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Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (1878-1927) : a centennial presentation and assessment O’Dell, Sally Margaret 1980

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MIKHAIL PETROVICH ARTSYBASHEV  (1878-1927):  A CENTENNIAL PRESENTATION AND  ASSESSMENT  by SALLY MARGARET O'DELL M.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1972  THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in . . THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  ©  1980  S a l l y M a r g a r e t O ' D e l l , 1980  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  ^  .  .  j.  Department of  Slavonic  Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 March 25,  1980  ABSTRACT MIKHAIL PETROVICH ARTSYBASKEV  (1878-1927);  A CENTENNIAL PRESENTATION AND ASSESSMENT As  t h e r e h a s been no c o m p r e h e n s i v e  t h e w o r k s o f M. P. A r t s y b a s h e v of  l i t e r a r y study of  (1878-1927),  i t i s t h e purpose  t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o e x p l o r e b o t h t h e b r e a d t h and t h e  depth  o f t h i s a u t h o r ' s m o s t p r o d u c t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t  period  (1900-1912).  Artsybashev s 1  prose  l i t e r a r y and j o u r n a l i s t i c  c a r e e r spans over t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , from t h e appearance o f his tion  first  short story  i n 19 00, t o t h e p e r i o d o f h i s e m i g r a -  i n Warsaw a t w h i c h t i m e h e c o - e d i t e d t h e a n t i - B o l s h e v i k  n e w s p a p e r , Za s v o b o d u  (192 4 - 1 9 2 7 ) .  During the prose p e r i o d  d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n , one may n o t e a l e a d i n g theme w h i c h d e f i n e d by t h e c r i t i c s  of Artsybashev's  vidualism"  (L' v o v - R o g a c h e v s k i i ) . .  philosophy  "anarchical individualism,"  time as  was  "Ultraindi-  Artsybashev c a l l e d  this  thus a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f  w i t h a popular s o c i a l philosophy t h a t developed  i n late  nine-  teenth, early twentieth century Russia. A r t s y b a s h e v ' s C o l l e c t e d Works c o m p r i s e  t e n volumes,  w i t h a d d i t i o n a l works a p p e a r i n g i n s e p a r a t e e d i t i o n s . lations  o f h i s works appear i n most major Western  languages  as w e l l as D a n i s h and Japanese.  Trans-  European  H i s more p o p u l a r  works —  stories,  n o v e l s and p l a y s —  American  critics,  who i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e p t e d t h e a u t h o r a s one  who w r o t e  enjoyed  success w i t h  i n the t r a d i t i o n o f Russian l i t e r a t u r e . ii  His  iii w r i t i n g d o e s i n d e e d r e f l e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e two nineteenth-century His r e a l i s t i c  Russian  technique  R e a l i s t s — T o l s t o y and  i s now  ments o f i m p r e s s i o n i s m and  ical  Dostoevsky.  then o v e r l a i d w i t h  ele-  e x p r e s s i o n i s m , p l a c i n g him w i t h i n  t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e f i n de The  and  great  siecle artistic  o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s  sensibilities.  study f o l l o w s the  order of the works d i s c u s s e d , thus t r a c i n g  characterization,  s t y l e , and  narration.  bashev's c r i t i c s ,  which are noted  The  chronolog-  themes,  views of A r t s y -  throughout,  illustrate  to  what e x t e n t t h e o p i n i o n s . ( c o n c e r n i n g t h i s w r i t e r w e r e m o s t often vastly divided.  Chapter  I f o c u s e s on t h e  author's  e a r l i e s t s t o r i e s , which d e p i c t the i n d i v i d u a l tormented l i m i t e d by presented  society.  The  f i r s t s t o r i e s and  t h e r e c e p t i o n i t was  Chapter  g i v e n by  the  II  focuses  critics.  I I I views s t o r i e s of contemporary Russian  c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h p e r s o n a l and  s o c i a l problems.  society,  The  man's m o r t a l i t y d o m i n a t e s t h e s t o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n IV.  One  suicide, nei  him  of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t h e theme o f A r t s y b a s h e v s 1  cherty, presented  attempts a s an  the  s p e c i a l p l a c e o f " S m e r t ' L a n d e " among t h e  other c r e a t i o n s i s discussed.  on S a n i n and Chapter  l o n g s t o r y "Smert'- L a n d e " i s a l s o  h e r e as a t i e b e t w e e n t h e s e  n o v e l San i n . author's  The  and  i n Chapter  V.  theme o f Chapter  dilemma,  large novel U posled-  The  final  chapter,  t o d i s c u s s t h i s a u t h o r more g e n e r a l l y , and  to  VI, place  important minor prose w r i t e r of e a r l y t w e n t i e t h  iv century  Russia. Artsybashev s r  eternal questions Russian his  Realist  life-long  search  f o r the answers t o  a l i g n s him w i t h the m a i n s t r e a m o f  literary tradition.  characters against crushing  The  f a t e may  the  b a t t l e s waged a l s o be  seen  p r e f i g u r e t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w r i t i n g s o f A l b e r t Camus his  f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e A b s u r d Man.  the beginnings a n x i e t i e s and  of the twentieth century, challenges, are mirrored  the  by to and  Indeed,  with i t s manifold  i n Artsybashev's  work.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE ABSTRACT  i  L I S T OF FIGURES  .,  i  v i i  PREFACE  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x i  TRANSLATION, TRANSLITERATION AND ABBREVIATIONS  xiii  INTRODUCTION AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH I.  EARLY STORIES ( 1 9 0 1 - 1 9 0 4 ) P a r t 1:  S o c i e t y , t h e I n d i v i d u a l and N a t u r e "Kupriian,"  "Krov',"  "Podpraporshchik  Gololobov,"  "Smekh,"  P a r t 2:  .  17  podvala." "Smert' Lande" —  Twentiety-Century SANIN ( 1 9 0 3 , p u b l i s h e d  The L i f e o f a  Saint  78  1907):  THE INDIVIDUAL LIBERATED  III.  1 17  " P a s h a Tumanov,"  "Iz  II.  . . . .  101  P a r t 1:  The N o v e l  101  P a r t 2:  Notes from t h e C r i t i c s  125  THE EBB AND FLOW OF THE HUMAN WAVE: STORIES 1904-1907 P a r t 1:  154  Man a n d Woman  Zhena," "Bunt,"  154 "Schast'e,"  "Uzhas."  vi CHAPTER  PAGE Part  2:  The R e v o l u t i o n  "Teni u t r a , "  "Krovavoe  "Chelovecheskaia IV.  THE ANARCHY OF DEATH: "Milliony,"  U POSLEDNEI CHERTY (1911-1912)  VI.  piatno,"  STORIES 1906-1910 Shevyrev,"  "Bratiia  "Silnee smerti,"  187  volna."  "Rabochii  neizlechimykh,"  V.  o f 1905  . .  214  "Palata  Arimafeiskie,"  "Zlodei."  (BREAKING POINT) — . -  SUICIDE 256  THE PROSE OF M.P. ARTSYBASHEV  29 3  NOTES  310  BIBLIOGRAPHY  331  L I S T OF  FIGURES PAGE  Figure 1 M.P.  Artsybashev  xiv  vii  PREFACE The f o l l o w i n g pages r e p r e s e n t t h e work o f over f o u r years.  One would perhaps wish that t h e r e had been even more  time t o read and d i g e s t t h e t e n volumes o f the C o l l e c t e d Works o f Artsybashev and t h e many and v a r i e d works o f h i s critics. of  The purpose o f t h i s work i s t o a c q u a i n t t h e student  l i t e r a t u r e w i t h t h e main s t o r i e s and two major n o v e l s o f  Artsybashev which make up t h e core of h i s l i t e r a r y In  oeuvre.  choosing f o r a d i s s e r t a t i o n t o p i c t h e works o f t h i s  c o n t r o v e r s i a l author, I am n o t n e c e s s a r i l y prepared t o defend Artsybashev's thoughts and ideas as they e x i s t i n these works as fundamental  truths.  Nor do I wish t o use  Artsybashev's words and heroes as a mouthpiece f o r my own views.  I endeavor  t o render o n l y a sympathetic  and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Artsybashev*s work — not been attempted b e f o r e . o n l y be termed g e n e r a l .  My approach  appreciation  a t a s k which has t o these works can  I t seems t o me t h a t t h e most o u t -  s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s o f h i s work a r e t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s expressed and l i v e d by h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; h i s p l o t s and a c t i o n ,  creating  dramatic t e n s i o n which mounts throughout each s t o r y ; h i s s k i l l a t n a t u r e d e s c r i p t i o n ; and t h e t o t a l i t y o f a l l o f t h e above which amounts t o a s e n s i t i v e understanding and b o l d portrayal of l i f e .  I t does n o t seem r e l e v a n t t o use a more  f o r m a l i s t i c approach t o Artsybashev: t h a t i s , s t r i c t l y stylistics,  structuralism or semiotics. viii  There a r e authors  ix such as P i l ' n i a k or B e l y i , of t h i s e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p e r i o d , who  do b e n e f i t from such approaches because o f t h e i r  elaborate s t y l e s .  I l e a v e t h i s work ( c l o s e r t e x t s t u d i e s )  t o other s c h o l a r s , i f indeed they f e e l i t would be  useful.  T h i s does not imply t h a t s t y l i s t i c s w i l l be d i s r e g a r d e d , r a t h e r that I use a more e c l e c t i c and g e n e r a l approach t o the c r i t i c i s m o f these works.  Because these works a r e not  w e l l known t o e i t h e r the s p e c i a l i s t or the student of Russian l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e somewhat d e t a i l e d accounts of the s t o r i e s . Now  and then, d u r i n g my  years of study o f the works  of M. P. Artsybashev, I have met s c h o l a r s  (other than those  immediately concerned w i t h my d i s s e r t a t i o n ) who me encouragement.  have g i v e n  R e c e n t l y , P r o f e s s o r R. F. C h r i s t i a n  mentioned one of Artsybashev*s s t o r i e s i n the c o n t e x t of Tolstoy's i n t e r e s t i n vegetarianism.  The s t o r y was  sympathetic a p p r e c i a t i o n by P r o f e s s o r C h r i s t i a n himself).  given a  (and T o l s t o y  The S o v i e t p l a y w r i g h t , Samuel A l e s h i n , whom I met  when he v i s i t e d Canada, expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t A r t s y b a shev was  a w r i t e r who  was  deserved more a t t e n t i o n .  i n many ways ahead of h i s time, and My  correspondence w i t h N i c h o l a s  Luker c o n c e r n i n g Artsybashev and K u p r i n has been most p r o f i t a b l e and encouraging.  Late l a s t y e a r , I spoke w i t h Dr.  B e r n i c e Rosenthal (whose work on M e r e z h k o v s k i i has been p u b l i s h e d i n book form), who  expressed i n t e r e s t i n my work,  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t she f e l t t h i s work would be welcomed.  X  Above a l l , when r e a d i n g and d i s c u s s i n g t h e works o f Artsybashev, I have t r i e d t o be f a i t h f u l t o the author's p h i l o s o p h y and v i s i o n .  Many o f t h e i s s u e s presented i n the  works o f t h i s author a r e s t i l l v i a b l e and indeed today —  t h e new m o r a l i t y ,  death, man alone —  important  s u i c i d e , war p r o t e s t , f e a r o f  a l l these a r e f a c e t s o f modern l i f e t o  be reckoned w i t h by the people o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and the authors who c h r o n i c l e these times.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e t o extend my s i n c e r e s t thanks t o Dr. M i c h a e l F u t r e l l , who s u p e r v i s e d I both grew from h i s p a t i e n c e ,  this thesis.  The work and  prodding and d e d i c a t i o n .  I  would a l s o l i k e t o thank my r e a d e r s f o r t h e i r  various  comments.  and Czaykowski  Professors  Turner, P e t r o , M e r i v a l e  each gave ideas and i n s p i r a t i o n t o t h i s work,  A special  word o f a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. M e r i v a l e , who read t h i s t h e s i s very c l o s e l y and helped t o g i v e i t shape.  A f i n a l word o f  a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Gleb S e k u l i n , my e x t e r n a l examiner, f o r his  assistance. I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e Department o f S l a v o n i c  Studies  as a whole f o r i t s moral and f i n a n c i a l support.  The  U n i v e r s i t y i t s e l f has been most h e l p f u l through i t s many s c h o l a r s h i p programs, and e s p e c i a l l y through i t s A c a d i a Camp Family Housing, which gave me a r e a l home. The  U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y a i d e d me g r e a t l y .  This thesis  c o u l d n o t have been completed without t h e h e l p o f Jack Mcintosh, S l a v i c B i b l i o g r a p h e r , o r I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans.  The  U n i v e r s i t y o f H e l s i n k i I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans was e s p e c i a l l y cooperative  i n promptly sending t h e m a t e r i a l s  I requested.  Thank you t o my f r i e n d s who have n o t been mentioned above: Sandra, Barbara, Doreen, John, Meral, M i l e n a , t h e Hickmans, t h e Burns, and a s p e c i a l thank you t o an o l d f r i e n d , S v i a t o s l a v , who s t a r t e d me on t h i s journey. xi  Without  xii the support and  i n s p i r a t i o n o f my  never been begun. understanding  and  f a m i l y t h i s work would  My daughter B r i g e t t e has  shown me  l o v e , b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e beyond her  I deeply a p p r e c i a t e the work of Mrs.  great years.  Ruby Toren,  who  typed t h i s t h e s i s and p a t i e n t l y e d i t e d i t w h i l e we were t h r e e thousand m i l e s a p a r t .  T h i s t h e s i s i s only one of many  t h a t she has been e s s e n t i a l i n Finally* Law  producing.  I would l i k e t o express  thanks to the P u b l i c  Department of S q u i r e , Sanders & Dempsey of C l e v e l a n d ,  Ohio f o r b e l i e v i n g i n the worth of the academic world.  TRANSLATION, TRANSLITERATION AND  ABBREVIATIONS  Proper names, t i t l e s and passages quoted w i l l  be  t r a n s l i t e r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the L i b r a r y of Congress method, except f o r names or t i t l e s which have an accepted t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n ; e.g.,  "Leo T o l s t o y "  English  i n s t e a d of "Lev T o l s t o i "  (to be used i n most p l a c e s ) . T i t l e s of books, s t o r i e s , j o u r n a l s and newspapers w i l l be given f i r s t i n t h e i r L. C. form, then i n E n g l i s h translation;  e.g., Russkoe bogatstvo  (Russian Wealth).  A l l t r a n s l a t i o n s of the works o f M. P. Artsybashev included  i n t h i s t h e s i s are mine u n l e s s otherwise s p e c i f i e d .  When q u o t i n g l o n g passages from Russian, E n g l i s h w i l l be used.  translations  I f t h e r e are words or phrases whose meaning  (or sound) i n Russian i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r the  under-  s t a n d i n g of the passage, they w i l l be t r a n s l i t e r a t e d . A b b r e v i a t i o n s such as P.s.s. a r e used t o i n d i c a t e Polnoe s o b r a n i e s o c h i n e n i i o f authors other than Artsybashev. S.s. —  Sobranie s o c h i n e n i i .  xrii  /VI. II. i\pu,Li6auieBi>.  Figure 1 M.P.  Artsybashev  xiv  INTRODUCTION AND The  BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH  l i t e r a r y works of M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v  (1878-1927) s p a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y 1900  t o 1927.  These y e a r s o v e r l a p a most  d i v e r s e and r i c h p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y w h i c h has been c a l l e d or  1917).  I t saw  "The  1  ( c i r c a 1890  to  1914  l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e b e g i n n i n g  the a r t of cinematography —  forms.  fascinating,  o f p o e t r y and t h e a d v e n t o f  M o d e r n a r t , m u s i c , d a n c e and of  —  of Russian culture  S i l v e r Age"  a rebirth  ;  an a m a l g a m a t i o n  of a l l a r t  W l a d i m i r W e i d l e c h a r a c t e r i z e s and d e s c r i b e s  the  t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n as a t i m e o f r e n e w a l : " I t was  not only a r e l i g i o u s ,  artistic  and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e n e w a l ,  but a renewal of the State i t s e l f , of the s t r u c t u r e , 2 and e c o n o m i c ,  of the Russian Empire."  even t h e changes program  gave b i r t h of  H o w e v e r , he  explains,  t h a t w e r e made w e r e o n l y a r e d e c o r a t i n g  on a b u i l d i n g The  social  w h i c h was  on s h i f t i n g  ground.  turn-of-the-century period i n Russian to a particular  the Apocalypse.  type of l i t e r a t u r e :  "The w o r l d was  literature  the  literature  on t h e b o r d e r o f a  new  age w h i c h many h o p e d w o u l d be t h e p r o m i s e d M i l l e n n i u m , 3 whether  social  i Antikhrist  or r e l i g i o u s . " (Christ  D.  and A n t i c h r i s t ,  A p o k a l i p s i s nashego vremeni  1  1 9 0 6 ) , V. V.  (Pale Horse, 1905),  t h e m a s t e r p i e c e o f A. B l o k , w h i c h a p p e a r e d  Revolution:  "Dvenadtsat'"  Rozanov's  (The A p o c a l y p s e o f Our  1 9 1 7 ) , V. B r i u s o v ' s "Kon' b l e d " finally  S. M e r e z h k o v s k i i s K h r i s t o s  (The T w e l v e ,  Time, and after  1918), p r o c l a i m  the  the  2 coming o f t h e end — end  o f I . Bunin's  a time o f reckoning  f o rRussia.  A t the  G o s p o d i n i z San- F r a n t s i s k o (The G e n t l e m a n  f r o m S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1 9 1 6 ) , t h e D e v i l a p p e a r s o n t h e Rock o f G i b r a l t a r during a f i e r c e storm, New Man w i t h t h e o l d h e a r t . "  t o mock " t h e p r i d e o f t h e  4  Coexisting with the mysticism of apocalyptic fervor, the r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e . p r e v i o u s century c o n t i n u e d . Gorky's-  (1868-1936) Z n a n i e  M.  (Knowledge) p u b l i s h i n g house  p u b l i s h e d w o r k s o f r e a l i s t w r i t e r s who o f t e n d e s c r i b e d social i l l s works.  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r  controversial  Two e s p e c i a l l y w e l l - k n o w n w r i t e r s o f t h i s g r o u p w e r e  Aleksandr Kuprin's  Kuprin  (1870-1938) and L e o n i d A n d r e e v  Poedinok  (The D u e l ,  (1871-1919).  1905) d e p i c t e d t h e t o r t u r e s o f  an o v e r - s e n s i t i v e s o u l s u b j e c t e d t o t h e u g l y r e a l i t y o f provincial military  life.  H i s l a r g e n o v e l IAma (The P i t ,  P a r t I p u b l i s h e d i n 1914) d e n o u n c e d t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e t i m e which both  legally  sanctioned p r o s t i t u t i o n  and condemned t h e  women who f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . A n d r e e v ' s name i s o f t e n m e n t i o n e d a l o n g that of Artsybashev. and A r t s y b a s h e v  as a u t h o r s  d e a t h , w i t h no f e e l i n g immediacies.  Some c r i t i c s  with  simplistically  concerned  see Andreev  m a i n l y w i t h s e x and  f o r a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e t h e s e two human  In r e a l i t y , both  continued the type o f psycho-  l o g i c a l a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n i n g s b e g u n by D o s t o e v s k y and T o l s t o y , a n d v e r y much p r e - f i g u r e t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w r i t i n g s o f Camus and S a r t r e .  Andreev's work has been  3 e x p l o r e d by  a t l e a s t two  critical  evaluations i n English:  t h e f i r s t by A l e x a n d e r K a u n , L e o n i d A n d r e e v : A C r i t i c a l (192 4 ) , A Study  and  the second  (1969).  Both  by James B. Woodward, L e o n i d A n d r e e v : authors b e l i e v e i n the worth  A n d r e e v as an a u t h o r and  s e t themselves  cally presenting his l i f e W e l l o v e r one were devoted  and  to criticisms  and h i s p o p u l a r i t y and  importance  a p p r a i s a l of h i s major s t o r i e s  *  I t i s now  one  fully  *  *  *  *  S t y l e , October  petty gentry family.  24)  years  f o r an  assess-  literature.  * b o r n November 6  i n Izium, Kharkov  H i s f a t h e r was  the  time f o r a s e r i o u s  p l a c e i n R u s s i a n and w o r l d *  of  mentioned  hundred  and n o v e l s and  M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v was (Old  and n o v e l s  i n the beginning of  s i n c e t h e b i r t h o f t h i s w r i t e r , and  1  criti-  and numerous p a m p h l e t s  h i s name i s s e l d o m  twentieth century i s ignored.  ment o f A r t s y b a s h e v s  the task of  of the s t o r i e s  B u t now  of  works.  hundred a r t i c l e s  M i k h a i l Artsybashev.  Study  province, into  a former Guards  who  became a d i s t r i c t p o l i c e o f f i c i a l .  Artsybashev's  and  companion, B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i , r e l a t e s  a  officer friend  that  [ A r t s y b a s h e v ' s f a t h e r ] d i e d a t c l o s e t o one h u n d r e d y e a r s o l d . A r t s y b a s h e v r a r e l y spoke of him but s p o k e o f h i s m o t h e r and how s h e was a d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e p r i n c e l y S a n g u s h k o s , n o t w i t h o u t a shadow o f boastfulness.5 I n f o r m a t i o n about Artsybashev's  life  i s s p a r s e and  scattered,  b u t i t p r o v i d e s some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e a u t h o r and h i s  literary  4 creations. Artsybashev left  a f t e r the f i f t h  formal education He  attended  the A k t y r s k gymnasium, w h i c h  f o r m , n o t s t a y i n g on t o c o m p l e t e  (which would have ended w i t h t h e s i x t h  6  and,  " I w e n t as f a r as t h e  c l a s s n o t k n o w i n g e x a c t l y w h a t i t was t e a c h me,  skii him  s o I d e c i d e d t o become an a r t i s t . . . "  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n makes one who  w i t h the work of A r t s y b a s h e v hero  of the author's  this  story  his  Lazarev-  i s acquainted  f i r s t m a j o r p u b l i s h e d w o r k o f 1900.  a harassed  courses, shoots  like  t h i n k o f P a s h a Tumanov, t h e  f i f t h - f o r m s t u d e n t , who  s o c i e t y ' s ordered concept  The  story  In  is failing a l l  t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e gymnasium  h a v i n g been d e n i e d p a s s i n g marks.  and  trying  adds t h a t " t h e s u p e r i o r s o f t h e gymnasium d i d n o t p at a l l . "  never  fifth  t h a t they were 7  form).  ex-  from s c h o o l , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the f a c t t h a t I  s t u d i e d t h e r e anyway";  to  his  q u i p s i n a humorous a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h : "They  p e l l e d me  he  after  juxtaposes  of knowledge w i t h n a t u r a l beauty  the r e a l knowledge of l i f e which  c a n o n l y be a t t a i n e d  from the g r e a t e s t teacher of a l l : the v o i c e of n a t u r e . s t o r y s e t s the tone  and mood f o r m o s t o f t h e e a r l y  The  works,  w h e r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s I n harmony w i t h n a t u r e b u t i n d i s harmony w i t h s o c i a l  f o r m s and  obligations.  A f t e r l e a v i n g t h e gymnasium, A r t s y b a s h e v t h e K h a r k o v s c h o o l o f a r t w h e r e he was, 9 o p i n i o n , "one  of the best students."  l o n g e r e x i s t s , and  enrolled in  in Lazarevskii's The  t h e r e a r e no e x a m p l e s o f  institution  no  Artsybashev's  5 a r t work, but  t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n has  s u p p l i e d i n a l e t t e r by P r o f e s s o r V a l e r i a n  kindly  been  Revutsky:  I can say q u i t e p o s i t i v e l y t h a t t h e a r t i s t i c d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s s c h o o l was c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h a t o f members o f t h e P e r e d v i z h n i k i ^ - O [ t r a v e l i n g a r t group]. I . K r a m s k o i and I . R e p i n o f t h i s g r o u p c e r t a i n l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the pedagogical a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e K h a r k o v s c h o o l . . . t h e s c h o o l was o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n 1869 by M a r i a R a e v s k a i a Ivanova. H An  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h , which appears i n E n g l i s h t r a n s -  lation  along w i t h three_of.Artsybashev s  stories, states  1  that indeed h i s f i r s t  l o v e was  painting:  I r e n o u n c e d my d r e a m o f b e c o m i n g an a r t i s t and t r a n s f e r r e d my a l l e g i a n c e t o l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s was v e r y h a r d ; even today I c a n n o t see p a i n t i n g s w i t h out emotion, I l o v e c o l o r s more t h a n w o r d s . 1 2 T h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o v i s u a l a r t w i l l be the.following  further discussed i n  chapter.  D e s p i t e a l o v e f o r a r t , the young A r t s y b a s h e v stay  did  l o n g enough t o c o m p l e t e h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d y , and  not  left  13 f o r Petersburg before the graduating examinations. simultaneously w i t h the beginnings he h a d  o f a c a r e e r as an  b e g u n t o w r i t e and p u b l i s h a few  c i a l newspapers such Besides  as I U z h n y i K r a i  t h e s e s k e t c h e s , i n 1894,  b e g a n w o r k on  a novel 14  evolved i n t o S anin..  (The  s i g n i f i c a n t events  y o u n g man  (twenty  may  be  artist,  in provin-  Southern  a t t h e age  Region).  of s i x t e e n ,  he  later  the a v a i l a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l  m a t e r i a l i s e s p e c i a l l y vague c o n c e r n i n g a few  sketches  ( " I U r i i Svarozhich'V) which Although  Already,  the years  reconstructed.  t o twenty-one),  As  189 4-1900, a very  M i c h a i l P e t r o v i c h became a  6 h u s b a n d and f a t h e r .  He m a r r i e d  a provincial g i r l ,  Anna  V a s i l ' e v n a K o b u s h k o , and s o o n a f t e r had a s o n , b o r n May 18 99.  