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Role stress : a descriptive study of the types, dimensions, and management of role stress in Master’s… White, Merle Joan 1981

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ROLE STRESS: A D E S C R I P T I V E STUDY OF THE TYPES, DIMENSIONS, AND MANAGEMENT OF ROLE STRESS IN MASTER'S OF SCIENCE IN NURSING STUDENTS by MERLE JOAN WHITE , B.Sc.N., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( T h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d i n g THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1981 Q M e r l e J o a n W h i t e , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f N u r s i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , B.C. V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT ROLE STRESS: A D E S C R I P T I V E STUDY OF THE T Y P E S , DIMENSIONS, AND MANAGEMENT OF ROLE STRESS IN MASTER'S OF SCIENCE IN NURSING STUDENTS T h i s d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t common t y p e s , d i m e n s i o n s , and management o f r o l e s t r e s s i n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . A s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . I t was u t i l i z e d w i t h 15 r e s p o n d e n t s d r awn f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e t w e e n 1974 and 1979. E i g h t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w ere g r a d u a t e s o f t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m and s e v e n were w i t h d r a w a l s o r t r a n s f e r s f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . T h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d w ere s u m m a r i z e d and c a t e g o r i z e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s w e r e a p p l i e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t m o s t s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s t r e s s f u l . T h e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e o f s t r e s s r e c a l l e d by b o t h g r o u p s was d i f f i c u l t y i n m e e t i n g m u l t i p l e o b l i g a t i o n s t o o t h e r p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e . T h e g r o u p who t e r m i n a t e d w i t h t h e p r o g r a m remembered e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s a r e a , t h a n t h e g r o u p who g r a d u a t e d . T h e g r o u p o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who w i t h d r e w o r t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e M a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r c o n f l i c t w i t h f a c u l t y , i n t e r m s o f t h e i r v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a s g r a d u a t e n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , t h a n d i d t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s who g r a d u a t e d f r o m t h e i i i i i M a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m . P r o b a b l e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a t t r i t i o n a p p e a r t o be t h e a d e q u a c y o f s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s f a c u l t y and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , t h e h e a v y w o r k l o a d o f s t u d i e s c o n c u r r e n t w i t h o t h e r c o m m i t m e n t s , a n d f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s . B o t h g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f a v o u r e d t h e u s e o f p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g f o r s t r e s s management. A t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y , o p e n n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s a b o u t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m e e t i n g o b l i g a t i o n s , and c u r t a i l m e n t i n t h e number o f o b l i g a t i o n s t o o t h e r s w e r e a l s o w i d e l y u s e d by b o t h g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s a n d a d d t o k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d i n g s t r e s s and i t s management by g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i i i L I S T OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION P r o b l e m A r e a 1 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m 2 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 4 P o t e n t i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 8 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK I n f l u e n c e s on I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n 9 P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s 10 R o l e T r a n s i t i o n 11 R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s 11 R o l e S t r e s s 12 R o l e A m b i g u i t y 13 R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y 14 R o l e I n a d e q u a c y and R o l e O v e r - q u a l i f i c a t i o n . . . . 14 R o l e C o n f l i c t a n d R o l e O v e r l o a d 15 S t r e s s Management 17 P r o b l e m S o l v i n g 18 V Page R o l e R e d u c t i o n 19 R o l e E x t e n s i o n 19 R o l e B a r g a i n i n g 2 0 P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y 2 1 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY T o o l D e v e l o p m e n t 2 3 Sample S e l e c t i o n 2^ G r a d u a t e S a m p l e . . . 2^ N o n - G r a d u a t e S a m p l e 2^ D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 2 7 D a t a A n a l y s i s 2 7 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS op D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e s t o Age 2 9 Y e a r o f B a c c a l a u r e a t e G r a d u a t i o n 3 0 L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r ^0 F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S t u d e n t S t a t u s 3 1 L e n g t h o f T i m e E n r o l l e d i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e 3 1 i n N u r s i n g P r o g r a m S i m u l t a n e o u s R o l e s I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n ° * R o l e S t r e s s e s 3 6 R o l e A m b i g u i t y R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y v i P age R o l e I n a d e q u a c y 38 R o l e O v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n 39 R o l e A c c u m u l a t i o n . . ... 40 C o n c u r r e n t S t r e s s e s . 42 M e t h o d s o f S t r e s s Management 43 P r o b l e m S o l v i n g 45 R o l e R e d u c t i o n 46 R o l e E x t e n s i o n 47 R o l e B a r g a i n i n g 47 P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y 48 R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s 48 Summary 51 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n 54 P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s 55 R o l e T r a n s i t i o n 58 R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s 60 R o l e S t r e s s e s 65 R o l e A c c u m u l a t i o n 66 R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y 68 R o l e A m b i g u i t y 69 R o l e O v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n a n d R o l e I n a d e q u a c y . . . . 70 C o n c u r r e n t S t r e s s e s 72 S t r e s s Management 74 P r o b l e m S o l v i n g 75 R o l e R e d u c t i o n 75 v i i Page R o l e B a r g a i n i n g 76 P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y 77 R o l e E x t e n s i o n 78 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary 80 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r G r a d u a t e N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n 82 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 84 BIBLIOGRAPHY 85 APPENDICES APPENDIX A L e t t e r o f C o n s e n t 90 APPENDIX B I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 92 APPENDIX C L e t t e r t o D i r e c t o r s o f C a n a d i a n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s . . . 98 v i i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 TABLE 4 TABLE 5 NUMBER OF ENROLLMENTS AND GRADUATIONS IN MASTER'S OF NURSING PROGRAMS ACROSS CANADA UNIVERSITY AND YEAR OF BACCALAUREATE GRADUATION OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTS' AGES AT TIME OF ENROLLMENT IN MASTER'S OF SCIENCE IN NURSING PROGRAM AND DATES OF ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION OR TERMINATION PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ENGAGED IN SIMULTANEOUS ROLES PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF RESOURCES WHICH F A C I L I T A T E ADJUSTMENT TO THE GRADUATE STUDENT ROLE Page 2 30 32 33 49 i x L I S T OF FIGURES PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS REPORTING FREQUENT OCCURRENCE OF ROLE STRESSES PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS REPORTING FREQUENT USE OF METHODS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s h e r t h a n k s t o t h e members o f h e r T h e s i s C o m m i t t e e , M r s . S h e i l a h S t a n t o n a n d D r . G o r d o n P a g e , f o r t h e i r c o u n s e l a n d c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t . T h e a u t h o r a l s o i s g r a t e f u l t o a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who g a v e o f t h e i r t i m e a n d t h e m s e l v e s t o make t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , Ms. S h i r l e y M a r c u s d e s e r v e s t h a n k s f o r t h e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n w h i c h s h e a c c o r d e d t h e t y p i n g o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION P r o b l e m A r e a N u r s i n g i s e n d e a v o r i n g t o meet t h e i n c r e a s i n g and c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g demands w h i c h have been c r e a t e d by r a p i d c h a n g e s i n s c i e n c e and t h e h e a l t h c a r e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m . I n o r d e r t o do s o , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has become a n e c e s s i t y . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a d v a n c e d s t u d y , o f t e n o v e r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e . D e s p i t e t h i s c o n s t r a i n t , t h e n e e d f o r s p e c i a l i s t s i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d by n u r s e s . I n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s a c r o s s C a n a d a , o n l y f i f t y - s i x s t u d e n t s were e n r o l l e d i n 1967 ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) . By 1979, t h e number o f n u r s e s s e e k i n g M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g d e g r e e s had r i s e n t o 287, a f i v e - f o l d i n c r e a s e ( C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l s o f N u r s i n g , 1980).. How many w i l l a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g d e g r e e ? T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s , f r o m t h e s i x u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r i n g t h e d e g r e e , c o m p a r i n g t h e number o f g r a d u a t i o n s f r o m M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s , t o t h e number o f e n r o l l m e n t s / ( C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l s o f N u r s i n g , 1 9 7 9 , 1980; S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1978; w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e p r o g r a m s a r e o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s ( o n e t o two y e a r s ) and many s t u d e n t s e l e c t t o e n r o l l p a r t - t i m e t a k i n g l o n g e r t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r 1 2. TABLE 1 Number o f e n r o l l m e n t s and G r a d u a t i o n s i n M a s t e r ' s o f N u r s i n g P r o g r a m s A c r o s s C a n a d a YEAR NUMBER OF NUMBER OF NUMBER OF GRADUATIONS ENROLLMENTS GRADUATIONS NUMBER OF ENROLLMENTS 1972 159 45 .28 1973 172 49 .28 1974 177 53 .29 1975 203 50 .24 1976 244 65 .26 1977 219 51 .23 1978 251 54 .22 1979 287 86 .30 s t u d i e s ( a maximum o f f i v e y e a r s ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 1 c a n n o t be u s e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e number o f w i t h d r a w a l s f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a low r a t i o o f t h e numbers g r a d u a t e d t o t h e number e n r o l l e d f o r a n y g i v e n y e a r . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , i s t h a t d e s p i t e a n ' a l m o s t s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g e n r o l l m e n t o v e r e i g h t y e a r s (1977 b e i n g t h e e x c e p t i o n ) , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e number g r a d u a t e d t o t h e number e n r o l l e d h as r e m a i n e d f a i r l y c o n s t a n t ( f r o m a low o f .22 t o a h i g h o f . 3 0 ) . What a c c o u n t s f o r s u c h s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r i t i o n ? S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m Many s t u d i e s h a v e f o c u s s e d on t h e h i g h a t t r i t i o n r a t e s f o u n d 3 i n r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e and b a c c a l a u r e a t e p r o g r a m s ( H i l l , T a y l o r and S t a c y , 1963; H u t c h e s o n , G a r l a n d , and Lowe, 1979; Knopke, 1979; W i l s o n and L e v y , 1978; W i t t m e y e r , 1 9 7 1 ) . The f o c u s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s has been t h e s t u d e n t s who w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s . A c a d e m i c a b i l i t y , d e m o g r a p h i c s t a t i s t i c s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , a nd a t t i t u d e s a r e among t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d , w i t h t h e g o a l o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s e f a c t o r s c a n be u s e d t o p r e d i c t s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e . T he f i n d i n g s a r e c o n f l i c t i n g . H i l l a n d o t h e r s ( 1 9 6 3 ) f o u n d no r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l i t y and w i t h d r a w a l f r o m n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , w h e r e a s W i l s o n and L e v y ( 1 9 7 8) d e f i n e d t h r e e t y p e s o f p e o p l e p r o n e t o w i t h d r a w a l , a l l b a s e d on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e l f - i m a g e , v a l u e s , and c a p a b i l i t i e s . W i t t m e y e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) c o n c u r s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s a r e as s i g n i f i c a n t as a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e i n p r e d i c t i n g s u c c e s s . To d a t e , t h e r e e x i s t s v e r y l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e on M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . Sime ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a n u r s i n g u n d e r g r a d u a t e ' s g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e was a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r o f s u c c e s s i n a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m . Camooso, G r e e n e , and R e i l l y ( 1 9 8 1 ) e x a m i n e d t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s b a s e d on t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n i s a s t r e s s f u l e v e n t f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e s t u d i e s o f E l f e r t ( 1 9 7 6 ) a n d M a c M a s t e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) s who e x a m i n e d s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s i n u n d e r g r a d u a t e n u r s i n g p r o g r a m s . G r e e n s b a u e r and M i z n e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t u d i e d s t r e s s e s i n m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n , b a s e d on a d e v e l o p -m e n t a l t a s k f r a m e w o r k . M e c h a n i c ( 1 9 6 2 ) o b s e r v e d t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f D o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s t o t h e s t r e s s o f p r e p a r i n g f o r m a j o r e x a m i n a t i o n s . 4 T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by two s a m p l e s o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s : t h o s e who w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p r o g r a m a n d t h o s e who r e m a i n e d , c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r d e g r e e s . Do b o t h g r o u p s p e r c e i v e t h e s t r e s s e s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l i n t h e same m a n n e r ? Do t h e y r e a c t d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e same s i t u a t i o n ? What r e s o u r c e s do t h e y u s e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t ? T h i s s t u d y w i l l e x p l o r e t h e s e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , u s i n g r o l e t h e o r y a s a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . R o l e t h e o r y o f f e r s an i n t e r a c t i o n a l model by w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r c a n e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e o f s t r e s s i n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . R o l e t h e o r y f o c u s s e s n o t on i n d i v i d u a l s i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t on how an i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s i n a g i v e n s o c i a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a g i v e n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s may be v i e w e d a s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e demands o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g ) , f r o m d e f i c i t s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t ) o r f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y T h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e s t u d y a r e t w o f o l d . (1) t o a s c e r t a i n i f two s a m p l e s o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t amounts and t y p e s o f r o l e s t r e s s . T h e two s a m p l e s a r e : ( a ) M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s who g r a d u a t e d f r o m t h e p r o g r a m , ( b ) M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s who w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . 5 (2) t o i d e n t i f y what methods were u s e d t o manage r o l e s t r e s s i n t h e two samples-. P o t e n t i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y I t i s hoped t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l f u r t h e r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s and M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g f a c u l t y as t o c o m m o n . s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s f o r M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . I t i s f u r t h e r h o p e d t h a t s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e t o f u t u r e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g c a n d i d a t e s as t o t h e u b i q u i t o u s n e s s o f s t r e s s a nd i t s management. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms r o l e - The e x p e c t a t i o n s o f N u r s i n g f a c u l t y and o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l w h i c h a p p l y t o t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t . T h e s e a r e s t a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h p e r s i s t r e g a r d l e s s o f v a r i a t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . r o l e s t r e s s - E x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s , demands, o r e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t . r o l e a m b i g u i t y - A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t p e r c e i v e s t h a t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a c u l t y a r e v a g u e o r p o o r l y d e f i n e d . r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y - A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t p e r c e i v e s t h a t h e r v a l u e s o r a t t i t u d e s , c o n c e r n i n g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e a s a s t u d e n t , c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e o f f a c u l t y . 6 r o l e i n a d e q u a c y r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n r o l e c o n f l i c t -r o l e o v e r l o a d r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n -r o l e s t r a i n -manage r o l e t r a n s i t i o n A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t f e e l s i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g h e r p e r f o r m a n c e a s a s t u d e n t . A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t f e e l s o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e demands r e q u i r e d o f h e r a s a s t u d e n t . A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t f e e l s s h e c a n n o t meet t h e c o n f l i c t i n g o r c o m p e t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s . A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t f e e l s u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l a l l h e r commitments t o o t h e r s i n t h e a v a i l a b l e t i m e p e r i o d . A t y p e o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h i n c l u d e s b o t h r o l e c o n f l i c t and r o l e o v e r l o a d . I t o c c u r s when t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t has m u l t i p l e o b l i g a t i o n s t o o t h e r s , a p a r t f r o m t h o s e r e q u i r e d o f h e r as a s t u d e n t . The i n t e r n a l r e s p o n s e o f t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t t o r o l e s t r e s s ; may be e x p e r i e n c e d a s t e n s i o n , a n x i e t y , o r f r u s t r a t i o n . To e f f e c t i v e l y d e c r e a s e t h e s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e o f d i s t r e s s ( r o l e s t r a i n ) e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t . A p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f 7. p r o b l e m s o l v i n g r o l e r e d u c t i o n r o l e e x t e n s i o n r o l e b a r g a i n i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r e s o u r c e s -S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d s a nd a c q u i r e s t h e r e q u i s i t e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , a nd s k i l l s f o r t h e r o l e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . A m ethod o f s t r e s s management i n w h i c h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t a p p r a i s e s t h e s i t u a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e a c t i o n s a nd p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s a p p r a i s a l , s h e a c t s a n d t h e n e v a l u a t e s h e r a c t i o n . A m ethod o f s t r e s s management, i n w h i c h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t r e d u c e s t h e number o f h e r c ommitments t o o t h e r s . A m e t h o d o f s t r e s s management i n w h i c h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t i n c r e a s e s t h e number o f h e r commitments t o o t h e r s . A m e t h o d o f s t r e s s management i n w h i c h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t n e g o t i a t e s o p e n l y w i t h a n o t h e r a b o u t h e r e x p e c t e d p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A method o f s t r e s s management w h i c h r e f e r s t o a n y f o r m o f s p o r t o r r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h u s e s l a r g e m u s c l e a c t i v i t y . P e o p l e i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t ' s e n v i r o n m e n t who f a c i l i t a t e h e r a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r o l e . 8 L i m i t a t i o n s 1) S i n c e t h e s t u d y i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f p a s t e v e n t s w h i c h may be d i s t o r t e d by memory o r l a c k o f t r u t h f u l n e s s . 2) Due t o t h e s m a l l s i z e arid n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t r o l e s t r e s s and i t s management. Th e t h e o r i e s o f r o l e s t r e s s and r o l e s t r a i n p r o v i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h e s e t h e o r i e s w i l l be s u p p o r t e d by l i t e r a t u r e on t h e u n i q u e n a t u r e o f p s y c h o -l o g i c a l s t r e s s a n d s t r e s s management. T h e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i s t h a t M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e t h e i r d e g r e e s , e x p e r i e n c e l e s s r o l e s t r e s s , o r a r e a b l e t o manage r o l e s t r e s s more e f f e c t i v e l y , t h a n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s who do n o t f i n i s h t h e p r o g r a m . I n f l u e n c e s on I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n G e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s among a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t what i s s t r e s s f u l f o r one p e r s o n i s n o t s o f o r a n o t h e r ( H a r d y , 1978; L a z a r u s , 1977; S e l y e , 1 9 7 4 ) . Y e t , r e f l e c t i n g on t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f m a s t e r y and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , i t i s n o t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o e l i m i n a t e a l l t e n s i o n f r o m h e r l i f e and may a c t i v e l y s e e k an o p t i m a l l e v e l . M aslow (1954) e m p h a s i z e d t h a t a s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e r s o n w o r k s v e r y h a r d , b u t d e r i v e s much p l e a s u r e a n d e x c i t e m e n t f r o m h i s commitment. S i m i l a r l y , A l l p o r t ( 1 9 5 5 ) t h e o r i z e d t h a t t h e n o r m a l , h e a l t h y a d u l t i s m o t i v a t e d t o i n c r e a s e h e r d e g r e e o f c o m p e t e n c e and m a s t e r y . 9 10 T h e r e e x i s t an a b u n d a n c e o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e k i n d o f s t r e s s a p e r s o n p e r c e i v e s , t h e amount o f s t r a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s t r e s s , and t h e c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e t o t h a t same s t r e s s . T h r e e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r o l e s t r e s s a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t h e a d e q u a c y o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and i n a s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 8 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s S e l y e ( 1 9 7 4 ) has n o t e d t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l has an o p t i m a l s t r e s s l e v e l . B e l o w t h i s l e v e l , l i f e i s a b o r e ; e x c e e d i n g t h i s l e v e l , s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n and e v e n t u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n become i n e v i t a b l e . