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Analysis and integration of soil parameters and vegetation of a Cariboo-Chilcotin wetland in British… Jones, Carol Elizabeth 1981

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ANALYSIS AND INTEGRATION OF SOIL PARAMETERS AND VEGETATION OF A CARIBOO-CHILCOTIN WETLAND IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by CAROL ELIZABETH JONES B . S c , Simon Fraser Un ivers i ty , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Soi l Science) We accept th i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l 1981 Carol El izabeth Jones, 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date • A p r i l 21, 1981 i i ABSTRACT The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships which exist between s o i l parameters and vegetation d i s t r i b u t i o n in a wetland in the C h i l c o t i n region of B.C. These relationships are presently poorly understood, yet pressure from agriculture and w i l d l i f e interests are increasing the need for the management of these wetlands. The project was designed as an intensive study of a single wetland, to reduce the influence of non-soil factors on the vegetation d i s t r i b u t i o n . Sixty s i t e s were sampled for both s o i l and vegetation. S o i l samples were analyzed for parameters re l a t i n g to nutrient levels, s a l t content, s o i l reaction, and organic matter content. The vegetation was c l a s s i f i e d using three computer assisted techniques; a tabular analysis, a cluster analysis, and a d i s s i m i l a r i t y analysis. The resulting c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were evaluated for ease of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and u t i l i t y in distinguishing s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n in s o i l properties. The vegetation d i s t r i b u t i o n appeared to be dominantly controlled by the water l e v e l , which is reflected in the high pH, high s a l t content of the d r i e r regions, and the high levels of organic matter production and accumulation in the wetter regions. The extremes of the gradient are characterized by d i s t i n c t vegetation communities and by s o i l types which can be s t a t i s t i c a l l y separated on the basis of these c o n t r o l l i n g factors. The intermediate region of the gradient can be separated into various community types, depending upon the method employed. A si m p l i f i e d pattern of four vegetation types o c c u r r i n g on s o i l s which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n those parameters shown to c o n t r o l v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n can be d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s w e t l a n d . The s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r groups, r e s u l t i n g from a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s based on those parameters i n d i c a t e d by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o be i m p o r t a n t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s i n g l e s p e c i e s and community types were found t o be poor i n d i c a t o r s of these s o i l g r o u p i n g s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i Table of C o n t e n t s i v L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i C h apter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 The need t o d e v e l o p methods of i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between s o i l parameters and v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n 1 1.2 I n t e n s i v e v e r s u s e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s 2 1.3 S o i l parameters b e l i e v e d t o i n f l u e n c e v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n w e t l a n d s 3 1.4 O b j e c t i v e s 6 Chapter 2 Methods 7 2.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of study a r e a 7 2.2 Sampling p l a n 9 2.2.1 V e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s a m p l i n g 9 2.3 A n a l y s i s of s o i l samples 11 2.4 N u m e r i c a l a n a l y s i s of s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n d a t a 14 2.4.1 Computer a s s i s t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n d a t a 14 2.4.2 Computer a s s i s t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l d a t a 16 2.4.3 C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s 17 2.4.4 S i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s 17 Chapter 3 R e s u l t s of V e g e t a t i o n A n a l y s i s 18 3.1 T a b u l a r a n a l y s i s .18 3.2 C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 21 3.3 Coenos a n a l y s i s .26 Chapter 4 R e s u l t s of S o i l A n a l y s i s 30 4.1 C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s 30 4.2 F a c t o r a n a l y s i s 30 4.3 C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 35 Chapter 5 D i s c u s s i o n of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between V e g e t a t i o n and S o i l A n a l y s i s 39 5.1 C o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s 39 5.2 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h v e g e t a t i o n g r o u p i n g s 40 5.3 Comparison of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n w i t h the u n i t s formed by s o i l a n a l y s i s 52 C hapter 6 C o n c l u s i o n s 55 6.1 R e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t between v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s and s o i l parameters i n a s i n g l e w e t l a n d 55 6.2 Methods of v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t i n g i n g r o u p i n g s which can be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 56 6.3 Management i m p l i c a t i o n s 57 L i t e r a t u r e c i t e d 59 Appendix 1 S p e c i e s l i s t 62 Appendix 2 S o i l d a t a 63 Appendix 3 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x 65 v i L i s t of T a b l e s Page Ta b l e 1 Braun-Blanquet c o v e r abundance s c a l e 12 T a b l e 2 T a b u l a r a n a l y s i s 19 Ta b l e 3 C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 24 Ta b l e 4 Coenos a n a l y s i s 27 Ta b l e 5 V a r i a n c e of s o i l f a c t o r s 33 T a b l e 6 S o r t e d r o t a t e d f a c t o r l o a d i n g s 34 T a b l e 7 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h s o i l g r o u p i n g s 38 Ta b l e 8 S p e c i e s - p a r a m e t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s 40 Ta b l e 9 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h community t y p e s formed by t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s 42 Ta b l e 10 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h amalgamated community t y p e s formed by t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s 44 T a b l e 11 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h community t y p e s formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 45 Ta b l e 12 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h amalgamated'community t y p e s formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 47 Ta b l e 13 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h community t y p e s formed by Coenos a n a l y s i s 48 Ta b l e 14 S o i l parameters which d i s t i n g u i s h amalgamated community t y p e s formed by Coenos a n a l y s i s 50 Ta b l e 15 Range of s o i l parameters i n community types 5 1 T a b l e 16 Occurrence of major s p e c i e s i n s o i l c l u s t e r g r o u p i n g s 53 T a b l e 17 Occurrence of community t y p e s i n s o i l c l u s t e r g r o u p i n g s 54 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s Page F i g u r e 1 Study area l o c a t i o n 8 F i g u r e 2 Sampling p l a n 10 F i g u r e 3 Flow diagram 15 F i g u r e 4 V e g e t a t i o n c l u s t e r 22 F i g u r e 5 C o r r e l a t i o n of s o i l p arameters 31 F i g u r e 6 S o i l c l u s t e r 37 Acknowledgement The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e of the N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e s and E n g i n e e r i n g C o u n c i l (Canada) Grant A4463, and the B r i t i s h Columbia S c i e n c e C o u n c i l GREAT Award s u p p o r t e d by the B.C. M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s R e s e a r c h Branch, i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I would l i k e t o thank the members of my t h e s i s committee f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e , w i t h a s p e c i a l thank-you t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r Dr. Les L a v k u l i c h f o r h i s o p t i m i s m throughout the p r o j e c t . A thank-you i s extended t o Mr. Mark Sondheim f o r h i s a d v i c e i n p l a n n i n g the s a m p l i n g scheme, and t o Mrs. V a l e r i e M i l e s f o r her v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n both the f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y phases of the s t u d y . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Ms. E l i z a b e t h Zweck von Zweckenberg f o r her a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the f i g u r e s and t a b l e s , and Ms. C h r i s M a y a l l f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s we have had c o n c e r n i n g w e t l a n d s . To Ms. Susan P h e l p s , a thank-you f o r her h e l p w i t h v a r i o u s computer programs and her c h e e r f u l company i n the computing c e n t r e . A s p e c i a l thank-you t o Mr. M i c h a e l B l a z e c k a f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h d r a f t i n g of the f i g u r e s and f o r h i s encouragement throughout my t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank Dr. Marcus B e l l , who f i r s t a d v i s e d me t o t a k e a c o u r s e i n s o i l s . ^ 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Need To Develop Methods Of I n v e s t i g a t i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s  E x i s t i n g Between S o i l Parameters And V e g e t a t i o n Di s t r i b u t i o n  P a t t e r n s I t has been g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by both p e d o l o g i s t s and p l a n t e c o l o g i s t s , t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n . C l a s s i c a l works of Warming (1909) Clements (1916) and Braun-Blanquet (1932) emphasized the r e l a t i o n s of p l a n t communities t o t h e i r h a b i t a t s , w h i l e Dokuchaev (1898) s t a t e d the dependence of s o i l development on landscape and v e g e t a t i o n zones. Jenny (1941) proposed t h a t s o i l development i s a f u n c t i o n of the f a c t o r s of c l i m a t e , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , topography, b i o t a and t i m e . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h B r a u n - B l a n q u e t , Jenny examined the p a r a l l e l i s m between p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n and s o i l development (Jenny,1941). Major (1951) expanded Jenny's concept t o d e s c r i b e v e g e t a t i o n development i n terms of the same s t a t e f a c t o r s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g between s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n have o f t e n been employed by p e d o l o g i s t s as r e c o g n i t i o n f e a t u r e s t o i n f e r s o i l p r o p e r t i e s when mapping, and by e c o l o g i s t s t o i n f e r a u t e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the growth r e q u i r e m e n t s of p l a n t s p e c i e s . However the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o i l p a rameters and v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n have r a r e l y been d e f i n e d . At a l a r g e s c a l e p e r s p e c t i v e , g e n e r a l i z e d s o i l g r o u p i n g s appear t o have s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h e q u a l l y g e n e r a l v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , f o r example, the development of chernozemic s o i l s under g r a s s l a n d v e g e t a t i o n . At a s m a l l e r 2 s c a l e , l o c a l compensating f a c t o r s may i n f l u e n c e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of both s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y t o d i s t o r t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s observed a t the l a r g e s c a l e . C o r r e l a t i o n s a t the s m a l l e r s c a l e can be d e f i n e d o n l y a f t e r d e t a i l e d s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n d a t a have been a n a l y z e d t o produce c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of b o th s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n which are a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s c a l e and purpose of the i n v e n t o r y and are r e l a v e n t t o the systems under s t u d y . E x i s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes a r e o f t e n u n s u i t a b l e f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n because t h e i r c l a s s e s a r e g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d by w e i g h t i n g c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s thought t o be i m p o r t a n t i n s o i l g e n e s i s or p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n . N u m e r i c a l methods of c l a s s i f y i n g both s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n o f f e r u n b i a s e d assessments of the v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the d a t a . These methods attempt t o group t o g e t h e r those i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of s h a r e d a t t r i b u t e s , t h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t i n g groups do not n e c e s s a r i l y , share any p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e . 