This c h i l d  his birth)  (whose p a r e n t s  were s e p a r a t e d  25,  a year  after  grew up t o b e t h e famous emigre^,, i l l u s t r a t o r - a r t i s t  B o r i s A r t z y b a s h e f f who,  living  i n New  Y o r k , made f o r h i m s e l f  the career  as an a r t i s t t h a t h i s f a t h e r had o n c e d r e a m e d o f .  The a r t i s t  s o n o f t h e w r i t e r commented t h a t "he saw h i s  f a t h e r t w i c e a y e a r when p a s s i n g t h r o u g h  Moscow on h i s way  15 to vacations  i n Southern Russia."  went t o P r i n c e T e n i s h e v ' s  He a l s o adds t h a t  school " f o r the r i c h  and  ne  powerful,"  f o r w h i c h , a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , h i s f a t h e r r e f u s e d t o pay t h e high t u i t i o n impressed  fees.  "But t h e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s  were s o  by t h e b o y ' s t a l e n t t h a t t h e y a l l o w e d 16  him t o  c o n t i n u e on a s c h o l a r s h i p . " One 19Q4) who  of Artsybashev's  early stories,  seems a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , a s i t t e l l s  separate  "Zhena"  (A W i f e ,  o f a young  couple  b e c a u s e t h e a r t i s t - h e r o o f t h e s t o r y has been  disillusioned  by m a r r i a g e .  The y o u n g h u s b a n d l e a v e s h i s  w i f e when s h e i s p r e g n a n t w i t h t h e i r c h i l d infrequently.  The c h i l d  and s e e s h e r  i s n e v e r m e n t i o n e d and t h e f a t h e r  seems t o h a v e no p a t e r n a l i n s t i n c t , y e t d o e s s e n d money f o r the support we may own  of the c h i l d .  Conjecture  t h a t t h i s s t o r y i s part of  Artsybashev's  story. Artsybashev  the  A s w i t h t h e s t o r y " P a s h a Tumanov,"  went t o P e t e r s b u r g  intention of enrolling  i n t h e l a t e 1890s w i t h  i n t h e P e t e r s b u r g A r t Academy.  7 He d i d n o t c a r r y t h r o u g h t h i s p l a n ; i n s t e a d he l i v e d ing  c a r i c a t u r e s f o r humorous j o u r n a l s and was  as a c l e r k f o r a Z e m s t v o a g e n t A r t s y b a s h e v had  years.  I n 1900  published i n Artsybashev s 1  of h i s f i r s t  h o r s e - t h i e f , was bogatstvo of In  first  stories,  he  accepted  I t was  collection  then  finally  of s h o r t s t o r i e s .  " K u p r i i a n , " about a  p u b l i s h e d i n numbers 3 and  fugitive  4 of Russkoe  1902.  these f i r s t  bashev a l s o wrote  years of h i s p u b l i s h i n g c a r e e r , A r t s y -  for Mir bozhii  (God's W o r l d ) , w h i c h  t h e n e d i t e d by t h e w r i t e r A l e k s a n d r K u p r i n and t h e critic  would  (Russian Wealth),  r e j e c t e d at the request of the censor.  Another  1900,  " P a s h a Tumanov" was  p u b l i c a t i o n by R u s s k o e b o g a t s t v o  draw-  employed  By  begun h i s l i t e r a r y w o r k , a t w h i c h  labor u n t i l his death. for  f o r two  also  by  Angel Bogdanovich.  I n 190 3 t h e n o v e l S a n i n ,  had  emerged f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l  was  a c c e p t e d by K u p r i n and  " I U r i i Svarozhich  Bogdanovich,  who  was  well-known which  manuscript,  ! i  praised i t s high  17 artistxc merit,  b u t i t was  not published at t h a t time  because of the c e n s o r s h i p . The one) of  widely-read Zhurnal d l i a  vsekh  (Journal f o r Every-  a l s o p u b l i s h e d e a r l y s t o r i e s by A r t s y b a s h e v .  this  The  editor  j o u r n a l , V i k t o r S e r g e e v i c h M i r o l i u b o v (1860-19 39)  a f r i e n d o f m o s t o f t h e famous w r i t e r s o f t h e d a y ,  was  and o f t e n  went t o d i s c u s s j o u r n a l i s t i c m a t t e r s w i t h L e v T o l s t o y a t IAsnaia poliana, v i s i t e d  Gorkii at N i z h n i i ,  A n d r e e v i n Moscow; he a l s o c o r r e s p o n d e d  and  spoke w i t h  18 with-these authors--"  s  The  charm o f t h e j o u r n a l was, as i t s t i t l e  appealed t o people of a l lc l a s s e s .  suggests, that i t  A l t h o u g h i t "was p o p u l a r  b e c a u s e i t was c h e a p , . . . t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s l i t e r a r y c o n 19 t r i b u t i o n s was h i g h . "  B o r i s L a z a r e v s k n comments on t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between A r t s y b a s h e v and M i r o l i u b o v ' s j o u r n a l : When, i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 18 9 0 s , V. S. M i r o l i u b o v a c q u i r e d Z h u r n a l d l i a v s e k h a n d became i t s e d i t o r , i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e he s u c c e e d e d i n a t t r a c t i n g t h e y o u n g a u t h o r s : L. A n dreev, B u n i n , Veresaev, Gorky, K u p r i n , and t h e o l d : A n t o n C h e k h o v , F. S o l o g u b , L. N. T o l s t o y . L a t e r t h e names A r t s y b a s h e v , S u r g u c h e v , a n d I U s h k e v i c h appeared. To h a v e o n e ' s w o r k a c c e p t e d by t h i s j o u r n a l was n o t e a s y : M i r o l i u b o v was n o t a f r a i d t o r e t u r n t h e s t o r y " V o r " [The T h i e f ] t o L. A n d r e e v , or even one m a n u s c r i p t t o T o l s t o y h i m s e l f . And s u d d e n l y we c o - w o r k e r s w e r e s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t M i r o l i u b o v had a s s i g n e d us t o r e a d through the w r i t i n g s of the twenty-four-year-old M. P. A r t s y b a s h e v . 2 0 In  1904 " S m e r f  Lande"  ("The D e a t h o f Lande") was  p u b l i s h e d i n Zhurnal d l i a vsekh.  This long story  brought  p r o b a b l y more r e c o g n i t i o n t o A r t s y b a s h e v a s a w r i t e r any o t h e r w o r k b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n soon a f t e r t h e s t o r y a p p e a r e d ,  of Sanin.  than  In fact,  M e r e z h k o v s k i i and G i p p i u s  i n v i t e d A r t s y b a s h e v t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r N o v y i p u t ' (New Way).  The s a i n t l y h e r o , I v a n L a n d e , i s a d e s c e n d a n t  P r i n c e Myshkin,  and t h e m y s t i c a l a u r a a r o u n d  t i v e to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s In  attrac-  of those connected w i t h Novyi put*.  t h e same y e a r , A r t s y b a s h e v t o o k o v e r t h e l i t e r a r y  e d i t o r s h i p of Zhurnal d l i a vsekh. s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d h e r e : Morning)  h i m was  of  and "Krovavoe  Two more o f h i s own  "Teni u t r a "  piatno"  (The Shadows o f  (The Blood---stain) , w h i c h  dealt with the revolutionary a c t i v i t i e s 1905  t h e f i r s t volume o f s t o r i e s  o f 1 9 0 5 . I n May o f  appeared,  p u b l i s h e d by  Skirmunt. Artsybashev contracted tuberculosis  at a very  early  21 age.  He s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e d u r i n g h i s  literary  c a r e e r i n t h e s o u t h o f R u s s i a w h e r e , away f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n c o l d o f Moscow a n d P e t e r s b u r g , he c o u l d r e g a i n h i s s t r e n g t h and s o r e t u r n t o h i s v a r i o u s w r i t i n g a n d e d i t i n g In  activities.  19 06 he s p e n t some t i m e i n Y a l t a w i t h a f r i e n d , t h e y o u n g  poet Bashkin. wrote  Perhaps  i n s p i r e d b y t h e s o u t h e r n l o c a l e , he  and p u b l i s h e d a n o v e l l a based  Chelovecheskaia volna  on t h e Potemkin  (The Human W a v e ) .  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a second  incident  The same y e a r saw  volume o f s t o r i e s w h i c h ,  like  t h e f i r s t , was p u b l i s h e d b y S k i r m u n t . In  19 07 S a n i n was p u b l i s h e d , m a k i n g A r t s y b a s h e v one 22  of  t h e most p o p u l a r w r i t e r s i n R u s s i a .  in  i s s u e s 1 t o 5 o f S o v r e m e n n y i m i r (The C o n t e m p o r a r y W o r l d )  many c r i t i c a l  When S a n i n  a r t i c l e s discussed the n o v e l , i t s hero  place o f both i n Russian l i t e r a t u r e .  appeare  and t h e  S a n i n was t r u l y a  l i t e r a r y phenomenon a r o u s i n g h e a t e d d e b a t e s  l i k e those  which  ensued a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Turgenev's O t t s y I d e t i ( F a t h e r s and S o n s ) .  Indeed, Artsybashev's  r e p u t a t i o n as a n  a u t h o r r e s t s m a i n l y o n t h i s one w o r k ; h i s l a t e r w o r k s w e r e t r e a t e d more o r l e s s as c o n t i n u a t i o n s o f S a n i n . cation of Sanin during the popularity o f e r o t i c  The p u b l i literature  a f t e r 1905 r e s u l t e d i n t h e n o v e l b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y  added t o  10 t h a t c a t e g o r y , e v e n t h o u g h R u s s i a n R e a l i s m had b e g u n t o d e a l w i t h the psychology Karenina  (begun  o f s e x u a l i t y c e r t a i n l y as e a r l y  as A n n a  1873).  Soon a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , Z h u r n a l v s e k h was of  c l o s e d , and A r t s y b a s h e v  the l i t e r a r y  encountered s k i i , who  one  s e c t i o n of Obrazovanie  was  editorship  ( E d u c a t i o n ) , where  of h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l opponents,  he  Lunachar-  r e q u e s t e d t h a t A r t s y b a s h e v be removed f r o m h i s  p o s i t i o n as l i t e r a r y skii,  took over the  dlia  editor.  The  p u b l i s h e r , A.  d i d not accede t o L u n a c h a r s k i i * s wishes.  I . OstrogorThe  r e s o l v e d by O s t r o g o r s k i i ' s d e a t h , a f t e r w h i c h  cation closed.  D u r i n g t h i s y e a r , 1907,  one, A r t s y b a s h e v  and  the  dispute  the  publi-  following  l i v e d h a l f the time i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , h a l f  the time i n Y a l t a a t the dacha " p ' z h a l i t t a " with. B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i , who  remarked t h a t M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h then  looked  23 " f o r t y ..not t h i r t y  because of h i s i l l n e s s . "  Durxng  one  r e t u r n t r i p t o P e t e r s b u r g , t h e w r i t e r f e l l i l l and was up  as d y i n g by t h e d o c t o r s a t t e n d i n g h i m .  n e s s , he and  continued h i s a c t i v i t i e s , e d i t i n g various  c o l l e c t i o n s , and w r i t i n g n o v e l s and The  y e a r 1908  Artsybashev.  He  was  a v e r y b u s y one  he was  to e d i t the l i t e r a r y  L e o n i d A n d r e e v and  journals  in^the career of (Life),  worked  (Breaking Point) ,  and p u b l i s h e d a number o f s h o r t s t o r i e s .  asked  i l l -  stories.  e d i t e d t h e almanac Z h i zn'  on h i s s e c o n d ' n o v e l , U' p o s l e d n e i c h e r t y and w r o t e  Despite h i s  given  collection  Zem11a  In  1911  (Earth).  I v a n B u n i n w e r e among i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s .  11 In the f o l l o w i n g year Artsybashev moved to Moscow and began to  e d i t t h i s c o l l e c t i o n more or l e s s s e c r e t l y ("Neglasno po 24  nekotorym p r i c h i n a m " ) . 1917.  Simultaneously,  He  continued  to work there  until  he a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o the Moscow  newspaper I t o g i n e d e l i (Weekly Review), e d i t e d by V. Krandeevskii.  T h i s paper f i r s t p u b l i s h e d Artsybashev's Z a p i s k i  pisatelia  (Notes o f a W r i t e r ) .  U p o s l e d n e i c h e r t y was  During  published.  the years  I t was  1911-1912  not the  sensation  t h a t Sanin had been: the c r i t i c s hastened to d e f i n e  this  n o v e l as merely a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the former work. During  the years  1913-1917 Artsybashev's c o l l e c t e d  works were p u b l i s h e d i n ten volumes by the Moscow Book P u b l i s h i n g House. stories  The  c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s f i v e volumes of  (short s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s Volumes I-V); two  c o n t a i n i n g P a r t s I and I I of the second l a r g e novel  volumes  (Volumes  VI and V I I ) ; three p l a y s comprise Volume V I I I ; Volume IX i n c l u d e s a n o v e l l a and the n o v e l  stories;  and Volume X  contains  Sanin.  The years strictly  two  1913-1916, the l a s t p e r i o d of Artsybashev's  literary activity  (apart from p o l i t i c s ,  philosophy  or j o u r n a l i s t i c w r i t i n g ) , were devoted mainly to the genre of drama.  The  dramas are very much a c o n t i n u a t i o n  and  r e p e t i t i o n of the themes, c h a r a c t e r s and s t y l e -found i n the prose works. in  1913,  His f i r s t drama Revnost' 25  c r e a t e d a " l i t e r a r y storm."  (Jealousy), published His other p l a y s ,  which f o l l o w e d soon a f t e r , were a l s o s e n s a t i o n s : Voina  (War,  12 1914), Vragi  Zakon d i k a r i a (Enemies,  (The Law o f t h e S a v a g e , 1 9 1 5 ) , a n d  1916).  With  the exception of Voina,  d e a l t w i t h the Russian involvement the p l a y s a r e concerned women.  which  i n t h e F i r s t W o r l d War,  w i t h t h e s o c i a l r o l e s o f men a n d  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e n s i t y  and s e x u a l e x p l i c i t n e s s  o f t h e dramas a r e v e r y . r e m i n i s c e n t o f I b s e n , S t r i n d b e r g a n d Wedekind.  The p a t h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s  a r e a c u t e l y d e p i c t e d by t h e a u t h o r .  I ti slikely  that the  works o f I b s e n , S t r i n d b e r g and Wedekind were i n d e e d to Artsybashev.  As W e i d l e  states:  "Writers l i k e  familiar  I b s e n and  S t r i n d b e r g , when t h e y w e r e h a r d l y known i n F r a n c e , w e r e 26 p a s s i o n a t e l y admired  i n Russia."  Novels, stories  a b o u t a d u l t e r y w e r e n o t h i n g new t o l i t e r a t u r e  of the time;  w h a t was new was t h e s e r i e s o f i n s i g h t s t h a t w e r e  presented  i n t h e p l a y s o f t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n s and a r e a l s o found sybashev.  The s o c i a l phenomenon  and p l a y s  i n Art-  o f a d u l t e r y , as r e f l e c t e d  i n t h e dramas o f A r t s y b a s h e v , was r e a l l y  a statement  about  the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r d e r , t h e changing  roles  o f men and women, a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t d i l e m m a o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y man. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , as b e f o r e , A r t s y b a s h e v made to the south of Russia f o r h i s h e a l t h . his  trips  I n 1914 he met w i t h  f r i e n d B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i f o r w h a t was t o be t h e l a s t  time.  They v i s i t e d S v i a t y e g o r y , i n K h a r k o v  p r o v i n c e , "one 27 of t h e most b e a u t i f u l s p o t s i n a l l o f R u s s i a , " When i n Moscow, A r t s y b a s h e v c o n t i n u e d t o e d i t and  13 write f o r Zemlia,  and a l s o w r o t e a s t o r y f o r a c o l l e c t i o n  ( S h c h i t , The S h i e l d ) The  aimed a g a i n s t a n t i - S e m i t i s m  i n Russia.  a n t i - B o l s h e v i k tone o f h i s second s e r i e s o f Z a p i s k i  p i s a t e l i a made h i m u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e new o r d e r  o f 1917. H i s  o l d F r i e n d B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i r e f l e c t e d t h a t a t t h a t t i m e he 28 d i d not expect Artsybashev  to get out of Russia  1918  h i sonly s t r i c t l y  (The  E t e r n a l M i r a g e ) was w r i t t e n a n d s e n t  p h i l o s o p h i c a l work/ V e c h n y i  w h e r e i t was p u b l i s h e d o n l y i n 1 9 2 2 . on  the progress  modern t i m e s .  alive.  o f t h e human r a c e  mirazh  secretly to Berlin,  T h i s w o r k i s a comment  from i t s beginnings  a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h God; o r t h r o u g h  s y s t e m s l i k e Communism o r S o c i a l i s m — o t h e r men. obvious:  to  The " e t e r n a l m i r a g e " i s man's q u e s t f o r  h a p p i n e s s a n d w e l l - b e i n g , w h i c h he a t t e m p t s t o g a i n religion —  In  through  social  aligning himself  with  The f a l l a c y o f s u c h h o p e s f o r a b e t t e r f u t u r e i s  the better future i s the eternally  receding  mirage.  I f p e o p l e m u s t s u f f e r a n d d i e , who b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e tomorrows? all  The a u t h o r ' s  c o n c l u d i n g w o r d s may b e v a l i d f o r  men: I f we c a n n o t l i v e w i t h o u t r e l i g i o n t h e n l e t o u r r e l i g i o n b e l o v e o f man. L o v e f o r t h e s m a l l , v i t a l , s u f f e r i n g man o f o u r t o d a y s j u s t as he e x i s t s w i t h a l l h i s weaknesses and f l a w s . 2 9 This r i n g i n g a f f i r m a t i o n • o f humanity i s countered  one  of Artsybashev's  D'iavol  by  l a s t l i t e r a r y works, the play i n verse,  (The D e v i l ) , w r i t t e n i n 1 9 2 0 - 2 1 .  S p i r i t o f Love and t h e D e v i l s t r i k e  I n t h i s work t h e  a bargain:  they  agree t o  g i v e man. a c h a n c e t o p r o v e w h i c h o f t h e two f o r c e s i s t h e  14 stronger  and  t h u s w h i c h r u l e s man.  Love i s d e f e a t e d  in  p l a y , which i s a m i x t u r e o f a l l e g o r y , symbol,.and r e a l of the e a r l y S o v i e t p e r i o d . banishes the  The  Devil proclaims,  as  this people  he  S p i r i t o f L o v e : "Know t h a t i n t h i s w o r l d  Evil  30 —  alone,  eternal —  The  is  powerful!"  t r a n s i t i o n y e a r s a f t e r the  r e v o l u t i o n of  were d i f f i c u l t t i m e s f o r most w r i t e r s .  Weidle,  1917  reflecting  upon t h e s e y e a r s , w r o t e : . . . i t was d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d —- f r o m 19 21 t o 1924 — t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s who had any h i g h d e g r e e o f c u l t u r e l e f t t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d t o become e m i g r e s . 3 1 In the  autumn o f 1923,  return.  32  He  l i v e d the  a c t i v e member o f t h e One  Artsybashev l e f t Russia  . . l a s t four years of h i s l i f e  Freedom).  the  anti-Bolshevik  T h e r e was  "right."  writer.  He  m i t i g a t e d by  t o the  "left"  and  f o r the  solntsem  (Under the  anniversary  I n 1925  as a w r i t e r .  L a z a r e v s k i i w r o t e i n v i t i n g him  he The  Sun),  and  those  short-story his  celebrated  Zapiski  his  following year,  t o N i c e f o r "the  loved  so,"  Artsybashev declined,  to  slightly  twentywhen  southern  33 s u n w h i c h he  for  ailing  f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , w h i c h were o n l y  p i s a t e l i a i n book f o r m . fifth  (For  p o l i t i c a l d i s c o r d among t h e w r i t e r s  the p u b l i c a t i o n of D ' i a v o l , a  c o l l e c t i o n Pod  an  co-editorship, with Dmitrii  These y e a r s were d i f f i c u l t had  as  n e w s p a p e r Za s v o b o d u  the p a p e r , between those i n c l i n e d the  to  R u s s i a n e'migre community i n Warsaw.  o f h i s m a i n a c t i v i t i e s was  F i l o s o f o v , of the  never  saying:  15 I ' l l make i t t o N i c e a s s u r e d l y i n t h e n e x t w o r l d . How c a n I j o u r n e y t o N i c e when I ' v e f o r g o t t e n w h a t i t ' s l i k e t o r i d e i n a c a r r i a g e o r even i n a streetcar?34 L a z a r e v s k i i w r i t e s t h a t h i s f r i e n d was a l w a y s  very philosoph  i c a l when he s p o k e a b o u t d e a t h ; he d i d n o t w i s h t o a p p e a l t o any  r e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make h i s l i f e  easier.  t h a t h i s c o m p a n i o n o f s o many y e a r s was p o o r r e v s k i i wrote  Knowing  and i l l ,  Laza-  t o I v a n B u n i n i n P a r i s on A r t s y b a s h e v ' s  B u n i n s e n t t h e w r i t e r f i v e h u n d r e d f r a n c s , w h i c h he  behalf  accepted  b e c a u s e he n e e d e d an i m m e d i a t e t r e p a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f an e a r i n f e c t i o n . f r i e n d i n America  L a z a r e v s k i i a l s o wrote  a s k i n g h e l p f o r A r t s y b a s h e v , who  to a wrote  back i n t h a n k s : I r e c e i v e d t h e money f r o m A m e r i c a . I t was n o t much b u t i t was f r o m t h e h e a r t and f o r t h a t I t h a n k y o u . I n A m e r i c a d o l l a r s a r e s o n u m e r o u s , and t h a t y o u who a r e s u f f e r i n g f r o m p o v e r t y w o u l d a s k f o r a f r i e n d , t h a t i s i n v a l u a b l e a n d w i l l n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n . 35 The w i n t e r s i n Warsaw p r o v e d w o r k e r s , A. F e d o r o v ,  deadly.  One o f h i s c o -  h a s r e m a r k e d how h e . f o u n d  that the  w r i t e r had s u f f e r e d from t u b e r c u l o s i s a l l h i s l i f e  and t h e n  remembered t h a t h e h a d no h e a v y c o a t a n d w e n t a r o u n d a l l 3  w i n t e r i n h i s l i g h t coat w i t h a wool s c a r f around h i s neck. D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 2 6 , h i s h e a l t h was s o b a d t h a t he h a d to  be h o s p i t a l i z e d ; t h i s t i m e h i s k i d n e y s w e r e f a i l i n g .  t o l d Fedorov  t h a t he c o u l d a f f o r d t o s t a y i n t h e h o s p i t a l  o n l y f o r a week e v e n t h o u g h t h e rooms w e r e v e r y priced.  He  reasonably  When a t home a g a i n , he w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e n e w s p a p e r  .16 and  his inability  needed sun  and  Warsaw w i n t e r t h e end  t o d e v o t e any  of h i s energy t o i t .  p e a c e o f m i n d , and and  had  the p e t t y s q u a b b l i n g  fierce  of the emigres.  At  o f December, M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h b e g a n o n c e a g a i n  v i s i t the e d i t o r i a l o f f i c e l a s t e d u n t i l t h e end  of the newspaper.  He  s p e c i a l i s t , who  diagnosed his i l l n e s s  was  taken to a doctor  t a k e n t o a h o s p i t a l , w h e r e he l i n e s of the 1927,  final  His  o f J a n u a r y , a t w h i c h t i m e he  seriously i l l .  26,  i n s t e a d the  He  and  strength again  then to  as m e n i n g i t i s .  d i e d e a r l y i n March.  l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o L a z a r e v s k i i , on  show a d e f i n i t e  to  fell  a He The  was last  February  resignation to his fate:  ... I am i l l a g a i n , b u t t h i s t i m e i t i s much w o r s e . As a r e s u l t o f a l l t h a t I - h a v e l i v e d t h r o u g h and my d i s e a s e o f t h e k i d n e y s t h e y h a v e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I have m y o c a r d i t i s . My h e a r t doesn o t w a n t t o w o r k any m o r e . A l l o f my b e s t . Yours, M. A r t s y b a s h e v . 3 7 The  w r i t e r d i e d on M a r c h 3,  V o l ' s k i i Orthodox Cemetery.  1927  and was  buried  i n t h e Warsaw  CHAPTER I EARLY STORIES  (1901-1904)  P a r t 1: S o c i e t y , t h e I n d i v i d u a l and  Nature  C i v i l i z a t i o n i s the d i s e a s e produced by t h e p r a c t i c e o f b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s with rotten material. B e r n a r d Shaw, "The R e v o l u t i o n i s t ' s Handbook," Man and S u p e r m a n , 1903. 'Was he b o r n t h e n , I a s k , j u s t t o p i c k a t t h e e a r t h and t o p e r i s h w i t h o u t h a v i n g had t i m e even t o s c r a t c h a g r a v e f o r h i m s e l f w i t h h i s own nails: What d o e s he know o f f r e e d o m ? Does he u n d e r s t a n d t h e b r e a d t h o f the steppe? Does t h e murmur o f t h e s e a waves g l a d d e n h i s h e a r t ? He's a slave — f r o m t h e moment o f h i s b i r t h , a l l h i s l i f e a s l a v e and that's a l l ! What c a n he do w i t h himself? O n l y h a n g h i m s e l f i f he becomes any w i s e r . 1  - Maksim Gorky, The y e a r 1 9 0 1 ,  "Makar C h u d r a , "  t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e new  century,  when M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v made h i s d e b u t w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of "Pasha c u l t u r a l events. I-IV of Gorky's  In January Rasskazy  V. K o r o l e n k o ' s  as a w r i t e r  a variety  of  the second e d i t i o n o f Volumes  ( S t o r i e s ) was  I v a n B u n i n ' s book o f v e r s e peared.  Tumanov," saw  1892.  p u b l i s h e d by  Znanie.  Listopad (Falling Leaves),  " S i b i r s k i e rasskazy"  were p u b l i s h e d i n Russkoe b o g a t s t v o  1  ap-  (Siberian.Tales)  (Russian Wealth).  V.  V e r e s a e v p u b l i s h e d h i s s t o r y "K spekhu', ( I z . l e t n i k h - v s t r e c h ) " 17  18 (In  H a s t e , From Summer M e e t i n g s ) .  A. K u p r i n ' s  N o v o g o d n i i r a s s k a z " ( M u r d e r e r s , A New  "Ubiitsy,  Y e a r ' s T a l e ) was  pub-  l i s h e d i n O d e s s k i e N o v o s t i (The.Odessa News).  L.  Andreev's  story  In  mid-January  "Smekh"  ( L a u g h t e r ) was  f i r s t published.  t h e P e t e r s b u r g A r t Academy o p e n e d an e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e "Mir  iskusstva"  ( W o r l d o f A r t ) , w h i c h was  criticized  group  for i t s  a t t e m p t " t o f r e e a r t f r o m t h e f e t t e r s o f academism and  natu-  2 ralism."  On  t h e l a s t day  o f J a n u a r y t h e Moscow A r t T h e a t e r  staged the premiere of Anton In  Chekhov's Three  e a r l y February, at a meeting  of the  Sisters. Philosophical  Society of Petersburg U n i v e r s i t y , D m i t r i Merezhkovskii read a paper  c o n c e r n i n g T o l s t o y and C h r i s t i a n i t y , w h i c h  "offended  many o f t h e l i s t e n e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e r u d e , d i s r e s p e c t f u l of  the address."  On F e b r u a r y  14 a s t u d e n t , P. V. K a r p o v i c h ,  f a t a l l y wounded t h e M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n . ary  24, T s e r k o v n y e  vedomosti  tone  On  Febru-  ( C h u r c h News) p u b l i s h e d t h e  d e c i s i o n o f the H o l y Synod t o excommunicate Leo T o l s t o y f o r 4 his  attempt  " t o a n n i h i l a t e the t r u e f a i t h . "  o s o p h i c a l a r t i c l e s was  p u b l i s h e d by V.  