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Diatonicism and chromaticism in Richard Strauss’ tone-poem Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche Mac Neil, Patrick 1981

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DIATONICISM AND CHROMATICISM IN RICHARD STRAUSS' TONE-POEM TILL EULENSPIEGELS LUSTIGE STREICHE by PATRICK^MAC NEIL B.A. (Honours i n Music), Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MUSIC THEORY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Music  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1981 @  P a t r i c k Mac N e i l , 1981  In  presenting  requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  understood for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  that  h i s or copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  be  her or  shall  publication  not  be  Date  DE-6  (2/79)  Q<tZ&M {j} /(}j>/.  the  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  t/rVUuat*  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  by  representatives.  permission.  Department o f  copying of  granted  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  I n the  first  diatonic-chromatic useful the  continuum.  this  thesis I introduce  I t i s an  the  a n a l y t i c a l device  i n e x p l a i n i n g m u s i c w h i c h e x h i b i t s much d i v e r s i t y .  case of  sections  this  within  a traditional  tone-poem, i t i s u s e f u l i t , those that  as  as  well  As  these three  work, the  section-types  are  equally  continuum  many  diatonic  chromatic  i t is  subsidiary  keys,  extremes.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  serves  as  a  in  the  valuable  concept. second c h a p t e r  t h e i r main k e y s ,  these keys are In the  I a n a l y z e the  third  i n the  s u b s i d i a r y k e y s , and  chapter  I return  c o n t i n u u m and  second  the  sections means by  which  f r o m the  reductions  I call  condensation of Finally,  discuss  musical  Appendix f o r e a s i e r r e f e r e n c e . reductions  concept  several  of  the  sections  examples t o g e t h e r  These examples  and  the  these  a m a j o r example w h i c h i s a  the  e n t i r e work.  my  study of T i l l purely  in  comprise  tone-poem, s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s o f  sketches,  the  to the  chapter.  I have c o l l e c t e d my  on  above  established.  diatonic-chromatic  concentrates  so h i g h l y  l i e somewhere between t h e s e two  diatonic-chromatic  I n the  analyzed  straightforwardly  are  In  to a s s i m i l a t e the  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r main and  those that  referential  are  sense, those that  sometimes d i f f i c u l t  noting  chapter of  musical  Eulenspiegels and  not  on  lustige  the  Streiche  programmatic.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement  iv  Chapter I. II.  III.  Introduction  1  Till  11  General Remarks and Conclusion  40  Appendix of Musical  Bibliography  Examples  52  101  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I thank Dr. W i l l i a m Benjamin f o r h i s a d v i c e i n the  preparation of this  Richard  Strauss  beautiful  thesis,  and I t h a n k  f o r l e a v i n g the world  m u s i c , some o f w h i c h I have  t o my g r e a t  d e l i g h t and m u s i c a l  iv  so much studied  edification.  CHAPTER  I  Introduction The thing,  quantity,  passing may  into  continuum  light  each  other."  would  obtain  intensity. they  would  between slight  a  two  a continuous  The passage  series  day, I c o u l d  to each  readings  other, would  series of  late  measure the i n t e n s i t y o f  I took  be e i t h e r  elements  night  i n the  well  into  continuously  so t h a t  "continuous  o f day i n t o  until  of readings  frequently  as a  Beginning  i n t e r v a l s o f time  The more be  defined  as a continuum.  of a cloudless  at regular  has been  or substance;  be r e p r e s e n t e d  afternoon  I  term  too fine  night.  decreasing  the readings  eventually  f o r t h e human e y e t o p e r c e i v e .  the  i n  the c l o s e r  the d i f f e r e n c e  t o measure o r too  I would  find  no  point  at  2  which at  which  next a  day ends  and n i g h t  begins,  intensity-readings  highest  or lowest  "continuous  but, only  are preceded  readings.  This  and always,  or followed  day-night  series" of intensity-readings  points  by t h e  continuum i s  "passing  into  each  other." The represented portion scales these  passage  from  as a continuum.  o f a' w o r k w h i c h and t h e chords  scales.  which uses  the d i a t o n i c  By  uses  which  chromatic  as i t s b a s i s  to the chromatic  By d i a t o n i c as i t s b a s i s may  be  formed  -  the major from  and minor  1 -  be  I mean a w o r k o r and  minor  the pitches  I mean a w o r k o r p o r t i o n  the major  may  scales  of a  of work  one o r more  of  the pitches  of which  have  been  r a i s e d or lowered  by a  3 half-step. from  Chromatic  the pitches  decreasing continuum step to  of these  degrees from  of  analysis which  pitch  I shall  step.  In a major  above If  or perfect  produced progeny can  fifth  from  be r e p r e s e n t e d a t which  i t would  simply  i s tonality.  call  the  Eulenspiegels t o as T i l l , from  a major  approaching  of this  the passage  below  group  to another  from  of the diatonic pitches,  this  of  a diatonic musical  be r e p r e s e n t e d .  2  -  single by  to the  fourth  tonality.^  and t h e  "kind"  of  composition  tonality chordal  tonality  continuum  i f a  half-  cadence the  scales  Similarly,  -  this  i t exhibits  on t h e d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c  of a  or minor  a perfect  i s an i n s t a n c e  group  tonality  of pitches  In a perfect  or  Streiche,  of the leading-tone  or a section  these  I define  define  o f my  the accentuation  forming  triad  lustige  o f two I  of a pitch  But f o r t h e sake  of tonality.  by t h e p i t c h e s  same p o i n t from  scale  composition  formed  concepts  involves  one p i t c h  o f one m a j o r  a musical  Till  of pitches  i s an i n s t a n c e  progression  the perspective  from  means.^  refer  accentuation  or at least  half-  the diatonic  seen  Tonality results  pitch  of  I shall  as t h e a c c e n t u a t i o n  o f t h e tone-poem  this  from  As  the  continuum  of these  musical  o r o f a group  triad;  tonic  One  through  more n a r r o w l y .  one a l o n g  the continuum  c a n be  broadly  henceforth  lead  scales.  so i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e s  one a l o n g  continuum  rather  and minor  formed  continuum.  concepts.  pitches  a l t e r e d major  This . l a t t e r :  diatonic-chromatic  tonality  r e f e r s to the chords  of light-intensity  lead  the chromatic.  musical  also  day i n t o n i g h t ,  alteration  This  then  at the  or section  composition  or  section  and  from  chordal  pitches  progeny  tonality  at  a point  would  transposition accentuated  dominant is a  also  be  scale have If a  now  which  been  half-step  the  continues original  from scale  pitches.^ continuum original  up  this  that  this  "kind"  i t based  can also  be  modulation  scale  may  from  may  as a  be  transposed a  the ordering to tonic.  a half-step, until  there  unaltered  unaltered.  will  always  along  be  and t h e t o n i c . scale i s  two p i t c h e s  t h e same  -  3 -  of the two  on t h e  end and t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n s alterations  may  two o f i t s p i t c h e s  two p i t c h e s  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  the continuum  scale  I f the process  n o t always  making  There  i s raised  new  o f t h e new only  from  of the o r i g i n a l  t h e subd'ominant  the tonic  although  progressively  at points  began,  of the o r i g i n a l ,  remain  This  In terms  process  from  t o be  tonic  fifth.  modulatory  will  there,  on  seen  be c o n s i d e r e d  leading-tone.  a perfect  at the " d i a t o n i c "  represented  scale  t h e new  The o r i g i n a l s c a l e  scale  from  of the o l d scale,  the tonic  o r i g i n a l scale  as by t h e  the continuum  of pitches  A major  new  continues  from  pitches  a l t e r a t i o n as the o l d subdominant  raised  process  o r group  replacing  t o become  transposed  with  this  This  a chromatic  along  I define  means.  of the pitches  half-step  also  of the p i t c h  t o dominant  as w e l l  material,  continuum  of modulation.  fifth.  the  represented.  by m u s i c a l  a perfect  by  are the r e s u l t of  or section  diatonic-chromatic  perspective  reordering  be  which  further  where a c o m p o s i t i o n  pitches  scales  diatonic  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  The  up  progeny  a l t e r a t i o n of this  of  the  t o n a l i t y produced  of the diatonic  and t h e c h o r d a l  chromatic  these  i t exhibits  of the  t o i t c a n be  which are  of  progressively containing  closer  several  to the chromatic  sections  from  one s e c t i o n  to another  left  or to the right  along  based may  on t h e s e  the continuum.  transpositions  o r two s u c c e s s i v e  may  be r e p r e s e n t e d  on t h e continuum  adjacent.  This  transposed  u p o r down a h a l f - s t e p  such  a scale  i s followed  transposition. of  Instead  pitch material,  may  be d e s c r i b e d  to  another  so  that  there  sections the  because  a r e no  from  which  ones,  chords  main key o f a s e c t i o n In  some c a s e s  to  the main  Till  which  sections  these  scales.  the  subsidiary  to their  keys  - 4 -  Till.  In  that  is,  strictly each  Till  from  section passing  decorate  diatonic  as dominants  f o r the  keys  are also  and these may  point  the continuum  chromatic  chromatically  neighbours  one  within  a  are chromatically  There  them,  This  diatonic-chromatic  formed  and f o r s u b s i d i a r y  and a f t e r  from  diatonic,  which  serve  alteration  adjacent.^  Instead,  chords  on  on t h e  a t once.  the continuum  material  are i n a key r e l a t e d  chromatically  based  based  a progressive  a r e made  which  are not  when a s c a l e i s  section  are purely  key of a s e c t i o n .  before  which  f o rdescribing  musical  composition  o r when a s e c t i o n  to define  embellishing  and chromatic  of a  by p o i n t s  to the  a s c a l e and  i t , o r as compressing  points  of the diatonic  chromatic  as motion  Also,  makes u s e o f o n e o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : tones,  the passage  sections  being  along  i t i s useful  contain  scales,  a l t e r a t i o n s a r e made  the time  sections  which  pitches  of there  as jumping  taken  composition  f o r example,  by a n o t h e r  two d i s t a n t  have  continuum  many  more r e m o t e  these I  be done,  In a  be d e s c r i b e d  its  would  "end".  sections  section. related within  t o the keys o f  sections  be d i a t o n i c  related of highly  chromatic  themselves.  Thus, i n T i l l  s e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e more o r chromatic.  I blend  the  two  p o i n t s on w h i c h r e p r e s e n t I feel  less  various  course  But  this  I would l i k e  study.  t o do  remarks r e g a r d i n g the  reader  sections. musical them  on  will  two the  not  things.  Second, I would l i k e  examples  so  t h a t the  s e c t i o n s from T i l l  during  remainder of t h i s  First,  I would l i k e  as  I discuss  t o g i v e an  reader  the  introduction t o make  e n t i r e tone-poem so  will  explanation  be  that  i t s various  able  of  the  to i n t e r p r e t  properly. I w i s h t o make f o u r p o i n t s a b o u t T i l l ' s  First,  I w i s h t o draw t h e  which i s g i v e n Till,  tone-poem. become  s t r u c t u r e of the  become l o s t  various  far will  f o r the  so  of  less  a continuum,  s e c t i o n s of the  what I have been s a y i n g specific  i s a mixture  d i a t o n i c o r more o r  together  c l e a r e r when I d i s c u s s of  there  and  i n the  i f a t any  Appendix.  time the  s e c t i o n which i s d i s c u s s e d whole tone-poem, he  reader's  a t t e n t i o n t o Example  This  reader  i n the  example  wishes to  t e x t i n the  need m e r e l y c o n s u l t  this  Second, I w i s h t o q u o t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Till.  Although i t i s not  my  structure.  the  30  shows a l l o f see  a  light  specific of  the  example. programme  purpose to d e a l with  Till  of as  g programme m u s i c , matters, will After  I feel  but the  prove h e l p f u l . each adventure  musical  r a t h e r to deal with  f o l l o w i n g synopsis This  o f the  q u o t e m e n t i o n s the  musical  s t o r y of  Till  adventures of  I have w r i t t e n , i n s q u a r e b r a c k e t s ,  example w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s  to that adventure.  quote comes f r o m E r n s t K r a u s ' b i o g r a p h y responds  purely  i n answer t o t h e  question,  -  5  -  of S t r a u s s .  "What happens i n  the  The Kraus the  Till.  story?", a great d e a l , but i t i s no more than a s u c c e s s i o n of pranks and clashes with a u t h o r i t y , whose d e t a i l s are not e s s e n t i a l . A f t e r the s t o r y - t e l l e r Strauss has commenced with h i s "Once upon a time there was buffoon named T i l l E u l e n s p i e g e l , " which has the s i m p l i c i t y of f o l k music, [Example 1] the hero skips i n with h i s impudent p r i n c i p a l motives:- the f i r s t bold and a s s e r t i v e , b r i l l a n t l y conceived f o r solo horn, [Example 2] the second, the r e a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c E u l e n s p i e g e l motif, played c h e e k i l y by the h i g h c l a r i n e t . [Example 5] T i l l a r r i v e s on horseback a t the pot market, where the outcry of the market women above the breaking of pots (cymbals and r a t t l e ) q u i c k l y puts him to f l i g h t . [Example 9] He now amuses h i m s e l f by d r e s s i n g as an unctuous wandering preacher, beneath whose cassock we catch a glimpse of the j e s t e r ' s motley. [Example 11a] T i l l i s i n v o l v e d i n an a f f a i r of g a l l a n t r y . However, h i s ardent wooing ("glowing with l o v e " Strauss wrote above the s t r i n g melody) i s rewarded only by a r e b u f f , which enrages him. [Example 13-15] He vents h i s f u r y on some l e a r n e d men — the "cream of the p h i l i s t i n e s , the p r o f e s s o r s and savants" are d e p i c t e d most " d r i l y " by three bassoons, bass c l a r i n e t and contrabassoon. With a cheeky popular song ... T i l l goes on. [Example 17] But the day of reckoning a r r i v e s , and T i l l sees h i s l a s t hour approaching. He i s captured and dragged before the court of j u s t i c e . When asked whether he pleads g u i l t y , he b o l d l y w h i s t l e s h i s theme i n answer, but then he laments the turn events have taken. [Example 27] The t h r e a t e n i n g trombones announce the v e r d i c t : with the l a s t f l u t e t r i l l the mocker meets h i s f a t e . [Example 27] Then, however, the short epilogue says that T i l l has never died i n the heart of the people. The rogue l i v e s on. [Example 28-29] 9  T h i r d , I would l i k e to remind the reader that much of T i l l c o n s i s t s of a c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i e d  p r e s e n t a t i o n of two b a s i c  themes shown i n Examples 1 and 2.  Of t h i s aspect of T i l l  Olin  Downes remarks that the score i s an epitome of f i n i s h e d and r e s o u r c e f u l workmanship, stemming, as i t does, almost e n t i r e l y from the two themes a s s o c i a t e d with E u l e n s p i e g e l . Of these themes the transformations and developments are extremely i n t e r e s t i n g , whether they are viewed as parts of an organic symphonic s t r u c t u r e or as showing the aspects of^Q a great master to r e v e a l h i s motives in d i f f e r e n t l i g h t s . Fourth, I would l i k e to give my view of the major d i v i s i o n s of T i l l  structural  but w i l l h o l d o f f from doing so u n t i l  -  6  -  I have  presented  some  periodically my  examples  on T i l l ' s  found  t h e most  divisions concern but  tone-poem.  I will  remark  s t r u c t u r e as I p r o g r e s s  have  part  features these  through  part,  harmonic  progression.  progression and thus  simplifications  help  make  t h e example  than  i t otherwise  follows The  smaller  used  be.  notation,  importance.  I n some  the  represented  provided which  elaborated  I call  has been  sketches.  made  each  a further sketch  made.  values, i s structural  i s given  note  they  clearer  i t has been note  or  sketch  of secondary  smaller  used  that  i n the text,  which  a  further  to smaller  by t h e s e  doubling  of a motive  In the Appendix,  and s o n o r i t i e s  cases,  a  I  f o r understanding  described  as opposed  cases  which  the guise  from  Till.  I have  i t was m e r e l y  the sketch  (reduction)  to indicate pitches  material  cases  a point  which  might  t h e example  I n some  unnecessary  from  extra-musically  score.  assuming  mentioned  i t i s n o t my  itself.  reductions  make  from  represents  i t was m a t e r i a l  i n some  of these  earlier,  because  be  t o the programmatic  material  i n shorter  o r because  I have  sketches  the music  will  be  of sections  as I s a i d  material  will  correspond  of the musical  sections  t h e tone-poem  These  what  out musical  another  sections  a l l o f them  which  are reductions  although,  with  examples,  The examples,  these  of T i l l ,  left  basic  the musical  chapter,  to deal  with  written  in  general  i n the Appendix.  the second  For  of  this  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e work. Regarding  in  from  i n which  values i s  removed. I to  mention  various  accompany, i n a c u r s o r y  points way,  -  i n the second  the data  7  -  which  chapter I feel  i n order  the  examples The  provide.  points  made  This  i s the purpose  therein will  last  chapter  as regards  last  chapter  I also explain  come  t o some  conclusions  be more  o f the second  fully  selected sections the f i n a l  about  this  - 8-  discussed from  musical  music.  Till. example  chapter i n the In the and I  Endnotes 1.  Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1970 ed.  2.  I may of course a r b i t r a r i l y set a point as the "boundary" between day and n i g h t , no doubt some point at dusk when i t i s not c l e a r l y day or n i g h t .  3.  This new chromatic c o l l e c t i o n of p i t c h e s may i n c l u d e a l l of the o l d d i a t o n i c p i t c h e s plus the new chromatic ones, or only the o l d d i a t o n i c p i t c h e s which have not been a l t e r e d plus the new chromatic p i t c h e s .  4.  Of course with t h i s broad d e f i n i t i o n of t o n a l i t y I can encompass much music which i s o f t e n not considered t o n a l because i t does not employ t e r t i a n harmony and p e r f e c t and p l a g a l cadences to accentuate, emphasize, or give weight to a major or minor t r i a d which serves as a t o n a l c e n t r e . T y p i c a l l y l a b e l l e d " a t o n a l " , such music may be s a i d to possess a r e s i d u a l t o n a l i t y because i t c o n t a i n s c e r t a i n s o n o r i t i e s which could be completed with others to give a more t r a d i t i o n a l sense of t o n a l i t y , or a r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y , because i t contains s o n o r i t i e s which are repeated so as to give them prominence. " T o g e t h e r , t r a d i t o n a l t o n a l i t y , r e s i d u a l t o n a l i t y , and r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y are a l l means of a c c e n t u a t i n g a p i t c h or group of p i t c h e s or of suggesting such means as used i n an e a r l i e r musical p r a c t i c e . These " k i n d s " of t o n a l i t y f i t together on a continuum at one end of which there i s no t o n a l i t y of any k i n d , f u r t h e r along which there i s r e s i d u a l and r e i t e r a t i v e t o n a l i t y , and at the other end of which there i s the common garden v a r i e t y of t o n a l i t y as c u l t i v a t e d i n the common p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , a t o n a l i t y which "uses as i t s b a s i c m a t e r i a l one of the major or minor s c a l e s and accepts c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the notes of the s c a l e and the chords b u i l t on them ... These r e l a t i o n s h i p s have not remained constant, but the acceptance of the t o n i c chord (the t r i a d on the f i r s t note of the s c a l e ) as the base or centre i s fundamental to the conception of key." This d e f i n i t i o n comes from The New C o l l e g e Encyclopedia of Music, 1960 ed., s.v. "Key."  5.  I might a l s o mention as a part of the conception of t o n a l i t y the f e e l i n g f o r f i n a l i t y which such a cadence gives.  6.  ~~This i s of course q u i t e l o g i c a l seeing as there are only twelve p i t c h e s from which to choose. As seven are already used f o r the s c a l e , only f i v e remain. T h i s means that only f i v e of the o r i g i n a l seven may be changed l e a v i n g two unchanged.  7.  Indeed, when I speak of comparing two s e c t i o n s from the same work I need to view chromaticism on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t encompasses the degree to which a s e c t i o n i s d i a t o n i c or - 9 -  chromatic. The second encompasses the degree to which s e c t i o n s are d i a t o n i c or chromatic i n r e l a t i o n to each other. Although m u s i c a l l y there are two l e v e l s , the p r i n c i p l e of degree of chromaticism i s the same f o r both. 8.  There has been i n my o p i n i o n too much concern placed on the programmatic element i n Strauss' tone-poems and not enough on the purely musical. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n Edward Wright Murphy's t h e s i s , "Harmony and T o n a l i t y i n the Large O r c h e s t r a l Works of Richard S t r a u s s " (Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1963), i n which he writes that "the need f o r t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s based on the l a c k of any d e t a i l e d study p e r t a i n i n g to harmony and t o n a l i t y i n the l a r g e o r c h e s t r a l works o f Richard Strauss. Most s t u d i e s of Strauss' major o r c h e s t r a l works deal almost e x c l u s i v e l y with programmatic elements and make only i n c i d e n t a l reference to any s e r i o u s analytical considerations," pp. 1-2. Although t h i s was w r i t t e n eighteen years ago, I b e l i e v e on the b a s i s of my own r e s e a r c h , ; i t i s . s t i l l t r u e .  9.  Richard Strauss: The Man and h i s Work, t r a n s , by John Coombs (London: C o l l e t ' s (Publishers) L t d . , 1964), pp. 240-241.  10.  Symphonic Masterpieces, (New York: Company, 1943), p. 245.  - 10 -  Tudor P u b l i s h i n g  CHAPTER I I Till From  i t sbeginning  chromaticism. a  main  the  L i k e wine  ingredient  work,  this  filling  the Till-motives  embellish  the p i t c h e s they  these  motives  which  i s heard  not  shown  produces before This  a  short-term  1, h e w r i t e s triad  a n d more  a  a cadence  of B-flat  two A  more  chromaticism  of the f i r s t i s not.  II.  motive  major,  fully  to B-flat  major  - 11 -  mm.  1-2,  of  3.  T i l l -  instead  of t o D.  an e m b e l l i s h than  because  the second  m.  which i s  and C-sharp  i n the music  i s harmonized  Instead,  motive  "embraces"  I i s less  I say t h i s  of  o f F major,  leading-tones  of Till-motive  "generative force"  motive  of F  the chromaticism  half-steps,  of Till-motive  second  triad  chord  to the  second,  by a c a d e n c e  which  using  chromaticism  the  about  1 and  the f i r s t  the  of B-flat  six-four  Exploiting  the chromaticism  than  of  clearly  The harmony o f t h e f i r s t  tonicization  i . e . , two r i s i n g  Thus,  harmonized  i s brought  of Strauss.  However,  sustained tonic  i n the example.  tonic  one,  ment  against a  motives  i n Examples  alterations  precede.  fully  major  use of a l t e r a t i o n s  These  t e r m i n a t i n g on a t o n i c  typical  the  i s more  tonicization  motive  i n their  smacks o f  chromaticism i s  Two  I a n d I I shown  p i t c h e s o f F major.  work  a bottle,  of the composition.  2, a r e o b v i o u s l y c h r o m a t i c diatonic  symphonic  the the  while motive  that  of  contains  chromatic passing tones moving a g a i n s t a s u s t a i n e d t r i a d . T i l l - m o t i v e II i s developed  throughout  mm.  19-39 of  Examples 3 and 4, where i t assumes the guise of two s u b s i d i a r y keys, D and A minor, through which i t passes, o u t l i n i n g r e s p e c t i v e t o n i c t r i a d s i n mm. modulations  21-24 and mm.  26-29.  occur spontaneously and r e q u i r e l i t t l e  their  These chromaticism,  aside from that inherent i n the motive, because the t o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d are not g r e a t l y d i s s i m i l a r to F major.  Indeed  they  are d i a t o n i c r e l a t i v e s of F major. As regards the t o n a l i t y of these measures, I would argue that no key i s u n a l t e r a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a home key. Due i n part to the nature of the T i l l - m o t i v e s q ,  their  chromaticism and the "metric dissonance" of the second, and the harmonic accompaniment of tremolo s t r i n g s , these measures have a " f l e e t i n g " q u a l i t y which i s not subdued u n t i l the cadence i n m. 49 (Example 5). Obviously t h i s cadence makes use of chromaticism. T i l l - c h o r d , used here i n cadencing to the f i r s t of  F major, i s a h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d t e t r a d .  The  inversion  triad  I t makes use of  four l e a d i n g - t o n e s , i . e . , two r i s i n g and two f a l l i n g  half-step  movements, and achieves c l a r i t y a f t e r the " f l e e t i n g n e s s " of the preceding measures. expect i n such a context. a dominant, appears  There i s no p e r f e c t cadence as I would Rather, t h i s chord, which serves as  " i n s i d e " and " o u t s i d e " F:  "outside" i n  that t h i s h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d t e t r a d i s not a d i a t o n i c chord of F major, and " i n s i d e " i n that i t c r e a t e s an e f f e c t i v e  cadence.  I have not ignored an e a r l i e r p e r f e c t cadence i n mm.  12-13 a f t e r the f i r s t appearance of T i l l - m o t i v e I I .  - 12 -  This  motive, i n i t s e l f ,  c l e a r l y o u t l i n e s an F major t r i a d and ends  with a d e f i n i t i v e dominant to t o n i c movement. cadence  immediately  However, because  The p e r f e c t  f o l l o w s t h i s movement, r e i n f o r c i n g i t .  of the modulation to B - f l a t major i n mm.  1-2  and the incompleteness a r i s i n g from the harmony t e r m i n a t i n g on a t o n i c s i x - f o u r chord i n m. 3, because cadence  i n mm.  the p e r f e c t  12-13 (not shown i n . the example) i s o r c h e s t r a t e d  with p i z z i c a t o s t r i n g s and s t a c c a t o brass and woodwinds as i f to enhance i t s " f l e e t i n g n e s s " , and because succeeded  t h i s cadence i s  immediately by a s u s t a i n e d s i x - f o u r chord, I f e e l  my sense of these beginning measures as t e n t a t i v e i n nature is  valid. In any event, the music  comes to an incomplete h a l t i n  m. 39 on the dominant seventh of F major which i s extended through the next few measures.  I say "incomplete"  there i s no t o n i c chord f o l l o w i n g t h i s dominant. cadence  of Example 5 u s i n g the T i l l - c h o r d This cadence  because Rather, the  appears.  d i s p l a y s a chromatic " f l u i d i t y " .  The  T i l l - c h o r d embraces the t o n i c t r i a d as c l o s e l y as i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the equal temperament system, w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e of an octave d i v i d e d i n t o twelve equal p i t c h e s .  What i s of note  i n t h i s chromatic " f l u i d i t y " i s a p e r f e c t l y cogent  tonal  e f f e c t , an a c c e n t u a t i o n of the F major t r i a d without recourse to a C major t r i a d , or the chords formed by adding t h i r d s to i t . This chromatic movement which achieves a sense of key suggests to me that no primacy need be attached to a V-I cadence  over  one which uses the T i l l - c h o r d "• o r , as i n m. 1, an a l t e r e d dominant seventh chord.  I f i t i s important that a sense of key  - 13 -  be e s t a b l i s h e d , a cadence u s i n g the T i l l - c h o r d i s as e f f e c t i v e through i t s chromatic means as a t r a d i t i o n a l p e r f e c t cadence i s through more d i a t o n i c means. Up to the cadence i n m. 49, modulation has been achieved through a " s h i f t i n g " of the music i n t o the new key, i . e . , a d i r e c t move from one key to another f a c i l i t a t e d c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the keys i n v o l v e d .  A f u l l e r chromaticism  accomplishes the r e t u r n to the home key. of T i l l ,  by d i a t o n i c  Throughout the r e s t  a mixture of t r a d i t i o n a l and more unusual types of 2  modulation w i l l become e v i d e n t . Example 6 d i s p l a y s the music i n mm.  49-75.  The F major  chord plus D-sharp forms the German s i x t h chord of A major, the key with which t h i s s e c t i o n begins.  The F major  triad  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a c h r o m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d chord of A major borrowed from i t s p a r a l l e l key, A minor.  The appearance of the  D-sharp produces a chromatic movement away from F major by f l a t t e n i n g i t s leading-tone.  At the same time, the appearance  of D-sharp permits an a c c e n t u a t i o n , by r i s i n g h a l f - s t e p movement, of E, the dominant of the A major passage. In Example 6 there are three key-centres of A major, C-sharp major, and F major. evident i n the cadences.  Chromatic " f l u i d i t y " i s again  Although there i s a dominant to t o n i c  root movement, the chromatic maze which l i e s above t h i s bass, mm.  53-54, y i e l d s a r e c o g n i z a b l e dominant chord, but only  such a chord has been "read i n t o " the passage.  after  Even i f there  i s an u n d e r l y i n g dominant, however, I f e e l i t i s e f f e c t i v e l y denied by the movement o f the p a r t s .  I argue that  this  movement, f i l l i n g up as i t does the a v a i l a b l e musical space and - 14 -  ending on a r e c o g n i z a b l e major t r i a d of A, m.  54, c o h e r e n t l y  organizes the musical sound.  of Example 6a  In the cadences  and 6b, Strauss p r e f e r s to approach  the t o n i c not by i t s  "proper" dominant, although a "proper" dominant can be read i n t o the passage as I have done i n the sketch, but by a T i l l - chord i n the f i r s t case, m. chord b u i l t on the f l a t  54, and a dominant  seventh-type  s u p e r t o n i c , a " N e a p o l i t a n " dominant  seventh, i n the second case, m.  55.  The approach  of a l l the  members of these "dominant" chords to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e notes of  r e s o l u t i o n i s by h a l f - s t e p . There i s almost a chromatic " w i l l f u l n e s s " d i s p l a y e d  i n the way m.  the dominant seventh chord of C-sharp major i n  62 connects with the t o n i c s i x - f o u r of F major i n m.  This i s shown i n Example 6c.  I r e f e r to a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of  keys of t h i s type as "abbreviated t o n a l i t y " . might have been completed a subsequent  63.  C-sharp major  with a r e g u l a r V-I cadence,  with  p r o g r e s s i o n s e t t i n g up the entrance of F major.  However, i t i s as i f t h i s imaginary a d d i t i o n were lopped o f f and the opening C-sharp major fragment  f i x e d to the F major  t o n i c s i x - f o u r with chromatic adhesive tape. In  the F major s e c t i o n of Example 6c, there i s l i t e r a l  chromatic movement between more s t a b l e areas.  There i s  emphasis on the t o n i c and a h i g h l i g h t i n g of other chords through t h e i r placement by r e s t s .  In mm.  on strong beats and t h e i r being f o l l o w e d  63-70, the chromatic movement of the harmony  occurs without c o n f u s i o n because i t emphasizes the t o n i c and dominant chords of F major, and because i t takes place over a pedal which binds e v e r y t h i n g above i t together as a  - 15 -  comprehensible  musical u n i t .  In the sketch of t h i s example, I have i n d i c a t e d  this  pas-sage as an e l a b o r a t i o n of the t o n i c t r i a d and the dominant seventh chord by the i n s e r t i o n of chromatic e m b e l l i s h i n g chords between two  statements of the t o n i c t r i a d and two of the  dominant seventh chord.  In m.  65, I have suggested the  e x i s t e n c e of a "phantom" dominant seventh chord.  Although  there i s a dominant p e d a l , the chord i s not there at t h i s p o i n t , i . e . , f o l l o w i n g the diminished seventh chord i n m.  65,  and yet i t i s a s o n o r i t y i n t o which the diminished seventh chord could e a s i l y r e s o l v e .  The "phantom" dominant seventh 3  does indeed m a t e r i a l i z e , but l a t e r i n m.  67.  More extended use of F major and c l e a r cadences  of a  t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e s t a b l i s h t h i s key i n a c o n v i n c i n g manner i n the s e c t i o n i n t r o d u c e d by t h i s pedal i n Example 6c. the e a r l i e r p e r f e c t cadence, mm. cadence, mm. i n f l u e n c e was  Although  12-13, and the T i l l - c h o r d  -48-49, were c l e a r l y t o n i c i z i n g agents,  their  f e l t only f o r a few measures and I do not a s s i g n  them much k e y - e s t a b l i s h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . stay i n B - f l a t major shown i n m.  Except f o r a short  85 of Example 7,  this  s e c t i o n r e t a i n s F major t o n a l i t y coming to a h a l t on the dominant seventh of t h i s key i n m. Beginning i n m.  96 of Example 8.  97 of Example 8, a s e q u e n t i a l  figure  leads away from F major and e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e s i n A - f l a t major only to be f o l l o w e d by a r e t u r n to F. are mm.  101-105.  The  Particularly  noteworthy  same four-note chord moves f i r s t  major and then, a c t i n g as a T i l l - c h o r d , to F major.  to A - f l a t  What i s  i n t e r e s t i n g i s that two keys are brought together which would - 16 -  not o r d i n a r i l y be considered c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , A - f l a t being l i n k e d to F major "second-hand" through F minor, the p a r a l l e l key, or r e l a t e d through a l e s s "economical" p r o g r e s s i o n . In  the sketch of t h i s example, I have shown the  sequence which leads to A - f l a t major as a s e r i e s of c h r o m a t i c a l l y adjacent chords.  T h i s p a t t e r n of diminished seventh  chords  r e s o l v i n g i n t o dominant seventh chords i s broken with the appearance of a "pure" major t r i a d of A i n m.  99.  Notice  how  Strauss denies the diminished sevenths the r i g h t to t o n i c i z e the chords which f o l l o w them by making these l a t t e r ones dominant sevenths i n s t e a d of t r i a d s .  He p r e f e r s to t o n i c i z e  the A major chord by a f u l l h a l f - s t e p approach  through a  "Neapolitan" dominant seventh r e m i n i s c e n t of Example 6b. Prominence attaches to t h i s " N e a p o l i t a n " dominant seventh because i t i s repeated three times unchanged and a f o u r t h time, i n m.  101, as a minor v a r i a n t of i t s e l f ,  becoming  the d i a t o n i c s u p e r t o n i c seventh of A - f l a t major which appears i n m.  102.  T h i s seventh chord, b u i l t on B - f l a t , can be considered  a s u b s i d i a r y goal of the passage with chromatic e m b e l l i s h i n g chords i n s e r t e d between i t s four appearances. these appearances, to  i n m.  101,  The l a s t of  i s i n t e r e s t i n g because the path  A - f l a t , which c o u l d be paved with the d i a t o n i c gold of  A - f l a t ' s proper dominant n e a t l y f o l l o w i n g i n a p r o g r e s s i o n , i s i n s t e a d completed  ii -V -I 7  7  by a s h o r t e r chromatic route  d i s p l a y i n g another f u l l h a l f - s t e p approach  to a t r i a d .  In the  sketch I have shown these p r o g r e s s i o s n with brackets  beneath.  F major i s e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n e d i n m.  next  105.  The  twenty-six measures stay i n t h i s key beginning with a f u r t h e r  - 17 -  noteworthy cadence i n mm.  109-111.  There i s a p e r f e c t cadence  preceded by an E major t r i a d which i s i n s e r t e d between the t o n i c t r i a d of F major and i t s dominant seventh chord.  It i s clearly  a passing harmony which does no harm to the o v e r a l l movement f i t t i n g i n snugly between two s o n o r i t i e s which i t decorates, the  t o n i c t r i a d and dominant seventh chord of F major. I would l i k e to pause f o r a moment to comment on the  formal s t r u c t u r e of T i l l .  I consider a l l  given so f a r , encompassing mm. section.  of the examples  1-130, to represent one l a r g e  Despite the modulations to keys both d i a t o n i c a l l y  and c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to F major, t h i s l a r g e s e c t i o n i s a formal segment of T i l l  which I place b a s i c a l l y i n F major  because the s e c t i o n begins i n t h i s key and r e t u r n s to i t s e v e r a l times. The s e c t i o n shown i n Example  9 begins i n D minor.  There i s a modulation from F major to D minor which uses motive I, mm.  131-133 of Example  9a.  This motive sounds  against an F sustained i n another p a r t . about through a change i n the way f i r s t appearance, mm. major.  Till-  The modulation comes  t h i s motive ends.  On i t s  1-3, i t o u t l i n e d the t o n i c t r i a d of F  Here i t does the same f o r D minor.  these two keys are v i r t u a l l y the same.  But f o r a C-sharp,  Such immediate  modulation i s f a m i l i a r technique i n the case of a m a j o r - r e l a t i v e minor p a i r .  In t h i s composition s h i f t s of t h i s k i n d occur  between keys that are not so r e l a t e d , s h i f t s i n which there i s more chromatic change i n v o l v e d , as i n the movement from C-sharp to  F major i n Example  6.  This s e c t i o n beginning i n D minor i s continued i n  - 18 -  Example 9b where there i s modulation from D minor through A minor to G minor.  The passage to the dominant n i n t h chord  of A minor, m. 141, i s immediate.  The chord which appears  before t h i s chord i s the German s i x t h of D minor.  I t could  be used, and u s u a l l y i s , to precede i t s own dominant, but i s used here to progress with smooth chromatic p a r t - w r i t i n g to the A minor dominant.  The G minor dominant i s a l s o introduced  v i a chromatic connection, being preceded by the t o n i c seventh of A minor, mm.  148-149.  of p i v o t chords.  What i s notable here i s the avoidance  Even though they are there —  D minor i s  A minor's subdominant, A minor might be thought of as G minor's supertonic t r i a d borrowed from the melodic minor s c a l e — are not e x p l o i t e d .  they  I would suggest that i n s t e a d of d i a t o n i c  p i v o t chords, the s o n o r i t e s used before the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new dominants are those that w i l l best permit chromatic movement to occur.^ I have shown the b a s i c harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n of t h i s passage i n the sketch.  