l e and h i s f a i l u r e t o r e c e i v e t h e u n i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s ( f o r w a r d e d s e v e r a l months p r i o r t o t h e September m e e t i n g ) p r e v e n t e d an e a r l i e r m e e t i n g . The Boa rd i n t e r p r e t e d t h e e m p l o y e r ' s c o n d u c t as " a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a d e l i b e r a t e d e c i s i o n . . . t o d e c l i n e unde r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o e n t e r i n t o a c o l l e c t i v e agreement w i t h L o c a l 115 o r , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , t o p o s t p o n e t h e 19 e n t e r i n g i n t o o f s u c h an agreement as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . " - 91 -V i o l a t i o n s o f S e c t i o n 6 The e m p l o y e r s ' r e l u c t a n c e t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t ag reement was n o t g e n e r a l l y m a n i f e s t e d i n o r d e r s i s s u e d f o r f a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . In t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s t h e r e were o n l y f o u r a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r was f a i l i n g t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h . Two o f t h e s e a l l e g a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n f o r m a l o r d e r s i s s u e d a g a i n s t t h e e m p l o y e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g a p p e a r s low c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s t o u n i o n i z a t i o n and t h e s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o S e c t i o n 6 i n t h e f i r s t agreement p r o v i s i o n s , f o r t h e Boa rd t o c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e 20 p a r t i e s have b a r g a i n e d i n good f a i t h . However , t h e Board has o n l y i s s u e d a t o t a l o f s i x such o r d e r s o v e r t h e 1974-1979 t i m e p e r i o d . F a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h i s a d i f f i c u l t a l l e g a t i o n t o p r o v e and t h e Boa rd does no t c o n s i d e r i t a p r e c o n d i t i o n t o t h e g r a n t i n g o f 21 a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n . As i n t h e a r e a o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s , t h e Board does no t i s s u e o r d e r s i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f S e c t i o n 6 c o m p l a i n t s , p r e f e r r i n g t o s e t t l e them between t h e p a r t i e s p r i o r t o t h e i s s u a n c e o f a f o r m a l o r d e r . I n v o l v e m e n t o f M e d i a t o r s M e d i a t o r s , r e q u e s t e d by one o f t h e p a r t i e s , were i n v o l v e d a t some p o i n t i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s i n a l l b u t f o u r o f t h e c a s e s . They w e r e , howeve r , n o t a b l y u n s u c c e s s f u l i n a s s i s t i n g t h e p a r t i e s t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . The m e d i a t o r s may have r e d u c e d t h e number o f i t ems i n d i s p u t e between t h e p a r t i e s bu t i n e v e r y c a s e t h e u n i o n s a p p l i e d f o r S e c t i o n 70 a f t e r t h e m e d i a t o r s had r e p o r t e d o u t o f t h e d i s p u t e . - 92 -WORK STOPPAGES I n c i d e n c e o f S t r i k e s and L o c k o u t s The re was a t o t a l o f n i n e w o r k s t o p p a g e s i n t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s i n t h e s a m p l e , e i g h t s t r i k e s and one l o c k o u t . The i n c i d e n c e o f s t r i k e s c o r r e s p o n d e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e sample among t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . When t h e one l o c k o u t i s i n c l u d e d , t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y has a m a r g i n a l l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e o f work s t o p p a g e s . { T a b l e 2 0 ) . T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t s s i t u a t i o n s where n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t ag reements were r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t , - b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y because o f a n t i - u n i o n m o t i v a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r . The t h r e e s t r i k e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e o g r y c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e l a t i v e l y numerous g i v e n t h e m a r g i n a l i t y o f u n i o n s u p p o r t , t h e r e l a t i v e l y l ow s k i l l l e v e l s o f t h e emp loyees and t h e t enuous n a t u r e o f t h e n e w l y - i s s u e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n when t h e u n i t i s f a c e d w i t h an e m p l o y e r d e t e r m i n e d t o d e f e a t t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t a s t r i k e w o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l y , i t i s more l i k e l y t o be used as a l a s t and somewhat d e s p e r a t e measure o r i n an a t t e m p t t o a t t r a c t f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c i t y t o t h e d i s p u t e . D u r a t i o n o f Work S toppages I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t u n i o n s w in s h o r t s t r i k e s and t h e e m p l o y e r s w i t h l o n g o n e s . I t i s d u r i n g t h e l o n g s t r i k e t h a t t h e u n i o n i s most l i k e l y t o l o s e t h e a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f t h e members as t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d by f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o seek a l t e r n a t i v e employment o r as t h e y t i r e o f w a l k i n g the p i c k e t l i n e . Based upon t h i s s t a t e m e n t and the d u r a t i o n o f t h e n i n e work s t o p p a g e s , t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d d e f i n i t e l y came o u t on t h e l o s i n g s i d e . - 93 -E x c l u d i n g one c a s e , t h e work s t o p p a g e s commenced, on average , , w i t h i n t h r e e months o f t h e u n i o n s s e r v i n g n o t i c e and w i t h i n f o u r months o f the d a t e s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f t h e work s t o p p a g e s was two hundred and f i f t y - s i x c a l e n d a r days - o v e r e i g h t m o n t h s . The a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t r i k e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y was s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t f o r t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , howeve r , t h a t t h e s t r i k e s i n t h e f o r m e r c a t e g o r y c o u l d have l a s t e d much l o n g e r . These t h r e e s t r i k e s d i d n o t c o n c l u d e u n t i l a f t e r t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e B o a r d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . Impact o f Work S toppages The e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n s i n f i v e o f t h e n i n e c a s e s i n v o l v i n g work s t o p p a g e s f o r a l l , o r p a r t , o f t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e work s t o p p a g e . In one i n s t a n c e t h e e m p l o y e r s t a t e d i n a w r i t t e n b r i e f t o t h e Board t h a t t h e p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f h i s b u s i n e s s a c t u a l l y improved d u r i n g t h e s t r i k e . Two o f t h r e e e m p l o y e r s i n b o t h the GRANTED and SETTLED c a t e g o r i e s c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n s and t h e one e m p l o y e r i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n s . The s o u r c e o f l a b o u r u t i l i z e d by t h e s e f i v e e m p l o y e r s i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 2 2 . N o t a b l e i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y low i n c i d e n c e o f t h e use o f b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. One wou ld have e x p e c t e d t h e " f i f t h c o l u m n " t o be a t work d u r i n g a work s t o p p a g e , t h i s d i d no t o c c u r however i n many c a s e s . In summary i t w o u l d appea r t h a t the s t r i k e was no t a u s e f u l t o o l f o r t h e s e u n i o n s t o use i n c o n c l u d i n g a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e u n i o n was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h d e t e r m i n e d r e s i s t a n c e f r om t h e e m p l o y e r . - 94 -TABLE 19 ELAPSED TIME FROM NOTICE TO BARGAIN TO CONCLUSION OF WORK STOPPAGE Date of Notice to Bargain J u l y 19, 1973 June 20, 1973 J u l y 26, 1974 Jan. 23, 1975 Feb. 7, 1975 May 24, 1974 Aug. 1973 A p r i l 30, 1975 Dec. 3, 1974 A p r i l 30, 1973 Aug. 14, 1974 March 7, 1975 Sept. 12, 1974 Dec. 18, 1973 Aug. 10, 1973 J u l y 23, 1974 June 4, 1974 Oct. 26, 1973 Jan. 30, 1975 Date o f F i r s t Meeting Aug. 1, 1973 June 26, 1973 Jan. 28, 1975 June 7, 1973 Jan. 30, 1975 A p r i l 16, 1975 June 24, 1974 Aug. 1973 Sept. 8, 1975 Jan. 17, 1975 J u l y 23, 1973 Sept. 22, 1974 A p r i l 14, 1975 Oct. 1, 1974 Feb. 27, 1974 Aug. 17, 1973 Aug. 2, 1974 Aug. 7, 1974 Nov. 29, 1973 Feb 14, 1975 S t a r t o f Work Stoppage Sept. 16, 1973 J u l y 24, 1973 June 17, 1975 Aug. 27, 1973 Sept. 23, 1976 May 27, 1975 May 17, 1975 J u l y 30, 1974 Dec. 18, 1973 Conclusion of Work Stoppage A p r i l 24, 1974* Aug. 24, 1974* Oct. 7, 1975* A p r i l 21, 1974* A p r i l 1, 1977* Jan. 19, 1976* June 12, 1975 Feb. 7, 1975* May 15, 1974* (no work stoppages occurred in these cases) *In these cases the co n c l u s i o n of the work stoppage c o i n c i d e d with e i t h e r the Board's d e c i s i o n on the Sec t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n , or with the settlement of the a p p l i c a t i o n . Dates of e i t h e r n o t i c e to bargain or f i r s t meeting were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r ten cases. - 95 -TABLE 20 INCIDENCE OF WORK STOPPAGES No. o f No. o f P e r c e n t a g e s t r i k e s l o c k o u t s o f c a t e g o r y g r a n t e d 3 0 25% d e n i e d 1 0 20% s e t t l e d 4 1 45% T o t a l . . 8 1 32% TABLE 21 DURATION OF WORK STOPPAGES No. o f No. o f c a s e s i n each c a t e g o r y days g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d t o t a l 1-50 - -51-100 - -101-150 1 - 1 2 151-200 - - 1 1 201-250 1 - 3 4 251-300 - -301-350 - -351-400 1 - - 1 > 4 0 0 - 1 - 1 T o t a l 3 1 5 9 Ave rage 249 450 220 256 f o r c a s e s TABLE 22 SOURCE OF LABOUR DURING WORK STOPPAGES N o n - B a r g a i n i n g U n i t Employees 3 B a r g a i n i n g U n i t Members 1 Employees h i r e d as Rep l a cemen t s , 0 O t h e r 1 - 96 -SUMMARY In c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED, t h e e m p l o y e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n by c o m m i t t i n g u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and by a p p e a l i n g t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . The o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e e m p l o y e r s d i d no t c e a s e once t h e i r a p p e a l s were d e n i e d . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i n c r e a s e d . The h i g h number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a c t i o n s had upon s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n s . The a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e SETTLED and GRANTED c a s e s d i d n o t r e f l e c t a h i g h deg ree o f o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n . In a l l c a s e s , n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements were d i f f i c u l t and p r o t r a c t e d ; t h e e m p l o y e r s a p p e a r e d t o d e l i b e r a t e l y d e l a y t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s . Boa rd r u l i n g s o f f a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h d i d n o t , howeve r , have a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e c a s e s . - 97 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER VI 1. L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1980 T a b l e s 2 and 4 . 2 . L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 9 , T a b l e 4 . 3 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #53/1976. 4 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #3/1975. 5. K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #53/1976. 6 . S e c t i o n 8 ( 4 ) ( e ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 7. L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n s #122/1974, #149/1974, #155/1974 , #68/1975 , #63/1976 and #9/1977. 8 . Domin ion D i r e c t o r y , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #63/1976. 9 . McCoy B r o s . , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #9/1977. 10 . I b i d . 1 1 . L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n s #101/1974, #105/1974, #122/1974, #68/1975 and #32/1976. 1 2 . Day ton T i r e , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #101/1974. 1 3 . M e d i e v a l I n n s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #122/1974. 14 . S e c t i o n 6 , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 5 . S e c t i o n 7 1 ( a ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 6 . S e c t i o n 6 3 , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 7 . C e n t u r y P l a z a , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #68/1975. 18 . McCoy B r o s . , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #9/1977. 1 9 . I b i d . 2 0 . S e c t i o n s 6 and 7 1 ( a ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 2 1 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974. - 98 -CHAPTER V I I - RESULTS. INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . F i r s t l y , t h e outcomes o f t h e c a s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d , i . e . , what happened a f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s were GRANTED, DENIED o r SETTLED? In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r t h e s e outcomes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l and r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r . S e c o n d l y , s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements a r e r e v i e w e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a summary o f t h e j u r i s p r u d e n c e d e v e l o p e d by the Boa rd i n a p p l y i n g t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e s e c a s e s . OUTCOMES The outcomes o f the c a s e s a r e f i r s t o f a l l p r e s e n t e d i n t e rms o f t h e number o f f i r s t , s e cond and s u b s e q u e n t ag reements a c h i e v e d by t h e p a r t i e s . As t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g becomes more e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h each agreement n e g o t i a t e d between t h e p a r t i e s , t h e number o f s econd and t h i r d ag reements i s a u s e f u l measure o f t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r t h e c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y , n e g o t i a t i o n o f a s e cond a g r e e m e n t , i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e B o a r d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e f i r s t ag reements n e g o t i a t e d i n o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . The outcomes a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n t e rms o f t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t he c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n each c a s e . T h i s i s a s econd method used t o a s s e s s t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F i r s t Agreements T a b l e 23 o u t l i n e s t h e number o f f i r s t ag reements a c h i e v e d by the sample as a who le and by t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . In t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t - 99 -c a s e s , t h e r e were f o u r i n s t a n c e s where a f i r s t agreement was n o t a c h i e v e d . E l e v e n f i r s t ag r eemen t s were a r b i t r a t e d by t h e B o a r d , and t h i r t e e n n e g o t i a t e d by t h e u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were DENIED o r SETTLED. In t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y t h e r e were two i n s t a n c e s where f i r s t ag reements were no t a c h i e v e d . On t h e w h o l e , t h e u n i o n s i n the SETTLED c a t e g o r y were s u c c e s s f u l i n c o n c l u d i n g f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s , t h e r e b e i n g o n l y one i n s t a n c e where a f i r s t agreement was n o t r e a c h e d . The one i n s t a n c e i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y where a f i r s t agreement was no t c o n c l u d e d i s t h e K i d d B r o t h e r s ' c a s e . 