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Bank and slope morphology as an indicator of Arctic terrain stability : (field studies along the rivers… Miles, Michael J. 1980

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BANK AND SLOPE MORPHOLOGY AS AN INDICATOR  OF  ARCTIC TERRAIN S T A B I L I T Y (Field  S t u d i e s A l o n g The R i v e r s  and C o a s t s o f  B a n k s I s l a n d , N.W.T.) by MICHAEL JOHN MILES B.Sc, University  of B r i t i s h  A THESIS SUBMITTED  Columbia,  I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  We  accept this  1972  o f Geography)  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA August,  19 80  ©.Michael John M i l e s ,  1980  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  ments f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Columbia, I agree t h a t the l i b r a r y for  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  extensive  copying of this  g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  Department  gain  of  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  Department  Geography  Vancouver, V6T Date:  Place  Canada  1W5 flpyyf  ^  ;  t?8Q  available  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r  or his representatives.  Columbia  be It  thesis for  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook  British  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s financial  require-  permission.  ABSTRACT  Field  s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n on B a n k s I s l a n d , N.W.T., t o  i n v e s t i g a t e the. f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y a s an  i n d i c a t o r of the l a t e r a l  areas located i n regions  s t a b i l i t y o f c o a s t a l and  of permafrost.  The s t u d y  riverine  investigated  t h e m a t e r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g r a t e s ' a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r a n g e o f bank o r s l o p e w i t h i n the study  area.  forms o c c u r r i n g  M o r p h o l o g i c f e a t u r e s w h i c h were  i n c l u d e d repose banks, s o l i f l u c t i o n  studied  slopes, skin flows, r e t r o -  g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s , t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l deposits  erosion  niches,  organic  and d e f l a t i o n f e a t u r e s .  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f a bank o r s l o p e ' composed o f u n l i t h i f i e d and  i c e content  sediments i s r e l a t e d t o the texture  o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d m a t e r i a l s , and t o t h e r e l a t i v e  exposure of the s i t e t o f l u v i a l or l i t t o r a l removal.  E a c h m o r p h o l o g i c t y p e was f o u n d t o h a v e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  range o f values  f o r each o f these parameters.  was a l s o an i m p o r t a n t graphic  processes o f sediment  Material  f a c t o r as i t a f f e c t s g r a i n s i z e ,  p o s i t i o n and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p o r e w a t e r .  processes,  i c e wedges, v e g e t a t i o n  genesis topo-  Nivation  c o v e r and e o l i a n p r o c e s s e s  were o b s e r v e d t o m o d i f y m o r p h o l o g y i n v a r y i n g  degree.  Rates o f e r o s i o n as determined from f i e l d measurements, a i r p h o t o g r a p h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w v a r y w i t h bank o r s l o p e  form.  Observations  were found t o  on t h e t i m i n g o f  s e d i m e n t movement i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p e a k p e r i o d o f s u s p e n d e d sediment t r a n s p o r t occurs during sediment production  s p r i n g snow m e l t r u n o f f .  However  f r o m t h e r m o k a r s t and n i v a t i o n p r o c e s s e s  was  observed to continue throughout most of the s p r i n g peak d i s c h a r g e s are  summer.  g e n e r a l l y incompetent to  As  the  post  transport  t h i s m a t e r i a l , s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of w i t h i n channel sediment storage occur on  an  e r o s i o n does not  d i r e c t l y correspond to the  p a t t e r n of The thesis  Thus the  seasonal t i m i n g  of  a n n u a l l y observed  suspended sediment t r a n s p o r t .  d i s t i n c t i v e bank and  are  existing  annual b a s i s .  g e n e r a l l y of  slope forms i d e n t i f i e d i n  s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to be  a e r i a l photography.  As  identified  each morphologic type 1  this on was  observed to have a t y p i c a l range i n m a t e r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e r o s i o n r a t e s , a i r photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these f e a t u r e s has  practical application  sance l e v e l a n a l y s i s of a r c t i c t e r r a i n  of the i n the  stability.  and  distribution reconnais-  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv-  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i  L I S T OF TABLES  viii  L I S T OF PLATES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x i  SECTION ONE  INTRODUCTION 1.1  I n t r o d u c t i o n and O b j e c t i v e s  1  1.2  Previous Studies  4  1.3  L o c a t i o n o f the Study Area  7  1.4  The P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g  10  1.5  Climate  19  1.6  H y d r o l o g i c Regime  35  SECTION TWO  MORPHOLOGIC C L A S S I F I C A T I O N AND  .  REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION 2.1  Introduction  46  2.2 2.3  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Geometry Regional D i s t r i b u t i o n of C l a s s i f i e d Morphologies  47  SECTION THREE  53  GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF REPRESENB.TATIVE BANKEOROSBOBEOM0RPHOLOGIES 3.1  Methodology  59  3.2  P r i m a r y F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Bank o r Slope Morphology  65  3.2.1 M a t e r i a l G e n e s i s  65  3.2.2 T e x t u r e  73  3.2.3 I c e C o n t e n t  77  3.2.4 E x p o s u r e t o P r o c e s s e s o f Sediment Removal  90  3.2.5 Summary  93  Page 3.3  The E f f e c t o f M o d i f y i n g F a c t o r s 3.3.1 L o c a l i z e d Snow A c c u m u l a t i o n  3.4  SECTION FOUR  ....  102  ...  102  3.3.2 I c e Wedges  112  3.3.3 V e g e t a t i o n  114  3.3.4 D e f l a t i o n  114  Recognition of Representative Morphologies /:  116  S T A B I L I T Y OF REPRESENTATIVE MORPHOLOGIES 4.1  T y p i c a l Rates o f Recession  126  4.1.1  -l!^phodQlQ.gyja3\^fi^:Q^r.^\v-i-.»\  4.1.2  Results  129  4.2  Timing  o f Sediment P r o d u c t i o n  147  4.3  A s s e s s m e n t o f T e r r a i n S t a b i l i t y on The B a s i s o f Bank o r S l o p e M o r p h o l o g y  SECTION F I V E  . ..  126  153  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES 5.1  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  156  5.2  Future  159  BIBLIOGRAPHY ( w i t h Addendum)  Studies  161  vi'.-  L I S T OF FIGURES Page 1.  Location of the study area  2.  G e n e r a l i z e d bedrock geology o f Banks I s l a n d  11  3a.  G l a c i a l l i m i t s on B a n k s I s l a n d  13  3b.  L o c a t i o n o f g r a i n s i z e samples i n S e c t i o n 3.2.1 T  4. 5. 6.  7. 8. 9.  10. 11.  8  discussed 14  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n r a d i a t i o n a t Sachs and M o u l d B a y  Harbour 20  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t S a c h s H a r b o u r , Holman a n d M o u l d B a y  22  F r e q u e n c y a n a l y s i s o f t h e o b s e r v e d d a i l y maximum and, a v e r a g e mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s a t Moula'^Bayf- Holman a n d S a c h s H a r b o u r d u r i n g the m o n t h o f J u l y  23  Average monthly s o i l Mould Bay A i r p o r t  25  temperatures recorded a t  S e a s o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n  27  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e maximum 2 4 h o u r p r e c i p i t a t i o n and r a i n f a l l a t Sachs Harbour and Holman  28  F r e q u e n c y a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r e a t e s t 24 h o u r precipitation  29  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n snow c o v e r a t M o u l d Sachs Harbour  Bay,  a n d Cape P a r r y  30  12.  H y d r o m e t e o r o l o g i c a l d a t a , Thomsen R i v e r , 1975  36  13.  MaximumuoBservedeunitidisch  rc  b a s i n a r e a f o r r i v e r s on B a n k s I s l a n d 14.  Observed  15.  C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s u r v e y s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank or  r i v e r t e m p e r a t u r e s on B a n k s I s l a n d , 1975 ..  slope morphologies  41 48  16.  M o d i f i e d p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s o f Banks I s l a n d  17.  P l a c e names a n d l o c a t i o n s o f f i e l d  18.  Cumulative g r a i n s i z e p l o t s from r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s i t e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n Cumulative g r a i n s i z e p l o t s from r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s i t e s l o c a t e d b e y o n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n  19.  39  sites  ....  54 55  68 70  vi'i  Page 20.  21.  22.  23. 24.  R e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s o f g r a v e l , s a n d and f i n e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h banks o r s l o p e s o f v a r y i n g morphology  74  R e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s o f s a n d , s i l t and c l a y i n materials forming s o l i f l u c t i o n slopes, skin f l o w s and r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s  76  T h e o r e t i c a l p o t e n t i a l f o r the growth of segregated i c e as a f u n c t i o n o f g r a i n s i z e ( a f t e r P e n n e r , 1968) ~.  78  Ice content versus the percentage of g r a v e l , and f i n e s  79  Ice c o n t e n t v e r s u s the percentage o f sand, and c l a y  sand silt 81  25.  Ice content versus i n d i v i d u a l percentages g r a v e l , s a n d and f i n e s  of  26.  Ice content versus i n d i v i d u a l percentages s i l t and c l a y  of  27. 28. 29 .  O b s e r v e d w a t e r c o n t e n t s and a c t i v e l a y e r d e p t h s on t h e o p p o s i n g s l o p e s o f an a s y m e t r i c v a l l e y Observed water c o n t e n t s a d j a c e n t t o a s k i n f l o w site S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n d i s c h a r g e and s u s p e n d e d sediment t r a n s p o r t i n r e l a t i o n to water t e m p e r a t u r e and p o t e n t i a l h e a t f l u x o b s e r v e d on D i s s e c t i o n C r e e k  82 83 ...  106 108  148  viid\  L I S T OF TABLES Page I II  III  Summary o f a v e r a g e w i n d s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n a t S a c h s H a r b o u r and M o u l d B a y  32  D i r e c t i o n a l frequency o f monthly winds equal t o o r e x c e e d i n g 31.5 km/hr (17 k n o t s ) a t S a c h s H a r b o u r , 1957-1966  34  O b s e r v e d maximum a n n u a l mean d a i l y for  discharges  r i v e r s on Banks I s l a n d  38  IV  Exposure c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n t h i s  V  G e n e t i c o r i g i n and s t r a t i g r a p h y o f m a t e r i a l s f o r m i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e morphologies I c e c o n t e n t s i n banks o r s l o p e s o f d i f f e r e n t m o r p h o l o g y ^ b a s e d on 5 0 p e r c e n t r a n g e s i n p e r c e n t g r a v e l , sand and f i n e s  VI  VII VIII IX X  XI XII  XIII  study  63  66 85  Types o f ground i c e o b s e r v e d i n banks and s l o p e s of d i f f e r e n t morphology  87  Summary o f e x p o s u r e r a t i n g f o r f i e l d d i f f e r e n t morphology  91  sites of  Bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y a s a f u n c t i o n o f i c e c o n t e n t , g r a i n s i z e and e x p o s u r e  94  Required average annual r e c e s s i o n necessary f o r discrimination of net retreat at varying scales of p h o t o g r a p h y and p e r i o d between s u c c e s s i v e a i r photo coverage  130  O b s e r v e d r e t r e a t a t r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w sites T ' -..  139  slide  R e l a t i v e o r d e r o f magnitude f o r annual r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n o r d o w n s l o p e movement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h banks o r s l o p e s o f v a r y i n g morphology  146  Summary t a b l e s h o w i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p morphology and t e r r a i n s t a b i l i t y  155  between  ix  L I S T OF  PLATES Page  1.  2.  3.  4. 5.  6. 7.  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e c o n t e n t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s o r s l o p e s composed o f f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s and l o c a t e d i n l o w e x p o s u r e environments  95  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e c o n t e n t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s o r s l o p e s composed o f f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s and l o c a t e d i n m o d e r a t e exposure environments  96  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e c o n t e n t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s o r s l o p e s composed o f f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s and l o c a t e d i n h i g h e x p o s u r e environments  97  The e f f e c t o f e x p o s u r e and i c e c o n t e n t morphology of sand t e x t u r e d d e p o s i t s  98  the  The e f f e c t o f e x p o s u r e t o f l u v i a l a t t a c k on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s composed o f l o w i c e c o n t e n t gravels ? The m o d i f y i n g morphology  e f f e c t of n i v a t i o n processes  8.  The  9.  An  the Parker  99  on 10 4  V a r i a t i o n s i n snow c o v e r a t a s k i n f l o w on  10.  on  site  River  109  e f f e c t o f i c e wedges on bank m o r p h o l o g y  e x a m p l e o f v e g e t a t i o n p r o t e c t i n g a r i v e r bank from l a t e r a l e r o s i o n An e x a m p l e o f d e f l a t i o n m o d i f y i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f an a n g l e o f r e p o s e bank  113 115 115  11.  The a p p e a r a n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g i e s on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s  12.  S e q u e n t i a l a i r p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e 1913-1918 C a n a d i a n A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n ' s b a s e camp l o c a t e d 8 km e a s t o f Cape K e M e t t  134  S e q u e n t i a l a i r p h o t o g r a p h s o f a r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o a s t , 2 0 km n o r t h o f M a s i k R i v e r  141  13.  i  11-8-.124  X  Page 14. 15. 16.  An e x c e p t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w i n d b l o w n s a n d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t s o f snow  144  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n r i v e r bank D i s s e c t i o n Creek .. . ;  150  morphology,  An e x a m p l e i n t h e u s e o f bank m o r p h o l o g y as an indicator of s u r f i c i a l stratigraphy  154  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The  f i e l d w o r k f o r t h i s t h e s i s was u n d e r t a k e n a s p a r t o f an  i n v e n t o r y program sponsored by t h e T e r r a i n S c i e n c e s the G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada.  This support  Division of  i s gratefully  a c k n o w l e d g e d , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r , D r . T. Day, t h e p a r t y m a n a g e r , deserves r e c o g n i t i o n f o r h i s cooperation F i n a n c i a l support  and a s s i s t a n c e .  f o r t h e s t u d y was p r o v i d e d  by b o t h t h e  A r c t i c a n d A l p i n e R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e Summer F e l l o w s h i p Program a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h The  author  would l i k e  t o take  Columbia.  this opportunity  t o thank  W. Gorman f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e f i e l d w o r k a n d B. McLean for  a i d i n g i n the data  compilation.  B. M o r d a u n t a n d B. C o l l i n s  a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e d r a f t i n g and t h e f i n a l E.  t e x t was t y p e d b y  Goldsworthy. The  a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e composed o f D r . M. C h u r c h , D r . J . R o s s  M a c k a y a n d D r . W. Mathews o f f e r e d a d v i c e  and encouragement  t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t a n d t h i s a s s i s t a n c e was g r e a t l y  appreciated.  1 SECTION ONE  1.1  INTRODUCTION  INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES  Given t h e c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t i n A r c t i c development, there i s an o b v i o u s n e e d f o r a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e l e v e l p r o c e d u r e  to evaluate  the g e o t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o t e n t i a l development and of  transportation corridors.  sites  The e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e c h a r a c t e r  f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e remote a r e a s o f n o r t h e r n Canada  dictates that i n i t i a l  s t u d i e s s h o u l d be b a s e d  e x i s t i n g g e o l o g i c a l d a t a and a i r p h o t o  p r i m a r i l y on  analysis, with only a  l i m i t e d amount o f f i e l d c h e c k i n g . E x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d on b o t h t h e A l y e s k a o i l p i p e l i n e and t h e Mackenzie  V a l l e y P i p e l i n e Study  indicate that within regions of  p e r m a f r o s t , r i v e r and c o a s t a l p r o c e s s e s can pose g e o t e c h n i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s . authors such as B r i c e (1974), and C h i l d e r s  significant  I n p a r t i c u l a r , work by  (1971) , M c D o n a l d a n d L e w i s  (1973) , O u t h e t  (1975), i n d i c a t e t h a t r a t e s o f e r o s i o n can  be s p e c t a c u l a r l y h i g h u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u n d m a t e r i a l t e x t u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o c a t i o n . the Mackenzie Mackay  V a l l e y b y a u t h o r s s u c h as Mackay  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Hughes  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , I s a a c s a n d Code  and M c R o b e r t s a n d M o r g e n s t e r n the presence  i c e conditions,  Numerous s t u d i e s i n ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Rampton a n d ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Code  ( 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 4 a , 1974b) a l s o  of large scale i n s t a b i l i t y  (1973),  indicate  f e a t u r e s such as s k i n  f l o w s a n d r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s , w h i c h o c c u r a s a r e s u l t of  permafrost  conditions.  As one s t e p i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f such hazards, t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n seeks t o determine  the f e a s i b i l i t y  o f u s i n g c o a s t a l and r i v e r b a n k :  2 m o r p h o l o g y a s an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e l a t e r a l and  riverine  coastal features located w i t h i n a region of permafrost.  a d d i t i o n , r i v e r and exposures  coastal erosion frequently provide  In  vertical  o f m a t e r i a l w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be u n a v a i l a b l e w i t h -  out extensive subsurface d r i l l i n g . may  s t a b i l i t y of  Thus bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y  a l s o p r o v i d e an i n e x p e n s i v e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a b i l i t y  the adjacent  of  terrain.  W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m s "bank"  and  "slope" are t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d to i n c l u d e r i v e r banks, t e r r a c e s c a r p s , and v a l l e y w a l l s , as w e l l as n o n - d e p o s i t i o n a l c o a s t a l features.  I n o r d e r t o l i m i t the scope o f the p r o j e c t ,  "banks" o r  " s l o p e s " formed o f l i t h i f i e d m a t e r i a l s have been e x c l u d e d the study.  T h e s e m a t e r i a l s t e n d t o be c o m p a r a t i v e l y s t a b l e ,  d i s c u s s e d by H a r t w e l l ( 1 9 7 3 ) therefore of less The  initial  and  S h o r t and Wright- ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and  stages of the study i n v o l v e d the  the range o f morphologic  study area  (Section 2).  One  morphologie-.rfea.tur.es was s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o be  of the c r i t e r i a  (Section 3).  to processes  e f f e c t o f n i v a t i o n , and  these  photography.  then sampled  of sediment removal,  genesis a s s o c i a -  t o have a  bank o r s l o p e f o r m .  rela-  vegetation cover,  ground i c e o c c u r r e n c e were a l s o  p r o v i d e s q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on  to  F a c t o r s s u c h as t h e  g a t e d , as t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were o b s e r v e d e f f e c t on t h e o b s e r v e d  the  t h a t they should g e n e r a l l y be-of  i d e n t i f i a b l e on e x i s t i n g a e r i a l  ted w i t h each morphology  encom-  i n choosing  t h e r a n g e i n i c e c o n t e n t , t e x t u r e , and  t i v e exposure  are  identification  expression occurring within  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number o f t h e s e s i t e s was determine  as  interest.  o f a f i n i t e number o f t y p i c a l bank o r s l o p e f o r m s w h i c h passed  from  investi-  significant  Thus t h i s  analysis  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between "form  and  3 process", w h i c h a u t h o r s such as F r e n c h urgently  required"  (1976)  suggest  "are  f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e r i g l a c i a l p r o c e s s e s .  N e t s e a s o n a l e r o s i o n was  m o n i t o r e d a t a number o f  sites  w i t h i n each morphologic category (Section 4 ) , i n o r d e r t o the  r e l a t i v e magnitude  representative one  and  quantify  t i m i n g o f sediment p r o d u c t i o n .  rates of erosion  As  are d i f f i c u l t to determine  season's measurements, comparative a i r photo a n a l y s i s  undertaken  for sites with  repeated coverage.  s c a l e o f most o f t h e a v a i l a b l e photography s t u d i e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y n o t as u s e f u l as was  Due  t o the  The  (1:100,000) , t h e s e originally  expected; they  interesting results. o b s e r v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h bank o r s l o p e  then summarized  ( S e c t i o n 5) t o a l l o w an a s s e s s m e n t  s t a b i l i t y u n d e r b o t h n a t u r a l and d i s t u r b e d morphologic  features  of  form were  terrain  conditions.  As  the  a r e g e n e r a l l y o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o be  i d e n t i f i e d from a e r i a l photography, initial  was small  h o w e v e r i n a few c a s e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y r a p i d r e c e s s i o n , provided  from  the study thus allows  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to t e r r a i n  s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f a i r p h o t o g r a p h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  an stability,  4 1.2  PREVIOUS STUDIES  I n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t i n g r i v e r and stability  coastal  i n t h e A r c t i c e x t e n d s b a c k a t l e a s t as f a r a s t h e  e a r l y 1900 s.  Keele (1910), L e f f i n g w e l l  f  documented t h e e x p o s u r e o f ground d i s c u s s e d examples wave a c t i o n .  (1919),and O ' N e i l l  i c e i n recent cut-banks  of r a p i d e r o s i o n r e s u l t i n g  E a r d l e y (1938)  (1924)  and  from slumps  and  p r o v i d e d q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements  o f r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n on Y u k o n R i v e r and d i s c u s s e d t h e v a r y i n g b e h a v i o u r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h banks and  composed o f f r o z e n , s a n d ,  silt  "muck . 11  The  p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1940's and e x t e n d i n g  t h r o u g h t o t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s saw  an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f work u n d e r t a k e n  i n t h e A r c t i c and r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e number o f p a p e r s t h e s e a s o n a l r e g i m e o f h y d r o l o g i c p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r e f f e c t on r i v e r and c o a s t a l s t a b i l i t y . p e r m a f r o s t c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h as  describing resultant  Processes unique to  "ground i c e slumps" o r  ".thermo-  e r o s i o n a l n i c h i n g " and s u b s e q u e n t b l o c k f a l l s , w e r e d e s c r i b e d a u t h o r s s u c h as Y e f i m o v and S o l o v ' e v ( 1 9 5 1 ) , W i l l i a m s MacCarthy Tolstov  (1953) , K u z n e t s o v a and K a p l i n a  (1962) .  (1952,  (1960) , H e n o c h  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a l a r g e number o f  ( W a s h b u r n , 1947)  Alaskan North Slope  on Blow R i v e r D e l t a Island  ( M c C l o y , 1970)  ( C h u r c h , 1972) .  River  of  (Walker  1 9 6 9 ) , on L e n a R i v e r  1 9 6 4 ) , w i t h i n t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s  and  1963,  1963a), along the  ( R e x , 1 9 6 4 ) , and C o l v i l l e  M o r g a n , 1964; W a l k e r and M c C l o y ,  (1961)  and R e s o l u t e (Cook, 1959,  1 9 6 7 ) , i n t h e M a c k e n z i e D e l t a a r e a (Mackay,  1955),  regional  s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d o u t , such as t h o s e i n t h e v i c i n i t y V i c t o r i a Island  by  and  (Yefimov,  ( S t . Onge, 1 9 6 5 ,  and o n t h e s a n d u r s on  1969),  Baffin  T h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s on  5 the  factors influencing terrain stability  e n v i r o n m e n t s , w i t h p a p e r s by M a c k a y (1966) , K e r f o o t (1969)  over a wide range  (1963b), Walker  and Czudek and Demek (1970)  and  Arnborg  specifically  d i s c u s s i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p e r m a f r o s t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y stability The  and  o f r i v e r b a n k s and c o a s t a l a r e a s . 1 9 7 0 ' s saw  the development  p h o l o g y " as d i s c u s s e d by P o s e r T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l awareness b e i n g o r i e n t e d towards or  processes  of  " e n v i r o n m e n t a l geomor-  ( i n Rapp, 1975)  and J o p l i n g  (1975) .  r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e number o f  studies  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t e r r a i n  conditions  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r i v e r and c o a s t a l s t a b i l i t y  might r e s u l t i n g e o t e c h n c i a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems posed development pipeline  activities,  s u c h as t h e M a c k e n z i e  ( s e e p a p e r s by C h u r c h , 1 9 7 1 ;  C o o p e r and H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1973; 1974;  and Day  and E g g i n t b n ,  Neil,  1976) .  1973;  1973;  C o d e , 1973;  McRoberts  K u r f u r s t , 1973;  t o s o i l mechanics  Rampton and MacKay, 1 9 7 1 ;  and L e w i s and F o r b e s , 1975) . undertaking detailed  Newbury,  papers  (Chyurlia, 1974a  and  history  M c D o n a l d and L e w i s ,  Hughes e t a l . , 1974. ; S k i n n e r The  1 9 7 0 ' s a l s o saw  1973; 1974;  geomorphologists  s t u d i e s of the processes i n v o l v e d i n the  f o r m a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c r i v e r b a n k and 1970;  1971;  i n c i v i l engineering  and M o r g e n s t e r n , 1 9 7 3 ,  Rampton, 1973;  gas  Many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e  1974b) and t o t h e s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y and Q u a t e r n a r y ( H u g h e s , 1972;  for pro-  MacKay, 1973;  s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a number o f  r e l a t i n g bank and s l o p e s t a b i l i t y  which  Valley  Dingman e t a l . ,  c a r r i e d o u t by s c i e n t i s t s w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d or  of  slope morphologies  F r e n c h , 1 9 7 1 ; K e n n e d y and M e l t o n , 1972;  F o g a r a s i and S p i t z e r , 1973;  Gill,  1972;  F r e n c h and E g g i n t o n , 1973;  C o g l e y , 1 9 7 3 ; McCann e t a l . , 1974;  O u t h e t , 1974;  (see  McCloy,  MacKay,  McCann  and H a r p e r ,  and 1978a).  6  All  of the  g a t i o n , as process,  above s t u d i e s a r e  r e l e v a n t to the p r e s e n t  they i n d i c a t e t h a t there  geotechncial  are  r e l a t i o n s h i p s amongst  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  S p e c i f i c r e s u l t s of the  relevant  subsequent s e c t i o n s of the t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  dissertation.  fine textured  southern Mackenzie Delta.  His  be  correlated with  morphology.  discussed  in  However i t i s w o r t h w h i l e  Outhet  e r o s i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n the  can  bank o r s l o p e  s t u d i e s w i l l be  t h e s i s by  investi-  (1974) d e a l i n g fluvial  with  sediments of  studies indicate that erosion  g r o u n d i c e c o n t e n t and  that  the rates  riverbanks  u n d e r g o i n g d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f r e t r e a t have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c morphologies. material.  These r e s u l t s are  l i m i t e d to a single  genetic  However i f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e s i m i l a r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a range of m a t e r i a l s  and  processes  occurring  w i t h i n a r e g i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous e n v i r o n m e n t a l i t m i g h t t h e n be  p o s s i b l e t o use  m o r p h o l o g y as an  which to assess p o t e n t i a l erosion  r a t e s and  conditions,  i n d i c a t o r upon  geotechnical  charac-  teristics . Thus t h e evaluating  thesis objective  r i v e r o r c o a s t a l s t a b i l i t y on  s h i p s b e t w e e n f o r m , p r o c e s s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can specific  of developing  s t u d i e s and  be  the b a s i s of  geotechnical  s e e n t o be  or  relation-  environmental  related to t r a d i t i o n a l  t o t h e more r e c e n t  m o r p h o l o g y as a t o o l f o r r e s o u r c e  a methodology f o r  t r e n d of u s i n g  management.  processgeo-  7 1.3  LOCATION OF  The  field  THE  s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out  Banks I s l a n d , the pelago  STUDY AREA  i n the  summer o f 1975  on  s o u t h w e s t e r n m o s t member o f t h e A r c t i c A r c h i -  (Figure 1).  B a n k s I s l a n d i s one  of the  l a r g e r of the  high  2  Arctic  i s l a n d s w i t h an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 64,000 km  comparable i n s i z e w i t h t h a t of the about twice  the  Within  area of Vancouver  this  large region,  a v a i l a b i l i t y of t r a n s p o r t . h e l i c o p t e r and area drained  other  by  s t u d y a r e a was  T h r o u g h s u p p o r t by  l o c a t i o n of  17 .  The  s c i e n t i s t s , and  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100  field  a r e a s was  s i t e s and  thus the  s e l e c t i o n and  and  provided which the summer.  opportunity  net e r o s i o n  the  are  t h e i r relevance these  summer.  r e c e s s i o n was  relatively  monitored  f l i g h t s circumnavigating  to  these  i s o l a t e d base  Thus t h e m a j o r i t y  by S t e p h e n  to  limitations,  were s e l e c t e d such t h a t t r a n s p o r t  Thomsen R i v e r s . S t u d i e s two  of  sample  r i v e r i n e l o c a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n  involved the  names  number o f  v i c i n i t y o f a s u b s i d i a r y f l y camp l o c a t e d n e a r t h e  processes  the  much o f  place  Within  seasonal  f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e from the  " I v i t a r u k " and  by  a combination  s i t e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d o v e r the  F i g . 17)  s i t e s on  by  these co-workers.  camp s i t u a t e d i n c e n t r a l B a n k s I s l a n d . erosion  defined  s u r v e y s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n w i t h a number o f  l o c a t i o n s at which net  ( a l s o shown on  or  northward flowing r i v e r s  s i t e s were d e t e r m i n e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by  Brunswick  Island.  t h e m a j o r w e s t w a r d and  Figure  The  o f New  boat, a l l of the c o a s t a l regions  were s u r v e y e d . The shown on  the  province  ; which i s  of the  junction (1976) on  the  of beach  island  and  t o e x a m i n e a number o f c o a s t a l s i t e s  c o u l d be  observed over the course of  the  at  Figure 1=  L o c a t i o n of the study area  9 Background i n f o r m a t i o n climatic conditions  on the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g and  i s presented i n the  to the r e s u l t s of the  study.  regional  following sections, prior  10 1.4  THE  1.4.1  PHYSICAL SETTING  Bedrock  The  Geology  bedrock geology  o f B a n k s I s l a n d was  a s c a l e o f 1:1,000,000 by T h o r s t e i n s s o n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h R. Vincent  (19 78a)  C h r i s t i e and  and  J.. F y l e s .  o r i g i n a l l y mapped a t Tozer  (1962)  Miall  ( 1 9 7 6 , 1979)  h a v e r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d more d e t a i l e d  in and  studies  w h i c h i n c l u d e g e o l o g i c a l mapping o f the study area a t a s c a l e o f 1:250,000. As  i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e g e n e r a l i z e d b e d r o c k j g e o l o g y map  on F i g u r e 2, o v e r  80%  o f the s u r f a c e a r e a o f Banks I s l a n d i s  u n d e r l a i n by u n l i t h i f i e d o r p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d and  T e r t i a r y age.  The  Beaufort Formation,  sediments of Mesozoic  the youngest of  T e r t i a r y d e p o s i t s , i s composed o f u n c o n s o l i d a t e d and  e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s a n d d e p o s i t s o f t h e H a s s e l and  silts  and  Isachsen  the  gravels the Forma-  T e r t i a r y d e p o s i t s a r e p r i m a r i l y composed as  of  indi-  legend.  S u r f a c e e x p r e s s i o n o f P a l e o z o i c and limited in distribution t h e n o r t h e r n and  Proterozoic deposits i s  to the n o r t h - e a s t e r n  southern  older, generally l i t h i f i e d siltstone,  With  c l a y s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of l i t h i f i c a t i o n ,  c a t e d on t h e map  and  fluvial  sands w i t h minor i n c l u s i o n s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r .  t i o n s , the remaining  shown  "Devonian P l a t e a u " ,  e x t r e m i t i e s of the i s l a n d .  d e p o s i t s a r e composed o f  shale, limestone, dolomite  and  i n t r u s i o n s o c c u r r i n g along the southern Thus t h e b e d r o c k g e o l o g y  These  sandstone,  chert, with  gabbro  coast.  o f much o f B a n k s I s l a n d i s com-  posed of u n l i t h i f i e d or p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d r e a d i l y s u s c e p t i b l e to processes  sediments which  of erosion.  are  LEGEND FOR BEDROCK GEOLOGY MAP ERA  PERIOD  MAP SYMBOL  TERTIARY  Beaufort  Tb  MATERIALS  FORMATION Formation  U H  O  tsj  Te2  E u r e k a Sound Formation c y c l i c member  mainly u n l i t h i f i e d sands, s i l t s , c l a y s and c o a l d e p o s i t e d i n marine and t e r r e s t r i a l environments  Tel  E u r e k a Sound Formation " s h a l e " member  mainly u n l i t h i f i e d s i l t s and c l a y s o f n o n - m a r i n e origin  Kanguk F o r m a t i o n  mainly poorly l i t h i f i e d s i l t s and c l a y s o f marine o r i g i n w i t h an u p p e r s a n d member a n d a b a s a l b i t u m i n o u s member w i t h b e n t o n i t e beds  C h r i s t o p h e r and Hassel Formations  Hassel: rare outcrops o f g l a u c o n i t i c sand w i t h minor s i l t and c l a y o f nearshore o r i g i n Christopher: u n l i t h i f i e d , very s t i c k y s i l t s and c l a y s o f marine o r i g i n  Isachsen Formation  u n l i t h i f i e d quartzose sands o f f l u v i a l o r i g i n w i t h minor s i l t and lignite  Dm2  U p p e r Map U n i t  M e r c y B a y Member: limestone Younger s t r a t a : sandstone, s i l t s t o n e , shale  Dml  Pre Mercy Bay Member  sandstone, s i l t s t o n e and shale  Glenelg Formation ( U p p e r Map U n i t )  sandstone w i t h minor siltstone, shale  Glenelg Formation (Lower Map U n i t )  dolomite,  O  W CJ  CRETACEOUS  Kk  H  Kch  o  csi  O  CO  Ki  DEVONIAN o H  o  CSI  Figure  2.  