In m. 138, I have omitted the A - n a t u r a l  i n deference to the A - f l a t which I t h i n k i s the stronger presence. I t h i n k there i s an obvious use of e m b e l l i s h i n g chords:  the  major-minor t e t r a d on G between two statements of what would be D minor's German s i x t h , and the diminished-minor t e t r a d between two statements of what would be the t o n i c seventh of A minor.  The German s i x t h mutates i n t o A minor's dominant  the A minor t o n i c seventh mutates i n t o G minor's dominant  ninth, ninth.  I have i n d i c a t e d t h i s more simply i n the second system of the sketch.  Below t h i s , i n the t h i r d system, I have removed both  e m b e l l i s h i n g chords and chords embellished to r e v e a l a "deeper"  structure.  What i s seen here i s a k i n to a sequence of dominant  sevenths r e s o l v i n g i n t o dominant sevenths, namely, a diminished seventh r e s o l v i n g i n t o another which e v e n t u a l l y leads to a proper t o n i c .  If t h i s speculative chordal progression i s  l e g i t i m a t e , i t complements on i t s l e v e l the chromatic  events  of the "foreground".^ There i s now  a modulation from t h i s G minor area to one  of B - f l a t major shown i n Example 10.  T h i s change from minor  to r e l a t i v e major, although not an unusual one i n i t s e l f , i s modified by what a c t u a l l y happens between these two There i s nothing new used so f a r . m.  i n terms of the modulatory  key-areas.  techniques  The necessary dominant of B - f l a t i s i n t r o d u c e d i n  169 preceded by a conglomeration of p i t c h e s which can be  grouped  together so as to form a dominant n i n t h of A major.  However i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d , c h r o m a t i c a l l y cohesive p a r t - w r i t i n g to the dominant of B - f l a t i s obvious.  Once t h i s dominant i s  e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s embellished with a neighbouring chord i n mm.  172-173.  The  Till-type  same T i l l - t y p e chord occurs again,  t h i s time moving to one of C major, the dominant of B - f l a t ' s dominant.  While the p a r t - w r i t i n g f o r t h i s l a t t e r connection  could be smoother than i t i s , the connection can be  regarded  as secured, and the gauche e f f e c t of the p a r t - w r i t i n g as p a r t i a l l y overcome, by chromatic c l o s e n e s s .  This  secondary  dominant moves through a f u r t h e r T i l l - t y p e chord^ on i t s way  to the proper dominant of B - f l a t , engendering  c l o s e chromatic connection. passage,  The  sketch s i m p l i f i e s  a further this  removing melodic f i g u r e s so as to expose the b a s i c  harmony and make i t c l e a r l y  visible.  - 20 -  The B - f l a t s e c t i o n to which t h i s passage leads i s seen i n Examples 11a and l i b .  B - f l a t i s sustained except f o r  a movement to the dominant and subdominant keys i n m. 186 and m. 191, and movement to the major mediant key i n m.  199.  Chromatic harmonizations a r i s e p a r t l y due to the nature of T i l l - m o t i v e I which occurs i n the bass i n mm. the soprano i n mm.  189-191.  Because of the use of t h i s motive,  the modulation to E - f l a t , i n mm. " a l t e r e d " dominant s e v e n t h m. 1.  7  187-189, and i n  190-191, employs the same  as the modulation to B - f l a t i n  In the sketch, the main chords are i n d i c a t e d with stems  up, the chromatic e m b e l l i s h i n g chords with stems down.  Because  the chromaticism of t h i s s e c t i o n does not obscure, but r a t h e r embellishes, d i a t o n i c t r i a d s and the t o n i c t r i a d s of the s u b s i d i a r y key-areas of F and E - f l a t major, I regard t h i s as a diatonic  section.  The D major t r i a d i n m. 199 of Example l i b i s l i n k e d to B - f l a t major t e r r i t o r y through a f i l l i n g of the gap between a demonstrable B - f l a t s o n o r i t y , a G minor t r i a d , and t h i s D major t r i a d .  Although t h i s t r i a d may be regarded as the  dominant of G minor, I p r e f e r to c o n s i d e r i t as a t o n i c because of the manner i n which G minor i s t r e a t e d .  The t r i p l e t movement  t e r m i n a t i n g i n t h i s chord continues u n t i l the D major one i s established.  More prominence i s given t h i s l a t t e r chord through  rhythmic l e n g t h .  A l s o , the tremolo s t r i n g s which s u s t a i n i t ,  h i g h l i g h t i t f u r t h e r , as does the immediate r e t u r n from t h i s D major chord to the surrounding B - f l a t major key-area. r e t u r n i s a " s h i f t i n g down" by a t h i r d back to B - f l a t reminiscent of L i s z t or Wagner.  - 21 -  This  More v a r i e t y of key choice and f u r t h e r chromatic f e a t u r e s are evident i n the next s e c t i o n .  In Example  12, I  show the passage from B - f l a t through C to D - f l a t major. T i l l - t y p e chord progresses from B - f l a t to the t o n i c of A - f l a t major, mm.  205-206.  A  six-four  This T i l l - t y p e chord i s preceded  by a V/IV i n B - f l a t with the IV r e p l a c e d by a chord which c h r o m a t i c a l l y "hugs" the chord to which i t moves.  This  temporary pause i n A - f l a t , which can be read as a chord borrowed from C minor used i n C major, the key of mm.  209-210, can a l s o  be i n t e r p r e t e d as a harbinger of D - f l a t , the key to be extended i n mm.  212-220.  The passage to C major occurs aharmohically.  A solo v i o l i n s l i d e s down a chromatic s c a l e e v e n t u a l l y on the dominant of t h i s key.  settling  This movement i s complemented  by  a f u r t h e r descent to the dominant p i t c h of D - f l a t .  There are  two chromatic elements at work here:  scale  the chromatic  modulating between A - f l a t and C major, mm. and D - f l a t major, mm.  209-211;  207-209, and C major  and the o v e r a l l  chromatic  movement of B - f l a t to A - f l a t to C to D - f l a t major. Example  13 d i s p l a y s the change from the D - f l a t area  to one of G minor passing through an area i n E major.  The  dominant of E major occurs i n m. 221, that of G minor i n m.  227.  As t h i s G minor s e c t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e , r e l a t i v e to the amount of space given other t o n a l i t i e s e a r l i e r i n the p i e c e , I could c o n s i d e r i t as a goal a t t a i n e d i n a l a r g e r movement which began  Q i n the previous B - f l a t major s e c t i o n of Example  11.  Instead of  viewing t h i s passage as a l a r g e r movement between B - f l a t and G minor, I choose to d e s c r i b e i t as an example of the b l e n d i n g of d i a t o n i c and chromatic elements of which I spoke i n the - 22 -  introduction.  B - f l a t major and G minor can serve as the  "edges" of t h i s s e c t i o n and indeed they are r e l a t e d d i a t o n i c a l l y as a m a j o r - r e l a t i v e minor p a i r . chromatic s c a l e as a modulatory d e v i c e , mm.  The use of the 208-210, and the  f i l l i n g of the a v a i l a b l e musical space between a D - f l a t major t r i a d and the dominant seventh of E major, m. 221, and  between  an E major t r i a d and the dominant seventh of G minor, m. c h a r a c t e r i z e the passage seen i n Examples as any other f e a t u r e .  227,  12 and 13 as s t r o n g l y  Indeed, I b e l i e v e such treatment generates  the musical movement and could serve j u s t as w e l l r e g a r d l e s s of the keys so j o i n e d . Example  13.  The sketch i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of  In i t I expose the b a s i c harmonic p r o g r e s s i o n s  of the passage. The G minor s e c t i o n reached i n m. 230 of Example  13  makes use of an exchange between minor and p a r a l l e l major. Example  14 I have represented the melodic m a t e r i a l of t h i s  s e c t i o n so as to d i s p l a y t h i s exchange. simple.  In  The technique i s  Chromaticism does not d i s g u i s e a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d  d i a t o n i c harmonic framework,  that i s u n t i l m. 263 of Example  15.  Here a canonic treatment of a v a r i a n t of T i l l - m o t i v e I occurs.  I cannot place t h i s passage s p e c i f i c a l l y i n any one  key f o r these measures  suggest both F major and D minor.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s s e c t i o n a r i s e s from i t s i m i t a t i v e use of t h i s motive.  The canon once set up could continue f o r a long  time, but f i n a l l y emerges on a B - f l a t t r i a d i n m. 287 of Example  15.  The s e c t i o n contains a s e r i e s of v a r i e d  which cannot be r a t i o n a l i z e d i n s t r i c t l y t o n a l ways.  sonorities A l l the  i n d i v i d u a l chords themselves are of t e r t i a n stock; or b e t t e r ,  - 23 -  they appear to be harmonizations of t h i s motive so as to give " r e a l " chords to each of the p i t c h e s of the motive without these chords forming a t o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  I t i s a k i n d treatment  that I t h i n k demonstrates a c o n t r o l of musical m a t e r i a l which enables Strauss to make the passage i n t e l l i g i b l e even i f f o r a time the passage l o s e s a t o n a l b a s i s . In  the sketch, I show the r e s u l t a n t harmonies of the  p a r t - w r i t i n g beginning i n m.  272.  I have d i v i d e d them i n t o  four groups according to the repeated phrases of the T i l l - m o t i v e v a r i a n t , mm.  272-276, 276-280, 280-284, 284-287.  beneath the f i r s t  I have shown  system the s o n o r i t i e s with which each of  these phrases end.  Although these four chords do not r e a l l y  f o l l o w one another, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n terms of what I have been saying so f a r t h a t , c o n s i d e r i n g the f i n a l B - f l a t major  triad  as the goal of t h i s passage, a l b e i t a temporary one, the three e a r l i e r chords which end each successive phrase could t h i s f o u r t h one.  I show the f i r s t  s e p a r a t e l y i n the lower system.  tonicize  three of these chords  The f i r s t , a diminished seventh  chord, i s the vii^° proper of B - f l a t p a r t - w r i t i n g smoothly i n t o t h i s chord.  The second i s what I e a r l i e r r e f e r r e d to as a  "Neapolitan" dominant  seventh chord.  The t h i r d i s a dominant  seventh-type chord which behaves as i t might i n a deceptive cadence.  The chord which a c t u a l l y precedes the B - f l a t t r i a d i s  a T i l l - t y p e chord. of  I f a l l of t h i s i s seen as a "deeper" s t r u c t u r e  the passage, i t would compare with the "deeper" s t r u c t u r e  a t t r i b u t e d to the passage i n Example 9b, r e v e a l i n g an e x p l o i t a t i o n of  c l o s e chromatic connection i n both. I would l i k e to pause once more to remark on the  - 24 -  formal s t r u c t u r e of T i l l .  I f e e l Examples  9-15 d e l i n e a t e a  f u r t h e r l a r g e r s e c t i o n which v a c i l l a t e s between two keys of G minor and B - f l a t major, and t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t s on the l a t t e r , i n m. 287.  Here, although i t i s not shown i n the example, the  B - f l a t major t r i a d i s o u t l i n e d , mm.  287-288, and there i s a  pause, marked longa i n the score, m. 288, before the music continues on i n t o A minor. s i g n i f i c a n c e of  T h i s pause strengthens the formal  t h i s point i n the music.  The next s e c t i o n , represented i n Examples is,  f o r me, the most i n t e r e s t i n g of a l l .  16 and 17,  The l i n k i n g of t h i s  s e c t i o n with the preceding one i s achieved with the help of the chameleon T i l l - c h o r d , as shown i n Example  16a.  It i s part-  w r i t t e n so that i t becomes the dominant seventh of A minor to whose t o n i c i t moves, although the T i l l - c h o r d i t s e l f could cadence e f f e c t i v e l y on t h i s t o n i c .  A minor continues u n t i l a  short passage i n F-sharp minor i s i n s e r t e d , mm. Example  16b.  modulation  The chord i n m. 303, which b r i n g s about the  from A to F-sharp minor, i s a dominant  which f i t s n e i t h e r key p r e c i s e l y .  a chord which complements f i g u r e i n mm.  299-303.  seventh-type  I t might be considered an  exact h a l f - s t e p lowering of A minor's dominant  chord,  303-307 of  seventh, or  the chord o u t l i n e d by the melodic  T h i s o u t l i n e d chord i s a T i l l - t y p e  (A, C, E - f l a t / D - s h a r p , G), which could move snugly  the dominant seventh-type  into  i n m. 303, E - f l a t / D sharp and G could  be common tones, A and C could move up by h a l f - s t e p to B - f l a t / A-sharp and D - f l a t / C - s h a r p . i s simpler.  The v i i  7 o  /V  The r e t u r n to A minor i n m. 307  i n A minor cadences d i r e c t l y onto the  t o n i c ; i t i s a smooth connection that avoids the dominant harmony.  - 25 -  Beginning i n m. enigmatic as to key.  318 of Example 17, t h i s s e c t i o n becomes  I t culminates on the T i l l - c h o r d of m.  before moving on to an area i n A - f l a t major i n mm. the way  370,  374-376.  On  from A minor to t h i s key, there i s not much t o n a l  certainty.  By t h i s I mean not that the music fails-: to e s t a b l i s h  f u r t h e r important areas w i t h i n these measures, but that these other important areas are not e s t a b l i s h e d through  traditional  cadences. The  sketch of Example 17 i n d i c a t e s major key-areas  of  B minor, D - f l a t major, E minor, B major, and F major on the way  to A - f l a t major.  