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An assessment of the lower mainland crown land planning process Bloodoff, Peter Petrovich 1981

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LOWER MAINLAND CROWN LAND PLANNING PROCESS by PETER PETROVICH BLOODOFF Diploma,. The S o u t h e r n A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e Of T e c h n o l o g y , D i p l o m a , Mount R o y a l C o l l e g e , 1972  A THESIS SU3MITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in  THE (the School  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES of Community  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  and R e g i o n a l  as  Planning)  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , l981  @  Peter  P e t r o v i c h B l o o d o f f , 1981  1970  In  presenting  requirements  this  I  available  for  purposes  may  agree  for  thesis  partial -  the  Library  reference  and  study.  extensive  copying  for financial  permission.  School  o f Community  shall I  gain  and R e g i o n a l  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  that shall  thesis  of  the  of B r i t i s h i t  freely  agree  that  for scholarly  Department or  copying  by  his  or p u b l i c a t i o n of  n o t be a l l o w e d  Planning  Columbia  make  further  of t h i s  by t h e Head o f my  I t i s understood  written  fulfilment  at the U n i v e r s i t y  that  be g r a n t e d  representatives. this  in  f o r an a d v a n c e d degree  Columbia,  permission  thesis  without  my  .  i i  ABSTRACT  In  British  Covering for  a  over  Columbia  90 p e r c e n t  variety  of  Crown  land  of the P r o v i n c e ,  the  residents'  population  and f u r t h e r : development  attention  i s being  broad  directed  range o f p u b l i c  Ministry  of  unalienated planning  is  vital  these  needs.  o f our-  to  lands  provide  With the  expanding increased  t o w a r d s t h e use o f t h e s e  l a n d s by a  interests.  and H o u s i n g  In  (LPH),  assist  in allocating  response,  the steward  Crown l a n d r e s o u r c e , has d e v e l o p e d  program  resource.  resources,  and p r i v a t e  Lands, Parks  a  the  o f our  a  comprehensive  these  lands t o their  best use.  This Crown that  seeks  to  evaluate  land planning process are s o c i a l l y  land  plans  Mainland  a review  B.C. and  are achieved  examination  criteria  for  this  a "good" p l a n n i n g  better  the  Sub-District  Crown  Columbia's  Lower  British studies.  To  augment  the  of  the  legislative  which the a l i e n a t i o n  base  and  decisions  are presented.  are  e l e m e n t s o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  that  in  of  at a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s  end, two  as c a s e  s t r u c t u r e through  Normative  rationale  effectiveness  o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f Crown l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  an  administrative  completed  are u t i l i z e d  the  in arriving  o p t i m a l . To t h i s  recently  Region  analysis, in  thesis  resource  "good" p r o c e s s  research system  management  i s one  that  utilized Crown  the procedural  land planning process.  approach is  to assess  more  i s based likely  on t h e to  The  premise  facilitate  d e c i s i o n s . It i s postulated that a parallels  the  normative  elements  embodied  in  liberal  fundamental values processes ensuing  democratic  which determine  are acceptable four  theory,  "ideals"  i n our are  since  what t y p e s  society.  utilized  In  of  these  the  decision-making  light  to  are  of  assess  this, the  the  planning  process: 1. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s process 2. A d e q u a c y of i n f o r m a t i o n 3. E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p r o c e s s 4. E f f i c i e n c y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g In a p p l y i n g several  the  foregoing  w e a k n e s s e s were n o t e d .  offered  to  elements theories  strengthen  of  the  the  the  for a l l affected  the  land  Crown  interests  such  the  plans.  as  the  special  interests,  planning  suggested  that  staff. public  a discretionary  planning  generation  planning  of  l a c k of  program  To  processes  parties  were  and  system,  i n the  did  the  in  light  of  provide  an  not  in  deriving  non-institutional  resource  The  inclusion  industries of  these  discretion  t h i s m a j o r weakness  planning  to  be  of  of  the  it  is  become a r e q u i r e d r a t h e r process.  information  extent  are  normative  the  knowledge r e g a r d i n g the  and  i s at the  alleviate  appeared  studies  the  to p a r t i c i p a t e  groups.  adequate  case  behavior.  participation  element  processes  participants'  i n t e r m s of  general public,  present  the  process,  Excluded  interest  under t h e  regional  The  ^program  planning  to  decision-making  f o l l o w i n g recommendations  decision-making  opportunity  than  The  of p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Foremost,  and  criteria  i n the  use  in  the  constrained  by  the  of  the  the  their  for  breadth  involvement.  It i s  iv  suggested their  that a greater  planning At  on  present,  developing  Province. regional  or  on  is  perceived regional  between  the  this  environment the  LPH  capacity  this  LPH and  plans  not  a  i s that  recognized  s t r u c t u r e . In  M i n i s t r y place  planning  full-time  open  the  and  are  of  this  emphasis  plans. Ministry,  communication  staff. person  To be  the  broader  light  a greater  r e g i o n a l Crown l a n d  inhibits  i t s efforts  throughout  emphasis  are  promote  alleviate appointed  as  between this  it  to  liaise  be  drawn  groups.  Perhaps the from  the  headquarters' that  to  situation.  land  away under t h i s  within,  two  of  this  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of  from  suggested  Crown  "needs"  sub-regional  and  Ministry  Ministry is concentrating  that  present  LPH  LPH  result  traded  the  alleviate  provincial  preparing  is  net  suggested  The  the  by  may  area-specific  The  perhaps being it  efforts  effort  most  important  research i s , at best,  planning to adapt  is  observation  that  B.C.'s  that  Provincial  " t u r b u l e n t " . In t h e  program  to  survive  to e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s .  may  will  end,  the  depend  planning ability upon  of its  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I -- INTRODUCTION  1  PURPOSE  1  THE PROBLEM  2  STUDY OBJECTIVES  .5  CHAPTER I I -- CROWN LAND PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  6  THE EVOLUTION OF CROWN LAND PLANNING The  7  New L a n d l o r d s  A New M i n i s t r y  8  Is Created  THE LEGISLATED MANDATE Relation  t o Other  ....  13 15  Legislation  THE ORGANI ZATIONAL STRUCTURE THE CROWN LAND PLANNING PROGRAM  17 . 19 22  Initiation  25  Formulation  27  Adoption  29  Implementation  30  The  32  R e c o r d Thus F a r  CHAPTER I I I —  METHODOLOGY  33  EVALUATING THE CROWN LAND PLANNING PROGRAM Normative  Criteria  33 37  DATA SOURCES  39  CHAPTER IV -- A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW  42  PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY  43  PROBLEMS  46  The  IN DESIGNING AN OPTIMAL SYSTEM  Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y  Problem  47  vi  The  I n f l u e n c e Of P e r c e p t i o n s And A t t i t u d e s  48  The  Representation  49  The  Information  Problem  Problem  • •••  ..  51  THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK REVIEWED CHAPTER V -- ASSESSMENT  OF THE CASE STUDIES  THE UPPER LILLOOET. PLANNING THE LANG CREEK PLANNING AN ASSESSMENT  53 55  PROCESS  56  PROCESS  62  OF THE CASE STUDIES  66  REPRESENTATION OF INTERESTS  67  Range o f R e p r e s e n t e d I n t e r e s t s  67  Stages of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  73  ADEQUACY OF INFORMATION Alternatives Information  . 76  and A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s  ..  .. 77  Q u a l i t y and Q u a n t i t y  Communication  of A l t e r n a t i v e s  80  and I n f o r m a t i o n  81  EFFECTIVENESS  84  Ability  t o Reach D e c i s i o n s  84  Ability  t o Implement D e c i s i o n s  86  Value  of the D e c i s i o n  The  Upper L i l l o o e t  The  Lang  Creek  88  Sub-District  Sub-District  Crown L a n d P l a n  Crown L a n d P l a n  EFFICIENCY Use o f Time and R e s o u r c e s  Duplication VI  91 95  Efficient  CHAPTER  89  --  96  of Tasks PROVINCIAL  97 LAND  USE PLANNING  - A BROADER  PERSPECTIVE  99  DESIGNATION OF PROVINCIAL FORESTS  99  STRATEGIC PLANNING  102  vii  THE PLANNING  ACT  .  CHAPTER V I I -- CONCLUSIONS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS  CONCLUSIONS IMPROVING  105 110 111  THE PLANNING  PROCESS  115  BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES CITED  124  APPENDIX I — APPENDIX I I — APPENDIX I I I . — APPENDIX IV —  Interview  Schedule  Chronologies Task F o r c e Executive  ...130  o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d M e e t i n g s 134 Participants  Summaries  148 ....153  vi i i  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE I  Provincial Plans  Agencies A f f e c t e d  —  Ministry  of L a n d s ,  Organizational FIGURE 2 —  Typical  Land 69  L I S T OF FIGURE'1  by Crown  Plan  FIGURES P a r k s and H o u s i n g ( J u n e , 1980)  Regional Structure  FIGURE 3 -- Crown Land P l a n n i n g  Hierarchy  .....20 21 26  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This  thesis  personal  g o a l . For  Brahm Wiesman  As  to the  advisors  As  well,  planning  information My  and  special  patience,  and  i n the  L a n d s , P a r k s and land  the  e v o l u t i o n of  advice,  assistance  p r o v i d i n g me  through  giving  I  the  wish Housing  of  a  to  the  long  Fox  offer  awaited  gratitude  opportunity  to and  hurdles.  thesis itself, and  I am  Bob  thoughtful  t o L a r r y W o l f e and  indebted  to  Williams  for  criticism  and  Erik Karlsen  for  their  stages. to  thank  the  i n Burnaby and  force  members  staff  of  the  Victoria,  for  and  providing  Ministry the  of  Crown  invaluable  anecdotes. t h a n k s , however, goes  encouragement  surmountable.  with  innumerable  Irving  time  latter  task  achievement  I e x p r e s s a deep s e n s e of  Brahm Wiesman,  consistently valuable  me  the  this,  for f i r s t ,  second, g u i d i n g  my  marks  and  to  understanding  my  wife  helped  Rose make t h e  whose task  1  CHAPTER I —  INTRODUCTION  PURPOSE At  present,  British land  over  Columbia  resource,  90  is  under  however,  Provincial  Ministries  unalienated  Crown l a n d  P a r k s and B.C.  Housing  W i t h the our use  interests. policies to  the  In  the  in  form of  the  and  may  be  l e a s i n g and  lands  by  the  p u r p o s e of  decision-making unalienated Columbia.  jurisdiction  a the  reserves.  by  purchasing  and  the  management and  this  vast  of  numerous  The  remaining  Ministry  further  of  Lands,  residents  of  development  of  d i r e c t e d towards  the  r a n g e of  Ministry  of  arrangements.  i s being  broad  thesis  structure  Crown More  this  land  and  has  p u b l i c and recently  d i s p o s i t i o n of  i n the  private  developed these  lands  the  processes u t i l i z e d  Crown l a n d of  plans the  evolution  examination  decisions  are  i n the  of  this  criteria  region. of  the  established  regulates  research  to assess to d e r i v e To  augment  Crown l a n d legislative will  that  evaluate the  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n  specifically,  normative  planning  i s t o document and  process  appropriate  an  Province  interested parties.  The  review  i n the  a v a i l a b l e t o the  attention  response,  regarding  land  i s under  increased  these  the  Crown o w n e r s h i p . Much of  expanding p o p u l a t i o n  resources, of  of  i s administered  (LPH)  under v a r i o u s  percent  be  the  two  of  will  employ of  completed  perspective,  administration  of  British  effectiveness  recently  this  use  the  i n B.C.  a and  base upon w h i c h a l i e n a t i o n  presented.  2  THE  PROBLEM .  Traditionally, resource water,  rich land,  Province's unlimited •little  being  minerals  and  as  regard  a  for  throughout  extracted  and  the  merely  purposes.  Rather,  t h e r e f o r e must  be  much of  be  Land affects  this  is all  acknowledged dynamic  and  of  occurred  for  resources  of our  were  The  resources  single  essence  with  philosophy  viewpoint,  t h a t our  the  considered  This  the  degree,  was  late  one  of  are  not  short-term survival  responsible  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes  the  and  Environment  and  Land R e s e r v e s  i n the  Land Use are  Province.  Act  two  for  and  the  noteworthy  movement.  a common, l i m i t e d other that  resource land  socio-economic  responsible  f o r the  all  Examples  levels.  large  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  e x a m p l e s of  the  a  protected.  institution of  were  economically.  exploited  are  as  opposing  realization  they  numerous l e g i s l a t i v e  creation  an  During  development  century  as  a b u n d a n t ' s u p p l i e s of  resources  prospered  forth  regarded  implications.  this  Province  to  been  resources-  much  long-range  T h i s awareness, to a  The  forest  p e r i o d , these  a w a r e n e s s and  commodities  has  endowed w i t h  result,  1960s, however, b r o u g h t increasing  Columbia  Province,  colonization and,  prevailed  British  of  that such  and  allocations.  management  factors.  trends  resource  is  i t s use u l t i m a t e l y Further,  affected  T h e s e two  principles  by  it  is  numerous,  are  largely  i n f l u e n c e land a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at trends  on  a  provincial  scale  3  include: *  the  competition  forestry, * the  settlement,  continued  * the  value  employment  shift  i n the  philosophy  unlimited economic  and  resulting options  be  in  and  these  e x a m i n e d . The  Housing  in  uses.  a high  influences  income,  1978  population  to  a  and  an  the  quality  such desire  as for  a  factors  of  of  established  from  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  the  perceived,  s y s t e m b a s e d on requiring  population demand  recreation  i n mind t h e  creation  whole,  social, rational  resources.  increased  Crown l a n d  a  stability  limited  increase  the  as  value  environmental  continued  With  m a i n t e n a n c e of  and  agriculture,  preservation  other  b a s e d on  resources  compromise between the  by  and  base by  economy.  frontier  *  f o r the  tempered  maintaining  l i m i t e d land  recreation  concern  environment,  stable  f o r the  the the  in  for  the  Province  rural  lifestyle  uses.  mandate of  Ministry following  of  the  Ministry  Lands,  Parks  may and  m i n i s t e r i a l goal:  "The management and a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s i n the Province of British Columbia to ensure: The maintenance and improvement of a q u a l i t y s y s t e m of p a r k s and t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e b e s t use of Crown land for agricultural, residential, industrial, c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s within the P r o v i n c e of B.C." (LPH, 1980(c), p.2).  As  indicated  responsibility  f o r the  objective  planning  as  as  well  by  this  statement,  coordination  of  Ministry  a wide r a n g e o f  s i t u a t i o n s . Many a c t o r s  other agencies are  the  within  the  has  the  multipleMinistry  charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  4  for  deriving  equitable  solutions  to  Crown  land  management  issues. A  question  process  in a r r i v i n g  optimal? parties the  To  derived  by  a process who  what e x t e n t  were  intuitively  the  must have a c c e s s  may  be  needs  that  t o the  met?  broadest  would a l l a g r e e  of  financial  the  u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n was  have a l l a f f e c t e d  democratic  are  considered. and  our  values  social  "good" d e c i s i o n  information  that a process  must not  or human r e s o u r c e s . F i n a l l y ,  those  requirements  t o make a  and  in achieving  i n our  view  Again  range of  achieved  socially  are  s o l u t i o n s are  information  in order  that  embodied  equitable  the  planning  to p a r t i c i p a t e  values  most  Crown l a n d  queried,  where a l l p o i n t s of  these us  i s the  decisions  opportunity  determined  tell  we  it  social  that  Similarly,  well,  an  outcome? The  dictate  adequate  at a l l o c a t i o n  been p r o v i d e d  final  how  illustrate,  system  As  arises,  we  we  available.  be  might  to  wasteful  examine  i f i t i s being  how  faithfully  implemented.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e Crown  land  planning  implications instance, p r o g r a m and accrued  confront  process  must be  the."environment"  what  are  who  i s to  gains?  short-term  The  on  normative questions  the bear  Similarly,  o b j e c t i v e s while  preceding  these  how  points  considered  in  benefits  which and  it  keeping  the  sectors  or  enjoy  cope w i t h  future options  illustrate  operates.  c o s t s d e r i v e d from  process  the  i n terms of i t s  encumbrances  does t h e  a l l r e s o u r c e management  o u t l i n e d above,  general  For the the  meeting  open?  problems  responsible  for  that the  5  allocation  of  public  goods  and  services  -  institutional  a r r a n g e m e n t s and  decision-making  reflect  social  our  these  the  issues  will  i n terms of  of  their  how  to  Crown  land  design  processes  society. This  relevance  to  land  paper  that  examines  management.  STUDY OBJECTIVES This  thesis  utilized  in  emphasis on 1.  to  reviews  British the  the  administrative  2.  in  British  to  detail  operation the  Columbia  of  of  utilizing adequacy  their  institutional decisions 4.  based  on  analysis, changes to t h e i r  that a to  process  Region,  with  that  the  regulate  legislative Crown  land  and  planning  today.  Crown l a n d of  as  fully  planning  as  possible,  process.  potential affected  This  the  involves  i n t e r e s t s and  the  interactions.  appropriate of  Mainland  of  comprehend,  the  planning  objectives:  structures  and  Lower  evolution  identification  nature 3.  Columbia's  following  document  the  the  evaluative  Crown  land  arrangement are  socially  theoretical  criteria,  planning for  in i n s t i t u t i o n a l  perspective  e f f e c t s on  the  structures  process  arriving  acceptable,  make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  to evaluate  at  decision-making  an  management  and of  public  regarding and  as  the  the  rules with process.  policy potential respect  6  CHAPTER II Politics  —  CROWN LAND PLANNING IN  have  traditionally  management of  Crown l a n d  the  turn  of  the  lure  early  settlers  also  employed  railway to  the  from a r e v i e w  of  itself.  • most our  The  are  oriented the  Crown l a n d  strictly  by  commence  i n the  Later,  Cail  Crown  these  bait  grants  were  the i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l lands of  have been B.C."  used  (British  observation that,  indeed,  p r o c e d u r e s of prices  and  s i m i l a r t o the 1859.  that  What  can  be  drawn  history  does  conducting selling  public  only  to  p r i n c i p l e s adopted is  however,  is  procedures  towards d i s p o s a l . I t i s tempting  to  regress  the  "management" as  new,  in  to  works,  provided  to  as  opposed  procedures.  of p r e v i o u s  f r e e Crown g r a n t s  citizens  is  purchase  P r o c l a m a t i o n of  of  the  striking  remarkably  e a r l y years with  current  at  b u i l d i n g of  contemporary  residents  concept  the  history  regulating  the  C o l u m b i a . James D o u g l a s ,  p.709).  auctions,  James D o u g l a s '  the  Province.  a v a i l a b l e to  1979(a),  Perhaps  repeat  t o the  in  1974). More r e c e n t l y ,  "make more l a n d  Columbia,  utilized  in negotiating  (Cail,  been • a d r i v i n g f o r c e  in B r i t i s h  century,  BRITISH COLUMBIA  intent  of  Such a s t e p , most  (1974) and  reviewing  Pearson of  evolution  however, w o u l d be  notably  1970s, a p e r i o d  the  the  excellent  ( 1 9 7 1 ) . As profound  of  a repetition descriptions  a result,  changes.  to  I  shall  7  THE  EVOLUTION OF The  CROWN LAND PLANNING  early  development  years  of  a  of  resource  Columbia.  Relative  to  for  then  a new  by  i t was the  that  by  the  1970's  were a m i l e s t o n e  management  Crown l a n d s ,  L e g i s l a t u r e . The  summarized  the  Land A c t  intent  following  strategy  the  critical  f o r the  of  this  in  the  British  y e a r was  Province  statute  in  was  1970  adopted  may  be  best  statement: .  "It is an a d j u s t m e n t t o s u i t c u r r e n t c o n c e r n s , not a r a d i c a l or r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e p a r t u r e from former acts. By b e i n g a f l e x i b l e y e t s t a b l e base on w h i c h t o b u i l d l a n d p o l i c i e s , the 1970 A c t c o n t i n u e s t h e t r a d i t i o n of i t s predecessors" ( P e a r s o n , 1971, p.22).  In  essence,  consolidated over of of  the  Crown  land the  need  not  new  but  the  different.  techniques  first  alienation  was  public  that  Water  Resources  of  lands  to  focus  activities  1  The  evolving  as  a a  number method  Act  further  for public  this  use  framework, however, Department  to  operate  in largely a c l e r i c a l was  been  it  Canadians.  continued  staff  Largely  reflect  shorelands  a g e n c y , the  modest, V i c t o r i a - b a s e d department  had  i t did  eliminated.  worked w i t h i n  responsible  that  time p r e - e m p t i o n  for preservation  c h a n g e . The  of  not  decades. Nevertheless,  bureaucracy  and  was  management  l i m i t e d p u r c h a s e of  Forests  1  Act  p o l i c y changes. For  The did  the  previous  stressed and  the  processing  of  Lands,  with i t s  capacity.  The  alienation  p r e - e m p t i o n was a method of a c q u i r i n g l a n d whereby a s e t t l e r on the land was given the right t o p u r c h a s e i t from the Crown b e f o r e an o p p o r t u n i t y was o f f e r e d t o o t h e r s .  8  applications Provincial the  forwarded  not  Crown  strategy.  considered  was  private  Government A g e n t s . No  available  disposal  by  land  or  planning,  f o r we  develop  were s t i l l  a  inventory  an  in a h o l i s t i c  the  overall  sense,  was  f r o n t i e r and  land  readily available. The  following  statute, the  the  year,  1971,  Environment  Environment  and  and  the  Province's natural  witnessed Land Use  Land  gave them b r o a d powers t o  Use  when  approving  initial most  critics for Cabinet  this statute  important  piece  of  that  this  (ELUC) of and  Cabinet  and  preservation  of  legislation  i t s creation  towards  argued  large-scale  intent,  use  i t s basic  to circumvent  legislation  (Crook, response  the  natural  i n t e n t was  to  procedures  Regardless  t o become p e r h a p s  resource  been  in  existing  energy p r o j e c t s . was  was  protecting  that  new  established  of  intent  G o v e r n m e n t ' s commitment  provide a vehicle  (ELUA). I t  a  the  P r o p o n e n t s have s t a t e d  while  the  of  Numerous h y p o t h e s e s have  1975).  environment  Act  creation  resources.  f o r t h regarding  the  the  Committee  r u l e over  brought  to  through  a t t e m p t s were made t o  resources  Crown l a n d  necessary  individuals  the  i n the  of  its  single,  Province  to  date.  The  New  Landlords  The  defeat  witnessed strategy. had  a  the The  strong  exploitive  of  the  beginning New  Social of  Democratic  majority  patterns  of  and  an Party an  Credit  government  o v e r a l l Crown l a n d (NDP),  the  intent  to  new  in  development Government,  reverse  r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t . The  1972  Lands,  existing Forests  9  and  Water  Resources p o r t f o l i o  urban planner the  Land's  Columbia,  by  p r o f e s s i o n , who  Department  into  proceeded  the  was  the  structure. A staff  assist  resource  cabinet  in  planning  and  with  documenting  resource  issues  Department staff The  financial  most  "freezing" Utilizing  Century"  an  bring  (British  the  Crown  task  in  of  broad  the  which  lands  Given  this  position  of h a v i n g  provide  additional  all  of  identifying well,  the  Water  Resources  blossomed  as  c h a n g e s was  the  increased. the  immediate  of  lands  1973  The  i n the  the  from  created  strategies  l a n d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t and  political  time  topic.  Land  private  vociferous  sides was  ELUA,  the  both  all  Government  the c o n t i n u i n g o p p o s i t i o n . I t i s at t h i s  Province.  i n the  o p p o s i t i o n was  to devise a l t e r n a t i v e  s u r f a c e d a s a -popular  and  As  t o e n d u r e abuse  rural  resource  of w h i c h were  basis for reserving  reaction,  to  Province.  for agriculture.  t h e Government had  created  the  spring  set the  resource  special projects,  " p r e s e r v a t i o n " powers p r o v i d e d in  Government  Provincial  units:  of a l l p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l  Commission A c t ,  again,  "...  Province's  analysis;  resources  significant  Legislature  1975).  to  (ELUCS) was a  three  the  of L a n d s , F o r e s t s and and  i n the  secretariat  resource  consumed  and  Williams,  i n t h e ELUA, t h e  preparing  immediately  and  Twentieth  changes  s t r a t e g y . T h i s g r o u p c o n s i s t e d of  the  R.A.  determined  power c o n t a i n e d  t o make s i g n i f i c a n t  management  its  assumed by  1973).  Recognizing  directly  was  (Smith,  placed which  in a would  thus,  placate  t h a t Crown  lands,  10  In  1974  the  Department  of  Lands,  Forests  and  R e s o u r c e s was i n s t r u c t e d t o p u r s u e an a c t i v e . d e v e l o p m e n t for  vacant  to occur deemed  that  this  placed  on  shoreline  large  approach  this  the  would  market.  these  lots  efforts  lease-hold  basis.  addition,  results.  major  amount  characteristics. hesitant  to  intervention was  also  practices. Keremeos Highway  of  involved  into local  beginning  to  July  where  1st  the  #3 t o p r o t e s t  p u r c h a s e and r u r a l  It convinced  is  Department  homesteading  t o be t h a t effort  provided regional  to  purposes  had  limited  many o f t h e s e was  made  to  to current  market  districts  were  i n what t h e y v i e w e d a s a p r o v i n c i a l development  express 1975,  their a  policies.  The  disapproval  demonstration  B.C. L a n d A c c e s s Lobby the  attempted  unavailability  of c u r r e n t  was  held  temporarily of  Crown  public  in  blocked  land  for  settlement.  perhaps  the  land  To a  on a  appeared  the  lakes.  to develop properties  endeavour  being  dispose  many  this  Furthermore,  get  On  land  to  successful,  were on an ad hoc b a s i s . L i t t l e  the  identified  was h e l d  f o r small  Again,  problem  were  Province's  as  the  land  3).  the  p u b l i c i z e d were i n t h e  not  hesitant  Crown  1975, J u l y  allocations relate  In  sell  The  areas  most  were  were  (Province,  protect  was  s a l e . I t was  on a number o f s m a l l  landowners  and  a few  The  potential  identify  best  program  however,  than o u t r i g h t  where i n 1975 an a u c t i o n  recreation  degree,  development,  rather  i n t e r e s t s . As a r e s u l t ,  Kamloops d i s t r i c t of  Much.of  i n t h e form o f l e a s e s  long-term and  Crown l a n d s .  Water  the  Government  above that  combination a  of  comprehensive  events  that  Crown  land  11  management  strategy  was  wider program u t i l i z i n g resource The to  was  where  responsibility providing  Crown l a n d  In  inventory  the  Government  late  use  parties' created  however,  turned  became a p a r t  to  citizens  of  The  while the  regional body.  decision-making  located.  the  the  Ultimate  Secretariat  RRMCs.  staff  and  Based  was  advised  on  physically to  the  e l e c t i o n was politics  initiate  the  NDP  opposition  Crown  and  the  parties  need  for  immediate  NDP  was  defeated  of  rural  than  land  reversal  for  Credit  their  made  and  land  Social  merits  of d e v e l o p a b l e  called  rather  additional  stressed  erosion  and  of  both  NDP  the  an  towards  provision  platforms.  reference private  fall,  The  scheme  Province  and  with  Department  seven  a much  coordinating  were  ELUC,  on  programs.  efforts  administration.  the  the  t o ELUC and  Lands  throughout  (RRMC) as  with  t e c h n i c a l guidance  distributed  established  resources  rest  the  i t embarked  technical staff  the  would  concept,  private  recently  to d e c e n t r a l i z e  regions  this  the  management c o m m i t t e e s  plan the  n e c e s s a r y . Thus  newly  continual away of  from these  trends.  On party during  e l e c t i o n day  again  formed the  the  campaign,  Environment  to  resources.  Due  the  forest  assume to  function  well,  the  a  capacity  line  the  ELUCS was  Government the  new  of  the  and  Government c r e a t e d  stewardship  over  isolated into a  removed  within  the  from a s t a f f Ministry  of  Social Credit  Province.  all  i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the was  the  As  promised  a Ministry  land  and  of  water  P r o v i n c i a l economy,  separate function  ministry.  As  and  in  Environment.  placed The  net  12  result The  of  these  political  service  level  did  campaigned resource  c h a n g e s was an u n e a s i n e s s d i d not t r u s t  the bureaucracy.and  n o t know what t o e x p e c t  to  decrease  technocrats  the  red  were  tape  in  especially  coordinating  body  announced t h a t would  be  These lands  of  this  to  create  A  despite  regarding  "planning" Branch  Crown l a n d  limited  inventory.  the  o f an i m p a r t i a l  farming  i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1978.  The  stated  purpose  farms more v i a b l e as w e l l a s who  wished  to  commence  were h e l d but a g a i n  the  limited.  urgency  proclaimed  f o r Crown  during  this  were  still  personnel  unalienated  with  The  p u r c h a s e and l e a s e o p t i o n s and  few a u c t i o n s  need  occurred  with  Province.  land s u i t a b l e for  purchase  persons  the  the  applications  be  for  for  activity.  short,  election  Lands  of Crown  of by p u b l i c c o m p e t i t i o n .  r e s p o n s e was v e r y  In  little  available  opportunities  t h a t had  the M i n i s t e r of Environment,  r e l e a s e was t o make s m a l l  agricultural overall  1977, Mr. N e i l s e n ,  would be open t o b o t h  would be d i s p o s e d  loss  civil  1977).  300,000 a c r e s  made  the  disappointed  o f t h e ELUCS and t h e r e s u l t i n g  In November  the  from a government  reassignment  (Heayn,  among a l l c o n c e r n e d .  no c o h e s i v e  strategy  resource.  t o the development  of  during  the  land development, period.  very  The  regional  processing  isolated  for assessing  the  entire  The major e m p h a s i s a p p e a r e d t o a  province-wide  Crown  land  13  A New M i n i s t r y  Is Created  December evolution time  brought  forth  o f B.C.'s Crown l a n d  the  Ministry  1978  structure  of  the  o f L a n d s , P a r k s and  Government Housing  given  readily  a v a i l a b l e to the c i t i z e n s  of  the  made  1979(a),  Throughout  than  political time,  was  of B r i t i s h  processes  to  and  alleviate  reorganization  of L e f t o v e r s " of  being  jockeying,  effort  land  was " f i n a l l y  going  1979  he  Government was g o i n g  The  prime  t o make l a n d Columbia.  what  this  more  Specific nature  administrative  situation  the relevance  (British  of a M i n i s t r y  questioned  a  Columbia,  haphazard  and  more  such as t h e  1979(a), p.706).  creation,  This  resulting  the M i n i s t r y  to  the  t o demonstrate to the p u b l i c t o be a c c e s s i b l e issued  a press  to the release  t o o f f e r 64 m i l l i o n  r e s i d e n t s . The p a r c e l s  would p r o b a b l y spring  and a  from  present  t h e s e a t t i t u d e s t h e new M i n i s t e r , Mr. C h a b o t ,  a concerted  Province's  (British  remains w i t h  made  15,  this  many l e v e l s o f Government.  counteract  January  At  p.709).  this  throughout  To  a  created.  once was i t r e f e r r e d t o i n a d e r o g a t o r y manner,  perception  and  was  P a r k s and H o u s i n g was s e r i o u s l y  "Ministry  the  strategy.  