Generalized  bedrock  (after M i a l l ,  geology o f Banks I s l a n d .  O W  <  1979) . O  H  o N  o Pi  w EH  O  Cd CM  NEOHELIKIANHADRYNIAN  u n l i t h i f i e d g r a v e l , sand and m i n o r o r g a n i c m a t t e r deposited i n a f l u v i a l environment  Pg P9i  2  chert  1.4.2  G l a c i a l H i s t o r y and S u r f i c i a l  As a r e s u l t o f a r e c e n t Vincent  Materials  surficial  g e o l o g y mapping program,  ( 1 9 7 8 a , b and c) h a s r e c o g n i z e d  at l e a s t three  main  g l a c i a t i o n s and two l o c a l g l a c i a l r e a d v a n c e s on B a n k s I s l a n d , a s illustrated and  on F i g u r e  extensive  3a.  I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f g l a c i a l  areas of marine  i n u n d a t i o n have been  The f o l l o w i n g summary i s b a s e d on V i n c e n t ' s ted reader  for a detailed  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Quaternary h i s t o r y o f the study  Glaciation"  g l a c i a l event,  The a s s o c i a t e d t i l l  are mainly and  area.  d e f i n e d as t h e "Banks  ( V i n c e n t , 1978c) a p p e a r s t o h a v e c o v e r e d  Banks I s l a n d w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n corner.  identified.  work and t h e i n t e r e s -  i s r e f e r r e d to the c i t e d references  The o l d e s t r e c o g n i z e d  of the  a l l of  north-western  d e p o s i t s a r e c l a y e y i n t e x t u r e and  d e r i v e d from the u n d e r l y i n g  Tertiary  lakes  fine textured  Cretaceous  Formations.  Two g l a c i a l  l a k e s have been r e c o g n i z e d  as b e i n g  associated  w i t h t h e "Banks G l a c i a t i o n " . "Lake E g i n a " , w i t h a n a r e a o f 2 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 km , was l o c a t e d n o r t h o f B e r n a r d R i v e r and immediately  w e s t o f Musk-ox R i v e r .  significantly and  was  smaller  " G l a c i a l Lake Storkerson'! 2  ( w i t h an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  located north of Storkerson  was  15 0 km ) ,  River.  The age o f t h e "Banks G l a c i a t i o n " and a s s o c i a t e d l a c u s t r i n e deposits  i s p r e s e n t l y unknown.  described  the t i l l  in  Prest et a l .  (1968) h a s  d e p o s i t s i n t h i s r e g i o n as b e i n g  age, w i t h V i n c e n t ' s  "pre-Wisconsin"  more r e c e n t w o r k i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  sediments are s u f f i c i e n t l y o l d t h a t they o v e r l a i n by d e p o s i t s o f a t l e a s t two f u l l ( V i n c e n t , 1 9 7 8 c , p . 56) .  these  " a r e t h o u g h t t o be interglaciations"  Figure  3a:  Glacial  limits  on  Banks  f i g u r e 3b. L o c a t i o n o f g r a i n i n S e c t i o n 3.2.1.  Island  size  (from  Vincent,  1978c)  samples discussed  The  "Thomsen G l a c i a t i o n " o v e r r o d e  the southern  and e a s t e r n  r e g i o n s o f Banks I s l a n d , w i t h a major l o b e o c c u p y i n g R i v e r V a l l e y as f a r n o r t h as M'Clure S t r a i t .  Till  t h e Thomsen  deposits  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s g l a c i a l e v e n t a r e more s a n d y i n t e x t u r e those  of the e a r l i e r During  "Banks  Glaciation".  t h e "Thomsen G l a c i a t i o n " ,  occurred w i t h i n the western, Island.  Along  present  c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n r e g i o n s o f Banks  (1978c) a s "The B i g S e a " ) ,  e l e v a t i o n s o f over  the Bernard,  a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n  the west c o a s t , the l i m i t s o f marine  ( d e f i n e d by V i n c e n t  Storkerson  than  inundation  correspond  to  60 m a s i . , w i t h e x t e n s i v e r e g i o n s o f  and B i g R i v e r d r a i n a g e s  t o e l e v a t i o n s o f up t o 215 m a s i .  being  inundated  Marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a l s o  o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e Thomsen V a l l e y a n d a l o n g e x t e n s i v e r e g i o n s o f the e a s t c o a s t d u r i n g d e g l a c i a t i o n and r e s u l t e d i n t h e w i d e s p r e a d d e p o s i t i o n o f deep w a t e r m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s . marine s h e l l s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n these a r e p r e - S a n g a m o n i a n i n age and t h u s appears t o predate  the "Classical  Two l a r g e g l a c i a l Glaciation".  Amino a c i d d a t i n g o f  d e p o s i t s suggests t h e "Thomsen  that  they  Glaciation"  Wisconsin".  l a k e s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e "Thomsen  " G l a c i a l Lakes P a r k e r " and " D i s s e c t i o n " o c c u p i e d  much o f t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e i s l a n d a n d r e s u l t e d i n the d e p o s i t i o n o f f i n e t e x t u r e d g l a c i o - l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s w i t h i n many o f t h e v a l l e y s i n t h i s The  region.  t h i r d m a j o r g l a c i a l e v e n t has been d e f i n e d as t h e  "Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n " , w h i c h o c c u p i e d Island.  The " T h e s i g e r  t h e e a s t e r n r e g i o n o f Banks  Lobe" o f t h i s i c e sheet  i s t h o u g h t t o have  e x t e n d e d w e s t w a r d i n t o Amundsen G u l f t o i m p i n g e on t h e s o u t h western coast of the i s l a n d .  T h i s g l a c i a l advance r e s u l t e d i n  16 the d e p o s i t i o n o f a g e n e r a l l y t h i n s i l t y from f i n e t e x t u r e d marine sediments. quently a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the presence and  numerous t h e r m o k a r s t In  till,  This t i l l  primarily  derived  veneer i s f r e -  of high centered  polygons  lakes.  t h e n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s o f Banks I s l a n d t h e " V i s c o u n t  M e l v i l l e G l a c i a t i o n " o r "M'Clure Lobe" d e p o s i t e d a sandy along the north-west  c o a s t and w i t h i n Mercy Bay.  were o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d by P r e s t e t a l . t h e same age a s t h o s e Glaciation".  of the subsequently  These d e p o s i t s  (1968) a s b e i n g o f defined  "Amundsen  H o w e v e r , t h e more r e c e n t work o f V i n c e n t  neither confirms nor disproves t h i s  till  (1978c)  hypothesis.  Two m i n o r r e a d v a n c e s h a v e a l s o b e e n t e n t a t i v e l y A deformed r i d g e o f f i n e t e x t u r e d marine  identified.  (?) s e d i m e n t s on t h e  n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f B a n k s I s l a n d may h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d by the  " R u s s e l R e a d v a n c e " o f " V i s c o u n t M e l v i l l e " o r "Amundsen" i c e .  S i m i l a r l y , y o u n g l o o k i n g m o r a i n e t o p o g r a p h y l o c a t e d on t h e south-west c o a s t . e a s t o f Sachs Harbour i s thought from a l o c a l  t o have  "Sands H i l l s R e a d v a n c e " o f t h e "Amundsen  resulted  Glaciation"  ( V i n c e n t , 1978c) . Vincent  (1978c) h a s r e c o g n i z e d a number o f i c e dammed l a k e s  which developed  a l o n g t h e m a r g i n o f t h e "Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n " .  Two s m a l l l a k e s  (the " S a r f a r s s u k Lakes") o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the  n o r t h - e a s t e r n r e g i o n o f t h e i s l a n d and r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t i o n of l a c u s t r i n e sediments. Raddi",  "Masik",  "Rufus",  along the southern  coast.  Similarly  "Glacial  Lakes  "De S a l i s " a n d " C a r d w e l l " o c c u r r e d  17  A w e l l d e f i n e d break i n slope  along  the east coast  indicates  t h a t m a r i n e o r g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e submergence a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e "Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n " g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d above p r e s e n t  sea l e v e l .  (1978c) a s t h e " E a s t  t o a h e i g h t o f 120 m  T h i s e v e n t has been d e f i n e d by  C o a s t Submergence".  l i n e s occur w i t h i n the Cardwell  Vincent  Higher e l e v a t i o n  strand  B r o o k a n d De S a l i s R i v e r d r a i n -  a g e s a s a r e s u l t o f g l a c i a l dammed l a k e s .  " G l a c i a l Lake  Cardwell"  a p p e a r s t o h a v e reached"'an e l e v a t i o n o f 245 "m a s l a n d to.-have drained  i n t o " G l a c i a l L a k e De S a l i s "  i n turn drained  ( e l e v a t i o n 200 m a s l ) , w h i c h  i n t o t h e headwaters o f B i g R i v e r .  pattern l i k e l y explains the r e l i c  (This  drainage  c h a n n e l s c a r s and e x t e n s i v e  o u t w a s h d e p o s i t s w h i c h p r e s e n t l y o c c u p y much o f t h e B i g R i v e r drainage.) A lower strand l i n e a l s o occurs  along  e l e v a t i o n o f 25 m a s l a n d h a s b e e n d e f i n e d "Schuyter P o i n t Sea".  t h e e a s t c o a s t a t an as r e s u l t i n g from t h e  The " S c h u y t e r P o i n t S e a " s e d i m e n t s o v e r l i e  t h o s e o f t h e "Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n " a n d t h u s V i n c e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n probably against  i c e o c c u p y i n g P r i n c e o f Wales S t r a i t .  P o i n t S e a " may r e p r e s e n t  d i d n o t abut  Thus t h e " S c h u y t e r  " e i t h e r a l a t e r phase o f t h e 'East  S u b m e r g e n c e • o r i t may be a t o t a l l y g l a c i o - i s o s t a t i c depression reach  (197 8c)  separate  Coast  event r e s u l t i n g from  by l a t e W i s c o n s i n i c e t h a t d i d n o t  B a n k s I s l a n d " ( V i n c e n t , 1 9 7 8 c , p. 6 1 ) . Two m a j o r g l a c i a l dammed l a k e s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  "Viscount  Melville Glaciation".  " G l a c i a l Lake B a l l a s t "  p o r t i o n s o f t h e B a l l a s t Brook drainage b a s i n 90 m a s l .  inundated  t o an e l e v a t i o n o f  " G l a c i a l Lake I v i t a r u k " a l s o reached a s i m i l a r e l e -  v a t i o n and r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n u n d a t i o n  of extensive  portions of  t h e n o r t h c o a s t between " G l a c i a l Lake B a l l a s t " and Mercy Bay, as w e l l a s f l o o d i n g much o f t h e Thomsen R i v e r d r a i n a g e M a r i n e submergence a l o n g  the west c o a s t , subsequent t o t h a t  o f t h e " B i g S e a " , l o c a l l y r e a c h e d 20 m a s l . inundation  basin.  The age o f t h i s  i s n o t known p r e c i s e l y , h o w e v e r , V i n c e n t  t e n t a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t h i s event,  (1978c) h a s  d e f i n e d a s t h e "Meek P o i n t S e a  w i t h t h e " E a s t C o a s t S u b m e r g e n c e " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e "Amundsen Glaciation". From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g l a c i a l h i s t o r y i t c a n be s e e n that the s u r f i c i a l can  s t r a t i g r a p h y o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the study  f r e q u e n t l y be v e r y c o m p l e x .  F o r example, s i t e s  s a m p l e d on t h e  e a s t c o a s t o f Banks I s l a n d c o n t a i n d e p o s i t s o f t i l l e i t h e r three or four g l a c i a l events(see sediments are separated and  Vincent,  area  reflecting  1978b).  These  by i n t e r g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s o f b o t h marine  t e r r e s t r i a l o r i g i n , w i t h t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e b e i n g composed o f  colluviated deposits  from m a r i n e , g l a c i a l and b e d r o c k  W i t h i n c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n Banks I s l a n d , t h e u p l a n d  sources.  surfaces  have  generally a simpler stratigraphy, with colluvium or eolian sediments o v e r l y i n g a t i l l  v e n e e r w h i c h o v e r l i e s b e d r o c k . However  near the coast o r w i t h i n the v a l l e y s , the sedimentary g r a p h y c a n a g a i n become more c o m p l i c a t e d fluvio-glacial,  recent  fluvial  as m a r i n e ,  stratilacustrine,  sediments and c o l l u v i u m  derived  from e i t h e r t h e u n d e r l y i n g s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s o r bedrock, locally.  occur  19 1.5  CLIMATE  The  c l i m a t e of the western  C a n a d i a n A r c t i c has  c r i b e d by numerous a u t h o r s , i n c l u d i n g Thompson (1972) , and Anderson  r e c e n t l y Burns  (1973  (1978) h a v e p r e s e n t e d  f o r B a n k s I s l a n d and  and  1974) .  been d e s -  (1967),  Miller  Fogarsi  (1975)  a summary o f c l i m a t i c  and  normals  have compared t h e s e a v e r a g e s w i t h t h e  d i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e 1975  field  season.  con-  This section i s  therefore only intended to provide a general i n t r o d u c t i o n to c l i m a t e o f t h e s t u d y a r e a and  the i n t e r e s t e d reader  i s again  r e f e r r e d t o t h e c i t e d r e f e r e n c e s f o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e cussion.  the  dis-  H o w e v e r , a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f snow c o v e r ,  p r e c i p i t a t i o n and are p a r t i c u l a r l y  temperature  d a t a i s p r o v i d e d as t h e s e t o p i c s  r e l e v a n t to a study of slope  processes.  Radiation The and  s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n g l o b a l r a d i a t i o n a t Sachs Harbour  M o u l d Bay  M o u l d Bay Harbour  i s shown on F i g u r e 4.  i s approximately  (10 3.7  v e r s u s 110.7  g l o b a l r a d i a t i o n c a n be values approaching  net r a d i a t i o n a t Mould Bay,  value  at  l e s s than t h a t observed a t Sachs 2 MJ/m ) . Peak m o n t h l y v a l u e s o f  .  i n May  and  June, w i t h  However t h e s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n  a l s o shown on F i g u r e 4, i n d i c a t e s  t h a t t h e maximum n e t r a d i a t i o n o c c u r s d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g i s thought i n May,  t o t a l annual  6%  seen to occur 2  25 MJ/m  The  i n J u n e and  t o o c c u r due  July.  to a higher  r e f l e c t i n g t h e snow c o v e r e d c o n d i t i o n s .  This albedo  25  c  0 • H  4J  max. a n n u a l mean a n n u a l min. a n n u a l  20  03  • H  T>  15  nj  CN SH  03  E  a  cn  MJ/nu MJ/iru MJ/m  10  rH  0  110.7 104.0 99.5  4-1  5  rH  03 . Q  0  0  M  i H  CJ  Global  solar  1 , —'—i i 0 J A S N D H a r b o u r , E l . 84 m (1970-1977)  T -  M  J - Sachs  radiation  25  C O  max. a n n u a l mean a n n u a l min. annual  20 A  •H  +J  03  • H  T3  03 rj  u  03 rH  O cn  15 H CN  103.7 96.7 91.6  MJ/nu MJ/rru MJ/m  ~ 10  a  \  rj  S ^  5  03  o  0 J  rH  Global  F  ' M  solar  ' A  ' M  radiation  ' J  ' J  - Mould  ' A  ' S  Bay,  0  E l . 15 m  N  D  (1965-1977)  20 CN  a  max. a n n u a l 2 7.9 MJ/m^ mean a n n u a l 2 0.8 MJ/mZ m i n . a n n u a l 13.7 MJ/m  15  e  10  c o  5-1  • H  +J 03 • H  0  TS  03  U •P CD  -5  2  Net Note:  Figure  1  1  J  4.  F  1 — —  M  radiation  A  1  ——I  M  - Mould  J  Bay,  The g r a p h s i n d i c a t e a v e r a g e m o n t h l y and  1  — i  J  A  S  E l . 15 m  0 N D (1968-1977)  t h e maximum m o n t h l y , t h e t h e minimum m o n t h l y v a l u e s  Seasonal v a r i a t i o n i n r a d i a t i o n a t Sachs H a r b o u r and M o u l d Bay ( d a t a p r o v i d e d b y the A t m o s p h e r i c Environment S e r v i c e ) .  Air  Temperature Air  Holman  temperature d a t a from Sachs Harbour,  Mould Bay and  (shown o n F i g u r e 5) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d a i l y a i r  t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e a b o v e 0°C d u r i n g t h e months o f J u n e , J u l y a n d August,  w i t h t h e month o f J u l y h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e  d a i l y a i r temperature.  A frequency a n a l y s i s o f J u l y a i r tempera-  t u r e s i s shown o n F i g u r e 6 a n d i n d i c a t e s t h a t e x t r e m e t e m p e r a t u r e s may r a n g e  mean  f r o m 20 t o 30°C.  maximum  I t i s interesting to  n o t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s r e c o r d e d a t Holman a r e , o n t h e a v e r a g e , 2°C warmer t h a n t h o s e a t S a c h s Harbour  a n d a r e l i k e l y more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s  o c c u r r i n g on t h e e a s t s i d e o f Banks I s l a n d .  This observation i s  supported by t h e s h o r t term c l i m a t i c d a t a c o l l e c t e d a t Johnson P o i n t and a n a l y s e d by Anderson at  Mould  (1978) .  Similarly,  temperatures  B a y a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2°C c o l d e r t h a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d a t  Sachs Harbour  a n d a r e t h o u g h t t o be more t y p i c a l o f t h e n o r t h e r n  c o a s t o f Banks I s l a n d  ( F r e n c h , 1970) .  Sachs Harbour, Mould  B a y a n d Holman a r e a l l s i t u a t e d on t h e  c o a s t a n d t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e summer temperatures i n i n l a n d areas. d u r i n g t h e 1975 f i e l d  A i r temperature data  collected  season s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s and i n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e a v e r a g e mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s a t t h e b a s e  camps  i n c e n t r a l B a n k s I s l a n d w e r e 0.5 t o 2.5°C w a r m e r , a n d t h e e x t r e m e maximum d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s w e r e 4 t o 5°C w a r m e r , t h a n recorded a t t h e c o a s t a t Johnson  Point  ( A n d e r s o n , 1978) .  those  22  +10T  cu  u  -io H  +J  n3  U  Annual  /  average  . 'z'Daily maximum - V Mean d a i l y D a i l y minimum  -20 1  CU  e -301 CU  v  -10.5°C\\"-13.7°C \ ; -16.9°C  4-1  _L  u _40  M  <  A  M  Sachs +10  J  J  Harbour  A  S  N  O  D  - E l . 84 m  -i  cu  u -10 1 Annual  4-1 CCS  u -20 1  / / D a i l y max imum ' / Mean d a i l y D a i l y minzmum  (U  CU  6  cu  -30  T  4->  u  -4 0  •H  average  M  A  M  J  Mould  J  -14.6^Cv -17.8°C<N -21.1°C *^ N  A  S  0  N  D  Bay - E l . 1 5 m  +10 U  (U i-i  4J 03  u  -10 -20  CU  cu  s cu  -30 4  4-1  U •H <  -40  M  A  M  Holman Note:  Figure 5  J  J  A  S  - E l . 9m  mean d a i l y mean d a i l y mean d a i l y  maximum t e m p e r a t u r e temperature minimum t e m p e r a t u r e  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t S a c h s H a r b o u r , Holman and M o u l d Bay ( d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e ) .  23  10.5  2  3 Return p e r i o d Note:  20  50 100200  The s t r a i g h t l i n e s h a v e b e e n f i t t e d b y e y e . D a t a f r o m M o u l d Bay h a v e b e e n p l o t t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p i c a l r a n g e i n v a l u e s about the f i t t e d l i n e . The l e n g t h o f t h e l i n e corresponds to the extent of data coverage. maximum  temperatures  a v e r a g e mean d a i l y Figure  4 5 10 (years)  6.  temperatures  F r e q u e n c y a n a l y s i s o f t h e o b s e r v e d d a i l y maximum a n d a v e r a g e mean d a i l y a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t M o u l d Bay, Holman and S a c h s H a r b o u r d u r i n g t h e month o f J u l y ( d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e ) .  Ground  Temperature  Mean a n n u a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a a r e i n t h e r a n g e o f -12  t o -18°C.  The mean a n n u a l g r o u n d  d e p t h o f z e r o mean a n n u a l a m p l i t u d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3°C  (6°F)  warmer.  ground  t h e v a l u e o f -5°C  which i s  between t h e zones o f c o n t i n u o u s and  d i s c o n t i n u o u s p e r m a f r o s t ( s e e B r o w n , 1966, The  a t the  c a n be e x p e c t e d t o be  Thus t h e mean a n n u a l  temperatures are s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h o u g h t t o be t h e b o u n d a r y  temperature  o n l y l o n g term ground  1967).  temperature data a v a i l a b l e  r e g i o n i s t h a t r e c o r d e d a t Mould Bay.  The  average monthly  t e m p e r a t u r e s a t t h i s s t a t i o n a r e shown on F i g u r e 7. i n d i c a t e an a v e r a g e a n n u a l g r o u n d  for this ground  These d a t a  temperature of approximately  -14.3°C, w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s q u i t e n i c e l y w i t h t h e mean a n n u a l a i r t e m p e r a t u r e o f -18°C.  The maximum a v e r a g e g r o u n d s u r f a c e  t e m p e r a t u r e s o c c u r i n J u l y , w i t h a f t e r n o o n v a l u e s e x c e e d i n g 7.0°C, a t a d e p t h o f 5 cm.  S o i l t e m p e r a t u r e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on B a n k s  I s l a n d by Tedrow and D o u g l a s (1975)  (1964), French  (1970)  and  indicate that i n w e l l drained, coarse textured  s u r f a c e temperatures can exceed  19°C.  Miller materials,  Thus t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r -  able p o t e n t i a l f o r the thawing of the underlying  material.  A c t i v e l a y e r d e p t h s d e p e n d on t h e t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e g r o u n d , v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r and a s p e c t ,  w i t h maximum d e p t h s  of  o v e r 1 m b e i n g o b s e r v e d i n n o n - v e g e t a t e d , w e l l d r a i n e d sands gravels.  Permafrost thickness i s not w e l l d e l i n e a t e d ;  however,  o i l w e l l l o g s i n d i c a t e t h a t d e p t h s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 m c a n expected  ( T a y l o r and J u d g e ,  1974).  and  be  25 Ground t e m p e r a t u r e -30  Note:  -20  -10  0  +10  Data p r o v i d e d by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c Environment S e r v i c e . Values are not a v a i l a b l e September.  F i g u r e 7.  (°C)  f o r June  or  Average monthly s o i l temperatures r e c o r d e d a t Mould Bay A i r p o r t .  Precipitation The  seasonal p a t t e r n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  i n d i c a t e s t h a t on t h e a v e r a g e ,  rainfall  accounts  h a l f o f t h e mean a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n . precipitation through  shown on F i g u r e  8,  for nearly  Peak v a l u e s o f 24  one-  hour  ( F i g . 9) o c c u r as r a i n ' i n t h e p e r i o d o f J u n e  September, w i t h the extreme v a l u e s r e f l e c t i n g i n c r e a s e d  cyclonic activity  i n J u l y and A u g u s t .  frequency data are not a v a i l a b l e  Intensity-duration-  for this region.  d i s t r i b u t i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r e a t e s t 24 h o u r events  ( F i g . 10)  indicates  events  a p p r o a c h e s 5 cm.  precipitation  t h a t the magnitude o f  total  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note p r e c i p i t a t i o n values observed  rain  snow c o v e r , shown on F i g u r e  the s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t Holman.  c o a s t o f B a n k s I s l a n d may  l a r g e r 24  Three years of  c o l l e c t e d a t Johnson P o i n t suggest  maximum o b s e r v e d  extreme  This v a l u e i s s i m i l a r i n magnitude t o  t h a t of the average observed  t a t i o n data  However, the  24 h o u r p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 2.64  cm  hour  precipi-  t h a t the  have s i m i l a r l y h i g h v a l u e s  11.  east  as  the  i s somewhat  g r e a t e r than the l a r g e s t r e c o r d e d v a l u e a t Sachs Harbour  (2.18  cm)  d e s p i t e a 2 0 year p e r i o d of r e c o r d .  Snow C o v e r The  r e p o r t e d s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n snow c o v e r  F i g u r e 1 1 . Snow b e g i n s a c c u m u l a t i n g sists until  l a t e May  r e c e n t work c o n d u c t e d  i n September o r October  or- J u n e , w i t h . t h e  the t o t a l accumulation  i s shown i n  average water  b e i n g r e p o r t e d as 5 t o 7 cm. near  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t o t a l  R e s o l u t e by Woo  and H e r o n  snow a c c u m u l a t i o n may  r e c o r d e d by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c  be  pe  equivalent of However  the  (1979)  twice that  E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e , due  b u t i o n o f t h e snow c o v e r by w i n d a c t i o n and  and  to  redistri-  snow d e n s i t i e s  being  3 .OH  3.0 5.6 4 .6 10 .2  2 .OH  2 .0  1.0  1.0  0  J F M A M J J A S O N D  Sachs Harbour  - E l . 84 m  J F M A M J J A S O N D Cape P a r r y  A - E l . 16 m  J F M A M J J A S O N D Holman  - El.  9m  Nicholson Peninsula E l . 98 m o .0  3 .0  Mean snow, w a t e r equivalent  2.0 i  cu  a  (cm)  o .0  Mean  o .0  Mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n  rain  (cm) (cm)  Rain  l.o H  o  -  Snow ( w a t e r equivalent) 0 N D  M o u l d Bay - E l . 15 m Note:  Figure  8.  The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r amount o f snow o b s e r v e d a t N i c h o l s o n P e n i n s u l a may be a r e s u l t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t s due t o t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f snow c o v e r b y w i n d a c t i o n S e a s o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n o f mean monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n (data p r o v i d e d by the Atmospheric Environment Service) .  28  ©-mm  •€> Rai n f a 11 C)nly  •  • M M  0  Q Total precipitation  -A*  J  F  M  7  A  M  Sachs Harbour  0-—••—-O R a i n f a l l  X  \  V  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  (1956-1961, 1963-1976)  only  0 Total / '• precipitation /  Q  1  /  Q  ' j  V  J of'  J  F  Holman  M  A  (1950,  M  J  J  A  S  1952-1956, 1959-1962,  O  N  D  1964-1968)  S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e maximum 2 4 h o u r p r e c i p i t a t i o n a n d r a i n f a l l a t S a c h s H a r b o u r a n d Holman ( d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e ) .  2 Frequency  (percent  larger)  .3  .2 J  1  1  1  I  2  I 3  Return p e r i o d Note:  I 1 4 5  I 10  I  25  I  I  I  50 100 200  (years)  The s t r a i g h t l i n e s have been f i t t e d by eye. Data from Sachs Harbour have been p l o t t e d to i n d i c a t e the t y p i c a l range i n v a l u e s about the f i t t e d l i n e . The l e n g t h of the s o l i d l i n e corresponds to the e x t e n t o f data coverage.  F i g u r e 10.  Frequency a n a l y s i s o f the g r e a t e s t 2 4 hour p r e c i p i t a t i o n (data p r o v i d e d by the Atmospheric Environment S e r v i c e ) .  30  15 .0 12 .0  o C a)  O  > CD •H  >  9.0 6 .0 •  3 O CT U i>  3 .0  H o  d) c  •P cn  0.0  s  M (period  M Mould Bay of record:  A  O  N  D  - E l . 15 m 1966/67 t o 1976/77;  15.0 • M-l  12.0  o , c o  9.0 •  H  > <D •H  3  6.0 •  >  0  cu n o CU c  -P cn (0 s  3.0 • 0.0  M (period  M  N  S a c h s H a r b o u r - E l . 84 m of record: 1964/65 t o 1976/77)  15.0 • CH  12.0 -  o e* c u <u —  +J  rH  9.0 -  i-l  > •H  0) >  M  O  3 O CT o CL)  1) c -U cn (0  6.0 3 .0. 0.0 •  M (period  Note:  Figure  11.  M Cape P a r r y of record:  0  N  - E l . 16m 1964/65 t o 1976/77)  The t h r e e l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h e maximum o b s e r v e d , a v e r a g e a n d minimum o b s e r v e d snow c o v e r on t h e f i r s t and 1 5 t h day o f e a c h month o v e r t h e period of record. S e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n snow c o v e r a t M o u l d B a y , S a c h s H a r b o u r and Cape P a r r y ( d a t a p r o v i d e d by the A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e ) .  g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d f a c t o r employed by t h e A t m o s p h e r i c Environment Cook  Service.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have a l s o been r e c o r d e d by  (1960) a n d H a r e a n d Hay A comparison  (1971).  o f t h e snow c o v e r d a t a f r o m S a c h s H a r b o u r  M o u l d B a y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e snow f r e e p e r i o d r a n g e s  and  f r o m 2% t o  3h m o n t h s , b u t may be 2 weeks t o a m o n t h l o n g e r a t t h e more southerly station.  T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s  d u r i n g 1975 w h i c h i n d i c a t e d  t h a t snow c o v e r p e r s i s t e d  signifi-  c a n t l y l a t e r i n t o t h e s e a s o n on t h e n o r t h c o a s t o f t h e i s l a n d . S n o w m e l t p r o c e e d s q u i c k l y o n c e t h e snow p a c k i s r i p e . and H e r o n  Woo  (1979) r e p o r t t h a t a t R e s o l u t e , a d r a i n a g e b a s i n w h i c h  i s c o m p l e t e l y snow c o v e r e d c a n be l a i d b a r e i n l e s s t h a n 10 d a y s . T h i s i s comparable  w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s on B a n k s I s l a n d , w i t h t h e  e x c e p t i o n o f snow a c c u m u l a t i o n s i n n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s w h i c h  may  p e r s i s t f o r some t i m e .  Wind W i n d i s an i m p o r t a n t c l i m a t i c  f a c t o r w h i c h may a f f e c t  peri-  g l a c i a l p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f snow c o v e r (French, 1971),by a f f e c t i n g ground  temperature  advection o f s e n s i b l e heat o r the promotion  through the  of evaporation  ( F r e n c h , 1 9 7 0 ) , b y t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f waves ( W i l l i a m s , 1 9 5 2 ; a n d Barry e t a l . ,  1975)  o r storm surges  (Lewis and F o r b e s , 1975; and  H e n r y , 1975) , a n d t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t e r o s i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of  material  (Pissart et a l . ,  1977) .  T a b l e I p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e a v e r a g e w i n d and v e l o c i t i e s r e c o r d e d a t S a c h s H a r b o u r  and M o u l d B a y .  be s e e n t h a t d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t h e p r e d o m i n a n t at  Sachs Harbour  directions  wind  I t can  directions  a r e from t h e E a s t and S o u t h - e a s t , w h i l e t h o s e a t  Period  1955 - 72 JAN  Height  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  o f Anemometer  43'  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  YEAR  PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY 25  20  25  19  18  14  9  12  20  18  23  22  19  NE  N  9  8  10  12  14  14  10  15  14  11  11  10  12  E  7  7  9  •8  7  7  4  8  9  10  9  8  SE  6  7  6  8  7  6  4  7  8  10  8  7  S  8  9  8  13  13  14  16  9  10  9  10  SW  3  4  4  5  6  11  15  12  5  5  4  4  6  W  7  7  7  5  8  13  13  10  10  9  7  7  8  26  21  17  19  20  25  18  22  21  22  22  21  9  17  14  11  1  1  2  3  6  7  10  7  NW Calm  23 4  19  8 •  7 12  AVERAGE WIND SPEED IN KILOMETERS PER HOUR N  16.7  17.7  14.3  13.5  17.2  20.0  19.2  19.5  17 .2  14 .2  13 .7  16.4  16.6  NE  11.6  10.1  14 .6  15.0  17.7  19.0  20 .4  20.4  18 .8  15 .4  11 .7  11.3  15 .4  6.3  5.1  8.7  6.1  15.4  19.2  21.1  19 .0  17 .4  13 .2  8 .0  6.9  12 .2  SE  12.2  11.3  10.6  11.3  12.6  14.3  16.9  14.8  15.6  14.5  11 .9  11.4  13 .2  S  20.0  20.0  15.3  17 .5  18 .0  16 .7  16 .7  16.1  17 .9  16 .3  18 .3  16 .7  17 .5  SW  21.1  18 .8  16 .7  15 .6  15.3  14.3  14 .2  15 .3  20.3  18 .5  19 .6  17 .1  17 .2  W  22.0  17.5  14.3  13.7  14 .5  18 .7  16.9  18.0  21.4  22.4  17 .2  16.9  17 .9  NW  23.7  19.3  17.4  17.4  19.8  21.4  21.9  21.2  23.7  20.0  19 .0  20.8  20.4  12 .2  12.7  16 .6  18 .3  18 .2  18 .2  18 .8  15 .8  13.8  14.2  15 .8  E  All  Directions 16 .3  13 .5  SACHS HARBOUR, N..W.T. Period  1955 - 70 JAN  H e i g h t o f Anemometer  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEP  OCT  NOV  DEC  33 • YEAR  PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY N  16  14  13  14  15  16  15  14  13  11  13  14  14  NE  10  11  12  12  14  12  7  12  13  15  15  9  12 16  E  14  20  17  18  15  13  7  10  17  25  20  18  SE  23  25  29  28  22  18  21  22  18  16  16  21  22  S  10  11  8  11  10  13  16  13  12  7  12  11  SW  3  3  3  3  4  6  10  5  3  4  4  4  W  8  6  7  5  7  7  8  7  9  13  11  8  8  14  8  8  8  13  15  16  16  14  9  12  12  12  2  2  3  1  0  1  1  0  1  2  1  20 .4  NW Calm  AVERAGE WIND SPEED I N  0  0  4  8  KILOMETERS PER iHOUR  N  18.5  17.2  18.5  21.2  20.6  23.3  22.9  22.7  21 .7  19.5  18 .2  20 .4  NE  18.0  17.9  19.6  22 .4  20 .6  20.8  22.4  23 .2  22 .2  22 .9  20.1  19 .6  20 .8  E  17.7  19.8  20.9  21.2  19.2  21.7  20.1  20.9  23 .7  24 .9  20 .9  19 .2  20 .9  SE  19.8  20.4  20.0  23 .5  23 .8  24.8  23.2  24.1  27 .0  30.3  24 .0  22 .2  23 .7  S  17.9  15.8  14 .6  16 .6  17.9  15.6  15.4  18 .2  23 .7  24 .9  20.3  19 .2  18 .3  SW  14.5  13.2  13.2  11.9  18 .3  15.4  16 .7  17.7  18 .2  22 .5  16.1  15 .3  16 .1  W  16.6  16.7  17.4  16.7  18.5  19.6  23.7  22.0  22 .2  23 .8  20.3  17 .1  19 .6  NW  24.1  18.7  20.1  20.9  22.5  21.7  23.3  22.7  24 .9  22.7  20.8  24 .8  22 .2  18.7  20.9  20.8  20.9  21.1  21.7  23 .5  24.3  20.3  20 .0  20 .8  All  Directions 18.7  TABLE  18 .0  I:  Summary o f a v e r a g e w i n d s p e e d a n d d i r e c t i o n a t Sachs Harbour and Mould Bay (data p r o v i d e d by the A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e ) .  M o u l d B a y a r e f r o m t h e N o r t h and N o r t h - w e s t . Harbour winds a r e from t h e E a s t , S o u t h - e a s t  I n t h e summer S a c h s and S o u t h ,  while  M o u l d B a y r e p o r t s v a r i e d w i n d d i r e c t i o n s w i t h E a s t and S o u t h e a s t e r l y orientations being the least frequent. from Johnson P o i n t , a n a l y s e d by Anderson  Short term  (1978) , i n d i c a t e a p r i m a r y  E a s t and N o r t h - e a s t w i n d o r i e n t a t i o n and A n d e r s o n s u g g e s t s this  data  that  "may be i n d i c a t i v e o f a b a c k i n g o r c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e s h i f t o f  t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s a s one p r o g r e s s e s n o r t h w a r d s  a c r o s s Banks  Island". Wind o r i e n t a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n d e t e r mining the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i c e i n the eastern Beaufort Sea. s o u t h and e a s t e r l y winds t e n d t o d r i v e t h e i c e o f f s h o r e , w h i l e w e s t e r l y winds guide t h e i c e landward  ( B u r n s , 19 74) .  Wind  v e l o c i t y a l s o p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g wave h e i g h t , w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n and f e t c h b e i n g t h e o t h e r c o n t r o l l i n g B e r r y e t a l . y (1975) h a v e a n a l y s e d t h e d i r e c t i o n a l  factors. frequency  and m a g n i t u d e o f t h e w i n d a t S a c h s H a r b o u r , a n d a summary o f their analysis  i s presented  i n Table  II.  exceeding  31.5 km/hr (17 k n o t s )  frequency  d u r i n g t h e l a t e summer a n d f a l l ,  increase i n cyclonic a c t i v i t y .  Wind s p e e d s e q u a l t o o r  c a n be s e e n t o i n c r e a s e i n r e f l e c t i n g an  The p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f  t h e s e h i g h v e l o c i t y winds i s from t h e e a s t and s o u t h - e a s t , and c a n be e x p e c t e d  t o r e s u l t i n o n - s h o r e wave a c t i o n o n t h e s o u t h e r n  c o a s t d u r i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f open w a t e r . the observed  T h i s i s i n agreement w i t h  c o a s t a l morphology and t h e r e s u l t s o f a  study o f beach p r o f i l e s undertaken  by Stephen  (19 76) .  comparative  Percent DirectionafrEqequency Wind  ": : : ?,  Direction  June  July  August  NNE  .79  .44  .89  .67  .85  NE  1.63  .44  2.02  1.13  2 .74  .32  .73  1.30  2 .18  ENE  . 46  September  October  E  1.25  .20  .85  3 .08  4 .19  ESE  1.92  .85  1.33!  2 .80  3 .43  SE  3 .21  3 .19  2 .82  5 .42  5 .16  SSE  .71  .85  1.21  1.54  1.45  S  .54  .20  .08  1.13  .89  SSW  .04  .04  .04  .21  .24  SW  .13  .24  .32  .04  .48  WSW  .08  .16  .40  .17  .60  W  .38  1.09  .93  .96  1.69  WNW  .38  1.13  .69  1.17  1.69  NW  1.34  1.37  1.49  2 .42  1.17  NNW  .92  1.33  1.45  1.58  .52  2 .63  2.26  1.61  1.46  .60  N TOT. PC.  16.4  14.1 . note:  TABLE I I :  16 .9  24 .1  d a t a f r o m B e r r y e t a l . , 1975  D i r e c t i o n a l frequency o f monthly w i n d s e q u a l t o • o r exceeding 31.5 km/hr (17 K n o t s ) a t S a c h s H a r b o u r , 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 6 .  