T h i s i s q u i t e a mixture of keys, and I  wish to d i s p l a y chromatic f e a t u r e s of the cadences keys, none of which i n v o l v e t y p i c a l dominants. to  B minor, m.  thing else.  323,  i n these  The movement  i s e f f e c t e d more by suggestion than any-  There i s no c l e a r t o n i c of B minor given but r a t h e r  a four-note chord c o n t a i n i n g the B minor t r i a d , i . e . , the submediant seventh chord of t h i s key, a T i l l - t y p e chord.  It i s  t h i s that suggests r a t h e r than c o n c l u s i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e s the key-area.  However, the A-sharp  to B movement i n the bass i s  strong enough to a i d t h i s suggestion.  I t i s as i f Strauss  d e s i r e s to h i n t at B minor i n p a s s i n g .  The main p o i n t to be  made here, however, i s the chromatic meandering between keyareas . I f e e l the B minor t o n a l i t y continues up to m. since i t s melodic minor s c a l e i s prominent i n mm.  326  i n the upper v o i c e  323-326: D, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, (A), B - f l a t / A - s h a r p , B.  The dominant seventh of D - f l a t then f i t s  i n snugly with what  can be considered B minor's submediant t r i a d , mm.  - 26 -  326-327.  There i s no D - f l a t t r i a d i n m. seventh.  327 f o l l o w i n g the dominant  The submediant seventh chord, r e m i n i s c e n t of the use  of B minor's  submediant seventh chord i n m.  e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s key-area comprising mm. The next key-area, E minor,  323, appears,  327-334.  i s a t t a i n e d by the  "hugging"  of i t s t o n i c t r i a d by the dominant seventh of D - f l a t , mm. 335.  and  334-  The proper dominant of E minor does indeed occur, but  one s o n o r i t y too soon, m.  333.  Thus, there c o u l d have been a  q u i t e standard approach to the E minor t r i a d , yet Strauss has chosen to e x p l o i t the chromatic space between these two  chords,  i . e . , the dominant seventh of D - f l a t and the t o n i c t r i a d of E. The " i m p o s i t i o n " of another dominant seventh i s a s u b t l e touch. I would suggest that Strauss is, l i b e r a l i n h i s use of means of t o n i c i z a t i o n i n that proper dominants and dominants which can be e x p l o i t e d c h r o m a t i c a l l y are e q u a l l y employed. The r e t u r n to A minor could be e a s i l y accomplished m.  335, E minor being so c l o s e to A minor's  d i r e c t route i s not taken. introduced, m.  from  dominant, but the  Although there i s an E major t r i a d  341, and A minor's  dominant n i n t h , m.  343,  this  does not occur without f u r t h e r chromatic s h i f t s t e m p o r a r i l y moving to other key-areas.  These areas are not  sufficiently  lengthy to become important, but they do c o l o r what happens, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the passage an A - f l a t major chord, mm.  i n which a T i l l - c h o r d progresses to 342-343.  In mm.  344,  there f o l l o w s  a r e t u r n to A minor, where the T i l l - c h o r d i s used to emphasize the t o n i c chord i n mm.  347 and  351.  A momentary glimpse of E - f l a t minor leads to B major i n mm.  353-354; the C - f l a t seventh chord, m.  - 27 -  354, must be read  enharmonically.  This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g movement i n that i t  echoes the e a r l i e r B minor area as i t c o n t r a s t s 9  with the B - f l a t minor t r i a d i n m. 331.  chromatically  There i s a l s o a l i n k 10  with the E minor area as B major i s i t s dominant.  A sequence  now begins i n m. 358 and c a r r i e s the music forward to a G - f l a t major t r i a d , whereupon a quick s u c c e s s i o n of t r i a d s and T i l l type chords f o l l o w s , mm.  363-365, c u l m i n a t i n g i n the T i l l - c h o r d  i t s e l f , m. 370, which proceeds f i r s t A - f l a t major, mm.  371 and 376.  to F major and then to  What i s of note here i s the  seemingly haphazard p r o g r e s s i o n of chords. I r a t i o n a l i z e appearance t h i s way. dominants. f o l l o w them. to  their  The T i l l - t y p e chords serve as s u b s t i t u t e  They serve to t o n i c i z e the minor t r i a d s which I note that these T i l l - t y p e chords could r e s o l v e  major t r i a d s which could then be "proper" dominants of the  minor t r i a d s which are already there i n the music, f o l l o w i n g the  T i l l - t y p e chords.  There i s one exception.  The f i r s t  chord,  m. 365, would have to r e s o l v e as a " p a r t i a l " T i l l - c h o r d to a B major t r i a d , the dominant of the f o l l o w i n g E minor t r i a d . This suppressed meaning, seen i n the sketch, may help e x p l a i n the  appearance of these T i l l - t y p e  chords.  What i s not suppressed i n t h i s s e c t i o n as a whole, mm.  318-374, i s chromatic " f l u i d i t y " .  I need only mention the  p a r t - w r i t i n g e x p l o i t i n g as i t does the a v a i l a b l e musical space, p a r t i c u l a r l y the eighth-note f i g u r e which pervades the passage. The key-areas are mostly e s t a b l i s h e d by a chromatic "hugging" of  t h e i r t o n i c t r i a d s , a procedure which produces the p a t t e r n of  modulations i n the s e c t i o n .  There appears to be two p a t t e r n s of  modulation, one from A minor to B minor to E minor to A minor to - 28 -  B major, and the other from D - f l a t major ( i n c l u d i n g i t s extended submediant area) to A f l a t major.  Both are arguably  d i a t o n i c , i t being p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r the B major area w i t h i n the f i r s t p a t t e r n as a major v a r i a n t of the d i a t o n i c B minor.  The two patterns f i t  together by means of the "hugging"  technique of cadencing which so economically produces movement from one key to another.  This technique a l s o permits the  i n t e r p o l a t i o n of chromatic " a s i d e s " w i t h i n what would be a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d i a t o n i c movement.  For example, i n mm.  342-  343, the A minor dominant i s preceded by what I have i n t e r p r e t e d as a temporary t o n i c i z a t i o n of A - f l a t major by means of i t s Till-chord. enough of i t ,  There i s no pure A - f l a t major t r i a d here, but together with i t s T i l l - c h o r d , to suggest t h i s  tonality. A simpler chromatic change e f f e c t s the movement to the goal of t h i s s e c t i o n , the A - f l a t major areas of mm. not shown i n Example 17.  374-384,  The T i l l - c h o r d which moves to A - f l a t  at the end of t h i s example, can be i n t e r p r e t e d as A - f l a t ' s supertonic seventh chord borrowed from the p a r a l l e l minor.  The  " o f f e n d i n g " F - f l a t from the minor i s r a i s e d a h a l f step, and the new key continues i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d dominant and t o n i c harmony. Example 18 d i s p l a y s the movement from t h i s key to C major.  Although there could be a d i r e c t p r o g r e s s i o n from  A - f l a t to C major, A - f l a t ' s t o n i c moving c h r o m a t i c a l l y to the t o n i c s i x - f o u r of C, t h i s does not happen.  Rather, what would  be a secondary dominant i n C major converts to a T i l l - t y p e b u i l t on F:  chord  (F-sharp, A, C, E - f l a t ) converts to (F, G-sharp,  - 29 -  C - f l a t , E - f l a t ) , as shown i n Example  18a. The tone common to  these two s o n o r i t i e s , E - f l a t , begins a v a r i a n t of T i l l - m o t i v e I i n m. 393 which culminates on an F minor t r i a d i n m. 402 of Example 18b.  The F minor t r i a d becomes the French s i x t h chord  of C major i n m. 406.  This chord i t s e l f becomes the dominant  of C major's dominant and a normal p r o g r e s s i o n f o l l o w s . Although there i s a k e y - r e l a t i o n s h i p between A - f l a t and F minor —  they form a m a j o r - r e l a t i v e minor p a i r —  the T i l l - t y p e  chord  and f u r t h e r chromatic movement e m b e l l i s h and indeed d i s g u i s e  this  r e l a t i o n s h i p , as w e l l as the one between A - f l a t and C major. In the sketch of t h i s passage I show, i n the f i r s t system, the s o n o r i t i e s mentioned above, and i n the second system, a s i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n of the same p r o g r e s s i o n of chords.  What  emerges i s a vii^°/V-V^/V-I ^ p r o g r e s s i o n i n C major c o n t a i n i n g , as an i n t e r p o l a t i o n , the German s i x t h of F minor moving to i t s tonic t r i a d .  I b e l i e v e t h i s C major " s h e l l " serves as an  underlying progression.  I t i s embellished with the F minor  i n t e r p o l a t i o n , the a d d i t i o n of chromatic passing tones, and the melodic fragment i n mm.  403 and 406 of Example  18b.  I say that the s e c t i o n reached i n m. 410 of Example i s i n C major.  18b  What I should say i s that there i s a prolonga-  t i o n of the dominant of t h i s key, the most obvious e x p r e s s i o n of which i s a c o n s i s t e n t l y maintained dominant pedal.  I deny  that C major i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d because when C i s sounded i n mm.  418, 420, and 428, i t i s played down.  two reasons.  I say t h i s f o r  F i r s t , i t i s momentarily sounded by p i z z i c a t o  s t r i n g s on i t s way back to the dominant G;  second, t h i s dominant  i s sustained at these p o i n t s i n another p a r t , as i n m. 418 of  -  30  -  Example  19.  F u r t h e r , when the t o n i c occurs f o r the l a s t time i n  m. 428 of Example the  20, i t i s heard b r i e f l y as the dominant of F,  main goal of the passage.  Thus, I say t h i s passage contains  a p r o l o n g a t i o n of the dominant of the dominant of F. I w i l l pause again to say something about T i l l ' s structure. section.  I c o n s i d e r Example  formal  17 to represent a l a r g e formal  I t i s f o l l o w e d by a f u r t h e r formal s e c t i o n which i s  based i n F major, which begins i n m. 429 of Example which continues u n t i l the end of T i l l .  20, and  Although there are  modulations away from F major, i n p a r t i c u l a r one to F minor i n Example  27, F major recurs f r e q u e n t l y .  exception of Example through Example i.e.,  F u r t h e r , with the  27, a l l the examples from Example  29 do not represent "programmatic  s e c t i o n s d e p i c t i n g an adventure from T i l l ' s  Rather, t h i s f i n a l formal s e c t i o n , mm. r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i n mm.  20  sections", story.  429-657, c o n t a i n s a  465-484 of m a t e r i a l from e a r l i e r i n the  tone-poem, as w e l l as a s u b s t a n t i a l s e c t i o n i n F major f o l l o w i n g this recapitulation. of  Till.  This key occurs a f i n a l time at the end  I s h a l l now d i s c u s s these remaining examples. A f t e r the pause i n F major i n i t i a t e d by the cadence i n  mm.  428-429 of Example  20, where there i s a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of  T i l l - m o t i v e I I , a s h i f t i n t o D major occurs i n mm.  435-436.  A  f u r t h e r s h i f t occurs i n m. 442, where the chromatic space between D major and B - f l a t major i s f i l l e d  i n . Then a v a r i a n t of T i l l -  motive I leads to a s e r i e s of pedals which descend c h r o m a t i c a l l y from F major through E major, E - f l a t major, and D major to a chord of D - f l a t major, which proceeds to the t o n i c of  F major i n m. 465 of Example  21.  - 31 -  six-four  In s h o r t , these key-areas  are i n s e r t e d between the two statements of F major i n mm. and 465.  449  There i s f u r t h e r evidence i n t h i s passage of  Strauss' use of c l o s e chromatic connection to b i n d h i s music together.  In the sketch, I represent the chord p r o g r e s s i o n s  i n t h i s passage figure,  simply, without the accompanying melodic  which i s a v a r i a n t of T i l l - m o t i v e I I .  This sketch  might be reduced f u r t h e r to three t o n i c s i x - f o u r chords of F, E - f l a t , and D - f l a t major,  the l a s t two of which are  preceded by t h e i r German s i x t h chords.  What i s a l s o d i s p l a y e d  here are two chromatic "streams", one r i s i n g , the other f a l l i n g . The F major s e c t i o n a t t a i n e d i n m. 465 of Example 21 uses m a t e r i a l heard e a r l i e r i n Example 6c. time i n T i l l  This i s the  that such a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n takes p l a c e .  r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s extended i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner.  first  This  diatonic  This i s the l a r g e s t s e c t i o n i n F major i n the e n t i r e  tone-poem. I have not shown a l l of t h i s s e c t i o n i n Example 22, but the main melodic m a t e r i a l , played by the French horns,  which  moves through a d i a t o n i c key-scheme from F major to B - f l a t major, and back to F, i s presented. A f t e r t h i s " o a s i s " i n F major, there i s a r e t u r n to f u r t h e r f l u c t u a t i o n of key-area beginning i n m.  514 of Example  23, where there i s a p a t t e r n of modulation from B - f l a t major through a s e r i e s of keys, which prepares another r e t u r n to F i n m.  544 of Example 24.  