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Mikhail Petrovich Artsybashev (1878-1927) : a centennial presentation and assessment O’Dell, Sally Margaret 1980

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MIKHAIL PETROVICH ARTSYBASHEV (1878-1927): A CENTENNIAL PRESENTATION AND ASSESSMENT by SALLY MARGARET O'DELL M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n . . THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f S l a v o n i c S t u d i e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1980 © S a l l y M a r g a r e t O ' D e l l , 1980 In presenting th i s thesis in par t ia l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or publ icat ion of th is thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. ^ . . j. Slavonic Studies Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 March 25, 1980 ABSTRACT MIKHAIL PETROVICH ARTSYBASKEV (1878-1927); A CENTENNIAL PRESENTATION AND ASSESSMENT As t h e r e has been no comprehensive l i t e r a r y s t u d y o f t h e works o f M. P. A r t s y b a s h e v (1878-1927), i t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o e x p l o r e both t h e b r e a d t h and t h e d e p t h o f t h i s a u t h o r ' s most p r o d u c t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t p r o s e p e r i o d (1900-1912). A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s l i t e r a r y and j o u r n a l i s t i c c a r e e r spans over t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , from t h e appearance of h i s f i r s t s h o r t s t o r y i n 19 00, t o t h e p e r i o d o f h i s emigra-t i o n i n Warsaw a t which t i m e he c o - e d i t e d t h e a n t i - B o l s h e v i k newspaper, Za svobodu (192 4-1927). D u r i n g t h e p r o s e p e r i o d d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n , one may n o t e a l e a d i n g theme which was d e f i n e d by t h e c r i t i c s o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s t i m e as " U l t r a i n d i -v i d u a l i s m " (L' v o v - R o g a c h e v s k i i ) . . A r t s y b a s h e v c a l l e d t h i s p h i l o s o p h y " a n a r c h i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i s m , " t h u s a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h a p o p u l a r s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n l a t e n i n e -t e e n t h , e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y R u s s i a . A r t s y b a s h e v ' s C o l l e c t e d Works c o m p r i s e t e n volumes, w i t h a d d i t i o n a l works a p p e a r i n g i n s e p a r a t e e d i t i o n s . T r a n s -l a t i o n s of h i s works appear i n most major Western European languages as w e l l as D a n i s h and Japanese. H i s more p o p u l a r works — s t o r i e s , n o v e l s and p l a y s — enjoye d s u c c e s s w i t h American c r i t i c s , who i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e p t e d t h e author as one who wrote i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e . H i s i i i i i w r i t i n g does i n d e e d r e f l e c t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e two g r e a t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n R e a l i s t s — T o l s t o y and Dostoevsky. H i s r e a l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e i s now and then o v e r l a i d w i t h e l e -ments of i m p r e s s i o n i s m and e x p r e s s i o n i s m , p l a c i n g him w i t h i n t h e framework of t h e f i n de s i e c l e a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y f o l l o w s t h e c h r o n o l o g -i c a l o r d e r o f the works d i s c u s s e d , thus t r a c i n g themes, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , s t y l e , and n a r r a t i o n . The v i e w s of A r t s y -bashev's c r i t i c s , w h ich a r e n o t e d t h r o u g h o u t , i l l u s t r a t e t o what e x t e n t t h e o p i n i o n s .(concerning t h i s w r i t e r were most o f t e n v a s t l y d i v i d e d . C h a p t e r I f o c u s e s on t h e a u t h o r ' s e a r l i e s t s t o r i e s , which d e p i c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l tormented and l i m i t e d by s o c i e t y . The l o n g s t o r y "Smert'- Lande" i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d here as a t i e between t h e s e f i r s t s t o r i e s and t h e n o v e l San i n . The s p e c i a l p l a c e o f "Smert' Lande" among t h e a u t h o r ' s o t h e r c r e a t i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d . Chapter I I f o c u s e s on S a n i n and t h e r e c e p t i o n i t was g i v e n by t h e c r i t i c s . C h apter I I I views s t o r i e s o f contemporary R u s s i a n s o c i e t y , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l problems. The theme o f man's m o r t a l i t y dominates t h e s t o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r IV. One o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e e x i s t e n t i a l dilemma, s u i c i d e , i s t h e theme of A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s l a r g e n o v e l U p o s l e d -n e i c h e r t y , p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter V. The f i n a l c h a p t e r , V I , a t t e m p t s t o d i s c u s s t h i s a u t h o r more g e n e r a l l y , and t o p l a c e him as an i m p o r t a n t minor p r o s e w r i t e r o f e a r l y t w e n t i e t h i v c e n t u r y R u s s i a . A r t s y b a s h e v r s l i f e - l o n g s e a r c h f o r t h e answers t o t h e e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n s a l i g n s him w i t h t h e m a i nstream o f t h e R u s s i a n R e a l i s t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . The b a t t l e s waged by h i s c h a r a c t e r s a g a i n s t c r u s h i n g f a t e may a l s o be seen t o p r e f i g u r e t h e e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w r i t i n g s o f A l b e r t Camus and h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e A b s u r d Man. Indeed, t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , w i t h i t s m a n i f o l d a n x i e t i e s and c h a l l e n g e s , a r e m i r r o r e d i n A r t s y b a s h e v ' s work. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES . , v i i PREFACE v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i TRANSLATION, TRANSLITERATION AND ABBREVIATIONS x i i i INTRODUCTION AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . 