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Diatonicism and chromaticism in Richard Strauss’ tone-poem Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche Mac Neil, Patrick 1981

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DIATONICISM AND CHROMATICISM IN RICHARD STRAUSS' TONE-POEM TILL EULENSPIEGELS LUSTIGE STREICHE by PATRICK^MAC NEIL B.A. (Honours i n Music), Dalhousie University, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MUSIC THEORY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1981 @ Patrick Mac N e i l , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of t/rVUuat*  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Q<tZ&M {j} /(}j>/. DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT In the f i r s t chapter of t h i s t h e s i s I i n t r o d u c e the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum. I t i s an a n a l y t i c a l device u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g music which e x h i b i t s much d i v e r s i t y . In the case of t h i s tone-poem, i t i s u s e f u l to a s s i m i l a t e the many s e c t i o n s w i t h i n i t , those that are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y d i a t o n i c i n a t r a d i t i o n a l sense, those that are so h i g h l y chromatic i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to determine t h e i r main and s u b s i d i a r y keys, as w e l l as those that l i e somewhere between these two extremes. As these three s e c t i o n - t y p e s are e q u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the work, the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum serves as a v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n t i a l concept. In the second chapter I analyze the above s e c t i o n s n o t i n g t h e i r main keys, s u b s i d i a r y keys, and the means by which these keys are e s t a b l i s h e d . In the t h i r d chapter I r e t u r n to the concept of the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum and d i s c u s s s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s analyzed i n the second chapter. I have c o l l e c t e d my musical examples together i n the Appendix f o r e a s i e r r e f e r e n c e . These examples comprise re d u c t i o n s from the tone-poem, s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s of these r e d u c t i o n s I c a l l sketches, and a major example which i s a condensation of the e n t i r e work. F i n a l l y , my study of T i l l E u l e n s p i e g e l s l u s t i g e S t r e i c h e concentrates on the p u r e l y musical and not on the programmatic. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgement i v Chapter I. Introduction 1 I I . T i l l 11 III. General Remarks and Conclusion 40 Appendix of Musical Examples 52 Bibliography 101 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank Dr. W i l l i a m Benjamin f o r h i s advice i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , and I thank Richard Strauss f o r l e a v i n g the world so much b e a u t i f u l music, some of which I have s t u d i e d to my great d e l i g h t and musical e d i f i c a t i o n . i v CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n The t e r m c o n t i n u u m has been d e f i n e d as a " c o n t i n u o u s t h i n g , q u a n t i t y , o r s u b s t a n c e ; a c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s o f e l e m e n t s p a s s i n g i n t o e a c h o t h e r . " The p a s s a g e o f day i n t o n i g h t may be r e p r e s e n t e d as a c o n t i n u u m . B e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e a f t e r n o o n o f a c l o u d l e s s day, I c o u l d measure t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l i g h t a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s o f t i m e u n t i l w e l l i n t o t h e n i g h t . I would o b t a i n a s e r i e s o f r e a d i n g s c o n t i n u o u s l y d e c r e a s i n g i n i n t e n s i t y . The more f r e q u e n t l y I t o o k t h e r e a d i n g s t h e c l o s e r t h e y would be t o e a c h o t h e r , so t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e between two r e a d i n g s would be e i t h e r t o o f i n e t o measure o r t o o s l i g h t f o r t h e human eye t o p e r c e i v e . I would f i n d no p o i n t a t 2 w h i c h day ends and n i g h t b e g i n s , b u t , o n l y and a l w a y s , p o i n t s a t w h i c h i n t e n s i t y - r e a d i n g s a r e p r e c e d e d o r f o l l o w e d by t h e n e x t h i g h e s t o r l o w e s t r e a d i n g s . T h i s d a y - n i g h t c o n t i n u u m i s a " c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s " o f i n t e n s i t y - r e a d i n g s " p a s s i n g i n t o e a c h o t h e r . " The p a s s a g e f r o m t h e d i a t o n i c t o t h e c h r o m a t i c may be r e p r e s e n t e d as a c o n t i n u u m . By d i a t o n i c I mean a work o r p o r t i o n o f a' work w h i c h u s e s as i t s b a s i s t h e m a j o r and m i n o r s c a l e s and t h e c h o r d s w h i c h may be formed f r o m t h e p i t c h e s o f t h e s e s c a l e s . By c h r o m a t i c I mean a work o r p o r t i o n o f a work w h i c h u s e s as i t s b a s i s t h e m a j o r and m i n o r s c a l e s one o r more - 1 -o f t h e p i t c h e s o f w h i c h have been r a i s e d o r l o w e r e d by a 3 h a l f - s t e p . C h r o m a t i c t h e n a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e c h o r d s formed f r o m t h e p i t c h e s o f t h e s e a l t e r e d m a j o r and m i n o r s c a l e s . As d e c r e a s i n g d e g r e e s o f l i g h t - i n t e n s i t y l e a d one a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m f r o m day i n t o n i g h t , so i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e s o f h a l f -s t e p a l t e r a t i o n l e a d one a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m f r o m t h e d i a t o n i c t o t h e c h r o m a t i c . This . l a t t e r : c o n t i n u u m I s h a l l s i m p l y c a l l t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m . T h i s c o n t i n u u m c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f two m u s i c a l c o n c e p t s . One o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s i s t o n a l i t y . I d e f i n e t o n a l i t y r a t h e r b r o a d l y as t h e a c c e n t u a t i o n o f a p i t c h o r gr o u p o f p i t c h e s t h r o u g h m u s i c a l means.^ But f o r t h e sake o f my a n a l y s i s o f t h e tone-poem T i l l E u l e n s p i e g e l s l u s t i g e S t r e i c h e , w h i c h h e n c e f o r t h I s h a l l r e f e r t o as T i l l , I d e f i n e t o n a l i t y more n a r r o w l y . T o n a l i t y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e a c c e n t u a t i o n o f a p i t c h o r o f a gro u p o f p i t c h e s f o r m i n g a m a j o r o r m i n o r t r i a d ; t h i s a c c e n t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s a p p r o a c h i n g t h i s s i n g l e p i t c h o r a t l e a s t one p i t c h o f t h i s g r o u p o f p i t c h e s by h a l f -s t e p . I n a m a j o r s c a l e t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e l e a d i n g - t o n e t o t h e t o n i c i s an i n s t a n c e o f t o n a l i t y . I n a p e r f e c t c a d e n c e t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f one major t r i a d t o a n o t h e r a p e r f e c t f o u r t h above o r p e r f e c t f i f t h below i s an i n s t a n c e o f t o n a l i t y . ^ I f a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o r a s e c t i o n f r o m i t e x h i b i t s t o n a l i t y p r o d u c e d by t h e p i t c h e s o f t h e d i a t o n i c s c a l e s and t h e c h o r d a l p r o g e n y formed f r o m t h e s e p i t c h e s , t h i s " k i n d " o f t o n a l i t y c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m a t t h e same p o i n t a t w h i c h a d i a t o n i c m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o r s e c t i o n f r o m i t would be r e p r e s e n t e d . S i m i l a r l y , i f a c o m p o s i t i o n - 2 -o r s e c t i o n f r o m i t e x h i b i t s t o n a l i t y p r o d u c e d by t h e p i t c h e s and c h o r d a l p r o g e n y o f t h e d i a t o n i c s c a l e s as w e l l as by t h e p i t c h e s and t h e c h o r d a l p r o g e n y w h i c h a r e t h e r e s u l t o f c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n o f t h i s d i a t o n i c m a t e r i a l , t h i s " k i n d " o f t o n a l i t y c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d f u r t h e r a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m a t a p o i n t where a c o m p o s i t i o n o r s e c t i o n f r o m i t b a s e d on t h e s e p i t c h e s would be r e p r e s e n t e d . The d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m c a n a l s o be s e e n f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f m o d u l a t i o n . I d e f i n e m o d u l a t i o n as a t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e p i t c h o r gr o u p o f p i t c h e s t o be a c c e n t u a t e d by m u s i c a l means. A m a j o r s c a l e may be t r a n s p o s e d up a p e r f e c t f i f t h . T h i s new s c a l e may be c o n s i d e r e d a r e o r d e r i n g o f t h e p i t c h e s o f t h e o l d s c a l e , t h e o r d e r i n g f r o m dominant t o dominant r e p l a c i n g t h a t f r o m t o n i c t o t o n i c . T h e r e i s a l s o a c h r o m a t i c a l t e r a t i o n as t h e o l d subdominant i s r a i s e d a h a l f - s t e p t o become t h e new l e a d i n g - t o n e . T h i s new s c a l e may a l s o be t r a n s p o s e d up a p e r f e c t f i f t h . I n terms o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e w i t h w h i c h t h i s m o d u l a t o r y p r o c e s s began, two o f i t s p i t c h e s have now been r a i s e d a h a l f - s t e p , t h e subd'ominant and t h e t o n i c . I f t h i s p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e t o n i c o f t h e new s c a l e i s a h a l f - s t e p f r o m t h e t o n i c o f t h e o r i g i n a l , o n l y two p i t c h e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e w i l l r e m a i n u n a l t e r e d . I f t h e p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s f r o m t h e r e , t h e r e w i l l a l w a y s be two p i t c h e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e u n a l t e r e d a l t h o u g h n o t al w a y s t h e same two p i t c h e s . ^ The o r i g i n a l s c a l e c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e c o n t i n u u m a t t h e " d i a t o n i c " end and t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s c a l e p r o g r e s s i v e l y making a l t e r a t i o n s t o i t c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d a t p o i n t s a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m w h i c h a r e - 3 -p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l o s e r t o t h e c h r o m a t i c "end". I n a c o m p o s i t i o n c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s b a s e d on t h e s e s c a l e s , t h e p a s s a g e f r o m one s e c t i o n t o a n o t h e r may be d e s c r i b e d as m o t i o n t o t h e l e f t o r t o t h e r i g h t a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m . A l s o , a s c a l e and i t s t r a n s p o s i t i o n s o r two s u c c e s s i v e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m p o s i t i o n may be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e c o n t i n u u m by p o i n t s w h i c h a r e n o t a d j a c e n t . T h i s would be done, f o r example, when a s c a l e i s t r a n s p o s e d up o r down a h a l f - s t e p o r when a s e c t i o n b a s e d on s u c h a s c a l e i s f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r s e c t i o n b a s e d on t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n . I n s t e a d o f t h e r e b e i n g a p r o g r e s s i v e a l t e r a t i o n o f p i t c h m a t e r i a l , many a l t e r a t i o n s a r e made a t o n c e . T h i s may be d e s c r i b e d as jumping a l o n g t h e c o n t i n u u m f r o m one p o i n t t o a n o t h e r more remote f r o m i t , o r as c o m p r e s s i n g t h e c o n t i n u u m so t h a t t h e s e two d i s t a n t p o i n t s a r e made a d j a c e n t . ^ I have t a k e n t h e t