An Enemy o f t h e P e o p l e , p e r f o r m e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e D r . S t o c k m a n n , was y e a r ' s e v e n t s -— ical  A book o f  Rozanov.  Ibsen's p l a y  a t t h e Moscow A r t T h e a t e r a great success.  cultural, literary, historical  and  The sociolog-  a r e t o o numerous t o c i t e ; h o w e v e r , a few more  be m e n t i o n e d In  f o r the weight of t h e i r  A p r i l , Gorky's  phil-  will  implications.  symbolic i n v i t a t i o n to  revolution,  " P e s n i a o b u r e v e s t n i k e " (Song o f t h e S t o r m y P e t r e l ) ,  appeared  19 in  Zhizn'  (Life).  granit buria" expressed sia.  (Let t h e storm,begin  the s p i r i t o f growing  The r e a l i s t s c h o o l  and h i s " Z n a n i e " had  I t s c o n c l u d i n g message, "Pust'  sil'nee  with a l l i t s might),  u n r e s t among t h e i n t e l l i g e n t -  (mainly prose)  e x e m p l i f i e d by Gorky  g r o u p . ( K u p r i n , Bunin-, A n d r e e v , "and V e r e s a e v )  i t s counterpart i n the modernist  poets  B a l ' m o n t , V. B r i u s o v , D. M e r e z h k o v s k i i  Z. G i p p i u s , K.  a n d F. S o l o g u b , who  published their  almanac, Severnye t s v e t y (Northern  also i n A p r i l .  I n May, V. I . L e n i n p u b l i s h e d h i s a r t i c l e  "S c h e g o n a c h a t "  1  (What t o B e g i n w i t h )  Flowers),  i n I s k r a (The S p a r k )  on a p l a n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a M a r x i s t p a r t y i n R u s s i a .  In  November and D e c e m b e r , t h r e e o f R u s s i a ' s g r e a t e s t w r i t e r s , T o l s t o y , Chekhov a n d G o r k y , met i n t h e C r i m e a . The  above c o l l a g e o f e v e n t s  at the turn of the century.  gives a glimpse  of Russia  Russian Realism, e s p e c i a l l y i n  t h e w o r k s o f G o r k y , C h e k h o v , and t h e l a t e r T o l s t o y ' , was  still  flourishing.  from  The t e r m  o f t e n used t o express  divergence  t h i s w e l l - a c c e p t e d and famous s c h o o l o f w r i t i n g i s M o d e r n i s m . G e o r g e G i b i a n i s o l a t e s some common f e a t u r e s o f R u s s i a n M o d e r n i s m as i t i s d e f i n e d by l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s such Ivask.  as W l a d i m i r  Weidle,  He d i s c u s s e s t h r e e b r o a d  critics  and c u l t u r a l  Rene W e l l e k ,  and G e o r g e  a r e a s when d e f i n i n g M o d e r n -  i s m : " a t t i t u d e , a r t i s t i c m a n n e r , and s u b j e c t  matter":  6  The a t t i t u d e i s u s u a l l y one o f a n t a g o n i s m t o a u t h o r i t y and c o n v e n t i o n , and o f n i h i l i s m i n r e l a t i o n t o established culture. The a r t i s t i c manner i s m a r k e d by t h e d i s s o c i a t i o n o f o b j e c t s f r o m t h e i r c o n t e x t s , d i s p l a c e m e n t , t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f events unconn e c t e d i n t i m e and s p a c e — w i t h o u t a t t e n t i o n t o l o g i c  20 except f o r the ' l o g i c ' of a s s o c i a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s f r e q u e n t l y are urban o r connected w i t h t h e m a c h i n e . The p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , a t l e a s t among m o s t o f t h e F u t u r i s t s , t e n d e d t o be composed o f dreams o f a m i l l e n n i u m o r a U t o p i a , w h i c h , as Rene W e l l e k s t a t e s , ' m i g h t be a S o c i a l i s t U t o p i a , h e n c e j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r adherence t o the R e v o l u t i o n . 7 1  The  above comments a r e more o f a , s k e t c h o r g u i d e l i n e t h a n  definition.  There i s a sense  of l i t e r a t u r e  (and a r t i n  g e n e r a l ) b r e a k i n g away f r o m o r b r e a k i n g down t h e forms.  I f one  views  literary history  t h e n i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l , and  a  established  as a s e r i e s o f w a v e s ,  t o be e x p e c t e d , t h a t a t i m e  of  r e a l i s m and n a t u r a l i s m ( n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) w o u l d be f o l l o w e d by a more e x p e r i m e n t a l and e x p a n d e d a r t i s t i c One  may  e v e n g e n e r a l i z e and  consciousness.  say t h a t indeed a l l  writers,  whether of the l a t e r e a l i s t s c h o o l of Gorky o r the S y m b o l i s t s , Acmeists  o r F u t u r i s t s , were t o a g r e a t e r r . o r l e s s e r e x t e n t  Modernist i n o r i e n t a t i o n . d i s p l a y some m o d e r n i s t  Even the l a t e works o f Leo T o l s t o y  tendencies  ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e above  o u t l i n e o f t h i s movement). A r t s y b a s h e v i s sometimes c a l l e d a M o d e r n i s t , Decadent, or a N e o - n a t u r a l i s t . m i s l e a d i n g and criteria  T h e s e t e r m s a r e o f t e n more ,  c o n f u s i n g than h e l p f u l .  In view of  a f f o r d e d by G i b i a n and o t h e r c r i t i c s  Modernism, t o what e x t e n t are A r t s y b a s h e v s 1  attempts Modernist?  The  a  first^criterion,  the  i n Russian  earliest  literary  t h a t of the  atti-  t u d e o f t h e w r i t e r , d e f i n e d as " a n t a g o n i s t i c t o  authority  and c o n v e n t i o n , " i s a p p l i c a b l e t o A r t s y b a s h e v ' s  writing.  As  f o r h i s artistlc'manner,...it • i s " only: vaguely-and  not  21 significantly above. style  t o u c h e d by  i n n o v a t i o n s of the type  H i s a t t i t u d e does n o t t r a n s l a t e d i r e c t l y and  technique.  into his  Although urban or mechanical  m a t t e r i s n o t p r e s e n t t o any d e g r e e , sense  mentioned  as w e l l as s p e c i f i c  subject  there i s a general  r e f e r e n c e t o a coming time  of  g r e a t change i n v a r i o u s w o r k s f r o m t h e e a r l y s t o r i e s t o t h e latest.  A revolution i s prefigured. B e c a u s e , when one m e n t i o n s  A r t s y b a s h e v , one  usually  meets w i t h e i t h e r t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t he i s t h e a u t h o r S a n i n and n o t h i n g e l s e identification)  of  (with a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h a t  or a complete  l a c k of knowledge about the  a u t h o r , i t i s u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y t o k e e p i n m i n d a  few  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s when c o n s i d e r i n g A r t s y b a s h e v s  stories.  early  1  T h e s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e n o t m e a n t t o f u n c t i o n as a scheme for  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t o r i e s , r a t h e r as p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e  for  a primary understanding of t h i s 1) Theme:  Man  suffering i n society. working  i s o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s t r u g g l i n g The  a l o n e and  man  s o c i e t y i t s e l f , whether  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Man  f i n d s o n l y b r i e f moments o f h a p p i n e s s  communion w i t h n a t u r e .  Nature  i s a mighty  r e l a t e s i n d i v e r s e ways, depending  the i n d i v i d u a l .  The  both p o l i t i c a l l y  and s o c i a l l y  2) P l o t :  The  does  i s basically and  beauty  f o r c e to which  on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f  themes a r e p r e s e n t e d s o t h a t t h e y  stories  or  peasant,  c l a s s o r g e n t r y , i s b u i l t on f a l s e v a l u e s and  not a l l o w f o r the growth  in  author.  t o p i c a l and  are  universal.  are b u i l t almost e x c l u s i v e l y  on  22 crisis  s i t u a t i o n s , that i s , s i t u a t i o n s which a l t e r the  protagonist's sibly.  life  (and o f t e n o t h e r  C o n f l i c t s a r e extreme and 3) N a r r a t i v e  technique:  characters' dramatic.  An o m n i s c i e n t  o m n i s c i e n t ) n a r r a t o r i s used f o r each work. sometimes d i d a c t i c and o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e . e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n cally is  too) i r r e v e r -  (or almost The n a r r a t o r i s  He may i n t r u d e t o  o r make a j u d g m e n t w h i c h may be  specifi-  r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y o r may be a " u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . "  He  a l s o e m p l o y e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l e a v e s d r o p p i n g on c h a r a c -  t e r s t o f u r t h e r t h e p l o t o r n a r r a t i v e by c o n v e y i n g  their  thoughts. 4) C h a r a c t e r s  and C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n :  mainly representatives members o f s o c i e t y .  o f two g r o u p s —  Characters  are  " i n d i v i d u a l s " and  Those who a r e i n t h e f i r s t  grouping  s p e n d much o f t h e i r t i m e and e n e r g y a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o individuality. are  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  studies of the characters  s e n s i t i v e when t h e n a r r a t o r i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o a  Characterization?may when t h e n a r r a t o r  a l s o be i n t h e G o g o l i a n g r o t e s q u e  feels negatively  speech o f a c h a r a c t e r 5) actions  Setting:  character. vein  about t h e c h a r a c t e r .  The  may o r may n o t be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d .  N a t u r e s e r v e s as t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r man's  and t h o u g h t s .  When t h e r e  i s a d e s c r i p t i v e nature  p a s s a g e o f any l e n g t h , i t i s u s u a l l y a s i g n a l t h a t t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t t o be made. a t e theme and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  Nature serves t o accentu-  The c h a r a c t e r s  placed within a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l m i l i e u .  are usually  A l l the settings  23 used i n the  first  Russia.  Insides  "Inside"  i t may  of b u i l d i n g are be  " O u t s i d e " i t may 6)  s t o r i e s belong to  dull  be  Imagery:  and  turn-of-the-century  also contrasted  c o n f i n i n g , o r c o z y and  b e a u t i f u l and  and  a l s o used s y m b o l i c a l l y  has  highly symbolic.  sun  denotes l i f e  t h e power t o b e a u t i f y  objects  N a t u r e i s o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d , and are  o f t e n u s e d as s y m b o l s .  source of 7)  The  and  stories.  splendor. places  season, The  Sunlight  t h a t are  ugly.  animals, e s p e c i a l l y b i r d s ,  Nature i s A r t s y b a s h e v ' s main  Style:  Key  words or word c l u s t e r s are Repetition  Its  f u n c t i o n i s s h a p i n g and  for  describing  characters,  s e n t e n c e p a r a g r a p h may  be  and  generalized  statement outside  five  categories  which are both i n the 8) V i s i o n :  moods.  are  t e r m I m p r e s s i o n i s m was  narration.  i m a g e s and  final  category  style, —  stories,.Artsybashev's  v i s i o n i s I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , though tending t o E x p r e s s i o n i s t i c and,  narrative.  n a r r a t i v e o r make a  s h a p e d by  early  created  A single-  the bounds o f the  s e r v i c e of the  In the  Formulas are  used t o punctuate the  These s e n t e n c e s e i t h e r c o n t i n u e t h e  i n char-  d e s c r i p t i v e passages.  didactic. places  often  i s used c h i e f l y  a c t e r i z a t i o n , n a r r a t i v e comments and  first  setting  time of day,  i n the  and  cold.  images.  repeated f o r emphasis.  The  homelike.  I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h e n o t e s on  be  appearance of the  outside.  f r e e , o r h o s t i l e and  t h a t i m a g e s may weather are  to  a l s o i n some c a s e s  over a l l , b a s i c a l l y R e a l i s t i c . borrowed i n i t i a l l y  from the  The  nineteenth-  24 century  F r e n c h p a i n t e r s Manet, Monet, Degas, R e n o i r  o t h e r s , and  and  i n d i c a t e s t h a t a w r i t e r i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n  r e t a i n i n g the i m p r e s s i o n  an o b j e c t has  made  (on him)  than i n  . . . m e t i c u l o u s l y p r e s e n t i n g the appearance of t h a t o b j e c t by p r e c i s e d e t a i l and c a r e f u l , r e a l i s t i c f i n i s h . . . . The o b j e c t o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n i s t , t h e n . . . i s t o p r e s e n t h i s m a t e r i a l . . . as i t i s s e e n o r f e l t t o be by h i m s e l f i n a s i n g l e p a s s i n g moment. He e m p l o y s h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e d e t a i l s , t h e 'brush s t r o k e s ' of s e n s e - d a t a t h a t can s u g g e s t the i m p r e s s i o n made u p o n h i m o r upon some c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . ^ Expressionism ner but  r e t a i n s the  sketchiness  i s more d i r e c t e d i n i t s m e s s a g e .  of i t s f o r e r u n -  In a r t i t manifested 9  x t s e l f i n " b i t t e r and  rebellious  humanitarianism."  T h i s a r t , composed as i t was o f a c t i o n and s t r u g g l e c o u l d not d i v o r c e i t s e l f from s o c i a l r e v o l t . This a r t was n o t a d e c o r a t i v e e m b e l l i s h m e n t t o l i f e . . . i t was r a t h e r an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a l l t h a t was c o n t r a r y , g l o o m y , d i s a g r e e a b l e .and monstrously iniquitous in life.10 Realism,  as i t f l o u r i s h e d i n  Russia, u n d e r l i e s Artsybashev's almost taken  f o r granted,  nineteenth-century  early stories.  T h i s must  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i n the prose works 11  of Gorky, K u p r i n , Bunin, still  the  Russian  leading trend.  Realism  A n d r e e v and Among t h e  Chekhov  p o r t r a y a l of a  accompanying s e r i o u s n e s s  use  openly  was  of vast  i n a l l s o c i a l groups, i n s i g h t s i n t o  t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s , and  expressed  realism  salient features  are s o c i a l conscience.,  g a l l e r y of c h a r a c t e r s  be  usually  an  of purpose, e i t h e r p e r c e i v e d  or  i n the t e x t .  o f humor, i r o n y o r s a r c a s m . * * * * *  T h i s does not p r e c l u d e *  *  *  *  the  25 " P a s h a Tumanov" " P a s h a Tumanov" was  accepted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n  t h e n , because of i t s obvious  t o p i c a l i t y , i t was  the r e q u e s t of the censor.  Later  appeared  a f t e r t h e 1905  i n which  t h e s t o r y was  critical  1901;  rejected  opinions  at  (which  p u b l i c a t i o n o f R a s s k a z y , Volume I , i n c l u d e d ) saw  t i o n of a " p s e u d o - c l a s s i c a l ' s c h o o l  t h e w o r k as a condemna-  system which  taught  Greek  12 and  L a t i n and  states all  iron authority."  I . I . Baranov  t h a t P a s h a i s a v e r y commonplace boy who  understand  ities  ruled with  the c o m p l e x i t i e s  of l i f e .  One  does n o t  of these  complex-  i s a m a j o r theme i n A r t s y b a s h e v s w o r k s : t h e r o l e  of  1  the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y . b a s h e v : " ' I am  Boris  L a z a r e v s k i i quotes  an a n a r c h i s t - i n d i v i d u a l i s t b u t I am  at  Artsy-  not 13  prepared to k i l l One  anyone and I do n o t e n d o r s e  o f the most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s  among t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , was The  g e r m i n a l w o r k on t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y — (The Ego Stirner  and H i s Own,  Both  published,  debate  individualism.  more/2 p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  Per E i n z i g e  (pseudonym o f J o h a n n K a s p a r  i n Russia. states  socialism versus  topic — "was  causing  und  sein  1 8 4 4 ) , w r i t t e n by t h e German,  t h a t S t i m e r ' s book was born.  o f the day,  violence.'"  Schmidt).  the  Eigentum Max  In the  year  Friedrich Nietzsche  these a u t h o r s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the e a r l y In a short  autobiographical  t h a t he h a s n o t r e a d N i e t z s c h e ,  note,  was 1900s  Artsybashev  but that S t i r n e r i s  14 to h i s l i k i n g .  To d e f i n e  bashev' s " a n a r c h i c a l  f u r t h e r w h a t i s meant by  individualism"  as i t m a n i f e s t s  Artsyitself  26 i n h i s l i t e r a r y w o r k s , one may r e f l e c t on t h e i d e a s o f a recent interpreter of Stirner: S t i r n e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach takes t h e i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e as t h e o n l y c o h e r e n t a n d m e a n i n g f u l u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ; e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i cant only i n terms o f i t s i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h t h i s p s y c h e , how i t c o n f i r m s o r t h r e a t e n s i t . Thus t h e external world i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according t o whether i t generates ego-enhancing o r ego-degrading forces.15 This passage t e l l s  us much a b o u t t h e p s y c h e s o f many o f  Artsybashev's h e r o e s , from a b e g i n n i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e "truth"  o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m b y P a s h a Tumanov t o t h e p r o p h e t o f  individualism —  Vladimir  Sanin.  Pasha f e e l s p r e s s u r e n o t o n l y from the s c h o o l b u t a l s o f r o m h i s own f a m i l y .  system  The b o y w i s h e s t o p a s s h i s  e x a m i n a t i o n s and t h u s c o n f o r m , b u t l a c k s t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o s t u d y , w h i c h w o u l d be t h e p r a c t i c a l way t o a v o i d f a i l u r e . d e c i d e s t o go t o t h e h e a d m a s t e r his  l a c k o f knowledge.  t o plead f o r a pass  He  despite  As a s e c o n d t h o u g h t , he b u y s a g u n  t o u s e as a t h r e a t , s h o u l d t h e h e a d m a s t e r  r e f u s e t o comply.  The outcome i s t h a t t h e p e d a g o g u e i s m u r d e r e d  and t h e young  man g i v e s h i m s e l f up t o t h e p o l i c e . The  chronological order of the narrative i s interrup-  ted: the f i r s t  t h r e e c h a p t e r s and t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h o c c u r  a f t e r Pasha murders  t h e headmaster.  This inversion  the emphasis o f t h e s t o r y from t h e deed — c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g up t o i t .  shifts  murder — t o t h e  The i s s u e i s n o t t h a t a  murder has been committed by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t , P a v e l Tumanov, b u t why i t h a s b e e n  committed.  27 The  theme o f t h e  happiness l i e outside  s t o r y i s t h a t l i f e , knowledge  the boundaries of the s o c i a l l y - s a n c -  tioned school  system.  growth of the  i n d i v i d u a l (Pasha).  much c o l o r e d by examining the  this  This  s y s t e m i s s e e n as h a m p e r i n g  attitude.  thoughts of the  narrator help  to create  demonstrated  By  choosing the  author i s free to relating  and  These f u n c t i o n s  as he  presents  occurs a t the beginning  to vantage  juxtaposing of  the An  character  of the  by  express  an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e .  of the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r brush strokes"  be  the  very  omniscient narrator  o f v i e w by  characters.  narrative i s  can  setting.  p o i n t of o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r , the s h i f t i n g , multiple points  The  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  t h e m e , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and  the  and  example  by  story.  "a  few  Pasha's  only physical d e s c r i p t i o n i s : ... a y o u t h i n a t h i n s c h o o l b o y ' s o v e r c o a t and s c h o o l b o y ' s cap. He was o f medium h e i g h t , l a r g e h e a d e d , w i t h an u n h a n d s o m e , b u t a l l t h e same r a t h e r n i c e f a c e ; on h i s c h e e k s and u p p e r l i p c l e a r l y a p p e a r e d t h e u n e v e n down o f m u s t a c h e s and a b e a r d . He was f l u s h e d and o b v i o u s l y e x c i t e d . He e n t e r e d v e r y q u i c k l y , j u s t as i f someone w e r e p u r s u i n g h i m , and h a v i n g e n t e r e d , i m m e d i a t e l y removed h i s cap.16 In the p r e s e n t a t i o n  of c e r t a i n d e t a i l s of the boy's  a n c e , much i n f o r m a t i o n tion.  The  weli-ehdsen- a d j e c t i v e "large--headed"  g o l o v y i ) makes one is  think of a c h i l d ,  larger i n proportion  P a s h a has ishly  i s conveyed w i t h o u t lengthy  appeardescrip-  (bol'she^-  as a s m a l l c h i l d ' s h e a d  t o i t s b o d y t h a n t h a n o f an  adult.  a t r a c e of f a c i a l h a i r , i n c o n t r a s t to h i s  l a r g e head.  His emotional state i s sketched  child-  with  28 e x t r e m e economy.  He  i s red or flushed  ( k r a s e n ) , and  o b s e r v e d t h a t i t seems as i f he w e r e b e i n g —  by  circumstances.  T h a t he  his  automatic  The  l a s t sentence of the  p u r s u e d , as he  removes h i s c a p  i s a sign  is  of  response t o a place or f i g u r e of a u t h o r i t y . above q u o t a t i o n , s t a n d i n g  a p a r a g r a p h , i s e m p h a t i c and  sums up  the  physically setting  a p a r t and  emphasizing a statement.  thereby  In t h i s  P a s h a , a m u r d e r e r , removes h i s cap  alone  situation.  o n e - s e n t e n c e p a r a g r a p h i s r e g u l a r l y u s e d by  h i m s e l f up.  i t is  the  visually  as  The  author  for  and g r a p h i c a l l y  s t o r y i t seems i r o n i c as he  enters  to  that  give  Thus, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Pasha the author  "more i n t e r e s t e d i n a t m o s p h e r e t h a n i n p e r s p e c t i v e  is  and  outline." The  preceding  w i t h t h a t of the are  d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a s h a may  four o f f i c i a l s  be  contrasted  at the p o l i c e s t a t i o n ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s o c i a l  who  order:  I n the l a r g e , w e l l - l i t room, adorned w i t h p o r t r a i t s of the t s a r ' s f a m i l y , were a t t h a t t i m e f o u r p e o p l e : the c h i e f of p o l i c e h i m s e l f , a d i g n i f i e d [ v i d n y i ] , i m p r e s s i v e man w i t h l a r g e m u s t a c h e s , and r i n g s on h i s f i n g e r s ; h i s a s s i s t a n t , a f a t man w i t h a b i g s t o m a c h and p u r p l e f a c e , w h i c h t u r n e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y u p o n h i s s h o r t n e c k w i t h no adam's a p p l e ; and a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , t a l l , t h i n and t u b e r c u l a r , on whose n a r r o w s h o u l d e r s a s o l d i e r ' s c o a t and s a b r e hung as- i f on a c o a t s t a n d . The f o u r t h was a g e n tleman, i n a s o l d i e r ' s coat w i t h uniform buttons, h a v i n g a l a r g e r e d b e a r d and w i t h b l u e g l a s s e s on., t h e end o f h i s l a r g e p i m p l y n o s e . [p. 3] An  a t m o s p h e r e o f o f f i c i a l d o m i s c r e a t e d by  the t s a r ' s f a m i l y .  Here s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s  s y m b o l i c a l l y o v e r s e e n by  the  tsar himself.  the p o r t r a i t s  of  i s undertaken, Not  only i s  the  29 tsar's picture present, the in  b u t a l s o those o f h i s f a m i l y —- thus  s o c i a l u n i t of the family i s represented. t h e room, and t h e s c e n e w h i c h t a k e s  j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o the solemnity  The  characters  p l a c e , are i n i r o n i c  s u g g e s t e d by t h e t s a r ' s  portrait. As i n t h e s k e t c h  o f Pasha, c e r t a i n d e t a i l s  a r e sup-  p l i e d b y t h e n a r r a t o r as he draws t h e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s .  Very  much u n l i k e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a s h a , t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s  emerge  as mere g r o t e s q u e c a r i c a t u r e s o f men..  They a r e n o t s t o c k  c h a r a c t e r s , and y e t one f e e l s t h a t t h e a u t h o r d o e s e x p e c t most r e a d e r s manner.  t o react t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s i n a s i m i l a r  T h i s r e a c t i o n may be g e n e r a l i z e d  o r humor and m i l d a v e r s i o n .  The f a c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r  t h e s e f o u r c a r i c a t u r e s and b r e a t h e s l i f e them m a r g i n a l l y  takes  i n t o t h e m , o r makes  human by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r m e n t a l s t a t e s ,  attests to h i s ability  as a p s y c h o l o g i s t as w e l l as a w r i t e r .  The n a r r a t o r r e l a t e s how e a c h c h a r a c t e r when t h e p o l i c e c h i e f i s t e l l i n g of a Jewish  as a c o m b i n a t i o n  w a t c h m a k e r who was  feels during  the time  a s t o r y about t h e daughter  arrested f o r prostitution,  d e s p i t e h e r f a t h e r ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t s h e was b u t a c h i l d ;  he  t e l l s w i t h s p e c i a l r e l i s h how t h e g i r l was t h e n f o u n d t o be pregnant. who  W h i l e he i s t e l l i n g  " i n general  f e l t nothing  t h i s s t o r y , the f a t a s s i s t a n t ,  e x c e p t h i s o b e s i t y and s u f f e r e d  f r o m t h e h e a t and b o r e d o m " ( p . 4 ) , s m i l e s when he s e e s t h e police chief i s laughing. he i s o b l i g e d t o s t a n d ,  The s i c k o f f i c e r i s b i t t e r b e c a u s e  and f i n d s t h i s e x t r e m e l y  difficult  30 as he i s s o weak:; he l o o k s c h i e f and h a t e s h i m .  a t the healthy,  The s e c r e t a r y  strong  i n the blue  police  glasses,  "who  h a t e s t h e p o l i c e c h i e f f o r h i s c r u d i t y and c h u r l i s h n e s s " (Ibid.), listens to the story gaily, the p o l i c e c h i e f ' s c a r e e r w i l l the  reader's i n i t i a l  impression  by t h e added i n f o r m a t i o n  as h e h a s h e a r d  soon be ended.  