UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Attitudes of social work students toward older persons Kwan, Yui-Huen 1982

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ATTITUDES OF SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS TOWARD OLDER PERSONS by YUI-HUEN KWAN B.A., Hong Kong B a p t i s t C o l l e g e , 1969 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h Dakota, 1971 Ph.D., L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1982 @ Yui-Huen Kwan, 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . _ _, S o c i a l Work Department o f . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e May, 1982. DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Over th e l a s t decade, the p e r c e n t a g e o f e l d e r l y i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada had shown a marked r a t e o f i n -c r e a s e which i s e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , t h e need f o r more s o c i a l w o r k ers w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y w i t h o l d e r p e r s o n s i s o b v i o u s . So s t u d i e s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y t o o l d e r p e o p l e a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . The p r e s e n t s t u d y aims a t im-p r o v i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t t i t u d e s toward o l d p e o p l e , and i n h e l p i n g t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t might be r e l a t e d t o t h e s e a t t i t u d e s . The s e t t i n g f o r t h e s t u d y i s t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The u n i v e r s e f o r t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f a l l t h e f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e S c h o o l d u r i n g t h e 1981-1982 academic y e a r . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d by means of a s t r u c t u r e d s e l f -a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The a t t i t u d e measurements used i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d Palmore's F a c t s on A g i n g Quiz (FAQ), Kogan's A t t i t u d e s toward Old P e o p l e S c a l e (OP), and a u t h o r ' s W i l l i n g n e s s t o H e l p Aged R e l a t i v e s S c a l e (WHAR). The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s — v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , u n i -v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . i i The f i n d i n g s s u g g ested t h a t t h e t h r e e measures o f a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s used i n t h i s s t u d y seemed t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e s toward a g i n g . The FAQ i s e s s e n t i a l l y u s e l e s s as an i n d i r e c t measure t o a s s e s s the 'aged-bias' o f s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s . The p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r p e r s o n s were r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s , b u t d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o each o f t h e t h r e e a t t i t u d i n a l measurements used. Among th e v a r i a b l e s , age and work w i t h aged b e f o r e have more p r e d i c t i v e power i n s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s . Both FAQ and OP s c a l e s a r e m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i n n a t u r e i n s t e a d o f u n i -d i m e n s i o n a l . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e st u d y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e development o f c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y and t r a i n i n g program f o r s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s . And a p r o p o s a l f o r m o d i f i n g a t t i t u d e s i s suggested by t h e a u t h o r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS. . i v LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 I I I . DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES . . . . . . 18 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study 18 O b j e c t i v e s o f the Study 20 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms and Concepts 21 IV. RESEARCH PROCEDURES 24 Re s e a r c h P l a n . . . . . 27 Source and C o l l e c t i o n of Dat a 27 Measurements 28 The A t t i t u d e s toward Old P e o p l e S c a l e . . . 28 The F a c t s on A g i n g Quiz 29 The W i l l i n g n e s s t o H e l p Aged R e l a t i v e s S c a l e 31 A n a l y s i s D e s i g n 32 V. MEASUREMENT VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 35 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y 35 The F a c t s on A g i n g Q u i z 35 The A t t i t u d e s toward Old P e o p l e S c a l e . . . 39 The W i l l i n g n e s s t o H e l p Aged R e l a t i v e s S c a l e 39 R e l i a b i l i t y 43 C r i t e r i o n V a l i d i t y 44 C o n t e n t V a l i d i t y 45 U n i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y 46 Summary • 49 i v Page VI. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 52 Demographic and Educational Background 52 Perception of Problems of Old Age 60 Summary 68 VII. RELATIONS OF PRECIPITATION AND ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES 69 Summary 82 VIII. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES 84 Summary 87 IX. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS 88 Summary 88 Appraisal of Methodology 92 Conclusions 96 Implications 98 X. EPILOGUE: A PROPOSAL TO CHANGE STUDENT ATTITUDES--THE PRESENT AND FUTURE SCENE 108 Assumptions 113 Objectives 115 Recommended Teaching Strategies 115 Role of Teachers 116 Role of Students 119 Content i n Curriculum 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 125 APPENDICES 146 A. SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRE 146 B. COVER LETTER OF PRE-TEST QUESTIONNAIRE 158 C. NATHAN KOGAN*S OEQSCALE ITEMS 159 D. ERDMAN PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE ITEMS 161 E. PANEL OF EXPERT'S QUESTIONNAIRE 164 v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f the FAQ S c a l e and I t s S u b s c a l e s 36 2. I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f th e FAQ1 S c a l e 37 3. I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f th e FAQ2 S c a l e 38 4. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f th e OP S c a l e and I t s S u b s c a l e s 39 5« I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f th e OPP S c a l e 40 6. I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f the OPN S c a l e 4l 7. I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x o f the WHAR S c a l e 42 8. Guttman S p l i t - H a l f R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f FAQ, FAQ1, FAQ2, OP, and WHAR S c a l e s 43 9. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E x p e r t s ' Judgement on t h e B i a s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Palmore's FAQ Items 47 10. F a c t o r i a l R e s u l t s of FAQ S c a l e 48 11. F a c t o r i a l R e s u l t s o f OP S c a l e 50 12. Freque n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Sex. . 53 13. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Age. . 53 14. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 53 15. Freque n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by E d u c a t i o n a l Background 54 16. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Program 55 17. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Y e a r s o f H e l p i n g E x p e r i e n c e 55 v i T a b l e Page 18. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by L a s t S o c i a l Work F i e l d 57 19- Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by L a s t S o c i a l Work C l i e n t e l e 58 20. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by t h e Most D e s i r a b l e and t h e Worst P e r i o d o f L i f e 59 21. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Work w i t h Aged 59 22. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Frequency o f C o n t a c t w i t h Aged 60 23. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Amount o f E x p e r i e n c e and T r a i n i n g i n A g i n g . 61 24. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by Y e a r s o f Age C o n s i d e r Old and E l d e r l y 62 25. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Severeness of Problems o f Young-Old by Problem A r e a s 63 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sev e r e n e s s o f Problems o f O l d - O l d by Problems A r e a s . . . 64 27. Rank Order o f Problems o f t h e Young^Old and O l d - O l d as P e r c e i v e d by Respondents 65 28. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by F u t u r e S o c i a l Work P r e f e r e n c e . . . . . . . 67 29. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Work S t u d e n t s by Degree o f A t t i t u d e s toward O l d e r P e r s o n s R e p o r t e d 70 30. I n t e r - V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x 71 31. WHAR o f Respondents by Work w i t h Aged B e f o r e . . 72 32. WHAR o f Respondents by Frequency o f C o n t a c t w i t h Aged 73 v i i T a b l e page 33. WHAR o f Respondents by F u t u r e S o c i a l Work P r e f e r e n c e 73 34. FAQ o f Respondents by Age 7^  35. FAQ o f Respondents by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 75 36. FAQ o f Respondents by Amount o f E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Aged 75 37. FAQ o f Respondents by Amount o f T r a i n i n g i n A g i n g 76 38. FAQ o f Respondents by F u t u r e S o c i a l Work P r e f e r e n c e 77 39. OP o f Respondents by Sex 78 40. OP o f Respondents by Work w i t h Aged B e f o r e . . . . 78 41. OP o f Respondents by Frequency o f C o n t a c t w i t h Aged 79 42. OP o f Respondents by F u t u r e S o c i a l Work P r e f e r e n c e 80 43. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f FAQ, OP, and WHAR by , Program, 81 44. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by FAQ B i a s Score 82 45. FAQ B i a s S c o r e of Respondents by Program 83 46. S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f WHAR, FAQ, and OP S c a l e 85 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. F l o w C h a r t o f F a c t o r s I m p o r t a n t i n I n f l u e n c i n g A t t i t u d e s toward O l d e r P e r s o n s 23 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o thos e i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p e d a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t o f a l l , I want t o thank D r. R i c h a r d Nann, D r . John Crane, and P r o f e s s o r Mary H i l l f o r s e r v i n g on my ex a m i n i n g committee, and f o r t h e i r generous c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t i m e , a d v i c e , and a s s i s t a n c e as they g u i d e d me i n t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y have c o n s i s t e n t l y encouraged and a i d e d me i n my gr a d u a t e work, t h e y always had time t o l i s t e n t o my problems,, i f t h e y r e l a t e d t o my s t u d y o r o t h e r w i s e . Dr. John Crane, my r e s e a r c h p r o f e s s o r , o f f e r e d v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l acknowledgement. I l e a r n so much i n r e s e a r c h methodology from him d u r i n g t h e s e e i g h t months. A l s o , a s p e c i a l n o t e o f thanks i s e x p r e s s e d t o Dr. James T h o r n t o n f o r a l l o w i n g me t o use t h e Graduate Seminar on G e r o n t o l o g y f o r p r e - t e s t and measurement v a l i d a t i o n . Much g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o Dr. P e t e r Lomas, a f r i e n d and c l a s s m a t e a t UBC, who p r o o f - r e a d the f i n a l d r a f t o f my t h e s i s . H i s h e l p f u l n e s s i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Above a l l , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o E s t h e r , my w i f e , and A l v i n , my son, f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o un d e r s t a n d and t o l e r a t e a l l t h e h a r d s h i p s back home w h i l e I x p u r s u e d my s t u d y h e r e . W i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and encouragement t h i s s t u d y would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . x i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION U n t i l a few y e a r s ago, no one would have d i s c u s s e d a g i n g as a s o c i a l p r oblem. Now, however, i t i s no l o n g e r o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f p e o p l e t h a t a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s . I f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g p r e d i c t a b l e and i n e x o r a b l e about t h e human c o n d i t i o n , i t i s t h e f a c t t h a t many o f us grow o l d and e v e n t u a l l y d i e . The p o p u l a t i o n a g i n g p r o c e s s i s o c c u r r i n g r a p i d l y i n Canada. The a g i n g o f t h e Canadian p o p u l a t i o n — t h e g r e y i n g o f C a n a d a — i s a demographic f a c t . The C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s g r o w i n g o l d e r and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do so i n t o the n e x t c e n t u r y as t h o s e aged 65 and ov e r become an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r segment o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . As r e p o r t e d by Stone and F l e t c h e r (1980:2), i n 1921, f i v e out o f e v e r y one hundred Canadians were aged 65 and ov e r . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n r o s e g r a d u a l l y t i l l t h e 1950s, when t h e p o s t - w a r baby boom r e v e r s e d t h e t r e n d u n t i l t h e 1970s. I t recommenced i n t h e 1970s, and by 1976, 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n was aged 65 and o v e r . I n 1978 t h e r e were about 2.1 m i l l i o n ( S p e c i a l S enate Committee on R e t i r e m e n t Age P o l i c i e s , 1979« 42) Canadians aged 65 and o v e r . By 1981 t h i s number i s ex p e c t e d t o c l i m b t o 2.3 m i l l i o n o r 9«3 p e r c e n t (Denton and Spe n c e r , 1980:20) o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada; by 1986 t o 2.6 m i l l i o n ( S p e c i a l Senate Committee on R e t i r e m e n t Age P o l i c i e s , 1979i^2); between 1991 and 1996 t o 3 m i l l i o n 1 ( S p e c i a l Senate Committee on R e t i r e m e n t Age P o l i c i e s , 1979s 4 2 ) ; and by 2001 t o 3.5 m i l l i o n (Stone and F l e t c h e r , 1980: 20) o r 11.4 p e r c e n t (Denton and Sp e n c e r , 1980:20) o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada w h i l e 45.6 p e r c e n t (Denton and Spencer, 1980:20) o f t h o s e o v e r 65 w i l l be 75 y e a r s o r o l d e r . By the y e a r 2006, the ' l e a d i n g edge* o f the baby boom g e n e r a t i o n w i l l e n t e r t h e r a n k s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , and p o p u l a t i o n a g i n g c o u l d t h e n e s c a l a t e r a p i d l y f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . W i t h o u t a n o t h e r upsurge i n b i r t h r a t e s , some 18 p e r c e n t (Stone and F l e t c h e r , 1980:2) o r 6 t o 8 m i l l i o n ( S p e c i a l S enate Committee on R e t i r e m e n t Age P o l i c i e s , 1979:42) o f Canadians w i l l be aged 65 and over i n 2031, when t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s w i l l a g a i n s l a c k e n i t s pace m a r k e d l y . Members o f v a r i o u s aged gr o u p s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o v e r 75 y e a r s o f age, o f t e n become e c o n o m i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y dependent on t h e i r f a m i l i e s , s o c i e t y , and community r e s o u r c e s and f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d h e a l t h c a r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , t h e need f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and g e n e r a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e g r o w i n g number o f e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s c o u n t r y has been a major f a c t o r i n t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s and has i n c r e a s e d t h e l i k e l i -hood t h a t more and more s o c i a l w o r k e r s w i l l be employed i n work d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o o l d e r p e r s o n s . Old age i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a time o f problems; many e l d e r l y p e o p l e and t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l n o t r e q u i r e a s s i s t a n c e 2 from a s o c i a l worker n o r i n d e e d from any o t h e r o u t s i d e h e l p e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, some e l d e r l y p e o p l e w i l l r e q u i r e d o m i c i l l i a r y s e r v i c e s o r perhaps a i d s t o d a i l y l i v i n g b u t t h i s need f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s does n o t i n i t s e l f i n d i c a t e a need f o r s o c i a l work. Other e l d e r l y p e o p l e , however, ex-p e r i e n c e problems o f an i n t e r - o r i n t r a - p e r s o n a l n a t u r e w h i c h , by v i r t u e o f c o m p l e x i t y o r s e v e r i t y , seem an app r o -p r i a t e a r e a o f work f o r a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l w o rker. I t i s w i t h t h i s l a s t group o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s l a r g e l y c o n c e r n e d . I d e a l l y , t h o s e who work w i t h o l d e r c l i e n t s do so out o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e e l d e r l y and t h e i r p r oblems. However, t h e j o b s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a k e a r e o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f what i s a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e job market. Thus, a t p r e s e n t and i n t h e f u t u r e , s o c i a l . workers i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e e l d e r l y may have been t r a i n e d t o work w i t h o t h e r age groups and, i n d e e d , may p r e f e r t o work w i t h them. What c o n c e r n s t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s n o t so much t h a t c e r t a i n s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e d e a l i n g w i t h c l i e n t s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e of t h e i r c h o i c e b u t t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s may h o l d n e g a t i v e and s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s toward t h e e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s t h e y a r e t o a s s i s t . We a l l assume t h a t v a l u e s a r e among t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e b e h a v i o r . P a r t o f t h e s o c i a l w o r ker's e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s exposure t o t h e v a l u e s on wh i c h the p r o f e s s i o n i s based, which i n c l u d e a p o s i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward t h e c l i e n t , who i s t o be r e s p e c t e d , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , 3 and t r e a t e d w i t h d i g n i t y . I t has been axiom o f s o c i a l work t h a t i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s must be aware o f t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s toward p e o p l e of a l l w a l k s o f l i f e ; t h a t t h e y must come t o terms w i t h t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s and b l i n d s p o t s as t h e y c a r r y out t h e i r work w i t h p e o p l e o f d i v e r s e r a c i a l , e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , and age g r o u p s . A premium i s p l a c e d on t h e development o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , i n c l u d i n g knowledge o f one's own a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s toward o l d e r p e o p l e and, even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , toward one's own a g i n g p r o c e s s and u l t i m a t e d e a t h . L i k e everyone e l s e , however, s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o l d c e r t a i n b i a s e s and p r e j u d i c e s toward v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s , and t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s w i l l a f f e c t t h e outcome o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and t h e t y p e o f t r e a t m e n t p r o v i d e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g g e n e r a l l y emphasize methods, p r o c e d u r e s , e t h i c s , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s . Moreover, th e need f o r r a p p o r t and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l i e n t s and t h o s e w o r k i n g i n such p r o f e s s i o n s as m e d i c i n e , n u r s i n g , s o c i a l work, and p s y c h o l o g y i s e s p e c i a l l y g r e a t . As we a l l know, a t t i t u d e s toward c l i e n t s a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e . A l t h o u g h i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t s o c i a l w o r k ers w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y be i n v o l v e d w i t h o l d e r c l i e n t s , r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ( F u t r e l l and J o n e s , 1977; G e i g e r , 1978; e t c . ) u n f o r t u n a t e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s and o t h e r s who p r o v i d e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and h e a l t h c a r e o f t e n h o l d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward th e 4 e l d e r l y i n g e n e r a l and o l d e r c l i e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r . From t h e above s t a t e m e n t s we a l l u n d e r s t a n d how i m p o r t a n t i s t h e 'aged problem' i n p r e s e n t day s o c i e t y , so i t i s i n -c r e a s i n g l y becoming an i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t o f s t u d y i n t h e l i g h t o f h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s i n s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y . The p r e s e n t s t u d y aims t o shed some l i g h t on t h e above phenomenon. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , an attempt w i l l be made t o r e l a t e t h e s u b j e c t under s t u d y t o an a t t i t u d e model. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d t o a g i n g c l i e n t w i l l a l s o be r e v i e w e d t o e s t a b l i s h a base f o r t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach adopted h e r e . 5 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Western c o n c e p t i o n o f a g i n g i s dominated by a v i e w o f a g i n g as a p r o c e s s o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e d e c l i n e o f a p e r s o n , a p r o c e s s t h a t i s " b i o l o g i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s p i r i t u a l , s o c i a l o r c u l t u r a l , u n f a v o r a b l e r a t h e r t h a n f a v o r a b l e , u n i v e r s a l and e t e r n a l r a t h e r t h a n d i f f e r e n t i a l and v a r i a b l e , and un-manageable r a t h e r t h a n manageable" ( P h i l b e r t , 1974:9)• I n our d a i l y e n c o u n t e r s w i t h p e o p l e , i n t h e mass media, and i n a l m o s t a l l a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i v i n g , we a r e i n d e e d c o n f r o n t e d w i t h such a v i e w o f a g i n g , o v e r t l y o r c o v e r t l y and s u b t l y . I t i s s m a l l wonder, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t our own a t t i t u d e s toward t h i s p r o c e s s and toward t h e aged p o p u l a t i o n have been shaped by such v i e w s . We may n o t always be aware o f such a t t i t u d e s i n o u r s e l v e s , b u t t h e y do e x i s t and a r e h e l d q u i t e t e n a c i o u s -l y by l a r g e segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a . I n contemporary s o c i e t y , which i s o r i e n t e d towards t h e young, B u t l e r (1974) i d e n t i f i e d s i x w i d e l y h e l d images o r myths o f o l d age which assume t h a t a g i n g i s a u n i f o r m p r o c e s s — f o r example, t h a t a l l o l d p e o p l e a r e u n p r o d u c t i v e , i n f l e x i b l e and a r e o r w i l l become f o r g e t f u l , c o n f u s e d and i n a t t e n t i v e . Lowy (1979«61-65) sampled seven s t e r e o t y p e s and n i n e myths i n a g i n g . A t c h l e y (1981) a l s o warned about t h e common m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about a g i n g . S c h l o s s b e r g , T r o l l and L e i b o w i t z (1978:90) d e s c r i b e d r e s t r i c t i v e n e s s , d i s t o r t i o n 6 and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s as t h e t h r e e p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s o f age b i a s . Thomas (1981) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s o l d p e o p l e c a n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . The t e ndency t o d e v e l o p s t e r e o t y p e s , o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and o f t e n e r r o n e o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about v a r i o u s groups o r c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e , i s a p p a r e n t l y a common a s p e c t o f d a i l y l i f e . 'Ageism,' o r age s t e r e o t y p i n g , i s any a t t i t u d e , a c t i o n , o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t s u b o r d i n a t e s a p e r s o n or group because o f age, o r any assignment o f r o l e s i n s o c i e t y based on age (Barrow and S m i t h , 1979»7-15; H e n d r i c k s and H e n d r i c k s , 1977:13-25; H o p k i n s , 1980:63-79; L e v i n and L e v i n , 1980; Palmore and Manton, 1973; S t e i n , 1978:89). Ageism, a term c o i n e d by R o b e r t B u t l e r (1969) i n 1968, r e f e r s t o t h e p e j o r a t i v e image o f someone who i s o l d s i m p l y because o f h i s o r h e r age. A l e x Comfort (1976) used t h e term s o c i o g e n i c t o i m p l y ageism i n a broad sense by d e s c r i b -i n g two k i n d s o f a g i n g , p h y s i c a l , which i s a n a t u r a l b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , and s o c i o g e n i c , w h i c h has no p h y s i c a l b a s i s . And Ne u g a r t e n (1976:107) e x p l a i n s t h a t " s t e r e o t y p e s about a g i n g and t h e aged c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r l y complex s e t of p r o b l e m s . I n a d d i t i o n t o making us f e a r a g i n g , t h e s t e r e o t y p e s l e a d t o a d i v i s i v e n e s s i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e t h a t has been c a l l e d a g e i s m - - t h a t i s n e g a t i v e o r d e s t r u c t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n . " I n t h e mass media, ageism has become a t o p i c o f 7 s c h o l a r l y and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I n h i s book, Why S u r v i v e ? B e i n g Old i n America. R o b e r t B u t l e r (1975) a c c u s e d t h e media o f i g n o r i n g o l d p e o p l e and p e r p e t u a t i n g b i a s e d s t e r e o t y p e s about them. A n s e l l o (1977). i n h i s s t u d y o f f i c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n , found t h a t p r i z e - w i n n i n g books gave a c u m u l a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f o l d e r p e o p l e b e i n g ' r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , u n e x c i t i n g and u n i m a g i n a t i v e . ' P e t e r s o n and Eden's (1977) c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f f i c t i o n f o r t e e n a g e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e were u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d , under-d e v e l o p e d i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and g i v e n p e r i p h e r a l r o l e s . M a r t e l ' s (1968) s t u d y o f magazine f i c t i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t o l d e r c h a r a c t e r s s u f f e r e d from s y m b o l i c abandonment. Kent and Shaw (1980) a l s o found some age s t e r e o t y p i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h e e d i t o r i a l c o n t e n t o f the Time magazine. K i n g s t o n and D r o t t e r (1981) examined s i x commonly used b a s a l r e a d e r s and found t h a t t h e aged were r a r e l y t h e main c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e s t o r i e s and r a r e l y were t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s f u l l y p o r t r a y e d . More i n d i r e c t approaches t o t h e s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s toward t h e e l d e r l y a l s o i n d i c a t e ageism. Palmore's (1971) c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f 264 p o p u l a r j o k e s and humorous q u o t a t i o n s about a g i n g showed t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y make n e g a t i v e r e f e r e n c e s t o a g i n g and t h e aged. More r e c e n t l y , Richman (1977) compared 100 j o k e s about t h e aged w i t h 160 j o k e s d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n and uncovered n e g a t i v e themes c o n c e r n i n g age con-cealment, l o s s o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , and p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l d e c l i n e . 