1.2 I n t e n s i v e V e r s u s E x t e n s i v e S t u d i e s Two approaches may be taken i n a s s e s s i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n s between v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s . An e x t e n s i v e study examines the range of s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n which occur w i t h i n a r e g i o n . However, the v a r i a t i o n observed i n v e g e t a t i o n cannot be a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y t o s o i l g r a d i e n t s s i n c e o t h e r f a c t o r s of h y d r o l o g y , m i c r o c l i m a t e , and p a r e n t m a t e r i a l a r e not c o n t r o l l e d . In an i n t e n s i v e study the e f f e c t of t h e s e compensating f a c t o r s a r e reduced by r e s t r i c t i n g the e x t e n t of the study a r e a . 3 A l t h o u g h the e n t i r e range of s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n can not be a s s e s s e d , those v e g e t a t i o n g r a d i e n t s which a r e d e f i n e d can be a t t r i b u t e d , w i t h g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , t o the v a r i a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d i n the s o i l s . 1.3 S o i l Parameters B e l i e v e d To I n f l u e n c e Vegetat i o n Di s t r i b u t i o n In Wetlands A l t h o u g h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s o c c u r i n g i n the w e t l a n d s of the C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n of B.C have not been i n v e s t i g a t e d , w e t lands which occur i n somewhat analagous c o n d i t i o n s have been s t u d i e d i n s o u t h c e n t r a l Canada and n o r t h c e n t r a l U n i t e d S t a t e s . Walker and Coupland (1968) i n an a n a l y s i s of v e g e t a t i o n - e n v i r o n m e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Saskatchewan s l o u g h s , r e v i e w e d the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o w e t l a n d s i n the g r a s s l a n d zone of Canada and n o r t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and r e v e a l e d f i v e f a c t o r s which were g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as b e i n g of importance i n the e c o l o g y of w e t l a n d s . These f a c t o r s were the water regime, s a l i n i t y , the edaphic complex, p l a n t c o m p e t i t i o n , and d i s t u r b a n c e . These a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d from t h e i r study t h a t o t h e r than d i s t u r b a n c e , which was not measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , the f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the v a r i a t i o n i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n of these s l o u g h s was the f l u c t u a t i n g l e v e l of the water. They found a change i n water depth had i t s g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n when the i n i t i a l water depth was s h a l l o w , l a r g e changes i n water depth had l i t t l e e f f e c t when the i n i t i a l d epth was g r e a t e r . T h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of changes i n water c h e m i s t r y showed a s i m i l a r community response r e s u l t i n g from a change i n pH from low t o h i g h as from low s a l i n i t y t o 4 h i g h s a l i n i t y . However, they e s t i m a t e d the e f f e c t of s a l i n i t y was t h r e e times as i m p o r t a n t as t h a t of pH. They d i d not observe a g r a d i e n t of community response t o o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t , or s o i l t e x t u r e . In a n other study of v e g e t a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s i n s i m i l a r w e t l a n d s , Walker and Wehrahahn (1971) found s a l i n i t y was the most v a r i a b l e of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s measured, f o l l o w e d by n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and water regime. T h e i r a n a l y s i s of the v e g e t a t i o n d a t a however, l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i s t u r b a n c e was the major e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t a f f e c t i n g s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n , f o l l o w e d by n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and the water regime, and f i n a l l y by s a l i n i t y . They f e l t t h a t t h i s i n d i c a t e d the- s p e c i e s p r e s e n t were t o l e r a n t t o the range of s a l i n i t y o c c u r r i n g i n the study and d i s t r i b u t i o n was a f f e c t e d more by the n u t r i e n t s t a t u s and water regime f a c t o r s . In an attempt t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t of d i s t u r b a n c e on w e t l a n d s , M i l l a r (1973) i n v e s t i g a t e d the v e g e t a t i o n changes which occur i n the s h a l l o w marsh w e t l a n d s i n the aspen p a r k l a n d and g r a s s l a n d zones of the Canadian p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s under an i m p r o v i n g m o i s t u r e regime. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t two or more y e a r s of c o n t i n u o u s f l o o d i n g or r e p e a t e d autumn r e f l o o d i n g r e s u l t e d i n complete e l i m i n a t i o n of emergent s p e c i e s . Changes i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o c c u r r e d when the w e t l a n d s were gra z e d or as v e g e t a t i o n r e e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r c u l t i v a t i o n but no changes o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g mowing or b u r n i n g . A s s o c i a t i o n a n a l y s i s of the w e t l a n d v e g e t a t i o n i n the aspen grove and g r a s s l a n d r e g i o n s of Saskatchewan r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of 27 v e g e t a t i o n groups, d i s t i n c t on the b a s i s of 5 s p e c i e s p r e s e n t (Walker and Coupland, 1970). The d i v i s i o n s a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were f e l t t o be of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance s i n c e they r e p r e s e n t major l i n e s of v a r i a n c e i n the d a t a , and i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c o r r e l a t e t h e s e d i v i s i o n s w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s . The f i r s t d i v i s i o n , based on Hordeum jubatum, c o i n c i d e d w i t h a s e p a r a t i o n on the b a s i s of water regime and s a l i n i t y , w i t h d i s t u r b a n c e p l a y i n g a minor r o l e . The next two d i v i s i o n s , one i n each of the f i r s t two subgroups were both made on Bechmannia  syz igachne. Averages and ranges of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l measurements i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h i n both of the f i r s t two subgroups d i s t u r b a n c e was the'most i m p o r t a n t g r a d i e n t g o v e r n i n g s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , and t h a t i n one of the i n i t i a l subgroups water regime was an im p o r t a n t r e l a t e d g r a d i e n t , w h i l e s a l i n i t y was i m p o r t a n t i n the o t h e r subgroup. One o t h e r d i v i s i o n , based on Carex a t h e r o d e s , s e p a r a t e d the s a l i n e and deep marsh stands from a group of s h a l l o w n o n - s a l i n e meadows. F u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n s d i d not c o r r e s p o n d t o a s e p a r a t i o n on the b a s i s of any one of the t h r e e major g r a d i e n t s nor c o u l d they be e x p l a i n e d by s o i l t e x t u r e , o r g a n i c matter c o n t e n t , or water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the s o i l . Some o v e r l a p of v e g e t a t i o n groups i n what appeared t o be s i m i l a r h a b i t a t t y p e s was a t t r i b u t e d p a r t l y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s o t h e r than those c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , and p a r t l y t o p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n . In a wet meadow c l a s s i f i c a t i o n study of wet l a n d s of the s o u t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (McLaren,1973) an attempt was made t o c l a s s i f y the meadows a c c o r d i n g t o y e i l d , s o i l pH, s o i l t y p e , dominant v e g e t a t i o n , and a c o m b i n a t i o n of 6 s o i l pH and s o i l t y p e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s based on the s e s i n g l e parameters were not found t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e the o n l y common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the r e s u l t i n g groups was the d i a g n o s t i c parameter. However a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme based on a c o m b i n a t i o n of both s o i l type and s o i l pH d i v i d e d the meadows i n t o seven groups and a f a i r l y good c o r r e l a t i o n was found between t h e s e groups, y i e l d and the dominant v e g e t a t i o n . 1.4 O b j e c t i v e s The w e t l a n d s i n the C h i l c o t i n 'region a re a t p r e s e n t the s u b j e c t of a l a n d use c o n f l i c t , and the p r e s s u r e from a g r i c u l t u r a l and w i l d l i f e i n t e r e s t s i s i n c r e a s i n g the need f o r management of these a r e a s . A p r e l i m i n a r y w e t l a n d managers manual (Runka and Le w i s , 1980) has been p r e p a r e d , based i n p a r t on data c o l l e c t e d i n a survey made by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada ( S l a v i n s k i , 1979). S i n c e the e c o l o g y of the s e w e t l a n d systems i s p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d , the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o i l s and the v e g e t a t i o n i n one w e t l a n d a r e a t o determine whether, and w i t h what a c c u r a c y , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s can be p r e d i c t e d from v e g e t a t i o n . T h i s r e q u i r e s the development of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n which i s both i n d i c a t i v e of s o i l v a r i a t i o n and e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n the f i e l d . 7 CHAPTER 2 METHODS 2.1 D e s c r i p t i o n Of Study Area The study a r e a i s l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 km southwest of W i l l i a m s Lake, B.C. ( F i g u r e 1) w i t h i n the Douglas F i r -P i n e g r a s s , n o r t h e r n phase Subzone of the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone (Annas and Coupe,1979). The a r e a i s l o c a t e d i n the F r a s e r p l a t e a u , a r e g i o n t y p i f i e d by f l a t l y i n g l a v a and some se d i m e n t a r y r o c k s ( H o l l a n d , 1964). The s o i l s of the study a r e a a r e humic g l e y s o l s which grade i n t o t e r r i c m e s i s o l s i n the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the w e t l a n d . Near the o u t e r edge of the w e t l a n d the s o i l s a r e s l i g h t l y s a l i n e , but approach n e u t r a l i t y near the c e n t r e . The v e g e t a t i o n i s composed p r i m a r i l y of sedges, g r a s s e s , and r u s h e s , d i s p l a y i n g d i s t i n c t z o n a t i o n i n c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s e x t e n d i n g out from a c e n t r a l water body. To i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s on v e g e t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o v a r y t h e s e f a c t o r s , or f a c t o r complexes, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t . T h e r e f o r e the study a r e a was chosen because i t e x p e r i e n c e s a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t h y d r o l o g i c draw-down p a t t e r n s i n c e water i s l o s t o n l y t o e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n and seepage i n t o u n d e r l y i n g m i n e r a l s o i l . T h i s p a t t e r n of h y d r o l o g y reduces the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n f l o w i n g water m o d i f y i n g s a l i n i t y and n u t r i e n t l e v e l s . S i n c e the water regime v a r i e s s e a s o n a l l y , measurements were taken over a v e r y s h o r t time p e r i o d (4 d a y s ) , w h i l e water l e v e l s remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t . Only the o r g a n i c p o r t i o n of the w e t l a n d was sampled i n the s t u d y i n an attempt t o reduce F I G U R E I 9 v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from t e x t u r a l and o t h e r m o d i f y i n g f a c t o r s e n c o u n t e r e d i n m i n e r a l s o i l s . U n d i s t u r b e d w e t l a n d s a re r a r e i n t h i s r e g i o n s i n c e most have been s u b j e c t t o v a r y i n g i n t e n s i t i e s of g r a z i n g , mowing and b u r n i n g . T h e r e f o r e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o reduce the m o d i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e of s i t e d i s t u r b a n c e by s e l e c t i n g a w e t l a n d which has r e c e i v e d a c o n s t a n t form of d i s t u r b a n c e , mowing and b u r n i n g , f o r many y e a r s and where the systems have had s u f f i c i e n t time t o come i n t o s t e a d y - s t a t e w i t h t h i s p r e s s u r e . S i n c e mowing and b u r n i n g have been shown by M i l l a r (1973) t o have l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n of w e t l a n d s , the w e t l a n d i n t h i s study s h o u l d be s i m i l a r t o an u n d i s t u r b e d s i t e . 