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e work o f A p p l e y and T r u m b e l l ( 1 9 7 7) who b e l i e v e t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o s t r e s s , i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e v e n t t o h e r . T h u s , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g d e g r e e may be s e e n a s c r u c i a l by t h e s t u d e n t , who d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t s t o e x c e l i n h e r c a r e e r . T h e p a s t h i s t o r y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s v i e w e d by c r i s i s t h e o r i s t s as i n f l u e n c i n g t h e way i n w h i c h one v i e w s t h e p r e s e n t ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 1978; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . I f an i n d i v i d u a l has had a p o s i t i v e , f u l f i l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p a s t , s h e w i l l l i k e l y c o p e s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a s i t u a t i o n o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e i n t h e p r e s e n t . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n may s t i m u l a t e m e m o r i e s o f o l d f a i l u r e s w h i c h a c t a s a d d i t i o n a l b u r d e n s on p r e s e n t f u n c t i o n i n g ( C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . Jam's (1962) has n o t e d t h a t t h e power t o e x e r t some c o n t r o l o v e r d a n g e r , r e d u c e s some o f t h e a n x i e t y s u r r o u n d i n g i t . E p s t e i n ( 1 9 6 5 ) made c o m p a r a b l e f i n d i n g s . 11 O t h e r a u t h o r s e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w h i c h a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , Kahn (1964) i n a s t u d y o f i n d u s t r i a l m a n a g e r s , f o u n d t h a t i n t r o v e r t s e x p e r i e n c e d more r o l e s t r a i n t h a n e x t r o v e r t s and t h a t p e o p l e c l a s s i f i e d a s f l e x i b l e e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r t e n s i o n t h a n t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s r i g i d . J o h n s o n and S t i n s o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e h i g h i n n e e d o f a c h i e v e m e n t and h i g h i n n e e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e , e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t e r t e n s i o n when t h e y p e r c e i v e d t h e i r t a s k a s a m b i g u o u s . R o l e T r a n s i t i o n H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) has n o t e d t h a t s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o a new r o l e i s a c o m p l e x p r o c e s s , i n v o l v i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . As M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e i r a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t few weeks i n t h e p r o g r a m due t o t h e m u l t i t u d e o f u n f a m i l i a r p e o p l e and e x p e c t a t i o n s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s a r e w e l l d o c u m e n t e d by o t h e r s (Hamburg and Adams, 1967; M a r t i n and K a t z , 1961; C o l e h o , M u r p h e y , Hamburg, P e a r l i n , R o s e n b e r g , and B e t h e s d a , 1 9 6 1 ) . T r a n s i t i o n i n t o new r o l e s i s l e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r o l e s t r a i n i f a d e q u a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d . Camooso, G r e e n and R e i l l y ( 1 9 8 1 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h a t f e e d b a c k f r o m c o l l e a g u e s and f a c u l t y p l u s t h e i r own m o t i v a t i o n , were c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o s c h o o l . R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s C r i s i s t h e o r i s t s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f s i t u a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s ( f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) i n a l l a y i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a n x i e t y and a i d i n g h i s a d a p t a t i o n t o a s i t u a t i o n ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 12 1978; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . Hamburg and Adams ( 1 9 6 7 ) e m p h a s i z e d t h e v a l u e o f s u p p o r t i v e p e e r s i n a d a p t i n g t o t h e r i g o r s o f c o l l e g e l i f e . T h e f i n d i n g s o f Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) c o n f i r m t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u p p o r t f r o m p e e r s and t e a c h e r s i n d e c r e a s i n g t h e a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g a M a s t e r ' s o f N u r s i n g s t u d e n t . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who o c c u p y s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s may e x p e r i e n c e d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f s t r a i n i f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s a r e d i s s i m i l a r . T h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t f o r t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t t h e r e e x i s t f o u r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who may s e r v e a s r e s o u r c e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s i s t o a i d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t t o t h e s t u d e n t r o l e . T h e s e i n c l u d e f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s , f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , a nd f a c u l t y members. R o l e S t r e s s R o l e , a s S a r b i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) has n o t e d , i s a t e r m b o r r o w e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t h e a t r e . I t d e n o t e s t h e c o n d u c t w h i c h a d h e r e s t o c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p l a y e r s who f i l l t h o s e p o s i t i o n s . T h e o b j e c t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a s g u i d e d by r o l e c o n c e p t s , was, how d o e s an i n d i v i d u a l M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n i n h e r r o l e a s a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t ? Does s h e do w e l l o r b a d l y ? How d o e s s h e c o p e w i t h a l l t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f b e i n g a s t u d e n t ? What a r e t h e e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s a nd demands p l a c e d upon a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t ? How d o e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t p e r c e i v e s u c h p r e s s u r e s and demands? How d o e s s h e c o p e w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l r e s p o n s e o f a n x i e t y a nd t e n s i o n t h a t s u c h demands may e v o k e i n h e r ? H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) u s e s a s t r e s s - s t r a i n a n a l o g y i n h e r t h e s i s on r o l e s t r e s s a n d r o l e s t r a i n . S t r e s s i n t h e e x t e r n a l s t a t e t h a t d i s r u p t s t h e 13 s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s y s t e m ; s t r a i n i s t h e r e s u l t i n g i n t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e ; ( f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s r e f e r t o D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s ) . Goode ( 1 9 6 0 ) o b s e r v e s t h a t b o t h r o l e s t r e s s and r o l e s t r a i n a r e u b i q u i t o u s i n n a t u r e . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o n c u r s w i t h G oode's ( 1 9 6 0 ) t h e o r y t h a t r o l e s t r e s s a n d r o l e s t r a i n a r e a n o r m a l p a r t o f e v e r y o n e ' s e x i s t e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , H a r d y ( 1 9 78) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f s t r e s s and s t r a i n a r e i n c r e a s i n g d u e t o i n a d e q u a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n , r a p i d c h a n g e s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a c c e l e r a t e d t e c h n o l o g y . H a r d y ( 1 978) a r g u e s t h a t a s r o l e s t r e s s i n c r e a s e s , r o l e s t r a i n i s g e n e r a t e d w h i c h may p r e v e n t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f g o a l s and may d i s r u p t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . H a r d y o u t l i n e s s i x m a j o r a r e a s l e a d i n g t o r o l e p r o b l e m s : r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , r o l e o v e r - q u a l i f i c a t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , and r o l e o v e r l o a d . T h e s e s i x c a t e g o r i e s f o r m e d t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y . R o l e A m b i g u i t y R o l e a m b i g u i t y may o c c u r when t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o r norms t r e l e v a n t t o a s o c i a l p o s i t i o n a r e v a g u e o r i l l - d e f i n e d . A s t u d y by S m i t h ( 1 9 5 7 ) t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t u n c l e a r r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f a g r o u p . T h e r e s u l t s showed t h a t v a g u e . r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g and r e d u c e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n . A r n d t a nd L a e g a r ( 1 9 7 0) e x a m i n e d t h e c a u s e s o f r o l e s t r a i n i n D i r e c t o r s o f N u r s i n g a nd f o u n d t h a t r o l e a m b i g u i t y r a n k e d h i g h i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t e n s i o n f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . Many o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n r o l e a m b i g u i t y and l o w e r j o b p e r f o r m a n c e ( G r e e n e a n d O r g a n , 1973; J o h n s o n a nd G r a e n , 1973; L y o n s , 1 9 7 1 ) . 14 F o r t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t , many o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t l y s t a t e d i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y c a l e n d a r . T h e s e i n c l u d e a c c e p t a b l e g r a d e s , d e a d l i n e s f o r c o u r s e work, and p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o u r s e c h a n g e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e may be v a g u e o r r e m a i n t o t a l l y u n v e r b a l i z e d a s s t u d i e s o f r o l e a m b i g u i t y s u g g e s t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s p r e v a l e n t i n many d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 8 ) . R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y T h e s e c o n d r o l e s t r e s s m e n t i o n e d by H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) i s r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y . T h i s e x i s t s when e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e c o n f l i c t w i t h p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , o r n e e d s . M a r t i n and K a t z ( 1 9 6 1 ) f o u n d e v i d e n c e o f h i g h r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y i n u n d e r g r a d u a t e u n i v e r s i t y n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a l l f o u r y e a r s o f t h e p r o g r a m . T h i s phenomenon was i n t e r p r e t e d as a n a t u r a l f u n c t i o n , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s a s t r e s s f u l o n e , o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . V i a s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e y o u n g n o v i c e i s e x p e c t e d t o t a k e on t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a n d , i n so d o i n g , a l t e r o r s h e d e n t i r e l y some o f h e r own. A r n d t a nd L a e g a r ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n t h e i r s t u d y o f n u r s i n g d i r e c t o r s f o u n d r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y t o be a m a j o r s o u r c e o f r o l e s t r a i n f o r t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s . " F e e l i n g t h a t y o u h a v e t o do t h i n g s on t h e j o b t h a t a r e a g a i n s t your b e t t e r j u d g e m e n t " was a s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n f o r 72 p e r c e n t ( 3 4 / 4 7 ) o f t h e s u b j e c t s ( A r n d t a n d L a e g a r , 1970, p . 4 9 7 ) . R o l e I n a d e q u a c y a n d R o l e O v e r - q u a l i f i c a t i o n Two t y p e s o f r o l e s t r e s s t h a t h a v e r e c e i v e d m i n i m a l a t t e n t i o n 15 i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) a r e r o l e i n a d e q u a c y and r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n . R o l e i n a d e q u a c y o c c u r s when an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s h e r r e s o u r c e s a nd s k i l l s a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e demands o f t h e j o b . T h i s s t r e s s was f e l t by 83 p e r c e n t ( 3 9 / 4 7 ) o f t h e n u r s i n g d i r e c t o r s s t u d i e d by A r n d t and L a e g a r ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e c o n v e r s e o f r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , r o l e o v e r q u a T i f i c a t i o n e x i s t s w h e n e v e r an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s t h a t she has r e s o u r c e s i n e x c e s s o f t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t r o l e o v e r -q u a l i f i c a t i o n w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t as an i n d i v i d u a l . ' s k n o w l e d g e i n h e r f i e l d i s w i d e n i n g , due t o i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h e s t o h e a l t h c a r e . R o l e C o n f l i c t a n d R o l e O v e r l o a d R o l e c o n f l i c t a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . R o l e c o n f l i c t i s a c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h e x i s t i n g r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e c o m p e t i n g o r m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . R o l e o v e r l o a d e x i s t s when a n i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h e x c e s s i v e demands i n t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o h e r . W h i l e s i m i l a r , t h e s e two r o l e d i l e m m a s a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e s c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by t h e d i s c r e p a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d r e f e r s t o t h o s e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d by t i m e . S i n c e t h e y o f t e n o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e y w i l l be subsumed u n d e r t h e u m b r e l l a o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h e c o n c e p t o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l i s i n v o l v e d i n m u l t i p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h d i v e r s e p a r t n e r s , t h a t i s , has many r o l e s . S e i b e r (1974) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e more r o l e s a p e r s o n a c c u m u l a t e s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f r u n n i n g o u t o f t i m e t o f u l f i l l a l l h e r o b l i g a t i o n s t o o t h e r s ( r o l e o v e r l o a d ) and t h e 16 and t h e l a r g e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f c o n f r o n t i n g r o l e p a r t n e r s whose e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y ( r o l e c o n f l i c t ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t w i d e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e a g e s o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , t h e y a r e a l l a d u l t s who have a c c u m u l a t e d m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o o t h e r s : f r i e n d s , f a m i l i e s , e m p l o y e r s , a n d t h e ~ community. Many a u t h o r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t r o l e s t r a i n i n c r e a s e s as r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s become more numerous and d i v e r s e ( G r e e n e a nd O r g a n , 1973; J o h n s o n and G r a e n , 1973; S n o e k , 1966; Whyte, 1 9 4 6 ) . One may w e l l a s k why an a d u l t s t u d e n t w o u l d a t t e m p t t o c o m b i n e s u c h d i v e r s e r o l e s a s p a r e n t , w i f e , community w o r k e r , s t u d e n t , a n d e m p l o y e e , d e l i b e r a t e l y a d d i n g t e n s i o n a n d f r u s t r a t i o n t o h e r l i f e . Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ; d i s c o u n t i n g t h e n o t i o n h e l d by some t h a t a l l a d u l t s t u d e n t s who a t t e m p t t o p e r f o r m i n m u l t i p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m d y s f u n c t i o n a l c e r e b r a t i o n . One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e r e w a r d s o f m u l t i p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o u t w e i g h t h e c o s t s . The s e c o n d p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t m u l t i p l e r o l e s c a n s e r v e as v e r y p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l b u f f e r s . S e i b e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) i n a t h e o r y on t h e b e n e f i t s o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n , e n u m e r a t e s a number o f r e w a r d s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e s e i n c l u d e s u c h g r a t i f y i n g r e s u l t s a s p e r s o n a l i t y e n r i c h m e n t , i n c r e a s e d p r i v i l e g e s , a n d i m p r o v e d s t a t u s s e c u r i t y ( t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n c o m p e n s a t e f o r f a i l u r e i n one s p h e r e by f a l l i n g b a c k on o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) ( S e i b e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . M u l t i p l e r o l e s c a n a l s o s e r v e as s o c i a l b u f f e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , a s t u d e n t may e x a g g e r a t e t h e demands o f h e r s t u d i e s a s an e x c u s e f o r n o t f u l f i l l i n g f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s . Or s h e may j u s t i f y an a b s e n c e f r o m c l a s s as n e c e s s a r y t o f u l f i l l f a m i l i a l d u t i e s . P r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e a d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e v i e w e d as o c c u p y i n g a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g 17 number o f r o l e s , t h i s k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r i s o f t e n p e r m i t t e d ( S e i b e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . S u c h s o c i a l s u p p o r t s as a d m i r a t i o n and r e s p e c t a r e o f t e n e x t e n d e d t o t h e p e r s o n w i t h numerous r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w h e r e a s h e r c o u n t e r p a r t i s deemed n a r r o w and l i m i t e d and may e v e n be t h e s u b j e c t o f r i d i c u l e . S a r b i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) has n o t e d t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f a l a r g e r o l e r e p e r t o i r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r m e n t a l h e a l t h . From t h i s f o c u s s e d l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t r o l e s t r e s s i s t h o u g h t t o h a v e b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s , and t h e i n f i n i t e v a r i a t i o n among p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r e s s , h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s t o s t r e s s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . S t r e s s Management H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) has n o t e d t h a t as r o l e s t r a i n i n c r e a s e s , p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l l i k e l y d e c r e a s e . The r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t i s n o t t o t a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d by r o l e s t r a i n . A t t h e v e r y minimum, s h e has b e e n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h e r d e g r e e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e m u s t e x i s t i d e n t i f i a b l e m e c h a n i s m s by w h i c h s h e manages t h e r o l e s t r a i n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s h e r r o l e as g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have p r o p o s e d t h a t a c t i v i t y o f a n y k i n d -m o t o r o r m e n t a l - i s e s s e n t i a l f o r c o p i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n ( G a l and L a z a r u s , 1975; G r i n k e r and S p i e g e l , 1945; V i s t o s k y , Hamburg, G o s s , a n d L e b o v i t s , 1 9 6 1 ) . O t h e r a u t h o r s h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d e q u a t e a n t i c i p a t o r y p r e p a r a t i o n i n a l l o w i n g an i n d i v i d u a l a s e n s e o f c o n t r o l and m a s t e r y o v e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s (Hamburg and Adams, 1967; 18 J a n i s , 1962; M e c h a n i c , 1 9 6 2 ) . F i v e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s t r e s s management w i l l be r e v i e w e d ; a l l o f w h i c h may be u s e d i n p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e s t r e s s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l o r a s a r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s w h i l e e n r o l l e d . T h e s e modes may be u s e d s i n g l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n . T h e s e m e thods i n c l u d e t h r e e s u g g e s t e d by Goode ( 1 9 6 0 ) : r o l e r e d u c t i o n , r o l e e x t e n s i o n , and r o l e b a r g a i n i n g . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o n c u r s w i t h t h e s e and a d v a n c e s one more, w h i c h i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by C a p l a n ( 1 9 6 4 ) : p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . A f i f t h t y p e has been a d d e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r and h e r c o l l e a g u e s : p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . P r o b l e m S o l v i n g P r o b l e m s o l v i n g i n v o l v e s p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e s o l u t i o n o f a p r o b l e m . W r i g h t s m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o p e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s a d j u s t m e n t , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e e s s e n t i a l p r i m a r y s t a g e o f p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g : . , t h e a p p r a i s a l . C r i s i s t h e o r i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h i s w i l l o n l y o c c u r i f t h e i m m e d i a t e s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y i s i n t e r p r e t e d a s a c h a l l e n g e by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 1978; R a p o p o r t , 1962; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 9 ) n o t e s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s may p r o g r e s s i n p a r t , o r e n t i r e l y a t an i n c o n s c i o u s l e v e l . T h a t i s , one c a n a p p r a i s e a s i t u a t i o n and e v a l u a t e t h e c o n s q u e n c e s o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h o u t f u l l y b e i n g aware t h a t one i s s e a r c h i n g f o r a s o l u t i o n . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e w r i t i n g s o f c r i s i s t h e o r i s t s who m a i n t a i n t h a t i f a p e r s o n has u s e d a m ethod o f c o p i n g i n t h e p a s t w h i c h has been r e p e a t e d l y s u c c e s s f u l , t h e m ethod becomes h a b i t u a l w i t h t h e u s e r ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 1978; 19 C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e t h e n i n p a r t , d e t e r m i n e s t h e c h o i c e o f " a c t i o n i n a new s i t O a t i o n : • ; A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k ( 1 9 7 8 ) n o t e t h a t d e p e n d i n g upon p a s t e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t e d t o t h e i m m e d i a t e p r o b l e m , some p e o p l e a r e more a d e p t a t f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s t h a n o t h e r s . From s u b s e q u e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r f e e d b a c k , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t h e n e v a l u a t e s h e r a c t i o n , a s s e s s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and f a v o u r a b i l i t y o f h e r b e h a v i o u r ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 8 ) . R o l e R e d u c t i o n Goode ( 1 9 6 0 ) i n h i s t h e o r y o f r o l e s t r a i n , c i t e s r o l e r e d u c t i o n as t h e m o s t o b v i o u s means by w h i c h a p e r s o n c a n a l l e v i a t e t e n s i o n . By d e f i n i t i o n , r o l e s t r a i n o c c u r s i n r e s p o n s e t o r o l e s t r e s s . I f t h e number o f r o l e s a r e r e d u c e d , t h e s t r e s s i s s i m i l a r l y d i m i n i s h e d . In m a n a g i n g r o l e s t r a i n w h i c h has. o c c u r r e d due t o r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n , r o l e r e d u c t i o n may be t h e f a v o u r e d c h o i c e . B o t h Goode (.1960) and H a r d y ( 1 9 7 9 ) a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t some p o s i t i o n s i n l i f e c a n be a b a n d o n e d more e a s i l y t h a n o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r o l e s o f p a r e n t and wage e a r n e r a r e r e l a t i v e l y o b l i g a t o r y r o l e s ( H a r d y , 1978)., Some r o l e s a r e more c r u c i a l t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - i m a g e t h a n o t h e r s and i f c u r t a i l e d may damage h e r s e l f -e s t e e m . A p e r s o n w i s h i n g t o e x c e l i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a r e e r may d i r e c t more e n e r g y t o w a r d c a r e e r g o a l s t h a n t o w a r d s f a m i l y - r e l a t e d e v e n t s ( H a r d y , 1 9 7 8 ) . R o l e E x t e n s i o n By i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f commitments t o o t h e r s , an i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e n a b l e t o o f f e r t h e s e a s an e x c u s e f o r n o t f u l f i l l i n g 20 o t h e r o b l i g a t i o n s ( G o o d e , 1 9 6 0 ) . S e i b e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) n o t e s t h a t a d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n p e r m i t t e d ample l a t i t u d e f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y a r e v i e w e d as c o p i n g w i t h m u l t i p l e demands. However, t h e u s e o f t h i s m e thod seems s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d as an i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t i n d e f i n i t e l y e x p a n d h e r r o l e s y s t e m . A t some f i n i t e p o i n t , t h e s t r a i n o f m u l t i p l e o b l i g a t i o n s w i l l o u t w e i g h t h e p r i v i l e g e s . A n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on r o l e e x t e n s i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be n o t e d i s t h a t i t may be u s e d a s a d i v e r s i o n a r y t a c t i c . C h o d o f f , F r i e d m a n and Hamburg ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s o f l e u k e m i c c h i l d r e n r e d u c e d t h e i r a n x i e t y by k n i t t i n g , s e w i n g , and t a k i n g l o n g w a l k s . The i d e a t h a t u n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y c a n h a v e a r e l a x i n g e f f e c t i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f G a l and L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 5 ) . R o l e B a r g a i n i n g R o l e b a r g a i n i n g i s a u s e f u l s t r a t e g y f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l who f e e l s s h e c a n c o m m u n i c a t e o p e n l y w i t h o t h e r s a b o u t h e r e x p e c t e d p e r f o r m a n c e i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . In t h i s m a nner, s h e c a n d e f i n e w hat w i l l be e x p e c t e d o f h e r and l i m i t o r r e d u c e h e r o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g a n y a c c o m p a n y i n g s t r a i n . S i n c e i t i s a p r o c e s s o f n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r , an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s f r e e r t o b a r g a i n i n t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e b a l a n c e o f power i s e q u i t a b l e . R u b i n and Brown ( 1 9 7 5 ) f o u n d t h a t i n c o n d i t i o n s o f u n e q u a l power, t h e r e e x i s t s a t e n d e n c y t o e x p l o i t t h e l e s s p o w e r f u l b a r g a i n e r . T h e s e same a u t h o r s , R u b i n and Brown ( 1 9 7 5 ) i n s u m m a r i z i n g s t u d i e s i n t h i s f i e l d , s u g g e s t t h a t a b s t r a c t t h i n k e r s a r e more . c o - o p e r a t i v e i n b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a n c o n c r e t e t h i n k e r s and t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h a h i g h n e e d t o a c h i e v e t e n d t o b e h a v e more c o m p e t i t i v e l y t h a n t h o s e w i t h a h i g h n e e d f o r a f f i l i a t i o n . 