2 7.8  35 1.6  HYDROLOGIC REGIME  Rivers Systematic  h y d r o l o g i c measurements w i t h i n the A r c t i c  have been i n i t i a t e d o n l y r e c e n t l y data  (Environment Canada, 1978),  from Banks I s l a n d i s c o n s e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d .  u p p e r Thomsen R i v e r d r a i n a g e b a s i n was  and  Anderson, 1978).  A study  of  u n d e r t a k e n i n 1975  G l a c i o l o g y D i v i s o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t Canada 1976;  Islands  the  by  the  ( s e e A n d e r s o n and  In a d d i t i o n , a continuous  Durrant,  stream  g a u g i n g p r o g r a m on B i g R i v e r i n s o u t h - w e s t e r n B a n k s I s l a n d i n i t i a t e d by by A n d e r s o n and  the  t h e W a t e r S u r v e y o f C a n a d a i n 1975 . (1978)  reader  The  :  presents  hydrologic  m e l t peak i n t h e  is  12,  flow  ( C h u r c h , 19 74) .  i s characterized A typical  along w i t h the corresponding  by  hydrograph  meteoro-r  conditions. Cudbird  (1978) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  (1971) , A n d e r s o n  r i v e r s on  (1978)  and  Banks I s l a n d g e n e r a l l y  can  be  and  e a r l y J u l y , w i t h l a k e s becoming c o m p l e t e l y  e x p e c t e d t o break-up w i t h i n the p e r i o d between e a r l y June  t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n e a r l y J u l y and i s not w e l l documented, but t o be  15th  i c e covered during  t o t a l p e r i o d o f o p e n w a t e r on  m a t e l y 3h m o n t h s .  the  ice free  f i r s t of August.  of October, with the month o f  rivers  the  August lakes  September.  i s therefore  H o w e v e r , as i n d i c a t e d by  during Freeze-up  a p p e a r s t o commence i n l a t e  completed p r i o r t o the  becoming c o m p l e t e l y The  as  a n n u a l h y d r o g r a p h i s d o m i n a t e d ' b y a snow-  A n a l y s i s by A l l e n and  and  report  a good a n a l y s i s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a  s p r i n g o r e a r l y summer and  shown i n F i g u r e  Allen  final  r e g i m e on B a n k s I s l a n d i s c l a s s i f i e d  absence of w i n t e r  logical  was  i s r e f e r r e d to t h i s paper f o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n .  " A r c t i c N i v a l " , as t h e  the  The  and  approxi-  hydrograph  36  500  THOMSEN RIVER AT THOMSEN FLY 9  1975  p  400  1 \ 1\ 1 I  • mean d i s c h a r g e  f\  1  \  1  \  A i n s t a n t a n e o u s d i s c h a r g e measurement  , \ I  «  3  0  1 1  0  f o r the day  o e s t i m a t e d maximum d i s c h a r g e  \  A  «  T  i i  l i  CD  tn  U  '  A  n 200 a  •<-i  i  100  A  A  "  f> A  ••  I  /  /  •• ••  0 11 tan i i i i i i i i i i i i 1 1 i i" i 10 15 20 25 30 25  ••••••  /  daily  1 1 II  30  II  1 1 II  10  u  3 4J (0  S-l CD Cu  E  CD  En  15  20  m i l  25  rtmfrPimfA  30  >  10  d a i l y maximum and minimum a i r temperatures, Thomsen F l y camp  precipitation  20 CD  1 1 1 i 111 it  6 5  i c  4.2 -p  15 10  f0  -P •H  5  a,  0 -5  7  •rH  o  CD  I I I i 11 I I i I M an i I i i i I I I  Note: F i g u r e 12  10  15 20 June  30  10  15 20 July  30  5 10 August  From Anderson, 1978. Hydrometeorological  data,• Thomsen R i v e r , 1975 .  0 ft  shown o n F i g u r e  12, t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h a c t i v e e r o s i o n and s e d i -  ment t r a n s p o r t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d i s o n l y lh t o 2 m o n t h s a s , e x c e p t ;  d u r i n g i n f r e q u e n t heavy r a i n s t o r m s , d i s c h a r g e s to  negligible after mid-July.  been r e c o r d e d  a r e g e n e r a l l y low  I c e t h i c k n e s s e s o f o v e r 2 m have  and,except i n the deepest p o o l s , r i v e r s are  g e n e r a l l y f r o z e n t o t h e i r bed d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . ( D a y  and A n d e r s o n ,  1976) . A c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e maximum a n n u a l values  o b s e r v e d on Banks I s l a n d i s p r e s e n t e d  unit discharges  being  discharge  i n Table I I I , with  p l o t t e d a g a i n s t b a s i n a r e a on F i g u r e 1 3 .  Snow m e l t p e a k s c a n be s e e n t o p r o d u c e t h e l a r g e s t o b s e r v e d 2 discharges  with u n i t values  ranging  f r o m 30 t o 320 1/sec/km .  c o m p a r i s o n w i t h maximum u n i t d i s c h a r g e s  observed w i t h i n basins o f  comparable s i z e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, these  higher  i n the region of the I n t e r i o r  than those  recorded  (Environment Canada, 1972). of the data discharge  In  values  are s l i g h t l y  However, w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e  Plateau exception  f r o m E n v i r o n m e n t C a n a d a , a l l o f t h e a v a i l a b l e peak  values  from Banks I s l a n d a r e e s t i m a t e s  polations of stage-discharge  b a s e d on e x t r a -  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Such e x t r a p o l a t i o n s  a r e p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e a s a t l e a s t some o f t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n s w e r e s u b j e c t t o i c e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t i m e o f peak (see Day a n d A n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 6 ; a n d F o r b e s , m u s t be r e g a r d e d  w i t h some u n c e r t a i n t y .  values  o n l y one o r two y e a r s  represent  t h e maximum d i s c h a r g e  values  1979) .  discharge  Thus t h e s e  data  In a d d i t i o n , the reported of observation  and t h u s  c a n be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e a s a  l o n g e r p e r i o d o f r e c o r d becomes a v a i l a b l e . The  h y d r o l o g i c response t o the intense r a i n events  discussed  i n S e c t i o n 1.7 a p p e a r s t o v a r y w i t h b o t h p h y s i o g r a p h y a n d s e a s o n a l timing.  Observations  a t Resolute  o n A u g u s t 1 2 , 1960 (Thomas a n d  Maximum a n n u a l mean d a i l y d i s c h a r g e o /e c m 3/ s 1/sec/km  Basin area km^  Period of record  221  1975  30-70 ( e s t )  D i s s e c t i o n Creek  1060  1975  "Chebyshev  1670  T h o m s e n ^ R i v e r above "Chebyshev R i v e r "  Location  "Gallois  River"  Date  Reference  136-317  J u n e 1 6 , 1975  A n d e r s o n , 1978  120 ( e s t )  113  J u n e 1 6 , 1975  A n d e r s o n , 1978  1975  50 ( e s t )  30  J u n e 1 6 , 1975  Anderson,,1978  3610  1975  380 ( e s t )  105  J u n e 1 6 , 1975  A n d e r s o n , 1978  B i g R i v e r above Egg R i v e r  3652  1976-1977  250  68  J u n e 06, 1976  Environment Canada 19 76 & 1977 ( r e f . n o . lOTBOOl)  Thomsen R i v e r a b o v e D i s s e c t i o n Creek  5280  1975  430 ( e s t )  81  J u n e 1 6 , 1975  A n d e r s o n , 1978  River"  note:  TABLE I I I :  u n o f f i c i a l names a r e shown i n q u o t a t i o n  O b s e r v e d maximum a n d mean d a i l y d i s c h a r g e s  marks  f o r r i v e r s o n Banks. I s l a n d . u> 00  39  0  ?  " 3a l i e) i s  •er it Tl lomse n  <r  R i v er  a r ove "Ch€sbysh e v R i v e r "  0 D i s >sec t i c n C:re ek  O 1J i g R i v e r abc ve Egg R i v e r  0 Thomsen R i v e r 1 above 1 1 it D i s s s > c t i on C r ee k "  "C he Ri  200  300  400  600  800 1000 Basin  Note:  Figure  13.  ^shev sr"  1500  area  2000  4000  60 00  (km )  - u n o f f i c i a l names a r e i n i t a l i c s . - d a t a s o u r c e s and p e r i o d o f r e c o r d s on T a b l e I I I .  a r e shown  Maximum o b s e r v e d u n i t d i s c h a r g e p l o t t e d b a s i n a r e a f o r r i v e r s on Banks I s l a n d .  against  80 00  40 Thompson, 1962) 1973  (Cogley  and  and  McCann, 1976)  poorly vegetated o r d e r o f 50 mm  a t Vendom F i o r d , E l l e s m e r e  I s l a n d on J u l y  indicate that i n relatively  b a s i n s , 24 h o u r p r e c i p i t a t i o n e v e n t s (reported recurrence  can r e s u l t i n o v e r l a n d  and  However i n t h e more s u b d u e d  mass movement.  a d j a c e n t t o Mould Bay, Thompson, 1962) (48 mm,  r e s u l t e d i n o n l y an being observed.  cover, but  500  years  1960  (Thomas  and  precipitation from F i g u r e  10),  i n c r e a s e i n w a t e r l e v e l , w i t h no f l o o d i n g  Admittedly  partially reflect  in  topography  o b s e r v a t i o n s on A u g u s t 19,  i n t e r v a l approaching  years  flow, extensive flooding  i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i m i l a r amount o f  recurrence  steep,  i n the  i n t e r v a l o f 10-20  the e a s t e r n A r c t i c )  22,  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n response  f a c t o r s s u c h as c h a n n e l  the authors  a s c r i b e the primary  may  m o r p h o l o g y and influence to  vegetation physio-  graphy . Observations  made by H o l o c e k and  indicate that seasonal-timing  Vosahlo  (1975) on Devon I s l a n d  i s a l s o . i m p o r t a n t , as s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w :  " I t was o b s e r v e d t o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e r u n o f f s e a s o n t h a t the response of the watershed t o even a h i g h i n t e n s i t y p r e c i p i t a t i o n , w h i c h a few weeks e a r l i e r w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e r u n o f f , was n e g l i g i b l e or n i l f o r both years of r e c o r d . Theref o r e i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e b u i l d u p o f subsurface storage occurs mainly d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f A u g u s t and i n September.!,', ( p . 456) . Thus t h e e f f e c t o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n e v e n t s  will  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  conditions.  antecedent moisture  d e p e n d upon b a s i n  Banks I s l a n d i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o P r i n c e P a t r i c k peak d i s c h a r g e  values r e s u l t i n g  Much o f  I s l a n d and  from i n t e n s e r a i n events  are  more l i k e l y t o r e s e m b l e t h e d o c u m e n t e d r e s p o n s e a t M o u l d Bay t h a t o f t h e c e n t r a l and The  eastern Arctic  than  Islands.  a v a i l a b l e water temperature data  p l o t t e d on F i g u r e 14.  thus  T e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be  from Banks I s l a n d are seen t o r i s e  steadily  41  U I I l llI i i  10  15  M  20  I I I I I I i i I i i I i i i i-i i I I i i i i i i i i i i i i  25  30  ID  June  15  20  25  30  July  i i i I.I i i n I i i i I i  5  ID  August 7  30 25  d a i l y maximum and minimum a i r t e m p e r a t u r e s , Thomsen F l y camp  daily precipitation  20 0)  u  1  15  3  10  u  5  0) Cu  E  <u  0 -5  5  10  15 20 June  Symbol  O O  25  30.  5  River  10  15 20 July Location  25  30 Basin area km 2  5 10 August Source  Thomsen R. above D i s s e c t i o n C r .  73°14 ' N  119°32• W  S280  Anderson, 1978  Thomsen R. above "Chebyshev  73°14 • N  119°32 ' H  3610  A n d e r s o n , 1978  D i s s e c t i o n C r . near t h e mouth  73°16 • N  119°35' W  1060  "Chebyshev R." n e a r t h e mouth  73°14 ' N  119°32 • W  1670  Anderson, 1978 & pers. obs. A n d e r s o n , 1978  V  " G a l l o i s R." near t h e mouth  73°17 ' N  119°41' W  221  A n d e r s o n , 1978  O  Parker  73°28 ' N  116°15' W  pers. obs.  73°25 • N  122°18' W  pers. obs.  A •  R."  River  .<  Bernard  .»  B e r n a r d R i v e r n e a r t h e mouth  73°35 ' N  124°01' W  pers. obs.  a  "Murchison R." near t h e mouth  74°04 • N  124°23' W  pers. obs.  ©  Thomsen R. above D i s s e c t i o n C r .  73°14 • N  119°32• W  pers. obs.  River  Note:  F i g u r e 14.  a i r t e m p e r a t u r e d a t a from A n d e r s o n , 1978.  Observed r i v e r temperatures on Banks I s l a n d , 19 75  _6 -5 4  o v e r t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n i n i t i a l m e l t and 10 t o 15 d a y s the  following  s n o w m e l t p e a k , w i t h maximum t e m p e r a t u r e s b e i n g i n t h e  of  13 t o 16°C.  of  6°C  of  d a t a f r o m " G a l l o i s " , D i s s e c t i o n and Thomsen R i v e r s  range  Subsequently temperatures are v a r i a b l e w i t h values  b e i n g commonly o b s e r v e d n e a r t h e e n d o f J u l y .  t h a t t h e s m a l l e r b a s i n s t e n d t o have h i g h e r w a t e r d u r i n g the i n i t i a l  p e r i o d surrounding break-up,  A  comparison  indicates  temperatures  possibly  r e f l e c t i n g lower water temperatures associated w i t h lake storage on Thomsen R i v e r o r l e s s e x t e n s i v e o c c u r r e n c e s o f snow and i c e deposits within  the channels of the smaller r i v e r s .  a v a i l a b l e w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e m e a s u r e m e n t s on B e r n a r d  The  three  and  "Murchison" R i v e r s appear to i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v a l u e s t h a n on t h e Thomsen d r a i n a g e and may of  r e f l e c t the lower e l e v a t i o n  t h i s r e g i o n and t h e s h a l l o w e r w a t e r d e p t h s i n t h e s e w i d e  braided channels. These d a t a i n d i c a t e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e , but i n a l lcases  the v a l u e s are s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h to r e s u l t i n  s i g n i f i c a n t thawing of f r o z e n m a t e r i a l i n the immediate of  t h e c h a n n e l b e d and b a n k s .  However, t h e p a t t e r n o f  vicinity increasing  summer w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c l i n e i n d i s c h a r g e and  thus the d i s t r i b u t i o n of water w i t h i n the channel i s  a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t on n e a r c h a n n e l t h e r m a l r e g i m e , as  Coastal The  will  the  be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n  4.2.  Regions c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e B e a u f o r t Sea i s dominated  a large counter-clockwise flow of surface water  (the " B e a u f o r t  G y r e " ) d e s c r i b e d by H e r l i n v e a u x and de Lange Boom ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and  by  43 Walker water  (19 75) .  T h i s gyre r e s u l t s i n a g e n e r a l southward  a l o n g t h e west c o a s t o f Banks I s l a n d and a n o r t h - w e s t e r l y  flow along the south-western The  flow of  c o a s t , as d e s c r i b e d by Burns  (1974) .  r e g i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s p i t s w i t h i n these regions confirms  this  f l o w p a t t e r n and i n d i c a t e s v a r y i n g c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n s i n  response  t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n P r i n c e o f Wales  Strait.  H i s t o r i c r e c o r d s o f s e a i c e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a have b e e n c o m p i l e d b y t h e Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t Markham ( 1 9 7 5 ) , R a m s e i e r e t a l . , r e c e n t l y by L i n d s a y  (1975,  1977),  (1975), Marko  range  Swithinbank,  1960;  Resources,  Numerous s u m m a r i e s o f  i n i c e c o n d i t i o n s have a l s o been p r e p a r e d (see Canada Department o f Energy  1968, 1974;  S e r v i c e , 1978) .  (1975), and  and t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o  these authors f o ra d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n . the observed  (1964-1972),  Burns,  M i n e s and  1974; and E n v i r o n m e n t a l  Protection  T h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n y e a r s w i t h minimum  i c e c o v e r , o p e n w a t e r may be f o u n d i n b o t h Amundsen G u l f a n d o f f t h e w e s t c o a s t o f B a n k s I s l a n d b y May.  I c e f r e e c o n d i t i o n s may  o c c u r a l o n g t h e e a s t c o a s t o f Banks I s l a n d by June northward  and p r o g r e s s  t h r o u g h P r i n c e o f Wales S t r a i t i n J u l y and August.  H o w e v e r , e v e n i n y e a r s o f maximum o p e n w a t e r , o n l y p o r t i o n s o f M ' C l u r e S t r a i t c a n be e x p e c t e d  t o become i c e f r e e .  In exceptional  y e a r s t h e s e i c e f r e e c o n d i t i o n s may p e r s i s t u n t i l O c t o b e r .  In  c o n t r a s t , d u r i n g y e a r s o f maximum i c e c o v e r , l i m i t e d e x t e n t s o f o p e n w a t e r may n o t o c c u r a l o n g t h e s o u t h c o a s t o f B a n k s until  July.  and w e s t e r n  Partial  i c ecover can p e r s i s t along both the e a s t e r n  c o a s t s t h r o u g o u t J u l y and August,  with the northern  p o r t i o n o f P r i n c e o f Wales S t r a i t and M'Clure S t r a i t completely i c e fast.  Island  remaining  Few o r no a r e a s o f o p e n w a t e r may o c c u r b y  l a t e September o r O c t o b e r .  The  composition  of the sea  i c e cover  adjacent  r e f l e c t s the p a t t e r n of i c e c o n d i t i o n s discussed quently  i s g e n e r a l l y composed o f s i n g l e y e a r  m u l t i - y e a r i c e o c c u r r i n g along the northern Burns  t o Banks I s l a n d  a b o v e , and  i c e , w i t h second coast.  Analysis  (1974) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s o f s i n g l e  ice  i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S a c h s H a r b o u r and  and  200  cm  respectively.  e x p e d i t i o n s by'Manning  able pressure  and  M ' C l u r e , 1 8 5 4 ) , and  ( 1 9 5 3 , 1956)  of the nearshore w i n t e r  more  Beaufort  2.0  Sea  has  occur  and  result in  i c e push f e a t u r e s along  i n t e r v a l s and  the  m and  4.6  m may  i n t e r v a l o f two  water depths i n the  respectively.  the data presented  water.  i n S e c t i o n 1.5,  of a higher  (1975) . of  recurrence  These r e s u l t s  b a s e d on an a n a l y s i s o f o f f s h o r e w i n d s o n l y , a n d ,  e x p e c t e d t o be  southern  i n 10 m w a t e r d e p t h s , a t a  f i f t y years  size-  for  i n d i c a t e t h a t e x t r e m e wave h e i g h t s  occur  and  190  coast.  r e c e n t l y b e e n c o n d u c t e d by B e r r y e t a l .  published results  year  recent  A n a l y s i s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l m a g n i t u d e o f wave h e i g h t s varying recurrence  by  i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t movement  i c e c o v e r may  r i d g e s and  Holman i s r o u g h l y  as  are l i k e l y  are  i n d i c a t e d by  the onshore winds can  be  v e l o c i t y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f open  Thus,when t h e s h a l l o w e r w a t e r d e p t h s i n t h e n e a r s h o r e  are a l s o considered,  and  H i s t o r i c a l reports of e a r l y e x p l o r e r s  ( s u c h as M i e r t s c h i h g : , . 185.4  The  conse-  area  t h e wave h e i g h t s p r e d i c t e d by B e r r y e t a l .  an u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n  h e i g h t s w h i c h c o u l d be  o f t h e p o t e n t i a l m a g n i t u d e o f wave  e x p e c t e d t o i m p i n g e on  the south  coast  of  Banks I s l a n d . T i d a l a c t i o n can (1974) and  a l s o a f f e c t c o a s t a l morphology.  d a t a p u b l i s h e d by F i s h e r i e s and  (1978) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e t i d a l approximately  1 m.  Thus  E n v i r o n m e n t Canada  range i n the  this small t i d a l  Burns  study  variation w i l l  area  is  result  45 i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wave e n e r g y w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y range i n e l e v a t i o n .  W i n d c a n be e x p e c t e d t o c a u s e  small  some v a r i a -  b i l i t y d u r i n g m a j o r s t o r m s j h o w e v e r a t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e no upon w h i c h t o q u a n t i f y p o t e n t i a l w i n d t i d e  data  effects.  S u r f a c e water temperature data from the s o u t h e r n B e a u f o r t Sea a r e l i m i t e d .  A summary, a g a i n p r e s e n t e d by B u r n s  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the average Banks I s l a n d range  J u l y water temperatures adjacent to  f r o m 0°C  t h e s o u t h e r n a r e a s and 1.1°C By c o m p a r i s o n  (1974),  t o h i g h s o f 3.3°C (38°F) a d j a c e n t t o (34°F) midway up t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t .  t h e maximum s u r f a c e w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s o f f t h e  n o r t h e r n m a i n l a n d a r e somewhat h i g h e r a t 4.4°C (40°F).  Average  September t e m p e r a t u r e s remain p o s i t i v e a l o n g the s o u t h c o a s t , w i t h a v a l u e o f 1.1°C  (34°F).  Thus t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r  temperatures  a d j a c e n t t o s o u t h e r n B a n k s I s l a n d a r e p o s i t i v e o v e r much o f t h e summer and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , c a p a b l e o f i n d u c i n g t h e r m a l e r o s i o n i n susceptible  materials.  46 SECTION  2.1  MORPHOLOGIC C L A S S I F I C A T I O N REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION  TWO  INTRODUCTION  Periglacial Cook  t e r m i n o l o g y has  (1967) as b e i n g  systematic" with define a single  b e e n d e s c r i b e d by H a m e l i n  " i r r a t i o n a l , imprecise, incomplete  "many d i f f e r e n t  and  non-  [ibe i n g u s e d ] t o  terms  phenomenon o r p r o c e s s , and  and  i n many c a s e s  the  same  [ b e i n g used] by d i f f e r e n t w o r k e r s t o d e s c r i b e  term  d i s s i m i l a r forms".  Despite  r e c e n t p a p e r s by a u t h o r s and E g g i n t o n  handbook o f p e r m a f r o s t Kupsch  the d i s c u s s i o n s of terminology  s u c h as M c R o b e r t s and  is still  (1974) p r e s e n t s  and when a v a i l a b l e circumstances  not u n i v e r s a l l y  terminology  t e r m i n o l o g y has  b e e n a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n and  equivalence  been g i v e n .  The  forms f o l l o w s the usage o f Mackay (1974) .  The  Brown definitions  However, i n  are not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  and when n o m e n c l a t u r e v a r i e s b e t w e e n a u t h o r s  has  accepted.  r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d by  these are used i n t h i s study.  (1974a)  features  a c o m p i l a t i o n o f recommended  where d e f i n i t i o n s  in  Morgenstern  (1976) , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n s t a b i l i t y  in regions of permafrost  and  AND  reference  or d i s c i p l i n e s an i n d i c a t i o n  one  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of ground i c e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and  Brown and  Kupsch  2.2  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N AND  B a n k s and  slopes  GEOMETRY  formed i n u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  c l a s s i f i e d on  t h e b a s i s o f m o r p h o l o g y and  After i n i t i a l  a i r p h o t o g r a p h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  s e d i m e n t s were  inferred  a period  helicopter reconnaissance,  the  following features  of features i n polygenetic  forms) were r e c o g n i z e d  s e n t a t i v e of the c o n d i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the  Solifluction  process.  (or  of  combination  as b e i n g study  repre-  area.  Features  Solifluction s c a l e p r o d u c e d by  includes  "physiographic  the  process  ....  features of  varying  of slow g r a v i t a t i o n a l ,  s l o p e movement o f s a t u r a t e d , n o n f r o z e n  down-  e a r t h m a t e r i a l , behaving  apparently  as a v i s c o u s mass o v e r a s u r f a c e o f f r o z e n m a t e r i a l "  (Brown and  Kupsch, 1974).  In t h i s  usage, s o l i f l u c t i o n i s  e q u i v a l e n t t o the term " g e l i f l u c t i o n " and  recommended b y W a s h b u r n  headwall tially  slopes  environment.  ( F i g . 15a)  f r e q u e n t l y have a c o n c a v e  ( g e n e r a l l y a transverse n i v a t i o n hollow)  linear slope.  composed o f one  The  (1956)  (1973) t o d i s t i n g u i s h " s o l i f l u c t i o n "  occurring w i t h i n a permafrost Solifluction  as d e f i n e d b y B a u l i g  toe of these  o r more r i d g e s  and  an  essen-  features i s frequently  r e s u l t i n g from the  downslope  movement o f m a t e r i a l .  Repose  Features  Repose f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e b a n k s and nantly rectilinear  i n form.  o f r e p o s e a r e d e f i n e d as ,shallower  s l o p e s , and  slopes which are  predomi-  Those f e a t u r e s a t or n e a r t h e i r  "repose banks", w h i l e those  with  not e x h i b i t i n g obvious i n d i c a t i o n s of  angle  solifluction  20 H g  average  repose  Hop*  average  slope 12.5°  (lop*  r-20  42°  /  15H  location ol snow In eariy  48  bank  15  June  Hoi  / /  5  ^ 70  80  40  50  60  30  a)  40  solifluction  slops  average  35-  with  slop*  skin  Solifluction  1 10  20  length  »0  a e *  20  10  m) b ) Repose  Slope  flow  0  1  Bank  transverse nivation hollow ' and repose bank  9°  30-  30-  25-  256  20 location of snow In early  15-  Juno  |  'M  l  10-|  a  10-  exposed frozen sediments  20  5-  -alluvial  fan • Incised  5  o-l—  I  _l  30  20  10  40  50 C)  60 length Skin  100  90  80  70  120  110  10  0  30  20  40  50 length  d)Retrogressive  -Incised  fan  gully  ^ _  headwall  retrogressive thaw flow slide  gully  (m) Flow  • alluvial  active debrla flow  Inactive mud deposits  60 (m)  Thaw  Flow  90  80  70  110  100  Slide  headwal I oversteepened by nivation  4015-  35-  —  repose bank  blow-out feature *" -  10-  30  5  -  E  '  /  2H  location of snow In e a r l y June 30 length  20  10  20i  g)  Eolian  105 0  oversteepened  sloughed sediments 0 length  J 10  5  ! f  face  thermo-erosional nlcha  50  20  30  40  (m) f)  e ) Thermo-erosional  F i g u r e 15 •  50  length (m)  Nivation  80  6  90  surveys  of  representative  bank  or  5  S  0  0 5 length (m)  H ) Organic  Hollow  Niche  Cross - sectional  100  *  slope  morphologies  Feature  40 (m) Feature  50  60  70  movement by  s o l i f l u c t i o n , a r e d e f i n e d as  "low  Repose b a n k s , as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e  angle  15b,  are  form t o t h e i r temperate c o u n t e r p a r t , w i t h the angle generally increasing with decreasing  Skin  grain  slopes". similar of  repose  size.  Flows " S k i n f l o w s i n v o l v e t h e d e t a c h m e n t o f a, t h i n v e n e e r  v e g e t a t i o n and m i n e r a l planar, inclined like  f o r m s and  This category  some o f t h e  soil  surface.  may  i n t o broad sheets  i s shallow  Mathews  (1972),  (19 7 3 ) , and  d e t a c h m e n t f a i l u r e s " d o c u m e n t e d by V i n c e n t S i t e s subject to s k i n flows appearance to s o l i f l u c t i o n o f i n i t i a t i o n was angle  ( F i g . 15c)  slopes.  o b s e r v e d -to be  as  The low  failures likely exist.  of considerable  Retrogressive  instability.  i n comparison w i t h i t s length.;",  " e a r t h f l o w s " d i s c u s s e d by B i r d  700  of  M o r g e n s t e r n , 1974a) . S k i n f l o w s a r e e q u i v a l e n t  r e p o r t e d by M a c k a y and  exceeding  a  They a r e commonly a c t i v e i n r i b b o n -  ment f a i l u r e s " o b s e r v e d by Hughes  of lower  of  and i t s s u b s e q u e n t movement o v e r  coalesce  of flows  ( M c R o b e r t s and  be  in  (1967) , t h e  having  glides"  "active layer  (1978a). are  similar  slope angle  in  i n the  as 8 d e g r e e s , and S k i n f l o w s can  l e n g t h , w i t h a l a r g e f l o w on A b l e  m i n l e n g t h , and  "detach-  "active layer the  to  region  examples  frequently Creek  an a v e r a g e w i d t h  o f 20  m.  Thaw F l o w S l i d e s  T h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e d e f i n e d as steep headwall,  "a s l i d e t h a t c o n s i s t s o f  containing i c e or i c e r i c h  sediments, which  r e t r e a t s i n a r e t r o g r e s s i v e f a s h i o n t h r o u g h m e l t i n g , and f l o w formed from the m i x t u r e  a  o f thawed s e d i m e n t  and  a  debris  i c e , which  s l i d e s down t h e f a c e o f t h e h e a d w a l l t o i t s b a s e . " , K u p s c h , 19 74) .  (Brown a n d  R e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e one o f a num*1  b e r o f f e a t u r e s caused by " t h e r m o k a r s t "  or the "melting of  ground i c e and s u b s e q u e n t s e t t l i n g o r c a v i n g o f t h e g r o u n d " (Muller, The  1947). t e r m " r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e "  i s equivalent to  t h e t e r m " t h e r m o c i r q u e " a s u s e d b y C z u d e k a n d Demek " g r o u n d i c e s l u m p " a s u s e d b y Rampton a n d Mackay f l o w " as d e f i n e d by McRoberts  and Morgenstern  (1970),  (1971) , " b i - m o d a l  (1974a), "ground i c e  mud s l u m p h o l l o w " a s u s e d b y F r e n c h a n d E g g i n t o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d " r e t r o g r e s s i v e s e m i c i r c u l a r ground i c e slump" as d i s c u s s e d by French  (19 76) .  R e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s tic  (fig.  15d) h a v e a c h a r a c t e r i s -  s t e e p h e a d w a l l , w h i c h a t t i m e s may be a l m o s t v e r t i c a l . Mud  f l o w d e p o s i t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e base o f t h i s s c a r p form a t a significantly  s h a l l o w e r a n g l e which i s dependent  upon t h e u n d e r -  l y i n g s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l , exposure t o sediment r e m o v a l , and w a t e r content.  R e t r o g r e s s i v e t h a w f l o w s l i d e s c a n be i n i t i a t e d  on v e r y  low angle s l o p e s , w i t h t h e h e i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t i n g h e a d w a l l i n creasing with the i c e content, the thickness of the underlying i c e r i c h m a t e r i a l and t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e thawed away f r o m t h e a c t i v e f a c e  s e d i m e n t t o move  (see Mackay, 1966, f o r a d e t a i l e d  discussion). v e r s u s " t h e r m a l e r o s i o n " i n which ground i c e i s m e l t e d p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t o f h e a t t r a n s f e r r e d from f l o w i n g water.  Thermo-erosional  Niches  As d i s c u s s e d b y Gusev C z u d e k a n d Demek  (1952), Walker and Arnborg  (1970) , t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l  (1966), and  n i c h e s a r e formed as a  r e s u l t o f t h e r m a l l y enhanced f l u v i a l u n d e r c u t t i n g o f r i v e r or coastal areas.  Grigoryev  (1966; i n _ F r e n c h ,  the w i d t h o f these  undercuts  c a n r e a c h 2 0 m.  1976) r e p o r t s t h a t Failure of the over-  l y i n g frozen sediments can r e s u l t i n e i t h e r s u r f i c i a l block  falls  niches  f r e q u e n t l y have n e a r v e r t i c a l  i n s i t e s undergoing a c t i v e undercutting.  block  sloughing or  i f the undercut m a t e r i a l breaks o f f i n large p i e c e s .  Thermo-erosional  15e,  banks  surficial  As i l l u s t r a t e d  faces  on F i g u r e  s l o u g h i n g c a n reduce t h e s l o p e a n g l e ; however, i f  f a i l u r e occurs, p a r t i c u l a r l y  v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e can again  form.  i f a l o n g an i c e wedge, a n e a r A theoretical analysis relating  bank h e i g h t t o t h e d e p t h o f u n d e r c u t t i n g r e q u i r e d f o r b l o c k failure  i s presented  Nivation  i n Harper  (1978a).  Hollows  "Nivation hollows s l o p e s and u p l a n d  are shallow, cirque l i k e basins  surfaces.  When a c t i v e t h e y a r e o c c u p i e d b y  s e m i - p e r m a n e n t o r p e r m a n e n t snowbanks t h a t n e v e r grow glaciers.  Three types  are recognized:  downslope;  into  a) t r a n s v e r s e , w i t h t h e  major a x i s l y i n g t r a n s v e r s e t o the l i n e o f drainage; t u d i n a l , elongated  found on  and c) c i r c u l a r , w h i c h ,  b) l o n g i though-  t r a n s i t i o n a l between t h e o t h e r two, i n ground P l a n i s - f r e q u e n t l y of f a r greater dimensions"  (Hamelin  and Cook, 1 9 6 7 ) .  N i v a t i o n h o l l o w s , a s shown o n F i g u r e 1 5 f , h a v e a c o n c a v e up p r o f i l e w i t h a m a r k e d break, i n s l o p e i n t h e r e g i o n o f a c t i v e n i v a t i o n sapping.  Large a l l u v i a l  fans  f r e q u e n t l y form downslope  of these  f e a t u r e s and r e s u l t i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o f i l e .  Nivation  hollows  c a n be q u i t e l a r g e , w i t h c o m p l e x f o r m s c o v e r i n g a r e a s a s 2 l a r g e a s 0.4 km , a s i l l u s t r a t e d o n P l a t e 6 i n S e c t i o n 3.3.  Eolian  Features  B l o w - o u t f e a t u r e s composed o f " s a u c e r - , shaped h o l l o w s " ,  cup- o r trough-  f o r m e d b y t h e w i n d , a r e f o u n d a l o n g many o f t h e  l a r g e r r i v e r s w i t h i n the study n i z e a b l e bank m o r p h o l o g y  a r e a , and, as such, form a  ( a f t e r , American G e o l o g i c a l  recog-  Institute,  1962) . As  shown o n F i g u r e  15g, these  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h repose banks.  features are generally  B l o w - o u t s have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  s h a r p b r e a k i n s l o p e a t t h e s i t e o f a c t i v e e r o s i o n , w h i c h c a n be up  t o one t o two m e t e r s i n h e i g h t .  observed w i t h a continuous  Organic  S u c h f e a t u r e s have b e e n  l i n e a r extent o f w e l l over a kilometer.  Features  O r g a n i c f e a t u r e s a r e s u p e r f i c i a l l y q u i t e s i m i l a r i n ap-^ . pearance t o the p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d  "repose banks".  However t h e  inclusion  o f a high percentage of organic m a t e r i a l , the generally  low h e i g h t  ( f r e q u e n t l y l e s s t h a n 1 t o 2 m) a n d t h e common a s s o c i a -  t i o n w i t h i c e wedges i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e sidered a separate As  morphologic  f e a t u r e s s h o u l d be c o n -  unit.  i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 15h, o r g a n i c  have a n e a r v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e  features  frequently  a t s i t e s undergoing a c t i v e e r o s i o n .  2.3  REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF  Fyles  C L A S S I F I E D MORPHOLOGIES  (1962) r e c o g n i z e d s i x p h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s on  I s l a n d which corresponded  c l o s e l y w i t h the bedrock geology  g l a c i a l h i s t o r y a s known a t t h e t i m e o f m a p p i n g . t h e more d e t a i l e d  i n f o r m a t i o n now  w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n  available  r i v e r b a n k morphology.  As  been e x t e n s i v e l y s u r v e y e d  regional variation.  and  t h e map  f e a t u r e s g e n e r a l l y have a  being observed  author, approxi-  "Eastern Morainal  Belt",  frequently, particularly  a l o n g t h e e d g e s o f r i v e r s and  lakes.  The  headwalls  . Repose b a n k s , s o l i f l u c t i o n  formation of slopes  thermo-  and  l o c a l l y , with thermo-erosional  niches  to occur e x t e n s i v e l y along the southern  coast i n  this region. The island  "Devonian P l a t e a u " i n the n o r t h - e a s t e r n c o r n e r of  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e e p l y  i n c i s e d v a l l e y s which  f r e q u e n t l y asymmetric i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n . normally covered  The  the  are  v a l l e y w a l l s are  by a c . o l l u v i a l v e n e e r d e r i v e d f r o m b o t h  underlying, generally l i t h i f i e d ,  on  h e i g h t of 1 t o 3 meters i n  c a n be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  n i v a t i o n hollows occur  ( F i g . 16)  does a l l o w the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s o c c u r  t h i s r e g i o n and  as  complete a i r photo-  not a v a i l a b l e t o the  the e a s t e r n c o a s t , w i t h i n the  karst lakes.  been p r e p a r e d  m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d a s o n l y f i r s t  important  of these  has  ( s e e F i g . 17)  Nonetheless  t h e c o a s t and  ( S e c t i o n 1.3),  some o f t h e d e f i n e d r e g i o n s h a v e .not  mations.  