1 Second and Subsequen t Agreements Of t h e t w e n t y - f o u r c a s e s where f i r s t ag reements were a c h i e v e d , s e cond ag reements were a c h i e v e d i n f i f t e e n i n s t a n c e s , and more t h a n two ag reements were a c h i e v e d i n s i x i n s t a n c e s . S i x o f t he n i n e c a s e s where o n l y a f i r s t ag reement was a c h i e v e d were i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . When t h e one-yea r agreement a r b i t r a t e d by t h e Boa rd e x p i r e d , t h e p a r t i e s were a b l e t o c o n c l u d e a s e c o n d agreement i n o n l y f i v e o f t h e s e c a s e s . A t h i r d agreement was a c h i e v e d i n o n l y one GRANTED c a s e . In a s e cond GRANTED c a s e t h e t h i r d ag reement was unde r n e g o t i a t i o n a t t h e t i m e t h e d a t a were g a t h e r e d and t h e Boa rd as o f t h e end o f 1981 d i d no t r e c o r d a t h i r d a g r e e m e n t . T h i s c a s e i s t h e r e f o r e t r e a t e d as h a v i n g two a g r e e m e n t s , n o t t h r e e . These d a t a a r e summar ized i n T a b l e 2 6 . As o f December 3 1 , 1981 t h r e e o f t h e e l e v e n b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y were c o v e r e d by e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . An agreement was unde r n e g o t i a t i o n i n a f o u r t h c a s e . The SETTLED c a t e g o r y c l e a r l y shows t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y o f what c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . - 100 -In f o u r o f t h e e l e v e n c a s e s two agreements have been n e g o t i a t e d between t h e p a r t i e s , and i n a n o t h e r f o u r c a s e s , more t han two ag reements have been n e g o t i a t e d . - 101 -TABLE 23 NUMBER OF FIRST AGREEMENTS C a t e g o r y g r a n t e d . d e n i e d s e t t l e d No. o f Cases No . o f ag reements T o t a l 12 5 11 28 1 1 * 3 10 24 * In one o f t h e c a s e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was a c t u a l l y d e n i e d . No agreement was c o n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a s e . TABLE 24 TOTAL NUMBER OF AGREEMENTS No agreement F i r s t agreement o n l y F i r s t and s e c o n d ag reement More t h a n two agreements T o t a l No. o f c a s e s 4 9 6 28 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l 14* 32 32 21 99% * T h i s i n c l u d e s two c a s e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f an agreement b e i n g c o n c l u d e d between t h e p a r t i e s . - 102 -S t a t u s o f t h e C e r t i f i c a t i o n The s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s was d e f i n e d as d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , dormant c e r t i f i c a t i o n o r a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . T a b l e 25 p r e s e n t s t h e d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s and T a b l e 26 p r e s e n t s a combined p i c t u r e o f t h e number o f ag reements and the s t a t u s o f each c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In n i n e c a s e s t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d were s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c e r t i f i e d . In one a d d i t i o n a l c a s e , no t c o u n t e d as a d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t he u n i o n was d e c e r t i f i e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c e r t i f i e d . S i x o f t h e n i n e d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s were i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y ; f i v e o f t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e o n l y agreement a c h i e v e d was t h a t imposed 2 by t h e Boa rd and t h e s i x t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e K i d d B r o t h e r s ' c a s e . The re was one d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y and t h e r e m a i n i n g two were i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y . The f i v e c a s e s where t h e s t a t u s was d e f i n e d as dormant a r e t h o s e where t h e r e e i t h e r has been no c o l l e c t i v e agreement and t h e u n i o n has n o t been d e c e r t i f i e d (two c a s e s ) o r where t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement e x p i r e d more t h a n t w e l v e months a g o , a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t i s no t i n p r o g r e s s and t h e u n i o n s t i l l r e t a i n s i t s c e r t i f i c a t i o n ( t h r e e c a s e s ) . The a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a r e t h o s e where c o l l e c t i v e ag reements a r e i n e f f e c t o r c u r r e n t l y unde r n e g o t i a t i o n . As o f December 1 9 8 1 , t h e r e a r e e l e v e n c a s e s , t h i r t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f t he s a m p l e , where the c e r t i f i c a t i i s a c t i v e . F o u r o f t h e s e c a s e s a r e i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y , two i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y and t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y . When e x a m i n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i t i s a g a i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e h i g h e s t deg r ee o f d u r a b i l i t y i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . - 103 -A l t h o u g h t h e i n d i c a t i o n s a r e p o s i t i v e , i . e . t h e p a r t i e s have c o n c l u d e d a second a g r e e m e n t , i t i s t o o e a r l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f t h r e e o f t h e f o u r a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . The H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' Un ion and Sandman Inns a t t h r e e l o c a t i o n s have j u s t r e c e n t l y c o n c l u d e d the s e cond agreements f o l l o w i n g an e i g h t - m o n t h s t r i k e , a h o t c a r g o d e c l a r a t i o n and p r o v i n c i a l b o y c o t t o f a l l o f t h e e m p l o y e r ' s l o c a t i o n s d i r e c t e d by t h e B .C . F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r . The u n i o n s t i l l f a c e s r e s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r , bu t has been a b l e t o r e t a i n s u p p o r t i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . The c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a l l o c a t e d t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f " o t h e r " i n c l u d e two i n s t a n c e s where t h e e m p l o y e r suspended o p e r a t i o n s and one c a s e where t h e e m p l o y e r i s i n r e c e i v e r s h i p . In summary t h e outcomes i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e s " e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e Boa rd i n the GRANTED c a s e s d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n McCoy B r o s . , and i t may t a k e r o o t i n the t h r e e Sandman Inn c a s e s . In c o n t r a s t , a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s . - 104 -TABLE 25 STATUS OF CERTIFICATIONS P e r c e n t No . o f Cases o f T o t a l D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s Dormant c e r t i f i c a t i o n s A c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s O t h e r T o t a l 9 5 11 3 28 32 18 39 11 100 - 105 -TABLE 26 COMBINED OUTCOMES BY CATEGORY C a t e g o r y DENIED Emp loye r # o f Agreements S t a t u s o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n GRANTED SETTLED Bond B r o t h e r s 0 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n Day ton T i r e s 0 dormant Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g 1 o t h e r Koo tenay H o t e l 2 a c t i v e G r andv i ew I n d u s t r i e s > 2 a c t i v e K i d d B r o t h e r s 0 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n London Drugs 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n V i c t r o R e g i s t r y 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n M & H M a c h i n e r y 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n Domin ion D i r e c t o r y 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n P a r t a I n d u s t r i e s 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n Sandman Inn - Ke lowna - Reve l s t o k e - C r a n b r o o k 2 2 2 a c t i v e a c t i v e a c t i v e McCoy B r o s . 2 a c t i v e M e d i e v a l Inns > 2 o t h e r C e n t u r y P l a z a 1 dormant M e t r o Bus P i c k Up 0 dormant Adanac Lumber 1 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n B u r r o u g h s B u s i n e s s Mach ines 1 dormant Domin ion C h a i n 2 d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n U n i t e d Food 2 dormant Cannery R e s t a u r a n t 2 a c t i v e M e x i c a n a M o t o r Inn 2 o t h e r Ke lowna C o u r i e r > 2 a c t i v e C h i l d r e n s 1 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . ^ A s s o c i a t i o n a c t i v e M a r p o l e C l e a n e r s > 2 a c t i v e Chev ron > 2 a c t i v e - 106 -PROVISIONS IN FIRST AGREEMENTS A t o t a l o f seventeen f i r s t agreements were reviewed. F i r s t agreements were not concluded i n f o u r cases and the remaining seven agreements were not a v a i l a b l e as copies had not been f i l e d with e i t h e r the M i n i s t r y of Labour or the Board. In the London Drugs case the Board o u t l i n e d the g u i d e l i n e s which would be used to formulate the p r o v i s i o n s of an agreement imposed under 3 S e c t i o n 70. S e c t i o n 71 a l s o provides some general guidance, d i r e c t i n g the Board to consider the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of employment negotiated through c o l l e c t i v e b a r gaining f o r comparable employees performing the same or s i m i l a r work i n s i m i l a r circumstances. S e c t i o n 70 would not provide major breakthroughs i n c o n t r a c t p r o v i s i o n s , but the Board recognized that they had to be s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e to employees so they would think twice about applying f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The Board would attempt to achieve the c r i t i c a l balance necessary i n any form of i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n , namely something the p a r t i e s could l i v e with, but would attempt to do t h i s under the d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n where one p a r t y , the employer, was determined t h a t no s o l u t i o n which i n v o l v e d union r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would be s u i t a b l e . In a l l the S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s which were GRANTED the Board r e l i e d on M e d i a t i o n / A r b i t r a t i o n to a r r i v e a t the p r o v i s i o n s o f the f i r s t agreement. Generally the Board's approach was to advise the p a r t i e s t hat the a p p l i c a t i o n was going to be granted, d i r e c t them to commence bargaining i n good f a i t h under the guidance of a Board member, and then a r b i t r a t e the items which remained outstanding a f t e r a s p e c i f i f e d p e r i o d of time. - 107 -The p r o v i s i o n s f e l t t o be most i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e f i r s t ag reements were t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h u n i o n s e c u r i t y , j o b s e c u r i t y and wages . A d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n o f the wage p r o v i s i o n s i s beyond the s cope o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e o t h e r two • a r e a s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . U n i o n S e c u r i t y C l a u s e s The Un ion s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t because o f t h e i r r o l e i n a s s i s t i n g t h e u n i o n i n m a i n t a i n i n g o r e x t e n d i n g m e m b e r s h i p , i n c o l l e c t i n g d u e s , p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o emp loyees a t w o r k , e t c . In an e n v i r o n m e n t where t h e e m p l o y e r c o n t r o l s the h i r i n g p r o c e s s , i f t h e r e a r e no r e q u i r e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e u n i o n membersh ip o f new e m p l o y e e s , a s m a l l b a r g a i n i n g u n i t may f i n d i t s m a j o r i t y membersh ip unde rm ined q u i c k l y t h r o u g h t u r n o v e r . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t c o n t i n u e d employment i s t i e d t o u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p , howeve r , t h e u n i o n has a l e v e r o v e r t h e emp loyees by wh i ch t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t i t can i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g s t r i k e s . The B o a r d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f u n i o n membersh ip i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a m o d i f i e d u n i o n shop i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f GRANTED . c a s e s , and by a u n i o n shop i n two s i t u a t i o n s . The u n i o n s i n v o l v e d wou ld n o t have been a b l e t o s e c u r e t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y b e n e f i c i a l membersh ip p r o v i s i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t he B o a r d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . In a m o d i f i e d u n i o n shop p r e s e n t emp loyees who a r e n o t u n i o n members a r e a l l o w e d t o r e f r a i n f r om j o i n i n g t h e u n i o n , b u t a l l new employees a r e r e q u i r e d t o j o i n w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d . T h i s " g r a n d f a t h e r i n g " o f p r e s e n t non-members i s one example o f t h e b a l a n c e and a c c e p t a b i l i t y s o u g h t by t h e Boa rd , i n agreements imposed unde r S e c t i o n 7 0 . I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t d i s s i d e n t non-members wou ld a c c e p t a p r o v i s i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e i r ; m e m b e r s h i p . I n s t e a d o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g a b e n e f i t f r o m u n i o n i z a t i o n , t o t h e s e - 108 -e m p l o y e e s , a r e q u i r e m e n t such as t h i s w o u l d a c h i e v e t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . A l l o f t h e agreements imposed unde r S e c t i o n 70 c o n t a i n e d a p r o v i s i o n 5 f o r c o m p u l s o r y c h e c k - o f f o f u n i o n d u e s . An example r e l a t e d t o payment o f dues i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o i n t made above c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f non-members t o a c c e p t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the c o l l e c t i v e ag r eemen t . In one c a s e t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s r e f u s e d t o s i g n a u t h o r i z a t i o n s f o r c h e c k - o f f s as r e q u i r e d i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . They c o n t i n u e d t o r e f u s e t o do so even a f t e r t h e Boa rd o r d e r e d i t and t h e u n i o n e v e n t u a l l y t o o k the i s s u e t o s m a l l d e b t s c o u r t . A l l o f t h e ag reements a l s o c o n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t r e c o g n i z i n g t h e u n i o n as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e employees and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e agreements c o n t a i n e d s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s r e c o g n i z i n g t h e r i g h t s o f shop s t e w a r d s . E i g h t o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 ag reements c o n t a i n e d a p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c c e s s t o the p r e m i s e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o n d u c t i n g u n i o n . b u s i n e s s . In a l l i n s t a n c e s , howeve r , t h i s a c c e s s was r e s t r i c t e d , most f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e seek a u t h o r i z a t i o n f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r upon h i s a r r i v a l . They a l s o s t a t e d t h a t such a p p r o v a l c o u l d no t be u n r e a s o n a b l y w i t h h e l d . The number o f ag reements r e v i e w e d i n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s was t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t c o m p a r i s o n t o t h o s e imposed unde r S e c t i o n 7 0 . G e n e r a l l y t h e p r o v i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n s e c u r i t y a r e s i m i l a r . The u n i o n member-s h i p p r o v i s i o n s a r e s l i g h t l y more v a r i e d . In summary t h e Board a p p e a r e d t o f o l l o w i t s g u i d e l i n e s and pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c a s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the u n i o n s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s . A few somewhat unusua l p r o v i s i o n s r e f l e c t some o f t h e u n i q u e - 109 -c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e s e c a s e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e was t h e p r o v i s i o n f o u n d i n f i v e ag reements t h a t t h e wage r a t e s s p e c i f i e d i n the agreement were minimums and d i d n o t p r o h i b i t payment o f h i g h e r r a t e s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r . A c l a u s e such as t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a u n i o n w i t h m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t t o c o n t e s t , howeve r , i t l e a v e s a h i g h deg ree o f d i s c r e t i o n w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r t o pay more f a v o u r a b l e r a t e s i n o r d e r t o r e i n f o r c e a n t i - u n i o n / p r o - m a n a g e m e n t s e n t i m e n t s . In one i n s t a n c e t h e r e was a p r o v i s i o n , t h i s t i m e f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e u n i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r was r e q u i r e d t o o f f e r employment t o t h o s e employed on t h e d a t e o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r i o r t o h i r i n g o t h e r e m p l o y e e s . T h i s c l a u s e w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t where d u r i n g a l e n g t h y s t r i k e , u n i o n members had f o u n d a l t e r n a t i v e employment o r i n s i t u a t i o n s where p r o - u n i o n employees had r e s i g n e d because o f p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e e m p l o y e r . The f i n a l r a t h e r u n u s u a l p r o v i s i o n s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e u n i o n w o u l d n o t deny membersh ip t o any p r e s e n t e m p l o y e e . T h i s p r o v i s i o n was c o n t a i n e d i n f i v e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t s . I t s i m p o r t a n c e can e a s i l y be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e two c a s e s i n v o l v i n g u n i o n shop membersh ip p r o v i s i o n s . U n l e s s t h e e m p l o y e e s , who pe rhaps opposed t h e u n i o n , were a b l e t o become members , t h e i r c o n t i n u e d employment w o u l d be i n j e o p a r d y . In t h e o t h e r t h r e e i n s t a n c e s i t may be t h a t t h i s c l a u s e was i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n t o t h e u n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r d u t y t o f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a l l emp loyees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . - 110 -TABLE 27 UNION SECURITY CLAUSES P r o v i s i o n Un ion M e m b e r s h i p : - c l o s e d shop - u n i o n shop - m o d i f i e d u n i o n shop - r and f o r m u l a - o t h e r - no p r o v i s i o n No. i n each C a t e g o r y g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d 2 2 1 6 1 1 1 Dues C h e c k - O f f : * - v o l u n t a r y l - c o m p u l s o r y , a l l emp loyees members 2 1 2 - c o m p u l s o r y , no t a l l members 7 - -- c o m p u l s o r y , membersh ip no t s p e c i f i e d l R i g h t t o Re fuse t o C r o s s P i c k e t L i n e s , e t c : - no p r o v i s i o n 3 1 2 - r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o c r o s s p i c k e t l i n e 6 - 2 - r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o h a n d l e ho t c a r g o -- o t h e r -U n i o n A c c e s s t o P r e m i s e s : - no p r o v i s i o n 1 - 1 - a c c e s s w i t h some r e s t r i c t i o n s 8 1 2 - u n l i m i t e d a c c e s s - - 1 - o t h e r -* In 1 9 7 9 , an amendment t o t h e Code made i t an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e f o r an e m p l o y e r t o r e f u s e t o ag r ee t o a dues c h e c k - o f f f o r a l l employees i n t h e u n i t . S e c t i o n 3 ( 3 ) ( e ) , L abou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . - I l l -Job S e c u r i t y P r o v i s i o n s One o f t h e u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t s o f u n i o n i z a t i o n t o the emp loyees i n v o l v e d i s i n c r e a s e d j o b s e c u r i t y . The g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s a r e pe rhaps t h e most e f f e c t i v e g u a r a n t e e s o f j o b s e c u r i t y , p r o v i d i n g an avenue f o r c h a l l e n g i n g s u s p e n s i o n s , d i s m i s s a l s , t h e o r d e r o f l a y o f f s and o t h e r d e c i s i o n s made by management. As a l l c o l l e c t i v e ag reements i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n t a i n g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s were no t r e v i e w e d . A l t h o u g h n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y , i t wou ld p r o b a b l y be i n f o r m a t i v e t o examine t h e f r e q u e n c y and t y p e o f g r i e v a n c e s and a r b i t r a t i o n s ( i f any ) o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t c o n c e r n i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r s o f t h e p a r t i e s d u r i n g t h e t e r m o f t h a t ag r eemen t . The j o b s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s a n a l y s