i m e t o d e f i n e t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m b e c a u s e i t i s u s e f u l f o r d e s c r i b i n g T i l l . I n T i l l t h e r e a r e no s e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e p u r e l y d i a t o n i c , t h a t i s , s e c t i o n s w h i c h c o n t a i n m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l formed s t r i c t l y f r o m t h e p i t c h e s o f t h e d i a t o n i c s c a l e s . I n s t e a d , e a c h s e c t i o n makes u s e o f one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : c h r o m a t i c p a s s i n g t o n e s , c h r o m a t i c e m b e l l i s h i n g c h o r d s w h i c h d e c o r a t e d i a t o n i c o n es, and c h r o m a t i c c h o r d s w h i c h s e r v e as d o m i n a n t s f o r t h e main key o f a s e c t i o n and f o r s u b s i d i a r y k e y s w i t h i n a s e c t i o n . I n some c a s e s t h e s e s u b s i d i a r y k e y s a r e c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e main key o f a s e c t i o n . T h e r e a r e a l s o s e c t i o n s w i t h i n T i l l w h i c h a r e i n a key r e l a t e d c h r o m a t i c a l l y t o t h e ke y s o f s e c t i o n s b e f o r e and a f t e r them, and t h e s e s e c t i o n s r e l a t e d c h r o m a t i c a l l y t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s may be d i a t o n i c o f h i g h l y - 4 -chromatic themselves. Thus, i n T i l l there i s a mixture of s e c t i o n s which are more or l e s s d i a t o n i c or more or l e s s chromatic. I blend the two together on a continuum, v a r i o u s p o i n t s on which represent v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the tone-poem. I f e e l what I have been saying so f a r w i l l become c l e a r e r when I d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s from T i l l d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. But f o r the remainder of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n I would l i k e to do two t h i n g s . F i r s t , I would l i k e to make remarks r e g a r d i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the e n t i r e tone-poem so that the reader w i l l not become l o s t as I d i s c u s s i t s v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s . Second, I would l i k e to give an e x p l a n a t i o n of the musical examples so that the reader w i l l be able to i n t e r p r e t them p r o p e r l y . I wish to make four p o i n t s about T i l l ' s s t r u c t u r e . F i r s t , I wish to draw the reader's a t t e n t i o n to Example 30 which i s given i n the Appendix. This example shows a l l of T i l l , and i f at any time the reader wishes to see a s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n which i s d i s c u s s e d i n the t e x t i n the l i g h t of the whole tone-poem, he need merely c o n s u l t t h i s example. Second, I wish to quote a d e s c r i p t i o n of the programme of T i l l . Although i t i s not my purpose to deal with T i l l as g programme music, but r a t h e r to deal with p u r e l y musical matters, I f e e l the f o l l o w i n g synopsis of the s t o r y of T i l l w i l l prove h e l p f u l . T h i s quote mentions the adventures of T i l l . A f t e r each adventure I have w r i t t e n , i n square b r a c k e t s , the musical example which corresponds to that adventure. The quote comes from Er n s t Kraus' biography of S t r a u s s . Kraus responds i n answer to the question, "What happens i n the - 5 -story?", a great deal, but i t i s no more than a succession of pranks and clashes with authority, whose de t a i l s are not essen t i a l . After the s t o r y - t e l l e r Strauss has commenced with his "Once upon a time there was buffoon named T i l l Eulenspiegel," which has the simp l i c i t y of folk music, [Example 1] the hero skips i n with his impudent p r i n c i p a l motives:- the f i r s t bold and assertive, b r i l l a n t l y conceived for solo horn, [Example 2] the second, the r e a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Eulenspiegel motif, played cheekily by the high c l a r i n e t . [Example 5] T i l l arrives on horseback at the pot market, where the outcry of the market women above the breaking of pots (cymbals and r a t t l e ) quickly puts him to f l i g h t . [Example 9] He now amuses himself by dressing as an unctuous wandering preacher, beneath whose cassock we catch a glimpse of the jester's motley. [Example 11a] T i l l i s involved i n an a f f a i r of gallantry. However, his ardent wooing ("glowing with love" Strauss wrote above the str i n g melody) i s rewarded only by a rebuff, which enrages him. [Example 13-15] He vents his fury on some learned men — the "cream of the p h i l i s t i n e s , the professors and savants" are depicted most " d r i l y " by three bassoons, bass c l a r i n e t and contrabassoon. With a cheeky popular song ... T i l l goes on. [Example 17] But the day of reckoning arrives, and T i l l sees his l a s t hour approaching. He i s captured and dragged before the court of ju s t i c e . When asked whether he pleads g u i l t y , he boldly whistles his theme i n answer, but then he laments the turn events have taken. [Example 27] The threatening trombones announce the verdict: with the la s t f l u t e t r i l l the mocker meets his fate. [Example 27] Then, however, the short epilogue says that T i l l has never died i n the heart of the people. The rogue l i v e s on. [Example 28-29] 9 Third, I would l i k e to remind the reader that much of T i l l consists of a continuously varied presentation of two basic themes shown i n Examples 1 and 2. Of this aspect of T i l l O lin Downes remarks that the score i s an epitome of finished and resourceful workmanship, stemming, as i t does, almost e n t i r e l y from the two themes associated with Eulenspiegel. Of these themes the transformations and developments are extremely interesting, whether they are viewed as parts of an organic symphonic structure or as showing the aspects of^Q a great master to reveal his motives in d i f f e r e n t l i g h t s . Fourth, I would l i k e to give my view of the major structural divisions of T i l l but w i l l hold off from doing so u n t i l I have - 6 -p r e s e n t e d some examples from t h i s tone-poem. I w i l l r emark p e r i o d i c a l l y on T i l l ' s g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e as I p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h my d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work. R e g a r d i n g t h e m u s i c a l examples, a l l o f them w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . The examples, w h i c h w i l l be m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r , a r e r e d u c t i o n s o f s e c t i o n s f r o m T i l l . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e s e s e c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o g r a m m a t i c d i v i s i o n s o f T i l l , a l t h o u g h , as I s a i d e a r l i e r , i t i s n o t my c o n c e r n t o d e a l w i t h what t h e mu s i c r e p r e s e n t s e x t r a - m u s i c a l l y b u t w i t h f e a t u r e s o f t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l i t s e l f . I have w r i t t e n t h e s e s e c t i o n s i n s h o r t e r s c o r e . I n some c a s e s I have l e f t o ut m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l b e c a u s e i t was m e r e l y a d o u b l i n g o f a n o t h e r p a r t , o r b e c a u s e i t was m a t e r i a l w h i c h e l a b o r a t e d a b a s i c h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n a s s u m i n g t h e g u i s e o f a m o t i v e u s e d i n t h e tone-poem and t h u s u n n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t p r o g r e s s i o n . I have i n some c a s e s p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e d u c t i o n s w h i c h I c a l l s k e t c h e s . These s k e t c h e s h e l p make a p o i n t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t , o r t h e y make t h e example f r o m w h i c h t h e s k e t c h h a s been made c l e a r e r t h a n i t o t h e r w i s e m i g h t be. I n t h e A p p e n d i x , e a c h s k e t c h f o l l o w s t h e example ( r e d u c t i o n ) f r o m w h i c h i t has been made. The s m a l l e r n o t a t i o n , as oppo s e d t o s m a l l e r n o t e v a l u e s , i s u s e d t o i n d i c a t e p i t c h e s and s o n o r i t i e s o f s e c o n d a r y s t r u c t u r a l i m p o r t a n c e . I n some c a s e s , a f u r t h e r s k e t c h i s g i v e n i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e s m a l l e r n o t e v a l u e s i s removed. I m e n t i o n v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r i n o r d e r t o accompany, i n a c u r s o r y way, t h e d a t a w h i c h I f e e l t h e - 7 -examples p r o v i d e . T h i s i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r The p o i n t s made t h e r e i n w i l l be more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r as r e g a r d s s e l e c t e d s e c t i o n s f r o m T i l l . I n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r I a l s o e x p l a i n t h e f i n a l m u s i c a l example and I come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s about t h i s m u s i c . - 8 -Endnotes 1. Oxford English Dictionary, 1970 ed. 2. I may of course a r b i t r a r i l y set a point as the "boundary" between day and night, no doubt some point at dusk when i t i s not c l e a r l y day or night. 3. This new chromatic c o l l e c t i o n of pitches may include a l l of the old diatonic pitches plus the new chromatic ones, or only the old diatonic pitches which have not been altered plus the new chromatic pitches. 4. Of course with this broad d e f i n i t i o n of to n a l i t y I can encompass much music which i s often not considered tonal because i t does not employ t e r t i a n harmony and perfect and plagal cadences to accentuate, emphasize, or give weight to a major or minor t r i a d which serves as a tonal centre. Typically labelled "atonal", such music may be said to possess a residual t o n a l i t y because i t contains certain sonorities which could be completed with others to give a more t r a d i t i o n a l sense of to n a l i t y , or a r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y , because i t contains sonorities which are repeated so as to give them prominence. "Together, traditonal t o n a l i t y , residual t o n a l i t y , and r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y are a l l means of accentuating a pitch or group of pitches or of suggesting such means as used i n an e a r l i e r musical practice. These "kinds" of tona l i t y f i t together on a continuum at one end of which there i s no to n a l i t y of any kind, further along which there i s residual and r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y , and at the other end of which there i s the common garden variety of to n a l i t y as cultivated in the common practice period, a tona l i t y which "uses as i t s basic material one of the major or minor scales and accepts certain relationships between the notes of the scale and the chords b u i l t on them ... These relationships have not remained constant, but the acceptance of the tonic chord (the t r i a d on the f i r s t note of the scale) as the base or centre i s fundamental to the conception of key." This d e f i n i t i o n comes from The New College Encyclopedia of  Music, 1960 ed., s.v. "Key." 5. I might also mention as a part of the conception of tonal i t y the fee l i n g for f i n a l i t y which such a cadence gives. 6. ~~This is of course quite l o g i c a l seeing as there are only twelve pitches from which to choose. As seven are already used for the scale, only fiv e remain. This means that only f i v e of the o r i g i n a l seven may be changed leaving two unchanged. 