Along  the b a s i s of  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c range of c o a s t a l or  graph coverage of the island.was the u n i t boundaries  On  and  i n conjunction with this project,  a somewhat m o d i f i e d p h y s i o g r a p h i c map i n w h i c h e a c h r e g i o n has  Banks  s e d i m e n t s and  the  t h e more r e c e n t  733  iko*  lit*  NORTHERN?.  NORTH—WESTERN COAST  NORTHERN CRETACEOUS COrfPtEJC  Bernard Island  SrSMSH-WESfi KaQtMST  SOUTHERN CftEfA£EOUS COMPLE*** 7I«  Key  location of  field  sites  location of field sites where net seasonal erosion was measured (numerical superscripts indicate the number of sites monitered within the area covered by the solid circle) Note: Figure 16  unofficial marks  place names are shown in quotation  M o d i f i e d physiographic regions o f Banks I s l a n d .  Figure 17=  Place names and location of field  sites  glacial,  l a c u s t r i n e and m a r i n e  deposits.  Solifluction slopes,  s k i n f l o w s and n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h i s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the n o r t h e r n c o a s t which  region,  i s formed  of  s t e e p l y s l o p i n g c o n s o l i d a t e d bedrock. The  " N o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s C o m p l e x " a r e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e l a t i v e l y w i d e v a l l e y s w h i c h asymmetric. vium,  are again frequent  Moderately s l o p i n g v a l l e y w a l l s are covered i n c o l l u -  f r e q u e n t l y d e r i v e d from the p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d  sediments  of  t h e C h r i s t o p h e r and Kang.uk F o r m a t i o n s w h i c h u n d e r l i e much o f region.  The  s t e e p e r s i d e s of the asymmetric v a l l e y s are  composed o f b e d r o c k  exposures  developed n i v a t i o n features.  and  generally  frequently contain well  S o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e s and e x t e n s i v e  s k i n f l o w f a i l u r e s commonly o c c u r on t h e o p p o s i n g o r l o w e r valley walls. f e a t u r e s and  angle  Repose., b a n k s , o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s e o l i a n  ;  the o c c a s i o n a l thermo-erosional niche occur  the v a l l e y bottoms.  this  R e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s w e r e  within observed  l o c a l l y on t h e u p l a n d s u r f a c e s , a g a i n b e i n g m o s t common a l o n g t h e e d g e s o f v a l l e y s , r i v e r s and are  lakes.  p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l developed  These t h e r m o k a r s t f e a t u r e s  i n t h i s r e g i o n and c a n  frequently  h a v e h e a d w a l l s 3 m o r more i n h e i g h t . The  "Southern Uplands"  i s a region of l i t h i f i e d  the c o a s t s i n t h i s r e g i o n a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y formed slopes, generally associated with extensive talus The  "Northern Uplands"  bedrock  of near  lithified  Devonian  vertical  accumulations.  i s c o m p r i s e d o f a number o f b e d r o c k  and c o n s e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e s a range o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . c o a s t , near v e r t i c a l  types  Along  sea c l i f f s o c c u r i n the areas u n d e r l a i n  sediments.  the by  However t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a i s  composed o f u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s e d i m e n t s E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n s  and  and w o u l d  o f C h r i s t o p h e r , Kang.uk and  t h u s be  ^expected t o have  morphologies  s i m i l a r t o t h a t o c c u r r i n g i n the "Cretaceous  Complex". Rivers flowing through the region of the "Beaufort P l a i n " t y p i c a l l y have wide b r a i d e d c h a n n e l s w i t h i n t h e i r and g e n e r a l l y h a v e a n g l e o f r e p o s e b a n k s .  Small  lower  reaches,  thermokarst  l a k e s o c c u r e x t e n s i v e l y on t h e a s s o c i a t e d l o w - l y i n g wide terraces.  The u p p e r  s e c t i o n s o f t h e s e r i v e r s have  fluvial  anastomosing  o r s i n g l e t h r e a d channels and t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e s o c c u r locally.  The w e s t c o a s t i s g e n e r a l l y composed o f a n g l e o f r e p o s e  banks and l o w - l y i n g d e l t a i c d e p o s i t s .  However c o a s t a l  recession  and v a l l e y s u b m e r g e n c e h a v e r e s u l t e d i n t h e e x t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t of b a r r i e r  beaches.  Along the "North-western s l i d e s a r e v e r y common.  Coast", r e t r o g r e s s i v e  thaw-flow  These f e a t u r e s a r e s h a l l o w e r i n d e p t h  t h a n t h o s e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e "Cretaceous Complex" and t h e " E a s t e r n M o r a i n a l B e l t " as t h e h e a d w a l l s a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s one m e t e r i n h e i g h t .  A n g l e o f r e p o s e b a n k s and s o l i f l u c t i o n  s l o p e s a l s o commonly o c c u r i n t h i s The  than  "Western Lowland"  region.  region i s s i m i l a r t o the "Beaufort  P l a i n " i n t h a t the lower reaches o f t h e r i v e r s i n t h i s area again h a v e w i d e b r a i d e d c h a n n e l s a n d a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h numerous shallow thermokarst lakes. of repose  R i v e r banks t y p i c a l l y have an a n g l e  f o r m a n d may h a v e a s s o c i a t e d eold,an f e a t u r e s .  c o a s t a l a r e a s e x h i b i t a much w i d e r r a n g e low-lying areas, frequently major  The  l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e mouths o f t h e  r i v e r s , are g e n e r a l l y comprised  repose banks o r o r g a n i c f e a t u r e s . relief  o f morphology.  The  o f low e l e v a t i o n angle o f  Solifluction  slopes, higher  a n g l e o f r e p o s e b a n k s , n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s and r e t r o g r e s s i v e  thaw f l o w s l i d e s a l l o c c u r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e m a j o r  islands  and  higher e l e v a t i o n headlands.  observed  to occur along the southern  the area immediately The areas.  Thermo-erosional  terrain  by a r e l a t i v e l y  s e c t i o n of t h i s coast, i n  t o t h e n o r t h o f Cape K e l l e t t .  "South-western Coast" The  immediately  r e g i o n i s composed o f two  distinct  e a s t o f Sachs Harbour i s formed  l e v e l t e r r a c e thought  ( V i n c e n t , 1978a) .  n i c h e s were  t o be o f f l u v i a l  origin  T h e r m o k a r s t l a k e s , e o l i a n f e a t u r e s and  e r o s i o n a l niches occur  throughout  e a s t , a s e r i e s o f subdued h i l l s  this  s e c t i o n of coast.  thermoFurther  (corresponding to the l o c a t i o n  of  t h e Sand H i l l s  R e a d v a n c e o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n ) a b u t a g a i n s t  this  Solifluction  terrace.  s l o p e s and  flow s l i d e s , with headwalls  observed  t y p i c a l l y occur w i t h i n t h i s  region.  l a r g e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw  to exceed 4 meters i n h e i g h t ,  59 SECTION THREE  3.1  GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF REPRESENTATIVE BANK OR SLOPE MORPHOLOGIES  METHODOLOGY  Sampling  Procedure  As d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 1.3, t h e f i e l d p r o g r a m was t o a l a r g e e x t e n t d e p e n d e n t on h e l i c o p t e r t r a n s p o r t . tions precluded the carrying of d r i l l i n g  Weight  limita-  equipment, and thus  s a m p l i n g f o r m a t e r i a l t e x t u r e a n d i c e c o n t e n t was u n d e r t a k e n manually.  Hand a u g e r s p r o v e d e s s e n t i a l l y u s e l e s s due t o b o t h t h e  time necessary t o complete  a h o l e and t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y f o r  b e c o m i n g s t a l l e d on p e b b l e s o r c o b b l e s .  The b e s t c o m p r o m i s e was  e v e n t u a l l y o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f an e n t r e n c h i n g t o o l and an ice  axe . At f i e l d  was  s i t e s w h i c h w e r e a c t i v e l y r e t r e a t i n g , the. a c t i v e , l a y e r  f r e q u e n t l y reduced o r absent, and samples o f n e a r - s u r f a c e  f r o z e n m a t e r i a l s were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . rates of erosion, active  I n s i t e s undergoing  l a y e r depths were o c c a s i o n a l l y o v e r 1 m  in  t h i c k n e s s and thus s a m p l i n g f o r i c e c o n t e n t proved  or  impossible.  as f a r below t h e f r o s t  t a b l e as time p e r m i t t e d , i n o r d e r t o ensure  of  difficult  I n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e depth o f t h e h o l e  ( p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s l o p e ) was e x t e n d e d  was  slow  that the i c e content  representative o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n d i t i o n s , rather than  that  t h e increased i c ec o n c e n t r a t i o n s frequently observed a t the  base o f t h e a c t i v e l a y e r  ( s e e M a c k a y , 1971b; G e l l ,  1974) . A t  s i t e s where t e x t u r e o r i c e c o n t e n t v a r i e d over t h e h e i g h t o f t h e bank o r s l o p e , c h a n n e l s a m p l e s w e r e t a k e n o f e a c h  stratigraphic  u n i t , w i t h one o r more s a m p l e s b e i n g i n d i c a t e d on t h e f i e l d  notes  60 as  r e f l e c t i n g Sample  s i z e  was  i n c r e a s e d  i c e  d e p o s i t s  due  to  the  were  massive  i c e  was  up  g e n e r a l l y  to  (see  5  kg  the  cooks  s m a l l ture  taken  of of  the  g r a v e l s .  a d j a c e n t the  or  or  of  range i n  When  wedges  the on  i n  1974)  i c e  i n d i c a t e d  at  c o n t r o l s  ture  the  of  1  c a s e s  i c e  s i t e . to  2  of  massive  k g ,  but  r e t i c u l a t e d  i c e  l e n s e s ,  m a t e r i a l ,  f i e l d  c l a y  was  encountered  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  and  the  presence  of  n o t e s .  and  the  i c e  has  (as  of  c o n t e n t  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  the  bags.  f a c t  In  leakage have  to  through been  the  c a s e s ,  i m p o s s i b l e  i n  be  to  A  d i d  samples water  s e c u r i n g  a f f e c t e d  i s  was i f  to  a f f e c t  comm.);  be  minor  of  such  were  p e a t .  more  s t o r e d  o r i g i n a t e d  s t r i n g . to  The be  s t r u c t h i s  a f f e c t  to  dehythe  gauge  i c e a r i s e s  p l a s t i c and  i t  c o n d e n s a t i o n  or  of  r e l a t i v e l y  f a r  matter  concern  the  from  number  as  treatment)  Thus,  heavy  a d j a c e n t  the  m a t e r i a l  s e r i o u s i n  a  r a r e  Organic  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  found  thought  as  on  consequence  f r o z e n  of  o r g a n i c  p e r o x i d e  of  of  Tempera-  however  c o n c e r n e d .  hydrogen  not  thus  expected p e r s .  c o n s i s t e d  drum..  char  samples  i t  f u e l and  was  c o n s i s t i n g  to  p o t e n t i a l l y  determine  the  a l l  c o o k e r " ,  h i g h  are  by  w e i g h t ,  f a c i l i t i e s  p r i m i t i v e  d e p o s i t s  m a t e r i a l  that  some  would  dry  g a l l o n  s u f f i c i e n t l y  determined  d r a t i o n  from  were  assumed  o r g a n i c  o r g a n i c  45  ( L a v k u l i t c h ,  n e g l i g i b l e  from  "sample  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  l a t e r  sample Drying  empty  "cooker"  been  c o n t e n t  those  an  rose  of  camp.  i m p r o v i s e d  m i n e r a l s  g e n e r a l l y  except  an  temperatures  heat  i n c l u s i o n s were  f i e l d  temperature  e x c e s s i v e the  percentage  heater i n  Such  of  a  main  and  kerosene  m a t t e r .  as  the  oven  o c c a s i o n s  may  i n  Mackay,  c o n t e n t ,  determined  was  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Content Ice  as  dominant  presence  samples  Ice  the  bags  samples s m a l l .  which In  f u t u r e , however, a b e t t e r f i e l d sampling t i n s or other  p r o c e d u r e w o u l d be  such l a r g e metal c o n t a i n e r s  t o use with  soil  screw  lids. A comparison of i c e c o n t e n t s measured e a r l y i n the w i t h those from the  l a t e r p a r t of the  summer was  s i t e s undergoing slow r a t e s of e r o s i o n . s a m p l e l o c a t i o n s was  difficult  The  to assess;  season  conducted  e f f e c t of  for  varying  however v a l u e s  were  g e n e r a l l y i n c l o s e agreement, w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s i n i c e c o n t e n t frequently being  o n l y a few  p e r c e n t and  w i t h i n a tenth of a percent. ice  contents obtained  analyses,  due  w i t h i n the  Textural  to the  Notwithstanding,  l a t e ..in t h e smaller  o c c a s i o n a l l y agreeing where p o s s i b l e ,  s e a s o n were used i n a l l  l i k e l i h o o d of sampling m a t e r i a l  active layer.  size determination and  dry  was  undertaken a f t e r r e t u r n i n g  the  field.  Wet  200  g split  sample, d e f l o c c u l a t e d i n the .old f o r m u l a  s i e v e a n a l y s i s was  ( c o n t a i n i n g hexametaphosphate). fine textured  mild abrasion  s i e v i n g , b u t were n o t p l a t e s were e v i d e n t  field.  forms t y p i c a l l y  m e t e r a n a l y s i s was 2mm  Dry  s i e v i n g was on  in  undertaken  at  a l l samples. and  c l a y were  number o f s a m p l e s f r o m bank  a 50  wet  as s i m i l a r  found i n f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s .  u n d e r t a k e n on  to  lithified,  to mechanical s t i r r i n g  r e l a t i v e percentages of sand, s i l t  determined f o r a representative  a 100  "Calgon"  o t h e r w i s e p h y s i c a l l y b r o k e n up,  i n the  from  with a paint brush during  p h i i n t e r v a l s f r o m 0.0625 t o 8 mm  slope  c o n d u c t e d on  " P l a t e s " of p o o r l y  sediment were s u b j e c t e d  t h e d e f l o c c u l a n t and  The  from  Analysis  Grain  one  to  g split  or  Hydro-  sample o f the  under  s i z e f r a c t i o n , a f t e r d e f l o c c u l a t i o n i n 5 p e r c e n t metaphosphate  62 w i t h  m e c h a n i c a l  Exposure  to  Even taken  by  P r o c e s s e s  from a  s t i r r i n g .  of  c a s u a l  r i v e r  bank,  upon  the  of  mass  wastage  " r e l a t i v e c o r r e l a t e d c o a s t a l  s h e l t e r e d meander A  bay,  bend more  t e r i s t i c s  due  which  o r i e n t a t i o n  and as the  A to  s o i l  pore  d e t a i l e d and  Ovithet  (1974)  e f f e c t  of  even  l i m i t e d  exposure  used  p r i m a r i l y one  on  of  i n d i c a t e d c a t i o n ,  as  t h i s  a i r  a u t h o r ' s  how  of  i s  f a s t  summarized  as  of  t e r r a i n be  number  of  can  be  than  by  a  a  of  a  was IV.  p e r i g l a c i a l  such  as  v e l o c i t y ,  r e l a t e d of  phenomena  t h i s of  s u b j e c t i v e exposed  p r o j e c t ,  q u a n t i f y i n g  and  a  of based  s i t e  i s  c o n f i g u r a t i o n ,  b a s i s  r e l i e f , b e i n g  c h a r a c -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  how  the  simple  v a r i a b l e s .  P l a n i m e t r i c  r e l a t i v e  i n  d i f f i c u l t y  these  a  s i t e  scope  e s s e n t i a l l y  p r o v i d e d  or  not  and  i c e  the  "High"  of  i s  f a c t o r s  of  the of  and  Table  t h i s  s i d e  important  temperature  i n d i c a t e  sediment on  exposure  exposure  beyond  p r o c e s s e s .  such  p r o c e s s e s  i l l u s t r a t e d  u n d e r - c u t  o c c u r r e n c e  i s  by  l e v e l ,  as  form  p a r t i a l l y  removal"  of  to  i m p r e s s i o n  photographs,  f a c t o r s of  study  the  s l o p e .  water  "Moderate"  number  on  i m p r e s s i o n s i d e r e d ,  the  a  but  i n  the  i s  removed  simple  h i g h e r  number  the  i s  p a t t e r n ,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  by  "Low,  a  s i m p l y ,  p r e s s u r e s  a  a  t h a t  area  sediment  observed  s t u d i e s  the  of  have  s u n ,  c o v e r ,  water  At  q u a n t i f i c a t i o n  been  obvious  c o a s t a l  p l a n i m e t r i c  l a r g e  i s  sediment  s l i p - o f f  the  wind  a  e r o s i o n .  more  the  have  v e g e t a t i o n  Thus  any  to  which  would  even  v e r s u s  environments.  f e t c h ,  w i t h  r i g o r o u s  u n d e r t a k i n g  a t  i t  or  p r o c e s s e s  w h i c h  or  slope  or  to  d i r e c t l y  headland  a  r a t e  exposure  Removal  o b s e r v a t i o n ,  dependent e i t h e r  Sediment  f o r  f e t c h  removed  the  and were  to as  c l a s s i f i -  the a l s o  o n - s i t e c o n -  TYPICAL LOCATION  EXPOSURE RIVERS High  Moderate  COASTS AND  LAKES  RELATIVE RELIEF. AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT  A r e a s u n d e r g o i n g a c t i v e under-^ c u t t i n g , s u c h as on t h e o u t s i d e o f meander b e n d s o r o t h e r a r e a s where the r i v e r i s a c t i v e l y imp i n g i n g on t h e r i v e r bank o r v a l l e y w a l l ( e . g . , on t h e s t e e p s i d e o f an a s y m m e t r i c v a l l e y , adjacent to major bars i n a braided reach, etc.)  Areas f u l l y exposed t o wave o r c u r r e n t a c t i o n due t o o r i e n tation, available f e t c h and i c e . c o n d i tions  Area i s of s u f f i c i e n t r e l i e f , or s u f f i c i e n t l y close to a s i t e of a c t i v e e r o s i o n , t h a t i n most y e a r s , sediment p r o d u c e d by t h e r m o k a r s t , mass wastage o r e r o s i o n a l p r o c e s s e s w i l l be r e m o v e d f r o m the p l a c e of o r i g i n  Areas adjacent to r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t stretches of r i v e r  Areas not f u l l y e x p o s e d t o wave o r c u r r e n t a c t i o n due to e i t h e r o r i e n t a tion, available fetch or p e r s i s t e n t i c e cover  Area i s of s u f f i c i e n t r e l i e f f o r mass w a s t i n g , t h e r m o k a r s t or e r o s i o n a l processes t o o c c u r ; however t h e m a t e r i a l so p r o d u c e d i s f r e quently re-deposited before reaching a s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e a m o r t h e o c e a n (on r i v e r s and c o a s t s , r e s p e c tively)  Areas undergoing aggradation, Protected locations s u c h as on t h e i n s i d e o f a s u c h as b e h i n d l a r g e meander bend o r a d j a c e n t t s p i t s and b a r s , to a slope which i s undergoing areas w i t h l i t t l e or movement due t o s o l i f l u c t i o n no f e t c h , o r i n regions generally subject to conrir. tinuous i c e cover  TABLE I V :  Exposure c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n t h i s  study.  A r e a s o f low r e l a t i v e r e l i e f or s u f f i c i e n t l y gentle s l o p e s t h a t i n most y e a r s , m a t e r i a l p r o d u c e d by mass w a s t i n g , e r o s i o n or thermok a r s t processes i s g e n e r a l l y n o t t r a n s p o r t e d any s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t a n c e from i t s place of o r i g i n  Material The  Genesis g e n e t i c o r i g i n o f the m a t e r i a l s a t each f i e l d  determined from a combination o f a i r photograph field  s i t e was  interpretation,  o b s e r v a t i o n and subsequent a n a l y s i s o f c u m u l a t i v e g r a i n  size plots.  I n some c a s e s t h e a v a i l a b l e  field  time o r n a t u r a l l y  o c c u r r i n g e x p o s u r e s were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o d i s t i n g u i s h potentially similar units,  such as t i l l ,  between  m a r i n e washed t i l l o r  c r y o t u r b a t e d m a t e r i a l o r i g i n a l l y d e p o s i t e d i n a marine  environment.  F o r t u n a t e l y V i n c e n t (1978a) h a s p u b l i s h e d t h e p r e l i m i n a r y of  results  h i s s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y m a p p i n g p r o g r a m a n d t h i s a l l o w e d an  i n d e p e n d e n t c h e c k on t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , as w e l l as t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s much w i d e r f i e l d uncertain  classification.  experience i n those cases o f  65  3.2  PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING BANK OR SLOPE MORPHOLOGY  3.2.1  M a t e r i a l Genesis The g e n e t i c o r i g i n o f m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v e d a t e a c h o f t h e  field  s i t e s i s s u m m a r i z e d o n T a b l e V.  Solifluction  Slopes  Solifluction w a l l s and u p l a n d these  slopes occur areas.  u b i q u i t o u s l y along both the v a l l e y  I n upland  features i s generally t i l l  t e x t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d  regions the material  or colluviated  till,  i n S e c t i o n 1.4.  forming  with  distinct  Along the v a l l e y  w a l l s o r c o a s t a l a r e a s , m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s c o l l u v i u m , generally derived  from m i x t u r e s  of both t i l l  and t h e u n d e r l y i n g  pre-Quaternary sediments, b u t l o c a l l y containing i n c l u s i o n s o f l a c u s t r i n e and marine m a t e r i a l s .  Skin  Flows S k i n f l o w s w e r e o b s e r v e d o n l y on i n c l i n e d  m o s t common a l o n g luvium  the sides of v a l l e y s .  d e r i v e d from t h e s i l t s  Slopes  mixtures  However c o l l u v i a t e d s l o p e s  of t i l l ,  of the underlying  being  formed o f c o l -  and c l a y s o f t h e C h r i s t o p h e r  f o r m a t i o n w e r e o b s e r v e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y flow f a i l u r e .  terrain,  susceptible to skin formed o f v a r y i n g  l a c u s t r i n e and marine sediments, w i t h i n c l u s i o n s "bedrock m a t e r i a l s " ( i n c l u d i n g s i l t s ,  clays,  s a n d s a n d s a n d s t o n e s ) w e r e a l s o o b s e r v e d t o be s u b j e c t t o s k i n flow  failure.  R e t r o g r e s s i v e Thaw F l o w S l i d e s Retrogressive  thaw f l o w s l i d e s w e r e o b s e r v e d i n t h e n e a r  CENOZOIC  MORPHOLOGY  QUATERNARY  # OF SITES  MATERIAL  GENESIS  RIVER DEPOSITS ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS: s t r a t i f i e d g r a v e l , sand A. T e r r a c e d f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s and m i n o r A: Active f l o o d p l a i n o r fan d e p o s i t s .  and s i l t fans.  deposited  by r i v e r s .  WIND DEPOSITS  Solifluction  Skin  M L  Slopes  1;  M Kk  1;  Cv — = 1Kc  1;  M = 1 Tb  Cv = 1 Dm,  EOLIAN DEPOSITS: f i n e sand and l o e s s ; d e p o s i t e d o r reworked by w i n d ; on f l u v i a l and outwash t e r r a c e s . E_: A r e a s o f a c t i v e d e f l a t i o n and e o l i a n d e p o s i t i o n  Kc  CV Kc/Dm = 1; 1  = 4' 4  COLLUVIAL DEPOSITS: t h i c k sequences o f l o c a l l y d e r i v e d sediments accumulating as a p r o n s and b l a n k e t s on s l o p e s by mass movement o r p e r i g l a c i a l p r o c e s s e s . MARINE DEPOSITS  Cv/m Dmn = 3;  L  GLACIOLACUST RI NE DEPOSITS: m a i n l y f l a t - l y i n g bedded s i l t s d e p o s i t e d i n a p r o g l a c i a l l a k e e n v i r o n m e n t ; commonly f o u n d a s a v e n e e r on o l d e r d e p o s i t s .  F  FLUVIOGLACIAL DEPOSITS: s t r a t i f i e d s a n d and g r a v e l d e p o s i t e d b y g l a c i a l m e l t water streams and/or o t h e r o l d e r sand and g r a v e l d e p o s i t s reworked and r e d e p o s i t e d by g l a c i a l m e l t w a t e r s ; o c c u r as o u t w a s h p l a i n s , t e r r a c e s , and f a n s .  GLACIAL DEPOSITS  Cv/Lv = 1 Te,  Cv/m/w = 1; Ki  w  LITTORAL, SUBLITTORAL, a n d OFFSHORE DEPOSITS: sediments d e p o s i t e d i n a marine e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h i c k marine d e p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g m o r a i n a l d e p o s i t s on t h e e a s t c o a s t a r e b e d d e d ^ s i l t s w i t h m i n o r c l a y a n d s a n d s u b j e c t t o d i s s e c t i o n and thermokarst p r o c e s s e s . W. T h i n sandy and s i l t y marine d e p o s i t s b l a n k e t i n g o l d e r u n i t s . W: Sandy and g r a v e l l y a c t i v e b e a c h a n d s p i t d e p o s i t s .  I  J * = 3Retrogressive flow slides  Te  Kk __  2  M = 4 o r W o r ? o r Kc  Lv/Wv M = 2; L Tb W Lv Lv/Wv Fv/Lv =•- 2 M M = 2; = 1; K o r K c Tb o r Kk  thaw  ICE-CONTACT DEPOSITS: s t r a t i f i e d sand a n d g r a v e l and m i n o r t i l l d e p o s i t e d i n c o n t a c t w i t h m e l t i n g g l a c i e r i c e ; i n c l u d e s m o r a i n e r i d g e s , e s k e r s , and kames.  M  MORAINAL DEPOSITS: t i l l s o f v a r y i n g t e x t u r e a n d age d e p o s i t e d by a n i c e s h e e t d u r i n g i t s advance o r r e t r e a t ; i n c l u d e s a r e a s o f i c e - c o n t a c t d e p o s i t s t o o s m a l l t o be mapped as s e p a r a t e u n i t s ; u s u a l l y o c c u r a s t i l l p l a i n b l a n k e t i n g ' o l d e r d e p o s i t s .  Tb  BEAUFORT FORMATION: u n l i t h i f i e d g r a v e l , s a n d , and m i n o r o r g a n i c m a t t e r d e p o s i t e d i n a f l u v i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; o c c u r s as t h i c k s e q u e n c e s on o l d e r f o r m a t i o n s , e i t h e r as a f l a t f l u v i a l l y d i s s e c t e d p l a i n i n t h e n o r t h w e s t o r as m a i n l y low h i l l y topography elsewhere. Tb* Areas o f post d e p o s i t i o n a l f l u v i a l reworking o f Beaufort.  Te  EUREKA SOUND FORMATION: T e , C y c l i c Member: m a i n l y u n l i t h i f i e d s a n d s , s i l t s , c l a y s and c o a l d e p o s i t e d i n m a r i n e and t e r r e s t r i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ; g e n e r a l l y h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded; o c c u r as a g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g s u r f a c e ; s u b j e c t t o i n t e n s e " b a d l a n d " type erosion i n c e r t a i n areas.  Wv  WV/MV  =  1  = 3;  g-  ;  " S h a l e " Member" m a i n l y h o r i z o n t a l l y b e d d e d u n l i t h i f i e d s i l t s o f nonmarine o r i g i n ; o c c u r s as a g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g s u r f a c e .  Te,  Repose  features  41  F = 24;  A = 3;  K i = 1;  1 = 1 ; Kk o r K = 5;  Kk = 2; Nivation  hollows  mainly  SLOPE DEPOSITS  M K  10  flows  .1;  M Dm,  T b = 6;  K c = 1;  W = 1;  Te =2; 0  Dm  MESOZOIC CRETACEOUS  = 2  13 - = 1• - = 1• Kc W ' L  Thermo-erosional niches  l  L  K i = 1;  1  D  Tb = 3 • ' 6  F = 1; M = 1;  and c l a y s  K = 1• '  Kk  KANGUK FORMATION: m a i n l y p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d s i l t and c l a y o r m a r i n e o r i g i n w i t h an upper sand member and a b a s a l b i t u m i n o u s member w i t h b e n t o n i t e b e d s ; s u r f a c e generally undulating with steep slopes.  Kh  HASSEL FORMATION: r a r e o u t c r o p s o f h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded g l a u c o n i t i c s a n d m i n o r s i l t and c l a y o f n e a r s h o r e o r i g i n .  Kc  CHRISTOPHER FORMATION: u n l i t h i f i e d , h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded, v e r y s t i c k y , s i l t s and c l a y s o f m a r i n e o r i g i n ; s u r f a c e g e n e r a l l y u n d u l a t i n g w i t h s l o p e s s u b j e c t to a c t i v e l a y e r d e t a c h m e n t f a i l u r e s .  Ki  ISACHSEN FORMATION: u n l i t h i f i e d h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded q u a r t z o s e sands o f f l u v i a l o r i g i n w i t h m i n o r s i l t and l i g n i t e ; s u r f a c e g e n e r a l l y u n d u l a t i n g and s u b j e c t t o dissection.  K  UNDIFFERENTIATED CRETACEOUS FORMATIONS: u s e d f o r a r e a s where i n s u f f i c i e n t are unavailable f o r s u b d i v i s i o n into i n d i v i d u a l formations.  Tb = 2;  with  data  PALEOZOIC DEVONIAN , n  Eolian  features  6  _  m  3  6;  Dm, Qryj I  Organic  deposits  F = 2; A = 1;  POST-MERCY BAY MEMBER: h o r i z o n t a l l y b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e , and s h a l e ; f r o s t s h a t t e r e d a n d w e a t h e r e d i n o u t c r o p s ; d e e p l y i n c i s e d by s t r e a m s . MERCY BAY MEMBER:  Note:  n u m e r a l s d e s c r i b e t h e number o f o c c u r r e n c e s o f bank f o r m s w i t h i n e a c h g e n e t i c u n i t  of resistant  PRE-MERCY BAY MEMBER: h o r i z o n t a l l y b e d d e d f r o s t s h a t t e r e d and w e a t h e r e d i n o u t c r o p s ; A h o r i z o n t a l b a r i s used  arranged  note:  t a b u l a r outcrops  deposits overlying Christopher i-  n  W  ^  M  — represents  Beaufort "v"  lithologic M  F o r example ^  Formation  and an o b l i q u e  G e n e t i c o r i g i n and s t r a t i g r a p h y o f m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g i e s  forming  morainal  line  s u c h as  veneer o v e r l y i n g  Formation. u n i t s E,W,L,F, a n d M i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p a r t i -  c u l a r u n i t i s found a s a v e n e e r o f g e n e r a l l y  TABLE V:  c  u n i t s which a r e  represents  a marine v e n e e r a n d / o r a m o r a i n a l  associated with  less  than  1 metre  thick.  Mv For example ^  represents  thin morainal  deposits  overlying  Christopher  Forma t i o n . The Vincent  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s u r f i c i a l (1978a).  limestone.  s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e , and s h a l e ; d e e p l y i n c i s e d by s t r e a m s .  to separate  i n stratigraphic order.  b i o h e r m a l and b i o s t r o m a l  and b e d r o c k u n i t s i s from  surface  s e d i m e n t s a t l o c a t i o n s w h i c h were g l a c i a l l y c o v e r e d a t  some p o i n t i n t h e i r h i s t o r y a n d w e r e a l s o s u b j e c t marine o r l a c u s t r i n e for  inundation.  Cumulative g r a i n s i z e p l o t s  samples taken from t h e a p p a r e n t l y  forming  undisturbed  the headwalls of these features  poor degree o f s o r t i n g , as i l l u s t r a t e d shape o f t h e s e c u m u l a t i v e  to e i t h e r  show a  characteristically  on F i g u r e s  grain size plots  materials  18 a n d 1 9 .  The  i s thought t o i n d i c a t e  t h a t t h e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e f o r m e d i n t h e g l a c i a l l y derived  sediments  ( p o s s i b l y w i t h some m a r i n e o r f l u v i a l  with the subsequently deposited being  limited  indicated  marine or l a c u s t r i n e m a t e r i a l s  to a surface veneer.  that reworking  r e s u l t i n the formation  However M a c k a y  (1963a) h a s  o f m a t e r i a l by t h e r m o k a r s t p r o c e s s e s c a n o f t i l l - l i k e m a t e r i a l and t h u s t h e g r a i n  size p l o t s are not conclusive  evidence.  One r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e n o t d i r e c t l y with glacial  washing);  sediments occurred  associated  n e a r t h e mouth o f P a r k e r  River  (see P l a t e 3) i n a n a r e a where a t i l l  veneer overlies-^ f i n e  textured  s e d i m e n t s . mapped-by  (1978a) as o f l a c u s t r i n e . '  origin.  This  Vincent  l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t was o b s e r v e d t o c o n t a i n  thin  v e i n s o f s e g r e g a t e d i c e and a h i g h l y deformed d e p o s i t o f m a s s i v e ice  o f unknown  genesis.  Good s t r a t i g r a p h i c e x p o s u r e s o f t h e s e d i m e n t s r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s o c c u r a l o n g southern coast  underlying  the eastern  and  w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n .  H e l i c o p t e r reconnaissance  and f i e l d  sampling i n d i c a t e t h a t the  numerous r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s i n t h i s a r e a a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y u n d e r l a i n by w e l l s o r t e d , medium t e x t u r e d sand, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e g r a i n s i z e d a t a Vincent  (19 78a)  shown o n F i g u r e  18.  h a s mapped t h e s e s a n d t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s a s  being  .001 Diameter Clay Figure  18.  Silt  10.0  (mm) Sand  Gran.  C u m u l a t i v e g r a i n s i z e p l o t s f r o m r e t r o g r e s s i v e t h a w f l o w elite l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c L t l ™ .  Pebbles cH  4-«  c  ^ oo  of marine o r i g i n along  t h e e a s t c o a s t and o f f l u v i a l  r e g i o n e a s t o f Sachs Harbour.  o r i g i n i n the  However t h e s i m i l a r g r a i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may i n d i c a t e a common g e n e s i s .  size  Segregated i c e  e x p o s u r e s o f up t o 5 m e t e r s i n h e i g h t w e r e o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r near t h e c o n t a c t w i t h these  underlying  a t or  sediments.  S u i t a b l e s t r a t i g r a p h i c e x p o s u r e s a r e n o t common w i t h i n regions o f t h e study  area.  However h i g h i c e c o n t e n t  r e s u l t i n g i n r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e to  occur  immediately  textured Beaufort west c o a s t s .  other  material  f o r m a t i o n was o b s e r v e d  above t h e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e g r a v e l l y sandy  F o r m a t i o n a t a number o f s i t e s o n t h e n o r t h a n d  Similarly  sandy f l u v i a l  d e p o s i t s were o b s e r v e d t o  u n d e r l i e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a t a number o f s i t e s w i t h i n t h e Thomsen R i v e r d r a i n a g e .  Representative  grain size  dis-  t r i b u t i o n s a r e shown o n F i g u r e 1 9 . The  observation  that segregated  ice deposits  frequently  occur  a t o r near t h e c o n t a c t between an o v e r l y i n g f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l and  an u n d e r l y i n g sand d e p o s i t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t documented i n  the M a c k e n z i e D e l t a a r e a b y Mackay the t h e o r y acted  t h a t these  (19 73) .  This  lends  u n d e r l y i n g p e r m e a b l e s e d i m e n t s may h a v e  a s a n a q u i f e r t h r o u g h w h i c h p o r e w a t e r was a b l e t o move  towards a r e l a t i v e l y observation  s t a t i o n a r y f r e e z i n g plane.  Similarly, the  t h a t r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g l a c i a l l y d e r i v e d sediments supports (1973) h y p o t h e s i s an  support t o  important  required  t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f g l a c i a l m e l t w a t e r may be  f a c t o r i n p r o v i d i n g t h e necessary pore water  f o r t h e growth o f e x t e n s i v e  pressures  deposits o f segregated  However i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t m a r i n e lacustrine)  Rampton's  ice.  (and p o s s i b l y  i n u n d a t i o n may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f  h i g h pore water pressures  a s r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s  have  100  100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10  .001 Diameter Clay Figure  19.  Silt  T  1.0  (mm) Sand  10 .0 |Gran.  Pebbles  C u m u l a t i v e g r a i n s i z e p l o t s from r e t r o g r e s s i v e , thaw f l o w s l i d e s i t e s l o c a t e d b e y o n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n .  been observed the A r c t i c  to occur i n e n t i r e l y  Islands within  marine  sediments  the Sverdrup B a s i n  d e p o s i t e d on  ( s e e H o d g s o n , 1978;  Hodgson a n d E d l u n d , 1978; and W o o d w a r d - C l y d e C o n s u l t a n t s , 1980) .  Repose F e a t u r e s and N i v a t i o n  Hollows  R e p o s e f e a t u r e s w e r e m o s t commonly o b s e r v e d d e p o s i t s , b u t a l s o o c c u r r e d i n marine  sediments,  g r a v e l s o f t h e B e a u f o r t f o r m a t i o n and t h e s i l t s Kanguk f o r m a t i o n .  fluvial  to those o f repose  s e d i m e n t s , w h i c h may be t o o c o a r s e t e x t u r e d , t o o  development o f t r a n s v e r s e or c i r c u l a r were a l s o o b s e r v e d  i n the s i l t s  i n the weathered  sediments  features.  comprise  n i c h e s were o b s e r v e d  sediments  Formation.  While  fluvial  sediments  morphologic  origin.  to occur i n the  located: i n the c o a s t a l lowland  immediately e a s t o f Sachs Harbour, in till  hollow  Niches  Thermo-erosional  Formation,  Bay  and s a m p l i n g p r o g r a m  as much a s a n y s u b s t a n t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n g e n e t i c  f l u v i a l o r marine  Formation  feature", the difference  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure  Thermo-erosional  Sound  a nivation  g e n e s i s o f m a t e r i a l s f o r m i n g t h e s e two  types r e f l e c t s  hollows  d e r i v e d from t h e Pre-Mercy  However a s t h e s l o p e s w h i c h  observed  f o r the  Nivation  of the Eureka  c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be d e s c r i b e d a s a " r e p o s e in  relief  and c l a y s o f t h e C h r i s t o p h e r  Formation, the u n l i t h i f i e d sediments  Member.  