e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 8 . Seven o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 agreements c o n t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on c o n t r a c t i n g o u t ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e agreements a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h e r o l e o f s e n i o r i t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e o r d e r o f l a y o f f . S e n i o r i t y does no t have as p r e d o m i n a n t o f a r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g p r o m o t i o n s , . h o w e v e r , f i v e o f t he agreements c o n t a i n e d no r e l a t e d p r o v i s i o n . Fou r o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 ag reements c o n t a i n a p r o v i s i o n p l a c i n g some r e s t r i c t i o n upon the use o f p a r t - t i m e w o r k e r s a n d / o r t r a i n e e s . The j o b s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s a p p e a r t o be f a i r l y s t a n d a r d . A f i n a l comment i n t h i s s e c t i o n on p r o v i s i o n s i n f i r s t ag reements i s n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e p l a y e d by Un ion demands f o r s t a n d a r d c o n t r a c t s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . S t a n d a r d agreements a r e u t i l i z e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s by f o u r o f t he u n i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a p o s s i b l e s i x t e e n o f t h e t w e n t y -e i g h t c a s e s . In one o f t h e e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s on a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n t h e Board c i t e s the demand f o r a s t a n d a r d agreement as a - 112 -p o t e n t i a l s t u m b l i n g b l o c k t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . When i n t e r v i e w e d , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f one o f t h e u n i o n s i n v o l v e d s t a t e d t h a t i n t h e S e c t i o n 70 t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n , t h i s demand wou ld be m o d i f i e d , a s u b - s t a n d a r d agreement f o r a o n e - y e a r d u r a t i o n b e i n g p r e f e r a b l e t o no agreement o r t o a S e c t i o n 70 agreement a r b i t r a t e d by t h e B o a r d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e demand f o r a s t a n d a r d agreement was no t a p r e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e i n t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s . I t may have p l a y e d somewhat o f a r o l e i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were DENIED o r SETTLED, b u t t h e e x t e n t i s no t known. - 113 -TABLE 28 JOB SECURITY CLAUSES No. i n each C a t e g o r y P r o v i s i o n g r a n t e d d e n i e d s e t t l e d C o n t r a c t i n g O u t : - no p r o v i s i o n 2 1 2 - r e s t r i c t e d i n some f a s h i o n 3 - 1 - p r o h i b i t e d e n t i r e l y 4 - 1 S e n i o r i t y D e t e r m i n i n g P r o m o t i o n : - no p r o v i s i o n 5 - gove rns where q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t 3 - gove rns where q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e e q u a l 1 1 - t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s - o t h e r S e n i o r i t y D e t e r m i n i n g L a y o f f : - no p r o v i s i o n - -- s t r a i g h t s e n i o r i t y 2 -- gove rns where q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t 4 - 2 - gove rns where q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a r e equa l 1 1 1 - t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s 2 - -- o t h e r - - 1 L i m i t a t i o n on P a r t - T i m e W o r k e r s , T r a i n e e s , e t c : - no p r o v i s i o n 5 - 2 - p r o v i s i o n 4 1 2 - 114 -JURISPRUDENCE In a p p l y i n g t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t agreement t h e Boa rd has d e v e l o p e d j u r i s p r u d e n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) c r i t e r i a f o r g r a n t i n g S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s ; (2) p r o c e s s i n g o f an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n when a S e c t i o n 70 ag reement i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t ; a n d , (3 ) t h e l i m i t s imposed on t h e t e r m o f t h e agreement by S e c t i o n 7 2 . ^ T h i s j u r i s p r u d e n c e p r o v i d e s g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e Boa rd w i l l d e a l w i t h f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s and i t p r o v i d e s a r e f e r e n c e f o r use by Labou r R e l a t i o n s Boa rds i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The j u r i s p r u d e n c e i n each o f t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s c o n c l u d e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . C r i t e r i a In d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o g r a n t a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n and impose a f i r s t agreement t h e Boa rd has c o n s i s t e n t l y examined t h e " e n t i r e p a t t e r n o f c o n d u c t " 7 o f t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . The c o n d u c t w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s t h a t w h i c h " d e m o n s t r a t e s a s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o f r u s t r a t e t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and u l t i m a t e l y , Q t h e u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . " When i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s t h e Boa rd has s o u g h t t o i d e n t i f y t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a n t i - u n i o n m o t i v a t i o n . I f t h i s m o t i v a t i o n has been p r e s e n t , and i f i t has had t h e i m p a c t o f u n d e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n , t h e Boa rd w i l l n o r m a l l y g r a n t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . The a c t i o n s w h i c h w i l l most c l e a r l y r e s u l t i n t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 agreement a r e r e p e a t e d u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . - 115 -S e c t i o n 71 ( a ) d i r e c t s t h e Boa rd t o c o n s i d e r the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s have b a r g a i n e d i n good f a i t h i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t g t o g r a n t t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n . W h i l e t h e Board has c o n s i d e r e d t h e e x t e n t o f good f a i t h b a r g a i n i n g i n i t s d e c i s i o n s , t h e y have n o t p l a c e d a heavy r e l i a n c e upon i t . In t h e London Drugs d e c i s i o n t h e Boa rd s t a t e d t h a t "where t h e r e i s a breakdown o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g due t o bad f a i t h b a r g a i n i n g o f one p a r t y . . . a f i r s t agreement w i l l n o r m a l l y be imposed i f o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s e c t i o n a r e s a t i s f i e d . 1 0 In t h e same d e c i s i o n t h e Board s a i d t h a t t h e absence o f a f i n d i n g o f f a i l u r e t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h wou ld no t be a b a r t o i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . As i n d i c a t e d by t h e d a t a , t h e Boa rd r a r e l y made a s p e c i f i c r u l i n g i n t h e c a s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e good f a i t h b a r g a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t . In a p p l y i n g S e c t i o n 7 1 ( a ) 1 1 t h e Boa rd i s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e b a r g a i n i n g b e h a v i o u r o f t h e p a r t i e s i n l i g h t o f a l l o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e s . The Boa rd has a l s o d e s c r i b e d when a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be 12 d e n i e d . In t h e G r andv i ew I n d u s t r i e s c a s e t h e Boa rd s t a t e d t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b a r g a i n i n g impasse a n d / o r a l e n g t h y s t r i k e a r e n o t c r i t e r i a w h i c h w i l l j u s t i f y t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t . N e i t h e r i s t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c h a r a c t e r o f t h e d i s p u t e a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . In V a n c o u v e r . I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g t h e Boa rd d i s c u s s e d i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n where t h e e m p l o y e r c o m m i t t e d one o r two u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s b u t the p a t t e r n o f c o n d u c t d i d n o t appea r t o i n d i c a t e t h e e m p l o y e r was m o t i v a t e d by a n t i - u n i o n s e n t i m e n t s . " I t i s n o t enough i n a S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t an e m p l o y e r o r u n i o n d i d ' s o m e t h i n g ' (even an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e ) t h a t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h 13 e n l i g h t e n e d b a r g a i n i n g . " An u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d e m p l o y e r , unaware o f the - 116 -o b l i g a t i o n s unde r t h e Code w i l l no t have a S e c t i o n 70 agreement imposed because o f e a r l i e r u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s i f s u b s e q u e n t l y t h e y have a t t e m p t e d t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h w i t h the u n i o n . A g a i n the Boa rd examined t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f t h e d i s p u t e . The Board does n o t i n a l l c a s e s f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o make t h e i r award based upon t h e above c r i t e r i a a l o n e . In two c a s e s , when the h i s t o r i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s wou ld have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 agreement wou ld have been t h e p r e d i c t a b l e o u t c o m e , the Boa rd chose o t h e r avenues t o r e s o l v e t h e d i s p u t e s . These avenues were c o n s i s t e n t , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , w i t h t h e w i d e r i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s r e a l i t i e s o f t h e d i s p u t e s . One c a s e , K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P roduce has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . In t h i s c a s e t h e Board r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g w o u l d n o t be f a c i l i t a t e d by i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t . The Boa rd e l e c t e d 14 i n s t e a d t o i s s u e a make who le o r d e r . In t h e second c a s e , McCoy B r o s . , t h e Boa rd s t o p p e d one s t e p s h o r t 15 o f g r a n t i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . In t h i s c a s e , an e m p l o y e e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , fo rmed by emp loyees opposed t o t h e u n i o n s ' c e r t i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the u n i o n ' s a t t e m p t s t o n e g o t i a t e a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . The a s s o c i a t i o n was a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e e m p l o y e r and was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f emp loyees t o f i l e an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The Boa rd d e t e r m i n e d t h a t " t h e emp loyees have no t l o s t s i g h t o f t h e i r e a r l i e r g o a l o f c o l l e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h a t t h e e r o s i o n o f L o c a l 1 1 5 ' s s u p p o r t , c a u s e d by e m p l o y e r m i s c o n d u c t , w i l l be c o r r e c t e d by 16 t h e remova l o f t h e a s s o c a t i o n as a f a c t o r . " The Boa rd d e c i d e d t o r e m a i n s e i z e d o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , h o p i n g t h a t w i t h the remova l o f t h e a s s o c a t i o n t h e p a r t i e s w o u l d be a b l e t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e . They were n o t a b l e t o do t h i s , howeve r , and t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was s u b s e q u e n t l y g r a n t e d . - 117 -A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n In two cases, London Drugs and Dominion D i r e c t o r y , 1 ^ the Board was re q u i r e d to deal with a p p l i c a t i o n s from the employees f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n made when the Sect i o n 70 agreements were s t i l l i n e f f e c t . In both cases the a p p l i c a t i o n s were timely and were apparently supported by a m a j o r i t y 18 of the employees. Under Section 52 the Board i s given the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power to grant a d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n . In both of these cases the Board e x e r c i s e d i t s d i s c r e t i o n and denied the a p p l i c a t i o n s . In Dominion D i r e c t o r y the Board s t a t e d that there was no absolute r i g h t to d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n : Where the s t a t u t o r y requirements regarding timing and m a j o r i t y are concerned, the Board must e x e r c i s e i t s judgement i n l i g h t o f a l l the r e l e v a n t circumstances o f the case. I t i s incumbent upon the Board to s a t i s f y i t s e l f t h at the employer had no part i n encouraging among the employees a b e l i e f that d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s the answer to t h e i r f e e l i n g s and f r u s t r a t i o n s . 1 9 . I f the Board cannot s a t i s f y i t s e l f o f the employer's non-involvement the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be denied. In Se c t i o n 70 cases which have been granted i t i s obvious t h a t , because of the employer's past behaviour, the Board i s going to have considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n r e s o l v i n g doubt concerning the employer's non-involvement. Term o f the Sect i o n 70 Agreement 20 Section 70 s p e c i f i e s that an agreement imposed under the Section 70 p r o v i s i o n s i s f o r a one-year d u r a t i o n . In the London Drugs case the Board had to c o n s i d e r the a p p l i c a t i o n o f Se c t i o n 72 r e l a t e d t o the co n t i n u a t i o n clause i n the Sect i o n 70 agreement. Previous reference was made to the Board's r u l i n g i n t h i s t h a t the one-year l i m i t s p e c i f i e d i n 21 S e c t i o n 72 o v e r r u l e d the c o n t i n u a t i o n c l a u s e . - 118 -SUMMARY In summary t h e Boa rd has t a k e n a f l e x i b l e , i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , as opposed t o l e g a l i s t i c , a p p r o a c h i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o g r a n t S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g d u r i n g t h e t e rms o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t s . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s one w h i c h t h e Board f e e l s w i l l b e s t a c h i e v e t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t he Code and t h e more s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . - 119 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V I I 1. K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . , D e c i s i o n #3/1975 . • 2 . I b i d . 3 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974 . 4 . S e c t i o n 7 1 , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 5 . P r o v i s i o n s f o r c o m p u l s o r y c h e c k - o f f o f dues a r e now p r o v i d e d i n t h e Code . S e c t i o n 3 ( 3 ) ( e ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 6 . S e c t i o n 7 2 , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 7. London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974 and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d  P u b l i s h i n g , L . R . B . B . C . , D e c i s i o n #35/1976 . 8 . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #36/1976 . 9 . S e c t i o n 7 1 ( a ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 0 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974 . 1 1 . S e c t i o n 7 1 ( a ) , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 2 . G r a n d v i e w I n d u s t r i e s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974 . 1 3 . V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #32/1976 . 1 4 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #3/1975 . 1 5 . McCoy B r o s . , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #9/1977 . 1 6 . I b i d . 1 7 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974 and D o m i n i o n D i r e c t o r y . L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #63/1976 . 1 8 . S e c t i o n 5 2 , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 9 . D o m i n i o n D i r e c t o r y , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #63/1974 . 2 0 . S e c t i o n 7 2 , L a b o u r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . 2 1 . London D r u g s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #30/1974. - 120 -CHAPTER V I I I - DISCUSSION INTRODUCTION D u r i n g the 1974-1979 t i m e p e r i o d t h e Boa rd d e a l t w i t h a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - e i g h t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The B o a r d , t h r o u g h i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n s , was a b l e t o a c h i e v e v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t s i n e l e v e n o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s ; f o r m a l o r d e r s were i s s u e d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n t e e n c a s e s . As o f December 3 1 , 1 9 8 1 , e l e v e n o f the t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s had c e r t i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h were a c t i v e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e e l e v e n agreements imposed by t h e Boa rd i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED, t h e p a r t i e s had v o l u n t a r i l y c o n c l u d e d a t l e a s t t h i r t y c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h t h e s e p a r t i e s f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s b e f o r e t h e B o a r d , t o what e x t e n t can i t be s a i d t h a t t h e s e outcomes i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s has been e f f e c t i v e ? Have t h e p r o v i s i o n s had d i f f e r i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s i n each o f the r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , GRANTED, SETTLED, and DENIED? To a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t h e outcomes a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l and t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a r e r e - e x a m i n e d . OUTCOMES P r o p e n s i t y t o Remain U n i o n i z e d As m e n t i o n e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , B a i n i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h were l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o p e n s i t y o f employees t o r ema in u n i o n i z e d 1 Th r ee o f t h e f a c t o r s he d i s c u s s e s a r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n and t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e e m p l o y e r . - 121 -A l t h o u g h B a i n does no t p r e d i c t what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between each f a c t o r and t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o r ema in u n i o n i z e d he i d e n t i f i e s t h e need t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n more d e p t h a n d , " u l t i m a t e l y , t o t e s t them e m p i r i c a l l y . (1) N a t u r e o f t h e B a r g a i n i n g U n i t The sample s i z e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r e c l u d e s mak ing any g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c l u s i o n s and the r e s u l t s do n o t shed any l i g h t upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i z e and p r o p e n s i t y t o r e m a i n u n i o n i z e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 29 t h e a v e r a g e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i z e f o r a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s was t w e n t y - s i x emp loyees w h i l e the a v e r a g e f o r u n i t s w h i c h were d e c e r t i f i e d was t w e n t y - f i v e e m p l o y e e s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l l e v e l o f b a r g a i n i n g u n i t employees and t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o r ema in u n i o n i z e d i s a l s o i n c o n c l u s i v e : h a l f o f t h e c a s e s w h i c h l e d t o d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r , bu t so do h a l f o f t h o s e w h i c h have a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s such as e m p l o y e r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t he p r o p e n s i t y t o r e m a i n u n i o n i z e d o r t h a t t h e f a c t o r s a r e so i n t e r - r e l a t e d t h a t e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d t o d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i a b l e s . (2) S u p p o r t f o r t h e Un ion A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i d e n t i f i e d by B a i n i s t he l e v e l o f employee s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n among b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. I n t u i t i v e l y one wou ld e x p e c t t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t a t t h e t i m e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t he g r e a t e r w o u l d be t h e p r o p e n s i t y f o r the u n i o n t o r ema in c e r t i f i e d . B a i n , howeve r , c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h i s o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n as the l e v e l o f u n i o n s u p p o r t i s l i k e l y t o be d e t e r m i n e d by 2 v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d i n h i s p a p e r . - 122 -A l s o , as t h i s s t u d y has d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n i s no t s t a t i c . I t i s a dynamic v a r i a b l e w h i c h can change i n t h e p o s t -c e r t i f i c a t i o n p e r i o d . When t h e u n i o n s had m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t a t t h e t ime o f ' c e r t i f i c a t i o n , s m a l l r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t were shown t o have a d r a m a t i c i m p a c t on t h e m a j o r i t y s t a t u s o f t h e u n i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h shed l i g h t on a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f employee s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n . In c h a p t e r s i x , t h e r e were s i x c a s e s i d e n t i f i e d i n w h i c h a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n were spea rheaded by d i s s i d e n t g roups o f e m p l o y e e s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t none o f the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n t h e s e c a s e s were a b l e t o s u r v i v e t h i s i n t e r n a l c h a l l e n g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e c h a l l e n g e was a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e e m p l o y e r . (3) Emp loye r A t t i t u d e s and B e h a v i o u r s In d i s c u s s i n g e m p l o y e r a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s B a i n s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a " c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f e v i d e n c e f r om many c o u n t r i e s w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t u n i o n g rowth i s l i k e l y t o be r e t a r d e d t h e more w i l l i n g and a b l e e m p l o y e r s 3 a r e t o r e s i s t u n i o n demands f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s . " He goes on t o s t a t e t h a t e m p l o y e r r e s i s t a n c e w i l l r e d u c e t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o r ema in u n i o n i z e d even when t h e u n i o n s have a c h i e v e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n . C h a f e t z a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d by the e m p l o y e r s ' a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s i n h i s s t u d y o f d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . ^ He d i s c u s s e d t h i s r o l e i n t e rms o f the e m p l o y e r s ' a b i l i t y t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the c o s t s o f u n i o n m e m b e r s h i p , t h e r e b y i n f l u e n c i n g the e m p l o y e e s ' c o s t / b e n e f i t e v a l u a t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g t o s u p p o r t t he u n i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t t he c o n c l u s i o n s o f B a i n and C h a f e t z . In the t e n c a s e s where t h e e m p l o y e r s c o n t i n u e d t o r e s i s t t he u n i o n by c o m m i t t i n g u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e a r e o n l y f o u r a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . - 123 -In t h r e e o f t h e s e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s ( t h e Sandman Inns ) t h e e m p l o y e r s ' b e h a v i o u r , and p r e s u m a b l y i t s i m p a c t upon t h e e m p l o y e e s , was c o u n t e r e d by c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n on a p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a s i s c o - o r d i n a t e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r . The economic l e v e r a g e g a i n e d o v e r t h e e m p l o y e r by t h e p r o v i n c i a l b o y c o t t and ho t c a r g o d e c l a r a t i o n was l i k e l y more i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s s i s t i n g t h e u n i o n c o n c l u d e the s e cond agreements t h a n any change o f h e a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r as a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 f i r s t ag r eemen t . - 124 -TABLE 29 OUTCOMES VERSUS BARGAINING UNIT S IZE AND SKILL LEVEL OUTCOME DECERTIFICATIONS: Ave rage No. NO. OF EMPLOYEES IN BARGAINING UNIT 11 7 8 29 37 25 85 9 35 27 SK ILL LEVEL u n s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d ACTIVE CERTIF ICATIONS: 46 36 26 39 6 13 33 7 70 7 3 u n s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i 1 l e d / s k i 11 ed u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i 1 1 e d / s k i l i e d s e m i - s k i l l e d / s k i l l e d u n s k i l l e d s e m i - s k i 1 1 e d / s k i l i e d s e m i - s k i 1 l e d / s k i 11 ed Ave rage No. 26 - 125 -P o s t s c r i p t : C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l A b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e e v e n t u a l outcome i n the C e n t u r y P l a z a c a s e a l l o w s one t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an e m p l o y e r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o oppose t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i e d u n i o n . The u n i o n ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement was GRANTED by t h e Board on O c t o b e r 7 , 1 9 7 5 . The S e c t i o n 70 agreement had a o n e - y e a r t e rm c o n c l u d i n g November 3 0 , 1976 . Two y e a r s l a t e r the p a r t i e s had no t c o n c l u d e d n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a s e cond agreement and t h e u n i o n made a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e B o a r d , a l l e g i n g t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r had f a i l e d t o imp lemen t t h e c o m p u l s o r y c h e c k - o f f o f u n i o n dues and t h e p r o v i s i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g a m o d i f i e d u n i o n shop and a u n i o n h i r i n g h a l l w h i c h were c o n t a i n e d i n the agreement imposed by t h e B o a r d . The e m p l o y e r used a v a r i e t y o f t a c t i c s t o d e l a y and f r u s t r a t e t h e h e a r i n g s on t h e u n i o n c o m p l a i n t s and f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e e v i d e n c e as o r d e r e d by t h e B o a r d . The Boa rd e v e n t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r had f a i l e d t o f u l l y imp lement t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 agreement and i s s u e d a make who l e o r d e r w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o compensate t h e Un ion f o r t h e e f f o r t s i t had made i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e n f o r c e t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t . ^ The amount o f money w h i c h t h e Boa rd o r d e r e d t h e e m p l o y e r t o pay t o t h e u n i o n , s l i g h t l y i n e x c e s s o f $ 8 0 , 0 0 0 , p r o v i d e d adequa t e mone ta r y c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e u n i o n . I t d i d n o t , howeve r , remedy t h e damage done t o t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t f r o m o v e r f o u r y e a r s o f o p p o s i t i o n by t h e e m p l o y e r . A l t h o u g h t h e u n i o n has n o t been d e c e r t i f i e d , a s econd agreement was n o t c o n c l u d e d as o f December 3 1 , 1 9 8 1 . A c o r e g roup o f e m p l o y e e s , i n f l u e n c e d by the a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r , c o n t i n u e t o oppose t h e u n i o n . S u p p o r t f o r t h e P r o p o s i t i o n s In t h e summary o f c h a p t e r f o u r two p r o p o s i t i o n s were made c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i k e l y outcomes o f t h e c a s e s . The p r o p o s i t i o n s s t a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : - 126 -P r o p o s i t i o n 1 Cases i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e a l o w e r r a t e o f s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a n t h o s e i n the SETTLED o r DENIED c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r second and t h i r d agreements i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y t han i n t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . P r o p o s i t i o n 2 Where t h e e m p l o y e r d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n t i n u e d and d e t e r m i n e d o p p o s i t i o n t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , t he e m p l o y e r ' s i n f l u e n c e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . S u p p o r t f o r the second p r o p o s i t i o n was p r o v i d e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . As s t a t e d a b o v e , i n t h e t e n c a s e s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d c o n t i n u e d e m p l o y e r o p p o s i t i o n t h e r e a r e o n l y f o u r a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s . F i v e , o r f i f t y p e r c e n t , o f t h e s e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s have been t e r m i n a t e d and t h e s i x t h i s d o r m a n t . In t h e e i g h t e e n c a s e s where t h e r e was no t c o n t i n u e d o p p o s i t i o n f r om t h e e m p l o y e r t h e r e were o n l y f o u r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g twen t y- two p e r c e n t o f t h e s e c a s e s . I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o n t i n u e d o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r , h a s had a d i r e c t i m p a c t on t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s o f t he employees i n t h e s t u d y . To a s s e s s P r o p o s i t i o n 1, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o summar ize the number o f s e cond and t h i r d ag reements a c h i e v e d i n each o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s a l s o u s e f u l t o summar ize t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s by c a t e g o r y . T a b l e 30 c o n t a i n s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . (1) Numbers o f Second and T h i r d Agreements P r o p o s i t i o n 1 i s p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by the r e s u l t s . The re a r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r i n s t a n c e s where s e cond and t h i r d c o l l e c t i v e ag reements were n e g o t i a t e d i n the GRANTED c a t e g o r y t h a n i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y ; f o r t y - t w o p e r c e n t v e r s u s s e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The g r e a t e r deg ree o f s u c c e s s i n n e g o t i a t i n g ag reements e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e SETTLED - 127 -c a s e s i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e p a r t i e s ' p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s i n r e s o l v i n g the i n i t i a l S e c t i o n 70 d i s p u t e s and by the absence i n t h e s e c a s e s o f c o n t i n u e d e m p l o y e r r e s i s t a n c e t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n . C o n t r a r y t o P r o p o s i t i o n 1, howeve r , t he c a s e s i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r number o f s econd and t h i r d c o l l e c t i v e ag reements t han c a s e s i n t h e GRANTED c a t e g o r y . The s m a l l number o f c a s e s i n the DENIED c a t e g o r y make i t i m p o s s i b l e , howeve r , t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s f r om t h i s . (2) S t a t u s o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n A l t h o u g h t h e SETTLED c a s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e g r e a t e s t deg ree o f s u c c e s s i n n e g o t i a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e d o n l y a m a r g i n a l l y h i g h e r r a t e o f s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s when t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i s r e v i e w e d . By t h i s y a r d s t i c k the SETTLED c a s e s e s t a b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s , v e r s u s t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t f o r the GRANTED c a s e s and f o r t y p e r c e n t f o r t h e DENIED c a s e s . (3) Number o f Agreements and S t a t u s o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n A y a r d s t i c k w h i c h combines d e m o n s t r a t e d s u c c e s s i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h an a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e most s t r i n g e n t measure w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d t o a s s e s s t h e p a r t i e s ' s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T a b l e 3 0 ( c ) shows t h a t t h e s u c c e s s r a t e s u s i n g t h e combined y a r d s t i c k a r e the same as t h o s e w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m e x a m i n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . In a l l i n s t a n c e s s u c c e s s r a t e s a r e l e s s t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t and t h e r e a r e m a r g i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s u c c e s s r a t e s among t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The a c c u r a c y o f P r o p o s i t i o n 1 d e p e n d s , t h e r e f o r e , on t h e y a r d s t i c k u t i l i z e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The y a r d s t i c k c o n t a i n e d i n t h e P r o p o s i t i o n , s u c c e s s - 128 -i n n e g o t i a t i n g second and t h i r d a g r e e m e n t s , s u p p o r t s the P r o p o s i t i o n . The y a r d s t i c k o f r e t a i n i n g an a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s o n l y m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e P r o p o s i t i o n . - 129 -TABLE 30 SUCCESS RATES IN ESTABLISHING COLLECTIVE BARGAINING RELATIONSHIPS (a) by s u c c e s s i n n e g o t i a t i n g agreements (a ) (b) (a ) + (b) No. o f c a s e s w i t h No. o f c a s e s w i t h p e r c e n t o f C a t e g o r y s e cond ag reements t h i r d ag reements t o t a l c a s e s DENIED 1 1 40% GRANTED 4 1 4 2 % SETTLED * 4 4 73% (b) by s u c c e s s i n r e t a i n i n g an a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n No. o f c a s e s w i t h s u c c e s s r a t e C a t e g o r y a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n ( P e r c e n t o f t o t a l c a s e s ) DENIED 2 40% GRANTED 4 33% SETTLED 5 45% ( c ) comb ined y a r d s t i c k No. o f c a s e s w i t h a c t i v e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s u c c e s s r a t e C a t e g o r y and two o r t h r e e ag reements ( P e r c e n t o f t o t a l c a s e s ) DENIED 2 40% GRANTED 4 33% SETTLED 5 45% - 130 -EFFECTIVENESS To examine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e o b j e c t i v e s wh i ch t h e p r o v i s i o n s were i n t e n d e d t o a c c o m p l i s h . As s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e : (1) t o e s t a b l i s h a f i r s t agreement where i t l i k e l y wou ld no t o t h e r w i s e have been a c h i e v e d ; (2) t o - d e p r i v e t h e o f f e n d i n g p a r t i e s o f t h e f r u i t s o f t h e i r i l l e g a l c o n d u c t t h e r e b y a c t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t t o o t h e r e m p l o y e r s ; (3) t o remedy t h e damage done by t h e e m p l o y e r ; and (4 ) t o f o s t e r an e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . E s t a b l i s h i n g F i r s t Agreements In t h e e l e v e n c a s e s where t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was GRANTED a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e agreement was e s t a b l i s h e d . From t h e d e t a i l s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p u b l i s h e d d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e s e c a s e s and f r o m t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d above i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s e f i r s t ag reements wou ld no t have been a c h i e v e d i n t h e absence o f t h e B o a r d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e C e n t u r y P l a z a and Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g c a s e s ^ t h e e m p l o y e r s were p r e p a r e d t o go t o any l e n g t h s t o a v o i d s i g n i n g a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . F i r s t ag reements were a c h i e v e d i n f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s i n t h e DENIED c a t e g o r y . I f t h i s c a t e g o r y i s t a k e n t o . r e p r e s e n t c a s e s where t h e Boa rd d i d no t i n t e r v e n e , and i f i t i s assumed t h a t t h e same p e r c e n t a g e w o u l d a p p l y i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s i n t h e absence o f t h e B o a r d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a minimum o f f i v e o r s i x f i r s t ag reements w h i c h o t h e r w i s e wou ld n o t have been a c h i e v e d . A s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e must a l s o i n c l u d e t h e number o f f i r s t ag reements e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s . Commenting on t h e r e l a t i v e l y few number o f ag reements imposed by t h e B o a r d , t h e Cha i rman s t a t e d t h a t t h e Boa rd does no t a u t o m a t i c a l l y impose a f i r s t ag reement on t h e p a r t i e s , even where a p e r s u a s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n i s made. I n s t e a d , - 131 -i t makes a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o s e c u r e a v o l u n t a r y s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e ag reemen t . The o b j e c t i v e o f S e c t i o n 70 i s t o f o s t e r an e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h e B o a r d ' s v i e w , a s o l u t i o n a g r e e d t o by b o t h p a r t i e s i s a much b e t t e r f o u n d a t i o n f o r such a r e l a t i o n s h i p t han an o r d e r imposed by the B o a r d . 