7. Indeed, when I speak of comparing two sections from the same work I need to view chromaticism on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t encompasses the degree to which a section i s diatonic or - 9 -chromatic. The second encompasses the degree to which sections are diatonic or chromatic i n r e l a t i o n to each other. Although musically there are two l e v e l s , the prin c i p l e of degree of chromaticism i s the same for both. 8. There has been i n my opinion too much concern placed on the programmatic element i n Strauss' tone-poems and not enough on the purely musical. This i s ref l e c t e d i n Edward Wright Murphy's thesis, "Harmony and Tonality i n the Large Orchestral Works of Richard Strauss" (Ph. D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1963), i n which he writes that "the need for this d i s s e r t a t i o n i s based on the lack of any detailed study pertaining to harmony and to n a l i t y i n the large orchestral works of Richard Strauss. Most studies of Strauss' major orchestral works deal almost exclusively with programmatic elements and make only incidental reference to any serious a n a l y t i c a l considerations," pp. 1-2. Although this was written eighteen years ago, I believe on the basis of my own research, ; i t i s . s t i l l true. 9. Richard Strauss: The Man and his Work, trans, by John Coombs (London: Collet's (Publishers) Ltd., 1964), pp. 240-241. 10. Symphonic Masterpieces, (New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1943), p. 245. - 10 -CHAPTER I I T i l l From i t s b e g i n n i n g t h i s symphonic work smacks o f c h r o m a t i c i s m . L i k e wine f i l l i n g a b o t t l e , c h r o m a t i c i s m i s a main i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . Two m a j o r m o t i v e s o f t h e work, t h e T i l l - m o t i v e s I and I I shown i n Examples 1 and 2, a r e o b v i o u s l y c h r o m a t i c i n t h e i r u s e o f a l t e r a t i o n s t o t h e d i a t o n i c p i t c h e s o f F m a j o r . These a l t e r a t i o n s c l e a r l y e m b e l l i s h t h e p i t c h e s t h e y p r e c e d e . However, t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e m o t i v e s i s more f u l l y h a r m o n i z e d t h a n t h e s e c o n d , w h i c h i s h e a r d a g a i n s t a s u s t a i n e d t o n i c t r i a d o f F m a j o r n o t shown i n t h e example. The harmony o f t h e f i r s t m o t i v e p r o d u c e s a s h o r t - t e r m t o n i c i z a t i o n o f B - f l a t m a j o r , mm. 1-2, b e f o r e t e r m i n a t i n g on a t o n i c s i x - f o u r c h o r d o f F m a j o r , m. 3. T h i s t o n i c i z a t i o n i s b r o u g h t a b o u t by a c a d e n c e w h i c h i s t y p i c a l o f S t r a u s s . E x p l o i t i n g t h e c h r o m a t i c i s m o f T i l l -m o t i v e 1, he w r i t e s a c a d e n c e w h i c h more f u l l y " embraces" t h e t o n i c t r i a d o f B - f l a t u s i n g two l e a d i n g - t o n e s i n s t e a d o f one, i . e . , two r i s i n g h a l f - s t e p s , A t o B - f l a t and C - s h a r p t o D. Thus, t h e c h r o m a t i c i s m o f T i l l - m o t i v e I i s l e s s an e m b e l l i s h -ment and more a " g e n e r a t i v e f o r c e " i n t h e m u s i c t h a n t h e c h r o m a t i c i s m o f T i l l - m o t i v e I I . I say t h i s b e c a u s e t h e c h r o m a t i c i s m o f t h e f i r s t m o t i v e i s h a r m o n i z e d w h i l e t h a t o f t h e s e c o n d m o t i v e i s n o t . I n s t e a d , t h e s e c o n d m o t i v e c o n t a i n s - 11 -chromatic passing tones moving against a sustained t r i a d . Till-motive II i s developed throughout mm. 19-39 of Examples 3 and 4, where i t assumes the guise of two subsidiary keys, D and A minor, through which i t passes, outlining their respective tonic triads i n mm. 21-24 and mm. 26-29. These modulations occur spontaneously and require l i t t l e chromaticism, aside from that inherent i n the motive, because the t o n a l i t i e s involved are not greatly d i s s i m i l a r to F major. Indeed they are diatonic r e l a t i v e s of F major. As regards the tona l i t y of these measures, I would argue that no key i s unalterably established as a home key. Due i n part to the nature of the Till-motivesq, t h e i r chromaticism and the "metric dissonance" of the second, and the harmonic accompaniment of tremolo strings, these measures have a " f l e e t i n g " quality which i s not subdued u n t i l the cadence i n m. 49 (Example 5). Obviously this cadence makes use of chromaticism. The T i l l - c h o r d , used here i n cadencing to the f i r s t inversion t r i a d of F major, i s a half-diminished tetrad. It makes use of four leading-tones, i . e . , two r i s i n g and two f a l l i n g half-step movements, and achieves c l a r i t y after the "fleetingness" of the preceding measures. There i s no perfect cadence as I would expect i n such a context. Rather, this chord, which serves as a dominant, appears "inside" and "outside" F: "outside" i n that this half-diminished tetrad i s not a diatonic chord of F major, and "inside" i n that i t creates an ef f e c t i v e cadence. I have not ignored an e a r l i e r perfect cadence i n mm. 12-13 after the f i r s t appearance of Till-motive II. This - 12 -motive, i n i t s e l f , c l e a r l y outlines an F major t r i a d and ends with a d e f i n i t i v e dominant to tonic movement. The perfect cadence immediately follows this movement, reinforc i n g i t . However, because of the modulation to B-f l a t major i n mm. 1-2 and the incompleteness a r i s i n g from the harmony terminating on a tonic six-four chord i n m. 3, because the perfect cadence i n mm. 12-13 (not shown in. the example) i s orchestrated with pizzicato strings and staccato brass and woodwinds as i f to enhance i t s "fleetingness", and because this cadence i s succeeded immediately by a sustained six-four chord, I f e e l my sense of these beginning measures as tentative i n nature i s v a l i d . In any event, the music comes to an incomplete halt i n m. 39 on the dominant seventh of F major which i s extended through the next few measures. I say "incomplete" because there i s no tonic chord following this dominant. Rather, the cadence of Example 5 using the T i l l - c h o r d appears. This cadence displays a chromatic " f l u i d i t y " . The T i l l - c h o r d embraces the tonic t r i a d as closely as i s possible within the equal temperament system, within the universe of an octave divided into twelve equal pitches. What i s of note i n this chromatic " f l u i d i t y " i s a perfectly cogent tonal e f f e c t , an accentuation of the F major t r i a d without recourse to a C major t r i a d , or the chords formed by adding thirds to i t . This chromatic movement which achieves a sense of key suggests to me that no primacy need be attached to a V-I cadence over one which uses the T i l l - c h o r d "• or, as i n m. 1, an altered dominant seventh chord. If i t i s important that a sense of key - 13 -be established, a cadence using the T i l l - c h o r d i s as ef f e c t i v e through i t s chromatic means as a t r a d i t i o n a l perfect cadence i s through more diatonic means. Up to the cadence i n m. 49, modulation has been achieved through a " s h i f t i n g " of the music into the new key, i . e . , a direct move from one key to another f a c i l i t a t e d by diatonic compatibility of the keys involved. A f u l l e r chromaticism accomplishes the return to the home key. Throughout the rest of T i l l , a mixture of t r a d i t i o n a l and more unusual types of 2 modulation w i l l become evident. Example 6 displays the music i n mm. 49-75. The F major chord plus D-sharp forms the German sixth chord of A major, the key with which this section begins. The F major t r i a d can be interpreted as a chromatically altered chord of A major borrowed from i t s p a r a l l e l key, A minor. The appearance of the D-sharp produces a chromatic movement away from F major by flatt e n i n g i t s leading-tone. At the same time, the appearance of D-sharp permits an accentuation, by r i s i n g half-step movement, of E, the dominant of the A major passage. In Example 6 there are three key-centres of A major, C-sharp major, and F major. Chromatic " f l u i d i t y " i s again evident i n the cadences. Although there i s a dominant to tonic root movement, the chromatic maze which l i e s above this bass, mm. 53-54, yields a recognizable dominant chord, but only after such a chord has been "read into" the passage. Even i f there is an underlying dominant, however, I fe e l i t i s e f f e c t i v e l y denied by the movement of the parts. I argue that this movement, f i l l i n g up as i t does the available musical space and - 14 -ending on a recognizable major t r i a d of A, m. 54, coherently organizes the musical sound. In the cadences of Example 6a and 6b, Strauss prefers to approach the tonic not by i t s "proper" dominant, although a "proper" dominant can be read into the passage as I have done i n the sketch, but by a T i l l - -chord i n the f i r s t case, m. 54, and a dominant seventh-type chord b u i l t on the f l a t supertonic, a "Neapolitan" dominant seventh, i n the second case, m. 55. The approach of a l l the members of these "dominant" chords to their respective notes of resolution i s by half-step. There i s almost a chromatic " w i l l f u l n e s s " displayed i n the way the dominant seventh chord of C-sharp major i n m. 62 connects with the tonic six-four of F major i n m. 63. This i s shown i n Example 6c. I refer to a juxtaposition of keys of this type as "abbreviated t o n a l i t y " . C-sharp major might have been completed with a regular V-I cadence, with a subsequent progression setting up the entrance of F major. However, i t i s as i f this imaginary addition were lopped off and the opening C-sharp major fragment fixed to the F major tonic six-four with chromatic adhesive tape. In the F major section of Example 6c, there i s l i t e r a l chromatic movement between more stable areas. There i s emphasis on the tonic and a highlighting of other chords through th e i r placement on strong beats and th e i r being followed by rests. In mm. 63-70, the chromatic movement of the harmony occurs without confusion because i t emphasizes the tonic and dominant chords of F major, and because i t takes place over a pedal which binds everything above i t together as a - 15 -comprehensible musical unit. In the sketch of this example, I have indicated this pas-sage as an elaboration of the tonic t r i a d and the dominant seventh chord by the insertion of chromatic embellishing chords between two statements of the tonic t r i a d and two of the dominant seventh chord. In m. 65, I have suggested the existence of a "phantom" dominant seventh chord. Although there i s a dominant pedal, the chord i s not there at this point, i . e . , following the diminished seventh chord i n m. 65, and yet i t i s a sonority into which the diminished seventh chord could e a s i l y resolve. The "phantom" dominant seventh 3 does indeed materialize, but l a t e r i n m. 67. More extended use of F major and clear cadences of a t r a d i t i o n a l kind establish this key i n a convincing manner i n the section introduced by this pedal i n Example 6c. Although the e a r l i e r perfect cadence, mm. 12-13, and the T i l l - c h o r d cadence, mm. -48-49, were c l e a r l y t o n i c i z i n g agents, th e i r influence was f e l t only for a few measures and I do not assign them much key-establishing significance. Except for a short stay i n B - f l a t major shown i n m. 85 of Example 7, this section retains F major ton a l i t y coming to a halt on the dominant seventh of this key i n m. 96 of Example 8. Beginning i n m. 97 of Example 8, a sequential figure leads away from F major and eventually settles i n A - f l a t major only to be followed by a return to F. P a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy are mm. 101-105. The same four-note chord moves f i r s t to A - f l a t major and then, acting as a T i l l - c h o r d , to F major. What i s interesting i s that two keys are brought together which would - 16 -not o r d i n a r i l y be considered closely related, A - f l a t being linked to F major "second-hand" through F minor, the p a r a l l e l key, or related through a less "economical" progression. In the sketch of this example, I have shown the sequence which leads to A - f l a t major as a series of chromatically adjacent chords. This pattern of diminished seventh chords resolving into dominant seventh chords i s broken with the appearance of a "pure" major t r i a d of A i n m. 99. Notice how Strauss denies the diminished sevenths the right to tonicize the chords which follow them by making these l a t t e r ones dominant sevenths instead of t r i a d s . He prefers to tonicize the A major chord by a f u l l half-step approach through a "Neapolitan" dominant seventh reminiscent of Example 6b. Prominence