2.2 Sampling P l a n The s a m p l i n g of the v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s was conducted on f o u r t r a n s e c t s o r i e n t e d a l o n g an i n c r e a s i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e g r a d i e n t . These t r a n s e c t s were l o c a t e d a t e q u a l d i s t a n c e s from each o t h e r , w i t h the l o c a t i o n of the f i r s t t r a n s e c t chosen randomly. Sample s i t e s were l o c a t e d a t 2 meter i n t e r v a l s and randomly o f f s e t from e i t h e r s i d e of the t r a n s e c t s a d i s t a n c e of up t o 10 meters. The t r a n s e c t s were 30 meters i n l e n g t h , t h e r e f o r e 15 s i t e s per t r a n s e c t or 60 s i t e s i n t o t a l were sampled ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The o u t e r c i r c u m f e r e n c e of the study a r e a was d e f i n e d by a minimum d e p t h of 10 cm of o r g a n i c s o i l m a t e r i a l . The study a r e a was s u r v e y e d t o det e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e e l e v a t i o n of each sample s i t e . 2.2.1 V e g e t a t i o n And S o i l Sampling 10 11 The v e g e t a t i o n was sampled by l i s t i n g t he s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n a one square meter q u a d r a t and v i s u a l l y e s t i m a t i n g the c o v e r of each s p e c i e s u s i n g the Braun-Blanquet c o v e r abundance s c a l e ( T a b l e 1 ) . S p e c i e s names (Appendix 1) a r e a c c o r d i n g t o H i t c h c o c k and C r o n q u i s t (1973) and the common names a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o T a y l o r and MacBryde (1977). Specimens of p l a n t s p e c i e s c o l l e c t e d a re d e p o s i t e d i n the U.B.C. Herbarium. S o i l p i t s were e x c a v a t e d d i r e c t l y beneath the v e g e t a t i o n sample q u a d r a t . A complete p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n was made a t each s i t e and a composite sample of o r g a n i c s o i l m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d . These samples were s e a l e d i n p l a s t i c bags then r e t u r n e d t o the l a b o r a t o r y f o r sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . 2.3 A n a l y s i s Of S o i l Samples Bu l k d e n s i t y of the o r g a n i c s o i l m a t e r i a l was de t e r m i n e d by e x c a v a t i n g a h o l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 cm 3. .The volume of the m a t e r i a l removed was d e t e r m i n e d by l i n i n g the h o l e w i t h p l a s t i c , and measuring the volume of water r e q u i r e d t o f i l l i t . S i n c e e x c a v a t i o n caused some l o c a l compaction i n the o r g a n i c s o i l m a t e r i a l some e r r o r was i n c u r r e d . The s o i l samples were r e t u r n e d t o the l a b o r a t o r y , weighed, and subsamples oven d r i e d a t 105° C f o r 12 h o u r s , c o o l e d i n a d e s i c c a t o r , and weighed t o det e r m i n e m o i s t u r e l o s s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was used t o c o r r e c t o t h e r v a l u e s t o an oven d ry b a s i s . The r e m a i n i n g s o i l was a i r d r i e d a t 25° C, c r u s h e d w i t h a wooden r o l l i n g p i n then passed t h r o u g h a 2 mm s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s i e v e . Roots and rhizomes not broken up by t h i s p r o c e d u r e were ground i n a W i l e y m i l l , f i t t e d w i t h a 2 mm s i e v e . T h i s ground TABLE 1 BRAUN-BLANQUET COVER-ABUNDANCE SCALE ( a f t e r Mueller-Dombois and E l l e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) 5 -any number,with c o v e r more than 3/4 of the r e f e r e n c e a r e a 4 -any number, w i t h 1/2-3/4 cov e r 3 -any number, w i t h 1/4-1/2 co v e r 2 -any number, w i t h 1/20-1/4 co y e r 1 -numerous,but l e s s than 1/20 co v e r or s c a t t e r e d , w i t h c o v e r up t o 1/20 + -few, w i t h s m a l l c o v e r - - s o l i t a r y , w i t h s m a l l c o v e r 13 p l a n t m a t e r i a l was then t h o r o u g h l y mixed w i t h the o r g a n i c s o i l m a t e r i a l . Samples were s t o r e d i n a i r - t i g h t p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s . V a l u e s f o r pH were measured i n both a 1:6 s o i l : w a t e r s u s p e n s i o n and i n a 1:6 s o i l : 0 . 0 1 M CaC12 s u s p e n s i o n u s i n g a PHM62 Radiometer pH meter. E l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y of a s a t u r a t e d s o i l p a s t e e x t r a c t was measured by a Radiometer type CDM2E c o n d u c t i v i t y meter. T o t a l n i t r o g e n was measured on a 1.00 g subsample u s i n g a semi-micro K j e l d a h l p r o c e d u r e t o c o n v e r t the n i t r o g e n i n t o ammonium (Bremner,1965). The ammonium i n s o l u t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d c o l o u r i m e t r i c a l l y u s i n g the Technicon A u t o a n a l y z e r I I . Carbon i n the c a r b o n a t e form was dete r m i n e d by g e n t l y h e a t i n g a 5.00 g subsample w i t h 50 ml of 0.48 N HCl and t i t r a t i n g the s u p e r n a t a n t t o a p h e n o l p h t h a l e i n end p o i n t w i t h NaOH ( A l l i s o n & Moodie, 1965). The r e s i d u a l s o i l m a t e r i a l , f r e e of c a r b o n a t e , was r i n s e d t h o r o u g h l y w i t h d i s t i l l e d water and oven d r i e d at 105° C o v e r n i g h t , c o o l e d i n a d e s i c c a t o r , and weighed t o the n e a r e s t 0.001 g. The samples were then heated t o 400° C f o r 8 hours i n a m u f f l e f u r n a c e , c o o l e d i n a d e s i c c a t o r , and reweighed. The weight l o s s was a t t r i b u t e d t o l o s s on i g n i t i o n of o r g a n i c m a t t e r (Hesse,1971). O r g a n i c carbon was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the o r g a n i c matter c o n t e n t by 1.724 (Broadbent, 1965). T h i s method of d e t e r m i n i n g o r g a n i c carbon was n e c c e s a r y because h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c a r b o n a t e s p r o h i b i t e d the use of s i m p l e d r y combustion methods, and the c h l o r i d e s p r e s e n t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the wet combustion method of Wa l k e y - B l a c k . A v a i l a b l e c a l c i u m , magnesium, and p o t a s s i u m were e x t r a c t e d from 10.00 g subsamples by a Morgan's e x t r a c t i o n method ( G r e w e l i n g & Peech, 1965) • and a n a l y z e d by atomic 14 a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y . A v a i l a b l e phosphorus s o l u b l e i n sodium c a r b o n a t e was measured on a Turner s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r (Olsen and Dean, 1965). The Pyrophosphate index was d e t e r m i n e d on 5 cm 3 subsamples of m o i s t o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l (Canada S o i l Survey Committee,1978). A l l a n a l y s e s , except e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y , were performed i n d u p l i c a t e on each sample. The means of t h e s e r e s u l t s are l i s t e d i n Appendix 2. 2.4 N u m e r i c a l A n a l y s i s Of S o i 1 And V e g e t a t i o n Data The v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s d a t a were c l a s s i f i e d s e p a r a t e l y , then the 'various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F i g u r e 3 r e p r e s e n t s s c h e m a t i c a l l y the p r o c e e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2.4.1 Computer A s s i s t e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Of V e g e t a t i o n Data The v e g e t a t i o n d a t a was c l a s s i f i e d by t h r e e methods. The f i r s t , t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s , was performed u s i n g the Ceska-Roemer program f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i e s - r e l e v e groups (Ceska and Roemer, 1971) . T h i s program s o r t s v e g e t a t i o n t a b l e s i n s i m i l a r manner t o the t r a d i t i o n a l European method of B r a u n - B l a n q u e t . I t p e r f o r m s s i m u l t a n e o u s Q and R t ype a n a l y s i s and e x t r a c t s from the t a b l e those s p e c i e s groups which o p t i m a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e c o r r e s p o n d i n g groups of r e l e v e s , or p l o t s . S i n g l e s p e c i e s can a l s o be d i c t a t e d i n t o the t a b l e t o form groups of r e l e v e s . The second method a p p l i e d t o the v e g e t a t i o n d a t a was a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , u s i n g the program c o n t a i n e d i n UBC C-Group FIGURE 3 WETLAND ANALYSIS CORRELATIONS AMONGST SOIL PARAMETERS SOIL CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS BY FACTOR AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS Z VEGETATION EVALUATION OF CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNIFICANCE TESTS RELATING VEGETATION DATA TO SOIL GROUPS DIRECT CORRELATIONS r Lit REGRI JEAR ]SSION CLASSIFICATION OF VEGETATION BY TABULAR ANALYSIS CLUSTER ANALYSIS COENOS ANALYSIS i l 2 r .2 EVALUATION OF CLASSIFICATIONS USING SIGNIFICANCE TESTS OF SOIL PARAMETERS DETERMINE TYPE, ACCURACY, AND USEFULNESS OF VEGETATION-SOIL RELATIONSHIPS 16 ( P a t t e r s o n and W h i t a k e r , 1971). T h i s a n a l y s i s employs a one-parameter t e c h n i q u e , t h a t i s i t performs a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e l e v e s , a Q t e c h n i q u e . The c l u s t e r r o u t i n e i s based on the h i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g method of Ward (1963) which s u c c e s s i v e l y groups each i t e m and a t each stage c a l c u l a t e s an o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n , which i s some measure of the s i m i l a r i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r arrangement of the items i n groups a t any one s t a g e . T h i s o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i s the sum of the w i t h i n group sum of squares (Sneath and S o k a l , 1 9 7 3 ) . The t h i r d method of v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s combines two one-parameter methods, d i s s i m i l a r i t y a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . The program package used t o p e r f o r m t h i s a n a l y s i s was Coenos, (Ceska, e_t a l , 1975). Coenos employs d i s s i m i l a r i t y a n a l y s i s f o r d e f i n i n g groups of r e l e v e s , or p l o t g r o u p s , and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s p e c i e s o r d e r and o r d e r of r e l e v e s w i t h i n p l o t g r o u p s . I t has been suggested t h a t i n some c a s e s the use of th e s e Q and R a n a l y s i s superimposed on the f i n a l t a b l e may approximate the r e s u l t s of two parameter t e c h n i q u e s (Ceska, et  a l , 1975) . 2.4.2 Computer A s s i s t e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Of S o i l Data S o i l s d a t a were c l a s s i f i e d by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , based on thos e parameters shown by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o be the most i m p o r t a n t and independent. A s e q u e n t i a l , a g g l o m e r a t i v e , h i e r a r c h i c a l , n o n o v e r l a p p i n g method of c l u s t e r i n g was employed, u s i n g E u c l i d e a n d i s t a n c e as the d i s t a n c e measure (BMDP 2M, Engelman,1979). P r i n c i p l e components were used t o e x t r a c t f a c t o r s from a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x (BMDP 4M, Fran and 17 Jennrich.,1979) . 2.4.3 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s As a measure of the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y of b o t h s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n parameters a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a l l a c c e p t a b l e v a l u e s i n the c o m p u t a t i o n , program BBDP 8D was used t o p e r f o r m t h i s a n a l y s i s . (Dixon and Brown,1979). L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r tho s e parameters which showed a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (BMDP 6D, Chasen, 1979). 2.4.4. S i g n i f i c a n c e T e s t s The Mann-Whitney ( S i e g e l , 1956) one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e by ranks t e s t was used t o determine which i n d i v i d u a l s o i l p arameters e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between g r o u p i n g s formed by the v a r i o u s v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n methods and by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the s o i l s d a t a . Program BMDP 3S (Dixon and Brown,1979) was used t o perfor m t h i s a n a l y s i s . 