At this  o f t h e f o u r has been  provided  that  by the omniscient  point softened  narrator  as he e a v e s d r o p s o n t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e o f f i c i a l s . Pasha's mother  i s the only  female character  s t o r y who i s p r e s e n t e d i n any d e t a i l . the  i n the  Her d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n  same mode as t h a t o f P a s h a : P a s h a ' s m o t h e r , Anna I v a n o v n a , a c o l o n e l ' s w i d o w , came i n [ t o t h e r o o m ] . She l i v e d on a p e n s i o n a n d on r e l i e f a s s i s t a n c e somehow o b t a i n e d f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n . She was an e m a c i a t e d , weak woman, w i t h a s o f t v o i c e and a l a r g e s u p p l y o f c h a r a c t e r l e s s g o o d n e s s and a d u l l , p r e m a t u r e l y aged face. [ p . 12]  It i sreally  f o r t h e sake o f t h i s h e l p l e s s , p i t i f u l  t h a t Pasha i s so desperate t o pass h i sexamination.  woman On t h e  day o f h i s e x a m s , h i s s i s t e r s t e l l h i m t h a t s h e h a s gone t o church.  This  f a c t makes h i m f e e l more g u i l t y  widens t h e g u l f between mother The f i r s t depicted  the  characters.  and s o n .  scene between Pasha and h i s mother i s  (as i s t h e scene w i t h  outward r e a l i t y  and f u r t h e r  juxtaposed  the o f f i c i a l s )  t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t i e s of  P a s h a ' s m o t h e r t h i n k s how  children are, while  by showing t h e  cruel-hearted  P a s h a t h i n k s how u n f a i r : ' h i s m o t h e r i s  and w h a t l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g s h e d i s p l a y s : ; -  I t seemed t o h e r t h a t i f P a s h a c o u l d o n l y u n d e r s t a n d how she s u f f e r e d and f e a r e d f o r h i m , he w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y b e g i n t o s t u d y w e l l and make a p l a c e for himself. And P a s h a l o o k e d a t h e r a s k a n c e and t h o u g h t a l m o s t t h e same t h i n g : t h a t h i s m o t h e r was c r u e l and n o t a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d how d i f f i c u l t and b o r i n g i t was t o s t u d y , and t h a t h e , P a s h a , was n e v e r t h e l e s s a f i n e , k i n d b o y , e v e n i f he c o u l d n ' t p a s s h i s exams. [p. 13] This j u x t a p o s i t i o n of ideas g i v e s the reader profound i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s and sad  i r o n y of t o t a l misunderstanding.  demands on The  their relationship.  m o t i f o f man  fellow-men,  a l o n e and  i s u n d e r l i n e d by t h e i r  fall  from h i s pocket;  on t h e f l o o r .  The  w i t h home ( h i s m o t h e r ) , juxtaposition.  While  thus not  emotional realizable.  a l i e n a t e d , even f r o m h i s c l o s e s t  When P a s h a b u r s t s i n on a pistol  Theirs i s the  Their great  each other are a n t i t h e t i c a l ,  insight  thoughts.  the four o f f i c i a l s  he  produces  a s he d o e s s o , some c a k e - c r u m b s  crumbs suggest and  h i s youth  are another  and  example o f  ties ironic  Pasha remains alone w i t h the s e c r e t a r y ,  he h a s an o b s e s s i v e d e s i r e t o c l e a n up t h e s e crumbs f r o m floor.  This d e t a i l f u n c t i o n s i n another  show h i s m e n t a l s t a t e .  The  description  manner: i t h e l p s  to  of h i s mind's wander-  ings i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e a l i s t i c : He d i d n o t e v e n r e a l i z e i n w h a t manner b e g a n , c o n t i n u e d , o r ended ' t h i s [' eto." ] , and how he g o t h e r e and f o r w h a t r e a s o n h e was s i t t i n g i n a b i g empty room i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b i g , b e a r d e d man i n b l u e g l a s s e s who was r u s t l i n g p a p e r s . At times i t seemed t h a t he s h o u l d g e t up and l e a v e and t h e n a l l t h i s w o u l d s i m p l y end and seem a s i f i t w e r e n o t h i n g , e v e n gay and h u m o r o u s . . . b u t t h e n he f e l l i n t o a c o n f u s i n g mass o f s e n s e l e s s s c e n e s , p a r t s o f w o r d s and r e d s p l o t c h e s , w h i c h began t o 1  the  32 b l u r and s w e l l and f i n a l l y f l o o d e d e v e r y t h i n g w i t h a r e d d i s h h a z e i n w h i c h b o b b e d some s o r t o f f a m i l i a r , yet t e r r i b l e faces. [p. 8] The  n a r r a t o r comments t h a t P a s h a ' s s t a t e o f m i n d i s  delirium"  ("blizkoe k bredu").  -This d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t  s u p e r f l u o u s a f t e r t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n . t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n i s very v i s u a l i n t o Pasha's mind.  I t may  be  as t h e r e a d e r  seems noted  "sees"  Pasha's estrangement from what has.hap-  p e n e d , and i s h a p p e n i n g , On  "near  i s a c u t e l y observed  the n i g h t before the examination,  i n this  passage.  as P a s h a l o o k s  m i s e r a b l y a t h i s b o o k s w i t h "a b l i n d , d u l l d e s p a i r b o r d e r i n g on a p a t h y "  and  "hates  and b l a m e s h i s t e a c h e r s "  narrator intrudes directly The  (p. 1 1 ) ,  the  t o e x p l a i n what the t r o u b l e i s .  t e a c h e r s are not t o blame, "but the u n n a t u r a l s t a t e  a f f a i r s by w h i c h m e a n i n g and  a twenty-year-old youth, t h i r s t i n g  interest i n l i f e ,  u n i n t e r e s t i n g , meaningless,  was  made t o l e a r n by  lifeless  texts"  of  for rote  (Ibid.).  The  n a r r a t o r adds t h a t P a s h a ' s n e g a t i v e , o p p r e s s i v e f e e l i n g s "hard t o bear  for his kind soft heart"  dobrogo i miagkogo s e r d t s a , " I b i d . ) . f e e l manipulated,  ("tiazhelodlia Here the reader  are  ego may  as t h e o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r i n t e r r u p t s  to  i  whisper  "the t r u t h "  and  o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t s i n .his e a r .  Seymour Chapman's a r t i c l e , T r a n s m i s s i o n , " he  "The  S t r u c t u r e of N a r r a t i v e  states:  A t r u e n a r r a t i v e a s s e r t i o n i s always i n t e g r a l t o t h e s t o r y , and c a n n o t be q u e s t i o n e d by t h e r e a d e r , s i n c e t o do s o i s t o p r e v e n t t h e n a r r a t i v e f r o m p r o c e e d i n g , t o deny i t s v e r y f a b r i c . The a u t h o r m u s t be g r a n t e d , by c o n v e n t i o n , t h e r i g h t t o p o s i t  In  33 a l l t h o s e e n t i t i e s and a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y - t o h i s narrative. B u t a s s e r t i o n s . w h i c h a r e o p i n i o n s do not have t h i s w a r r a n t y : they r e f e r t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s view of the world a t l a r g e , not t o the i n f r a w o r l d o f t h e s t o r y , and t h e r e a d e r c a n immediately r e c o g n i z e t h e d e p a r t u r e from the necessities of that infraworld. ? 1  Thus, the n a r r a t o r i s o v e r - s t e p p i n g the boundaries narration.  The s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r may b e e x p l a i n e d  by t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t bashev  of simple  i n the story.  Artsy-  writes:  An a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e a n d my own h a t r e d f o r t h e superannuated schools suggested the s u b j e c t . P e o p l e h a v e no i d e a o f w h a t a R u s s i a n grammar school i s l i k e . The i n n u m e r a b l e s u i c i d e s o f t h e p u p i l s , which s t i l l c o n t i n u e , are a testimony t o i t s educational value f o r Russian y o u t h . x 8  - I f i t i s u n n a t u r a l and o b j e c t i o n a b l e f o r a y e a r - o l d youth  twenty-  t o study d r y t e x t s , what then does t h e author  o f f e r as an a l t e r n a t i v e s t y l e o f l i f e ?  P a s h a d o e s come i n  c o n t a c t w i t h "other w o r l d s " : f o r one, t h a t o f the o l d f i s h e r man K o s t r o v , who i s c o n t e n t t o l i v e hut, to f i s h ,  on t h e r i v e r bank i n a  and t o admire h i s n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s .  His  son V a s i l i i  and h i s f r i e n d D a k h n e v s k i i r e p r e s e n t y e t a n o t h e r  life-style:  they a r e s t u d e n t s a l o n g w i t h Pasha, b u t spend  most, o f t h e i r t i m e p l a y i n g b i l l i a r d s . about f a i l i n g  examinations,  They a r e n o t u p s e t  a s t h e y h a v e t h e i r game, b y  presumably, they can earn a l i v e l i h o o d .  On h i s way t o and  from h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , Pasha meets o l d K o s t r o v . Vasilii to  and D a k h n e v s k i i t r e a t P a s h a k i n d l y  worry.  Before  which,  A t t h e exam  and t e l l h i m n o t  t h e exams b e g i n , t h e n a r r a t o r g i v e s h i s  34 o p i n i o n of the  system of examination.  e x a m i n a t i o n s a r e u s e l e s s , as t h e student's itself  ability  i n a given  f o r the  outside/inside. outside world  Then, w i t h  the  t h a t he  i f he w e r e n o t  I t seemed t o h i m failed"  devoted t o the  that this  (p. 2 3 ) .  the  t h e p e o p l e who  study has  met  tranquility. the fish  The  are  from  The him  portrays  Kostrov  do  tells  greatest  (p.  26). is  not  goals. of beauty  r e v e l s i n a l l around  s p a r k l i n g r i v e r , d i p p i n g b i r d s , and that splash i n his p a i l .  face  river..  a d u l t who  r i v e r ' s edge i s one  o l d fisherman  his  i n which people  the best" an  his worthless  gets  t h a t "the v e r y  concerned w i t h the u s u a l s o c i e t a l scene a t the  one  or s o c i a l p o s i t i o n .  P a s h a i s o v e r w h e l m e d t h a t he  The  spirits.  pages  a t the one  of  the  failed  one-half  he  c h i r p i n g of  Here A r t s y b a s h e v  a f r i e n d once t o l d him  blockheads are  the  indeed  impression  good l i f e . "  not worry about c a r e e r s  by  buoy h i s  Kostrov  an a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e t h r o u g h l i f e :  P a s h a how  and  is  Before  a l i v e , s m a l l and  F i v e and  s c e n e o f P a s h a and  i s "the  little.  t h a t e v e r y o n e c o u l d t e l l by  n a r r a t o r l i n g e r s h e r e , and is  For P a s h a . i t  i s a contrast  these s i g n s of l i f e has  that  examination  s c h o o l , P a s h a i s met  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he  f e e l s "as  had  the  there  of b r i g h t s u n l i g h t , v o i c e s  At f i r s t ,  exams, he  The  students.  second time,  Leaving  swallows.  . .  subject.  believes  a l r e a d y knows e a c h  t e r r i b l e b e c a u s e he knows s o  meets K o s t r o v  .  teacher  i s p a i n f u l f o r most of the  particularly  He  the s m a l l  and him:  shining  Here i s a g l i m p s e of  life  35 t h a t appears f r e e i n comparison t o Pasha's  own.  The  river  s c e n e i s p r e s e n t e d i d y l l i c a l l y ; t h e r i v e r may a l s o be a symbol o f t h e r i v e r o f l i f e .  I t i s more e x a c t t o s a y t h a t  the  r i v e r i s bound t o l i f e  and t o t h e b e a u t y o f l i f e .  are  obvious signs that i t gives l i f e  and l i v e l i h o o d :  boats p l y the water, Kostrov catches f i s h , Kostrov's eyes, the r i v e r  There steam-  and s o o n .  i s "an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e "  In  ("blago-  d a t ' ," p. 25) :•' . . . he s c r e w e d up h i s e y e s and g a z e d w i t h d e l i g h t u p s t r e a m , sometimes s h a d i n g h i s eyes w i t h h i s hand, f o l l o w i n g the passage of the steamboats. He k i c k e d pebbles i n t o the water and, b l i s s f u l l y s m i l i n g , watched t h e d i a m o n d - r o l l i n g w a v e l e t s b r e a k on t h e shoal. He s i g h e d l i g h t l y a n d f r e e l y , and f i n a l l y s a i d : 'An e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . ' [ p p . 24-25] For  P a s h a he h a s s i m p l e w o r d s o f w i s d o m : ' V a s k a h a s h i s b i l l i a r d s , I h a v e t h e r i v e r and f i s h , y o u . . . w i l l h a v e s o m e t h i n g . We c a n n o t a l l l e a r n by r o t e , b u t a l l t h e same we a r e p e o p l e no w o r s e t h a n o t h e r s , and a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f o u r c r e a t o r . ' [p. 2 7 ] .  The  o l d f i s h e r m a n c a n n o t be b o t h e r e d w i t h s u c h p r o b l e m s as  Pasha's.  He b r e a k s o f f h i s goodbye t o P a s h a w i t h "'Ah, t h e  swallows, the swallows'." colorful  and d r a m a t i c .  The c h a r a c t e r K o s t r o v i s b o t h  A s a spokesman f o r t h e " r i v e r  life,"  he a d d s a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e s t o r y . The tic fish  r i v e r s c e n e l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o an i m p r e s s i o n i s -  rendering.  The b i r d s f l i t ,  diamond  splash i n the o l d fisherman's p a i l .  and movement.  waves s p a r k l e , and Everywhere  i s light  A f t e r K o s t r o v l e a v e s , Pasha a l s o observes the  beauty of h i s surroundings: "the swallows t w i t t e r e d ,  gliding  36 in  a sea of a i r ,  l i g h t and s k y - b l u e s p a c e "  s h i v a l i , p l a v a i a v more v o z d u k h a , /p. ' 2 5 ) .  The b i r d s i n f l i g h t  s v e t a i golubogo  are perhaps  however s h o r t - l i v e d , sense o f  ("lastochki za-  symbolic of Pasha's,  freedom.  When K o s t r o v l e a v e s , a s h o r t , o n e - s e n t e n c e states: cally  " P a s h a was  left  alone" (Ibid.).  the youth's enchantment w o n d e r s how  i s alone p h y s i t o s u p p o r t him  K o s t r o v can n o t h e l p ;  w i t h t h e r i v e r s c e n e w a n e s , he  he c o u l d h a v e l i s t e n e d t o s u c h a man.  m i n d and o p i n i o n s h a v e b e e n s h a p e d structure, school  paragraph  H i s mother does n o t u n d e r s t a n d  h i s p r o b l e m , n o r do h i s t e a c h e r s .  lives.  He  and a l s o i n t h e w o r l d , as he h a s no one  o r a i d him i n h i s c r i s i s .  prostora,"  as  even  Pasha's  s i n c e b i r t h by t h e  family  and t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e town i n w h i c h  he  The p r o g r e s s o f h i s s t a t e o f a g i t a t i o n i s n o t e d i n a  f o l l o w i n g s m a l l p a r a g r a p h ; he r e a l i z e s w h a t h i s f a i l u r e , means t o h i s m o t h e r : was if  "And  impossible to l i v e "  from t h i s  (p. 3 1 ) .  arose the i d e a t h a t i t  The n a r r a t o r comments  that  P a s h a h a d b e e n s t r o n g e r i n c h a r a c t e r , he w o u l d h a v e com-  m i t t e d s u i c i d e , thus echoing Artsybashev's statement  about  t h e numerous s u i c i d e s i n R u s s i a n s c h o o l s . I n t h e s c e n e i n w h i c h P a s h a b u y s t h e gun t o t h r e a t e n the headmaster,  another of Artsybashev's concerns  appears.  I n t h e window o f t h e f i r e a r m s s t o r e , s t u f f e d a n i m a l s birds  are d i s p l a y e d .  The  story  c l e a r the author's d i s t a s t e  and  "Krov'"  ("Blood")  makes  for killing  animals.  In  Tumanov," t h e a n i m a l s i n t h e window s t a n d  "Pasha  37 . . . i n l i f e l e s s and u n n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n s . They b a r e d t h e i r f a n g s a t t h e p a s s e r s - b y , who s t o p p e d t o l o o k a t t h e i r d u l l g l a s s eyes and p r a i s e t h e a r t o f t h o s e who h a d k i l l e d t h e s e c r e a t u r e s a n d t h e n t r i e d t o make them l i f e - l i k e , c u r v i n g t h e i r s p i n e s a n d d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r y e l l o w l i f e l e s s jaws. [ p p . 37-38] The  d i s p l a y o f a n i m a l s and guns a t t r a c t s  are t a k e n by t h e a d v e n t u r e Pasha approaches if  they s e l l  "childish  and e x o t i c n a t u r e o f t h e h u n t .  t h e s t o r e a p p r e h e n s i v e l y : he d o e s n o t know  guns t o " s c h o o l b o y s "  curiosity"  this  (p. 39).  He l o o k s w i t h  a t t h e guns shown h i m ( p . 4 0 ) . The gun  dealer i s completely detached to the youth.  t h e s c h o o l b o y s , who  from h i s a c t o f s e l l i n g  H i s m i n d i s o n h i s c h i l d , who i s i l l .  a gun In  s c e n e , as w i t h t h e one a t t h e p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s , t h e  n a r r a t o r g i v e s added i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h makes a c h a r a c t e r more understandable.  The y o u n g woman c a s h i e r r e a d s t h e d i s t r e s s  i n Pasha's f a c e and:says people guns.  l i k e t h a t s h o u l d n o t be s o l d  The s h o p p r o p r i e t o r r e t o r t s t h a t t h e r e i s no l a w t h a t  stipulates  t o whom he c a n s e l l .  the author's concern  T h e s e d e t a i l s seem t o show  f o r s o c i e t y ' s blase  weapons.  L i f e i s r e n d e r e d v e r y cheap —  pistol —  t e n r u b l e s , twelve  The  1  attitude  toward  the cost of a small  kopeks.  h e a d m a s t e r V o z n e s e n s k i i , whom P a s h a k i l l s , i s  d e s c r i b e d as " a v e r y k i n d man w i t h k i n d e y e s , b u t m o s t o f a l l he was a g r e a t f o r m a l i s t , a n d h i s e y e s w e r e h i d d e n blue g l a s s e s " (p. 35). t o be p a s s e d , he t r i e s t h e i r duty  behind  When P a s h a comes t o p l e a d w i t h h i m t o e x p l a i n t h a t the masters  above a l l e l s e .  have  He h i m s e l f i s t o u c h e d b y P a s h a ' s  38 p l i g h t , b u t a c t s as a p u p p e t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .  The  n a r r a t o r makes a j u d g m e n t on t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a s w e l l as on the  way  i n which the master r e l a t e s t o the youth:  I f the headmaster, s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o h i s t r o u b l e , had a d v i s e d h i m i n any way, P a s h a Tumanov m o s t l i k e l y w o u l d h a v e gone home. B u t t h e h e a d m a s t e r b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t he f u l f i l l h i s o f f i c i a l d u t i e s , n o t make c h i l d r e n happy . . . and t h a t was n o t a t a l l b e c a u s e he was a h a r d e n e d man, b u t b e c a u s e t h e i d e a l s o f modern e d u c a t i o n -we're-not coneernedu_.with w h e t h e r ' c h i l d r e n became h a p p y o r g o o d p e o p l e , b u t w i t h p r e p a r i n g them f o r t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . . . and a l s o b e c a u s e t h e h e a d m a s t e r , b y h i s p o s i t i o n , was d e v o i d o f any i n d e p e n d e n c e and was o b l i g e d t o a c t a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n s drawn up by p e o p l e who w e r e n o t i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h c h i l d r e n and d i d n o t c a r e a b o u t them; t h e i r p l a n s w e r e b a s e d on s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a w h i c h d i d n o t t a k e l i v e c h i l dren i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . [pp. 45-46] A p a s s a g e s u c h as t h i s s u g g e s t s why  t h e s t o r y was c e n s o r e d .  S u c h a d i r e c t a s s a u l t on t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , i t s c r e a t o r s p e r p e t u a t o r s , c o u l d n o t be t o l e r a t e d .  Intrusions of  and  this  k i n d , i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d , show t h e w r i t e r ' s concern f o r h i s m a t e r i a l . However, A r t s y b a s h e v i s n o t always so o v e r t i n e x p r e s sing h i s opinions. objectively.  The s t o r y  "Kupriian"  i s h a n d l e d more  A l t h o u g h t h e mode o f n a r r a t i o n , t h a t o f  o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r / i s t h e same i n b o t h s t o r i e s , t h e r e a r e no d i d a c t i c i n t r u s i o n s i n t h e s e c o n d .  More e m p h a s i s i s  p l a c e d on t h e p l o t and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c h a r a c t e r s . The n a r r a t o r a c t s as o b s e r v e r , n o t c o m m e n t a t o r . has the a b i l i t y  He  t o n o t e a c h a r a c t e r ' s t h o u g h t s , and  f r o m t h e m i n d o f one c h a r a c t e r t o a n o t h e r .  still switches  39 "Kupriian" The  story "Kupriian"  b o g a t s t v o , I s s u e s 3 and h u n d r e d p a g e s , as  are  L a n d e ) and  (The  volna" 1908;  "Bunt"  ("The and  4.  first  I t i s a long  a l s o "Smert  The  longer  form of  and  character.  1  i n Russkoe  s t o r y , about  Lande"  R e b e l l i o n ) , 1903;  Human W a v e " ) , 1906;  "Rabochii  a p p e a r e d i n 1902  (The  Death  one of  "Chelovecheskaia  "Milliony" ("Millions"),  S h e v y r e v " ("The-,Worker S h e v y r e v " ) , story allows  Briefly,  1909.  f o r more d e v e l o p m e n t o f  i t i s distinguished  from the  plot  novel  . . . i n t h a t i t tends to r e v e a l character through a s e r i e s of a c t i o n s or under s t r e s s , the purpose of t h e s t o r y b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d when t h e r e a d e r comes t o .know w h a t t h e t r u e " nature:. o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s . . . w h e r e a s t h e n o v e l t e n d s t o show t h e character d e v e l o p i n g as a r e s u l t o f a c t i o n s and u n d e r t h e impact of events.19 "Kupriian"  i s the  story of a h o r s e - t h i e f  who,  while  m a k i n g a b u s i n e s s o f s t e a l i n g and  r e - s e l l i n g horses with  f r i e n d V a s k a , has  the w i f e  peasant.  The  p e a s a n t had  the b e g i n n i n g of and  been l i v i n g w i t h  the  the  village  village  f i v e years  s t o r y , t o become a s o l d i e r .  With h i s r e t u r n , the  are  affected adversely.  new  g o v e r n o r has  s e t t i n g of the of Dernovoe.  i n Egor's  characters  There i s a second c o m p l i c a t i o n :  d e c i d e d t o r o u n d up  s t o r y i s the  the horse t h i e v e s .  countryside  and  the  small  defined  as  l o c a l - c o l o r w r i t i n g ; i t could  t r a n s f e r r e d to another s o c i a l c l a s s or  the The  village  T h e r e i s enough d e s c r i p t i o n o f r u r a l l i f e  s t o r y t o be  e a s i l y be  l i v e s of a l l the  before  Kupriian  the p e a s a n t E g o r ' s w i f e , M a t r e n a , have a c h i l d  absence.  the  left  of a  his  for not  location.  40 This  story establishes  There i s t h e r e c u r r e n t are it  a mood r a t h e r  impression of l i v e s  g r e y , h a r s h , j o y l e s s and c r u s h i n g l y i s a l l a man c a n do t o s u r v i v e .  of t h i s  t h a n a theme. and s c e n e s  oppressive,  that  i n which  The mores, o f t h e s o c i e t y  r u r a l area are s t r i c t , merciless  and d u l l .  The  s t a t e m e n t made by t h e o l d r e l i g i o u s p e a s a n t F e d o r G u n i a v y i e c h o e s t h e mood o f t h e s t o r y : "'They a r e b e a s t s , (" ' Z v e r i , ne l i u d i ' . " -— p. 1 5 2 ) . The l i f e indeed p r i m i t i v e . life  I t has been i m p o s s i b l e  n o t people'."  portrayed i s f o r the beauty of  t o b e p r e s e r v e d i n any o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . Concerning "Kupriian,"  one o f t h e more i n s i g h t f u l ,  a l b e i t e f f u s i v e , A r t s y b a s h e v c r i t i c s , Baranov, has w r i t t e n that there life.  i s s o m e t h i n g t r i u m p h a n t and h e r o i c  He a l s o n o t e s t h a t  "there  i n Kupriian's  i s s o m e t h i n g t o r t u r e d and 20  s e n s i t i v e i n t h i s man l i v i n g  like  a wolf."  cannot be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n .  These  Kupriian  opinions  i s not a  G o r k y a n " p r o u d hobo" who i s a m a s t e r o f h i s own l i f e . not  a C h e l k a s h r e v e l i n g i n h i s deeds —  strong  man.  sensitive"  To s t a t e t h a t i n Kupriian  presents simply a  there  He i s  a swaggering, f r e e ,  i s " s o m e t h i n g t o r t u r e d and  i s sentimentalizing.  The s t o r y  a r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e of the l i f e  and d e a t h o f  horse-thief. I t begins with  a description of Kupriian  during  a  t y p i c a l day i n h i s l i f e : ; K u p r i i a n was w e a r y a n d s o a k i n g w e t . His f e e t stumbled weakly along t h e s l i p p e r y wet h i l l o c k s ; h i s b o o t s were soaked t h r o u g h , c o a t e d w i t h  41 mud and l e a v e s , and h a d become v e r y h e a v y . K u p r i i a n , w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , p u l l e d them o u t o f t h e t h i c k , sticky mud. K u p r i i a n was h u n g r y and h a d n o t s l e p t t h e p r e v i o u s n i g h t ; t h e r e was a r o a r i n g i h h i s e a r s ; an u n p l e a s a n t k i n d o f w e i g h t hung o v e r h i s e y e s . To t h e s e s e n s a t i o n s was added a n o t h e r : a v a g u e a w a r e ness of danger — j u s t over h i s shoulder. K u p r i i a n f e l t m i s e r a b l e , as; ah e m a c i a t e d w o l f f e e l s m i s e r a b l e > when h u n t e r s a r e c l o s i n g i n on a l l sides. [p. 49] I t i s a c o l d , r a i n y , autumn d a y ,  and  Kupriian's only  thoughts  a r e o f h i s d i s c o m f o r t and h i s f e e l i n g o f  danger.  As  impending  i f h i s l o t w e r e n o t h a r d e n o u g h , he m e e t s  p e a s a n t M o z i a v y i f r o m t h e v i l l a g e , who returned.  the  r e p o r t s t h a t Egor  has  M o z i a v y i h i m s e l f s t e a l s wood f r o m t h e f o r e s t i n .  order to survive. Dialogue c h a r a c t e r and peasants: tious  i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the s t o r y to r e v e a l  advance the a c t i o n .  The  speech i s that, of  c o l l o q u i a l , o f t e n h u m o r o u s , and  sometimes  as, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Moziavyi's speech.  K u p r i i a n o f t h e homecoming o f E g o r and Matrena's  He  repeti-  tells  of h i s d i s c o v e r y of  child:  'Na s m e r t bil.'