attaches to this "Neapolitan" dominant seventh because i t i s repeated three times unchanged and a fourth time, i n m. 101, as a minor variant of i t s e l f , becoming the diatonic supertonic seventh of A - f l a t major which appears i n m. 102. This seventh chord, b u i l t on B - f l a t , can be considered a subsidiary goal of the passage with chromatic embellishing chords inserted between i t s four appearances. The l a s t of these appearances, i n m. 101, i s interesting because the path to A - f l a t , which could be paved with the diatonic gold of A- f l a t ' s proper dominant neatly following i n a i i 7 - V 7 - I progression, i s instead completed by a shorter chromatic route displaying another f u l l half-step approach to a t r i a d . In the sketch I have shown these progressiosn with brackets beneath. F major i s eventually attained i n m. 105. The next twenty-six measures stay i n this key beginning with a further - 17 -noteworthy cadence i n mm. 109-111. There i s a perfect cadence preceded by an E major t r i a d which i s inserted between the tonic t r i a d of F major and i t s dominant seventh chord. It i s c l e a r l y a passing harmony which does no harm to the overal l movement f i t t i n g i n snugly between two sonorities which i t decorates, the tonic t r i a d and dominant seventh chord of F major. I would l i k e to pause for a moment to comment on the formal structure of T i l l . I consider a l l of the examples given so f a r , encompassing mm. 1-130, to represent one large section. Despite the modulations to keys both d i a t o n i c a l l y and chromatically related to F major, this large section i s a formal segment of T i l l which I place b a s i c a l l y i n F major because the section begins i n this key and returns to i t several times. The section shown i n Example 9 begins i n D minor. There i s a modulation from F major to D minor which uses T i l l -motive I, mm. 131-133 of Example 9a. This motive sounds against an F sustained i n another part. The modulation comes about through a change i n the way this motive ends. On i t s f i r s t appearance, mm. 1-3, i t outlined the tonic t r i a d of F major. Here i t does the same for D minor. But for a C-sharp, these two keys are v i r t u a l l y the same. Such immediate modulation i s fa m i l i a r technique i n the case of a major-relative minor pair. In this composition s h i f t s of this kind occur between keys that are not so related, s h i f t s i n which there i s more chromatic change involved, as i n the movement from C-sharp to F major i n Example 6. This section beginning i n D minor i s continued i n - 18 -Example 9b where there i s modulation from D minor through A minor to G minor. The passage to the dominant ninth chord of A minor, m. 141, i s immediate. The chord which appears before this chord i s the German sixth of D minor. It could be used, and usually i s , to precede i t s own dominant, but i s used here to progress with smooth chromatic part-writing to the A minor dominant. The G minor dominant i s also introduced via chromatic connection, being preceded by the tonic seventh of A minor, mm. 148-149. What i s notable here i s the avoidance of pivot chords. Even though they are there — D minor i s A minor's subdominant, A minor might be thought of as G minor's supertonic t r i a d borrowed from the melodic minor scale — they are not exploited. I would suggest that instead of diatonic pivot chords, the sonorites used before the introduction of the new dominants are those that w i l l best permit chromatic movement to occur.^ I have shown the basic harmonic progression of this passage i n the sketch. In m. 138, I have omitted the A-natural i n deference to the A - f l a t which I think i s the stronger presence. I think there i s an obvious use of embellishing chords: the major-minor tetrad on G between two statements of what would be D minor's German sixth, and the diminished-minor tetrad between two statements of what would be the tonic seventh of A minor. The German sixth mutates into A minor's dominant ninth, the A minor tonic seventh mutates into G minor's dominant ninth. I have indicated this more simply i n the second system of the sketch. Below t h i s , i n the t h i r d system, I have removed both embellishing chords and chords embellished to reveal a "deeper" structure. What i s seen here i s akin to a sequence of dominant sevenths resolving into dominant sevenths, namely, a diminished seventh resolving into another which eventually leads to a proper tonic. If this speculative chordal progression i s legitimate, i t complements on i t s l e v e l the chromatic events of the "foreground".^ There i s now a modulation from this G minor area to one of B - f l a t major shown i n Example 10. This change from minor to r e l a t i v e major, although not an unusual one i n i t s e l f , i s modified by what actually happens between these two key-areas. There i s nothing new i n terms of the modulatory techniques used so far. The necessary dominant of B - f l a t i s introduced i n m. 169 preceded by a conglomeration of pitches which can be grouped together so as to form a dominant ninth of A major. However i t i s interpreted, chromatically cohesive part-writing to the dominant of B-flat i s obvious. Once this dominant i s established, i t i s embellished with a neighbouring T i l l - t y p e chord i n mm. 172-173. The same T i l l - t y p e chord occurs again, this time moving to one of C major, the dominant of B-flat's dominant. While the part-writing for this l a t t e r connection could be smoother than i t i s , the connection can be regarded as secured, and the gauche effect of the part-writing as p a r t i a l l y overcome, by chromatic closeness. This secondary dominant moves through a further T i l l - t y p e chord^ on i t s way to the proper dominant of B - f l a t , engendering a further close chromatic connection. The sketch si m p l i f i e s this passage, removing melodic figures so as to expose the basic harmony and make i t c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . - 20 -The B-flat section to which this passage leads i s seen i n Examples 11a and l i b . B - f lat i s sustained except for a movement to the dominant and subdominant keys i n m. 186 and m. 191, and movement to the major mediant key i n m. 199. Chromatic harmonizations arise partly due to the nature of Till-motive I which occurs i n the bass i n mm. 187-189, and i n the soprano i n mm. 189-191. Because of the use of this motive, the modulation to E - f l a t , i n mm. 190-191, employs the same "altered" dominant seventh 7 as the modulation to B- f l a t i n m. 1. In the sketch, the main chords are indicated with stems up, the chromatic embellishing chords with stems down. Because the chromaticism of this section does not obscure, but rather embellishes, diatonic triads and the tonic triads of the subsidiary key-areas of F and E - f l a t major, I regard this as a diatonic section. The D major t r i a d i n m. 199 of Example l i b i s linked to B-flat major t e r r i t o r y through a f i l l i n g of the gap between a demonstrable B- f l a t sonority, a G minor t r i a d , and this D major t r i a d . Although this t r i a d may be regarded as the dominant of G minor, I prefer to consider i t as a tonic because of the manner i n which G minor i s treated. The t r i p l e t movement terminating i n this chord continues u n t i l the D major one i s established. More prominence i s given this l a t t e r chord through rhythmic length. Also, the tremolo strings which sustain i t , highlight i t further, as does the immediate return from this D major chord to the surrounding B-flat major key-area. This return i s a " s h i f t i n g down" by a t h i r d back to B- f l a t reminiscent of L i s z t or Wagner. - 21 -More variety of key choice and further chromatic features are evident i n the next section. In Example 12, I show the passage from B-flat through C to D-flat major. A T i l l - t y p e chord progresses from B-flat to the tonic six-four of A - f l a t major, mm. 205-206. This T i l l - t y p e chord i s preceded by a V/IV i n B-flat with the IV replaced by a chord which chromatically "hugs" the chord to which i t moves. This temporary pause i n A - f l a t , which can be read as a chord borrowed from C minor used i n C major, the key of mm. 209-210, can also be interpreted as a harbinger of D-flat, the key to be extended i n mm. 212-220. The passage to C major occurs aharmohically. A solo v i o l i n slides down a chromatic scale eventually s e t t l i n g on the dominant of this key. This movement i s complemented by a further descent to the dominant pitch of D - f l a t . There are two chromatic elements at work here: the chromatic scale modulating between A - f l a t and C major, mm. 207-209, and C major and D-flat major, mm. 209-211; and the overall chromatic movement of B-flat to A - f l a t to C to D-flat major. Example 13 displays the change from the D-flat area to one of G minor passing through an area i n E major. The dominant of E major occurs i n m. 221, that of G minor i n m. 227. As this G minor section i s extensive, r e l a t i v e to the amount of space given other t o n a l i t i e s e a r l i e r i n the piece, I could consider i t as a goal attained i n a larger movement which began Q i n the previous B-flat major section of Example 11. Instead of viewing this passage as a larger movement between B-flat and G minor, I choose to describe i t as an example of the blending of diatonic and chromatic elements of which I spoke i n the - 22 -introduction. B-flat major and G minor can serve as the "edges" of this section and indeed they are related d i a t o n i c a l l y as a major-relative minor pair. The use of the chromatic scale as a modulatory device, mm. 208-210, and the f i l l i n g of the available musical space between a D-flat major t r i a d and the dominant seventh of E major, m. 221, and between an E major t r i a d and the dominant seventh of G minor, m. 227, characterize the passage seen i n Examples 12 and 13 as strongly as any other feature. Indeed, I believe such treatment generates the musical movement and could serve just as well regardless of the keys so joined. The sketch i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of Example 13. In i t I expose the basic harmonic progressions of the passage. The G minor section reached i n m. 230 of Example 13 makes use of an exchange between minor and p a r a l l e l major. In Example 14 I have represented the melodic material of this section so as to display this exchange. The technique i s simple. Chromaticism does not disguise a straightforward diatonic harmonic framework, that i s u n t i l m. 263 of Example 15. Here a canonic treatment of a variant of Till-motive I occurs. I cannot place this passage s p e c i f i c a l l y i n any one key for these measures suggest both F major and D minor. The significance of this section arises from i t s imitative use of this motive. The canon once set up could continue for a long time, but f i n a l l y emerges on a B-flat t r i a d i n m. 287 of Example 15. The section contains a series of varied sonorities which cannot be rationalized i n s t r i c t l y tonal ways. A l l the individual chords themselves are of t e r t i a n stock; or better, - 23 -they appear to be harmonizations of this motive so as to give " r e a l " chords to each of the pitches of the motive without these chords forming a tonal structure. It i s a kind treatment that I think demonstrates a control of musical material which enables Strauss to make the passage i n t e l l i g i b l e even i f for a time the passage loses a tonal basis. In the sketch, I show the resultant harmonies of the part-writing beginning i n m. 272. I have divided them into four groups according to the repeated phrases of the Till-motive variant, mm. 272-276, 276-280, 280-284, 284-287. I have shown beneath the f i r s t system the sonorities with which each of these phrases end. Although these four chords do not r e a l l y follow one another, i t i s interesting i n terms of what I have been saying so far that, considering the f i n a l B - f l a t major t r i a d as the goal of this passage, a l b e i t a temporary one, the three e a r l i e r chords which end each successive phrase could tonicize this fourth one. I show the f i r s t three of these chords separately i n the lower system. The f i r s t , a diminished seventh chord, i s the vii^° proper of B-flat part-writing smoothly into