18 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS OF VEGETATION ANALYSIS 3.1 T a b u l a r A n a l y s i s The Ceska-Roemer model i d e n t i f i e d one s p e c i e s group, which o c c u r r e d i n 41 of the 60 p l o t s . T h i s inadequate d i v i s i o n of the p l o t s may be due t o the r e s t r i c t e d number of s p e c i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n the s t u d y a r e a . S i n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems based upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of dominant s p e c i e s , r a t h e r than the complete f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , have been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i n a r e a s of s p e c i e s - p o o r v e g e t a t i o n ( M u e l l e r Dombois and E l l e n b e r g , 1974) a t a b l e was d i c t a t e d i n t o the program which t r e a t e d each dominant s p e c i e s as a s i n g l e s p e c i e s group. Seven s p e c i e s were used, Calamagrost i s n e g l e c t a , Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s , Carex  r o s t r a t a , Hordeum jubatum, Juncus a r c t i c u s , P o t e n t i l l a  p e n s y l v a n i c a , and Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e . The r e s u l t i n g t a b l e c o n t a i n e d 10 r e l e v e t y p e s , many of them c o n t a i n i n g o n l y one or two r e l e v e s . By removing from the t a b l e two dominant s p e c i e s , Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e and Juncus a r c t i c u s , which had broad d i s t r i b u t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and P o t e n t i l l a n o r v e g i c a w hich o c c u r e d w i t h v e r y low c o v e r i n s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t was p o s s i b l e t o g e n e r a t e a t a b l e which c o n t a i n e d o n l y 5 r e l e v e type's ( T a b l e 2) . A Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s r e l e v e type was d e f i n e d by the o c c u r e n c e of Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s but i t can a l s o c o n t a i n Hordeum  jubatum, C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a and Juncus a r c t i c u s a t lower c o v e r v a l u e s . The second r e l e v e t y p e , the Hordeum jubatum , was d e f i n e d TABLE 2 TABULAR ANALYSIS Community Types Carex praegr-a c i l i s Hor-de um Calama-q r o s t i s Calamagrostis--Carex r o s t r a t a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 3 2 4 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 1 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 7 8 1 3-1 9 0 9 2 3 1 2 0 6 2 3 4 5 5 6 4 7 8 9 1 6 8 7 1 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NO. OF SSP. 2 3 4 3 4 4 5 5 3 4 4 3 4 6 6 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 6 4 5 5 4 4 4 GROUP 1 3 CAREX PRAEGRACILIS 5 4 3 GROUP 2 7 HORDEUM JUBATUM 2 1 2 1 + 1 GROUP 3 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NEGLECTA 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 + 1 1 2 3 GROUP 4 4 CAREX ROSTRATA + + + + + 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 ACCOMP.SPEC. 8 dUNCUS ARCTICUS 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 + 2 3 3 1 + 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 14 TARAXACUM OFFICINALE - + 1 - 2 1 2 2 1 + 2 1 + * + 1 1 + 2 1 1 + 1 + + + 1 + + + + + 2 + 1 10 POTENT ILLA PENSYLVANICA - - - - - - + 9 POTENT ILLA NORVEGICA -16 SOLIDAGO SPATHULATA T»PIII AP ANAI YSIS NO. OF SSP. GROUP 1 3 CAREX PRAEGRACILIS GROUP 2 7 HORDEUM JUBATUM GROUP 3 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NEGLECTA GROUP 4 4 CAREX ROSTRATA ACCOMP.SPEC. 8 JUNCUS ARCTICUS 14 TARAXACUM OFFICINALE 10 POTENTILLA PENSYLVANICA 9 POTENTILLA NORVEGICA 16 SOLIDAGO SPATHULATA TABLE 2 CONT. Carex r o s t r a t a o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 1 4 4 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 5 2 4 3 4 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 7 9 0 1 3 5 0 O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 2 2 2 1 2 1 4 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 2 3 3 1 21 by the occurence of both Hordeurn jubatum and C a l a m a g r o s t i s  n e q l e c t a . Other s p e c i e s which o c c u r r e d i n t h i s type were Juncus  a r c t i c u s , Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e , and P o t e n t i 1 1 a p e n s y l v a n i c a . The o c c u r r e n c e of C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a i n the absence of the o t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s p e c i e s d e f i n e d the t h i r d r e l e v e t y p e . Juncus a r c t i c u s , Taraxacum of f i c i n a l e , P o t e n t i l l a p e n s y l v a n i c a ,  P o t e n t i 1 1 a n o r v e g i c a , and Ranunculus inamoenous can a l s o occur i n t h i s t y p e . The f o u r t h r e l e v e type was d e f i n e d by the o c c u r e n c e of both C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a and Carex r o s t r a t a . Other s p e c i e s which always occur i n t h i s type are Juncus a r c t i c u s and Taraxacum  of f i c i n a l e . S i n c e t h i s type c o n t a i n s two d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s p e c i e s i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s an ecotone, and not a d i s t i n c t community t y p e . Carex r o s t r a t a dominated r e l e v e s d e f i n e d the f i f t h r e l e v e t y p e . None of the o t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g s p e c i e s o c c u r i n t h i s t y p e , a l t h o u g h a few o c c u r e n c e s of Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e , Juncus  a r c t i c u s , P o t e n t i l l a n o r v e g i c a , and S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s were obs e r v e d . These r e l e v e t y p e s , s i n c e they were d e f i n e d by dominant s p e c i e s , s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t the p a t t e r n of c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s of v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s v i s u a l l y apparent i n the f i e l d . 3.2 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s The c l u s t e r i n g r o u t i n e r e s u l t e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a dendrogram l i n k i n g groups of r e l e v e s e x h i b i t i n g the g r e a t e s t s i m i l a r i t y ( F i g u r e 4 ) . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the cover v a l u e s of s p e c i e s , not s i m p l y presence or absence as i n FIGURE 4 PLOT Caro» pratgroci l i t I I I ? 8 8 Colamagrostii Hordtum , 2 4 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 1 |3 8 8 ? 8?S % S S 3 8 8 U 1 Calamagrost is J u n c u l I I 2 2 2 4 I 2 2 2 O O I I I 0 i 0 0 I 7 8 0 3 2 3 0 9 7 1 Care» rostrata Calamagrot t i i C. rostrata I 1 4 4 2 3 3 I 2 I 2 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 '2 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 11 1.1 l l I u u 23 the o t h e r two v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s r o u t i n e s . The number of f i n a l g r o u p i n g s chosen i s s u b j e c t i v e , based upon a d e s i r e t o produce the s m a l l e s t number of c l a s s e s p o s s i b l e w h i l e keeping the v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the groups m i n i m a l and m a x i m i z i n g the v a r i a t i o n between groups. F i v e groups were s e l e c t e d (Table 3 ) . One group was i d e n t i c a l t o the Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s community type formed by t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s . These t h r e e p l o t s o c c u r e d a t the upper end of T r a n s e c t One and appear t o be s i m i l a r to the d r y e r a r e a s of the w e t l a n d which were not sampled. The o t h e r groups formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s are q u i t e u n l i k e the r e s u l t s of t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s . The second group, the Calamagrostis-Hordeum community t y p e , i s formed of p l o t s w i t h m o d e r a t e l y h i g h c o v e r v a l u e s of Calamagrost i s n e g l e c t a , moderate co v e r v a l u e s of Juncus  a r c t i c u s , low cover v a l u e s of Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e , and some oc c u r e n c e s of Hordeum jubatum, and Carex r o s t r a t a w i t h low t o moderate c o v e r v a l u e s . The t h i r d group, the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s community t y p e , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m o d e r a t e l y h i g h cover v a l u e s of C a l a m a q r o s t i s n e g l e c t a , and m o d e r a t e l y h i g h c o v e r v a l u e s of Juncus a r c t i c u s . Taraxacum,of f i c i n a l e o c c u r s i n a l l p l o t s but w i t h c o v e r v a l u e s r a n g i n g from v e r y low to moderate. Carex  r o s t r a t a o c c u r s i n 50% of the r e l e v e s w i t h c o v e r v a l u e s g e n e r a l l y low t o moderate. The f o u r t h group, the Carex r o s t r a t a t y p e , c o n s i s t s of r e l e v e s w i t h h i g h cover v a l u e s of Carex r o s t r a t a . C a l a m a g r o s t i s  n e g l e c t a and Juncus a r c t i c u s o ccur i n about 25% of the p l o t s a t moderate c o v e r v a l u e s . Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e o c c u r s i n 50% of TABLE 3 CLUSTER ANALYSIS Coiran u n i t y Types C a r e x p r a e g -r a c i l i s C a l a m a g r o s t i s -Hordeum C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n c u s C a l a m a g r o s t i s -C a rex r o s t r a t a 0 0 1 i 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 6 9 1 8 1 2 3 5 6 0 4 0 1 0 4 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 7 8 0 7 9 0 1 2 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 4 5 8 9 0 1 6 8 3 7 V 2 1 6 u 2 1 7 NO. 1 OF SSP. ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM 0 0 2 3 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 5 0 4 0 4 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 4 3 5 6 4 4 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 5 4 4 4 6 4 2 3 0 5 0 5 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NEGLECTA 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 + 3 CAREX PRAEGRACILIS 5 4 3 4 CAREX ROSTRATA - 4 + + 2 1 + + 2 2 1 + - 2 2 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 5 ERIGERON LONCHOPHYLLUS + 6 GEUM MACROPHYLLUM 7 HORDEUM JUBATUM 2 1 2 1 + 1 8 JUNCUS ARCTICUS 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 + 1 + 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 9 POTENTILLA NORVEGICA 10 POTENTILLA PENSYLVANICA -1 1 RANUNCULUS INAMOENOUS 12 RANUNCULUS OCCIDENTALIS + 13 STELLARIA LONGIPES 14 TARAXACUM OFFICINALE - + + 2 1 1 + + 1 • + 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 + _ 1 1 + + + + + + + + 15 VICIA AMERICANA + 16 SOLIDAGO SPATHULATA CLUSTER ANALYSIS NO. OF SSP. GROUP 1 t ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NEGLECTA 3 CAREX PRAEGRACILIS 4 CAREX ROSTRATA 5 ERIGERON LONCHOPHYLLUS 6 GEUM MACROPHYLLUM 7 HOROEUM JUBATUM 8 JUNCUS ARCTICUS 9 POTENTILLA NORVEGICA 10 POTENTILLA PENSYLVANICA 11 RANUNCULUS INAMOENOUS 12 RANUNCULUS OCCIDENTALS 13 STELLARIA LONGIPES t4 TARAXACUM OFFICINALE 15 VICIA AMERICANA 16 SOLIDAGO SPATHULATA TABLE 3 CONT. C a r e x r o s t r a t a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 7 2 3 4 5 8 9 0 1 2 4 5 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 2 2 1 2 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 5 + + + - - 4 + 26 the r e l e v e s a t low cover v a l u e s . The f i f t h group of r e l e v e s , the ^ C a l a m a g r o s t i s-Carex  r o s t r a t a community t y p e , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h c o v e r v a l u e s of Carex r o s t r a t a and Juncus a r c t i c u s , w i t h moderate t o h i g h c o v e r of C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a i n 80% of the r e l e v e s . Taraxacum of f i c i n a l e o c c u r s i n most p l o t s w i t h low c o v e r v a l u e s . 3.3 Coenos A n a l y s i s The d i s s i m i l a r i t y g r o u p i n g of Coenos r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of s i x groups. One of t h e s e groups c o n s i s t e d of o n l y f o u r p l o t s and they d i f f e r e d from a l a r g e r group o n l y by the presence of Taraxacum of f i c i n a l e a t v e r y low c o v e r v a l u e s . To s i m p l i f y the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h i s group was amalgamated w i t h the l a r g e r Carex r o s t r a t a community type (Table 4 ) . The r a t h e r unique Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s group was a l s o d e l i n e a t e d by t h i s a n a l y s i s , but a f o u r t h p l o t was added t o the group. Juncus a r c t i c u s o c c u r e d i n a l l of t h e s e p l o t s a t low c o v e r v a l u e s , w h i l e Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s and Hordeum jubatum o c c u r e d i n 75% and C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a i n 50% of the p l o t s . A second community t y p e , the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s t y p e , was formed of p l o t s w i t h m o d e r a t e l y h i g h c o v e r v a l u e s of C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a and v e r y low t o moderate co v e r v a l u e s of both Taracacum of f i c i n a l e and Juncus a r c t i c u s . The t h i r d t y p e , the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s - " C a r e x r o s t r a t a community, c o n t a i n s Juncus a r c t i c u s i n each p l o t , w i t h c o v e r v a l u e s r a n g i n g from v e r y low t o moderate. Carex r o s t r a t a o c c u r s i n a l l but one p l o t i n the group and a l s o has a wide range of c o v e r v a l u e s . Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e o c c u r e d w i t h low c o v e r i n 27 ( 3 PI — tn O t p> •» co < D CN — CN O n PJ CN n CN Doom O T r» CN CN D tt O P) O « n CN CN ta- D V O N o « m 4 CN ta-D n o n O in CN CD CN 1 4 . * D t O i n O T r> CN PI 4 M •U o p> o oi O <r CN p> O 4 in ui O n - " O t CN tn CO 4 0 3 u u o « - n f ) 4 c X 3 CU hi o •» -P) 4 O « — V o •» CN * P) 1 u o n - « O PI CN rd u O PI *- P> O 1 O N o T o at O ex — f~ O N O O PI O PI O Pi O in o •» 4 P» P) 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 O - - - O Ul -i CN 1 tis o « - o o to 1 tn 1 P) t CN tis O V o - O in o 4 CN 4 4 CO Ul O N O O O in CN 4 P) 1 *" 0 3 U 0 X cu o - - o O <r CN - P> -CP C o - o oi O to CN t CN t 4 1 rd 3 E hi r3 U O Pi — 10 O in CN n CN 4 4 re O V o ^  o in m CN CN 4 Cal O Pi O eo o m - r> 1 P3 "~ Cal o v o u o to p> p> 4 P) 1 4 O - O i- O in PJ P) 1 4 1 O — O 03 O in r> — P) 1 i i CP re Ul O Pi O 00 O T r> CN 1 Ul O N -~ P> O PI p> P) CN g -H 3 O CN O r- O P> CN P) CN rO -P iH Ul O c O N - - o •» CN P) 1 CN re 0 U U 3 o - o » O 1 CN + CN 4 hi O — O W O t CO -1 O - OV O PI « CN CN O - O Pi O T - rt — "~ Ul O - O M O PI CN *~ 1 *H X CricH o - o - o « in CN 0) (D •H 0 ra M ra c_> a i-i < V) < tn tn f— _J X 3 _) < z 3 4 UJ _ j < O t- _J 4 >, i/) >- > z z 1/1 4 f-_J « UJ I Z Ul Ul UJ Z 4 JJ o _j 0. 