and c l a y s o f t h e  features, with the exception  recently deposited, or lacking i n sufficient  and  t h e s a n d s and  Well developed n i v a t i o n hollows occurred i n  materials similar of  in fluvial  area  i n the sand o f t h e B e a u f o r t  and i n t h e u n l i t h i f i e d s a n d s o f t h e I s a c h s e n t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e s were n o t o b s e r v e d i n a l o n g any o f t h e m a j o r r i v e r s ,  French  (1976)  p u b l i s h e d a photograph o f a t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e i n what are likely  fluvial  n o r t h e r n Banks  sediments a d j a c e n t to B a l l a s t Brook r i v e r  on  Island.  E o l i a n F e a t u r e s and O r g a n i c D e p o s i t s As w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , e o l i a n f e a t u r e s o c c u r i n w i n d sand d e p o s i t s , o r i g i n a l l y o f f l u v i a l  origin.  Similarly,  d e p o s i t s were o n l y o b s e r v e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f l u v i a l of  b o t h c o n t e m p o r a r y and Q u a t e r n a r y a g e .  blown organic sediments  3.2.2  Texture The  range  8 morphologic  i n t e x t u r a l composition a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each  c l a s s e s i s shown on F i g u r e 20.  i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e percentage sand  (0 .063  t o l e s s t h a n 2 mm),  of gravel and  fines  These t r i a x i a l  of  plots  (2 t o l e s s t h a n . 8  mm),  ( l e s s t h a n 0 .063 mm) .  Samples w h i c h a r e t h o u g h t t o r e f l e c t t h e dominant c h a r a c t e r o f a s i t e a r e i n d i c a t e d by s q u a r e s , w h i l e t h o s e f r o m l e s s s t r a t a have been i n c l u d e d t o i n d i c a t e the o b s e r v e d s i z e and  a r e shown a s s m a l l c i r c l e s .  conducted  u s i n g data which  important  range  i n grain  (A s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s  i n c l u d e d t h e g r e a t e r t h a n 8 mm  was size  f r a c t i o n and e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same r e s u l t s w e r e o b t a i n e d . ) I t c a n be s e e n t h a t s l o p e s w h i c h a r e u n d e r g o i n g t i o n movement o r a r e s u b j e c t t o e i t h e r s k i n f l o w s o r  solifluc 1  retrogressive  thaw f l o w s l i d e s c o n t a i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s o f textured materials.  Skin flows i n p a r t i c u l a r occur i n  containing high proportions of s i l t s  and  fine  sediments  clays.  Banks o r s l o p e s s u b j e c t t o t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h i n g were observed  t o c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 15 p e r c e n t g r a v e l and may  composed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f e i t h e r sample s i z e i s r e l a t i v e l y  f i n e s or sands.  s m a l l and may  be  However t h e  n o t be e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e , as the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  thermo-erosional niche  B a l l a s t Brook  (1976) a p p e a r s  R i v e r shown i n F r e n c h  g r e a t e r t h a n 15%  to contain  gravels.  A n g l e o f r e p o s e b a n k s and n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s c a n b o t h seen t o o c c u r o v e r a wide range  f r e q u e n t l y observed i n  m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g a. h i g h , p e r c e n t a g e o f 2 t o l e s s t h a n 8 material.  be  of t e x t u r a l composition, with  n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s b e i n g somewhat l e s s  sized  on  mm  100% <0.063  mm  100% <0.063  mm  100% <0.063  mm  100% <0.063  mm  Retrogressive Thaw F l o w Slides  100% 2-<8 mm  100% <0 .063 mm  100% <0 .063 mm  100% <0.06 3  100% <0.063  mm  0.063-<2 mm  100% mm  Angle of Repose Features  10 Of 2-<8 mm  Figure  Note:  20  a samples r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e dominant t e x t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n • samples from l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t d e p o s i t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e range i n textural composition  Relative percentages of gravel, v a r y i n g morphology.  sand and f i n e s  associated  with  banks  100% 0.063-<2 mm  or slopes of  As w o u l d be e x p e c t e d , s i t e s e x h i b i t i n g w e l l d e v e l o p e d e o l i a n features are  composed p r i m a r i l y o f  s a n d s , w i t h some m i n o r  i n c l u s i o n s o f g r a v e l , g e n e r a l l y as a l a g d e p o s i t .  Banks  containing  a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r were found t o c o n t a i n o r no  g r a v e l , w i t h the dominant samples c o n t a i n i n g a  high percentage of  relatively  fines.  Hydrometer a n a l y s i s to determine the r e l a t i v e of sand, s i l t  and  little  c l a y was  percentage  u n d e r t a k e n f o r a number o f d o m i n a n t ,  s a m p l e s f r o m s i t e s u n d e r g o i n g s o l i f l u c t i o n movement o r s u b j e c t e i t h e r s k i n f l o w s o r r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s . are  shown on F i g u r e  forming and  s k i n flows  21  and  i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o l l u v i a l  frequently contain a higher  c l a y than the m a t e r i a l s  forming  flow s l i d e s or s o l i f l u c t i o n  slopes.  s l i d e s , and  solifluction  slopes  results  materials  percentage of  silt  e i t h e r r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw However t h e  texture of  samples from s k i n f l o w s i t e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the commonly f o r m i n g  The  four  material  o r r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw  flow  thus g r a i n s i z e alone appears i n s u f f i c i e n t t o ^ d i s -  c r i m i n a t e between these  features.  to  76 Clay  R e t r o g r e s s i v e Thaw Flow  Slides  <0.004 mm  A Till  - Amundsen  Glaciation  • " T i l l " - Thomsen G l a c i a t i o n •"Till" Viscount M e l v i l l e Glaciation • " T i l l " - Banks G l a c i a t i o n ° lacustrine i n d i c a t e s samples a r e from t h e same l o c a t i o n  Sand 0.063 — 2 mm  Solifluction Slopes  Slit 0.004-<0.063 mm  colluviated " T i l l " Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n colluviated " T i l l " Thomsen G l a c i a t i o n colluviated " T i l l " Banks G l a c i a t i o n  Sand 0.063 — 2 mm  Silt 0.004-<0 063 mm  c o l l u v i u m d e r i v e d from: ° C h r i s t o p h e r Formation • E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n O T i l l overlying, the p r e M e r c y Bay Member O t i l l and m a r i n e d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g Isachsen Formation  Sand 0.063 — 2 mm  Figure 21.  Slit 0.004- <0.063 mm  R e l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s o f s a n d , s i l t and c l a y i n m a t e r i a l s forming s o l i f l u c t i o n s i o p e s , s k i n flows and r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s .  3.2.3  Ice Content Mackay  Williams  (1971a)  f o l l o w i n g t h e work o f E v e r e t t  ( 1 9 6 7 ) , h a s shown t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l  (1961) and  f o r segregated i c e  g r o w t h i s r e l a t e d t o t h e o v e r b u r d e n w e i g h t , t h e pore; w a t e r p r e s s u r e at the penetrating frost l i n e , and  the i n t e r f a c i a l  ice-water tension  the r a d i u s o f t h e l a r g e s t c o n t i n u o u s pore openings o r  c h a n n e l s . B o t h pore w a t e r p r e s s u r e (as a f u n c t i o n o f p e r m e a b i l i t y ) and p o r e r a d i u s c a n be e x p e c t e d t o v a r y w i t h g r a i n s i z e a n d t h u s t e x t u r e a l o n e f o r m s t h e b a s i s f o r many r u l e s - o f - t h u m b i n d i c e s o f frost susceptibility K a p l a r , 1971) .  (see Casagrande,  1932; T e r z a g h i , 1952; and  C o a r s e ' t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s have such l a r g e  spaces t h a t the p o t e n t i a l  pore  f o r segregated i c e growth i s reduced,  w h i l e v e r y f i n e t e x t u r e d samples have a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o w permeability  t h a t p o r e ; w a t e r p r e s s u r e and w a t e r movement i s r e s t r i c t e d .  M a t e r i a l s of a*L intermediate texture, having a combination o f relatively  s m a l l p o r e s i z e and h i g h p e r m e a b i l i t y , . , a r e t h o u g h t t o  p r o v i d e t h e optimum c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e g r o w t h o f s e g r e g a t e d i c e . In t h i s circumstance,the c o n t r o l l i n g  f a c t o r s are then reduced t o  t h e o v e r b u r d e n w e i g h t , t h e r a t e o f f r e e z i n g and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of water.  T h i s g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o t e n t i a l f o r  s e g r e g a t e d i c e growth and t e x t u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n F i g u r e 22.  The o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i c e c o n t e n t and m a t e r i a l t e x t u r e f o r 187 s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s is  shown on F i g u r e 2 3 .  study  T h e s e t r i a x i a l g r a p h s show t h e a v e r a g e i c e  content, the standard d e v i a t i o n about the average, the c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n , and t h e number o f s a m p l e s percent gravel  f o r 2 0 p e r c e n t ranges i n  ( g r e a t e r t h a n 2::.mm) > s a n d  ( l e s s t h a n 0.063 mm).  (0.063 t o 2 mm)  and f i n e s  B o t h t h e a v e r a g e i c e c o n t e n t and t h e  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a b o u t t h e a v e r a g e c a n be s e e n t o i n c r e a s e a s t h e  78  u 3  cn cn l)  u cu  fj> c  •H  >  Coarse grained  Medium Soil  Figure  22.  Fine  grained  Texture  T h e o r e t i c a l p o t e n t i a l f o r the growth o f segregated i c e as a f u n c t i o n o f g r a i n s i z e ( a f t e r Penner,1968)  100% S i l t and c l a y « 0 .063 mm)  100% G r a v e l ( >2 mm) F i g u r e 23.  100% Sand (0 .063-<2 Observed i c e c o n t e n t versus the -of g r a v e l , sand and f i n e s  mm)  percentage  percentage  o f fines increases t o approximately  80 p e r c e n t .  Above t h i s p o i n t a s l i g h t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a v e r a g e i c e c o n t e n t occurs.  However t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d c o e f f i c i e n t o f  v a r i a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e , r e f l e c t i n g a number o f v e r y ice  content  samples.  When t h e i c e c o n t e n t i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p e r c e n t a g e (0.063 t o l e s s t h a n 2 mm), s i l t clay  high  (0.004 t o l e s s t h a n 0.063 mm) a n d  ( l e s s t h a n 0.004 mm), shown o n F i g u r e 24, a s i m i l a r  appears i n which  o f sand  trend  t h e mean i c e c o n t e n t , t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d  the c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e w i t h d e c r e a s i n g percentages  o f sand.  The maximum i c e c o n t e n t a n d g r e a t e s t  c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n o c c u r s i n samples c o n t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y a f i f t y percent mixture of s i l t  and c l a y .  However t h e number o f  samples i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e c o n c l u s i v e l y whether r a t i o p r o v i d e s t h e optimum b a l a n c e between pore bility of  this  s i z e and permea-  or only r e f l e c t s l o c a l conditions associated with material  this textural  composition.  F u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i c e cont e n t a n d g r a i n s i z e i s shown b y t h e p l o t s o f a v e r a g e i c e c o n t e n t versus i n c r e a s i n g percentages  o f g r a v e l , sand,  c l a y shown on F i g u r e s 25 a n d 26.  The o b s e r v e d  fines,  s i l t and  range i n s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n a g a i n i n c r e a s e s w i t h i c e c o n t e n t and p r o v i d e s an indicator of thepotential ice  f o r segregated  i c e growth.  c o n t e n t s a n d g r e a t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n c a n a g a i n be  s e e n t o o c c u r i n s a m p l e s c o n t a i n i n g 0 t o 10% s a n d , and  40 t o 50% c l a y  50 t o 60% s i l t . The  a meaningful ice  Maximum  preceding analysis indicates that i norder to provide comparison  o f t h e r e l a t i v e occurrence o f segregated  i n banks o f d i f f e r e n t m o r p h o l o g i e s ,  i t i s necessary t o  100% Clay K0.004  100% Sand (0 .063-<2 mm) F i g u r e 24.  mm)  100% S i l t (0 .004-<0 .063  mm)  Observed i c e c o n t e n t v e r s u s the percentage o f sand, s i l t and c l a y .  -p A CU  -p 0  O Q) O H  100 90 80 70 60 H 50 ^ 40 0 30 +J fl 2 0 cu 0 10 u CU 0 Cu  -p -fl cn •H (D  -  •  0  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage o f f i n e s (< 0 .063 mm)  10(  4-)  x: Cn  -H  <U  -P  fl  >i -P M <U  fl  0 0  <W 0  0)  u  M  4J  fl CU  o  U  CU  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100" Percentage o f sands (0 .063-<2 mm)  Cu  -.2 .0 1.8 1.6 o fl 1.4 •P o fl -H 1.2 0) -P •H rd O -H 1.0 •H S-l -|0 .8 m rd M-4 > (U 0.6 o u 0.4 0 .2  -P  .fl Cn  -H -p  CU  fl  3  CU  >i  C  T3  -p S-l 0  O  (1)  o  M  0  -P C (U  o CU  10  Q4  Note:  20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage o f g r a v e l (>2 mm)  10  Ice c o n t e n t has been overaged f o r samples grouped on the b a s i s o f 10% ranges i n t e x t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n , except i n the g r a v e l p l o t where two 5% increments have been i n c l u d e d .  F i g u r e 25 .  Observed i c e c o n t e n t v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e n t a g e s o f g r a v e l , sand and f i n e s .  82  ®  mean standard deviation about mean coefficient of variation  -\2 .0 1.8 4-1 1.6° c 1.4 -GP -o H 1  2 ®  1 0 °0.8 £ * 0.6 0.4 U 0.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 P e r c e n t a g e o f c l a y « 0 . 0 0 4 mm)  H  g  12 .0 1 8 4-1 1 ,o o c 1 ,4 • P o J 1 ,2 •QHJ + rd U H 1 ,0 •H ! - l 0.8 4-14-1 rs> 0.6 OCD 0 .4 CJ 0.2 70 Percentage Note;  of silt  80  (0.004 -<0 . 063  90 10  8  mm)  - t h e r e a r e o n l y 2 samples i n t h e 10-20% s i l t c l a s s . One c o n t a i n s 5 2 % c l a y a n d h a s a n i c e c o n t e n t o f 7 1 . 4 % . The o t h e r s a m p l e h a s 0% c l a y a n d a n i c e c o n t e n t o f 4.7%. - t e x t u r e i s expressed as a percentage o ft h e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e l e s s t h a n 2 mm i n d i a m e t e r . - i c e c o n t e n t has been a v e r a g e d f o r samples grouped on t h e b a s i s o f 1 0 % r a n g e s i n t e x t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n .  F i g u r e 26.  Observed i c e content versus i n d i v i d u a l percentages o f s i l t and c l a y .  84  compare s i t e s w i t h s i m i l a r t e x t u r e s .  H o w e v e r , due t o t h e l i m i t e d  number o f s i t e s s a m p l e d , d a t a c o m p a r i s o n h a s h a d t o be made on t h e basis of r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e ranges i n t e x t u r e .  summary o f i c e c o n t e n t classes.  i n banks o r s l o p e s o f d i f f e r e n t  Textural composition  content.  results of this compilation indicate  d i f f e r e n c e s i n i c e c o n t e n t b e t w e e n some c l a s s e s . those  subject t o e o l i a n processes  s i m i l a r l y low i c e contents.  morphologic  h a s b e e n g r o u p e d on t h e b a s i s o f  f i f t y p e r c e n t r a n g e s i n g r a v e l , sand and f i n e The  Table VI provides a  substantial Repose b a n k s ,  and n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s a l l h a v e  The s l i g h t l y h i g h e r v a l u e s g e n e r a l l y  associated with n i v a t i o n hollows  l i k e l y r e f l e c t the incorporation  and  r a t h e r t h a n an i n c r e a s e i n  r e f r e e z i n g o f surface water,  segregated  i c e content a t depth.  Solifluction  s l o p e s and t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l  niches  have  somewhat l a r g e r i c e c o n t e n t s , w i t h s l o p e s s u b j e c t t o s k i n having  still  higher values.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  flows  that the  average water c o n t e n t measured d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s p r i n g thaw was h i g h e r w i t h i n t h e t h a w e d p o r t i o n o f t h e a c t i v e than w i t h i n the underlying frozen m a t e r i a l .  layer  This topic w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n S e c t i o n 3.3.1. The  i c e c o n t e n t w i t h i n o r g a n i c r i c h d e p o s i t s was  observed  t o be h i g h , i n t h e r a n g e o f 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e d r y w e i g h t . However t h e s e  f i g u r e s a r e s u b j e c t t o some u n c e r t a i n t y due t o t h e  e f f e c t o f d e h y d r a t i o n on t h e o r g a n i c c o n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d r y i n g process. S i t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w were o b s e r v e d  t o have t h e h i g h e s t i c e c o n t e n t s , w i t h  slides  recorded  v a l u e s r a n g i n g up t o 104 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e d r y w e i g h t . However i c e c o n t e n t s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h samples o f massive i c e  85  " ICE  MORPHOLOGY  CONTENT" "Low"  Repose  Eolian Nivation  "Moderate"  banks  gravel  features hollows  Solifluction  TEXTURE  slopes  Thermo-erosional niches  (0.063-<2 nun)  <50%  si+c,  silt  and c l a y  sand  (0 .06 3-<2  gravel  ( >/ 2  silt  and c l a y  <50%  si+c,  silt  and c l a y  sand  VI:  1.5  19.7  0 .28  12.3  3.6  5.6  0.46  44.7  • ••  • ••  mm)  (< 0 .063  mm)  30.6  23.3  7.0  0.23  4  21.6  8.1  5.4  2.8  0 .34  5.9  • ••  • ••  9.9  8.6  14.7  0.44  9.5  4.7  12  5.0  49 .3  0.53  34 .2  10.4  0.30  1  • ••  10 .0  mm)  mm)  13.4  • ••  • ••  4  57.3  36.8  16.8  18.1  0.49  3  28.1  23.8  17.4  5.7  0.24  1  «0.063  • ••  3  s, g  and c l a y  38.3  19 .5  (0.063-<2mm)  <50% s i + c ,  5  38.8  s, g, (< 0 .063  • ••  11  s, g  2  frozen  material  sand  frozen  material  silt  and c l a y  «0.063  mm)  active  layer  8  silt  and c l a y  (<0.063  mm)  5  silt  and c l a y  «0.063  mm)  2  Retrogressive flow s l i d e s  thaw  (0.063-<2mm)  <50% s i + c , silt  1  s, g  and c l a y  (<0.063  • ••  37.7  47.4  • ••  • ••  35.0  32 .2  3.9  31.6  • ••  0.11  mm)  l  P  e  S  f  d  l  f  f  e  r  e  n  t  123.4  24.3  32.4  0.69  54.5  40.8  19.7  0.36  147.3  117 .5  87.6  42 .2  0.36  3  46.9  40.1  32 .3  13  7.4  104.0  0.18  53 .5  19.4  25.5  0.48  I c e c o n t e n t s i n b a n k s o r sloDes n f r i i f f p ^ f u -. fines. ° ° morphology, S  • • •  46.8  flow  massive i c e TABLE  3.7  1  si+c,  coefficient of v a r i a t i o n  5.4  mm)  <50%  standard deviation  17  mm)  (0.063-<2 mm)  minimum  7.8  1  sand  average  6  s, g (<0.063  maximum  flows  Organic deposits "High"  ( > 2 nun)  sand  silt Skin  # of samples  ICE CONTENT AS A PERCENTAGE OF DRY WEIGHT  89 .2  s l i d e s do n o t i n c l u d e  values  from samples o f  b a s e d on 50 p e r c e n t r a n g e s i n p e r c e n t g r a v e l ,  sand and  86  f r o m e i t h e r i c e l e n s e s o r i c e wedges ( w h i c h these  sites)  are not  i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e V I and  f i g u r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y underestimate t h i s morphologic  the average i c e c o n t e n t  n i v a t i o n hollows  ice contents.  thermo-erosional  t h e r e f o r e the  listed for  l i m i t a t i o n s of the d a t a , e o l i a n f e a t u r e s ,  o f r e p o s e b a n k s and  g e n e r a l l y low  at  class.  Thus w i t h i n t h e angle  f r e q u e n t l y occur  niches  a p p e a r t o have  S o l i f l u c t i o n slopes, s k i n flows  h a v e somewhat h i g h e r v a l u e s , and  s u b j e c t t o r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s have t h e average i c e c o n t e n t s ,  and  sites  highest  d e s p i t e the e x c l u s i o n o f samples o f massive  ice.  Ice  Distribution The  p r e s e n c e and  relative  abundance o f v a r i o u s t y p e s  of  ground i c e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t morphologic c l a s s e s i s summarized i n T a b l e V I I . E o l i a n f e a t u r e s , r e p o s e b a n k s and v a r y i n g amounts o f p o r e i c e .  n i v a t i o n hollows  Segregated i c e d e p o s i t s i n the  of f r e e z e - b a c k - i c e , r e t i c u l a t e d  i c e or occasional t h i n  o f l e n s i c e were i n f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d i n the n e a r m a t e r i a l s a t r e p o s e and Solifluction freeze-back  slopes  in thickness.  and  s k i n f l o w s i t e s commonly extensive  occurrences  undisturbed  a n o t a b l y wide s k i n flow s i t e , p a r t i a l l y derived  10  near l e s s than  surface m a t e r i a l adjacent  to  formed i n c o l l u v i u m o v e r l y i n g  and  f r o m t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n ,  t o c o n t a i n an a p p r o x i m a t e l y  contained  of pore i c e .  i c e w e r e commonly o b s e r v e d i n t h e  The  deposits  surface  surface m a t e r i a l s , w i t h the m a j o r i t y of deposits being 1 cm  form  nivation sites.  i c e d e p o s i t s and  Lenses of segregated  contained  cm  t h i c k deposit of  was  observed  freeze-back  Observed i c e o c c u r r e n c e Morphology Freeze-back ice  Pore ice  Reticulated ice  Wedge i c e  Thin lens of Thick lens of segregated segregated s?<s->>r.'-~ice:;. ice ,  7  A  occasional  common  absent  absent  absent  absent  Repose banks  occasional  common  occasional  common  occasional  absent  Nivation hollows  occasional  common  occasional  _ y.common  occasional  absent  S o l i f l u c t i o n slopes  common  common  absent  (occasional?)  common  Skin flows  common  common  absent  (occasional?)  common  occasional  Thermo-erosional niches  occasional  common  absent  common  occasional  occasional  Organic  occasional  common  absent  common  common  absent  occasional  common  absent  noeommon  common  common  Eolian  features  deposits  Retrogressive flow slides  thaw  (occasional?)  Note:  - l e n s e s o f s e g r e g a t e d i c e l e s s t h a n 1 cm i n t h i c k n e s s h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d as b e i n g " t h i n " . - t h e " a b s e n t " , " o c c a s i o n a l " a n d "common" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s o n l y i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e and...has no q u a n t i t a t i v e significance. - t h e p r e s e n c e and abundance o f s e g r e g a t e d i c e a p p e a r s t o be t h e m a i n d i s c r i m i n a t o r of; t o t a l i c e content, over the morphologic types.  TABLE V I I :  T y p e s o f g r o u n d i c e o b s e r v e d i n b a n k s and s l o p e s o f d i f f e r e n t m o r p h o l o g y .  00  88 ice.  T h i s m a t e r i a l had a w a t e r c o n t e n t  o f 485 p e r c e n t  s a m p l e d r y w e i g h t , and i s o b v i o u s l y o f s u r f a c e In a r e a s where t h e r m a l  and  provided  solifluction  slopes  s k i n f l o w s i t e s , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l e n s i c e was g e n e r a l l y  observed to decrease w i t h depth. in  origin.  erosion or thermokarst  v e r t i c a l exposures o f the sediments u n d e r l y i n g  of the  the C h r i s t o p h e r  Similarly,  s k i n flows  occurring  F o r m a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y removed t h e s u r f a c e  c o l l u v i u m down t o t h e s i l t s  and c l a y s o f t h e u n w e a t h e r e d  parent  material.  T h e s e u n d e r l y i n g d e p o s i t s h a d few o r no i n c l u s i o n s o f  segregated  i c e and l i k e l y  i n d i c a t e that the i c e deposits  i n the o v e r l y i n g colluvium are a r e s u l t o f water derived surface o r i g i n . fluction  observed from a  I c e wedges w e r e g e n e r a l l y n o t o b s e r v e d on  slopes or s k i n flow s i t e s .  soli-  However d o w n s l o p e movement  of c o l l u v i u m as a r e s u l t o f s o l i f l u c t i o n processes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f such d e p o s i t s / ' d i f f i c u l t w i t h o u t  makes t h e subsurface  exposures. P o r e i c e was t h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e at s i t e s subject to thermo-erosional  form o f ground i c e observed niching.  I c e wedges were  commonly f o u n d a l o n g  recent exposures, w i t h the presence of  segregated  l i m i t e d t o freeze-back  i c e being  d e p o s i t s and o c c a s i o n a l  t h i n i c e l e n s e s , g e n e r a l l y .as i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n m i n o r b e d s o f f i n e textured  sediments.  O r g a n i c f e a t u r e s were f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h pore i c e d e p o s i t s and t h i n s e g r e g a t e d commonly e x p o s e d a t t h e s e Retrogressive  i c e lenses.  I c e wedges w e r e a l s o  sites.  thaw f l o w s l i d e s w e r e o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r  r e s u l t o f i n c l u s i o n s o f p o r e , wedge and s e g r e g a t e d l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen Glaciations  and  ice.  as a  Sites  Thomsen  were f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d t o c o n t a i n i c e l e n s e s o f ;  1 t o over 3 meters i n t h i c k n e s s .  I n c o n t r a s t , r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw  flow s l i d e s located w i t h i n the boundaries of the Viscount M e l v i l l e and B a n k s G l a c i a t i o n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y composed o f t h i n n e r of r e l a t i v e l y  lower i c e content m a t e r i a l s /  ted t o thin-lenses o f contributed  exposures  frequently being  s e g r e g a t e d i c e and pore i c e .  t o the formation o f thermokarst features  limi-  Wedge i c e throughout  t h e s t u d y a r e a , b u t was m o s t f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Amundsen G l a c i a t i o n , a n d a p p e a r s t o be l e a s t common w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e B a n k s a n d V i s c o u n t M e l v i l l e Glaciations.  3.2.4  Exposure  t o P r o c e s s e s o f Sediment  The e x p o s u r e r a t i n g s u n i t s a r e summarized  Removal  f o r each o f t h e d i f f e r e n t morphologi  i n Table V I I I .  Solifluction  s l o p e s c a n be  s e e n t o o c c u r i n e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h a l o w t o medium e x p o s u r e , reflecting their characteristically frequently prograding.  low angle s l o p e s , which a r e  A l l s k i n f l o w s i t e s were g i v e n a medium  e x p o s u r e r a t i n g i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s w e r e s i t u a t e d on s l o p e s s t e e p e r t h a n some o f t h o s e on w h i c h o n l y s o l i f l u c t i o n  was  occurring. R e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y o c c u r i n medium o r h i g h e x p o s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t relative relief exposed  t h a t t h e t h a w e d s e d i m e n t c a n be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e  headwall.  W i t h i n low exposure s e t t i n g s , h i g h i c e content  m a t e r i a l i s generally covered by.colluvium or f l u v i a l and t h u s i n s u l a t e d . is disturbed  sediments  I n s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s o v e r l y i n g  material  ( f o r e x a m p l e b y e r o s i o n a l o n g an i c e w e d g e ) ,  thermo-  k a r s t c a n c a u s e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w  slides;  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e v o l u m e l o s s due t o t h e m e l t i n g of i c e i s s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e flow o f sediment from t h e headwall. the s i t e ,  However, as l o n g as t h i s  s e d i m e n t i s n o t removed  from  t h e s e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s r e m a i n c o m p a r a -  t i v e l y p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d a n d t h e s h a l l o w "thaw l a k e s " w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y produced w i l l Bird  eventually restabilize,  as d i s c u s s e d by  (1967) . Repose f e a t u r e s o c c u r i n each o f t h e t h r e e e x p o s u r e  c l a s s e s w i t h a n g l e o f r e p o s e banks exposed  environments.  b e i n g f o u n d i n t h e more  N i v a t i o n h o l l o w s o c c u r i n o n l y medium a n d  h i g h exposure e n v i r o n m e n t s , as a d i s t i n c t break i n s l o p e appears t o be n e e d e d t o i n i t i a t e  t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f snow.  Morphology  Solifluction Skin  #,of- . sitessr.  slopes  6  flows  Retrogressive Repose  flows  features  Nivation hollows Thermo-erosional Eolian Organic  features deposits  niches.  in Low  # of s i t e s each exposure c l a s s  Medium  High  of s i t e s each exposure c l a s s o "o  in Low  Medium  4  2  0  67  33  0  11  0  11  0  0  100  0  18  0  9  9  0  50  .50  41  4  20  17  19  49  41  14  0  10  4  0  71  29  5  0  0  5  0  0  100  6  0  6  0  0  100  0  3  0  2  1  0  67  33  4-  N o t e : e x p o s u r e c l a s s e s a r e d e f i n e d on T a b l e I V .  TABLE V I I I :  High  Summary o f e x p o s u r e r a t i n g s f o r f i e l d  sites of different  morphology.  92  As would be expected,  a l l of the thermo-erosional  niches  o c c u r r e d i n areas of a c t i v e e r o s i o n , such as on the o u t s i d e of r i v e r bends or along exposed s e c t i o n s of the southern are s u b j e c t to high winds and wave a c t i o n .  c o a s t , which  E o l i a n f e a t u r e s were  l o c a t e d on banks of medium exposure i n s i t u a t i o n s  with enough  o f a break i n s l o p e f o r d e f l a t i o n to occur, but having a s u f f i c i e n t l y slow r a t e of r e c e s s i o n t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bank form c o u l d  develop.  Only t h r e e s i t e s t y p i c a l of organic accumulation v i s i t e d and  the observed  were  medium and h i g h exposure r a t i n g s  l i k e l y r e f l e c t more on the c h o i c e of f i e l d s i t e s t h a t any l y i n g c a u s a t i v e mechanism.  under-  93 3.2.5  Summary The  p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the morphology  o f a bank o r s l o p e i s t o a v a r y i n g d e g r e e d e p e n d e n t upon i t s t e x t u r e , i c e c o n t e n t and e x p o s u r e  or environmental  setting.  M a t e r i a l g e n e s i s i s i m p o r t a n t as i t a f f e c t s i c e c o n t e n t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of water  a t the time of f r e e z i n g ) , g r a i n  (as some g e n e t i c m a t e r i a l s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d percentage  o f f i n e s ) and  o r i g i n c a n be e x p e c t e d  (through  exposure  size  to contain a  (as m a t e r i a l s o f  larger  different  to occur i n d i f f e r e n t t e r r a i n  locations).  When t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s a m o n g s t i c e c o n t e n t , g r a i n s i z e exposure  a r e c o n s i d e r e d , a number o f o b v i o u s  become a p p a r e n t .  general  and  trends  Variations i n grain size a f f e c t i c e content  as  f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s have a h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r s e g r e g a t e d growth,  which  of thermokarst  i n t u r n i n c r e a s e s the p o t e n t i a l features.  The  i m p o r t a n t as i n low e x p o s u r e c o n t e n t and tively  f o r the development  e f f e c t of sediment removal environments  is  a l l combinations  g r a i n s i z e tend to r e s u l t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f  s i m i l a r , low angle s l o p e s or s o l i f l u c t i o n  o n l y i n environments  of i c e rela-  features.  w i t h medium o r h i g h e x p o s u r e s  p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e behaviour  ice  It is  t h a t the  of the exposed m a t e r i a l i s f u l l y  displayed. An  idealized  summary d f t h e bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y  occurs w i t h varying combinations exposure through  i s presented 5.  Features  of i c e content, grain size  i n T a b l e I X , and  which and  illustrated i n Plates 1  such as n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s , e o l i a n forms  and  o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s have been o m i t t e d as t h e y a r e s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by a d d i t i o n a l m o d i f y i n g p r o c e s s e s , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3.3 .  ICE  CONTENT  LOW  Low  MEDIUM  HIGH  angle slopes  Angle  ol  Repose  GRAVEL  banks  LOW  MEDIUM  Low angle slopes Angle  HIGH  Low a n g l e slopes  of  Repose  banks  Angle  of  Repose  Angle  banks  of  Repose  banks  I SAND  Angle  of  Repose  Q  banks  Thermo-erosional  _J  LOW  S o l if  1 uct  MEDIUM  ion  Sol i f  slopes  HIGH  1 uct ion  niches  (Thaw  S  Soli f luclion slopes  SILT AND  CLAY  +  2  (Skin  HIGH  UJ  Ret rogressive  slopes  f lows  Repose banks  ICE  TABLE  IX:  Skin  flows  Thermo-niches (Retrogressive  flows)  Retrogressive flows (Thermo-niches)  CONTENT  note: TEXTURE  +  flows?)  lakes)  Soli f l u c l i o n  ^)  a EXPOSUR E  Soli f luction slopes  slopes  -f e a t u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e p o t e n t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e forms. matrix l o c a t i o n s without l i s t e d morphologies i n d i c a t e t h a t no s i t e s were o b s e r v e d w i t h t h e s e ice content values.  Bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y a s a f u n c t i o n and e x p o s u r e .  of i c e content,  grain  size  95  a) A t y p i c a l s o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e l o c a t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y low ice content m a t e r i a l . Parker River (Devonian P l a t e a u ) 73°  21' N,  117  30'W  b)  A more a c t i v e s o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e composed o f h i g h e r water content m a t e r i a l . D i s s e c t i o n Creek (Northern Cretaceous  Complex)  c) A m o d e r a t e l y h i g h i c e c o n t e n t s i t e i l l u s t r a t i n g the r e c u r r i n g cycle of thermokarst a c t i v i t y . Note t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a c t i v e thaw f a c e i n r e l a t i o n to the p o l y g o n a l p a t t e r n o f i c e wedges. A d j a c e n t t o "Chebyshev R i v e r " ( N o r t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s Complex) 73°  Plate  13'  1.  ?v  N,  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e c o n t e n t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s o r s l o p e s composed o f f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l and l o c a t e d i n low e x p o s u r e environments.  96  a) The low angle s o l i f l u c t i o n slopes adjacent to t h i s stream are t y p i c a l of areas c o n t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y low ice contents. "Ivitaruk River" (Northern Cretaceous  Complex)  D e t a i l s of a s i n g l e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e . Note the i c e wedges exposed i n the headwall. Adjacent to " I v i t a r u k R i v e r " (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 23 ' N, 120° 18  P l a t e 2.  1  W  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e content on the morphology of banks or s l o p e s composed of f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l and l o c a t e d i n moderate exposure environments.  