8 In the SETTLED c a s e s t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o c e d u r e s g i v e t h e Boa rd the l e v e r a g e and t h e e n t r e e i n t o t h e d i s p u t e s t h a t t hey wou ld no t o t h e r w i s e h a v e , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r them t o u t i l i z e i n t e n s i v e m e d i a t i o n e f f o r t s . In t e n o f the e l e v e n c a s e s i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y t h e s e e f f o r t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a r e e f f e c t i v e i n i e s t a b l i s h i n g f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . D e p r i v i n g t h e P a r t i e s o f t h e " F r u i t s " o f I l l e g a l Conduc t The outcomes o f t h e GRANTED c a s e s a r e r e l e v a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e m p l o y e r s were d e p r i v e d o f t h e " f r u i t s " o f t h e i r i l l e g a l c o n d u c t E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e outcomes i n t h e s e c a s e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s have n o t been e f f e c t i v e i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e . W i t h o u t S e c t i o n 7 0 , t h e " f r u i t s " t h a t the e m p l o y e r s w o u l d have r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e i r i l l e g a l o p p o s i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z i n g the u n i o n s wou ld have been an absence o f c o l l e c t i v e ag reements and l i k e l y d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t he r e s e a r c h show t h a t i n f i v e o f t h e e l e v e n c a s e s where the S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was GRANTED t h e u n i o n s were d e c e r t i f i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r e x p i r y o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t s . In a s i x t h c a s e t h e r e i s no second agreement and t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s d o r m a n t . In the m a j o r i t y o f GRANTED c a s e s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f S e c t i o n 70 ag reements d i d no t deny t h e e m p l o y e r s t h e " f r u i t s " o f t h e i r i l l e g a l c o n d u c t The r e c e i p t o f t h e s e " f r u i t s " was m e r e l y d e l a y e d f o r one y e a r u n t i l t h e agreement imposed unde r S e c t i o n 70 had e x p i r e d . - 132 -S e c t i o n 70 as a Remedy and a D e t e r r e n t The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i s t o remedy t h e damage done by t h e e m p l o y e r who has opposed t h e e x e r c i s e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s w h i c h f o l l o w f r o m c e r t i f i c a t i o n . Because t h e e m p l o y e r s a r e aware t h a t t h e damage w i l l be r e m e d i e d , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s wou ld a c t as a d e t e r r e n t and p r e v e n t t h i s o p p o s i t i o n . In t h e GRANTED c a s e s t h e knowledge t h a t a c o l l e c t i v e agreement wou ld l i k e l y be imposed d i d n o t d e t e r t h e e m p l o y e r s f r om i l l e g a l l y o p p o s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s . The e m p l o y e r s i n some i n s t a n c e s even c o n t i n u e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r t h e S e c t i o n 70 c o n t r a c t was i m p o s e d . From t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , what more was t h e r e t o l o s e ? I m p o s i t i o n o f f i r s t ag reements i n t h e s e c a s e s d i d no t remedy t h e damage done by t h e e m p l o y e r s as t h e ag reements d i d no t r e s t o r e t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n d e s t r o y e d by t h e c o n t i n u e d o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r . Commenting upon t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s as a d e t e r r e n t , a p r e v i o u s Boa rd Cha i rman s t a t e d t h a t : The t r u e t e s t o f t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e r e m e d i e s w i l l n o t l i e i n t h e number o f t i m e s t h e Boa rd a c t u a l l y imposed the r emedy ; r a t h e r i t c o n s i s t s i n t h e number o f o c c a s i o n s when t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e c t i o n i n t h e s t a t u t e makes i t s use u n n e c e s s a r y . 9 The outcomes o f t h e SETTLED c a s e s a r e r e l e v a n t . The e m p l o y e r s i n t h e s e c a s e s , i n t i a l l y opposed t o t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n i o n s , were aware t h a t a S e c t i o n 70 agreement c o u l d be i m p o s e d . W i th t h i s k n o w l e d g e , and w i t h i n t e n s i v e m e d i a t i o n by t h e Board d u r i n g i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e p a r t i e s were a b l e t o a c h i e v e v o l u n t a r y r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e d i s p u t e s . The e l e v e n c a s e s i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y r e s u l t e d i n t e n f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s , e i g h t s e cond ag reements and t h r e e o r more ag reements i n two c a s e s . The SETTLED c a s e s had o n l y two d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , compared t o s i x i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s . - 133 -The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s were a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y remedy t h e i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by t h e p a r t i e s i n c o n c l u d i n g f i r s t ag reements i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t the remedy has a r e l a t i v e l y l a s t i n g e f f e c t i n " t h e s e c a s e s . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s gave t h e Board an e n t r e e (wh i ch d i d no t p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t ) i n t o t h e s e d i s p u t e s and p r o v i d e d t h e Boa rd w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o m e d i a t e t h e d i s p u t e s and w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e i n c a se m e d i a t i o n f a i l e d . In t h i s way t h e p r o v i s i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y a c t e d as a d e t e r r e n t i n the SETTLED c a s e s . F o s t e r i n g E n d u r i n g C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s Do t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s f o s t e r e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? U s i n g t h e combined y a r d s t i c k t o measure s u c c e s s , and u s i n g t h e f o r t y p e r c e n t s u c c e s s r a t e i n t h e DENIED c a s e s as the s t a n d a r d o f c o m p a r i s o n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s a r e m a r g i n a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e n d u r i n g b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s ( f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t s u c c e s s ) and a r e no t e f f e c t i v e i n the GRANTED c a s e s ( t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t s u c c e s s ) . T h i s may, howeve r , be an o v e r l y s t r i n g e n t measure by w h i c h t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t he S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . Commenting on h i s p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s , J i m M a c l n t y r e s t a t e d : G i v e n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c a s e s w h i c h come as S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s , i t i s s u r p r i s i n g i f any o f them a r e s u c c e s s f u l . The m a j o r i t y a r e n o t bu t t h i s s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s a r e n o t e n j o y i n g a r e l a t i v e l y modest deg r ee o f s u c c e s s . - ^ A p p l y i n g a more l i b e r a l , and r e a l i s t i c s t a n d a r d , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y s u p p o r t t he c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a r e , i n f a c t , e n j o y i n g modest s u c c e s s . The p r o v i s i o n s a r e a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s most e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h a r e SETTLED and a r e d e m o n s t r a t i n g m i n o r s u c c e s s e s i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h a r e GRANTED. - 134 -ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SECTION 70 PROVISIONS C h a p t e r t h r e e i d e n t i f i e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g e m p l o y e e s , u n i o n s and e m p l o y e r s i n h e r e n t i n t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . Rev iew o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s i n l i g h t o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y modest s u c c e s s o f t he S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . A s s u m p t i o n s R e g a r d i n g t h e Emp loye r One o f t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d the S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i s t h a t e m p l o y e r s a r e i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e e m p l o y e e s ' d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n membersh ip and u n i o n s u p p o r t . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n t h e a r e a s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and e m p l o y e r s u p p o r t e d d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s p e t i t i o n s s u p p o r t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r s ' e f f o r t s t o d i s s u a d e t h e i r emp loyees f r om s u p p o r t i n g t h e u n i o n s do n o t end once t h e u n i o n i s c e r t i f i e d . In the GRANTED c a s e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e e f f o r t s was f o u n d , i n d i c a t e d by t w i c e t h e number o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s i n t h e p o s t -c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e compared t o the p r e - c e r t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . A t o t a l o f s e v e n t e e n o r d e r s were i s s u e d by t h e Board r e l a t e d t o u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . T h i r t e e n o f t h e s e o r d e r s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r r e i n s t a t e e m p l o y e e s , w i t h f u l l back p a y , who had been d i s m i s s e d because o f u n i o n a c t i v i t y . The d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t t h a t t h e s e d i s m i s s a l s had on t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s , i n s p i t e o f t h e r e i n s t a t e m e n t s and a ccompany ing cease and d e s i s t o r d e r s was shown i n t h e h i g h number o f d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s . The r e l a t i v e l y l ow number o f u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s i n t h e DENIED c a s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s d i d n o t seek t o i n f l u e n c e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s . - 135 -A se cond a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i s t h a t the e m p l o y e r ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e u n i o n w i l l be d i s p e l l e d by t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " imposed d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t . The r e s e a r c h has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h i s does no t h a p p e n , most l i k e l y because t h e e m p l o y e r ' s o p p o s i t i o n has an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s . Most o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s were f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed t o u n i o n s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . R a t h e r t han a l t e r i n g t h e s e a t t i t u d e s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n c a s e s such as C e n t u r y P l a z a 1 1 t h e e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " i n t e n s i f i e s t h e a n t i - u n i o n a t t i t u d e o f t h e e m p l o y e r . The Board i t s e l f has i d e n t i f i e d t h e f a l l a c y o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . In K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P roduce where t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c e r t a i n l y made i t an a p p r o p r i a t e c a s e f o r i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t , t he B o a r d , i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e d e c i s i o n n o t t o impose an a g r e e m e n t , s t a t e d t h a t " I n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e f o r e u s , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f m e a n i n g f u l c o l l e c t i v e 12 b a r g a i n i n g i s b u t an empty h o p e . " I t was c l e a r t h a t no f o r m o f remedy was g o i n g t o change the a n t i - u n i o n a t t i t u d e o f t h i s e m p l o y e r . S i m i l a r l y i n the M & H M a c h i n e r y c a s e t h e Boa rd i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y were " n o t e s p e c i a l l y h o p e f u l t h a t f i r s t c o n t r a c t a r b i t r a t i o n w i l l p r o d u c e any r a d i c a l 13 change o f h e a r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r . " In i t s f i r s t d e c i s i o n on an a p p l i c a t i o n t o impose a f i r s t agreement t h e C a n a d i a n L abou r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd a l s o r e j e c t e d t h e " t r i a l m a r r i a g e " c o n c e p t i n i t i a l l y f o r w a r d e d by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B o a r d , r e p l a c i n g i t 14 w i t h t h e a n a l o g y o f a t r a n s p l a n t o p e r a t i o n . The t r a n s p l a n t e d o r g a n i s f o r e i g n t o t h e body a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s u s c e p t i b l e t o r e j e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y an imposed f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reement i s a l s o s u b j e c t t o r e j e c t i o n , i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a i l u r e t o renew t h e f i r s t agreement upon i t s e x p i r y . The a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s e e m p l o y e r s make c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a " f o r e i g n b o d y . " The r i g i d n a t u r e o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the l i k e l i h o o d o f r e j e c t i o n . - 136 -The f i n a l a s s u m p t i o n made c o n c e r n i n g t h e e m p l o y e r was t h a t the r a t i o n a l e m p l o y e r w o u l d v i ew t h e a l t e r n a t i v e t o i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i r s t agreement as a l e s s e r o f two e v i l s and wou ld a c c o r d i n g l y s i t down, n e g o t i a t e and c o n c l u d e a v o l u n t a r y agreement w i t h t h e u n i o n . The e m p l o y e r s w o u l d s e t t l e t h e i r d i s p u t e s r a t h e r t h a n f a c e t h e p r o s p e c t s o f a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t . T h i s may, e x p l a i n the b e h a v i o u r o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s ; i t o b v i o u s l y does n o t a p p l y t o the e m p l o y e r s i n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED. In many o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e e m p l o y e r s were p r e p a r e d t o go t o any l e n g t h s and i n c u r any r e l a t e d c o s t s t o be r i d o f t h e u n i o n . A s s u m p t i o n s R e g a r d i n g the Un ion The r e m e d i a l n a t u r e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s assumes t h a t d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 agreement i n the GRANTED c a s e s the u n i o n w i l l make a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s s u p p o r t i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . T h i s w o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e t a i n i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f e x i s t i n g members and by c o n v i n c i n g new emp loyees and non-members o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f u n i o n i z a t i o n . . In t h e o r y t h e u n i o n membersh ip p r o v i s i o n s and t h e imp roved wages and o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s o f the S e c t i o n 70 ag reements s h o u l d a s s i s t them i n t h i s e f f o r t . The r e s u l t s have shown t h a t when f a c e d w i t h an e m p l o y e r who c o n t i n u e s t o a c t i v e l y oppose t h e u n i o n ' s p r e s e n c e and when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a d i s s i d e n t g roup o f emp loyees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , t h i s i s a most d i f f i c u l t t a s k . The t a s k i s made a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e i n the c a s e s where t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n was m a r g i n a l t o s t a r t w i t h . In t h e s e c a s e s t h e u n i o n s were u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r m a j o r i t y s t a t u s . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a l s o assume t h a t whereas the e m p l o y e r w i l l seek t o a v o i d t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t , t h e u n i o n w i l l v i ew a S e c t i o n 70 agreement as p r e f e r a b l e t o no a g r e e m e n t . The re a r e r e a s o n s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n may be i n c o r r e c t . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , S e c t i o n 70 r e p r e s e n t s a f o r m o f i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n and - 137 -u n i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y opposed t o i n t e r e s t a r b i t r a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , a u n i o n w h i c h a p p l i e s f o r a S e c t i o n 70 agreement i s a d m i t t i n g t h a t t h e y a r e no t i n a s t r o n g enough b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n t o be a b l e t o c o n c l u d e an a g r e e m e n t . Is t h i s the k i n d o f a d m i s s i o n t h e y w i s h t o make, o r i s i t p r e f e r a b l e t o a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e any agreement p o s s i b l e , b u t a c h i e v e i t 15 i n d e p e n d e n t o f a t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r v e n t i o n ? These f a c t o r s may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h e low i n c i d e n c e o f S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e y e a r s 1976-1979 . The a r b i t r a t i o n o f an agreement unde r S e c t i o n 70 makes t h e p r o v i s i o n s o p e r a t e as a d e t e r r e n t f r o m t h e u n i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . A s s u m p t i o n s R e g a r d i n g t h e Employees The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s assume t h a t when a f i r s t agreement i s imposed by the Boa rd t h e emp loyees w i l l v i e w t h e improvements i n w a g e s , b e n e f i t s and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s p o s i t i v e l y and w i l l a t t r i b u t e t h e s e improvements t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e u n i o n . T h i s c o n c r e t e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the b e n e f i t s o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s h o u l d p o s i t i v e l y e f f e c t t h e e m p l o y e e s ' c o s t / b e n e f i t e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t he r e s e a r c h show t h a t t h i s does no t o c c u r i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e GRANTED c a s e s . The e m p l o y e r ' s c o n t i n u e d o p p o s i t i o n i n f l u e n c e s t h e c o s t s i d e o f t h i s e q u a t i o n , as does p e e r p r e s s u r e f r o m t h e d i s s i d e n t emp loyees w i t h i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . F u r t h e r m o r e , as was t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e Domin ion D i r e c t o r y c a s e 1 ^ , t h e e m p l o y e r may p r o m i s e h i g h e r b e n e f i t s once t h e u n i o n i s d e c e r t i f i e d . On b a l a n c e i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s were e x t r e m e l y o p t i m i s t i c . Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e y u n d e r -e s t i m a t e d t h e t e n a c i t y o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ' o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and d i d no t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e p o t e n t i a l r o l e p l a y e d by t h o s e employees who d i d n o t i n i t i a l l y s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n c e r t i f i c a t i o n . - 138 - . FURTHER COMMENTS ON THE ROLE OF SECTION 70 AS A DETERRENT One o f t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s i s t o d e t e r e m p l o y e r s f r o m t a k i n g c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o d e f e a t t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c e r t i f i e d u n i o n t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . In c h a p t e r f o u r , t h r e e methods t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e were i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c a s e s i n t h e SETTLED c a t e g o r y was d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . The second o f t h e s e methods a d d r e s s e s t h e i s s u e on a much b r o a d e r b a s i s . New C e r t i f i c a t i o n s W i t h o u t F i r s t Agreements The Boa rd c o m p i l e s s t a t i s t i c s f o r a l l new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e t o a c h i e v e a f i r s t c o n t r a c t . 1 7 The B o a r d ' s s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e p e r c e n t o f b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s w i t h o u t a c o n t r a c t e i g h t e e n months a f t e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f d i s p u t e s t h a t c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y end up as S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . A d e c r e a s e i n t h i s p e r c e n t a g e f r om 1974 t o 1979 c o u l d be t a k e n as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e were f e w e r such d i s p u t e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h a t the S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s were o p e r a t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t on a b r o a d s c a l e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s , howeve r , i s i n c o n c l u s i v e ( T a b l e 3 1 ) . N i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s c e r t i f i e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1974 were w i t h o u t a c o n t r a c t a f t e r e i g h t e e n mon ths . The number f o r t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1979 was a l m o s t f i f t e e n p e r c e n t . The re was n o t , howeve r , a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e , no r was t h e r e a p a t t e r n t o t h e f i g u r e s . In t h r e e t i m e p e r i o d s t h e f i g u r e was l e s s t han e l e v e n p e r c e n t w h i l e i n t h r e e o t h e r s i t was g r e a t e r t h a n f i f t e e n p e r c e n t . A h i g h o f s e v e n t e e n and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t was a c h i e v e d f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n s i s s u e d i n t h e second h a l f o f 1977 . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t o o many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t h e s e f i g u r e s t o make them u s e f u l as a measure o f t h e d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s . - 139 -TABLE 31 PERCENT OF BARGAINING UNITS WITHOUT FIRST AGREEMENTS EIGHTEEN MONTHS AFTER CERTIFICATION P e r c e n t o f B a r g a i n i n g U n i t s W i t h o u t F i r s t Agreement E i g h t e e n Months Time P e r i o d A f t e r C e r t i f i c a t i o n F i r s t h a l f o f 1974 9 . 0 % Second h a l f o f 1974 1 0 . 6 % F i r s t h a l f o f 1975 1 3 . 0 % Second h a l f o f 1975 1 1 . 2 % F i r s t h a l f o f 1976 1 0 . 1 % Second h a l f o f 1976 1 5 . 3 % F i r s t h a l f o f 1977 1 2 . 3 % Second h a l f o f 1977 1 9 . 5 % F i r s t h a l f o f 1978 1 0 . 6 % Second h a l f o f 1978 1 7 . 5 % F i r s t h a l f o f 1979 1 4 . 8 % S o u r c e : L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t s , 1978 and 1980 . - 140 -Absence o f P u b l i c i z e d D i s p u t e s The t h i r d measure used t o i n d i c a t e whe the r o r n o t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a c t e d as a d e t e r r e n t on a b r o a d s c a l e i s t h e r e l a t i v e absence o f w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d d i s p u t e s such as Sandr ingham H o s p i t a l . Some o f t h e 18 GRANTED c a s e s , n o t a b l y London D r u g s , K i d d B r o t h e r s ' and Sandman Inns , r e c e i v e d a f a i r s h a r e o f p u b l i c i t y , bu t i t was no t on a s c a l e c o m p a r a b l e t o Sandr ingham H o s p i t a l . Has t h e r e been a r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e i n t h e number o f such d i s p u t e s s i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , have t h e p u b l i c i z e d d i s p u t e s s i n c e t h a t t i m e been s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v e d ? In e a r l y 1 9 8 1 , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government r e l e a s e d a s t u d y o f work 19 s t o p p a g e s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g 1 9 8 0 . The s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h i r t e e n work s t o p p a g e s where t h e i s s u e was n e g o t i a t i o n o f a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . By y e a r e n d , a l l b u t f o u r o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s had been r e s o l v e d . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , f i r s t ag reements were a c h i e v e d i n t h r e e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r d i s p u t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s t r i k e has t e r m i n a t e d i n the 20 f o u r t h d i s p u t e i n v o l v i n g t h e Muckamuck R e s t a u r a n t t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t r e m a i n s w i t h o u t a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t . T h i s i s a t y p i c a l S e c t i o n 70 d i s p u t e where t h e e m p l o y e r and a d i s s i d e n t g roup o f emp loyees a r e a c t i v e l y opposed t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and has been d r a g g i n g on f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . In t h e Muckamuck d i s p u t e t h e Boa rd c o n c l u d e d t h a t the e m p l o y e r had "engaged i n c o n d u c t d e s i g n e d t o unde rmine and d e f e a t t h e u n i o n ' s e f f o r t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e m p l o y e e s , t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e o f 21 c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and t o t h e l e n g t h and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t r i k e . " The Boa rd d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a r e m e d i a l o r d e r o f some t y p e was a p p r o p r i a t e , b u t f i r s t wanted t o r e s o l v e an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n f r o m t h e g roup o f emp loyees p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g a t t h e r e s t a u r a n t . - 141 -In one o f t h e o t h e r d i s p u t e s , i n v o l v i n g t h e D e l t a O p t i m i s t , t h e Board became i n v o l v e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y s t a g e . The u n i o n commenced o r g a n i z i n g i n l a t e September 1979 and was c e r t i f i e d O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1 9 7 9 I n a d e c i s i o n 22 d a t e d A p r i l 3 0 , 1980 t h e Boa rd f o u n d t h e e m p l o y e r had c o m m i t t e d s e v e r a l u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s and i s s u e d an e x t e n s i v e r e m e d i a l o r d e r w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y was s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e . W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e B o a r d i n a m e d i a t i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e p a r t i e s were a b l e t o c o n c l u d e a f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . I t a p p e a r s t h a t S e c t i o n 70 t y p e d i s p u t e s a r e o c c u r r i n g a t t h e r a t e o f one o r two p e r y e a r and have been d o i n g so s i n c e 1976 . T h i s i s compared t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i o h number o f d i s p u t e s i n 1974 and 1 9 7 5 , s e v e n t e e n and n i n e c a s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s have a p o s i t i v e i m p a c t on r e d u c i n g t h e e x c e s s e s o f e m p l o y e r s i n t h e a c t i o n s t h e y t a k e t o oppose c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i e d t r a d e u n i o n s . ALTERNATIVES The above d i s c u s s i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a modera te deg ree o f s u c c e s s i n a c t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t and i n a s s i s t i n g i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e SETTLED c a s e s . The d i s c u s s i o n a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e outcomes i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s , t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s have n o t been e f f e c t i v e when t h e e m p l o y e r i s w i l l i n g t o go t o any l e n g t h s t o oppose t h e u n i o n and when t h e e m p l o y e r i s c o n v e n i e n t l y a s s i s t e d i n t h i s o p p o s i t i o n by a d i s s i d e n t g roup o f emp loyees (most l i k e l y u n d u l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e m p l o y e r i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e C o d e ) . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e e m p l o y e r and - 142 -t h e d i s s i d e n t emp loyees w a i t o u t t h e o n e - y e a r d u r a t i o n o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 a g r e e m e n t , a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e p e r i o d g i v e n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s , and a p p l y f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n upon e x p i r y o f t h a t a g r e e m e n t . A r e t h e r e any a l t e r n a t i v e s t o S e c t i o n 70 w h i c h wou ld a l t e r t h e - outcomes i n t h e GRANTED c a s e s , o r do t h e y r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l b a t p e r s i s t e n t i r r i t a n t i n t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s c e n e ? Remed ia l O r d e r s 23 In f a s h i o n i n g t h e remedy i n t h e D e l t a O p t i m i s t t h e Boa rd may have t a k e n a s t e p i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s c a s e r a t h e r t han i s s u e a c e a s e and d e s i s t o r d e r , a l l o w t h e d i s p u t e t o p o s s i b l y e s c a l a t e and l i k e l y impose a S e c t i o n 70 agreement a t a l a t e r d a t e , t h e Board a d d r e s s e d the p r o b l e m o f e r o s i o n o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n head o n . 24 In i t s o r d e r t h e Board d i r e c t e d t h e e m p l o y e r t o c e a s e v i o l a t i n g S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e Code and o r d e r e d t h e e m p l o y e r t o r e i m b u r s e a d i s m i s s e d emp loyee f o r wages l o s t as a r e s u l t o f t h e d i s m i s s a l . The Boa rd r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r d i s t r i b u t e a copy o f i t s d e c i s i o n t o each emp loyee and t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r r e f r a i n f r o m a l t e r i n g wages o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h i r t y d a y s . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e Board r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r convene a m e e t i n g o f a l l emp loyees a t t h e work s i t e , on work t i m e and w i t h pay f o r emp loyees who a t t e n d e d , and a l l o w t h e u n i o n t o meet w i t h t h e emp loyees i n t h e absence o f t h e e m p l o y e r f o r a t l e a s t one h o u r . They a l s o r e q u i r e d t h e e m p l o y e r t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o t h e l u n c h r o o m t o a u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e a ch day f o r a p e r i o d o f t h i r t y days t o speak t o emp loyees and o r d e r e d t h e e m p l o y e r t o pay t h e wages o f t h a t u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r t h i r t y d a y s . The Board r e m a i n s e i z e d o f t h e c o m p l a i n t i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e any d i s p u t e c o n c e r n i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r d e r . - 143 -In j u s t i f y i n g t h e s c o p e o f t h e r e m e d i a l o r d e r t h e Boa rd d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r had " e l e c t e d a s t r a t e g y o f p r o t r a c t e d l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e hope o f d e f e a t i n g t h e U n i o n ' s e f f o r t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e O p t i m i s t ' s e m p l o y e e s . . . i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e u n s e t t l e d h i a t u s i n t h i s i n f a n t c o l l e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p 25 has s e r v e d t o e r o d e t h e U n i o n ' s s u p p o r t among t h e e m p l o y e e s . " The remedy i n t h i s c a s e was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o r e d r e s s t h e e r o s i o n o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e u n i o n c aused by t h e e m p l o y e r ' s a c t i o n s . The B o a r d ' s hope was t o p r o v i d e " a p e r i o d o f c a lm and employment s e c u r i t y w i t h i n w h i c h t h e emp loyees may, d e s p i t e t h e p r e v i o u s u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s , b e g i n t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r new ly a c q u i r e d c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s w i t h a 2fi s ense o f c o n f i d e n c e . " The Boa rd a l s o f e l t i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o " f a c i l i t a t e t h e e f f o r t s t h e u n i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t o r e c o v e r f r o m t h e 27 e f f e c t s o f t h e u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . The key t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h i s r e m e d i a l o r d e r was i t s e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t he e m p l o y e r ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a d d r e s s t h e symptom o n l y , absence o f a f i r s t a g r e e m e n t , w h i l e t h i s o r d e r sough t c o n s c i o u s l y t o g i v e t h e u n i o n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s t o r e i t s s u p p o r t among t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members. A r e commenda t ion o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e Board u t i l i z e t h e i r e x i s t i n g powers t o f a s h i o n u n i q u e r e m e d i e s such as t h a t i n t h e D e l t a O p t i m i s t c a s e , a p p l y t h e s e as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n t h e d i s p u t e and h o l d S e c t i o n 70 i n r e s e r v e i f i t i s r e q u i r e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . Make Whole O r d e r s A s e cond a l t e r n a t i v e was a p p l i e d i n K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P roduce and 28 u l t i m a t e l y i n C e n t u r y P l a z a . In t h e s e c a s e s t h e Boa rd i s s u e d make who le o r d e r s . The make who le o r d e r s were u t i l i z e d as a l a s t r e s o r t and a r e a p p r o p r i a t e " o n l y when t h e i l l e g a l c o n d u c t o f t h e e m p l o y e r has c o m p l e t e l y - 144 -t h w a r t e d t h e o r g a n i z i n g e f f o r t s o f t h e u n i o n , d e p r i v i n g i t o f s t a t u t o r y 29 r i g h t s t o r e p r e s e n t and b a r g a i n on b e h a l f o f t h e e m p l o y e e s . " A make who l e o r d e r i n e f f e c t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e u n i o n c a n n o t be s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s e f f o r t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t emp loyees and i s o b v i o u s l y no t an e f f e c t i v e remedy where t h e p u r p o s e i s t o f o s t e r an e n d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . W h i l e t h e make who le o r d e r i s no t a remedy f o r t h e emp loyees who have been d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r r i g h t t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , i t does t o an e x t e n t p r o v i d e a remedy t o t h e u n i o n f o r i t s w a s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t i m e and e f f o r t a n d , may s e r v e as a d e t e r r e n t t o o t h e r e m p l o y e r s . L e g i s l a t i v e P r o t e c t i o n R e g a r d i n g D i s m i s s a l s I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t e x t e n s i o n o f due p r o c e s s i n d i s m i s s a l s t o u n o r g a n i z e d emp loyees may be an a l t e r n a t i v e way o f e n s u r i n g t h a t one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t s and r