3 UJ > o a a _J •H Ul Ii. Z (J 4 s _l _J X 3 tn 3 > ac z X 4 u 3 (J 4 Z i c CU _J l/j 4 o >- r— O o UJ z CJ z u. 4 3 £ _J tt < z I 4 z a. o o u. O 4 g >1 x t-V) O UJ oc f- o _ l a. o 00 3 o < 4 I/I v> _l O QC tn c E-* o 4 i/) QC "3 QC _J 3 3 4 X ui 0 > u < — u a a a a o QC z o QC (J 4 z X 3 < _J t— -J .J 3 U _ l 3 U QC 4 3 CJ 4 X 4 o a 4 < z Ifl _) I CJ x < X UJ X Ul ac Ul a z 3 Ul a Of 3 U z z UJ t-z Ul K z z 1 _ l _ J UJ X 4 QC 4 O _J < < 4 < QC Ul a 3 o O < 4 H- 4 o t/> SON o a 4 3 o u o UJ U z Q. a. QC QC l/> t— > COE i QC w w If) ID a 0) O CN P) to COENOS .ANALYSIS NO. OF SSP. GROUP 1 1 ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM 2 CALAMAGROSTIS NEGLECTA 3 CAREX PRAEGRACILIS 4 CAREX ROSTRATA 5 ERIGERON LONCHOPHYLLUS 6 GEUM MACROPHYLLUM 7 HORDEUM JUBATUM 8 JUNCUS ARCTICUS 9 POTENTILLA NORVEGICA tO POTENTILLA PENSYLVANICA 11 RANUNCULUS INAMOENOUS 12 RANUNCULUS OCCIOENTALIS 13 STELLARIA LONGIPES 14 TARAXACUM OFFICINALE 15 VICIA AMERICANA 16 SOLIDAGO SPATHULATA TABLE 4 CONT. Carex r o s t r a t a O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 14 3 3 4 2 4 4 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 6 2 3 1 0 5 0 4 3 5 4 1 1 4 2 3 5 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 + + 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 1 1 1 + + •+ + + + + 1 + •29. most of the p l o t s , w h i l e C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a was found w i t h moderate t o low c o v e r i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% of the p l o t s . A f o u r t h community t y p e , the Carex r o s t r a t a - J u n c u s t y p e , c o n s i s t e d of p l o t s which a l l c o n t a i n e d Carex r o s t r a t a , Taraxacum  of f i c i n a l e , and Calamagrost i s n e g l e c t a a t low t o moderate co v e r v a l u e s . Juncus a r c t i c u s o c c u r e d w i t h moderate c o v e r i n most p l o t s i n the group. The f i f t h community the Carex r o s t r a t a type was formed by amalgamating two groups dominated by Carex r o s t r a t a w i t h moderate t o h i g h cover v a l u e s . Taraxacum of f i c i n a l e o c c u r e d w i t h v e r y low c o v e r i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% of the p l o t s . 30 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF SOIL ANALYSIS 4.1 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s The c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s showed two major groups of i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d s o i l parameters ( F i g u r e 5, Appendix 3 ) . One group was composed of those parameters r e l a t e d t o s a l t c o n t e n t and s o i l r e a c t i o n ; pH i n water, pH i n CaC12, carbon as C03, c a l c i u m , magnesium, and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y . Most of these parameters are s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , except the two pH parameters and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y which were p o s i t i v e l y , but l e s s s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d . The second group of i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d parameters was composed of o r g a n i c c a r b o n , n i t r o g e n , and p o t a s s i u m . The f i r s t two parameters were s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , w h i l e the l a t t e r was l e s s s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . Bulk d e n s i t y and e l e v a t i o n appear t o be r e l a t e d t o t h i s group s i n c e they a re p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , but n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both o r g a n i c carbon and n i t r o g e n . The pyrophosphate i n d e x , which s h o u l d r e f l e c t , the degree of d e c o m p o s i t i o n of the o r g a n i c m a t t e r , i s not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the o r g a n i c m atter group but i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group. Phosphorus shows o n l y a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group but i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h many of the c o n s t i t u e n t s of the s o i l r e a c t i o n -s a l t c o n t e n t group. 4.2 F a c t o r A n a l y s i s The aim of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s t o e x p l a i n o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s 32 among v a r i a b l e s i n terms of s i m p l e r r e l a t i o n s . I t s most v a l u a b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n those s c i e n c e s where a g r e a t a r r a y of phenomena a r e m u l t i p l y d e t e r m i n e d and where the c o n c e p t u a l l y independent v a r i a b l e s a re not e a s i l y l o c a t e d and agreed upon ( C a t t e l l , 1965). F i f t e e n f a c t o r s were c a l c u l a t e d , and the c u m u l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by each f a c t o r i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 5. The s o r t e d r o t a t e d f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , g i v e n i n Ta b l e 6, shows the f i r s t f o u r f a c t o r s a r r a n g e d i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t o r s . The parameters have been a r r a n g e d such t h a t f o r each s u c c e s s i v e f a c t o r , l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r than 0.5000 appear f i r s t . L o a d i n g s l e s s than 0.2500 have been r e p l a c e d by z e r o . The f i r s t f o u r f a c t o r s e x p l a i n over 77% of the t o a l v a r i a t i o n i n the data s e t . The parameters which c o n t r i b u t e to each f a c t o r a re o f t e n h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . F a c t o r one i s composed p r i m a r i l y of parameters r e l a t i n g t o s o i l r e a c t i o n and s a l t c o n t e n t ; pH i n water, pH i n CaC12, c a l c i u m , magnesium, carbon as C03, and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y . F a c t o r two i s formed m a i n l y by two groups of c o r r e l a t e d p a rameters. O r g a n i c c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n a re v e r y s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w h i l e e l e v a t i o n and b u l k d e n s i t y a re s t r o n g l y n e g e t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . F a c t o r t h r e e i s dominated by t h r e e p a r a m e t e r s , p o t a s s i u m , phosphorus, and the depth of the Om l a y e r . The f o u r t h f a c t o r i s dominated by the two s o i l depth p a r a m e t e r s . To reduce the w e i g h t i n g of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by a s s e s s i n g d a t a w i t h c o r r e l a t e d p r o p e r t i e s , f i v e p arameters were s e l e c t e d which r e f l e c t e d the g r o u p i n g s r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t o r 33 TABLE 5 VARIANCE OF SOIL FACTORS F a c t o r V a r i a n c e E x p l a i n e d C u m u l a t i v e P r o p o r t i o n ( E i g e n v a l u e ) of T o t a l V a r i a n c e 1 6.094186 0.406279 2 2.752069 0.589750 3 1.601303 0.696504 4 1.135096 0.772177 5 0.906300 0.832597 6 0.769852 0.883920 7 0.469233 0.925203 8 0.366441 0.939632 9 0.287583 0.958804 10 0.255575 0.975843 11 0.1,95958 0.988906 12 0.086842 0.994696 13 0.042498 0.997529 14 0.024027 0.999131 15 0.012036 1.000000 34 TABLE 6 SORTED ROTATED FACTOR LOADINGS* Parameter F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 F a c t o r 3 F a c t o r 4 C03 0 .906 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 Mg 0 .899 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 pH(CaC12) 0 .860 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 Ca 0 .853 0. 0 -0. 296 0. 0 pH(H20) 0 .850 0. 0 -0. 323 0. 0 E.C. 0 .829 -0. 259 0. 0 0. 0 Org. C 0 .0 0. 924 0. 0 0. 0 N 0 .0 0. 913 0. 0 .0'. 0 E l e v . 0 .0 -0. 721 0. 424 0. 0 B.D. 0 .0 -0. 713 0. 0 0. 0 P -0 .326 0. 0 0. 794 0. 0 Om 0 .0 0. 0 -0. 686 0. .533 K -0 .309 0. 454 0. 624 0. 0 Of 0 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 930 I ndex 0 .0 0. 458 0. 0 0. 0 * f a c t o r l o a d i n g s l e s s than 0.2500 have been r e p l a c e d by z e r o . 35 a n a l y s i s . The carbon as C03 was s e l e c t e d from f a c t o r one because i t was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the o t h e r parameters i n the f a c t o r , y e t was not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s . S i n c e two groups of c o r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s e x i s t i n f a c t o r two, two p a r a m e t e r s , o r g a n i c c a r b o n , and e l e v a t i o n were s e l e c t e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s f a c t o r . These parameters r e p r e s e n t the p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d groups i n t h i s f a c t o r . Phosphorus was s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t f a c t o r t h r e e , and depth of the Of l a y e r was s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t f a c t o r f o u r . These f i v e parameters were then used i n the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the s o i l s d a t a . 4.3 C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s r e f e r s t o n u m e r i c a l methods f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g and d e f i n i n g groups of m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e e n t i t i e s (Sneath and S o k a l , 1973). The r e s u l t i n g dendrogram of r e l a t i o n s h i p must be d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p i n g s which meet the need of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , too many g r o u p i n g s would r e s u l t s i n t o o f i n e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and too few would not c o n t a i n enough i n f o r m a t i o n . The p o s i t i o n i n g of the b o u n d a r i e s i n a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i s a s u b j e c t of much d i s c u s s i o n . Sneath and S o k a l (1973) m a i n t a i n t h a t the p o s i t i o n and number of the b o u n d a r i e s i s a r b i t r a r y , but t h a t they must be based on comparable c r i t e r i a i n a l l r e g i o n s of the taxonomic space under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, i n e c o l o g i c a l systems i t seems the c r i t e r i a f o r d i v i s i o n i n t o groups s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e s i n c e a l l the g r o u p i n g s are not formed by the same number of g r o u p i n g s t e p s . The s o i l s d a t a was reduced t o f i v e p a r a m e t e r s which were shown by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o be the most i m p o r t a n t b e f o r e the 36 c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s was performed. The r e s u l t i n g dendrograph was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r groups ( F i g u r e 6 ) . The Mann-Whitney t e s t showed the s o i l i n group one i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t from t h a t of the o t h e r t h r e e groups i n pH i n w a t e r , pH i n CaC12, e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y , carbon as C03, c a l c i u m , magnesium, n i t r o g e n and e l e v a t i o n (Table 7 ) . Group two i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from group t h r e e , but can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from group f o u r by s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n n i t r o g e n , o r g a n i c c a r b o n , and e l e v a t i o n . The s o i l of group t h r e e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the group f o u r s o i l i n pH i n w a t e r , pH i n CaC12, carbon as C03, c a l c i u m , magnesium, phosphorus, n i t r o g e n , o r g a n i c carbon and e l e v a t i o n . FIGURE 6 PLOT AMALG. DISTANCE 0.476 0.545 0.582 0.720 0.777 0.613 0.896 0.926 0.938 1.008 1.039 0. 988 1.063 1.067 1. 149 1.307 I. 320 I. 388 1.308 1.446 1.638 I. 658 I. 807 I. 83*5 1. 869 2. 191 2. 377 2. 840 GROUP I I I I I I I I I 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 6 7 0 9 8 5 4 GROUP 2 1 4 2 3 1 » 1 i 4 0 . . 8 5 4 9 GROUP 4 2 4 4 3 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 M 5 i I § 1 ? i i i I 3 15 8 § 8 1 ! 6 ? 