a)  The s t e e p e r f a c e o f t h i s asymm e t r i c v a l l e y i s composed o f low i c e c o n t e n t s i l t and c l a y o f t h e C h r i s t o p h e r and Kanguk F o r m a t i o n s . The w e l l v e g e tated s o l i f l u c t i o n slope i s p r o g r a d i n g i n t o the stream r e s u l t i n g i n undercutting of the steeper f a c e . Able Creek t r i b u t a r y ( N o r t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s Complex) 73°  35'  N,  120°  20'  W  b)  A thermo-erosional niche formed i n moderate i c e c o n tent material containing a significant portion of fine t e x t u r e d s e d i m e n t . Note the mud f l o w i n t h e foreground. "Murchison (Beaufort  River" Plain)  74°  118°  08 « N,  38 ' W  c) A m o d e r a t e l y h i g h i c e c o n t e n t bank i l l u s t r a t i n g f a c i a l s l o u g h i n g o f s e d i m e n t . Deep snow a c c u m u l a t i o n s protected t h i s bank f r o m u n d e r c u t t i n g during the s p r i n g f l o o d . D i s s e c t i o n Creek (Northern Cretaceous 73°  16 ' N,  119°  30'  Complex) W  d)  A r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e formed i n h i g h i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l . Note t h a t t h e s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l has a comparatively lower i c e content. Parker River (Eastern Morainal 73°  Plate  3.  40 ' N,  115°  46  Belt) 1  W  The e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i c e c o n t e n t on t h e m o r p h o l o g y o f b a n k s o r s l o p e s composed o f f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l and l o c a t e d i n h i g h e x p o s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t s .  98 a)  A i n  low a  i c e low  Bernard  c)  A i n  P l a t e  low a  4.  c o n t e n t exposure  repose  bank  environment  R i v e r  i c e h i g h  c o n t e n t  repose  exposure  The e f f e c t morphology  bank  environment.  of  exposure and i c e c o n t e n t on of sand t e x t u r e d d e p o s i t s .  the  a) A low exposure environment. Thomsen R i v e r (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 04' N, 119° 30' W  b) A moderate ment.  exposure e n v i r o n  Bernard R i v e r (Western Lowlands) 73° 28' N, 122° 40* W  c) A high exposure environment. Big River  (Western  Lowlands)  72° 27 ' N, 125° 05' W Note the remnants o f the surface vegetation.  P l a t e 5.  The e f f e c t o f exposure to f l u v i a l a t t a c k on the morphology o f repose banks composed o f low i c e content g r a v e l s .  100 The  scale of  " l o w " , "medium" and  "high" i c e  r e f e r t o t h e d a t a p r e v i o u s l y shown i n T a b l e V I . noted t h a t the q u a n t i t a t i v e values  contents  I t should  associated with this  scale  a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n g r a i n s i z e , as a  "low"  textured material contains  percentage of water than a  "low"  value  illustrated  trends  coarse  I n c l u s i o n s of  morphologic expression textured deposit.  similar  By way  fine  textured deposit  the p o t e n t i a l f o r i c e s e g r e g a t i o n  and  textured  significantly can  result in a  to that occurring i n a  of example, s k i n flows  and  finer retrogressive  thaw f l o w s l i d e s , w h i c h t y p i c a l l y o c c u r i n f i n e t e x t u r e d w e r e o b s e r v e d i n m a t e r i a l s i n w h i c h o v e r 30 p e r c e n t w e i g h t was  composed o f s a n d s and  A l t e r n a t e bank o r s l o p e IX)  reflect  factors.  High i c e content the  forms  (shown i n b r a c k e t s  on  Table  external  m a t e r i a l s i n low e x p o s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t s  l a k e s " or t h e r m o k a r s t f e a t u r e s can surface  cover i s disturbed.  low  medium i c e c o n t e n t  The  slopes.  However  "thaw  o c c u r i n s i t u a t i o n s where  occurrence of  materials reflects  s k i n flows  the  i n both  the u n c e r t a i n t y  in  f o r t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , as i t i s  p r e s e n t l y unknown w h e t h e r t h e h i g h p o r e w a t e r p r e s s u r e s thought to r e s u l t i n these features *1 t i o n o f  dry  gravels.  form of s o l i f l u c t i o n  the mechanism r e s p o n s i b l e  sediments,  of.the  t h e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f a number o f  g e n e r a l l y take  and  fine  i n morphology r e f e r to s i t u a t i o n s  t e x t u r a l composition.  m a t e r i a l i n an o t h e r w i s e increase  in  in gravel.  The of uniform  a higher  i c e content  be  g r o u n d i c e ( M c R o b e r t s and  o c c u r due  which  are  t o thaw c o n s o l i d a -  M o r g e r n s t e r n , 1974a) o r  from  Thaw c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as " t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h a r e d u c t i o n i n v o l u m e and an i n c r e a s e i n d e n s i t y o f a s o i l mass o c c u r s , f o l l o w i n g thaw, i n response t o the escape of w a t e r under the w e i g h t o f t h e s o i l . . i t s e l f a n d / o r an a p p l i e d l o a d " (Brown and K u p s c h , 1974 , p. 39) .  e x t e r n a l sources such as r a i n  (French, 1976), or snowmelt.  In h i g h exposure environments l a y e r i c e contents g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e d thermokarst  a c t i v i t y , as i n d i c a t e d by the  p r o g r e s s i o n of repose banks, t o thermo-erosional n i c h e s , to r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e s .  However i n s i t u a t i o n s o f h i g h  i c e content and low thermal i n p u t from e i t h e r r a d i a t i o n or a d v e c t i o n of s e n s i b l e heat, thermo-erosional n i c h e development could occur.  S i m i l a r l y i n medium i c e content m a t e r i a l , h i g h  thermal i n p u t c o u l d r e s u l t i n r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e development as long as f l u v i a l e r o s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o remove the thawed sediments from the base of the r e c e d i n g headwall.  102 3.3  THE  3.3.1  EFFECT OF MODIFYING FACTORS  L o c a l i z e d Snow  Nivation  Accumulation  Features  Nivation processes, resulting wind  from the l o c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n  of  b l o w n snow, c a n h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on bank o r s l o p e  morphology.  As  i n d i c a t e d i n the data presented i n S e c t i o n  distinct nivation  f e a t u r e s were observed  to occur i n f i n e  3.2, to  g r a v e l l y sandy t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s o f low t o moderate i c e c o n t e n t . Poorly developed  t r a n s v e r s e n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s commonly  o c c u r r e d a l o n g c o a r s e t e x t u r e d r i v e r b a n k s and r e s u l t e d i n minor sapping or undermining angle of repose banks.  coastal bluffs,  of these  and  essentially  More c l a s s i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d  transverse  features occurred along breaks of slope f r e q u e n t l y corresponding to  t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f r e g i o n a l i n u n d a t i o n a s d e l i n e a t e d by  Vincent  (1978a) .  These f e a t u r e s encompassed a wide v a r i e t y  textural composition, including poorly l i t h i f i e d  shales  of  and  sandstones. In  c o n t r a s t , l o n g i t u d i n a l and c i r c u l a r n i v a t i o n f e a t u r e s  were g e n e r a l l y b e s t d e v e l o p e d  i n f i n e o r medium t e x t u r e d u n c o n -  solidated materials, or poorly l i t h i f i e d  sediments  which  w e a t h e r t o f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s , as d i s c u s s e d by S t . Onge (1969) .  M u l t i f a c e t e d c i r c u l a r n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s such as  on P l a t e 6a w e r e o n l y o b s e r v e d c h a n n e l was  a d j a c e n t t o a r e a s where a  c o n f i n e d by the v a l l e y w a l l s .  w o u l d h a v e a t one  The  time o c c u r r e d a t such s i t e s  shown river  steep slopes  which  likely resulted i n  t h e o r i g i n a l p r e f e r e n t i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f snow n e c e s s a r y f o r n i v a t i o n development.  S u c h s i t e s w e r e commonly o b s e r v e d  t o have  103 a w e l l developed w h i c h may nivation  p a t t e r n o f i c e wedges i n t h e s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l ,  e x p l a i n the i n i t i a l  presence  o f more t h a n one  " f a c e " , i n much t h e same manner a s F r e n c h and  active Egginton  (1973) d e s c r i b e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b a y d j a r a k h - l i k e t e r r a i n . H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n t s i z e and d e n s i t y o f t h e c o m p o n e n t f a c e s , even i n l e s s complex examples a p p e a r t o be r e l a t e d  s u c h a s shown on P l a t e 6b, do  not  t o t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i c e wedges and  m u s t h a v e some o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . Cook  ( i n Hamelin  and C o o k , 1967)  has p r e v i o u s l y  observed  that: "Measurements [_of t h e p h y s i c a l s i z e ] o f n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s w i t h i n a l i m i t e d area appear to f a l l w i t h i n a v e r y s m a l l r a n g e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y d e v e l o p a c c o r d i n g t o some geomorphic p r o c e s s o r law" (p.75). The  author concurs w i t h t h i s view.  v a r i a t i o n s i n the angle of repose) parameter of  Grain size appears  (and a s s o c i a t e d  t o be an  important  , w i t h t h e d e n s i t y o f n i v a t i o n f e a t u r e s (as t h e number  hollows per u n i t length) g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s i n g w i t h decreasing  grain size.  Relative relief  a l s o appears  to play a role  within a p a r t i c u l a r material, slopes with higher r e l i e f g e n e r a l l y observed  t o h a v e a s m a l l e r number o f l a r g e r  as, were  diameter  features.  E f f e c t s oh  Thermokarst  N i v a t i o n a l s o i n f l u e n c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f bank o r s l o p e forms t y p i c a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n h i g h e r i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e summer, m e l t w a t e r l o c a l accumulations *1  o f snow was  originating  f r e q u e n t l y observed  from  to r e s u l t i n  B a y d j a r a k h i s a Y a k u t i a n t e r m "used t o d e s c r i b e s i l t y o r p e a t y mounds .... f o r m e d due t o p r e f e r e n t i a l t h a w i n g and s u b s i d e n c e " a l o n g i c e wedge p o l y g o n s ( F r e n c h , 1976) .  .  104  a) A m u l t i - f a c e t e d c i r c u l a r n i v a t i o n hollow formed i n low i c e c o n t e n t s i l t s and clays. Un-named R i v e r (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 55' N, 119° 25 W 1  b) A s e r i e s o f n i v a t i o n hollows formed i n low i c e c o n t e n t sands and g r a v e l s o f the B e a u f o r t Formation. Bernard I s l a n d (Western Lowlands) 73° 35' N, 124° 20 ' W c) P r e f e r e n t i a l snow accumulation a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development o f an asymmetric v a l l e y . Un-named R i v e r (Devonian Plateau) 73° 45" N, 118° 20' W  d) The common r e l a t i o n s h i p between n i v a t i o n hollows and skin flows. Thomsen R i v e r (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 20' N, 119° 40 ' W  6.  The m o d i f y i n g e f f e c t o f n i v a t i o n p r o c e s s e s on morphology.  105 the  s a t u r a t i o n and e r o s i o n o f m a t e r i a l d e p o s i t e d  of  r e t r o g r e s s i v e • ; thaw f l o w s l i d e s .  underlying high i c e content important  The s u b s e q u e n t e x p o s u r e o f t h e  m a t e r i a l i s t h o u g h t t o p l a y an  r o l e i n the seasonal  as o b s e r v a t i o n s  below the headwall  r e a c t i v a t i o n o f many s u c h f e a t u r e s ,  i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e summer i n d i c a t e d t h a t ,  w i t h the disappearance o f t h i s a d d i t i o n a l meltwater, the headwall was  f r e q u e n t l y covered  w i t h c o l l u v i u m and s t a b i l i z e d .  term i s thought t o occur  This p a t -  on a n a n n u a l b a s i s .  E f f e c t s on S o l i f l u c t i o n The  important  r o l e which accumulations  o f snow on l e e  s l o p e s p l a y s i n t h e development o f asymmetric v a l l e y s has been d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y by French  (1971) .  The h i g h e r  o f m e l t w a t e r and a s s o c i a t e d i n c r e a s e d s o l i f l u c t i o n downslope o f these  deposits  are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d  concentrations activity i n Plate 6c.  T h i s u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o i l w a t e r may p e r s i s t i n t o m i d J u l y as i n d i c a t e d by t h e w a t e r c o n t e n t measurements p r e s e n t e d i n Figure  27.  H o w e v e r , on c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n ,  s o i l . .-  w i t h i n t h e a c t i v e l a y e r g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r s t o be u n i f o r m l y d r y b y the middle o f August.  E f f e c t s on S k i n The  Flows  p r e f e r e n t i a l accumulation  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s k i n f l o w s as these observed below n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s , However t h e p r o c e s s completely  o f snow c a n a l s o a f f e c t t h e f e a t u r e s w e r e commonly  as i l l u s t r a t e d  by w h i c h t h i s i n f l u e n c e o c c u r s  understood.  McRoberts and M o r g e n s t e r n  suggested t h a t t h e h i g h pore water pressures occur  i n P l a t e 6d. i s not (1974a) h a v e  which are thought t o  i n s k i n flow f a i l u r e s are a r e s u l t of thaw-consolidation  . -  dominant w i n t e r wind d i r e c t i o n from the n o r t h  Water c o n t e n t - % Sample #  Frost table to surface  314 315  32 .8  48  45 .5  44  18 .1  316 317  Active Surface of l a y e r depth cm frost table  34 45.3 57 .8  320 321  continuous cover of grass and moss  33  32 .0  N o t e : m e a s u r e m e n t s t a k e n on J u l y 2 9 ,  F i g u r e 27.  discontinuous cover a s s o c i a t e d with "striped ground"  20 .1  318 319  Vegetation cover  1975.  O b s e r v e d w a t e r c o n t e n t s and a c t i v e l a y e r d e p t h s o p p o s i n g s l o p e s o f an asymmetric valley.  on  107 p r o c e s s e s due t o t h e m e l t i n g o f g r o u n d layer.  i c e w i t h i n the active  I n t h e e n s u i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h e e f f e c t o f r a i n f a l l and  n i v a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : " W h i l e summer r a i n f a l l o r s n o w m e l t may i n c r e a s e t h e r a t e o f thaw o r i n c r e a s e s t r e s s i m b a l a n c e i n a t h a w i n g s l o p e , t h e d o m i n a n t i n f l u e n c e o f w e t summer c o n d i t i o n s i s t o contribute t o saturated conditions a t the onset of freezeback. These s a t u r a t e d c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , e n s u r e an adequate w a t e r s u p p l y f o r f r o s t h e a v i n g " ( p . 4 5 9 ) . Two f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o be i m p o r t a n t .  The f i r s t  i s the water  source f o r i c e growth w i t h i n the a c t i v e l a y e r , and t h e second concerns t h e r o l e which t h i s i c e plays i n the formation o f s k i n flows.  M e a s u r e m e n t s t a k e n a t a s k i n f l o w s i t e on P a r k e r R i v e r  ( F i g . 28) i l l u s t r a t e t r a t i o n downslope hollow.  the seasonal p a t t e r n o f s o i l water  of a poorly defined longitudinal  nivation  On J u n e 16 ( P l a t e 7a) snow m e l t was a c t i v e l y  and t h e w a t e r c o n t e n t i n t h e a c t i v e  t h e sample  dry weight).  occurring  l a y e r was o b s e r v e d t o be  higher than i n the u n d e r l y i n g frozen m a t e r i a l 33.3%.of  concen-  (44.5% v e r s u s  By J u n e 29 ( P l a t e 7b) t h e  s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e s i t e w e r e g e n e r a l l y much d r i e r .  However  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f m e l t w a t e r due t o t h e snow a c c u m u l a t e d i n t h e n i v a t i o n hollow r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n both water c o n t e n t s and d e p t h o f thaw. hollow, the active  Downslope o f t h e n i v a t i o n  l a y e r was o b s e r v e d t o have a w a t e r c o n t e n t o f  8 2 . 9 % , r o u g h t l y 2.5 t i m e s t h a t o f t h e m a t e r i a l  re-deposited  within  t h e s k i n f l o w s c a r , w h i c h was o b s e r v e d t o be n e a r i t s  liquid  l i m i t w i t h a water c o n t e n t o f 34.0%.  Three o t h e r s i t e s  l o c a t e d a t v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s from t h e a r e a o f n i v a l a c c u m u l a t i o n had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r w a t e r c o n t e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m 30.6 t o 5 2 . 3 % and a c t i v e  l a y e r s w h i c h w e r e 18 t o 31 cm d e e p e r , r e f l e c t i n g t h e  retarding influence of the meltwater.  transverse nivation hollow  l o c a l i z e d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f snow within a (poorly defined) longitudinal nivation hollow  sample o f saturated flow  sample o f dried materia  river  Sample #  scar  edge  Water c o n t e n t Frost table to s u r f a c e  Date  - %  Surface of frost table  Active layer depth cm  142  June  16  34 .0  143  June  16  44 .5  144  June  16  173  June 2 9  19 .7  38, 38,  37  174  June  29  89.2  27, 27,  27  175  June  29  52 .3  52 ( a v e r a g e )  176  June  29  30 .6  58, 53,  177  June  29  32 .7  4 9 , 4 5 , 50  Note: F i g u r e 28.  33 .3  site  i l l u s t r a t e d on P l a t e  52  7.  Observed water c o n t e n t s a d j a c e n t t o a s k i n f l o w s i t e  109 a)  June 1 6 t h ,  1975.  b)  c) J u l y  29th,  June 2 9 t h ,  19 75.  1975.  (note - l i g h t toned " p o o l s " are r e f l e c t i o n s from the s u r f a c e o f sediment d e p o s i t s )  Plate  7.  V a r i a t i o n s i n snow c o v e r a t a s k i n Parker River (73° 28' N, 1 1 6 ° 15'  flow s i t e W).  on  the  When the  t h i s  s i t e  accumulated  h o l l o w  was  was  snow  r e v i s i t e d  had m e l t e d  observed  t o  u n f e a s i b l e  t o  t h i s  a t  s i m i l a r  l o c a t i o n s  be  much  v i s i t  lower  o c c u r r i n g  than  i n  t h e  N i v a t i o n e f f e c t  on  q u a r t e r  t h e  " b u i l d u p of  of  August  i n d i c a t e snow  the  a s  of  and  i n  t h a t  appears  t o  p r i m a r y  be  a  b u t  the  m o i s t u r e  a l l  of  n i v a t i o n  i t  c a s u a l  and g e n e r a l l y  e x p e c t e d water i n  1.6)  was  o b s e r v a t i o n  c o n t e n t s  would  s i m i l a r  t o  l i t t l e  o r  g r e a t l y  and  t h e  of  r e s u l t i n g  1 . 5 , as  t h a t  t h e  d u r i n g  a v a i l a b l e  l o c a l i z e d  i n c r e a s e d  supply  f a l l  over by  a  Holocek  p e r i o d t h e  no  from  p r o v i d e  d i s c u s s e d  d u r i n g  o c c u r s  Thus  have  recharge  o c c u r  e f f e c t  t o  S e c t i o n  w h i c h  September".  t h e  below  7c)  U n f o r t u n a t e l y  s o i l  p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  storage  (Plate  t e r r a i n . be  ( 1 9 7 5 ) ( S e c t i o n  J u l y  slope  August,  t h a t  d e s c r i b e d  annual  s u r f a c e  i n  s p r i n g ,  would  the  d r i e r .  s i t e  d i s t r i b u t i o n  w h i c h ,  V a s a h l o  much  s u r r o u n d i n g  r a i n s t o r m s  and  i n  l a t e  and  i n d i c a t e s  h o l l o w s  the  of  be  i n  of  l a t t e r  p a r t  o b s e r v a t i o n s  a c c u m u l a t i o n s of  meltwater  of i n  the  s p r i n g . The are  i n s u f f i c i e n t  d a t i o n  p r o c e s s e s  d e p o s i t s not  o b s e r v a t i o n s  of  c o n s o l i d a t i o n  of  R i v e r  Mathews by  heavy  i n  the  s k i n  (1973)  and  the  s k i n  f e a t u r e s  i m p o r t a n t . a c t i v e o f  i n  (1976)  i n d i c a t e  a t  t h a t  a  s k i n  t h e  ( r e s u l t i n g r e l a t i o n  f r o z e n  s k i n  other  t o  flows  c o n s o l i t h i c k  flow  that  s i t e thaw  observed  h i g h  from  m e l t i n g  the  m a t e r i a l by  p r o j e c t  thaw The  i n d i c a t e  o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t  o f  f l o w s .  may  l a y e r  snow)  and  r o l e  However,  u n d e r l y i n g  s i t e ,  French  r a i n s t o r m s ,  r e l a t i v e  o c c u r r e d  the  f l o w  r e c o n n a i s s a n c e  i c e which  l o c a l l y  w i t h i n  the  t h i s  o f  n i v a t i o n  w i t h i n  i n  f o r m a t i o n  a c c u m u l a t i o n s  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s P a r k e r  determine  w i t h i s  c o n t e n t s  l o c a l i z e d  t o  f r e e z e - b a c k  a s s o c i a t e d  water  undertaken  t h e lower  a t  t h e  Mackay  and  may  p r o c e s s e s  be  may  i c e  generated be  e q u a l l y  Ill important,  and t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y  i s required.  E f f e c t s on Repose B a n k s S i g n i f i c a n t accumulations r i v e r banks.  As t h i s  o f snow f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r  snow d e p o s i t g e n e r a l l y p e r s i s t s  along  throughout  t h e p e r i o d o f maximum d i s c h a r g e ,  i toffers considerable protection  against direct f l u v i a l erosion.  H o w e v e r , i n some s m a l l e r  these  d e p o s i t s o f snow may c o m p l e t e l y  block  the channel  streams, causing  u p s t r e a m p o n d i n g o f w a t e r / a n d an i n c r e a s e i n p e a k d i s c h a r g e t h e dam i s e v e n t u a l l y o v e r - t o p p e d .  when  The e f f e c t s o f one s u c h e v e n t  were o b s e r v e d - a n d w h i l e n o t a p p e a r i n g  t o r e s u l t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t  lateral erosion, local  adjacent  scour  d i d occur  t o snow b l o c k s  w h i c h w e r e e r o d e d d u r i n g t h e peak f l o w a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y downstream  ( s e e Day a n d A n d e r s o n , 1976) .  deposited  3.3.2  I c e Wedges I c e wedges c a n  o f a bank o r s l o p e .  a f f e c t b o t h t h e m o r p h o l o g y and  I n low  i c e content  wedges w h i c h a r e e x p o s e d a l o n g  stability  environments, i c e  c u t b a n k s can m e l t out  forming  small, stable gullies.  However i n some c a s e s s u b s e q u e n t  and  give these  f l u v i a l e r o s i o n can  appearance of a r o t a t i o n a l If extensive  thermal  and  features.the  superficial  f a i l u r e as i l l u s t r a t e d  f l u v i a l e r o s i o n occur  i n Plate  f e a t u r e s may  I n somewhat h i g h e r  illustrated  can  i c e content materials,  localized  frequently associated with ice as  I n c a s e s where t h e r m o - e r o s i o n  r e s u l t e d i n t h e u n d e r c u t t i n g o f a b a n k , i c e wedges c a n form the plane  or  l e a d t o complex g u l l y development  on P l a t e 8b.  a  result.  r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e wedge e x p o s u r e and  8a.  i n l a n d along  p a t t e r n o f i c e wedges, w e l l d e v e l o p e d i r r e g u l a r g u l l i e s beaded d r a i n a g e  thermal  has frequently  o f weakness a l o n g w h i c h the o v e r h a n g i n g b l o c k  may  collapse. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d disturbance wedges may  due  to thermal  erosion or thermokarst along  r e s u l t i n r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e  w i t h i n high i c e content derived  i n S e c t i o n 3.2.3, i n i t i a l  material.  The  ice  formation  a d d i t i o n a l meltwater  f r o m t h e m e l t i n g o f wedge i c e a l s o a p p e a r s t o p l a y  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw s l i d e s o c c u r r i n g i n m a t e r i a l near the observed f o r these Finally,  lower  i n organic  r i c h t e r r a i n , erosion along  produces a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y 8c.  l i m i t of i c e  a flow  contents  features.  wedges p r o c e e d s more r a p i d l y t h a n i n t h e  Plate  surface  surrounding  ice  material,  and  i r r e g u l a r m o r p h o l o g y as i n d i c a t e d on  113  a) T y p i c a l g u l l i e s formed i n low i c e content g r a v e l s as a r e s u l t o f e r o s i o n along i c e wedges. Bernard R i v e r (Western Lowlands) 73° 26' N, 122° 35' W  b) G u l l y i n g and r e s u l t i n g bank collapse t y p i c a l of fine g r a i n e d m a t e r i a l o f moderate i c e content. Un-named R i v e r (Northern Cretaceous approximately 73° 1 8 ' N, 119° 25• W  c) T y p i c a l bank morphology r e s u l t i n g from the presence o f i c e wedges i n o r g a n i c rich material. Thomsen River (Northern Cretaceous  Complex)  74° 02' N, 119° 44' W  P l a t e 8.  The e f f e c t o f i c e wedges on bank morphology.  Complex)  3.3.3  Vegetation Vegetation  m a t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when f r o z e n , c a n f o r m a n  e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f l u v i a l a t t a c k , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Plate 9 .  S i m i l a r l y , the vegetation occurring a t the toe of  solifluction  (Plate 3a) or s k i n flows  slopes  the a b i l i t y o f t h e s e a c t i v e channel the if  zone.  (Plate  2b)increases  f i n e t e x t u r e d features t o prograde i n t o the Thick  vegetation  c o v e r may a l s o a s s i s t i n  s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f s m a l l s c a l e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w recession of the headwall  slides,  results i n the deposition of the  o v e r l y i n g o r g a n i c m a t t e r o n t o t h e thaw f a c e . Vegetation  c o v e r may a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  o f s k i n f l o w s as t h e headward r e g i o n o f these  f a i l u r e s was.,  f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d t o have a d e n s e r v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r o c c u r r i n g on s i m i l a r n o n - s k i n  flow s i t e s .  than  This organic  that  cover  ( p r i m a r i l y composed o f g r a s s e s , w i t h some s e d g e s , m o s s e s a n d f e r n s ) may p r o v i d e  a sufficiently  a r o l e i n the generation  impervious  upper boundary t h a t i t p l a y s  o f h i g h pore water  pressures.  333344 . Deflation  Bankforms produced by e o l i a n p r o c e s s e s  were o b s e r v e d t o  have a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , b u t l o c a l l y produced d i s t i n c t i v e m o r p h o l o g i e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d  i n Plate 1 0 .  Wind e r o s i o n i n s u c h  s i t e s was g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n o r a d j a c e n t containing coarse  silts  and sands.  observed t o occur  i n other poorly vegetated  b u t p r o d u c e d no d i s t i n c t i v e r e l a t i v e l y minor  importance.  bank  to f l u v i a l  deposits  D e f l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l was unlithified  materials  f e a t u r e s a n d i s t h o u g h t t o be o f  The v e g e t a t i o n cover on t h i s r i v e r b a n k was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y damaged during peak s p r i n g d i s charges d e s p i t e water levels reaching w i t h i n a few centimeters o f the terrace surface. D i s s e c t i o n Creek (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 17 ' N, 119  P l a t e 9.  32 ' W  An example of v e g e t a t i o n p r o t e c t i n g a r i v e r bank from l a t e r a l e r o s i o n .  The rounded edge of the bank, i r r e g u l a r "blow-out" f e a t u r e s and l e v e e - l i k e appearance are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e o l i a n features along the margin of f l u v i a l terraces. Thomsen R i v e r (Northern Cretaceous Complex) 73° 15 ' N,  P l a t e 10.  An example of d e f l a t i o n m o d i f y i n g of an angle of repose bank.  119°  37 ' W  the appearance  116  3.4  RECOGNITION OF REPRESENTATIVE MORPHOLOGIES  Recognition  o f t h e d e s c r i b e d bank o r s l o p e  generally provides surveys  little  i n mid o r l a t e  difficulty  summer.  morphologies  d u r i n g low l e v e l h e l i c o p t e r  However e a r l i e r i n t h e s e a s o n ,  w i n d b l o w n d e p o s i t s o f snow c a n f r e q u e n t l y o b s c u r e s m a l l f e a t u r e s , and thus f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s  of coastal or riverbank  morphology a r e best undertaken a f t e r t h i s  snow c o v e r  has m e l t e d .  I n some l o c a t i o n s s k i n f l o w s a n d r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw s l i d e s c a n be c o n f u s e d  scale  flow  as t h e headward p o r t i o n o f s k i n f l o w s i s  f r e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t t o some t h e r m o k a r s t a c t i v i t y due t o t h e l o s s o f the  i n s u l a t i n g vegetation cover.  of these  Diagnostic aids t o the separation  two f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e :  a) - t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f s k i n f l o w s on  solifluction  slopes; b)  the appearance o f the headwall  area which provides  an  i n d i c a t i o n o f the t h i c k n e s s o f t h e exposed high i c e content flows); c)  material  (which  i s generally shallower  i n skin  and  t h e form o f the slope a t t h e base o f t h e f e a t u r e . s k i n flow s i t e s t h i s area  frequently contains  large  mounds o f r e l a t i v e l y c o h e r e n t m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t i n g s u r f a c e sloughing,"  while  In  the sediments produced  from from  r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s t r u c t u r e l e s s and g e n e r a l l y take  t h e f o r m o f mud f l o w s o r c o l l u v i a l  fans. Repose b a n k s a n d t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i fblock undercutting.  niches  are r e l a t i v e l y  f a i l u r e has o c c u r r e d  as a r e s u l t o f  However, i n s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h lack-.these d i a g n o s t i c  117 block  falls,  periods  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may  of h i g h d i s c h a r g e ,  p r o v e more d i f f i c u l t .  thermo-erosional  n i c h e s may  w a t e r , however the h i g h r a t e s o f sediment p r o d u c t i o n w i t h these  f e a t u r e s was  may  be  L a t e r i n the s e a s o n , f a c i a l s l o u g h i n g  erosional niche  s i t e s may  r e s u l t i n these  g e n e r a l l y much s t e e p e r p r o f i l e , as w e l l as f l o w s , d e b r i s p i l e s and astute  reliable at  thermo-  However  the  r e p o s e f e a t u r e s can a l s o have a r e q u i r e ground c h e c k i n g  However when t h e o r g a n i c  a reliable  Recognition ( P l a t e s 11a  similar  to ensure c o r r e c t  d e p o s i t s are  associated  Islands.  experience.  (1:60,000 o r  time of w r i t i n g ,  requires a  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true  1:100,000) p h o t o g r a p h y w h i c h , a t  i s a l l t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r much o f t h e  However u n d e r f o u r power e n l a r g e m e n t m o s t o f  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e  forms are  L a r g e s c a l e f e a t u r e s s u c h as hollows  f e a t u r e s on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t and  s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f small scale  and  Retrogressive  by  the Arctic  recognizeable.  solifluction  slopes, nivation  d e v e l o p e d r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a r e g e n e r a l l y  or blanketed  on  the  most repose f e a t u r e s are e a s i l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d .  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , but  and  indicator.  of the described  t o n)  mud-  provide  w i t h i c e w e d g e s , t h e r e s u l t i n g bank f o r m i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c provides  an  the p r e s e n c e o f  remnants o f u n d e r c u t n i c h e s ,  t h u s may  classification.  increase  observer.  O r g a n i c b a n k s and a p p e a r a n c e , and  a  under  associated  features having  appearance s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a r e p o s e bank.  c l u e s f o r the  be  observed to produce a l o c a l i z e d  i n suspended sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n , w h i c h indicator.  During  Well  readily  s m a l l e r f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i c e wedges,  snow d e p o s i t s may  provide  some  thaw f l o w s l i d e s o c c u r r i n g a l o n g  difficulty. steep,  actively  118  Plate: Features Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  11a Scale: 1 cm = 510 m asymmetric v a l l e y , s o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e , s k i n flows, angle o f repose banks with s m a l l l o n g i t u d i n a l n i v a t i o n hollows (see P l a t e s 3a and 2b) c o l l u v i u m d e r i v e d from the p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d s i l t s and c l a y s o f the Kanguk and C h r i s t o p h e r formations Un-named t r i b u t a r y t o Able Creek 73° 35' N, 120° 2 0 W r e g i o n : Northern Cretaceous Complex 1  ON-  Plate: Features: Materials Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11.  X  "  lib Scale: 1cm = 470 m s o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e s , eroded s k i n flows a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n i v a t i o n hollows c o l l u v i u m , p a r t i a l l y d e r i v e d from l a c u s t r i n e and t i l l d e p o s i t s , o v e r l y i n g p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d s i l t s and c l a y s o f the C h r i s t o p h e r formation Thomsen R i v e r , opposite the mouth o f the Musk-ox River 73° 49' N, 119° 50' W r e g i o n : Northern Cretaceous Complex  The appearance o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r slope morphologies on a i r photographs.  119  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  Plate: Features Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  11c Scale: 1 cm = 860 m angle o f repose banks, shallow thermokarst lakes surface veneer o f fine textured f l u v i a l / e o l i a n m a t e r i a l o v e r l y i n g f l u v i a l sands and g r a v e l s Un-named t r i b u t a r y t o t h e B e r n a r d R i v e r 7 3 0 25 • N, 121° 1 0 ' W region: Western Lowlands  lid Scale: 1 cm = 866 m a n g l e o f r e p o s e b a n k s w i t h l o c a l i z e d snow d e p o s i t s , shallow thermokarst lakes, g u l l i e s associated with d r a i n a g e a l o n g i c e wedges surface veneer o f f i n e textured f l u v i a l / e o l i a n m a t e r i a l o v e r l y i n g f l u v i a l sands and g r a v e l s Un-named t r i b u t a r y t o t h e B e r n a r d R i v e r 7 3 0 1 8 • N, 120° 32• W region: Western Lowlands  The a p p e a r a n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g i e s on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s .  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  Plate: Features: Materials Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  lie Scale: 1 cm = 1240 m n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s , s o l i f l u c t i o n s l o p e i n the low e x p o s u r e e n v i r o n m e n t b e h i n d t h e s p i t (see P l a t e 6b) s u r f a c e v e n e e r o f m a r i n e and t i l l d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g B e a u f o r t s a n d s and g r a v e l s Bernard I s l a n d 730 3 5 N, 124° 20' W r e g i o n : Western Lowlands 1  llf Scale: 1 cm = 490 m c i r c u l a r n i v a t i o n h o l l o w ( s e e P l a t e 6a) s u r f a c e v e n e e r o f t i l l and l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g t h e p o o r l y l i t h i f i e d s i l t s and c l a y s o f the C h r i s t o p h e r formation s o u t h o f M e r c y Bay 7 3 ° 5 5 ' N, 1190 2 5 W r e g i o n : N o r t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s Complex 1  The a p p e a r a n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b a n k o r m o r p h o l o g i e s on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s .  slope  Plate: Features Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  llg S c a l e : 1 cm = 340 m r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e s along exposed c o a s t , s o l i f l u c t i o n slope below t r a n s v e r s e n i v a t i o n hollow on s h e l t e r e d c o a s t high i c e content g l a c i a l and marine sediments o v e r l y i n g B e a u f o r t sands and g r a v e l s Norway I s l a n d 73° 43 N, 124° 40 W r e g i o n : Western Lowlands 1  1  llh S c a l e : 1 cm = 625 m shallow r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e s f i n e t e x t u r e d s u r f a c e veneer of l a c u s t r i n e and marine d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g t i l l , which o v e r l i e s marine or f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s o f sand e a s t coast south of Johnson P o i n t 72° 42' N, 118° 55' W region: Eastern Morainal B e l t  The appearance of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r slope morphologies on a i r photographs.  