i g h t s p r o v i d e d t o u n i o n i z e d employees 30 i s n o t d e n i e d because o f a n t i - u n i o n b e h a v i o u r o f e m p l o y e r s . T h i s a p p r o a c h a p p l i e s a r a t h e r sweep ing remedy t o a v e r y s p e c i f i c and i n f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m . A more s p e c i f i c , and p r e f e r a b l e , v e r s i o n o f t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e has been i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e M a n i t o b a L abou r R e l a t i o n s A c t w h i c h c o n t a i n s a p r o v i s i o n r e q u i r i n g t h e e m p l o y e r t o p r o v i d e a code o f employment f o r new l y o r g a n i z e d 31 emp loyees unde r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . The code o f employment must c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s f o r g r i e v a n c e and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h wou ld p r o v i d e employees w i t h a means t o c h a l l e n g e d i s m i s s a l s . In t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , t h e remedy i s s p e c i f i c t o emp loyees who have a l r e a d y e x e r c i s e d t h e i r c h o i c e f o r u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i n r e s o l v i n g f i r s t agreement d i s p u t e s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n t h e M a n i t o b a j u r i s d i c t i o n . - 145 -E x t e n s i o n o f t h e D u r a t i o n o f a S e c t i o n 70 Agreement I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t e x t e n d i n g t h e t e r m o f a S e c t i o n 70 agreement w o u l d p r o v i d e a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g w h i c h t h e u n i o n wou ld be a b l e t o " r e g r o u p " and d e m o n s t r a t e i t s u s e f u l n e s s . The Quebec L a b o u r Code has t a k e n t h i s a p p r o a c h and c o n t a i n s a p r o v i s i o n f o r a r b i t r a t i o n o f f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e ag reements w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r a b i n d i n g 32 award o f no t l e s s t h a n one y e a r and no t more t h a n two y e a r s . Rev iew o f t h e e l e v e n GRANTED c a s e s h a s , h o w e v e r , shown t h a t t h i s wou ld n o t l i k e l y p r o v i d e t h e u n i o n w i t h an e f f e c t i v e method o f r e b u i l d i n g s u p p o r t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e e m p l o y e r and d i s s i d e n t g roups o f emp loyees wou ld become more e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e u n i o n . The d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s wou ld l i k e l y be p o s t p o n e d f o r a n o t h e r y e a r . SUMMARY Of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s s u g g e s t e d , t h e f i r s t has t h e h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e s where S e c t i o n 70 has been i n e f f e c t i v e . In t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s where t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a n t i - u n i o n a t t i t u d e s a r e s t r o n g t h e Boa rd can u t i l i z e i t s e x i s t i n g powers t o f a s h i o n r e m e d i e s t o c o u n t e r t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a c t i o n s e a r l y i n t h e d i s p u t e s . A p p l i e d e a r l y , t h e s e r emed i e s w o u l d l i k e l y be more e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g t h e u n i o n s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d u c e t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e employees i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t i n t o p r o - u n i o n and a n t i - u n i o n g r o u p s . Second o n l y t o t h e ex t r eme e n t r e n c h m e n t o f t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e s e c a s e s , and o f t e n combined w i t h i t , t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n has been one o f t h e ma jo r o b s t a c l e s co e s t a b l i s h i n g e n d u r i c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d . - 146 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER V I I I 1. G. B a i n , C e r t i f i c a t i o n s , F i r s t Agreements and D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s :  An A n a l y t i c a l Framework ( O t t a w a : L abou r C a n a d a , 1 9 8 1 ) . 2 . B a i n , C e r t i f i c a t i o n s , F i r s t Agreements and D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s , p. 10 . 3 . I b i d , p. 1 7 . 4 . I. C h a f e t z , " D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x p e r i e n c e " , p. 6 8 . 5. Sandman I n n s , L . R . B . B . C , D e c i s i o n #L110/1979. 6 . C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #32/1979. 7. C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #32/1979. Vancouve r I s l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #36/1976. 8 . L abou r R e l a t i o n s Boa rd o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1978 . 9 . P. W e i l e r , f r o m t h e t e x t o f an a d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l Management A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 5 , p. 1 1 . 10 . From remarks made by J . M a c l n t y r e , p r e v i o u s V i c e - C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d , i n a L abou r Law s e m i n a r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 1 . C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #68/1975. 1 2 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #53/1976. 1 3 . M & H M a c h i n e r y and I r o n Works , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #114/1974. 1 4 . CJMS R a d i o M o n t r e a l (Quebec) L i m i t e d v CLRB S y n d i c a t g e n e r a l de l a R a d i o CJMS (CNTU) e t a l . (1978) CLLC 1 4 , 163 ( F e d e r a l C o u r t T r i a l D i v i s i o n ) . 1 5 . In a c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , a u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y wou ld p r e f e r a s u b - s t a n d a r d agreement t o one imposed unde r S e c t i o n 7 0 . 1 6 . Domin ion D i r e c t o r y , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #65/1975. 1 7 . L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Annua l R e p o r t , 1980 . 18 . Inndnn D r u g s . L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #30/1974; K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L T R V B V B . C " . D e c i s i o n #53/1976; Sandman I n n s , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #L110/1979. 19 . M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , L abou r R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , V . 9 #1 ( J anua r y 1 9 8 1 ) . - 147 -2 0 . Muckamuck R e s t a u r a n t , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #27/1981. 2 1 . I b i d . 2 2 . D e l t a O p t i m i s t , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #26/1980. 2 3 . I b i d . 2 4 . I b i d . 2 5 . I b i d , p . 3 5 . 2 6 . I b i d , p . 4 5 . 2 7 . I b i d , p . 4 6 . 2 8 . K i d d B r o t h e r s ' P r o d u c e , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #53/1976 and C e n t u r y P l a z a H o t e l , T . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #32/1979. 2 9 . D e l t a O p t i m i s t , L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #26/1980. 3 0 . J . S t i e b e r , "The Case f o r P r o t e c t i o n o f U n o r g a n i z e d Employees A g a i n s t U n j u s t D i s c h a r g e " i n IRRA P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r t y - S e c o n d  Annua l M e e t i n g , e d . B. D e n n i s (New Y o r k : I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . 3 1 . S e c t i o n 7 5 ( 1 ) , M a n i t o b a Labou r R e l a t i o n s A c t ( 1 9 7 6 ) . 3 2 . S e c t i o n 8 1 , Quebec Labour Code ( 1 9 8 0 ) . - 148 -CHAPTER IX - CONCLUSIONS The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o summar ize t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s and t o h i g h l i g h t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o l i c y o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h r e m a i n u n r e s o l v e d by S e c t i o n 7 0 . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s by s u g g e s t i n g s e v e r a l a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . EFFECTIVENESS U l t i m a t e l y , e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s r e s t s i n t h e answers t o two q u e s t i o n s : Q u e s t i o n 1 Has the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s a l t e r e d the l i k e l y outcomes i n t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t c a s e s w h i c h were s t u d i e d ? Q u e s t i o n 2 Has the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s p r e v e n t e d o t h e r e m p l o y e r s f r o m a t t e m p t i n g t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n s ? The f i r s t q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e s t h e r e m e d i a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s ; t he s e c o n d , t h e i r i m p a c t as a d e t e r r e n t . In t h e c a s e s w h i c h were GRANTED, t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s were no t r e m a r k a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a l t e r i n g t h e l o n g - r u n o u t c o m e s . On l y f o u r o f t h e e l e v e n o r i g i n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n s were a c t i v e as o f December 3 1 , 1 9 8 1 . On t h e w h o l e , t h e emp loyees i n t h e s e c a s e s had l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The e m p l o y e r s u l t i m a t e l y s u c c e e d e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c e r t i f i e d t r a d e u n i o n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t two f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the f a i l u r e o f S e c t i o n 70 i n a l t e r i n g t h e outcomes o f t h e s e c a s e s . F i r s t o f a l l , t he - 149 -e m p l o y e r s d i d n o t r e l e n t i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e u n i o n s . They c o n t i n u e d t h i s o p p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h e u n i o n s were d e c e r t i f i e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e e m p l o y e r s were a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y c a p i t a l i z e upon t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f m i n o r i t y g roups o f emp loyees i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s . These d i s s i d e n t emp loyees became i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l a r i z e d as t im e p r o g r e s s e d a n d , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e e m p l o y e r , i n c r e a s e d i n numbers u n t i l t h e y were i n p o s i t i o n s o f m a j o r i t y . In t h e c a s e s w h i c h were SETTLED, t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s have been m o d e r a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l . A l t h o u g h o n l y f i v e o f t he o r i g i n a l e l e v e n c e r t i f i c a t i o n s a r e s t i l l a c t i v e , t h e emp loyees i n t h e s e c a s e s have had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . The e m p l o y e r s and u n i o n s i n t h e s e c a s e s have v o l u n t a r i l y n e g o t i a t e d a t l e a s t e i g h t e e n c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s . In many o f t h e SETTLED c a s e s t h e e m p l o y e r s opposed t h e u n i o n s i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e c a s e s and t h o s e w h i c h were GRANTED i s t h a t t h i s o p p o s i t i o n c e a s e d when t h e Board became i n v o l v e d v i a t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s gave t h e Board an e n t r e e i n t o t h e d i s p u t e s . They were t h e n a b l e t o a s s i s t t h e p a r t i e s i n c o n c l u d i n g f i r s t ag reements by u s i n g m e d i a t i o n . The l i k e l y outcomes o f t h e c a s e s were a l t e r e d i n a l l e x c e p t one i n s t a n c e where a f i r s t ag reement was n o t c o n c l u d e d . On a b r o a d s c a l e , Q u e s t i o n 2 must be answered i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . A l t h o u g h a s p e c i f i c c a u s e / e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n n o t be d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t f i r s t ag reement d i s p u t e s o f t h e magn i t ude o f S and r ingham H o s p i t a l o r Shoppers Drug M a r t have been v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d f r om t h e l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s scene i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn i s t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S e c t i o r , 70 p r o v i s i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . - 150 -POLICY IMPLICATIONS In a d d i t i o n t o S e c t i o n 7 0 , t h e e x i s t i n g Code p r o v i d e s t h e Board w i t h two t o o l s w h i c h can be u t i l i z e d t o i n c r e a s e chances f o r s u r v i v a l o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e e m p l o y e r d e m o n s t r a t e s o p p o s i t i o n . The f i r s t i s t h r o u g h r e m e d i a l o r d e r s , such as t h a t i n t h e D e l t a  O p t i m i s t c a s e , w h i c h a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e u n i o n w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o u n t e r t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e e m p l o y e r . The key t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s e r e m e d i a l o r d e r s l i e s i n t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n v e r y e a r l y i n the d i s p u t e , b e f o r e t h e emp loyees have become p o l a r i z e d i n t o o p p o s i n g p r o - u n i o n and a n t i - u n i o n g r o u p s . I f t h e r e m e d i a l o r d e r i s n o t e f f e c t i v e i n a s s i s t i n g t h e u n i o n t o r e b u i l d i t s s u p p o r t , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e u n i o n w i l l be a b l e t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t e m p l o y e e s . In t h e s e c a s e s , where i t i s t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e e m p l o y e r t h a t have d e s t r o y e d any s u p p o r t t h e u n i o n once h a d , t h e Boa rd can make use o f make who l e o r d e r s t o compensate t h e u n i o n f o r t h e v i o l a t i o n o f i t s s t a t u t o r y r i g h t s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e m p l o y e e s . These o r d e r s have a d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d e f f e c t . From t h e u n i o n s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e y remedy t h e l o s s o f r e s o u r c e s s p e n t i n t h e a t t e m p t t o o r g a n i z e t h e e m p l o y e e s . From t h e e m p l o y e r s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o be v i ewed as a p e n a l t y and t h e r e f o r e may o p e r a t e as a d e t e r r e n t t o o t h e r e m p l o y e r s . The re i s , howeve r , a dange r w i t h i n c r e a s e d use o f make who le o r d e r s . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y become p r e d i c t a b l e , an e m p l o y e r may b u i l d them i n t o t h e c o s t o f r u n n i n g a n o n - u n i o n s h o p . The o r d e r t hen becomes a f i n e o r a l i c e n s i n g f e e w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r must pay t o buy o u t o f t h e Code . In summary t h e c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h do n o t s u p p o r t t h e need f o r l e g i s l a t i v e changes t o t h e C o d e . The Boa rd has c o n s i d e r a b l e s cope i n - 151 -t h e i r g e n e r a l powers w h i c h may be u t i l i z e d more e f f e c t i v e l y t o r e s o l v e f i r s t agreement d i s p u t e s . C o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t upon r e l a t i v e e q u a l i t y o f b a r g a i n i n g power between t h e p a r t i e s . The r e s e a r c h o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s w h i c h combined t o p l a c e t h e u n i o n s i n p o s i t i o n s o f low power . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s showed m a r g i n a l s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n s ; t he emp loyees were p r e d o m i n a n t l y u n s k i l l e d ; a n d , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e u n i o n s was c h a l l e n g e d by t h e e m p l o y e r . L e g i s l a t i o n c a n n o t change t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s e e m p l o y e r s . The S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s , r e m e d i a l o r d e r s and make who le o r d e r s c a n , howeve r , o f f s e t t h e i m p a c t o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ' a c t i o n s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . I f t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e e m p l o y e r s was removed f r o m t h e s e c a s e s , i t i s d o u b t f u l whe the r many o f t h e u n i o n s wou ld have been a b l e t o m a r s h a l 1 enough power t o impose e f f e c t i v e economic s a n c t i o n s upon t h e e m p l o y e r s . I t i s no t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Code t o s u p p o r t t h e weaker p a r t y i n a c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t may be t h a t many o f t h e s e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s c o u l d no t be o r g a n i z e d unde r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The emp loyees have t o l o o k t o l a b o u r s t a n d a r d s l e g i s l a t i o n f o r a minimum l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n . SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The re a r e two o b v i o u s d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . The f i r s t i s t o r e p e a t t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h e o t h e r C a n a d i a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h i c h have p r o v i s i o n s e i t h e r p a t t e r n e d on the S e c t i o n 70 p r o v i s i o n s o r s i m i l a r t o them. Compar i son o f t h e t y p e s o f c a s e s i n t h e s e j u r i s d i c t i o n s , t h e outcomes o f t h e c a s e s and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s a p p l i e d t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s wou ld p r o v i d e a p e r s p e c t i v e t o t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i s i o n s f o r a r b i t r a t i o n o f f i r s t a g r e e m e n t s . - 152 -The second d i r e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s t o c o n d u c t s t u d i e s o f new c e r t i f i c a t i o n s and f i r s t ag reements i n C a n a d i a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h i c h do no t have p r o v i s i o n s f o r f i r s t agreement a r b i t r a t i o n . These s t u d i e s wou ld p o t e n t i a l l y i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e numbers and s e v e r i t y o f f i r s t ag reement d i s p u t e s i n t h e s e j u r i s d i c t i o n s compared t o j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h r e m e d i a l p r o v i s i o n s s i m i l a r t o S e c t i o n s 70 - 7 2 . - 153 -BIBLIOGRAPHY B o o k s , A r t i c l e s and Government P u b l i c a t i o n s A r t h u r s , H. "The D u l l e s t B i l l : R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e Labou r Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Law R e v i e w , 1974 , V o l . 