!> C h e i p a r n i s h k a ? s p r a s h i v a e t . . . e t o Fed'ka-to! Kakoi, g o v o r i t , parnishka? Kakaia p r i c h i n a parnishke b y t ' . . . Fed'ke, t o e s t ' . . . e z h e l i t v o i z a k o n n y i muzh, t o e s t " , p i a t ' l e t v o t s u t s t v i i ? — B i l babu ochenno.' [p. 55] 1  ('He a l m o s t b e a t h e r t o d e a t h ! Whose k i d i s t h i s ? he a s k s . . . t h i s F e d ' k a ! What k i d i s t h i s ? he s a y s . What's t h e k i d ' s r e a s o n f o r b e i n g . . . F e d ' k a s , t h a t i s . . . w i t h your l a w f u l husband absent f o r f i v e ' years? — He r e a l l y b e a t t h e woman.') 1  :  K u p r i i a n i s n o t a h a r d e n e d man, He  p i t i e s M a t r e n a and  b e a s t ! " "- (p . ;  56).  e v e n t h o u g h he  is a  thief.  t h i n k s o f E g o r : "'He's a b e a s t , j u s t  a  42 Information  a b o u t K u p r i i a n and V a s k a i s s u p p l i e d  t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n as t h e y To w a r d o f f t h e c o l d and  s p e n d t h e n i g h t i n an o l d  assuage t h e i r hunger, they  vodka.  V a s k a t e l l s how  he  write.  His s e n s i t i v i t y  i s e v i d e n t when he cranes  To make a l i v i n g , V a s k a h a d  no  factory. life. the  t e l l s how  he  of twelve  choice but  he b e g a n t o s t e a l h o r s e s  t h e two  have a r r i v e d  Kupriian*-i's c o n c e r n he  t a l k s to Vaska.  to  this:  so y o u n g .  The  with  to  p o o r , and  at  his'grandKupriian.was  T h e s e f l a s h b a c k s show  at t h e i r present place i n  f o r M a t r e n a and  used  t o f i n d work i n a  When t h e y w e r e k i l l e d ,  n o t harmed b e c a u s e he was  to  u n t i l he w a n t e d t o weep.  l a n d w o r k e d by K u p r i i a n ' s f a m i l y was  f a t h e r and h i s b r o t h e r .  how  drink  T h e r e he b e g a n t o d r i n k and became h a r d e n e d  The  age  barn.  u s e d t o s i n g w e l l and w i s h e d  t o g l i s t e n t o the c r y o f the  by  life.  Fed'ka i s again noted  as  n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s Vaska's r e a c t i o n  H i s s o u l , h o r r i b l y and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l y destroyed by f a c t o r i e s and p l a n t s , w h e r e a p e r s o n becomes o n l y a p a r t o f a huge m a c h i n e , c o u l d n o t h a v e f e e l i n g s o f s y m p a t h y . He d i d n o t e v e n c o n s i d e r a c h i l d t o be a p e r s o n . [p. 64] The  author  a n c e as t h e y  chooses t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r p h y s i c a l appear-  s l e e p , b a t h e d by  the dim  l i g h t of morning:  The g r e y m o r n i n g s h o n e t h r o u g h a l a r g e c r a c k a n d , w i t h i t s d u s t y , m i l k y l i g h t , i l l u m i n a t e d t h e two s l e e p i n g f i g u r e s of the most f o r m i d a b l e h o r s e - t h i e v e s of the area. K u p r i i a n s l e p t s t r e t c h e d o u t on h i s b a c k , and h i s dark-bearded, h i g h cheek-boned, s t r o n g masculine f a c e was s e r i o u s and s t i l l ; he b r e a t h e d d e e p l y and e v e n l y , h i s . c h e s t r i s i n g and f a l l i n g . Vaska s l e p t  43 w i t h h i s l o n g t h i n l e g s c u r l e d up . . . and h i s arm u n d e r h i s h e a d . H i s c l e a n - s h a v e n f a c e was d e a t h l y s t i l l a n d , i n t h e weak m o r n i n g l i g h t , seemed a s h e n ; he b r e a t h e d i r r e g u l a r l y w i t h w h i s t l e s and w h e e z e s ; h i s s l e n d e r n e c k was s t r e t c h e d o u t and h i s e y e l i d s f l u t t e r e d l i g h t l y . l i k e t h o s e o f a man r e a d y a t any moment t o jump up and r u n . Tp. 65] r  :  The  two  able.  "formidable  horse-thieves"  seem i n n o c e n t  and  A g a i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , as i n "Pasha-Tumanov," i s  o f mood, a c c o m p l i s h e d by  a few  brush  i n h a b i t a n t s , who  add  to the p i c t u r e of r u r a l  them a r e o n l y names, and  Egor a r r i v e s : the Isaev, briefly  and  d e s c r i b e d ; :l"ike t h e ' f o u r *-po l i c e  When t h e y  are  thoroughly  Fedor Guniavyi  s h i r t exposing  V a s k a and to  the  enjoy  He  (p. 109).  estab-  do n o t  mention send  L i k e the p o l i c e c h i e f i n "Pasha petty gossip  and  i s d e s c r i b e d as he  "In h i s trousers, barefooted,  The  r e l i g i o u s o l d man  characterize both.  i n "Pasha  K u p r i i a n ; i n s t e a d they  h i s d a r k h a i r y c h e s t , he  and more g a u n t "  officers  only  intrigue.  i s the most d e v e l o p e d o f the  c h a r a c t e r s , a f t e r Egor. icon i n h i s hut:  They a r e  speak w i t h E g o r , they  g r e e t i n g s . t o Egor's w i f e .  There  clerk  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  w h a t t h e y know a b o u t h i s w i f e and  Tumanov," t h e y  Many o f  a t t h e r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n when  a l o c a l policeman, Shchpurn.  lished order.  life.  s e n i o r o f f i c e r Golovchenko, the  Tumanov," t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s  village  f u n c t i o n i n "walk-on" p a r t s .  a triumvirate of o f f i c i a l s  one  strokes.  There i s a l a r g e group of minor c h a r a c t e r s ,  is  piti-  peasant  s i t s by  the  w i t h h i s open  seemed e v e n  d i a l o g u e between the  taller rascally  i s q u i t e h u m o r o u s , and  K u p r i i a n and V a s k a a r e s p e n d i n g  serves the  44 n i g h t a t F e d o r ' s , when t h e t a l k t u r n s t o M a t r e n a Kupriian.  Vaska says:  'What d i d he do, f o r c e h e r , d r a g h e r away? willing...  was  and  She  1  Guniavyi  frowned.  ' A l s o t h e c l e v e r f e l l o w d i d n o t have t o tempt h e r . . . she h e r s e l f knows w h e r e i t i s s w e e t ! laughed Vaska. 1  Guniavyi sighed. ' A l l t h e same, i t ' s a s i n on K u p r i i a n ' s h e a d . . . What's a woman?; S h e ' s b u t a f o o l — he l e d h e r i n t o s i n . . . and t h e s i n i s on h i s h e a d ! ' 'You're h a r p i n g : a s i n ! ' V a s k a s a i d know — *  'We  'You do n o t know... Vaska  laughed  scornfully.  1  spitefully.  ' I f a h o r s e i s s t o l e n , and one h a r b o r s t h e h o r s e thieves, i s that a s i n also?' Guniavyi f e l l —  1  silent  f o r a moment.  ' T h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t [ O s o b \ d e l o ] , ' he s a i d c a l m l y a h o r s e i s an a n i m a l , w h i l e a woman...'  ' W e l l , i t ' s a l s o a s p e c i a l case [osob' d e l o ] w i t h women, c h u c k l e d V a s k a . 'They, a r e b o t h c r e a t e d f o r t h e same t h i n g . . . You know I t o o k c a r e o f m a r k e t i n g the g i r l s a t our f a c t o r y . . . 1  1  'Ekh... y o u r f a c t o r y s o u l , a l o s t s o u l ! with sharp reproach Guniavyi w h i s t l e d through h i s mustaches...[pp. 110-111] 1  Vaska i s a swaggering, happy-go-lucky K u p r i i a n , who  t h i e f compared t o  i s a l w a y s r a t h e r g r i m and  somber.  Nature i s used throughout the s t o r y t o h i g h l i g h t v a r i o u s s c e n e s and moods o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . a m u s i c a l r e f r a i n i n the f i r s t  two c h a p t e r s .  The  rain i s like  I t underlines  K u p r i i a n ' s d i s c o m f o r t and e c h o e s h i s l o n e l i n e s s : 1) ... t h r o u g h t h e r o a r o f t h e r a i n [shum d o z h d i a ] , i t seemed as i f someone w e r e b e a t i n g a s t i c k  45 s h a r p l y a g a i n s t a b i r c h trunk.' of Moziavyi's c a r t approaching.]  [This i s t h e sound [ p . 50]  :  2) "The r a i n r u s t l e d , r u s t l e d d r e a r i l y [ D o z h d v s e shurshal, shurshal tosklivo]. Now and t h e n t h e w i n d r o s e up i n t h e f o r e s t , a n d t h e n a m y s t e r i o u s l o n g drawn-out r o a r i n g drowned o u t t h e r u s t l i n g o f the r a i n , b u t then a g a i n i t began i t s p e r s i s t e n t whispering. [ p . 54] 1  3) [The s o u n d o f M o z i a v y i ' s c a r t l e a v i n g ] m i n g l e d w i t h and t h e n d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o t h e r o a r o f t h e r a i n [shum d o z h d i a ] . [ p . 56] 4) The r o a r o f t h e r a i n , drumming on t h e t h a t c h e d r o o f / was s t r o n g e r and s h a r p e r [Shum d o s h d i a , b a r a b a n i v s h o g o po solomennoi k r y s h e , b y l s i 1 " n e e i rezche] . [ p . 58] 5)  The r a i n b e a t down m o n o t o n o u s l y as b e f o r e . [ p . 59]  6) They [ K u p r i i a n and V a s k a ] f e l l s i l e n t , and o n c e a g a i n c o u l d be h e a r d t h e r o a r o f t h e r a i n a n d t h e creaking of the b i r c h e s . [ p . 61] 7) [By m o r n i n g ] t h e o i l y frozen. B e s i d e s t h e use o f nature comparison  c u r t a i n of r a i n had [ p . 65]  as a b a c k d r o p ,  of Kupriian to a wolf —  i n t h e c o l d , h u n g r y and h u n t e d .  there i s the d i r e c t  an a n i m a l who i s a l o n e  There a r e t h r e e p l a c e s i n  the s t o r y where K u p r i i a n i s compared t o a w o l f : " K u p r i i a n f e l t m i s e r a b l e , a s an e m a c i a t e d hunters  a r e c l o s i n g i n on a l l s i d e s "  he  lives  he  and V a s k a come up f r o m  ". . . l i k e  and h i d l i k e 134). it  w o l f f e e l s m i s e r a b l e , when (p. 4 9 ) . K u p r i i a n says  a w o l f , w o r s e t h a n a d o g " ( p . 6 1 ) . As t h e r i v e r b a n k , " t h e y c r a w l e d up  two h u n g r y w o l v e s ,  scrutinizing  the road" (p.  A wolf i s mentioned f o r the f o u r t h time, b u t t h i s  i s a r e a l wolf t h a t K u p r i i a n sees.  alone i n the f o r e s t —  He i s s p e n d i n g  t h e day t h a t i s t o be h i s l a s t :  time  a day  46 Around midday a w o l f appeared a t t h e marsh a n d , s e n s i t i v e l y p r i c k i n g up h i s ' e a r s , s t o o d o n t h e other side of the glade. K u p r i i a n c o u l d see h i s p r o t r u d i n g r i b s and mangy haunches", o n w h i c h h u n g c l u m p s o f f u r . The w o l f s t o o d , s n i f f e d a n d , d r a w i n g up h i s t h i n l e g s , l e a p e d o f f i n t o a t h i c k e t . 'Our b r o t h e r — - l a u g h e d K u p r i i a n w r y l y . 'They t r y to c a t c h y o u t o o — g i v e y o u no r e s t . . . and a l l because y o u must e a t . " [ p . 142] 1  Kupriian's l i f e  i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f E g o r and  M a t r e n a , who a r e l a n d - h o l d i n g p e a s a n t s . this  life  Kupriian  a s he r e m a r k s t h a t he w o u l d l o v e t o p l o u g h t h e <• •  e a r t h and s e e g r e e n v e g e t a t i o n , a l l a r o u n d j e a l o u s and e n v i o u s  life  ( p . 6 1 ) . He i s  o f E g o r as he w a i t s one e v e n i n g  t h e i r h u t f o r Matrena. and  envies  He v i s u a l i z e s  outside  the cozy scene w i t h i n ,  remembers w i t h a p a n g t h a t t h e t i m e when h e l i v e d s u c h a i s over.  Sharing  was t e m p o r a r i l y a l l o w e d  M a t r e n a \ s h u n t , h e was l i k e t o warm h i m s e l f  a dog who  at the hearth.  With  E g o r ' s r e t u r n , h e i s r e m i n d e d t h a t he i s n o t a d o g , b u t a wolf —  alone  and o u t s i d e t h e warmth o f s o c i e t y .  of b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s story tary refuge  The i n s i d e s  ( h u t s , b a r n s ) a r e p l a c e s o f momen-  from t h e elements.  They a r e s t i l l  oppressive,  t h o u g h , as i s F e d o r ' s crowded, s t u f f y h u t : I n t h e h u t i t was d a r k , d i r t y a n d s t u f f y . On p l a n k b e d s , and o n t h e f l o o r u n d e r m a t s and s k i n s , s l e p t the c h i l d r e n o f G u n i a v y i , s n o r i n g i n u n i s o n . Cockr o a c h e s r a n a l o n g t h e w a l l s and t h e i r shadows r a n a f t e r them. B e h i n d t h e s t o v e a c r i c k e t c h i r p e d m o n o t o n o u s l y and t h e w i n d c o u l d be h e a r d , t e a r i n g a t the wet t h a t c h o f t h e r o o f . [ p . 109] The  " o u t s i d e " i s c o l d and l o n e l y .  glimpses  o f beauty i n nature.  There a r e o n l y  During  brief  E g o r ' s t r i p home, t h e  sun b r e a k s t h r o u g h t h e c l o u d s , g i l d i n g w h a t e v e r i t  touches:  47 . . . a l o n g t h e p l a i n d a r t e d d i m a n d momentary r a y s o f s u n s h i n e a n d , a s t h e y c r e p t a l o n g t h e mangy b a c k o f t h e p u f f - b e l l i e d l i t t l e h o r s e and M o z i a v y i * s t o r n army c o a t , t h e y g i l d e d them. [ p i 74] And  — The s u n l o o k e d o u t f o r a m i n u t e a n d b a t h e d t h e v i l l a g e with a b r i g h t g l i t t e r , g i l d i n g the d i r t y , wet, t h a t c h e d r o o f s and s p a r k l i n g on t h e f a r - o f f new d e c o r a t i v e s i g n b o a r d o u t s i d e t h e l o c a l , g o v e r n ment b u i l d i n g . [ p p . 77-78]  Matrena a l s o witnesses  a scene o f r a r e calm.and beauty.  goes o u t s i d e i n t h e e v e n i n g ,  She  a f t e r E g o r ' s r e t u r n and h i s  b r u t a l beating of her. A l l i n the yard i s peaceful. " I t was a p l e a s a n t , c l e a r , warm e v e n i n g . and  i n i t the l i t t l e  The  q u i e t and s e r e n i t y o f t h i s  own b l e a k , p a i n f u l  The s k y was t r a n s p a r e n t  s t a r s had j u s t begun t o s p a r k l e " (p. 8 5 ) . scene i s i n c o n t r a s t t o h e r  life.  When K u p r i i a n s p e n d s h i s l a s t d a y i n t h e f o r e s t , a l l a r o u n d him, i s warm a n d g o l d e n . by  The s p i d e r - w e b s  are gilded  t h e s u n . He s e e s a f l o c k o f c r a n e s o v e r h e a d a n d m u s e s :  ". . . t h e y f l y . . . w h a t a g o o d t h i n g i t i s !  To f l y w h e r e  you w i s h . . . n o t t o p l o u g h  t h e e a r t h , o r s t e a l h o r s e s , . o r pay  t a x e s . . . how g o o d i t i s ! "  (pp. 141-142).  The c r a n e s  were  m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r b y V a s k a , and now K u p r i i a n w a t c h e s them i n flight. is  They s i g n i f y  t h e l o n g i n g i n t h e men f o r t h a t w h i c h  u n f e t t e r e d and b e a u t i f u l .  The c r a n e s  freedom, as a r e t h e b i r d s a t t h e r i v e r nov."  a r e a symbol o f  s c e n e i n " P a s h a Tuma-  Nature i n v e s t s the b i r d s with a l i f e  f r o m t h e l i v e s a n d c a r e s o f men. some o f t h e d e n i z e n s  of nature's  seemingly  Thus t h e a u t h o r realm.  apart  depicts  48 Man's r e a l m , a t t i t u d e s and the  h i s s o c i e t y , i s e x e m p l i f i e d by  a c t i o n s of Egor Shibaev.  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e : a s o l d i e r and  t h e t r a i n home he  He  w i l l be  land-holding peasant.  asked questions  (St. Petersburg), w i l l  away f r o m home, he h a s but  i s totally within  t h i n k s o f h i s w i f e , h i s home and  which awaits him. capital  He  had  d r i n k and  the  about  tell  On  "fame"  the  stories.  While  v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women,  t h e t h o u g h t t h a t h i s w i f e c o u l d be  does not e n t e r h i s mind.  the  unfaithful to  him  Upon s e e i n g h i s w i f e ,  E g o r S h i b a e v s m i l e d h a p p i l y and c o n f u s e d l y . He i m m e d i a t e l y l i k e d t h e way she l o o k e d , a l t h o u g h he h a d remembered h e r d i f f e r e n t l y . He l i k e d t h e way she was d r e s s e d , a f t e r t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e c i t y , b e c a u s e h e , as an o f f i c e r [ " u n t e r - o f i t s e r " : hoh-. commissioned o f f i c e r ] d i d not t h i n k i t f i t t i n g f o r his w i f e to dress i n the peasant s t y l e . [ p . 80] When E g o r r e a l i z e s w h a t M a t r e n a ' s bows and m e e k n e s s  signify,  and  beats  sees the  s m a l l c h i l d F e d ' k a , he  i s enraged.  He  h e r b e c a u s e t h i s p r a c t i c e i s j u s t as much p a r t o f t h e way  of l i f e  vodka.  The  as w o r k i n g t h e  peasant  l a n d , s t e a l i n g wood o r d r i n k i n g  beating i s described matter-of-factly with  comments o r j u d g m e n t s o f f e r e d b y p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the  the n a r r a t o r .  Egor's  s o c i e t y , as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h " t h e  anti-  s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the h o r s e - t h i e f , a l r e a d y marks him t h e one  who. i s p a r t o f t h e d i s e a s e d  body o f  t h i n n e s s makes h e r  her g u i l t before shaped by  look o l d e r .  She  and  acknowledges  her husband because her v a l u e s  t h e p e a s a n t c u l t u r e i n w h i c h she  as  civilization.  M a t r e n a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a meek woman, t a l l t h i n ; her  no  are  lives.  totally She  does  not  t r y to defend h e r s e l f , but fears  "...  t h a t Egor  l e a d her out i n t o the s t r e e t naked, leashed  t o a c a r t , and  w o u l d w h i p h e r i n f r o n t o f t h e p e o p l e , a s was done w i t h u n f a i t h f u l w i v e s " ( p . 8 4 ) . Egor w i l l k i l l "lawful"  the n a r r a t o r functions  The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t  as o b s e r v e r .  situation.  The  narrator  Matrena's passive  r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f P a s h a Tumanov's m o t h e r . thin, older-looking  and somehow  T h e r e i s no i n t e r r u p t i o n b y  t o comment on t h i s  only  customarily  F e d ' k a seems t o h e r i n e s c a p a b l e ,  ("zakonnym," p . 8 7 ) .  sadness  B o t h women a r e  and, i n t h e i r , present, s i t u a t i o n s , j o y l e s  Both are o p p r e s s e d by the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r Kupriian's  l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p and  statement about love i n the lowest c l a s s .  i a n once m e n t i o n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y laughingly  lives.  and M a t r e n a ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p , as i t i s  sketched i n the s t o r y , i s a personal generalized  would  says t h a t divorce  of divorce  i s only  a  Kupri  to Vaska,  who  f o r g e n t l e f o l k who  have  e n o u g h money t o p a y t h e p r i e s t s . When M a t r e n a comes t o meet K u p r i i a n , a f t e r h e r h u s band's r e t u r n , the time o m i s s i o n ' - —  or "fade-out" —  i n the  n a r r a t i v e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y make l o v e , b u t no d e t a i l s a r e given:  "They . . . s a n k down i n t h e m u s t y g r a s s .  r u s t l e d and r u s t l e d [ s h u m e l ] ,  ' I have t o go,  w h i s p e r e d M a t r e n a a f t e r h a l f an h o u r "  The  wind  Kupriian'—  (p. 1 0 4 ) .  Kupriian i s  f r u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t Egor i s t h e " l a w f u l " husband, and h e , K u p r i i a n , h a s no r i g h t s .  Almost against h i s w i l l ,  he s t r i k e s M a t r e n a , an a c t i o n w h i c h m a n i f e s t s  a l lhis  50 desperation,  l o v e and j e a l o u s y .  g u i l t before  M a t r e n a , and h i s l o v e  impossible  loves  1  f o r h e r , w h i c h make i t  f o r him t o escape from t h e d i s t r i c t w i t h o u t  to b i d her f a r e w e l l . he  Finally, i ti s Kupriian s  leads  This  coming  s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e woman  t o h i s murder.  S u r v e y i n g t h e p l o t , one s e e s t h a t c e r t a i n e v e n t s ensnare K u p r i i a n . or characters,  I n these confrontations  with  circumstances  the h o r s e - t h i e f d i s p l a y s a kind o f animal  cunning.  The p l o t t h r o w s h i m i n t o two o v e r l a p p i n g  —Egor's  r e t u r n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e l o v e  K u p r i i a n a n d M a t r e n a , and t h e s e a r c h  situations between  f o r the horse-thieves  w h i c h i s i n i t i a t e d b y t h e new g o v e r n o r .  I n both cases  Kupri-  i a n i s an o u t l a w : as an a d u l t e r e r a n d a s a h o r s e - t h i e f . Unconsciously, he  he a c c e p t s t h e c h a l l e n g e  of both s i t u a t i o n s :  g o e s t o s e e M a t r e n a , and h e s t e a l s t h e p r i e s t ' s h o r s e a n d  the v i l l a g e flicts  commandant's new t r o i k a .  I n b o t h cases t h e con-  a r e between f o r c e s o f e q u a l s t r e n g t h ,  has  the advantage o f t h e w o l f —  has  a moment o f p e r s o n a l  the  commandant's  stealth.  so long  Kupriian  as h e indeed  t r i u m p h as h e r i d e s away d r i v i n g  troika:  . . . n o t k n o w i n g why,,'only e x p e r i e n c i n g a l i g h t and u n b r i d l e d f e e l i n g f l o w i n g t h r o u g h h i s b r e a s t , he c r i e d o u t a t t h e t o p o f h i s v o i c e : 'Catch K u p r i i a n ! . . '  [ p . 140]  I f t h e a u t h o r h a d w i s h e d K u p r i i a n t o be a r o m a n t i c f i g u r e h e c o u l d have ended t h e s t o r y w i t h  such a scene: K u p r i i a n  away f r e e l y , l e a v i n g . h i s p u r s u e r s f a r b e h i n d .  riding  But instead  51 he d i e s a t t h e h a n d s o f h i s e n e m i e s . Kupriian i s fleeting:  lives  H i s h a i r was m a t t e d  bent  with blood  ( p . 1 5 2 ) . T h u s , he d i e s a f t e r b e i n g b e a t e n b y a  group o f peasants fighting.  glimpse of  " K u p r i i a n l a y p r o n e , h i s head  f o r w a r d , and d i d n o t move. and d i r t "  The f i n a l  l e d by Egor.  He d i e s as he h a s l i v e d  The p e a s a n t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o l i v e  as " b e a s t s , n o t p e o p l e "  their  —  dull  (Ibid).  "Krov " 1  The b e a s t l y n a t u r e o f man i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e peasant  c l a s s , as t h e s t o r y  "Krov'"  ( B l o o d ) shows.  t h a t , o b v i o u s l y , by h i s f r e q u e n t use o f n a t u r e  One  sees  symbolism,  A r t s y b a s h e v d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t " b e a s t " i s synonymous w i t h animal or w i l d beast. seldom beasts i n t h i s his  The a n i m a l s he p o r t r a y s a r e i n d e e d sense..  Man, i n h i s g r o s s c r u e l t y t o  f e l l o w man, i n h i s j e a l o u s y and p r e m e d i t a t e d c r i m e s , i s  "the beast."  The s t o r y  animal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  "Krov " 1  "Krov',"  i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n of Rasskazy problem  story.  makes c l e a r t h i s  w r i t t e n i n 1903, appearing (Stories)  B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i mentions  T o l s t o y was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s t o r y t h e need f o r a m o r a l  animals. "Krov"'  i n 1905, i s a  I s i s a s much c o n c e r n e d w i t h b u r n i n g i s s u e s  as i s " P a s h a Tumanov."  of  man-beast/  that  as a p r i m e  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o h i s f e l l o w  The s t o r y i s an a r g u m e n t f o r v e g e t a r i a n i s m . t h e a u t h o r j u x t a p o s e s two r e a l m s  that of animals.  example  In  t h a t o f man a n d  How d o e s man r e l a t e t o t h e a n i m a l ,  natural  52 world? he it,  I n t h i s s t o r y he  writes but  e a t s , s t u d i e s members o f i t ;  about i t , p h i l o s o p h i z e s  does n o t The  s e t t i n g of the  and  on  i t , , wishes to. subjugate  l o v e i t or l e a r n from i t .  y o u n g V i n o g r a d o v , who brothers  kills,  story i s a country  has  estate  r e c e n t l y been m a r r i e d .  a w r i t e r come f r o m t h e  city  owned  Two ;  to v i s i t  and  share  enjoyable  s o c i a l p u r s u i t s : d r i n k i n g , eating, conversing  hunting.  B e s i d e s the  there  two  are  sides  v i s i t o r s , Borisov, a beast"  ("'V  1  two  "worlds,"  to the  characters.  declares:  cheloveke vsegda zver'  The — the  outer  man  characters  t o be —  presumably a l l gentry, story.  The  As  one  of  the  there  characters'  very  i s always  p.  200).  sketched i n the  inner. and  his  S e r g e i , i s " l o v e d by  a l l for his healthy,  f i r s t pages  kind"  even nature"  (p. 1 9 0 ) .  His  and  kind ideas"  them t h e i r h u n t i n g masters at the  handsome a p p e a r -  (Ibid.).  m o s t o f a l l demand (Ibid.).  d o g s , A j a x and  t a b l e and  large-eyed.  She  has  The  The  third,  M a r x , who  by  that  sympathetic,  friends bring  a r e p r a i s e d and  wife, K l a v d i i a , i s described  of  brother,  G v o z d e v , i s a w r i t e r whose " w o r k s a r e h i g h l y v a l u e d  sincere  guests  i s a l e c t u r e r at the u n i v e r s i t y ,  and  p o r t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c who  The .  thoughts,  Vinogradov, h i s wife  elder Borisov  f o r h i s gay,  animals,  sidit,'"  "thin, short-sighted  ance and  of  d i f f e r e n t from the  are  and  and  " ' I n e v e r y man  n a r r a t o r o f t e n e a v e s d r o p s on t h e showing the  o f man  by  with  s i t beside  petted.  their  Vinogradov's  as s m a l l i n s t a t u r e , b l o n d e  an a n g e l i c l o o k ,  as she  w e l l knows,  and and  tries  a l w a y s t o be k i n d and  gentle i n keeping  (p. 193).  The  ironic  suggests t h a t these  and  s o c i a b l e and  tone of these  first  lines  the  while outwardly  humane, p o s s i b l y a r e n o t r e a l l y  impression  c o n v e r s a t i o n /turns  looks  character descriptions i s  people,  G v o z d e v ' s r e m a r k a b o u t t h e "other"  w i t h her  as t h e y  kind, appear.  s i d e o f man's n a t u r e  t h a t a l l i s not  as i t a p p e a r s .  underThe  to  . . . a r e c e n t b l o o d y e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n two p o l i t i c a l groups. [But] . . . as t h e y w e r e a l l o f t h e same p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n , t h e d i s c u s s i o n was gay and p l e a s a n t , d e s p i t e t h e s a d theme. [p. 197] T h i s d e t a i l shows t h a t t h e h o s t c a l l o u s , but is  socially The  t h a t t h i s d e t a c h e d way sanctioned  animal talk  Akulina k i l l s s c e n e she  and  enjoy  chickens  and  barnyard  f o w l as he  around i n the  to  tragedy  are the p h y s i c a l l i n k and  t h e human.  