8 I n r e c e n t comprehensive r e v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t many s t u d i e s seem t o emphasize t h e n e g a t i v e n a t u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s toward o l d p e o p l e . F o r example, Moberg (196°) r e p o r t e d t h a t m i n i s t e r s p e r c e i v e t h e e l d e r l y as f o r g e t f u l , unwanted and s l o w . L o n g i n o and K i t s o n (1977«33*0 s u p p o r t e d Moberg*s f i n d i n g s a l t h o u g h t h e y n o t e d t h a t " c l e r g y w i t h a more e x p r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s d e r i v e g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n from m i n i s t e r i n g t o t h e aged." To the e x t e n t t h a t s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e s toward a g i n g and t h e aged a r e n e g a t i v e , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e h e a l t h c a r e p r o v i d e r s w i l l a l s o be somewhat n e g a t i v e u n l e s s t r a i n i n g programs a r e d e s i g n e d t o combat t h o s e s t e r e o t y p e s (Johnson and M i l l i a m s o n , 1980). A w e a l t h o f s t u d i e s (most o f w h i c h a r e r e v i e w e d by K o s b e r g , 1978), have i d e n t i f i e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e o p l e among p r a c t i c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Kahana and Coe, 1969; T r o l l and S c h l o s s b e r g , 1970; C a m p b e l l , 1971; K o s b e r g , 1973; T h o r s o n , 1975; and K e i t h , 1977). A few s t u d i e s (Wolk and Wolk, 1971; K o s b e r g , e t a l . , 1972; B u r g e r , 197^; Lowy, e t a l . , 197^; H i c k e y , e t a l . , 1976; F u t r e l l and J o n e s , 1977; S i g n o r i , B u t t , and Kozak, 1980) have found m o d e s t l y p o s i t i v e a g i n g - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s among p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The s i n g l e a v a i l a b l e s t u d y ( H a t t o n , 1977) o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p r e s s e d a g i n g - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s and observed b e h a v i o r c o n c l u d e s t h a t n u r s e s w i t h more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward o l d p e o p l e a r e i n v o l v e d i n 9 a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o l d e r p a t i e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n U n i t e d S t a t e s , most young s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s do n o t choose t o work w i t h t h e o l d e r p e r s o n . W i l e n s k y and Barmaock (1966) d e s i g n e d a b e h a v i o r p r e f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s toward w o r k i n g w i t h t h e aged. Responses were r e c e i v e d from p s y c h o l o g y d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t s i n s i x u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e New Y o r k C i t y a r e a . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s f o r a l l s i x u n i v e r s i t i e s , w i t h g r e a t e s t p r e f e r e n c e d i r e c t e d toward w o r k i n g young a d u l t s and a tendency f o r r e s p o n d e n t s t o a v o i d w o r k i n g w i t h t h e e l d e r l y . By n o t s t r i v i n g t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t h a t e n t e r i n g m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s h o l d toward t h e e l d e r l y , and t h e need f o r house c a l l s f o r e l d e r l y p a t i e n t s , p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h e e l d e r l y was r e i n f o r c e d i n m e d i c a l s c h o o l s (Spence, e t a l . , 1968). On t h e o t h e r hand, m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s who were exposed t o a s o c i a l m e d i c i n e c o u r s e which f o c u s e d on t h e e l d e r l y , i n c r e a s e d t h e i r f a c t u a l knowledge b u t d i d n o t change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s v e r y much, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r l a c k o f d e s i r e t o p r a c t i c e g e r i a t r i c m e d i c i n e ( B e r e z i n , 1972; C i c c h e t t i , e t a l . , 1973). I n 1968 an e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m e d i c a l c a r e o f e l d e r l y p a t i e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ' n e g a t i v i s m , d e f e a t i s m , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a n t i p a t h y ' 10 (McCluskey and A l t e n h o f , 1978). Others ( C i c c h e t t i , e t a l . , 1973; Steinbaum, 1973; and Harbaugh, 1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t most p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s f o s t e r n e g a t i v e images o f o l d p e o p l e by o m i t t i n g o r l o o k i n g down on the s t u d y o f a g i n g . T r a i n i n g f o r work w i t h o l d p e r s o n s i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as s u pplementary t o c o r e e d u c a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p h y s i c i a n s ' o b j e c t i o n s t o c a r i n g f o r the e l d e r l y r e f l e c t f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s ( i n a b i l i t y t o produce a c u r e ) and i n a b i l i t y t o c o n f r o n t problems o f d y i n g and d e a t h a t a p e r s o n a l l e v e l ( G r u b e r , 1977)• H e a l t h c a r e p e r s o n n e l o t h e r t h a n p h y s i c i a n s a l s o h o l d s t e r e o t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s , o f t e n n e g a t i v e , about th e e l d e r l y . S i n c e 1970, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f n u r s e s ' a t t i t u d e s and work i n t e r e s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the e l d e r l y have been p u b l i s h e d ( C a m p b e l l , 1971; G u n t e r , 1971; G i l l i s , 1973; K a y s e r and M i n n i g e r o d e , 1975; H e l l e r and Walsh, 1976; H a r t , F r e e l , and C r o w e l l , 1976; W i l h i t e and Johnson, 1976; Chamberland, Rawls, P o w e l l , and R o b e r t s , 1979; and Robb, 1979). N u r s i n g s t u d e n t s ( G u n t e r , 1971; G i l l i s , 1973; K a y s e r and M i n n i g e r o d e , 1975) and r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s ( C a m p b e l l , 1971; G i l l i s , 1973; K a y s e r and M i n n i g e r o d e , 1975) have e x p r e s s e d u n w i l l i n g n e s s o r r e l u c t a n c e t o work w i t h e l d e r l y c l i e n t s i n g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l s and n u r s i n g homes, as compared w i t h o t h e r age g r o u p s . Only one s t u d y found a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of n u r s e s u b j e c t s i n t e r e s t e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e e l d e r l y 11 ( H a r t , F r e e l , and C r o w e l l , 1976). R e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers o f g r a d u a t i n g n u r s e s e n t e r g e r i a t r i c n u r s i n g and t h o s e who do e n t e r sometimes o f f e r m i n i m a l l y adequate c a r e ( B r o c k and Madison, 1977) • K o s b e r g and H a r r i s (1978) quoted s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s w h i c h f o u n d s o c i a l w o r k e r s , n u r s e s and p s y c h i a t r i s t s s h a r i n g a v i e w o f work w i t h e l d e r l y c l i e n t s as b o r i n g and w i t h l i t t l e p r o s p e c t o f reward o r s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h e worker. The t h e r a p i s t s a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h e i r work w i t h e l d e r l y c l i e n t s l e s s t h a n s a t i s f y i n g ( G a r f i n k e l , 1975)-Repeated s t u d i e s o f h e a l t h w o r k e r s have found t h a t t h e y r e g a r d work w i t h t h e aged as u n d e s i r a b l e o r l o w - s t a t u s , a t t a c h l e s s i m p o r t a n c e t o such a c t i v i t i e s t h a n comparable work w i t h younger age g r o u p s , and f e e l t h a t t ime i n v e s t e d i n o l d e r p a t i e n t s w i l l n o t y i e l d r e t u r n s commensurate w i t h t h e i r e f f o r t s (Kastenbaum, 1963; Wolk and Wolk, 1971; C y r u s - L u t z and G a i t z , 1972; K o s b e r g and H a r r i s , 1976). These s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t h e a l t h w o r k e r s ' a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t much o f t h e same n e g a t i v e and s t e r e o t y p i c a l t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e aged e x h i b i t e d by o t h e r segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Though such c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e p e a t e d by o t h e r s (Kahana and Coe, 1969; L o w e n t h a l and Simon, 1971). two c a u t i o n a r y n o t e s must be added. F i r s t t h e a t t i t u d e s ex-p r e s s e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s may be due t o the s t a t e s o f t h o s e e l d e r l y p e o p l e t h e y e n c o u n t e r i n t h e i r work r a t h e r t h a n t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about a l l e l d e r l y p e o p l e . Second many o f 12 t h e s t u d i e s r e p o r t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r groups r a t h e r t h a n a b s o l u t e v a l u e s showing n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e s . Jacob Tuckman and I r v i n g L o r g e (1953) d e s i g n e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d i n g 137 s t a t e m e n t s about o l d age which were d i v i d e d i n t o t h i r t e e n c a t e g o r i e s — s t a t e m e n t s on p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , f i n a n c e s , c o n s e r v a t i s m , f a m i l y , a t t i t u d e toward f u t u r e , i n s e c u r i t y , m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n , a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , b e s t time o f l i f e , s ex, c l e a n l i n e s s , and i n t e r f e r e n c e i n l i v e s w i t h o t h e r s . They found s u b s t a n t i a l a c c e p t a n c e of s t e r e o t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e aged. Then, Tuckman and L o r ge (1952) l o o k e d i n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( f r o m t h e f i e l d s o f b u s i n e s s , m e d i c i n e , s o c i a l work and l a b o r r e l a t i o n s ) who had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e aged and showed t h a t t h e y t o o needed t o agree w i t h a l a r g e number o f o l d age s t e r e o t y p e s . More t h a n a decade a f t e r t h e Tuckman and L o r ge s t u d y , M c T a v i s h (1971) found t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f h i s 1469 sample agreed t h a t o l d p e o p l e 'are apt t o c o m p l a i n ' and 'annoying', e t c . Recent r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t e r e o -t y p i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p u b l i c images o f t h e aged ( H a r r i s , 1975)' On the o t h e r hand, a r e c e n t s t u d y ( G e i g e r , 1978) a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c o v e r how some o f the c o u n t r y ' s f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( s o c i a l work, l a w and m e d i c i n e ) p e r c e i v e d t h e aged. The f i n d i n g s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l a c k o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g some of t h e most b a s i c f a c t s about 13 o l d e r p e o p l e ; and l o w p r e f e r e n c e f o r w o r k i n g w i t h t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e i r f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s . I s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l work w i t h p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r have r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n f r om s o c i a l w o r k e r s and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( B a l d o c k , 1977; B e a t t i e , 1976; Moroney, 1976; T o b i n , 1975). A t t h e same t i m e , s e v e r a l s o c i a l w o r k ers have n o t e d t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e e l d e r l y w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. R o b e r t M o r r i s (1969) s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i a l work has f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r much o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge about t h e aged and c o n c o m i t a n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d l o w p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r needs. L a t e r , Meyer (1975»1) n o t e d t h a t " . . . s o c i a l work has p a i d minimum a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s f i e l d . . . " And i n t h e r e c e n t e d i t i o n o f t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work, E l a i n e Brody (1977*7*0 s t a t e d t h a t " . . . i n t h e main the a g i n g phase o f l i f e has n o t r e c e i v e d i t s due s hare of a t t e n t i o n . . . " i n s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h . G r o w ing r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e numerous problems which b e s e t e v e r i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f o l d e r p e o p l e l e d t o a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l work s e r v i c e s t o h e l p cope w i t h t h e s e needs ( F i e l d , 1972; C a l h o u n , 1978; R a n d a l l , 1977; Cormican, 1980; Lowy, 1975; B r e a r l e y , 1978; M o r r i s , 1969; Lowy, 1972; Lowy, 1979; Penny, 1977; B r e a r l e y , 1975; R o w l i n g s , 1981; R o w l i n g s , 1981a). F o r i n s t a n c e , M o r r i s (1977) a d v o c a t e d t h a t 'the c o r e o f s o c i a l work development' l i e s i n t h e a s s u m p t i o n 14 o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c a r e f o r t h o s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n who depend on o t h e r s f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l . He f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i r e c t c a r i n g f o r p e o p l e r a t h e r c a r i n g about them i s work f o r w h i c h t h e e t h i c s and t h e knowledge base o f s o c i a l work a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e and n e c e s s a r y . Soyer (1969) a l s o o f f e r e d a p e r s o n a l v i e w o f the S i g n i f i c a n c e o f w o r k i n g w i t h e l d e r l y p e o p l e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o the c o r e v a l u e s o f s o c i a l work, most p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f each human b e i n g ; and a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h can broaden one's s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e f u l l range o f human e x p e r i e n c e . W h i l e p h y s i c i a n s , d e n t i s t s , p h y s i c a l t h e r a p i s t s , and n u r s e s tended t o p l a c e more emphasis on t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e l d e r l y , t h e s o c i a l w o r k ers f o c u s e d on the s o c i o - e m o t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f a g i n g . These, i n t u r n , have l e d t o f a r - r e a c h i n g developments i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e i s emerging e v i d e n c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l y more awareness on t h e p a r t o f s o c i a l work s c h o o l s , o f the need t o a c q u a i n t t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h the problems o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n ( P a t t e r s o n , 1981; T o b i n , 1978; A l l e n and B u r w e l l , 1980; E h r i c h and E h r l i c h , 1979). S i n c e s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e p a r t o f t h i s s o c i e t y , we must assume t h a t t h e y a r e a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g a g i n g and t h e aged. S e v e r a l w r i t e r s (Wasser, 1966; Cormican, 1977; K o s b e r g and H a r r i s , 1976) have commented on t h e f a i l u r e o r r e l u c t a n c e o f s o c i a l 15 w o r k e r s t o t a k e on an a c t i v e r o l e w i t h t h e i r e l d e r l y c l i e n t s . G o l d b e r g , e t a l . (1978) n o t e d t h a t i n t h e a r e a team t h e y s t u d i e d , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s d e s c r i b e d most o f t h e i r work w i t h e l d e r l y c l i e n t s as p r e s e r v a t i o n o r main-tenance o f t h e s t a t u s quo. They r a r e l y d e s c r i b e d t h e i r aims as d i r e c t e d towards e m o t i o n a l problems o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r , a t t i t u d e s o r environment. A number o f s t u d i e s ( B l a n k , 1971) have c l e a r l y shown the u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f many p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r kers t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e o l d . One such s t u d y was conducted by the R e s e a r c h U n i t o f t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Work i n UK T r a i n i n g i n a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department ( N e i l l , e t a l . , 1973). B r e a r l e y (1975) a l s o has n o t e d t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f a d j e c t i v e s w i t h n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s t o d e s c r i b e s o c i a l work w i t h e l d e r l y c l i e n t s — ' d i f f i c u l t ' , 'slow', ' l i m i t e d ' , and so on. Goe (1967) d e s c r i b e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s as h o l d i n g two t y p e s o f a t t i t u d e s . One was t h a t the e l d e r l y were no d i f f e r e n t from c l i e n t s i n any o t h e r age group. The second was t h a t e l d e r l y c l i e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d unique problems i n m a i n t a i n i n g independent h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The second p e r s p e c t i v e tended t o l e a v e s o c i a l w o r k e rs overwhelmed by a d e p r e s s i n g , d i s c o u r a g i n g p roblem. T h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o m a r s h a l s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s t o s u p p o r t c l i e n t s i n independent l i v i n g made them f e e l t h a t work w i t h t h e aged was "almost u s e l e s s and a Waste of energy" (Coe, 1967). More r e c e n t l y , F u t r e l l and Jones (1977) found t h a t 16 s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e more p o s i t i v e t h a n e i t h e r n u r s e s o r p h y s i c i a n s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t h e e l d e r l y , and t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e e t i n g t h e needs o f t h e aged. Comments such as t h e s e i l l u s t r a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n s t e r e o t y p e s about e l d e r l y c l i e n t s w h i c h emphasize t h e l o w s t a t u s o f t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y l o o k a t t h e f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s — t h a t i s , the s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' p a s t c o n t a c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e aged. 17 CHAPTER I I I DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the S t u d y There a r e a number o f b a s i c f a c t s w h i c h w i l l b e a r upon t h i s s t u d y w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . F i r s t , o l d p e o p l e a r e found i n e v e r y s o c i e t y . The p r o v i s i o n o f c a r e t o t h e aged by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s a c o n c e r n o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . More p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g l o n g e r . D e c l i n i n g b i r t h r a t e s , d e c l i n i n g i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , and i n -c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y ace t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i n c r e a s e d p e r c e n t a g e s o f aged i n a l l such c o u n t r i e s . B o t h a b s o l u t e numbers and r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f aged have i n -c r e a s e d i n a l l Western c o u n t r i e s . Any c a t e g o r y o f c i t i z e n s c o n s t i t u t i n g as s u b s t a n t i a l a segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n as our o l d e r p e o p l e p o s s e s s e s th e p o t e n t i a l t o e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e and impact on the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s o f our s o c i e t y . Because of t h i s f a c t , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l e v a n t t o s t u d y a g i n g and i t s r e l a t e d phenomenon. Second, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e demographic changes, s o c i a l and economic t r e n d s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o c r e a t i n g a ' s o c i a l p r oblem' out o f a normal p r o c e s s . The s e v e r e s h o r t a g e of h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the a g i n g f i e l d s t i m u l a t e s t h e i n -t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c . The more we know about a p roblem, the e a s i e r i f may be t o s o l v e the problem. Moreover, governments 18 a r e now more concerned w i t h t h e needs o f t h e aged because i n a d d i t i o n t o the emergence o f the aged as a n u m e r i c a l l y im-p o r t a n t group and a group w i t h e x p a n d i n g needs and problems, the aged a r e becoming n o t i c e a b l y p o l i t i c i z e d . They v o t e , t h e y a r e a r t i c u l a t e , and t h e y a r e b e g i n n i n g t o o r g a n i z e as an independent p o l i t i c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y i n many p l a c e s . T h i r d , a g i n g - r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s a r e i n t r i n s c i a l l y i n -t e r e s t i n g . They p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s . They p r o v i d e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s a g a i n s t which t o compare one's own development and may even be i n d i c a t i v e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r one's own l i f e t i m e . Knowledge o f a t t i t u d e s a l l o w s one t o b e t t e r p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . I n f a c t , i t i s p r o b a b l y a c c u r a t e t o s u g g e s t t h a t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , how p e o p l e e v a l u a t e t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s may be more p r e d i c t i v e o f b e h a v i o r t h a n o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s , because i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be a f f e c t e d by them. I n q u i r i e s i n t o t h e s e a s p e c t s a r e r e l e v a n t t o s o c i a l work. F o r t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o l d w i l l t o a l a r g e e x t e n t d e t e r m i n e t h e degree o f k n o w l e d g e a b l e , h u m a n i s t i c s o c i a l work c a r e t h a t i s d e l i v e r e d t o e l d e r l y p e r s o n s . F o u r t h , many academic i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e s o c i a l work a r e n a a r e now p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o s e r v e e l d e r l y c l i e n t s . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the way i n w h i c h s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s v i e w t h e aged i s c r u c i a l t o the development o f f u t u r e systems o f s e r v i c e 19 d e l i v e r y . H o p e f u l l y from t h i s s t u d y we can p r o v i d e c u r r i c u l u m committees w i t h some i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s i s s u e . F i n a l l y , t h e s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o make a ^ c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l work knowledge o f a g i n g and g e r o n t o l o g y . F u r t h e r -more, a t t i t u d e s o f p r o f e s s i b n a l s toward the aged and toward t h e i r s e r v i c e have an e f f e c t on s o c i a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s t o t h e aged. O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Study The p r e s e n t s t u d y which adopts t h e ' h e t e r o t r a i t -monomethod' p r o c e d u r e (Campbell and F i s k e , 1959) aims a t im-p r o v i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t t i t u d e s toward o l d p e o p l e , and i n h e l p i n g t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t might be r e l a t e d t o t h e s e a t t i t u d e s . T h i s g o a l r e q u i r e s a s e t o f v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , our o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e a s -c e r t a i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y , and r e -l i a b i l i t y o f t h e a t t i t u d e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ( E . Palmore's F a c t s on A g i n g Q u i z — F A Q 1 and FAQ2, and N. Kogan's A t t i t u d e s toward O l d P e o p l e S c a l e — O P ) f o r a g i v e n t a r g e t group ( u n i v e r s i t y s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ) ; and t e s t i n g t h e hyp o t h e s e s once t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t i s v a l i d a t e d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l seek t o ad d r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What a t t i t u d e s toward t h e aged a r e d i s p l a y e d by s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ? How p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a r e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s toward t h e aged? 20 2. What s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ? 3- What r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, e x i s t s between s o c i a l work s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s arid p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e aged? 4. To what degree a r e s e l e c t e d p e r s o n a l and/or s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward t h e aged? 5. How v a l i d and r e l i a b l e a r e t h e a t t i t u d e measures? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms and Concepts The f o c u s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was c e n t e r e d around t h e conc e p t o f ' a t t i t u d e s . ' T h u r s t o n e ' s (1946:39) d e f i n i t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s s e r v e d as a g u i d e : "The i n t e n s i t y of p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a f f e c t f o r o r a g a i n s t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t . A p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i s any symbol, p e r s o n , p h r a s e , s l o g a n , o r i d e a toward which p e o p l e can d i f f e r as r e g a r d s t o p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a f f e c t . " A t t i t u d e s have g e n e r a l l y been r e g a r d e d as e i t h e r m ental r e a d i n e s s o r i m p l i c i t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h e x e r t some g e n e r a l and c o n s i s t e n t i n f l u e n c e on a f a i r l y l a r g e c l a s s o f e v a l u a -t i v e r e s p o n s e s . These r e s p o n s e s a r e u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d toward some o b j e c t , p e r s o n , o r group. I n a d d i t i o n , a t t i t u d e s a r e seen as e n d u r i n g p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , b u t ones which a r e 21 learned rather than innate (Zimbardo and Ebbesen, 1969:6). Klausmeier and Ripple (1971) also suggested that attitudes are learned, emotionally toned predispositions to react i n a consistent way, favorable or unfavorable, towards people, objects, situations, or ideas. Kogan (1979:13) added that the attitude concept c a r r i e s the connotation of a 'pro' or 'con* d i s p o s i t i o n toward the object of the attitu d e . As we mentioned before, the attitudes of concern i n t h i s study were related to attitudes toward older persons. Here, 'old' means aged 65 or over. However, the aged are not a single, homogeneous group. Therefore, within t h i s study, when we ask about the perceived problems of older persons, we adopted Bernice Neugarten's (1978) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and define the elde r l y into two d i s t i n c t categories: Young-Old (65 to 7k years of age) and Old-Old (aged 75 and above). Within the attitude model, i t seems desirable to include several other s o c i a l and personal variables which are commonly believed to be related to the attitudes of s o c i a l work students toward older persons. The age of a respondent i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l variable commonly u t i l i z e d i n attempts to discriminate between c e r t a i n a t t i t u d i n a l l e v e l s . The sex of a respondent i s another commonly used d i s -criminatory v a r i a b l e . C o n f l i c t i n g evidence i s available regarding sex as a factor influencing attitudes toward older persons. Some studies ( M e r r i l l and Gunter, 1969; P e r r i l , 1963) indicated that women hold more negative views than 22 men and that t h e i r attitudes are somewhat more stereotyped. T r o l l and Schlossberg (1970) suggested that females are l e s s negative i n t h e i r views than males. In studying attitudes toward aging among uni v e r s i t y students, i t seems r a t i o n a l to suggest that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between past academic backgrounds and a t t i t u d e s . G i l l i s (1973*519) reported that there was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l of education and attitudes toward the aged. Studies by Campbell (1971), Thorson (1975a, 1975b), and Thorson, et a l . (1974) indicated a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e v e l of education and attitudes toward the aged. More p o s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons appear to be held by persons who have a greater number of years of education. Closely p a r a l l e l i n g education i s l e v e l of study or pro-gram, i n order to see whether d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s o c i a l work students have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to attitudes toward aging, the basic discrimination attempted w i l l be between BSW, CBSW, and MSW l e v e l s . The marital status of a respondent i s another variable used i n the study. Though i n areas possibly related to attitudes toward aged there i s l i t t l e research using marital status as a v a r i a b l e , i t can be suggested that the respondent's marital status w i l l r e l a t e to attitudes toward aged i n some manner. 23 I n o r d e r t o f i n d out whether t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e aged as a group o r o t h e r w i s e , beyond a s k i n g them t o suggest y e a r s o f age f o r p e r s o n s c o n s i d e r e d ' o l d ' and ' e l d e r l y * , the r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o r a n k t h e f o l l o w i n g 16 problems ( R e i f l e r , Cox, and H a n l e y , 1981; Avant and D r e s s e l , 1980) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f s e v e r i t y f o r t h e Young-Old and O l d - O l d . The 16 m o d i f i e d problem a r e a s a r e : H o u s i n g and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n ; Food and n u t r i t i o n ; S e l f - c a r e ; P h y s i c a l h e a l t h ; E m o t i o n a l and mental f a c t o r s ; F i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s ; T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; Day-to-day r o u t i n e ; F a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ; Knowledge o f a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s ; Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; L e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n ; L e g a l a s s i s t a n c e ; F r i e n d s h i p s ; E d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; and V o l u n t e e r work. F i n a l l y , a number o f v a r i a b l e s , r e l a t e d t o r e s p o n d e n t ' s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and c o n t a c t s w i t h o l d e r p e r s o n s , have been i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g l i n k e d t o one's a t t i t u d e s toward the aged. These v a r i a b l e s a r e : Y e a r s o f h e l p i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ; L a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d ; L a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e ; Most d e s i r a b l e p e r i o d o f l i f e ; Worst p e r i o d o f l i f e ; Work w i t h aged b e f o r e ; Work w i t h aged now; Frequency o f c o n t a c t w i t h aged; Amount o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h aged; Amount of t r a i n i n g i n a g i n g ; and F u t u r e s o c i a l work p r e f e r e n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s can be f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above d i s c u s s i o n : 1. The t h r e e measures o f a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s (FAQ, OP, and WHAR) w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r . 24 2 . There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the educational l e v e l s of. s o c i a l work students (BSW, CBSW, and MSW) with regards to t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. 3 . There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the rank order of problems of Young-Old and Old-Old with regards to s o c i a l work students' perceptions of i t ' s severity. 4. The past contacts and experiences of s o c i a l work students with older persons w i l l be related to t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. 5. The demographical background (sex, age, marital status, education) of s o c i a l work students w i l l be related to t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. Taking into account a l l the above f i v e hypotheses, therefore, a research model (or attitude model) could be formulated as diagramed i n Figure 1 below: 2 5 Student Subjects Demographical Variables Study Variables BSW Level CBSW Level MSW Level Past Contacts and Experiences} with Older Persons Sex, Age, Marital Status ,| Education Attitudes toward Old iPeople (OP) 11 j _ iFacts About [Aging Quiz (FAQ) [Willingness to Help Aged Relative (WHAR)l Figure 1. Flow Chart of Factors Important i n Influencing Attitudes toward Older Persons CHAPTER IV RESEARCH PROCEDURES Research Plan A quantitative-descriptive design (Tripodi, F e l l i n and Meyer, 1969*3^-^5) which was cross-sectional ( s t a t i c group comparison) i n nature was employed to test the hypotheses put fort h e a r l i e r and to ascertain the r e l a t i o n s h i p between de-mographic variables and s o c i a l work students' attitudes toward older persons. This approach was necessitated by resource and time constraints as well as the researcher's desire to provide usable data f o r future c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison. Source and C o l l e c t i o n of Data Data were co l l e c t e d by means of a structured s e l f -administered questionnaire (see Appendix A) that included demographic information regarding sex; educational background; age; marital status; program; years of helping experience; the most desirable period of l i f e ; the worst period of l i f e ; work with aged before; work with aged now; frequency of contact with aged; amount of experience with aged; amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging; years of age considered old; years of age considered elderly; perception of el d e r l y problems; and future s o c i a l work preference. A pre-test of the questionnaire (see Appendix B f o r cover l e t t e r ) was conducted i n December 1981 i n order to discover the t e s t questions that are ambiguous and d i f f i c u l t 27 to answer from the respondent's point of view. Ten samples were randomly drawn from the students who were taking c r e d i t s i n the Graduate Seminar of Gerontology i n UBC. Ninety percent (9) of the questionnaires were completed and returned. Minor changes were made i n the f i n a l questionnaire which was sent to respondents i n l a t e January 1982. The s e t t i n g f o r the study i s the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Purposive sampling method (Bailey, 1978) was used i n t h i s study. The universe f o r the study consisted of a l l the f u l l - t i m e and part-time students enrolled i n the School during the 1981-1982 academic year. That i s , the population included 49 BSW students, 48 Concentrated BSW students and 37 MSW students. Ninety (67«2 percent) of the 13k questionnaires were completed and returned. Measurements The Attitudes toward Old People Scale (hereafter desig-nated the OP s c a l e ) — T h e Kogan OP scale (1961) was constructed as a unidimensional instrument, and i n f a c t i t has yielded highly s a t i s f a c t o r y internal-consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s and item-sum correlations, though recent research ( K i l t y and Feld, 1976; Rosencranz and McNevin, 1969) has suggested that the present a t t i t u d i n a l domain i s multidimensional. In the present study, the OP scale (see Appendix C) was u t i l i z e d to measure the s o c i a l work students' attitudes toward older persons. 28 I t i s a scale of 34 Likert-type (Blalock and Blalock, 1968: 94-97) statements, consisting of 17 p o s i t i v e l y and 17 negatively stated items about older persons with which respondents are asked to agree or disagree. A scale of 1 to 5» representing responses varying from "strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree' was provided f o r each statement. Silverman (1966) has reported that the Kogan Scale has p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y and low response-set bias. McTavish (1971) indicated that separate p o s i t i v e and negative scale scores were derived and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .66 to .83 are r e p o r t e d — higher f o r the negative scale. The Facts on Aging Quiz (hereafter designated the FAQ scale)—Palmore (1977) developed the FAQ1 scale to measure knowledge about older people. The scale i s a short quiz (25 True-False items) r e s t r i c t e d to 'factual' statements which he has empirically documented. The FAQ1 was designed to cover basic physical, mental and s o c i a l facts about aging as well as the most common misconceptions about aging. Palmore (1980) claimed the scale can be used to measure knowledge about aging, to determine frequently held misconceptions about old people and aging, and can be an i n d i r e c t measure of bias toward the aged. Although a r e l a t i v e l y recent development, FAQ1 has been extensively u t i l i z e d (Palmore, 1978, 1979). S t i l l , there have been studies t e s t i n g the v a l i d i t y of the scale. Holtzman and Beck (1979) concluded that the scale 29 does i n f a c t measure knowledge about t h e e l d e r l y . I n a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s c i t e d by Palmore (1980) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h o s e w i t h t r a i n i n g i n g e r o n t o l o g y s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e s c a l e t h a n t h o s e who have had l e s s t r a i n i n g o r none a t a l l . Klemmack (1978) on the o t h e r hand suggested t h a t t h e FAQ1 does n o t measure knowledge o f a g i n g p e r se b u t i s a measure of s t e r e o t y p e s . M i l l e r and Dodder (1980) a l s o s u g g e s t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f t h e s c a l e t o compensate t h e FAQ1. I n 1981 Palmore (1981) d e v e l o p e d t h e FAQ2 which a l s o c o n t a i n s 25 T r u e - F a l s e i t e m s . The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f FAQ1 have been d i s c u s s e d and documented (Palmore, 1978, 1980). R e l i a b i l i t y between t h e two forms i s f a i r l y s a t i s -f a c t o r y based on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g from .50 t o .80 (Palmore, 1981:4-36). However, i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s t e n d t o be l o w because the i t e m s r e p r e s e n t many d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f knowledge about a g i n g ( p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a t t i t u d i n a l , economic, s o c i a l , e t c . ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e major use o f FAQ was as an i n d i r e c t measure o f b i a s toward the aged. A c c o r d i n g t o Palmore (1977, 1980:669, and 1981:435), 21 i t e m s o f FAQ1 and 19 i t e m s o f FAQ2 can be used t o i n d i c a t e b i a s toward the aged i f t h e y a r e marked i n c o r r e c t l y . W i t h i n t h e s e 40 i t e m s 16 i t e m s i n FAQ1 and 14 i t e m s i n FAQ2 were c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i c a t i n g a n e g a t i v e b i a s toward t h e aged i f t h e y a r e marked i n c o r r e c t l y . On t h e o t h e r hand, 5 i t e m s each i n FAQ1 and 30 FAQ2 were c l a s s i f i e d as in d i c a t i n g a po s i t i v e bias. There-fore, i n t h i s study, the FAQ consists of 4-0 items (21 from FAQ1 and 19 from FAQ2). They were scored according to Palmore's key (see Appendix D) so that a correct response was given the value of one, and an incorrect response the value of zero. Using these 40 items, one can then compute a net bias score by subtracting the percentage of errors on the negative bias items from the percentage of errors on the p o s i t i v e bias items. Note that subtracting percentages rather than raw numbers controls f o r the f a c t that there are more negative bias items than p o s i t i v e . I f the r e s u l t i n g score i s negative, i t indicates a net anti-aged bias; i f i t i s p o s i t i v e , i t indicates a net pro-aged bias. The Willingness to Help Aged Relatives Scale (hereafter designated the WHAR s c a l e ) - - i s constructed by the researcher himself, consisting of 11 Likert-type statements. A scale of 1 to 4, representing responses varying from 'Not at a l l l i k e l y ' to 'Very l i k e l y ' was provided f o r each statement. The WHAR (see Appendix A) was also intended as an i n d i r e c t measure of the respondent's attitudes .toward older persons. Analysis Design Responses were coded (see Appendix A) and keypunched on to a computer disk. The computer program used i n the data analysis was the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l 31 Sciences or SPSS (Nie, et a l . , 1975; Kita< 1980). The analysis of data i n t h i s study was divided into four parts. Although some of the s t a t i s t i c a l tests are parametric i n nature, .but are robust with respect to the underlying assumptions, that i s , able to tolerate deviations such as non-normality of d i s t r i b u t i o n or lack of equal variances, they may consequently be used with the data of t h i s study (Labovitz, 1967). The f i r s t part of the analysis was to determine the content v a l i d i t y ( S e l l t i z , Wrightsman, and Cook, 1976:179). c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y ( S e l l t i z , Wrightsman, and Cook, 1976:169). and r e l i a b i l i t y ( S e l l t i z , Wrightsman, and Cook, 1976:181-192) of FAQ, OP and WHAR. S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t ( K r i s t o f , 1963). zero-order product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (Hanushek and Jackson, 1977* 19-23) and fa c t o r analysis (Kenny, 1979*110-133) was used i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the analysis. In the second part, univariate analysis was operated and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents were presented according to t h e i r patterns of d i s t r i b u t i o n by percentage tables. In the t h i r d part, each independent variable (sex, marital status, educational background, etc.) of p o t e n t i a l significance was compared with the dependent variables (FAQ, OP and WHAR). Pearson's c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was used to 32 i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between var i a b l e s . The Chi-Square test (Leonard, 1976:176) was used as a measure of s t a t i s t i c a l s i gnificance and hypothesis t e s t i n g f o r each comparison made. Analysis of the dependent and independent variable i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s were accomplished through the use of tables with percentages. One way analysis of variance ( G r a y b i l l , 1976:2^ 7-252) was used f o r tes t of difference i n groups. Since the biv a r i a t e measure of a r e l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d to the covariation and i t s d i r e c t i o n , other variables were introduced into the analysis and Stepwise Regression Analysis (Horton, 1978:230-231) was performed i n order to determine the s i g n i f i c a n t contribution of each relevant independent variable to the dependent va r i a b l e . S t a t i s t i c a l Power Analysis (Cohen, 1977) was also applied to the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t ( c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , Chi-Square test, and F-test). performed i n t h i s study i n order to assess the pr o b a b i l i t y that the s p e c i f i c test w i l l y i e l d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . There are three factors a f f e c t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l power that must be taken into account by an investigator: significance l e v e l (a), e f f e c t size (ES), and sample size (N). Significance l e v e l (alpha l e v e l ) i s the pr o b a b i l i t y of a Type I error or the pr o b a b i l i t y of r e j e c t i n g the n u l l hypothesis when i t i s i n f a c t true. E f f e c t size i s 33 the degree to which the research or alternative hypothesis i s true i n the population. Cohen (1972) proposed operational d e f i n i t i o n s of small (.10), medium (.30), and large (.50) e f f e c t sizes, f a c i l i t a t i n g the c a l c u l a t i o n of power. In the present study the medium e f f e c t size i n c a l c u l a t i n g the power of the test w i l l be used. The smaller the e f f e c t s i z e , the l a r g e r the number of subjects (sample size) needed to achieve s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 34 CHAPTER V MEASUREMENT VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY Within t h i s part of analysis, the main focus i s on the assessment of the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the three mea-surements (FAQ, OP and WHAR) on attitudes toward older persons. S p e c i f i c a l l y the aspect of in t e r n a l consistency, r e l i a b i l i t y , c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y , content v a l i d i t y , and unidimensionality of each of three measuring scales i s considered. Internal Consistency The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) Correlations among the FAQ, FAQ1, FAQ2, FAQP (positive bias scale), and FAQN (negative bias scale) are presented i n Table 1. Because of the large sample size i n the study, a s t a t i s t i c a l s ignificance of p< .05 was established as the minimal acceptable l e v e l f o r discussion. A most notable r e s u l t i n the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of Table 1 i s the high s i g n i -f i c a n t correlations between the FAQ and a l l the four sub-scales. The four subscales correlate p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i -f i c a n t l y with each other except between FAQP and FAQN. These findings suggest that the FAQ and i t s subscales may tap many of the same factors i n regards to attitudes toward older persons. And the FAQ as a whole i s rather consistent i n t e r n a l l y . 35 Table 1. Correlation Matrix of the FAQ Scale and It s Subscales Scales FAQ FAQ1 FAQ2 FAQP FAQN FAQ X .85** .78** .43** .91** FAQ1 X .32** .41** .76** FAQ2 X .29** .73** FAQP X ns FAQN X * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t . a 2 = .05, ES = .30, N = 90, Power = .82. When the inter-item c o r r e l a t i o n matrixes presented i n Table 2 (FAQ1) and Table 3 (FAQ2) were examined, substantial v a r i a t i o n s i n s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were observed. A t o t a l of 121 s i g n i f i c a n t correlations among items i n the over a l l FAQ scale occurred?, but only 42 have s i g n i f i c a n t correlations i n i n FAQ1 and 22 i n FAQ2 respectively. Comparatively speaking, i t seems that the FAQ1 has a higher i n t e r n a l consistency than the FAQ2. 36 Table 2. I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the FAQ1 S c a l e Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 14 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 X ns ns ns ns ns ns .20* •38**.29**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 2 X ns .19* ns ns ns ns ns ns .21* ns ns .20* ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 3 X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 4 X ns .28**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns .17* ns ns ns ns .19* ns ns 5 X ns ns ns . 2 7 * * . 2 1 * . 2 3 * * n s ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 6 X ns ns ns . 2 3 * * n s ns ns .47**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 7 X ns ns ns ns ns -.21* ns ns •36**ns .28**ns • 17* ns 8 X .18* ns -.17* ns ns ns ns ns . 2 6 * * n s ns ns ns 9 X .20* ns ns • 2 3 * * n s ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 10 X .19* • 33 **ns ns .20* .20* .34* *ns ns ns ns 11 X ns .18* ns .18* ns . 2 6 * * n s ns .21* ns 12 X ns .20* .24**ns ns ns ns ns .20* 1 3 X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 14 X ns ns ns ns .17* ns -.17* 1 5 X .28**ns ns ns •45**ns 16 X ns .18* ns .41**.17* 17 X ns ns ns ns 18 X ns ns ns 1 9 X ns ns 20 X ns 21 X • - S i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t . a 2 = . 0 5 , ES = . 3 0 , N = 9 0 , Power = .82. Table 3 . I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the FAQ2 Scale Items 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3^ 35 36 37 38 39 ko 22 X ns ns ns ns -,kk**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns - . 2 3**ns -.,2k** 23 X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns . 1 9 * ns ns ns ns ns ns 2k X . 2 2 * ns ns ns ns ns .26 **ns •31**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 25 X ns ns ns ns ns • 23 **ns .18* ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 26 X ns ns ns - . 1 9 * ns ns .26**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 2? X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns - • 3 2**ns 28 X • 33 **ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 29 X .18* ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 30 X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns . 2 0 * 31 X ns ns ns ns ns .2k**ns ns ns 32 X •26**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 33 X ns . 1 7 * ns ns .2k **.19* ns 3 ^ X ns . 2 2 * ns ns ns ns 35 X ns ns ns ns ns 36 X . 1 9 * ns ns ns 37 X ns ns ns 38 X ns ns 39 X ns ko X • - S i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 5 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t . a 2 = . 0 5 , ES = . 3 0 , N = 9 0 . Power = .82. The Attitudes toward Old People Scale (OP) From Table 4, we can see that c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -cients between OPP ( p o s i t i v e l y worded scale), OPN (negatively worded scale), and OP range from .25 to .82, a l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . Then when we look at the inter-item correlations among OP, OPP and OPN, there were 176 s i g n i f i c a n t correlations i n OP, kO i n OPP (see Table 5) and 4-9 i n OPN (see Table 6) respectively. The findings suggest that the OP scale has a high i n t e r n a l consistency by i t s e l f , and the OPN subscale tends to be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r n a l l y than the OPP subscale. Table 4. Correlation Matrix of the OP Scale and Its Subscales Scales OP OPP OPN OP OPP OPN X .74** X .82** .25** X * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . a 2 = -05, ES = .30, N = 90, Power = .82. The Willingness to Help Aged Relative Scale (WHAR) As shown i n Table 7. the correlations f o r the WHAR inter-item c o r r e l a t i o n matrix are s t r i k i n g . Most of the items correlated highly and s i g n i f i c a n t l y with each other, a t o t a l of 35 s i g n i f i c a n t correlations was recorded. One interpre-t a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g may be that the WHAR scale i s mainly 39 Table 5 . I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the OPP Scale Items 17 22 23 25 26 28 29 21. 8 10 12 13 16 17 20 22 23 25 26 28 29 31 2 X ns . 1 7 * . 2 6**ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns .18* 4 X . 2 2 * ns . 2 9**ns -.18* ns .27**ns ns ns ns -.18* .28**ns ns .24**.17* ns ns ns ns -35**ns .31**ns . 3 8 * * . 1 9 * - 2 2 * 6 . X ns 8 X . 2 2 * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 10 12 13 16 ns .17* ns ns -.18 * X ns ns ns .42**ns . 2 3 * * - 2 7 * * . 2 9 * * n s ns ns ns X - . 2 1 * ns - . 2 2 * ns ns ns ns ns ns . 2 0 * ns X ns ns ns ns ns . 1 7 * ns ns ns ns X ns ns ns ns ns ns .23**ns ns X ns ns ns ns ns . 2 0 * ns . 2 7 * * ^ 20 X ns ns ns ns ns . 2 7 * * .18* X . 2 6**ns ns ns ns . 3 7 * * X ns ns ns .23**ns X ns . 3 3 * * . 2 0 * . 3 1 * * X ns ns ns x . 2 3 * * . 3 1 * * X ns X • - S i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 5 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t a t the . 0 1 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t , a, = . 0 5 , ES = . 3 0 , N = 9 0 , Power = .82. Table 6 . I n t e r - I t e m C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x of the OPN S e a l Items 1 3 5 1 X ns ns 3 X ns 5 X 7 9 11 14 15 18 19 21 2k 27 30 32 33 34 lk 15 18 19 21 2k 27 30 32 33 34 ns ns - . 1 7 * ns ns ns ns ns - . 1 7 * ns ns .18* ns ns ns • 17* • 2 3 * * . 4 5**ns ns ns . 1 9 * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns . 1 7 * ns . 2 0 * ns . 1 7 * •49**ns ns . 2 2 * ns • 3 8 * * . 1 7 * •36**ns . 2 6 * * ns ns ns • - . 1 7 * ns . 2 3 * * . 2 1 * ns •25**ns . 3 3 * * ns •34**ns ns ns .kl* *ns ns ns ns ns X . 2 1 * ns . 2 0 * . 2 9 * * . 2 3 * * . 4 4 * * n s . 2 2 * ns ns X ns ns ns ns . 1 9 * ns ns ns ns X ns ns ns ns ns ns ns . 2 0 * X •25**ns ns ns •32**ns ns X . 2 2 * •27**ns . 2 1 * . 3 7 * * . 3 6 * * X ns ns ns . 2 2 * • 1 7 * X ns •37**ns • 3 0 * * X ns . 2 1 * ns ns ns ns .29**.18* ns .22* ns ns X .24**ns X ns X ns X *-S a 2 i g n i f i c = - 0 5 ES = . 3 0 , • • - S i g n i f i c a n t at the . 0 1 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t . . 2 0 * . 6 1 * * x Table 7. Inter-Item C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of the WHAR Scale Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 X .53** .23** .25** .36** .20* ns ns -.28** ns ns 2 X .28** .27** .19* .18* ns ns ns ns ns 3 X .35** .34** .30** .28** .24** ns .17* .24** 4 X .80** • 53** .32** ns ns .22* .31** 5 X .52** .19* ns ns ns .31** 6 X .19* ns ns .24** .45** 7 X .35** ns .33** .28** 8 X .37** .29** ns 9 X .26** ns 10 X .18* l l X • - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t a? = .05, ES = .30, N = 90, Power = .82. measuring the willingness of social, work students i n helping t h e i r aged r e l a t i v e s . R e l i a b i l i t y In order to test the r e l i a b i l i t y of the three a t t i t u d i n a l measurements (FAQ, OP and WHAR) on aging, s p l i t - h a l f method was used and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated. Results were presented i n Table 8. The range i s from .34 to .64. There i s greater r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the OP scale ( . 