i n the  was r e o r g a n i z e d  reorganization  disposal  c h a n g e s would be  of L a n d s ,  stage  were made t o t h e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a n d a n t i q u a t e d  existing  Columbia,  this  current  development  reason  references  for  the  acres  these  Crown  residents."  On  s t a t i n g that the o f Crown  land  would be i n v a r y i n g  be s o l d t h r o u g h a l o t t e r y  election amplified  that  sizes  s y s t e m . Rumours  e f f o r t s and the r a t e  to  of  of press  14  r e l e a s e s . At January  13,  the 1979  Social Credit the  Premier  party  stated  convention  i n Vancouver  on  that  "... t h e s e l l i n g of Crown l a n d would h e l p more p e o p l e become homeowners and help ease the municipal tax load... The government owns 95 p e r c e n t of the l a n d i n B.C. and wants t o g i v e young p e o p l e a chance to buy t h e i r p i e c e of the P r o v i n c e " ( M c l e a n , 1979).  Once became  the  even  platforms public roles  e l e c t i o n d a t e was more  which  lands.  prominent. emphasized  The  difference  were r e v e r s e d .  position  of  continued  to  The  having  when  the  to honour  1979,  Mr.  In the  land  management  bureaucracy Provincial  Province's  however,  two  M i n i s t r y of  last  he be  past  and  actions  until  placed  statutes Lands,  stated able  strategy.  t o commence t h e program.  was  that  government was  to e s c a l a t e  reelected  presented  the  would at  to the  now  while  the  in  the  the  NDP  Government's i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  continued  Land Amendment A c t  Province  their  issues  produced  access  time,  these  parties  before  P a r k s and  that  with  election  i n the  i t s campaign commitments. To  Chabot  introducing  this  announced,  both  greater  to defend  Government was  having  Again  Social Credit  r e i t e r a t e the  These a c t i v i t i e s  finally  do the  position  so,  in  the  planning  July  Housing Act  and  t h e s e amendments  stage  necessary  was to  of  legislature.  to d e l i v e r a comprehensive  Thus  day  set  the  Crown for  develop  the the  1 5  THE  LEGISLATED MANDATE  As  indicated  L a n d s , P a r k s and  i n the  Housing  introductory was  chapter,  established  the  with  Ministry  the  of  following  mandate: "The management and a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s i n the Province of British Columbia to ensure: the maintenance and improvement of a q u a l i t y s y s t e m of p a r k s and the encouragement of t h e b e s t use of Crown land for agricultural, residential, industrial, c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s within the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " (LPH, 1980(c), p.2).  This  political  mandate  legislation,  regulations  Crown  management,  land  outlined Act  and  i n two the  The the  Land  Acts,  and the  the  Ministry  lands,  the  to  ministerial policies. Ministry's  Ministry  of  of  the In  basis terms  responsibilities  Lands, Parks  L a n d s , P a r k s and  other  i t s functions,  g o v e r n m e n t s and  p u r p o s e of  the  Ministry  "to administer the Crown P r o v i n c e " ( B r i t i s h Columbia,  The  on  and  of of are  Housing  Act.  Ministry, delineates  relative  is further defined  ministerial  Housing Act and  outlines  agencies.  i s stated  of  its  powers  S p e c i f i c to in Section  land resources 1979(b), p . 2 ) .  interpretation  establishes  this  of  Crown  5(2): the  statement  follows: "Administer as used here i s defined broadly: it includes a wide range of f u n c t i o n s s u c h as p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t and implementation, planning, managing, directing, c o n t r o l l i n g and e v a l u a t i n g " (LPH, 1980(c), p. 2) .  is  as  16  The also  Land A c t ,  as may  r e i n f o r c e s the  to unalienated "4.  be  noted  from t h e  following  Ministry's administrative  Crown  quotation,  r o l e with  respect  land.  The m i n i s t e r has the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a l l Crown l a n d e x c e p t l a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y under t h e administration of another minister, branch or agency of g o v e r n m e n t " ( B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979(b), p . 2 ) .  To Act  "administer"  further  three  these u n a l i e n a t e d  provides  specific  Crown  parcels  authority  under  the  the  Land  following  sect ions. S e c t i o n 11: The L i e u t e n a n t Governor-in-Counci1 may, for any purpose that he c o n s i d e r s a d v i s a b l e i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , by n o t i c e s i g n e d by t h e m i n i s t e r and published in the Gazette, reserve Crown l a n d from disposition under this Act, and may, by similar method, amend or c a n c e l i n whole or i n p a r t a r e s e r v e e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s A c t or a f o r m e r A c t . S e c t i o n 12: The m i n i s t e r may, for any purpose he considers advisable in the public interest, t e m p o r a r i l y withdraw Crown l a n d from d i s p o s i t i o n under t h i s A c t , and he may amend or c a n c e l t h e w i t h d r a w a l . S e c t i o n 13: The m i n i s t e r may, i f he considers it advisable in the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , d e s i g n a t e t h e most d e s i r a b l e use of a p o r t i o n of Crown l a n d , may w i t h d r a w the p o r t i o n from d i s p o s i t i o n under this Act for a p u r p o s e o t h e r t h a n t h e d e s i g n a t e d use and may amend o r cancel the withdrawal (British Columbia, 1979(b), p.4) .  In provides alienate are  summary t h e n , the  Ministry  Crown l a n d s  deemed t o be  provide  utilization with  to t h e i r  i n the  public  the  as  and  evaluation,  implementation  of  "best"  use,  interest.  while  these  statutory  v e h i c l e s whereby m i n i s t e r i a l  development utilized  the  the  The  first may  latter  sections  authorization  providing  staff  techniques  five  such two  engage three  to assign  to  actions sections  in policy have  been  Crown l a n d  to  17  specific-use  designations. This  within  the  Crown  detail  in  the  processes'  Relation  land planning  latter  as  from  Provincial  which  provides  all  Act,  and  regional plans  local  activities do  prepare  on plans  the  therefore the  scheme may  assigned recognized  by  a that  the  and  only  the  that  an land  to note, as  subordinate planning any  other  or  LPH  agencies  These  to  are  the  jurisdiction  authority  Act  to  which  prepare  regions.  particularly  authority exists which  regional  to  and  engage  many of  include  enabled to  under  other  Nevertheless, has  the  Provincial  l a n d use  in  these  unalienated  however, t h a t t h e s e  specific  Ministry  forms of  additional  Municipal  p r o g r a m or any  government.  alienated Ministries  two  land.  the  the  for areas  preclude  local  and  for their  Province,  are LPH  Crown  and  other  ministries  with  Crown  I t i s important  c r e a t i o n of  are  governments,  i t i s recognized  Consequently, planning  lands  and  Crown l a n d s . a  where  t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s t h e  forest  of  of  claims  there  specific  government  terms  planning  present,  local  districts,  are  in greater  discussed.  jurisdiction  unalienated  which g r a n t s  settlement  In  the  enable  l a n d u s e s on  regulate  agencies  utilization  chapter  p r i v a t e lands  Forests, mineral  statutes  Act  c o n t r o l are  ( l a n d s under  r e s e r v e s ) . At  to  are  its  i s reviewed  this  procedures  LPH  single-use  Forest  of  and  to Other Legi s l a t ion  Crown l a n d s  regulate  process  portion  implementation  Exempted  such  legislation  bodies  Municipal mandates. Provincial  designations it  must  jurisdiction  be over  18  unalienated developed,  land  and  s o l d or l e a s e d  therefore, land  only  come  under  that  they  local  as  are  soon  as these  alienated  and,  government c o n t r o l . I n o t h e r  words  s o l d f o r a use by LPH c o u l d  considered  lands are  be d i s a l l o w e d  f o r that  use upon  alienation.  Under  the Forest  powers t o a d m i n i s t e r Province, the  thereby  excluding  Forests  conversely,  there  utilized  conflicts, an  a l l lands  i n managing b o t h  Provincial  Forests,  Principally,  this  of  as  Forests  within  use  the  and  i n the  outside  potential  Forests  which  are  1979, e n d o r s e d  responsibilities  Farm  the role  and  the p o t e n t i a l . f o r  and n o n - f o r e s t  Tree  recognizes  uses  Licence of  the  of  within areas.  Ministry  for co-ordinating  and managing  u s e s and t h e LPH M i n i s t r y a s t h e l e a d a g e n c y  f o r managing  non-forest  agreement  uses  l e a d agency  areas  i n September  forest  excluding  document the  significant  roles  lands  broad  from t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f  p u r p o s e s . To a l l e v i a t e  the  i s given  as f o r e s t  forest  t h e two m i n i s t r i e s have,  each m i n i s t r y  all  have  a r e many a r e a s  for forest  areas  however,  that  agreement w h i c h d e f i n e s  forest  designated  these  LPH M i n i s t r y . T h e r e a r e ,  Provincial  not  A c t the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s  i n c l u d i n g a l l Crown  o u t l i n e s the s p e c i f i c  establishing  Provincial  Forest  steps  foreshore.  t o be t a k e n  designations.  Finally,  this  i n removing or  19  THE  ORGANIZATIONAL To  implement  tiered  STRUCTURE i t s mandate t h e  administrative  headquarters  in  regions.  structure  1  and  The 2.  A  responsibilities Crown two  Division first  of  land  divisions, and  keeping  with  to  conjunction required  By  based the  the  with  note  present.  much  of  As  a  the  land  result,  planning  The group  to ensure  work u n d e r t a k e n  processing  of  Crown l a n d  responsible staff  in  primary  i s the  to  Division.  to  policy  of  by  the  regional  their  specific  director,  r e g i o n a l planner,  process  that  they the  regional  Management In  them  are  in is  through  implemented.  D i v i s i o n , however,  a p p l i c a t i o n s . One  the  the  the  The  in V i c t o r i a .  on  to  of  Operations  Resource  regional  managers and  i s that  Services  according  the  the  and  jurisdiction  onus i s p l a c e d  of  structure  the  is situated  develop plans  at  Figures  flows  administration's  the  in  in  Regional  seven  majority  in this  directly  the  t o d e v e l o p Crown Land P l a n s ,  f a r the the  Housing  two-  provided.  under  Management  level  line  is  a level  is depicted  the  falls  latter  a d o p t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and  is  groups  sub-units  in  chosen  operations  of  and  Program and  while  needs.  two  the  Lands  i n s t i g a t e and  regional  the  e a c h of  the  decentralization, staff  the  has  policy-making  an'  description  is regionally (RMR),  of  a  and  administration  the  Regions  system:  Victoria,  brief  Ministry  key  planning  r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r and  point staff  not  to  to is the  Victoria.  function  development  of  the  Victoria  based  of m i n i s t e r i a l p o l i c i e s  Land and  Programs procedures  FIGURE MINISTRY  OF L A N D S ,  PARKS  1  AND H O U S I N G O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L P L A N  ( J U N E 19 80)  MINISTER  Deputy  P a r k s and Recreation  Minister  Lands and Housing Regional Operations Division  Outdoor Division  Program & Services  Management Division  Seven Regional Managers (see F i g u r e 3 f o r typical region's structure)  Crown Land P l a n n i n g Program -preparation of Crown land plans  Professional Services  I Legal Services  Housing Programs  Research  Finance & Administration  Land Programs  1  Land Records!  Crown Land P l a n n i n g Program -program development -quality control Source:  Adapted  from  LPH Annual  Reports.  FIGURE  TYPICAL  2  REGIONAL  STRUCTURE  Regional Director  I  1  Planner  Biologist  Secretary  Land  I Supervisor Finance & Administration  Manager Administration  1  Housing  Manager & Development  I District Manager  District Manager  Land Inspectors  Source:  Land Inspectors  Senior Examiner  Examiners  Clerk Accounts  Clerks  Clerk Office Services  Office Assistants  Adapted from the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks Land A l l o c a t i o n Procedures Manual (1979) .  and  Housing,  Project Manager  Project Assistant  22  to  aid  regional  developing  planning  maintaining  with  the  control  f o r a l l Crown Minister  and  land  his  THE  CROWN LAND PLANNING PROGRAM  effort  providing  one  based  is  folio  influenced  past  political  The  first  group, enormous  researching  or  f e a s i b l e . The  the  shortest  closest  design the  and  Final  ultimately  comprised  by  of  1979,  planning on  of  for  the  program.  either to  political  Forest  the  pressure  s t r u c t u r e . Given  further  actions  t o be  or  put  greatly  start,  Crown l a n d  the  land  upon  the  planning them  to  ineffectiveness by  either  from o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s  d e v e l o p e d and  at  Service.  procrastination  cooperation  This  t h i s approach  t h i s p r o g r a m . To of  Ministry  a provincial scale,  forerunner  designers  p r o g r a m had  workable  in  i n h e r i t e d from p r e c e d i n g  soliciting  not  output.  committee,  strategy  utilized  v i a b l e planning endeavours,  programs  activities  mandate,  attempts,  planning  s c o p e and  Programs  a  1  work  includes  assistants.  first  factors  the  p r o g r a m , had  of  the  system  planning  comprehensive  resources.  Numerous  produce  of  a  a systematic  water  Land  the  instituted  was  the  from  his  this  Ministry  executive  deputy m i n i s t e r  officials  and  reviewing  over  the  Emerging  1  Specifically,  guidelines,  quality  responsibility lies  operations.  was  implemented  in  time.  A resource f o l i o i s a series physical characteristics.  of  maps  depicting  various  bio-  23  Furthermore, institutional design  a  surface.  group  had.  to  a r r a n g e m e n t s and b e h a v i o r .  program  system. T h i s  with  this  that  could  i s much more  First,  the  recognize  In essence,  operate within  complex  than  t h e y had t o  t h e e x i s t i n g RRMC  what  appears  b i o - p h y s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d s who, by v i r t u e o f t h e i r  there  is a  meets o n l y some  of  specific  towards l a n d  regions.  once o r t w i c e the  For instance,  a year  interior  applications.  development.  groups Finally,  implementation  to discuss  broad  meet m o n t h l y there  i s no  allocation  d e c i s i o n s a r e made. E a c h RRMC i s l e f t operational  w o u l d have t o a c c o u n t  procedures  techniques  issues  to deal  or  and  Further,  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d RRMC  policies  scope  training,  tremendous v a r i a t i o n i n t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  between t h e s e v e n  on t h e  RRMCs a r e l a r g e l y composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s  may n o t a l w a y s be s y m p a t h e t i c  its  . existing  by  with  s e t of  since  in  it  to  determine  f o r m a t . Any program d e s i g n e d  the  came t o p r e s e r v i n g  planning the  1  1  past  i t had  not  powerful  demonstrated  resource  this  become p o p u l a r  period  the s t r a t e g i c planning Chapter V I .  approach  estate  interest.  t h e concept  and was b e i n g  ministries. Specifically,  much  was n o t t o be t r u s t e d when  the P r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c  throughout  had  by LPH  f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s .  o f t h e Government a n d , t h e r e f o r e ,  Finally,  common resource  l e a d e r s h i p . As w e l l , t h e M i n i s t r y was v i e w e d a s t h e r e a l arm  site-  which  In a d d i t i o n , t h e LPH M i n i s t r y was n o t v i e w e d a s a force,  while  of s t r a t e g i c  a d o p t e d by many o f  the M i n i s t r i e s of Forests  i sdiscussed  i n some  length N  in  24  and  Environment  therefore  were p r e p a r i n g  viewed  perhaps t e r t i a r y Given  these  alternative best  the  planning  process  to their  programs  but  to act u n i l a t e r a l l y immediate  own  activities.  and d e v e l o p  needs. Thus,  p r o g r a m was d e v i s e d  program u t i l i z e s  five  and  as a secondary or  f a c t o r s t h e Land P r o g r a m s D i v i s i o n  land planning The  own  planning  function relative  suited their  Crown  LPH  their  had  little  a program  that  i n the f o l l o w i n g year and  a  implemented.  planning, l e v e l s  :  1. A P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y P o s i t i o n Paper on Crown Land that delineates a comprehensive s t r a t e g y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s . 2^. A R e g i o n a l Crown L a n d S t r a t e g y which modifies provincial goals according to the d i v e r s e r e g i o n a l resources. 3. A Sub-Regional Crown Land P l a n t h a t p r o v i d e s g e n e r a l i z e d designations of land according to resource/land use p r i o r i t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s . The p r i m e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p l a n is t o e n a b l e c o n f i d e n t and e f f i c i e n t a d j u d i c a t i o n of l a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a r g e a r e a s and t o identify areas where more d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s a r e r e q u i r e d . 4. A S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land Plan which d e v e l o p s d e t a i l e d p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and d e s i g n a t e s areas for specific u s e s t h a t c a n be s e c u r e d t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n . 5. O p e r a t i o n a l P l a n s w h i c h e s t a b l i s h d e t a i l e d s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t programs f o r s p e c i f i c uses.  The at  various  Policy must  responsibility levels.  is felt  effort  a t the Cabinet  Crown Land S t r a t e g y  agency committee c o m p r i s e d Management Plans  Committee  are developed  utilizing  of t h e s e  For instance, the preparation  t o be beyond t h e s c o p e o f any  be a j o i n t  a Regional  f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  lies  Provincial  ministry  and  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f o f an  a t the R e g i o n a l  interResource  The S u b - R e g i o n a l a n d S u b - D i s t r i c t  through a s i m i l a r level  one  i s seen as the task  of personnel  level.  the operations  level.  of a  plans  inter-agency  personnel  format  i n the r e g i o n s .  but  Lastly,  25  the by  Operational district  Figure  Plan  LPH  personnel.  view of  the  these  of  ministries,  other  efforts  should  Regional  strategy  Furthermore, once t h e s e  To  LPH  be  the  more  prepare  Planning  of  is  superior  plans  illustrated  be  these  Process.  or  to  specific (LPH,  the M i n i s t r y  Simplified,  initiation,  These  It  addressed  in place  plans  the  the  efforts  in  four stages  required  overlapping  the  approach  general  of  adopted a stance  Plans.  best  best  phases:  implementation.  size  towards  Sub-District  documents a r e  four  has  directed  p r o b l e m s can  so w i l l  and  p l a n s , combined w i t h  be  and  allocation  of  This  complexity  to develop  Land  a refinement  3.  In  doing  i s seen as  that  mandates immediate  development is  of  Sub-  felt  t h a t most  land  at t h i s  s c a l e and  that  meet  Ministry  plans  can  be  goals.  developed  1979(a)).  has  devised  a  Crown  t h e p l a n n i n g model c o n s i s t s  formulation, are  discussed  adoption  and  in turn.  Initiation The  initiation  identification assessment  of  of this  p h a s e c o n s i s t s of  need  The  project  is significant  annual process.  work  relative  p r i m e o b j e c t i v e of  facilitate  this  major a c t i v i t i e s :  a need t o r e s o l v e a Crown l a n d  areas.  To  two  this  stage  enough t o w a r r a n t  process,  programs  to the  i s s u e and  requirements  the  of  other  i s to determine  i f the  i t being  t h e M i n i s t r y has  which  the  are d i r e c t l y  carried  out.  d e v i s e d a system linked  to the  of  budget  2 6  FIGURE 3 CROWN LAND PLANNING HIERARCHY  P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y P o s i t i o n Paper - Broad G o a l s & O b j e c t i v e s f o r Crown Lands & R e s o u r c e s - Recognition o f Regional D i v e r s i t y - I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h Economic Development Strategy  Regional  Crown Land  Strategy  - A p p l i c a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l Goals & P o l i c i e s t o S p e c i f i c Resource Management R e g i o n s - Formulation of Strategy f o r Integrated Use/Management o f Crown Land i n R e g i o n s  S u b - R e g i o n a l Crown Land  Plan  - A p p l i c a t i o n of Regional Strategy t o Sub-Region/District - Statement o f Demand, P r i o r i t i e s & A s s o c i a t e d Uses f o r Land - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Resource P r i o r i t y A r e a s & P o l i c i e s f o r Use  S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land  Plan  - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Most S u i t a b l e Crown Land Uses - Recommended P o l i c i e s , Programs & Responsibilities f o r Selected Management & Development A r e a s According t o Sub-Regional P r i o r i t y - Both C o n c e p t u a l & D e t a i l e d P l a n Components a r e I n c l u d e d •  O p e r a t i o n a l Crown Land  Plan  - E s t a b l i s h S i t e Development Programs f o r S p e c i f i c Use I n d i c a t e d i n SubD i s t r i c t Plan - P r e p a r e P l a n A c c o r d i n g t o Uses & P o l i c i e s of S u b - D i s t r i c t Plan - P r e p a r e d by Agency I n d i c a t e d i n S u b - D i s t r i c t Plan Source:  A d a p t e d from M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g , P l a n n i n g Manual.  27  In of  keeping  with  authority,  district with  the p r o v i n c i a l  t h e onus  levels.  fori n i t i a t i o n  I t i s expected  that  develop  a  work  submission reviews review will  is  i t with  year. which  for action  area  t o other m i n i s t r i e s '  by  Final  interests.  This  director  who  The outcome o f t h i s  Board  upcoming  t o t h e RRMC  is  Ideally,  submitted  Upon to  incorporating the the  by a l l l e v e l s  outcome  is a  and r e f l e c t s  Crown  land  issues  i n e a c h o f t h e seven  RMRs i n  sanction includes the approval  the Treasury  planning  regional objectives.  a l l major  needs  i n the  i s forwarded  i s repeated,  i s endorsed of  then  regional  program  objectives.  that  and  t h a t d e l i n e a t e s what  t h e work process  managers,  examine and p r i o r i z e  t o these  the  the submission  for resolution  ministerial  land  in their  i t s relevance to o v e r a l l  Province.  budgets  this,  provincial  strategy  a t t h e r e g i o n a l and  submissions.  work program  where t h e e n t i r e  framework  relative  district  RRMC endorsement  Ministry's  to  decentralization  i n e a c h R e s o u r c e Management R e g i o n  reviews  Victoria  the  other  Following  receiving  will  concerns  forwarded  i sa priorized  be done  lies  program t h a t responds  then  of  district  the a i d of the r e g i o n a l planner,  t h e major Crown l a n d r e s o u r c e  a  policy  and  of proposed  legislative  debate  on  estimates.  Formulation  The loose is  formulation  in outlining  left  to  responsible  stage,  the a c t u a l  the d i s c r e t i o n  for developing  u n l i k e the p r e v i o u s phase, planning of  the  s t e p s t o be regional  t h e Crown l a n d p l a n  .  i s very  taken.  planner As  a  This who i s  result,  28  the  planning  programs  significantly resource  to guide how  to  in  Ministry  the  the  officials  the r e g i o n a l  staff  provided that  format  terms does  of  Generally,  the process  the study of  the  the p l a n  i s trying  interested  the a r e a as w e l l planner  feels  interests Planning  and Task  meetings  political.  study  so  on.  between the  to state  special  in  a  is  includes  deriving  statement input  interests  respond  is  this  from a l l  groups,  process  toa l l  whom  groups,  the  charged The  with  primary  through  staff and  native  t h e Crown  a  Land the  mode  of  series  of  g r o u p i s g i v e n an  be t h e y p h y s i c a l ,  o f t h e LPH  o f what  jurisdiction in  form  i s d e f i n e d and e a c h concerns,  rough  may i n c l u d e i n d u s t r y  ratepayers'  a . plan.  a  distributed  interest  are  attributes.  terms of r e f e r e n c e  for  The l a t t e r  and  throughout  essence,  submitted  governments h a v i n g  (CLPTF)  The p e r c e i v e d r o l e  facilitators  call  who  their  First,  commonly  Those  area  format  of the r e g i o n a l  common  area, a broad  clubs,  these  are  of  outline  a s any o t h e r  of  where  opportunity  number  This  and l o c a l  Force  responsibility communication  a  This  outdoor  a prototype  these  p r e p a r a t i o n o f a Crown l a n d p l a n ,  may be a f f e c t e d .  representatives,  for  and  in Victoria.  t o a c h i e v e and a  agencies  compensate  documents  vary  personnel  t o the d i s c r e t i o n  i s as f o l l o w s .  proposed  parties.  provincial  be  are developed.  outline  To  of  may  i n p r e p a r i n g t h e p l a n s . In  final  to  regions  have d e v e l o p e d  the a c t u a l  appear  the  diversity  acceptable to "headquarters"  In there  a l l  in  area.  plans are derived i s l e f t  staff  for  according  concerns  variations,  undertaken  is in  s o c i a l or  to  the  a c t as end, t o  29  synthesize public  at  Ministry their  the  findings  large  has  use  is  left  developed appears  into a  plan.  to the  The  involvement  judgment  be  at  the  the  of the p l a n n e r .  The  participation  but  guidelines for public  to  of  discretion  of t h e  regional  planner.  The  entire  d e p e n d i n g on  p r o c e s s , as may  the c o m p l e x i t y  of  process. Generally, i t i s f e l t period  of s i x months t o one  be  expected,  i s s u e s and that  will  the  vary  ensuing  a p l a n can  in length bargaining  be d e v e l o p e d  in a  year.  Adoption  The phase  third  stage  where  distribution.  the  sanction  t o the  concepts  of  is  task  regional  the  plan  submitted  from  force,  compliance this  minister staff  with o v e r a l l review,  the  who  along  deputy  provincial  an  district  the  Upon  for land  receiving  recommendations  are  concurrence  the  regional  i t appears,  on  district.  is  desirable  c o n f i r m a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d , the p l a n minister  critique policy.  and Upon  i s recommended  of t h e o f f i c i a l with  seeks  adoption  prepared  the  the p l a n  district,  format  plan  the  to f r u i t i o n .  by h i s e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e . At  i s informed  document  for  is and  on  t h e RRMC and  assistant  level  endorsed  through  director  regional  to the  is  i s placed  not m a n d a t o r y . Once t h i s  headquarters'  of  the  s a n c t i o n of t h e  but  t h e onus  the p r o j e c t  of  submitted  The  document  Again,  manager t o c a r r y the  of t h e p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y  this  s t a t u s of  (ADM)  at  verification the  p o i n t , the  e x e c u t i v e summary and  plan,  of  completion  for adoption  the  the  to  the  regional and  the  press release i s  30  made a v a i l a b l e f o r  distribution.  Implementat i o n The which  process  a  o u t l i n e d above forms the  Crown Land P l a n  most.important  stage,  in  year  the  last  represents it  the  Land  As  all  noted  to  by  and  perhaps  the  plan,  has  only  the M i n i s t r y . T h i s  phase  The  implementation  been  finalized  "paper p l a n "  earlier  by  the  final, of  the  planning  into actions  with  in this  authority  restrict  portions  uses of  adjudicating specified  uses  a r e a s where no  The allocated  chapter,  to  process  in  that  through u t i l i z a t i o n  for  land  and  authority  land  and  to  applications  ( L P H , 1 9 8 0 ( c ) ) . As d i s p o s i t i o n should  so  from S e c t i o n s  a  plan  11,  are  12 and  of  the  provides  a  for  of  land  plan  from any to  establish  criteria  unalienated for  they conform with  a  plan  or  identify  on  that  the  specific  development  may  the  designate  occur.  status  Crown l a n d  13  reserve  well,  mechanisms f o r g i v i n g l e g a l in  to  and  Land A c t  Crown l a n d  permits  management  Crown  the  allocate  its allocation  d i s p o s i t i o n s . This  permitted  1.  events  Act.  Ministry uses,  the  " f o r m a l i z a t i o n " of  translates a  the  is created.  s e q u e n c e of  to  land  reserves.  Land Act  and  designations  These are are  as  drawn  follows:  Orders-in-Council: Under S e c t i o n LPH  11,  M i n i s t e r may  generally  the  Cabinet  upon  recommendation  w i t h d r a w a Crown l a n d  i_n f a v o u r  of  a specific  use.  area This  of  the  from a l i e n a t i o n i s an  absolute  31  reservation additional 2. Map  and  area  12,  from  3. D e s i g n a t e d  alienation  Use  from  13,  designated  use  is  planning  the  use to  for  by  an  of  a  a  formal  Crown  land  • specific  use  or  management). control  of  t o manage t h e  other  Crown  purpose other  alienations  compatible  land  than  the  with  the  of t h e M i n i s t r y , upon i d e n t i f i c a t i o n designations utilize  . through  the  above  management  companies. For  have  a  Utilizing these  specific these  specific  l a n d and  an powers  or  regional d i s t r i c t ,  private that  set aside a  considered.  further  instances,  transfer  be  Crown a g e n c y ,  areas  establish  designated  favour  f o r any  although  intent  land  responsibility  identifies  may  t h e M i n i s t e r may  may  process,  appropriate  Minister  jLn_  alienation use,  equipped  cancelled  Area:  designated  appropriate  may  or  concern.  Under S e c t i o n area  the  temporarily withdrawing a  environmental  forestry  amended  Order-in-Council.  Section  reserve,  certain  o n l y be  Reserve:  Under  It  can  of  interactive to  delegate  planning  to  an  m u n i c i p a l i t y or, i n s t a n c e , each suitability  in  plan  (e.g.  mechanisms t h e M i n i s t r y  areas  to the  i t s resources  agency  best  (e.g. M i n i s t r y of  Forests).  The b a s e d on Crown  d e c i s i o n on  which  the  the area  size  of  l a n d r e s o u r c e . As  an  implementation and  the  technique  use  is  of  the  Orders-in-Council,  the  importance  illustration,  to  or v a l u e  32  most  formal  reserve  or  areas  capabilities. more  Such an  statutes.  order  Sections  The  of  these  statutes  such Act  Record With  as  and  Thus  12 and  r e q u i r e Cabinet  13 of  not  land  the Environment the A g r i c u l t u r a l  by  the  an  relative  and  remainder  the C a r i b o o  LPH  here  is  Provincial  o n l y be  and  s u b j e c t t o paramount  and  are  L a n d Use  Act,  L a n d Commission  s t a t u s of  utilized  the  to  Pollution  Act.  will are  Crown Land P l a n s  the p l a n n i n g  P r o v i n c e , e i g h t of w h i c h have been a d o p t e d ,  in  of t h e  Far  Sub-District  are  order  The  above may  the  officials  sanction.  to other  date  the  to  resource  addressed  to  been c o m p l e t e d  utilized  Act.  explicitly  procedures  Crown  are  l a r g e or c o n t a i n u n i q u e  would  r e g a r d to the o v e r a l l 57  techniques,  mechanisms o u t l i n e d  unalienated.  Control  either  i s s u e r e c o g n i z e d but  relation  assign  the  assignments are a c h i e v e d  through  One  The  that are  "routine"  Minister  the  " b i n d i n g " of  soon be pending  i n the process District.  expanded t o o t h e r  areas  presented  for  completion.  of d e v e l o p i n g  If successful, of t h e  have been  Province.  