this chord. The second i s what I e a r l i e r referred to as a "Neapolitan" dominant seventh chord. The t h i r d i s a dominant seventh-type chord which behaves as i t might i n a deceptive cadence. The chord which actually precedes the B- f l a t t r i a d i s a T i l l - t y p e chord. If a l l of this i s seen as a "deeper" structure of the passage, i t would compare with the "deeper" structure attributed to the passage i n Example 9b, revealing an exploitation of close chromatic connection i n both. I would l i k e to pause once more to remark on the - 24 -formal structure of T i l l . I f e e l Examples 9-15 delineate a further larger section which v a c i l l a t e s between two keys of G minor and B-f l a t major, and temporarily halts on the l a t t e r , i n m. 287. Here, although i t i s not shown i n the example, the B-flat major t r i a d i s outlined, mm. 287-288, and there i s a pause, marked longa i n the score, m. 288, before the music continues on into A minor. This pause strengthens the formal significance of this point i n the music. The next section, represented i n Examples 16 and 17, i s , for me, the most interesting of a l l . The li n k i n g of this section with the preceding one i s achieved with the help of the chameleon T i l l - c h o r d , as shown i n Example 16a. It i s part-written so that i t becomes the dominant seventh of A minor to whose tonic i t moves, although the T i l l - c h o r d i t s e l f could cadence e f f e c t i v e l y on this tonic. A minor continues u n t i l a short passage i n F-sharp minor i s inserted, mm. 303-307 of Example 16b. The chord i n m. 303, which brings about the modulation from A to F-sharp minor, i s a dominant seventh-type which f i t s neither key precisely. It might be considered an exact half-step lowering of A minor's dominant seventh, or a chord which complements the chord outlined by the melodic figure i n mm. 299-303. This outlined chord i s a T i l l - t y p e chord, (A, C, E-flat/D-sharp, G), which could move snugly into the dominant seventh-type i n m. 303, E-flat/D sharp and G could be common tones, A and C could move up by half-step to B - f l a t / A-sharp and D-flat/C-sharp. The return to A minor i n m. 307 is simpler. The v i i 7 o / V i n A minor cadences d i r e c t l y onto the tonic; i t i s a smooth connection that avoids the dominant harmony. - 25 -Beginning i n m. 318 of Example 17, this section becomes enigmatic as to key. It culminates on the T i l l - c h o r d of m. 370, before moving on to an area i n A - f l a t major i n mm. 374-376. On the way from A minor to this key, there i s not much tonal certainty. By this I mean not that the music fails-: to establish further important areas within these measures, but that these other important areas are not established through t r a d i t i o n a l cadences. The sketch of Example 17 indicates major key-areas of B minor, D-flat major, E minor, B major, and F major on the way to A - f l a t major. This i s quite a mixture of keys, and I wish to display chromatic features of the cadences i n these keys, none of which involve t y p i c a l dominants. The movement to B minor, m. 323, i s effected more by suggestion than any-thing else. There i s no clear tonic of B minor given but rather a four-note chord containing the B minor t r i a d , i . e . , the submediant seventh chord of this key, a T i l l - t y p e chord. It i s this that suggests rather than conclusively establishes the key-area. However, the A-sharp to B movement i n the bass i s strong enough to aid this suggestion. It i s as i f Strauss desires to hint at B minor i n passing. The main point to be made here, however, i s the chromatic meandering between key-areas . I f e e l the B minor ton a l i t y continues up to m. 326 since i t s melodic minor scale i s prominent i n the upper voice i n mm. 323-326: D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, (A), B-flat/A-sharp, B. The dominant seventh of D-flat then f i t s i n snugly with what can be considered B minor's submediant t r i a d , mm. 326-327. - 26 -There i s no D-flat t r i a d i n m. 327 following the dominant seventh. The submediant seventh chord, reminiscent of the use of B minor's submediant seventh chord i n m. 323, appears, and establishes this key-area comprising mm. 327-334. The next key-area, E minor, i s attained by the "hugging" of i t s tonic t r i a d by the dominant seventh of D-flat, mm. 334-335. The proper dominant of E minor does indeed occur, but one sonority too soon, m. 333. Thus, there could have been a quite standard approach to the E minor t r i a d , yet Strauss has chosen to exploit the chromatic space between these two chords, i . e . , the dominant seventh of D-flat and the tonic t r i a d of E. The "imposition" of another dominant seventh i s a subtle touch. I would suggest that Strauss is, l i b e r a l i n his use of means of t o n i c i z a t i o n i n that proper dominants and dominants which can be exploited chromatically are equally employed. The return to A minor could be e a s i l y accomplished from m. 335, E minor being so close to A minor's dominant, but the direct route i s not taken. Although there i s an E major t r i a d introduced, m. 341, and A minor's dominant ninth, m. 343, this does not occur without further chromatic s h i f t s temporarily moving to other key-areas. These areas are not s u f f i c i e n t l y lengthy to become important, but they do color what happens, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the passage i n which a T i l l - c h o r d progresses to an A - f l a t major chord, mm. 342-343. In mm. 344, there follows a return to A minor, where the T i l l - c h o r d i s used to emphasize the tonic chord i n mm. 347 and 351. A momentary glimpse of E - f l a t minor leads to B major i n mm. 353-354; the C - f l a t seventh chord, m. 354, must be read - 27 -enharmonically. This i s an interesting movement i n that i t echoes the e a r l i e r B minor area as i t contrasts chromatically 9 with the B-flat minor t r i a d i n m. 331. There i s also a l i n k 10 with the E minor area as B major i s i t s dominant. A sequence now begins i n m. 358 and carries the music forward to a G-flat major t r i a d , whereupon a quick succession of triads and T i l l -type chords follows, mm. 363-365, culminating i n the T i l l - c h o r d i t s e l f , m. 370, which proceeds f i r s t to F major and then to A- f l a t major, mm. 371 and 376. What i s of note here i s the seemingly haphazard progression of chords. I r a t i o n a l i z e their appearance this way. The T i l l - t y p e chords serve as substitute dominants. They serve to tonicize the minor triads which follow them. I note that these T i l l - t y p e chords could resolve to major triads which could then be "proper" dominants of the minor triads which are already there i n the music, following the T i l l - t y p e chords. There i s one exception. The f i r s t chord, m. 365, would have to resolve as a " p a r t i a l " T i l l - c h o r d to a B major t r i a d , the dominant of the following E minor t r i a d . This suppressed meaning, seen i n the sketch, may help explain the appearance of these T i l l - t y p e chords. What i s not suppressed i n this section as a whole, mm. 318-374, i s chromatic " f l u i d i t y " . I need only mention the part-writing exploiting as i t does the available musical space, p a r t i c u l a r l y the eighth-note figure which pervades the passage. The key-areas are mostly established by a chromatic "hugging" of their tonic t r i a d s , a procedure which produces the pattern of modulations i n the section. There appears to be two patterns of modulation, one from A minor to B minor to E minor to A minor to - 28 -B major, and the other from D-flat major (including i t s extended submediant area) to A f l a t major. Both are arguably diatonic, i t being possible to consider the B major area within the f i r s t pattern as a major variant of the diatonic B minor. The two patterns f i t together by means of the "hugging" technique of cadencing which so economically produces movement from one key to another. This technique also permits the interpolation of chromatic "asides" within what would be a straightforward diatonic movement. For example, i n mm. 342-343, the A minor dominant i s preceded by what I have interpreted as a temporary t o n i c i z a t i o n of A - f l a t major by means of i t s T i l l - c h o r d . There i s no pure A - f l a t major t r i a d here, but enough of i t , together with i t s T i l l - c h o r d , to suggest this t o n a l i t y . A simpler chromatic change effects the movement to the goal of this section, the A - f l a t major areas of mm. 374-384, not shown i n Example 17. The T i l l - c h o r d which moves to A - f l a t at the end of this example, can be interpreted as A - f l a t ' s supertonic seventh chord borrowed from the p a r a l l e l minor. The "offending" F - f l a t from the minor i s raised a half step, and the new key continues i n straightforward dominant and tonic harmony. Example 18 displays the movement from this key to C major. Although there could be a dire c t progression from A - f l a t to C major, A- f l a t ' s tonic moving chromatically to the tonic six-four of C, this does not happen. Rather, what would be a secondary dominant i n C major converts to a T i l l - t y p e chord b u i l t on F: (F-sharp, A, C, E - f l a t ) converts to (F, G-sharp, - 29 -C - f l a t , E - f l a t ) , as shown i n Example 18a. The tone common to these two sonorities, E - f l a t , begins a variant of Till-motive I i n m. 393 which culminates on an F minor t r i a d i n m. 402 of Example 18b. The F minor t r i a d becomes the French sixth chord of C major i n m. 406. This chord i t s e l f becomes the dominant of C major's dominant and a normal progression follows. Although there i s a key-relationship between A - f l a t and F minor — they form a major-relative minor pair — the T i l l - t y p e chord and further chromatic movement embellish and indeed disguise this relationship, as well as the one between A - f l a t and C major. In the sketch of this passage I show, i n the f i r s t system, the sonorities mentioned above, and i n the second system, a simplified version of the same progression of chords. What emerges i s a vii^°/V-V^/V-I ^ progression i n C major containing, as an interpolation, the German sixth of F minor moving to i t s tonic t r i a d . I believe this C major " s h e l l " serves as an underlying progression. It i s embellished with the F minor interpolation, the addition of chromatic passing tones, and the melodic fragment i n mm. 403 and 406 of Example 18b. I say that the section reached i n m. 410 of Example 18b i s i n C major. What I should say i s that there i s a prolonga-tion of the dominant of this key, the most obvious expression of which i s a consistently maintained dominant pedal. I deny that C major i s firmly established because when C i s sounded i n mm. 418, 420, and 428, i t i s played down. I say this for two reasons. F i r s t , i t i s momentarily sounded by pizzicato strings on i t s way back to the dominant G; second, this dominant i s sustained at these points i n another part, as i n m. 418 of - 3 0 -Example 19. Further, when the tonic occurs for the l a s t time i n m. 428 of Example 20, i t i s heard b r i e f l y as the dominant of F, the main goal of the passage. Thus, I say this passage contains a prolongation of the dominant of the dominant of F. I w i l l pause again to say something about T i l l ' s formal structure. I consider Example 17 to represent a large formal section. It i s followed by a further formal section which i s based i n F major, which begins i n m. 429 of Example 20, and which continues u n t i l the end of T i l l . Although there are modulations away from F major, i n par t i c u l a r one to F minor i n Example 27, F major recurs frequently. Further, with the exception of Example 27, a l l the examples from Example 20 through Example 29 do not represent "programmatic sections", i . e . , sections depicting an adventure from T i l l ' s story. Rather, this f i n a l formal section, mm. 429-657, contains a recapitulation i n mm. 465-484 of material from e a r l i e r i n the tone-poem, as well as a substantial section i n F major following this recapitulation. This key occurs a f i n a l time at the end of T i l l . I s h a l l now discuss these remaining examples. After the pause i n F major i n i t i a t e d by the cadence i