6 4 ) . Comparatively speaking, the FAQ1 scale (.52) i s more r e l i a b l e than the FAQ2 scale ( .34) . The ov e r a l l r e l i a b i l i t y f o r FAQ scale i s .4?. As to the WHAR scale, i t also obtains a moderate r e l i a b i l i t y of .42. Table 8. Guttman S p l i t - H a l f R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s of FAQ, FAQ1, FAQ2, OP, and WHAR Scales Scales R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t FAQ .4? FAQ1 .52 FAQ2 .34 OP .64 WHAR .42 43 C r i t e r i o n V a l i d i t y In order to assess the c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y of the FAQ scale, the OP scale used as a c r i t e r i o n f o r the assessment. Also, we used the OPN subscale as the c r i t e r i o n f o r the FAQN subscale since they both assumed to measure the negative aspect of the a t t i t u d e . And we used the OPP sub-scale as the c r i t e r i o n f o r the FAQP subscale on the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d i n a l side. Unfortunately not a single c o r r e l a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . As already reported by Palmore (1980:669-670), FAQ1 tended to have a low c o r r e l a t i o n with more d i r e c t measure of attitude, such as Kogan*'s Old People Scale (1961) and Aging Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scale (Rosencranz and McNevin, 1969)• In t h i s study, a f t e r we combined the FAQl and FAQ2 into a FAQ scale, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n what-so-ever with Kogan's OP scale. Also, the correlations between FAQ, OP and WHAR were a l l not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . This suggested that we have to r e j e c t the f i r s t hypothesis by accepting the n u l l hypothesis that no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between the three a t t i t u d i n a l measures of aging. I t further means that we can no longer assume that the three scales are equivalent to each other and thus have to look at them independently. Generally i t appears that the FAQ and OP scale which purport to assess attitudes toward older persons have yielded two sets of scales which have no evidence to indicate that scales with s i m i l a r names provide s i m i l a r kk a t t i t u d i n a l information. Such r e s u l t s c a l l f o r cautious and sele c t i v e use of these instruments by researcher. We may say that each scale measures d i f f e r e n t dimensions of attitudes toward older persons. Content V a l i d i t y As we said before, Palmore (1977 and 1981) suggested that an analysis of error made on h i s knowledge quiz items might serve as an i n d i r e c t measure of age bias. Accordingly, 16 items i n FAQ1 and 14 items i n FAQ2 may be c l a s s i f i e d as in d i c a t i n g a negative bias i f answered i n c o r r e c t l y ; and 5 each i n both FAQ1 and FAQ2 may be c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i c a t i n g a p o s i t i v e bias i f answered i n c o r r e c t l y . But since t h i s i s sol e l y based on the judgement from one person, so i n t h i s study the 40 items (see Appendix E) were then submitted to a panel of experts f o r ratings of content v a l i d i t y . The ten experts a l l have close and frequent contacts with older persons i n t h e i r work. The professions of> the experts include u n i v e r s i t y professor, nurse, s o c i a l worker, community care consultant and day care centre d i r e c t o r . They were selected from the participants of the Graduate Seminar of Gerontology i n UBC. Seventy percent (7) of the questionnaires were completed and returned. As shown i n Table 9. only 18 items obtained the majority (over 50 percent) agreement from the experts, and 4 items were close to the margin of agreement. But the rest 45 of the 18 items f e l l within the 'disagree' category. The discrepancy between Palmore and the experts may be explained by the following f a c t o r s : 1. The items which were s p e c i a l l y designed f o r assessing the respondent's knowledge on aging, might not have been cle a r enough to bring out i t s l a t e n t age bias c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 2. The experts might have carelessly answered the question-naire according to the true and f a l s e symbolic meaning of the item instead of the underlying connotation. Unidimensionality From former inter-item c o r r e l a t i o n analyses we found that a large number of near-zero, non-significant correlations existed among the FAQ and OP instruments. Therefore, factor analysis was applied i n order to i s o l a t e descriptive dimensions used i n attitudes toward older persons. A three fa c t o r solution with varimax rotation (Le, 1980) was therefore extracted from the data. The three factor solution was selected as the analyses produced two or three factors with eigenvalues over 1.9. accounting f o r 35 percent of the variance and these were r e a d i l y interpretable i n terms of the highest loading items. In Table 10, we can see that the FAQ scale actually consists of three major factors which explain a t o t a l of 35•6 percent of variance. This f i n d i n g further confirms that the FAQ i s a multidimensional measurement, at l e a s t 46 Table 9 . Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Experts' Judgement on the Bias Char a c t e r i s t i c of Palmore's FAQ Items Items Palmore's Experts' Judgement Judgement Agree N (*) 0 ( o.o) + 3 ( 42.9) _ 0 ( o.o) + 2 ( 28.5) _ 0 ( o.o) + 2 ( 28.5) _ 1 ( 14.3) 7 (100.0) _ 0 ( o.o) 7 (100.0) _ 0 ( o.o) + 2 ( 28.5) 0 ( o.o) + 3 ( 42.9) _ 7 (100.0) 0 ( o.o) _ 7 (100.0) _ 1 ( 14.3) _ 7 (100.0) _ 7 (100.0) 3 ( 42.9) + 2 ( 28.5) + 1 ( 14.3) 1 ( 14.3) _ 1 ( 14.3) _ 6 ( 85.7) + 6 ( 85-7) — 7 (100.0) _ 5 ( 71.5) _ ( 57 .D _ 3 ( 42.9) + 2 ( 28.5) _ 7 (100.0) + 7 (100.0) _ 5 ( 71.5) _ 1 ( 14.3) _ 2 ( 28.5) ( 57.D _ 1 ( 14.3) - 7 (100.0) Disagree N (*) 7 (100.0) ( 57-1) 7 (100.0) 5 ( 71-5) 7 (100.0) 5 ( 71-5) 6 ( 85-7) 0 ( o.o) 7 (100.0) 0 ( o.o) 7 (100.0) 5 ( 71.5) 7 (100.0) 4 ( 57.1) b ( o.o) 7 (100.0) 0 ( o.o) 6 ( 85-7) 0 ( o.o) 0 ( o.o) 4 ( 57-1) 5 ( 71.5) 6 ( 85-7) 6 ( 85-7) 6 ( 85-7) 1 ( 14.3) 1 ( 14.3) 0 ( o.o) 2 ( 28.5) 3 ( 42.9) 4 ( 57.1) 5 ( 71-5) 0 ( o.o) 0 ( 0.0) 2 ( 28.5) 6 ( 85-7) 5 ( 71-5) 3 ( 42.9) 6 ( 85-7) 0 ( o.o) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 "-" r e f l e c t s a negative bias item. "+" r e f l e c t s a po s i t i v e bias item. 47 T a b l e 10. F a c t o r i a l R e s u l t s o f FAQ S c a l e Items Communality F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 F a c t o r 3 1 .70 .kl .06 -•39 2 .28 .08 -.32 .27 3 .23 .04 .27 -.15 4 .69 .22 -.05 .27 5 • 55 • 32 -.03 -.07 6 .85 .22 .22 .61 7 .47 .29 -.27 -.02 8 .36 .11 • 39 -.17 9 • 55 .49 • 30 -.23 10 .42 • 51 -.04 .11 11 .68 • 32 -.27 .02 12 • 72 .28 .06 .25 13 .43 .42 .24 .02 14 • 58 .26 -.01 .58 15 .43 • 39 -.18 .01 16 .60 .44 -.41 -.01 17 .65 • 39 .19 .08 18 .56 .26 -.04 .08 19 .36 .19 -.07 .25 20 • 58 • 39 -.36 -.11 21 • 55 .03 .24 -.16 22 • 53 -.06 -•35 -.21 23 .26 .01 -.14 .32 24 • 39 •• .19 .25 -.21 25 • 37 .15 • 17 -.17 26 • 36 .25 .28 -.01 27 .75 -.07 • 39 .30 28 • 37 .21 -.12 -.16 29 .45 • 30 -.19 -.01 30 .28 .17 -.12 -.10 31 • 54 -.03 .11 -.34 32 .50 .11 .01 .05 33 .86 • 53 • 52 -.06 3k • 53 -.08 .03 .21 35 .60 .21 -.34 .06 36 • 34 .29 .09 -.12 37 .43 .32 -.01 -.01 38 • 33 .03 .42 .17 39 .46 .07 -.26 -•31 40 .46 .14 .13 .01 E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e e x p l a i n e d o f v a r i a n c e 2.82 Ik.jfo 2.24 11.4$ 1-95 9-9$ 48 including three related dimensions i n regard to attitudes toward older persons. As to the OP scale, Table 11 shown that only two factors can be extracted according to our c r i t e r i a . I t explains a t o t a l of 36.6 percent of variance. These i l l u s t r a t e that both FAQ and OP scale are multi-dimensional scales instead of being unidimensional i n nature. Summary In summary, the analysis i n Part I indicates that a l l three measurements on attitudes toward older persons (FAQ, OP and WHAR) have r e l a t i v e l y high i n t e r n a l consistency, but when we break i t down to the subscale l e v e l , the inter-item correlations seem to be weakened. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the three a t t i t u d i n a l scales were not very high at a l l ; only the OP scale has a r e l a t i v e l y moderate r e l i a b i l i t y i n comparison to the f a i r r e l i a b i l i t y of FAQ and WHAR. As to the c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y of the FAQ, the findings suggest that the FAQ and OP scale are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related and they tend to measure d i f f e r e n t aspects of attitudes toward older persons. In regards to the content v a l i d i t y , the panel of experts only agreed with Palmore over half of the FAQ items according to the item's p o s i t i v e and negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Through fac t o r analysis we also discovered that the FAQ 49 T a b l e 11. F a c t o r i a l R e s u l t s o f OP S c a l e Items Communality F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 1 • 55 -.02 -.04 2 • 39 .17 .25 3 .49 -.02 .05 4 .60 .11 -.07 5 • 36 -.09 .22 6 • 47 • 05 .03 7 .84 .04 -.01 8 .41 -.14 .16 9 .49 -.18 .17 10 .68 -.02 -.16 11 .66 .02 -.07 12 .42 -.08 -.18 13 .48 -.01 .13 14 • 58 .19 .06 15 .56 -.06 .06 16 .48 • 17 .14 17 .49 .07 .12 18 .22 -.02 .20 19 • 71 .80 -.03 20 .28 .21 -.01 21 .40 .29 • 39 22 .83 .22 .12 23 • 34 .08 -.12 24 .67 -.01 .18 25 • 51 .22 .01 26 .34 -.11 • 23 27 • 85 -.02 .12 28 .47 .20 .17 29 .70 -.01 -.11 30 .17 .07 .19 31 .82 • 85 .04 32 .69 .26 -.03 33 .65 -.04 • 77 34 .62 .02 .68 E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e o f e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e 3.90 21.4$ 2.77 15.2$ 50 scale a c t u a l l y measures three d i f f e r e n t but related dimensions of attitudes toward older persons. The OP scale consisted of two p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s . Thus we can argue that both FAQ and OP scales are multidimensional i n nature instead of unidimensional. 51 CHAPTER VI CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE In order to provide the setting f o r an analysis of the attitudes of s o c i a l work students toward older persons, a "brief d escription of the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents' population, including sex, age, marital status, educational background, cla s s , years of helping experience, l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d , l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e , the most desirable period of l i f e , the worst period of l i f e , work with aged before, work with aged now, frequency of contact with aged, amount of experience with aged, amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, years of age considered old, years of age considered e l d e r l y , perception of e l d e r l y problems, and future s o c i a l work preference w i l l be presented i n t h i s part of data analysis. Demographical and Educational Background From Table 12, i t can be seen that there were more female s o c i a l work students i n the study group than male students (70 percent as compared to 3° percent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Of the ninety s o c i a l work students included i n the study, 56 percent were under 30 years of age, 31 percent were between 31 to 40, and 13 percent 41 or above (see Table 13)' Table 14 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l work students by marital status. F i f t y percent were single, 40 percent were married, and 10 percent were once married (widowed, separated or divorced). 52 Table 1 2 . Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Sex Sex N Male Female 27 63 ( 3 0 . 0 ) ( 7 0 . 0 ) Total 90 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) Table 1 3. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Age Age N Under 30 50 ( 5 6 . 0 ) 31 - 40 28 ( 31-0) 41+ 12 ( 13-0) Total 90 ( 100 .0 ) Table 14. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Marital Status Marital Status N Single 45 ( 5 0 . 0 ) Married 36 ( 4 o . o ) Divorced/ Separated/ Widowed 9 ( 1 0 . 0 ) Total 90 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) 53 T a b l e 15 i n d i c a t e s t h a t among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , 61 p e r c e n t a l r e a d y have a b a c h e l o r d e g r e e , 27 p e r c e n t o n l y have a h i g h s c h o o l background ( b u t we s h o u l d n o t e t h a t the BSW s t u d e n t s can o n l y be a d m i t t e d i n t o the. S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t t h e i r T h i r d Y e a r , so a t p r e s e n t t h e y a l r e a d y have two y e a r s of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ) , 9 p e r c e n t have the c o n c e n t r a t e d b a c h e l o r degree i n s o c i a l work and 3 p e r c e n t have a d o c t o r a l degree b e f o r e t h e y e n r o l l e d i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T a b l e 15• Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Respondents by E d u c a t i o n a l Background P r i o r E d u c a t i o n a l Background N (%) Two y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n 24 ( 27.0) B.A. 55 ( 61.0) C.B.S.W. 8 ( 9-0) Ph.D. 3 ( 3-0) T o t a l 90 (100.0) As t o the s t u d y group's l e v e l o f s t u d y o r program, 32 p e r c e n t were i n t h e BSW program, 28 p e r c e n t i n t h e CBSW program, and 40 p e r c e n t i n th e MSW program (see T a b l e 16). At p r e s e n t i n t h e S c h o o l we have 36.5 p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n the BSW program, 35«1 p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e CBSW program, and 28.4 p e r c e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e MSW program. 54 Table 16. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Program Program N ($) BSW 29 ( 32.0) CBSW 25 ( 28.0) MSW 36 ( 40.0) Total 90 (100.0) When we asked about t h e i r years of helping experience we found that 7 percent had l e s s than 1 year of helping experience i n the past, 23 percent had 1 to 3 years, 22 percent had between 4 to 5 years, 32 percent had 6 to 10 years, and 16 percent had more than 11 years of helping experience (see Table 17). Table 17« Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of Helping Experience Years N Less than 1 year 6 ( 7.0) 1 - 3 years 21 ( 23.0) 4 - 5 years 20 ( 22.0) 6 - 1 0 years 29 ( 32.0) 11+ years 14 ( 16.0) Total 90 (100.0) 55 T a b l e 18 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r e s p o n d e n t s ' l a s t s o c i a l work j o b b e f o r e coming t o UBC. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , n e a r l y one f i f t h o f them (17 p e r c e n t ) worked i n c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s b e f o r e , w h i l e 11 p e r c e n t worked i n a m e d i c a l s e t t i n g . The o t h e r common s o c i a l work f i e l d s i n c l u d e f a m i l y s e r v i c e , c o r r e c t i o n a l , and me n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n (9 p e r c e n t e a c h ) . I n -t e r e s t i n g l y enough, o n l y 7 p e r c e n t were w o r k i n g w i t h aged b e f o r e coming t o UBC. V e r y few r e s p o n d e n t s worked i n r e c r e a t -i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l o r community development a g e n c i e s (1 p e r c e n t each) i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r s . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 19. most o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e were f a m i l y (19 p e r c e n t ) , m e n t a l p a t i e n t s (16 p e r c e n t ) , c h i l d r e n (14 p e r c e n t ) , a d u l t s (12 p e r c e n t ) , and aged (12 p e r c e n t ) . Only a few worked w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l d i s -a b l e d (6 p e r c e n t ) , c o r r e c t i o n a l (9 p e r c e n t ) and c a n c e r p a t i e n t s (2 p e r c e n t ) . I n o r d e r t o know which p e r i o d o f t h e human d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most d e s i r a b l e and worse p e r i o d o f l i f e , we adopted E r i k s o n ' s (1964) e i g h t d i s t i n c t s t a g e s i n t h e human l i f e c y c l e and asked r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r r e s p o n s e a c c o r d i n g l y . By l o o k i n g a t T a b l e 20, we can see t h a t 51 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d a d u l t h o o d as t h e most d e s i r a b l e p e r i o d o f l i f e . The n e x t one was t h e young a d u l t p e r i o d (28 p e r c e n t ) . However, 59 p e r c e n t c o n s i d e r e d t h e a d o l e s c e n c e y e a r s as t h e w o r s t 56 Table 18. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Last S o c i a l Work F i e l d S o c i a l Work F i e l d N Child Welfare 15 ( 17-0) Income Security/Public Assistance 2 ( 2.0) Family Service 8 ( 9-0) Correctional 8 ( 9-0) Recreational 1 ( 1.0) Medical 10 ( 11.0) Psychiatric 3 ( 3-0) V o c a t i onal/Employment 1 ( 1.0) Mental Retardation 8 ( 9.0) Aged 6 ( 7.0) Education 2 ( 2.0) Community Development 1 ( 1.0) Handicapped 6 ( 7.0) Mental Health 6 ( 7-0) No Answer 13 ( 14.0) Total 90 (100.0) 57 Table 19. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Last S o c i a l Work C l i e n t e l e Social Work C l i e n t e l e N Physical disabled 5 ( 6.0) Mental patient 14 ( 16.0) Cancer patient 2 ( 2.0) Aged 11 ( 12.0) Family 17 ( 19.0) Correctional 8 ( 9.0) Children 13 ( 14.0) Adult 11 ( 12.0) No answer 9 ( 10.0) Total 90 (100.0) period of l i f e . One t h i r d of the respondents considered the old age period as the worst period of l i f e (30 percent) and t h i s may i n d i r e c t l y imply that the stereotype of d i f f i c u l t y i n old age s t i l l pretty strong. Among the respondents, 72 percent worked with older persons before, but only 20 percent work with the older persons now (see Table 21). The present working pattern may be related to the fieldwork settings that they have t h e i r d i r e c t f i e l d p r a c t i c e . Table 22 indicates that 13 percent of the respondents have contacts with older persons at l e a s t once a day, 48 percent at l e a s t once a week, 29 percent at l e a s t once a month and 10 percent at l e a s t once a year. 58 Table 20. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by the Most Desirable and the Worst Period of L i f e Periods Most Desirable Worst N N TO Infancy 0 ( o.o) 0 ( 0.0) E a r l y childhood 2 ( 2.0) 1 ( l . o ) Play age 4 ( 4.0) 0 ( o.o) School age 6 ( 7-0) 2 ( 2.0) Adolescence 7 ( 8.0) 53 ( 59.0) Young adult 25 ( 28.0) 4 ( 4.0) Adulthood 46 ( 51-0) 3 ( 3-0) Old age 0 ( o.o) 27 ( 30.0) Total 90 (100.0) 90 (100.0) Table 21. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Work with Aged Before Now N (*) N (%) Yes 65 ( 72.0) 18 ( 20.0) No 25 ( 28.0) 72 ( 80.0) Total 90 (100.0) 90 (100.0) 59 Table 22. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Frequency of Contact with Aged Contacts N Once a day 12 ( 13-0) Once a week 43 ( 48.0) Once a month 26 ( 29.0) Once a year 9 ( 10.0) Total 90 (100.0) From Table 23 we can see that 51 percent of the respon-dents consider themselves to have a f a i r amount of experience with older persons. Only 2 percent claimed that they have an extensive amount of experience with the aged. While 27 percent consider themselves to have considerable experience with older persons, 19 percent claim that they have l i t t l e such experience. On the other hand, 42 percent of the respondents have l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n aging, comparing to 21 percent without any t r a i n -ing at a l l . But 26 percent said that they have a f a i r amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging while 11 percent think they have a considerable amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging. Perception of Problems of Old Age In order to know the respondents' perceptions of aging, they were asked to suggest at what age they consider a person to be old and e l d e r l y . In Table 24, i t shows that with respect to the perception of 'old', nearly one-third of the respondents (27 percent) considered 66 to 70 years of age as old. As to 'elderly' which usually has a negative 60 Table 23- Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Amount of Experience and Training i n Aging Experience Training N N None 1 ( l . o ) 19 ( 21.0) L i t t l e 17 ( 19-0) 38 ( 42.0) F a i r 46 ( 5i.o) 23 ( 26.0) Considerable 24 ( 27.0) 10 ( 11.0) Extensive 2 ( 2.0) 0 ( o.o) Total 90 (100.0) 90 (100.0) connotation i n s o c i a l work practice, 24 percent of respondents also consider age 66 - 70 as e l d e r l y . Actually from Table 24 we can see that there was: no clearcut pattern which i d e n t i f y and d i f f e r e n t i a t e between old and e l d e r l y . The 20 respondents who refused to answer t h i s question commented that every i n d i v i d u a l i s uniquely d i f f e r e n t and i t i s hard to say what years of age can be considered old or e l d e r l y . To obtain information regarding respondents' perceptions of the problems of the older persons, they were asked to l i s t the 16 problem areas i n order of severity. From the responses to t h i s question a percentage was obtained f o r each problem area according to the degree of severity assigned to i t by the respondent. The cut-off points f o r the most severe, moderate severe, and l e a s t severe group were 1 - 5» 6 - 11, and 12 - 16 respectively. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of responses ?are presented i n Table 25 and 61 Table 24. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of Age Consider Old and E l d e r l y Years of Age Old E l d e r l y N N 60 6 ( 7-0) 7 ( 8.0) 61 - 65 15 ( 17-0) 10 ( l i . o ) 66 - 70 24 ( 27-0) 22 ( 24.0) 71 - 75 5 ( 6.0) 16 ( 18.0) 76 - 80 13 ( 14.0) 18 ( 20.0) 81 - 85 3 ( 3-0) 5 ( 6.0) 86+ 12 ( 13-0) k ( 4.0) No answer 12 ( 13-0) 8 ( 9-0) Total 90 (100.0) 90 (100.0) Table 26. The problems were then ranked by the respondents according to t h e i r perceived severity. The Spearman rank-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (Champion, 1970:214-216) was used to determine the degree of association between the two sets of ranked data of young-old and old-old. As shown i n Table 27, there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a l l three l e v e l s of severity between problems of young-old and old-old perceived by the respondents. These findings suggested that there were not many differences between the rank orders of Young-Old and Old-Old i n regards to the severity of t h e i r problems as perceived by the respondents. This f i n d i n g does not allow us to r e j e c t the t h i r d hypothesis and have to accept the n u l l hypothesis that there was no difference between s o c i a l work students' 62 Table 25. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Severeness of Problems of Young-Old by Problem Areas Problems Most Severe Moderate Severe Least Severe No Answer Total N (*) N N (%) N N Housing and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n 54 (60.0) 26 (28.9) 6 ( 6.7) 4 { 4.4) 90 (100.0) Self-care 14 (15.6) 39 (43.3) 31 (34.4) 6 ( 6.7) 90 (100.0) Emoti onal/mental 44 (48.9) 33 (36.7) 10 (11.1) 3 ( 3-3) 90 (100.0) Transportation 20 (22.2) 37 (41.1) 28 (31.1) 5 C 5-6) 90 (100.0) Family r e l a t i o n s 27 (29.9) 44 (48.9) 14 (15.6) 5 ( 5.6) 90 (100.0) Employment opportunities 43 (47.8) 21 (23.3) 21 (23.3) 5 [ 5.6) 90 (100.0) Legal assistance 5 ( 5.6) 33 (36.7) 50 (55-5) 2 [ 2.2) 90 (100.0) Education opportunities 10 (11.1) 17 (18.9) 58 (64.4) 5 1 : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Food and n u t r i t i o n 21 (23.3) 46 (51.1) 18 (20.0) 5 1 : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Physical health 40 (44.4) 38 (42.3) 8 ( 8.9) 4 < : 4.4) 90 (100.0) F i n a n c i a l 56 (62.2) 19 (21.1) 10 (11.1) 5 < : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Day-to-day routine 13 (14.4) 42 (46.7) 30 (33-3) 5 < : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Knowledge of available services 20 (22.2) 43 (47.8) 22 (24.4) 5 1 : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Leisure a c t i v i t i e s / recreation 30 (33.3) 30 (33-3) 25 (27.8) 5 1 : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Friendships 22 (24.4) 34 (37.9) 30 (33-3) 4 ( : 4.4) 90 (100.0) Volunteer work 4 ( 4.4) 20 (22.2) 61 (67.8) 5 ( : 5.6) 90 (100.0) Table 26. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Severeness of Problems of Old-Old by Problem Areas Problems Most Moderate Least No Total S evere Severe Severe Answer  N N N N N Housing and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n 70 (77-8) 12 (13-3) 8 ( 8.9) 0 ( 0.0) 90 (100.0) Self-care 41 (45.6) 44 (48.9) 3 ( 3-3) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Emotional/mental 51 (56.7) 32 (35-6) 6 ( 6.6) 1 ( 1.1) 90 (100.0) Transportation 33 (36.7) 49 (54.4) 7 ( 7.8) 1 ( 1.1) 90 (100.0) Family r e l a t i o n s 13 (14.4) 58 (64.5) 17 (18.9) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Employment opportunities 17 (18.9) 14 (15-6) 57 (63.3) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Legal assistance 7 ( 7.8) 27 (30.0) 54 (60.0) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Education opportunities 9 (10.0) 9 (10.0) 70 (77.8) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Food and n u t r i t i o n 53 (58.9) 30 (33.3) 6 ( 6.7) 1 ( 1.1) 90 (100.0) Physical health 72 (80.0) 10 (11.1) 7 ( 7.8) 1 ( 1.1) 90 (100.0) F i n a n c i a l 49 (54.5) 30 (33-3) 9 (10.0) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Day-to-day routine 13 (14.4) 49 (54.5) 26 (28.9) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Knowledge of available services 16 (17-8) 48 (53-3) 24 (26.7) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Leisure a c t i v i t i e s / recreation 9 (10.0) 42 (46.7) 37 (41.1) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Friendships 25 (27-8) 40 (44.4) 22 (24.5) 3 ( 3.3) 90 (100.0) Volunteer work 6 ( 6.6) 16 (17-8) 66 (73-4) 2 ( 2.2) 90 (100.0) Table 27. Rank Order of Problems of the Young-Old and Old-Old as Perceived by Respondents Problems Most Severe Moderate Severe Least Severe Young-• Old- Young- Old- Young-• Old-Old Old Old Old Old Old Housing and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n 2 2 12 14 16 11 Self-care 12 6 5 5 4 16 Emotional/mental 3 4 9.7 8 13.5 14.5 Transportation 10.5 7 7 2.5 7 12.5 Family r e l a t i o n s 7 . 11.5 2 1 12 9 Employment opportunities 4 9 13 13 10 3 Legal assistance 15 15 9.7 11 3 4 Education opportunities 14 13-5 16 16 2 1 Food and n u t r i t i o n 9 3 1 9-5 11 14.5 Physical health 5 1 6 15 15 12.5 F i n a n c i a l l 5 15 9.5 13.5 10 Day-to-day routine 13 11.5 4 2.5 5-5 6 Knowledge of available services 10.5 10 3 4 9 7 Leisure a c t i v i t i e s / r e c r e a t i o n 6 13.5 9-7 6 8 5 Friendships 8 8 8 7 5-5 8 Volunteer work 16 16 14 12 1 2 Spearman Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t -54* .64** .54* • - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l a 2 = .05, ES = .50, N = 16, Power = .53-perceptions of the severity of problems of Young-Old and Old-Old. When we look at the most severe problems category, four of the top f i v e problems (F i n a n c i a l , Housing and L i v i n g S i t u a t i o n , Emotional/Mental, and Physical Health) were the same, although they did not have the same rank order. With regard to the perceived l e a s t severe problems, three of the top f i v e problems (Volunteer Work, Legal Assistance, and Education Opportunities) were the same between the Old-Old and Young-Old group. Among the respondents, Table 28 suggests that 67 percent preferred to work i n family service agencies i n future, 52 percent i n handicapped and educational f i e l d s , 47 percent i n mental health agencies, 43 percent i n community development organizations, only 36 percent preferred to work with aged. As to the agencies that the respondents l a s t wish to work with i n future were income security/public assistance agencies (57 percent), mental retardation f i e l d s (48 percent), corre c t i o n a l (46 percent), and vocational/employment agencies (29 percent) were noted. Forteen percent of respondents d e f i n i t e l y prefer not to work with older persons i n future. 66 Table 28. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Future S o c i a l Work Preference F i e l d s Prefer No Preference Not Prefer Total Rank N N Rank N (*) N (%> Child welfare 7-5 30 (33-0) 39 ( 4 3 . 0 ) 9 21 ( 2 3 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Income security/public asst. 17 5 ( 6 .0 ) 34 ( 3 8 . 0 ) 1 51 ( 57 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Family service 1 60 ( 6 7 . 0 ) 22 ( 2 4 . 0 ) 15 8 ( 9 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Correctional 16 12 ( 1 3 . 0 ) 37 ( 4 1 . 0 ) 3 41 (46 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Recreational 12 22 ( 2 4 . 0 ) 48 (53-0) 10 20 ( 2 2 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Medical 7.5 30 ( 3 3 . 