While  company, t h e  cook  chicken-coop i s described  discusses  l i f e and  their  day.  The in  f e e l i n g s of The  the  chickens  "ran  and h a p p i l y p e c k e d i n t h e warm m a n u r e .  They w e r e c o n t e n t e d , f e e t o f two  somewhat  p r e p a r e s them f o r d i n n e r .  n a r r a t o r d e p i c t s the  sun  are  behavior.  each other's  encounters a t the The  carries  usual  h i s guests of r e l a t i n g  (barnyard), w o r l d  detail.  the  and  Vinogradovs' servants  between the the guests  and  warm and  sated"  (p. 1 9 7 ) .  b i r d s w h i c h a r e t o be  them away t o be k i l l e d .  l a s t minutes of these  bound  The  Akulina  used f o r d i n n e r  and  narrator chronicles  creatures:  M o s t o f a l l , i t was u n n a t u r a l and t o r t u r o u s f o r , any l i v i n g c r e a t u r e t o be i n t h e p o s i t i o n h e a d  binds  the  downward. And t h e e v e n i n g , w h i c h t h e y n e v e r saw b e c a u s e t h e y w e n t t o s«l'eep as s o o n as t h e s u n s e t , made an i n d e s c r i b a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on them — o n e o f deathly, animal t e r r o r . [p. 19 8] Akulina's t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d son, Pashka, who  v e r y much e n j o y s k i l l i n g  cally  c o n t r a d i c t o r y statement  t i o n o f how  Pashka k i l l s  almost b l a c k b l o o d poured r o o s t e r up by The  (p. 1 9 9 ) .  This  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  o f t h e c h i c k e n s : "The  onto the ground;  descripthick,  Pashka h e l d the  n a r r a t o r t h e n a b r u p t l y , and m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y ,  talking  ironi-  the  t h e f e e t and w a t c h e d t h e b l o o d f l o w "  back t o the scene  "In  one  animals  i s a good, q u i e t boy  (Ibid.). switches  a t t h e d i n i n g - t a b l e , where S e r g e i i s  a b o u t a s t u d e n t s c a n d a l , and i n t e r j e c t s h i s comment:  e v e r y man  there i s a beast."  Because the t o p i c of con- .  v e r s a t i o n h a s become u n p l e a s a n t , t h e h o s t o f f e r s more  vodka:  G v o z d e v o n l y bowed h i s h e a d , as h i s mouth was full o f t h e meat o f t h e c h i c k e n , and h i s s t r o n g w h i t e t e e t h , o f w h i c h he was s o p r o u d , gnawed on t h e bones of the r e d r o o s t e r . [p. 201] W h e t h e r o r n o t one anism,  i s sympathetic  t o the cause  of  t h e above p a s s a g e i s n o n e t h e l e s s e f f e c t i v e A scene  and  takes place l a t e r t h a t evening which  s t r u c t e d t o c o n t r a s t the animal/human w o r l d s o u t e r man.  vegetari-  and  powerful.  i s con-  the  inner/  K l a v d i i a r e s t s h e r f e e t on a w o l f - s k i n :  As she was v e r y b e a u t i f u l , and h e r f e e t w e r e b e a u t i f u l , a l l i n v o l u n t a r i l y looked at her feet but, t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s was c r u d e , t h e y p r e t e n d e d t o be• looking at the w o l f - s k i n . [ p . 201] T a l k f o c u s e s on t h e s k i n , w h i c h Vinogradov p r o u d l y how  b o a s t s , was  i s t h a t of a she-wolf  a b i g , b e a u t i f u l animal.  he s h o t h e r h i m s e l f .  The  He  which,  tells  further conversations  that evening  and t h e n e x t morning u n d e r s c o r e  and b e l i e f s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . animal s p i r i t s because such  the thoughts  When t h e y s p e a k o f w h e t h e r  g o t o h e a v e n o r h e l l , K l a ' v d i i a becomes s e r i o u s  "thoughts  a b o u t t h e s o u l o f a n a n i m a l seemed  d e g r a d i n g f o r what she c o n s i d e r e d a g r e a t p r o c e s s g o i n g on i n s i d e her"  (p. 206).  o f t e n seen pregnant  The n a r r a t o r a d d s t h a t K l a v d i i a h a d  a n i m a l s a r o u n d h e r home b u t d i d n o t f e e l  t h a t s h e h a d a n y t h i n g i n common w i t h them. O u t r i g h t h y p o c r i s y i s d i s p l a y e d o n c e more when t h e n a r r a t o r juxtaposes thoughts accompanied by Vinogradov, argued  hotly  their entire  t o words.  When S e r g e i s i n g s ,  t h e y d i s c u s s modern m u s i c :  and s e r i o u s l y , a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d h a v e l i v e s w i t h o u t music"  (p. 208).  While  "they lived  arguing,  "they found i t p l e a s a n t t o d i s c u s s i n t e l l i g e n t and h u m a n i s t i c p o i n t s o f v i e w , as t h e y c o n s i d e r e d themselves gent and h u m a n i s t i c people" the  (Ibid.).  t o be i n t e l l i -  L a t e r , they d i s c u s s  future: A l t h o u g h t h e y t a l k e d about t h e most d i v e r s e t h i n g s , t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n was a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e good, k i n d and h o n o r a b l e i d e a s o f t h a t f u t u r e t i m e w h i c h w o u l d be U t o p i a n , i n which t h e y d i d n o t r e a l l y b e l i e v e , when e v e r y t h i n g — - p e o p l e a n d o r d e r o f l i f e — - w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e s e n t and much b e t t e r , when t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n g o o d a n d e v i l w o u l d be c l e a r t o a l l . [ p p . 209-210] Chapter  F i v e i s devoted  s l a u g h t e r o f a lamb.  Throughout t h e s t o r y , t h e n a r r a t o r  describes the gentlefolk the l o f t y  thoughts  graphic b r u t a l i t y  t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the •  and t h e a n i m a l s a l t e r n a t e l y .  o f Vinogradov  After  and h i s g u e s t s , t h e s t a r k ,  o f t h e s l a u g h t e r , o f t h e lamb  vividly  confronts t h a t he author one  the r e a d e r .  The  animal's  i s struggling for life  h o r r o r when he  i s c a r e f u l l y drawn.  must p e r s o n i f y the a n i m a l s  t o some e x t e n t ,  d o e s n o t r e a l l y know i n w h a t way  feels  "horror."  What one  can  tell  i s t h a t the  one  The  the p u r p l e , b l o o d y ,  o f t h e most s t r i k i n g i n t h e  because lamb,  animal  critic  c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e b e a u t y and  t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g and  The  a chicken, or a  d i s p l a y a sense of i t s impending death. s t a t e s t h a t the  realizes  does  Polonski  freshness  lamb c a r c a s s  of  is  story:  A l l t h e s o u n d s o f t h e m o r n i n g seemed e s p e c i a l l y r e s o n a n t and s t r o n g . And t h e r o o f s , e a r t h , t r e e s w a s h e d b y t h e dew, and e v e n p e o p l e and animals seemed b r i g h t , c l e a n and j o y f u l . E v e r y t h i n g shone and s p a r k l e d , b a t h e d i n a t h o u s a n d h u e s . A l l b u s t l e d and r a n g , f i l l e d w i t h p o w e r f u l , b e a u t i f u l l i f e . . . e v e n t h e shadows seemed e s p e c i a l l y l i g h t and t r a n s p a r e n t . I t was o n l y a t t h e b a r n , on a s t e e l hook p o u n d e d i n t o t h e w a l l , t h a t s o m e t h i n g h u n g , b l u i s h - p u r p l e , g r e a s y , u g l y , f o r m l e s s and still. From i t d r i p p e d c o l d , l i f e l e s s b l o o d . [p. 214] Moreover, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  lamb was  c h o s e n by  Vinogradov  h i m s e l f , b e c a u s e i t was  e s p e c i a l l y h e a l t h y , f a t and  ("zhizneradostnyi,"  210).  p.  lively  Chapter S i x c o n t r a s t s K l a v d i i a ' s pregnancy w i t h of the household c a t . k i t t e n s t o the bed because of the  The  of the  mother c a t b r i n g s her cook.  inconvenience  Pashka w i l l dispose  drowned.  Her  It-is  of the k i t t e n s , even though  does l o v e a l l baby a n i m a l s "sensitivity"  and  new-born  A k u l i n a i s out of  caused her.  tries  t o s a v e one  i s evident  as she  that  sorts  decided  that  Klaydiia from  turns  being  away  57 when P a s h k a p u t s t h e k i t t e n s  into h i s coat.  The m o t h e r c a t  t r i e s t o f o l l o w Pashka, b u t K l a v d i i a shuts t h e door b a r r i n g h e r way.  quickly,  As t h e m o t h e r c a t " p i t i f u l l y meows  . . .  P a s h k a drowns t h e k i t t e n s i n a d i t c h b e h i n d t h e a n i m a l y a r d and  f o r a long time watches t h e bubbles  shallow water" The  scenes  f o l l o w i n g t h i s one d e s c r i b e t h e h u n t e r s e n Gvozdev, a d m i r i n g t h e beauty  o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , r e m a r k s t h a t he e n v i e s  Vinogradov  i n the dirty,  (p. 2 1 9 ) .  route t o t h e marsh. ness  rising  replies  t h a t i t i s n o t always  and s t i l l Vinogradov.  so i d y l l i c , b u t i s  s e c r e t l y p l e a s e d t h a t he i s e n v i e d ; When V i n o g r a d o v was a l o n e h e d i d n o t p a y much a t t e n t i o n t o n a t u r e , t h a t i s , t o w h a t we c a l l b y t h a t name: f i e l d s , f o r e s t s , a n i m a l s , g r a s s , w a t e r , s k y and s u n . He n o t i c e d t h e g r a n d e u r o f a l l t h e s e much more i n p a i n t i n g s a n d w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s i n b o o k s . He s a i d he w o r s h i p p e d n a t u r e . B u t i n h i s c o u n t r y l i f e t h e b o u n t y o f n a t u r e b o r e d h i m and seemed m o n o t o n o u s . And t h i s was n o t b e c a u s e he was a d r y , p r o s a i c p e r s o n , b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e he was u s e d t o v i e w i n g n a t u r e as a c r e a t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r h i s own s o l a c e and u s e . B u t now, when G v o z d e v , r e v e l i n g i n h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e , e n v i e d h i m , ... t h i s l i f e among t h e r i c h e s o f n a t u r e became u n u s u a l l y p o e t i c , i n t e r e s t i n g and u n a t t a i n a b l e t o o t h e r p e o p l e who d i d n o t p o s s e s s h i s p o e t i c s o u l . . . [p. 220] The  nature passages  o f t h e f i n a l two p a r t s  S e v e n and E i g h t ) a r e e s p e c i a l l y v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the puddles  and t h e r e s m a l l p u d d l e s  b l u e and r o s e c o l o r e d g l a s s " the p a r t y d i s c u s s e s l i v i n g  and d e t a i l e d .  One  a l o n g t h e r o a d i s an e s p e c i a l l y  good example o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s here  (Chapters  impressionistic style:  "...  s p a r k l e d , l i k e b i t s o f broken (p. 2 2 1 ) . L o o k i n g around  as T o l s t o y a n s i n . a c c o r d w i t h  them,  58 n a t u r e , or even b e i n g h e r m i t s . could not s e r i o u s l y  S e r g e i c o n f i d e s t h a t he  think of l i v i n g  such  a  life:  ' B e c a u s e n a t u r e i s a l i e n t o me. We a r e r a i s e d f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o l o o k a t n a t u r e as a p l a c e f o r s t r o l l s and e d u c a t i o n a l e x c u r s i o n s . We a r e shown t h r e e t y p e s o f g r a s s and one r e e d , and t o l d t h e i r o r d e r , c l a s s and s p e c i e s . . . y e s , we a r e t o o f a r f r o m t h e r e a l m o f n a t u r e and we c a n o n l y p l a t o n i c a l l y worship her.' [pp. 221-222] Gvozdev, the w r i t e r , i s t h i n k i n g in  w h i c h he w i l l  c u l t u r e and  show t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n man  nature.  o n c e a g a i n , t o add impressions s t o r y he  a b o u t a s t o r y he w i l l w r i t e  The  and  narrator's ironic voice  his  interrupts  t h a t G v o z d e v i s so o v e r w h e l m e d by  t h a t he  his  does n o t r e a l i z e t h a t t h e theme o f  plans to w r i t e i s not o r i g i n a l but very o l d  the  and  trite. A s t r i k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n p a i n t s the scene of l i f e t h e pond, and animals  on t h e m a r s h where^.the men  hunt.  Again  at  the  a r e p e r s o n i f i e d t o show b e t t e r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  man's w o r l d . "feelings"  and  As  i n previous passages,  "emotions"  by  the use  descriptions of  to  their  o f a d j e c t i v e s and  a d v e r b s i m p l y i n g "human" s t a t e s o f m i n d a r e a m a j o r d e v i c e . The  f o l l o w i n g paragraph  creatures i n this  d e s c r i b e s the l i f e  o f the marsh  manner:  And i t seemed as i f t h e w h o l e m a r s h w e r e a l i v e : i n e v e r y l i t t l e p l a c e l i f e e x i s t e d and l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s stirred. The d u c k s q u a c k e d c a l m l y and a c c u s i n g l y . . . h e r e and t h e r e a handsome d r a k e u n e x p e c t e d l y b r o k e away i n f l i g h t a n d , h a v i n g i n s c r i b e d a w i d e h a l f c i r c l e , landed l o u d l y ploughing the blue water, w h i c h f o r a t i m e c o u l d n o t c a l m i t s e l f and r i p p l e d , as i f s m i l i n g a t t h e s k y w h i c h was r e f l e c t e d i n i t . Long-legged s n i p e s . . . w i t h j o y f u l c h i r p i n g sped  59 away t o t h e d i s t a n t shadowy g r o v e . . . i n a s h a l l o w p l a c e t h e h e r o n s s t o o d c e r e m o n i o u s l y on one l e g , r e s t i n g t h e i r h e a d s on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s ; t h e y h e l d up t h e i r l o n g l e g s i m p o r t a n t l y as i f t h e y w e r e admiring nature. White s e a g u l l s ; . . . c i r c l i n g above . . . l o o k e d v i g i l a n t l y a r o u n d . . . And a l l was a h u b b u b , c r i e s and c h i r p s . And a l l t h e s e m i g h t y s o u n d s w e r e g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r by t h e g r e a t wave o f l i f e i n t o one e x u l t a n t d i n , w h i c h r e s o u n d e d a l l over the l a k e . [pp. 224-225] The  men  make war  on t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e m a r s h l a n d .  One  d u c k , r e t r i e v e d b y M a r x , i s n o t y e t d e a d : "Marx h e l d i t down by  p u t t i n g h i s paw  shot...  on  the w i n g t h a t had  t h e n t h e e x c i t e d dog  d r a g g e d i t a l o n g , t r e a d i n g on hunters  go  b e e n b r o k e n by  g r a b b e d i t by i t s wings"  the head  (p. 2 2 7 ) .  d e e p e r i n t o t h e m a r s h , "more and  the  and As  the  more s p o t s  of  b l o o d w e r e l e f t on t h e y o u n g g r e e n g r a s s "  (p. 22 8 ) .  The  massacre continues  a captive  bird:  when G v o z d e v m u s t k i l l  One b i g o l d d u c k was o n l y s l i g h t l y wounded and G v o z d e v ' s y e l l o w A j a x c o u l d n o t h a n d l e i t . He t o o k t h e d u c k by t h e w i n g s and t h e t a i l , b u t i t k e p t t e a r i n g i t s e l f away, l e a v i n g t r a c e s o f down and b l o o d i n t h e d o g ' s m o u t h . I t s h r i e k e d h o a r s e l y and hopelessly. F i n a l l y , Gvozdev caught i t h i m s e l f . . . The d u c k ' s d e s i r e t o l i v e was so a p p a r e n t t h a t Gvozdev a l m o s t l e t i t go, b u t , m a s t e r i n g h i s h e s i t a t i o n , he t o o k i t by t h e w i n g s and q u i c k l y and f o r c e f u l l y s t r u c k i t on t h e h e a d w i t h t h e b u t t o f h i s gun. D r o p s o f b l o o d s p r a y e d f r o m t h e b e a k and t h e duck f e l l s i l e n t s o s u d d e n l y t h a t i t seemed ... as i f e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h i m h a d f a l l e n - . s i l e n t . 'Here i s t h e n a s t y  Borisov enjoys he w a l k s w i t h gun  he  thought.  [pp.  228-229]  t h e p o e t i c mood w h i c h o v e r t a k e s  i n hand y e t does not p e r c e i v e  teeming around him. for  side of hunting,'  "lifelessness":  He m i s t a k e s  the  the s i l e n c e of the  him life glade  as  60  J  . . . t h i s q u i e t u d e was n o t t h a t o f l i f e l e s s n e s s . I n t h i s m o t i d n l e s s n e s s was m i g h t y , h i d d e n w o r k : r o o t s w i t h a l l t h e i r s t r e n g t h drew m o i s t u r e from t h e e a r t h , and on t h e b r a n c h e s downy, s t i c k y l e a f buds b u r s t o u t ; t h e y o u n g t e n d e r g r a s s t u n n e l e d t h r o u g h t h e d r y l e a v e s and p u s h e d u p w a r d s . . . somewhere a r o u n d t h e r o o t s , t h e m a j e s t i c e y e s o f t h e f i r s t f l o w e r s l o o k e d a r o u n d . . . l i f e was everywhere, q u i e t , u n n o t i c e d , b u t mighty. [pp. 230-231]  He w i s h e s  t o h a v e a s t u f f e d b i r d made and s h o o t s a t a wood-  p e c k e r , w h i c h he t h e n c a n n o t  find.  When he d o e s come a c r o s s  t h e d e a d b i r d , i t s - b e a k h a s b e e n s h o t o f f and damaged by t h e s h o t t o be u s e d . a p i l e of dead l e a v e s . for  i t s body i s t o o  I n d i s g u s t , he t h r o w s  i t on  As i f a l l t h i s h a s n o t b e e n e n o u g h  t h e h u n t e r s , on t h e way  home a f l o c k o f c r a n e s i s s i g h t e d  and S e r g e i jumps o u t o f t h e wagon t o t a k e a s h o t a t them: The s h o t r a n g o u t ; i n t h e e n d l e s s s t e p p e i t seemed a m a z i n g l y u n n o t i c e a b l e .  •• •  A minute passed. The c r a n e s /' e v e n l y - f l a p p i n g t h e i r w i d e w i n g s , p l o u g h e d on as b e f o r e i n t h e u n r e a c h a b l e h e i g h t s . Only one, t h e v e r y l a s t , seemed t o b e n d h i s h e a d s l i g h t l y downward and t h e n a g a i n f i x e d h i s e y e s a h e a d , as i f t o comment, w i t h s i l e n t h a t r e d on t h i s t h o u g h t l e s s a t t e m p t t o t a k e his l i f e . [p. 233] "Krov" yield  1  presents the author's view t h a t , although nature  t o t h e d e p r e d a t i o n s o f man,  assaults.  her might  transcends h i s  Artsybashev's involvement i n h i s subject matter  through h i s omniscient n a r r a t o r i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s it  may  i s i n "Pasha  Tumanov."  story,  as  61 "Smekh" and The insanity  "Podpraporshchik contemplation  o f two men  Gololobov" .  of e t e r n a l nature  i n t h e s t o r y "Smekh"  Man's m o r t a l i t y becomes an o b s e s s i o n an e a r l i e r one bearer  When f a c e d by  the  (Laughter),  1903.  i n . t h i s s t o r y , and  (1902) , " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k  Gololobov).  leads to  Gololobov"  in  (Ensign-  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  of  death,  Gololobov  commits s u i c i d e i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r  of l i f e .  "Podpraporshchik  l i s h e d i n the  1905  Gololobov"  v o l u m e -of s t o r i e s .  and  "Smekh" w e r e pub-  They w i l l be  h e r e t o g e t h e r b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a common theme — c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the i d e a of death. totally  discussed  man's  "Smekh" i s a l m o s t  c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n an i n m a t e o f  l u n a t i c a s y l u m and h i s d o c t o r .  "Gololobov"  contains a  long  scene i n d i a l o g u e , but the p l o t i s a l s o advanced through events  o f t h e n a r r a t i v e and  c h a r a c t e r , Dr.  the  Solodovnikov.  thoughts  of the  a  the  central  "Smekh," a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  short  21 work,  has  no d i v i s i o n s  i n t o parts or chapters  other s t o r i e s discussed i n t h i s chapter. e x c l u s i v e l y n a r r a t e d by  t h e d o c t o r , i t has  as do  Being no  the  almost  intrusive,  didactic narrator. The  v i s u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i v i d n e s s o f t h e  p a r a g r a p h o f "Smekh" s e t s t h e mood f o r t h e s t o r y . noted  t h a t t h i s p a s s a g e t e n d s more t o e x p r e s s i o n i s m  directly  r e l a t e s the  landscape  first  I t may as i t  t o the d i s e a s e d s t a t e s of  mind d e p i c t e d i n the s t o r y : B e y o n d t h e window s t r e t c h e d t h e f i e l d . and b l a c k s t r i p e s s t r e t c h e d one b e s i d e  Red, g r e e n another i n t o  be  62 t h e d i s t a n c e and m e r g e d t h e r e i n a t h i n , c u r v i n g mirage. T h e r e was so much l i g h t , a i r and e n d l e s s f r e e s p a c e , t h a t i t became o p p r e s s i v e i n o n e ' s own n a r r o w , s m a l l and w e a r y b o d y . [p. 234] As  t h e d o c t o r s t a n d s a t t h e window l o o k i n g o u t on t h e  he w a t c h e s b i r d s i n f l i g h t .  He  t h i n k s t h a t even i f they  have the freedom of f l i g h t , they s t i l l i n e v i t a b l e end. him  The  thought  field,  m u s t come t o t h e  that nature i s eternal  reminds  o f a v e r s e t h a t t h e n goes t h r o u g h h i s m i n d : " . . .  the grave, w i t h e t e r n a l beauty  do  over  sparkles . . . indifferent 22  nature"  ("ravnodushnaia  o f s i x t y - f i v e , he  an i d e a e x p r e s s e d  is  finite,  sooner  him  Having  f e e l s the nearness  by  produced  priroda").  reached  of death.  He  i n a book he o n c e r e a d : t h a t as  T h i s t h o u g h t , t h a t he  "combination" which w i l l  reappear w i t h the r i g h t  f e e l t h a t n a t u r e has  denied h i s  age  haunted nature  or l a t e r the exact s e r i e s of events  being to himself again.  He  is  as an e n t i t y w o u l d r e c u r and p r o d u c e a  c e s , makes h i m  the  that  like  i s but-a circumstan-  individuality.  i s obsessed w i t h the p h y s i c a l process of death  and h a s b e g u n t o s u f f e r i n s o m n i a b e c a u s e o f t h e s e  and  decay,  thoughts.  A t n i g h t i n t h e h o s p i t a l h i s m i n d d w e l l s on d e a t h , w h i l e t h e inmates  s h r i e k and As he  one  day  i s t h e s e n i o r d o c t o r a t t h e h o s p i t a l , he  to v i s i t  a new  a d j u s t e d t o h i s new little  room"  d o c t o r why s t a n d s by  laugh.  p a t i e n t who  surroundings.  proves He  t o be  happens  fairly  well  c a l l s h i s room " a  ("veselen'kaia komnatka").  He  e x p l a i n s to the  i t i s t h a t he h a s b e e n p u t i n t o t h e w a r d . the window l o o k i n g o u t a t t h e sun  gay  ("priamo  As  he  navstreehu  63 s o l n t s a " ) , h i s d i r t y y e l l o w gown i s g i l d e d by (p.  242) .  T h i s i s a g a i n t h e use  things beautiful^ laughs  as was  noted  i n "Kupriian."  The  h i s d r y , wooden l a u g h , a t w h i c h t h e d o c t o r  as a t h i n k i n g man,  he  thoughts  t h a t as he  of death;  The  remarks  p a t i e n t says  that,  a child. thing.  d i s c o v e r e d the i d e a t h a t nature and h i s  in  t h o u g h t more and more a b o u t  e x t i n c t i o n o f h i s " I " a most f e a r f u l  i n d i f f e r e n t t o man  inmate  c o u l d n o t h e l p b e c o m i n g c a u g h t up  he b e g a n t o c r y a t n i g h t l i k e  b o o k , he  rays  o f s u n l i g h t t o make u g l y  t h a t l a u g h t e r does n o t become h i m .  death  the sun's  He  finds  the  In reading  is  a  completely  life:  " N a t u r e i s i r r e s i s t i b l e , no one c a n h u r r y h e r , and s o o n e r o r l a t e r she c l a i m s h e r own. She knows n o t h i n g , n e i t h e r g o o d n o r e v i l , and d o e s n o t t o l e rate anything absolute, e t e r n a l or unchanging. Man i s h e r c h i l d . . . b u t she i s the mother n o t o n l y o f man, and she has no p r e f e r e n c e s : a l l t h a t she c r e a t e s , she c r e a t e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f a n o t h e r ; she d e s t r o y s one i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r and i t ' s a l l t h e same t o h e r . . . ' [p. 244] The  p a t i e n t c r i e s out  nature  that w i l l  w o n d e r s how  c a l m l y d e s t r o y w h a t she  people  about the b u s i n e s s a s t r o n o m y and  against t h i s seemingly  who  b l i n d power o f  has  created.  know w h a t he knows c a n  of l i f e .  He  s i m p l y go  t h e n r e l a t e s how  came upon a t h e o r y  o f sun  spots.  he  and  accepted  c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e sun  than is  the e a r t h t o d i e of c o l d .  four m i l l i o n years"  should  (p. 250) .  He  He  This  "go  says out"  manifesto  t h a t by i n "no  concludes  on  studied  t a t i o n o f s o l a r e n e r g y w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y cause t h e sun burn out  He  that  the  less this  a m o c k e r y , b e c a u s e t h a t l e n g t h o f t i m e m i g h t as w e l l  be  eternity.  He h a d  c a l c u l a t i o n s had account sun. to  t h e n made t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e  b e e n i n c o r r e c t as t h e y d i d n o t t a k e  t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e sun  According  support  life  As  spots would c o o l  i n f i v e t o six-thousand years, not n o t e t e r n a l and was  t h a t " i t was  t h e room grew .heavy and  millions.  As  stuck to the f l o o r "  (p. 249) .  coarse"  d o c t o r t h a t as s o o n as he  (Ibid.).  visual  patient tells  the  c a l c u l a t e d t h a t the demise of  the  e a r t h was  i m m i n e n t he w i s h e d  he b e g i n s  to laugh u n r e s t r a i n e d l y .  The  t o convey t h i s The  to t h i n k of anything but death,  p l e a s e d by  cease t o e x i s t .  laugh u n t i l they  n a t u r e have i t —  1892)  called  and  has  i s also greatly  They b o t h become g l e e f u l  "the  last  jackets.  laugh"; i f so,  and  Perhaps does  o r t h e madman?  c h a r a c t e r s i n C h e k h o v ' s " P a l a t a No. and A n d r e e v ' s " K r a s n y i smekh"  a r e a l s o c o n f r o n t e d by  ficially,  d o c t o r , who  are put i n t o r e s t r a i n i n g  t h e s t o r y c o u l d be  The  to everyone,  t h e news t h a t n a t u r e w i t h h e r h a t e f u l " c o m b i n a -  tions" w i l l  1904)  This  I n t h e a b s e n c e o f d i r e c t l i g h t , t h e madman a p p e a r s  "more p r i m i t i v e and  6,.'"  this  as i f a l l t h e o b j e c t s i n  an a r r e s t i n g image w h i c h c o n v e y s mood as w e l l as  ceased  cease  the p a t i e n t e x p l a i n s h i s t h e o r y , the s u n l i g h t  happens, i t i s noted  effect.  