this  initiated  another  ten  adoption,  As a  program,  well,  will  have while  Ministry  Sub-Regional effort  in  Plan  then  be  33  CHAPTER I I I -- METHODOLOGY The extent  major  achieving  allocating  optimizes B.C.? by  addressed  i s t h e Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  Mainland and  question  t h e LPH M i n i s t r y ' s e x p l i c i t  Crown l a n d  in this  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  evaluated, suitable  Province  reviewing  well-being  chapter  i n the  Lower  a  manner  that  of the r e s i d e n t s of to this  question  v a r i o u s means by w h i c h t h e p r o g r a m c a n be  and second,  identifying  the  relevant  data  sources  t o the a n a l y s i s .  Depending  on  one's  "assessment" can t r i g g e r Economists  may  social  personal  think  experience, a  wide  t h e words " e v a l u a t i o n " o r  range  of  procedural  may r e f l e c t  Planners,  on  on  the  the  other  hand, would  achieved.  goals'  matrices,  this,  planning  numerous o t h e r  viewpoint, decision assumption  balance  formal  "output"  they  have sheets,  techniques  measurement  one t h a t a t t e m p t s process.  This  developed operational  (McAllister, methods  to evaluate  normative  "good" outcome  (Fox,  1976).  likely  policies  were  achievement  checklists,  and  1980). C o n t r a r y t o  there the  is  an  "inputs"  assessment  t h a t a "good" d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  while  opportunities for  or  For  images.  i n terms of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e g o n e  scientists  growth.  PROGRAM  examine t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p r e s c r i b e d g o a l s  these  i s , t o what  g o a l - managing  in  i s t o respond  EVALUATING THE CROWN LAND PLANNING  other  thesis  program u t i l i z e d  t h e economic a n d s o c i a l  first,  in this  process  opposing to the  i s b a s e d on t h e will  produce  a  34  Heayn regional  resource  Columbia four  (1977)  in  management  aggregates  groups.  1. G o a l s '  this  Drawing  p e r f o r m a n c e of  conducting  from  4.  Normative Assessment  Transposing  normative  applicable.  the  literature  may  this  approach i n the  ensuing  Achievement  goals with a c t u a l  to the  a  number of  reasons.  First  in  terms of a c h i e v i n g s p e c i f i c  determine  has  achievement.  the  and  constantly best  too  of t h e  planning  the  appears  to  three  be  the  the  goals, people  or  rationale  techniques.  actual  results  short  being  to  operative  can  rarely  standards,  amended. As  from the  for  success  goals  agree  of  with  is impractical  as  where  with  most  i n v o l v e s the comparison  of a s s e s s m e n t  benchmark  "task  process,  i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o judge  the e x p e r i e n c e  been  land  remaining  i n a dynamic w o r l d are  begin. F i n a l l y , program  articulated  live  programs  cannot  into  Process.  the c o n t e x t  Crown  consequences,  T h i s form  clearly  into  assessment  results.  and  British  by:  d i s c u s s i o n e l a b o r a t e s on  choice, relative  S e c o n d , we  in  postulates that  assessed  technique  intended  seldom  be  he  of t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g  assessment  The  Goals' stated  the  structure utilized  this  structure  the  Efficacy  System A n a l y s i s , and  for  committee  e v a l u a t i o n of  wide r a n g e of a s s e s s m e n t methods  institutions  3.  the  similar  Achievement  2. D e c i s i o n  force"  a  on  are them.  priorities  a result,  one  where e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d Crown  land  provide concrete  planning  evidence  of  35  Decision decisions, form of  E f f i c a c y r e l a t e s to  whereby  the  best  end  good"  (Heayn,  by  1977). As  with  i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e of  the  an  economically  d e c i s i o n may  world  situation.  probably there The  never  i s no  O'Riordan  be  possible  with  students optimum  the  of in  optimal'  (1972, to  the  of  and  of  shifting  future  'second  of  real-  it  will  decisions,  since  the  "optimal".  public  outcomes, have  t o b y - p a s s the  best',  given  to the  argues,  what c o n s t i t u t e s  decision process  favour  p.109)  the  measure  unrelated  make o p t i m a l  conflicting  uncertainty  any  some  of  achievement,  process, be  of  i s measured by  goals'  planning  c l e a r c o n s e n s u s of  "multi-faceted,  coupled  interest", "led  search  'satisfying'  most  for  or  the 'sub-  solutions".  System the  As  optimality  some p r e - c o n c e p t i o n  the  optimal  economic  consequence  b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s or  "public  the  total  Implied  Analysis  involves  environment in  competing  this  in  which  method  is  the  the  f u n c t i o n s . In  would  obliged  be  participating  to  agencies,  each  program -  than  the  know their  i n essence,  organization  Furthermore,  this  priorities  change and  can  differently  by  that  short,  is  researcher's and  to conduct  the  the  method may  is  technique,  as  (Weiss,  static.  be  the  interpreted  of  and  i s not  to  organization p.30). goals  and  implemented  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  well,  one all  assigned  1972,  Programs,  of  covert  evaluation  priorities  itself"  and  programs  "knowing more a b o u t  knows  cognizance  this  to  functioning.  overt  complete  goals,  i n d i v i d u a l s . Given this  a program r e l a t i v e  program  programs, a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s  organization  concluded  assessing  i t is  a p p l i c a b l e to  the  36  task at  hand.  An above  assessment three  outcome of  of t h e  Dec i s i o n - M a k i n g  techniques,  t h e program,  i s not  the  belief  conducted outcome  that  in  concert  itself  will  more o f t e n a g r e e than able  what  on  goals  As  Fox  The  with  societal  reflect  the  the p r o c e s s should  be  the  final  the p r o c e s s approach  preferences,  social  will.  must  a c h i e v e d . As the  the  is  the  final  Further,  people  be  well,  by  stems  leading to a d e c i s i o n  or what  t o meet  unlike  with  on  basis for this  i f each a c t i o n  t o amend t h e p r o c e s s  society.  concerned  rather i t concentrates  which d e c i s i o n s are a c h i e v e d . from  solely  Process,  done,  rather  institutions  are  priorities  of  changing  suggests,  "This i n f a c t i s t h e way we have j u d g e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . In N o r t h A m e r i c a and W e s t e r n E u r o p e we have appraised g o v e r n m e n t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n terms of t h e i r d e m o c r a t i c processes and effectiveness, not in terms of t h e p o l i c i e s i m p l e m e n t e d " (Fox, 1976, p . 7 4 7 ) .  What t h e n is  constitutes  g r e a t e r agreement on  acceptable question. ideals  than In our  as  1960). F o r known  society  determined students  as d e m o c r a t i c  p r o c e s s may section  there  be  "good" p r o c e s s ?  values is  upon  these by  the  the  t h e Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  goals  objectives in  social  decision  1979;  derivation process.  or  are  values  or  m a j o r i t y of c o n s t i t u e n t s (Mayo,  which the  (Eyre,  there  what p r o c e s s e s  encompass t h e  the  norms by  Fortunately  that determine  of t h e p o l i t i c a l  appraised  discusses  a  of  process  these  " g o o d n e s s " of a  Fox, such  1976).  The  are  decision ensuing  norms f o r e v a l u a t i n g  37  Normative  Criteria  Much has been w r i t t e n  regarding  democratic  political  well,  a r e numerous r e f e r e n c e s  there  administrative 1965;  Ostrom,  (1980)  structures  behavior  provided  his  to address  the  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  however, t h e r e  appear  instance,  it  is  should  afforded  regarding adequate is  the  an  issue.  that  More  "Philosophy  of  be  opportunity As  1973; O l s o n , McAllister  Democracy"  common  these  to  state  w e l l , the c i t i z e n  their  should  these  efforts  or the  interest  not  squander  d e c i s i o n i s achieved  principles  p r o g r a m may be  group,  alternatives  or " i d e a l s "  of are  that the  to  interests  considered  or be  are  suggested  against  which the  evaluated: interests.  be r e c o g n i z e d lead  time  i t should  i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  should  negotiations  frameworks  the f o l l o w i n g  of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  individuals,  generated.  a  should  normative c r i t e r i a  1 . The c r i t e r i o n Each  when  from t h e s e  land planning  provided  on w h i c h t o b a s e h i s o p i n i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i t  i n t h e manner p r e s c r i b e d by t h e m a j o r i t y .  Crown  opinions  be  implemented  appropriate  For  a f f e c t e d by a d e c i s i o n  Finally,  as  in  writings,  principles.  resources.  Drawing  while  i s s u e s embodied  Throughout  several  1963). As political-  recently,  some o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n  to  the  (Haefele,  believed that c i t i z e n s  information  agreed  respecting  planning.  comprise  1960; P o l s b y ,  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  attempting  be  (Mayo,  1973; R u s s e l l , 1979).  has  field  the elements that  and  a  agencies  and be r e p r e s e n t e d i n decision.  should what  The  value  determine  which  information  is  38  2.  The  criterion  Decisions  should  information courses  3.  4.  of a d e q u a c y  within  the  experience  outside  the  the  d e c i s i o n s made s h o u l d  the  o b j e c t i v e s developed d e c i s i o n s should  The  criterion  The  process,  these  t o how  of  are  provide  this,  is  due  i s not it  basis  it be  through the  from  of  the  according  to  process.  Moreover,  efficiency.  resources  in  a  recognized  "ideals" be  only.  necessary  should  not  achieving  and  for  believed  measure  asking  that  into  the  of  the  searching  as  s e r i e s of  "compliance"  in  realized,  the  the Fox  remains  measurable  I t must be  inherent  possible. Nevertheless, is  criteria  to develop a  ideals.  subjectivity  the  A question  t o measure  t o the  precise  that  translated  utilized  relative  t o the  criteria,  a  results  its participants,  and  can  certain actions  "...  time  principles  which c o u l d  explains,  carried  by  normative  indicators  performance  the  feedback  implemented.  i t must be  For  these  includes  alternative  decisions.  entities.  however, t h a t  of  w e l l as  throughout  as p e r c e i v e d  juncture  as  be  be  of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  wasteful  above  available  of d e c i s i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  the  outlined  best  system.  All  this  the  consequences  s y s t e m , as  criterion  At  upon  information  The  implementing  information.  based  a c t i o n . Good  experience  be  of  be  regarding  of  of  use  of  institutional (1976,  criteria questions  p.748)  specified about  the  39  p e r f o r m a n c e o f any i n s t i t u t i o n a l In t h i s the  process  available, what they  DATA  we may t r y t o a s c e r t a i n how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  chosen,  sorts  i s relevant, are  and  so  o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e made  on.  the  plans  impressions  of those  who  determines  implemented,  The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e  I d e p i c t s t h e r a n g e of q u e s t i o n s  utilized  involved i n the planning  are  contained i n to  determine  process.  SOURCES question  this  central  chapter.  i n t h e Lower  studies:  the  Lang  Upper L i l l o o e t  The  supplying  files,  utilizing provide  the  Mainland  Creek  are  available.  these  thesis  was s t a t e d a t t h e s t a r t  region  LPH  threefold. Burnaby  newly  were  planning  are  diverse  was  conceivable  courses  The  most  and o t h e r  instituted  planning  thereby  case  and t h e  reasons  for  readily  cooperative  relevant  a r e among t h e f i r s t  p r o g r a m by i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . i n nature  as  i n f o r m a t i o n was  an e x c e l l e n t v e h i c l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  the  chosen  Plan.  First,  office  correspondence  two p l a n s  land plans recently  S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d P l a n  S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d  selection  Further,  to this  To examine i t , two Crown  completed  this  what  i s the p u b l i c i n v o l v e d i n the process,  useful,  The of  are  information  Appendix the  context  arrangement".  to  in  information.  be  undertaken  format  and, as  the  acceptance  such, of  Finally,  t h e two p l a n s  p r o v i d i n g a mixture  o f i s s u e s and  of a c t i o n .  The.Lang Creek p l a n n i n g  area  is  situated  boundary of t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y of the D i s t r i c t  on  the  of Powell  eastern  R i v e r and  40  covers  an  physical  area base  environment.  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y is  not  uncommon  Agriculture  and  However, most o f t h e r e g i o n purposes.  The  area  a  result,  conflicts  stemming  from  typical  west  activities for  I t s bio-  seeking  rural  inherent is  the  the  residential  rural  i n urban  for  of 2200  lifestyle,  s e t t l e m e n t s . As  resolution  demand  d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s p l a n was c o m p l e t e d  a  coast  are evident.  an i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n  there  concern  kilometers.  a  forest  contains  by r e s t r i c t i o n s  t h e major  from  is utilized  p e r s o n s who g e n e r a l l y move uncomplicated  63 s q u a r e  of  rural  and a d o p t e d  land  use  residential  in  the  spring  of 1980.  The north area  Upper  Lillooet  o f Pemberton i s largely  pockets abounds  of  portion  Agricultural  Land  land is the  of  the  resources.  valley  floor  tributaries  and  i s subject  here  of s p e c i a l i z e d  of softwoods  of a w i n t e r  Lillooet  i s the  forestry  the l a t t e r  part  of  well,  River  a  i n the itself  flooding,  t o the issues i n  competition  and w i l d l i f e  f o r the  uses.  i t has  The a r e a  potential  seed  for  products, the  i n d u s t r y , and the p r o v i s i o n  h a b i t a t f o r a wide r a n g e o f u n g u l a t e s .  during  As  t o severe  agricultural  f o r the pulp  isolated  i s included  e r o s i o n problems. Contrary  i n t h a t , due t o i t s i s o l a t i o n ,  production  completed  fish  Upper  t h e major c o n c e r n  cultivation  several  study  p r i v a t e l a n d s . The a r e a  The  b a s e by a g r i c u l t u r a l ,  unique  and  contain on  kilometers  R i v e r V a l l e y . The  Reserve.  significant  Lang C r e e k ,  activity  wildlife  significant  creating  i s l o c a t e d 25  i n t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  agricultural  many  area  undeveloped but does  in forest,  contains  planning  1979  and  This plan  was  was  officially  41  adopted  by  the M i n i s t r y  Appendix constituted This  both  To the  presents these  during  the  task  p l a n s . The assemble  the  the  of  a  26  provincial  of  detailed  review  of LPH  CLPTF m e e t i n g s was Finally, policy  analysis  potential appropriate  to  develop  in  literature  ensuing  through  a  the  those  this  analysis.  and  1981.  less  research  project  Throughout  conducted  with  the all  involved  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d at  both  the  and  in with  regional  of t h e s e  files  the  i n Appendix I I I .  intimately  the content  theoretical  s e r v e as a  and  discussions a  minutes  of  behavior  e x e r c i s e s e r v e as  for  the  policy  a review  processes  completed. the  public  recommending  structure,  public was  p e r s p e c t i v e of  basis  institutional  concerning  political-administrative gained  that  undertaken.  w h i c h would  changes  a  were  correspondence  also  of  i s contained  officials  To v e r i f y  events  i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of  respondents  involved levels.  1980  interviews  sentiments  of  processes.  findings  program, numerous a d d i t i o n a l  peripherally  chronology  summers of  f o r c e members list  1980.  planning  presents  of t h e p r o j e c t ,  available two  of  thesis  undertaken course  II  i n August  The  foundation  of and  concepts for  the  42  CHAPTER IV -In  the  literature, if of  preceding derived four  adhered us  to, w i l l  realize,  A THEORETICAL OVERVIEW  chapter  we  "ideals"  or normative  constitute a  however, t h a t  institutional  these  influences i s imperative  recommendations  results.  As  a  or  consequence,  i n f l u e n c e on  Ostrom design  (1973)  the  explaining  a variety and  of  administrative  of  Choice  an  the  with  affect  how  its  Recognition  of  d e r i v e d from  T h e o r y . The  be  be  addressed. of  performance.  the  work and This  discussed  in  As  how  chapter assist  in  process.  g r o u p e d under what  are  of  institutional  s u b j e c t of  inherent  the  a t t e n t i o n to  a system w i l l  major c o n c e p t s  policy-making  precepts  c o n s t r u c t s t h a t may  been w r i t t e n on may  particularly  specific  appropriate theory  of may  basic  i d e a l s must  theoretical  behavior  interactive  section.  of  behavior,  In t e r m s  evaluation, t o be  Most  which  e v a l u a t i n g t h e Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  Much of what has  Public  some  to understand  i n a system w i l l  explores  situation.  of  which,  process.  numerous f a c t o r s  for this  normative  suggests,  i s necessary  changes  decision  range  criteria  s e l d o m met.  f o r improvements a r e  political-administrative their  are  arrangements there are  a "good" p r o c e s s  from a b r o a d  "good" p l a n n i n g  ideals  limit  if  have,  politicali s known  in t h i s the  as  theory ensuing  43  PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY Public  Choice  Theory  have  often  been r e f e r r e d  that choice  or democratic  Ostrom,  with  decisions  (2)  act  each person these  (Ostrom, rank  collective  has p r e f e r e n c e s  consistent  may v a r y  inferences  (Downs,  these  regarding  in  t h a t they  citizens  Similarly,  interest  o r i e n t e d ( e . g. s u c c e s s ,  information" enhance  (Downs,  their  to  individual  d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y t o to the i n d i v i d u a l  it  is  possible  in a  have  interest  goals  limited  or  will  actors  rational  i s in obtaining the general  r e t u r n them t o  which  either  " i n t h e most  capabilities  1967, p . 2 ) . V o t e r s , by  are  make  are  self-  i n c r e a s e d b u d g e t s , and so o n ) .  rationally  their  to  a c t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s  who, i f p l e a s e d ,  bureaucrats  position  and  implies that  i n terms of i n s u r i n g  office.  manner p o s s i b l e g i v e n  individual  maximizers. T h e i r  act  self-interest,  For instance, p o l i t i c i a n s  of  they  these  1957).  welfare  Nevertheless,  in  make  t h e d e c i s i o n s he makes;  available  must be r a t i o n a l  the  being  (1) a l l p e r s o n s , i f  own  i s ideally  the expected  the d e c i s i o n process.  y e t they  from  principles  in  are vote  as  Embodied  manner. S e l f - i n t e r e s t  alternatives  manner  Utilizing  votes  life".  which a f f e c t  1973). R a t i o n a l i t y  a l l known  choice  two b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s :  in a rational  preferences  collective  1963; M u e l l e r , 1976;  public  the opportunity, a c t i n t h e i r  they  and  are  choice,  mechanisms . by w h i c h human s o c i e t i e s  their  interpretations provided  (1979) d e f i n e s  the  about  t o as s o c i a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Arrow,  1973). R u s s e l l  "concerned  encompasses a wide r a n g e o f p r i n c i p l e s  as w e l l ,  casting  efficient  and t h e c o s t o f will  their  seek  to  ballot  or  44  organizing  i n t o i n t e r e s t g r o u p s t o promote a  interest".  In  it  is  this  an  short,  the  "public  aggregation  behavior  acceptable?  capable  One  of  of  i n t e r e s t " may  not  view  actions  i s as  self-  exist,  rational self-interests.  producing  suggested  "collective  that  How  rather then  are  is  socially  follows:  "It may seem s t r a n g e t o a s s e r t t h a t most o f f i c i a l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o t i v a t e d by s e l f - i n t e r e s t . . . .  are  " A l t h o u g h many o f f i c i a l s s e r v e the p u b l i c interest as they p e r c e i v e i t , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e y a r e p r i v a t e l y m o t i v a t e d s o l e l y or even m a i n l y by a desire to serve the public i n t e r e s t per s e . I f society has created the proper institutional arrangements, t h e i r p r i v a t e m o t i v e s w i l l l e a d them t o a c t i n what t h e y b e l i e v e t o be the public interest,, even though these motives, l i k e everyone e l s e ' s , are p a r t l y r o o t e d i n t h e i r own self-interest. Therefore, whether or not the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i l l i n f a c t be served depends upon how efficiently social institutions are designed to achieve that purpose. S o c i e t y c a n n o t i n s u r e t h a t i t w i l l be s e r v e d m e r e l y by a s s i g n i n g someone t o s e r v e i t " (Downs, 1967, p.87).  Following be  considered  Ostrom,  Downs' argument i s the  a noted  design  scholar,  of  has  p r i n c i p l e s i n t o the  Based  the  several  premises  basic  propositions  Administration  He  of  (Ostrom,  argues  that  1973,  since  less  c o r r u p t i b l e than t h e i r  is  "political  a  their others,  power unless  to  process", their  the  key  social  public Public in  authorities  that  institutions. to  should Vincent  integrating  policy  decision  process.  Choice  T h e o r y he  presents  his  paradigms  of  Democratic  p.111).  decision-makers are f e l l o w men  and  individuals will own  element  d e v o t e d much e f f o r t  democratic on  then,  advantage are  divided  that be  and  neither  nor  decision-making  tempted t o the  and  more  to e x p l o i t  detriment  organized  in  of a  45  fashion  so  this,  proposes that  can  he be  that  used  they  to  limit  and  c o n t r o l one  a v a r i e t y of  provide  our  another.  organizational  public  goods and  Recognizing arrangements  s e r v i c e s . These  organizations "can be coordinated through various multiorganizational arrangements including trading and c o n t r a c t i n g to mutual advantage, c o m p e t i t i v e rivalry, adjudication, as well as the power of command i n l i m i t e d h i e r a r c h i e s " (Ostrom, 1973, p.112).  It  is  further  bureaucracy r e d u c e the  accountable capability  e n v i r o n m e n t s . As organization and  emphasized  as  resources.  of  well,  to the  To  sum  a  having  "single  system  it will  measured by  that  center  to adapt  reduce  the  the  he  Offers  power"  will  to d i v e r s e ,  dynamic  efficiency  of  l e a s t - c o s t s expended  his viewpoint  of  supporting  i n time,  the  the  effort  following:  "Fragmentation of authority among diverse decision c e n t e r s w i t h m u l t i p l e v e t o c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n any one jurisdiction and the development of multiple, overlapping jurisdictions of w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s are necessary conditions for maintaining a stable political o r d e r w h i c h can a d v a n c e human w e l f a r e under r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s " (Ostrom, 1973, p.112).  The  view  that  "fragmented  jurisdictions"  will  encourage  explored  by  Sproule-Jones  authority"  and  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y has  ( 1 9 7 2 ) . He  "overlapping been  further  argues,  "multiple decision structures insure that public entrepreneurs have an i n c e n t i v e t o come t o t e r m s w i t h the "public" as well as other agencies, thereby permitting externalities of p u b l i c c h o i c e t o become i n t e r n a l i z e d and p u b l i c goods t o be produced at the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l " ( S p r o u l e - J o n e s , 1972, p.186).  If  we  return  to the  structure  of  the  Crown l a n d  planning  46  process  i t i s evident  derive  Crown l a n d  In  short,  with  the  plans  task  format"  f o r the  the  comprised  process  i f we  public  decision  are  to  choice  and  recommend  of  resource  may  outlined  good  the  in providing  that  will  meet  groups  authority"  public to  to  above.  interest  changes  assist  a system  utilized  "fragmented  t o d i s t r i b u t e the  theory  design  format  structure  of  jurisdictions"  employ a b a r g a i n i n g  process,  the  resembles  forces  "overlapping  l a n d ) . Hence  • that  (Crown  planning a  the  "guiding normative  criteria.  PROBLEMS IN DESIGNING AN No  model or  system  is  critiquing and  without public  practical  Russell,  theory  OPTIMAL SYSTEM which  limitations.  choice  has  A  c o n c e p t s have e v o l v e d  1979). I t  i s not  intended  comprehensive  r e v i e w , but  to  the  planning  Crown l a n d  presented  (1)  the  bounded  rationality  (2)  the  influence  (3)  the  representation  (4)  the  information  of  explain  a  body  literature  (Simon,  be  this  that  a  1957;  few  problem  Olson,  factors  identified.  attitudes  dynamic  theoretical  discussion  problem and  of  its  sections:  perceptions  problem  large  that  rather  process  in four  to  been d e v e l o p e d as  a  these are  attempts  For  1965;  provide relative  discussion  47  The  Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y P r o b l e m One  is  of  the  key  that  the  manner.  At  the  ability  to  rank  individual planning  actors  in  a  inherent  all  rationality  known  consistent  (l)  able  being  holistic  t o view  fashion  consequences  i n format  that  the  (2)  Actual  behavior,  s t r a t e g y . Dror  the  in a  referred  the  to  planning  models.  concepts  whole  of  complex  and  (3)  short  of  within  a l t e r n a t i v e (Simon,  fall  the  each a l t e r n a t i v e i n a  the  however, may  the  premise,  from e a c h c h o i c e best  t o as  from t h i s  rational  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  theory  rational  available  t h e s e m o d e l s embrace t h e  follow  system, d e t e r m i n i n g  was  act  manner. R i s i n g  considering  would  will  alternatives  t h e o r i s t s have e v o l v e d varying  in public choice  in a d e c i s i o n process outset,  Although  value  assumptions  a  1957).  in realizing  this  notes,  " C o n s t r u c t i n g c o m p l e t e , w e i g h t e d i n v e n t o r i e s of values and resources, identifying a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s , making v a l i d p r e d i c t i o n s of t h e c o s t s and benefits of a l l alternatives these tasks are far beyond our knowledge and c a p a c i t y " ( D r o r , 1968, p.133).  Herbert  Simon(1957)  further  rationality  i s impeded by  postulates  that,  "bounded first that  to  rationality"  alternative decision-makers  decisions  suggests  complex and  compensate, and  that  uncertain  comprehensive  environments.  generally  from t h e  He  i n d i v i d u a l s operate within "satisfice"  or  i s "good enough". F u r t h e r ,  are  r a r e l y depart  therefore  that  risk  status  quo.  averse,  choose he  a  the  concludes  and  hence,  48  The  Influence As  Of  implied  attitudes  of  constrain  of  the  people  prefer, can  needed t o d e f i n e In  dealing limit  the  perceptions  and  as  a result,  on  untested  influence  standard  This  to  four  for  and  postulates  that  been a c k n o w l e d g e d by  that  on  their  judgment, e s p e c i a l l y where t e c h n i c a l or  that  were c o n c e r n e d . K a t e s  professional  resource  the  public  (1962),  managers  are  to  as  govern  these  answers, based  societal  Sewell be  in  factors  adopted  perceived  found  (White,  individual's  for  often  who  complexities  information  competence  search  regarding  engineers considered  others  that  the  his  as  in decision-  factors  situation, role,  opinions what  attitudes  a l t e r n a t i v e s are  s t a n c e has  as  Personal  alternatives  which p r o f e s s i o n a l s  assumptions  preferences.  his  their  search  public  decision of  the  elicit  c o m p l e x i t y . He  scope w i t h i n  opinions  identifies  the  its  their  and  significantly  outcome.  in a decision,  r o l e of  his perception  with  the  the  rational  p r o b l e m s and  White  formation:  a  sharing and/or  reviewing  experience,  discussion,  of  greatly  the  making, . G i l b e r t attitude  preceding  achievement  prefer  1966).  Attitudes  i n d i v i d u a l s i n a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s can  t o what o t h e r s should  i n the  the  attitudes  P e r c e p t i o n s And  (1971)  dependent  organizational well  often  concludes  "prisoners  of  experience".  In limited by the  summary, by  i t may  his evaluative  his perceptions generation  information  be  and  and  and of  concluded  one's  framework, w h i c h  values.  In  acceptance the  that  total, of  legitimacy  rationality  in turn  these  is  factors  a l t e r n a t i v e s , of of  fully  is  influenced constrain evaluative  representative  49  bargaining  The  processes  Representation  In  our  parties  the  members of would  that  This theorists, Mancur  motivated position  public  better  off  i f the  logically  that  i f t h e y were r a t i o n a l  all  affected  participate  theorists  to  other  that  organize words, i f  goal,  and  if  g o a l were a c h i e v e d ,  it  has  the and  or  the  assume  motivated  interest  in  individuals  in  self-interested,  that act  to  goal.  view,  however,  the  most p o p u l a r In  that  his  has  come  under  position  study  individuals  to p a r t i c i p a t e by  choice  to  that  t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e e n d s . In  follow  Olson.  postulates  opportunity  some g r o u p have a common  to  would,  achieve  further  a l l be  been t h o u g h t group  Some  the  i t i s presumed  w i t h common s e l f - i n t e r e s t s a r e  groups to  they  society  afforded  process.  individuals into  be  1979).  Problem  democratic  should  decision  (Hobson,  i n the  of with  being  scrutiny the  one  collective common  group  by  many  expressed  action,  interests  decision.  He  may  by  Olson not  sums  be his  stating:  "... u n l e s s the number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n a group i s q u i t e s m a l l , or u n l e s s t h e r e i s c o e r c i o n o r some o t h e r s p e c i a l d e v i c e t o make i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i n t h e i r common interest, rational, self-interested individuals will not act to a c h i e v e t h e i r common or g r o u p i n t e r e s t s " ( O l s o n , 1965, p.2).  He rider" system's  substantiates concept  this position  developed  inability  to  by  by  referring  economists to  provide public  goods.  to  the  explain This  the  "freemarket  principle  is  50  based  on t h e b e l i e f  benefit that  that  i f individuals perceive  r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r  other  withdraw  members pay t h e f u l l  from  In  participation,  to  with  the  common  above,  there  interests  The g e n e r a l  language  the  groups",  "forgotten  perceived  diffuse  a  result  interests  of* t h e s e  resources  and t h e r e f o r e w i l l  possible articulate As  to  high  their  Olson's  cannot  be  behavior. that  guides  note,  logic,  groups, p a r t i c i p a t i o n conservation  Olson's  not t o organize  because  explained Rather,  these  t o the  there w i l l occur.  such in  as terms  in they  the  into  that  decision  cannot  obtain  information  i t may  not  choices presented  be  or to  decision-makers. we  must  recognize  be i n s t a n c e s where,  To i l l u s t r a t e , Greenpeace of  the ranks  that, i n some  membership  or the S i e r r a  rational,  of such  in  Club,  self-interested  t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be an i d e o l o g i c a l  individuals  benefits  the  to generate tools  the  however,  will  groups,  costs  n o t be a b l e  evaluate  preferences  a concluding  despite  or  i t must be r e c o g n i z e d  transaction  adequately  other  t o them from d o i n g s o .  a l t e r n a t i v e s . Without  to  they  in  may n o t be w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  Due  evaluate  numerous  public,  tend  problems,  process.  