n mm. 428-429 of Example 20, where there i s a recapitulation of Till-motive I I , a s h i f t into D major occurs i n mm. 435-436. A further s h i f t occurs i n m. 442, where the chromatic space between D major and B-flat major i s f i l l e d i n . Then a variant of T i l l -motive I leads to a series of pedals which descend chromatically from F major through E major, E - f l a t major, and D major to a chord of D-flat major, which proceeds to the tonic six-four of F major i n m. 465 of Example 21. In short, these key-areas - 31 -are inserted between the two statements of F major i n mm. 449 and 465. There i s further evidence i n this passage of Strauss' use of close chromatic connection to bind his music together. In the sketch, I represent the chord progressions i n this passage simply, without the accompanying melodic figure, which i s a variant of Till-motive II. This sketch might be reduced further to three tonic six-four chords of F, E - f l a t , and D-flat major, the l a s t two of which are preceded by their German sixth chords. What i s also displayed here are two chromatic "streams", one r i s i n g , the other f a l l i n g . The F major section attained i n m. 465 of Example 21 uses material heard e a r l i e r i n Example 6c. This i s the f i r s t time i n T i l l that such a recapitulation takes place. This recapitulation i s extended i n a straightforward diatonic manner. This i s the largest section i n F major i n the entire tone-poem. I have not shown a l l of this section i n Example 22, but the main melodic material, played by the French horns, which moves through a diatonic key-scheme from F major to B-flat major, and back to F, i s presented. After this "oasis" i n F major, there i s a return to further fluctuation of key-area beginning i n m. 514 of Example 23, where there i s a pattern of modulation from B - f l a t major through a series of keys, which prepares another return to F i n m. 544 of Example 24. B-flat's mediant t r i a d moves to D-flat using as a pivot the German sixth chord of this l a t t e r key, also the former's dominant seventh. A simple tonic-dominant progression brings about the movement from D-flat to E major shown i n mm. 526-528 of Example 24. What appears to - 32 -be a similar progression to G major i s changed by a chromatic movement a r i s i n g out of G major's dominant seventh. In mm. 529-530, this dominant seventh passes to an F-sharp major chord, seeming to prepare, after the l a t t e r chord changes to an A major chord, the further I-V-I movement i n A which i s i n i t i a t e d i n m. 530 but which terminates deceptively i n m. 532. Starting i n m. 532, the vii^° of B minor, carried along by a bass figure, moves through B-flat major, D-flat major, and D major. The same diminished seventh chord effects these modulations and, in m. 540, the other two diminished chords which the twelve tones of the chromatic scale can produce follow i n sequence and culminate i n an A major t r i a d i n m. 544. This A major chord then moves to the tonic six-four of F major, and the return to this key i s accomplished i n m. 544. I have simplified this example i n the sketch. Again, a straightforward diatonic movement from B- f l a t to F major i s "clouded" with the large sweep of intervening keys. What appears i s a r i s i n g by thirds from one key to another, B-flat to D-flat to E to G, and F-sharp to A, followed by a l i n k i n g of the chromatically close t o n a l i t i e s of B minor, B- f l a t major, D-flat major, and D major, through the same diminished seventh chord. L i t e r a l chromatic movement then joins the two remaining t o n a l i t i e s of A and F major. However, the return to F major does not l a s t long. After a pause on the secondary dominant ninth chord of this key, shown i n Example 25, a second canonic treatment of a variant of Till-motive I occurs, shown i n Example 26. A mass of sound eventually c l a r i f i e s i t s e l f i n D major i n m. 567. The - 33 -melody i s harmonized i n t e r t i a n terms, but these harmonies f a i l to make a tonal scheme. I hear a "blur" of sound notable for i t s rhytmic assertiveness and the p a r a l l e l i t forms with the e a r l i e r canonic section shown i n Example 15. Two demonstrably tonal areas, F and D major, are linked by f i l l i n g the i n t e r -vening space with available pitches. It i s as i f t o n a l i t y i s suspended, while musical control i s maintained with familiar material, the variant of Till-motive I, connecting these two t o n a l i t i e s . In the sketch, I have posited the existence of certain embellishing chords moving to more stable chords. The stable ones are shown with stems up, the others with stems down. There i s a resultant f e e l i n g , at least " t h e o r e t i c a l l y " , of D-fiat major up to m. 564. This f i t s i n well with D-major, i t s t r i a d appearing i n m. 567, because D major and D-flat major are a half-step apart, and represent the sort of key relationship Strauss would exploit. One key, D major, now abruptly ends, and a new one, 11 F minor, begins. An extended section i n F minor, shown i n Example 27, i s accompanied by the T i l l - c h o r d . The l a t t e r shows i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , moving f i r s t to F major i n m. 584, and then to A major i n m. 593. F minor i s the main key here. The few measures using the T i l l - c h o r d do not become predominant because they are inserted between larger segments i n F minor. These F minor segments also gain prominence through their dynamic and textural strength as compared with the interpolation using the T i l l - c h o r d . Successive waves of F minor terminate.: on d i f f e r e n t - 34 -chords, the submediant t r i a d i n m. 589, the v i i / 0 / V i n m. 600, and the mediant t r i a d i n m. 604. This l a s t chord sets off a recurrence of an e a r l i e r chromatic figure from Example l i b . This figure flows smoothly into a C - f l a t major chord i n m. 608, which i s immediately supplanted by the dominant seventh of F minor. Exploitation of the close chromatic connection between two sonorities such as these i s by now a f a m i l i a r occurrence i n T i l l . As i t moves to F major, this F minor section i l l u s t r a t e s cadential c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of T i l l where they can be seen c l e a r l y . The F major t r i a d i n m. 624 of Example 27 i s e f f e c t i v e l y established by Straussian means. The T i l l - c h o r d appears and, as by now may be expected, embraces the tonic t r i a d . At the same time, there i s a descent of a major seventh i n the bass. This movement settles temporarily on G-flat, and l a t e r f a l l s to F. The p a r a l l e l relationship of F minor to F major i s chromatic i n i t s e l f ; i n addition, the l a t t e r key i s attained by further chromatic agents, the T i l l - c h o r d and the F to G-flat to F movement i n the bass. This f i n a l section of the tone-poem continues i n kind. There i s a recapitulation of the f i r s t measure of T i l l , but on this occasion the passage continues, rather than ending on a tonic six-four, and reaches the tonic through a perfect cadence i n mm. 635-636 of Example 28. The T i l l - c h o r d then appears twice i n a row, after which, i n mm. 640-641, the v i i / /V i n F major i s used to modulate to A - f l a t major. This chord i s a T i l l - t y p e chord which, i f transformed into a diminished seventh chord, can become a proper secondary dominant i n A - f l a t , - 35 -the v i i / 0 / V . This does not take place. Instead a quicker, more "exotic" change, one which i s less roundabout, i s used. The return to F major through the d i a t o n i c a l l y related key of G minor occurs with smooth part-writing. The diminished seventh of G minor i s followed by a G minor t r i a d which i s followed i n turn by F major's vii^°/V. The l a t t e r then moves gracefully to the tonic six-four of F setting up the perfect cadence i n mm. 643-644. I have removed most of the music i n between the major cadences of this section i n the sketch revealing a diatonic "skeleton". However, the modulation to A - f l a t shows that, with Strauss, a chromatic " f l i g h t of fancy" i s never very far from the mind even i n what i s for the most part a diatonic passage. The home key i s now maintained u n t i l the end. The T i l l - c h o r d and re l a t i v e s of i t serve to produce the f i n a l three cadences. The f i r s t i s a T i l l - c h o r d cadence proper i n m. 654 of Example 29. The second uses an altered T i l l - c h o r d with D-natural instead of D-flat and with C added. The t h i r d uses the German sixth of F major which moves d i r e c t l y to the tonic. It i s notable that here at the end of T i l l , where I would expect a straightforward dominant-tonic cadence, there i s instead cadence after cadence using these variants of the T i l l -chord. Such chromatic treatment i s of course consistent with what Strauss has written throughout the entire tone-poem. - 36 -Endnotes 1. The T i l l - c h o r d does not occur "naturally" i n F major. Diatonically speaking, the only half-diminished tetrad of a major key i s on the leading-tone, i . e . , the v i i . In the p a r a l l e l minor key, F minor, the only such tetrads are the i i 7 o and, assuming the melodic minor scale, the vi7o chord. However, the T i l l - c h o r d might be admitted to F major through a roundabout route. It i s the i i 7 o of A - f l a t minor which i s the p a r a l l e l minor of A - f l a t major; A - f l a t major i s the r e l a t i v e major of F minor, which i s the p a r a l l e l minor of F major. 2. Although not dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with modulation, the following two quotes reveal some of the d i v e r s i t y i n Strauss' music as seen by other writers, a d i v e r s i t y which mixes t r a d i t i o n a l and more unusual elements. Hugo Wiesgall, Dictionary of Contemporary Music, 1974 ed., s.v. "Strauss, Richard," writes that there i s a confusion of harmonic c l a r i t y which Strauss produces through "multiple suspensions, free s h i f t i n g triads and seventh chords, delays i n resolution of harmonic and melodic dissonances, enharmonic changes, frequent major-minor combinations, and, perhaps most disconcerting of a l l , the abrupt breaking of ideas followed by t o t a l l y new material." But he continues by suggesting that "the use of these harmonic features i s always exceptional, however, and usually leads back to more normal sections where everything becomes s o l i d and clear. " Also, Adolf Weissmann says i n The Problems of Modern Music, trans, by M.M. Bazmann (New York: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1925), p. 131, that "harmony wanders far i n the course of developing the motive, but never forsakes the basis of t o n a l i t y . " 3. There are two complementary phrases here i n mm. 63-65 and mm. 65-67. If the melodic span of the f i r s t , a tritone from A to E - f l a t , were matched by a tritone i n the second span, E-natural, instead of E - f l a t , to B - f l a t , the E-natural would probably be harmonized by this "phantom" dominant. I owe this observation to my thesis advisor, Dr. William Benjamin. 4. Indeed, the A minor tonic seventh chord could, as i s , be considered a pivot chord. I simply wish to emphasize the close chromatic connection of this chord to the dominant which follows i t . 5. When I make a sketch, such as the present one, sometimes a great deal of the o r i g i n a l musical material has been removed. What remains, the reader must understand, i s a view of the passage biased by what I myself hear, as well as by what I want the passage to display. - 37 -6. A T i l l - t y p e chord i s simply a diminished-minor tetrad. It becomes a T i l l - c h o r d when i t resolves l i k e one, i . e . , when i t resolves to a f i r s t inversion major or minor t r i a d . Thus, a T i l l - c h o r d i s always a T i l l - t y p e chord, but a T i l l - t y p e chord i s not always a T i l l - c h o r d . To make this clear, I have given a musical example on the next page i n which, except for the two T i l l - c h o r d s , one resolving to an F major t r i a d the other to a D major one, a l l tetrads are T i l l - t y p e chords. 