the  a l s o condemned t o  l e a v e s t h e r o o m , as i f t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s w o r d s .  is  into  t o h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s , the e a r t h would  N a t u r e h e r s e l f was death.  previous  ("The  6" Red  ("Ward  No.  Laugh,"  the h o r r o r of m o r t a l i t y .  "Smekh" r e s e m b l e s C h e k h o v ' s s t o r y : t h e r e a r e .  Super-,  65 d o c t o r s i n b o t h who a t t e n d "madmen," a n d b o t h  doctors  r e c o g n i z e i n t h e e n d t h a t t h e madmen a r e t h e r e a l b e a r e r s o f truth.  A l l the characters  finally  r e a l i z e t h a t they  (Artsybashev's are h e l p l e s s .  madmen, a n d o f t h e d o c t o r s i s t h e same.  The f a t e o f t h e Andreev's  smekh" d e a l s more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h d e a t h War  and t h e u n t i m e l y  symbolized ho.  and C h e k h o v ' s )  "Krasnyi  encountered  i n war.  a n d t e r r i b l e .death w h i c h i t b r i n g s i s  by t h e c r a z e d , b l o o d y  "red laugh."  Both  "Palata  6" and " K r a s n y i smekh" c o n t a i n more s o c i a l comment  Artsybashev's  than  s t o r y , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t u a l -  i z a t i o n o f d e a t h , man a n d n a t u r e .  Chekhov's s t o r y c a n be  v i e w e d as an i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e s y s t e m . o f m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s i n Russia with their conditions.  filth,  mismanagement a n d i n h u m a n  living  The s t o r y b y A n d r e e v c a r r i e s t h e t i m e l y message  " t h a t i f war i s s e n s e l e s s and c r i m i n a l i n g e n e r a l , t h e p r e s e n t w a r [ R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War,. 1904-05] i s e v e n more 23 s e n s e l e s s and c r i m i n a l t h a n u s u a l . " The death,  second s t o r y concerned  "Podpraporshchik  f i r s t volume o f s t o r i e s . plishment The  with the contemplation of  Gololobov,"  a l s o appeared i n t h e  The y o u n g G o l o l o b o v ' s  i s t h a t h e c a r r i e s o u t h i s own d e a t h  s t o r y as a w h o l e i s n o n e t h e l e s s  Dr. Solodovnikov,  accom--  sentence.  an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e  b e c a u s e t h e y o u n g man's s u i c i d e t e a c h e s s a t i s f i e d hero,  only  t h e smug a n d s e l f -  an i m p o r t a n t  lesson.  He  l e a r n s t h a t he n e e d o n l y l o o k a r o u n d t o s e e t h e b e a u t y o f life.  He awakens f r o m h i s a p a t h y a n d b o r e d o m a n d r e a l l y  66 begins to  live.  "Gololobov" i s the an e p i g r a p h .  The  s t o r y i n t h i s group t h a t  epigraph i s the  t h e message o f t h e a dead l i o n . '  only  s t o r y : "'For  (Ecc.  9:4)"  t h a t i s j o i n e d to the  The  living  theme o r , one  a living  say,  i s better  e n t i r e verse i s : "For  there  i s b e t t e r t h a n a dead l i o n . "  dog  could  has  than  to  him  i s hope: f o r a l i v i n g  Verse 5 continues:  l i v i n g know t h a t t h e y s h a l l d i e : b u t  the  "For  the  d e a d know not.  any  t h i n g , n e i t h e r h a v e t h e y more r e w a r d ; f o r t h e memory o f is  dog  them  forgotten." The  s t o r y i s b a s e d on  the  a c q u a i n t a n c e s , S o l o d o v n i k o v and l a t e r t h a t n i g h t , and troduced f i r s t ,  but  o n l y h i s , moods and  how  considers  Gololobov, t h e i r  i t a f f e c t s them.  The  f e e l i n g s towards others  him  s t r e e t and  " s t u p i d and  greets  two  discussion doctor  no p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m  meets G o l o l o b o v i n t h e as he  chance meeting of  is  is ingiven;  are presented-.  him  condescendingly  undeveloped"  (p. 154).  After  t h i s m e e t i n g , -.Solodovnikov s p e n d s an e v e n i n g at; h i s c l u b . p l a y s b i l l i a r d s , d r i n k s b e e r and t a n c e s and liberal  reads newspapers —  (p. 1 5 5 ) .  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h no by  the d o c t o r . The  only  The  conservative  t e x t i s simply  The  actions  fairly  long As  o b s e r v e s him  the  and  one of  a c t i o n performed  a r e m e c h a n i c a l and  unremarkable.  d e s c r i p t i o n of Gololobov doctor  He  acquain-  an e n u m e r a t i o n  p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of the  a l i v e employs l i g h t . w i n d o w , he  vodka, t a l k s with  one  He  p a s s e s by  while  t h e y o u n g man's  from the vantage p o i n t of the  .  67 darkness outside. cane, causing  The d o c t o r  t a p s o n t h e window w i t h h i s  t h e y o u n g man t o r a i s e h i s h e a d :  The b r i g h t l a m p l i g h t s h o n e d i r e c t l y i n h i s f a c e . . . o b v i o u s l y he was s t i l l v e r y y o u n g , o n l y a b o y : he h a d no m u s t a c h e s o r b e a r d . H i s f a c e was p u f f y and b l e m i s h e d . He h a d s m a l l l i g h t - c o l o r e d e y e s , y e l l o w b r o w s and c l o s e l y - c u t a s h - c o l o r e d hair. H i s f a c e was c o m p l e t e l y c o l o r l e s s a n d somehow i n s i g n i f i c a n t . [ p . 156] Gololobov  i s rendered  as a l i f e l e s s ,  c o l o r l e s s being.  s t r o n g o d o r o f b r e a d and y e a s t w h i c h s t r i k e s he  enters  Gololobov s 1  room  The  t h e d o c t o r as  ( t h e y o u n g man l i v e s by a b a k e r y )  c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e y o u n g man. I n s i d e t h e room t h e r e  a r e i c o n s and a p a i n t e d E a s t e r e g g , a t  the s i g h t o f which t h e d o c t o r  remarks t o h i m s e l f t h a t  l o b o v m u s t be q u i t e r e l i g i o u s  ("'Vish  kakoi ," 1  Ibid.)  condescendingly  When t h e t w o b e g i n  ty> bogomol'hyi  to t a l k , the doctor  revelations concerning  Gololobov's life  e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s own  and d e a t h .  "'The p o s i t i o n o f e v e r y man i s that>;of  who i s condemned t o d e a t h " 1  nal,  hope  s o m e t h i n g t o s a v e h i m , w h e r e a s he who i s s e n t e n c e d by  nature has  one  ( p . 1 6 3 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i s  t h a t he who i s s e n t e n c e d b y e a r t h l y p o w e r s c a n s t i l l for  asks  why t h e y o u n g man h a d been, s o l o s t i n t h o u g h t .  This question e l i c i t s  He s a y s :  1  Golo-  m u s t go t o h i s e n d k n o w i n g i t i s r e a l and f i n a l .  He  come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s h i s b o d y t h a t i s e t e r b u t h i s s o u l o r essence d i e s  ("dukh u m r e t , " p . 1 6 9 ) .  This s e l f , essence o r " I " , Gololobov  defines  as "my v i c e s ,  h a b i t s , f u n n y a n d b e a u t i f u l s p e c i a l n e s s , my d o u b t s , my  68 i n t e l l i g e n c e , my (Ibid.)  s t u p i d i t y , my  e x p e r i e n c e and my  The y o u n g man's r e a s o n i n g l e a d s h i m  t h a t , as man  will  t o the  by t a k i n g i t h i m s e l f .  t r i u m p h s o v e r " t h e d e a t h s e n t e n c e " : "'.  be t h e o v e r p o w e r i n g  o f n a t u r e by my  By  . . this  soul...'"  T h i s r e a s o n i n g b r i n g s t o mind Dostoevsky's (The D e v i l s ) .  belief  i s h e l p l e s s and m u s t d i e , he c a n o n l y a v o i d an  external force taking h i s l i f e s u i c i d e he  ignorance"  (p. 1 6 8 ) .  Kirilov  i n Besy  H o w e v e r , i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t made  by G o l o l o b o v t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n  o f God  God  the r e a l i z a t i o n of the  o r God-man); t h e r e i s m e r e l y  inevitability The  p r a y i s g i v e n by  G o l o l o b o v may  the presence  h i m s e l f t o "'show my  Kirilov  (as  man-  t o death.  b e l i e v e i n God  of the i c o n s .  r e f u g e i n C h r i s t i a n dogma.  killing  form  of the n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n from l i f e  o n l y h i n t t h a t perhaps  seek  i n any  Perhaps  he  or does  s t a t e s t h a t he i s  d e f i a n c e and my  new  terrible  24 freedom'":  d e f i a n c e , , i n t h i s c a s e , o f God.  h i m s e l f to escape in  the n a t u r a l order.  the a c t , however b r i e f l y .  t h a t G o l o l o b o v may  resemble  c h a r a c t e r s : I p p o l i t of I d i o t  I t has  Gololobov  His " I " w i l l a l s o been  triumph  suggested  another of Dostoevsky's (The I d i o t ) .  kill  Edward  suicidal  Wasiolek  d i s c u s s e s t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r I p p o l i t ' s s u i c i d e a t t e m p t as 25 r e v e a l e d i n Dostoevsky's Notebook: Commenting on I p p o l i t ' s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e D o s t o e v s k i i s a y s : 'There - i s p r i d e i n h e l p l e s s n e s s , ' and t h e P r i n c e h i m s e l f s a y s i n t h e n o t e s : 'No, he w o n ' t k i l l h i m s e l f now, h a v i n g m i s s e d o u t on i t , f o r i t w o u l d make no i m p r e s s i o n on t h o s e p e o p l e , s o now he w o n ' t k i l l h i m s e l f . ' 2 6  69 The n o t e s make s t a r k and c l e a r t h e u n p l e a s a n t , indeed v i c i o u s side of I p p o l i t ' s character. . . . The p e t t y , i n t r i g u i n g and c r u e l s i d e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r a t the end o f the n o v e l i s a l r e a d y i m p l i c i t i n h i s f a l s e l y h e r o i c g e s t u r e s when he r e a d s h i s l a s t confession. The n o t e s c o n f i r m t h i s : ' I p p o l i t — t h e v a n i t y o f a weak c h a r a c t e r . ' 2 7 G o l o l o b o v , h o w e v e r , i s n o t p o r t r a y e d as c r u e l o r v a i n . is  s i m p l y y o u n g , and  i n t h e s o l i t u d e i n w h i c h he  been obsessed w i t h thought o f As is  lives  has  death.  t h e e v e n i n g p r o g r e s s e s , t h e d o c t o r f i n d s t h a t he  i m p r e s s e d by t h e y o u n g man's w o r d s .  Y e t he  cannot  whether Gololobov*s theory i s very c l e v e r or very His  He  decide  stupid.  mood c h a n g e s g r a d u a l l y as he becomes more a g i t a t e d  uncomfortable.  As he  finally  f e a r t h a t G o l o l o b o v may  l e a v e s , he i s s e i z e d by  commit s u i c i d e  and the  after h i s departure.  Once o u t s i d e , S o l o d o v n i k o v r u s h e d b a c k t o t h e w i n d o w , w h e r e he  "imagines"  t h a t he  s e e s smoke f r o m a g u n .  But h i s p r a c -  t i c a l n a t u r e p r e v a i l s and he g o e s home w o r r y i n g t h a t he h a d b e e n o b s e r v e d by  t h e y o u n g man  and  appeared  B e c a u s e o f h i s a g i t a t e d s t a t e o f m i n d , h i s own e s p e c i a l l y d a r k and underscores also  foreboding.  foolish.  home l o o k s  Here the absence of  a l l h i s f e a r s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s .  perhaps  The  light  weather i s  hostile: The r a i n r o a r e d u n c e a s i n g l y . . . i n the b i g house a t t h e owner's window t h e f l a m e o f t h e b l u e i c o n lamp b u r n e d w e a k l y , and i n h i s own w i n g t h e w i n d o w s were d a r k . T h e s e d a r k w i n d o w s seemed e s p e c i a l l y sinister. Now f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e he p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o h i s w i n g : i t was an o l d , c r u m b l i n g h o u s e , w h i c h was e n t i r e l y c l o s e d i n by a d a r k m o t i o n l e s s , mass, o f trees. Among t h e s e huge s i l e n t t r e e s t h e h o u s e seemed s m a l l and m y s t e r i o u s , and i t s u d d e n l y seemed  t e r r i b l e t o V l a d i m i r I v a n o v i c h t h a t he l i v e d and would spend the n i g h t i n such a house. [p. 173] The  gloom i s d i s p e l l e d momentarily  d o o r by h i s s e r v a n t . is  I n h i s own  o n c e more e n g u l f e d b y  read but cannot,  and  when he  room, however, t h e  thoughts  a f t e r he  i s greeted at  of death.  He  doctor  tries  to  t u r n s o u t t h e l i g h t he  the glow of h i s c i g a r e t t e i n  the  watches  the.darkness:  The g l o w i n g e n d o f t h e c i g a r e t t e q u i e t l y g l i m m e r e d i n h i s h a n d a n d , now and t h e n f l a r i n g u p , i l l u m i nated a p a r t of the w a l l , the d e s i g n of the w a l l p a p e r , . t h e f i n g e r s , b l a n k e t and m u s t a c h e s o f Vladimir Ivanovich. [p. 175] L i g h t i s a g a i n u s e d h e r e i n an e s p e c i a l l y v i v i d  image.  As  t h e d o c t o r w a t c h e s t h e c i g a r e t t e d i e o u t , he muses on finality says  of death.  a burdock w i l l  He  remembers t h a t T u r g e n e v ' s  grow w h e r e we  die, —  e v e n t h a t h a p p e n s , i f a l l i s gone? who  h a v e come b e f o r e h i m  underline these out.  The  life  i n man  he  and  He  t h i n k s of a l l those As  though  to  thoughts, o f e x t i n c t i o n , h i s c i g a r e t t e gone —  a l s o cease t o burn.  As  b e t t e r t o t a k e o n e ' s own of t h i s  a u n i q u e p e r s o n was  life.  He  committed s u i c i d e .  that i t i s  a l s o w o n d e r s why he  Gololobov.  doctor i s almost  he  d i d not r e a l i z e  d e l i r i u m when h i s s e r v a n t comes t o f e t c h h i m :  of  passes,  b e f o r e , and why The  goes  the spark  the n i g h t  comes t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n as G o l o l o b o v :  not thought  Bazarov  but what i f not  gone t o .dust.  spark o f the c i g a r e t t e has will  the  has what  in a  Gololobov  has  As. t h e s e r v a n t e n t e r s t h e room h i s f a c e  l o o m s up o u t o f t h e d a r k n e s s .  A t f i r s t the d o c t o r does  e v e n r e c o g n i z e t h e s e r v a n t o r know w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g :  not  .71 . 'And w h a t k i n d o f an i d i o t t h i n k s a b o u t how one s h o u l d l i v e b e t t e r o r more h o n e s t l y , when a l l one s h o u l d t h i n k a b o u t i s how t e r r i b l e i t i s t o d i e ? ' he t h o u g h t w i t h a n g e r and r i s i n g , as i f i n a d e l i r i u m , l o o k e d a t the b r i g h t r e d flame b e f o r e him and someone's t e r r i b l y p a l e f a c e . ;  B u t t h i s was t h e f a c e o f P a s h k a , who s t o o d w i t h a candle i n h i s hand. [pp. 180-181] A f t e r the thoughts  of the n i g h t , the doctor i s  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the r e a l i t y Gololobov's 183).  One  of the corpse's  human e y e ;  dumbly and  "But  i t was  terribly  t h a t of death  When he  e y e s i s o p e n and  t h i s eye  no  of  a r e d s p l o t c h " (p. seems t o be  longer resembled  l o o k i n g at l i f e "  (Ibid.).  c o r p s e , . does n o t r e m i n d him  u n i q u e a c r e a t i o n he was.  The  is  What t h e of the  i t s t r i k e s him  doctor breaks  entity,  T h i s eye  t h i n k s o f a l l t h e y o u n g man's t r a i t s  nerisms, h i s p h y s i c a l being i n l i f e ,  a  a beauti-  a r e p u l s i v e , d u l l , huge, dead  as i t l o o k s o u t on t h e l i v i n g .  sees, Gololobov's man.  In the place  face there i s "nothing but  separate e n t i t y : ful  of death.  doctor  live  and manjust  down and  how  sobs,  s h o w i n g h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g t h e n i g h t , f r o m a man  who  thought  man  who  Gololobov  t o be  an i n s i g n i f i c a n t  r e a l i z e d t h e b e a u t y and  Leaving dawn.  rarity  the house, Solodovnikov The  rising  sun  l i g h t over darkness,  creature, to a  o f e a c h s i n g l e human  i s g r e e t e d by  a t t e s t s to the triumph of l i f e  over  the beauty once a g a i n  death:  Right i n f r o n t of V l a d i m i r Ivanovich the s t i l l h i d d e n s u n was r i s i n g , and t h i s p l a c e i n t h e s k y was b l i n d i n g l y b r i g h t : i t s h o n e , b u r n e d and s p a r kled. The a i r q u i v e r e d and f l o w e d i n o n e ' s c h e s t i n f r e e , m i g h t y , c l e a n and t e n d e r w a v e s . [ p . 187]  life. of of.  The  d o c t o r l o o k s around him  as i f f o r t h e f i r s t  p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n attendance  time.  He  The  suggests  t h a t he  t h i s o f f e r seems t o i h i m  his  own  white at  l e g s , as he  dog  and he  is  of t h i s  He  dead l i o n . "  and The  m o r n i n g and  people  and  has  l y i n g i n d i f f e r e n t and l i v e l y , moving w o r l d "  He  d o c t o r i s o v e r p o w e r e d by  were l o o k i n g  the novel  [dead] i n This  " b e t t e r than  dog  a  the beauty of The  fact that The  the he  affirma-  t h e mose p o s i t i v e  i n the e a r l y s t o r i e s .  comes t o f u l l b l o o m . i n  a  mentioned i n the  l o n g e r seems i m p o r t a n t .  made a b o u t l i f e  at  greets  (p. 1 8 9 ) .  the doctor a r e , indeed,  some  been m o d i f i e d ,  unmoving  " l i v e dog"  i n this story i s certainly  fishing  He m a r v e l s  t h e dog  the sensations i t produces.  t i o n of l i f e  life  t h e d o c t o r go  " w a t c h e s them" w a l k i n g .  m u s t e v e n t u a l l y d i e no  statement  s t r e n g t h embodied i n t h e  a p l e a s a n t one.  p e r h a p s an i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e  epigraph.  "Iz  and  r e a l i z e s t h a t "he  each o t h e r , not  the midst  and  d o c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e toward  and  The  at the s u i c i d e cannot h e l p  s m i l i n g at the f e e l i n g s of l i f e morning.  time.  This joy of  Sanin.  podvala" The  critic  Baranov d e c l a r e s t h a t " I z podvala"  t h e B a s e m e n t ) i s "one  of Artsybashev's  finest  (From  artistic  28 moments."  T h i s s t o r y o f 1903,  volume of s t o r i e s man  oppressed  by  p u b l i s h e d i n the  second  ( 1 9 0 6 ) , a g a i n r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e theme o f society.  I t s p r o t a g o n i s t , Anton the  maker, works i n a d i m l y - l i t basement.  He  i s a b u s e d by  shoehis  73 clients  and  t h a t he be any  thinks  t h a t i t , i s the n a t u r a l order  thus t r e a t e d .  lower s o c i a l l y  also.  The  "so  evenithinks  than himself  h a r s h w o r d s and  a c c e p t s as t h e off  He  he  b l o w s he  t h a t the p e t t y , b e a s t l y  l e f t b e h i n d by  a previous  looked  dying  a slow death from the  on  rage l i v i n g  he  (p. 2 ) .  i n the  he  cowardly  them"  (p.  3).  t e n a n t o f the basement.  The  l o a t h t o put  "Anton  The  i t outside  to look  at the  and  i n the  courtcontrasted  w a l l s of the house r i s i n g  make h i s p o s i t i o n l i k e  a t the bottom of a w e l l  was  sunshine,  i n t e r i o r of h i s basement room,is  a l l s i d e s t o s u r r o u n d him  goes out  from others  suffocate  l a c k o f a i r and  the b r i g h t c o u r t y a r d .  being  receives  a t t e n t i v e l y at t h i s p i t i f u l p l a n t , which  s o m e . r e a s o n he was  with  were  i s compared t o t h a t of a p l a n t w h i c h  often  yard"  that i f there  f u n c t i o n o f a human s a f e t y v a l v e w h i c h g o e s  Anton's j o y l e s s l i f e  for  things  i n t u r n w o u l d abuse t h e m  depths of people's souls would not  was  of  (p. 3 ) .  c l e a r blue  When i n t h e s k y , he  that  of  evening  i s so u s e d  to  b e n d i n g o v e r h i s w o r k t h a t h i s h e a d i s d r a w n downward t o dark e a r t h .  H i s work g i v e s him  no  b e t t e r o r w o r s e t h a n anyone e l s e " play h i s accordion janitor.  i n the  e v e n i n g s he  H i s w i s h i s t o go  p l a y h i s m u s i c and  to the  When he  He  tries  country  some Sunday  to the  and  rest.  a t i m e when i t seemed t h a t he began t o c o u r t  "no  i s c h a s e d away by  Anton's p a s t i s r e l a t e d i n a b r i e f f l a s h b a c k . was  the  j o y ; he makes b o o t s (Ibid.).  up  c o u l d have a happy  a s e a m s t r e s s , made h e r  There life.  a p a i r of boots  and  was  a b o u t t o p r o p o s e t o h e r , when by a c a s e o f m i s t a k e n  i d e n t i t y he was  s e n t t o p r i s o n f o r s i x months.  T h e r e he .  r e a l i z e d t h a t something i r r e v e r s i b l e had o c c u r r e d i n h i s life.  When he was  r e l e a s e d , he d i d n o t go t o v i s i t h i s  s e a m s t r e s s , b u t l e a r n e d t h a t she h a d t a k e n up w i t h gentleman" drank.  (p. 7 ) .  "a  From t h e n on A n t o n w o r k e d , s l e p t  and a c t i v i t y  Through  a window he s e e s  and h e a r s v o i c e s and m u s i c .  something t o l i g h t e n the burdens of l i f e .  light  and  Someone c l o s e s  window, c u t t i n g o f f t h e sounds o f t h e l i f e w i t h i n .  day ends w i t h a d r e a m o f b e i n g r u n o v e r by t h e h e a v y  His  wheels  a c a r r i a g e d r i v e n by a d r u n k e n cabman. Anton's s o c i a l  life  c o n s i s t s of v i s i t s  . t r i e s t o w a t c h a game o f b i l l i a r d s ,  to taverns.  and a d m i r e s t h e s k i l l  one o f t h e p l a y e r s , b u t i s d r i v e n , away.  He h a s no one  t a l k t o , i s not even a l l o w e d t o watch o t h e r s e n j o y i n g s e l v e s i n a game. way  lively  His longing to  hear or play music i s h i s soul's yearning f o r beauty  of  and  H i s s t a t e of d u l l sadness i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a  s c e n e a t a h o u s e he p a s s e s .  the  fine  i n w h i c h sounds  He of  to them-  By " t h e u s u a l r o a r i n h i s e a r s and t h e s e e m e d . m u f f l e d and f a r away, A n t o n  s t o o d v e r y w e l l t h a t he was  drunk"  (p. 1 0 ) .  under-  He i s ashamed  and f e e l s o f f e n d e d , a s i f someone w e r e t o b l a m e f o r h i s drunken s t a t e . (Ibid.)  He s a y s t o h i m s e l f  " * I am a w o r k i n g  T h i s w o u l d i m p l y t h a t he h a s some r i g h t t o h a p p i n e s s  and t o t h e r e s p e c t and f r i e n d s h i p o f o t h e r men. tries  man'"  When he  t o e a s e h i s t o r t u r e d s o u l b y s i n g i n g , he i s t o l d i t i s  75 "not a l l o w e d . "  He t h e n g e t s i n t o a f i g h t a n d i s t h r o w n o u t  into the street. And t h e n he. u n d e r s t o o d c l e a r l y t h a t h i s l i f e was w i t h o u t j o y — a b i t t e r l i f e — t h a t he was c o n t i n u a l l y wronged and i n s u l t e d . . . A n t o n b e g a n t o weep and shook h i s f i s t a t t h e l o c k e d d o o r . [ p . 14] S e e i n g t h e men w i t h whom he f o u g h t l e a v e t h e t a v e r n , he p u r s u e s them, c l u t c h i n g h i s s h o e m a k e r ' s k n i f e .  He c a t c h e s  up w i t h them as t h e y s t o p t o t a l k w i t h a woman " i n a huge red  h a t , w h i c h swayed l i k e  s t r e e t lamp" ing.  Finally  (p. 1 5 ) .  a phantom i n t h e d i m l i g h t o f t h e  T h i s image e v o k e s  a naghtmarish  feel-  o v e r t a k i n g t h e men, he s t a b s o n e . H i s f l i g h t  from t h e murder scene i s rendered by v i v i d v e r b s :  "Anton  flew, l e a p i n g , c r a w l i n g , wheezing, panting, growling l i k e a wild  animal being pursued"  p u r s u e r s and spends  ( p . 1 6 ) . He o u t - d i s t a n c e s h i s  the night i n a small hollow.  Disjointed  images o f t h e p a s t h o u r s f l a s h t h r o u g h h i s mind as he realizes  t h a t h i s former l i f e  r e t u r n t o h i s basement.  i s o v e r and t h a t he w i l l  never  "The f e e l i n g o f f r e e d o m was g r e a t e r  t h a n h i s f e a r and b e w i l d e r m e n t "  ( p . 1 7 ) . He s p e n d s  w a n d e r i n g i n an u n f a m i l i a r p a r t o f t h e c i t y  t h e day  and r e s t i n g  i na  field: He t r i e d t o i m a g i n e s o m e t h i n g f e a r f u l , b u t he s i m p l y f e l t f r e e , c a l m . a n d h a p p y . He was n o t a f r a i d o f the p o l i c e b e c a u s e he a l r e a d y knew p r i s o n l i f e a n d e v e n t h a t was b e t t e r t h a n t h e h u n g r y , c o l d , j o y l e s s and s l a v i s h l i f e h e l i v e d as a f r e e man. . . . He f e l t no r e p e n t a n c e o r s o r r o w ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , he f e l t t e r r i b l y triumphant, unusually brave b u t desperate. [ p . 19] As n i g h t f a l l s ,  he approaches  t h e town b e a r i n g t h e  76 l o o k o f one (Ibid.). steady,  w a i t i n g f o r s o m e o n e . " t o g r a b by  The  s t o r y ends w i t h a n a t u r e  strong wind blew m o u r n f u l l y  the  throat"  i m a g e : "a f r e e , -  across  the broad  field"  (Ibid.). The  s t o r y i s the  account of the making of a  Anton i s oppressed, desperate is  c r u e l l y r e j e c t e d and  blindly.  The  f o r human w a r m t h , and when  p u s h e d t o o f a r he  strikes  He  i s no  rung of the  social  outside society.  longer w i l l i n g  ladder. In the  The  final  t o e x i s t on  m u r d e r he  suppressed  the  commits p l a c e s  strong wind" symbolizes  the  f r e e f r o m any  T h i s wind of freedom blows  fully,"  fetters.  f o r A n t o n has  lowest  l i n e s of the s t o r y , the  force of l i f e  he  out  i n c i d e n t i n the t a v e r n r e l e a s e s h i s  hostility.  criminal.  and  him  "free,  the w i l l  to  be  "mourn-  paid a high price to free himself  from  society. * The by  be  ous in  *  *  keen o b s e r v a t i o n  Although  defined  w i t h the  *  s i x stories discussed  the author's  of l i f e .  *  there  Artsybashev s 1  in this  two  chapter  are  unified  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  aspects  of the works which  stories  realist tradition.  overlapping of these  *  and  as m o d e r n i s t i c , t h e  Russian  a r e more i n  may  Perhaps the most o b v i -  l i t e r a r y movements t o be  l i k e n e d t o the r e a l i s t ' s  Both u s u a l l y imply  drama  keeping  found  e a r l y works i s the m o d e r n i s t antagonism  a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h c a n be sciousness.  are  *  the need f o r o r  social  to con-  desirability  of "Iz  s o c i a l change.  "Pasha Tumanov," " K u p r i i a n , " "Krov"  podvala" make very s t r o n g statements  and inhumanity  of society.  