to  are  t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s a r e g r e a t e r than  would p e r s o n a l l y a c c r u e  As  prefer  who c h o o s e n o t t o o r g a n i z e t o  decision-making.  that  would  c o s t s of the a c t i o n w h i l e  influence  their  each  will  involvement.  addition  individuals  that they  motivation  organizations.  51  The  Information  Problem  A key e l e m e n t Without  adequate  alternatives, the  'best'  their  is  self-interests  participants The  first,  alluded  process  the be the  cannot  major  of the  element  their  public  having  the  plausible  full  access  choice  t h e most  model,  of  education  biases  will  to  a l l  information. has  been  perceptions  and  one's e v a l u a t i v e  preferences,  prevent  significant,  discussion  that  that  t o adequate  however, presumes t h a t  of these  achieve  desires.  previous  of p e r s o n a l  choice,  information.  t h r o u g h which t h e r a t i o n a l ,  however, numerous l i m i t a t i o n s  in  is  determine  framework,  and  problem  be r e c o g n i z e d  a  experiences,  t h r o u g h an  solving.  interactive  and, h o p e f u l l y  for.  cost  of c o l l e c t i n g  f a c t o r w h i c h may  and s y n t h e s i z i n g  inhibit  information  is a  adequate decision-making.  Often  onus i s on a g r o u p t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r responsible necessary  sources, and  the  from  many  accounted  further  process  i n f l u e n c e s t h e a p p r o a c h one a d o p t s  Collective  The  In t h e c o n t e x t  I t i s recognized  composition greatly  we  and i n many r e s p e c t s  to  attitudes.  decision  consequences and, u l t i m a t e l y , cannot  express  There a r e ,  any  information  choice.  information  in  for i t s collection. funds  I f these  or e x p e r t i s e they  sense.  If  information  portion  of the group's t r a n s a c t i o n  abstain  from t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  g r o u p s do  in  both  costs  costs  process.  r e q u i r e m e n t s and  have t o t u r n  a p r a c t i c e t h a t may be e x p e n s i v e  temporal  data  they  are a may  a  not  have  to outside financial significant choose  to  52  An the  additional  element  i n the i n f o r m a t i o n problem  monopoly on i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n  as a r e s u l t virtue having  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s i z e  of these access  dependent  factors  certain  to resources  upon,  groups  or  relates to  o r g a n i z a t i o n s may  legislated  mandate.  i n t e r e s t s may be p r e c l u d e d  and, t h e r e f o r e , be d o m i n a t e d  by,  with  of  differing  have  perceptions  By from or the  problem.  Throughout unstated  common  Uncertainties  still  thread,  ignore  the  i n type;  uncertainties  them. N e v e r t h e l e s s  1959; E t z i o n i ,  application  they  few  some may be  of  this  with  an  reduced some  the  through  probability, the f u t u r e  strategy  of  management has been t o  t h e s u b j e c t h a s r e c e i v e d some a c a d e m i c with  this  i s s u e have been  1967; H o l l i n g ,  review,  some  advanced  1978). A l t h o u g h form  of  an  varying  "adaptive"  i t may be s u f f i c i e n t  p r o b l e m be r e c o g n i z e d  that the  and, i n p r o c e e d i n g ,  o p t i o n s a s p o s s i b l e be f o r e c l o s e d w h i l e  allocation decisions.  been  uncertainty.  at a l l because  resource  a l l advocate  a p p r o a c h . I n terms o f t h i s existence  in  has  of  unknown. To a l a r g e d e g r e e  d e b a t e and methods f o r c o p i n g  in  there  question  o t h e r s may n o t be a n a l y z e d  with  (Lindblom,  discussion  o t h e r s may be r e c o g n i z e d  outcomes a r e t r u l y coping  preceding  are varying  investigations, while  the  achieving  the  as  land  53  THE  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK REVIEWED  Relative which are  to  recommendations  attainable  suggestions literature can  the  derived to  will  improve  largely  recognize  an  that  p o r t i o n of  individual's  ideology,  cope with  uncertainty greatly affect  a result  there  may  represented prevent  process be  groups  choice.  some  quality  these  effectively  not  lend  where  The  and  and  which the  all  an  self-interest but  not a l l .  attitudes,  w i l l i n g n e s s to  can  inhibit  normative  interests  there  The  itself  their  may  agency its  will  not  be  or  a  accounted  courses  complexity  to unequivocal  more of  to  make  of  the  the  final  evaluate the  f o r i n the action,  on  the  full  process may  be  problems a r i s i n g  from  pervasive  force,  natural resource  solutions.  If  may the  known t o  limitations  framework.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e is  in  c o n c e p t u a l i z e and  perceptual i s not  choices  a  ideals. are  participating  information u t i l i z e d  interests,  excluded.  from  there  "frameworks"  behavior  uncertainty.  of  b a s e d on  legitimate  human  behavior.  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior.  or making  Similarly  Typically  of  the  p e r c e p t i o n s and  arise  individuals  of a l t e r n a t i v e s  alternatives range  not  behavior,  attaining  instances  or  decision-makers. and  from  or  to  process  i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . High t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s  development  extent  the  rationality",  s e v e r a l problems  decision-making First  "bounded  the e x t e n t  whether  rationality  personal  As  on  political-administrative  explain a significant b a s e d on  ideals,  t h e Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  depend  reviewed : suggests  Limitations  normative  that  problems  of does  54  Where a p p r o p r i a t e , e n s u i n g and  account  for  will  utilize  these  bring ideals.  the  Crown  recommendations  t h e s e v a r i a n c e s . The principles  to develop  must  remainder  of t h i s  suggestions  land planning process closer  recognize  to the  thesis  which  may  normative  55  CHAPTER V -- ASSESSMENT OF The stage the  p u r p o s e of  f o r the  to  d i s c u s s i o n thus  three  planning  the  p r o g r a m . The an  final  Crown l a n d  regard  the  chapters. process  r u l e s and  last  two  chapters  a s s e s s m e n t may  framework  to  processes  two  sections  reviewed and place  the  context  of  Crown  the  special  the  planning  i n accordance with  Crown  land  other be  land planning  form t h e  process  the  planning  presented  that  utilize  this  subject  closer  to  ideals.  f o r the  final  program w i l l  planning  which,  planning  derived  basis  provincial  developing  problems  will  two  of  with  to  potential  the  the  conception  reviewed,  T h i s chapter  whether  improvements w i l l  the  been t o s e t  have been d e v o t e d  analysis will  where  i n the  some  this  Initially  to o u t l i n i n g  determine  Once c o m p l e t e d ,  f a r has  was  encounter.  were u n d e r t a k e n  CASE STUDIES  s t r u c t u r e s that comprise  e v a l u a t i v e framework and  s u c h an  THE  be  structures  i f adopted, the  may  normative  ideals.  To actual  begin events  planning  detailed  however, a t t e n t i o n must be  that comprised  processes.  processes.  provide  with,  The  following  Additional information chronologies  contained  some b a c k g r o u n d on  executive  t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  summary  the  are  may in  contents  from e a c h p l a n  be  and  summaries  Lang of  extracted  Appendix of  d i r e c t e d at  the  i s presented  two  Creek the  from  I I . As  well,  plans,  i n Appendix  the  IV.  two the to the  56  THE  UPPER LILLOOET PLANNING PROCESS  The when  Upper  the  LPH  applications  requests  with  that  area  a  before  332  Valley other was  subject of  that  requests  would  decisions  were p e r c e i v e d  gain  Ministry  be  resource issues.  Lands,  the  consisted  the  Parks  and  issue  allocated  e a c h of  the  concerns,  turning  It  these  discerned and  necessary  was  further  these  lease  in future  land-  Valley.  1977  of  the  the  Forests, as  well  Canada  key  a  concerns,  number to  discuss  the these  indicates resource  that  ministries  as  representatives the  Agricultural  representatives  whether  the  land  from Land  outlined  r a p i d l y became a p p a r e n t  was  of  Environment, A g r i c u l t u r e ,  and  agencies' it  r a n g e of  invited  minutes  resolved  this  point  meeting  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l or  from  the  meeting  Housing  t o be  Stemming  upon.  Upper  conflicts  Consequently,  p r i m a r i l y of  Oceans  specific  acted  informal  M i n i s t r i e s of  and  be  18,  of  C o m m i s s i o n . As  major  October  review  Fisheries  their  p o t e n t i a l s was  understanding  an  including  Ministry quickly  resource  i n the  to  participation  discussing  the  t o be  agencies A  In  1977 lease  i n the  resource  forthcoming.  a greater on  agricultural  of Crown l a n d  the  in  t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s were a p p r o v e d , a d d i t i o n a l  allocation policies  To the  if  initiated  t o numerous  a p p l i c a t i o n s could  believed  use  hectares  agencies,  was  three  (LPH,1980(d)).  clarification the  received  involving  River  that  Crown L a n d P l a n  Ministry  Lillooet  this  Lillooet  that  the  should  be  f o r e s t r y uses.  discussion,  e a c h a g e n c y was  asked  to  57  prepare  brief  background  resource  concerns  material,  over  the next  use  problem  the  land  formal approach LPH  convened  in  greater few  a second  the  International  stated  purpose  planning the  from  task  study  valley  floor.  b o u n d a r y map  being  resolved  event  the  Squamish  to  LPH  Lillooet  t h e SLRD's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  I t argued  slopes greatly  planning unit.  export  upper  to o c c u r , the e n t i r e As  well,  loss  o f economic a c t i v i t y  of  raw  wood m a t e r i a l  the  study  of a  letter  a complaint  the  activity  must  at  not  second  on  and  be  area the  that i f  considered  i n Pemberton  the v a l l e y .  (SLRD)  study  the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  the  on  a  District  limiting  watershed  from  slopes  t a s k f o r c e . The  logging  the  meeting.  i n f l u e n c e s downstream e f f e c t s  as  over  that  c e n t e r e d on  receipt  was  The  delineate  prepare  Regional  the  floor.  the  and  create a  the a c t i v i t i e s  would  first  District  and  11  include  officially  at the subsequent  participate  was  the  influenced that  at which  Commission.  was  of  result,  to  Dyking  valley's  o f c o n s e q u e n c e was  planning  concern  the  on  to the v a l l e y  one  into  a  expanded  to  this  f o r a more  As  the v a r i o u s concerns  a number of c o n c e r n s . The  invited  valley  was  of  complexity  1977  Fisheries  meeting  greatly  for discussion  next  from  outlined  15,  Pemberton V a l l e y  study area  I t was  receipt  differences.  on November  Salmon  specific  the n e c e s s i t y  membership was  reaffirm  there  their  The  b o u n d a r i e s . Much o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n  actions  outlining  this  force,  since  by LPH  the b a s i c  Pacific  of  need t o expand t h e  The  the  detail.  indicated  meeting  a g e n c i e s were p r e s e n t . The  outlining  weeks, c o n f i r m e d t h e  and  to resolve  representatives  reports  expressed due  to  Finally, i t  58  maintained desires  of l o c a l  directly the  t h a t t h e Crown  On  the  watershed  of t h i s  consisted  February  road  2,  which  was  i t s second meeting a t  access  the p e r i p h e r y  Based alternatives  resolved to l i m i t  that  the  of  data  no  to  the  much  comment.  time o r  work.  of  the and  valley  At  the would  task  force's  submission meeting  a  of was  points. dealt  and t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s  i n t h e Meagher C r e e k a r e a ,  region  of on  area.  agencies'  an i n i t i a l  for  v a l u e s w h i c h would be  preparation  submissions  d i s c u s s e d at the previous  prepared  were  of the a r e a .  months the  the  1978 t o d i s c u s s s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c  of the study  on  the study  t h a t each agency  resource  folio  had  inventory  i t was d e c i d e d  the  the  was n o t a v a i l a b l e  sector  necessary  six  to  where t h e g r e a t e s t c o n f l i c t s  that resource and  Contrary  i t a p p e a r s t h a t much o f t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n  geothermal development  for  body  by e a c h o f t h e s e c t o r s . An a d d i t i o n a l  From t h e m i n u t e s  it  respect the  e x e r c i s e and was a n s w e r a b l e t o  force  floor  meeting  ensuing  data  on  staff  task  into a resource  the  activities  with  this  force held  maps d e p i c t i n g a v a i l a b l e  incorporated  detailed  the  t o undertake  conclusion  In  day t h e t a s k  I t was a r g u e d  resources  held  next  to the v a l l e y  entire  provide  must  t h e SLRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was p r e s e n t .  boundaries  the  s i n c e i t was  by t h e p l a n n i n g  position,  present.  process  residents.  which time SLRD's  government  affected  local  land planning  draft  during  The p l a n c o n t a i n e d  and  meetings,  the LPH  various planning  t h e summer and c i r c u l a t e d two o p t i o n s , one f a v o u r i n g  59  agricultural c h o s e n as On  the  plan.  the  format  participants material  felt  a d o p t e d by major  that  the  the  Wildlife these  need  met.  was  Several of  the  that  task  and  document  i t was  was  too  agreed  planning to  situation  d i s s e n t i n g group,  the  keep  future 60%  no  • further  resolve  the  Wildlife  and  information  To  representative  best was  this  not  present  contained  the  that  than  of  superfluous importantly,  various  the the  was  activity  option  detrimental  to  ungulate stressed  was  -  i f the to  be  i n d i c a t e that  f o r e s t r y option  force  Fish  stating  particularly  meeting  a  would  f o r e s t r y . The  forestry  open,  stances  flooding  self-sufficiency  task  meetings forestry  a  and  it  would  be  stalemate,  of F o r e s t r y , A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h Housing  later  representatives  date with  compromise would be  writer's at  discuss  agriculture sector,  L a n d s , P a r k s and  of  to  Many  p r o g r a m . More  agriculture  from w h i c h a f i n a l  the  and  less  of  f o r m e d . T h i s g r o u p would meet a t a  nineteen  the  the  m i n u t e s of  in support  of  criticized.  noted  agricultural  the  reached that  convened  solidify  options  however, a s u b - c o m m i t t e e composed and  was  the  more so  be  To  latter  p o i n t s were r a i s e d . At  long  would  of  was  that a d d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l  activities  goal  The  f o r c e , comprised  contentious  LPH's  Nevertheless,  necessary.  the  twelve agencies,  existing  c o n s e n s u s was  forestry.  p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t was  to  Province's  1979  s e c t o r s a l s o endorsed  h a b i t a t . The the  other,  d i s c u s s i o n appeared  problem  aggravate and  7,  regarding  however, the  the  suitable alternative.  representing  draft  outset  most  September  persons the  activity,  knowledge  t h i s m e e t i n g and  was  more d e t a i l e d effected.  the had  SLRD  declined  60  to p a r t i c i p a t e in future this  exercise  as  having  Subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s belief  that  regardless The member  the  the  forestry sector  s u b - c o m m i t t e e met  presented reached.  agricultural for  lands  more  I t was  and  potential  i t was  resolved  For  avoiding  development, was  instance, the  i f and  no  when a p l a n  s p e c i a l plan  cooperatively  could  by  a had  utilized valley  uses.  In  for either forestry to  the  would be  was  other granted,  agricultural  indicated this  prepared  and  hand, t h e  future  moose h a b i t a t  Each  slopes  be  a  aims,  1979.  a range of  f o r e s t tenures  review  i t s own  11,  sympathetic  of  revealed  upland  other  development  exclusion  n e c e s s a r y . S i m i l a r l y , the a  the  for supporting that  suit  purposes.  inventories  therefore the  regarded  their  October  that  f o r e s t r y p u r p o s e s . On  had  to  detailed  a g r i c u l t u r e u s e s would have t o be  thereby  on  agreed  capability  for  would a c t  force  agency  District  SLRD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  task  resources.  by  with  the  value  influences.  these areas or  little  local  exclusively floor  since  of  compromise was little  activities  conversion  t o be  -the  protected  Forestry  and  Environment M i n i s t r i e s .  During  the  ensuing  e x c h a n g e d between LPH the  four  and  the  various  aspects  of  Wildlife  B r a n c h , F i s h e r i e s and  Agriculture document. regional by  the  all During  planning Lower  p l a n . The  staff  Mainland  numerous memoranda were ministries  Water Management B r a n c h ,  forwarded the  months  Oceans Canada and  comments  early  part  for of  This  specific  the  Fish  Ministry  improvement  February,  produced a f i n a l • v e r s i o n RRMC.  the  on  approval  for was  1980  and of  of  the  the  LPH  endorsement granted  on  61  February  14,  Ministry  of  was  1980  in V i c t o r i a ,  c o m m i t t e e and  did that the  a  of local  prepared  final  receive  minor c h a n g e s b a s e d on  A g r i c u l t u r e ' s comments. D u r i n g A p r i l ,  reviewed  As  p e n d i n g a number of  point  a d o p t e d by  for  the  i t i s worthy  to note t h a t  sanction.  opposing  any  economy.  The  ensuing  memo  LPH  on  20,  to  Ministry's  the  plan  executive  circulation.  Regional D i s t r i c t  representative  1980  the  development  May  Their  not  the  position  directly  best  never  remained  contributing  forwarded 1980  plan  by  to  the  SLRD  summarizes  their  position,  "..as a p a r t i c i p a n t - i n the Planning process I have previously gone on records a s o p p o s i n g any f u r t h e r commitment of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s within the Pemberton Valley that do not provide for local economic b e n e f i t s . T h i s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t b e l i e v e s t h a t any TFL for cottonwood production should be restricted to provide for local processing and local economic b e n e f i t s . This Regional D i s t r i c t further urges that alternatives to a commitment f o r paper p r o d u c t i o n of the cottonwood l a n d s be sought, as a more labour i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y s u c h as s a w m i l l i n g f o r b u i l d i n g and furniture materials may p r o v e t o be the b e s t use and p r o v i d e f o r the h i g h e s t e c o n o m i c returns from these c o t t o n w o o d l a n d s . T h e r e a r e two main i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e Pemberton V a l l e y , a g r i c u l t u r a l and l o g g i n g . The n o r m a l process (present policy) of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b e i n g d e v e l o p e d f o l l o w i n g t h e c l e a r c u t t i n g of f o r e s t lands has enhanced the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry in the Pemberton V a l l e y and the a w a r d i n g of a TFL to Scott Paper f o r t h e p u r p o s e of a n o n - l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e use of the cottonwood forests will limit the g r o w t h and e x p a n s i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry within the V a l l e y . The s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e t h e n i s t o have a c l e a r cut programme of the c o t t o n w o o d l a n d so t h a t t h e l a n d c o u l d t h e n r e v e r t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l use and add to the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y of t h e V a l l e y . "  The  LPH  t h i s matter between  the  p o s i t i o n regarding  was  beyond the  Ministry  of  LPH  this  request  mandate and  Forests  and  had the  was to  to  state  be  Regional  that  resolved District  62  (Letter  from Tom  Regional  THE  Lee,  D i r e c t o r , LPH;  Sept.  2,  Al  Rhoades,  1980).  LANG CREEK PLANNING PROCESS In c o m p a r i s o n  process the  A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r to  was,  to the  in a l l respects,  Upper L i l l o o e t  resource  land  prepared  The  Lang C r e e k  use  conflicts  rural  area.  As  the  terms  lots.  the  contained  During  in  of  land  process a  of  Powell  for  in  was  Crown  received  the  study  commencing i t s  inclusion  demands  Crown  over  for  t h e M i n i s t r y had  commenced River  Committee  a  lands  when  into  the  program to  the  the  next  (TPC)  regional  reference"  two  the  planner  the  to  weeks, as  study  LPH  to most  to  a  follow-up  TPC.  area,  (PRRD)  apprise  prepare  distributed the  regional  District's  meeting  t o a l l members of  o u t l i n e of  the  Regional  the M i n i s t r y ' s i n t e n t  Within  a general  being  to r e s o l v e a concern  these  in  year.  Forests  base  satisfy  a plan  i n c r e a s i n g demand 1979  gained  initiated.  Planning  contact, of  initiated  Ministry  To  u s e s was  attended  plan.  single  planning  straightforward  resulted  in a  from an  experience  relative  Creek,  available unalienated  various agencies  initial  was  arising  planning  Technical  land  adopted  Forest.  appropriate  planner  and  e v a l u a t i n g the  Provincial  The  Lang  the  The  Lang Creek  a p p l i c a t i o n s for small holdings  well,  p r o g r a m of  designate  40  in  Plan  residential  approximately  simpler.  combined w i t h  problems  initiated,  above p r o g r a m , t h e  a  a  the Crown  to  this  "working  T h i s memorandum  a tentative  list  63  of  perceived  issues  and  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  task  participants  asked  which the  were  should  resource  folio  constraints legal  map.  natural  In  LPH  were  relative  aggregated  into this  reviewing  a constant planning  sites,  results  of  purpose of t h i s p o l l , obtain  the  incorporated well, gain local  the  conducted undertaken  map  available  so t h a t  i t could  contacted  files,  i t appears  that  ensuing  months  there  staff  land  the  To  i n the previous that  estate  was  to  could  be  program.  As  they  i n Powell  holdings market.  the  D i s t r i c t . The year,  regional planning  for  augment t h e utilized  by t h e R e g i o n a l  into available private  received  potentials,  planners  so  and t h e  suitability  capabilities.  a Notary P u b l i c  a t t i t u d e s towards the r e a l  had  forest  claims,  "desires"  i n t o the D i s t r i c t ' s  some i n s i g h t  a l l  between t h e a g e n c i e s  fisheries,  mineral  residents'  the planners  constraints  concerns  planning  requirements  survey  environmental  forward  In t h e  agricultural  information a  specific  of i n f o r m a t i o n  archaeological  "social"  an  physical  to  favourable.  regarding  and  envisioned a  format.  team. By J u n e ,  tanks  staff  document  bio-physical capabilities, a  t h e LPH c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  flow  or groups  an i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s  asked  information  septic  and  to t h e i r  r e s p o n s e was v e r y  was  maps:  summarized  hazards  Participants  information  the  which  prospective  p r o g r a m . . To  the planning four  the  further agencies  i n the planning  concerns,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e on t h e  addition,  t o suggest  containing  map  In  c o n s t r a i n t s / l a n d s t a t u s map, a  depicting  be  resource  invitation  force.  be i n c l u d e d  specific  an  and  River to current  64  Based legal  on  the  responses  received,  c o n s t r a i n t s maps were p r e p a r e d and d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e t a s k  f o r c e . The f i r s t  formal  1979.  meeting  of t h e t a s k  stated  purpose of t h i s  gathering  was t o  and recommendations  submitted  by t h e  August  2,  discuss  the data,  proposals  various  agencies.  The outcome o f t h i s  in  principle,  their  t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  The  on  the  various  r e s o l u t i o n . B a s e d on t h i s  compiled  an  document  initial  plan  issues  and p o s s i b l e the  of  f o r w a r d e d were s i n g l e a g e n c y c o n c e r n s  a major  the  specific  or proposed  on  agreement, actions for  planning  ensuing  criticisms  designations  general,  the  that,  of  held  staff  d r a f t and, i n O c t o b e r , c i r c u l a t e d the  indicates  interpretation  was  m e e t i n g was an  agreement,  f o r comments. A r e v i e w in  force  land  issue. Recognizing  plan  was w e l l  elements  of  u s e s and t h e i r  these  correspondence  comments  received.  The  l i m i t e d to  the  the  The  plan.  b o u n d a r i e s were n o t the  planning  staff  prepared  t h e s e c o n d d r a f t w h i c h was d i s t r i b u t e d f o r r e v i e w p r i o r  to  second  the  formal  task  f o r c e meeting held  on December  6,  1979.  At force  t h i s meeting and  resolved the  plan  several  that  there  and  Upon c o m p l e t i o n forwarded Regional  to  of the  minor  was a g a i n  amendments  was s u f f i c i e n t  reviewed were  by  the  proposed.  It  agreement on t h e c o n t e n t s  task was of  no a d d i t i o n a l m e e t i n g s would be n e c e s s a r y . the PRRD  necessary for  Board passed a motion  designations comments:  that  the plan  proposed  by  amendments,  review.  On  sanctioning  the  plan  the  January the  with  8,  broad  the  plan  was  1980 t h e land  use  attached  two  65  " 1 ) The P l a n s u g g e s t s p u t t i n g a l a r g e area of Crown land into the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t . The B o a r d s u p p o r t s t h e c o n c e p t of i n t e n s i v e s i l v a c u l t u r e as the p r i m e use of t h i s l a n d , but recommends t h a t t h e l a n d r e m a i n s in the hands o f t h e Crown, under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s recommendation i s made so as t o m a i n t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of p l a n n i n g i n the a r e a . 2) D.L. 3814 c o n t a i n s t h e s o u r c e of one tributary of D e i g h t o n C r e e k . Though not an o f f i c i a l community water supply, this Creek does s u p p l y d o m e s t i c water t o a number of f a m i l i e s . The R e g i o n a l District reiterates its r e q u e s t of December, 1978, t h a t t h i s • d i s t r i c t l o t be r e s e r v e d f o r w a t e r s h e d p r o t e c t i o n " ( M i n u t e s of the PRRD B o a r d , J a n u a r y 8, 1980).  The the  reply  in  the  Ministry  Ministry's forwarded Upper of  Lillooet  over  area.  under  forest  the w a t e r s h e d , with  the  B.C.  PRRD from  Acting Director,  Again  the  comments was  in  similar  comparable  i t was  Forest  uses  this  resolved  5,  to these  t o the SLRD r e g a r d i n g a  Forests,  jurisdiction t e r m s of  response  is  also  would  Lower M a i n l a n d  the sole  F o r e s t s . In have  Forest Service s p e c i f i c a l l y LPH  that  given  a l l Provincial  matter  request  specified  Act,  to  Region,  to  be  (Letter  to  February  1980).  On Mainland  February  5,  RRMC and  has  Committee and circulation  on  April  lands  designated  into  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  P l a n was  2,  final  1980.  During  hearing  for agriculture Land R e s e r v e .  lands  Plan  by  was  February  the  into  by the  the  Lower  Executive  released  i n the  for  Agricultural  i n the a r e a at which  time  P l a n were i n c l u d e d  More r e c e n t l y ,  of F o r e s t s have h e l d a s e r i e s of t h e d e s i g n a t e d  endorsed  been a d o p t e d  The  held a public  the  inclusion  the  subsequently  the M i n i s t e r .  L a n d Commission  Ministry  1980  LPH  and  of m e e t i n g s r e g a r d i n g the P r o v i n c i a l  Forest.  the the To  66  date,  no  action  designations To was  as  initiated  committee  during  would  of  appear  be  designations specific  input  derived  during  a year  the by  No  the  of  final  Plan  lots.  the and  were  Plan's  results  in A  levels the  respondents the  derived  to  secure  ministries  provisions  survey  a  staff  from t h r e e  Most  the  program  period resulted in  some  p h a s e of  plan  prepare  residential servants  Plan.  used  to  regional operations'  rural  with  been  from  the  Act.  principally  of c i v i l  designations.  provided  development. collected  for This  by  the  District.  ASSESSMENT OF With the  the  THE two  CASE STUDIES case  processes  in  factors,  however,  must  recognized  that  series  LPH  for  twice  p u b l i c i n p u t a t any  Regional  review  assist  satisfied  use  was  1979  t h e Crown L a n d  have  Land  implement  Lang C r e e k Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  largely  government m e e t i n g  to f o r m a l l y  f o r i n the  February,  composed  to  taken  applications  preparation  AN  provided  which  adjudicating  direct  been  r e c a p i t u l a t e , the  document  of  has  of  Hence, any  the  ideals  studies light be  planning that  i n mind  of  the  program  most  implemented. style  analysis.  subjective  nature  statistical  a n a l y s i s ; r a t h e r , the  material two  being  must  the In does case  be  it  fully be  not  be  to  to the  be data  instance lend  studies are  a  achieved.  able of  Two  must  compared  character this  p o s s i b l e to ideals.  First,  cannot  arise  Second,  the  the  is  likely  determines  of  of  normative  considered.  recommendations t h a t may  realistically  i t i s now  itself  the to  combined  67  and  s p e c i f i c examples a r e  the  salient points.  of  this  that  analysis  can  be  As  drawn  indicated  i s based  directed  from e a c h p r o c e s s  at  on  the  in Chapter  a  series  actual  of  to  illustrate  I I I , the  foundation  "searching  questions"  processes  and  subsequent  outcomes.  REPRESENTATION OF This without  INTERESTS  criterion adequate  i s the  cornerstone  representation  affected  normative  i d e a l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , p e r s o n s have v a r y i n g  outlook  and  actions.  legitimate hand two the  towards  basic  decision  issues  This  decision  As cannot with  Represented noted be  the  account  and  likely  answerable  to  discussed  rule, the  introduction,  to  be  was  the  their  for the  if  a  task  at  represented  in  this participation  turn.  in  practice  Such a c t i o n  would, at  best,  could  be  decisions  society  has  governed  public  heard. This  not  developed by  t h r o u g h an  mechanisms have e v o l v e d  opportunity  in  influence  S p e c i f i c to  stages did  by  perceptions  accounted  a s k e d : who  a_t what  r e s u l t that  this,  representative  number of  i n the  greatly  achieved.  be  prescribed  a  Interests  represented.  for  be  q u e s t i o n s may  occur? These q u e s t i o n s are  Range of  which  d i v e r s i t y must be  i s to  process,  "legitimate",as  for,  interests,  process  attitudes  be  t h i s assessment  decision  and  cannot  of  of  to  every  interest be  achieved.  various  individuals  forms  who  e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . As provide affected  opportunity,  chaotic  of  remain well,  parties  i t i s argued  To  by  a an  some,  68  may  be  the  element  best  in these  parties".  For  that  we  thoughts,  i t i s these  can  ever  however,  is  individuals  c o n s e q u e n c e s of  the  are  a f f e c t e d by  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  There affected  are  by  five  commissions mandate of  the  recognized common  of  this  whose,  endure  interests,  then,  interests  The  influence"  land  category  is  first  and  that  are  category  corporations  interface  I depicts  the  most  with  or the  readily  o u t l i n e s the a r e a s  comprised  responsibilities  planning  divisions  Environment  decisions.  of  2. F i s h e r i e s protect  Canada  and  and  may  of  Federal  affect,  or be  Conceivably  this  resource  a f f e c t e d by group  may  of: i n c l u d i n g the  I n l a n d W a t e r s D i r e c t o r a t e and  3.  "affected must  ministries,  group  key  process?  