21 P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y G a l a n d L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i n t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f a c t i v i t y i n s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s , n o t e t h a t p e o p l e e x h i b i t e x c i t a t i o n o f t h e s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m when u n d e r s t r e s s , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y a b l e t o ' t a k e f l i g h t o r f i g h t . ' Norms and o b l i g a t i o n s may p r e c l u d e s u c h d i r e c t a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e a means o f r e l e a s i n g t h e t e n s i o n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s m o b i l i z a t i o n must be f o u n d . S t r e n u o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o f f e r s t h e body an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c h a r g e i t s e n e r g y , r e d u c i n g p a r a l y z i n g t e n s i o n a n d a n x i e t y . S a r b i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) r e f e r s t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a s a ' r e l e a s e r ' w h i c h c a n m o m e n t a r i l y a t t e n u a t e r o l e s t r a i n . T h i s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by S e l y e ( 1 9 7 4 ) who has c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t r e s s i n t h e m u s c u l o s k e l e t a l s y s t e m c a u s e s r e l a x a t i o n o f s t r e s s on t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m . In summary, s i x t y p e s o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e have been r e v i e w e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e s e s t r e s s e s p r o d u c e v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f r o l e s t r a i n i n an i n d i v i d u a l , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e p e r s o n ' s u n i q u e p e r c e p t i o n and r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s . T h r e e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r v a r i a t i o n i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n a n d r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s i n a new r o l e h a v e been c i t e d : p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , a nd t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f a s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e s n e t w o r k . F i v e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management h a v e been r e v i e w e d , e n c o m p a s s i n g t h r e e s t r a t e g i e s d e r i v e d f r o m r o l e t h e o r y : r o l e r e d u c t i o n , r o l e e x t e n s i o n , a n d r o l e b a r g a i n i n g ; one m e t h o d e m p h a s i z e d i n 22 c r i s i s t h e o r y : p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , and f i n a l l y , one mode s u g g e s t e d by t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n i f two s a m p l e s o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , drawn f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1974 t o 1979, e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t amounts a n d k i n d s o f r o l e s t r e s s . The m e t h o d s u s e d by e a c h s a m p l e t o c o p e w i t h r o l e s t r e s s w e r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . Due t o t h e d e a r t h o f l i t e r a t u r e on M a s t e r ' s s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s t o s t r e s s , an e x p l o r a t o r y , d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was s e l e c t e d . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s f o u r a s p e c t s o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h i s s t u d y : t o o l d e v e l o p m e n t , s a m p l e s e l e c t i o n , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , a n d d a t a a n a l y s i s . T o o l D e v e l o p m e n t A s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y . The g u i d e i n c l u d e s o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s and f i x e d - a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . The c l o s e d q u e s t i o n s and s c a l e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e c o m p a r a b l e d a t a a n d t h e o p e n - e n d e d o n e s w e r e i n c l u d e d t o a l l o w f l e x i b i l i t y a n d d e p t h i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' a n s w e r s ( K e r l i n g e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f o u r a r e a s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' l i v e s w h i l e e n r o l l e d a s M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 23 24 P a r t 1 o f t h e i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a b o u t t h e s t u d e n t s a nd t h e amount o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i c h t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on a p o s s i b l e c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r w i t h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d / o r V a n c o u v e r . S a r b i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) has n o t e d t h a t r o l e t r a n s i t i o n i s l e s s s t r e s s f u l i n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s . P a r t 2 ( E x h i b i t A) was i n c l u d e d t o i d e n t i f y t y p e s a nd amounts o f r o l e s t r e s s w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d as M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r u t i l i z e d d e f i n i t i o n s f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x r o l e s t r e s s e s s t u d i e d a nd c l a r i f i e d t h e s e w i t h s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s b a s e d on h e r r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d o b s e r v a t i o n o f h e r own and h e r c o l l e a g u e s ' e x p e r i e n c e s a s M a s t e r ' s s t u d e n t s . The f u n c t i o n o f P a r t 2 ( E x h i b i t B) was t o i d e n t i f y t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h f i v e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t r e s s management w e r e u s e d . The methods o f s t r e s s management w h i c h were s e l e c t e d were o b t a i n e d by a p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d f o r . P a r t 2 ( E x h i b i t A ) . P a r t 2 ( Q u e s t i o n 4) a i m e d a t d i s c o v e r i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . F i n a l l y , P a r t 2 ( Q u e s t i o n 5) was i n c l u d e d t o d i s c o v e r any f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e s t r e s s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t h ad n o t p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was e x a m i n e d by t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e members and an e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t . M i n o r r e v i s i o n s w e r e made and t h e t o o l was p i l o t - t e s t e d on t h r e e v o l u n t e e r s : two w e r e c o l l e a g u e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , 25 one a f a c u l t y member. The p i l o t t e s t s were done i n an e f f o r t t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a n d t o h e l p e n s u r e t h e t o o l ' s r e l i a b i l i t y a n d c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y . Some m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s i n w o r d i n g were t h e n c o m p l e t e d . Sample S e l e c t i o n Two c r i t e r i a o f e l i g i b i l i t y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d o f i m p o r t a n c e i n s e l e c t i n g t h e two s a m p l e s f r o m t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1974 t o 1979. By n o t i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n 1980 and 1981, t h e r e s e a r c h e r a v o i d e d i n t e r v i e w i n g h e r p e e r s , w h i c h i t was f e l t m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d h e r o b j e c t i v i t y . S e c o n d l y , i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e s i d e w i t h i n two h o u r s commuting d i s t a n c e o f V a n c o u v e r , s i n c e f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e d e s i r a b l e due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a . G r a d u a t e Sample Between 1974 and 1979, t h e r e w e r e 65 g r a d u a t e s f r o m t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O f t h i s number, 41 w e r e b e l i e v e d t o be r e s i d i n g i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a s a s shown by a f i l e s e a r c h f o r t h e i r l a t e s t known a d d r e s s e s . T h i r t y - f o u r o f t h e s e g r a d u a t e s w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , s e v e n were members o f t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S i n c e a p o s s i b l e b i a s , f o r which, t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t know t h e e x t e n t o r d i r e c t i o n , may h a v e e x i s t e d among t h e f a c u l t y , i t was d e c i d e d t o d i v i d e t h e g r a d u a t e s i n t o two s u b - g r o u p s : c ommunity and UBC F a c u l t y . F o u r o f e a c h g r o u p w e r e d e s i r e d t o f o r m a t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e o f e i g h t g r a d u a t e s . 26 L e t t e r s o f c o n s e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) were s e n t t o f i v e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g F a c u l t y , r a n d o m l y c h o s e n f r o m t h e s e v e n i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . F o u r o f t h e s e l e t t e r s w e r e s i g n e d and r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . C o n s e n t i n g f a c u l t y w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t e r v i e w e d . A t o t a l o f 13 l e t t e r s o f c o n s e n t were m a i l e d t o M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g g r a d u a t e s e m p l o y e d i n t h e community. The 13 names were r a n d o m l y drawn f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f 34. E i g h t l e t t e r s o f c o n s e n t w ere s i g n e d a nd r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ; t h e f i r s t f o u r r e c e i v e d were l a t e r i n t e r v i e w e d . T h r e e l e t t e r s w e r e r e t u r n e d ' a d d r e s s unknown', a n d two w e r e n o t r e t u r n e d a t a l l . N o n - G r a d u a t e Sample A t o t a l o f 29 p e o p l e h ad w i t h d r a w n o r t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m b e t w e e n 1974 a n d 1979. Of t h e s e , a f i l e s e a r c h showed 18 a s r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h i s s t u d y . A s a m p l e s i z e o f e i g h t n o n - g r a d u a t e s was d e s i r e d . A t o t a l o f 18 l e t t e r s e x p l a i n i n g t h e s t u d y a n d r e q u e s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e m a i l e d t o t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . When no a n s w e r s had been r e c e i v e d i n two w e e k s , a s e c o n d m a i l i n g o c c u r r e d . T h i s s e c o n d m a i l i n g b r o u g h t no u s e f u l r e s u l t s : f i v e l e t t e r s w e r e r e t u r n e d s t a m p e d ' a d d r e s s u n k n o w n 1 . The r e s e a r c h e r , w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f h e r c o m m i t t e e , t e l e p h o n e d t h e r e m a i n i n g 13 p e o p l e t o i n q u i r e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y h ad r e c e i v e d h e r l e t t e r s . Of t h e 11 t h e r e s e a r c h e r was a b l e t o r e a c h by t e l e p h o n e , s e v e n c o n s e n t e d a nd s u b s e q u e n t l y s i g n e d l e t t e r s o f c o n s e n t a nd 27 were i n t e r v i e w e d . T h r e e p e o p l e r e f u s e d , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y d i d n o t w i s h t o d i s c u s s a n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e ; one c o n s e n t e d a nd l a t e r w i t h d r e w , a n d two p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s a m p l e o f s e v e n n o n -g r a d u a t e s w h i c h was a t t a i n e d was one s h o r t o f t h e d e s i r e d number. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n The i n t e r v i e w g u i d e was u s e d i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d manner w i t h a l l 15 r e s p o n d e n t s . A l l t h e i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e - r e c o r d e d a nd t h e r e c o r d i n g s t r a n s c r i b e d v e r b a t i m . The i n t e r v i e w s r a n g e d i n l e n g t h f r o m 30 t o 90 m i n u t e s and were c o n d u c t e d a t a p l a c e a n d t i m e c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . N i n e i n t e r -v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w h i c h were l o c a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r , S u r r e y , W h i t e Rock, D e l t a a nd L a n g l e y . T h r e e were h e l d i n t h e homes o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a nd t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e were c o n d u c t e d i n t h e home o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y was e n h a n c e d by c o n s i s t e n t u s e o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w g u i d e by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . D a t a A n a l y s i s The t r a n s c r i b e d d a t a f r o m e a c h i n t e r v i e w was o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n s t r e s s p e r c e p t i o n , r o l e s t r e s s e s , c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s e s , s t r e s s management.methods, and r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s . A l l f i n d i n g s w e r e s u m m a r i z e d and t a b u l a t e d by t h e t e c h n i q u e o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s w h i c h a i m s a t d e s c r i b i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e l y , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y ( B e r e l s o n , 1 9 5 2 ) . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s s u c h a s f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s a nd m e a s u r e s o f v a r i a t i o n were a l s o a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a . The f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 4. CHAPTER 4 RESULTS The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s i x s e c t i o n s . •The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e two s a m p l e s , n o t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s a m p l e s a t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m . T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r e s s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n r e p o r t s t h e r o l e s t r e s s e s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s u b j e c t s . The f o u r t h d i v i s i o n r e l a t e s c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s e s . The f i f t h s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h m e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management. F i n a l l y , t h e s i x t h s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s b o t h p e r c e n t a g e s a n d p r o p o r t i o n s f o r e a s e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . However, t h e r e a d e r i s c a u t i o n e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h c a r e a s t h e t o t a l s i z e o f t h e two s a m p l e s i s s m a l l : 15 s u b j e c t s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e s F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i t y i n r e p o r t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l r e f e r t o two s a m p l e s : a g r a d u a t e g r o u p a n d a n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . The g r a d u a t e g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s ; f o u r o f whom a r e e m p l o y e d a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as f a c u l t y a n d f o u r o f whom work e l s e w h e r e i n t h e community. S i n c e no m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s were 28 29 f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e s e two s u b - g r o u p s , t h e y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a s o n e : a s a m p l e o r g r o u p o f g r a d u a t e s . The n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s ; t h r e e who w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e p r o g r a m and f o u r who t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o a n o t h e r f i e l d o f g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . As w i t h t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , no m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t e d s o t h a t t h e s e s u b j e c t s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as o n e : a s a m p l e o r g r o u p o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s . A l l f i f t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s were f e m a l e , r a n g i n g i n a g e f r o m 27 y e a r s t o 56 y e a r s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . In a number o f w a y s , t h e g r a d u a t e a n d n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p s w e r e s i m i l a r a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c l u d e a g e , y e a r o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e g r a d u a t i o n , and l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r . The two g r o u p s d i f f e r e d a l o n g s e v e r a l p a r a m e t e r s w h i c h a r e : l o c a t i o n o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e e d u c a t i o n , s t u d e n t s t a t u s i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , l e n g t h o f t i m e e n r o l l e d i n t h e p r o g r a m , and s i m u l t a n e o u s r o l e s . A t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t , t h e a g e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r a n g e d f r o m 22 t o 45 y e a r s i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p and f r o m 24 t o 39 y e a r s i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . The mean age a t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t f o r g r a d u a t e s was 32.9 y e a r s and f o r n o n - g r a d u a t e s 33 y e a r s . T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 w i t h t h e d a t e s o f e n r o l l m e n t a n d g r a d u a t i o n o r t e r m i n a t i o n f r o m t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m . 30 Y e a r o f B a c c a l a u r e a t e G r a d u a t i o n The f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t t h e u n i v e r s i t y a n d y e a r o f b a c c a l a u r e a t e g r a d u a t i o n f o r b o t h g r a d u a t e a nd n o n - g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s . The y e a r o f g r a d u a t i o n o f t h e g r a d u a t e s r a n g e s f r o m 1960 t o 1975. T h e y e a r o f g r a d u a t i o n f o r n o n - g r a d u a t e s s p a n s t h e y e a r s 1960 t o 1976. TABLE 2 UNIVERSITY AND YEAR OF BACCALAUREATE GRADUATION OF RESPONDENTS GRADUATES NON-GRADUATES S u b j e c t U n i v e r s i t y o f Y e a r S u b j e c t U n i v e r s i t y o f Y e a r number B a c c a l a u r e a t e o f number B a c c a l a u r e a t e o f G r a d u a t i o n G r a d u a t i o n G r a d u a t i o n G r a d u a t i o n 1 W e s t e r n O n t a r i o 1960 9 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1976 2 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1975 10 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1976 3 O t t a w a 1975 11 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1970 4 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1968 12 C h i l e 1967 5 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1966 13 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1974 6 M a r y l a n d 1969 14 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1960 7 M c G i l l 1963 15 C a l i f o r n i a 1971 8 M c G i l l 1970 L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e i n V a n c o u v e r O f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 25 p e r c e n t (.2/8) had l i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r 31 f o r l e s s t h a n s i x months p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t , as had 28 p e r c e n t (.2/7) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . F i f t y p e r c e n t ( 4 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s had r e s i d e d i n V a n c o u v e r l o n g e r t h a n 10 y e a r s a nd 57 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s had done s o as w e l l . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a By r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 2, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t more o f t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e g r o u p w e r e f a m i l i a r w i t h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a n t h o s e i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p . O f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s , 71.4 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 7 ) had g r a d u a t e d f r o m The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e a r l i e r w i t h t h e i r B a c h e l o r o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g d e g r e e s . O n l y 37.5 p e r c e n t (.3/8) . o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p h a d done s o . S t u d e n t S t a t u s W i t h i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 75 p e r c e n t (.6/8) were f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o g r a m ; w h e r e a s o n l y 43 p e r c e n t (.3/7) s t u d e n t s i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p h e l d f u l l - t i m e s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t . L e n g t h o f T i m e E n r o l l e d i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g P r o g r a m The g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e p r o g r a m f o r a minimum o f two y e a r s (.50 p e r c e n t [ 4 / 8 ] c o m p l e t e d t h e i r d e g r e e s i.n t h i s t i m e ) t o a maximum o f f i v e y e a r s . . The n o n - g r a d u a t e s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e p r o g r a m f o r a p e r i o d o f f o u r . m o n t h s t o two y e a r s ( 4 2 . 8 p e r c e n t [ 3 / 7 ] r e m a i n e d i n t h e ' p r o g r a m f o r two y e a r s ) . T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s t h e y e a r o f e n r o l l m e n t a n d t h e y e a r o f g r a d u a t i o n o r t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t , as w e l l a s t h e a g e s o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . 32 TABLE 3 RESPONDENTS' AGES AT TIME OF ENROLLMENT IN MASTER'S OF SCIENCE IN NURSING PROGRAM AND DATES OF ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION OR TERMINATION GRADUATES NON-GRADUATES S u b j e c t Age a t Y e a r o f Y e a r o f S u b j e c t Age a t Y e a r o f Y e a r o f number e n r o l l - e n r o l l - G r a d u a - number e n r o l l - e n r o l l - t e r m i n -ment i n ment t i o n ment i n ment a t i o n y e a r s y e a r s 1 40 1976 1978 9 24 1978 1979 2 22 1975 1977 10 26 1978 1978 3 26 1975 1979 11 36 1975 1976 4 45 1970 1975 12 37 1978 1979 5 30 1973 1975 13 36 1976 1978 6 26 1974 1976 14 39 1977 1979 7 43 1975 1978 15 33 1974 1976 8 31 1974 1977 S i m u l t a n e o u s R o l e s T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. Of t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) were m a r r i e d as c o m p a r e d w i t h 85.7 p e r c e n t (.6/7) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . One o f t h e g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i r s t f i g u r e was d i v o r c e d between h e r f i r s t a n d s e c o n d y e a r s o f t h e p r o g r a m . O f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) w e r e m o t h e r s . Of t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p 57 p e r c e n t (.4/7) w e r e m o t h e r s . 