122  H i S c a l e : 1 cm = 470 m l o c a l i z e d r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i c e wedges Materials: t i l l o v e r l y i n g marine d e p o s i t s (?) Location: a d j a c e n t to the Thomsen R i v e r 72© 5 1 i N, 119° 40' W Coordinates: Physiographic r e g i o n : E a s t e r n M o r a i n a l B e l t Plate: Features:  Hj S c a l e : 1 cm = 750 m p o i n t bar o p p o s i t e bank observed to have a 5 m deep thermo-erosional n i c h e i n 1975. Repose banks i n lower exposure l o c a t i o n s f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g B e a u f o r t sands and Materials: gravels "Murchison R i v e r " Location: 74° 05 N, 122° 43' W Coordinates Physiographic region: Beaufort P l a i n Plate: Features:  1  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  The appearance of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank or s l o p e morphologies on a i r photographs.  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates: Physiographic  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  Ilk Scale: 1 cm = 1360 m steep "smooth" s h o r e l i n e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h thermo-erosional niche development, breached lakes and "bay-mouth" bars f i n e t e x t u r e d f l u v i a l , l a c u s t r i n e and e o l i a n veneers o v e r l y i n g f l u v i a l or marine sands south c o a s t , immediately e a s t o f Sachs Harbour 71° 51' N, 124° 52' W r e g i o n : South Western Coast  J 11 S c a l e : 1 cm = 640 m steep "smooth" s h o r e l i n e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h thermo-erosional niche development, s p i t s , breached lakes (see P l a t e 4d) B e a u f o r t sands and g r a v e l s west c o a s t adjacent to Blue Fox Harbour 72° 07 ' N, 125° 48' W r e g i o n : Western Lowlands  The appearance of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank or morphologies on a i r photographs.  slope  Plate: Features: Materials : Location: Coordinates Physiographic  Plate: Features: Materials: Location: Coordinates Physiographic  P l a t e 11. (cont'd)  11m Scale: 1 cm = 1080 m repose banks w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e o l i a n f e a t u r e s ; l a c k o f v e g e t a t i o n , p o o r l y d e f i n e d "blow-out" forms f l u v i a l and e o l i a n s a n d s Thomsen R i v e r 7 3 ° 42 N, 119° 55' W region: N o r t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s Complex 1  lln Scale: 1 cm = 480 m i r r e g u l a r bank f o r m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i c e wedges i n o r g a n i c r i c h t e r r a i n (see P l a t e 8c) fine textured f l u v i a l deposits n e a r t h e m o u t h o f t h e Thomsen R i v e r 740 02' N, 119° 4 5 W region: N o r t h e r n C r e t a c e o u s Complex 1  The a p p e a r a n c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r m o r p h o l o g i e s on a i r p h o t o g r a p h s .  slope  125  e r o d i n g b l u f f s c a n s o m e t i m e s be c o n f u s e d  with n i v a t i o n hollows.  However t h e p r e s e n c e o f r e l i c t ? s c a r s , a n d a more i r r e g u l a r f o r m and s p a c i n g  serve  t o d i s c r i m i n a t e those  from thermokarst  activity.  features  Skin flows are a l s o generally e a s i l y recognized, confused  w i t h r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s i n  plan  resulting  b u t c a n be  circumstances  where s i g n i f i c a n t t h e r m o k a r s t i s o c c u r r i n g , as p r e v i o u s l y discussed. Without the presence of block s i t e s undergoing thermo-erosional problem.  provide  the recognition of  n i c h i n g poses a  I f the photography i s taken  s e d i m e n t p l u m e s may ever,  falls,  during high  significant flow,  localized  an i n d i c a t i o n o f u n d e r c u t t i n g .  How-  i n g e n e r a l , i n f e r e n c e m u s t be made on t h e b a s i s o f s l o p e ,  e x p o s u r e and o t h e r  i n d i c a t o r s o f r a p i d r e c e s s i o n such as the  presence o f breached lakes o r w e l l developed p o i n t bars historic  and  spits,  p a t t e r n s o f meander a n d v e g e t a t i o n p r o g r e s s i o n , e t c .  Eolian  f e a t u r e s a r e g e n e r a l l y o f i n s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o be  o b s e r v e d on s m a l l s c a l e p h o t o g r a p h y .  However t h e p r e s e n c e o f  e o l i a n t r a n s p o r t e d m a t e r i a l c a n f r e q u e n t l y be i n f e r r e d on t h e b a s i s o f v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n and t e r r a i n l o c a t i o n . organic  Similarly  f e a t u r e s a r e t o o s m a l l t o be e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d ,  s o m e t i m e s be i n f e r r e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f an i r r e g u l a r i n regions  of low-lying f l u v i a l  deposits.  but can  shoreline  126 SECTION FOUR  4.1  S T A B I L I T Y OF  T Y P I C A L RATES OF  4.1.1  REPRESENTATIVE MORPHOLOGIES  RECESSION  Me t h o d o l o g y The  comparative s t a b i l i t y of the v a r i o u s  f e a t u r e s was  i n v e s t i g a t e d through a v a r i e t y of  Measurements o f net  recession  sites.  However t h e  o r d o w n s l o p e movement o v e r  short period  recession  over a longer  time  estimates  late and  May  precluded  surveys.  limitations.  snow s t i l l  the p o s s i b i l i t y  ward r e c e s s i o n . recession  can  This  faces  or banks of most detailed  introduces  a serious  complication  be  episodic  relatively  may  by  the  features topographic  as  A good e x a m p l e  periodic collapse niching.  nature of f a i l u r e  of  of Thus  the  season's  have b e e n r e c o r d e d , d e s p i t e observation  head-  even though  r e f l e c t more t h a n one  eroded over the  problem p e r t a i n s t o the  continuous.  a  the b a s i s of  i n nature,  from thermo-erosional  values  of  s e a s o n commenced i n  on  r e c e s s i o n may  t h a t s e d i m e n t was  s u f f e r from  estimated  u n d e r c u t banks r e s u l t i n g  e r o s i o n , o r no  field  of undertaking  type of process i s provided  observed recession  comparative  t o be  f r e q u e n t l y be  s e d i m e n t r e m o v a l may this  had  with  inter-seasonal  recession  When t h e  c o v e r e d the  Thus e r o s i o n  an  frame.  the measurements o f n e t  number o f o t h e r  allow  of average r a t e s  In a d d i t i o n to the problems r e l a t e d t o variability,  d i d not  Thus,in areas  a i r p h o t o g r a p h c o v e r a g e , a number o f  s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e  the  representative  of record  assessment of i n t e r - s e a s o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y . multi-year  slope  techniques.  summer p e r i o d w e r e u n d e r t a k e n f o r a number o f field  bank o r  period.  the  fact  A related  as the head w a l l s  of  127  features  s u c h as  retrogressive  h o l l o w s were f r e q u e n t l y c o l l a p s e , and rather  o b s e r v e d t o s t r e t c h and  nivation  crack  p r i o r to  a p p a r e n t advance  recession.  s t a b i l i t y of reference  difficulties.  The  literature.  that w i l d l i f e  ment o f r e f e r e n c e "rubbing posts"  m a r k e r s a l s o p o s e d some  e f f e c t s o f thaw s e t t l i n g - a n d f r o s t h e a v e  w e l l documented i n the indicated  s l i d e s and  t h i s o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s u l t e d i n an  than a The  thaw f l o w  However f i e l d  a c t i v i t y may  points.  experience  a l s o r e s u l t i n the  displace-  Wooden s t a k e s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y  by musk-oxen and  S i m i l a r l y , b o t h musk-oxen and  used  t h u s e i t h e r damaged o r  caribou  are  removed.  appeared to l i k e  f l a g g i n g and  c o n s e q u e n t l y u p r o o t e d a l a r g e number o f  manufactured  " p i n f l a g s " w h i c h were u s e d as  as  eating  commercially  references  a t most  sites. I n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e many o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , two m e n t a l a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o m o n i t o r r e c e s s i o n a photo-theodolite However t h e  same e l e v a t i o n as t h e located  on  through the  to take ground based, s t e r e o  necessity  s i t e of i n t e r e s t r e q u i r e d s i d e of the v a l l e y .  include  r e s o l u t i o n p r o v e d t o be  a telephoto  As  that the  the  camera  be  l e n s , the r e s u l t i n g measurements.  o p t i c s , t h i s technique appears to  r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y obtained  once the  be  as  periodic  initial  established.  A t t e m p t s t o measure n e t surface  the  available  p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l at s i t e s undergoing r a p i d recession  photo base l i n e i s  of  photography.  i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the d e s i r e d  However,with a p p r o p r i a t e  measurements are  use  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a p h o t o b a s e l i n e on  the opposite  equipment d i d not  experi-  m a t e r i a l due  monitoring procedure.  d o w n s l o p e movement o f  to s o l i f l u c t i o n  required  T h r e e i n c h n a i l s and  near  a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  small pieces  of  128 f l a g g i n g w e r e u s e d t o mark s u r v e y e d l i n e s a c r o s s varying aspect,  vegetation  c o v e r and  d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l reference  stakes  slopes  water supply. by  with  However,  " i t c h y " musk-oxen,  the  a p p a r e n t u p s l o p e r o t a t i o n o f some o f t h e c l o d s c o m p r i s i n g surface vegetation  and  the g e n e r a l l y slow r a t e s of  m o v e m e n t . r e s u l t e d i n t h e s e measurements b e i n g P r o c e s s e s o f e o l i a n e r o s i o n and  downslope  of l i m i t e d  of s t e e l  stakes  i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f s e d i m e n t  occurred  l o c a l l y on As  a seasonal  longer  t h a n one  field  o f a i r p h o t o s t u d i e s was-  s m a l l s c a l e o f most of the  success.  washers,  transport  basis.  a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s were used t o p r o v i d e  bility  and  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, comparative studies of  over periods  the  d e p o s i t i o n were a l s o m o n i t o r e d  a t a number o f s i t e s , t h r o u g h t h e u s e and  the  estimates  season.  of net  repetitive erosion  However t h e a p p l i c a -  s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d due  a v a i l a b l e p h o t o g r a p h y and  r e p e t i t i v e photo coverage i s o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the  the  to  the  fact that  south-western  p o r t i o n of Banks I s l a n d . P h o t o g r a p h i c s c a l e and  t h e number o f y e a r s b e t w e e n  s i v e p h o t o g r a p h y d e t e r m i n e t h e minimum amount o f r e c e s s i o n f o r r e s o l u t i o n by c o m p a r a t i v e a i r p h o t o s t u d i e s . of l e v e l  terrain, well defined  reference  points  On  the  ( s u c h as  succesrequired  assumption the  sharp  break i n slope g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the headwall of a r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e ) and photography, net be a  resolved  recessions  t h r o u g h the use  good l i g h t i n g a t the  of approximately of r e l a t i v e l y  " L e i t z . 8x m e a s u r i n g m a g n i f i e r " .  *1  0.1  simple  mm  time  of  (±0.05 mm)  equipment such  can as  Poor q u a l i t y photography,  * 1 M e d l e y and L u t e r n a u e r (1976) r e p o r t m e a s u r e m e n t s o f h o r i z o n t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f ,± 5 m i c r o n s c a n be r e s o l v e d , u s i n g - t h e J e n a Interpretoskop. However i t i s "the ..author 's e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t n e s s of r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s i s f r e q u e n t l y the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , r a t h e r t h a n the p r e c i s i o n o f the measuring i n s t r u m e n t .  heavy v e g e t a t i o n  cover or i n d i s t i n c t reference  f r e q u e n t l y rounded upper s u r f a c e increase  t h i s value  conditions required net  (such as  o f a n i v a t i o n hollow) can e a s i l y  t o 0.2 o r 0.3 mm.  On t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f i d e a l  ( i . e . 0.1 mm r e s o l u t i o n ) , T a b l e X i n d i c a t e s t h e minimum  average annual r e c e s s i o n  retreat a t varying  successive  points  necessary f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of  s c a l e s o f p h o t o g r a p h y and p e r i o d s  between  coverage.  Most o f t h e a e r i a l photography o f Banks I s l a n d has a s c a l e o f 1:100,000. it  c a n be s e e n t h a t n e t e r o s i o n  therefore the  F o r t h e optimum c o n d i t i o n s  required  study area,  o f 10 m e t e r s i s  f o r between photograph d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  t h e maximum t i m e p e r i o d b e t w e e n s e q u e n t i a l  g r a p h y i s on t h e o r d e r recession  on t h e o r d e r  shown o n T a b l e X  o f 10 t o 15 y e a r s .  Therefore w i t h i n the context  rate of  of this  r e p e t i t i v e a i r photography a n a l y s i s i s only u s e f u l f o r estimates  of net recession  photo-  Thus t h e 10 m e t e r s n e t  c o r r e s p o n d s t o an a v e r a g e a n n u a l r e c e s s i o n  0.7 t o 1.0 m / y e a r .  Within  study  providing  a t s i t e s which are undergoing  rapid  rates of retreat.  4.1.2  Results  Solifluction  Slopes  R a t e s o f s o l i f l u c t i o n movement w e r e m o n i t o r e d on f o u r w i t h t h e maximum o b s e r v e d d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f t h e s u r f a c e being  l e s s t h a n 1.5 t o 2 cm.  equivalent  material  H o w e v e r , due t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned problems, the e r r o r s i n h e r e n t be  t o t h e o b s e r v e d movements.  i n t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s may Nevertheless  these  r e s u l t s do n o t a p p e a r u n r e a s o n a b l e a s s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s Banks I s l a n d by F r e n c h  slopes,  (1974) h a v e a l s o i n d i c a t e d r a t e s o f  on  Air  S m a l l e s t a v e r a g e a n n u a l r e c e s s i o n ( i n m) observable over a period of  Photograph Scale  Representative Fraction  chains per inch inert  meters per 0.1 mm  5,..years 10 years 1 year 2-years 20,.years' 2-* y e a r s j - ' y e a r s ~0 y e a r s l year.. r tJ  30 y e a r s  1:7,920  10  0.79  0 .79  0 .40 •  0 .016  0 .08  0 .04  0 .03  1:15,840  20  1.58  1.58  0 .79  0 .32  0 .16  0 .08  0 .05  1:31,680  40  3 .17  3 .317  1.59  0 .63  0 .32  0 .16  0 .11  1:47,520  60  4 .75  4 .75  2 .38  0 .95  0 .48  0 .24  0 .16  1:63 ,360  80  6 .34  6 .34  3 .17  1.2-7  0.63  0 .32  0 .21  1:79,200  100  7 .92  7 .92  3 .96  1.58  0 .79  0 .40  0 .26  1:95,040  120  9 .50  9 .50  4 .75  1.90  0 .95  0 .48  0 .32  1:110,880  140  5 .53  2 .21  1.11  0.55  0 .37  TABLE X:  11.06  11.06  Required average annual r e c e s s i o n necessary f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f n e t r e t r e a t a t v a r y i n g s c a l e s o f photography and p e r i o d between s u c c e s s i v e a i r photo coverage. H  o  131 d o w n s l o p e movement i n t h e r a n g e o f 1.5  t o 2 c m / y e a r , and  Egginton  (1976) has  o b s e r v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r movements o f 6 t o 15  o v e r a one  year p e r i o d .  Thus,on the b a s i s of t h i s d a t a ,  o c c u r r i n g rates of s o l i f l u c t i o n cm  per  a p p e a r t o be  deposited  a t the base o f the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t no over the  the  P l a t e 2c.  successively older deposits of the  the d e b r i s  10  previously  to s o l i f l u c t i o n  A s e r i e s of s i m i l a r  and occurred  l i n e s was,  of m a t e r i a l  placed  occurring  r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s shown  D o w n s l o p e movement was  o n l y observed i n the  d e p o s i t , w i t h d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f up  a n a r r o w bank i n t h e c e n t r e  of the  l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y downslope of the  Skin  as 1 t o  s k i n f l o w shown on P l a t e 7  f u r t h e r movement due  summer p e r i o d .  d o w n s l o p e o f one  recent  commonly  year.  A number o f l i n e s w e r e s u r v e y e d a c r o s s  across  as h i g h  cm  t o 3 cm  redeposited area  most  being  limited  material,  of meltwater  on  to  and  concentration.  Flows Observations  by M a c k a y and  Mathews (1973) and  by  French  (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t s k i n f l o w f a i l u r e s o c c u r r a p i d l y , w i t h c h a o t i c appearance of the  terminal lobes  d i s p l a c e d m a t e r i a l r e a c h e d an a p p r e c i a b l e deposited. l e n g t h and  Skin  suggesting  the  v e l o c i t y before  f l o w t r a c k s were o b s e r v e d t o r e a c h  thus t h i s t y p e o f f a i l u r e can  that  be  700  the  being  m in  associated with  the  movement o f a s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t y o f m a t e r i a l . The  s u b s e q u e n t r a t e o f h e a d w a l l r e c e s s i o n , due  b i n a t i o n of thermokarst, thermal measured a t the e x c e e d 3.3  skin flow s i t e  meters over the  e r o s i o n and  solifluction  shown on P l a t e 7 and  summer p e r i o d .  t o a com-  This  was  was  found  observation  i n d i c a t e s t h a t headward r e c e s s i o n subsequent t o the  initial  to  132  f a i l u r e may  i n f a c t f o r m an a p p r e c i a b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l  l e n g t h o f r e l i c t .skin f l o w  Repose  scars.  Features  Rates of r e c e s s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h repose features  were  m o n i t o r e d on f o u r r i v e r b a n k s a n d h e a d w a r d r e c e s s i o n was n o t o b s e r v e d a t any o f t h e l o c a t i o n s .  However t h e f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d  remnants o f s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d  i n P l a t e 5 c , and  p a t t e r n s o f meander p r o g r e s s i o n , a s shown on P l a t e H j , i n d i c a t e that f l u v i a l processes and  are capable  of causing  significant  a r e more t h a n a " c a t h a r t i c " , a s s u g g e s t e d b y Cook  Notwithstanding,  as t h e p e r i o d o f peak d i s c h a r g e s  erosion  (1967) .  i s limited to a  few weeks i n t h e e a r l y summer ( F i g . 12) and a s t h e o b s e r v e d discharges  t o date are r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l compared w i t h t h o s e  at  many more s o u t h e r l y l o c a t i o n s ( S e c t i o n 1 . 6 ) , t h e r a t e s o f e r o s i o n w h i c h c a n be e x p e c t e d i n l o w i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l a r e a t m o s t s i m i l a r , and a r e more l i k e l y  s m a l l e r , than those  expected i n a s i m i l a r topographic  setting  t h a t w o u l d be  i n southern  Canada.  The e f f e c t o f l o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t s o f snow i n p r o t e c t i n g r i v e r f r o m e r o s i o n , and t h e c o a r s e terraces.which  banks  texture of the m a t e r i a l underlying the  c o n f i n e many o f t h e l a r g e r r i v e r s  s i m i l a r l y tend t o  r e d u c e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r l a t e r a l movement. Rates o f e r o s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i x angle  o f repose banks  l o c a t e d i n v a r i o u s c o a s t a l l o c a t i o n s were a l s o m o n i t o r e d , w i t h h e a d w a r d r e c e s s i o n b e i n g o b s e r v e d o v e r t h e summer p e r i o d . ever,  as f r e e z e u p  field  s t u d i e s were t e r m i n a t e d ,  Observations riverine  o f t h e c o a s t a l a r e a had n o t o c c u r r e d these  How-  when t h e  r e s u l t s are inconclusive.  o f remnant v e g e t a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d  on  l o c a t i o n s , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a w e l l d e f i n e d b r e a k i n  no  133 slope  a t the  erosion  base of most r e p o s e f e a t u r e , i n d i c a t e t h a t  i n low  i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l i s an  active process.  presence of w e l l developed s p i t s , b a r r i e r bars, lakes  i n d i c a t e t h a t the  south-western coasts  l o w - l y i n g a r e a s on  are  appreciable  region  and  The  breached  the western  and  u n d e r g o i n g more r a p i d r a t e s o f e r o s i o n  comparison w i t h most o t h e r the  coastal  a r e a s o f Banks I s l a n d .  Considering  a r e a o f o p e n w a t e r w h i c h commonly o c c u r s i n  ( S e c t i o n 1.6),  ( S e c t i o n 1.5),  and  in  this  the observed frequency of onshore winds  t h i s r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d rate of recession  is  not  surprising. A good e x a m p l e o f t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s of using h i s t o r i c  photography t o q u a n t i f y the  i n f e r r e d r a t e s o f e r o s i o n on  s o u t h e r n and  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  western coasts  p h o t o g r a p h i c coverage of the  Canadian A r c t i c Expedition's  This  s i t e i s l o c a t e d on  m a t e l y 8 km t h a t the  at this site,  one  w e r e s i t u a t e d on composed o f l o w  i n 1914  and  1950  forming the  h o w e v e r c o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n has s e a w a r d w a l l and houses.  An  approxi-  erected  two  Field  fluvial  sod  search  shown on  observations buildings  terrace  P l a t e 12a. still  be  (at  of the  discriminated,  p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s o f the e x p e d i t i o n  s i d e w a l l s o f one  official  an  Remnants o f  r e s u l t e d i n the e r o s i o n of of the  huts  gravels.  houses can  major p o r t i o n s  extensive  island,  a i r photographs of t h i s area  two  to  "Mary S a c h s " .  present study i n d i c a t e that these  i c e c o n t e n t s a n d s and  1913  (1921b) i n d i c a t e d  a n o t h e r i n 1915.  s c a l e o f 1:44,000) a r e  turf walls  Stefansson  top of a 2 to 3 meter h i g h  P o r t i o n s of the  the  of the  party of t h i s expedition  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  original  south coast  e a s t o f Cape K e l l e t .  northern  b a s e camp a t  the  sequential  a r e a i n the v i c i n i t y o f the  1918  the  the  aerial  r e p o r t s and  (including Desbarats,  the of  the  the 1916,  134  1950 scale: 1cm = 335 m (1.3 times e n l a r g e ment) Remnants o f r e a r and s i d e w a l l s extend approximately 3.5 t o 4.5 meters from edge of bank.  P l a t e 12.  S e q u e n t i a l a i r photographs o f the 1913-1918 Canadian A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n ' s base camp l o c a t e d 8 km e a s t o f Cape K e l l e t .  ^^^^^  135 1917,  1918;  Anderson, 1917;  W i l k i n s , 1917;  and S t e f a n s s o n ,  ]  1918a, 1918b, 1921a, 1 9 2 1 b ) , f a i l e d t o l o c a t e a good d e s c r i p t i o n or photograph o f t h i s absolute  s i t e a t t h e time o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h u s  r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n s i n c e 1915 c a n n o t be c a l c u l a t e d .  S u b s e q u e n t p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n i n 1961 a r e shown o n P l a t e 1 2 b . The  scale of this  ficiently  photography  (originally  1:103,000) i s s u f -  s m a l l and t h e r a t e s o f r e t r e a t a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y  slow  t h a t c o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n o v e r t h e p e r i o d o f 1950 t o 1961 i s undetectable  by c o m p a r a t i v e a i r p h o t o g r a p h a n a l y s i s .  When t h e "Mary S a c h s " s i t e was v i s i t e d  i n 1975, c o n t i n u i n g  c o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n had r e s u l t e d i n t h e complete e r o s i o n o f t h e side w a l l s o f t h e forward wall s t i l l  being  hut, with only a p o r t i o n o f the rear  i n t a c t , as i l l u s t r a t e d on P l a t e 1 2 c .  Detailed  m e a s u r e m e n t s f r o m t h e 1:44,00 0 p h o t o g r a p h y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s i d e w a l l s o f t h e h u t were 3.5 t o 4.5 m l o n g i n 1 9 5 0 .  Thus t h e  a p p a r e n t c o a s t a l r e t r e a t i n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1975 i s approximately  3 t o 4 m , which corresponds  r a t e o f r e c e s s i o n on t h e o r d e r Field  observation  of m a t e r i a l occurred  t o an a v e r a g e  o f 0.10 t o 0.15 m.  i n 1975 i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i t t l e  at this  a number o f e p i s o d i c e v e n t s  As  o r no e r o s i o n  s i t e o v e r t h e summer p e r i o d a n d ,  therefore, the calculated r e t r e a t l i k e l y represents  annually  annual  rather than being  the effect of  the r e s u l t of  consistent processes of erosion. previously discussed,  t h e s o u t h - w e s t e r n p o r t i o n s o f Banks  I s l a n d h a s one o f t h e l o n g e s t o p e n w a t e r s e a s o n s a n d l a r g e s t f e t c h p o t e n t i a l o f any a r e a  o f Banks I s l a n d  P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , 1978).  Thus t h e o b s e r v e d r e c e s s i o n a t "Mary  S a c h s " may be a r e a s o n a b l y  (Environmental  representative estimate  o f t h e maximum  a v e r a g e a n n u a l r a t e o f e r o s i o n w h i c h c o u l d be e x p e c t e d a t a n y  136 c o a s t a l s i t e composed o f c o a r s e repose banks o f a s i m i l a r Despite  t e x t u r e d , low i c e content,  height.  the l i m i t a t i o n s of the data  f r o m t h e "Mary S a c h s "  s i t e i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e i n f e r r e d r a t e s o f r e t r e a t w i t h those c a l c u l a t e d f o r s i t e s w i t h l o c a t e d i n more s o u t h e r l y l o c a t i o n s .  s i m i l a r morphologies, but Harper  conducted studies of e r o s i o n rates along near Barrow, A l a s k a . meter high c l i f f s clays,  silts  The c o a s t  ( 1 9 7 8 a , 1978b) h a s  t h e C h u k c h i Sea  i n t h i s area  i s c o m p r i s e d o f 10  composed o f l o w i c e c o n t e n t ,  and s a n d s .  coast  unconsolidated  The p r i m a r y p r o c e s s e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  c o a s t a l r e t r e a t a r e t h o u g h t t o be s u r f a c e ~ w a s h ~ a n d of  the c l i f f by  debris,  avalanching  due t o o v e r s t e e p e n i n g  littoral  processes.  The r e s u l t s o f c o m p a r a t i v e a i r p h o t o g r a p h  analyses  i n d i c a t e t h a t o v e r a 75 km s e c t i o n o f c o a s t , t h e a v e r a g e  annual  r e c e s s i o n amounts t o 0.31 m / y e a r , b a s e d on a 27 y e a r p e r i o d o f record.  H a r p e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e open w a t e r s e a s o n a l o n g t h e  C h u k c h i S e a i s u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n t h r e e months i n d u r a t i o n , and t h e p e r i o d o f open w a t e r i s t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l y  similar to that  o c c u r r i n g a t "Mary S a c h s " . The 0.31 m/year a v e r a g e r e t r e a t on t h e C h u k c h i S e a c o a s t i s on t h e same o r d e r  o f m a g n i t u d e , t h o u g h somewhat h i g h e r  0.10 t o 0.15 m/year c a l c u l a t e d a t "Mary S a c h s " .  than the  The a v a i l a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n does n o t a l l o w a d e t a i l e d r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f these  two  f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e "Mary S a c h s " d a t a i s b a s e d o n m e a s u r e m e n t s a t ; o n l y one l o c a t i o n .  However  w i t h Dr. Harper i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h i n h i s study a r e much f i n e r i n , t e x t u r e ( 5 0 % f i n e s v e r s u s "Mary S a c h s " ) ,  area  discussions the m a t e r i a l s  t h e sandy g r a v e l s a t  t h e w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r  (maximum o f up t o 6°C v e r s u s  1 t o 2°C) and t h e r e  is a  greater  l i k e l i h o o d of f a l l does not  storms w i t h  f e t c h s o f o v e r 200  km.  Thus i t  seem u n r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d ,  ice content of erosion  cliffs  on  t h e C h u k c h i Sea  than those a t the  coast  low  t o have h i g h e r  rates  "Mary S a c h s " s i t e on Banks: I s l a n d : .  Rates of r e c e s s i o n o c c u r r i n g i n s i m i l a r morphologic s e t t i n g s i n s o u t h e r n Canada a l s o a p p e a r t o be p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h e r observed at 1979)  "Mary S a c h s " .  For example, P r e s t  determined t h a t the  rate of c o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n o c c u r r i n g  of unconsolidated  s a n d and  f r o m 0 m/year i n s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s t o 2.75 headlands;  (composed gravel)  m/year on  w i t h an a v e r a g e a n n u a l r e c e s s i o n o f 0.67  a 23 y e a r p e r i o d .  i c e content  i n s o u t h e r n Canada.  c l u s i o n m u s t be  tentative until  a v a i l a b l e , the  m/year o v e r the  comparatively  considered  lower r a t e s of r e t r e a t along  While t h i s  more d a t a  o f o p e n w a t e r and  area, the  con-  becomes  the coasts of  I s l a n d are not unexpected c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i v e l y  Banks  shorter  s m a l l e r f e t c h e s o c c u r r i n g i n the  study  s t a b i l i z i n g a f f e c t o f pore i c e o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n sand  gravel deposits  from the  exposed  than the observed r a t e s of c o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n o c c u r r i n g i n  similar textured materials  and  of  materials i n a  r e l a t i v e l y e x p o s e d l o c a t i o n on B a n k s I s l a n d a p p e a r  periods  over  ranged  Thus,on the b a s i s o f the a v a i l a b l e d a t a ,  r a t e s o f r e t r e a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low  smaller  those  ( 1 9 7 3 , i n _ Owens,  p o r t i o n s o f the e a s t c o a s t o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 2 to 3 m high deposits  than  and  the p r o t e c t i o n from e r o s i o n r e s u l t i n g  localized deposits  o f snow w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y b l a n k e t  the  c o a s t w e l l i n t o mid-summer.  Nivation  Hollows  Headward r e c e s s i o n was  monitored at four s i t e s with w e l l  v e l o p e d • l o n g i t u d i n a l n i v a t i o n .hollows..  Despite  the  de-  l a r g e volumes  of  138 s e d i m e n t w h i c h were p r o d u c e d was  observed  August. may  a t any  from these  Thus s l o p e r e a d j u s t m e n t  to the i n f e r r e d  n o t o c c u r on an a n n u a l b a s i s .  of' c e n t i m e t e r s . " However- t h i s .The  mid-  oversteepening  A v i s u a l e s t i m a t e o f t h e amount  to result i n a stable p r o f i l e  o f t h e l a r g e h o l l o w s i l l u s t r a t e d on P l a t e 6b was  sediment y i e l d .  retreat  o f t h e l o c a t i o n s when t h e s t u d y e n d e d i n  of'headward r e c e s s i o n necessary one  f e a t u r e s , no n e t  likely  i n the  r e f l e c t s more t h a n one  at  order summer's  o t h e r t h r e e s i t e s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y more  s t a b l e >and w o u l d ' n o t be e x p e c t e d . t o  R e t r o g r e s s i v e Thaw F l o w  show a n e t r e c e s s i o n e v e r y  year.  Slides  E r o s i o n r a t e s a t s i x r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s w e r e monitored,  as s u m m a r i z e d on T a b l e X I , and  showed a v a r i e t y  r e c e s s i o n r a t e s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i r l o c a t i o n and S i t e s on  of  i c e content.  t h e w e s t and n o r t h c o a s t s a p p e a r e d r e l a t i v e l y  inactive,  p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r lower i c e c o n t e n t s , the e f f e c t  of  w e s t e r l y winds b r i n g i n g c o l d a i r from over the sea i c e , o r s m a l l e r r a d i a n t e n e r g y r e c e i p t s due cover a d j a c e n t to the sea. and  on  t h e e a s t c o a s t had  to increased fog or cloud  S i t e s i n the c e n t r e o f the  island  h i g h e r e r o s i o n r a t e s w i t h headward  r e t r e a t o f g r e a t e r t h a n 4.0  m e t e r s b e i n g r e c o r d e d o v e r t h e summer.  T h e s e h i g h e r r a t e s o f e r o s i o n a p p e a r t o be  a r e s u l t of both  the  g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r i c e c o n t e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow slides occurring within Northern Cretaceous  t h e E a s t e r n M o r a i n a l B e l t and  C o m p l e x , and w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e  o f s e n s i b l e h e a t as an e n e r g y Observations and E g g i n t o n r e t r e a t may  on  (19 73)  of advection  source.  t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f B a n k s I s l a n d by suggest  the  t h a t t h e maximum r a t e o f  be as h i g h as 6 t o 8 m / y e a r , w h i c h  French  headwall  i s comparable w i t h  LOCATION  COORDINATES  PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGION  D i s s e c t i o n Creek near t h e Mouth ( s e e P l a t e 15.)  73° 17 119° 31  N W  Northern Complex  Cretaceous  Dissection headwaters  Creek  73° 36 118° 15  N W  Devonian  Plateau  "Ivitaruk River" ( s e e P l a t e 2d.)  73° 23 120 18  N W  Northern Complex  Cretaceous  north coast, east of B a l l a s t Brook R i v e r  74 122°  27 17  N W  NortheWestern Coast  Meek P o i n t (see P l a t e 2c.)  72° 54 125 05  N W  Norway I s l a n d (see P l a t e l l g . )  73° 43 124° 40  N  note:  TABLE X I :  OBSERVED ICE CONTENT  OBSERVED RECESSION MAXIMUM AVERAGE (m) (m)  98  headwall 1975-1977  > 2.3 2 .4  0.8 1.6  73  headwall  0 .5  0.3  42  headwall sides  4.0 1.8  3.1 1.0  massive ice  headwall sides  1.1 0.0  0.7 0.0  Western Lowlands  37  headwall  3.7  2 .6  Western Lowlands  47  headwall  0.2  stable  - " i c e c o n t e n t " i s e x p r e s s e d as a percentage o f t h e sample d r y w e i g h t -"maximum r e c e s s i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e . l a r g e s t o b s e r v e d r e t r e a t a d j a c e n t t o one r e f e r e n c e point -"average r e c e s s i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e average, o b s e r v e d r e t r e a t a t s i t e s w h i c h were a c t i v e l y e r o d i n g - 1977 d a t a was s u p p l i e d b y D r . T. D a y . The d a t a r e f l e c t t h e n e t r e c e s s i o n o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s . Observed r e t r e a t a t r e t r o g r e s s i v e  thaw f l o w  slide  sites  140 t h e 3.5  t o 7 m/year o b s e r v e d i n t h e M a c k e n z i e  K e r f o o t and M a c k a y in  Delta area  by  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , t h e 7 t o 10 m/year r e p o r t e d t o o c c u r  t h e I s a c h s e n A r e a b y Lamothe and S t . Onge (1961) and  the  10 m/year o b s e r v e d n e a r t h e Babbage R i v e r i n t h e n o r t h e r n Y u k o n by M c D o n a l d and L e w i s and  (19 7 3 ) .  Thus t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f i e l d  l i t e r a t u r e evidence i n d i c a t e s  that recession rates f o r r e t r o -  g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s c a n r e a c h 10 m e t e r s v a r i a t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s and Comparative  a i r photograph  data  local  per season, w i t h  climate.  studies indicate  the  rapidity  w i t h w h i c h r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s c a n form and  stabilize,  as w e l l a s i l l u s t r a t i n g  the u s e f u l n e s s of even s h o r t time base  s m a l l s c a l e photography  i n s i t u a t i o n s of very r a p i d  A good e x a m p l e o c c u r s on t h e s o u t h - w e s t r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e photography,  c o a s t where a  i s e v i d e n t on t h e 1958  p o r t i o n s of which  y e a r s l a t e r t h e 1961  recession. large (1:60,000)  a r e shown i n P l a t e 1 3 a .  