8 A 8 8 o L f u I 3 3 4 6R0UP 3 1 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 3 3 2 2 1 I I 2 u OJ 38 TABLE 7 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH SOIL GROUPINGS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test,*=0.05) Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 pH(H20) pH(CaC12) E.C. C03-C Ca Mg Org-C N E l e v . pH(H20)pH(CaC12) E.C. C03-C Ca Mg Org-C N E l e v . K P Index pH(H20) pH(CaC12) E.C. C03-C Ca Mg K P E l e v . N Index Group 1 N Org-C E l e v Group 2 pH(H20) pH(CaCl2) C03-C Ca Mg P Org-C N E l e v Group 3 39 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VEGETATION AND SOIL ANALYSIS 5 .1 C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s The r e s u l t s of the c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s between p l a n t s p e c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s o i l parameters d i d not e x p l a i n much of the v e g e t a t i o n z o n a t i o n which was o b s e r v e d . Only 4 s p e c i e s showed any s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s o i l p a r a m e t e r s , (Table 8, Appendix 3) and of the s e o n l y Carex r o s t r a t a i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h more than one p r o p e r t y . T h i s s p e c i e s appears t o r e f l e c t the o r g a n i c m a t t e r g r o u p i n g observed i n the s o i l parameter c o r r e l a t i o n s . Carex r o s t r a t a i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h both n i t r o g e n and o r g a n i c carbon w h i l e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e l e v a t i o n . The low number of o c c u r e n c e s of many of the s p e c i e s , ( o n l y s i x s p e c i e s o c c u r e d i n more than f i v e p l o t s ) and the broad d i s t r i b u t i o n ranges of the dominant s p e c i e s may c o n t r i b u t e t o the l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n s o b s e r v e d between the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n of s i s p e c i e s and s o i l p a r a m e t e r s . An attempt t o det e r m i n e p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between those s p e c i e s and s o i l parameters which e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was u n s u c c e s f u l . R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s not a p p r o p r i a t e because of the d i s c o n t i n u o u s form of the v e g e t a t i o n d a t a r e s u l t i n g from the e s t i m a t i o n of c o v e r i n broad c o v e r c l a s s e s . V e g e t a t i o n d a t a a s s e s s e d as p e r c e n t c o v e r would be more s u i t a b l e f o r such n u m e r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . 40 TABLE 8 SPECIES-PARAMETER CORRELATIONS* Spec i e s Number of Occurences Parameter C o r r e l a t i o n Coef f i c i e n t Calamagrost i s n e g l e c t a 38 pH(CaC12) -0.4444 Carex r o s t r a t a 47 N i t r o g e n O r g a n i c C E l e v a t i o n 0.3836 0.4087 -0.6372 Hordeum j ubatum 7 Depth of Om 0.9452 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 43 Depth of Om -0.4386 * s i g n i f i c a n t a t 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t . 41 5.2 S o i l Parameters Which D i s t i n g u i s h V e g e t a t i o n Groupings Those s o i l parameters which were shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t , b y the Mann-Whitney t e s t a t the 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , between the groups d e f i n e d by each of the t h r e e methods of v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i s t i n g u i s h i n g parameters of t h e s e groups. S i m i l a r groups of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p arameters were found i n a l l of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , however the degree t o which the c l a s s e s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by s o i l p arameters v a r i e d . Two major groups of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g parameters were found t o be s i m i l a r t o the groups of parameters shown by c o r r e l a t i o n and f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t o be h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . One group, formed of pH i n water, pH i n CaC12, c a l c i u m , magnesium, carbon as C03, and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i s r e f e r r e d t o as the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group. The o t h e r , formed of n i t r o g e n and o r g a n i c c a r b o n , i s r e f e r r e d t o as the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group. Another parameter, found t o be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g groups was e l e v a t i o n . U s i n g t h e s e t h r e e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g p a r a m e t e r s , or groups of p a r a m e t e r s , each method of v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be a s s e s s e d as t o i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n g r o u p i n g s i m i l a r s o i l s . The f i v e community t y p e s r e s u l t i n g from t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s are shown i n T a b l e 9 w i t h those s o i l parameters which were found t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the t y p e s . The Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s type c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r t y p e s by the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group of p a r a m e t e r s , and by e l e v a t i o n . The Hordeum jubatum community type c o u l d a l s o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r commmunity t y p e s by the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group but not by e l e v a t i o n . The o r g a n i c m a t t e r group of 42 TABLE 9 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY TABULAR ANALYSIS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test,*=0.05) Hordeum Calamag-r o s t i s Calamag-r o s t i s /C. r o s t r a t a Carex r o s t r a t a pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) K Mg Ca C03-C E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaCl2) Ca K Index N Org-C E l e v . Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s C03-C E.C. Ca K pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) K Ca Mg C03-C N Org-C P pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg Ca K P Org-C E l e v . Hordeum Org-C N Org-C E l e v . Calamagrost i s N Org-C E l e v E.C. P Calamagrost i s /C. r o s t r a t a p a r a m e t e r s , and e l e v a t i o n can d i s t i n g u i s h the Carex r o s t r a t a community type from the o t h e r s . However the C a l a m a q r o s t i s community type and the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a community t y p e s can o n l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d between on the b a s i s of one parameter, the o r g a n i c carbon c o n t e n t . T h i s s u p p o r t s the c o n c l u s i o n , based on f l o r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s , t h a t the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a type i s an ecotone and does not r e p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t community t y p e . I f the C a l a m a g r o s t i s and the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a community t y p e s a r e amalgamated the r e s u l t i n g group can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r t y p e s (Table 1 0 ) . I t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s type by the s o i l , r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group, and from the Hordeum type by both the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group and the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group. The Carex r o s t r a t a type can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the amalgamated C a l a m a g r o s t i s type by the o r g a n i c matter group. The v e g e t a t i o n community t y p e s formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 11 w i t h the s o i l parameters which were found t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the t y p e s . A l l of the community t y p e s formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of e l e v a t i o n . The Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s community type can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s by the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group of p a r a m e t e r s . The Calamagrostis-Hordeum community type and the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s type can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y by e l e v a t i o n and the pyrophosphate i n d e x . S i n c e the pyrophosphate i n d e x does not a c t as a c o n s i s t e n t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g parameter, t h e s e two community t y p e s can be i n t e r p r e t e d to be o c c u p y i n g the same h a b i t a t . T h e r e f o r e t h e s e two t y p e s were regrouped i n t o a TABLE 10 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH AMALGAMATED COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY TABULAR ANALYSIS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Te s t ,o(=0 . 05) Hordeum Calamagrost i s Carex r o s t r a t a pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg K E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca K Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K Index N Org-C E l e v . Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-CCa Mg K N Org-C pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K P Org-C E l e v . Hordeum E.C. P Org-C N E l e v . Calamagrost i s 45 TABLE 11 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum T e s t , 0(=0. 05) Calamag-r o s t i s / Hordeum Calamag-r o s t i s / Juncus Calamag-r o s t i s /C. r o s t r a t a Carex r o s t r a t a pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg Ca E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Mg Ca K E l e v . pH(H20) pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Org-C N Mg E.C. K Index E l e v Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s E l e v . I ndex Org-C E l e v . K N Org-C E l e v E.C. C a l a m a g r o s t i s /Hordeum N Org-C Ca K E l e v . pH(H20) E.C pH(CaCl2) N Org-C Index E l e v . C a l a m a g r o s t i s /Juncus pH(CaC12) E.C. K P E l e v . C a l a m a g r o s t i s /C. r o s t r a t a 46 s i n g l e C a l a m a g r o s t i s t y p e , which can be shown t o have s o i l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r t y p e s (Table 1 2 ) . T h i s r e g r o u p i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d an adjustment of the l i m i t s s e t on the o r i g i n a l c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the communities, s i n c e these two t y p e s a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r a t a lower l e v e l of the h i e r a r c h y ( F i g u r e 4 ) . T h i s new C a l a m a g r o s t i s type can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s type on s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t parameters and e l e v a t i o n . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d form the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a and the Carex r o s t r a t a t y p e s by o r g a n i c matter parameters and e l e v a t i o n . The Carex r o s t r a t a community type can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r t y p e s except the Calamagrost i s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a community type by the o r g a n i c matter group of p a r a m e t e r s . A l t h o u g h some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e l e v a t i o n , pH i n CaC12 and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y were found t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the s e two t y p e s , the l a c k of the two major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g groups s u g g e s t s t h a t these two community t y p e s occur i n s i m i l a r s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . The v e g e t a t i o n community t y p e s formed by a n a l y s i s w i t h the Coenos program are shown i n T a b l e 13 w i t h the s o i l parameters which were found t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the t y p e s . As i n the o t h e r methods of a n a l y s i s , the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s community type c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r s on the b a s i s of the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group and upon e l e v a t i o n . The Carex  r o s t r a t a community type can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r s by the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group of parameters and e l e v a t i o n . The C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n c u s type and the Carex r o s t r a t a - J u n c u s type can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by both the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group TABLE 12 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH AMALGAMATED COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test ,oC=0 . 05) Calamagrost i s C a l a m a g r o s t i s / C. r o s t r a t a Carex r o s t r a t a pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca K Org-C N E l e v . Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s N Org-C K E l e v . N Org-C E.C. E l e v . C a l a m a g r o s t i s pH(CaC12) E.C. P K E l e v . C a l a m a g r o s t i s /C. r o s t r a t a 48 TABLE 13 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY COENOS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum T e s t , oC=0 . 