7. This "altered" dominant seventh could also be the dominant thirteenth of E - f l a t , or, i n m. 1, of B - f l a t , which has been borrowed from the p a r a l l e l minor key. This would explain the appearance of the flattened t h i r d degree of the scale represented enharmonically as the second degree raised a half-step: G-flat/F-sharp and D-flat/C-sharp. 8. If I were interested i n an account of the passage on a higher structural l e v e l , I could note that the roots of the tonics of the keys sustained for the longest period of time, B - f l a t , D - f l a t , E, and G, during the course of this movement from B-flat major to G minor i n Examples lla-13, s p e l l out a diminished seventh chord. This chord could serve both as an embellishing one to a B-flat t r i a d , and as a secondary dominant, vii7o/V, to the key of G minor. Further, this same diminished seventh chord serves to embellish two statements of both a D-flat and an E major t r i a d i n mm. 220-221 and i n mm. 226-227 of Example 13. 9. Measures 329-331 could be considered an extension of the submediant t r i a d . The f i r s t two of these measures could be read as an embellishing diminished seventh chord moving to the B - f l a t minor t r i a d with which i t has two tones in common, i . e . B-flat and D-flat. 10. *-This passage i n mm. 354-358 might alternately be seen as i n E minor with i t s tonic t r i a d suppressed. 11. See my remarks on "abbreviated t o n a l i t y " , p. 15. - 38 -/UpfcMi M M k Carp HoU> mM C*1i' 59-CHAPTER III General Remarks and Conclusion Now that I have spent some time analyzing T i l l section by section, I would l i k e to remark on some of i t s sections once more, but i n general terms, as regards the diatonic-chromatic continuum and other points mentioned i n the introduction. Then, I would l i k e to present the l a s t example, representing a l l of T i l l , which i l l u s t r a t e s much of what I have been saying about this music. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to make some general remarks on Strauss. I said i n the f i r s t chapter that there were no sections i n T i l l which were purely diatonic. I said that, instead, there were sections which made use of chromatic passing tones, 1 chromatic embellishing chords, and chromatic dominants. I stated further that these chromatic dominants served to establish keys both d i a t o n i c a l l y and chromatically related to the main key, as well as to establish the main key. Now that the reader i s more fam i l i a r with T i l l , l e t me relate these general remarks to a s p e c i f i c section, the f i r s t one, seen i n Example 1-5. The Till-motives, introduced i n this section, both contain chromatic passing tones, B and C-sharp i n the f i r s t of these motives, G-sharp and B i n the second. There are no chromatic embellishing chords i n this passage. However, - 40 -the harmony i n m. 38 of Example 4, which supports an extension of Till-motive II, functions as embellishment serving to lead up to the dominant seventh of F major i n m. 39 — a chromatic "anacrusis" as i t were. The T i l l - c h o r d i n m. 47 of the next example i s an obvious chromatic dominant, which serves to establish the key c l e a r l y . This section begins tentatively i n F major. I say "tenta t i v e l y " because the f i r s t cadence i s to B-flat major. It i s not u n t i l m. 12 that there i s a clear cadence i n F major, the key which, with the aid of the T i l l - c h o r d , ends the section i n m. 49. Since this key i s reinforced l a t e r i n the passage, after the B - f l a t cadence, especially i n mm. 30-39 of Example 4, and because two of F major's diatonic r e l a t i v e s , D and A minor, appear i n mm. 21-23 and mm. 26-28 respectively, I think F major 2 is the main ton a l i t y of the section. Despite the chromatic elements i n these measures, I would say that this i s a diatonic section, since these elements enhance, rather than obscure, F major and i t s diatonic r e l a t i v e s . Because of these elements of this opening section, I would select a point near, but not too near, the diatonic "end" of the continuum to represent the section. I say "not too near", because there are s t i l l chromatic elements i n the section, even though their use does not destroy the diatonicism of the passage. However, suppose I view the same section, composed from the same group of diatonic and chromatic pitches, from another perspective on the diatonic-chromaticcontinuum, the perspective of "background" structures. I could reduce the section to such a structure highlighting the main and the - 41 -subsidiary keys. The result would be a series of d i a t o n i c a l l y related keys. If I wished to place this "background" structure on the continuum, I would d e f i n i t e l y represent i t by 3 a point at the diatonic "end". Let me view the same section again, but from s t i l l another perspective on the diatonic-chromatic continuum — cadential treatment. Without ignoring the V-I bass movement in mm. 11-12, or the perfect cadence i n mm. 12-13, which can be seen i n Example 30, I believe the stronger cadences^ of the section are those of mm. 1-2, mm. 38-39 (a half cadence), and mm. 47-49. If I were to represent the whole section by a point on the continuum i n terms of cadential treatment, I would select a point further along than the previous two points, closer to the chromatic "end". There i s no contradiction here i n representing the same section by three d i f f e r e n t points on the same continuum. It i s the same continuum admitting of degrees of chromaticism i n a l l three cases, but i t i s seen from the perspectives of the diatonicism or chromaticism of the entire passage, that of the pitch c o l l e c t i o n used i n the section, or that of cadential treatment i n the section. Let me i l l u s t r a t e what I am saying with an analogy. Imagine a picture from a magazine. If i t i s seen under a microscope, whatever the picture may have been, i t disappears and i s replaced by a c o l l e c t i o n of what seem colored dots. On the other hand, i f the picture i s attached to a wall and seen from a great distance, i t w i l l disappear again and be replaced by a few vague patches of color, or indeed by one patch. - 42 -The " r e a l " picture exists as an idea i n the mind, as a mental "constant", while the status of the picture's "current" manifestation depends on the perspective from which i t i s seen, i . e . , from an unusually great distance, from a usual distance, or from an unusually small distance. The picture i t s e l f i s the diatonic-chromatic continuum i n this analogy, and the three points distant from i t are the musical perspectives from which the continuum can be viewed. I said i n the introduction that there are also sections in T i l l which contain subsidiary keys chromatically related to the main key of the section.^ Let me i l l u s t r a t e this point, and l e t me recapitulate what I. have said thus far, by comparing two sections from T i l l , the section represented i n part i n Example 11a, and that represented i n Example 28. The f i r s t begins i n B-flat major and moves to F major i n m. 186, and to E- f l a t major i n m. 191, returning to the main key i n m. 194. The second section contains a modulation to a subsidiary key chromatically related to i t s surroundings, a modulation from F major i n m. 639 to A - f l a t major i n m. 641. If I consider the pitch material of each section, since both use a l l twelve pitches of the chromatic scale, they would be represented by the same point at the chromatic "end" of the continuum, as opposed, for example, to a passage using only the seven diatonic pitches, which would be represented at the other "end". If I choose to consider the cadential treatment used i n each section, they are again represented by the same point on the continuum. Both sections exploit close chromatic - 43 -c o n n e c t i o n a t c a d e n c e s . I n t h e f i r s t , t h i s o c c u r s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n mm. 188-191; i n t h e s e c o n d , i n m. 637 and m. 639, where t h e T i l l - c h o r d a p p e a r s , and i n mm. 640-644. I f I c o n s i d e r t h e m o d u l a t o r y p a t t e r n t h a t r e s u l t s i n b o t h s e c t i o n f r o m t h e k e y s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n them, t h e f i r s t i s d i a t o n i c , t h e s e c o n d , b e c a u s e o f t h e move t o A - f l a t m a j o r , i s c h r o m a t i c . Thus, t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e same two s e c t i o n s c a n p r o d u c e d i f f e r i n g v i e w s o f them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e f r o m w h i c h I c o n s i d e r them. No s i n g l e p e r s p e c t i v e need be c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r y . E a c h c a n be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r s w h i l e t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m r e m a i n s f i x e d as an u n d e r l y i n g r e f e r e n t i a l c o n c e p t . In t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n I s a i d t h a t t h e r e a r e s e c t i o n s w i t h i n T i l l w h i c h a r e c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s e c t i o n s , and o t h e r s t h a t a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s h i g h l y c h r o m a t i c . L e t me i l l u s t r a t e t h i s w i t h Example 17. The whole s e c t i o n i s , w i t h o u t a d o u b t , h i g h l y c h r o m a t i c . R e g a r d i n g t h e k e y - a r e a s w i t h i n i t as s e c t i o n s , t h e s e k e y - a r e a s a r e o f t e n c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . The D - f l a t m a j o r s e c t i o n i n mm. 327-334, f o r example, i s p r e c e d e d by a B m i n o r s e c t i o n , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , by B m i n o r ' s s u b m e d i a n t t r i a d i n m. 326. A l s o , t h i s D - f l a t s e c t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n i n E m i n o r w h i c h b e g i n s i n m. 335. I f I c o n s i d e r whether Example 17 i s c h r o m a t i c o r d i a t o n i c , i . e . , whether t h e p a s s a g e shown i n Example 17 i s , f o r t h e most p a r t , c h r o m a t i c o r d i a t o n i c , and i f I c o n s i d e r whether t h e c a d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t w i t h i n i t u s e s , f o r th e most p a r t , c h r o m a t i c o r d i a t o n i c d o m i n a n t s , I may judge t h e example c h r o m a t i c on b o t h c o u n t s , and I may r e p r e s e n t i t on - 44 -the diatonic-chromatic continuum, by a point near the chromatic "end". Because I find such d i v e r s i t y between the poles of diatonicism and chromaticism i n T i l l , I invent the continuum I have been using i n order to account for the music. I cannot po s i t i v e l y establish any par t i c u l a r element or group of elements as the epitome of T i l l , and so I attempt to encompass a l l the elements I observe by viewing them i n terms of the diatonic-chromatic continuum. Various possible views of i t vary the significance which any par t i c u l a r element or group of elements may take on. Speaking of the whole of T i l l brings me to the l a s t musical example. This example represents the tone-poem as I hear i t . I have, necessarily, removed a great deal of the o r i g i n a l . What remains i s obviously biased i n favor of what I want i t to display. But I nonetheless believe i t i s a f a i r likeness of T i l l i n "miniature"; i t does indeed sound l i k e Strauss. Let me f i r s t make some technical remarks about Example 30. I display the keys established throughout the tone-poem with the cadences which establish them. These cadences are indicated ametrically, and the tonics of these cadences may represent a key which covers a long span of time, or only a short one. If the section i n the key represented by these tonics i s diatonic or embellished by chromaticism, but in a way which does not r a d i c a l l y a l t e r i t s diatonic nature, then I have indicated the section by a single tonic chord, e.g., the F major t r i a d i n m. 75 of Example 6c. In square brackets, - 45 -d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s t r i a d , I have shown a cadence which i s w i t h i n t h i s d i a t o n i c s e c t i o n . I i n c l u d e t h i s cadence because i t i s an example of chromaticism i n T i l l I want Example 30 to d i s p l a y . I i n c l u d e s e v e r a l samples of chromaticism, i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s way, throughout the example. A l s o , I show, i n square b r a c k e t s , m a t e r i a l which i s of secondary importance, e i t h e r themes or motives given as a guide to the reader i n f o l l o w i n g the example, or the "connective t i s s u e " between two s e c t i o n s . Where i t i s an important theme or motive of T i l l , the m a t e r i a l i n square brackets i s w r i t t e n i n i t s proper meter, although i t i s u s u a l l y only p a r t l y quoted. 