9 , #2. B a c k h o u s e , C. "The F l e c k S t r i k e : A Case S tudy i n t h e Need f o r F i r s t Agreement A r b i t r a t i o n , " Osgoode H a l l Law J o u r n a l , 1 9 8 0 , V o l . 1 8 , #4. B a i n , G. C e r t i f i c a t i o n s , F i r s t Agreements and D e c e r t i f i c a t i o n s : An  A n a l y t i c a l F ramework . 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V a n c o u v e r : L abou r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d , 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 8 0 . M i n i s t r y o f L abou r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B .C . L a bo u r D i r e c t o r y , 1980 . V i c t o r i a : R e s e a r c h and P l a n n i n g , 1980 . M i n i s t r y o f L abou r - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N e g o t i a t e d Work ing C o n d i t i o n s , 1980 . V i c t o r i a : P rogram S e r v i c e s , 198u\ 1 - 154 -Muthuch idamba ram, S. " S e t t l e m e n t o f F i r s t C o l l e c t i v e A g r e e m e n t : An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e Canada L a bo u r Code Amendment , " R e l a t i o n s  I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 1 9 8 0 , V o l . 3 5 , #3, p p . 3 8 7 - 4 0 9 . O l s o n , M. The L o g i c o f C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965 . P i l i o t i s , V . "The Impact o f t h e R e q u i r e d L e v e l o f Employee S u p p o r t on S e c u r i n g Un ion C e r t i f i c a t i o n . " T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , 1 9 7 5 . P r o s t e n , R. "The L o n g e s t S e a s o n : Un ion O r g a n i z i n g i n the L a s t Decade , a / k / a / How Come One Team Has t o P l a y w i t h I t s S h o e l a c e s T i e d T o g e t h e r ? In IRRA P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r t y - F i r s t Annua l  M e e t i n g , e d i t e d by B. D e n n i s . C h i c a g o : 1978 . R a s k i n , A . "Management Comes o u t S w i n g i n g . " In IRRA P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  T h i r t y - F i r s t Annua l M e e t i n g , e d i t e d by B. D e n n i s , C h i c a g o : T978 . R e e s , A . The Economics o f Work and Pay . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1979 . R o s s , P. The Government as a Sou r ce o f Un ion Power . P r o v i d e n c e : Brown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . R u n k e l , P. and M c G r a t h , J . R e s e a r c h on Human B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1972 . S t . A n t o i n e , T . " P r o p o s e d Labou r R e f o r m : ' B r a v e New W o r l d 1 o r ' L o o k i n g • B a c k w a r d ' ? " In IRRA P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r t i e t h Annua l M e e t i n g , e d i t e d by B. DennTs -; New Y o r k : IRRA, 1 9 / 7 . S c h l o s s b e r g , S. and She rman , F. O r g a n i z i n g and t h e Law. W a s h i n g t o n : Bureau o f N a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 1 . S l i c h t e r , S. The C h a l l e n g e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s : T r ade U n i o n s ,  Management and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t " . New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947 . S t a p l e t o n , C. " A c h i e v e m e n t o f F i r s t Agreements f r o m Newfound land L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board C e r t i f i c a t i o n s . " O t t a w a : L a bo u r C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 . S t e e r s , R. and P o r t e r , L. M o t i v a t i o n and Work B e h a v i o u r . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 . S t i e b e r , J . "The Case f o r P r o t e c t i o n o f U n o r g a n i z e d Employees A g a i n s t U n j u s t D i s c h a r g e . " In IRRA P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r t y - S e c o n d  Annua l M e e t i n g , e d i t e d by B. D e n n i s . A t l a n t a : IRRA, 1 9 7 9 . Thompson , M. and M o o r e , L. " M a n a g e r i a l A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d . I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s : A U.S . - C a n a d i a n C o m p a r i s o n . " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , 1 9 7 5 , V o l . 3 0 , #3. ~ " ~ T u r g e o n , E. " 1 9 7 8 / 7 9 A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r C e r t i f i c a t i o n and t h e R e s u l t a n t C o l l e c t i v e A g r e e m e n t s . " O t t a w a : L a bo u r C a n a d a , 1980 . - 155 -Vancouve r Board o f T r a d e . C l e r i c a l S a l a r y S u r v e y . V a n c o u v e r : Boa rd o f T r a d e , 1 9 8 1 . W a t t s , R. "The Adequacy o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Labou r L e g i s l a t i o n G o v e r n i n g P o s t - C e r t i f i c a t i o n , P re-Agreement C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Law Re v i e w , 1970, V o l . 5 , #2, p p . 2 5 1 - 2 7 9 . W e i l e r , P. Notes t o an A d d r e s s made t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Management A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 7 5 . W e i l e r , P. R e c o n c i l a b l e D i f f e r e n c e s : New D i r e c t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n Labou r Law. T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l Co . L t d . , 1980 . Woods, H.D. R e p o r t on t h e Task F o r c e on Labou r R e l a t i o n s . O t t a w a : I n f o r m a t i o n Canada , 1969 . W r i g h t , J . " C e r t i f i c a t i o n o f U n i o n s and F i r s t Time Agreements i n A l b e r t a , 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 . " O t t a w a : L abou r C a n a d a , 1980 . Law Cases CJMS R a d i o M o n t r e a l (Quebec) L i m i t e d v CLRB. (1978) CLLC 1 4 , 163 ( F e d e r a l C o u r t T r i a l D i v i s i o n ) . Canada Labou r R e l a t i o n s B o a r d , Reasons f o r D e c i s i o n : S y n d i c a t des employe's de commerce e t de bu reau du Comte' L a p o i n t e (CNTU) 6 7 5 - 6 , 6 7 5 - 7 , 6 7 5 - 1 1 ; S y n d i c a t des commis-comptab l e s d ' A l m a , I n c . (CNTU) 6 7 5 - 9 , 6 7 5 - 1 0 ; S y n d i c a t des emp loyes de commerce de B a i e (CNTU) 6 7 5 - 8 ; and Roya l Bank o f Canada . L abou r R e l a t i o n s Board o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R e p o r t e d C a s e s : D e c i s i o n s #2/1974, 1 9 / 1 9 7 4 , 3 0 / 1 9 7 4 , 3 7 / 1 9 7 4 , 5 7 / 1 9 7 4 , 7 4 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 0 1 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 0 5 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 1 4 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 2 2 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 4 9 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 5 5 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 6 3 / 1 9 7 4 , 1 6 4 / 1 9 7 4 , 3 / 1 9 7 5 , 2 1 / 1 9 7 5 , 2 3 / 1 9 7 5 , 3 0 / 1 9 7 5 , 3 2 / 1 9 7 5 , 4 7 / 1 9 7 5 , 4 9 / 1 9 7 5 , 5 0 / 1 9 7 5 , 6 5 / 1 9 7 5 , 6 8 / 1 9 7 5 , 8 0 / 1 9 7 5 , 8 3 / 1 9 7 5 , 3 2 / 1 9 7 6 , 5 3 / 1 9 7 6 , 6 3 / 1 9 7 6 , 9 / 1 9 7 7 , 2 5 / 1 9 7 8 , 3 8 / 1 9 7 8 , 5 9 / 1 9 7 8 , 7 0 / 1 9 7 8 , 3 2 / 1 9 7 9 , 6 3 / 1 9 7 9 , 7 1 / 1 9 7 9 , 8 8 / 1 9 7 9 , L 1 1 0 / 1 9 7 9 , 1 6 / 1 9 8 0 , 2 0 / 1 9 8 0 , 2 6 / 1 9 8 0 , 46/1980 L 2 6 / 1 9 8 0 , L 5 5 / 1 9 8 0 , L 7 6 / 1 9 8 0 , L 9 9 / 1 9 8 0 , 2 7 / 1 9 8 1 , L 1 1 7 / 1 9 8 1 . - 156 -APPENDIX 1 A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S e c t i o n 70 - 1980 and 1981 1. M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t e C l i n i c and H o t e l Emp loyees ' U n i o n , L o c a l 4 0 , N e l s o n . L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n L 7 6 / 8 0 , May 2 3 , 1980 (GRANTED) The c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f the c a s e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h . There were no u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s a n d , i n i t i a l l y , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r was no t opposed t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n . In March 1979 t h e u n i o n and e m p l o y e r made a j o i n t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r n o n - b i n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t agreement by an I n d u s t r i a l I n q u i r y C o m m i s s i o n . T e n t a t i v e agreement was a c h i e v e d on a l l i s s u e s e x c e p t u n i o n s e c u r i t y . The C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t recommended a u n i o n s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n i d e n t i c a l t o the e m p l o y e r ' s p r o p o s a l a n d , w h i l e t h e u n i o n membersh ip r a t i f i e d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t he e m p l o y e r r e f u s e d t o do s o . In November t h e e m p l o y e r a d v i s e d t h e u n i o n t h e y were s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a t t e r bu t made no a t t e m p t t o meet and d i s c u s s i t w i t h the u n i o n . The S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n was s u b m i t t e d e a r l y i n 1980 and was g r a n t e d . The Boa rd c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r w o u l d n o t have r a t i f i e d any r e p o r t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l I n q u i r y Commiss ion and t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r d i d no t i n t e n d t o c o n c l u d e a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . In r u l i n g t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n w o u l d be g r a n t e d t h e Board gave t h e p a r t i e s one l a s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n c l u d e an agreement w i t h t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . The p a r t i e s were u n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e an agreement and one was imposed by the B o a r d . In J u n e , 1 9 8 1 , t h e employees a p p l i e d f o r c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . A v o t e was h e l d and t h e u n i o n was d e c e r t i f i e d . - 157 -2 . Kuehne and Nagel I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . and t h e O f f i c e and T e c h n i c a l Emp loyees ' U n i o n , L o c a l 1 5 . No D e c i s i o n (WITHDRAWN) The b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s c a se i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r was i n i t i a l l y opposed t o u n i o n i z a t i o n . * On December 8 , 1977 t h e u n i o n a p p l i e d f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . On the same d a t e t h e e m p l o y e r d i s m i s s e d two employees f o r r e a s o n s f o u n d t o be u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e . The u n i o n was f i n a l l y c e r t i f i e d unde r S e c t i o n 4 3 ( 3 ) o f t h e Code on J a n u a r y 1 9 , 1979 . The b a l l o t s c a s t i n t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n v o t e were d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t b e i n g c o u n t e d . In May, 1979 t h e Boa rd u p h e l d t h e i r o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n t o c e r t i f y t h e u n i o n . In June 1980 t h e employees a p p l i e d f o r c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The u n i o n a d v i s e d t h e Board t h e y d i d n o t o b j e c t t o t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n and t h a t t h e y w o u l d no t p u r s u e t h e S e c t i o n 70 a p p l i c a t i o n . The u n i o n was d e c e r t i f i e d September 2 4 , 1980 . *The b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h i s c a se i s c o n t a i n e d i n L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n s #L47/99 and 9 / 7 9 . 3 . N o r t h w e s t W e i g h t l o s s C l i n i c and B .C . Nu r se s No D e c i s i o n (SETTLED) The B .C . Nu r ses were c e r t i f i e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e employees a t e i g h t c l i n i c s i n 1 9 8 0 . * The p a r t i e s commenced n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a f i r s t agreement b u t r e a c h e d a d e a d l o c k i n March o f 1 9 8 1 . S t r i k e a c t i o n f o l l o w e d . In A p r i l t h e Boa rd r u l e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r had c o m m i t t e d an u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e , v i o l a t i n g S e c t i o n s 3 ( 3 ) c and 5 o f t h e Code . F i v e months i n t o the s t r i k e t h e e m p l o y e r was s t i l l o p e r a t i n g , h a v i n g r e p l a c e d t h e s t r i k i n g n u r s e s w i t h l i c e n s e d p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s . The u n i o n f i l e d a c o m p l a i n t w i t h the Board t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r had f a i l e d t o b a r g a i n i n good f a i t h , b u t t h e c o m p l a i n t was d i s m i s s e d on A u g u s t 2 7 , 1 9 8 1 . *The b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h i s c a s e i s c o n t a i n e d i n L . R . B . B . C . D e c i s i o n #54/81. - 158 -M e a n w h i l e , on A u g u s t 1 8 , 1981 t h e M i n i s t e r o f L abou r d i r e c t e d the Board t o i n q u i r e w h e t h e r o r no t a f i r s t agreement s h o u l d be imposed under S e c t i o n 7 0 . The Boa rd was a b l e t o s e t t l e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . A f i r s t agreement was c o n c l u d e d by t h e p a r t i e s i n J a n u a r y o f 1982 and i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t . 4 . A r m s t r o n g H o t e l and t h e H o t e l E m p l o y e e s ' U n i o n , L o c a l 4 0 . No D e c i s i o n (APPLICATION OUTSTANDING) T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 70 was r e c e i v e d by t h e Board i n December 1981 and has no t been d e a l t w i t h as o f A p r i l 1 s t , 1982 . The Board d i d however p r o c e s s an a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m the employees t o - c a n c e l t he c e r t i f i c a t i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n was d e n i e d i n March 1 9 8 2 . - 159 -APPENDIX 2 QUESTIONNAIRE EMPLOYER: DATE OF DECIS ION: APPL ICATION: d e n i e d _ UNION: g r a n t e d s e t t l e d Date A p p l i c a t i o n Made t o M i n i s t e r : -I. CERTIFICATION # o f employees i n u n i t a t t h e t i m e o f a p p l i c a t i o n : On what b a s i s was t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n g r a n t e d : r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e : membersh ip c a r d s : o t h e r , p l e a s e e x p l a i n : Date o f A p p l i c a t i o n f o r C e r t i f i c a t i o n : Date o f C e r t i f i c a t i o n : D i d t h e e m p l o y e r appea l t h e B o a r d ' s d e c i s i o n : Yes I f y e s , how many t i m e s On what b a s i s : No How many emp loyees i n d i c a t e d s u p p o r t f o r the u n i o n a t t he t i m e o f a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , as d e t e r m i n e d b y : ' No. v o t i n g f o r t h e u n i o n i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v o t e No. o f members i n good s t a n d i n g Were t h e r e s u b s e q u e n t i n d i c a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h i s s u p p o r t : Y e s : No: I f y e s , what were t h e y : s u p p o r t f o r a n o t h e r u n i o n _ _ _ _ _ a p p l i c a t i o n f o r d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n t u r n o v e r o f s t a f f o t h e r ( p l e a s e p r o v i d e d e t a i l s ) : - 160 -I I . NEGOTIATIONS Date o f n o t i c e t o b a r g a i n : N o t i c e d e l i v e r e d b y : Date o f f i r s t m e e t i n g : Un ion Number o f m e e t i n g s : Emp loye r D id t h e Un ion s u b m i t a package o f p r o p o s a l s D i d t h e e m p l o y e r p r o v i d e c o u n t e r - p r o p o s a l s Was a m e d i a t o r a p p o i n t e d i f y e s , on what d a t e : -To what e x t e n t d i d t h e p a r t i e s a c h i e v e agreement on i t ems p r i o r t o the a p p l i c a t i o n unde r S e c t i o n 7 0 . Was t h e r e a v i o l a t i o n o f S ( 6 ) : By t h e e m p l o y e r By t h e u n i o n No v i o l a t i o n V i o l a t i o n a l l e g e d bu t no r u l i n g I f t h e r e was a S (6 ) v i o l a t i o n , p l e a s e p r o v i d e d e t a i l s : I I I . WORK STOPPAGE D i d a l e g a l s t r i k e o c c u r : i f y e s , d u r a t i o n : f rom_ t o D i d a l e g a l l o c k o u t o c c u r : i f y e s , d u r a t i o n : f rom_ ( For c a s e s i n v o l v i n g a s t r i k e ) D id t h e e m p l o y e r c o n t i n u e o p e r a t i o n i f y e s , what was t h e s o u r c e o f l a b o u r : n o n - b a r g a i n i n g u n i t members 1  members o f t h e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t _ emp loyees h i r e d t o r e p l a c e t h o s e on s t r i k e o t h e r t o - 161 -IV . UNFAIR LABOUR PRACTICES (as r u l e d by the Boa rd ) D i d t h e Emp loye r commit u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e ( s ) p r i o r t o c e r t i f i c a t i o n : I f y e s , what s e c t i o n s o f t h e Code were v i o l a t e d : S p e c i f i c s o f v i o l a t i o n : D i d t h e Emp loye r commit u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e ( s ) a f t e r t he c e r t i f i c a t i o n was g r a n t e d : I f y e s , what s e c t i o n s o f t h e Code were v i o l a t e d : S p e c i f i c s o f v i o l a t i o n : Were any u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e d ) c o m m i t t e d by the U n i o n : I f y e s , what s e c t i o n s o f t h e Code were v i o l a t e d : S p e c i f i c s o f v i o l a t i o n : D i d the c a s e i n v o l v e v i o l a t i o n s o f o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e Code w h i c h were n o t u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s , o r d i d i t i n v o l v e any v i o l a t i o n s o f Board a n d / o r c o u r t o r d e r s : I f y e s , p l e a s e e x p l a i n : - 162 -V. OUTCOMES A) In c a s e s where t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S (70 ) was d e n i e d : no agreement c o n c l u d e d t o d a t e 1 s t ag reement c o n c l u d e d , d u r a t i o n 2nd agreement c o n c l u d e d , d u r a t i o n s u b s e q u e n t ag reements c o n c l u d e d Un ion d e c e r t i f i e d , i f y e s , d a t e o t h e r , p l e a s e e x p l a i n B) In c a s e s where t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S (70 ) was g r a n t e d : no 2nd agreement c o n c l u d e d t o d a t e 2nd agreement c o n c l u d e d , d u r a t i o n s u b s e q u e n t ag reements c o n c l u d e d Un ion d e c e r t i f i e d , i f y e s , d a t e o t h e r , p l e a s e e x p l a i n C) In c a s e s where t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r S (70 ) was s e t t l e d : no agreement c o n c l u d e d t o d a t e 1 s t agreement c o n c l u d e d , d u r a t i o n 2nd agreement c o n c l u d e d , d u r a t i o n s u b s e q u e n t ag reements c o n c l u d e d Un ion d e c e r t i f i e d , i f y e s , da t e o t h e r , p l e a s e e x p l a i n D) In c a s e s where a f i r s t agreement was i m p o s e d , what p r o c e s s d i d t h e Boa rd u t i l i z e t o s e t t l e t h e t e rms and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e ag reement ? A r b i t r a t i o n M e d i a t i o n / A r b i t r a t i o n F i n a l O f f e r S e l e c t i o n O t h e r 

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