B - f l a t ' s mediant  t r i a d moves to  D - f l a t u s i n g as a p i v o t the German s i x t h chord of t h i s key, a l s o the former's dominant seventh.  latter  A simple t o n i c -  dominant p r o g r e s s i o n b r i n g s about the movement from D - f l a t to E major shown i n mm.  526-528 of Example 24.  - 32 -  What appears to  be a s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s i o n to G major i s changed by a chromatic movement a r i s i n g out of G major's dominant seventh. mm.  In  529-530, t h i s dominant seventh passes to an F-sharp major  chord, seeming to prepare, a f t e r the l a t t e r chord changes to an A major chord, the f u r t h e r I-V-I movement i n A which i s i n i t i a t e d i n m. 530 but which terminates d e c e p t i v e l y i n m. 532.  Starting  i n m. 532, the vii^° of B minor, c a r r i e d along by a bass f i g u r e , moves through B - f l a t major, D - f l a t major, and D major. The same diminished seventh chord e f f e c t s these modulations and, i n m. 540, the other two diminished chords which the twelve tones of the chromatic s c a l e can produce f o l l o w i n sequence and culminate i n an A major t r i a d i n m. 544.  This A major chord  then moves to the t o n i c s i x - f o u r of F major, and the r e t u r n to t h i s key i s accomplished i n m. 544. I have s i m p l i f i e d t h i s example i n the sketch.  Again,  a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d i a t o n i c movement from B - f l a t to F major i s "clouded" with the l a r g e sweep of i n t e r v e n i n g keys.  What  appears i s a r i s i n g by t h i r d s from one key to another, B - f l a t to D - f l a t to E to G, and F-sharp to A, followed by a l i n k i n g of the c h r o m a t i c a l l y c l o s e t o n a l i t i e s of B minor, B - f l a t major, D - f l a t major, and D major, through the same diminished seventh chord.  L i t e r a l chromatic movement then j o i n s the two remaining  t o n a l i t i e s of A and F major. However, the r e t u r n to F major does not l a s t  long.  A f t e r a pause on the secondary dominant n i n t h chord of t h i s key, shown i n Example 25, a second canonic treatment of a v a r i a n t of T i l l - m o t i v e I occurs, shown i n Example 26. sound e v e n t u a l l y c l a r i f i e s i t s e l f  A mass of  i n D major i n m. 567.  - 33 -  The  melody i s harmonized i n t e r t i a n terms, but these harmonies to  make a t o n a l scheme.  fail  I hear a " b l u r " of sound notable f o r  i t s rhytmic a s s e r t i v e n e s s and the p a r a l l e l i t forms with the e a r l i e r canonic s e c t i o n shown i n Example  15.  Two demonstrably  t o n a l areas, F and D major, are l i n k e d by f i l l i n g the i n t e r vening space with a v a i l a b l e p i t c h e s .  I t i s as i f t o n a l i t y i s  suspended, while musical c o n t r o l i s maintained with  familiar  m a t e r i a l , the v a r i a n t of T i l l - m o t i v e I, connecting these two tonalities. In  the sketch, I have p o s i t e d the e x i s t e n c e of c e r t a i n  e m b e l l i s h i n g chords moving to more s t a b l e chords.  The  stable  ones are shown with stems up, the others with stems down. There i s a r e s u l t a n t f e e l i n g , at l e a s t " t h e o r e t i c a l l y " , of D - f i a t major up to m. 564. its  This f i t s  i n w e l l with D-major,  t r i a d appearing i n m. 567, because D major and D - f l a t  major are a h a l f - s t e p apart, and represent the s o r t of key r e l a t i o n s h i p Strauss would  exploit.  One key, D major, now a b r u p t l y ends, and a new  one,  11 F minor, begins. Example its to  An extended s e c t i o n i n F minor, shown i n  27, i s accompanied by the T i l l - c h o r d . The l a t t e r shows  flexibility,  moving f i r s t  A major i n m. 593.  to F major i n m.  584, and then  F minor i s the main key here.  The  few measures u s i n g the T i l l - c h o r d do not become predominant because they are i n s e r t e d between l a r g e r segments  i n F minor.  These F minor segments a l s o g a i n prominence through t h e i r dynamic and t e x t u r a l strength as compared with the i n t e r p o l a t i o n u s i n g the T i l l - c h o r d . Successive waves of F minor terminate.: on d i f f e r e n t - 34 -  chords, the submediant t r i a d i n m. and the mediant t r i a d i n m.  604.  589, the v i i This  / 0  /V  i n m.  600,  l a s t chord sets o f f  a recurrence of an e a r l i e r chromatic f i g u r e from Example l i b . This m.  f i g u r e flows smoothly  i n t o a C - f l a t major chord i n  608, which i s immediately  of F minor.  supplanted by the dominant  seventh  E x p l o i t a t i o n of the c l o s e chromatic connection  between two  s o n o r i t i e s such as these i s by now  a familiar  occurrence i n T i l l . As i t moves to F major, t h i s F minor s e c t i o n cadential  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of T i l l  clearly.  The F major t r i a d i n m.  established as by now  by S t r a u s s i a n  may  means.  where they can be  illustrates  seen  624 of Example 27 i s e f f e c t i v e l y The T i l l - c h o r d appears  be expected, embraces the t o n i c t r i a d .  and,  At the  same time, there i s a descent of a major seventh i n the bass. This movement s e t t l e s t e m p o r a r i l y on G - f l a t , and l a t e r f a l l s F.  to  The p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p of F minor to F major i s chromatic  in i t s e l f ;  i n addition,  the l a t t e r key i s a t t a i n e d  by  further  chromatic agents, the T i l l - c h o r d and the F to G - f l a t to F movement i n the bass. This  final  s e c t i o n of the tone-poem continues i n k i n d .  There i s a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the f i r s t measure of T i l l , on t h i s o c c a s i o n the passage  continues, rather  but  than ending on  a t o n i c s i x - f o u r , and reaches the t o n i c through a p e r f e c t cadence  i n mm.  635-636 of Example 28.  appears twice i n a row,  The T i l l - c h o r d then  a f t e r which, i n mm.  640-641, the  v i i / /V i n F major i s used to modulate to A - f l a t major.  This  chord i s a T i l l - t y p e chord which, i f transformed i n t o a diminished seventh chord, can become a proper secondary dominant i n A - f l a t , - 35 -  the v i i  / 0  /V.  T h i s does not take p l a c e .  Instead a q u i c k e r ,  more " e x o t i c " change, one which i s l e s s roundabout, i s used. The r e t u r n to F major through the d i a t o n i c a l l y r e l a t e d key of G minor occurs with smooth p a r t - w r i t i n g .  The diminished  seventh of G minor i s f o l l o w e d by a G minor t r i a d which i s followed i n t u r n by F major's vii^°/V.  The l a t t e r then moves  g r a c e f u l l y to the t o n i c s i x - f o u r of F s e t t i n g up the p e r f e c t cadence i n mm.  643-644.  I have removed most of the music i n between the major cadences  of t h i s s e c t i o n i n the sketch r e v e a l i n g a d i a t o n i c  "skeleton".  However, the modulation to A - f l a t  shows t h a t , with  Strauss, a chromatic " f l i g h t of fancy" i s never very f a r from the mind even i n what i s f o r the most part a d i a t o n i c The home key i s now  maintained u n t i l the end.  T i l l - c h o r d and r e l a t i v e s of i t serve to produce cadences. of  The  Example 29.  first The  passage. The  the f i n a l  three  i s a T i l l - c h o r d cadence proper i n m. second uses an a l t e r e d T i l l - c h o r d  D-natural i n s t e a d of D - f l a t and with C added.  The  654  with  third  uses  the German s i x t h of F major which moves d i r e c t l y to the t o n i c . It  i s notable that here at the end of T i l l ,  expect a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d dominant-tonic  where I would  cadence,  there i s  i n s t e a d cadence a f t e r cadence u s i n g these v a r i a n t s of the chord.  Such chromatic treatment  Till-  i s of course c o n s i s t e n t with  what Strauss has w r i t t e n throughout  - 36 -  the e n t i r e tone-poem.  Endnotes 1.  The T i l l - c h o r d does not occur " n a t u r a l l y " i n F major. D i a t o n i c a l l y speaking, the only h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d t e t r a d of a major key i s on the l e a d i n g - t o n e , i . e . , the v i i . In the p a r a l l e l minor key, F minor, the only such t e t r a d s are the i i 7 o and, assuming the melodic minor s c a l e , the vi7o chord. However, the T i l l - c h o r d might be admitted to F major through a roundabout route. I t i s the i i 7 o of A - f l a t minor which i s the p a r a l l e l minor of A - f l a t major; A - f l a t major i s the r e l a t i v e major of F minor, which i s the p a r a l l e l minor of F major.  2.  Although not d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with modulation, the f o l l o w i n g two quotes r e v e a l some of the d i v e r s i t y i n Strauss' music as seen by other w r i t e r s , a d i v e r s i t y which mixes t r a d i t i o n a l and more unusual elements. Hugo W i e s g a l l , D i c t i o n a r y of Contemporary Music, 1974 ed., s.v. " S t r a u s s , R i c h a r d , " w r i t e s that there i s a c o n f u s i o n of harmonic c l a r i t y which Strauss produces through " m u l t i p l e suspensions, f r e e s h i f t i n g t r i a d s and seventh chords, delays i n r e s o l u t i o n of harmonic and melodic dissonances, enharmonic changes, frequent major-minor combinations, and, perhaps most d i s c o n c e r t i n g of a l l , the abrupt breaking of ideas followed by t o t a l l y new m a t e r i a l . " But he continues by suggesting that "the use of these harmonic f e a t u r e s i s always e x c e p t i o n a l , however, and u s u a l l y leads back to more normal s e c t i o n s where e v e r y t h i n g becomes s o l i d and c l e a r . " A l s o , Adolf Weissmann says i n The Problems of Modern Music, trans, by M.M. Bazmann (New York: J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1925), p. 131, that "harmony wanders f a r i n the course of developing the motive, but never forsakes the b a s i s of tonality."  3.  There are two complementary phrases here i n mm. 63-65 and mm. 65-67. I f the melodic span of the f i r s t , a t r i t o n e from A to E - f l a t , were matched by a t r i t o n e i n the second span, E - n a t u r a l , i n s t e a d of E - f l a t , to B - f l a t , the E - n a t u r a l would probably be harmonized by t h i s "phantom" dominant. I owe t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n to my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. W i l l i a m Benjamin.  4.  Indeed, the A minor t o n i c seventh chord c o u l d , as i s , be considered a p i v o t chord. I simply wish to emphasize the c l o s e chromatic connection of t h i s chord to the dominant which f o l l o w s i t .  5.  When I make a sketch, such as the present one, sometimes a great deal of the o r i g i n a l musical material has been removed. What remains, the reader must understand, i s a view of the passage biased by what I myself hear, as w e l l as by what I want the passage to d i s p l a y .  - 37 -  6.  A T i l l - t y p e chord i s simply a diminished-minor t e t r a d . It becomes a T i l l - c h o r d when i t r e s o l v e s l i k e one, i . e . , when i t r e s o l v e s to a f i r s t i n v e r s i o n major or minor t r i a d . Thus, a T i l l - c h o r d i s always a T i l l - t y p e chord, but a T i l l - t y p e chord i s not always a T i l l - c h o r d . To make t h i s c l e a r , I have given a musical example on the next page i n which, except f o r the two T i l l - c h o r d s , one r e s o l v i n g to an F major t r i a d the other to a D major one, a l l t e t r a d s are T i l l - t y p e chords.  7.  This " a l t e r e d " dominant seventh could a l s o be the dominant t h i r t e e n t h of E - f l a t , or, i n m. 1, of B - f l a t , which has been borrowed from the p a r a l l e l minor key. This would e x p l a i n the appearance of the f l a t t e n e d t h i r d degree of the s c a l e represented enharmonically as the second degree r a i s e d a h a l f - s t e p : G - f l a t / F - s h a r p and D-flat/C-sharp.  8.  I f I were i n t e r e s t e d i n an account of the passage on a higher s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l , I could note that the r o o t s of the t o n i c s of the keys s u s t a i n e d f o r the longest p e r i o d of time, B - f l a t , D - f l a t , E, and G, d u r i n g the course of t h i s movement from B - f l a t major to G minor i n Examples l l a - 1 3 , s p e l l out a diminished seventh chord. This chord c o u l d serve both as an e m b e l l i s h i n g one to a B - f l a t t r i a d , and as a secondary dominant, v i i 7 o / V , to the key of G minor. F u r t h e r , t h i s same diminished seventh chord serves to e m b e l l i s h two statements of both a D - f l a t and an E major t r i a d i n mm. 220-221 and i n mm. 226-227 of Example 13.  9.  Measures 329-331 c o u l d be considered an e x t e n s i o n of the submediant t r i a d . The f i r s t two of these measures could be read as an e m b e l l i s h i n g diminished seventh chord moving to the B - f l a t minor t r i a d with which i t has two tones i n common, i . e . B - f l a t and D - f l a t .  