0 ) 35 ( 3 9 . 0 ) 5 25 ( 28 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) P s y c h i a t r i c 10 27 ( 3 0 . 0 ) 39 ( 4 3 . 0 ) 6 . 5 24 ( 27 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) V oc a t i onal/employment 9 29 ( 3 2 . 0 ) 35 ( 3 9 . 0 ) 4 26 ( 2 9 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Mental retardation 1 4 . 5 17 ( 1 9 . 0 ) 30 (33-0) 2 43 (48 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Aged 6 32 ( 3 6 . 0 ) 45 ( 5 0 . 0 ) 12 13 (14 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Education 2 . 5 47 ( 5 2 . 0 ) 38 ( 4 2 . 0 ) 16 5 ( 6 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Housing 13 18 ( 2 0 . 0 ) 50 ( 5 6 . 0 ) 8 22 (24 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0) Community development 5 39 ( 4 3 . 0 ) 4o ( 4 4 . 0 ) 13 11 ( 1 2 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Handicapped 2 , 5 47 ( 5 2 . 0 ) 34 ( 3 8 . 0 ) 14 9 ( 10 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Private practice 11 25 ( 2 8 . 0 ) 41 ( 4 6 . 0 ) 6 . 5 24 ( 2 7 . 0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Mental health 4 42 ( 4 7 . 0 ) 33 ( 3 7 . 0 ) 11 15 ( 17 .0 ) 90 (100 .0 ) Research 1 4 . 5 17 ( 1 9 . 0 ) 72 ( 8 0 . 0 ) 17 1 ( 1 .0) 90 (100 .0 ) Summary From the above findings, we can present a general p r o f i l e of the study group as mostly females under 30 years of age; single; with a bachelor degree; with 6-10 years of helping experience; with previous work experience i n c h i l d welfare agencies; whose l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e was family; who considered adulthood as the most desirable period of l i f e and adolescence as the worst one; who worked with aged before but no longer do so; who contacts older persons at l e a s t once a week; who has a f a i r amount of experience with aged but l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n aging; who considered 66-70 years of age as old and e l d e r l y and perceive f i n a n c i a l , housing and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , emotional/mental, and physical health as the most severe problems f o r Young-Old and Old-Old persons; who perceive volunteer work, l e g a l assistance, and education opportunities as the l e a s t severe problems for Young-Old and Old-Old; and who prefers to work i n a family service agency i n future but not i n income security/public assistance agency. 68 CHAPTER VII RELATIONSHIPS OF PRECIPITATION AND ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES Once demographical variables have been summarized and th e i r pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n described i n Part I I , the next task i s the b i v a r i a t e analysis of data: that i s , an examination of the pattern of rel a t i o n s h i p between the variables under inves t i g a t i o n . As we mentioned before, the r e s u l t i n g FAQ scale consisted of 40 items. Therefore, the summated score range was between a maximum of 40 (highest degree of po s i t i v e attitude) and a minimum of 0 (lowest degree of pos i t i v e a t t i t u d e ) . The cut-of f points for the low, moderate, and high group of attitude are shown i n Table 29• In regards to OP scale, i t consisted of 34 items. Therefore, the summated score range was between a maximum of 170 to a minimum of 34. The WHAR scale consisted of 11 items. Therefore, the summated score range was between a maximum of 39 to a minimum of 1. The cut-off points f o r both the OP and the WHAR scales are also shown i n Table 29. Now we proceed to examine the b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s between the three a t t i t u d i n a l variables and the p r e c i p i t a t i o n variables (sex, age, marital status, educational background, program, years of helping experience, l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d , l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e , the worst period of l i f e , work with aged before, work with aged now, frequency of contact 69 Table 29. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Work Students by Degree of Attitudes toward Older Persons Reported Scales Total Score* Low Moderate High FAQ 0-22 23 - 25 26 - 40 OP 34 - 124 125 - 130 131 - 170 WHAR 1-26 27 - 31 32 - 39 *-Approximately i n each c e l l including 35$ of respondents. with aged, amount of experience with aged, amount of tr a i n i n g i n aging, and future s o c i a l work preference). F i f t e e n Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and Chi-square tests were run. Table 30 presents the r e s u l t s . The findings suggested that the WHAR score was s i g n i -f i c a n t l y associated with work with aged before (Table 31)» frequency of contact with aged (Table 32), and future s o c i a l work preference (Table 33)• The FAQ score was s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with age (Table 34), marital status (Table 35), amount of experience with aged (Table 36), amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging (Table 37), and future s o c i a l work preference (Table 38). The OP score was s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with sex (Table 39), work with aged before (Table 40), frequency of contact with aged (Table 41), and future s o c i a l work pre-ference (Table 42). On the other hand, the cor r e l a t i o n s between other variables and the WHAR, FAQ, and OP scores were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y ; s i g n i f i c a n t . This seems to indicate that 70 Table 30. Inter-Variable Correlation Matrix Variables WHAR FAQ OP Sex ns ns -.25** Age ns • 31** ns Marital status ns .25** ns Educational background ns ns ns Program ns ns ns Years of helping experience ns ns ns Last s o c i a l work f i e l d ns ns ns Last s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e ns ns ns The worst period of l i f e ns ns ns Work with aged before -.23** ns ns Work with aged now ns ns ns Frequency of contact with aged -.20* ns -.22* Amount of experience with aged ns .19* ns Amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging ns .25** ns Future s o c i a l work preference -.43** ns -.21* • - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . * * - S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . ns-Not s i g n i f i c a n t . a~ = .05, ES = .30, N = 90, Power = .82. attitudes toward older persons are s i m i l a r and that some of the other factors commonly found associated with attitudes toward older persons are not operating i n the sample. As can be seen i n Table 31. those respondents who have a higher score i n the WHAR scale tend to work with aged before. By looking at the highly w i l l i n g to help aged r e l a t i v e category, 44.6 percent of respondents worked with aged before, i n comparison to 20 percent of respondents who 71 never worked with aged before. On the contrary, among those who scored low on the WHAR scale, 44 percent never worked with aged before as compared to 26.2 percent who have. Table 31. WHAR of Respondents by Work with Aged Before WHAR Work with Aged Before Yes No N it) N Low 17 ( 26.2) 11 ( 44.0) Moderate 19 ( 29-2) 9 ( 36.0) High 29 ( 44.6) 5 ( 20.0) Total 65 (100.0) 25 (100.0) r = -.23, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .02 l e v e l , Power = .48. Turning to the frequency of contact with aged, Table 32 shows the computations made. There i t can be seen that those respondents who had contacted older persons once a day were more w i l l i n g to help t h e i r own aged r e l a t i v e s . There were 66.6 percent of respondents i n the high l e v e l of willingness group, as compared to only 33*4 percent of those respondents who contacted aged once a year, but only 16.7 percent of those respondents who contacted aged d a i l y . With regards to respondents* future work preference, the data i n Table 33 suggests that those (50 percent) who prefer to work with aged i n t h e i r future career are the most w i l l i n g to help t h e i r aged r e l a t i v e . Interestingly among those who score low on the WHAR scale, 69.2 percent did not prefer to 72 Table 32. WHAR of Respondents by Frequency of Contact with Aged WHAR Frequency of Contact Once A Day N W Once A Week N (*) Once A Month N W Once A Year N (%) Low Moderate High 2 ( 16.7) 2 ( 16.7) 8 ( 66.6) 13 ( 30.2) 14 ( 32.6) 16 ( 37.2) 9 ( 34.6) 10 ( 38.5) 7 ( 26.9) 4 ( 44.4) 2 ( 22.2) 3 ( 33-4) Total 12 (100.0) 43 (IOO.O) 26 (100.0) 9 (100.0) r = -.20, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .03 l e v e l , Power = .24. work with aged i n future while only 6.3 percent intended to do so. Table 33. WHAR of Respondents by Future S o c i a l Work Preference WHAR Work with Aged Prefer No Preference Not Prefer N (*) N (%) N W Low 2 ( 6.3) 17 ( 37-8) 9 ( 69.2) Moderate 14 ( 43.7) 10 ( 22.2) 4 ( 30.8) High 16 ( 50.0) 18 ( 40.0) 0 ( 0.0) Total 32 (100.0) 45 (100.0) 13 (100.0) r = -.43, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , Power = .91. When the age of the respondent i s related to FAQ, Table 34 indicates that the younger respondents do not have as p o s i t i v e an attitude towards older persons as comparing to the older respondents. There were 38 percent younger respondents (aged 30 and below) i n the low l e v e l of FAQ i n 73 compared to 16.7 percent of those aged 41 and above. In contrast, 66.6 percent of the older respondents f e l l i n the high l e v e l of FAQ category, but only 22 percent of the younger ones were included i n t h i s group. Table 34. FAQ of Respondents by Age FAQ Age 30 and Below 31 - 40 41+ N (*) N {%) N (*) Low 19 ( 38.0) 6 ( 21.4) 2 ( 16.7) Moderate 20 ( 40.0) 9 ( 32.1) 2 ( 16.7) High 11 ( 22.0) 13 ( 46.4) 8 ( 66.6) Total 50 (100.0) 28 (100.0) 12 (100.0) X 2 = 10.8, d.f. = 4, p <.03, Power = .61. Interestingly, Table 35 shows that the married and once married respondents have a more po s i t i v e attitude towards older persons (47.2 percent and 55*6 percent) than the single respondents (22.2 percent). I f the married and once married are lumped into one group, the trend i s more obvious, 48.8 percent comparing to 22.2 percent respectively. When we look at the amount of experience the respondents have with older persons, we found that the more experience the respondents have, the more p o s i t i v e the respondents' attitudes toward older persons. As shown i n Table 36, i n the high FAQ category, there were 57*7 percent of respondents who have 74 Table 35. FAQ of Respondents by Marital Status FAQ Marital Status Single Married Once Married N (*) N (*) N (*) Low 17 ( 37.8) 8 ( 22.2) 2 ( 22.2) Moderate 18 ( 40.0) 11 ( 30.6) 2 ( 22.2) High 10 ( 22.2) 17 ( 47.2) 5 ( 55-6) Total 45 (100.0) 36 (100.0) 9 (100.0) r = .25, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , Power = .45. Table 36. FAQ of Respondents by Amount of Experience with Aged FAQ Amount of Experience L i t t l e F a i r Considerable N (*) N (fo) N (*) Low 4 ( 22.2) 19 ( 41.3) 4 ( 15-4) Moderate 9 ( 50.0) 15 ( 32.6) 7 ( 26.9) High 5 ( 27-8) 12 ( 26.1) 15 ( 57.7) Total 18 (100.0) 46 (100.0) 26 (100.0) X* = 11.0, d.f. = 4, p<.03, Power = .29. considerable amount of experience, but only 27*8 percent who have l i t t l e amount of experience with aged i n the same l e v e l . By contrast, combiningly 63.5 percent of respondents who have l i t t l e or f a i r amount of experience shown l e s s p o s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons, i n comparison to only 15.4 percent of respondents who claimed to have considerable amount of experience with aged. 75 I t may be seen i n Table 37 that respondents' t r a i n i n g i n aging associated with FAQ s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Those who have no t r a i n i n g i n aging at a l l tend to have a lower degree of p o s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons (47.4 percent) than those who have considerable amount of t r a i n i n g (20 percent). By contrast, while 80 percent of the respondents who have considerable amount of t r a i n i n g registered a more po s i t i v e attitude towards aged, only 31*5 percent of the respondents who have no t r a i n i n g at a l l ended i n t h i s category. Table 37. FAQ of Respondents by Amount of Training i n Aging FAQ Amount of Training None L i t t l e F a i r Considerable N N (%) N (%) N Low 9 ( 47.4) 12 ( 31-5) 4 ( 17.4) 2 ( 20.0) Moderate 4 ( 21.1) 18 ( 47-3) 9 ( 39.1) 0 ( 0.0) High 6 ( 31.5) 8 ( 21.2) 10 ( 43.5) 8 ( 80.0) Total 19 (100.0) 38 (100.0) 23 (100.0) 10 (100.0) X 2 = 19.8, d.f. = 6, p <.01, Power = .45. S i g n i f i c a n t association exists between FAQ and respon-dents' future work preference. Table 38 indicates that those who prefer to work with aged i n future tend to have a more po s i t i v e attitude towards older persons (40.6 percent as compared to 15«4 percent). On the other hand, when we look at the low FAQ category, the pattern wasn't obvious enough. There were 21.9 percent of respondents who prefer to 76 work with aged i n t h i s category as compared to 15.4 percent of respondents who prefer not to work with aged i n t h e i r future career. Table 38. FAQ of Respondents by Future S o c i a l Work Preference FAQ Work with Aged Prefer No Preference Not Prefer N <*) N (*) N Low 7 ( 21.9) 18 ( 40.0) 2 ( 15.4) Moderate 12 ( 37.5) 10 ( 22.2) 9 ( 69.2) High 13 ( 40.6) 17 ( 37.8) 2 ( 15.4) Total 32 (100.0) 45 (100.0) 13 (100.0) x 2 = 11.5. d.f. = 4, p <.02, Power = .10. The i n d i c a t i o n i n Table 39 i s that the female s o c i a l work students Have a more po s i t i v e attitude towards older persons than the male students. There were 47.6 percent of female students scored highly on the OP scale, but only 18.6 percent of male students do so. In contrast, 40.7 percent of male students f e l l i n the low l e v e l of OP scale, but only 25.4 percent of the female students i n t h i s group. From Table 40 we found that whether the respondents worked with aged before was associated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. There were 46.2 percent respondents who had worked with stged before shown a higher p o s i t i v e attitude towards older persons, i n comparison 77 Table 3 9 . OP of Respondents by Sex OP Sex Female Male N ifo) N (fo) Low 16 ( 25.4) 11 I 40 .7) Moderate 1? ( 27-0) 11 ( 4 0 . 7 ) High 30 ( 47.6) 5 ( 18.6) Total 63 (10G.0) 27 (100.0) X 2 = 6.8, d.f. = 2, p< . 0 3 , Power = . 55-to 20 percent of those who never worked with aged before. As to the low OP group, we have 2 9 . 2 percent of respondents who worked with aged before f a l l i n t h i s category, as compared with ] 32 percent of respondents who did not work with aged before. Table 40. OP of Respondents by Work with Aged Before OP Work with Aeed Before Yes No N N (*) Low 19 ( 2 9 . 2 ) 8 ( 3 2 . 0 ) Moderate 16 ( 24 .6) 12 ( 48 .0 ) High 30 ( 46 .2) 5 ( 2 0 . 0 ) Total 65 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) 25 ( 1 0 0 . 0 ) X 2 = 6.4, d.f. = 2, p<.04, Power = .28. The frequency of contact with aged also shows a po s i t i v e association with students* attitudes toward older persons. In 78 Table 41 we can see that 41.7 percent of students who contact aged d a i l y f e l l i n the high l e v e l of OP category, comparing to only 11.1 percent of those who contact aged once a year. In contrast, i n the low OP group, 66.7 percent of respondents who only contact aged once a year was registered, comparing to only 16.6 percent of students who contact aged once a day. Table 41. OP of Respondents by Frequency of Contact with Aged OP Frequency of Contact Once A Day Once A Week Once A Month Once A Year N N N (*) N Low 2 ( 16.6) 9 ( 21.0) 10 (38.5) 6 ( 66.7) Moderate 5 ( 41.7) 17 ( 39.5) 4 ( 15.4) 2 ( 22.2) High 5 ( 41.7) 17 ( 39-5) 12 ( 46.2) 1 ( 11.1) Total 12 (100.0) 43 (100.0) 26 (100.0) 9 (100.0) X 2 = 1224, d.f. = 6, p<.05, Power = .30. In regards to respondents' future work preference, those who prefer to work with aged i n future tend to have a more po s i t i v e attitude towards older persons. Table 42 indicates that 46.9 percent of students who prefer to work with aged i n future f e l l i n the high l e v e l category, i n comparison to only 23 percent of those who did not prefer to work with aged i n future. When we look at the low group, 38.5 percent of students who did not prefer to work with aged i n future was reported i n comparison to only 15.6 percent of those who prefer to work with aged i n future. 79 Table 42. OP of Respondents by Future S o c i a l Work Preference OP Work with Aged Prefer No Preference Not Prefer N (30 N N (fo) Low 5 ( 15.6) 17 ( 37.8) 5 ( 38.5) Moderate : 12 ( 37-5) 11 ( 24.4) 5 ( 38.5) High 15 ( 46.9) 17 ( 37.8) 3 ( 23.0) Total 32 (100.0) 45 (100.0) 13 (100.0) r = -.21, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .03 l e v e l , Power = .32. In order to tes t the hypothesis that s o c i a l work students w i l l d i f f e r i n program l e v e l on the basis of t h e i r attitudes toward older persons—that i s , FAQ, OP, and WHAR scales, an analysis of variance by F-test was calculated. Table 43 includes the r e s u l t s of t h i s test of significance f o r the above hypothesis. I t can be seen that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between BSW, CBSW and MSW students i n regards to th e i r willingness to help aged r e l a t i v e s . There were however no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the FAQ and OP scales. These findings do not allow us to re j e c t the second hypothesis but we have to accept the n u l l hypothesis that there was no si g n i f i c a n t differences between program i n the FAQ and OP measurements. But the second hypothesis f o r WHAR was accepted and there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between BSW, CBSW and MSW student concerning t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. 80 Table 43. Analysis of Variance of FAQ, OP, and WHAR by Program Scales Sources d.f. S.S. M.S. F p Level WHAR Between groups Within groups 2 87 154.5 1933-6 77.3 22.2 3-48 .04 FAQ Between groups Within groups 2 87 66.0 1262.5 33.0 14.5 2.27 .11 OP Between groups Within groups 2 87 70.7 8213.0 35.4 94.4 0.37 .69 a 2 = .05, ES = .25. N = 90, d.f. = 2, Power = .96. Furthermore, we want to see whether Palmore's c a l c u l a t i o n method makes any difference i n respondents' scoring pattern. According to the c a l c u l a t i o n method of Palmore, the FAQ bias scores were tabulated and presented i n Table 44. I t indicates that 63.3 percent of the respondents possess a negative bias attitude towards older persons, and 36.7 percent have a posi t i v e bias attitude towards older persons. Though Table 43 suggested that there wasn't a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between class i n l e v e l of FAQ. However, i t i s necessary to look beyond the single s t a t i s t i c of significance f o r the F-test to how p a r t i c u l a r group FAQ bias score i s assessed. I t i s encouraging, f o r instance, to note i n Table 45 that when we adopted Palmore's FAQ bias score 81 Table 44. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by FAQ Bias Score FAQ Bias Score N Negative Positive 57 43 ( 63.3) ( 36.7) Total 90 (100.0) c a l c u l a t i o n procedure, though there was s t i l l no s i g n i f i c a n t association between class and FAQ bias score, but the data did indicate that the MSW students (38.8 percent) show more pos i t i v e attitudes toward older persons than the CBSW (36 percent) and BSW students (34.4 percent). The same s i t u a t i o n also applied to the negative side. The BSW students (65.6 percent), i n comparison to 64 percent CBSW students and 61.2 percent MSW students, tended to show more negative attitudes toward aged. But when we took the whole sample together, Table 44 suggested that more s o c i a l work students (63.3 percent) show anti-aged bias than pro-aged bias (36.7 percent only). Summary In summary, the analysis carried out d e f i n i t e l y supports the notion that the three measurements of attitudes toward older persons tend to assess d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the phenomenon. The fourth and f i f t h hypothesis were p a r t i a l l y 82 Table 45. FAQ Bias Score of Respondents by Program FAQ Bias Score Program N BSW CBSW N (*) N MSW Negative Pos i t i v e 19 10 ( 65.6) ( 3^.4) 16 9 ( 64.0) ( 36.0) 22 14 ( 61.2) ( 38.8) Total 29 (100.0) 25 (100.0) 36 (100.0) x 2 = 2.52, d.f. = 2, p> .20. supported by the data. We found that the variable*work with aged before, frequency of contact with aged, and future s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to WHAR. The variables age, marital status, amount of experience with aged, amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, and future s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to FAQ. The variables sex, work with aged before, frequency of contact with aged, and future s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to OP. Though the F-test showis no s i g n i f i c a n t differences existed between s o c i a l work students' l e v e l of study and th e i r attitudes toward older persons, the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n table did indicate that more s o c i a l work students show anti-aged bias than pro-aged bias, and the MSW students have more p o s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons than CBSW and BSW students. 83 CHAPTER VIII MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES Since studying one variable at a time almost always creates an a r t i c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n which we are forced to ignore other variables that may a f f e c t the phenomenon we are studying the conclusions can be a r e s t r i c t e d view of the data. M u l t i -variate methods, on the other hand, allow the researcher not only to consider multiple measures when studying a p a r t i c u l a r problem but also to see how these variables change i n r e l a t i o n to one another. This provides a more complete and r e a l i s t i c picture of the phenomenon under study. The additional inform-ation gained represents an immense increase i n the power of the methods used to understand a problem. In t h i s study, i n order to assess which variable has more importance i n pr e d i c t i n g the three d i f f e r e n t attitude scales (FAQ, OP and WHAR), stepwise regression analysis was used to examine how the 14 relevant variables (sex, age, marital status, educational background, program, years of helping experience, l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d , l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e , worst period of l i f e , work with aged before, work with aged now, amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, and future s o c i a l work preference) predict the d i f f e r e n t attitude scales. As i s shown i n Table 46, the process of entering new variables i s continued u n t i l the re s u l t s of the Wilks' Lambda value 84 Table 46. Stepwise Regression Analysis of WHAR, FAQ and OP Scale Step Scales WHAR FAQ OP Variables Wilks' Lambda Value Variables Wilks' Lambda Value Variables Wilks' Lambda Value 1. 2 . Future social work preference Years of helping experience • 78** .73** Age Worst period of l i f e .88** . 8 3 * * Frequency of contact with aged Sex • 9 0 * * .80** 3 - Worst period of l i f e . 7 0 * * Amount of training in aging .80** Age • 75** 4. Sex .66** Work with aged before .78** Work with aged before . 7 0 * * 5- Work with aged before . 6 2 * * Amount of experience with aged . ? 5 * » Class .67** 6. Class .60** Last social work f i e l d .74** Years of helping experience .64** 7. Educational background .56** Amount of training in aging . 6 2 * * 8. Age • 55** Amount of experience with aged . 6 0 * * R2 6 9 - 3 * 90.1$ 54.7# ••-Significant at the . 0 1 l e v e l . s t a t i s t i c computation indicate that no s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i -bution i s made by addition of more var i a b l e s . In p r e d icting the WHAR scale, 8 variables show s i g n i -f i c a n t contributions, they are: future s o c i a l work preference, years of helping experience, worst period of l i f e , sex, work with aged before, cl a s s , educational background, and age. 2 The f i n a l multiple R indicates that 69.3 percent of the v a r i a t i o n i n WHAR can be predicted from the combination of the 8 variables entered into the equation. Gn the other hand, the following 6 variables (age, worst period of l i f e , amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, work with aged before, amount of experience with aged, and l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d ) contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the pr e d i c t i o n of the FAQ measurement. I t explains 90.1 percent of the v a r i a t i o n i n FAQ. As to the OP scale, 8 variables (frequency of contact with aged, sex, age, work with aged before, c l a s s , years of helping experience, amount of tr a i n i n g i n aging, and amount of experience with aged) also indicated t h e i r importance i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t i n g the OP attitud e . In combination they explain 54.7 percent of the variance i n OP. Among the 14 relevant variables used i n the stepwise regression analysis with the three d i f f e r e n t attitude measures, the variable age and variable work with aged before both consistently appear i n a l l three measures. The 86 following variables appear twice (years of helping exper-ience, worst period of l i f e , sex, clas s , amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, amount of experience with aged). The variable future s o c i a l work preference, educational background, l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d , and frequency of contact with aged only show up once i n the three measures. Marital status, l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e and work with aged now did not con-tribut e to any s i g n i f i c a n t explanation i n any of the three attitude measures of WHAR, FAQ, and OP. Summary In summary, the above multivariate analysis indicated that various relevant variables contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to each of the three a t t i t u d i n a l measures of aging. S p e c i f i c a l l y , 8 variables contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the WHAR scale and explain 69-3 percent of i t s variance. Six variables contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the FAQ scale and explain 90.1 percent of i t s variance. F i n a l l y , 8 variables i n OP scale contribute and explain 5^ .7 percent of the v a r i a t i o n i n the scale. Among the variables, age and work with aged before appear to be the most consistent and predictable variables between the three scales. 87 CHAPTER IX SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS Summary The study population included the students i n School of Social Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, during the academic year 1981-1982. Besides l e v e l of study, considera-t i o n was given to the variables of sex, age, marital status, educational background, years of helping experience, l a s t s o c i a l work f i e l d , l a s t s o c i a l work c l i e n t e l e , the most desirable period of l i f e , the worst period of l i f e , work with aged before, work with aged now, frequency of contact with aged, amount of experience with aged, amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, years of age consider old, years of age consider elde r l y , perception of el d e r l y problems, and future s o c i a l work preference as another aspect of influence r e l a t i v e to attitudes toward older persons. The a n a l y t i c a l procedures adopted f o r t h i s study i n -cluded four separate operations: v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y analysis, univariate analysis, b i v a r i a t e analysis, and multivariate analysis. The r e s u l t s of each of these approaches are summarized, with a comment on the contribution of each to the understanding of s o c i a l work students' a t t i t u d i n a l patterns toward older persons. The findings derived from the four a n a l y t i c a l procedures may be summarized as follows: 1. The analysis i n Part I indicated that a l l three measure-ments on attitudes toward older persons (FAQ, OP and WHAR) had r e l a t i v e l y high i n t e r n a l consistency, but when we broke i t down to the subscale l e v e l , the inter-item correlations were shown to be weakened. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of the three a t t i t u d i n a l scales were not very high at a l l ; only the OP scale had a r e l a t i v e l y high r e l i a b i l i t y , i n comparison to the low r e l i a b i l i t y of FAQ scale and WHAR scale. As to the c r i t e r i o n v a l i d i t y of the FAQ, the findings suggested that the FAQ and OP scales were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related, they tended to measure d i f f e r e n t aspects of attitudes toward older persons. In regards to the content v a l i d i t y , the panel of experts only agreed with Palmore over h a l f of the FAQ items according to the item's p o s i t i v e and negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Through fac t o r analysis we also discovered that the FAQ scale a c t u a l l y measured three d i f f e r e n t but related dimensions of attitudes toward older persons. The OP scale consisted of two p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s . Thus we can argue that both FAQ and OP scales are multidimensional i n nature instead of unidimensional. 2. From the analysis i n Part I I , the model p r o f i l e of the study group can be described as mostly female; under 30 years of age; single; possessing a bachelor degree; with 6-10 years of helping experience; with previous work experience i n c h i l d welfare agencies; whose l a s t s o c i a l 8 9 work c l i e n t e l e was family: who considered adulthood as the most desirable period of l i f e i n comparison to the adolescence period as the worst one; who worked with aged before but not now; who at l e a s t contacted older persons weekly; with a f a i r amount of experience with aged; with l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n aging; who considered 66-70 years of age as old and elderly; who perceived f i n a n c i a l , housing and l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , emotional/mental, and physical health as the most severe problems of the Young-Old and Old-Old persons; who perceived volunteer work, l e g a l assistance, and education opportunities as the l e a s t severe problems of Young-Old and Old-Old persons; and who preferred to work i n family service agency i n future but not i n income security/public assistance agency. The analysis c a r r i e d out i n Part III d e f i n i t e l y supported the notion that the three measurements of attitudes toward older persons used i n t h i s study tended to assess d i f f e r e n t dimensions of the phenomenon. We found that the variables work with aged before, frequency of contact with aged, and future s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to WHAR scale. The variables age, marital status, amount of experience with aged, amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging, and future s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t -l y related to FAQ scale. The variables sex, work with aged before, frequency of contact with aged; and future 90 s o c i a l work preference were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the OP scale. The F-test shows no s i g n i f i c a n t differences existed "between s o c i a l work students' l e v e l of study and t h e i r attitudes toward older persons. The frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n table indicated that more s o c i a l work students showed anti-aged bias than pro-aged bias. The MSW students had more po s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons than CBSW and BSW students. The multivariate analysis i n Part IV indicated that various relevant variables contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to each of the three a t t i t u d i n a l measures of aging. S p e c i f i c a l l y , eight variables contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the WHAR scale and explained 69.3 percent of the variance. Six variables contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the FAQ scale and explained 90.1 percent of the v a r i a t i o n . F i n a l l y , eight variables i n OP scale contributed and explained 54.7 percent of the variance. Among the variables, age and work with aged before appeared to be the most consistent and predictable variables between the three scales. We should be aware that the high percentage of explained variance actually was i n f l a t e d . According to Nunnally (1967*160-164), i n order to have an adequate assessment of v a r i a t i o n , we need to have a minimal of ten cases per variable added to the stepwise procedure. 91 Appraisal of Methodology Several recommendations f o r research, programs and p o l i c i e s may be offered i n l i g h t of the findings of t h i s research. 1. From the study done i t i s apparent that the ide a l v a l i d a -t i o n process of an a t t i t u d i n a l scale would appear to he a 'multitrait-multimethod' design (Campbell and Fiske, 1959) which u t i l i z e s a matrix of inte r e o r r e l a t i o n s among tests representing at l e a s t two t r a i t s , each measured by at lea s t two methods. Measures of the same t r a i t should cor-re l a t e higher with each other than they do with measures of d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s involving separate methods. Ideally, these v a l i d i t y values should also be higher than the cor-r e l a t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s measured by the same method. Future r e p l i c a t i o n should adopt t h i s procedure. 2. The present study concentrated only on the s o c i a l work students currently enrolled i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. S o c i a l workers already p r a c t i c i n g i n the community with aging c l i e n t s or other age-groups were not included i n the sample, and thus t h i s approach can severely l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the findings of the study. 3. S t r a t i f i e d sampling technique ( M i l l e r , 1970:55-59) should be used i n future r e p l i c a t i o n of the present research, thereby guaranteeing that each stratum (such as past ex-periences with aged) i s reasonably well represented i n the sample. 92 On the experience of t h i s research, attitude scales by t h e i r very structure force overgeneralization on the subject, who i s required to respond to old people as a class without regard f o r possible i n d i v i d u a l differences within that c l a s s . Anyone who has a keen appreciation f o r v a r i a t i o n among old people w i l l have a d i f f i c u l t time with a Likert-type scale. Hamilton (1976) and Kogan (1979:27-29) suggested that stereotyping i s not necessarily a d i s -t o r t i o n i n reasoning, but rather a part and parcel of the human categorization process. On the other hand, the con-s t r u c t i o n of separate attitude scales with Young-Old and Old-Old targets cannot be considered a solution to the problem posed above. I t would simply substitute two homogeneous classes f o r one. Furither elaboration i n t h i s aspect i s needed i n future. A major issue i n the social-psychological study of attitudes concerns the extent to which verbal expressions of attitude r e l a t e to congruent behaviors (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Schuman and Johnson, 1976). A prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of scales f o r the measurement of attitudes toward old people i s that they have seldom been examined i n r e l a t i o n to relevant behavioral c r i t e r i a . Within t h i s study, we t r i e d to look at some of the attitude-behavior r e l a t i o n s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to devise meaningful behavioral indices. Most of them tap behavioral intentions rather than actual behaviors. More studies of a t t i t u d e -93 b e h a v i o r c o n s i s t e n c y i n f u t u r e a r e needed. 6. One o f t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o add c r i t e r i o n and c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y d a t a t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f t h e FAQ s c a l e . S i n c e t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t h r e e a t t i t u d i n a l s c a l e s showed t h a t t h e y d i d n o t c o r -r e l a t e w e l l w i t h each o t h e r , i t may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d i r e c t measurement o f a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s i s i n need of f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t b e f o r e f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s i n -d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d n o t r e l y on s c a l e names o r even the l a b e l s g i v e n t o s p e c i f i c s c a l e s . The r e s e a r c h -e r must be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t o f t h e s c a l e s and r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e development o f the i n s t r u m e n t s . Only w i t h such knowledge can the r e s e a r c h e r s e l e c t t h e i n s t r u m e n t which w i l l p r o v i d e appro-p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e a t t i t u d e assessment p r o c e s s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e FAQ s c a l e demonstrated l o w p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i o n and c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y d a t a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s . The r e s u l t s f u r t h e r emphasize th e need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f a t t i t u d e assessment, and t h e need f o r w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d and documented d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t s t o i d e n t i f y s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s . 7. The d e m o g r a p h i c a l and s t u d y v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t appear t o c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p l a i n s o c i a l work s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward o l d e r p e r s o n s , b u t r a t h e r were o p e r a t i n g i n o n l y 94 one scale or two. This suggests that the present attitude model ( i t s operational concept) does not afford p r i n c i p l e s that are uniform and consistent and seems i n need of further refinement. Measurement always takes place i n a more or l e s s complex s i t u a t i o n i n which innumerable factors may a f f e c t both the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c being measured and the process of measure-ment i t s e l f . In the present study, some of the possible sources of errors are l i s t e d i n below. Ways to eliminate these errors are needed i n future r e p l i c a t i o n . 1) Various personal factors such as mood, state of fatigue, health, mental set, and attention span may vary even within a short period of time. According to the nature of t h i s study, we used a rather lengthy questionnaire (10-4 questions), the respondents might f e e l t i r e d and bored i n the process of answering the questions. Therefore the answers might not be as accurate as i t should be. 2 ) The general s o c i a l status of the respondent as a future s o c i a l worker and various personality charac-t e r i s t i c s might contaminate the r e s u l t s of the attitude questionnaire, f o r example, the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y influence and response set. 3) In order to avoid p r i o r exposure of the questionnaire to the target s o c i a l work student population, we used students from other d i s c i p l i n e s to pre-test the 95 questionnaire. They might have d i f f e r e n t under-standing of the c l a r i t y and meaning of the items. Variations i n s o c i a l work students' responses might r e f l e c t these differences i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n rather than true differences i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c we are attempting to measure. 4) F i n a l l y , there i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y of errors i n coding, scoring, tabulation, machine analysis, or s t a t i s t i c a l computations. Conclusions Seven general conclusions emerged from the analysis. Each i s stated and discussed i n summary form below: 1. The three measures of attitudes toward older persons (FAQ, OP and WHAR) used i n t h i s study seemed to assess d i f f e r e n t aspects of attitudes toward aging. Generally speaking, the s o c i a l work students experienced d i f f e r e n t degrees of p o s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons. 2. In t h i s study, the data provided by the measuring i n s t r u -ments have been used as indicators of some attr i b u t e of the i n d i v i d u a l which i s not i t s e l f d i r e c t l y measured. Such measures are often said to have 'face v a l i d i t y ' ( S e l l t i z , Wrightsman and Cook, 1976:178-179); that i s , the relevance of the measuring instrument to what one i s t r y i n g to measure i s apparent 'on the face of i t . ' But from Table 9. the analysis of the expert judgements regarding FAQ items 96 shows that only 18 items received majority agreement. This suggested that experts could not agree any t e t t e r than chance on which items r e f l e c t 'negative bias' and which items r e f l e c t 'positive b i a s ' . Thus the FAQ as an attitude measure cannot even claim to have face v a l i d i t y . Therefore, we can conclude that the FAQ i s e s s e n t i a l l y useless as an i n d i r e c t measure to assess the 'aged-bias' of s o c i a l work students toward older persons. 3. The s o c i a l work students did not perceive any s i g n i f i c a n t difference between Old-Old and Young-Old persons i n regards to the severity of problems. 4. The past experiences of s o c i a l work students with older persons were related to t h e i r attitudes toward older persons, but d i f f e r e n t variables contributed to each of the three a t t i t u d i n a l measurements used. 5 . Selective demographical background variables were related to the three a t t i t u d i n a l measurements used i n t h i s study. 6. Among the variables, age and work with aged before have more predictive power i n s o c i a l work students' attitudes toward older persons. 7. Both FAQ and OP scale are multidimensional i n nature instead of unidimensional. The inter-item r e l i a b i l i t i e s were low because of the many dimensions measured. The usual c r i t e r i a f o r psychometric test evaluation may not be appropriate f o r an edumetric test such as FAQ. Implications This study has raised a number of questions which have implications f o r s o c i a l work education, s o c i a l work practice, and the curriculum planning i n future. Some are now explored below, but i t i s important to bear i n mind that they are often i n t e r - r e l a t e d and that i t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n between them which w i l l influence the development of s o c i a l work with old people. 1 . The negative attitudes of aging contribute to the r i t e - o f -passage t r a n s i t i o n of the older person, f a c i l i t a t i n g t r ansfer of power and influence from the old to the young. This seems to be v e r i f i e d by the persistence of myths and negative attitudes about the aged, i n spite of ample evidence n u l l i f y i n g most of the negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As long as our society has unemployment problems, t i g h t promotion tracks, and, l a s t but not l e a s t , d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s f e r r i n g power from old to young, we w i l l have negative attitudes. Negative attitudes of aging w i l l be with us i n some form f o r the foreseeable future. This seems apparent. I t also becomes more apparent that they play a functional role i n society and have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n -ship to the actual p o t e n t i a l of the e l d e r l y . Perhaps one of the tasks and reasons f o r s o c i a l work practice with the e l d e r l y i s to help old people themselves see t h i s very 1 s i g n i f i c a n t point. I t i s the beginning of change. Seen i n t h i s perspective, the stereotypes may lose t h e i r power over i n d i v i d u a l s . 98 With regard to the heterogeneous nature of older persons as a group, i t i s possible to o f f e r greater p r e c i s i o n i n the d e f i n i t i o n of the class of old people. Neugarten (1975) and Youmans (1977) have proposed a d i s t i n c t i o n between the Young-Old (aged 6^-75) and the Old-Old (over 75)• These two age groups have been shown to y i e l d mean differences on a number of important dimensions, but t h i s does not necessarily imply that the d i s t i n c t i o n has phenomenological significance f o r younger cohorts. For instance, i n t h i s study, when we asked the s o c i a l work students to rank the problems of Old-Old and Young-Old according to the severity of the problems, i t turned out that the s o c i a l work students did not perceive any s i g n i -f i c a n t difference between the two e l d e r l y group. We discovered from t h i s study that not many s o c i a l work students preferred to work with older persons i n future. In the United States, according to the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, 1980:IV-11, 12), s o c i a l workers i n aging job were found to be paid l e s s , to have fewer career ladders and l e s s job security than s o c i a l workers i n other pos i t i o n s . The better trained s o c i a l workers i n aging experienced higher turnover rates than those with l e s s formal t r a i n i n g who were l e s s secure and able to f i n d jobs outside aging. However, t h i s p e c u l i a r l y disturbing aspect of s o c i a l 99 work with and f o r the e l d e r l y may be seen as but an extreme version of a wider problem, namely, that a c e r t a i n number of very old people revert to emotional and physical dependence which triggers o f f i n those who care f o r them powerful feelings both of tenderness and anger. As Cherry Rowlings (1978) pointed out, reactions to depend-ence are immensely varied, p a r t l y because of the i n d i v i d * uals' own personality and experiences and p a r t l y because of the ways i n which dependence i s manifested. Besides, work with el d e r l y c l i e n t s i s often described as 'slow' with the unfortunate connotation that i t w i l l therefore be boring and undemanding. The generalized statement that s o c i a l work with old people i s slow i s on the one hand a h e l p f u l reminder that many el d e r l y c l i e n t s w i l l t a l k slowly, have d i f f i c u l t y i n absorbing new ideas or of maintaining t h e i r concentration. On the other hand, i t i s unhelpful i n that i t may obscure the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the c l i e n t and does not encourage the worker to look beyond the explanation of 'old age'. Slowness, stubborn-ness or s l i g h t confusion may, f o r example, be the con-sequence of l o s s of hearing or v i s u a l acuity which has hitherto been unrecognized and untreated because the manifestations conform to the behavior expected of old people. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may follow bereavement or be due to the s t r e s s f u l nature of the problem being discussed. 100 On the other hand, the s o c i a l worker's own set of b e l i e f s i s challenged as he or she works with older c l i e n t s . Working with older people forces an examination of one's own feeli n g s about the elderly, death and dying; about one's respect f o r eld e r l y c l i e n t s ; about allowing them the opportunity and a b i l i t y to make choices; about perceiving the worker's role as more than just custodial; and about advocating change i n attitudes and programs within the scope of the s o c i a l agency. I t i s obvious that s o c i a l work practice With the aging r e a l l y t ests the worker's b e l i e f i n the worth, dignity, and uniqueness of older people i n the face of a predominant value orienta-t i o n that relegates the elde r l y to an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n our society and deprives them of t h e i r i d e n t i t y by denying them meaningful r o l e s . In order to remedy t h i s low-incentive trend, a future h i r i n g p o l i c y and t r a i n i n g schemes have to accommodate t h i s major gap. One of the findings indicated that the s o c i a l work students have low degree of po s i t i v e attitudes toward older persons. I t can be explained that s o c i a l work students inherited many of the myths of society and have made them part of t h e i r own value system. The core of attitudes, values, b e l i e f s , stereotypes, and myths that have shaped society's p o l i c y and the behavior toward t h i s age group of many professionals, including s o c i a l workers, points to the importance of separating values from 101 knowledge. Knowledge i s based on v e r i f i a b l e data, empirically arrived at; values are based on b e l i e f , on that which i s f e l t to be true rather than proven to be true. Knowledge about the aging process i s incomplete, and that which i s available has not been adequately disseminated throughout the professions and the society. We a l l tend to base our attitudes on the values and b e l i e f s society holds, and treat many of these b e l i e f s and values as i f they were knowledge. In the case of older people, t h i s has lead to misperceptions, lack of understanding, and lack of commitment to devote f i n a n c i a l , technological, and human resources to the el d e r l y population. We must remind ourselves that we l i v e i n a highly urbanized, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , technological society which emphasizes productivity and technical s k i l l s . Those who can contribute productively and s k i l l f u l l y to the economy are highly valued; those who no longer can or are no longer allowed to are l e s s valued. Predominant value orientations of m a t e r i a l i s t i c individualism, residues of a C a l v i n i s t i c work ethic, and the equation of youthfulness with beauty, progress, and adventure leave the el d e r l y i n a vulnerable and devalued p o s i t i o n . We need to f i n d a way to deal with t h i s set of attitudes that are shaped by these predominant value orientations throughout society. Otherwise, the potential f o r constructive 102 coping with aging w i l l he eroded by our good intentions, which come across as f e e l i n g sorry for, expecting l i t t l e of, and taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e l d e r l y . In professional s o c i a l work programs, emphasis i s commonly on depth of knowledge and on specialized approaches, while work with the el d e r l y tends to be regarded as merely supportive and not requiring the same so p h i s t i c a t i o n as work with childr e n or family counselling. I t can be con-firmed by the f i n d i n g i n t h i s study that most s o c i a l work students worked i n family or c h i l d welfare settings before they enrolled i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. In United States, though the number of the enrollment of a l l MSW f u l l - t i m e students with f i e l d practice with aged increased from 181 persons i n 1973 to 639 students i n 1979 (Rubin, 1980:32), t h i s only accounted f o r 3.7 percent of the t o t a l MSW students i n 1979 (Rubin, 1980:31). In the present study, very few students (18 of them) i n -dicated that they are currently working with the aged. Furthermore, i f the subjects of student research can be taken as indicators of the l e v e l of i n t e r e s t of students and s t a f f i n p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s , i t should be noted that according to a report of the Environics Research Group (1972:46-47) f o r the period 1964-1972, Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s l i s t e d 58 master's theses (32 MSW, 26 MA) and three doctoral diss e r t a t i o n s which dealt with 103 gerontological issues, an average of only eight per year. This implies that the future p o l i c y of professional education i s i n need of change i n order to match the demographic trend of $he 1980s. 6. The s o c i a l work students considered that they themselves had a r e l a t i v e l y small amount of t r a i n i n g i n aging. Given the constraints of the timetables i n professional t r a i n i n g that are already f u l l , the c r u c i a l aim must be to ensure that students acquire a basic l e v e l of knowledge, understanding and competence upon which i s b u i l t the more advanced l e v e l of learning derived from either those aspects of the course which are optional or required. The system of o f f e r i n g 'electives' or 'options' i n work with the e l d e r l y can be only a p a r t i a l means of informing students about t h i s aspect of s o c i a l work. The d i s -advantages of options are that because they focus on a s p e c i f i c c l i e n t group or problem they may i n f a c t r e i n -force the tendency to compartmentalize knowledge. In addition, options on the e l d e r l y are often poorly, sub-scribed, attended by those students who already have an i n t e r e s t i n the subject rather than by those who, i t could be argued, should be the prime 'targets' of such teaching. Recently educational i n s t i t u t i o n s responded to the grow-ing v i s i b i l i t y of older people by an enormous growth of various kinds of t r a i n i n g programs fo r a l l walks of l i f e (Peterson and Bolton, 1980:10-27; Canadian Association on 104 Gerontology, 1981; Johnson, et a l . , 1980). 7. Furthermore, i t i s important that teaching about the e l d e r l y should be part of a l l s o c i a l work courses and, moreover, that within each course contributions come from a l l the d i s c i p l i n e s . For some courses, t h i s w i l l have implications not just f o r those who teach s o c i a l work methods and who may need to incorporate examples of work with the e l d e r l y among t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of s o c i a l work pra c t i c e . I t w i l l be relevant, f o r example, also f o r those who teach sociology and psychology to s o c i a l work students. Human growth and development teaching should include adulthood up t i l l death; the psychology of aging , i s a subject which normally a t t r a c t s much l e s s attention and i n t e r e s t than the psychology of c h i l d development. The sociology of the family and the examination of r o l e s and status i n society may need to be explored i n r e l a t i o n to old people as well as the young. 8. In a paper to the Canadian Association of Gerontology, Albert Comanor (1972) recommended that schools of s o c i a l work should promote demonstration projects, support evaluation research and cooperate with s o c i a l agencies to further teaching and research i n aging. In United States, the Administration on Aging (1975) has also c a l l e d f o r research on "Attitudes toward the E l d e r l y among Professionals" that bodes well f o r the future of professional education. From the above discussions, we 105 see that i t i s important to know what information i s available which describes the types of attitudes pre-valent among d i f f e r e n t groups of professionals. This information i s necessary to determine what additional research might be needed i n t h i s area, and what methods of enhancing p o s i t i v e attitudes might be more successful. 8. The adoption of p o l i c i e s regarding long-term care i s creating the need f o r hundreds of trained people to work with the eld e r l y , but also a serious l a g i n p o l i c y regarding the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' and colleges' r o l e to develop supportive t r a i n i n g programs. E x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g mechanisms i n Canada are, at best, inadequate f o r prepar-ing the a u x i l i a r y personnel and professionals who a r e presently required (Thornton, 1981:5)' We have l i m i t e d knowledge as to the need or demand f o r t r a i n i n g i n gerontology/geriatrics that are created by new p o l i c y on the one hand and by our increasing awareness of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of the e l d e r l y on the other hand. 9. The need f o r more courses with gerontology content, e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l gerontology, i s not only i l l u s t r a t e d by the present study, but i s also demonstrated i n the United States i n a recent study of future professionals by Geiger (1978). She found that not only do future pro-fe s s i o n a l s i n s o c i a l work, law, and medicine display a lack of knowledge regarding the e l d e r l y , but that the lack 106 of knowledge also affected the choice of areas of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n among the students regarding future careers. This lack of s e l e c t i o n of the e l d e r l y as the target group of t h e i r professional a c t i v i t y i s i n sharp contrast with t h e i r general agreement that t h i s segment of the popula-t i o n represents a large area of future concern i n t h e i r respective d i s c i p l i n e s . Geiger (1978) concluded that perhaps students were responding to the corresponding lack of concern i n professional schools as i l l u s t r a t e d by the paucity of gerontology courses i n the curriculum. Graduate schools of s o c i a l work should be aware of the possible negative bias toward the e l d e r l y that t h i s curriculum gap implies, and should take p o s i t i v e steps to provide more s p e c i f i c knowledge i n the area of gerontology, es p e c i a l l y i n attitude changing, techniques and strategies of intervention and service delivery. 