05 ) Calamag-g r o s t i s / Juncus Calamag-g r o s t i s / Juncus /C. r o s t r a t a Carex r o s t r a t a /Juncus Carex r o s t r a t a pH(CaC12) E.C. C03-C Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K Index E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca K Mg Index N Org-C E l e v Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s K pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) Ca Mg N Org-C K P pH(H20) K pH(CaC12) Ca C03-C N Org-C Index E l e v Calamagrost i s / Juncus K N Org-C Index E l e v Calamagrost i s / Juncus / C. r o s t r a t a E.C. C03-C Ca K P Org-C E l e v Carex r o s t r a t a / Juncus 49 of parameters and the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group. However, the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a type can not be s e p a r a t e d from e i t h e r the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s t y p e - o r the Carex r o s t r a t a - Juncus by e i t h e r of t h e s e groups or by e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s - C a r e x r o s t r a t a community type appears t o be a t r a n s i t i o n a l or e c o t o n a l v e g e t a t i o n t y p e . I f t h i s t y pe i s grouped t o g e t h e r w i t h the C a l a m a g r o s t i s - J u n e u s type t o form a new C a l a m a g r o s t i s t y p e , i t can be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s e p a r a b l e , i n terms of s o i l p a r a m e t e r s , from a l l o t h e r t y p e s (Table 1 4 ) . T h i s new type can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the Carex  p r a e g r a c i l i s type on the b a s i s of the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group of parameters and by e l e v a t i o n . I t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Carex r o s t r a t a - J u n c u s t y p e by the s o i l r e a c t i o n - s a l t c o n t e n t group and the o r g a n i c m a t t e r group. The Carex r o s t r a t a type can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the C a l a m a g r o s t i s type by the o r g a n i c m a t t e r p a r a m e t e r s , e l e v a t i o n , and some s o i l r e a c t i o n -s a l t c o n t e n t parameters.. The ranges of the s o i l p arameters used t o d i s t i n g u i s h community t y p e s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1.5. Most community t y p e s are not u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g v a l u e s of s o i l p arameters because of the o v e r l a p of ranges which o c c u r . S i n c e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n these parameters were o b s e r v e d however, t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t d e s p i t e h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y i n c h e m i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , t r e n d s i n the c h e m i s t r y of the s e s o i l s a r e more i m p o r t a n t than i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s . S i n c e the s o i l of the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s community type does d i s p l a y unique ranges of tho s e parameters r e l a t i n g t o s o i l r e a c t i o n and s a l t c o n t e n t , p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e TABLE 14 SOIL PARAMETERS WHICH DISTINGUISH AMALAGAMATED COMMUNITY TYPES FORMED BY COENOS ANALYSIS (Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test<K=0.05) C a l a m a g r o s t i s Carex r o s t r a t a / Juncus Carex r o s t r a t a pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K Index E l e v . pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca Mg K Index N Org-C E l e v . Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s pH(H20) pH(CaC12) C03-C Ca K N Org-C pH(H20) E.C. pH(CaC12) N Org-C Index E l e v . C a l a m a g r o s t i s N Org-C Index E l e v . Carex r o s t r a t a / Juncus TABLE 15 RANGE OF SOIL PARAMETERS IN COMMUNITY TYPES Ana 1ys i s Amma1gamated Commun i ty Type ' Elev. (mm) pH (CaC12) E.C. mmhos/ cm C03-C Ca ppm Mg ppm N % Org-C % Tabu 1ar Carex praegraci1i s 50-60 7.9-8 . 1 2.1-2.5 2 7-2 . 8 30000-35000 12000 16000 1 2-1 4 20-25 Hordeum 35-45 7.5-7 . 7 1 .5-2 .4 1 3-2 . 2 1800-32000 5000 7000 0 7-1 5 10-25 Ca1amag-rost i s 15-55 6.3-7.8 0.7-1.9 O 3-2 . 0 2000-35000 3000-9000 0 9-2 2 13-47 Carex rostrata 0-30 6.7-7.6 0.5-2.0 o 4- 1 . 6 2000-28000 2500-7000 1 0-2 3 15-44 C1uster Carex praegrac i1i s 50-60 7.9-8.1 2. 1-2.5 2 7-2 . 8 30000-35000 13000-16000 1 2- 1 4 20-25 Ca1amag-rost i s 20-55 6.3-7.8 0.8-2.4 0 2-2 . 2 3000-35000 2500-9000 0 7-2 1 10-40 Carex ros t rata 0-40 6.7-7.6 0.5-2.0 0 3- 1 . 6 3000-28000 2500-7000 1 0-2 3 15-45 Ca t amagrost i s / C. rostrata 25-35 7.0-7.6 1.0-1.9 0 4-0 8 3000-6000 3000-6000 1 2-2 2 17-48 Coenos Carex praegrac i1 i s 45-60 7.7-8.1 2.1-2.5 1 8-2 8 29000-34000 8000-16000 0 8- 1 4 12-25 Ca1amag-rost i s 25-45 6.7-7.6 0.5-2.4 0 3-2 2 3000-3500 25O0-8000 0 7-2 4 10-44 Carex rostrata 0-25 6.8-7.6 0.7-2.0 0 4- 1 2 4000-20000 3000 7000 0 7-2 0 25-41 C. rostrata / JUNCUS 5-55 6.3-7.9 0.8-1 .9 0 3-2 0 3000-35000 2000-6000 1 9-2 . 4 14-47 parameters c o u l d be made based upon the o c c u r r e n c e of t h i s community t y p e . 5.3 Comparison Of The V e g e t a t i o n P a t t e r n With The U n i t s Formed  By S o i 1 A n a l y s i s When the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n of those p l a n t s p e c i e s which o c c u r e d i n more than two p l o t s i s compared t o the u n i t s formed by the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , i t can be seen (T a b l e 1 6 ) , t h a t the range of o n l y one s p e c i e s , Carex  p r a e g r a c i l i s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o one s o i l g r o u p i n g . Hordeum  jubatum a l s o d i s p l a y s a r a t h e r r e s t r i c t e d range, w i t h 86% of o c c u r e n c e s w i t h i n s o i l type one. Most o t h e r s p e c i e s have e i t h e r a broad d i s t r i b u t i o n range or a r e r a t h e r e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d between two s o i l g r o u p i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s and p o s s i b l y Hordeum jubatum, the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n of s i n g l e s p e c i e s i s not of much v a l u e i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e s e s o i l g r o u p i n g s . The community t y p e s , d e f i n e d by the v a r i o u s v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s , a r e g e n e r a l l y poor i n d i c a t o r s of these s o i l g r o u p i n g s . T a b l e 17 g i v e s the o c c u r r e n c e of the community t y p e s w i t h i n the s o i l c l u s t e r g r o u p i n g s . The Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s and the Hordeum ty p e s are the o n l y communities t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o one s o i l g r o u p i n g . G e n e r a l l y , the community t y p e s d e f i n e d by the t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d more c l o s e l y t o the p a t t e r n of s o i l g r o u p i n g s than a r e the community t y p e s d e f i n e d by the o t h e r methods. 53 TABLE 16 OCCURRENCE OF MAJOR SPECIES IN SOIL CLUSTER GROUPINGS Spec i e s Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Calamagrost i s n e g l e c t a 22% 11% 67% Carex r o s t r a t a 4% 8% 35% 51% Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s 100% Hordeum jubatum 86% 14% Juncus a r c t i c u s 23% 2% 14% 60% P o t e n t i 1 1 a norveg i c a 40% 60% P o t e n t i 1 1 a p e n s y l v a n i c a 37% 63% Taraxacum of f i c i n a l e 14% 5% 19% 62% 54 TABLE 17 OCCURRENCE OF COMMUNITY TYPES IN SOIL CLUSTER GROUPINGS A. T a b u l a r A n a l y s i s B. C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s C. Coenos A n a l y s i s Commun i t y t y p e s Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 A.Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s 100% Hordeum 100% Calamagrost i s 17% 17% 67% Calamagrost i s-Carex r o s t r a t a 7% 7% 85% Carex r o s t r a t a 20% 70% 10% B.Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s 100% C a l a m a g r o s t i s -Hordeum 27% 73% Calamagrost i s-Juncus 30% 10% 60% Calamagrost i s-Carex r o s t r a t a 11% 22% 66% Carex r o s t r a t a 14% 62% 24% C.Carex p r a e g r a c i 1 i s 100% Calamagrost i s-Juncus 80% 10% 10% Calamagrost i s-Juncus-Carex 20% 80% Carex r o s t r a t a -Juncus 6% 22% 72% Carex r o s t r a t a 21% 71% 8% CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 6 . I R e l a t i o n s h i p s Which E x i s t Between V e g e t a t i o n P a t t e r n s And  S o i 1 Parameters In A S i n g l e Wetland One of the major f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h i s w e t l a n d appears t o be the e l e v a t i o n of the s i t e , which r e f l e c t s the h e i g h t above the water t a b l e and the degree of f l o o d i n g d u r i n g p e r i o d s of h i g h water l e v e l s . Depending upon the t y p e of v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used, e l e v a t i o n c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h between the two community ty p e s a t the extremes of the g r a d i e n t , or as i n the g r o u p i n g s formed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , e l e v a t i o n c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h between a l l of the community t y p e s . The group of parameters which a r e r e l a t e d t o s o i l r e a c t i o n and s a l t c o n t e n t ; pH i n water, pH i n CaC12, carbon as C03, c a l c i u m , magnesium, and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y , a l s o appear t o be i m p o r t a n t i n c o n t r o l l i n g the v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n . The method of v e g e t a t i o n a n a l y s i s was a g a i n i m p o r t a n t , but i n a l l cases the d r y e r end of the g r a d i e n t , the s o i l s of the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s community t y p e , c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s o i l s based on t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of par a m e t e r s . In the t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s of the v e g e t a t i o n the s o i l s of the Hordeum community type c o u l d a l s o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l o t h e r s based on t h i s group of par a m e t e r s . The t h i r d major f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g the v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n appears t o be r e l a t e d t o the o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t of the s o i l s . T h i s f a c t o r , formed by the c o m b i n a t i o n of the o r g a n i c c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n p a r a m e t e r s , c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h the s o i l s of the lower end of the g r a d i e n t , the Carex r o s t r a t a community t y p e s from a l l o t h e r s o i l s . 56 T h e r e f o r e the v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n appears t o be d o m i n a n t l y c o n t r o l l e d by the water l e v e l , which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the h i g h pH, h i g h s a l t c o n t e n t of the d r i e r r e g i o n s , and the h i g h l e v e l s of o r g a n i c m atter p r o d u c t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n i n the w e t t e r r e g i o n s . The extremes of the g r a d i e n t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t v e g e t a t i o n communities and by s o i l t y p e s which can be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d on the b a s i s of t h e s e c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s . The i n t e r m e d i a t e r e g i o n of the g r a d i e n t can be s e p a r a t e d i n t o v a r i o u s community t y p e s , depending upon the method employed. G e n e r a l l y , two community t y p e s can be d e f i n e d which can be shown t o oc c u r on s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s o i l s . A s i m p l i f i e d system of f o u r v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , o c c u r r i n g on s o i l s which a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n those parameters shown t o be c o n t r o l l i n g the v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n , can be d e v e l o p e d . 6-. 2 Methods Of Vegetat i o n A n a l y s i s R e s u l t i n g I n G r o u p i n g s Which  Can Be E a s i l y I d e n t i f i e d And Which R e f l e c t S i g n i f i c a n t V a r i a t i o n  In S o i 1 P r o p e r t i e s The groups r e s u l t i n g from t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s of v e g e t a t i o n c o u l d be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i e l d , based on the presence or absence of f o u r dominant s p e c i e s , and have been shown t o d e l i n e a t e - s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s o i l u n i t s . The community t y p e s formed by t h i s method have a l s o been shown t o be d i s t r i b u t e d more c l o s e l y t o the p a t t e r n of s o i l g r o u p i n g s d e r i v e d by f a c t o r and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of v e g e t a t i o n d e l i n e a t e d groups which appear t o show the g r e a t e s t s e n s i t i v i t y t o water l e v e l v a r i a t i o n s . However, the g r o u p i n g s a r e based on cover v a l u e s and o v e r a l l p l o t s i m i l a r i t y and f i e l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s e u n i t s c o u l d be d i f f i c u l t . Groups formed by Coenos a n a l y s i s appear t o e x p l a i n the v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s a l o n g the g r a d i e n t v e r y w e l l . In e v e r y group, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r o p e r t i e s r e l a t e d t o s o i l r e a c t i o n and s a l t c o n t e n t and e l e v a t i o n o c c u r s . T h i s was not found i n the o t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems. F i e l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s e u n i t s s h o u l d not be d i f f i c u l t s i n c e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was based upon i n c i d e n c e d a t a and t h e r e f o r e a key t o the ty p e s c o u l d be de v e l o p e d r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l y . Each of the methods of c l a s s i f y i n g v e g e t a t i o n has d e l i n e a t e d community t y p e s which c o r r e s p o n d t o s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , and each method r e f l e c t s the s o i l p a rameters s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y . However, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e f i n e d by t a b u l a r a n a l y s i s would be more s u i t a b l e f o r f i e l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n than would the o t h e r systems. Due t o the o v e r l a p p i n g ranges of many of the s o i l p a rameters which show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r n c e s between v e g e t a t i o n g r o u p i n g s i t i s not p o s s i b l e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Carex  p r a e g r a c i l i s community t y p e , t o make a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s of v a l u e s of s o i l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e g e t a t i o n c o mmunities. 