33 T A BLE 4 PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ENGAGED IN SIMULTANEOUS ROLES ROLE P e r c e n t a g e o f GRADUATES (n-j) P e r c e n t a g e o f NON-GRADUATES ( n 2 ) WIFE 62.5 85.7 MOTHER 25.0 57.0 EMPLOYEE 37.5 85.7 MEMBER OF GRADUATE 75.0 0.0 CURRICULUM COMMITTEE n 2 = 7 In r e g a r d t o employment w h i l e e n r o l l e d a s M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , t h e f i g u r e s show a g r e a t e r d i v e r g e n c e . W i t h i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 27.5 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 8 ) were e m p l o y e d : two p a r t - t i m e and one i n a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n . I n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 85.7 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 7 ) w ere e m p l o y e d : f o u r i n ' f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s , one i n a p a r t - t i m e j o b . T h r e e o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s began new, f u l l - t i m e j o b s w i t h i n one month o f t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s a s p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s . O n l y one r e s p o n d e n t i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p was n o t m a r r i e d o r a m o t h e r o r e m p l o y e d f o r a s a l a r y . One n o n - g r a d u a t e a l s o f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h a t i s , 13 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 1 5 ) o f t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s w e r e s i n g l e , f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t m a r i t a l o r e mployment o b l i g a t i o n s . 34 Of t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 75 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 8 ) were i n v o l v e d i n w o r k i n g on t h e same c o m m i t t e e d u r i n g t h e i r y e a r s a s s t u d e n t s . T h e c o m m i t t e e was t h e G r a d u a t e C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e w h i c h met f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e h o u r s w e e k l y . None o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s s a t on t h i s c o m m i t t e e ; 28 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 7 ) w e r e e n g a g e d i n c o m m i t t e e w o r k o w h i c h was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t . I n d i v i d u a l V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n Wide v a r i a t i o n was f o u n d among t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s f u l n e s s o f t h e i r l i v e s d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m . S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t ( 1 0 / 1 5 ) s t a t e d t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h l e v e l o f s t r e s s ; w h i l e 13 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 1 5 ) f e l t a v e r y l o w l e v e l o f s t r e s s . T h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l l i n b e t w e e n t h e s e two e n d s o f t h e s c a l e . Two o f t h e y o u n g e r g r a d u a t e s s t u d i e d ( b o t h a g e d 26 y e a r s a t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t ) f e l t t h a t t h e amount o f s t r e s s was a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e : T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o g r a m I r e a l l y n e v e r f e l t a l o t o f s t r e s s , I know t h e r e were some g i r l s who r e a l l y d i d f e e l s t r e s s e d , b u t n o t me. I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e p r o g r a m was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l . A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , f a l l t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s o f two o l d e r r e s p o n d e n t s : I t h i n k i t was one o f t h e m o s t s t r e s s f u l t h i n g s I have e v e r d one ! A s t u d e n t i s n e v e r p r e p a r e d f o r t h e s t r e s s e s t h e y f a c e , n o b o d y t e l l s y o u t h e way i t i s . Y o u ' r e s u p p o s e d t o go i n t h e r e a nd s o r t o f f i g u r e i t a l l o u t f o r y o u r s e l f ; i t ' s s o r t o f s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t . 35 Two p a r t i c i p a n t s ( b o t h m a r r i e d , e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e , a nd r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p ) commented on t h e i r h i g h t o l e r a n c e f o r s t r e s s : I n e v e r p e r c e i v e d t h e s t r e s s as a n e g a t i v e t h i n g , b e c a u s e I t e n d t o l i k e w o r k i n g u n d e r s t r e s s . I t s o r t o f m o t i v a t e s me t o go and I n e v e r p e r c e i v e d i t as n e g a t i v e , i t was j u s t a l w a y s t h e r e . I was a l w a y s d e a l i n g i n s t r e s s b e c a u s e e v e n t o g e t away f r o m work t o g e t t o my l e c t u r e s , p u t me i n c o n f l i c t . I i m a g i n e , now, i t was c o n s t a n t c o n f l i c t . B u t I l i v e on t h a t , I k i n d o f l i k e s t r e s s and i f i t ' s n o t t h e r e , I c r e a t e i t . S o , i f t h e r e w a s n ' t a n y , I w o u l d h a v e c o n s i d e r e d i t [ h e r l i f e w h i l e e n r o l l e d ] v e r y d u l l . A number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s , r e l a t e d an e x t e n s i v e r a n g e o f p h y s i c a l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d was r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s t r e s s w h i c h t h e y were e x p e r i e n c i n g : I g o t d e p r e s s e d s o m e t i m e s and had a low e n e r g y l e v e l b e c a u s e o f e v e r y t h i n g g o i n g o n . I w a s n ' t s l e e p i n g w e l l - I was w o r r i e d a b o u t my m a r k s . I c r i e d a l o t d u r i n g g r a d s c h o o l - i t r e a l l y h e l p e d me. I ' d have a h e a d a c h e s o m e t i m e s , t h a t w o u l d i n d i c a t e my s t r e s s l e v e l i n a d a y . T h a t m i g h t be my way o f s h o w i n g s t r e s s . I c o u l d r i p t h e w a l l s o u t i n my h o u s e w h e n e v e r I f e l t l i k e i t . I r a n t e d and r a v e d , j u s t f l y o f f t h e h a n d l e and t h e n I ' d be o k a y . In t h e f a c e o f s u c h w i d e s p r e a d v a r i a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t o f s t r e s s , t h e r e a d e r i s c a u t i o n e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h c a r e a s t h e p o s s i b l e h a r m f u l n e s s o f s t r e s s i s u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s j u d g e m e n t o f i t as s u c h . 36 R o l e S t r e s s e s F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c l a r i t y i n r e p o r t i n g t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e number o f f r e q u e n c y c a t e g o r i e s as shown on t h e s c a l e s i n E x h i b i t s A a n d B ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) h a s b e e n r e d u c e d f r o m f o u r t o two. " N e v e r " a n d " r a r e l y " have b e e n c o n d e n s e d i n t o " i n f r e q u e n t " ; " o f t e n " a n d " a l m o s t a l w a y s " have been e q u a t e d w i t h " f r e q u e n t " . The p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s , i n b o t h t h e g r a d u a t e and t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p s , r e p o r t i n g f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f r o l e s t r e s s e s i s . p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1. The r o l e s t r e s s e s i n c l u d e : r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , r o l e c o n f l i c t , a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d . In a l 1 a r e a s a g r e a t e r number o f n o n - g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d f r e q u e n t s t r e s s V t h a n g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s . R o l e A m b i g u i t y W i t h i n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) p e r c e i v e d r o l e a m b i g u i t y as a f r e q u e n t s t r e s s . In t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p 42 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 7 ) e x p e r i e n c e d i t as a f r e q u e n t s t r e s s . One n o n - g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t e x p l a i n e d i t t h i s way: The e x p e c t a t i o n s were c l e a r t o some o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e c l e a r t o some - b u t I - I d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d them. I w r o t e my own o b j e c t i v e s f i v e , t i m e s and t h e y s t i l l w e r e n ' t a c c e p t a b l e ; f i n a l l y t h e p r o f e s s o r w r o t e them f o r me. I f o u n d i t v e r y c o n f u s i n g - I t h o u g h t I knew how t o w r i t e o b j e c t i v e s . Two g r a d u a t e s f r o m t h e p r o g r a m d e s c r i b e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s : I was g e t t i n g m e s s a g e s . . . T h e r e was t h i s u n d e r c u r r e n t o f h a n d i n g i n an a s s i g n m e n t , i t w a s n ' t s a t i s f a c t o r y , b u t y o u w e r e n ' t q u i t e s u r e why, and I f e l t t h a t was an e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t I was n e v e r a b l e t o d e a l w i t h o p e n l y , no m a t t e r how h a r d I t r i e d . 37 0 1001 [==3 Graduate group (^=8) liillil Non-graduate group (n2=7) 75 h .5. la 3 to a) u 50 h 25 ROLE ROLE ROLE ROLE OVER- ROLE ROLE AMBIGUITY INCONGRUITY INADEQUACY QUALIFICATION CONFLICT OVERLOAD Type of Role Stress FIGURE 1 : PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS REPORTING FREQUENT OCCURRENCE OF ROLE STRESSES 38 I t h o u g h t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f a c u l t y w ere n e v e r v e r y c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d . T h e y were c l e a r l y w r i t t e n , b u t t h e y w e r e w r i t t e n t o meet t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f someone i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . I w o u l d have l i k e d more c l a r i t y on how one was e x p e c t e d t o f u l f i l l t h em, g i v e n t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y In t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) e x p e r i e n c e d r o l e i n c o n -g r u i t y a s a f r e q u e n t s t r e s s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h ,71 p e r c e n t .(5/7) i n t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e g r o u p . One g r a d u a t e o f t h e p r o g r a m r e l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : I w a n t e d more e x p e r i e n c e i n g r o u p and f a m i l y t h e r a p y s i t u a t i o n s a n d s a t down w i t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t a n d w r o t e a l e t t e r t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g . I was t o l d i f I d i d n ' t l i k e w h a t was a v a i l a b l e , I c o u l d l e a v e . I knew t h e d i v e r s i t y i n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t I w a n t e d was o u t t h e r e , s o i t was e x t r e m e l y f r u s t r a t i n g ! A s e c o n d g r a d u a t e g a v e t h i s a c c o u n t : I was r e q u i r e d - s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d - t o d r o p an e l e c t i v e c o u r s e b e c a u s e t h e y t h o u g h t I was g o i n g t o f a i l i t . I d i d n ' t n e e d i t - i t was an o p t i o n . I t h i n k i t s h o u l d be up t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y t a k e s o m e t h i n g . Two n o n - g r a d u a t e s r e c e i v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r i m p r e s s i o n s : I f e l t t h e r e was c o n f l i c t i n v a l u i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s v a l u e s o r a t t i t u d e s o r i n r e c o g n i z i n g them. I w o u l d s a y t h a t we w e r e g i v e n t h e f e e l i n g t h a t , y e s we c o u l d s t r u c t u r e t h i n g s i n o u r own way, h o w e v e r , i f y o u d i d n ' t s t r u c t u r e I t i n t h e way t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r p e r c e i v e d t h a t , t h e n t h e r e was a c o n f l i c t . I f e l t s o m e t i m e s t h a t I was a means t o t h e i r e n d , l i k e I was a n o t h e r body t h a t w o u l d g e t t h r o u g h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m - a r e you. f u l f i l l i n g o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n what a r e y o u r l e a r n i n g n e e d s . I d o n ' t t h i n k my own n e e d s w e r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . R o l e I n a d e q u a c y In b o t h g r o u p s , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y was t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t s t r e s s . 39 O n l y 12.5 p e r c e n t ( 1 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s a nd 14.3 p e r c e n t (.1/7) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s f r e q u e n t l y f e l t s t r e s s e d i n t h i s manner. F o r t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e who e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , E n g l i s h was a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . Commenting on h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t h a t t i m e , s h e s t a t e d : I f e l t I c o u l d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g ! I had g r a d u a t e d s o l o n g ago [11 y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y ] I had done w e l l t o o , b u t h e r e I c o u l d n ' t seem t o do a n y t h i n g r i g h t . The g r a d u a t e who e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e i n a d e q u a c y f e l t t h a t " I s u f f e r e d some d i f f i c u l t y w i t h my w r i t i n g s k i l l s - g o e s b a c k as f a r a s h i g h s c h o o l . " R o l e O v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n R o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n was t h e s e c o n d l e a s t f r e q u e n t i n both. g r o u p s : o n l y 2 5 . p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) o f t h e . g r a d u a t e g r o u p and 2 8 . 5 - p e r c e n t ( 2 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d i t . The. g r a d u a t e who was a d v i s e d t o ' d r o p ' an e l e c t i v e c o u r s e , a nd who d e s c r i b e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e a m b i g u i t y a n d r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y , a l s o p e r c e i v e d f r e q u e n t r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n . She f e l t t h a t due t o h e r e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d , some o f t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s were " e x t r e m e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r me." Two o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s o f o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n ; I had had a l o t o f c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a nd t h i s was a v e r y s i m p l i s t i c . b e h a v i o u r m o d i f i c a t i o n c o u r s e -i t was v e r y b a s i c s t u f f . I t was v e r y d i s a p p o i n t i n g . I d i d n ' t grow t h e r e . I became a l i t t l e r e s e n t f u l o f g r a d e s 80 and upwards t h a t o t h e r s r e c e i v e d f o r work t h a t w a s n ' t on an a c c e p t a b l e , l e v e l t o me. 40 R o l e A c c u m u l a t i o n R o l e c o n f l i c t a n d r o l e o v e r l o a d may be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e u m b r e l l a o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e s e two s t r e s s e s o f t e n o c c u r r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r b o t h g r a d u a t e and n o n - g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s , m a k i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b etween t h e two r o l e d i l e m m a s d i f f i c u l t . Of t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 10Q p e r c e n t ( 7 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . A comment f r o m a g r a d u a t e e x p r e s s e s t h e f e e l i n g o f many f r o m b o t h g r o u p s : The t h i n g s a b o u t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l t h a t become r e a l l y s t r e s s f u l a r e when one g e t s t o o i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r c o m m i t m e n t s . R o l e c o n f l i c t was p e r c e i v e d a s a f r e q u e n t s t r e s s by 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p ; w h e r e a s i n t h e n o n - g r a d u t e g r o u p , 85.7 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 7 ) f r e q u e n t l y f e l t i t . The g r e a t e s t c o n f l i c t f o r both, g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d demands made upon them as m o t h e r s , w i v e s , o r e m p l o y e e s w h i l e f u l f i l l i n g t h e demands made upon them as s t u d e n t s . Of t h e s e e i g h t women, 75 p e r c e n t (.6/8) w e r e m a r r i e d , 50 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 8 ) w e r e m o t h e r s , a n d 50 p e r c e n t (.4/8) were e m p l o y e d ; 37.5 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 8 ) were a l l t h r e e . One n o n - g r a d u a t e summed up t h e f e e l i n g s , o f many i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : I c o u l d n ' t do e v e r y t h i n g I w a n t e d t o do - be t h e r e f o r my k i d s and my h u s b a n d and my s c h o o l work. O t h e r s had s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s : T h a t h a p p e n e d t o me - I e n d e d up p r e p a r i n g p a p e r s a t a t i m e when my s o n r e c e i v e d t h e S t u d e n t o f t h e Y e a r Award and I c o u l d n ' t be t h e r e . A m a i n s o u r c e o f c o n f l i c t was t a k i n g two c o u r s e s 41 a n d a new j o b a l l a t t h e same t i m e . T h a t was a r e a l s o u r c e o f c o n f l i c t i n t e r m s o f w h i c h a s s i g n m e n t was I g o i n g t o be a b l e t o c o p e w i t h . I c a n remember b e i n g v e r y g r a t e f u l t h a t i t snowed one d a y and l e c t u r e s w e r e c a n c e l l e d , b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t have my p r e s e n t a t i o n r e a d y . I t was a l w a y s a b i g c o m p e t i t i o n - t r y i n g t o m a i n t a i n a f u l l - t i m e j o b , t r y i n g t o go t o s c h o o l a s a s t u d e n t a n d a l s o t r y i n g t o be a w i f e . One m a r r i e d r e s p o n d e n t f r o m t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p commented: I a l w a y s f e l t a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n what my h u s b a n d w a n t e d t o do and my a s s i g n m e n t s - l i k e on a S u n d a y a f t e r n o o n ! One o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s who was a f u l l - t i m e , s i n g l e s t u d e n t , e x p e r i e n c e d a d i f f e r e n t , k i n d o f r o l e c o n f l i c t t o t h o s e a b o v e : P e o p l e s a y I'm t o o c o m m i t t e d , t o o a s s e r t i v e . I t h i n k m o s t t e a c h e r s e x p e c t t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o be. c o m p l i a n t a n d I'm n o t l i k e t h a t . I d i d a p a p e r w h i c h I was v e r y i n v o l v e d w i t h - v e r y e n g r o s s e d and a n a l y t i c a l . I had f o u n d a number o f m a j o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e m odel [ t h e UBC m o d e l ] . I t l a c k e d t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y I had e x p e c t e d o f a model and a l l t h e y c o u l d g i v e me was a p a s s . I knew I had s o m e t h i n g t h e r e a n d i f I d i d n ' t t h e y s h o u l d have t a k e n t h e t i m e t o e x p l a i n i t t o me - b u t I was n e v e r g i v e n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f d i s c u s s i n g i t . In t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 50 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 8 ) e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e o v e r l o a d as c o m p a r e d w i t h 100 p e r c e n t ( 7 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . F o r b o t h g r o u p s r o l e o v e r l o a d c o n s t i t u t e d t h e g r e a t e s t s t r e s s ( r e f e r t o F i g u r e 1 ) . One r e s p o n d e n t summed up t h e f e e l i n g s o f many i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : I t was a g r e a t s t r u g g l e a t t i m e s . O t h e r s s h a r e d a f e e l i n g o f l a c k o f t i m e , f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s : 42 I f y o u were t o t a l k t o my e x - h u s b a n d , he w o u l d s a y I n e v e r f u l f i l l e d my c o m m i t m e n t s . P a r t o f i t was I d i d n ' t h a v e t i m e b e c a u s e I was a l w a y s s t u d y i n g . I had t o d r o p e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a nd p u t a l l my e f f o r t s i n t o s c h o o l work. I f e l t as t h o u g h I h a d g i v e n up a l l t h a t was me. I n e v e r had e n o u g h t i m e . I f o u n d I was n e g l e c t i n g m y s e l f and t h e k i d s , — I d i d n ' t e v e n h a v e t i m e t o l i s t e n . T h e r e were a l o t o f e v e n i n g s when I w o u l d ' v e l i k e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o s p e n d t i m e t a l k i n g a nd l i s t e n i n g t o t h e c h i l d r e n , b u t I had t o work, I ' d s t a y up a l l n i g h t f i n i s h i n g t h i n g s . Two r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p s p o k e o f how much t i m e was m i s s e d i n c a r i n g f o r g r a v e l y i l l i n t i m a t e s ; one a v e r y c l o s e f r i e n d , t h e o t h e r a s i s t e r . As a r e s u l t , some o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' p a p e r s and a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e l a t e . C o n c u r r e n t S t r e s s e s The p a r t i c i p a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d o t h e r c o n c e r n s a b o u t the. s t r e s s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . S i n c e no c l e a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s , g r a d u a t e a n d n o n - g r a d u a t e , t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l he p r e s e n t e d a s f r e q u e n c i e s , o f f i f t e e n . F o u r m a j o r a r e a s w e r e d e s c r i b e d : work l o a d , f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s , s t r e s s management, a n d unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t (.5/15) f e l t t h a t t h e w o r k l o a d r e q u i r e d o f t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t was a m a j o r s t r e s s . T h r e e o f t h e s e r e c o u n t e d s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s : The number o f c o u r s e s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d , t h e number o f u n i t s t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m , s h o u l d be. r e d u c e d . 43 I s o r t o f f e l t I c o u l d n e v e r q u i t e c a t c h up o r do t h i n g s a s w e l l a s I ' d h o p e d , b e c a u s e I was a l w a y s f i g h t i n g d e a d l i n e s . T h e number o f h o u r s r e q u i r e d by t h e s c h o o l t o m e e t commitments i n t h e i r own p r o g r a m i s f a r t o o much. W o r r y o v e r f i n a n c e s was d e s c r i b e d a s a s t r e s s by 33.3 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 1 5 ) o f t h e s t u d e n t s . ( O n l y one o f t h e s e a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h e w o r k l o a d as a p r e s s u r e . ) T h r e e o f t h e s t u d e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e d f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e w e r e e m p l o y e d . A n o t h e r 20 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 1 5 ) e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s o f g r a t e f u l n e s s t h a t f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y was n o t a f a c t o r i n t h e i r l i v e s as s t u d e n t s . T w e n t y p e r c e n t ( 3 / 1 5 ) f e l t t h a t t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s h o u l d h a v e i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s t r e s s management. S t r e s s was t h e r e a l i t y . I t h i n k t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d i n c l u d e ways on how t o c o p e w i t h s o many t h i n g s a t o n c e . We c o u l d h a v e d i s c u s s e d t i m e b u d g e t i n g a nd s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s . I t h i n k i t w o u l d be v e r y h e l p f u l t o h a v e , i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n p h a s e , s o m e t h i n g on s t r e s s management. D i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n r e g a r d t o unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s was p o i g n a n t l y e x p r e s s e d by 27 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 1 5 ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , as t y p i f i e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g comment: I had a v i s i o n o f a g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m o f c a m e r a d e r i e b e t w e e n e n l i g h t e n e d s a g e s a nd o u r s e l v e s , a d i a l o g u e , s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . B u t I r e a l i s e , t h a t i s a f a n t a s y o f m i n e . M e t h o d s o f S t r e s s Management F i g u r e 2 p r e s e n t s g r a p h i c a l l y t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s 44 1001 Graduate group (n1-8) Non-graduate group (n2=7) 75 50! 25 P R O B L E M i S O L V I N G ROLE REDUCTION ROLE EXTENS ION ROLE B A R G A I N I N G PHYS ICAL ACTIVITY Method of Stress Management FIGURE 2: PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS REPORTING FREQUENT USE OF METHODS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT 45 who f r e q u e n t l y u s e d f i v e m e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management: p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , r o l e r e d u c t i o n , r o l e e x t e n s i o n , r o l e b a r g a i n i n g , a n d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . P r o b l e m S o l v i n g P r o b l e m s o l v i n g r a n k e d t h e h i g h e s t i n u s e o f t h e f i v e management methods s t u d i e d . O f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p 87.5 p e r c e n t ( 7 / 8 ) f e l t t h a t t h e y a l m o s t a l w a y s u s e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 85.7 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s . A s e c o n d m e t h o d o f management, r o l e r e d u c t i o n ( w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l l a t e r ) , r a n k e d e q u a l i n f r e q u e n c y t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f o r t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p , m a k i n g t h e s e two m e t h o d s t h e most p o p u l a r i n t h a t g r o u p . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , i n b o t h g r o u p s , a p p e a r e d v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s a n d w e r e a b l e t o s y n t h e s i z e t h e i r f e e l i n g s on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n t o c o n c i s e comments s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g : O r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e k e y . I a p p l i e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t o my w h o l e l i f e . I w o u l d s a y I u s e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a l l t h e t i m e . When y o u ' r e j u g g l i n g s e v e r a l r o l e s , i t becomes a way o f l i f e . W i t h my l i f e s t y l e , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g was t h e o n l y t h i n g t h a t made i t a l l p o s s i b l e . The o n l y n o n - g r a d u a t e who s t a t e d s h e n e v e r u s e d p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g d e c l a r e d : I t was t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n - t o e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s t o be a b l e t o t h i n k c l e a r l y , b u t I c o u l d n ' t do i t b e c a u s e I was s o a n x i o u s . 