107 CHAPTER X EPILOGUE s A PROPOSAL TO CHANGE STUDENT ATTITUDES --THE PRESENT AND FUTURE SCENE In 1970, Elaine Brody (1970) reported that the p r a c t i -tioner asked that the educational community challenge rather than r e f l e c t the negative s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l attitudes of the general community toward the aging population, that education lead rather than lag, and that i t exercise i t s h i s t o r i c a l role of leadership i n thought, exploration, and practice i n the great academic t r a d i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c inquiry. For education i n general and s o c i a l work i n p a r t i c u l a r , the response has "been impressive. Fifty-one u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United States have on-campus centers f o r the study of aging. Forty-one of them are m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y . Thirty-three schools of s o c i a l work a f f i l i a t e with such centers. Sixty-f i v e schools with undergraduate programs i n s o c i a l work have one or more courses i n gerontology, and f i f t y graduate schools have one or more courses (Sprouse, 1976). Within Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s and colleges, f i f t e e n have 108 developed gerontology programs, twenty-two o f f e r c e r t i f i c a t e s i n gerontology (Canadian Association on Gerontology, 1981:1-2). Demographic data and c u r r i c u l a already i n place suggest gerontology w i l l be a practice area of central importance f o r s o c i a l workers i n future. Gerontology as an i n t e l l e c t u a l corpus and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e emerges only i n a c e r t a i n s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l contexts and i t s development i s con-ditioned by further s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l changes. Cowgill and Orgren (1980) suggested that the development of academic gerontology does occur i n response to demographic and i n -s t i t u t i o n a l changes i n society. There appear to be about f i v e d i f f e r e n t stages of i t s development. Dube and Mather (1981) provided a summary of recent e f f o r t s by the Veterans Administration and other Federal agencies i n the United States developing education and t r a i n i n g programs i n g e r i a t r i c medicine and gerontology. These programs are designed to stimulate i n t e r e s t i n acquiring the speci a l i z e d competence needed by a l l providers of health care, to the e l d e r l y . Thornton (1981:4) indicated that the fundamental tasks associated with t r a i n i n g i n academic gerontology i n Canada deal with estimates of manpower needs and demands, curriculum content and i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n and reformulation across d i s -c i p l i n e s and practice areas, administrative arrangements, 109 accreditation, f a c u l t y preparation and re-orientation, and continuing education. The implications of demographic trends f o r the economic, s o c i a l and emotional support of the elderly must be considered i n r e l a t i o n to the nature of and the need f o r more education on aging. In the past few years the varied needs of t h i s population have l e d to a v a r i e t y of teaching approaches ( P f e i f f e r , 1973:80; U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977:111-113; Neysmith and Marcus, 1979; MacLean and Marcus, 1981; Mullaney, 1981; Pribble and Trusty, 1981; Seefeldt, Jantz, Galper and Serock, 1981; Olejnik and LaRue, 1981). As suggested by H i l l (1981:7). we have only so much time i n the educational enterprise to t r a i n those who w i l l be working with the e l d e r l y , and those who have cu r i o u s i t y about the f i e l d as a whole. We must recognize the influence of our educational content per se, on the attitudes of young people entering the f i e l d . Today s o c i a l work education i s faced with the challenge to educate students i n a manner that w i l l produce s o c i a l workers who not only w i l l be interested i n working with the aged, but w i l l so do with r e a l i s t i c , supportive and p o s i t i v e attitudes. Pincus (1967) deplored what he c a l l e d the negative view of aging and the e l d e r l y , a view commonly held by s o c i a l workers and frequently acquired by working with s o c i a l l y and economically disadvantaged c l i e n t s . While he did not deny 110 the need f o r s o c i a l workers to deal with the immediate problems of inadequate s o c i a l welfare provisions, he proposed that, to possibly offset the general pessimism, greater emphasis be placed i n s o c i a l work education on a developmental view of aging and the p o t e n t i a l f o r well-being and successful aging. This emphasis on growth and development i n aging and the teaching of i t i n s o c i a l work programs was c r i t i c i z e d by Kosberg (1976) f o r i t s ineffectiveness i n creating interested, knowledgeable and concerned s o c i a l work professionals. Kosberg believes that students, as future p r a c t i t i o n e r s , administrators and educators, should be taught a s o c i a l problem approach which would highlight the neglect of and discrimination against the old, the i n e q u a l i t i e s and i n -adequacies of s o c i a l provisions f o r them, and the e f f e c t s of these factors on t h i s vulnerable population. Kosberg suggested that i t i s inconsistent to discuss successful aging with students without f i r s t presenting to them the attitudes and practices of the society within which the aging process occurs. Patterson (1981) suggests that negative stereotyping may be avoided i n helping professions by involving students i n n a t u r a l i s t i c research (Taylor, 1977) during t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Such research allows students to observe the r e a l world of some older adults and permits insight and understanding of t h e i r s o c i a l m i l i e u . Professionals equipped with such i n -sight thus increase the range of possible helping interven-tions they may use i n working with older adults. I l l I f attitudes are learned, i t should be possible to change attitudes of s o c i a l work students through c a r e f u l l y planned educational experiences. Actually, attitudes toward aging and aged, stereotypes was one of the topics rated as essential f o r Master's Degree programs i n s o c i a l work (Johnson, et a l . , 1980:31-32; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1980:IV-36, 37). In a recent study reported i n Educational Gerontology, Smeltzer (1977) found that i n u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r i n g several courses i n gerontology only the f i r s t course had an impact on attitudes or stereotypes. She went on to suggest that change may not be due to i n s t r u c t i o n a l content per se, but seems rather to be related to the course i n -structors and the learning environment created by them. Attitudes brought by students often are unexamined and unchallenged throughout t h e i r professional education. Although increasingly impressive content of gerontology i s included i n c u r r i c u l a , mere accumulation of content does l i t t l e to counteract negative and r e s t r i c t i v e a ttitudes toward the e l d e r l y . Most university-based gerontology education programs do not aim at changing student behavior (Peterson and Bolton, 1980:177-179). Rather, gerontology c u r r i c u l a usually provide students with a broad range of cognitive information, a t t i t u d i n a l discussions, and s k i l l s to use as a basis f o r l a t e r decision making concerning s o c i a l work pr a c t i c e . 112 I f we are to develop s o c i a l workers who are interested i n working with the aged, yet have r e a l i s t i c and supportive attitudes, i t appears that we must not only provide our students with sustained personal contact with the aged, both well and i l l , but we must structure these experiences i n such a manner that they provide guidance with a t t i t u d i n a l as well as i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. Therefore, we propose that i n order to f o s t e r p o s i t i v e attitudes i n s o c i a l work students toward older persons, the following guidelines i n professional t r a i n i n g i s recommended: 1. Assumptions As we said e a r l i e r , a pervasive theme i n t h i s downgrad-ing and avoidance of gerontology and the el d e r l y appears to be the negative, stereotyped attitudes toward the e l d e r l y which permeate our society and are shared by s o c i a l workers. Negative attitudes generate avoidance behavior and also act as a b a r r i e r to the formation of therapeutic relationships with e l d e r l y c l i e n t s . For example, several reports (White, 1977; Brock, 1977? Chaisson, 1980; Chamberland, et a l . , 1979; Hart, Freel and Crowell, 1976; Kayser and Minnigerode, 1975; Jobiason, et a l . , 1979; Fisher, 1981; Green, 1981; Blum, 1977; Hauwiller and Jennings, 1981) i n the nursing l i t e r a t u r e have focused on the use of d i f f e r e n t educational models to improve the attitude of nursing students toward the e l d e r l y . The negative attitudes and nontherapeutic responses of s o c i a l workers to the el d e r l y are fundamentally related to 113 t h e i r lack of understanding f o r what i t i s l i k e to be old and sick i n our society. Those who lack a f i r s t hand, p o s i t i v e experience of aging from a long-term, reality-based associa-t i o n with an aged r e l a t i v e or f r i e n d i n both sick and well circumstances are apt to develop stereotyped images of the e l d e r l y . In our age segregated society, those who have l i t t l e or no association with the el d e r l y tend to derive t h e i r image of older persons from the skewed, unpleasant examples too often portrayed i n the mass media or from t h e i r professional contact with a non-representative group of sick, i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d old persons. I t seems to us the best way to improve the negative orientation of some s o c i a l work students toward e l d e r l y c l i e n t s i s to provide them with an opportunity to step prematurely into simulated old age where they could act out d i f f i c u l t situations common i n the l i v e s of e l d e r l y persons. We further assume that when a student has an experience s p e c i f i c a l l y structured to a s s i s t him i n i d e n t i f y i n g the problems, needs, and potentials of the healthy e l d e r l y and i s provided with an opportunity f o r frequent contacts with a number of well e l d e r l y persons, his/her attitudes toward the aged can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y changed. Then, when students had a guided learning experience with the i l l e l d erly a f t e r a structured experience with the healthy elderly, the attitudes they hold about the aged may remain as p o s i t i v e as those of students who have had only the structured contact with the 114 healthy e l d e r l y . 2. Objectives The objectives of the proposed course are to increase consciousness about attitudes toward the e l d e r l y , and to r e a l i z e what to expect i n one's own eventual aging. As already indicated by Tobin ( 1 9 7 8 ) , our intent i s not only to educate students interested i n aging i n the es s e n t i a l know-ledge base, but also to sen s i t i z e a l l students, as well as fac u l t y , to the processes of aging and, i n turn, to the aging as an important target group f o r the entire range of s o c i a l work interventions. Invariably, therefore, a program i n gerontology at the undergraduate or the graduate l e v e l w i l l include, on the one hand, courses i n aging as a developmental process and the older cohort i n contemporary society and, on the other hand, s o c i a l treatment with, or planning and p o l i c y formulation f o r the aged, as well as f i e l d experiences with agencies who work d i r e c t l y with the aged or who plan, develop, or implement programs f o r the aged. 3 - Recommended Teaching Strategies The teaching strategies w i l l be used to achieve the above goals are structured to: 1) Increase knowledge regarding the physiologic and psycho-l o g i c changes and problems of the aged. 2 ) Involve each student i n a number of personal experiences 115 with the well e l d e r l y so comparisons could be made from personal experiences. 3) Help the students i d e n t i f y each aged c l i e n t s * p o t e n t i a l . 4) Increase the students' awareness of t h e i r own f e e l i n g s . Most classes w i l l follow the lecture/discussion format to u t i l i z e the expertise of the speaker present. Audiovisual materials w i l l be used to show various aging changes and i n -tervention techniques. Resource people experienced i n working with el d e r l y c l i e n t s w i l l speak to the students. These guests w i l l provide information on the e f f e c t s of various environ-ments on the aging process. Students w i l l be expected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r own learning through completion of independent projects and class presentation. These w i l l help foster independent l e a r n i n g and allow students time f o r in-depth inves t i g a t i o n of special i n t e r e s t areas. In order to develop p o s i t i v e attitudes toward the aged, each student w i l l f i r s t be exposed to the r e l a t i v e l y well c l i e n t i n the community and to the normal phys i o l o g i c a l and psychological process of aging, then place with p o t e n t i a l e l d e r l y c l i e n t s i n s o c i a l work settings. 4. Role of Teachers How can we define the tasks of those who engage i n the teaching of gerontology? A l l learning and teaching encom-passes three functions, namely i d e n t i f y i n g , transmitting and, for the learner, acquiring knowledge. 116 The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y encountered by s o c i a l work educators i n connection with these tasks l i e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g the know-ledge which i s to be imparted. This i s no mean task given the amount of written material on gerontology which has accumulated during the l a s t few years. In r e a l i t y , however, some of t h i s material i s worthless, and our f i r s t task w i l l be to separate what i s excellent from what i s merely good and what i s incomplete and what i s downright bad. The next step w i l l be to detect and correct our many prejudices, which prevent us from approaching aging and old age with an open mind. To t h i s end a re-examination of pre-s c i e n t i f i c and pseudo-scientific l i t e r a t u r e would be advis-able i n order to assess not only our opinions but also the attitudes responsible f o r these opinions. F i n a l l y , we must learn to recognize and nurture within ourselves those i n s t i t u t i o n s which have been i n h i b i t e d by popular opinion and formal schooling. To e l i c i t others to add gerontological content to t h e i r courses and to develop f i e l d placements related to aging within t h e i r own orienta-t i o n are also v i t a l element i n changing attitudes toward older persons. Let us also bear i n mind that the manner i n which an object i s given can be worth more than the object given. S i m i l a r l y , the approach to teaching i s more important than the subject taught. By t h i s we mean that teaching involves the teacher, the student and the subject matter. The teacher 117 does not influence his/her students s o l e l y by presenting the subject matter to them. He/she must also pay attention to t h e i r problems and t h e i r progress. Above a l l the teacher must know that he/she i s an example and a model rather than a mere giver of information f o r his/her attitude can serve to hide as well as to reveal the knowledge he/she seeks to transmit. He/she has i t i n his/her power to alienate as well as to l i b e r a t e . Therefore, the main objective of his/her course should be made e x p l i c i t to those p a r t i c i p a t i n g : to teach s o c i a l work students to learn to think, plan, and behave i n ways that w i l l help older c l i e n t s maintain t h e i r own competence f o r l i v i n g and sense of self-worth. Several general basic p r i n c i p l e s have emerged which apply to any e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g : 1) Always prepare a class f o r a t r a i n i n g series by develop-ing p o s i t i v e expectations. This i s accomplished by p r i o r announcements that make clear when and where t r a i n i n g w i l l take place, who w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e , how much time w i l l be spent, what i s to be expected of students and of the instructor, what they can hope to get out of the t r a i n i n g , and the l i k e . 2) Make i t clear that your t r a i n i n g e f f o r t s are serious. 3) You should see to i t that the t r a i n i n g i s at the very l e a s t pleasant; at best, i t can and should be i n t r i g u i n g , i n t e r e s t i n g , and even fun. Use references, v i s u a l aids, 118 an occasional i n t e r e s t i n g v i s i t i n g l e c t u r e r or interview; employ role-playing, demonstrations, experience-sharing; o f f e r refreshments or snacks; relax, be informal, use humor. Enjoy what can be f o r a l l a good experience. 4) Training should never be overly casual or abrupt. Ideally, no session should be l e s s than l | hours i n length; 2 or 2g hours with perhaps a short 10 or 15 minute break i s preferable. You w i l l have gained an enormous advantage i f you use the t r a i n i n g to develop a sense of confidence and mutual t r u s t i n students as well as to impart information. 5) Be e x p l i c i t , c lear, and to the point. 6) F i n a l l y , some attention should be paid to evaluating the t r a i n i n g . The t r a i n e r needs to know how e f f e c t i v e the t r a i n i n g i s : where i t i s on target; where i t needs im-provement or r e v i s i o n . Three useful questions to ask f o r a general evaluation are: what have you found most useful about t h i s class? what has interested you most? what would you prefer to see changed—added, omitted, or given more time,,? 5. Role of Students A gerontological s o c i a l work course which focused on the needs and problems of older people and integrated students' p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t s could have an impact on s o c i a l work students' attitudes toward the aged and t h e i r pre-119 ferences f o r working with the e l d e r l y . We believe that s o c i a l work students are i n a strategic p o s i t i o n to intercede on behalf of el d e r l y who need advocacy i n a s i t u a t i o n when other professionals seem in s e n s i t i v e to t h e i r needs. In whatever s e t t i n g he/she functions, the student can bring accurate information about old people, awareness of the margin f o r error i n the perceptions of many other profess-ionals, and s k i l l s i n communication to protect the eld e r l y from the corrosive e f f e c t s of prejudice and discrimination. In addition, he/she can i n s t i t u t e and maintain a program of informal education that w i l l help to reduce the error and increase awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y . In the agency setting, the MSW student may be i n a pos i t i o n of supervision and/or administration, so that, by d e f i n i t i o n , the ro l e could include taking the leadership i n setting and maintaining standards of professional behavior. Here, he/she i s i n a po s i t i o n to: 1) Model appropriate behavior v i s - a - v i s old people. 2) A s s i s t i n developing standards of behavior f o r the s t a f f are defined and put i n writing. 3) Develop and operate a pattern of supervision to maintain a high q u a l i t y of functioning. k) Encourage a formal program of in-service education. 5) Extend communication about standards of behavior toward old people and information about age and aging to those professionals who are generally outside his/her 120 supervision network. t In the community l e v e l , the student can play the r o l e of: 1) A s s i s t i n g a group of representatives from various agencies, c i v i c organizations, and consumers' groups to examine el d e r l y problems i n the community. 2) Helping e l d e r l y consumers conduct surveys to i d e n t i f y public perceptions of el d e r l y problems and preferred methods of resolving these problems. 3) I n i t i a t i n g seminars and workshops to bring e l d e r l y problems to the attention of community leaders. 4) A s s i s t i n g s o c i a l work professionals i n updating t h e i r knowledge about the most e f f e c t i v e ways to prevent and control e l d e r l y stereotyping. 6. Content i n Curriculum A curriculum of aging must provide students with the opportunity to examine personal stereotypes of the el d e r l y as well as possible sources that help perpetuate these stereotypes. The following l i s t of important themes are deemed v i t a l to any program which intended to change student attitudes toward older persons. 1) Learning can be fun, and enjoyable. 2) Negative and p o s i t i v e attitudes toward aged generally held by professionals and by other persons themselves should be explored; how t h i s a f f e c t s p r a c t i c e . 121 3) Old people are constantly underestimated; they do have capacities, potentials, and futures. Discuss d i f f e r e n t expected goals f o r d i f f e r e n t persons. 4) Losses over the years need to be compensated so older persons can continue to function i n spite of losses. 5) Self-esteem depends on a sense of competence and worth-whileness; t h i s i s c r i t i c a l to well-being and good health. 6) Gradual vs. c r i s i s decision: d i f f e r e n t ways of handling. 7) Old person needs time and support to adjust to change. 8) Share information with one another so that professional responses are appropriate. 9) Importance of dealing honestly with the older person about what r e a l i t y i s . 10) Importance of orientation, and r e p e t i t i o n . 11) Importance of support and reassurance f o r c l i e n t s who are f e a r f u l , frightened, under stress. 12) Families i n stress need to understand c l e a r l y what a f a c i l i t y can and cannot do. 13) Some behaviors are attention-getting strategies and signal r e a l needs of i n d i v i d u a l . 14) Treatment plans are guides, and should lean heavily on needs and desires of c l i e n t . 15) Too much help diminishes s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y ( i n f a n t i l i z e s ) . 16) Sexual behavior, closeness i s not inappropriate i n l a t e r years. 122 17) A p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m e a n i n g f u l a c t i v i t y and work must be a v a i l a b l e . 18) The i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l cues and s t i m u l a t i o n . 19) P r o f e s s i o n a l s make a f a c i l i t y r u n ; d e t e r m i n e whether a f a c i l i t y i s good, bad, o r i n d i f f e r e n t . 20) E f f e c t i v e communication i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l . 21) N o n - v e r b a l i s as i m p o r t a n t as v e r b a l communication. 22) P r o f e s s i o n a l s must u n d e r s t a n d i n c e n t i v e s f o r which p e o p l e work. 23) There a r e numerous ways t o p r o v i d e rewards, s t a t u s , and r e c o g n i t i o n . 24) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know t h a t what th e s o c i a l worker says i s i m p o r t a n t t o o l d e r p e r s o n s . 25) S o c i a l w o r kers need t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t on o l d e r p e r s o n s o f a v a r i e t y o f changes and c r i s e s . 26) The i m p o r tance of t e a m w o r k - - a b i l i t y t o work i n a team. A f i n a l c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t seems a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p l a c i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s i n p e r s p e c t i v e . I f a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i s t h e d e s i r e d outcome of g e r o n t o l o g i c a l c o u r s e s , t h e c o u r s e s s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o u c s e i t h e r on t h e ' h e a l t h y e l d e r l y ' o r ' s i c k e l d e r l y ' , b u t s h o u l d a l l o w a 'generous' o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e e l d e r l y , t o b a l a n c e c l a s s r o o m p r e s e n t a t i o n s and p e r m i t 123 development of b e l i e f s based upon d i r e c t experience. When courses have provided a mix of p r a c t i c a l and classroom experience, we hope that s o c i a l work students' attitudes w i l l tend to become more p o s i t i v e . 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New York: Springer Publishing Company. Peterson, D. A. and Eden, D. Z. 1977 "Teenagers and Aging: Adolescent L i t e r a t u r e as An Attitude Source," Educational Gerontology 2:3H-325« P f e i f f e r , E. 1973 Alternatives to I n s t i t u t i o n a l Care. North Carolina: Duke University Press. 139 P h i l b e r t , M. 1974 " A g i n g , " i n A g i n g i n American S o c i e t y , ed. by James D. Manney, J r . Wayne S t a t e s I n s t i t u t e o f G e r o n t o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . P i n c u s , A. 1967 "Toward A Developmental View o f A g i n g f o r S o c i a l Work," S o c i a l Work 12:33-41. P r i b b l e , D. A. 2nd T r u s t l y , K. 1981 " G e r o n t o l o g y and S o c i a l S t u d i e s E d u c a t i o n : L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s f o r E l i m i n a t i n g N e g a t i v e S t e r e o t y p e s , " E d u c a t i o n a l G e r o n t o l o g y 6:l8l-190i R a n d a l l , 0. 1977 "Some H i s t o r i c a l Developments o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e A s p e c t s o f A g i n g , " i n P e r s p e c t i v e s on A g i n g , ed. by G a r i L e s n o f f - C a r a v a g l i a . I l l i n o i s : W h i t e h a l l Company, pp.8-17. R e i f l e r , B., Cox, G. and H a n l e y , R. 1981 "Problems o f M e n t a l l y 111 E l d e r l y as P e r c e i v e d by P a t i e n t s , F a m i l i e s , and C l i n i c i a n s , " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t 21:165-170. Richman, J . 1977 "The F o o l i s h n e s s and Wisdom o f Age: A t t i t u d e s toward the E l d e r l y as R e f l e c t e d i n J o k e s , " The G e r o n t o l o g i s t 17:210-219. Robbs, S. S. 1979 " A t t i t u d e s and I n t e n t i o n s o f B a c c a l a u r e a t e N u r s i n g S t u d e n t s toward t h e E l d e r l y , " N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h 28:43-R o s e n c r a n z , M. A. and McNevin, T. E. 1969 "A F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f A t t i t u d e s toward Aged," The G e r o n t o l o g i s t 9»55-59. R o w l i n g s , C. 1978 S o c i a l Work w i t h t h e E l d e r l y : Some Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s . London: U n i v e r s i t y o f K e e l e . 140 Rowlings, C. 1981 So c i a l Work with E l d e r l y People. London: George A l l e n and Unwin. Rowlings, C. 1981a "The So c i a l Workers and the Problems of Ageing," i n The Impact of Aging: Strategies f o r Care, ed. by David Hobman. London: Croom Helm Ltd., pp.158-Rubin, A. 1980 S t a t i s t i c s on Soc i a l Work Education i n the United States: 1979. New York: Council on So c i a l Work Education. 