7 The examples from which the m a t e r i a l i s taken are i n d i c a t e d above the s t a f f ; measure numbers are shown beneath. Slan t e d l i n e s represent f u l l chromatic movement between p i t c h e s so j o i n e d , s l u r s above the s t a f f are given to a i d the reader i n s e p a r a t i n g cadences which occur i n quick s u c c e s s i o n s . Except f o r B - f l a t , no a c c i d e n t a l s c a r r y through the example. I f a p i t c h i s without an a c c i d e n t a l , i t i s n a t u r a l . I would l i k e to use t h i s f i n a l example as a means of summing up. I t h i n k even a quick glance at i t r e v e a l s to the reader why I have brought up the n o t i o n of a d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum. I do not wish to say that T i l l i s primary d i a t o n i c or chromatic, f o r I wish to say that i t i s both. I wish to argue that h a l f - s t e p a l t e r a t i o n of a p i t c h or of a group of p i t c h e s , i n v a r y i n g degrees, i s a " g u i d i n g f o r c e " of t h i s music. On the one hand", such a l t e r a t i o n can accord with the d i a t o n i c i s m of a passage, e.g., Examples 1 to 5; on the other hand, e x p l o i t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y and to a high degree, such - 46 -a l t e r a t i o n can dominate a passage, e.g., Example 17. Both types of a l t e r a t i o n are equally Straussian, both are equally determinants of the music that results from their use i n T i l l . And to deal with these types of a l t e r a t i o n i n the work, I have summoned the diatonic-chromatic continuum to my aid. It w i l l be recalled that one way I choose to view this continuum i s from the perspective of to n a l i t y as I have defined i t , i . e . , as the accentuation of a pitch or of a group of pitches forming a major or minor t r i a d , an accentuation which involves a half-step approach to one or several of these pitches. I think I can now say why I have defined t o n a l i t y i n this manner. In T i l l there i s such accentuation of a pitch or of a group of pitches; the f i r s t of the accentuations i s i n the form of chromatic passing tones, the second i s i n the form of various types of cadences. These cadences include the simple tonic to dominant type with i t s single half-step movement, as in mm. 12-13 or i n mm. 193-194, as well as the more chromatic types, found, for example, i n mm. 1-2, mm. 47-49, and i n mm. 334-335. I have had to mention half-step movement to one or to several of the pitches of the chord to be accentuated, because of this cadential d i v e r s i t y . This d i v e r s i t y has led me to "kinds" of t o n a l i t y : the purely diatonic kind, which, i f one considers the whole of a passage i n this t o n a l i t y , does not occur i n T i l l ; the kind which i s for the most part diatonic, but not without some chromaticism, which can best be seen i n Examples 11a and 28; or, the kind which i s for the most part chromatic, and which can best be seen i n Example 17, and of which, over a smaller span of time, Example 8 i s also - 47 -representative. The diatonic-chromatic continuum serves to assimilate the d i v e r s i t y presented by these kinds of t o n a l i t y . I have also chosen to view this continuum from the perspective of modulation as I have defined i t , i . e . , as the transposition of the pitch or of the group of pitches to be accentuated. I have defined modulation i n this manner because I wish to emphasize the means of modulation as well as the pattern of keys these means produce. If a section uses, as a subsidiary key, one which i s d i a t o n i c a l l y related to the main key of the section, as i n Example 11a, and another section uses a chromatically related one, as i n Example 28, I need to subordinate one section to the other i f I am emphasizing the diatonicism of the modulatory pattern. However, i f I view the same sections considering the degree to which chromaticism establishes these patterns, i . e . , considering the means of modulation, these sections are similar. In the l a t t e r case, the above d e f i n i t i o n i s useful since i t does not specify that a transposition take place to a d i a t o n i c a l l y related pitch or group of pitches. I may, as by now i s clear, encompass both interpretations of these sections using the diatonic-chromatic continuum. Let me conclude with some words on Strauss. I f e e l his music should be regarded neither as revolutionary nor reactionary, but as something i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and unique to man and his time. This i s important, especially for Strauss, because he has been made out to be both reactionary and revolutionary, and I think unjustly so. But as I find such sentiments uninteresting and irrelevant i n analyzing his music, - 48 -I p r e f e r t o d e a l w i t h i t by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m as an a n a l y t i c d e v i c e . I t may be t h a t t h i s d e v i c e i s o f l i t t l e o r no v a l u e i n d e s c r i b i n g o t h e r m u s i c , but I do t h i n k i t i s u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s tone-poem. I f I h a v e , t h r o u g h my e f f o r t s , e n a b l e d the r e a d e r t o a s s i m i l a t e many o f the d i v e r s e e l ement s w h i c h can be o b s e r v e d i n T i l l , I am c o n t e n t . - 4 9 -Endnotes 1. Examples of chromatic dominants are mentioned i n the l a s t chapter; see pp. 11, 12, 15, 21, 27, see also Example 30 i n the Appendix. 2. I did, however, state i n the l a s t chapter that no key, is unalterably established as the home one. Perhaps i t would be clearer to say that the section i s unstable as to key u n t i l i t eventually settles down i n F major at i t s end. 3. Of course, I could also do this with other such structures from other parts of T i l l , placing them on the continuum, according to the degree that they are chromatic. Cf. this "background" structure with the one of Example 9b, i n Chapter II, p. 19. 4. By "stronger cadences" I mean those that appear to me to have the more emphatic t o n i c i z i n g e f f e c t . 5. A chromatically related key i s one whose tonic pitch, before i t has been raised a half-step, i s a diatonic pitch of the main key of the section. A - f l a t major, for example, i s chromatically related to F major. 6. I.e., both sections eventually make use of the f i v e remaining pitches of the chromatic scale after t h e i r seven diatonic pitches have been taken into account. 7. An important theme or motive may be so because i t reappears throughout the work, and so i s an important structural device, and yet, i f other elements of the work are being considered, this motive or theme becomes secondary i n importance. 8. As regards his controversial reputation, Michael Kennedy, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980 ed. s.v. "Strauss, Richard," writes that "during his l i f e t i m e and afterwards Strauss was the centre of controversy, and he remains one of those composers who arouse extremes of sympathy or antipathy. The years from roughly 1890-1910 were a b r i l l a n t noonday for Richard Strauss, as they were for Elgar i n England, when he bestrode the musical world and audiences hung on his every note. , He dazzled, he shocked, he amazed." Yet i n his l a t e r years Strauss was considered old fashion. On this Kennedy writes, "there are inevitably variations i n the quality of his work, some of i t not much more than musical journalism most court composers turned out as a part of t h e i r obligations. But the distance between the peak and the base i n a graph of Strauss' output i s not as wide as i t was once believed. - 50 -and the former c r i t i c a l ordinance that he declined into a state of unimaginative s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n after about 1910 i s untenable when his achievement i s judged i n perspective." I agree with this and would give the l a s t word to Strauss who said, "my work i n composition means not revolution, but evolution, and evolution b u i l t on the c l a s s i c s which must be the foundation of a l l musical compo-s i t i o n . " William Armstrong, "Richard Strauss and his work, a talk with the composer," The Etude 21(December 1903):467. ; - 51 -APPENDIX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES - 52 -Ex.* •St-A. Ahphev* Mnti( Corp -55-Hafl,.—4CMUI V-43 SB-Ei.e 66-A. Alpheu* Mutic Corp - 6 1 -- 69-ALpbaui Mu»k Corp •II-AlpbMU M u k Carp Holis-ooe Cil i ' -73-Mdij -ooc C.h' V 43 IS' A t p l M M U M k C w p V-43 H o i t . - M O i l V A3 - S 3 -Hull)P—4 C*M •85-m w %i Hgti>-aa4.Ca*l V 43 - 86--97--90-A. -93--?t l C*IH -95 Calif V-43 AkpfaMM M u k Ctwp Mott> wood. Call! -96-E x - 3o coWt) -/oo-A l p b m Mwtc Corp BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Periodicals Armstrong, Thomas. Strauss's Tone-poems. London: Oxford University Press, 1931. Armstrong, W. "Richard Strauss and his works a t a l k with the composer." Etude 21 (December 1903):467-468. • Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Commentary on his L i f e and Works. 3 vols. London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd., 1978. Dictionary of Contemporary Music, 1976 ed. S.v. "Strauss, Richard," by Hugo Wiesgall. Donald, Paul. "Richard Strauss' Symphonic Tone-poems." Metronome 31 (June 1915):15-19. Downes, Olin. Symphonic Masterpieces. New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1943. Gerlach, Reinhard. Don Juan und Rosenkavalier: Studien zu Idee und Gestalt einer tonalen Evolution im Werk Richard Strauss'. Berne: Verlag Paul Haupt, 1966. Gilman, Lawrence. Stories of Symphonic Music. New York: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc., 1937. The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, 10 ed. S.v. "Strauss, Richard," by Er i c Blom. Howes, Frank. "Nimrod on Strauss." Musical Times 111 (June 1970): 590-591.:'. Kraus, Ernst. Richard Strauss: The Man and"his Work. Translated by John Coombs. London: Collet's (Publishers) Ltd., 1964. Lorenz, Alfred. "Der formale Schwung in Richard Strauss' ' T i l l Eulenspiegel'." Die Musik 17 (June 1925):658-669. Marek, George R. Richard Strauss: The L i f e of a Non-Hero. London: Victor Gollancz, 1976. Mason, Daniel Gregory. "A Study of Strauss." Musical Quarterly 2 (April 1916):171-190.. McNaught, W. "Is ' T i l l Eulenspiegel' a Rondo?" Musical Times 78 (September 1937):789-791.. - 101 -Murphy, Edward Wright. "Harmony and Tonality i n the Large Orchestral Works of Richard Strauss." Ph. D. diss e r t a t i o n , Indiana University, September 1963. Muschler , Reinhard. Richard Strauss Hildescheim: Druck und Verlag von Franz Borgmeyer, n.d. Myers, Rollo H. "Richard Strauss—1864-1949." Musical Times 90 (October 1949):347-3 51. . The New College Encyclopedia of Music, 1960 ed. S.v. "Key." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 1980 ed. S.v. "Strauss, Richard," by Michael Kennedy. Orrey, L e s l i e . Programme Music: A Brief Survey from the Sixteenth Century to the Present. London: Davis-Poynter, 1975. Specht, Richard. Richard Strauss und sein Werk. Vol. I: Per Kunstler und sein Weg der Instrumentalkomponist. Leipzig: E.P.-Tal & Co. Verlag, 1921. Strauss, Richard. Recollections and Reflections. Translated by L.J~ Lawrence. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1953. Smyser, William Leon. "The Caliph of Vienna: Dr. Richard Strauss, Musician." Music & Letters 12 (January 1931): 46-53'. Tenschert, Roland. "Die Kadenzbehandlung bei Richard Strauss: Ein Beitrag zur neueren Harmonik." Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Musikwissenschaft 8 (December 1925): 161-182. Weissman, Adolf. The Problems of Modern Music. Translated by M.FH Bazmann. New York: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1925. Music Starr, William J., and Devine, George F. Music Scores Omnibus Part 2: Romantic and Impressionistic Music. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964. - 102 -

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