6.3 Management I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy show d i s t i n c t p l a n t communities growing i n s o i l s which e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n an e l e v a t i o n range of o n l y 58 6 cm. The p a t t e r n of the s e communities appears t o be c o n t r o l l e d by the water l e v e l , t h e r e f o r e any m o d i f i c a t i o n t o the l e v e l and d u r a t i o n of f l o o d i n g s h o u l d have a marked e f f e c t on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t s p e c i e s . S i n c e h i g h s a l t c o n t e n t and e l e v a t e d pH appears t o be r e l a t e d t o the d r i e r end of the m o i s t u r e g r a d i e n t , a l o w e r i n g of the water t a b l e may, over t i m e , r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n the s a l t c o n t e n t of the s o i l s i n the w e t l a n d . T h i s c o u l d cause a i n c r e a s e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s , Hordeum and the C a l a m a g r o s t i s community t y p e s . A management p r a c t i c e of t h i s type c o u l d be v e r y d e l e t e r i o u s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n because Carex r o s t r a t a i s a p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s f o r hay p r o d u c t i o n . R a i s i n g the water t a b l e may r e s u l t , over t i m e , i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Carex  r o s t r a t a type becoming more e x t e n s i v e . A l t h o u g h m o d i f i c a t i o n s of t he water t a b l e may appear t o be u s e f u l f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s , they must be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r l a n d u s e s , such as f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e a r i n g and f e e d i n g a r e a s . In a d d i t i o n , few of the we t l a n d s i n t h i s a r e a a r e independent of o t h e r s , t h e r e f o r e a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the water l e v e l i n one w e t l a n d w i l l e f f e c t many o t h e r s . 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Herbaceous w e t l a n d v e g e t a t i o n i n the aspen grove and g r a s s l a n d r e g i o n s of Saskatchewan. Can. J . B o t . 48:1861-1878. Wa l k e r , B.H. and C F . Wehrhahn. 1971 R e l a t i o n s h i p s between d e r i v e d v e g e t a t i o n g r a d i e n t s and measured e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s i n Saskatchewan w e t l a n d s . E c o l o g y 52:85-95. Ward, J.H., J r . 1973. H i e r a r c h i c a l g r o u p i n g t o o p t i m i z e an o b j e c t i v e f u n c t i o n . J . Amer. S t a t i s t . A s s . 58:236-244. Warming, E. 1909. Oecology of p l a n t s . An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study of p l a n t communities. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , London. 422 p. ( M o d i f i e d E n g l i s h e d i t i o n of o r i g i n a l D a n i s h p u b l i c a t i o n : P l a n t e s u m f u n d . 1895.) Second i m p r e s s i o n . 1925. 62 APPENDIX 1 SPECIES LIST A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m L. C a l a m a g r o s t i s n e g l e c t a (Ehrh.) G.M.&S. Carex p r a e g r a c i l i s W. B o o t t Carex r o s t r a t a Stokes E r i q e r o n l o n c h o p h y l l u s Hook. Geum macrophyllum W i l l d . Hordeum jubatum L. Juncus a r c t i c u s W i l l d . P o t e n t i l l a n o r v e g i c a L. P o t e n t i l l a p e n s y l v a n i c a L. Ranunculus inamoenous Greene Ranunculus occ i d e n t a l i s N u t t . S o l i d a g o s p a t h u l a t a DC. S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s G o l d i e Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Weber V i c i a americana Muhl. Yarrow Sl i m s t e m s m a l l reed g r a s s C l u s t e r e d f i e l d sedge Beaked sedge S p e a r - l e a v e d f l e a b a n e L a r g e - l e a v e d avens F o x t a i l b a r l e y A r c t i c r u s h Rough c i n q u e f o i l P e n n s y l v a n i a c i n q u e f o i l U n l o v e l y b u t t e r c u p Western b u t t e r c u p S p i k e - l i k e g o l d e n r o d L o n g - s t a l k e d s t a r w o r t Common d a n d e l i o n American v e t c h APPENDIX 2 SOIL DATA P l o t pH pH E c. N Org--c C03-C Ca Mg K P B D. Of Om Index E l e v No. H20 CaC12 mmhos/cm % % % ppm ppm ppm ppm g/cm3 cm cm mm 101 8 72 8 14 2 51 1 4 25 0 2 83 29750 16150 0662 47 6 0 5 18 -2 61 102 8 88 8 12 2 10 1 2 20 5 2 79 31250 14875 0612 25 2 0 7 23 -3 58 103 8 41 7 79 2 30 1 3 24 0 2 80 34500 12725 0726 34 2 0 6 03 12 01 49 104 8 07 7 62 2 20 0 8 12 8 1 85 31250 08125 0600 18 5 1 1 09 31 00 46 105 8 85 7 75 1 50 0 7 09 6 1 35 25500 07800 0550 07 5 1 4 05 28 01 40 106 8 02 7 53 2 40 1 5 25 5 2 23 18000 05200 0475 27 2 0 7 03 16 00 38 107 8 55 7 85 1 90 1 1 . 17 6 2 05 33000 08300 0637 10 7 0 7 05 25 -1 36 108 8 48 7 70 1 75 1 0 16 1 2 00 35250 07000 0575 14 0 0 8 01 1 1 00 35 109 8 50 7 87 1 80 1 3 20 7 1 65 24000 06750 0700 18 5 0 8 01 13 01 29 1 10 8 61 7 81 1 60 0 9 1G 3 1 97 35000 07200 0725 10 7 0 7 02 10 00 20 1 1 1 8 35 7 88 1 30 1 9 31 1 1 35 18500 09350 0822 20 5 0 5 01 13 01 19 1 12 8 13 7 46 2 OO 2 0 40 8 1 17 15250 07175 0737 29 5 0 9 01 14 01 10 1 13 8 04 7 47 1 80 2 3 41 5 1 01 1 1250 06750 0825 37 7 0 3 05 10 01 07 1 14 8 26 7 64 1 90 1 5 27 9 1 64 28750 06950 0725 27 2 0 7 01 12 00 03 1 15 8 1 1 7 62 1 65 1 5 28 4 1 19 20000 06025 0637 28 5 0 4 08 28 00 00 207 7 92 7 20 1 00 1 .0 14 6 0 45 05075 03525 0725 22 7 1 1 05 10 02 43 208 7 59 7 08 1 05 1 4 20 8 0 50 04200 03975 0800 38 5 "l 2 01 1 1 00 45 209 . 7 .52 7 10 1 10 1 .3 22 1 o 55 04200 04050 0812 34 2 0 4 03 09 00 38 210 7 53 6 97 1 15 1 2 19 1 0 46 03925 03375 0850 52 3 0 6 03 09 00 35 211 8 .22 7 50 1 30 0 9 13 6 0 63 05575 03700 0700 19 7 1 0 01 15 00 34 212 7 .89 7 45 1 35 1 .4 21 3 0 55 04075 03525 1062 63 9 0 5 04 09 01 23 213 8 09 7 58 1 35 1 . 4 24 4 0 67 04925 04975 0837 40 6 0 7 01 12 00 23 2 14 8 . 17 7 .61 1 05 1 . 1 17 3 0 51 04075 03250 0800 20 5 07 12 02 20 2 15 8 .08 7 59 1 20 2 .2 36 6 0 87 04700 06100 1 100 39 8 0 5 01 12 00 19 216 7 .82 7 .32 0 80 1 . 7 28 9 0 52 05500 03675 0875 55 7 0 3 06 15 01 18 217 7 .98 7 .45 1 25 1 . 3 20 5 0 48 04525 03925 0987 38 6 1 1 02 17 01 15 218 7 .71 7 .22 0 80 1 .8 33 6 0 47 04575 04575 0887 36 5 02 18 00 05 2 19 7 . 33 6 .83 0 70 1 .6 25 7 0 48 03825 03425 0662 18 5 0 3 10 15 00 04 220 7 . 26 6 .70 0 55 1 .7 29 8 0 45 03625 03775 0812 34 0 0 3 01 22 02 04 221 7 . 22 6 . 75 0 55 2 .0 38 1 0 52 05125 04050 1000 4 1 8 O 4 07 16 02 OO S o i l D a t a C o n t i n u e d P l o t pH No. H20 pH CaC12 E C . N mmhos/cm % Org-C % C03-C % Ca ppm Mg ppm K ppm P ppm B .D . g/cm3 Of cm Om cm I ndex E l e v mm 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 31 1 312 313 314 315 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 4 1 1 4 12 4 13 414 4 15 . 75 . 94 .80 .43 .94 .06 .45 . 43 . 79 . 48 . 74 . 22 .47 09 48 72 90 95 85 1 1 36 53 87 35 67 44 37 18 19 07 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 . 6 . 6 . 6 . 6 . 6 . 7 . 7 . 7 . 6 . 7 . 7 . 7 . 6 . 6 . 6 . .28 .44 . 34 . 12 .58 .71 . 19 . 15 .42 . 24 46 82 14 69 00 34 55 60 51 78 01 17 48 97 22 06 02 76 78 70 0 1 0 0 0. 0 . . 10 .00 .00 . 15 . 30 .40 30 60 90 80 75 95 30 55 75 80 25 10 90 50 10 10 45 55 05 95 0 . 75 0 . 80 0 . 90 1 .05 . 3 .0 . 9 .6 . 1 . 4 . 5 . 4 . 5 . 3 6 7 6 0 6 3 7 1 6 9 4 2 2 2 0 2 5 6 7 0 18.8 14.0 15 25 39 20 23 22 22 23 26 31 29 42 26 20 29 16.8 27 .9 35 24 4 1 47 25 39 .0 44 . 1 24 . 7 2 .82 2 .89 1.51 0 .31 03475 04625 1 175 44 . 1 0 .6 03 08 01 4 1 0 . 33 03200 02350 0850 39 .8 0 . 8 05 12 01 42 0 .32 03125 02025 0750 54 . 7 0 .6 03 15 00 40 0 .39 04050 03650 0962 43 .0 0 . 5 06 10 -1 39 0 .73 04600 04200 1300 74 . 7 0 . 3 07 10 03 40 0 .34 03650 03925 1012 54 . 7 0 8 03 12 01 27 0 40 03825 04025 1037 36 . 5 0 5 06 1 1 00 29 0 41 04250 03800 1075 53 .0 1 0 04 13 01 30 0 46 03800 03250 1025 27 . 2 0 6 07 12 - 1 22 0 44 03625 03825 1025 46 . 5 0 5 03 12 01 24 0 46 04700 03575 1 187 55 7 0 5 05 1 1 01 14 0 48 04350 04 125 0850 26 2 0 5 03 1 1 00 14 0 47 04075 04200 1112 54 5 0 5 10 16 oo 13 0 70 04225 04050 1112 4 1 O 0 4 03 16 01 00 0 41 04 100 03550 0850 25 0 0 4 01 16 01 02 0 26 03875 03175 0687 33 0 0 8 04 10 oo 57 0 40 03900 03700 1025 47 6 0 4 08 13 01 42 0 38 03690 02925 0762 32 0 0 8 04 10 01 48 0 24 03575 03625 0675 60 7 0 4 07 15 01 42 0 48 04500 04400 1037 60 1 0 4 05 10 00 36 0 40 03775 02800 0850 30 7 0. 4 07 18 01 33 0 82 04825 04900 09 12 39 8 0. 4 01 09 01 27 0 . 63 05550 05950 1075 51 0 0. 5 08 1 1 02 31 0 . 39 03175 03075 1025 63 8 0. 4 01 15 02 23 0 . 69 05125 05300 1075 20 7 0. 4 04 20 02 22 0. 63 04750 05200 0987 27 . 5 0 . 4 01 10 02 16 0 . 44 03925 03625 0825 19. 7 0 . 5 05 20 02 16 0 . 58 04200 03950 0800 23 . 0 0 . 6 01 18 01 08 0 . 46 04050 03850 0800 2 1 . 7 0 . 5 13 2 1 02 07 0. 36 03225 02700 0737 08 . 7 02 OO APPENDIX 3 CORRELATION MATRIX PHA 2 PHB 3 EC 4 N 5 CORG 6 CCO 7 CA 8 MG 9 K 10 P 1 1 BD 12 PHA 2 1 0000 PHB 3 0 9692 1 0000 EC 4 0 6634 0 6926 1 0000 N 5 -0 2427 -0 1276 -o 2179 1 .0000 CORG 6 -o 1973 -o 0949 -0 1666 0 9655 1 0000 CCO 7 0 7834 0 7478 0 7522 -0 1880 -0 1 193 1 0000 CA 8 0 7947 0 7228 0 7027 -0 3285 -0 2504 0 9342 1 0000 MG 9 0 7273 0 7140 0 6667 -0 0294 0 0229 0 8986 0 8100 1 0000 K 10 -0 4740 -0 3561 -o 2732 0 5064 0 4670 -0 5425 -o 5946 -0 3780 1 0000 P 1 1 -O 4523 -0 3623 -o 0531 0 3221 0 3105 -0 3565 -0 4505 -0 2323 0 6384 1 oooo BD 12 0 3908 0 2677 0 2774 -0 6279 -0 6207 0 1991 0 3114 0 1243 -0 3971 -0 3556 1 0000 OF 13 -0 1634 -0 1556 -0 0538 0 0344 0 0147 -0 1563 -0 1213 -0 1218 0 0767 0 0928 -0 2153 OM 14 0 3568 0 2720 0 1294 -0 2198 -0 1586 0 3208 0 3709 0 3044 -0 4239 -o 3878 0 1785 INDEX 15 -0 3973 -0 4053 -0 4423 0 2620 0 2835 -o 4697 -0 4276 -0 4763 0 3649 0 1 194 -0 1651 ELEV 16 0 1065 0 0617 0 3650 -0 4181 -0 4191 0 3027 O 2497 0 3222 -0 2116 0 1572 0 3732 ACHMIL 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CALNEG 18 -0 3249 -0 4444 -0 221 1 -0 1297 -0 1682 -0 1485 -0 0715 -0 1901 -0 1 135 0 0931 -0 0634 CARPRA 19 0 2660 0 3728 0 221 1 0 1284 0 0569 0 0221 -o 2305 0 6273 -0 1773 0 4304 -0 1984 CARROS 20 0 0918 0 1425 -0 1223 0 3836 0 4087 -0 0466 -0 1 141 0 0259 0 1579 -0 1975 -0 2191 ERILON 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 GEUMAC 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 HORJUB 23 0 4018 0 1262 0 4056 -0 8408 -0 61 15 0 4052 0 5335 0 4795 -o 2294 -0 0349 0 5744 JUNARC 24 0 2136 0 3005 0 0835 0 1644 ' 0 1578 -0 0339 -0 031 1 -0 1260 0 0678 -0 0876 -0 1456 POTNOR 25 0 6252 0 6204 -0 1057 0 1641 0 2588 0 0875 0 0416 0 1 120 -0 1781 -0 0604 1 0243 POTPEN 26 -o 1430 -o 0893 -0 4732 0 4799 0 4157 -0 3127 -0 3513 -0 2114 0 2941 0 6555 -O 6814 RANINA 27 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RANOCC 28 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 STELON 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 TAROFF 30 -0 0806 -0 0931 -0 1862 -0 0936 -0 1439 -0 1 1 18 -0 1562 -0 0661 0 1453 0 1730 0 1 195 VICAME 31 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SOLSPA 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C o r r e l a t i o n M atrix Continued OF OM INDEX ELEV ACHMIL CALNEG CARPRA CARROS ERILON GEUMAC HORJUB 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 OF 13 1 0000 OM 14 0 2902 1 OOOO INDEX 15 0 0667 -o 1343 1 OOOO ELEV 16 O 0229 -0 1079 -0 3587 1 OOOO ACHMIL 17 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 CALNEG 18 0 1205 0 0750 -0 1716 0 2672 0 0 1 OOOO CARPRA 19 0 0 O 5840 - 1 4254 0 3709 0 0 0 0 1 OOOO CARROS 20 -o 0094 0 2823 0 2043 -0 6372 0 0 -0 4099 0 0 1 OOOO ERILON 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 GEUMAC 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 HORJUB 23 0 7802 0 9452 -0 7408 0 6622 0 0 0 8137 -0 1336 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OOOO JUNARC 24 0 1 151 -0 2268 0 0295 -0 1444 0 0 -0 1 113 0 5238 0 1008 0 0 0 0 -0 3016 POTNOR 25 -0 6401 0 5865 0 0867 -0 9367 0 0 - 1 32 13 0 0 0 4992 0 0 0 0 0 0 POTPEN 26 0 4781 0 1 180 0 3360 -0 3934 0 0 -0 2466 0 0 0 8919 0 0 0 0 0 0 RANINA 27 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 RANOCC 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 STELON 29 O 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 TAROFF 30 -0 3063 -0 4386 0 0437 0 2187 0 0 0 0525 0 0 -0 3215 O 0 0 0 -0 9567 VICAME 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 SOLSPA 32 0 0 0 0 O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 JUNARC POTNOR POTPEN RANINA RANOCC STELON TAROFF VICAME SOLSPA 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 JUNARC 24 1 0000 POTNOR 25 -0 6694 1 0000 POTPEN 26 -0 2646 0 0 1 OOOO RANINA 27 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RANOCC 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 STELON 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 TAROFF 30 0 2829 -0 2077 -0 3447 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 OOOO VICAME 31 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 SOLSPA 32 O 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 

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