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Silverman, I. 1966 "Response-Set Bias and Predictive V a l i d i t y Associated with Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale," Journal of Gerontology 21:86-88. 141 Smeltzer, M. 1977 " D i f f e r e n t i a l Impact of Various Experiments on Breaking Down Age Stereotypes," Educational Gerontology 11:183-189. Soyer, D. 1969 "Reverie on Working with the Aged," S o c i a l Casework 14:291-294. Special Senate Committee on Retirement Age P o l i c i e s 1979 Retirement without Tears. Quebec: Minister of Supply and Services Canada. Spence, D., Feigenbaum, E., Fi t z g e r a l d , F. and Roth, J. 1968 "Medical Student Attitudes toward the G e r i a t r i c Patient," Journal of the American G e r i a t r i c s Society 16:976-983. Sprouse, B. 1976 National Directory of Educational Programs i n Gerontology, ed. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 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E. 1981 "An Aging Population i n Aging Communities: The Challenge to the University," i n The Challenge of Canada's Maturing Population: Research and P r i o r i t i e s , ed. by the Centre f o r Human Settlements. Vancouver, B.C.: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, pp.3-9. Thorson, J . A. 1975a "Attitudes toward the Aged as A Function of Race and Soci a l Class," The Gerontologist 15:343-344. Thorson, J. A. 1975b "Variations i n Attitudes toward Aging as A Function of Educational Level," unpublished paper presented at Adult Education Research Conference, s t . Louis, Missouri, A p r i l 17* Thorson, J . A. , Wh'atley, L. and Hancock, K. 1974 "Attitudes toward the Aged as A Function of Age and Education," The Gerontologist 14:316-318. Thurstone, L. L. 1946 "Comment," American Journal of Sociology 52:39-40. Tobin, S. S. 1975 "Social and Health Services f o r the Future Aged," The Gerontologist 15:32-37. Tobin, S. S. 1978 "Social Work: Gerontology i n Professional and Pre-professional C u r r i c u l a , " i n Gerontology i n Higher Education: Perspectives and Issues, eds. by M. Seltzer, H. Sterns and T. Hickey. C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., pp.239-241. 143 T r i p b d i , T., F e l l i n , P. and Meyer, H. "1969 The Assessment off Social Research. I l l i n o i s : F. E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. T r o l l , L. E. and Schlossberg, N. 1970 "A Preliminary Investigation of 'Age Bias' i n Helping Professions," The Gerontologist 10:46. Tuckman, J. and Lorge, I. 1952 "Experts Biases toward Older Workers," Science 115* 685-687. Tuckman J . and Lorge, I. 1953 "Attitudes toward Old People," Journal of S o c i a l Psychology 37:249-260. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare 1977 Manpower and Training Needs i n Mental Health and I l l n e s s of the Aging. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1980 A Preliminary•Report on the Development and Implementation of A Federal Manpower Policy f o r the F i e l d of Aging. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . WSsser, E. 1966' , Creative Approaches i n Casework with the Aging. New York: Family Service Association of America. White, C. M. 1977 "The Nurse-Patient Encounter: Attitudes and Behaviors i n Action," Journal of Gerontological Nursing 3:16-20. Wilensky, H. and Barmack, J. 1966 "Interests of Doctoral Students i n C l i n i c a l Psychology i n Work with Older Adults," Journal of Gerontology 21:410-414. 144 Wilhite, M. J. and Johnson, D. M. 1976 "Changes i n Nursing Students' Stereotypic Attitudes toward Old People," Nursing Research 25:4-30. Wolk, R. L. and Wolk, R. B. 1971 "Professional Workers' Attitudes toward the Aged," Journal of American G e r i a t r i c s Society 19:624-639• Youmans, E. G. 1977 "Attitudes: Young-Old and Old-Old," The Gerontologist 17:175-178. Zimbardo, P. and Ebbesen, E. B. 1969 Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 145 PART I. PLEASE CHECK APPROPRIATE CATEGORIES 1. Sexs Female 1 Male 2 2. Age: Under 20 1 21-30 2 31-40 3 41-50 4 51-60 5 3. Marital Status;: Single 1 Married/Common-law 2 Divorced/Separated/Widowed 3 0ther 4 4. The highest completed education: PhD 5 MA 4 CBSW 3 BSW 2 BA 2 BS 2 Community College 1 High School 1 Other 1 5. You are working towards: BSW 1 CBSW 2 MSW 3 6. Years of experience i n the helping professions, including voluntary experience: 1 yr or l e s s 1 1-3 yrs 2 4-5 yrs 3 6-10 yrs 4 11-20 5 21+ yrs 6 7. Please indicate the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare you were i n before coming to UBC: 8. The c l i e n t group that you worked with i n your l a s t s o c i a l work experience i s : 9. Generally speaking, which part of human l i f e do you think i s the most desirable period of l i f e ? Infancy 1 E a r l y childhood 2 Play age 3 School age 4 Adolescence 5 Young adult 6 Adulthood 7 Old age 8 10. Generally speaking, which part of human l i f e do you think i s the worst years of a person's l i f e ? Infancy 1 Early childhood 2 Play age 3 School age 4 Adolescence 5 Young adult 6 Adulthood 7 Old age 8 11. Did you ever work with the older persons? Yes 1 No 2 If yes, what i s the nature of t h i s work: 147 12. Are you working with any older person now? Yes 1 No 2 I f yes, what i s the nature of t h i s work: 13. How frequently do you come into contact with older persons? At l e a s t once a day 1 At l e a s t once a week 2 At l e a s t once a month 3 At l e a s t once a year 4 14. Please check your amount of experience with older persons: Extensive 5 Considerable 4 F a i r 3 L i t t l e 2 None 1 15. Please check your t r a i n i n g or education i n aging: Extensive 7 Considerable 6 F a i r 5 L i t t l e 4 None 1 Have taken college course related to aging 3_ Have attended workshop on aging 2 16. At what age would you consider a person to be old: ; eld e r l y : 148 PART II . PLEASE RANK THE SEVERITY (FROM 1 TO 16, 1 BEING THE MOST SEVERE PROBLEM, 16 BEING THE LEAST SEVERE PROBLEM) OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM AREAS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT ELDERLY GROUPS (OLD-OLD & YOUNG-OLD). 17. Perceptions on problems of the eld e r l y : (rank 1 to 16) Problems Area Old-Old Young-Old (75+ & over) (65 - 74 yr) a. Housing & l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n b. Self-care c. Emotional & mental factors d. Transportation e. Family r e l a t i o n s f . Employment opportunities g. Legal assistance h. Education opportunities i . Food and n u t r i t i o n j . Physical health k. F i n a n c i a l matters 1. Day-to-day routine m. Knowledge of available services n. Leisure time a c t i v i t i e s and recreation o. Friendships p. Volunteer work 149 PART I I I . MANY TIMES, EVEN THOUGH AN INDIVIDUAL WOULD LIKE TO HELP ANOTHER PERSON, PROBLEMS ARISE SO THAT THEY CANNOT. IF YOU HAD ANY OLDER MEMBER (65+) OF YOUR FAMILY LIVING NEARBY, IS IT VERY LIKELY, LIKELY, NOT VERY LIKELY OR NOT AT ALL LIKELY THAT YOU WOULD REGULARLY DO EACH OF THE FOLLOWING: Very L i k e l y Not very Not at a l l l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y 18. V i s i t the older family member i n t h e i r house? 19. Telephone to say hello? 20. Provide transportation? 21. Do household chores? 22. Go shopping? 23. Give f i n a n c i a l help? NOW, AS I SAID BEFORE, THERE ARE A NUMBER OF REASONS WHY IT CAN BE DIFFICULT TO ASSIST AN OLDER FAMILY MEMBER. WOULD EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PRESENT A MAJOR DIFFICULTY, SOME DIFFICULTY, OR NO DIFFICULTY AT ALL TO YOU IN PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO AN OLDER MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY: Major Some No Does not d i f f i - d i f f i - d i f f i - apply culty c u l t y culty 2k. Your job (schooling)? 1 2 3 P_ 25. Obligations to your immediate family? 26. Your health? 27. The distance between where you l i v e and where older members of your family l i v e ? 28. A lack of money? 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 150 PART IV. FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING kO ITEMS, CIRCLE EITHER "T" FOR TRUE, OR "F" FOR FALSE. T F 29 • The majority of old people (past age 65) are senile ( i . e . , defective memory, disoriented, or demented). T F 30. A l l f i v e senses tend to decline i n old age. T F 31' Most old people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or capacity for, sexual r e l a t i o n s . T F 32. Lung capacity tends to decline i n old age. T F 33' The majority of old people f e e l miserable most of the time. T F 34. Physical strength tends to decline i n old age. T F 35' At l e a s t one-tenth of the aged are l i v i n g i n long-stay i n s t i t u t i o n s ( i . e . , nursing homes, mental hospitals, homes f o r the aged, e t c . ) . T F 36. Aged drivers have fewer accidents per person than drivers under age 65. T F 37. Most older workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. T F 38. About 90% of the aged are healthy enough to carry out t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . T F 39. Most old people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change. T F ko. Old people usually take longer to learn something new. T F kl. I t i s almost impossible f o r most old people to learn new things. T F kZ. The reaction time of most old people tends to be slower than reaction time of younger people. T F 4-3. The majority of old people are seldom bored. T F kk. The majority of old people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and lonely. T F 45. Older workers have fewer accidents than younger workers. T F k6. The majority of old people have incomes below the poverty l e v e l (as defined by the Federal Government). T F 47. The majority of old people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do (including housework and volunteer work). T F 48. The majority of old people are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. 151 T F 49. The health and socioeconomic status of older people (compared to younger people) i n the year 2000 w i l l probably be about the same as now. T F 50. A person's height tends to decline i n old age. T F 51. More older persons (over 65) have chronic i l l n e s s e s that l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t y than younger persons. T F 52. Older persons have more acute (short-term) i l l n e s s e s than persons under 65. T F 53« Older persons have more i n j u r i e s i n the home than persons under 65. T F 54. Older workers have l e s s absenteeism than younger workers. T F 55- Medical and Hospital Insurance pays over h a l f of the medical expenses f o r the aged. T F 56. Old Age Security automatically increase with i n f l a t i o n . T F 57« Guaranteed Income Supplement guarantees a minimum income f o r needy aged. T F 58. The aged do not get t h e i r proportionate share of the nation's income. T F 59. The aged have higher rates of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n than persons under 65 • T F 60. The aged are more f e a r f u l of crime than are persons under 65. T F 61. The aged are the most law abiding of a l l adult groups according to o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . T F 62. More of the aged vote than any other age group. T F 63. There are proportionately more older persons i n public o f f i c e than i n the t o t a l population. T F 64. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organizations (churches and clubs) tends to decline among the healthy aged. T F 65. The majority of aged l i v e alone. T F 66. About yf° more of the aged have incomes below the o f f i c i a l poverty l e v e l than the rest of the population. T F 67. When the l a s t c h i l d leaves home, the majority of parents have serious problems adjusting to t h e i r 'empty nest.' T F 68. The proportion widowed i s decreasing among the aged. 152 V. IN THIS SECTION YOU ARE ASKED TO INDICATE YOUR DEGREE OF AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT TO EACH OF THE FOLLOWING 34 STATEMENTS, PLEASE BE COMPLETELY FRANK IN YOUR RESPONSES. Strongly Agree agree I t would probably be better i f most old people l i v e d i n re-s i d e n t i a l units with people of t h e i r own age. 1_ Most old people are r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from anybody else: they are as easy to under-stand as young people. 5 Most old people would prefer to quit work as soon as pensions or t h e i r children can support them. 1_ Most old people can generally be counted on to maintain a clean, a t t r a t i v e home. 5_ Old people have too much power i n business and p o l i t i c s . 1_ Most old people are very rela x i n g to be with. 5. Most old people spend too much time prying into the a f f a i r s of others and givi n g unsought advice. 1_ When you think about i t , old people have the same f a u l t s as anybody else. i . There are a few except-ions, but i n general most old people are pretty much a l i k e . 1_ Disagree Strongly disagree 153 Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree 7 8 . Most old people seem to be quite clean and neat i n t h e i r personal appearance. 7 9 . Most old people are constantly complaining about the behavior of the younger generation. 1 8 0 . Most old people need no more love and reass-urance than anyone else. 5 81. I t would probably be better i f most old people l i v e d i n re-s i d e n t i a l units that also housed younger people. 5_ 82. There i s something d i f f e r e n t about most old people: i t ' s hard to figure out what makes them t i c k . 1_ 8 3 . Most old people get set i n t h e i r ways and are unable to change. 1_ 84. Most old people are capable of new adjust-ments when the s i t u a -t i o n demands i t . 5_ 8 5 . Most old people would prefer to continue working just as long as they possibly can rather than be depen-dent on anybody. 5_ 8 6 . Most old people tend to l e t t h e i r homes become shabby and unattrac-ti v e . 1_ 8 7 . I t i s f o o l i s h to claim that wisdom comes with old age. 1_ 154 Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly agree disagree 88. Old people should have more power i n business and p o l i t i c s . 5_ 89. Most old people make one f e e l i l l at ease. 1 90. One of the most i n t e r -esting and entertain-ing q u a l i t i e s of most old people i s t h e i r accounts of t h e i r past experiences. 5_ 91. Most old people tend to keep to themselves and give advice only when asked. 5_ 92. I f old people expect to be l i k e d , t h e i r f i r s t step i s to try to get r i d of t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s . 1_ 93« You can count on f i n d -ing a nice r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood when there i s a sizeable number of old people l i v i n g i n i t . 1 94. I t i s evident that most old people are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. 5_ 95' Most old people should be more concerned with t h e i r personal appear-ance; they are too untidy. 1_ 96. Most old people are cheerful, agreeable, and good humored. 5_ 97. One seldom hears old people complaining about the behavior of the younger generation. 5_ 155 Strongly Agree agree Disagree Strongly disagree 98. Most old people make excessive demands fo r love and re-assurance. 1 99* People grow wiser with the coming of old age. 5 100. Most old people bore others by t h e i r i n -sistence on t a l k i n g about the 'good old days' . 1 2 4 ± 101. In order to maintain a nice r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood, i t would be best i f too many old people did not l i v e i n i t . 1 2 4 £ 102. Most old people are i r r i t a b l e , grouchy, and unpleasant. 1 2 4 £ 103. Please add any comments or observations on anything that you f e e l would be of further value, but i s not adequately covered i n the questions. 2 k 5 4 2 1 156 104. Indicate your preferences f o r working i n the following f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY): FIELDS WOULD PREFER HAVE NO WOULD PREFER NOT WORK IN THIS PREFER- TO WORK IN THIS FIELD ENCE FIELD Ch i l d Welfare 1 2 3_ Income Security or Public Assistance 1 2 3_ Family Service 1 2 3_ Correctional 1 2 3_ Recreational 1 2 3_ Medical 1 2 3_ Psychiatric 1 2 3_ Vocational-Employment 1 2 3_ Mental Retardation 1 2 3_ Services f o r Aged 1 2 3_ Education 1 2 3_ Housing 1 2 3_ Neighborhood Services (CD.) 1 2 1 Private Practice 1 2 3_ Handicapped 1 2 3_ Mental Health 1 2 1 Research 1 2 3_ Thank you f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Alex. Kwan, St. Andrew's H a l l , UBC, 6040 Iona Drive, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. V6T 1J6. 157 DO NOT COPY LEAVES 159-63. C i t a t i o n s given below. APPENDIX C Nathan Kogan's OP Scale Items Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology 62 ( l 9 6 l ) : 4-6-47 Copyright by the American Psychological A s s o c i a t i o n , Inc. APPENDIX D ErdmaE Palniore's FAQ Scale Items, FAQ 1 and FAQ 2 The Gerontologist 17 (1977):315-20 The Gerontologist 20 (l980)j 671 The Gerontologist 21 ( l 9 8 l ) : 431-32 Copyright by Gerontological Society 158a APPENDIX C NATHAN KOGAN'S OP SCALE ITEMS - 1. I t would probably be better i f most old people l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l units with people of t h e i r own age. + 2. I t would probably be better i f most old people l i v e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l units that also housed younger people. - 3- There i s something d i f f e r e n t about most old people: i t ' s hard to figure out what makes them t i c k . + 4. Most old people are r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from anybody else: they're as easy to understand as young people. - 5« Most old people get set i n t h e i r ways and are unable to change. + 6. Most old people are capable of new adjustments when the s i t u a t i o n demands i t . - 7« Most old people would prefer to quit work as soon as pensions or t h e i r children can support them. + 8. Most old people would prefer to continue working just as long as they possibly can rather than be dependent on anybody. - 9 . Most old people tend to l e t t h e i r homes become shabby and unattractive. + 10. Most old people can generally be counted on to maintain a clean, a t t r a c t i v e home. -11. I t i s f o o l i s h to claim that wisdom comes with old age. + 12. People grow wiser with the coming of old age. - 13- Old people have too much power i n business and p o l i t i c s . + 14. Old people should have more power i n business and p o l i t i c s . - 15- Most old people make one f e e l i l l at ease. + 16. Most old people are very relaxing to be with. - 17. Most old people bore others by t h e i r insistence on t a l k i n g about the 'good old days.' 159 + 18. One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g and entertaining q u a l i t i e s of most old people i s t h e i r accounts of t h e i r past experiences. - 19- Most old people spend too much time prying into the a f f a i r s of others and giving unsought advice. + 20. Most old people tend to keep to themselves and give advice only when asked. - 21. I f old people expect to he l i k e d , t h e i r f i r s t step i s to t r y to get r i d of t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s . + 22. When you think about i t , old people have the same f a u l t s as anybody else. - 23- In order to maintain a nice r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood, i t would be best i f too many old people did not l i v e i n i t . + 24. You can count on fin d i n g a nice r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood when there i s a sizeable number of old people l i v i n g i n i t . - 25- There are a few exceptions, but i n general most old people are pretty much a l i k e . +26. I t i s evident that most old people are very d i f f e r e n t from one another. - 27. Most old people should be more concerned with t h e i r personal appearance; they're too untidy. + 28. Most old people seem to be quite clean and neat i n t h e i r personal appearance. - 29- Most old people are i r r i t a b l e , grouchy, and unpleasant. + 3°• Most old people are cheerful, agreeable, and good humored. - 31. Most old people are constantly complaining about the behavior of the younger generation. + 32. One seldom hears old people complaining about the behavior of the younger generation. - 33- Most old people make excessive demands f o r love and reassurance. +'• 34. Most old people need no more love and reassurance than anyone else. "-" means the negatively worded form. "+" means the p o s i t i v e l y worded form. APPENDIX D ERDMAN PALMORE'S FAQ SCALE ITEMS F A Q 1 - F 1. The majority of old people are s e n i l e . + T 2. A l l f i v e senses tend to decline i n old age. - F 3. Most old people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or capacity f o r , sexual r e l a t i o n s . + T 4. Lung capacity tends to decline i n old age. - F 5' The majority of old people f e e l miserable most of the time. + T 6. Physical strength tends to decline i n old age. - F 7. At l e a s t one-tenth of the aged are l i v i n g i n long-stay i n s t i t u t i o n s . - T 8. Aged drivers have fewer accidents per person than drivers under age 65. - F 9. Most older workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. - T 10. About 90$ of the aged are healthy enough to carry out t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . - F 11. Most old people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change. + T 12. Old people usually take longer to le a r n something new. - F 13' I t i s almost impossible f o r most old people to learn new things. + T 14. The reaction time of most old people tends to be slower than reaction time of younger people. - T 15. The majority of old people are seldom bored. - F 16. The majority of old people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and lonely. - T 17. Older workers have fewer accidents than younger workers. 161 - F 18. The majority of older people have incomes below the poverty l e v e l . - T 19. The majority of old people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do. - T 20. The majority of old people are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. - F 21. The health and socioeconomic status of older people (compared to younger people) i n the year 2000 w i l l probably be about the same as now. FAQ 2 + T 1. A person's height tends to decline i n old age. + T 2. More older persons (over 65) have chronic i l l n e s s e s that l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t y than younger persons. - F 3' Older persons have more acute (short-term) i l l n e s s e s than persons under 65. - F 4. Older persons have more i n j u r i e s i n the home than persons under 65. - T 5« Older workers have l e s s absenteeism than younger workers. + F 6. Medical and Hospital Insurance pays over h a l f of the medical expenses f o r the aged. - T 7« Old Age Security automatically increase with i n f l a t i o n . - T 8. Guaranteed Income Supplement guarantees a minimum income f o r needy aged. - F 9« The aged do not get t h e i r proportionate share of the nation's income. - F 10. The aged have higher rates of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n than persons under 65. + T 11. The aged are more f e a r f u l of crime than are persons under 65. - T 12. The aged are the most law abiding of a l l adult groups according to o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . + F 13. More of the aged vote than any other age group. 162 T 14. There are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more o l d e r p e r s o n s i n p u b l i c o f f i c e t h a n i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . F 15. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t e n d s t o d e c l i n e among the h e a l t h y aged. F 16. The m a j o r i t y o f aged l i v e a l o n e . T 17« About Jfo more o f t h e aged have incomes below the o f f i c i a l p o v e r t y l e v e l t h a n the r e s t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . F 18. When the l a s t c h i l d l e a v e s home, the m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s have s e r i o u s problems a d j u s t i n g t o t h e i r 'empty n e s t . ' T 19« The p r o p o r t i o n widowed i s d e c r e a s i n g among the aged. -" r e f l e c t s a n e g a t i v e b i a s i t e m . +" r e f l e c t s a p o s i t i v e b i a s i t e m . T" means c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . F" means i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . 163 DO NOT COPY LEAVES.165-67. Citations given below. APPENDIX E. QUESTIONNAIRE More than 3/k of the questions are taken from Erdraan Palmore. The Gerontologist 17 (1977): 315-20 The Gerontologist 20 (1980): 671 The Gerontologist 21 ( I 9 8 l ) : Copyright by Gerontological Society QUESTIONNAIRE According to Erdman Palmore, each of the following items r e f l e c t s either a negative (-) or p o s i t i v e (+) bias connota-t i o n . In the following section you are asked to indicate your judgement of the connotative nature (not true or false) of each of the statements by c i r c l i n g either "-" f o r negative bias connotation, or "+-"• f o r posi t i v e bias connotation. Thank you f o r your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . + - 1. The majority of old people are s e n i l e . + - 2 . A l l f i v e senses tend to decline i n old age. + - 3« Most old people have no i n t e r e s t i n , or capacity f o r , sexual r e l a t i o n s . + - 4. Lung capacity tends to decline i n old age. + - 5« The majority of old people f e e l miserable most of the time. + - 6. Physical strength tends to decline i n old age. + - 7 . At l e a s t one-tenth of the aged are l i v i n g i n long-stay i n s t i t u t i o n s . + - 8 . Aged drivers have fewer accidents per person than drivers under age 6 5 . + - 9. Most older workers cannot work as e f f e c t i v e l y as younger workers. + - 1 0 . About 90$ of the aged are healthy enough to carry out t h e i r normal a c t i v i t i e s . + - 11. Most old people are set i n t h e i r ways and unable to change. + - 1 2 . Old people usually take longer to learn something new. + - 13. I t i s almost impossible f o r most old people to learn new things. + - 14. The reaction time of most old people tends to be slower than reaction time of younger people. + - 15. The majority of old people are seldom bored. + - 16. The majority of old people are s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and lonely. 165 + - 1?. Older workers have fewer accidents than younger workers. + - 18. The majority of old people have incomes below the poverty l e v e l . + - 19. The majority of old people are working or would l i k e to have some kind of work to do. + - 20. The majority of old people are seldom i r r i t a t e d or angry. + - 21. The health and socio-economic status of older people (compared to younger people) i n the year 2000 w i l l probably be about the same as now. + - 22. A person's height tends to decline i n old age. + - 23. More older persons (over 65) have chronic i l l n e s s e s that l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t y than younger persons. + - 2k. Older persons have more acute (short-term) i l l n e s s e s than persons under 65. + - 25« Older persons have more i n j u r i e s i n the home than persons under 65. + - 26. Older workers have l e s s absenteeism than younger workers. + - 27. Medical and Hospital Insurance pays over h a l f of the medical expenses f o r the aged. + - 28. Old Age Security automatically increase with i n f l a t i o n . + - 29. Guaranteed Income Supplement guarantees a minimum income f o r needy aged. + - 30. The aged do not get t h e i r proportionate share of the nation's income. + - 31. The aged have higher rates of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n than persons under 65. + - 32. The aged are more f e a r f u l of crime than are persons under 65. 166 The aged are the most law abiding of a l l adult groups according to o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . More of the aged vote than any other age group. There are proportionately more older persons i n public o f f i c e than i n the t o t a l population. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organizations (churches and clubs) tends to decline among the healthy aged. The majority of aged l i v e alone. About Jfo more of the aged have incomes below the o f f i c i a l poverty l e v e l than the rest of the population. When the l a s t c h i l d leaves home, the majority of parents have serious problems adjusting to t h e i r * empty nest.' The proportion widowed i s decreasing among the agec 167 

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