46 S i m i l a r f e e l i n g s were v o i c e d by t h e one g r a d u a t e who f e l t s h e r a r e l y u s e d t h i s m e t h o d : P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c e r t a i n l y w o u l d be h e l p f u l . I w i s h I' d u s e d i t e a r l i e r , b u t e m o t i o n a l i t y g o t i n t h e way o f me b e i n g t h a t p r a c t i c a l . R o l e R e d u c t i o n In t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 50 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 8 ) f e l t t h e y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d r o l e r e d u c t i o n . A l l f o u r o f t h e s e women were m a r r i e d , a l l d i d . c o m m i t t e e work, and two were m o t h e r s . T h i s method was more p o p u l a r i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p : 85.7 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 7 ) f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y e d r o l e r e d u c t i o n , a r a n k e q u a l t o t h e u s e o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n t h i s g r o u p . T h e one r e s p o n d e n t (who was a m a r r i e d m o t h e r w i t h c o m m i t t e e work) i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p who f e l t s h e r a r e l y u s e d i t , commented: I w o u l d s a y t h a t was p o o r l y managed b a c k t h e n -I t h i n k i t ' s c r u c i a l t o r e d u c e them [ c o m m i t m e n t s ] b u t i t ' s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o do. A n o t h e r n o n - g r a d u a t e who made f r e q u e n t u s e o f t h i s m e t h o d g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l o g y : I l o o k a t t h e s t r e s s e s i n my l i f e l i k e a p l a t e o f f o o d . I f I add s o m e t h i n g t o t h e p l a t e , t h e n I must t a k e s o m e t h i n g e l s e o f f . I s t r i v e f o r a b a l a n c e among my c o m m i t m e n t s t o m y s e l f , t o t h e c o m m u n i t y -I a l w a y s keep b a l a n c i n g . O t h e r s commented: I t r i e d t o l i m i t m y s e l f t o b e i n g a s t u d e n t -t h a t was a f u l l r o l e i n i t s e l f . S o c i a l l i f e w ent o u t t h e window! I t t o o k a l l my e n e r g y t o keep my head a b o v e s i n k i n g . J u s t on a p r e v e n t a t i v e b a s i s , I t r i e d n o t t o g e t i n v o l v e d t o o much. 47 R o l e E x t e n s i o n I n b o t h g r o u p s , r o l e e x t e n s i o n was t h e l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d m e t h o d . O f t h e g r a d u a t e s , 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) f a v o u r e d t h i s m e t h o d ; 42.9 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s u s e d r o l e e x t e n s i o n . One s t u d e n t a g r a d u a t e , who e n r o l l e d i n a community c e n t r e c o u r s e , w h i c h was h e l d t w i c e w e e k l y , s t a t e d : I t was so n i c e t o do s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , j u s t t o s o r t o f t a k e y o u r m i n d o f f t h e p r e s s u r e . A n o n - g r a d u a t e commented: I t h i n k I d i d s t e p up my commitments t o some d e g r e e . I t h i n k some o f t h a t came f r o m a h e i g h t e n e d a w a r e n e s s t h a t p e r h a p s y o u were c a p a b l e o f d o i n g more t h i n g s t h a n y o u t h o u g h t y o u w e r e . R o l e B a r g a i n i n g R o l e b a r g a i n i n g r a n k e d t h i r d i s u s e by t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , a r a n k e q u a l t o r o l e r e d u c t i o n . O f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 50 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 8 ) f e l t t h a t t h e y f r e q u e n t l y made u s e o f t h i s m e t h o d . A l l o f t h e s e were m a r r i e d , m o t h e r s , o r e m p l o y e d . F o r t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p , r o l e b a r g a i n i n g a l s o r a n k e d t h i r d i n u s e . O f t h i s g r o u p 71 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 7 ) u s e d t h i s m e t h o d . A l l b u t one o f t h i s g r o u p w e r e m a r r i e d , m o t h e r s , o r e m p l o y e d . One n o n - g r a d u a t e commented: I c a n remember d o i n g a l o t o f b a r g a i n i n g w i t h my h u s b a n d . A l t h o u g h we had a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e r e were some t i m e s , I was j u s t t o o t i r e d t o c o o k t h e m e a l s . And I had t o do a f a i r amount o f b a r g a i n i n g a t work - i n o r d e r t o keep a m o r n i n g c l a s s , I had t o work an e x t r a e v e n i n g . 48 A n o t h e r , whose f a t h e r d i e d w h i l e s h e was a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l s t a t e d : I n e g o t i a t e d w i t h my p r o f e s s o r s b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t t h i n k I c o u l d manage a l l my d e a d l i n e s . A n o n - g r a d u a t e r e c a l l s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e : T h e b a r g a i n i n g went on w i t h my e l d e s t d a u g h t e r who d i d a l o t o f t h e m e a l s and t h e h o u s e w o r k . A r e s p o n d e n t who f e l t s h e r a r e l y r o l e b a r g a i n e d e x p r e s s e d t h i s i d e a : I t h i n k i t ' s v e r y v a l u a b l e , b u t I t h i n k p e o p l e h ave t o l e a r n how t o b a r g a i n ; I t h i n k a s women we d o n ' t r e a l l y come by t h a t r o l e , we j u s t t e n d t o do i t a l l . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y F o r t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e c o n d m o s t p o p u l a r m ethod f o r m a n a g i n g s t r e s s , 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) o f t h i s g r o u p u s e d i t . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p d i d a s w e l l . T h e a c t i v i t i e s s p a n n e d a b r o a d r a n g e : T h e j o g g i n g r e a l l y h e l p e d , j u s t t o go and pound t h e pavement f o r a w h i l e . I b l o c k e d o u t s c h o o l t h i s way - I d i d a l o t o f r i d i n g , r o a d w ork, w a l k i n g . I a c t u a l l y d i d e x e r c i s e s on a d a i l y b a s i s -t h a t ' s t h e o n l y t i m e I e v e r h a v e ! I r o d e my b i k e t o and f r o m s c h o o l and I p l a y e d a l o t o f s q u a s h . Swimming, b a d m i n t o n . I l o v e d t h a t p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n . R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s Th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e 49 s t u d e n t may m o d i f y t h e i m p a c t o f r o l e s t r e s s . T a b l e 5 d i s p l a y s t h e s t u d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f f o u r p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s : f a m i l y , f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y a nd f r i e n d s . Upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p c h a r a c t e r i z e d a l l f o u r o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s a s s u p p o r t i v e , n o t s o w i t h t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . In b o t h g r o u p s , 100 p e r c e n t f o u n d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s w e r e s u p p o r t i v e . Many r e s p o n d e n t s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s a nd f r i e n d s " d i d n ' t n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e s t r e s s e s o f s c h o o l , " " i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o c o m p r e h e n d i t a l l , " n e v e r t h e l e s s " t h e y were b e h i n d me a l l t h e way" and " e s s e n t i a l t o my m e n t a l w e l l - b e i n g . " TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF RESOURCES WHICH F A C I L I T A T E ADJUSTMENT TO THE GRADUATE STUDENT ROLE PERCEPTION FAMILY SELECTED FELLOW STUDENTS SELECTED NURSING FACULTY FRIENDS o r COLLEAGUES G r a d -u a t e Non-G r a d -u a t e G r a d -u a t e Non-G r a d -u a t e G r a d -u a t e Non-G r a d -u a t e G r a d - Non-u a t e G r a d -u a t e S u p p o r t i v e 100 100 100 86 62.5 29 100 100 I n d i f f e r e n t 14 12.5 57 N e g a t i v e 25 14 G r a d u a t e G r o u p ( n ^ = 8) N o n - G r a d u a t e G r o u p ( n 9 = 7) 50 T h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d r e s o u r c e a p p e a r s t o h a v e been s e l e c t e d f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s . T h i s g r o u p was p e r c e i v e d a s s u p p o r t i v e by 100 p e r c e n t ( 8 / 8 ) o f g r a d u a t e s a n d 86 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s . F o r b o t h g r o u p s 93 p e r c e n t ( 1 4 / 1 5 ) s p o k e o f ' s h a r i n g a n x i e t i e s ' w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s : I u s e d a n o t h e r f e l l o w s t u d e n t c o n s t a n t l y I c o u l d n ' t h a v e done i t w i t h o u t h e r . T h e m u t u a l s u p p o r t was e x c e l l e n t . I t h i n k i t was an i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y . We were v e r y c l o s e - k n i t a nd v e r y s u p p o r t i v e on one a n o t h e r . T h e s i n g l e r e s p o n d e n t who p e r c e i v e d f e l l o w s t u d e n t s as i n d i f f e r e n t , r e c o u n t e d f e e l i n g s o f i s o l a t i o n a nd a l i e n a t i o n : T h e y a l l seemed v e r y b u s y , t h e y d i d n ' t have a n y t i m e . I d i d n ' t f e e l I b e l o n g e d t o t h e g r o u p . T h e r e s o u r c e a b o u t w h i c h t h e r e was t h e most d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g a m ongst a l l r e s p o n d e n t s , was t h e n u r s i n g f a c u l t y . O f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) f e l t t h e f a c u l t y w e r e s u p p o r t i v e as c o m p a r e d t o 29 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . One g r a d u a t e s t r e s s e d how s u p p o r t e d s h e f e l t by h e r t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e : T h e y had t o s c r a p e me o f f t h e w a l l s s o many t i m e s ! I' d go i n and s a y "Oh, what do I do now" and t h e y w o u l d s a y , "OK, what e x a c t l y i s i t ? Why d o n ' t y o u j u s t . . . ? " A n o t h e r g r a d u a t e e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s : I a l w a y s f e l t I c o u l d a p p r o a c h them and work s o m e t h i n g t h r o u g h i f I were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y . I n e v e r f e l t a n y b l o c k a g e i n t e r m s o f g e t t i n g an a p p o i n t m e n t t o s e e them. 51 One g r a d u a t e r e c a l l e d : T h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l was v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g . I t h i n k i f i t h a d n ' t been f o r h e r s a y i n g : "Hey, y o u ' r e M a s t e r ' s m a t e r i a l ' I m i g h t n o t h a v e c o n s i d e r e d i t . T w e l v e and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t ( 1 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s and 57 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e n u r s i n g f a c u l t y as i n d i f f e r e n t . Two n o n - g r a d u a t e s f e l t t h e f a c u l t y was " u n e m p a t h e t i c " o r " l a c k e d empathy". A t h i r d p u t i t t h i s way: I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e f a c u l t y r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p a c e y o u ' r e i n - t h e s t r e s s , t h e s t r a i n , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s . One g r a d u a t e r e c o u n t e d : I t was a v e r y c o l d r e c e p t i o n w i t h i n t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g . I was r e a l l y s u r p r i s e d , h a v i n g been a t o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s . No one on f a c u l t y t o o k a n y p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n me. I t w o u l d have been n i c e . D e s c r i b i n g t h e n u r s i n g f a c u l t y i n n e g a t i v e t e r m s were 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s and 14.8 p e r c e n t ( 1 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s : T h e y were v e r y r i g i d and p r o t e c t i v e o f t h e i r m o d e l . I f e l t t h e y c o u l d n ' t h o n o u r a n y d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t i t s d e f e c t s . S i m i l a r f e e l i n g s were v o i c e d by o t h e r s : T h e y seemed somewhat d e f e n s i v e and p r o t e c t i v e -maybe t h e y f e l t somewhat i n s e c u r e . I f e l t l i k e i t was a c o n s t a n t f i g h t . I t l e a v e s me w i t h some v e r y n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e f a c u l t y . Summary In summary, t h e f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d t o t h e t y p e s and amounts o f 52 s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d w h i l e e n r o l l e d a s M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , r e f l e c t w i d e v a r i a t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t s . H o wever, t h e m a j o r i t y o f b o t h g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s f o u n d t h e p r o g r a m s t r e s s f u l . B o t h g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s v i e w e d f a m i l y and f r i e n d s as s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e s . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , p e r c e i v e d f e l l o w s t u d e n t s a s s u p p o r t i v e . T h e m a j o r i t y o f g r a d u a t e s a l s o v i e w e d f a c u l t y a s s u p p o r t i v e ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s v i e w e d f a c u l t y a s i n d i f f e r e n t . Some r e s p o n d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s c h a r a c t e r i z e d f a c u l t y a s a n e g a t i v e r e s o u r c e . T h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d more f r e q u e n t r o l e s t r e s s e s t h a n g r a d u a t e s . T h e m o s t f r e q u e n t s o u r c e o f s t r e s s f o r b o t h g r o u p s was r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . N o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y t h a n g r a d u a t e s . No m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e two s a m p l e s i n t h e a r e a s o f r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , and r o l e o v e r -q u a l i f i c a t i o n . A l l r e s p o n d e n t s d e s c r i b e d a t l e a s t one c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s o f a h e a v y w o r k l o a d , f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e , l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t s t r e s s management, o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n r e g a r d t o unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . . T h e m e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management u s e d by t h e two s a m p l e s w e r e s i m i l a r . In t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g r a n k e d , h i g h e s t , f o l l o w e d by p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . R o l e r e d u c t i o n a n d r o l e b a r g a i n i n g w e r e e q u a l l y p o p u l a r , r a n k i n g t h i r d i n u s e . W i t h i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s a m p l e , p r o b l e m -53 s o l v i n g r a n k e d f i r s t a n d was m a t c h e d by r o l e r e d u c t i o n . . R o l e b a r g a i n i n g r a n k e d s e c o n d , f o l l o w e d by p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . T h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o l l o w s i n C h a p t e r 5. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f o r m u l a t e d i n C h a p t e r 2. T h e d i s c u s s i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e m a j o r a r e a s : i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s t r e s s , r o l e s t r e s s e s , c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s e s , m e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management, and r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s . Due t o t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o draw a n y c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c a u s e and e f f e c t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r has l i m i t e d h e r s e l f t o an e x a m i n a t i o n and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r a d u a t e and n o n - g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s , i n an e f f o r t t o d i s c o v e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e f i n d i n g s . I n d i v i d u a l . V a r i a t i o n i n S t r e s s P e r c e p t i o n I n t h e s t u d y , w i d e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f s t r e s s w h i c h t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d w h i l e e n r o l l e d a s M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . S i x t y - s i x p e r c e n t ( 1 0 / 1 5 ) s t a t e d t h e y f e l t a h i g h l e v e l o f s t r e s s w h i l e 13 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 1 5 ) r e c a l l e d h a v i n g a v e r y l o w l e v e l o f s t r e s s . A s s u m i n g t r u t h f u l n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and a s i m i l a r d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y i n r e c a l l i n g p a s t e v e n t s , what a c c o u n t s f o r s u c h d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g ? 54 55 P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 7 ) n o t e s t h a t no one s i t u a t i o n i s a s t r e s s t o a l l p e o p l e . G e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s t h a t t h e r o l e o f s t u d e n t c a n be s t r e s s f u l , b u t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s by t h e s t u d e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e h e r r e s p o n s e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , i s u l t i m a t e l y u n i q u e t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . A w a r e n e s s o f t h i s u n i q u e n e s s i s c o g e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n a r e m a r k made by one r e s p o n d e n t : Some g i r l s f e l t more s t r e s s t h a n o t h e r s . I'm n o t s u r e why - maybe t h e y had o t h e r s t r e s s e s s u c h a s b e i n g new t o V a n c o u v e r a n d n o t k n o w i n g a n y b o d y , n o t h a v i n g a n y r e s o u r c e s ; o r maybe i t was j u s t d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s . A g u i l e r a ( 1 9 7 8 ) , L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 7 ) , a n d R a p o p o r t ( 1 9 6 2 ) a l l n o t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e q u a l i t y a n d i n t e n s i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e t o a s i t u a t i o n . R a p o p o r t ( 1 9 6 2 ) , i n h e r e x t e n s i v e e f f o r t s t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k on c r i s i s , i d e n t i f i e d t h a t t h e i d e n t i c a l s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s may be p e r c e i v e d by a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l i n a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w a y s , e a c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s own u n i q u e mode. Many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a p p e a r t o have p e r c e i v e d some a s p e c t s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l as a t h r e a t a nd r e a c t e d t o t h i s w i t h a n x i e t y . A n x i e t y was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a c c o u n t s o f t h o s e who f e a r e d f a i l u r e , o f t h o s e who a g o n i z e d o v e r d i f f i c u l t p a p e r s , and o f t h o s e who w e r e w o n d e r i n g , a t t i m e s , how t h e y were p o s s i b l y g o i n g t o c o p e w i t h t h e demands. One o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s p e r c e i v e d h e r t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h t h e M a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m as a l o s s a nd r e a c t e d w i t h p a n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n : I t h a d been t o o much f o r me a n d i t was s u c h a r e l i e f t o g i v e up, b u t p a r t o f me f e l t b a d l y f o r n o t b e i n g a b l e t o c o n t i n u e . 56 The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s seem t o h a v e v i e w e d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l a s a c h a l l e n g e . R a p o p o r t ( 1 9 6 2 , p.25) s t a t e s t h a t when an e v e n t i s v i e w e d as a c h a l l e n g e , i t i s met w i t h "a m o b i l i z a t i o n o f e n e r g y " a n d " p u r p o s e f u l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s . " E i g h t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e two s a m p l e s f e l t t h e y u t i l i z e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f r e q u e n t l y . A p p l e y and T r u m b e l l ( 1 9 7 7 ) e m p h a s i z e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f s t r e s s t o l e r a n c e . T h e y m a i n t a i n t h a t a p e r s o n ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o a s i t u a t i o n i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e v e n t t o t h e p e r s o n ' s l i f e . To u n d e r s t a n d what c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o be s t r e s s f u l t o an i n d i v i d u a l , t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d p a s t h i s t o r y o f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l m u s t be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . The i n t i m a t e l i n k b e t w e e n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e v e n t s and m o t i v a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e d i v e r g e n t comments o f two r e s p o n d e n t s : B e i n g a s t u d e n t i s a f u l l r o l e - i t had c o m p l e t e p r i o r i t y w i t h me. When t h i n g s a r e o k a y a t home, s c h o o l i s a g o o d p l a c e t o b e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p a s t h i s t o r y i n p e r c e i v i n g and c o p i n g w i t h t h e p r e s e n t i s a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f c r i s i s t h e o r y ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 1978; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . The k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s t o w h i c h a p e r s o n has been e x p o s e d i n t h e p a s t and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h w h i c h one has been a b l e t o c o p e w i t h them, i s s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t e d i n p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h a l l t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y had o b t a i n e d B a c h e l o r ' s o f N u r s i n g d e g r e e s , no d a t a was c o l l e c t e d on f e e l i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n / d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r s u c c e s s / f a i l u r e w h i c h t h e y c a r r i e d w i t h them i n t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . . " 57 B e t t e l h e i m ( 1 9 6 0 ) i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e SS c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps o b s e r v e d t h e c l o s e l i n k o f m o t i v a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and p a s t h i s t o r y i n t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e i n m a t e s . He n o t e d how i l l - p r e p a r e d t h e m i d d l e -c l a s s p r i s o n e r s were f o r t h e i n i t i a l s h o c k i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s , J e h o v a h ' s W i t n e s s e s who were c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s , and c r i m i n a l i n m a t e s : No c o n s i s t e n t p h i l o s o p h y , e i t h e r m o r a l , p o l i t i c a l o r s o c i a l , p r o t e c t e d t h e i r i n t e g r i t y o r g a v e them s t r e n g t h f o r an i n n e r s t a n d a g a i n s t N a z i s m . T h e y had l i t t l e o r no r e s o u r c e s t o f a l l b a c k on when s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s h o c k o f i m p r i s o n m e n t . . . . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e c r i m i n a l g r o u p w e r e l e a s t a f f e c t e d . ( B e t t e l h e i m , 1966, pp. 120-123) The e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s r e g a r d i n g h e r a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h s t r e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y , p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r s h e f e e l s t h r e a t e n e d o r c h a l l e n g e d . Jam's ( 1 9 6 2 ) i n an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f w a r n i n g s o f d i s a s t e r , n o t e s t h a t power t o m a s t e r t h e d a n g e r , t o e x e r t some c o n t r o l o v e r i t , i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n r e d u c i n g t h e t h r e a t , t h u s t h e a n x i e t y . E p s t e i n ( 1 9 6 5 ) c o m p a r e d i n e x p e r i e n c e d p a r a c h u t i s t s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e d men, and o b s e r v e d t h a t , w i t h i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e men became d e s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e t h r e a t . T h i s was r e f e r r e d t o as e m o t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a d a p t a t i o n o v e r t i m e was n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i t was a l l u d e d t o by two r e s p o n d e n t s who d e s c r i b e d i n i t i a l f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y w h i c h d i s a p p e a r e d as t h e y became " a d j u s t e d t o t h e c l i m a t e . " A l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h e a d a p t a t i o n o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , s i m i l a r t o t h e s t u d i e s o f n u r s i n g u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s by E l f e r t ( 1 9 7 6 ) and M a c M a s t e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) , m i g h t f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s phenomenon. 