decisions.  of  The  concern.  agencies  1.  g r o u p s who  c a t e g o r i e s of  m i n i s t r y . Table  members  second  include  "spheres  LPH  The  Crown  general  r a n g e of P r o v i n c i a l  whose  phrase  p r o p o s e d a c t i o n s . What  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  i n c l u d e s a broad  the  or  the  the  hope t o a c h i e v e .  Oceans  Canada  Canadian W i l d l i f e  Parks  Transport  Canada  airports,  navigable  in  terms  w a t e r s and  4.  N a t i o n a l Defence regarding  5.  Indian  and  Northern  Canada,  relative  enhance anadromous f i s h of  military  Affairs  to t h e i r  stocks  their  dock  Service,  and  mandate  to  habitat,  jurisdiction  over  facilities, lands,  with  and  respect  to  Indian  reserves.  As  well, this  category  may  include  various  task  specific  69  TABLE  I  PROVINCIAL AGENCIES AFFECTED BY CROWN LAND PLANS P r o v i n c i a l Agency * Ministry  of Agriculture  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land B.C.  Areas o f I n t e r e s t - agriculture production  Commission  Hydro  - administration of a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves - land requirements f o r e n e r g y p r o j e c t s and t r a n s mission lines  * M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines & Petroleum Resources * Ministry  potentials/  - m i n e r a l and p e t r o l e u m resources  o f Environment  Assessment & P l a n n i n g D i v .  - s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g and p r o j e c t impact management  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management D i v .  -  * Ministry  f i s h and w i l d l i f e marine resources waste management water management pesticide control  of Forests  Forestry Div.  - p l a n n i n g and f o r e s t management  T i m b e r , Range & R e c r e a t i o n Div.  - range and r e c r e a t i o n potentials  * Ministry  * Islands * Ministry Housing  of Health  - public health inspection (potable water, s e p t i c tanks)  Trust  - p l a n n i n g on t h e d e s i g n a t e d G u l f and Howe Sound I s l a n d s  o f Lands, Parks &  P a r k s & Outdoor Div.  Recreation  - adjudication applications  Regional Operations D i v . Ministry  of Municipal  * Ministry of P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y & Government  Affiars Services  * Ministry of Transportation Highways  These a g e n c i e s r e c e i v e  - e s t a b l i s h m e n t and management o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s  &  o f Crown  land  - coordination of l o c a l government p l a n s - archaeological  sites  - highway p l a n n i n g - gravel extraction - subdivision approval  referrals  on Crown l a n d  applications.  70  commissions Commission  such  Plan.  agencies  that  F i s h e r i e s and E n v i r o n m e n t a r e on t h e LPH r e f e r r a l  third  governments  interest  within  is  the  municipalities  and t o some d e g r e e ,  that  the f i r s t  land  uses w i t h i n  the  assurance regional  two a g e n c i e s their  that  subdivision  would  the  be  local  to  boards of  represents  The the and  the  specific  area.  interest represents  land  adjacent  boards.  Given  would  responsive  alienated  local  be  to  the  use  and  conceivably  be  land  facilities  when  interests  which  allocation decisions,  are  that i s  i n r e s i d i n g or p r e s e n t l y  I t i s t h e s e p e r s o n s who must  what  i s often  referred to  as  i n t e r e s t " , i n c l u d i n g the " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups"  previously  encompasses  More  the consequences of the d e c i s i o n s .  final  "public  area.  u s e s were  could  those  l a n d o w n e r s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d  contend with  Crown l a n d  o r on t h e s u b j e c t  local  considered.  the  near  two  right to regulate  educational  affected  reside  Upper  various  major c o n c e r n  since  directly local  by  school  their  subject  provision  fourth category  the  planning  Crown l a n d  School  the  regional d i s t r i c t s ,  proposals,  l a r g e Crown d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e The  of  have a l e g i s l a t e d  the proposed  regulations. with  the  boundaries,  or municipal  sector  concerned  embraces  of  list.  designated  this  private  Salmon F i s h e r i e s  Canada a r e t h e o n l y  comprised  specifically,  to  Pacific  which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the development  Lillooet  The  as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  those  mentioned interests  cause or b e l i e f  (e.g.  "forgotten that  are  The S i e r r a  groups". organized Club,  The  first  t o pursue a  the  Pemberton  71  Valley hand,  Dyking  District  reflects  regarding  those  an  so  o n ) . The  individuals  issue  participation.  and  but  who  likely  transaction  Nonetheless,  latter, have  costs  the m i s s i o n  of  on an  inhibit  t h e LPH  the  other  opinion them  from  ministry,  "... the a l l o c a t i o n of Crown l a n d s i n t h e P r o v i n c e in a manner t h a t o p t i m i z e s t h e economic and s o c i a l w e l l b e i n g of t h e residents of British Columbia" (LPH, 1980) . indicates  that a l l these  Utilizing guide,  the  this  degree may  recognize  t h a t the  is  to  to in  be  task  identify  that  e a c h p l a n . From t h e s e  federal  agencies  investigation the  wide  the  invited.  was  requested  For to  forum  interests  as  satisfied  this  i t i s important by  which  had  a  to  specific  adequate  here access  agencies  lists  in  it  is  evident  of p r o v i n c i a l  that,  resource  LPH  staff's  the  referral  the  regional district's  in  TPC  n e t w o r k . In a d d i t i o n , b a s e d other  "affected  Pemberton V a l l e y D y k i n g  participate  Further  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were s e l e c t e d  discretion,  example,  both  ministries,  g o v e r n m e n t s were r e p r e s e n t e d .  membership on  i n the  participants  studies  outset,  for.  I I I o u t l i n e s the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  local  their  planning  were  the  i n d i c a t e s that these  b a s i s of  accounted  known; h e n c e , t h e major c o n c e r n  variety  and  or p a r t i c i p a t i o n on  At  case  t h e above  body. A p p e n d i x  a  two  f o r c e i s the  views  w h i c h of  be  range' of p o t e n t i a l  examined.  make t h e i r  instances,  on  broad  shall  to which the  criteria  interests  views  t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  parties" District planning  process.  To  determine  questions  i f this  were p r e s e n t e d  selection to  task  was  satisfactory  force  members.  a number Clearly  of the  72  majority  of  respondents  unhesitantly were  stated  adequately  within  adequate  Further either  of  the  these  institutional  interests  i t may be s u r m i s e d three  that  i n t e r e s t groups  that  a t no  ratepayer  time  p r o v i s i o n made  i n t e r e s t groups such  groups  formal  stated  no r e s i d e n t s  that  living  residents  or  the  asked  to  public  as  outdoor  on  by  that,  was  not  planning  and t h a t  incorporated  this  stated  involvement  on Crown l a n d  the  clubs to  comment  t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  were  during  area  the desires  utilizing  the  o f an a t t i t u d e s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by t h e PRRD. I t was a l s o  conduct  the  public  sentiments  can  government  Ministry  does  h e a r i n g s and  meetings  be may  that  achieved be  not the  only  responsible  called  sponsored  for  either  regional  by  public  solicitation  the  as  sanction  f o r such  of  local  instance, the  Minister  or  the  These p r a c t i c e s , a  public  meetings.  appropriate  In t h e l a t t e r the  mandate t o  information  deterrent  i n v o l v e m e n t . R e f e r e n c e s were made t o d e l a y s  political  The  by  operations.  were t o o s t r i n g e n t a n d a c t e d  have t h e l e g a l  through  body o r by t h e M i n i s t r y .  m e e t i n g must be  felt,  method and  p r o c e s s e s was t h e r e  r e s p o n d e n t s were  They  that  Such  suggests  or s p e c i f i c  instances,  Lang C r e e k  noted  this  framework, t h e f i r s t  public  two  contained  results  of  r e p l i e s were v a r i e d . LPH r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  essential.  of  all  Hence,  two p l a n n i n g  p a r t i c i p a t e . When  in  favour  recognition.  industry,  omission,  felt  i n q u i r y , however,  the general  logging  they  in  represented.  the f i v e - g r o u p  received  for  that  were  to  ADM  i t was active  i n obtaining  activities.  rationale for exclusion  of p u b l i c  involvement  expressed  73  by  respondents  outside  technical  in  nature  cognizant  of  these  emphasized public  that  we  was  seeking  increased  ahead the  of  the  public  two  it  case  g r o u p may  so  to  first  be  the  for.  This  necessarily  true.  or  may  well  some o t h e r  good". Hence, q u i t e  determined  if  an  individuals  or  question  who  concluded  studies  excluded  interests.  Hence,  represent  in  goal likely  opportunity groups  could  desired.  the  may  also  working  "self-interests"  "public  all  be  recognition  be  was  accounted  not  were  sufficiently  It  are  are  t o maximize t h e i r  whereby  i s not  technocrats  only  discussions  participate.  o b s e r v e d , may  less definable  answer  governmental  to  the  public  public's desires  i f they  represented,  the  budgets, personal  provided  In  that  that  these  interest could  participate,  the  since  have a l r e a d y  Individuals place  and  was  matters  i n t e r e s t , the  belief,  LPH,  that the  of the  of  be  process u t i l i z e d  participation  alternatives  a narrow p o i n t  should  of  derived  view, t h a t  of  in  nonby  career  this civil  servants.  S t a g e s of  Representation  Societal be can  involved  and  throughout  a l l c o n c e r n s be  As is  norms s u g g e s t  has  comprised  the  that  decision process.  recognized  and  been n o t e d e a r l i e r , of  four  implementation.  stages: Each  a l l affected  Only  i n t e r e s t s be  the  Crown l a n d  initiation, of  interests in this  manner  protected.  planning  formulation,  these phases  should  i s reviewed  process adoption briefly  74  below.  1.  The  initiation  assessment land  identification  and  of a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s t o r e s o l v e s p e c i f i c  Crown  issues  phase  in  the  includes  various regions. U t i l i z i n g  work p r o g r a m t h e s e c o n c e r n s and  forwarded  endorsement to  stage  and  is  include  are priorized  RRMC  level  largely  budget  an i n t e r n a l  approval.  function,  o u t s i d e LPH so t h e y  represent their  a minimum, RRMC a n d l o c a l  and  concerns.  referred  Ministerial  Although  this  i t i s important t o  can  how t h e y  staff  receiving  i s then  Committee  t o them a n d d e t e r m i n e  to adequately  Upon  t h e work p r o g r a m  subsequent  an a n n u a l  by r e g i o n a l  f o r comment.  f o r Executive  interests  relevant  at  the  at this  Victoria  sanction  to  the  identify  should  issues  participate  I t i s evident  government  that,  participation  is  essential.  2. U t i l i z i n g for  the'Crown  action,  tasks.  the  First,  land planning task formulation  relevant  management a p p r o a c h e s are  debated  each  action  option. adequate  3. The phase  in  order t o determine a consensus  I t i s imperative that input,throughout  stage  may  this  as the v e h i c l e  i s comprised  information  are generated.  and f i n a l l y ,  adoption  stage  force  Next,  and  of t h r e e  alternative  the a l t e r n a t i v e s  the v a r i o u s e f f e c t s of i s reached  a l l affected  on t h e b e s t  interests  have  process.  be v i e w e d  as the decision-making  i n t h e p r o c e s s . At t h i s p o i n t t h e p l a n  i s r e v i e w e d by  75  the  RRMC  and  sanctioned statement in  this  exist  4. The as  the adopted  decision-making  plan  parties  implementation  stage  puts  by t h e d e s i g n e r s  much  an  implementation  internal  achieved  exist  to  the  existing  private  interests  case  adjustments  provincial stage  provided  agencies  no o t h e r  i t appears  that,  level  considered.  The  two  In  to established  known t o t h e RRMC. (The a c t u a l r e a s o n s from e x i s t i n g  been  o f government o r  contrary  these  this  i n v o l v e d i n t h e RRMC  even  determinable  to l i g h t .  f o r , outside  the "intent"  not  t o commence  as  representation  procedures, made  o u t . As  For instance, i n the  i s aware o f t h e p r o j e c t s b e i n g  studies  i n the  i n t h e two c a s e s  structure.  i s f o r other  At t h i s  i scarried  of f u l l  this  groups,  a n d , m o r e o v e r , c o u l d n o t have  LPH  procedure.  process,  i s brought  that  Again,  or a s s i s t i n g  permit  ideal  phase the o n l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n  review  should  Interest  i n observing  initiation  the  policy  into action.  activity.  i t i s evident  was n o t a c h i e v e d  under  staff,  an o f f i c i a l  of t h e p l a n n i n g  change and new i n f o r m a t i o n  the process,  requirement  Once  to the decision-maker.  the plan  r e t u r n i n g to the normative  throughout  Victoria.  provisions  ensure that the plan  p r o v i s i o n s should  conditions  In  to  however,  to appeal  however, c o u l d p l a y a r o l e  well,  in  becomes  stage;  for affected  very  staff  of the M i n i s t r y . I n t e r e s t groups a r e not i n v o l v e d  envisaged  is  headquarters'  plans  was n o t  for this  were  information.)  f o r m u l a t i o n phase p r o v i d e s  the greatest opportunity f o r  76  all  interests  that,  at  involved that  to participate.  minimum,  reviewed, The  of the p u b l i c these  adoption  procedure.  the  sphere,  including  involvement  notification Affected  the  are  o f government a g e n c i e s a r e  of local  be r e c o g n i z e d , however, and i n t h e  two  excluded. is  very  for  interests MLA,  is  much  RRMC  an  internal  review  but,  as  outside the p r o v i n c i a l limited  of the f i n a l  to  receiving  plan  document.  n o t p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p e a l t o  implementation  regional  staff.  of  stage  plans, to date,  ADEQUACY  OF  assume  responsibility  i s viewed and  as  from such,  of  w i t h i n as t h e no  outside  t h e Lang C r e e k n o r t h e Upper fully  implemented.  IV  considerable  attention  was  devoted  v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s of p o l i t i c a l - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i t s effects  agencies  have been  the  INFORMATION  Chapter  discussing  decisions  i s required. Neither  Lillooet  In  i s largely  This process  previous  participation  tend  on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  to identify  similar  with  objectives.  become s y m p a t h e t i c they  again  ensures  decision-makers.  execution  and  were  o f a d o p t i o n , and a c o p y  parties  The LPH  interests stage  approach  i s discretionary,  The p r o c e s s does p r o v i d e  before,  the  the three l e v e l s  force  i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e p l a n . I t must  involvement  cases  The t a s k  structures.  the i n t e r e s t s As w e l l ,  r e g u l a t e . Moreover,  i t was o b s e r v e d  of that  the  that  s e r v e and t h u s  regulatory bodies  towards the o b j e c t i v e s  behavior  I t was n o t e d  they  to  tend t o  organizations  t h e e d u c a t i o n and  77  experience the  of p e r s o n s  manner  these  in  which  behavioral  assume  that  collection  sharing  problems  are  characteristics  the of  in a decision  range  of  "good"  are  tend  perceived t o be  and  and  influence  resolved.  accepted,  participants  information  to  one  greatly  the  If  would  affects  the  development  of  alternat ives. Transposing that  the  following  information 1.  Did  the  Was  concepts to t h i s  questions  generated  f o r the  derived  affected 2.  these  review,  indicate  planning  alternatives  i t i s suggested  whether  process reflect  or  not  the  was  adequate.  the  values  of  the  interests?  the  quality  and  the  quantity  of  the  information  adequate? 3. Were  the  alternatives  communicated  Alternatives The actions which  and  is  the  the the  Affected  with  policies  that  in  The the  Conceivably,  brought  light.  whether t h e  the  and  represented. to  question  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  decision-makers. fact  This  requires task  interests.  a  review  responsibility  management p l a n s  for  cases  not  t h e r e f o r e , not task  then  the group  formulating  for presentation  answer, however, must two  of  force. It is this  be  all  all  premised  to on  interests  were  alternatives  were  is limited  derived alternatives reflected  participating  effectively  Interests  this  charged  alternative  decisions  to the p a r t i c i p a n t s ?  answer t o of  and  the  to  determining  values  of  the  78  By force  including  i t is likely  forth. that  In  each  this  the  the  interest  produce  maximizes  participants  did  integrated  resource  process  being  as  resolving  LPH  information  largely  meet  due  integrated  the  to  the  planning  number of o p t i o n s  assist  and  The  supporting issue  approach, the  an  i n v o l v e d i n an perceived  the  LPH  Ministry  in  was  to  c o u l d d e r i v e the  staff's  this  desire  attempt  i n p u t s of  was the  of  they  task  Despite  that  majority  being  the  their  needs.  planning  b a s e d on  dictates  e x e r c i s e . Rather  Hence,  LPH  "self-interest"  t h e m s e l v e s as  from w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r  best  task  brought  alternatives  w h i c h would  problems.  will  a  be  constrained.  view  planning  one  options  on  i t , however, became a p p a r e n t  somewhat not  agencies  i t s g o a l s . In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s  various participants, was  of  m a i n t e n a n c e of  will  that  approach  could  range of p a r t i c i p a t i n g  that a v a r i e t y  short,  information with  a  provide  option  perception to  that and  pursue  an  made t o d e v e l o p various  a  resource  agencies.  In  t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  reflecting  an  development fisheries The goal"  agricultural  of  forestry  h a b i t a t , while  latter  was  and  Plan  two  priority, the  o p t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d :  one  and  stressing  the  wildlife  and  a  developed  and  offered  as  the to  the  "best  satisfaction subsequent  what  the  preserving future a g r i c u l t u r a l  c h o s e n as  general  other  p r o t e c t i o n of  resource  with  with the  decision. values  options.  means of a c h i e v i n g t h e  (LPH,1980(d),p.4). D i s c u s s i o n s  revealed  the  or  task  force  r a n g e of No  members  alternatives  suggestions  unexplored  plan  options  were were  79  omitted. The  above comments e x c l u d e  Lillooet  Regional  planning  District  a p p r o a c h . As n o t e d  a p p r o a c h was d i s m i s s e d being as of  which  f o r a broader  based  i n the previous  documentation,  this  by t h e o t h e r  members  of the task  f o r c e as  resource  e x e r c i s e but r a t h e r t h e r e s o l u t i o n  allocation  In Lang C r e e k no s p e c i f i c the  beginning  the  resource  one  "plan concept"  the  participating  again  regarding  the  was d e v e l o p e d , agencies.  erosion  summary,  considered  se  were  developed.  t o be a c o n s e n s u s  i n both  of  to the Regional local  regarding  by  appears t o  task  District's  l a n d use c o n t r o l  result  forwarded  as w e l l , the  a  force. comments  by a s s i g n i n g  Forest.  by t h e l o c a l  processes  agencies.  on t h e d a t a  This process,  i t may be c o n c l u d e d  expressed  participating  based  of the m a j o r i t y of  was l i m i t e d  t o the P r o v i n c i a l  views  o p t i o n s per  there appeared  the approval  Dissension  In  concerns.  i s s u e s and t h e means t o r e s o l v e them. As  have met w i t h  the  Squamish  argued  comprehensive planning  immediate  lands  the  beyond t h e scope of t h e e x e r c i s e . They d i d n o t p e r c e i v e i t  a  From  t h e v i e w s h e l d by  did  that with  the exception  of  governments, the a l t e r n a t i v e s reflect  the  values  of  the  80  Information  The came  Q u a l i t y and  information u t i l i z e d  from  the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s concerns  i n both  aggregated  into  discussion. potential being had  in developing At  were r e q u e s t e d  g r a p h i c and  a resource  This process conflicts  and  any  major  appropriate  extended  enables  two  case  .their  expressing  c o u l d be  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  and  winter  relation  Lang  stated  to that  comments  plan  identify  t o see  what i s  the or  respondents  suggestions  for  satisfaction  were  with  limited  their  to  was  so t h a t  in  some  information  resources  some r e s p o n d e n t s facts  and  greater  expressed ranges.  Creek  a  None of to  the  these  major  current  have  of  uses.  for  limit  t h e p r i v a t e market would  need  referred  t h e c o s t s and  lands to a g r i c u l t u r a l  r e g a r d i n g the  they  on  a greater understanding  s t r o n g enough as  information  to  provided.  personnel  In  of  technique  to a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l  c o n v e r t i n g the  plan.  None  p o i n t of  information u t i l i z e d  the  t o be  focal  then  q u a n t i t y of  dyking  ungulate  resource  this  of o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l  Wildlife  process  Generally,  merit  river  their  opportunity  dissatisfaction  In t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  felt  an  this  s t u d i e s . Adverse  inability  detail  of  and  submit  w h i c h became t h e  provides  methods.  t o the q u a l i t y  agencies  of  to  of e a c h  plans  w r i t t e n f o r m . T h e s e d a t a were  folio  criticisms  t h e Crown l a n d  t h e commencement  t r a d e d o f f i n each a l t e r n a t i v e .  more  the  Quantity  the  the  for  more  Fish  and  data  on  of  the  the  lack  of  Crown  lots  in  s y s t e m . In s h o r t , most been  of  however, were  credibility was  the  feasibility  additional  concern demand  effects  As w e l l ,  concerns,  to  agencies  comfortable  in  81  representing Again,  their  i t must  be  noted  s o u g h t , hence n o t Embodied having  not  being  gaps"  resource,  fully  aware  willingness  This lack  and  the  of.  Over  were not  directly  of  p r o t e c t i v e of  something in  they turn,  i n c r e a s i n g the problems,  t h e RRMC and a  are  joint  not  yet  inhibits  the  d u r a t i o n of as  verified  of LPH  levels  priorization  little  Information  value  unless  i t i s communicated  i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  affected  interest  material, alternative  To  the and  should  proposed the  adequately  be  a p p r i s e d of  alternatives,  rationale  review  by  procedures  operations  budget  the  land.  of A l t e r n a t i v e s and i s of  or  t o become over  i s greater a r t i c u l a t i o n  Crown  financial  "information  these  in  a  and  produces  protection, thereby  agencies  programs  either  resources  t h a t of detailed  of o u t s i d e  planning in  losing  participation  Information those  LPH  p r o j e c t s at both  for planning  Communication  available.  sufficiently  is a result  interests  resolution  increased  process  of  f o r f e a r of  anticipated  to produce  prepared  t o compromise  The  time  upcoming  numerous p a r t i c i p a n t s , and  or  being  cause  their  was  i s a common a g e n c y c o m p l a i n t ,  i t appears, of  not  which  process.  funds  aware  manpower s e n s e .  data  that p u b l i c sentiments  i n t h e above  This,  consequently  i f more d e t a i l e d  incorporated.  inadequate  information.  concerns  the  f o r the  the  relevant  the  to  each  background  c h o i c e of  the  best  choice.  processes'  compliance  with  this  82  indicator  it  communication between LPH  is  necessary  within  and  the  the  task  amongst  t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and of  general,  the  the  task  and  limited  to  relevant  to  or  various  the  task  this  a p p r o a c h . Most a g r e e d  enhanced  force  communication  opportunity with  members  the  for operations  p r o g r a m s of  were d i r e c t e d a t  sporadic  meeting  the  helpful  in preparing  The f o r c e and adverse  the  the  degree o u t s i d e  Provincial the  i n the  Crown "real  planning  the  resolution  usually  detail  on  issues  Conversations  personnel  to  with  satisfaction  with  groups  providing become  had  a  good  familiar  c r i t i c i s m s that  Upper L i l l o o e t  process.  participants agendas  of  Due  were  to  felt  would  the that  have been  meetings.  format  has  of  hand, was  a g e n c i e s by  detailed  f o r the  It  the  greater  between  interests outside  M i n i s t r y , however, d i d  comments.  combined w i t h resulted  LPH  other  a number of  more  communication  significant of  of  in  on  m i n i s t r i e s . The  the  schedule,  distribution  indicates that,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  level  other  received  A  presentation  agencies.  between the  achieved  meetings.  indicated a general that  is  periodic  for  the  communication  members  files  providing  resource  and  components:  Ministry.  discussion  i s s u e s . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , on  the  LPH  reserved  specific  soliciting  the  force  m e e t i n g m i n u t e s and  "interests"  separate  structure  attendance at  m e e t i n g s were  participants  force  i n t e r e s t s outside  Communication  review  t o examine two  been  receive  previously  a g e n c i e s were not land estate  planning image"  program b e i n g  a  noted aware of  program. of  the  v i e w e d as  the  task  number that the This  of to  a  scope fact  Ministry a mechanism  has to  83  "sell it  has  land the  o f f " the been  suggested  for a l l " planned The  of t h e  remarks the  i f one  Ministry. while  associated  with  regions  prepare  activities.  developing  Crown l a n d p r o g r a m and  originating  levels, t o an at  regarding  i n the the  The  field.  plans  regional  level  the  land  review,  planning.  included  perceived  the  implementation  hand, n o t e d  inhibits  open  divisions  prevents  another.  that  the  communication. the  B o t h of t h e s e  discussion  procedures.  i n the  two  present The  groups  t o p i c s are  ensuing  s e c t i o n s of  district  focuses  between  on  of a l l  the  t o be  limited,  sympathy  Specific  Victoria  staff,  administrative existence  s u b j e c t of this  of  two  format on  chapter.  the  structure separate  working with more  by  concerns  of t h e p l a n document The  two  originating  l a c k of  from a c t i v e l y the  within  control  appeared  stated a perceived  inflexibility  use.  intra-  levels  for quality  towards r e g i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s .  the  in  i s also responsible for  headquarters  other  with  r e g i o n a l and  Communication  under  i t s role  inter-agency  in V i c t o r i a  latter  i t s "Crown  e x c h a n g e of p r o c e d u r a l memorandums. C r i t i c i s m s  the  and  at  a t two  the  views  i t s optimal  Crown  i s undertaken  province-wide  plans  to  directed  t h e Lands Programs D i v i s i o n  the  to promoting  resource  been  these  some of  p o i n t s are concerned  recalls,  .The  counteract  efforts  land  have  ensuing  activities  "Planning",  plans  public relations  above  ministry  l a n d b a s e . To  t h a t the M i n i s t r y s h i f t  allocation  communications;  the  Provincial  one  specific  84  EFFECTIVENESS To  this  examining More  criterion  shifts  evaluation  was  basis  determined the  following  three  i t  questions  are  reaching  decision?  3. Were  the  process. i n the  derived.  does  on  This  of the worth the  planning  o u t t o do? To t h i s  end, the  considered:,  any f a c t o r s t h a t  2. Were t h e d e c i s i o n s  planning  were  words,  sets  Were t h e r e a  centered  t o an e x a m i n a t i o n  other  what  been  who was i n c l u d e d  decisions  the e v a l u a t i o n  accomplish  has  o f t h e Crown l a n d  of t h e d e c i s i o n . In  process  1.  it  and on what  value  this  t h e "components"  specifically,  process  or  point  inhibited  the task  force  from  implemented?  processes  and  decisions  of  value  to  the  participants?  Ability  t o R e a c h Dec i s i o n s  An  effective  equitable and  the  elements  and  decision-making  expeditious  accommodation of  this  during  perceived  "unwillingness  for  was c o n s i d e r e d the  protracted  reasons provided members were did  interviews  essential  interests  One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c with  the task  are  of the p r o c e s s  f o r c e members  compromise"  r e s i s t a n c e were  i n an i n t e g r a t e d  was  a  by some members. T h i s factor  o f t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  n o t o b j e c t i v e enough  not b e l i e v e  an  opposing  by some t o be t h e s o l e  for this  for  Bargaining  to  length  provides  r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s .  strategy.  identified  trait  of  process  responsible process.  v a r i e d . Some f e l t  The that  o r , t o p u t i t more s u c c i n c t l y , resource  management  approach.  85  Others placed difficult Still  t h e p r o b l e m on g r o u p d y n a m i c s ,  for  others  agencies.  noted  This  response collect  a group of f i f t e e n  stance,  to a lack adequate  When  the  previously  of funding  resulting  attitudes  of  some  determined,  may  be a  in  objectively,  however, o f a much  the  task  specific  understanding  role  and  representatives trade  the  by  lack  to adjust  force  freedom  another.  that  positions.  T h e r e a r e t h o s e who v i e w t h e i r part  task  of  along  information,  the  perceive  with other  derive  the  agencies'  conditions  discussions  themselves  decision-making  in  a s l i m i t e d t o an a d v i s o r y  process.  and  Consequently, but the  rather  to  the  process an  is  made  and  by  planners  i s viewed as being  endeavour  two  the  as  an  regard  pertinent  on t h e b e s t  regards  their  i s n o t v i e w e d a s one o f compromise self-interests  intent  of  and n o t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  LPH  recorded.  The  so  their latter  n o t e d , a p p e a r s t o r e s u l t from a l a c k  scope  was  In t h i s  decide  of t h e i r  f o r or a t l e a s t  previously of  position  as p r o t e c t i o n  decision  accounted  their  capacity  one  or t o  i t  participation  members, i s t o r e v i e w  alternatives  problem of t h e i r  c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . The s e c o n d g r o u p , t h e m a j o r i t y , role  to  members by  From  observed  their  members  of  broader  p o l i c y t o meet l o c a l  o f f one i n t e r e s t f o r  integral  inability  the above, t o a l a r g e  d e g r e e , a p p e a r s t o be s y m p t o m a t i c of  the  information.  viewed  lack  i t was  persons to reach a consensus.  overprotective as  s t a t i n g that  of the p l a n n i n g  that  when  views w i l l  be  position,  as  of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  process.  Again, the  an LPH s o l u t i o n t o LPH p r o b l e m s ,  t o manage t h e P r o v i n c i a l Crown l a n d  not  t o achieve the  86  best  use o f t h i s  hinge  on  the  stressing  resource. Ministry  of  a  assume t h e " l e a d  is  the  role"  planning  designate  parcels  orders  as  Provincial  the  Forest.  these  quite  entire  receive  Lillooet,  of the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t .  need  implementation  is  areas  part  undertaken  use p l a n s .  their to  arrangements  legislated  specific  land  mandate  land  In t h i s  'government  never  design  o f t h e Crown  uses manner  sanction  neither to  and  t h e Upper  this  stage.  