10. 11.  *-This passage i n mm. 354-358 might a l t e r n a t e l y be as i n E minor with i t s t o n i c t r i a d suppressed. See my  remarks on "abbreviated t o n a l i t y " , p.  - 38 -  15.  seen  59/UpfcMi M M k Carp HoU> mM C*1i'  CHAPTER I I I General Remarks and C o n c l u s i o n Now that I have spent some time a n a l y z i n g T i l l  section  by s e c t i o n , I would l i k e t o remark on some o f i t s s e c t i o n s once more, but i n general terms, as regards the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum and other p o i n t s mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  Then,  I would l i k e to present the l a s t example, r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l of Till,  which i l l u s t r a t e s much o f what I have been saying about  t h i s music.  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to make some general  remarks on S t r a u s s . I s a i d i n the f i r s t in T i l l  chapter that there were no s e c t i o n s  which were p u r e l y d i a t o n i c .  I said that,  instead,  there were s e c t i o n s which made use of chromatic p a s s i n g tones, 1 chromatic e m b e l l i s h i n g chords, and chromatic dominants.  I  s t a t e d f u r t h e r that these chromatic dominants served to e s t a b l i s h keys both d i a t o n i c a l l y and c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the main key, as w e l l as to e s t a b l i s h the main key. Now that the reader i s more f a m i l i a r with T i l l ,  l e t me r e l a t e  general remarks to a s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n , the f i r s t  these  one, seen i n  Example 1 - 5 . The T i l l - m o t i v e s , i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , both c o n t a i n chromatic p a s s i n g tones, B and C-sharp i n the f i r s t of these motives, G-sharp and B i n the second.  There a r e no  chromatic e m b e l l i s h i n g chords i n t h i s passage.  - 40 -  However,  the harmony i n m.  38 of Example 4, which supports an extension  of T i l l - m o t i v e I I , f u n c t i o n s lead up to the dominant chromatic " a n a c r u s i s " of the next example  as embellishment s e r v i n g to  seventh of F major i n m.  as i t were.  39 —  a  The T i l l - c h o r d i n m.  47  i s an obvious chromatic dominant, which  serves to e s t a b l i s h the key c l e a r l y . This  s e c t i o n begins t e n t a t i v e l y i n F major.  " t e n t a t i v e l y " because the f i r s t I t i s not u n t i l m.  I say  cadence i s to B - f l a t major.  12 that there i s a c l e a r cadence i n F major,  the key which, with the a i d of the T i l l - c h o r d , ends the s e c t i o n i n m. 49.  Since t h i s key i s r e i n f o r c e d l a t e r i n the passage,  a f t e r the B - f l a t cadence, e s p e c i a l l y i n mm.  30-39 of Example 4,  and because two of F major's d i a t o n i c r e l a t i v e s , D and A minor, appear i n mm.  21-23  and mm.  26-28 r e s p e c t i v e l y , I t h i n k F major 2  i s the main t o n a l i t y of the s e c t i o n . elements i n these measures,  Despite the chromatic  I would say that t h i s i s a  d i a t o n i c s e c t i o n , since these elements enhance, r a t h e r  than  obscure, F major and i t s d i a t o n i c r e l a t i v e s . Because of these elements of t h i s opening s e c t i o n , I would s e l e c t a point near, but not too near, the d i a t o n i c of the continuum to represent the s e c t i o n . near", because there are  still  I say "not too  chromatic elements i n the s e c t i o n ,  even though t h e i r use does not destroy the d i a t o n i c i s m passage.  "end"  of the  However, suppose I view the same s e c t i o n , composed  from the same group of d i a t o n i c and chromatic p i t c h e s , another p e r s p e c t i v e perspective  from  on the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c c o n t i n u u m , the  of "background" s t r u c t u r e s .  I could  reduce the  s e c t i o n to such a s t r u c t u r e h i g h l i g h t i n g the main and the - 41 -  s u b s i d i a r y keys. r e l a t e d keys.  The  r e s u l t would be a s e r i e s of d i a t o n i c a l l y  I f I wished to place  t h i s "background"  s t r u c t u r e on the continuum, I would d e f i n i t e l y represent i t by 3  a point at the d i a t o n i c "end". Let me  view the  another p e r s p e c t i v e  on the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c  c a d e n t i a l treatment. i n mm. be  same s e c t i o n again, but  Without i g n o r i n g  seen i n Example 30,  I believe  s e c t i o n are those of mm. mm.  47-49.  1-2,  the  mm.  still  continuum  the V-I  11-12, or the p e r f e c t cadence i n mm.  from  —  bass movement  12-13, which  can  stronger cadences^ of  the  38-39 (a h a l f cadence),  and  I f I were to represent the whole s e c t i o n by a p o i n t  on the continuum i n terms of c a d e n t i a l s e l e c t a point  treatment, I would  f u r t h e r along than the previous  two  points,  c l o s e r to the chromatic "end". There i s no s e c t i o n by the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n here i n r e p r e s e n t i n g  three d i f f e r e n t points  same continuum admitting  three cases, but diatonicism  on the  i t i s seen from the p e r s p e c t i v e s  Let me  s e c t i o n , or that of  i l l u s t r a t e what I am  the of  cadential  saying  with an analogy.  I f i t i s seen under a  microscope, whatever the p i c t u r e may i s replaced  It i s  section.  Imagine a p i c t u r e from a magazine.  and  of  or chromaticism of the e n t i r e passage, that  treatment i n the  On  same continuum.  of degrees of chromaticism i n a l l  the p i t c h c o l l e c t i o n used i n the  and  the same  have been, i t disappears  by a c o l l e c t i o n of what seem c o l o r e d  dots.  the other hand, i f the p i c t u r e i s attached to a w a l l seen from a great  replaced  by a few  distance,  i t w i l l disappear again and  vague patches of c o l o r , or indeed by one - 42  -  be patch.  The  " r e a l " p i c t u r e e x i s t s as an idea i n the mind, as a mental  "constant",  while the status of the p i c t u r e ' s  manifestation  depends on the p e r s p e c t i v e  seen, i . e . , from an unusually  itself and  from which i t i s  great d i s t a n c e ,  d i s t a n c e , or from an unusually  "current"  from a usual  small d i s t a n c e .  i s the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c  The p i c t u r e  continuum i n t h i s analogy,  the three p o i n t s d i s t a n t from i t are the musical  perspectives  from which the continuum can be viewed. I s a i d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n that there are a l s o in  Till  sections  which c o n t a i n s u b s i d i a r y keys c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to  the main key of the s e c t i o n . ^  Let me i l l u s t r a t e t h i s  point,  and  l e t me r e c a p i t u l a t e what I. have s a i d thus f a r , by comparing  two  s e c t i o n s from T i l l ,  the s e c t i o n represented  Example 11a, and that represented  i n part i n  i n Example 28.  The f i r s t  begins i n B - f l a t major and moves to F major i n m. 186, and to E - f l a t major i n m. 191, r e t u r n i n g to the main key i n m. 194. The  second s e c t i o n contains  a modulation to a s u b s i d i a r y key  c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to i t s surroundings, a modulation from F major i n m. 639 to A - f l a t major i n m. 641. If  I consider  the p i t c h m a t e r i a l of each s e c t i o n , since  both use a l l twelve p i t c h e s of the chromatic s c a l e , be represented  they would  by the same point at the chromatic "end" of the  continuum, as opposed, f o r example, to a passage u s i n g  only  the seven d i a t o n i c p i t c h e s , which would be represented  at the  other "end".  I f I choose t o consider  the c a d e n t i a l treatment  used i n each s e c t i o n , they are again represented point on the continuum.  by the same  Both s e c t i o n s e x p l o i t c l o s e chromatic  - 43 -  connection in  a t cadences.  188-191;  mm.  i n t h e second,  Till-chord  appears,  modulatory  pattern that  established because the  within  views  o f them them.  primary.  Each  to A-flat  o f t h e same  In within  No s i n g l e  which  without  that  this  a doubt,  to their  with  these  neighbours.  mm.  327-334, f o r e x a m p l e ,  and  i nparticular,  Also,  this  which  begins  Example  D-flat i n m.  example  section 335.  which  I  to the others fixed  while  as an u n d e r l y i n g  there  related  Example  17.  to the surrounding highly  The whole  chromatic. key-areas  are sections  Regarding areoften  The D - f l a t  major  submediant  part,  thecadential  on both  section i n  triad  treatment  or diatonic counts,  section,  i n m. 326. i n E minor  Example  t h e passage  chromatic  section  chromatically  i s f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n  i . e . , whether  chromatic.  the key-areas  by a B minor  I f I c o n s i d e r whether  chromatic  chromatic  that  i s preceded  17 i s , f o r t h e m o s t  part,  I said  by B minor's  or diatonic,  c o n s i d e r whether most  differing  be c o n s i d e r e d  a r e i n themselves  highly  i t as s e c t i o n s ,  chromatic  remains  arechromatically  and others  is,  related  Thus,  c a n produce  p e r s p e c t i v e need  the introduction  me i l l u s t r a t e  the  two s e c t i o n s  t h e keys  t h e second,  i s chromatic.  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e  Let  within  from  concept.  Till  sections,  section  i sdiatonic,  major,  particularly  I f I consider the  i n both  d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum  referential  I  640-644.  the f i r s t  occurs  637 a n d m. 639, w h e r e t h e  i n m.  results  them,  this  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e from  consider  the  a n d i n mm.  o f t h e move  comparison  In the f i r s t ,  shown i n  or diatonic, within  dominants,  and i f  i t uses, f o r  I may j u d g e t h e  a n d I may r e p r e s e n t  - 44 -  17 i s  i t on  the  d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum, by a point near the chromatic  "end". Because I f i n d such d i v e r s i t y between the poles of d i a t o n i c i s m and chromaticism i n T i l l ,  I invent the continuum  I have been u s i n g i n order to account f o r the music.  I cannot  p o s i t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h any p a r t i c u l a r element or group of elements as the epitome of T i l l , all  and so I attempt to encompass  the elements I observe by viewing them i n terms of the  d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c continuum.  Various p o s s i b l e views of i t  vary the s i g n i f i c a n c e which any p a r t i c u l a r element or group of  elements may take on. Speaking of the whole of T i l l  musical example. hear i t .  This example  brings me to the l a s t  represents the tone-poem as I  I have, n e c e s s a r i l y , removed a great deal of the  original.  What remains i s o b v i o u s l y biased i n favor of what  I want i t t o d i s p l a y . l i k e n e s s of T i l l  But I nonetheless b e l i e v e i t i s a f a i r  i n "miniature"; i t does indeed sound  like  Strauss. Let Example 30.  me f i r s t make some t e c h n i c a l remarks about I d i s p l a y the keys e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the  tone-poem with the cadences which e s t a b l i s h them.  These  cadences are i n d i c a t e d a m e t r i c a l l y , and the t o n i c s of these cadences may represent a key which covers a long span of time, or  only a short one.  I f the s e c t i o n i n the key represented by  these t o n i c s i s d i a t o n i c or embellished by chromaticism, but in  a way which does not r a d i c a l l y a l t e r i t s d i a t o n i c nature,  then I have i n d i c a t e d the s e c t i o n by a s i n g l e t o n i c chord, e.g., the  F major t r i a d i n m. 75 of Example 6c.  - 45 -  In square b r a c k e t s ,  directly is  following  within  this  Also,  example o f  to d i s p l a y .  chromaticism,  triad,  I have shown a c a d e n c e  diatonic section.  b e c a u s e i t i s an Example 30  this  I include  chromaticism  I include  indicated in this  I show, i n s q u a r e b r a c k e t s ,  importance, reader  between two  the  throughout  material  sections.  motive of T i l l ,  the  example, o r  the  Where i t i s an  material  as  The  examples f r o m w h i c h t h e  lines  represent  joined,  B-flat,  pitch  no  accidentals an  continuum.  I think  are  carry  t o use  given  or chromatic,  quoted.  Slanted so  reader  successions.  in  Except  example.  If a  not  this  final  wish to  glance at  the  notion  say  that  the  diatonic-chromatic  i s primary  diatonic  argue t h a t h a l f - s t e p a l t e r a t i o n of a p i t c h or of  a group  of  the  one  diatonicism  hand",  that  to  of  to  i n varying  say  i t reveals  of a  Till  a means  I wish  On  f o r I wish to  example as  i t i s both.  pitches,  7  indicated  to a i d the  through the  even a q u i c k  I have b r o u g h t up I do  partly  in  accidental, i t is natural.  I would l i k e summing up.  i s written  shown b e n e a t h .  