photography,  a t an o r i g i n a l s c a l e  Three of  1:103,000 (shown i n P l a t e 1 3 b ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e h e a d w a l l r e t r e a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 33 m e t e r s a c t i v e f a c e had graphy  and  t h a t the w i d t h of  d e c r e a s e d f r o m 90 m e t e r s  taken i n the f o l l o w i n g year  t o 30 m e t e r s .  r e t r e a t e d a f u r t h e r 15 m e t e r s ,  the Photo-  (1962, a l s o a t a s c a l e  1:103,000) shows t h a t t h e r e t r o g r e s s i v e t h a w f l o w s l i d e s u b s t a n t i a l l y decreased  and a p p a r e n t l y s t a b i l i z e d , as shown on P l a t e 1 3 c .  The  of  had i n width average  r e c e s s i o n o v e r the 4 y e a r p e r i o d c o v e r e d by t h e photography t h u s 12 m / y e a r .  had  is  I f t h i s r a t e i s assumed t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  t h a t w h i c h o c c u r r e d o v e r t h e 400 m l o n g p a t h f r o m t h e c o a s t t o the s t a b i l i z e d h e a d w a l l ; then the t o t a l  time r e q u i r e d f o r  s t a b i l i z a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 y e a r s ; w h i c h proposed  by F r e n c h and E g g i n t o n  (1973) .  i s similar to  that  141 1958 s c a l e : 1cm = 280 m (2.1 times e n l a r g e ment) Note l a r g e a c t i v e r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e .  1961 s c a l e : 1cm = 600 m (1.7 times e n l a r g e ment) F a i l u r e has r e t r e a t e d approx. 33 meters.  1962 s c a l e : 1cm = 550 m (1.9 times e n l a r g e ment) / F a i l u r e has r e t r e a t e d a f u r t h e r 15 meters and apparently stabilized.  P l a t e 13.  S e q u e n t i a l a i r photographs o f a r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e l o c a t e d on the south-west c o a s t , 20 km north-west o f Masik R i v e r .  142 Thermo-erosional  Niches  F i v e t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e s i t e s were v i s i t e d . the under-cut  The d e p t h o f  v a r i e d f r o m 2 t o 4 m e t e r s a t 2 c o a s t a l s i t e s , t o up  t o a t l e a s t 5 m e t e r s a t two o f t h e t h r e e r i v e r i n e  locations.  This  r e l a t i v e l y d e e p u n d e r c u t t i n g may r e s u l t i n t h e c o l l a p s e o f s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f o v e r h a n g i n g  m a t e r i a l , as i l l u s t r a t e d  However, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l more t h a n one y e a r t o f o r m of years  and, s i m i l a r l y ,  i n P l a t e 3b.  n i c h e s may  take  i t may t a k e a number  f o r t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o l l a p s e d b l o c k t o be removed  from t h e base o f t h e s l o p e . Observations  immediately  f o l l o w i n g a severe  the n o r t h coast o f t h e mainland Island  summer s t o r m o n  i n the v i c i n i t y o f B a i l l i e  ( p e r s . o b s . 1971) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h i n g  i n c o a s t a l l o c a t i o n s can cause e x t e n s i v e undercuts  and r e s u l t i n  c o l l a p s e d b l o c k s much l a r g e r t h a n a n y o f t h o s e o b s e r v e d Island.  on Banks  A good e x a m p l e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l s i z e o f t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l  n i c h e s a t c o a s t a l s i t e s i s p r o v i d e d by G r i g o r y e v 1 9 7 6 ) , who r e p o r t e d t h e o c c u r r e n c e undercuts  i n northern Siberia.  Y e f i m o v and S o l o v ' e v  o f 3 m h i g h a n d 20 m d e e p  S i m i l a r l y , o b s e r v a t i o n s by  (1951 i n _ Y e f i m o v , 1964) , W a l k e r a n d M o r g a n  (1964) , C z u d e k a n d Demek  (1970) , a n d M c D o n a l d and L e w i s  indicate that thermo-erosional reach depths ranging  (1966 iin F r e n c h ,  (1973) ,  n i c h e s a l o n g r i v e r s c a n commonly  f r o m 2 t o 10 m.  Thus t h e r m a l - e r o s i o n a l  n i c h e f o r m a t i o n i n even moderate i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s can r e s u l t in significant"amounts of l a t e r a l erosion.  Eolian  Features  Rates o f d e f l a t i o n and d e p o s i t i o n were measured a t t h r e e  143 sites  s i m i l a r t o t h a t shown on P l a t e 1 0 .  cm d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g was r e c o r d e d  Net e r o s i o n o f 4 t o 8  a t two o f t h e s i t e s , w i t h  sub-  s e q u e n t d e p o s i t i o n o f 2.5 t o 4 cm o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e summer. Q u a n t i t i e s o f e o l i a n t r a n s p o r t e d o r g a n i c and m i n e r a l s i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d  i n l o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t s o f snow.  e x c e p t i o n a l case i s i l l u s t r a t e d ted  incluAn  on P l a t e 14 where e o l i a n t r a n s p o r -  s a n d made up a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e "snow" d e p o s i t e d i n  the channel  o f a small stream l o c a t e d adjacent  sandy f l u v i a l processes  terrace.  are l o c a l l y  amounts o f s e d i m e n t  Organic  Thus t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s important  t o an  unvegetated  indicate that eolian  and c a n r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t  production.  Features  C o a s t a l r e c e s s i o n over organic r i c h  site  south o f Bernard  t h e summer p e r i o d was m o n i t o r e d  a t an  l o c a t e d on t h e w e s t c o a s t o f B a n k s I s l a n d , j u s t River.  Measurements o v e r an a p p r o x i m a t e l y  100  meter long s t r e t c h o f c o a s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the seasonal r e t r e a t was  l o c a l l y v a r i a b l e , ranging  f r o m 0 t o 0.5 m e t e r s .  T h i s s i t e i s t y p i c a l o f t h e low l y i n g o r g a n i c r i c h  terrain  occurring adjacent  t o t h e m o u t h s o f many o f t h e m a j o r w e s t  rivers.  imagery i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e regions" adjaceh't-to  these  Satellite  r i v e r s h a v e a l o n g e r t h a n a v e r a g e p e r i o d o f open w a t e r .  Thus t h e r a n g e i n m a g n i t u d e o f o b s e r v e d unusual  f o r such  recession i s l i k e l y not  areas.  Another organic r i c h bend  coast  site  l o c a t e d on t h e o u t s i d e o f a meander  (shown i n P l a t e 9) u n d e r w e n t n o e r o s i o n o v e r  indicates the potentially vegetation  cover.  stabilizing effect of a  t h e summer a n d coherent  144  Note:  P l a t e 14.  The mixture o f sand and snow a t the base o f the tundra probe has been d e p o s i t e d by wind. The s u r f a c e l a y e r s o f sand r e s u l t e d from f l u v i a l t r a n s p o r t and d e p o s i t i o n .  An e x c e p t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wind blown sand a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t s o f snow.  145 Summary Table XII l i s t s  the r e l a t i v e orders  of magnitude f o r annual  r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n o r d o w n s l o p e movement a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a n k s slopes of v a r y i n g morphology.  E r o s i o n r a t e s have been  from t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d s t u d i e s and  literature  field  observations,  reviews; w i t h the  or  generalized  a i r photograph  tabulated values  being  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a r g e s t r e c e s s i o n s o r movements w h i c h h a v e been o b s e r v e d i n y e a r s The limited  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  and  periods  f o r m o s t m o r p h o l o g i c c l a s s e s and  g a t i o n s may  are  of r e c o r d are  quite  thus subsequent  investi-  r e s u l t i n t h e r e v i s i o n o f some o f t h e s e f i g u r e s .  However w i t h i n t h e values  of a c t i v e r e t r e a t .  context of the present  s u f f i c i e n t to i n d i c a t e the  study  the  tabulated  relative differences i n  observed erosion rates f o r d i f f e r e n t morphologic c l a s s e s . I t s h o u l d be  noted t h a t the r a t e o f l a t e r a l . , d i s p l a c e m e n t  a r i v e r o r c o a s t c a n n o t ' a l w a y s be listed  directly  correlated with  the  r e s u l t s , as i t i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y a t s i t e s f o r m e d by  banks, organic  deposits, thermo-erosional  niches  and  r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s t h a t t h e o b s e r v e d  of  repose  some  recession  c o r r e s p o n d s t o an a c t u a l s h i f t i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r i v e r b a n k coastline.  In a l l other cases  t h e r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n o r move-  ment r e f e r t o t h e r e m o v a l o f v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s e s o f s u r f a c e near surface m a t e r i a l . c o a s t a l or riverbank  Thus t h e  a c t u a l displacement  f o r m e d by one  of the remaining  t y p e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t i n d i c a t e d by figures. be  The  associated rates of net displacement  g e n e r a l l y q u i t e s m a l l and  repeated  observations  or  rate of  a  morphologic the  tabulated  would  t h u s t h e i r measurement w o u l d  over considerable periods of  or  time.  therefore require  146 r a t e s of r e c e s s i o n o r d o w n s l o p e movement (m/year)  Morphology solifluction eolian  features  nivation repose organic  slopes  hollows  features features  0 .01-0.1  d o w n s l o p e movement  0 .01-0.1  surface  0 .01-0 .1  headwall  retreat  •o.1 -1.0  lateral  recession  0 .1 -1.0  lateral  recession  -10  I retrogressive flow slides  thaw  1  1  thermo-erosiOnal niches skin  note:  l,-10 ,,0-lu n  ? U  liio  headwall r e t r e a t neaawai.'. - • T a +• s '  " a r - ' - •- . . lateral recession  d o w n s l o p e movement 10-1000 (?) d u r i n g i n i t i a l f a i l u r e  flows  The d a t a o n w h i c h t h i s the  erosion  text.  t a b l e i s based a r e d i s c u s s e d i n  The t a b l u a t e d v a l u e  represents  t h e average  a n n u a l r a t e o f r e t r e a t o r d o w n s l o p e movement w h i c h m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r a t an a c t i v e s i t e .  over a r e l a t i v e l y However f a i l u r e  long time  period  i s frequently  e p i s o d i c a n d t h u s n o r e c e s s i o n o r r e t r e a t may be o b s e r v e d in  TABLE X I I :  some  years.  R e l a t i v e orders o f magnitude f o r annual r a t e s o f r e c e s s i o n o r d o w n s l o p e movement a s s o c i a t e d . w i t h banks o r s l o p e s o f v a r y i n g morphology.  147 4.2  TIMING OF SEDIMENT PRODUCTION  The  data presented  i n Section  4.1 i l l u s t r a t e  the v a r i a t i o n  i n r a t e s o f e r o s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h banks o r s l o p e s morphology.  S i m i l a r l y the seasonal  t i m i n g o f sediment  appears s u b j e c t t o between morphology The  observations  production  variation.  u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h i s p r o j e c t were i n t e n d e d t o  i n d i c a t e the net seasonal unsuitable  of varying  r e c e s s i o n and a r e t h e r e f o r e  f o ra detailed discussion of timing.  generally  Nevertheless,  the d a t a which a r e a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e a s o n a l in  fluvial  with  sediment l o a d f r e q u e n t l y does n o t d i r e c t l y  the timing o f thermokarst a c t i v i t y  d u c t i o n o f sediment i n t o the r i v e r The  seasonal  concentration  variation correspond  and t h e subsequent  intro-  channel.  variations i n discharge,  suspended  sediment  a n d s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t o b s e r v e d on  D i s s e c t i o n Creek- by Anderson  (1978) a r e shown o n F i g u r e  maximum s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s seen t o occur d u r i n g w i t h a subsequent  The  a n d t r a n s p o r t c a n be  t h e p e r i o d o f peak d i s c h a r g e  (poorly defined)  29.  i n mid-June,  m i n o r peak i n l a t e  June.  Water t e m p e r a t u r e s , c o l l e c t e d by Anderson, and a c a l c u l a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l heat f l u x discharge  (on t h e b a s i s o f w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e a n d  d a t a ) a r e a l s o shown on F i g u r e  29.  The maximum w a t e r  t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be s e e n t o o c c u r i n l a t e J u n e a n d c o r r e s p o n d the m i n o r peak i n s e d i m e n t The  p l o t o f seasonal  load. v a r i a t i o n i n p o t e n t i a l heat  a p p e a r s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t two p e r i o d s annually; and  one c o r r e s p o n d i n g  the other  with  o f maximum v a l u e s  t o t h e t i m i n g o f maximum  t o t h e p e r i o d o f maximum w a t e r  flux occur discharge,  temperature.  However, as w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s were n o t measured d u r i n g t h e  P o t e n t i a l heat (joules/sec) x  P-  c  M CD  o  to  0 • 1  I IL_  Ji m  ''''  H  ro '  Water temperature (°C)  flux 10~ 8  o  c\  i  i  i i  P  ro o _i  O  1  W  CTi  vD  rO  '  '  I  I  H  1  Ul L_  cn  D PCO  CD  3 O  cn  CD  o  CD  cn  rt  3 o CD rt P- 3 0 3  O ti  (D CD  rt < PJ  O  £ P> rt  P-  O  PJ ct  ti  ti  CD CD  ft  3 CD P3 3 13 (D 0J ti 0) Prt  rt  cn  i-i  3*  TJ  CD 3" CD ti PJ ft  P> ft  ti  Mi P 1  PJ  3 X  CD  Di  3*  JD ti  CD iQ CD D.  O  ft  fD  3  tn  CD 3 3 cn  c+TJ  3"  CD  PJ ft  (D 3 CL CD Di  cn  CD D-  t-h  P-  cn  Di pcn  PJ cn  o  CD  PJ ti  3  3"  iQ  CD  CD ti PJ rt  > 3  >  1  -  Di  Pcn  o  3" PJ ti  ft)  iQ  CD  PJ  cn ft Cu p PJ  3  3  O 3  ft  Di  PCD 3  CD PJ  PJ  tr cn pcn  O  Ml  o  cn  D<  cr  J i m  Di  CD  ft  to  3  r t JD P) r t  CD  D i s c h a r g e (m / s e c ) and s u s p e n d e d sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n (mg/l)  CD  ft ti  ti rt  P  3 M CD  ct  CD PJ P. 3 < cn CD V DO  3  P"  Ti  Di PJ ft PJ  3 CD X 3  o tr  3  C-l  C  3  3  CD  c_i  CD  CD  3  CD t>  rt  ft  3 o  3  CD  CD  CD PP. o  gal  3 3 CD  l €.  rt rt  CD  CH  M CD ti  O  3  p-  3  Suspended sediment  transport  (kg/sec)  o  149  p e r i o d o f maximum d i s c h a r g e , t h e c o m p a r a t i v e events  i s unknown.  s i z e o f t h e s e two  I n any c a s e , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e  d a t a , two p e r i o d s o f p e a k t h e r m a l e r o s i o n s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to  appear  o c c u r w i t h i n t h e r i v e r c h a n n e l , and t h e s e c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e  observed peaks i n sediment  transport.  P l a t e s 15a t o e i l l u s t r a t e phology  t h e s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n mor-  o c c u r r i n g a t t h e o u t s i d e o f a meander b e n d l o c a t e d 1 km  upstream  o f t h e gauge on D i s s e c t i o n C r e e k .  The m a t e r i a l s a t t h i s  s i t e a r e composed o f c o l l u v i a t e d h i g h i c e c o n t e n t t i l l  overlying  lower i c e content f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s ; w i t h the t i l l  being  unit  s u b j e c t t o b o t h t h e r m a l e r o s i o n and t h e r m o k a r s t . During the p e r i o d of i n i t i a l (June 1 0 , 1 9 7 5 ) ,  f l o w , i l l u s t r a t e d by P l a t e 15a  t h e bed and banks o f t h e c r e e k were w e l l  t e c t e d b y snow a n d i c e ; w i t h s e d i m e n t  sources being l i m i t e d t o  s u r f a c e r u n o f f ( i n c l u d i n g t h e l o c a l i z e d o c c u r r e n c e s o f mud and e x p o s u r e s The  o f wind  blown  J u n e 16 p h o t o g r a p h  pro-  flows)  material. ( P l a t e 15b) was t a k e n one d a y f o l l o w i n g  t h e maximum r e c o r d e d d i s c h a r g e a n d s u s p e n d e d s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t values.  This p e r i o d corresponds  to the i n i t i a l  h e a t f l u x a n d t h e r i v e r c a n be s e e n  peak i n p o t e n t i a l  t o have e r o d e d  through the  snow d e p o s i t s a n d be a c t i v e l y a t t a c k i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g s e d i m e n t s . The m u d f l o w s h a v e i n c r e a s e d i n s i z e a n d f r e q u e n c y , b u t s t i l l occur l o c a l l y .  The J u l y 1 s t p h o t o g r a p h  only  (Plate 15c), while  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p e r i o d o f maximum w a t e r  temperature,  was  t a k e n f o u r d a y s a f t e r t h e c a l c u l a t e d s e c o n d maximum i n p o t e n t i a l heat f l u x .  A l l r e m n a n t s o f snow a n d i c e h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d a n d  thermokarst i s a c t i v e l y o c c u r r i n g , w i t h the meltwater from b o t h p r o c e s s e s h a v i n g caused alluvial  fans.  the formation of  resulting  numerous,small  H o w e v e r , due t o t h e s m a l l e r d i s c h a r g e a n d  a)  J u n e 10, 1975 _ discharge: 10-20 m / s e c s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n : 50-55 m g / l sediment t r a n s p o r t : 0.8-0.9 k g / s e c water temperature: n e a r 0°C note:  b)  J u n e 16, 1975 discharge: sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n sediment t r a n s p o r t : water temperature: note:  c)  15a t o e .  Seasonal v a r i a t i o n  15 15 15  3.8 m / s e c 44 m g / l 0.17 k g / s e c 4.7°C  - d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f snow d e p o s i t s -mud f l o w s , a l l u v i a l / c o l l u v i a l f a n s e x t e n d i n g i n t o the r i v e r  - a c t i v e thermokarst -extensive sediment d e p o s i t i o n -low w a t e r v e l o c i t y  J u l y 26, 1975 discharge: sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n sediment t r a n s p o r t : water temperature: note:  Plate  June June June 4°C  J u l y 18, 1975 discharge: a p p r o x . 0.5 m / s e c s e d i m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n : a p p r o x . 36 m g / l sediment t r a n s p o r t : a p p r o x . 0.012 k g / s e c water temperature: a p p r o x . 6°C note:  e)  110 m / s e c c n 2,600 m g / l on 2 60 k g / s e c on b e t w e e n 1 and  - u n d e r c u t t i n g o f snow d e p o s i t s -more e x t e n s i v e mud f l o w s - l o c a t i o n o f camera i n a l l o t h e r photographs  J u l y 0 1 , 1975 discharge: sediment c o n c e n t r a t i o n : sediment t r a n s p o r t : water temperature: note:  d)  - e x t e n s i v e d e p o s i t s o f snow a n d i c e - e o l i a n transported sediments - l o c a l i z e d mud f l o w  i n river  0.3 m / s e c 36 m g / l 0.012 k g / s e c 6°C  -sediment storage c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a r e a u n d e r a t t a c k on P l a t e 15b  bank m o r p h o l o g y ,  D i s s e c t i o n Creek  o  151  a s s o c i a t e d w a t e r v e l o c i t y , t h i s m a t e r i a l i s no l o n g e r b e i n g removed f r o m t h e s i t e . Reconnaissance  flights  a l o n g t h e r i v e r s i n n o r t h e r n and  w e s t e r n B a n k s I s l a n d , u n d e r t a k e n b e t w e e n J u n e 16 a n d J u l y 1, i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r o c e s s e s o f l a t e r a l e r o s i o n were a c t i v e l y during this period.  T h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e s were w e l l  occurring  developed  by J u n e 26 a n d e x t e n s i v e s e d i m e n t p l u m e s e x t e n d e d d o w n s t r e a m these features.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h e w i d e s p r e a d  importance o f t h e r m a l e r o s i o n as a sediment  source d u r i n g the time  p e r i o d c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e c o n d maximum i n s e d i m e n t and a v a i l a b l e h e a t f l u x o b s e r v e d on D i s s e c t i o n Photographs  from  transport  Creek.  t a k e n o n J u l y 18 ( P l a t e 15e) i l l u s t r a t e  the high  r a t e s o f t h e r m o k a r s t a c t i v i t y w h i c h o c c u r i n J u l y and c o n t i n u e i n t o e a r l y August.  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was o b s e r v e d a t o t h e r r e t r o -  g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s a n d h a s b e e n w e l l d o c u m e n t e d b y Egginton  (19 76) .  The r e s u l t i n g s e d i m e n t c a n be s e e n t o be  deposited w i t h i n the channel a t a p o s i t i o n which corresponds t o t h e a r e a o f f l u v i a l a t t a c k shown on t h e J u n e 16 p h o t o g r a p h (Plate 15b).  Thus, t h i s sediment w h i c h i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e  c h a n n e l i n m i d - t o late:.summer  i s n o t removed u n t i l  peak f l o w i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  the period o f  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f sediment  s t o r a g e a n d p r o d u c t i o n was o b s e r v e d t o o c c u r a t o t h e r r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s , a n d t o a s m a l l e r e x t e n t , w i t h i n n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s where l o c a l s u p p l i e s o f m e l t w a t e r w h i c h p e r s i s t e d i n t o  mid-  summer w e r e o n l y s u f f i c i e n t t o move s e d i m e n t  a s f a r as t h e s m a l l  t r i b u t a r y channels l o c a t e d adjacent t o these  features.  Thus t h e maximum r a t e s o f s u s p e n d e d  sediment t r a n s p o r t occur  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f peak d i s c h a r g e i n m i d - J u n e .  As d i s c h a r g e s  d e c r e a s e i n l a t e J u n e and e a r l y J u l y t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f  152 f l u v i a l and thermal e r o s i o n decrease  correspondingly.  sediment p r o d u c t i o n due t o thermokarst  and n i v a t i o n  However  processes  continues d u r i n g the p e r i o d s o f low d i s c h a r g e i n l a t e J u l y and August and consequently  r e s u l t s i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f sediment  b e i n g s t o r e d u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g f r e s h e t .  Thus the seasonal  p a t t e r n o f e r o s i o n and suspended sediment p r o d u c t i o n does n o t d i r e c t l y correspond  to the observed  t i m i n g o f sediment t r a n s p o r t .  153 4.3  PREDICTING TERRAIN S T A B I L I T Y ON MORPHOLOGY  The  r e s u l t s of the  field  and  THE  B A S I S OF  BANK OR  SLOPE  laboratory studies discussed  in  S e c t i o n Three have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y and s i z e and  exposure.  The  the  factors of i c e content,  summary o f o b s e r v e d and  grain  reported n a t u r a l l y  occurring rates of erosion presented  i n Section Four f u r t h e r  illustrates  an i n d i c a t i o n o f  t h a t morphology p r o v i d e s  terrain  stability. Vertical  s t r a t i g r a p h y can  s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e one By way  a l s o be  bank f o r m i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on  o f e x a m p l e , p h o t o g r a p h 16a  content  i l l u s t r a t e s the  when t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e h i g h  top of  another.  i s from a s i t e where h i g h  material overlies relatively  P h o t o g r a p h 16b  i n f e r r e d from morphology i n  lower i c e content  ice  deposits.  c o n t r a s t i n g morphology r e s u l t i n g and  low  i c e content  materials  are  interchanged. On  the b a s i s of the  field,  o f f i c e and  laboratory studies, a  summary t a b l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e bank o r s l o p e implications I t should  for terrain  again  be  stability  f o r m s and  i s presented  as  Table  their XIII.  noted t h a t the p r e c i s i o n w i t h which morphology  r e f l e c t s the associated m a t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s increases w i t h s u r e , w i t h d e f i n i t i v e bank m o r p h o l o g i e s b e i n g more expressed i n high exposure environments. b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e due banks or- s l o p e s  of v a r y i n g  to the  morphology.  Genetic  expo-  fully o r i g i n has  range of m a t e r i a l s  not  forming  154  a)  A p o l y g e n e t i c c o a s t a l morphology r e s u l t i n g from a r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e o v e r l y i n g an a n g l e o f repose bank. The u p p e r f i n e t e x t u r e d f l u v i a l o r l a c u s t r i n e sediments are i c e r i c h , w h i l e the underl y i n g f l u v i a l o r marine sands have a low t o moderate ice content (South-western c o a s t ) .  b)  A p o l y g e n e t i c r i v e r b a n k morphology r e s u l t i n g from an a n g l e of r e p o s e bank o v e r l y i n g a r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e . The u p p e r f i n e t e x t u r e d d e p o s i t s a r e composed o f low i c e c o n t e n t t i l l . The u n d e r l y i n g i c e r i c h m a t e r i a l i s t h o u g h t t o be l a c u s t r i n e i n o r i g i n (Parker River d e l t a ) .  P l a t e 16.  An e x a m p l e o f t h e u s e o f b a n k m o r p h o l o g y i n d i c a t o r of s u r f i c i a l s t r a t i g r a p h y .  an  an  MORPHOLOGY  C 0 N  TENT  TEXTURE  ASSOCIATED TERRAIN STABILITY  angle o f repose features  low  f i n e s to cobbly gravels  l i k e l y slow r a t e o f e r o s i o n . A s s o c i a t e d t e r r a i n g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e unless blanketed with high i c e cont e n t m a t e r i a l . T e x t u r e and q u a l i t a t i v e e r o s i o n r a t e s can f r e q u e n t l y be e s t i m a t e d from a i r p h o t o s .  eolian features  low  predominantly sand o r c o a r s e textured s i l t  •low r a t e s o f e r o s i o n and g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e  nivation hollows  low  f i n e s t o sandy gravels  •associated w i t h h i g h r a t e s o f sediment p r o d u c t i o n . r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r o f low i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l .  solifluction slopes  low t o high  significant percentage of fine textured sediments  • c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g a slow r a t e o f downslope movement. W i l l p e r i o d i c a l l y have a high water c o n t e n t w i t h i n the a c t i v e l a y e r and can be s u b j e c t t o s k i n flows i f m e l t water i s l o c a l i z e d . P o s s i b l e h i g h i c e c o n t e n t s , a t e i t h e r the base o f the f r o s t t a b l e o r i n the u n d e r l y i n g permafrost.  solifluction slopes with s k i n flows  low t o medium  significant percentage o f fine textured sediments  as above e x c e p t t h a t h i g h pore water p r e s s u r e s may o c c u r w i t h i n t h e a c t i v e l a y e r . Prone t o e p i s o d i c r a p i d s u r f i c i a l downslope movement and t o r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw flow s l i d e f o r m a t i o n i f h i g h i c e c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l i s s u b s e q u e n t l y exposed.  organic deposits  medium to high  fine grained containing organic inclusions  thermoerosional niches  medium t o high  sand o r f i n e -high r a t e s o f e r o s i o n can be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r texture with p e r i o d i c a l l y . The s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n w i l l be s u b j e c t p o s s i b l e c o a r s e r t o thermokarst i f d i s t u r b e d . inclusions  retrogress i v e thaw flow s l i d e s  high  f i n e grained sometimes c o n t a i n i n g coarser inclusions  TABLE X I I I :  Summary t a b l e showing t h e  terrain.  A  - g e n e r a l l y low t o medium r a t e s o f e r o s i o n i n h i g h exposure e n v i r o n m e n t s . May be r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e u n t i l a t h r e s h o l d i s r e a c h e d a f t e r which r a p i d r a t e s o f erosion could occur.  -high r a t e s o f e r o s i o n can be e x p e c t e d . The s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n w i l l be s u b j e c t t o t h e r m o k a r s t and thermal e r o s i o n i f d i s t u r b e d . The r e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s and i c e c o n t e n t o f u n s t a b l e m a t e r i a l can f r e q u e n t l y be e s t i mated from a i r p h o t o g r a p h s . l a t i o n s h i p between morphology and t e r r a i n  stability.  156 SECTION  5.1  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES  FIVE  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1 9 7 5 , f i e l d  s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n on  B a n k s I s l a n d , N.W.T., t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g bank or s l o p e morphology  a s an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e l a t e r a l  stability of  c o a s t a l and r i v e r i n e a r e a s l o c a t e d i n a r e g i o n o f c o n t i n u o u s permafrost. F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d a i r photograph t a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t a wide occur w i t h i n  the study area.  interpre-  range o f c o n d i t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s Repose f e a t u r e s , s o l i f l u c t i o n  slopes,  s k i n f l o w s , r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s , t h e r m o - e r o s i o n a l n i c h e s , o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s and d e f l a t i o n  f e a t u r e s were a l l o b s e r v e d  w i t h i n a v a r i e t y o f g e o t e c h n i c a l and p h y s i o g r a p h i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . Sampling conducted a t s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f each o f these f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the morphology of u n l i t h i f i e d  sediments  o f a b a n k o r s l o p e composed  i s r e l a t e d t o t h e t e x t u r e and i c e c o n t e n t  o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d m a t e r i a l s , and t o t h e r e l a t i v e e x p o s u r e site  to f l u v i a l or l i t t o r a l  processes o f sediment  M a t e r i a l g e n e s i s i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r  removal.  through i t s  a s s o c i a t e d e f f e c t on g r a i n s i z e a n d t h e p o t e n t i a l i c e growth.  of the  f o r segregated  N i v a t i o n , i c e wedges, v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r and e o l i a n  p r o c e s s e s a l s o a f f e c t morphology  i nvarying  degree.  V a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f i c e c o n t e n t , g r a i n s i z e and exposure t o p r o c e s s e s o f s e d i m e n t removal were found t o r e s u l t i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f d i s t i n c t i v e bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g i e s .  I nlow  exposure e n v i r o n m e n t s , a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f i c e c o n t e n t and g r a i n s i z e tend t o r e s u l t i n angle o f repose banks o r s o l i f l u c t i o n  157 slopes  of r e l a t i v e l y  s i m i l a r appearance.  However i n l o c a t i o n s  s u b j e c t t o more a c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f s e d i m e n t r e m o v a l , t h e t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the expressed.  u n d e r l y i n g m a t e r i a l a r e more  fully  T h u s , w i t h i n t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , bank o r s l o p e  phology provides content  distinc-  an  mor-  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l t e x t u r e and  w i t h i n the adjacent  ice  terrain.  R a t e s o f e r o s i o n as d e t e r m i n e d f r o m f i e l d  s t u d i e s and  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s were a l s o f o u n d t o have a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h bank o r s l o p e m o r p h o l o g y . of the a v a i l a b l e d a t a e r o s i o n r a t e s i n low  On  the  i c e content  basis  materials  appear comparable w i t h o r l o w e r t h a n those i n s o u t h e r n Canada. However  thermal  s e d i m e n t s was  e r o s i o n and  thermokarst associated with  observed to r e s u l t i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher  rates, ranging  up  Observations  t o 10 m p e r on  the  summer. petent  the  period  However s e d i m e n t p r o d u c -  to meltwater associated with l o c a l accumulations  As  thermokarst processes continues  t h e p o s t s p r i n g peak d i s c h a r g e s  are  of  well into  generally  the  incom-  t o t r a n s p o r t t h i s m a t e r i a l , s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f i n -  channel sediment storage The are  erosion  t i m i n g o f s e d i m e n t movement i n d i c a t e t h a t  o f peak s n o w m e l t r u n o f f i n t h e s p r i n g .  w i n d b l o w n snow and  rich  year.  t h e maximum r a t e o f s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t c o i n c i d e s w i t h  t i o n due  ice  o c c u r on  an  d i s t i n c t i v e bank o r s l o p e  g e n e r a l l y of s u f f i c i e n t  photography. m o r p h o l o g y and  annual b a s i s .  forms i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s  s i z e t o be  d i s t i n g u i s h e d on  study  aerial  Thus, a knowledge o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  corresponding  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  geotechnical  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n the a n a l y s i s  terrain stability.  I n a d d i t i o n , r i v e r i n e and  are undergoing a p p r e c i a b l e  rates of e r o s i o n  of  c o a s t a l areas which  f r e q u e n t l y have  158  composite  morphologies  r e f l e c t i n g the g e o t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the u n d e r l y i n g sediments.  In these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , morphology  can t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e an inexpensive i n d i c a t o r of subsurface s t r a t i g r a p h y i n the a d j a c e n t t e r r a i n .  159 5.2  FUTURE STUDIES  The  f i e l d work and l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w  w i t h t h i s study  undertaken i n conjunction  i n d i c a t e t h a t many o f t h e p r o c e s s e s  w h i c h have  r e s u l t e d i n t h e bank a n d s l o p e m o r p h o l o g i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s report are r e l a t i v e l y poorly understood.  Thus d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f  t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s a r e t h o u g h t t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y  worthwhile,  n o t o n l y due t o t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c m e r i t , b u t a l s o a s t h e y extend  t h e a v a i l a b l e k n o w l e d g e upon w h i c h t o b a s e  geotechnical  magnitude o f pore water pressures  seasonal  s l o p e s and s k i n  the determination  o f the energy balance niches  regime and  (or tensions)  with s o l i f l u c t i o n  thermo-erosional 3)  reconnaissance  interpretations:  1) t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s ,  2)  would  associated  flows; associated with  and r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the factors c o n t r o l l i n g  slides;  the planimetric  form o f n i v a t i o n h o l l o w s ; 4) t h e l a b o r a t o r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n distribution  f o r segregated  o f t h e optimum g r a i n  i c e growth, under v a r y i n g  c o n d i t i o n s o f o v e r b u r d e n and p o r e w a t e r 5)  the determination  size  of Atterberg limits  pressure;  for materials repre-  sentative o f the varying morphologies discussed i n t h i s report; 6) t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s fication of erosion rates.  f o rthe quanti-  A n a l y s i s o f t h e time  vegetation succession or s o i l  d e v e l o p m e n t on  s u r f a c e s appears p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l ; and  required f o r  aggrading  the  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the paleo-environments  associated  w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d r a n g e i n m a t e r i a l s and i c e c o n t e n t s a t r e t r o g r e s s i v e thaw f l o w s l i d e s o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s genetic  origins.  and  161 BIBLIOGRAPHY  ( w i t h Addendum)  A l l e n , W.T.R. 1978: Freeze-up and break-up o f r i v e r s and l a k e s ; i n H y d r o l o g i c a l A t l a s o f Canada, F i s h e r i e s and Environment Canada, P l a t e 19. 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