be i m p l e m e n t e d  by t h e  s l a t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the  however,  are  mechanisms f o r p o r t i o n s  development  incorporated  the  should  institutional  have a d v a n c e d  likely  Some a t t e m p t s ,  Upper  The  of l a n d  area  the  review  in  on a l l p a r t i e s . To d a t e ,  will  legal  residential  been  t o which agency  or O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l .  designations  Upper L i l l o o e t  to  image by  s a l e s a g e n t s and  p r o v i n c i a l land  to u t i l i z e  n o r t h e Lang C r e e k p l a n s  Ministry  and  relative  estate"  d e l i n e a t i n g implementation  p r o g r a m have c h o s e n  become, b i n d i n g  utilize  than  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . The d e s i g n e r s  Crown l a n d p l a n s  The  issue  i n developing  of  ministerial  Lillooet  rather  appears  Decisions  difficulty  to o f f i c i a l l y through  i t s "real  o f t h e major p r o b l e m s e v i d e n t  which a c h i e v e  thus  broader  t o Implement  One  overcoming  i t s r o l e as p l a n n e r s  resolution  Abi1ity  The s o l u t i o n , as. b e f o r e ,  being  made  to  of the r e c r e a t i o n  i n t h e Lang C r e e k p l a n . As  t h e f o r e s t r y management a r e a s w i l l Portions  of the  area  have  in  become also  i n t o the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserves d u r i n g by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  f o r the legal techniques  Commission.  f o r m a l i t y embodied appears  to  be  a  in  the  existing  a contentious  issue  87  between v a r i o u s  groups w i t h i n  P r o p o n e n t s of only  by  existing  site-specific  category For  the  will  the  instance,  should  be  implementation  ministerial  i n t e n t s of  i f an  set  the M i n i s t r y .  area  aside  the  i s best  designation  for that purpose  sensitive  d e v e l o p m e n t and  The single the  net  result  purpose  planning  areas.  i s the  More  specifically,  reserves the to  an  and staff ways.  are  only,  of  An  was  by  as  the  existing  r e q u i r e s an  Often  need  for a  designated orders  redesignate  such  and  an  these  be  would be i t t o the  required to new  by  use.  i n each the  the  large they  of  opposing  task  of  number  of  argue For  against  instance,  additional ministerial  changes  are they  better  order  unforeseen consume much  spent  would be  in a  site.  for another  first  This,  of  procedures.  immense  occurrence  ministerial  use.  i s a myriad  order  future gravel extraction by  economic  best  such d e s i g n a t i o n s .  i t i s a r g u e d , may of  for  the  minor consequence, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  example  which a c c o u n t s  implementation  Even more so,  by  reserve  a recreational on  argued  of  it  allocated  ministerial  criticize  provided  by  s y s t e m , however,  order.  use  protected.  orderly  i t s highest  factor,  they  each  be  i s then  promotes  administrative record  time, which  additional then  This  or O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l .  unrecognized area  this  enacted  in bureaucratic  remove an  to  m a j o r weakness of  inflexibility  order  of  reserves  group,  maintaining  areas,  a l l o c a t e s land  that  s u i t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n , then  b a s i s of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e management p l a n  environmentally  for  Crown l a n d p l a n s  r e s e r v e . Under t h i s mechanism, Crown l a n d the  format argue  release  i t i s argued,  other  presently If  the  purpose, i t ,  and  promotes  88  administrative It  is  inefficiency.  important  directed  at the  in  i t i s undertaken.  which  suggested one  need  to recognize  that  a  that u t i l i z e s  various such  the  The whether for  their  have  one  subsequent  participants  been  entire  in  were was  at a time  are  these  year  One  the  is  specify area.  deemed  be the  Under  necessary,  regard  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a d e c i s i o n i s  the  outcome as b e i n g  vain.  The  ensuing  sentiments  to determine towards  summarized  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h most members of  views a second attempt During  adopted. i f this the  the  The  during  to reach  p u r p o s e of  For  clarity,  t o a g e n c y and  second  changed  the  been  two  task  summer  for  the  of  adoption.  t h e members  period  the  efforts  have  the  readied  intervening  f o r m a l i t y had  process.  according  beneficial  g e n e r a l l y wishes to d i s c e r n that  when t h e p l a n s were b e i n g  later.  formally  views  it  order.  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d  Initial  made one  to  planning  if  forces.  augment  manner  arguments,  order  two  To  the  " a d a p t i v e " a p p r o a c h would  assembled a f t e r  1980,  rather at  i s not  Decision  purposes.  not  i n an  disagreement  above  amendment p r o c e d u r e s ,  u l t i m a t e measure of the  the  but  ministerial,  designations  would r e q u i r e o n l y  of  Given  more f a v o u r a b l e  circumstances  Value  for implementation  a single  l a n d use  t h a t the  both  was  plans  conversation respondents  t h e comments r e c e i v e d  plan.  89  The 1.  Upper L i l l o o e t Ministry  of  Sub-District  Crown Land  L a n d s , P a r k s and  Plan  Housing  R e g i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s D i v i s i o n - Lower M a i n l a n d The not  be  task  force  granted  and  forestry are  u s e s . As  being  respect  resolved that  a  denied  the  plan  has  that  the  Region  a g r i c u l t u r a l leases  the e n t i r e a r e a  should  r e s u l t , a l l lease  and  without  referral  to other  the  required  reduced  time  be  should  maintained  purchase  applications  agencies. for  for  In  this  application  adjudication.  2.  Ministry The  region's effect  3.  Agriculture  process  has  on  the  Ministry's  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land a g e n c y has  Ministry The  However,  resulted  a g r i c u l t u r a l resources.  This  4.  of  of  plan  The  has  f o r the  the plan  clarification itself  has  had  of  the  little  activities.  Commission not  utilized  the  E n v i r o n m e n t , F i s h and  i t is felt  protection  in  resulted that  the  i n the plan  plan  in their  Widlife  Branch  resources being did  v a l l e y ' s u n i q u e moose  not  activities.  documented.  provide  population.  adequate  90  5. M i n i s t r y of The The  plan  document  policies previous  6.  followed  itself  in  the  plan  fisheries  the  plan  area.  process  it  inclusion, included  8.  water  provided.  information  base.  a l t e r e d the  The  agency's  allocation.  the  need  area.  The  development therefore, to  responding  f o r the fact  be  preservation  that  the  entertained,  has  reduced  the  to  referrals.  plan has  of  the  suggests curtailed  time t h a t  would  has  aided  Since  the  prior  will  be the  designation agreement  unnecessary areas  of  the  was to  designated  Provincial  achieved debate  for forest  Forest  during  the  the  merits  of  will  be  use  outright.  Recreation  As  an  suggestions  Forests  rather  Ministry  The  as  the  however, have not  i n the  and,  have been d e v o t e d  in  useful  clarified  for  M i n i s t r y of  closely  Branch  Oceans Canada  resources  requests  The  is plan,  has  applications  7.  very  s t r a t e g i e s regarding  F i s h e r i e s and The  no  E n v i r o n m e n t , Water Management  of  Lands,  Parks  and  H o u s i n g , P a r k s and  Outdoor  Division  region  a result,  contains  no  areas  of  the D i v i s i o n ' s i n t e r e s t  high  recreation  i n the  plan  was  capability. minimal.  91  9.  Sguamish-Lillooet The  with  a  plan  has  small  recognize  been of  value  portion  expressed  however,  District  no  isolated  locally  examined,  Regional  the  to  the  District.  It  of  the  region  failed  For  the  concerns.  plan  did provide  and  area  a useful  dealt  that  inventory  to was of  resources.  10.  International Pacific The  thus  11.  plan  Pemberton V a l l e y D y k i n g respresentative  concerns  The  appears to address  the  c o n c e r n s of  this  agency  and  is valuable.  The  they  Salmon F i s h e r i e s Commission  were  of  protected  were s a t i s f i e d ,  Lang C r e e k  so  District this  by  was  the  The  plan  disposal  of  Ministry's strategy  has  Crown  officers by  lots are  directing  Ministry  itself  limited  its  has  role  not to  B r a n c h . Hence, i f  Housing Region  specific  g u i d e l i n e s to a s s i s t  in  region.  able  group's  Plan  D i v i s i o n - Lower M a i n l a n d  provided  the  District.  S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown L a n d  Operations  stated  t h e Water R i g h t s  1 . M i n i s t r y of Lands., P a r k s and Regional  agency  the  to maintain  an  As  ordered  applicants  to staged  provided  servicing,  strictly  a  r e g u l a t i n g the  in  the  result,  the  development  subdivisions. but  rather  availability  The has and  92  costs  of  the  lots.  some r e f e r r a l s  Despite  to other  the  a g r e e m e n t s embodied  agencies  are  still  i n the  plan,  taking place.  2. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e  Agriculture area.  These  Land  3. A g r i c u l t u r a l  of  ALR  Land  planning  is  work i n t h a t recognize  are  effort  adequately  in  the  after  the  a  w h i c h ALR  wildlife  resources  ministries the p l a n and  should  requi red.  in  the  by  the  resulted  in  and  plan  Wildlife  i t has  were  a  made.  Commission's  to  explicitly  Branch  enabled  each o t h e r ' s  a result,  additional  i n the  conducted  a better understanding  i n the a r e a . A l s o  r e s o u r c e s . As  amendments  review  designations.  have been more d e t a i l e d  resources,  use  Commission's  Commission  provincial  t o become a p p r i s e d of  wildlife  these  has  the  "breakthrough"  first  i n c o r p o r a t e ALR  plan  resource protected  a r e a . The  4. M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n m e n t , F i s h The  priority  c o i n c i d e d with  considered  i t is  and  high  Commission  public hearing  plan  a  Reserve.  designations  separate This  not  interests  Agricultural  This  is  with  of  the  the  various  concerns.  However,  respect  to the  fish  t o e n s u r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n of  site-specific  agreements w i l l  be  93  5. M i n i s t r y of E n v i r o n m e n t , Water Management  The the  process  area  itself,  has  will  be  ensured  respected  however, has  not  that  the  during  major  Branch  water  concerns  f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The  altered this  agency's  in plan  previous  water  allocation strategies.  6.  F i s h e r i e s and Provincial  this  Federal  expressed  Oceans Canada plans  department,  in  the  decreased  as  that  lighter.  7.  much  Relative  hand,  the  i t has  Confident  that  responsibility established private  8.  not  but  plan.  a result  M i n i s t r y of  resources,  are  of  binding  fisheries  Since the  the  plan,  on  the  jurisdiction  c o n c e r n s were amount  this  of  of  adequately  referrals  has  workload  is  agency's  Forests to  the  process aided the  Ministry's has  had  i n the  mandate t o manage the  marginal  designation  value.  of  the  f o r e s t r y management a r e a s  of  the  a demonstration  On  the  Provincial will  be  Forest  Service,  the  forest  in  the  and  Government  forest other Forest.  the  Ministry  areas  adjacent  sole has to  lands.  M i n i s t r y of P r o v i n c i a l  Secretary  Services,  Archaeology D i v i s i o n  The  Ministry's  archaeological  sites  concerns have  been  regarding addressed.  the As  preservation a  result,  of the  94  process  has been  9. C o r p o r a t i o n The  has  had  availability  detriment has  of the D i s t r i c t  plan  increased  valuable.  from  promoted  municipality  little of  like  on t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The however,  see  planning  r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  programs  should  a  of  a  in that i t The  approach taken  In s h o r t , t h e  local  been  development.  broader  lands.  with  has  p o i n t of v i e w ,  scattering  to  be combined  River  lots,  servicing  continued  would  effect  Crown  a municipal the  of Powell  to  provincial  government's  planning  efforts.  10.  Powell The  River  Regional  plan's  District  designations  District's  regional  beneficial  b e c a u s e t h e R e g i o n was  proposals  of  unfortunately, of  the  forest  government  with  regarding  the  development a d j a c e n t  able  incorporated  The  process  The  area  inability  to p r i v a t e  Board to lands.  been  specific  considered,  p o r t i o n of the D i s t r i c t . the  i n t o the has  to determine the  agencies.  plan,  its  being  program.  i s only a small  satisfaction  reservations  planning  are  still  influence  In terms has  some  potential  95  EFFICIENCY  Most not  would a g r e e t h a t an e f f e c t i v e  squander time,  would e x p e c t efforts  are  The measurement since  manpower o r f i n a n c i a l  an e f f i c i e n t  that  process  u n d e r t a k e n by o t h e r  of these  ideals,  As a r e s u l t ,  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e that,  in  the  context  efficiency  considered. functions, require  The  others of  a knowledge  suggested  as  the  there process?  individuals. difficult  indicate  i t i s necessary  are l a r g e l y is  where  t o r e l y on  i n the d e c i s i o n process.  formulation  which  of  it  is  recognized  stage  internal  not  is  only being  LPH a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  possible  for  it  would  of a l l M i n i s t r y f u n c t i o n s . the  above, of  the  whether  following or  c a n g e n e r a l l y be r e g a r d e d  D i d the process  2. Was  to  limitations,  plan  indicators  process  or  of the f o u r - s t a g e . p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ,  the  a review  Recognizing  planning  of  above  does  duplication  i s , at best,  o f t e n t h e r e a r e no p r e c i s e benchmarks  the p e r c e p t i o n s  1.  the  agencies  however,  begins.  i s one t h a t  r e s o u r c e s . As w e l l , one  to avoid  "inefficiency"  the  process  waste  time,  duplication  not  questions the  Crown  are land  as e f f i c i e n t :  manpower and r e s o u r c e s ?  i n any o f t h e t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d  with  96  Efficient  Use o f Time and R e s o u r c e s  Most.participants  agree that  t h e time d e v o t e d  activities  was w e l l  productive  and few s u g g e s t i o n s were p r o v i d e d  s p e n t . The m e e t i n g s were g e n e r a l l y  which the p r o c e s s c o u l d an  excessive The  two  the prolonged  loquacious the  use o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  format  problem  preparation employ to  of  alone,  was  however,  span  graphic  material.  appears  to  these  t o be c e n t e r e d meetings  on  and  the  with  i n the  The Burnaby o f f i c e  does n o t  t h e maps had t o be  sent  In t h e Upper L i l l o o e t  this  factor,  a  This  issue,  six-month  be s o l v a b l e .  made a v a i l a b l e so t h a t  of  delays  consequently  for  indication  was o f f e r e d .  between  associated  f o r preparation. responsible  viewed as  d o c u m e n t s . In terms of t h e f i r s t ,  be  d r a f t i n g personnel,  Victoria  local  time  to  no  however, a p p e a r  of t h e p l a n  appears  resources  force  a s t o t h e manner i n  be i m p r o v e d . As w e l l ,  c r i t i c i s m s received,  issues:  to task  tasks  delay.  In t h e f u t u r e , could  be  funds w i l l  contracted  out  be to  firms.  Regarding directed daily  the  use. Respondents a f f i r m e d document  for field  superfluous  material,  containing  LPH  format  documents,  towards the voluminous  working  staff  planning  involved was  requested  goals  rigid  Victoria  that  as  the  the plan  and were,  that at  was  i t contained inclusion  planning  c r i t i c i s m s were  and i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r  i f the plan  personnel,  and  i n preparing  too by  such  format  many  of  to  be  a  f a r t o o much the  preface  p r i n c i p l e s . S i m i l a r l y , the stated  the  that  nature  times,  too  the  prescribed  of t h e r e v i s i o n s petty  creating  97  inefficiencies seems  to  by  having  t o do  indicate a greater  become more i n v o l v e d During  the  i n the  interviews, planning  operations.  Most  stated, that  specific time  information.  that  degree that  In several, the  period  was  taken  Duplication Neither of  preparation previous  or  of  At  effects  time  will  not  remains  on  queried  their  daily  stemming  generation  from  of  some  of  but  not  tasks,  resulting  required  the  further  d i d consume  to  areatheir to  the  operations.  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  the  to complete  process,  This  three  year  P l a n . However,  given  plans,  the  of  plans.  at  Upper L i l l o o e t the  the  l o s s of c r e d i b i l i t y  directed  utilize  from  the  the  question  of  open.  Tasks the  Upper  previous of  the  Lillooet  land two  concurrent  necessary  the  the  staff  operations.  tasks  a l l o c a t e d for other  t o the  r e s p o n d e n t s were not were not  research  to prepare  "wasted e f f o r t "  were  effects  comments were made r e g a r d i n g  many a g e n c i e s  subjects  This  i t hampered d a i l y  p r o g r a m due  regional  to  criticism  headquarters  additional  limited  been  of  processes',  were  t e r m s of a d v e r s e  observation  that  had  f o r the  respondents  the  participation  need  realities  regarding  their  several re-writes. This  or  present  use  nor  the  planning  efforts.  Crown l a n d p l a n s area-specific  able  to provide  repetitive  time,  of  Lang C r e e k a r e a s  p o s e d no  planning any  the  d u p l i c a t i o n of  that  agencies'  the  such,  endeavours.  evidence  their  however,  As  were  purview  the  The plans  programs.  of  land  use  98  planningin Crown  British  land  preparing  the  planning  Forests.  the  Planning  under  Act  with  governments,  its  of the  all  to  comprehend.  evaluating  the  Crown l a n d  to  broaden  the  i n f l u e n c e s may major land  be  external planning  program.  management  amendments  with a  is  mandate  of  have to  also  "plan"  further  has  activities.  planning  role  outsider, In  terms  so  that  r e v i e w e d . The  planning  Forests  Paper  planning  assessment  the  the  Even more r e c e n t l y  the  to  of  to  jurisdiction.  planning  difficult  addition  Ministry  legislative  traditional  have,  In  for  Environment  Discussion  reorganization combined  of  the  policies  Recent  Ministry  resources  i s changing.  program,  province-wide  Provincial provided  Columbia  process, the  programs and  accorded  this  chapter  their  task,  of  these  to  local  that  on  is of  essential external  summarizes  effects  a  changes,  a maze t h a t  i t appears  effects  ensuing  These  created of  proposed  the  the  the Crown  99  CHAPTER VI  --  PROVINCIAL LAND USE  PLANNING - A BROADER  PERSPECTIVE It This  i s often  is  stated that  nowhere  more  resource  planning  resource  m i n i s t r y i s at  planning the  account  planning,  the  potential  effect  are  current  discussed  of  the  the  these high  planning created  in  1912  establishment  for  provincial that  merit  Provincial  strategic Act.  Forests  planning Each  timber  value.  forestry a  uses.  general  processes. s i n c e then  the F o r e s t Act of  and  of  In t h e  As  s m a l l and  1960's a  f o r e s t s a l l lands  T h i s program was  review  a result,  (Ministry  late  of no  the  land  additional  of F o r e s t s ,  has  provincial  f o r e s t s were r e l a t i v e l y  to include i n p r o v i n c i a l  long-term allow  of  the  these  PROVINCIAL FORESTS  for  to  Forests  any  program must  factors  Planning  provisions  for  LPH  terms  impending  inception  initiated  the  on  its  with  Accordingly,  emphasis  Since  areas  implementing  in turn.  DESIGNATION OF  Originally,  each  have some i n f l u e n c e on  major of  current  exception,  i n d e v i s i n g and  improving  Ministry  process.  Province's  without  process.  three  dynamic  in this  inevitably  for  are  the  program,  a  e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . In  there  consideration:  is  present,  planning  offered  f o r these  than  some s t a g e  which w i l l  land  recommendations  evident  s t r u c t u r e . At  programs  Crown  "planning"  1979).  included forests.  limited  program best  suspended  to was  suited in  1973  allocation  and  f o r e s t s have been  100  The  passage  Ministry's and  r o l e with  conserve  sections the  already  classified 1.  5 of  the  the  Act  forest  2.  established, broad  agriculture,  settlement  lead  a g e n c y , has  Ministry's land,  package  agencies  that  review w i l l  included  planning  in  i n t o the  areas.  The  the  to  be  by  the  protect Based  on  reactivated that  forests be  in those have  not  assessed  large  continuous  and  of  land  the  then  represent  best  suited  for  development.  Forest  Service,  the  Initially  the  alienated  proposed p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t forwarded  to  the  various  f o r comment. I t i s e x p e c t e d classifications: excluded  specific  e x i s t . When t h i s  be  tracts  and  following process.  in three  a task  RRMC. I f c o n s e n s u s c a n n o t  the  1979,  associated  regions  latter  is  forwarded  in  will  f o r e s t s , a r e a s t o be  boundary c o n f l i c t s  be  is  result  and  resolved  Province.  f o r e s t management,  and  the  use  all  of  A g r i c u l t u r a l Land R e s e r v e s and  this  the  D i v i s i o n p r e p a r e s maps d e p i c t i n g  resource  will  land  composed  developed  boundaries. This  manage,  i s proposed  above d e s i g n a t i o n s  Inventory  reaffirmed  categories:  areas,  the  1978  provincial  Crown  s u i t e d for long-term  achieve  of  It  where  non-forest  To  in  Ministry,  program.  Province  i n t o two  Act  a s t r e n g t h e n e d mandate t o  p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s , composed best  be  Forest  resources  the  been  new  forest  4 and  of  a  the  provincial  regions  of  this  by  land  designation  the  level  to  deferred  t r a c t s where  occurs,  force appointed reached at  and  areas  responsible the  issues  t o ELUC f o r a d e c i s i o n . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  P r o v i n c i a l Forests  i n the  Province  will  be  designated  by  101  Orders-in-Council provides  f o r an  monitoring  of  recreational  in the be LPH  forestry  this  that  continue  The  program f u r t h e r  five-year  be  i n both  intervals  as  a  90  that  In t h i s  preparing resource the  area,  of  the  the  examination  the  forest  agency  assumes  the  range  and  all  forest,  Mainland  Lower  t o 95  percent  i n the the and  of  a functional  coordinating  that  i s the  non-forest  the  designation  Crown  land  Forests.  Given  Ministry sense.  will  First, in  from  plans  remaining as  and  to address  areas,  those  a the  the M i n i s t r y i s e x p e c t i n g  to  areawithin  d e f i n e d by i n t e r - m i n i s t r y foreshore  deferred planning program.  Victoria  "planning"  a n t i c i p a t e d e n d e a v o u r s , however, w i l l of  and  land excluded  level  Ministry will,  Discussions  the  the LPH  for  context  of  Provincial  role  p r o b l e m s . In t h e  agreements, a d m i n i s t e r  the  the  sub-district  LPH  becomes  forests.  included  responsible  forests.  forests,  in  land  designated  a spatial  smaller  the  Service. This  the  personnel  i t i s evident  be  provincial  at  administering  approximately  diminished will  1982.  forests,  Forest  and  region w i l l  above,  specific  the  as  uses w i t h i n  significantly  the  of  planning  indicate  review  designated  responsibility  with  ongoing  December  mechanism.  Once  role  before  areas  uses.  be as  The  associated  bulk with  e s t a b l i s h e d by  1 02  STRATEGIC  PLANNING  Much of t h e p l a n n i n g all  resource  aggregated field has  activity  ministries  under  at  currently, being  the  the concept  provincial  of s t r a t e g i c  i s t h e M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s w h i c h , been  preparing  timber  supply  resource entire  on  an  plans  ambitious  area  program  f o r approximately  Province.  The  analyses  approach here  i s not t o p r e s e n t  but  to  rather,  process to  is  it  a strict  sense  strategic  U n l i k e many p r e v i o u s  i s not s i t e - s p e c i f i c concentrates  on  In a s e n s e ,  i t shifts  mode. The a p p r o a c h initiate long-term  planning  strategies  i n w h i c h t h e LPH is  limited  a p p r o a c h and the  Crown  or c o n f l i c t broad  production planning  "planning"  then land  resolution  designed  p r o g r a m s and p o l i c i e s  already  oriented; rather  ministerial  from a r e a c t i v e  management  rather i t  endeavours,  regional  g o a l s and management  is specifically  resource  i s n o t new;  information that l i k e l y  provincial  defining  resource  of  have on  the  the s t r a t e g i c  discussion  planning  i t may  to c l a s s i f y i n g  provincial  and  that  also  strategic  planning  "environment"  the s t r a t e g i c  has  units covering  reviewing  this  now,  process.  a new a p p r o a c h  exists. it  outlining  some o f t h e e f f e c t s  planning  In  the  be  throughout- t h e  developing  alternative  i s o p e r a t i n g . Consequently,  briefly  noting  determine  years  Environment  of  for  may  planning. Leading the  40 p l a n n i n g  rationale  level  for several  P r o v i n c e . More r e c e n t l y , t h e M i n i s t r y o f embarked  u n d e r t a k e n by  to  and  strategies. a  proactive  to anticipate  demand  that ensure the achievement  goals.  1 0 3  These p o i n t s a r e p e r h a p s b e s t elements  of  the  Ministry  program. T h i s approach  illustrated  of Environment's  by e x a m i n i n g strategic  the  planning  i s composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s :  "- d e s c r i p t i o n of management r e s o u r c e programmes;  objectives  for  a l l major  - estimation of c u r r e n t utilization (commitments) and f u t u r e demands ( o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) f o r t h e f u l l range of environmental resources under t h e mandate of the Ministry; - assessment of t h e c a p a b i l i t y of the environmental r e s o u r c e s base t o meet t h e s e demands a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of management; - evaluation of a l t e r n a t i v e meet these demands using biophysical c r i t e r i a ; -  setting  priorities  Provincial - ensuring  in  programmes a n d p o l i c i e s t o economic, social and the  local,  regional  and  context;  the implementation  - monitoring  performance"  of s e l e c t e d p r i o r i t i e s , (Ministry  of  and  Environment,  1 9 8 0 ) .  In process  summary,  the  of d e t e r m i n i n g  and  provincial  then  be u t i l i z e d  strategic specific  context. in  approach  resource  The p o l i c i e s  developing  be d e f i n e d as a  targets in  and p r i o r i t i e s  ministry  in smaller  watershed or e s t u a r i e s ) or can p r o v i d e  establishing  into other timber  agencies'  harvest  plans  planning or  d e r i v e d can  resources  areas  input  regional  detailed,  management  ministry  for specific  a  initiated,  operational, ( e . g.  plans  may  a basis for  processes  preparing  (e.g.  Crown  land  plans).  As results  with are  most not  long-range expected.  planning  endeavours,  immediate  The M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t  expects  1 04  that  i t will  strategic  take  plans  ministries  at  Victoria  viewed as n e c e s s a r y  What  lack  then  The to  process?  the  development  LPH M i n i s t r y s t a f f ,  prepare  provincial  of  believed reasons  the concept i s  progress  activities  has  been  on t h e Crown  precipitated  o f t h e Crown  to  that the  and  greatly  land planning  i n a c t i n g on t h e Government's  a  five-tiered  residents,  this  for this  was  program.  commitment  directed  to  of  level  planning  suitable  possible  to prepare  sub-regional Initially  of s u b - d i s t r i c t  best  was  hierarchy containing a  strategy,  emphasis appear  parcels  including  planning  and o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n s .  the preparation  that  level  plans,  the program  plans  f o r i t was  s u i t e d t h e M i n i s t r y ' s a i m s . The t o be t w o f o l d .  most  appropriate  for alienation. "higher-order"  Foremost  Second, plans  for  i s that  isolating  i t was s i m p l y n o t  because  no  ministry,  LPH, had any documented r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g y f o r managing  resources.  Conceivably  i f the concept  had been  planning  p r o g r a m may have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y  terms  preparation  of  in place,  then,  planning  In  resource  i t may be s u r m i s e d  plans  available  plans  emphasized  their  of t h e s e  strategy, a regional  sub-district  this  little  other  initial  a management and d i s p o s a l s t r a t e g y . The r e s p o n s e was t h e  development  has  very  At the o u t s e t  resource  make Crown l a n d  with  its  the approach.  a r e the e f f e c t s  of " s t r a t e g i c "  influenced  before  i n d i c a t e that, although  in principle,  initiating  land planning  s i x years  a r e completed. Conversations  in  made t o w a r d s  least  the  t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of  future  there  of r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  the  of s t r a t e g i c Crown  land  different.  is little strategic  doubt plans  that the by  the  105  various  resource  ministries will  making c a p a b i l i t i e s  of  the  to  LPH  well,  Ministry  it will  district  THE  and  provide  awaited  Discussion Municipal  belief the  near  nature  still  of  Act  social, Of  that  circles  released  i n September  Although  the  remains  in  As  it  implications  efforts. the  As  need  was  the  1980  by  for  content  doubt,  amendments w i l l is  not  the of  of  there  possible  concern  to  Act  Ministry  the  t o be  forthcoming speculate  here  Act  was  labelled  handbook". The  key  purpose  is  of  proposed  continues  be  more  Planning the  initial  the  a in  on  the  limited  to  Discussion  Paper  on  program.  Planning  to e s t a b l i s h land  economic and  final  as  no" document was  the  planning  legislative  greater  permit  plans.  discussed  the  was  for determining  heatedly  proposals,  When r e l e a s e d ,  this  level  these  Crown l a n d  planning  sound b a s i s  some l e g i s l a t i v e future.  reviewing the  or  Affairs.  that  a  would  i t s regional planning  Columbia's planning  Paper  legislation  expand  Such a t r e n d  decision-  ACT  In B r i t i s h eagerly  a l l agencies.  operational  PLANNING  g r e a t l y e n h a n c e the  use  environmental  i n t e r e s t to t h i s  policies  that  o b j e c t i v e s of  exercise,  the  Act  had  as for  a  "single  introducing  achieved this  the  Province.  a further  of, "... t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l l a n d use policies to m a x i m i z e t h e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e use and d e v e l o p m e n t of our land and resources for all British Columbians"(Ministry of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1980).  aim,  106  To  achieve  tiered,  Committee  of  and  Land Use  g o v e r n m e n t s . Under  provided  plans. of  provincial  regional  and  governments.  The  of  infrastructure to guide  provincial consist  of  thereby  tasks plans,  of  c o m m i t t e e s and  coordinate  settlement  level.  responsibility jurisdiction. outlined  The for In  to  the  and  physical  Act  s i g n i f i c a n t of  the  ensuring  to  land  t h e s e was  local  i s composed  staff  by  group  regional ELUC,  in  will  and  this  for  will  seven  integrate  districts'  RRMC s t r u c t u r e .  or and  technical The  primary  to prepare p r o v i n c i a l  regional  to  local  local  government  government,  use  the  planning  major  proposed use  the  the  resource  appointed  bodies  land  further  current  for  r e s o u r c e management p l a n n i n g  level,  addition  objectives,  ELUC and  from  assistance  final  a b o v e , the  alterations most  technical  by  regional  be  is  between m i n i s t r i e s a t  district  current  t h e s e committees w i l l  Cabinet  provincial  also  These  the  and  the d i v i s i o n  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  regional  e x i s t i n g 28  Planning  between p r o v i n c i a l and  RCCs,  the  (RCC)  The  e s t a b l i s h procedures  regions.  