cadences which occur i n quick  i s without  r e a d e r why  staff  the  or  c h r o m a t i c movement between p i t c h e s  s l u r s above the  separating for  full  secondary  tissue"  theme  i s taken are  measure numbers a r e  example.  a guide to  important  p r o p e r meter, a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y o n l y  staff;  the  "connective  its  above the  of  which i s of  i n square b r a c k e t s  material  I want  samples  e i t h e r themes o r m o t i v e s g i v e n  in following  cadence  in T i l l  several  way,  this  which  degrees, i s a "guiding such a l t e r a t i o n can  o f a p a s s a g e , e.g.,  accord  Examples  hand, e x p l o i t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y and  - 46  1 to  to a high  -  f o r c e " of with 5;  on  degree,  this  music.  the the such  other  a l t e r a t i o n can dominate a passage, e.g.,  Example 17.  types of a l t e r a t i o n are e q u a l l y S t r a u s s i a n , both are  Both equally  determinants of the music that r e s u l t s from t h e i r use And  in T i l l .  to deal with these types of a l t e r a t i o n i n the work, I have  summoned the d i a t o n i c - c h r o m a t i c It  continuum to my  w i l l be r e c a l l e d that one  way  aid.  I choose to view  t h i s continuum i s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t o n a l i t y as I have d e f i n e d i t , i . e . , as the a c c e n t u a t i o n  of a p i t c h or of a group  of p i t c h e s forming a major or minor t r i a d , an which i n v o l v e s a h a l f - s t e p approach to one pitches.  I t h i n k I can now  t h i s manner. In T i l l  say why  accentuation  or s e v e r a l of these  I have d e f i n e d t o n a l i t y i n  there i s such a c c e n t u a t i o n  of a p i t c h or  of a group of p i t c h e s ; the f i r s t of the accentuations form of chromatic passing  tones,  v a r i o u s types of cadences.  i s i n the  the second i s i n the form of  These cadences i n c l u d e the  simple  t o n i c to dominant type with i t s s i n g l e h a l f - s t e p movement, as in  mm.  12-13  or i n mm.  193-194, as w e l l as the more chromatic  types, found, f o r example, i n mm. mm.  334-335.  I have had  1-2,  mm.  because of t h i s c a d e n t i a l d i v e r s i t y .  one  to "kinds" of t o n a l i t y : considers  not occur  in  to mention h a l f - s t e p movement to  or to s e v e r a l of the p i t c h e s of the chord  me  47-49, and  to be  one  accentuated,  This d i v e r s i t y has  led  the purely d i a t o n i c k i n d , which, i f  the whole of a passage i n t h i s t o n a l i t y , does  in T i l l ;  the k i n d which i s f o r the most part d i a t o n i c ,  but not without some chromaticism, which can best be Examples 11a and  28;  seen i n  or, the k i n d which i s f o r the most part  chromatic, and which can best be seen i n Example 17, and which, over a smaller span of time, Example 8 i s a l s o  - 47  -  of  representative.  The  diatonic-chromatic  continuum serves  a s s i m i l a t e the d i v e r s i t y presented by these kinds  of t o n a l i t y .  I have a l s o chosen to view t h i s continuum from perspective  of modulation as I have d e f i n e d  to  the  i t , i . e . , as  t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the p i t c h or of the group of p i t c h e s to accentuated.  be  I have d e f i n e d modulation i n t h i s manner because  I wish to emphasize the means of modulation as w e l l as p a t t e r n of keys these means produce. s u b s i d i a r y key, key  the  one  I f a s e c t i o n uses, as a  which i s d i a t o n i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the main  of the s e c t i o n , as i n Example 11a,  a c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d one, subordinate one  the  and  another s e c t i o n uses  as i n Example 28,  s e c t i o n to the other  i f I am  d i a t o n i c i s m of the modulatory p a t t e r n .  I need to  emphasizing  the  However, i f I view the  same s e c t i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g the degree to which chromaticism e s t a b l i s h e s these p a t t e r n s ,  i . e . , considering  modulation, these s e c t i o n s are s i m i l a r .  the means of  In the l a t t e r case,  the above d e f i n i t i o n i s u s e f u l since i t does not  s p e c i f y that  a t r a n s p o s i t i o n take place to a d i a t o n i c a l l y r e l a t e d p i t c h or group of p i t c h e s .  I may,  as by now  i s c l e a r , encompass both  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these s e c t i o n s u s i n g the  diatonic-chromatic  continuum. Let me  conclude with some words on Strauss.  h i s music should  I feel  be regarded n e i t h e r as r e v o l u t i o n a r y  nor  r e a c t i o n a r y , but as something i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and unique to man  and h i s time.  because he has  T h i s i s important, e s p e c i a l l y f o r  been made out to be both r e a c t i o n a r y  r e v o l u t i o n a r y , and  I t h i n k u n j u s t l y so.  sentiments u n i n t e r e s t i n g and  But  Strauss, and  as I f i n d  such  i r r e l e v a n t i n a n a l y z i n g h i s music,  - 48  -  I prefer  t o d e a l w i t h i t by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e  c o n t i n u u m as  an a n a l y t i c d e v i c e .  is  o r no v a l u e  of l i t t l e  think i t  is  useful  t h r o u g h my e f f o r t s , of  the d i v e r s e  I t may be t h a t  this  i n describing other music,  i n describing this enabled  elements  diatonic-chromatic  the reader  tone-poem.  to a s s i m i l a t e  w h i c h c a n be o b s e r v e d  content.  -  49  -  If  device  b u t I do I  have,  many  in Till,  I am  Endnotes 1.  Examples of chromatic dominants are mentioned i n the l a s t chapter; see pp. 11, 12, 15, 21, 27, see a l s o Example 30 i n the Appendix.  2.  I d i d , however, s t a t e i n the l a s t chapter that no key, i s u n a l t e r a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d as the home one. Perhaps i t would be c l e a r e r to say that the s e c t i o n i s unstable as to key u n t i l i t e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e s down i n F major at i t s end.  3.  Of course, I could a l s o do t h i s with other such s t r u c t u r e s from other parts of T i l l , p l a c i n g them on the continuum, according to the degree that they are chromatic. Cf. t h i s "background" s t r u c t u r e with the one of Example 9b, i n Chapter I I , p. 19.  4.  By "stronger cadences" I mean those that appear to to have the more emphatic t o n i c i z i n g e f f e c t .  5.  A c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d key i s one whose t o n i c p i t c h , before i t has been r a i s e d a h a l f - s t e p , i s a d i a t o n i c p i t c h of the main key of the s e c t i o n . A - f l a t major, f o r example, i s c h r o m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to F major.  6.  I.e., both s e c t i o n s e v e n t u a l l y make use of the f i v e remaining p i t c h e s of the chromatic s c a l e a f t e r t h e i r seven d i a t o n i c p i t c h e s have been taken i n t o account.  7.  An important theme or motive may be so because i t reappears throughout the work, and so i s an important s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e , and y e t , i f other elements of the work are being considered, t h i s motive or theme becomes secondary i n importance.  8.  As regards h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e p u t a t i o n , Michael Kennedy, The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians, 1980 ed. s.v. "Strauss, Richard," w r i t e s that "during h i s l i f e t i m e and afterwards Strauss was the centre of controversy, and he remains one of those composers who arouse extremes of sympathy or a n t i p a t h y . The years from roughly 1890-1910 were a b r i l l a n t noonday f o r Richard Strauss, as they were f o r E l g a r i n England, when he bestrode the musical world and audiences hung on h i s every note. , He d a z z l e d , he shocked, he amazed." Yet i n h i s l a t e r years Strauss was considered o l d f a s h i o n . On t h i s Kennedy w r i t e s , "there are i n e v i t a b l y v a r i a t i o n s i n the q u a l i t y of h i s work, some of i t not much more than musical j o u r n a l i s m most court composers turned out as a part of t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s . But the d i s t a n c e between the peak and the base i n a graph of Strauss' output i s not as wide as i t was once b e l i e v e d .  - 50 -  me  and the former c r i t i c a l ordinance that he d e c l i n e d i n t o a s t a t e of unimaginative s e l f - r e p e t i t i o n a f t e r about 1910 i s untenable when h i s achievement i s judged i n p e r s p e c t i v e . " I agree with t h i s and would give the l a s t word to Strauss who s a i d , "my work i n composition means not r e v o l u t i o n , but e v o l u t i o n , and e v o l u t i o n b u i l t on the c l a s s i c s which must be the foundation of a l l musical composition." W i l l i a m Armstrong, "Richard Strauss and h i s work, a t a l k with the composer," The Etude 21(December 1903):467. ;  - 51 -  APPENDIX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES  - 52 -  Ex.*  •St-  A.  Ahphev* Mnti( Corp  -55-  SBHafl,.—4CMUI  V-43  Ei.e  66-  A.  Alpheu* Mutic Corp  -61-  - 69-  •IIALpbaui Mu»k Corp  -73AlpbMU M u k Carp Holis-ooe Cili'  IS' Mdij-ooc C.h'  V 43  AtplMMUMkCwp V-43  -S3-  Hoit.-M Oil  V A3  •85Hull)P—4 C*M  m w %i  - 86-  Hgti>-aa4.Ca*l  V 43  -97-  -90-  A.  -93-  -?t l C*IH  -95 Calif  V-43  -96AkpfaMM M u k Ctwp Mott> wood. Call!  E x - 3o coWt)  -/ooA l p b m Mwtc Corp  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and P e r i o d i c a l s Armstrong, Thomas. Strauss's Tone-poems. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1931. Armstrong, W. "Richard Strauss and h i s works a t a l k with the composer." Etude 21 (December 1903):467-468. • Del Mar, Norman. Richard Strauss: A Commentary on h i s L i f e and Works. 3 vols. London: B a r r i e and Jenkins L t d . , 1978. D i c t i o n a r y of Contemporary Music, 1976 ed. S.v. " S t r a u s s , R i c h a r d , " by Hugo W i e s g a l l . Donald, Paul. "Richard Strauss' Symphonic Tone-poems." Metronome 31 (June 1915):15-19. Downes, O l i n . Symphonic Masterpieces. New York: Tudor P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1943. Gerlach, Reinhard. Don Juan und Rosenkavalier: Studien zu Idee und G e s t a l t e i n e r t o n a l e n E v o l u t i o n im Werk Richard Strauss'. Berne: V e r l a g Paul Haupt, 1966. Gilman, Lawrence. S t o r i e s of Symphonic Music. New York: Garden C i t y P u b l i s h i n g Company, Inc., 1937. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians, 10 ed. S.v. "Strauss, R i c h a r d , " by E r i c Blom. Howes, Frank. "Nimrod on S t r a u s s . " Musical Times 111 (June 1970): 590-591.:'. Kraus, E r n s t . Richard S t r a u s s : The Man and"his Work. T r a n s l a t e d by John Coombs. London: C o l l e t ' s ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1964. Lorenz, A l f r e d . "Der formale Schwung i n Richard Strauss' ' T i l l E u l e n s p i e g e l ' . " Die Musik 17 (June 1925):658-669. Marek, George R. Richard Strauss: London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z , 1976.  The L i f e of a Non-Hero.  Mason, D a n i e l Gregory. "A Study of S t r a u s s . " Musical Q u a r t e r l y 2 ( A p r i l 1916):171-190.. McNaught, W. "Is ' T i l l E u l e n s p i e g e l ' a Rondo?" Musical Times 78 (September 1937):789-791..  - 101 -  Murphy, Edward Wright. "Harmony and T o n a l i t y i n the Large O r c h e s t r a l Works of Richard S t r a u s s . " Ph. D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , September Muschler , Reinhard. Richard Strauss Hildescheim: Druck und V e r l a g von Franz Borgmeyer,  1963. n.d.  Myers, R o l l o H. "Richard Strauss—1864-1949." Musical Times 90 (October 1949):347-3 51. . The New C o l l e g e Encyclopedia of Music, 1960 S.v. "Key."  ed.  The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians, S.v. " S t r a u s s , R i c h a r d , " by Michael Kennedy.  1980  Orrey, L e s l i e . Programme Music: A B r i e f Survey from the S i x t e e n t h Century to the London: Davis-Poynter, 1975.  ed.  Present.  Specht, Richard. Richard Strauss und s e i n Werk. V o l . I: Per K u n s t l e r und s e i n Weg der Instrumentalkomponist. Leipzig: E.P.-Tal & Co. V e r l a g , 1921. Strauss, Richard. Recollections and R e f l e c t i o n s . T r a n s l a t e d by L.J~ Lawrence. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1953. Smyser, W i l l i a m Leon. "The C a l i p h of Vienna: Dr. Richard S t r a u s s , Music & L e t t e r s 12 (January 1931): 46-53'.  Musician."  Tenschert, Roland. "Die Kadenzbehandlung b e i Richard Strauss: E i n B e i t r a g zur neueren Harmonik." Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Musikwissenschaft 8 (December 1925): 161-182. Weissman, A d o l f . The Problems of Modern Music. T r a n s l a t e d by M.FH Bazmann. New York: J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1925. Music S t a r r , W i l l i a m J . , and Devine, George F. Music Scores Omnibus Part 2: Romantic and New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1964.  - 102  -  I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c Music.  

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