58 Holmes a n d Rahe ( 1 9 6 8 ) f r o m t h e i r r e s e a r c h u s i n g a s e l f -a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e S c h e d u l e o f R e c e n t E x p e r i e n c e s , r e p o r t t h a t i l l n e s s e s o f a l l k i n d s i n c r e a s e f o l l o w i n g s t r e s s f u l l i f e c h a n g e s , due t o t h e a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by S e l y e ' s ( 1 9 5 6 ) e x t e n s i v e work on s t r e s s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s t r e s s p r o d u c e s d r a m a t i c c h a n g e s i n b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h huge i n c r e a s e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a j o r h o r m o n e s . A l t h o u g h n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y t e s t e d f o r , t h e l i n k b e t w e e n s t r e s s and s o m a t i c symptoms was f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Many r e s p o n d e n t s s p o n t a n e o u s l y r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n s l e e p i n g , l o w e n e r g y l e v e l s , f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y , f e e l i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n , h e a d a c h e s a n d c r y i n g s p e l l s . An i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t f o r a f u t u r e s t u d y w o u l d be t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u c h common i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s s u c h a s t h e c o l d a nd i n f l u e n z a , d u r i n g e n r o l l m e n t . R o l e T r a n s i t i o n T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 71.4 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s had o r i g i n a l l y g r a d u a t e d w i t h t h e B a c h e l o r o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g (B.S.N.) d e g r e e s f r o m The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O n l y 37.5 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p had done s o . Y e t t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l a t t h e same l o c a t i o n a s more s t r e s s f u l . A n x i e t y i s u s u a l l y l e s s i n s i t u a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y . A s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y was r e f l e c t e d i n a r e m a r k by a n o n - g r a d u a t e : I had a v e r y g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h some o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s f r o m h a v i n g been a t UBC two y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , s o t h e y w e r e r e a l l y g o o d f o r me t o t a l k t o . Two r e s p o n d e n t s (who had r e c e n t l y moved t o V a n c o u v e r ) commented on t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f l e a v i n g s t r e s s e s b e h i n d them: 59 I t w o r k e d o u t v e r y w e l l f o r me. F o u r d a y s a week I l i v e d by m y s e l f ; — I c o u l d e a t when I w a n t e d , s l e e p when I w a n t e d , s t u d y a l l n i g h t i f I w a n t e d . T h e n on t h e w e e k e n d s , I ' d go b a c k t o my f a m i l y and b l o c k o u t s c h o o l e n t i r e l y . S i n c e I had j u s t a r r i v e d , I had a l o t o f t i m e f o r s c h o o l w i t h v e r y few d i s t r a c t i o n s - I h a d l e f t my f r i e n d s and my j o b . H owever, s u c h a c l e a r c u t d i v i s i o n o f r o l e s was n o t f e a s i b l e f o r t h e e i g h t r e s p o n d e n t s ( f o u r i n e a c h g r o u p ) who had b e e n l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r l o n g e r t h a n 10 y e a r s . A r n d t a n d L a e g e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i n t h e i r s t u d y o f r o l e s t r a i n i n n u r s i n g d i r e c t o r s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t r o l e s t r a i n d e c r e a s e d t h e l o n g e r t h e d i r e c t o r r e m a i n e d i n t h e same h o s p i t a l . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e s had n o t a d a p t e d t o t h e i r new r o l e . F o u r o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s s p e n t one y e a r o r l e s s i n t h e p r o g r a m , w h e r e a s a l l o f t h e g r a d u a t e s were e n r o l l e d f o r a minimum o f two y e a r s . Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) who e x a m i n e d t h e i r own r e s p o n s e t o g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n n u r s i n g , f o u n d t h a t t h e l o n g e r t h e y r e m a i n e d i n t h e p r o g r a m , t h e more p o s i t i v e was t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n . A t h i r d f a c t o r and p r o b a b l y a more s i g n i f i c a n t one c o n c e r n i n g r o l e t r a n s i t i o n , was t h e s t a t u s o f r e s p o n d e n t s : p a r t - t i m e o r f u l l - t i m e . O n l y 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p w e r e e n r o l l e d as p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s a t some p o i n t d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m . However, 57 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s w e r e p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s . I f an i n d i v i d u a l l i m i t s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s h e i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a new r o l e ( t h a t i s , r e g i s t e r i n g as a p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t ) , s h e i s , i n e f f e c t , s a y i n g 'I have o t h e r r o l e s , o t h e r commitments t h a t r e q u i r e my t i m e a n d e n e r g y . ' H e r commitment t o 60 h e r r o l e as s t u d e n t may n o t be a n y l e s s t h a n t h a t o f a f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t , b u t i t c a n be a ssumed t h a t h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s more l i m i t e d . S t u d i e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r e s s show t h a t p a r t i a l w i t h d r a w a l i s an a d a p t i v e t e c h n i q u e o f t e n f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f r o l e s t r e s s ( K a h n , 1 9 6 4 ) . Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e i r o t h e r r o l e s as f r i e n d , w i f e , and m o t h e r , r e t a r d e d t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t r o l e . R e s o u r c e N e t w o r k s P o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h may have f a c i l i t a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r o l e i n c l u d e f o u r m a j o r g r o u p s : f a m i l y , f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s , a n d f a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g . A l t h o u g h r e s p o n d e n t s s h a r e d many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c l u d i n g age a n d e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , t h e y may h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t a mounts o f r o l e s t r e s s due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s . C r i s i s t h e o r i s t s r e c o g n i z e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s o f t h e p a t i e n t : f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s , o r an i n v o l v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l ( A g u i l e r a and M e s s i c k , 1978; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u c h s u p p o r t s has b e e n v i e w e d a s a p r i m e f a c t o r i n b a l a n c i n g t h e p a t i e n t ' s r e a c t i o n t o s t r e s s . T h i s may be e x t r a p o l a t e d t o n o n - p a t i e n t g r o u p s . T h i s a w a r e n e s s was s h a r e d by many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who d e s c r i b e d t h e i r d e p e n d e n c e upon h u s b a n d s and c l o s e f r i e n d s a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g t h e i r p e r i o d o f e n r o l l m e n t . I f we r e f e r t o T a b l e 5, we n o t e t h a t 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r a d u a t e and n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p s ( 1 5 / 1 5 ) c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r f a m i l i e s 61 a n d f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e a g u e s as s u p p o r t i v e . T h i s f i g u r e r e q u i r e s e x a m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e i t i s h i g h l y u n u s u a l t o f i n d a l l t h e members o f any g r o u p e x p r e s s i n g t h e i d e n t i c a l f e e l i n g . T w o ' f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h i s r e s u l t s h o u l d be n o t e d . F i r s t , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e f a c e d w i t h a f i x e d a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n o f a g l o b a l n a t u r e . T h e y w e r e a s k e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e r e s o u r c e s as s u p p o r t i v e , i n d i f f e r e n t , o r n e g a t i v e . In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t g e n e r a l l y t h a t f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s w e r e s u p p o r t i v e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e may h a v e been s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s when t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e . T h i s was c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by a g r a d u a t e who was m a r r i e d a t t h e t i m e o f h e r e n r o l l m e n t : I t h i n k he [ h e r h u s b a n d ] r e s e n t e d i t s o m e t i m e s [ t h e work l o a d ] . I knew he d i d a n d t h e n I ' d r e s e n t h i m , and w o n d e r why he c o u l d n ' t s u p p o r t me 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e . B u t o v e r a l l , he was p r e t t y g o o d , r e a l l y v e r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A s e c o n d i n f l u e n c e b e a r i n g on s u c h a c o h e s i v e r e s u l t i s t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f s o c i a l a p p r o v a l . F a m i l i e s a n d f r i e n d s a r e e x p e c t e d t o be s u p p o r t i v e ; s u p p o r t i v e n e s s i s p r e s u m e d t o be a m a j o r f u n c t i o n o f i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . , A s t u d e n t m i g h t w e l l f i n d i t t o o d i s c o m f i t i n g t o a d m i t t h a t s h e d i d n o t p e r c e i v e them as a l w a y s s u p p o r t i v e . F e l l o w s t u d e n t s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s u p p o r t i v e by 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p a n d by 86 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . T h i s r e s o u r c e was w i d e l y u s e d by s t u d e n t s who r e p e a t e d l y s p o k e a p p r e c i a t i v e l y o f t h e s u p p o r t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r p e e r s . Hamburg and Adams (.1967) who h a v e been i n v o l v e d i n a number o f p r o j e c t s , s t u d y i n g t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , n o t e s e v e r a l v a r i e d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t g r o u p . T h e s e f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r t o f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h e n h a n c e e a c h o t h e r : t h o s e r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g a n d t h o s e r e l a t e d t o 62 e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . S t u d e n t s h e l p e d e a c h o t h e r t o l e a r n t h r o u g h t h e p o o l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h r o u g h i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n . T h e y s u p p o r t e d e a c h o t h e r e m o t i o n a l l y by e x c h a n g i n g c o p i n g s k i l l s and l i s t e n i n g i n t i m e s o f c r i s i s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n w h i c h t h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s s p o k e o f e n j o y i n g j u s t s u c h b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s . I t h e i g h t e n s t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e a d e r t o t h e f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s i n g l e r e s p o n d e n t who p e r c e i v e d h e r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s a s i n d i f f e r e n t . H e r p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r r o l e s t r e s s was h i g h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , s h e r e c a l l e d f e e l i n g s o f c o n s t a n t a n x i e t y r e g a r d i n g h e r p e r i o d o f e n r o l l m e n t . One w o n d e r s i f s h e had f o u n d f e l l o w s t u d e n t s more a c c e s s i b l e , what e f f e c t t h i s w o u l d h a v e had on r e d u c i n g h e r i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s o f r o l e s t r a i n . T h e r e s o u r c e a b o u t w h i c h t h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t d i s p a r i t y was t h e n u r s i n g f a c u l t y . O n l y 29 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s f e l t t h e f a c u l t y w ere s u p p o r t i v e a s c o m p a r e d t o 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s . A m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e s e f i g u r e s may be t h a t t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p w e r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s a t a c h i e v i n g t h e * g o a l o f g r a d u a t i o n , and t h u s f e l t more p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e p e o p l e i n a p o s i t i o n o f power i n t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g . T h e work o f S t a r r , B e t z and Henne (1972) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h i n a c o l l e g e e n v i r o n m e n t f e l t more s a t i s f i e d t h a t s u c h an e n v i r o n m e n t was m e e t i n g t h e i r n e e d s . T h i s i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e p r e s e n t study, t h a t 57 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s p e r c e i v e d t h e f a c u l t y a s i n d i f f e r e n t a nd 14.8 p e r c e n t ( 1 / 7 ) f o u n d f a c u l t y n e g a t i v e . 63 However, s u c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d o e s n o t e x p l a i n why 12.5 p e r c e n t ( 1 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s p e r c e i v e d f a c u l t y a s i n d i f f e r e n t a n d 25 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) f e l t f a c u l t y w e r e n e g a t i v e . Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) n o t e d t h a t s u p p o r t f r o m f a c u l t y was c r u c i a l t o i n c r e a s i n g t h e s e l f -e s t e e m o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . Two o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s p o k e w i t h i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r n e e d f o r f a c u l t y s u p p o r t : In n u r s i n g , we s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e t a l k i n g a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o u r p a t i e n t s and s u p p o r t i n g them and a l l t h a t . I t h i n k we ne e d t o s p e n d a l o t more on s u p p o r t i n g one a n o t h e r ! J u s t t o h a v e someone on f a c u l t y show a l i t t l e i n t e r e s t : w e 're a c a r i n g p r o f e s s i o n and my God! I'm j u s t wondering where we're a t i n t e r m S i O f f c a r i r i g ! Maybe t h a t ' s t he e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t i n r e d u c i n g s t r e s s ; t h a t we show some c a r i n g t o e a c h o t h e r ! W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f e r e n t n u r s i n g f a c u l t y d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m , g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s t u d e n t s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r i e d v i e w s o f f a c u l t y . T h e p a s t h i s t o r y o f t h e s t u d e n t many a l s o be s i g n i f i c a n t . I f s h e e x p e r i e n c e d u n h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f a c u l t y w h i l e e n g a g e d i n h e r B a c h e l o r ' s e d u c a t i o n , t h i s may be r e f l e c t e d i n h e r t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e M a s t e r ' s f a c u l t y . C o m p l i a n c e w i t h s o c i a l demands l e a d s t o r e w a r d s a nd s o c i a l a p p r o v a l ( L a z a r u s , 1 9 6 9 ) . As c h i l d r e n , we l e a r n t h a t f a i l u r e t o c o m p l y c a n r e s u l t i n u n p l e a s a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h i s s o c i a l 64 d i s a p p r o v a l . On t h e o t h e r hand.> we a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t a u g h t t o a d m i r e a s s e r t i v e n e s s i n o t h e r s . By a s s e r t i n g o u r s e l v e s , we g a i n a s e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e and an e l e v a t i o n i n o u r s e l f - e s t e e m . A s s e r t i v e n e s s i m p l i e s c o n t r o l a nd i s a s k i l l ; a g g r e s s i v e n e s s comes e a s i e r when o u r n e e d s a r e t h w a r t e d . As D o l l a r d ( 1 9 3 9) n o t e d i n h i s c l a s s i c m o n o g r a p h , a g g r e s s i o n i s a p r o d u c t o f f r u s t r a t i o n . T h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e v a r i a t i o n f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y , i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f f a c u l t y , was t h e r e s u l t o f two d i f f e r e n t d o m i n a n t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d e n t s : a s s e r t i v e n e s s a n d c o m p l i a n c e . T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by two o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s : I t h i n k t h e more a g g r e s s i v e , t h e more a s s e r t i v e s t u d e n t s f o u n d i t [ t h e p r o g r a m ] a v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g , e x a s p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l , more s u b m i s s i v e p e o p l e , I t h i n k , g o t a l o t more h e l p , b u t , maybe, t h e y s o u g h t a l o t more h e l p . I was b a s i c a l l y q u i t e h a p p y ; I was v e r y c o m p l i a n t b e c a u s e I was hap p y w i t h a n y t h i n g , w i t h a n y o f t h e c o u r s e s I t o o k . I f i g u r e d t h e r e was some-t h i n g p o s i t i v e f r o m e v e r y c o u r s e and e v e r y e x p e r i e n c e , w h e t h e r o r n o t I l i k e d i t . T h e f i r s t r e s p o n d e n t v i e w e d f a c u l t y a s n e g a t i v e , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d f o u n d t h e m s u p p o r t i v e . T h e c o m p l i a n t s t u d e n t . w h o v a l u e d s o c i a l a p p r o v a l a t a h i g h e r premium may h a v e been more a m e n a b l e t o t h e f a c u l t y ; t h u s s h e may h a v e r e c e i v e d more s u p p o r t f o r h e r e f f o r t s t h a n t h e a s s e r t i v e , l e s s t r a c t a b l e s t u d e n t . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by B r e g e r ( 1 9 6 3) who s t u d i e d f e m a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s a nd c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i g h - c o n f o r m i t y s u b j e c t s were u n w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s h o s t i l i t y . 65 R o l e S t r e s s e s T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s t r e s s t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s f o r r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y , r o l e i n a d e q u a c y , r o l e c o n f l i c t , r o l e o v e r l o a d , and r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n ( a s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1 ) . T h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s were f o u n d i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e c o n f l i c t and r o l e o v e r l o a d . When t h e s e t w o , s t r e s s e s a r e c o m b i n e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e g r e a t e s t s t r e s s i n b o t h g r o u p s . In a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r must c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l . D i d , i n f a c t , n o n -g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t e r s t r e s s w h i l e e n r o l l e d i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , o r , do t h e y s i m p l y r e c a l l t h e i r p e r i o d o f e n r o l l m e n t i n more n e g a t i v e t e r m s ? C o n v e r s e l y , do t h e g r a d u a t e s , who w ere s u c c e s s f u l a t a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l , r e c a l l t h e i r y e a r s o f e n r o l l m e n t i n a more p o s i t i v e m a n n e r ? L a z a r u s and L o n g o (1953) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f d e f e n s i v e p r o c e s s e s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e l e c t i v e r e c a l l s e r v e s a p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n and may t a k e two f o r m s . An i n d i v i d u a l may r e c a l l s u c c e s s e s o n l y , i n d i c a t i n g an a v o i d a n t d e f e n s e , o r a p e r s o n may r e c a l l f a i l u r e s o n l y , r e p r e s e n t i n g a v i g i l a n t d e f e n s e . B o t h m e t h o d s a r e u s e f u l ways o f c o p i n g w i t h t h e p r e s e n t . An e x c l u s i v e f o c u s on p a s t s u c c e s s e s p e r m i t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o have c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r a b i l i t i e s t o d e a l w i t h a p r e s e n t t h r e a t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e p r e d o m i n a n t r e c a l l o f f a i l u r e s , e n c o u r a g e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be w a r y and c a u t i o u s i n c o p i n g w i t h a p r e s e n t t h r e a t . As one n o n - g r a d u a t e t h o u g h t f u l l y e x p r e s s e d h e r s e n s e o f c a u t i o n : 66 When I t h i n k o f a l l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s I e n c o u n t e r e d , i t makes me wonder i f I ' l l e v e r go b a c k t o s c h o o l a g a i n . I t has b e e n n o t e d t h a t a n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g i n e v i t a b l y a c c o m p a n i e s a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n s ( L a z a r u s , 1 9 6 9 ) . A s t u d y by S t a r r and o t h e r s ( 1 9 7 2) on d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n f o u n d t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who ' d r o p p e d o u t ' were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a c a d e m i c o f f e r i n g s and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , f a c u l t y and s t a f f c o m p e t e n c e and h e l p f u l n e s s , and t h e amount o f t i m e r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e demands o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . ' T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , i n w h i c h t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p e x p r e s s e d n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t , more f r e q u e n t l y and more i n t e n s e l y t h a n g r a d u a t e s . I f H a r d y ' s ( 1 9 7 8) p o s t u l a t e t h a t r o l e s t r e s s i n d u c e s r o l e s t r a i n ( a n x i e t y and f r u s t r a t i o n ) i s a c c e p t e d , one c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r o l e s t r a i n t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , due t o t h e f o r m e r ' s h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r o l e s t r e s s . T h e r o l e s t r e s s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , b a s e d on f r e q u e n c y and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s . R o l e A c c u m u l a t i o n R o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n , w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h r o l e c o n f l i c t a nd r o l e o v e r l o a d , c o n s t i t u t e d t h e g r e a t e s t s t r e s s f o r b o t h g r o u p s i n t h e s a m p l e . One h u n d r e d p e r c e n t ( 7 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n a s c o m p a r e d t o 62.5 p e r c e n t ( 5 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e d a t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3, w h i c h shows t h a t . a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s were m a r r i e d , m o t h e r s , and e m p l o y e d . F o r t y - t w o p o i n t e i g h t p e r c e n t ( 3 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n -67 g r a d u a t e s s h a r e d a l l t h r e e r o l e s . I t i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e s t u d i e s o f S n o e k (1966) and Whyte (1946) t h a t c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s r e l a t i o n s h i p s become more d i v e r s e and n u m e r o u s , t h e r o l e s t r a i n o r t e n s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n c r e a s e s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s s u c h a s r e l a t i v e s o r c l o s e f r i e n d s may a l s o have be e n a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r many o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . I n d e e d , i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s , an a t t e m p t was made t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s u c h r o l e s t o a l l r e s p o n d e n t s . F o u r o f t h e s t u d e n t s e m p h a s i z e d a l a r g e commitment t o an i n t i m a t e : two c a r e d f o r s i s t e r s who had u n d e r g o n e e m o t i o n a l c r i s e s , one n u r s e d a g r a v e l y i l l f r i e n d , a n d one m o u rned a d y i n g f a t h e r . However, f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e d a t a w e r e u n c l e a r a s t o t h e d e p t h o f demands o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r i n t i m a t e s . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t (6/8) o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e G r a d u a t e C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e , a s c o m p a r e d t o none o f t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e s . T h i s r o l e i n v o l v e d a minimum o f t h r e e h o u r s w e e k l y . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s were c o p i n g w i t h t h e demands o f . h u s b a n d s , c h i l d r e n and e m p l o y e r s and r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s t o i n v o l v e m e n t i n f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t t h a t t i m e . T h i s t h e o r y i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g t h a t 100 p e r c e n t ( 7 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e o v e r l o a d , 50 p e r c e n t more t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s . However, o f t h e s i x members o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e G r a d u a t e C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e , two w e r e w i v e s and m o t h e r s o r were s i n g l e and e m p l o y e d . A d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p s c o u l d e x p l a i n t h i s f i n d i n g . R o l e t h e o r i s t s h a v e l o n g 68 e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e a d e q u a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f a n o v i c e i n t o a new r o l e ( C o o l e y , 1962; M a r t i n and K a t z , 1 9 6 1 ) . By t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h r o l e m o d e l s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s a b o u t t h e s k i l l s and b e h a v i o u r n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . P o s s i b l y t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s were l e s s m o t i v a t e d t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s t o f u r t h e r i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g f a c u l t y , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e i r new r o l e . T h i s t h e o r y i s s u p p o r t e d by e a r l i e r e v i d e n c e t h a t r o l e t r a n s i t i o n o f t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e s was d e l a y e d f o r 57 p e r c e n t ( 4 / 7 ) o f t h e g r o u p , due t o t h e i r r e g i s t r a t i o n a s p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s . T h r e e o f t h e s e women began new j o b s w i t h i n one month o f e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , u n d o u b t e d l y m a k i n g a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e s t u d e n t r o l e s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t . Many r e s p o n d e n t s commented on t h e d e g r e e o f r o l e c o n f l i c t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d due t o c o n f l i c t i n g demands p l a c e d upon them a s e m p l o y e e s and s t u d e n t s , o r a s m o t h e r s and s t u d e n t s . . However, n o t a l l t h e s t u d e n t s who had a c c u m u l a t e d two o r more m a j o r r o l e s f e l t t h e same amount o f s t r e s s . T h e e x p l a n a t i o n may l i e i n p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a s t u d y on m a n a g e r s i n s e v e r a l i n d u s t r i e s . Kahn ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r o l e c o n f l i c t a nd t e n s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d a s i n t r o v e r t s . No s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p was d i s c o v e r e d f o r t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s e x t r o v e r t s . R o l e I n c o n g r u i t y T h e f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y was 46 p e r c e n t h i g h e r i n t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p ( 5 / 7 ) as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p ( 2 / 8 ) . Many a u t h o r s h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h i s ; t y p e o f s t r e s s o c c u r s when an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s o r v a l u e s c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d p e r f o r m a n c e 69 ( A r n d t and L a e g e r , 1970; M a r t i n and K a t z , 1 9 6 1 ) . S i n c e t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e s w i t h d r e w o r t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e i n c o n g r u i t y w h i c h t h e y f e l t w i t h t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , w o u l d be h i g h e r t h a n g r a d u a t e s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e s t u d i e s o f S t a r r and o t h e r s ( 1 9 7 2) who f o u n d t h a t f e e l i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f h i s r e m a i n i n g i n c o l l e g e . T h e f i n d i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t 61 p e r c e n t more n o n - g r a d u a t e s t h a n g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d f r e q u e n t r o l e c o n f l i c t , f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s t h e c o m p a r a t i v e f i n d i n g s on r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and r o l e c o n f l i c t i s w e l l -d o c u m e n t e d ( G r e e n and O r g a n , 1973; J o h n s o n and G r a e n , 1 9 7 3 ) . R o l e s t r a i n i n t e n s i f i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n d i m i n i s h e s . R o l e A m b i g u i t y S e v e n t e e n p e r c e n t more n o n - g r a d u a t e s ( 3 / 7 ) t h a n g r a d u a t e s ( 2 / 8 ) e x p e r i e n c e d f r e q u e n t r o l e a m b i g u i t y . A g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e m i g h t have been a n t i c i p a t e d , as many a u t h o r s have f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l a c k o f c l a r i t y a b o u t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a j o b and h i g h d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n ( A r n d t and L a e g e r , 1970; G r e e n a n d O r g a n , 1973; J o h n s o n a n d G r a e n , 1973; L y o n s , 1 9 7 1 ) . S i n c e s t r e s s f r o m r o l e a m b i g u i t y was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f o r b o t h g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s , t h i s may be an i n d i c a t o r t h a t t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g w e r e a b l e t o p r e s e n t t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s t o s t u d e n t s i n a c l e a r , w e l l - d e f i n e d manner. T h e h i g h e r r o l e a m b i g u i t y o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s may be a s i g n o f i n a d e q u a t e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e s t u d e n t r o l e . E a r l i e r , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f r o l e t r a n s i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s t a t u s 70 o f t h e s t u d e n t and t h e l e n g t h o f h e r e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m , may a f f e c t t h e s p e e d o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . I f t h e s t u d e n t h a s o n l y a v a g u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h at i s e x p e c t e d o f h e r , s a t i s f a c t o r y a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e s t u d e n t r o l e c a n n o t o c c u r u n t i l t h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e c l a r i f i e d . I f t h e s t u d e n t i s o n l y p a r t - t i m e , c l a r i f i c a t i o n may be d e l a y e d . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r o l e a m b i g u i t y between g r a d u a t e s and n o n -g r a d u a t e s c o u l d a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Kahn. ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n h i s s t u d y o f i n d u s t r i a l m a n a g e r s , f o u n d t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n r o l e a m b i g u i t y and t e n s i o n i n t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d a s h i g h i n n e e d o f c o g n i t i o n . S u c h p e o p l e d e s i r e d w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d g u i d e l i n e s a s t o e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r s . T h a t t h e n e e d f o r c o g n i t i o n i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a r e s p o n d e n t f r o m t h e g r a d u a t e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : Many e x p e c t a t i o n s w e r e v a g u e and p o o r l y d e f i n e d . I d i d n ' t s e e t h i s as a t e r r i b l e s t r e s s , I saw i t as an a s s e t , b e c a u s e I c o u l d d e f i n e what I w a n t e d t o do. R o l e O v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n and R o l e I n a d e q u a c y T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n n o n - g r a d u a t e s and g r a d u a t e s f o r r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n a nd r o l e i n a d e q u a c y were m i n i m a l and n o n - m e a n i n g f u l . T w e n t y r f i v e p e r c e n t ( 2 / 8 ) o f t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e d f r e q u e n t r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , a s d i d 28.5 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 7 ) o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p . R o l e i n a d e q u a c y was e x p e r i e n c e d by 13 p e r c e n t ( 2 / 1 5 ) , o n e f r o m e a c h g r o u p . T h e r e f o r e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d f e l t t h a t t h e y were n e i t h e r u n d e r - n o r o v e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e t a s k s r e q u i r e d o f 71 b e i n g a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . T h i s may be an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d by N u r s i n g f a c u l t y a s s u i t a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m . H owever, t h e r e s u l t s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . O f t h e s i x r o l e s t r e s s e s s t u d i e d , r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n and r o l e i n c o m p e t e n c e a r e v e r y l i k e l y t h e two m o s t c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o a p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t i e s a s a s t u d e n t ; t h e f o r m e r f a v o u r a b l y , t h e l a t t e r u n f a v o u r a b l y . I t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t had t h e i n t e r v i e w e r p h r a s e d h e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e two s t r e s s e s w i t h f u r t h e r s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s and w i t h an a l l o w a n c e f o r a d j u s t m e n t o v e r t i m e , t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h r o l e o v e r -q u a l i f i c a t i o n and r o l e i n a d e q u a c y were c i t e d a s s t r e s s e s w o u l d have been h i g h e r . F o r e x a m p l e , one r e s p o n d e n t who c h e c k e d r o l e i n a d e q u a c y a s r a r e , g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t : S o m e t i m e s , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , I w o u l d n ' t f e e l l i k e I was i n t e l l e c t u a l e n ough f o r t h e w h o l e f l a v o u r o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . I t was o n l y i n i t i a l l y u n t i l I g o t m y s e l f a c c l i m a t i z e d t o b e i n g a s t u d e n t a g a i n . 72 C o n c u r r e n t S t r e s s e s In r e s p o n s e t o t h e f i n a l q u e s t i o n on t h e i n t e r v i e w g u i d e , a l l f i f t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s m e n t i o n e d o t h e r s t r e s s e s . T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t ( 5 / 1 5 ) f e l t t h a t t h e w o r k l o a d r e q u i r e d o f a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t was a m a j o r s t r e s s . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n was t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t s t r e s s ; many r e s p o n d e n t s s i g n i f i e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e r o l e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t w i t h r e a d i n g s , a s s i g n m e n t s , s e m i n a r p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and e x a m i n a t i o n s were more t h a n e n ough t o f i l l o n e ' s w a k i n g h o u r s . M e c h a n i c ' s ( 1 9 6 2 ) s t u d y o f D o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s s u p p o r t s t h e common-sense n o t i o n t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t e x p e r i e n c e s a f a i r l y h i g h d e g r e e o f a n x i e t y s u r r o u n d i n g h i s p e r f o r m a n c e a t p e a k p e r i o d s . I f t h e demands o f o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m a s a s t u d e n t , t h e a n x i e t y i s i n c r e a s e d . T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t ( 5 / 1 5 ) o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e d e s c r i b e d f e e l i n g s o f w o r r y and a t t i m e s , h o p e l e s s n e s s , o v e r f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s . A f u r t h e r 20 p e r c e n t ( 3 / 1 5 ) e x p r e s s e d g r a t e f u l n e s s t h a t t h e y were f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h i n h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t means t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s u f f e r a n x i e t y o v e r f i n a n c e s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e a s t o t h e numbers who w o u l d h a v e c i t e d f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e a s a s t r e s s , had a q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i t s i n f l u e n c e been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w g u i d e . F i n a n c i a l w o r r y was m e n t i o n e d w i t h e q u a l f r e q u e n c y by t h e g r a d u a t e s and by t h e n o n -g r a d u a t e s ; a s w e l l a s by t h e f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s and t h e p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s who were e m p l o y e d f o r a s a l a r y . One o f t h e g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s s p o k e w i t h some r e s e n t m e n t o f h e r w i s h t o be e n r o l l e d a s a f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t , b u t t h a t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e a r n i n g t o o k p r i o r i t y f o r h e r f i r s t 73 two y e a r s i n t h e p r o g r a m . T h e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n may h a v e been g r e a t e r f o r t h e 40 p e r c e n t ( 6 / 1 5 ) o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e who had d e p e n d e n t s . As one o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s commented on h e r f e e l i n g s a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e p r o g r a m : In a way i t was a r e l i e f . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n a l o n g t i m e I was e a r n i n g money, r a t h e r t h a n s p e n d i n g i t . I c o u l d g e t t h e c h i l d r e n some o f t h e t h i n g s t h e y .wanted. A t l e a s t one o f t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s was a w a re t h a t f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e a u g m e n t e d h e r f e e l i n g s o f s t r e s s c o n c e r n i n g r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n : What w o u l d have made i t e a s i e r w o u l d have b e e n t o do one t h i n g . T h e o n l y r e a s o n I was w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e was b e c a u s e I n e e d e d t o be a b l e t o make t h e money t o go b a c k t o s c h o o l ; I d i d n ' t have an y o p t i o n . B u t i f I d i d n ' t work, how w o u l d I h a v e managed? T w e n t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t ( 4 / 1 5 ) o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e v o i c e d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n r e g a r d t o unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w h o l e , t h e i n t e n s i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e i r i n c l u s i o n t h e r e . T h e r e i s no way o f k n o w i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e n s e o f d i s i l l u s i o n w i t h g r a d u a t e s c h o o l was s h a r e d by t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s . As one p a r t i c i p a n t s t a t e d : Maybe my e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e t o o i d e a l i s t i c -I c o n s i d e r e d u c a t i o n t o be s o d i f f e r e n t f r o m l i f e and i t ' s n o t ! I t s h o u l d be more c o l l e a g i a l - t h e r e s h o u l d n ' t be s o much i n f i g h t i n g . I t ' s j u s t l i k e a n y o t h e r b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h makes i t v e r y h a r d f o r me t o r e t a i n my e n t h u s i a s m . T h e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t may r e f l e c t i n a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e r o l e . T h e s t u d e n t s may h a v e been u n r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a M a s t e r ' s 74 o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m o r t h e S c h o o l o f N u r s i n g , may h a v e p r o v i d e d an i n a d e q u a t e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o g r a m and t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . S t r e s s Management F i v e f o r m s o f s t r e s s management were e x a m i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , r o l e r e d u c t i o n , r o l e i n c r e a s e , r o l e b a r g a i n i n g , and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s e management s t r a t e g i e s w o u l d h a v e been u s e d s i n g l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n , by t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c o p e w i t h r o l e s t r e s s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s may h a v e u s e d t h e s e m e t h o d s on a p r e v e n t a t i v e b a s i s , i n t h e s e n s e o f p r e p a r i n g t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e s t r e s s e s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Jam's (1962) i n h i s s t u d y o f s u r g i c a l p a t i e n t s e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e "work o f w o r r y i n g " i n c o p i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h s t r e s s . M e c h a n i c ( 1 9 7 7) has a l s o n o t e d t h a t p r e p a r a t i o n i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n a l l e v i a t i n g a n x i e t y . T h i s i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by t h e s t u d i e s o f Hamburg and Adams (1967) on c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r . B o t h t h e g r a d u a t e and n o n ^ g r a d u a t e r e s p o n d e n t s were a n t i c i p a t e d t o h a v e u s e d some o r a l l o f t h e s e c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s as a r e s p o n s e t o i m m e d i a t e s t r e s s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f . T h e r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r b o t h k i n d s o f u s e ( p r e v e n t a t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e ) when a n s w e r i n g h e r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s modes o f s t r e s s management w e r e u s e d . M e t h o d s o f s t r e s s management w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e . 75 P r o b l e m S o l v i n g P r o b l e m s o l v i n g was t h e m ethod m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d by b o t h g r o u p s . T h i s s u g g e s t s a v e r y h e a l t h y r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s a m p l e ( 8 6 . 6 p e r c e n t - 1 3 / 1 5 ) . R a p o p o r t ( 1 9 6 2) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t when a s t r e s s i s v i e w e d a s a c h a l l e n g e , i t i s l i k e l y t o be met w i t h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s . W r i g h t s m a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) e m p h a s i z e s t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o p e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s a d j u s t m e n t , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r e d t o be e x t r e m e l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s k i n d o f a p p r o a c h ; many r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d u s i n g some f o r m o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . I s t h i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r e a r l i e r t r a i n i n g i n w h i c h t h e s c i e n t i f i c m e thod i s t a u g h t , v i a t h e n u r s i n g p r o c e s s , a s t h e s o u n d means o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ? Many a u t h o r s have n o t e d t h a t p e o p l e t e n d t o make h a b i t u a l u s e o f m e t h o d s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e f a m i l i a r i n c o p i n g w i t h s t r e s s e s i n t h e p r e s e n t ( A g u i l e r a , 1978; M e c h a n i c , 1977; C a p l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) . R o l e R e d u c t i o n The n o n - g r a d u a t e s made 27.5 p e r c e n t more f r e q u e n t u s e o f r o l e r e d u c t i o n t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s . T h i s was c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g t h a t n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h e r - f r e q u e n c y o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n t h a n g r a d u a t e s . Goode (1960) i n h i s t h e o r y o f r o l e s t r a i n , c i t e s - r o l e r e d u c t i o n a s one o f t h e o b v i o u s means by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l may r e d u c e t h e s t r a i n a c c o m p a n y i n g r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h r o u g h r o l e r e d u c t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t r e d e f i n e s what o t h e r s e x p e c t o f h e r and what s h e e x p e c t s o f h e r s e l f . 76 F o r e x a m p l e , i f s h e h i r e s a c l e a n i n g l a d y to. m a i n t a i n h e r h o u s h o l d , t h e s t u d e n t i s s h e d d i n g t h a t o b l i g a t i o n - i t i s no l o n g e r o n e o f h e r r o l e s . How d o e s an i n d i v i d u a l d e c i d e what r o l e s c a n be e l i m i n a t e d ? B o t h Goode (1 9 6 0 ) and H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t some p o s i t i o n s i n l i f e c a n be a b a n d o n e d more e a s i l y t h a n o t h e r s . H a r d y ( 1 9 7 8 ) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f d e p e n d e n c e upon t h a t p o s i t i o n i s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , h o w e v e r , s h e d o e s n o t s p e c i f y what k i n d o f d e p e n d e n c e ; f o r e x a m p l e , e m o t i o n a l o r f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r w i s e . To t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i s t h e d e g r e e o f commitment t o t h a t p o s i t i o n . T h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s commitment t o a r o l e i s u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t upon h e r c o n c e p t o f s e l f : h e r v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , a n d b e l i e f s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f N e v i l l and Damic o ( 1 9 7 4 ) t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t r o l e c o n f l i c t f o r a woman r e v o l v e s a r o u n d h e r image o f h e r s e l f . One woman m i g h t w e l l h o l d t h e v a l u e , o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s a c r e d , s p e n d i n g more t i m e i n i t s p u r s u i t t h a n a n o t h e r who p l a c e s g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y on h e r r o l e a s m o t h e r , e x p e n d i n g more e n e r g y i n t h a t a r e a . H owever, b o t h n o n - g r a d u a t e s a n d g r a d u a t e s were i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s c u r t a i l e d , i n an e f f o r t t o r e d u c e s t r e s s , were t h o s e w i t h f r i e n d s . A number, o f r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l a i n e d o f a l a c k o f a s o c i a l l i f e . One r e m a r k w h i c h seemed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f e e l i n g s o f many: F r i e n d s were t h e f i r s t t o go. You hope i f t h e y ' r e good f r i e n d s t h a t t h e y ' l l u n d e r s t a n d t h a t y o u ' r e no l o n g e r f r e e . R o l e B a r g a i n i n g R o l e b a r g a i n i n g was p o p u l a r w i t h b o t h g r o u p s ; 60 p e r c e n t ( 9 / 1 5 ) u s e d i t , t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s . 77 R o l e b a r g a i n i n g , l i k e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , c a n be an e x t r e m e l y e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s . By t h i s p r o c e d u r e , an i n d i v i d u a l i s f o r c e d t o a n a l y z e t h e s t r e s s e s s h e i s e x p e r i e n c i n g and a s s e r t some c o n t r o l o v e r what o t h e r s e x p e c t o f h e r . T h i s has t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g some o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d r o l e s t r a i n . I f t h e s t u d e n t i s an e f f e c t i v e b a r g a i n e r , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t o t a l w i t h d r a w a l f r o m a r o l e i s l e s s l i k e l y . P r o d u c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s p r o b a b l y a l e a r n e d t e c h n i q u e , one g e t s b e t t e r w i t h p r a c t i c e . I t a p p e a r s t o i n v o l v e a m y r i a d o f s k i l l s s u c h a s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , d e l e g a t i o n , and n e g o t i a t i o n ; i n s h o r t , t h e t y p e o f s k i l l s r e q u i r e d o f a n y e f f i c i e n t m a n a g e r . A l l b u t one o f t h e n i n e / r e s p o r i d e r i t s who f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e , were w i v e s , o r . m o t h e r s , o r e m p l o y e e s , o r a l l t h r e e . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s g r o u p u s e d e q u i t a b l e b a r g a i n i n g w i t h o t h e r s , p r i o r t o b e c o m i n g M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , w i t h some s u c c e s s and c o n t i n u e d t o make h a b i t u a l u s e o f i t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was u s e d by s l i g h t l y more g r a d u a t e s t h a n n o n -g r a d u a t e s ; by 60 p e r c e n t ( 9 / 1 5 ) o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e . T h e v a l u e o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d , a s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e a x i o m : "A h e a l t h y b o d y ; a h e a l t h y m i n d . " T e n s i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n t e n d t o t i g h t e n and p a r a l y z e m u s c l e s ; p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a l l o w s t h e b o d y ' s m u s c u l a t u r e t o u n w i n d and s t r e t c h , c a u s i n g r e l a x a t i o n . S e l y e ( 1 9 7 4 ) e m p h a s i z e s t h a t f r u s t r a t i o n i s much more l i k e l y t o c a u s e d i s e a s e t h a n e x c e s s i v e m u s c u l a r w ork, w h i c h c a n c h a n g e f e e l i n g s o f s t r e s s i n t o f e e l i n g s o f r e l a x a t i o n . T h e f i n d i n g s o f G a l and L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 5 ) s u p p o r t t h e n e e d f o r a c t i v i t y o f a n y k i n d i n t h e f a c e o f s t r e s s . 78 F o r some r e s p o n d e n t s , - p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y seems t o have been an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f l i f e p r i o r t o e n t r y i n t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . However, a s demands i n c r e a s e d and t i m e was c o n s t r a i n e d , s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as b a d m i n t o n , swimming and g o l f were e l i m i n a t e d by r o l e r e d u c t i o n . Camooso and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 1 ) made a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g . Two r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s p o k e o f s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d i n g some f o r m o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t o t h e i r r o u t i n e d u r i n g t h e i r e n r o l l m e n t a s a means o f c o p i n g . M o s t who u s e d t h i s s t r a t e g y w e r e adamant a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and v i e w e d i t a s a v i t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e i r l i v e s . R o l e E x t e n s i o n R o l e e x t e n s i o n was t h e l e a s t commonly u s e d by b o t h g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h i t was u s e d w i t h g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y by t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e s . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e l o w p o p u l a r i t y o f r o l e e x t e n s i o n may be i t s l i m i t e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Goode ( 1 9 6 0 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e may l i e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o u s e e x p a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s as an e x c u s e f o r n o t f u l f i l l i n g o t h e r o b l i g a t i o n s . I t has been f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d by S e i b e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) t h a t s o m e t i m e s a d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e p e r m i t t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f l a t i t u d e f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y a r e v i e w e d a s c o p i n g w i t h m u l t i p l e demands. " T h i s s i t u a t i o n a l l o w s a m p l e room f o r t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n s . " ( S e i b e r , 1974, p. 5 7 2 ) . A n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on r o l e i n c r e a s e i s t h a t . i t may be u s e d a s a d i v e r s i o n a r y t a c t i c . In s u c h a c a s e , t h e s t u d e n t b e c o m e s " i n v o l v e d ' w i t h 79 an a c t i v i t y f a r r e m o v e d f r o m a c a d e m i a and o f t e n w i t h a new s e t o f p e o p l e . T h i s may p r o v i d e much n e e d e d r e l a x a t i o n , d i v e r t i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s m i n d f r o m s t r e s s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by G a l and L a z a r u s ( 1 9 7 5) who c o n c l u d e d , a f t e r r e v i e w i n g many s t u d i e s on s t r e s s , t h a t a c t i v i t y d u r i n g s t r e s s f u l p e r i o d s r e d u c e s a n x i e t y . In t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s drawn f r o m t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d , a s w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t y p e s , d i m e n s i o n s , a n d management o f s t r e s s i n M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . S i n c e t h e a u t h o r was a b l e t o f i n d o n l y one r e l e v a n t s t u d y on M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , s h e d e v e l o p e d an i n t e r v i e w g u i d e a i m e d a t g a t h e r i n g d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a (Camooso a nd o t h e r s , 1 9 8 1 ) . R o l e t h e o r y was c h o s e n a s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s g u i d e as i t o f f e r e d an i n t e r a c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , f o c u s s i n g on t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . Two s a m p l e s o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e t w e e n 1974 a n d 1979. One s a m p l e was composed o f e i g h t women who g r a d u a t e d w i t h a M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g d e g r e e ; t h e s e c o n d s a m p l e was composed o f s e v e n women who had w i t h d r a w n o r t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e p r o g r a m . The d a t a w h i c h w ere o b t a i n e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , by i n t e r v i e w s r a n g i n g f r o m 30 t o 90 m i n u t e s i n l e n g t h , were s u b j e c t e d ,to c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s . T h e f i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 4 and a r e c o m p r i s e d o f f i v e m a i n a r e a s : i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n s t r e s s p e r c e p t i o n , r o l e s t r e s s e s , c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s e s , s t r e s s management," and r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s . B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t : 80 81 1. The m a j o r i t y o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , i n b o t h t h e g r a d u a t e and n o n - g r a d u a t e s a m p l e s , f o u n d g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s t r e s s f u l . F a c t o r s t h o u g h t t o be i n f l u e n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n s t r e s s p e r c e p t i o n a r e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s , e a s e o f r o l e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r o l e , a nd t h e a d e q u a c y o f r e s o u r c e n e t w o r k s . 2. The n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y and r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s . 3. S l i g h t , b u t n o n - m e a n i n g f u l d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s i n t h e a r e a s o f r o l e a m b i g u i t y , r o l e o v e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and r o l e i n a d e q u a c y . 4. The m o s t f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d r o l e s t r e s s . f o r b o t h g r a d u a t e s and n o n - g r a d u a t e s was r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . 5. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s c i t e d one o r more c o n c u r r e n t s t r e s s e s w h i l e a t t e n d i n g g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e w o r k l o a d , f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e , l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f s t r e s s management, and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n r e g a r d t o unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . 0 6. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s v i e w e d f a m i l y and f r i e n d s a s s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e i r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r o l e . 7. A l l r e s p o n d e n t s . b u t o n e , v i e w e d f e l l o w s t u d e n t s as s u p p o r t i v e ; m o s t c i t e d t h e i r p e e r s as t h e m o s t h e l p f u l r e s o u r c e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . 8. The m a j o r i t y o f g r a d u a t e s v i e w e d f a c u l t y a s a s u p p o r t i v e r e s o u r c e ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s v i e w e d f a c u l t y as i n d i f f e r e n t . 82 9. T w e n t y p e r c e n t ( 3 / 1 5 ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s v i e w e d f a c u l t y as a n e g a t i v e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h r h i n d e r e d a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t r o l e . 10. B o t h g r a d u a t e s a n d n o n - g r a d u a t e s c i t e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y u s e d m ethod o f s t r e s s management. 11. In t h e g r a d u a t e g r o u p , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r a n k e d s e c o n d i n u s e f o r s t r e s s management. R o l e r e d u c t i o n and r o l e b a r g a i n i n g s h a r e d t h i r d r a n k . 12. In t h e n o n - g r a d u a t e g r o u p , r o l e r e d u c t i o n r a n k e d e q u a l i n u s e t o p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . R o l e b a r g a i n i n g r a n k e d s e c o n d and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r a n k e d t h i r d . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r G r a d u a t e N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n A l t h o u g h t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y i s s u c h t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s c a n o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d t e n t a t i v e , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r a i s e c e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s and M a s t e r ' s f a c u l t y . D e s p i t e t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e s a m p l e s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y f o u n d t h e p r o g r a m s t r e s s f u l . The m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d s t r e s s was r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n ; i n v o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i n t h e d i s c r e p a n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t u d e n t and o v e r l o a d i n t e r m s o f a v a i l a b l e t i m e . T h i s s o u r c e o f s t r e s s i s l i k e l y t o i n t e n s i f y i n t h e f u t u r e as more women who b o l d j o b s and who a r e p a r e n t s s e e k h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t o f u r t h e r t h e i r c a r e e r g o a l s . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d l i m i t s o f r o l e a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h e n e e d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and empathy 83 f r o m f e l l o w s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y i s c r u c i a l i n a s s u r i n g t h a t s t u d e n t s who l a b o u r u n d e r many o b l i g a t i o n s a r e a b l e t o a d j u s t t o t h e demands o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o r r o b o r a t e d by t h e o t h e r s i n g l e s t u d y done i n t h i s f i e l d (Camooso a n d o t h e r s , 1 9 8 1 ) . Some s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e g u i d a n c e i n how t o p r i o r i t i z e t h e i r r o l e s a n d manage s t r e s s e f f e c t i v e l y . The f i n d i n g t h a t a h i g h number o f n o n - g r a d u a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d f r e q u e n t r o l e i n c o n g r u i t y s u g g e s t s an i n a d e q u a c y i n t e r m s o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l . o r an i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s f o r e n t r y . D i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n r e g a r d t o unmet e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t g r a d u a t e s c h o o l may be a f a c t o r h e r e . A r e t h e demands a n d o b l i g a t i o n s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l p r e s e n t e d r e a l i s t i c a l l y by t h e f a c u l t y ? Or i s t h e r e a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . F u r t h e r a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s phenomenon i f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g p r o g r a m s a r e t o c o n t i n u e a t t r a c t i n g n u r s e s a n d r e t a i n i n g them u n t i l t h e y a r e a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r d e g r e e s . O t h e r , f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a t t r i t i o n - a p p e a r t o be t h e p r e s s u r e s o f a h e a v y w o r k l o a d and f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e . F i n a l l y , t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s a r e m a t u r e a n d w e l l - o r g a n i z e d . T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r f r e q u e n t u s e o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t o manage s t r e s s , as w e l l as t h e t e c h n i q u e o f r o l e b a r g a i n i n g w h i c h r e q u i r e s a h i g h l e v e l 84 o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . The s t u d e n t ' s m a t u r i t y i s f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r w i d e u s e o f r o l e r e d u c t i o n , t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i r t i m e and a b i l i t i e s a n d c u r t a i l e d t h e i r c o mmitments t o o t h e r s a c c o r d i n g l y . A The u s e o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s t r e s s r e d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s a b r o a d and b a l a n c e d p e r s p e c t i v e . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t i s recommended t h a t : 1. T h i s s t u d y be r e p e a t e d u s i n g a l a r g e r s a m p l e f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e s u l t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r s c h o o l s o f n u r s i n g . - 2 . A l o n g i t u d i n a l p r o s p e c t i v e , s t u d y . b e u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t ' s a d j u s t m e n t . o v e r t i m e . 3. C o m p a r a t i v e r e s e a r c h on r o l e s t r e s s be c o n d u c t e d u s i n g a s a m p l e o f M a s t e r ' s o f S c i e n c e i n N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s and a s a m p l e f r o m a n o t h e r f i e l d o f g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . 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" S o u r c e s o f S t r e s s i n U n i v e r s i t y N u r s i n g S t u d e n t s " . N u r s i n g P a p e r s , 11, 4 ( W i n t e r 1979) pp. 87-97. 88 M a r t i n , H. and K a t z , F. "The P r o f e s s i o n a l S c h o o l a s a M o l d e r o f M o t i v a t i o n s " . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and Human B e h a v i o r , 2 (1961) pp. 106-112. M a s l o w , A. M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o s . , 1954. M e c h a n i c , D. "Some Modes o f A d a p t a t i o n : D e f e n s e " , i n A. Monat a nd R. L a z a r u s ( E d s ) . S t r e s s a nd C o p i n g . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. Morman, R., L i d d l e , L . , and Heywood, H. " P r e d i c t i o n o f A c a d e m i c A c h i e v e m e n t o f N u r s i n g S t u d e n t s " . . N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h , 3 (Summer 1965) pp. 227-230. M o x l e y , P. and W h i t e , D. " F i t t i n g t h e G r a d u a t e P r o g r a m t o t h e S t u d e n t " . N u r s i n g O u t l o o k , 23, 10, ( O c t o b e r 1975) pp. 625-629. N e v i l l , D., and D a m i c o , S. " D e v e l o p m e n t o f a R o l e C o n f l i c t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Women". J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g a nd C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 42, 5 ( 1 9 7 4 ) p. 743. R a p o p o r t , L. "The S t a t e o f C r i s i s : Some T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " . i n H. P a r a d ( E d ) . C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n . New Y o r k : F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , 1965. R i c h a r d s o n , S., Dohrenwend, B., and K l e i n , D. I n t e r v i e w i n g : I t s Forms  and F u n c t i o n s . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1965. R u b i n , J . , and Brown. B. T h e S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f B a r g a i n i n g and  N e g o t i a t i o n . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1975. S a r b i n , T., and A l l e n , V. " R o l e T h e o r y " , i n G. L i n d s e y and E. A r o n s o n ( E d s ) . T h e Handbook o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 2nd e d i t i o n . Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g C o ., 2, 1968. S e l d e n , W. " A r e P r o b l e m s i n G r a d u a t e N u r s i n g E d u c a t i o n U n i q u e ? " N u r s i n g O u t l o o k , 2 3 , 10 ( O c t o b e r 1975) pp. 622-624. S e l l t i z , C , J a h o d a , M., D e u t s c h , M., and Cook, S. R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s i n  S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s . 3 r d e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1976. S e l y e , H. T h e S t r e s s o f L i f e . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. I n c . , 1956. S e l y e , H. S t r e s s W i t h o u t D i s t r e s s . New Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1974. S i e b e r , S. "Toward a T h e o r y o f R o l e A c c u m u l a t i o n " . A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , 39 ( A u g u s t 1974) pp. 567-578. S i l b e r , E . , C o e l h o , G., Mu r p h e y , E . , Hamburg, D., P e a r l i n , L . , R o s e n b e r g , M. and B e t h e s d a , . " C o m p e t e n t A d o l e s c e n t s C o p i n g w i t h C o l l e g e D e c i s i o n s " . A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y , 5 (December 1961) pp. 27-37. 89 S i m e , A. " P r e d i c t i o n o f S u c c e s s i n a M a s t e r ' s D e g r e e P r o g r a m i n N u r s i n g " . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 42 ( 1 9 7 8 ) pp. 7 7 9 - 7 8 3 . S n o e k , J . " R o l e S t r a i n i n D i v e r s i f i e d R o l e S e t s " . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l  o f S o c i o l o g y , 71 ( J a n u a r y 1966) pp. 363-372. S t a r r , A., B e t z , E . , and Menne, J . " D i f f e r e n c e s i n C o l l e g e S t u d e n t S a t i s f a c t i o n : A c a d e m i c D r o p o u t s , N o n a c a d e m i c D r o p o u t s , a n d N o n d r o p o u t s " . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 19 ( J u l y 1972) pp. 318-322. S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , H e a l t h D i v i s i o n , H e a l t h and Manpower S e c t i o n : ' N u r s i n g i n C a n a d a : C a n a d i a n N u r s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , O t t a w a : p u b l i s h e d by t h e a u t h o r i t y o f M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y , T r a d e , and Commerce, S e p t e m b e r 1978. T r e e c e , E. and T r e e c e , J . E l e m e n t s o f R e s e a r c h i n N u r s i n g . ( 2 n d e d i t i o n ) . S a i n t L o u i s : C.;V. Mosby Co., 1977. Tuckman, B.. C o n d u c t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t -B r a c e - J o v a n o v i c h , I n c . , 1972. V i s o t s k y , H., Hamburg, D., G o s s , M. and L e b o v i t s , B. " C o p i n g B e h a v i o r under. E x t r e m e . S t r e s s " . A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y , 5 ( 1 9 6 1 ) pp. 423-448. Whyte, W. "Where W o r k e r s a n d C u s t o m e r s M e e t " , i n W. Whyte ( E d ) . I n d u s t r y and S o c i e t y . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1946. W i l s o n , H., and L e v y , J . "Why RN S t u d e n t s D r o p O u t " . N u r s i n g O u t l o o k , ( J u l y 1978) pp. 4 3 7 - 4 4 1 . W i t t m e y e r , A., C a m i s c i o n i , J . , and P u r d y , P. "A L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f A t t r i t i o n and A c a d e m i c P e r f o r m a n c e i n a C o l l e g i a t e N u r s i n g P r o g r a m " . N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h , 20 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1971) pp. 339-347. W r i g h t s m a n , L. A s s u m p t i o n s A b o u t Human N a t u r e : A S o c i a l - P s y c h o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1974. 90 A P P E N D I X A 92 A P P E N D I X B 93 APPENDIX B I n t e r v i e w G u i d e I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k y o u f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . T o d a y , I want t o f o c u s on t h o s e y e a r s when y o u w e r e e n r o l l e d as an M.S.N, s t u d e n t a t U.B.C. I t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o me and g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y , i f y o u c a n be as a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i m p a c t o f s t r e s s o f M.S.N, s t u d e n t s . My q u e s t i o n s w i l l c e n t r e on t h e k i n d s o f s t r e s s e s y o u e n c o u n t e r e d i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l a n d . t h e ways i n w h i c h y o u d e a l t w i t h t h e s e . P a r t 1 1. What y e a r d i d y o u e n r o l l i n t h e M.S.N, p r o g r a m a t U . B . C ? 2. Was t h i s a s a p a r t - t i m e o r f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t ? D i d t h i s c h a n g e d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m ? When? Was t h i s p l a n n e d ? How l o n g were y o u e n r o l l e d ? 3. How o l d were y o u a t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t ? 4. Were y o u m a r r i e d , l i v i n g w i t h someone, o r s i n g l e when y o u e n r o l l e d ? D i d t h i s a l t e r d u r i n g t h e p r o g r a m ? When? 5. D i d y o u h a v e an y c h i l d r e n when y o u e n r o l l e d ? I f y e s , w h at were t h e i r a g e s ? D i d t h i s c h a n g e ? When? 6. D i d y o u c o n t i n u e t o work f o r a s a l a r y a f t e r y o u e n r o l l e d ? I f y e s , what d i d y o u do? How many h o u r s p e r week? D i d t h i s a l t e r ? When? 94 7. What o t h e r commitments d i d y o u ha v e on y o u r t i m e a n d e n e r g y when y o u b e g a n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l ( p o s s i b l e p r o b e s : s u c h a s p a r e n t s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d , s c h o o l , community i n v o l v e m e n t s , s t u d e n t a f f a i r s ) ? D i d t h e s e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e ? D i d y o u j o i n any new o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m ? 8. What y e a r d i d y o u g r a d u a t e f r o m a b a c c a l a u r e a t e p r o g r a m ? Where d i d y o u c o m p l e t e t h i s ? 9. How l o n g h ad y o u been r e s i d i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M.S.N, p r o g r a m ? D i d y o u move d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m ? I f y e s , when? 10.. Had y o u t a k e n a n y c o u r s e s a t U.B.C. p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e M.S.N, p r o g r a m ? P a r t 2 1. A l o n g w i t h t h e r e w a r d s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , many M.S.N, s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d i r r i t a t i o n a n d f r u s t r a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s a n d demands p l a c e d upon them. ( C a n y o u r e c a l l any i r r i t a t i o n s a n d f r u s t r a t i o n s w h i c h y o u e x p e r i e n c e d ? ) I'm t h i n k i n g h e r e o f o t h e r c o m m i t m e n t s ? H e r e i s a l i s t o f s i x common k i n d s o f s t r e s s f o r M.S.N, s t u d e n t s . ( R e a d s t a t e m e n t s w i t h s u b j e c t a nd c h e c k a p p r o p r i a t e c o l u m n . Was t h i s t r u e f o r y o u ? n e v e r ? r a r e l y ? o f t e n ? a l m o s t a l w a y s ? ) ( E x h i b i t A ) . 2. You have i d e n t i f i e d f r o m t h i s l i s t ( E x h i b i t A) t h a t y o u a l m o s t a l w a y s f e l t . . . . ? Can y o u r e c a l l a s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e . o f t h i s ? How d i d y o u c o p e w i t h t h i s ? ( p o s s i b l e p r o b e s : What a c t i o n d i d 95 y o u t a k e by y o u r s e l f ? i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s ? ) Was t h i s way o f c o p i n g t y p i c a l o f y o u ? A t y p i c a l ? How? 3. H e r e i s a l i s t o f f i v e common methods u s e d i n t h e management a n d r e d u c t i o n o f s t r e s s . You may have u s e d some o f t h e s e p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t , i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e s t r e s s e s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l ; as w e l l a s u s e d t h e s e m e thods d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f . P l e a s e e x a m i n e i t a n d c h e c k t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l u m n . ( E x h i b i t B ) . 4. In c o p i n g w i t h t h e s t r e s s e s o f g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , w h at r e s o u r c e s d i d y o u f i n d h e l p f u l ? C o n v e r s e l y , w h at was u n h e l p f u l ? ( p o s s i b l e p r o b e s : D i d some p e o p l e make i t e a s i e r f o r y o u t o a d j u s t ? D i d some p e o p l e make i t more d i f f i c u l t ? y o u r f a m i l y ? y o u r f r i e n d s ? o t h e r s t u d e n t s ? f a c u l t y ? Were t h e y i n d i f f e r e n t , s u p p o r t i v e , o r n e g a t i v e ? ) 5. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e amount o r t h e management o f s t r e s s i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l w h i c h y o u f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m e n t i o n ? T h i s c o m p l e t e s t h e i n t e r v i e w . I f y o u t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e r o l e s t r e s s e s y o u e x p e r i e n c e d i n g r a d u a t e s c h o o l , y o u c a n c o n t a c t me a t 2 24-2656. I f upon l i s t e n i n g t o t h e t a p e , I f i n d I n e e d f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , I may c a l l y o u . T h ank y o u . 96 Exhibit A Types of Stress Frequency of Occurrence 1. Faculty expectations of the M.S.N, student are vague or poorly defined, e.g. requirements relating to a specific course are not stated clearly at the beginning of the course so that the student is uncertain what her performance should be. 2. The M.S.N, student finds that her values or attitudes concerning her performance conflict with those of faculty, e.g. the M.S.N, student, based on her self-perception and knowledge of her own needs, desires clinical experience which faculty advise against. 3. The M.S.N, student feels inadequate to meet the expectations surround-ing her performance as a student, e.g. the M.S.N, student who has had no exposure to the university since she graduated ten or twenty years ago feels she has lost the necessary study ski l l s . 4. The M.S.N, student feels over-qualified for the demands required of a student, e.g. the M.S.N, student who has ten years excell-ent teaching experience is required to take a clinical teaching course. 5. The M.S.N, student feels she cannot meet the conflicting or competing expectations of others, e.g. the M.S.N, student is expected to defer to her professor's opinions, yet display innovative and critical thinking. 6. The M.S.N, student is unable to ful-f i l l a l l her commitments to others in the available time period, e.g. the M.S.N, student is unable to attend a mother-daughter banquet on the same evening she is to review a seminar presentation for the next morning. never rarely .often almost always 97 Exhibit B Management of Stress Frequency of Use almost never rarely often always 1. Simple problem solving by which the M.S.N, student appraises the situ -ation, identifies the available actions, and the possible conse-quences. On the basis of this appraisal she acts and then evaluates her action, e.g. the M.S.N, student is uncertain about how to proceed with a paper; she reviews the alternatives, discusses i t with the professor, makes a decision, and evaluates i t s ' effect. 2. The M.S.N, student reduces the number of her commitments, e.g. she hires a cleaning lady to look after housecleaning. 3. The M.S.N, student increases the number of her commitments, e.g. the M.S.N, student engages in a new activity in an effort to take her mind off her studies. 4. The M.S.N, student uses a "bargaining" process with another person about her expected performance in a relationship. This involves open communication in order to reach agreement, e.g. the M.S.N, student negotiates with her thesis committee re: deadlines or negotiates with her husband re: who w i l l cook what meals. 5. Physical activity, e.g. swimming, jogging, dance, golf. 98 APPENDIX C 

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