the  structure,  responsibility  The  five-  Cabinet,  Inter-Ministry  approve  ministers  The  p r o v i n c i a l and  provide  regional  deputy  the  Committees  appointed  t h e . p r o c e s s and  replace  planning  is  proposed a  follows.  objectives  ministries.  geographic  as  l e v e l s and  IMPC  planning.  is  Act  of  envisioned  has  planning  the  composed  to  ELUC  compatability  primarily  the  authority  and  the  Coordinating  responsibilities the  policies  eight  goals,  Committee, an  (IMPC),. R e g i o n a l  planning  are  broad  hierarchical structure  Environment  local  these  i s to  significant  creation  of  the  retain  in i t s areas  structural  regulatory  at  and  of  changes  innovative  patterns.  a L a n d Use  The  Appeal  107  Board  to a d v i s e The  t h e M i n i s t e r on  merits  of  these  "contentious" issues.  c h a n g e s have been  the  subject  new  holistic  instigated  if British  Columbia  resources.  Critics,  however,  is  w h i c h must be  t o p r o p e r l y manage i t s f i n i t e  point  to  i t s centralized  not  present  sufficient  and  local  interests.  As  p o s s i b l e to f u l l y  Our  task  the  Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g  remains the  critique  of  The program will  The  most  1. Who and 2. On  may  will  refer  the  RCCs?  of  of  i t does regional  i s engaging,  of c o n c e i v a b l e  presented.  in a  normative  (1980).  of  the Act  t h e p r o p o s e d RCC preparing  on  the  structure,  provincial  raises  many  LPH  which  regional questions.  are:  necessary  priorities  latter,  i t is  implications for  interested  consequence  for  that  r a n g e of c r i t i c i s m s  however, t h e A c t  the  topic  necessary  staff  support  f o r the  and  what b a s i s a r e  the  this  t o Wiesman  addressed  provide  expression  program. Those  context  i s s u e s not  the  examination  regard,  In t e r m s of "4.  review  responsibility  In t h i s  major  much as  significant  i s i n the  have  plans.  the Act  command s t r u c t u r e s t a t i n g  avenues f o r the  not  is a  much  debate. Proponents argue t h a t the approach  legislation  of  t o be  Wiesman  derived?  (1980, p.2)  notes  The act places excessive reliance on negotiation between t h e o f f i c i a l s of s i n g l e - p u r p o s e m i n i s t r i e s and Crown corporations to resolve land use c o n f l i c t s . While such negotiation is important, it is insufficient, because in t h a t process c o n f l i c t s are l i k e l y t o be r e s o l v e d e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e b a s i s of e a c h s i n g l e - p u r p o s e agency a t t e m p t i n g to project its own interest."  IMPC  108  The  most s i g n i f i c a n t  of t h e two q u e s t i o n s ,  f o r m e r . In n o t d e s i g n a t i n g an e x p l i c i t the  preparation  which can o n l y "floating  of  be  the  chairmanships"  a p p e a r s t o be s i m i l a r respondents design  was  felt  impartiality an  major  processes.  Farquharson,  to  similar  implemented, program  assume  the  diminished.  In  similar  that  to  specifically, "strategic  system  s t r u c t u r e . To many o f  course  of  this  as i t i n h i b i t s A favoured  the  research,  this  continuity  and  alternative  utilizes  and  c o o r d i n a t e the  T h i s concept  i s n o t new  and  has  o f many p r e v i o u s  the  Valley  studies  Community  above q u e s t i o n s  been  (Chambers,  Forest  the 1974;  Management  the  Planning  in either  as  of  "planners"  any  In  their  other  tasks upon  operational plans  may  capacity  instance  their  goals.  Act  affect  o f two ways. F i r s t ,  coordinating  this  towards  and t h e a s s u m p t i o n  t o t h e one o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d  p l a n s " and,  disposition oriented  i n t h e RRMC  of  facilitate  e n d e a v o u r s , LPH's r o l e  plans,  practice  1974).  structure  planning  for  to  1974; S l o c a n  Recognizing  be  group  recommendation  Project,  the  t o be i n a d e q u a t e  staff  The  currently utilized  in  authority  the Act leaves a v o i d  speculation.  in decision-making.  impartial  decision  by  to the proposed  contacted  planning  regional plans,  answered  however, i s t h e  will the  will land  RCCs  are  planning  land  responsibility  resource  may  be  will  be  ministry.  More  include the p r e p a r a t i o n  o f LPH  completion  t o implement short,  i f the  Crown  Act  t h e Crown  i n the r e g i o n a l of  that a  of  RCC  regional  t h e M i n i s t r y ' s Crown  planning  endeavours  t h e management and d i s p o s i t i o n  will  o f Crown  land be rural  109  residential  and  coordination  of  The foresee  recreation region-wide  second an  lots resource  alternative,  expansion  of does  that  the  Ministry  land  and  a  LPH  LPH  well  body of  proposed  in  alienated  Crown  As second best of  may  could  its  be  the  In  that  previous,  could  but  Recognizing  mandate t o a l l o c a t e  is  currently  technical  essence,  course  not  activities.  become t h e  RCCs.  present  be  the  being  coordinating  program  expanded  to  would include  land.  expected,  alternative,  equipped  t o the  have a l e g i s l a t e d  implemented,  foreshore,  plans.  planning  program  continue  the  contrary  structured  the  and  to  the  situation,  however,  Ministry.  As  ministry  stating that,  undertake  resource  LPH  this  agencies. i s the  indicated  a non-partisan  equitable  land a l l o c a t i o n s .  r o l e and  The  group that  can  most  impediment  "real  preceding  favours  this Ministry  i s the  major  perceived  i n the  v i e w e d as  indeed,  staff  estate"  "trusted"  the  impartial to  such a  image of  evaluation, be  is  the  LPH to  is  the not make  1 1 0  CHAPTER V I I Utilizing procedural process. the  The  decisions.  a  i s one  liberal  for this  precept,  it  that p a r a l l e l s theory,  acceptable  four  ideals  in  are  our  society.  utilized  to assess  1.  one  recommendations theoretical  intention for  improving  perspective  political-administrative the  suggestions As  to two  are  a premise  state that this case  studies  of  is  these  of  behavior  planning  i s based  on  likely  to  more  resource  management  that  a  are  the  "good"  In  light  the  of  interests  the the  this,  planning  processes the  ensuing  process:  in  the  analysis  is  planning  decision-  to  suggest  process,  a  A b a s i c comprehension  i s necessary  in  fundamental  decision-making  provided.  to  ensure  of  that  practicable. to the  following discussion i t i s appropriate  e v a l u a t i o n i s a "snapshot" reviewed  were i n i t i a t e d  p r o g r a m was  i n i t s i n f a n c y . Over  components  of  the  and  is  the  n o r m a t i v e e l e m e n t s embodied  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a l l a f f e c t e d making p r o c e s s 2. Adequacy of i n f o r m a t i o n 3. E f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p r o c e s s 4. E f f i c i e n c y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Since  land  acknowledged  since type  Crown  system  is the  assesses  research approach  allocation  w h i c h d e t e r m i n e what  are  thesis  Lower M a i n l a n d  land  democratic  RECOMMENDATIONS  this  "good" p l a n n i n g  better As  criteria  the  rationale  that a  facilitate  values  normative  e l e m e n t s of  premise  process  -- CONCLUSIONS AND  the  attempt  past  has  the  when t h e two  p r o g r a m have been m o d i f i e d  have been a d o p t e d . A v i g o r o u s  of  and  been  past.  The  Crown  land  years new made  various procedures to  keep  111  abreast  o f t h e s e c h a n g e s . However,  certain  a s p e c t s may have been  above,  i t i s my b e l i e f  present  situation,  that  as  i t i s quite  overlooked.  the f i n d i n g s  t h e major  p r o g r a m have n o t c h a n g e d o v e r  conceivable  that  Notwithstanding  stated  structure  here  the  r e f l e c t the  and e m p h a s i s o f t h e  the intervening  period.  CONCLUSIONS Initially, staff  on  i t i s necessary  their  efforts  management s t r u c t u r e taken  a  planning  strong  initiative  framework w i t h i n  been c r i t i c i z e d  that  i t has  created  a very  their  which  lead  of  overview  where Crown r e c r e a t i o n  plans  was n o t f e a s i b l e , a s v e r y  demands. As a operations  peripheral  level  staff  of  total  by  has  the horse" i n  Crown  resource  sectors  and u s e s .  recognizing  the Province's  of r e g i o n a l  the  stressed  observation,  the  r e s i d e n t s . As areas  In a d d i t i o n , s c a l e Crown  few o f t h e r e s o u r c e  overview of t h e i r  of  which  be d e v e l o p e d .  the development  regional  has  The M i n i s t r y  was d i r e c t e d a t i s o l a t i n g  could  earlier,  aggregated  group  alienation strategies  mandate  for  noted  an  that  period.  tempered  effort  lots  resource  e m p h a s i s . F o r e m o s t , t h e p r o g r a m was  land  s u c h , much o f t h e i n i t i a l  Ministry  and i m p l e m e n t i n g a  r e l a t i o n s h i p to other  to this  Crown  planning  isolated  i n response t o a p o l i t i c a l  availability  The  the "cart before  however, must be  LPH  creating a "better"  short  on  the  developing  for putting  a general  and  criticism,  factors  in  concentrated  developing  requirements This  towards  commend  i n the Province.  often  before  to  land  a g e n c i e s had  resource  i t also  as  extents  appears  and that  t h e m i n i s t r i e s were n o t " o r i e n t e d "  1 12  towards r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . of managing  site-specific  purpose agency's  The 1.  conclusions Not  all  apparent  lack  In  i n the  of  the  were  were d e r i v e d  of  traded  part  of  t o the  a  apparent  local local  of  an  public  interests  excluded  i n d u s t r i e s and  the  not  the  the  design  portion in  of of  the the  either  alternatives  a and  servants. is  towards  the  Crown  resource  i s s u e s . The  net  is  that  recognized  broader and  are  regional perhaps  or  being  structure.  frustration  g o v e r n m e n t s who residents,  yet  Lower  Mainland program's  t h r o u g h . The  of  program  In  carried  of  two  the  decisions that  the  i n the  towards  accountable  short,  i n the  inception,  single-  result  LPH  a significant  capacity the  by  result  civil  activity  away under t h i s i s an  the  resource  not  site-specific  "needs" a r e  There  by  emphasis  this  provincial  as  process,  decisions  result  5.  above, and  p u b l i c s e n s e . In  of  each  groups.  or  current  is  Specific  p u b l i c , the  achieved  resolution  4.  commitment  political  The  of  that  are:  This  program.  planning  decisions  r o l e s were  were . r e p r e s e n t e d  reviewed.  general  four-stage  3.  interests  of  interest  light  basis  research  involvement  2.  the  drawn from t h i s  processes  special  i s s u e s on  perceived  mandates.  affected  the  the  i n t e r e s t s and  planning  were  Rather,  with  the  process  view themselves have affect  Region,  at  initiation  a  on  the  responsible  marginal  advisory  them. the  t i m e of  procedures  " i n t e n t t o p l a n " was  not  the  plans'  were  discussed  not at  1 1 3  the  RRMC and  as  financial  and  manpower commitments were not  in  l e d to  turn  information the  especially  towards  directed  One  as  speculate  in  Lang  the  that  if  process?  the  answer would be a f f i r m a t i v e .  The  s c o p e of  viewed  acts  as  residential, l a n d . The this The as  LPH  outside  primarily which  the  as  recreational  planning  for  and  program  the  the  as  i t appears  i s unknown  Ministry  is  Government  development  agricultural  i s v i e w e d as  more  have been  LPH of  is  planning  were  efforts  e s t a t e arm  advocate  reluctance comment  process  The  which  u s e s of  a means t o  of Crown  achieve  end. members  of  participants  process.  the  two  in  a  advisors  agencies'  interests.  task  majority  has  increased  a greater  Victoria  f o r c e s do  provincial them  hot  Crown  of  interpret their  whose s o l e p u r p o s e  this and  participating  f o r the  period the  of  i s to protect  their  role  is  agencies.  resource  review  the  staff  management being  varying  regional  themselves  as  i n t e r - m i n i s t r y communication  empathy  view land  force approach to decision-making  the  During  task  R a t h e r , most of  technical  The  real  This  Intuitively,  Ministry.  the  secured  issues  Ministry's planning the  an  the  not  Consequently,  Upper L i l l o o e t  C r e e k would, the  Lillooet  were  produced a  participants.  may  the  involvement.  gaps and  t o compromise amongst  to agencies  9.  impending  agencies  their  protracted  8.  resource  of  contentious  7.  the  apprised  process.  6.  a result,  favoured  This  arrangement  and  facilitated  concerns.  communication  was  by  between  constrained.  This  11 4  appears  t o be a r e s u l t  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . At  present,  the  planning  planning  staff  consequence for 10.  regional  There  is  some  on  disagreement  separate  the  Victoria  divisions.  a r e , i n a sense,  on t h e m e r i t s  s t r u c t u r e . The  the  As  a  working  need  for  comments  of the e x i s t i n g  received  implementation  are  of the p r e s e n t  The  to  value  their  is  the  Again,  concerns  scale,  limited  value this  adopted  v a r i e d . Most  resource  broader  this  of  perspective,  agencies,  future  daily  however,  plans  overall  processes,as  the  On  a  functions.  belief  that  that  well,  of s e v e r a l spent  the  nor d i d they  From  the plans  o f whether t i m e remains  As  effects  operations.  given  was " e f f i c i e n t "  p e r c e i v e d by t h e  "inefficient".  to the operations  the question  areas.  a i m i s t o r e s o l v e LPH p r o b l e m s .  were c o n s i d e r e d  impair  did clarify  a r e viewed as having  t o the v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s '  relevance  Finally,  plans  system.  participating  subject  d i d n o t h a r b o u r any a d v e r s e  significantly  these  the  the  t h e two p l a n n i n g  participants,  direct  within  a p p e a r s t o be c o n s t r a i n e d by  of  processes  the  agree that the plans  however,  program's s p e c i f i c  Neither  plans  not  b u t r a t h e r on t h e  presumed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n e f f i c i e n c y  agencies  13.  two  and  two m a s t e r s .  based  12.  in  the r e g i o n a l planners  implementation  11.  are  staff  a  broader  d i d n o t have participating in  preparing  open.  t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be much u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g t h e focus of the p l a n n i n g  Provincial  Forests,  strategic  planning,  the and  p r o g r a m . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  current the  Provincial  impending  emphasis  Planning  on  Act are  1 15  three  external  structure  IMPROVING THE  An  of  the  underlying  individual be  and  process accepted  throughout  institutions  organizational to  the  is  not  behavior  p h y s i c a l and  possible  institutional  Accordingly, strengthen  the  the  conclusions  here  present  are  to  the  discussed  that  been  an  in l i g h t  of  such  designs  Crown l a n d  with a clean  in  propose a c t i o n s this  light  end,  of  the  in  planning  slate,  currently  to To  in  has  designed  the  is  is  paper  government e n v i r o n m e n t s  start  system.  be and  with  framework  task  this  should  operate. Unfortunately,  it  affect  program.  theme  that  adapted  which they  significantly  PLANNING PROCESS  acknowledgement  must  f a c t o r s w h i c h may  as  an  place. which  the  may  preceding  derived  normative  ideals. One is  basic  that  p r i n c i p l e embodied  a l l affected  decision  process.  "fragmented  i n t e r e s t s should  This  range  authorities"  with  e n c o u r a g e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and to  adapt  to  inhibiting the  incurred  diverse,  public  interests  "overlapping  organize  and  determined  these  shortcomings an  that  the  the  opportunity  that  all  a of  jurisdictions"  will  lack  most a p p r o p r i a t e  i s to ensure  throughout  c a p a b i l i t y of  the  Theory  comprised  e n v i r o n m e n t s . The  however, a r e  to  Democratic  involved  t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In p r e v i o u s  been  provided  of  be  enhance t h e  dynamic  such a c t i o n s ,  general  in L i b e r a l  major  a  system problems  of m o t i v a t i o n transaction  discussions method of  affected  to p a r t i c i p a t e , i f they  so  of costs  it  has  alleviating parties  desire.  are  116  Transposing evident in  these  t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y  the d e c i s i o n  processes  does not p r o v i d e be  thoughts  heard.  To  t o t h e two c a s e  for a l l interests  d i d not e x i s t .  non-institutional alleviate  t h i s major  t o be  The  interests  studies i t i s represented  existing  process  w i t h an o c c a s i o n t o  weakness  i t i s recommended  that: P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n become a r e q u i r e d r a t h e r than d i s c r e t i o n a r y element i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  Non-institutional participate  in determining  alternatives their  and c h o o s i n g  concerns.  political  groups should  Such a p r o c e s s  and  public may  institutional  structure.  most  solution  plausible  information The above of  this  be  would  implemented Given  be more a c c o u n t a b l e The  practice  participation.  manner  arrangement, the  specific  interpreted  or a s t h e " b e s t " s o l u t i o n research  into  the  a s an  access  to being  t o adequate  making quantity  process.  concerns.  endorsement  Ministry's  g o a l of the M i n i s t r y .  Next  public  for including  and  immediate  present  of  planning  participatory  be an  this  the  existing  the  both  on  o b j e c t i v e s and a l t e r n a t i v e should  which  a p p e a r s t o be t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  i s n o t t o be  Further  in  to  i s dependent  m e e t i n g s t o communicate  suggestion  developing  a p p r o p r i a t e scheme t o r e s o l v e  interests.  recommendation  be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  information requirements, t h e most  a  public  explicit  mechanisms i s n e c e s s a r y  p r o v i d e d w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e , i n f o r m a t i o n i s a key e l e m e n t  Not  and q u a l i t y ,  only  must  it  be  b u t mechanisms s h o u l d  in  adequate exist  a  decisioni n terms o f  whereby  the  117  data  relevant  communicated of  ideas,  to  the  based  on  t o w a r d s the  decision  be  noted and  alternative  that  the  end,  short,  was  In  inability  the  the  that  for  existing  RRMC s t r u c t u r e  participating planning involved.  To  As  such  choose  well,  the  "bounded the  first  problems costs  can  specific  bounds of  of  which  were e x a m i n e d .  problems the  several actions.  a  with t r a n s a c t i o n  these  and  representative  within  information  case  studies  information the  the  appear to  LPH  that  be  In  best  concern.  certainty  t o be  t h e s e groups the  was two  "very  In and  or  centered  This  factors. First, aware  manpower on  the  perceived  good".  c o n s e q u e n t l y , were not  facilitate  what  participants  M i n i s t r y were not  financial  a g e n c i e s were not or  the  r e s u l t of  r e v i e w s . S e c o n d , and  program  a  or  expand t h e  p r o g r a m s and  reasons  program  operate  dealing  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e i t h e r a  work  exchange  perceptions  inhibit  i s known a b o u t  two  outside  this  w h i c h may  adequate  a p p e a r s t o be  planning  full  theoretical perspective,  enough".  can  effectively  decisions.  to provide  agencies  upcoming  "most"  better  t e r m s of  perception  and  information  thus achieve  of  "good  of  will  "satisfice"  surmised  when t h e good  the  therefore is  through a  issue,  individuals  generation  it  resolved  an  In  with uncertainty  inhibit the  resource  that  is  participants' varying  were p r e s e n t e d  rationality"  coping  the  achieved.  characteristics was  decisions  to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Only  attitudes  It  required  the  of  sense. of  the  b r e a d t h of  their  participation  extent  of  the  planning  The the  inter-agency  p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  aware of  the  prepared  inability  required  most  the  the LPH  requirements process  was  118  believed  t o be l i m i t e d  to task  the  unaware  of  the  and i n i t i a t i o n  stages.  greatly  the c r e d i b i l i t y  of t h e p r o g r a m , and when combined  side  real  estate  o f LPH e f f o r t s  problem  were  of  implementation  the  degree,  Most  to  with  large  activities.  respondents,  reduce  a  force  These  misunderstandings  image of t h e M i n i s t r y , t h e more p o s i t i v e  tend  t o become d i m i n i s h e d .  i t i s recommended  To  resolve  ;  this  that:  The Land Programs D i v i s i o n p r e p a r e and d i s t r i b u t e a t e c h n i c a l paper outlining t h e Crown land planning program components to the operations l e v e l personnel throughout the r e g i o n s .  The o p e r a t i o n s who  i s s t r e s s e d because  have t h e most d i r e c t In o r d e r  only the  level  must  contact  f o r a decision-making  there  be a d e q u a t e  e n t i r e e x e r c i s e must  process  should  decisions  Crown  Most a g r e e d the  LPH  Specific stress plans.  that  to  This d i r e c t i o n ,  resource  political  data.  and i n f o r m a t i o n  documents were  were  their  directed  useful  at  and an a p p a r e n t  From a l o n g - t e r m p e r s p e c t i v e ,  the  adopted varied.  tools  for  strategies.  the  Ministry's  (sub-district) was  but  involved.  the  alienation  noted e a r l i e r ,  goals  of  not  the d e r i v e d  to a l l those  the b e n e f i t  area-specific we  Further  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , was  achieve  however,  developing  t o be e f f e c t i v e  f o r implementing  i s acceptable  the planning  concerns,  Ministry's  that  individuals  the program.  b e n e f i t the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  as p e r c e i v e d  Ministry  on  representation  i n the c o n c l u s i o n s ,  land plans,  implementing  process  i n c l u d e mechanisms  in a fashion  As s t a t e d  with  i t i s these  Crown  land  i n response to  the  l a c k of  sub-regional  however,  i t may  be  1  argued  that  Province.  such  A  preferred  "strategic  approach",  opportunities alienation  its  be  are  the  determined This  been d i r e c t e d a t of  not  where  the  g o v e r n m e n t . In  In land  point  program  best  one  i n t e r e s t s of  which  to developing before  base and with  i s the  of  is  short,  in concert  light  i n the  that  timing  the the  more  demand  the  Provincial  significant will a  p o r t i o n of  become more i m p o r t a n t  broader  resource  Specific structure  planning  from w i t h i n relating regard,  of  the  to  and  and  most common c r i t i c i s m  that  has  agencies at a l l l e v e l s  i t i s suggested  the  be is  t o examine the  be  formulation an  that: preparing  appropriate. going  to  Given  remove  a  administration, i t  remaining  this  process  does not  present  plan  i s the  h a r b o u r any  portions  in  are  responsible  i s the  staff. to the  output"  is  In  task  force  preparation  tool.  best  the  suited for  the  inefficiencies. Arising a  administrative  planning  "planning  procedures,  appropriate  m a j o r weakness n o t e d  directly  to  b a s e f r o m LPH  M i n i s t r y , however,  regional  . their  plan  agree that  the  to  the  they are  t o the  tasks  supports land  program  land  it  is  perspective.  appears  Participants  upon  the  detailed  f o r the  appears  Forest  a and  Crown l a n d  resources  from o u t s i d e  this,  f o r such a s h i f t  stresses  more  The LPH M i n i s t r y p l a c e a g r e a t e r emphasis on s u b - r e g i o n a l and r e g i o n a l Crown l a n d p l a n s .  The  the  e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l commitments  established prior  regional  products.  are  alternative  strategies.  alienated, should  actions  19  number  structure.  dual  concerns In  allegiance  fulfilling  Regional under  of  direct  imposed  their  Manager  this  duties  yet  scrutiny  much of  120  "headquarters" This between  in Victoria.  factor the  has  Land  contributed  Programs  p o l i c y ) and t h e r e g i o n a l policy), the  at  times  exchange  alleviate  of  this  a  Division  planners  resulting memorandum  weakness  to  strained  relationship  ( t h e c r e a t o r s of p l a n n i n g  ( t h e implementors  i n communication through  being  official  i t i s recommended  of  planning  limited to  channels.  To  that:  A full-time headquarters' planner be a p p o i n t e d t o . l i a i s e between V i c t o r i a and t h e r e g i o n s . The m a j o r i t y of. this persons t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i n t h e r e g i o n s r e s p o n d i n g t o s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l q u e r i e s and p r o v i d i n g guidance i n i n t e r p r e t i n g M i n i s t r y procedures.  In  view  of  regional  staff  considerable within  range  of  i t i s further  experience  b a c k g r o u n d s and e x p e r i e n c e s suggested  in provincial  that  this  planning  person  of t h e  have had  procedures  both  and o u t s i d e t h e M i n i s t r y .  It the  the  i s anticipated  current  communication  development problems. format  of  The  and  which t h i s  that  the  patterns,  mutually  previously  t h e above a p p o i n t m e n t  acceptable mentioned  implementation  arrangement  thereby  could  would  enhance  leading  solutions  to  to  prevalent  disputes . concerning  structure  address  in  are specific the  the  Lower  plan issues  Mainland  Region.  The  above  f o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s have been o r i e n t e d  suggesting p o s i t i v e present preceding  LPH list  and  actions provincial  that  may  be  achieved  p l a n n i n g systems.  o f c o n c l u s i o n s , however,  towards  under  the  In r e v i e w i n g the  i t i s evident that  many  1 21  of  the  identified  importantly, provincial  cannot  thus,  It  is  framework  that  the  role  managing  well, the  modified. that  schemes  Province's  will  responsibility  in  i s instituted  Recognizing the  Crown l a n d  procedural for  i n the  the  changes,  program,  will  a number o f r e a s o n s .  continue  despite  For  the  instance  to  participation responsible addition,  for  local  by  their the  i s perceived  allocation  as  greater Planning  yet,  advisors  governments  "inadequate"  government  because  by them are of  i n ' the  favour  largely local  held their  limited.  derived  by  government's  they  by t h e i r  given  are  t o be v e r y  the  a broader  are  and  will  process.  residents,  process,  decisions  they  areas  local  decisions  the u l t i m a t e  suggested  the p r o v i n c i a l planning  "plan"  f o r these a c t i o n s  agencies  on  influences,  above  local  responsibility  provincial  Of even  t o be v i e w e d as  the  The Crown l a n d  In  m i n i s t r i e s , as  i n these  t h e e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l scheme, a l t h o u g h  i n t o the process  resource.  arise i f a  Under  input  greater  adjudicating  resources.  embodied  continue  t o be f r u s t r a t e d w i t h  responsible  a  Province.  uncertainty  planning  state.  through the  assume  other  Columbia's n a t u r a l  provincial  Forests,  m i n i s t r y - s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i c plans  use of B r i t i s h  indicated in  the  land  assume a g r e a t e r  overall  i n an u n c e r t a i n  m a g n i t u d e a r e t h e p o t e n t i a l c h a n g e s t h a t may Act  As  place  of  program,  and more  Province's  Crown  will  the  this  Ministry  forest designation  preparing  is  land planning  provincial in  until  a r e many i n f l u e n c e s  t h e Crown  expected  have n o t been a d d r e s s e d ,  be a d d r e s s e d  planning  Chapter VI, there and  problems  are  held  e l e c t o r a t e . In  planning  approach  122  as  opposed  to  the  site  specific  provincial  planning  provision  of  alienation  o f i s o l a t e d Crown  e n d e a v o u r s . The  services  S e c o n d , t h e Crown continue  to  are  land  as u n b i a s e d  land  Ministry  i s not p e r c e i v e d  short,  viewed  the M i n i s t r y  there  plans  being  as having  will  the  structure  to  structure ministry  that  the  need. F u r t h e r ,  RRMC  to  structure  i t may be a r g u e d  The  r e s o l u t i o n of these  the establishment  of  an  the  is  regional  data.  existing An  This  provincial  administrative  does n o t a p p e a r that  this  In  the  Lower  to satisfy  structure  was  i s contingent  this  neither  t h e above w e a k n e s s e s  group  on one f a c t o r to  r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g i t i s suggested  composed o f p r o v i n c i a l a n d l o c a l an  "lead  o f f i n a n c i a l and  essential.  inter-agency  alleviate  l e d by  so, the  m i n i s t r i e s . In  the relevant  efforts.  issues  and perform  be  n o t be  purpose.  priorize  groups  will  will  b u d g e t s a n d work p r o g r a m s o f e a c h  light  nor s t a f f e d f o r t h i s  be  LPH  More  of the other  of  upcoming  designed  -  than the  t h e "power" t o make  to prepare  enables annual  t o be b r o u g h t  Mainland,  by  schemes.  t o be a l a c k  inability  "pre-plan"  the  use p l a n s .  continue  fact  to  and  i s n o t v i e w e d a s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  necessary  due  derived  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  on b e h a l f  manpower r e s o u r c e s is  i n many  lots.  agency" t o prepare p r o v i n c i a l l a n d  Next,  economy  a s more i m p o r t a n t  designation  allocation decisions  inherent  regional  be v i e w e d a s LPH p l a n s  accepted  land  emphasis  independent  that  governments  determine, t a s k s . To  these  and  groups  that  c h a i r m a n who h a s no  the  vested  123  resource In Act  interest. this  regard,  i t i s apparent  i s a most c r i t i c a l  opportunity  exists  occurs,  the  LPH  operate  i n an  element. Through  t o remedy t h e  Crown  that  and  this  proposed  program  Planning  legislative  above s h o r t c o m i n g s .  land planning  "inadequate"  the  will  uncertain state.  tool  Until continue  an  this to  1 2 4  BIBLIOGRAPHY AND  REFERENCES CITED  Arrow, K. 1963. S o c i a l C h o i c e and I n d i v i d u a l V a l u e s . F o u n d a t i o n Monograph, No. 1 2 , John W i l e y , New Y o r k . B a u e r , Raymond A. and K e n n e t h J . G e r g i n ( e d s . ) . of P o l i c y F o r m u l a t i o n . The F r e e P r e s s , New  1968. York.  Cowles  The S t u d y  Braybrooke, D. and C E . L i n d b l o m . 1963. A S t r a t e g y o f D e c i s i o n . 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Was y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n capped i n any way, e i t h e r Please elaborate.  in  determined? interests  this  the planning process h a n d i internally or externally?  10.  Throughout the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , do you f e e l t h a t the various agencies' i n t e r e s t s were adequately r e p r e s e n t e d and p r o t e c t e d ?  11.  In g e n e r a l , how w e r e d e c i s i o n s majority vote...? If and when r e a c h e d , why d i d t h i s occur?  a l l  achieved: consensus, d e c i s i o n s were not  132  INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  (continued)  12.  Do y o u f e e l t h e r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y public at large to a i r their views regarding tent of the plan?  13.  Is p u b l i c Why?  14.  How w a s i n f o r m a t i o n process?  15.  