1  and  about the u g l i n e s s  The only noble man i s the one  who e x i s t s o u t s i d e the s o c i a l o r d e r .  The o n l y man who l i v e s  h o n e s t l y i s the one who r e a l i z e s t h a t the essence ,of l i f e can o n l y be d i s c e r n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l , i n many cases by c o n f r o n t i n g death muning with nature  ("Podpraporshchik <Gololobov")  o r by com-  (Kostrov i n "Pasha Tumanov").  t h a t death and nature are man's only r e a l i t i e s  The dictum  echoes  throughout Artsybashev*s works. Ideas and techniques t y p i c a l of the e a r l y  stories  continue i n l a t e r works.  Artsybashev's concern with  and p o l i t i c a l immediacies  i s expressed i n "Rabochii Shevyrev"  (The Worker Shevyrev, "Teni u t r a "  1907),  "Bunt"  (Morning Shadows, 1905),  (The R e b e l l i o n ,  social  1905),  "Krovavoe p i a t n o " (The  B l o o d - s t a i n , 1906) and "Chelovecheskaia v o l n a " (The Human Wave, 1907). ian  The i n d i v i d u a l i s t c h a r a c t e r s —  and Vaska, and Anton the shoemaker —  Kostrov, Kupri-  share some t r a i t s  w i t h Artsybashev's famous i n d i v i d u a l i s t Sanin.  L i f e , as  p o r t r a y e d by t h i s author, i s both a b e a u t i f u l experience and a b r i e f l i g h t i n the v o i d . love o f l i f e  The e a r l y s t o r i e s d e p i c t both the  found i n Sanin and the negation of l i f e  exempli-  f i e d by Artsybashev's o t h e r n o v e l , U p o s l e d n e i c h e r t y (The Breaking P o i n t ) .  Man as b e a s t o r as s o c i a l beast reappears  a l s o i n many of the l a t e r works.  Artsybashev's d e p i c t i o n of  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men and women as e x e m p l i f i e d i n  78 " K u p r i i a n " i s c o m p a r a b l e i n many ways t o t h a t i n l a t e r  works.  K u p r i i a n and M a t r e n a s h a r e a t r u e a n d r e a l b u t i l l i c i t  love.  The s o c i e t y w h i c h s a n c t i o n s t h e m a r r i a g e o f M a t r e n a a n d E g o r may, i n t h e e x t r e m e , a l s o a l l o w s t h e h u s b a n d to  death.  t o beat h i s wife  The t r u t h e x p r e s s e d b y t h e e p i g r a p h t o S a n i n ,  which i s taken from E c c l e s i a s t e s :  " L o , t h i s o n l y have I  f o u n d , t h a t God h a t h made man u p r i g h t ; b u t t h e y h a v e out  many i n v e n t i o n s "  (7:29) —  sought  i s also basic t o the early  stories.  P a r t 2: "Smert"  Lande" —  Twentieth-Century  The L i f e o f a Saint  . . . he [ C h r i s t ] was n o t c a r r y i n g o n any l i b e r a l o r p o l i t i c a l f i g h t a g a i n s t the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s , b u t wanted t o w a l k h i s own way, u n t r o u b l e d a n d u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . Max S t i r n e r , The E g o and H i s Own The  l o n g s t o r y , "Smert*  Lande"  also belongs to the e a r l y period  (The D e a t h o f L a n d e ) ,  (1900-1904).  I t s publica-  t i o n i n i s s u e 12 o f Z h u r n a l d l i a v s e k h f o r 1904 drew t h e a t t e n t i o n o f many w e l l - k n o w n w r i t e r s Artsybashev.  t o t h e work o f young  G o r k y w r o t e t o A n d r e e v t h a t he c o u l d n o t  i m a g i n e how L a n d e  c o u l d be " a p o s i t i v e type.""'"  He r e m a r k s :  Read A r t s y b a s h e v * s s t o r y i n Z h u r n a l d l i a v s e k h a n d s e e w h a t a t r u e man, a p o s i t i v e t y p e , s h o u l d b e . E v e n a h u n g r y b e a r w o u l d n ' t e a t s u c h a man, s o r e p u l s i v e l y s w e e t , a s u g a r b e e t and n o t a man!^ T o l s t o y f e l t t h a t t h e r e were p a r t s o f t h e s t o r y w h i c h were  79 strong. him,  Soon a f t e r t h e s t o r y a p p e a r e d , i t was r e a d  i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a few f r i e n d s .  aloud t o  I t i s reported  that  Tolstoy  commented a f t e r one p a s s a g e : "'Now, t h a t i s s i n c e r e ^ ' "  Gippius  p r a i s e d t h e s t o r y , remembering i t i n a p i e c e she  wrote a f t e r h e r e x i l e : He i s a r e a l a r t i s t . H i s t a l e n t i s outstanding, t h o u g h a t t i m e s u n e v e n and e v e n f a u l t y . I still remember h i s o l d , i m p r e s s i v e a n d p r o f o u n d s t o r y , "The D e a t h o f L a n d e . ' He i s n o t o n l y a t a l e n t e d w r i t e r o f f i c t i o n , but also a very t a l e n t e d person.^ Aleksandr teristic" the  Blok  considered  A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t o r y t o be " c h a r a c 5 of h i s w r i t i n g o f t h a t time. The p o e t f e l t t h a t  s t o r y r e s e m b l e d D o s t o e v s k y ' s The I d i o t .  He w r i t e s :  J u s t l i k e P r i n c e M y s h k i n , t h e g e n t l e Lande r e c e i v e s a s l a p i n t h e f a c e ' f o r g o o d . ' And t h r o u g h o u t one f e e l s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f D o s t o e v s k y and Andreev and t h e a r t i s t i c d e v i c e s o f Chekhov.° The  popular  critics  o f t h e d a y a l s o made  comments a b o u t " S m e r t ' L a n d e . " was  e s p e c i a l l y appealing  L a n d e was " a g r a n d i o s e  various  Lande s C h r i s t i a n . o r i e n t a t i o n 1  t o K h a r b a r o v , who b e l i e v e d  that  i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l f a r i n advance 7  of other heroes o f Artsybashev's s t o r i e s . " d e v o t e s a w h o l e segment o f one a r t i c l e  Volzhskii  t o a study  o f "Lande."  He t o o l i k e n s A r t s y b a s h e v ' s h e r o t o P r i n c e M y s h k i n i n D o s t o e v s k y ' s The I d i o t .  He f e e l s t h a t t h e w o r k r e p r e s e n t s " t h e  freedom and courage o f h i s 9 daring talent." The  [Artsybashev's]  young,  searching,  c r i t i c P i l ' s k i i sees Artsybashev's t a l e n t d i v i d e d  between t h e m o r a l i s t and t h e i m m o r a l i s t ;  "Smert  1  Lande" i s a  80 creation  of the m o r a l i s t . ^ 1  These two o p p o s i t e a s p e c t s o f  A r t s y b a s h e v s c r e a t i v i t y make p o s s i b l e  the p o r t r a y a l of both  the  1 1  1  C h r i s t i a n L a n d e and t h e m a n - b e a s t .  When one r e a d s t h e s t o r y , t h e f o r m o f t h e " s a i n t l y lives"  comes t o m i n d .  N. K. G u d z i i , d i s c u s s e s saintly  life)  A scholar  of o l d Russian  the z h i t i i n y i  s a i n t l y one's l i f e  follows  p a r e n t s a r e d e v o u t and n o b l e . towards the s c r i p t u r e s . earthly  life  by  literatury indicates  order:  that  i)"His  2) He h a s a e a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n  3) He s c o r n s t h e s w e e t n e s s o f  a n d 4) i s a s t r i c t a s c e t i c .  5) he h a s a  blessed  occur around h i s p l a c e  Other t r a d i t i o n a l elements o f t h i s form are: t h e  childlessness one,  Gudzii  a prescribed  d e a t h a n d 6) a f t e r h i s d e a t h m i r a c l e s of b u r i a l .  (genre o f t h e  i n h i s I s t o r i i a drevnei russkoi  (History of Old Russian L i t e r a t u r e ) . the  zhanr  literature,  of the parents u n t i l  the b i r t h of the s a i n t l y  h i s departure from the p a r e n t a l  home, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  t h e s a i n t o f h i s b e l o n g i n g s t o t h e p o o r , and h i s r e j e c t i o n  of w o r l d l y  glory.  C e r t a i n l y , aspects of the story  Lande" a r e t y p i c a l o f t h i s genre. interpreted godly  Also,  "Smert'  t h e g e n r e may be  as s i m p l y a p a r a d i g m o f an O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n  life. A r t s y b a s h e v u s e s one o f h i s b e s t - k n o w n  characters, 13  Vladimir  S a n i n o f t h e n o v e l S a n i n , t o comment on L a n d e .  S a n i n s a y s he o n c e knew L a n d e and was i n f l u e n c e d a while.  He r e m a r k s t h a t  C h r i s t are mirrored  by him f o r  the t r y i n g events i n the l i f e of  i n Lande's l i f e .  Lande does n o t d e f e n d  81 h i m s e l f when a t t a c k e d ,  f o r g i v e s t h o s e who w r o n g h i m , t r e a t s  e v e r y man as h i s b r o t h e r ,  and i s c h a s t e .  The c h a r a c t e r i z a -  t i o n o f Lande, accomplished through s e l e c t e d d e t a i l s  and k e y  w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s , shows h i m t o be g e n t l e , meek a n d l o v i n g . . His gestures, are  speaking  drawn t o p r e s e n t  v o i c e , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e and a c t i o n s  a constantly gentle person.  Lande i s  i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e s as he g o e s t o meet f r i e n d s i n t h e s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l town w h e r e h e i s v i s i t i n g , h i s m o t h e r ' s home: L a n d e a p p r o a c h e d , ; s m i l i n g c a l m l y a n d q u i e t l y . He was a s l i g h t , t h i n man, a n d h i s s t e p s w e r e b a r e l y a u d i b l e u p o n t h e damp e a r t h . He_ s p o k e q u i e t l y , b u t d i s t i n c t l y c o u l d always be h e a r d .  and c a l m l y , and [ p . 23]  [ M o l o c h a e v ] l o o k e d h i m [Lande] f u l l i n t h e f a c e as i f l o o k i n g t h r o u g h h i s pure and calm eyes i n t o h i s soul. [Ibid.] I n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y twenty pages o f t h e s t o r y , L a n d e s 1  character  i s consistently depicted  —calmly  and q u i e t l y w a l k e d  as q u i e t a n d g e n t l e :  . . . and s m i l e d  —  spoke q u i e t l y , b u t d i s t i n c t l y  —  softly  —  p u r e and c a l m e y e s  —  smiled  —  soft voice  —  g e n t l y , calming  smiled  and c a l m l y  [ p . 22]  [ p . 23]  [ p . 23] [ p . 23]  and t e n d e r l y spoke  [ p . 24]  [ p . 24]  sadly smiled  him, smiling, said  [ p . 28]  [ p . 29]  —  joyously  and g e n t l y s m i l e d  —  h i s v o i c e was e s p e c i a l l y c a l m and t e n d e r  —  he l e f t ,  softly  smiling  [ p . 33]  [ p . 34]  [ p . 33]  82 —  he  smiled sadly  —  h i s s p i r i t was  —  a full The  and  [p.  38]  calmed  joyous  observations  [p.  42]  s e n s a t i o n r o s e up o f two  i n him  [p.  42]  major characters e a r l y i n  s t o r y supplement L a n d e s image.  The  1  main female  the  character,  Mar'ia Nikolaevna,  s a y s o f L a n d e : "'he  somehow s t r a n g e  b l e s s e d , i n n o c e n t ! ' , " ( " b l a z h e n e n ' k i i " , . p.  33) .  The  —  i s a d e a r one  o t h e r main male c h a r a c t e r , the . a r t i s t  Molochaev,  says": " ' T h a t L a n d e i s some k i n d o f F o o l - i n - C h r i s t There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e adverbs i n these "quiet"  and  traits.  r e p e t i t i o n of a d j e c t i v e s  a l l his actions r e f l e c t  t h e r e i s s i n c e r i t y , g u i l e l e s s n e s s and he m e e t s .  families.  Thus, the  w o r l d l y goods t o the needy.  ish  a very  decides  She  t r u e h o l y man On  " s a i n t l y one"  gentle  who  a s k s how  he w i l l  men  live,  and  his  understand  c a l l s him he  their  a  fool-  r e p l i e s , as  day  a t home, he  i s confronted  with  Besides  the  o f t h e w o r k e r s , h i s f r i e n d Semenev i s d y i n g and  for  the  and  gives  many p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h w e i g h u p o n h i m .  tuberculosis  love  t h i n k s n o t o f t h e m o r r o w , "-'Somehow.'"  Lande's f i r s t  misfortunes  His  to give his  H i s m o t h e r does n o t  t o g i v e away h i s i n h e r i t a n c e , and  child.  "pure,"  In h i s greeting  monetary i n h e r i t a n c e from h i s f a t h e r t o these  h i s wish  and  these  When L a n d e h e a r s o f t h e p l i g h t o f  w o r k e r s on s t r i k e a t a l o c a l m i l l he  destitute  34).  r e p e t i t i o n s i m p r e s s t h i s upon t h e r e a d e r .  s t e p i s so l i g h t i t i s b a r e l y n o t i c e d .  those  (p.  1 1 1  f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s : Lande i s "calm,"  " l o v i n g " and  The  and  i s b i t t e r and  afraid.  During  his  first  of  the  83 n i g h t a t home, w h i l e a l o n e i n t h e d a r k n e s s , L a n d e i s t o r t u r e d by h i s own the end  lack of f a i t h .  that awaits a l l .  Semenev's f a t e s u g g e s t s t o h i m H i s s t a t e o f mind i s s k i l l f u l l y  depicted: . .. . a r o u n d h i m was e m p t i n e s s , o n l y e n d l e s s emptiness. Somewhere t h e r e w e r e s t a r s , o n l y s t a r s ! 'And I am n o t as much as a g r a i n o f s a n d , and l e s s , much l e s s , and.my l i f e i n e t e r n i t y i s n o t an i n s t a n t ' . . . Then he remembered t h a t k i t t e n w h i c h V e r s h i l o v ' s coachman h a d p i c k e d up by t h e s c r u f f o f t h e n e c k and d a s h e d t o t h e g r o u n d , k i l l i n g it — and t o L a n d e i t seemed t h a t he h u n g by t h e s c r u f f o f t h e n e c k o v e r an a b y s s . . . he y e a r n e d t e r r i b l y f o r someone t o r e a s s u r e h i m t h a t he was n o t a l o n e i n t h e u n f a t h o m a b l y immense u n i v e r s e . . . [pp. 39-40] Lande i s r e l e a s e d f r o m h i s d i l e m m a by p r a y e r and of the f l e s h .  He  l e a v e s t h e warmth o f h i s bed  abasement  and  lies  on t h e c o l d b a r e f l o o r , t h u s f e e l i n g u n i t e d w i t h t h e in their hardships. c a l m and b l i s s f u l  down  workers  L y i n g on t h e f l o o r , he e x p e r i e n c e s a  feeling  f r o m ;a r e s u r g e n c e ..of f a i t h : ,  A f u l l , j o y o u s f e e l i n g a r o s e i n h i m , and t h e s p a c e a r o u n d h i m was f i l l e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g immense, l i g h t and t r a n s p a r e n t . H i s f e a r v a n i s h e d l i k e smoke.. I t was c o l d on t h e f l o o r and Lande' s b o d y t r e m b l e d . . . t h e n s u d d e n l y t h e h a r d n e s s o f t h e f l o o r and t h e c o l d and t h e d a r k and h i s own r i d i c u l o u s d i s c o m f o r t — a l l f a d e d and became u n n o t i c e a b l e , u n i m p o r t a n t . . . And he was s u s p e n d e d and c a l m e d i n a j o y f u l s t a t e r e s e m b l i n g t h e g r e a t e s t and d e e p e s t h a p p i n e s s . . . T h i s was t h e l a s t t i m e i n h i s l i f e t h a t he h a d t h e l e a s t d o u b t , t h a t he was t r o u b l e d f o r a m i n u t e i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of f u t u r e t r i a l s . A s t r a i g h t road, w e l l i l l u m i n a t e d , s t r e t c h e d ahead i n h i s s o u l . [p. 42] :  Lande's t r a v a i l s further chronicled.  The  and m o r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f l e s h scene which  an a c q u a i n t a n c e , T k a c h e v , i n j a i l  t a k e s p l a c e as he  i s a further  are visits  testimonial  84 to Lande s f a i t h .  L a n d e a r g u e s t h a t one  1  despite everything. heart."  He  must l o v e  life  H i s w o r d s a r e l i k e "a s o n g f r o m h i s  t r i e s t o f o r t i f y t h e man's f a i l i n g s p i r i t s w i t h  a few w o r d s a b o u t n o n - r e s i s t a n c e  to  evil:  'You m u s t n o t meet e n m i t y w i t h e n m i t y ! L a n d e s a i d , w i t h s h i n i n g , w i d e - o p e n e d e y e s , as i f he w e r e n o t t h i n k i n g a b o u t w h a t he s a i d . . . ' n e v e r w i l l y o u f e e l s u c h j o y , s u c h p e a c e , s u c h g r a t i f i c a t i o n as when you v a n q u i s h the h a t r e d i n y o u r s e l f ! . . [pp. 49-50] 1  During  h i s v i s i t t o T k a c h e v , Lande c o n t i n u a l l y t r i e s t o  the p r i s o n e r ' s hand i n a g e s t u r e gesture  i s u n c o n s c i o u s and  Tkachev. reflects  o f u n i t y and  Throughout the encounter Lande s 1  l o v e and  and  b e c a u s e h i s s o u l i s " ' c l e a n and The  This  d e m n a t i o n and a t t a c k , and  (p. 5 2 ) .  ( " ' s v i a t o i chelovek'")  a l l h i s b i t t e r n e s s on  "'a h o l y s o u l on c r u t c h e s ' "  statement echoes i n the f o u l a curse.  Lande has  and  cell  "*a  t h e drama o f t h e m e e t i n g h a n g s h e a v i l y as  ends.  He  has  reached out  t o a f e l l o w man  L a t e r i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , w h i l e on Mar'ia Nikolaevna,  L a n d e i s a t t a c k e d and  been r e l e a s e d from j a i l ,  and  fool'"  as a c o n -  no w o r d s t o c o u n t e r  d e n o u n c e d as i m p o t e n t : " ' a h o l y s o u l on  has  Tkachev  c l e a r as a p i e c e o f g l a s s ' "  prisoner f i n a l l y vents  Lande, c a l l i n g him  who  appearance  only h i s eyes were,  pity"  s a y s t h a t p e r h a p s L a n d e i s a h o l y man  chapter  reach  h i s i n n e r s t a t e : "His l i g h t h a i r stuck to h i s f o r e -  as b e f o r e , s h i n i n g w i t h  (p. 5 6 ) .  This  shows h i s s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o  h e a d , h i s l i p s and h a n d s t r e m b l e d ,  (p. 5 3 ) .  love.  take  this the  only to  be  crutches.'" an e v e n i n g r o b b e d by  a n o t h e r man.,  walk w i t h Tkachev, Lande  85 g i v e s h i s p u r s e and remonstrance.  The  outer  c l o t h i n g t o the t h i e v e s  a r t i s t M o l o c h a e v , who  Mar'ia's c r i e s f o r help  and  Lande t r i e s  He  comical  i s a p o o r and  brutally  Mar'ia,  d i s t r e s s e d by  this  jeered  he  a t me,  the  and  aid.  He  stands h u m i l i a t e d  a r t i s t and  pities  the  b e l i e v e s him  t o be  c h i s t y i " ) being  does not  same way  (p. 1 2 7 ) .  She  I saw...'"  d o e s , and  l o v e s him  b o t h as  t o s i t w i t h him  Lande l i e s p a l e  weak on  and  When she gently  but  not  face"  a child"  He  He  (p.  recog-  a man  and  the as  again and  t e l l s her  a  tries SemeAs  l a y s her head  f i r s t time,  (p. 1 4 3 ) .  does not  spirit..  through the n i g h t .  f o r the  She  him  spirit in  Mar'ia  Mar'ia  86).  ("milyi, svetlyi,  She  t h a t he  respond t o the  on  "Lande,  kisses  o p e n s h e r e y e s t o see h i s " c o l d ,  (p. 1 4 4 ) .  i n t h a t way.  the bed,  k i s s e s him  like  more f e r v e n t l y and distressed  does not  Once L a n d e i s s e v e r e l y b e a t e n as he Molochaev.  he  is dissociated  dreams o f m a r r i a g e t o  nev's s i s t e r decide  k i s s e d her  not  a pure r e l a t i o n s h i p , e l e v a t i n g her  t o m e d i a t e b e t w e e n T k a c h e v and  his chest.  is  f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h him.  d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n b o d y and  as he  pure s o u l .  and  a "dear, r a d i a n t , pure"  which would create She  has  half-  t h i e f , t h i n k i n g : "'when  usual emotions of l i f e  i a Nikolaevna  the  and  Tkachev, but  Lande, because of h i s a s c e t i c n a t u r e ,  n i z e t h a t Mar  attacks  compared t o  s u f f e r e d more t h a n I , t h i s  f r o m some o f t h e  He  t o s h i e l d them f r o m h i s b l o w s .  f i g u r e o f a man  strong Molochaev.  naked b e f o r e  i s near, hears  h u r r i e s to her  the t h i e v e s , but  without  him  afraid,  loves  her,  physical  86 nature  of her  love.  During Lande s l a s t meeting w i t h Tkachev, the  thief  1  begs him  t o be  t h e p r o p h e t o f a "new  mently d e c l i n e s , saying from doing if  evil.  someone goes  t h a t a l l one  " ' T r a v e l y o u r own w i t h you  ——  righteous, i t s trace w i l l through the ately  ages!.. " 1  to find  (p.  again,  can  Lande v e h e -  do  road,'"  i s to he  refrain  says,  "'and  l e t them... i f y o u r l i f e  not disappear,  (p. 1 5 4 ) .  a personal  denounces him  faith."  and  saying,  but w i l l  T k a c h e v , who  world  is  continue  wishes  desper-  s a v i o r i n Lande, a n g r i l y  " ' C h r i s t ' s f o o l , unhappy  one'"  155). Thus, Lande's l i f e  of the  to t h i s point i s s i m i l a r to  s a i n t as d e f i n e d by  f o l l o w s the  life  G u d z i i , and  of C h r i s t .  He  that  a l s o , i n some r e s p e c t s ,  does not r e s p o n d t o  s w e e t n e s s o f e a r t h l y l o v e , he  turns  tormentors,  f a i t h , g i v e s h i s money t o  p o o r , and "new  p r e a c h e s , l o v e and i s not  cheek t o h i s  a  prophet."  is a final  f o r e s t concludes the  p o i n t of comparison t o the  T h e r e a r e no m i r a c l e s  p e a s a n t s who  a f t e r Lande's death.  a l l e g e d t o be of the  happen upon i t .  The  In f a c t ,  c o r p s e shows i t c o v e r e d w i t h already  the  The  leaves  s e i z e d him  odor  Riazan  b o d i e s of s a i n t s are  f r e e of s i g n s of decay.  i f t h e g r o u n d had  story,  " L i v e s " genre..  of d e c o m p o s i t i o n coming from h i s body r e p e l s t h r e e  "as  the  i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o s s i b l e g l o r y awaiting  His s o l i t a r y death i n the and  the o t h e r  the  often  last description and  damp e a r t h  with i t s moist  87 f e e l e r s and w e r e s l o w l y itself"  (p. 1 8 9 ) .  and  f i r m l y drawing him  From L a n d e s d e a t h s p r i n g s : l i f e final  l i n e of the  t h i s p l a c e , from year to y e a r , and  author presents The  joyously"  story  relates:."On  a f e r n grew e s p e c i a l l y  ("radostno,," p.  190).  This  f a c t t h a t L a n d e ' s body d e c a y s i s a l s o  Brothers  a  the  as t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l m i r a c l e s .  of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the The  of  1  d i f f e r e n t k i n d , as t h e  luxuriantly  down t o  Karamazov.  l a y i n g - o u t of F a t h e r The  reminiscent  Zossima i n  s m e l l of c o r r u p t i o n i s s u e s  from  the p r i e s t ' s body so soon a f t e r h i s death t h a t i t i s c o n s i d ered  a sign that h i s teaching  final  had  been f a l s e .  Artsybashev's  s t a t e m e n t i n the s t o r y echoes the words o f Zossima  and  seems t o v i n d i c a t e them: L o v e a l l God's c r e a t i o n , t h e w h o l e and e v e r y g r a i n o f s a n d o f i t . L o v e e v e r y l e a f , e v e r y r a y o f God's light. Love the a n i m a l s , l o v e the p l a n t s , l o v e everything. I f you l o v e e v e r y t h i n g , you w i l l p e r c e i v e the d i v i n e mystery i n things.15 Lande's l a s t d a y s , spent i n the h u t , h a v e a m y s t i c a l a i r a b o u t them. a f t e r he has  crossed  a large river.  c r o s s i n g o v e r i n t o the o t h e r w o r l d , t o the  o t h e r by  forest i n a His  bank  a b o a t m a n l i k e C h a r o n f e r r y i n g s o u l s on  surroundings  t h a t i t i s almost impossible  one  symbolize  c o n v e y e d f r o m one  The  boatman b l e n d s v i s u a l l y so w e l l w i t h  river foliage.  c h a n g e a few  s o l i t u d e begins  T h i s may  River Styx.  from the  deserted  ideas  m u s t " ' l o v e and  L a n d e and  about l i f e . pity  the  his  t o d i s t i n g u i s h him  the boatman-muzhik  ex-  Lande says t h a t most o f a l l  others. " 1  To  t h i s the  boatman  88 a n s w e r s , "'You at  s a y we  some t i m e we  bread!'" ing  may  world  have our  (p. 1 8 1 ) .  i s necessary,  must l o v e  ...  throats s l i t  They do b o t h and  how  c a n we  f o r a c r u s t of  agree, however, t h a t  t h a t t h a t w h i c h goes f o r w a r d  does s o b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f Lande's o b s e r v a t i o n s  very sharp* colors, light  As he and  and  life  a l l around him. L a n d e has  no  m i n d , b e c a u s e h i s s o u l was  and  the c r e a t u r e . Life  but  thin  the  bear  d i d not  enter  a t p e a c e s o n o t h i n g mean o r  c r u e l c o u l d e n t e r i t " (p. 1 8 5 ) . b e a r some b r e a d ,  f o r e s t are  perceives  c o n f r o n t e a c h o t h e r : " T h a t he m i g h t a t t a c k h i m his  i n the  A t midday a  f e a r as he  suffer-  suffering.  s e n s a t i o n s i n the  s i t s b e n e a t h t h e t r e e s , he  b e a r approaches him.  l o v e when  He  only wishes to give  c o n s i d e r s h i s movement, m i g h t  T h i s segment, was  most, l i k e l y  o f S t . S e r g i u s o f R a d o n e z h , who  frighten  suggested  befriended  the  a  by  the  bear:  [The b e a s t ] f o r m e d t h e h a b i t o f a l w a y s c o m i n g t o t h e s a i n t and t h e l a t t e r , k n o w i n g i t , w o u l d b r i n g o u t o f h i s c a b i n a s m a l l c r u s t o f b r e a d and p u t i t upon a l o g o r s t u m p . . . . B u t when b r e a d was l a c k i n g and t h e b e a r came as u s u a l he w o u l d n o t go away f o r a l o n g t i m e b u t w o u l d s t a n d l o o k i n g h e r e and t h e r e , w a i t i n g l i k e a m e r c i l e s s c r e d i t o r f o r his debt. I f t h e s a i n t h a p p e n e d t o h a v e o n l y one c r u s t , he was o b l i g e d t o d i v i d e e v e n i t i n t o two parts. Autumn has rain. he  says  He  b e g u n and  f a l l s i l l and,  Lande i s exposed t o the c o l d  as he  t o h i m s e l f , " ' H e r e one  i z e s , t h a t Semenev, whom he has a journey  f e e l s h i s h o l d on may  p o w e r g r e a t e r t h a n h i s own.  d i e ' " (p. 1 8 5 ) .  l e f t home on  of a thousand v e r s t s —  life  m u s t now  ebbing,  He  real-  foot to v i s i t be  a i d e d by  S u f f e r i n g f r o m c o l d and  —  a  illness,  89 L a n d e t h i n k s , ' " L o r d , Thy w i l l be done'" his  l a s t h o u r s he e x p e r i e n c e s  (p. 1 8 6 ) .  During  a strange sensation:  S u d d e n l y a l l a r o u n d h i m was b a t h e d i n a y e l l o w l i g h t as i f t h e r e w e r e an i n v i s i b l e lamp somewhere above h i m . By i t s s t r a n g e l i g h t i t seemed t o L a n d e t h a t he s t o o d b e s i d e h i s own b o d y w h i c h was w r i t h i n g i n p u d d l e s , p i t i f u l i n a wet, b l a c k cassock, d i r t y , u n h a p p y —- l i k e a worm. T e r r i b l e s u f f e r i n g and f e a r c l u t c h e d L a n d e ' s h e a r t . He c r i e d o u t and h i t h i s head a g a i n s t the overhanging branches . . . many f a m i l i a r f a c e s w i t h l i v e l y g l o w i n g e y e s came c l o s e r i n an e n d l e s s s t r e a m , bowed t o h i m i n t u r n and d e p a r