Was i t a d e q u a t e t o make d e c i s i o n s ? What f u r t h e r information would have been v a l u a b l e ? What w o u ld be y o u r estimate of the a d d i t i o n a l cost?  16.  Was i n f o r m a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l T a s k F o r c e members f r o m the b e g i n n i n g ? Once p r o d u c e d , was the information e f f e c t i v e l y d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l Task Force members?  17.  T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s , was t h e r e ample opportunity t o d i s c u s s a l l v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and consequences of these various actions? Were the d i s c u s s i o n s d o m i n a t e d by any one i n d i v i d u a l / a g e n c y ?  18.  Do y o u f e e l y o u r well spent?  19.  What work have y o u / y o u r s t a f f done as a r e s u l t of your p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the Task F o r c e t h a t otherwise would not have been undertaken?  20.  Has y o u r w o r k l o a d c h a n g e d as a r e s u l t o f y o u r i n v o l v e ment i n the p l a n n i n g program? ( E . g . , Have normal o p e r a t i o n s b e e n made e a s i e r due t o t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f some r e s o u r c e conflict?)  participation  necessary  collected  time  on  Task  for  in  this  use  Force  in  for the  the con-  process?  the  activities  planning  was  133  INTERVIEW  SCHEDULE  (continued)  21.  In your o p i n i o n , necks i n the plan d e l a y s , t o o many trouble reaching  what, i f any, are the major bottlening process? (E.g., information people, insufficient finances, consensus...)  22.  Have any Task F o r c e If s o , b y whom?  23.  Were y o u r expressed  24.  Have t h e r e Crown l a n d  25.  Has your a g e n c y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n hanced communication with other communication always existed?  26.  Once that your  27.  How d o e s t h i s a p p r o a c h f i t management systems such as referral system?  into existing resource the R . R . M . C . and the  28.  How m a n y  you  29.  Assuming you could s t a r t from the b e g i n n i n g , can you suggest a " b e t t e r arrangement" to d e r i v e Crown Land Plans and/or ways to improve the e x i s t i n g structure?  30.  Comments ?  decisions  ever  been  overturned?  agency's major resource concerns i n the most recent document?  been any planning  adverse effects program?  adequately  resultant  on the Task agencies or  from  the  Force enhas this  the Crown Land P l a n i s implemented, do you feel t h e a d o p t e d p o l i c i e s w i l l b e o f some b e n e f i t to agency's routine functions?  C . L . P . T . F . ' s  have  been  on?  APPENDIX I I CHRONOLOGIES OF CORRESPONDENCE AND MEETINGS  135  CHRONOLOGY  L i s t  of  OF C O R R E S P O N D E N C E  AND  MEETINGS  Abbreviations  ALC  Agricultural  Land  Commission  ARP  Assistant  CLPTF  Crown  DPR  District  FOC  Fisheries  FWB  Ministry  IPSFC  International  MA  Ministry  of  Agriculture  ME  Ministry  of  Environment  MEMP  Ministry  of  Energy,  MF  Ministry  of  Forests  MLPH  Ministry  of  Lands,  MPS  Ministry Services  of  Provincial  MTH  Ministry  of  Transportation  PB  Ministry  of  Lands,  PHI  Public  Health  PRRD  Powell  River  PVDD  Pemberton  RAB  Ministry  of  RP  Regional  Planner  RRMC  Lower Mainland Committee  SLRD  Squamish-Lillooet  TC  Transport  Canada  TPC  Technical  Planning  WIB  Ministry Branch  of  Environment,  Water  WRB  Ministry  of  Environment,  Water  Regional  Land  Planner  Planning  of  the  and of  Task  Force  Corporation  Oceans  of  Powell  River  Canada  Environment, Pacific  Fish  Salmon  Mines  & Wildlife Fisheries  & Petroleum  Parks  &  Commission  Resources  Housing  Secretary  Parks  Branch  &  &  Government  Highways  & Housing,  Parks  Branch  Inspector Regional  Valley  District  Dyking  Environment,  Regional  District Resource  Resource  Regional  Analysis  Branch  Management  District  Committee Investigations Resources  Branch  136  THE  UPPER  LILLOOET  SUB-DISTRICT  PLANNING  12-09-77  12-09-77  22-09-77  22-09-77  07-10-77  RAB t o MLPH enclosing soils  CROWN  LAND  PROCESS  mapping  for  MLPH t o WIB r e q u e s t i n g comment on f l o o d agricultural applications.  Upper  Lillooet  implications  M L P H t o 10 a g e n c i e s n o t i f i c a t i o n of meeting to discuss implications of three a g r i c u l t u r a l applications. MF, range enclosing Pemberton  d i v i s i o n to information area.  MLPH on p a s t u r e  FWB t o M L P H e n c l o s i n g comments as r e q u e s t e d s i b l e format for study.  valley,  of  resource lease  study  of  regarding  the  pos-  14-10-77  WIB t o MLPH the Upper L i l l o o e t R i v e r i s v o l a t i l e and the area requires r i g i d curtailment of building of any n a t u r e . Enclosing detailed regulations.  18-10-77  RESOURCE AGENCIES ' MEETING p u r p o s e of t h e m e e t i n g was t o r e v i e w r e s o u r c e issues. Main issue identified as forestry versus agricultural development.  28-10-7 7  FWB t o M L P H e n c l o s i n g comments i n s u p p o r t o f f o r e s t r y A u n i q u e h e r d of moose must be p r o t e c t e d .  option.  01-11-77  A L C t o MLPH the area i s at the extremities of the ALR. Fisheries, w i l d l i f e and f o r e s t r y uses are a l l compatible with agricultural protection theme.  04-11-77  PVDD t o MLPH enclosing p o s i t i o n of the Board agricultural l a n d s h o u l d be h e l d f o r r e a l farmers not speculators .  137  08-11-77  M F , s p e c i a l s t u d i e s t o MLPH acceptance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l alternative would foreclose forestry options. The harwood i n the a r e a i s n e c e s s a r y to s u p p o r t an e x i s t i n g m i l l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . F u r t h e r f o r e s t management i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h w i l d l i f e uses.  08-11-77  MF t o M L P H concerned with u t i l i z i n g forest lands for agricultural purposes. Recommend t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d land use p l a n be done.  14- 11-77  FOC t o MLPH e n c l o s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on f i s h e r i e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l development and subsequent f l o o d control measures would d e c r e a s e f i s h r e a r i n g and spawning habitat.  15- 11-77  MA t o M L P H e n c l o s i n g comments on a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l tural leases. Lands s h o u l d not be alienated for purposes other than agriculture.  15-11-77  CLPTF MEETING a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a s e a p p l i c a t i o n s have been denied. Study area should include upper slopes of the v a l l e y . MLPH i s t o p r e p a r e a s t u d y boundary map.  15-11-77  WRB t o almost plain. on the  28-11-77  MLPH (Burnaby) t o MLPH (Victoria) r e q u e s t i n g a b a s e map b e p r e p a r e d area.  12- 12-77  13- 12-77  MLPH lead  MLPH a l l the v a l l e y i s i n an a c t i v e flood Recommend no c l e a r i n g o r development valley floor.  for  (Victoria) t o MLPH (Burnaby) t i m e f o r map p r e p a r a t i o n i s 3 t o  the  6  study  months.  SLRD t o MLPH c o m p l a i n t r e g a r d i n g not b e i n g i n c l u d e d on the task force. The p o s i t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t is t h a t the e n t i r e watershed s h o u l d be s t u d i e d . A l l c o n t r o l s i n t h e p l a n s h o u l d be effected b y SLRD l e g i s l a t i o n .  138  14- 12-77  CLPTF MEETING d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r e d on d e t e r m i n i n g study boundaries. Agencies asked to provide resource maps f o r folio.  12- 01-78  MF t o M L P H enclosing forest  01- 02-78  cover  PB t o MLPH no i m m e d i a t e p l a n s i n should remain open.  base  the  maps.  valley  but  options  02- 02-78  CLPTF MEETING d i s c u s s i o n dealt w i t h road access to upper valley and Meagher hot s p r i n g s . Maps a r e b e i n g p r e p a r e d .  13- 02-78  MLPH (Burnaby) requesting the  16-03-78  MLPH (Burnaby) t o MLPH (Victoria) s e n d i n g f i s h and w i l d l i f e base map.  25-09-78  MLPH (Burnaby) t o MLPH p r o c e e d w i t h s t a t u s map  t o MLPH (Victoria) s o i l s b a s e map be p r e p a r e d .  15- 11-78  MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) t o MLPH forwarding folio maps.  21- 02-79  MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) t o MF planning study notations preclude applications.  16- 03-79  MLPH (Burnaby) to requesting recent  05-04-79  RP t o MLPH (Victoria) s h o u l d p l a n go t o C L P T F established?  (Victoria) but hope q u a l i t y  improves.  (Burnaby)  of  interest  do  not  MLPH (Victoria) aerial photography.  before  plan  prototype  16-05-79  MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) t o RP g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s may be d i s c u s s e d w i t h the CLPTF but not d e t a i l e d p o l i c i e s . The p l a n prototype w i l l be a v a i l a b l e soon.  22- 08-79  A R P t o MLPH (Victoria) enclosing draft plan for  comment.  139  07-09-79  CLPTF MEETING extensive review of the draft plan - format too long - MA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e plan's agricultural policies - consensus reached that plan should only present the forestry option - sub-group established to resolve the forestry-agriculture stalemate.  19-09-79  MF t o MLPH e x i s t i n g format of the plan i s too long and therefore reduces the comprehension of content.  02- 10-79  MA t o R P reiterating lands.  11-10-79  the need  to  protect  a l l  agricultural  MA t o RP map o f s u i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l lands w i l l be f o r warded. Objecting to forestry proposal since it i s a permanent a l l o c a t i o n o f land f o r forest uses. The need f o r a f i v e year review should be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n .  11-10-79  03- 12-79 05-12-79  CLPTF SUB-GROUP MEETING consensus reached on forestry-agriculture conflict. Plan p o l i c i e s to be reviewed i n years. PB t o RP i n agreement  02-01-80  plan  proposals.  WRB t o A R P WRB c o n c e r n s  11-12-79  with  are adequately  considered.  ME ( I n v e n t o r y & E n g i n e e r i n g B r a n c h ) t o R P concur t o t a l l y with the conclusions of the Format o f t h e p l a n , however, c o u l d be more cise.  study, con-  FOC t o RP e n c l o s i n g d e t a i l e d comments. option over agriculture.  01-02-80  five  RP m e e t s w i t h FWB d i s c u s s i o n o f FWB p r o p o s a l l i f e management a r e a .  for  Favour  forestry  creating  a  w i l d -  140  05-02-80  M L P H t o FWB confirming discussion regarding the wildlife reserve proposal. S e n d i n g t o t h e RRMC f o r discussion.  0 5-0 2-80  M L P H t o - c h a i r m a n RRMC forwarding plan f o r endorsement.  14-0 2-80  RRMC m e e t i n g notes Plan approved subject requested by the MA.  27-02-80  to  minor  changes  as  MA t o RP a g r e e w i t h summary s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p l a n . The d r a f t , however, i s unnecessarily negative towards a g r i c u l t u r e . Enclosing suggestions for revision.  25-03-80  RP t o MLPH forwarding  (Victoria) plan f o r staff by Plan  review.  30-04-80  Plan reviewed - approved.  Review  Forum  20-05-80  SLRD t o RP the D i s t r i c t does n o t endorse t h e Plan because the V a l l e y ' s forest resources a r e committed to o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e no d i r e c t benefit t o t h e l o c a l economy.  27-08-80  MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) t o A s s i s t a n t Deputy Ministry, MLPH comments r e g a r d i n g t h e SLRD p o s i t i o n . The problem i s within the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the MF.  02-09-80  A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r , MLPH t o MLPH (Burnaby) P l a n i s t o b e a p p r o v e d w i t h SLRD a p p r o v a l . L o c a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s n o t an i s s u e w i t h MLPH.  27-05-81  Upper L i l l o o e t S u b - D i s t r i c t p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d .  Crown  i n  Land  Victoria  Plan  141  THE  LANG  CREEK  SUB-DISTRICT  PLANNING  CROWN  LAND  PROCESS  06-02-79  RP a t t e n d s m e e t i n g o f t h e PRRD T P C t o apprise them of the forthcoming Lang Creek p l a n n i n g program.  22-02-79  RP d i s t r i b u t e s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e and l i s t of issues concerning the proposed planning e x e r c i s e t o a l l PRRD TPC m e m b e r s . Recipients asked if t h e i r agency wishes to participate, a r e t h e t e r m s a c c e p t a b l e , who w i l l be the c o n t a c t p e r s o n and are t h e r e any o m i s s i o n s in the l i s t of prospective p a r t i c i p a n t s or issues.  27-02-79  FWB, r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e verifying participation.  02- 03-79  TC t o RP requesting  -0 3-7 9  0 5-0 3-79  14-03-79  map  of  study  RP  on  future  area.  R P t o TC map e n c l o s e d , s e e k i n g a d v i c e needs i n P o w e l l R i v e r .  M F , r a n g e r i n P o w e l l R i v e r t o RP acknowledging r e c e i p t of the terms and i s w i l l i n g to participate. D P R , p l a n n e r t o RP accepts terms of reference participation.  and  19-03-79  PHI, Coast Garibaldi Health verifies participation.  22-03-79  MTH, approving o f f i c e r to verifies participation.  27-03-79  TC t o RP s t a t i n g TC i n t e r e s t i s o n l y and not i n f u t u r e  03- 04-79  to  Unit  of  airport  reference  verifies  to  RP  RP  i n the present reserves.  M F , r e g i o n a l o f f i c e t o RP states w i l l i n g to participate.  airport  142  12-04-79  M A , r e g i o n a l o f f i c e t o RP u n c l e a r o f input r e q u i r e d , forwarding terms reference to d i s t r i c t agriculturalist.  01-05-79  MA, d i s t r i c t agriculturalist willing to participate.  10- 05-79  ARP t o FOC forwarding  17-0 5-79  22- 05-79  terms  of  t o RP  reference.  PRRD t o A R P e n c l o s i n g r e s u l t s of community conducted i n the region.  questionnaire  PHI t o ARP enclosing l i s t of d i s t r i c t lots sewage d i s t r i b u t i o n problems.  with  known  23- 05-79  M P S ,a s s i s t a n t r e g i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t t o ARP p r o v i d i n g comments on known a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the study area.  28-05-79  ARP t o MPS acknowledging information.  28-05-79  28-05-79  05-06-79  0 6-0 6-79  07-06-79  11- 06-79  of  receipt  of  archaeological  A R P t o PRRD requesting further information questionnaire results. M F , r a n g e r t o RP enclosing a l i s t of forest management.  lots  FOC (Nanaimo) to ARP forwarding information in streams. ARP t o CLPTF e n c l o s i n g a copy  of  suitable  the land  of  specific  for  on salmonid  A R P t o ME ( V i c t o r i a ) requesting the preparation c a p a b i l i t i e s map. PRRD t o A R P forwarding specific  on  long-term  populations  status map.  a  questionnaire  development  results.  143  25-06-79  28-06-79  ARP t o CLPTF distributing the infrastructure  map.  MPS t o ARP the information requested provided to the RP.  was  previously  05-07-79  ARP to MA, d i s t r i c t agriculturalist requesting input regarding the v i a b i l i t y of agricultural activities i n the study area.  05-07-79  A R P t o WRB requesting s p e c i f i c data on watershed water resources i n the study area.  05-07-79  ARP t o DPR requesting for future  0 5-07-79  12- 07-79  and  further airport  data regarding reserves.  A R P t o MEMP requesting information  on mineral  the  need  claims.  FOC t o ARP recommendations f o r s a m e a s t h e ME s .  creek  preservation  are  1  13- 07-79  13-07-79  MEMP t o A R P require further information can be forwarded on m i n e r a l  before a claims.  response  WRB t o A R P forwarding  data  on  watersheds.  13-07-79  ARP to notary p u b l i c i n Powell R i v e r requesting information on available private holdings and current attributes of the real estate market.  16- 07-79  A R P t o MEMP enclosing specific mineral claims.  17- 0 7-7 9  18- 07-79  ARP t o CLPTF enclosing legal  data  needs  respecting  constraints map.  ARP t o ALC requesting input regarding Reserve boundaries.  Agricultural  Land  144  19- 07-7 9  Notary P u b l i c t o ARP forwarding views regarding market i n Powell R i v e r .  the real  estate  24-07-79  MA, d i s t r i c t agriculturalist to ARP enclosing information on the v i a b i l i t y of small scale agriculture i n the study area.  24-07-79  DPR t o MLPH, r e g i o n a l l a n d manager requesting provincial reserve designation on f u t u r e a i r p o r t lands.  27-07-79  M F , r e g i o n a l f o r e s t e r t o ARP enclosing i n i t i a l comments r e g a r d i n g uses i n the planning area.  02-08-79  02-08-79  16-08-79  16-08-79  23-08-79  MEMP t o A R P enclosing mineral  claims  habitat  WIB ( V i c t o r i a ) t o RP f o r w a r d i n g map d e p i c t i n g  map.  locations  of  wells.  of  gravel  reserves  of  lands  ARP t o TC requesting c l a r i f i c a t i o n for airport reserves.  20- 09-79  and proposals ARP t o s y n t h e s i z e  A R P t o MTH requesting c l a r i f i c a t i o n in the area.  06-09-79  data.  CLPTF MEETING d i s c u s s i o n centered on data submitted to the agencies. the information. ARP t o CLPTF enclosing w i l d l i f e  forest  required  ARP t o TC requesting information regarding t h e need f o r  s u b m i t t e d b y t h e DPR airport reserves.  27-09-79  M L P H , l a n d o f f i c e r t o DPR s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t c o n t a c t TC t o v e r i f y the need f o r a i r p o r t reserves.  04-10-79  FWB t o R P submitting a cursory Lang Creek.  habitat  evaluation  of  145  10-10-79  TC t o ARP delineating  16-10-79  26-10-79  status  of  airport  ARP t o CLPTF distributing draft  of  plan  05- 11-79  i n  question,  comment.  TC t o ARP v e r i f i c a t i o n of parcels airport reserve.  29-10-79  for  lands  no longer  required  DPR t o MLPH, l a n d officer r e q u e s t i n g land t o be r e s e r v e d although necessarily for airport purposes. ARP t o MA, d i s t r i c t agriculturalist r e q u e s t i n g comments on a g r i c u l t u r a l detailed i n the draft plan.  for  not  sites  06- 11-7 9  MF t o A R P expressing concerns over providing recreational lands at the expense of forest lands.  13-11-79  MPS t o ARP the draft plan adequately tage resources.  15-11-7 9  15- 11-79  16- 11-79  23-11-79  06-12-79  the  MLPH, d i s t r i c t l a n d manager t o DPR MLPH i s i n t e r e s t e d i n Crown r e s e r v e s port uses only and not commercial or activity. WRB t o A R P enclosing minor  amendments  to  h e r i -  for a i r industrial  the draft  MA, d i s t r i c t agriculturalist t o ARP e n c l o s i n g comments r e g a r d i n g l i m i t e d t u r a l development potentials.  plan.  a g r i c u l -  MTH t o A R P forwarding  29-11-79  addresses  data  on gravel  ARP t o CLPTF c i r c u l a t i n g second d r a f t , meeting.  reserves.  c a l l  for  CLPTF MEETING draft generally acceptable to a l l no f u r t h e r m e e t i n g s a r e r e q u i r e d .  second  participants,  146  14-12-79  PHI t o RP enclosing v e r i f i c a t i o n of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p o t a b l e water i n t h e Small H o l d i n g Development Area.  08-01-80  ALC t o ARP e n c l o s i n g comments r e g a r d i n g t h e management of a g r i c u l t u r a l lands i n the R e s i d e n t i a l H o l d i n g Zone. The C o m m i s s i o n i s c o n d u c t i n g a s e p a r a t e r e v i e w o f t h e ALR b o u n d a r i e s i n the study area.  12-01-80  ARP t o ALC s t a t i n g most o f t h e ALC's comments h a v e b e e n incorporated into the f i n a l d r a f t .  18-01-80  PRRD t o ARP e x p r e s s i n g t h e Board's g e n e r a l agreement w i t h t h e p l a n ' s c a t e g o r i e s . The B o a r d , however, would l i k e t o m a i n t a i n g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over forest a c t i v i t i e s adjacent t o private lands.  23-01-80  ALC t o RRCC ( c a r b o n copy) t h e ALC w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g r e v i e w ALR b o u n d a r i e s .  a public hearing t o  23- 01-80  MTH, a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r t o ARP e n c l o s i n g m i n o r comments on .the E x e c u t i v e Summary.  24- 01-80  WRB t o ARP expressing concern over supply o f i r r i g a t i o n water t o areas s l a t e d f o r development.  30-01-80  ARP t o MLPH, V i c t o r i a i n f o r m a t i o n enclosing copies of draft plan.  05-02-80  MLPH, r e g i o n a l manager t o RRMC c h a i r m a n f o r w a r d i n g p l a n t o t h e RRMC f o r e n d o r s e m e n t .  05-02-80  MLPH r e g i o n a l manager t o PRRD s t a t i n g t h e M i n i s t r y d o e s n o t have j u r i s d i c t i o n over f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s . Conflicts regarding l o c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e s e l a n d s must be f o r w a r d e d t o t h e MF.  14-02-80  MLPH, r e g i o n a l manager t o MLPH, d e p u t y m i n i s t e r e n c l o s i n g p l a n and e x e c u t i v e summary, r e q u e s t i n g adoption of the plan.  officer  147  21-0 3-8 0  ALC t o MLPH, r e g i o n a l l a n d manager ALC h a s c o n d u c t e d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g and i s i n cluding the plan's a g r i c u l t u r a l lands i n t o t h e ALR.  27-03-80  Minister issues a press p l a n i s complete.  31-03-80  ARP t o MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) enclosing copies of the Plan.  31-03-80  ARP t o CLPTF enclosing copies of the Plan.  02- 04-80  L a n g C r e e k S u b - D i s t r i c t Crown Land P l a n able f o r wide c i r c u l a t i o n .  24-02-81  MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) t o MLPH, r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r implement a t i o n l i e s with the Region. What s t e p s have been taken?  20-03-81  RP t o MF ( P o w e l l R i v e r ) s o l i c i t i n g procedures f o r i n c l u d i n g areas i n t o the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t .  release  stating the  avail-  the forest  20-03-81  MLPH, r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r t o MLPH ( V i c t o r i a ) p r e p a r i n g t h e necessary documentation f o r i n c l u d i n g the f o r e s t areas i n t o the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s u n d e r S e c t i o n 12 o f t h e L a n d A c t .  03- 04-81  MF, d i s t r i c t manager t o RP n o t i f i c a t i o n of meeting t o discuss inclusions.  forest  APPENDIX I I I TASK FORCE  PARTICIPANTS  149  UPPER LILLOOET CROWN LAND PLANNING TASK FORCE  1. 2.  D.R. P r o u d l o c k Pemberton V a l l e y  Dyking D i s t r i c t ,  J i m McCracken Water R i g h t s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.  3 . *Hugh N e s b i t t - P o r t e r Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s V i c t o r i a , B.C. 4.  5. 6.  7. 8.  o f Lands,  Don K i n n e a r , F o r e s t e r M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , Vancouver,  of Environment,  P a r k s and H o u s i n g ,  B.C.  Branch, M i n i s t r y  of Environment,  Steve MacFarlane F i s h e r i e s and Oceans C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , F r e d Andrew I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.  9. * B r i a n N y b e r g Ministry of Forests, 10. Bob L a w r e n c e F i s h and W i l d l i f e Pemberton, B.C.  Vancouver,  11. G e r r y K r o t z , A s s i s t a n t Ranger M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , Pemberton,  B.C. Commission,  B.C.  Branch, M i n i s t r y . o f  12. E.W. W a l k e r Ministry of Agriculture,  B.C.  o f Environment,  Branch, M i n i s t r y  David Bruce Parks Branch, M i n i s t r y N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  Gordon M c K i n n o n F i s h and W i l d l i f e B u r n a b y , B.C.  Pemberton,  Environment,  B.C.  Cloverdale,  B.C.  UPPER LILLOOET CROWN LAND PLANNING TASK FORCE  13. 14.  I v a n Knowles Squamish-Lillooet Regional D i s t r i c t ,  (continued)  P e m b e r t o n , B.C.  John G e r b r a n d t , Land O f f i c e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , B u r n a b y ,  15. L a r r y W o l f e , R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g ,  B.C.  Burnaby,  B.C.  16. K a r e n F e r g u s o n , A s s i s t a n t R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , B u r n a b y ,  B.C.  T h e s e .persons were n o t a v a i l a b l e  f o r interviews.  LANG CREEK CROWN LAND PLANNING TASK FORCE 1.  Gary G i b s o n , P u b l i c H e a l t h Inspector Coast G a r i b a l d i Health U n i t , Powell R i v e r ,  2. * T e r r y S t o k e s , D i r e c t o r Powell River Regional D i s t r i c t , 3.  B.C.  Powell  River,  B.C.  F r a n c i s Legget, A s s i s t a n t Planner Powell R i v e r Regional D i s t r i c t , Powell  River,  B.C.  4.  A l Peatt, Technician F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , B u r n a b y , B.C.  5.  Don V a n d e r H o r s t , P l a n n i n g A s s i s t a n t M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  6.  B r u c e H o r n i n g , Ranger M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s , Powell  River,  B.C.  7. * B . J . Jawanda, D i r e c t o r , P l a n s C o o r d i n a t i o n M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 8. * T u c k e r F o r s y t h e Ministry of Transportation 9. 10.  11. 12.  13. 14.  Kirk M i l l e r Agricultural  and H i g h w a y s , G i b s o n s , B,  L a n d C o m m i s s i o n , B u r n a b y , B.C.  R. S a b i n e , P l a n n e r Corporation o f the D i s t r i c t R i v e r , B.C.  o f Powell  River,  N e i l Armstrong, Conservation O f f i c e r F i s h e r i e s and Oceans C a n a d a , P o w e l l R i v e r , Martin Driehuyzen Ministry of Agriculture, Cloverdale,  Powell  B.C.  B.C.  Pauline Rafferty, Archaeologist Ministry of Provincial Secretary, V i c t o r i a ,  B.C.  J i m McCracken Water R i g h t s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.  New  LANG CREEK CROWN LAND PLANNING TASK FORCE ( c o n t i n u e d ) 15. * C a r l D i l l o n Community A i r p o r t s B.C.  O f f i c e , T r a n s p o r t Canada, Vancouver,  16. L a r r y W o l f e , R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g ,  Burnaby,  B.C.  17. K a r e n F e r g u s o n , A s s i s t a n t R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , B u r n a b y ,  B.C.  18. L a r r y S o r k e n , Land O f f i c e r M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g , B u r n a b y ,  B.C.  *  T h e s e p e r s o n s were n o t a v a i l a b l e  f o r interviews.  APPENDIX I V EXECUTIVE  SUMMARIES  154  UPPER LILLOOET SUB-DISTRICT CROWN LAND PLAN SUMMARY The  initiation  Lillooet use  arising  agencies  i t was  forestry  clear  yields  dangers.  and  valley.  address  these  resource  these and  three  for a  u n d e r t a k e n by  hectares  discussions with  habitat  of other  (moose), as w e l l as  affect  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was and  likely.  Therefore  con-  avalanche addi-  these  concerns,  task  1977.  Task F o r c e  plan  an  interagency  lease  force  T e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s were  to prepare  evaluations.  Task F o r c e  alternative  appli-  policy  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were Two  lease  a t u r n i n g - p o i n t land-use  suitability  s t u d i e s , the  resource  a p p l i c a t i o n s were a p p r o v e d ,  O c t o b e r 18, the  with  downstream f l o o d h a z a r d s  represented  organized  Upper  t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e development would  a p p l i c a t i o n s w o u l d be  To  of the  i n v o l v i n g 332  (cottonwood).  I f the  decisions  was  1977  wildlife  f o r o n - s i t e and  decision  study  agricultural  From i n f o r m a t i o n and  reduce ungulate  tional  from t h r e e  received during  Crown l a n d .  cern  a resources  R i v e r V a l l e y r e s u l t e d from concern  conflicts  cations  of  evaluated  capability On  the b a s i s  mapping of  various strategies  discussed. concepts  V a l l e y F l o o r were d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g  f o r . l a n d use the  study.  on The  the first  155  reflected  an  agricultural  the development o f of  the w i l d l i f e  future  allow  forestry  and  the  evident tively  to the  The  alternative serving  B.C.  than  plan  stressed  preservation preserving  a l t e r n a t i v e may  possibly  improvements  Ministry of Agriculture, i t i m p a c t s on  with  the  g o a l was  wildlife  these  second  considered  r e i n f o r c e s the  long-term  the  enhancement o r w i l d l i f e  alternative  a c h i e v i n g the  and  habitat, while  agricultural  that negative greater  second  options.  f o r some f i s h  according  The  resources  fisheries  agricultural  Although  priority.  the  resources  was  rela-  alternative.  t o be  t h e b e s t means o f  forestry option.  forestry  was  This  industry, while  h a b i t a t and  future  pre-  agricultural  potentials. This plan e c o n o m i c and  i s a statement of  social  contains general senting cial of  the  this  o b j e c t i v e s f o r the  policy  a cooperative  o b j e c t i v e s and study  study  area's  will  be  resource,  concerning  effort  concerns  toward  resource study  The  r e l e v a n t f o r 10 warrants  area.  area  and  further  provin-  management  policies  years  It  repre-  coordination of  for planning  Crown l a n d s .  change i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s  the  environmental,  proposed  unless review.  a major  in  156  LANG CREEK  SUB-DISTRICT CROWN LAND PLAN  SUMMARY Concern over l a n d use c o n f l i c t s for r u r a l  residential  development  t h e L a n g C r e e k Crown L a n d P l a n . and H o u s i n g D i v i s i o n Housing study  received  area  precipitated Specifically,  of the M i n i s t r y  37 a p p l i c a t i o n s  stemming f r o m a demand  f o r Crown l a n d w i t h i n t h e  f r o m J a n u a r y t o November, 1979.  The m a j o r i t y o f Many o f t h e s e  a p p l i c a t i o n s were d i s a l l o w e d due t o p o s s i b l e land  designate sion  u s e s s u c h as r e s o u r c e  t h e Lands  o f L a n d s , P a r k s and  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s were f o r s m a l l h o l d i n g s .  other  t h e need f o r  development.  conflict  The need t o  a r e a s f o r s e t t l e m e n t p u r p o s e s and l a n d  i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t were r e c o g n i z e d  eliminating  conflict  An i n t e r - a g e n c y  and s a t i s f y i n g  task  force  these concerns formally  Through t h i s decisions  task force,  demands.  c o o r d i n a t e d by t h e L a n d s formed t o  i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner.  i t was p o s s i b l e  i n a manner t h a t w o u l d  for inclu-  as ways o f  and H o u s i n g D i v i s i o n , Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n , was address  with  optimize  t o make l a n d u s e social,  economic  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l b e n e f i t s .  S t u d y t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e were p r e p a r e d i n F e b r u a r y , 1979 and d a t a was  collected  and a n a l y z e d by September,  1979.  157  The  analysis indicated  conflicts  c o u l d be  avoided  l a n d use w i t h i n t h e Agricultural Reserve.  and  and  wildlife  and  dealt with  one  area  residential)  concept  to  i n the  p l a n has  for present  use,  provides  f o r the  are w e l l  airport  the  r e s e r v e were  Existing  re-assessed  document  future small holdings  fish  over  and  i n the  as w a t e r s h e d p u r p o s e s , The  economically  wildlife  some d i s t r i c t  (rural  Powell use  resources.  lots  for  gravel pits  and  p l a n makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r  development t o o c c u r w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g is socially,  power l i n e .  land f o r future a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r o t e c t i o n of  development.  along  been p r o p o s e d i n t h i s  and  Reserves have been m a i n t a i n e d uses such  as  land for inclusion  and  that  area  Land  need.  Forest, preserves  future  accommodated.  the A g r i c u l t u r a l  resources  Provincial  specific  c o u l d be  a large airport  according  This plan allows  allows  use  t h a t a l l m a j o r demands f o r  c l e a r i n g s such  including  Only  planning  land  w i t h most s i g n i f i c a n t h a b i t a t s l o c a t e d  water courses reserves,  and  l a n d i s p r o t e c t e d by  Fish  represented  that at present,  and  area  i n a manner  environmentally  acceptable  

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