1 I . EARLY STORIES (1901-1904) 17 P a r t 1: S o c i e t y , the I n d i v i d u a l and Nat u r e . 17 "Pasha Tumanov," " K u p r i i a n , " "Krov'," " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k G o l o l o b o v , " "Smekh," "I z p o d v a l a . " P a r t 2: "Smert' Lande" — The L i f e o f a T w e n t i e t y - C e n t u r y S a i n t 7 8 I I . SANIN (1903, p u b l i s h e d 1907): THE INDIVIDUAL LIBERATED 101 P a r t 1: The N o v e l 101 P a r t 2: Notes from t h e C r i t i c s 125 I I I . THE EBB AND FLOW OF THE HUMAN WAVE: STORIES 1904-1907 154 P a r t 1: Man and Woman 154 Zhena," "Bunt," " S c h a s t ' e , " "Uzhas." v i CHAPTER PAGE P a r t 2: The R e v o l u t i o n o f 1905 187 "Teni u t r a , " "Krovavoe p i a t n o , " " C h e l o v e c h e s k a i a v o l n a . " IV. THE ANARCHY OF DEATH: STORIES 1906-1910 . . 214 " M i l l i o n y , " " R a b o c h i i Shevyrev," " P a l a t a n e i z l e c h i m y k h , " " B r a t i i a A r i m a f e i s k i e , " " S i l n e e s m e r t i , " " Z l o d e i . " V. U POSLEDNEI CHERTY (BREAKING POINT) — SUICIDE (1911-1912) . - 256 V I . THE PROSE OF M.P. ARTSYBASHEV 29 3 NOTES 310 BIBLIOGRAPHY 331 LIST OF FIGURES PAGE F i g u r e 1 M.P. A r t s y b a s h e v x i v v i i PREFACE The following pages represent the work of over four years. One would perhaps wish that there had been even more time to read and digest the ten volumes of the Collected  Works of Artsybashev and the many and varied works of his c r i t i c s . The purpose of t h i s work i s to acquaint the student of l i t e r a t u r e with the main s t o r i e s and two major novels of Artsybashev which make up the core of h i s l i t e r a r y oeuvre. In choosing for a d i s s e r t a t i o n topic the works of t h i s controversial author, I am not necessarily prepared to defend Artsybashev's thoughts and ideas as they exi s t in these works as fundamental truths. Nor do I wish to use Artsybashev's words and heroes as a mouthpiece for my own views. I endeavor to render only a sympathetic appreciation and presentation of Artsybashev*s work — a task which has not been attempted before. My approach to these works can only be termed general. I t seems to me that the most out-standing features of hi s work are the philosophies expressed and l i v e d by hi s characters; h i s plots and action, creating dramatic tension which mounts throughout each story; his s k i l l at nature description; and the t o t a l i t y of a l l of the above which amounts to a s e n s i t i v e understanding and bold portrayal of l i f e . I t does not seem relevant to use a more fo r m a l i s t i c approach to Artsybashev: that i s , s t r i c t l y s t y l i s t i c s , structuralism or semiotics. There are authors v i i i i x such as P i l ' n i a k or B e l y i , of t h i s early twentieth-century period, who do benefit from such approaches because of t h e i r elaborate s t y l e s . I leave t h i s work (closer text studies) to other scholars, i f indeed they f e e l i t would be useful. This does not imply that s t y l i s t i c s w i l l be disregarded, rather that I use a more e c l e c t i c and general approach to the c r i t i c i s m of these works. Because these works are not well known to either the s p e c i a l i s t or the student of Russian l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s also necessary to give somewhat d e t a i l e d accounts of the s t o r i e s . Now and then, during my years of study of the works of M. P. Artsybashev, I have met scholars (other than those immediately concerned with my dissertation) who have given me encouragement. Recently, Professor R. F. C h r i s t i a n mentioned one of Artsybashev*s s t o r i e s i n the context of Tolstoy's i n t e r e s t i n vegetarianism. The story was given a sympathetic appreciation by Professor C h r i s t i a n (and Tolstoy himself). The Soviet playwright, Samuel Aleshin, whom I met when he v i s i t e d Canada, expressed the opinion that Artsyba-shev was a writer who was i n many ways ahead of h i s time, and deserved more attention. My correspondence with Nicholas Luker concerning Artsybashev and Kuprin has been most p r o f i t -able and encouraging. Late l a s t year, I spoke with Dr. Bernice Rosenthal (whose work on Merezhkovskii has been published i n book form), who expressed i n t e r e s t i n my work, ind i c a t i n g that she f e l t t h i s work would be welcomed. X Above a l l , when reading and discussing the works of Artsybashev, I have t r i e d to be f a i t h f u l to the author's philosophy and v i s i o n . Many of the issues presented i n the works of t h i s author are s t i l l viable and indeed important today — the new morality, suicide, war protest, fear of death, man alone — a l l these are facets of modern l i f e to be reckoned with by the people of the twentieth century and the authors who chronicle these times. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to extend my sincerest thanks to Dr. Michael F u t r e l l , who supervised t h i s thesis. The work and I both grew from his patience, prodding and dedication. I would also l i k e to thank my readers for t h e i r various comments. Professors Turner, Petro, Merivale and Czaykowski each gave ideas and i n s p i r a t i o n to t h i s work, A s p e c i a l word of appreciation to Dr. Merivale, who read t h i s thesis very c l o s e l y and helped to give i t shape. A f i n a l word of appreciation to Dr. Gleb Sekulin, my external examiner, for his assistance. I am also g r a t e f u l to the Department of Slavonic Studies as a whole for i t s moral and f i n a n c i a l support. The University i t s e l f has been most h e l p f u l through i t s many scholarship programs, and e s p e c i a l l y through i t s Acadia Camp Family Housing, which gave me a r e a l home. The University Library aided me greatly. This thesis could not have been completed without the help of Jack Mcintosh, S l a v i c Bibliographer, or I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans. The University of He l s i n k i I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans was es p e c i a l l y cooperative i n promptly sending the materials I requested. Thank you to my friends who have not been mentioned above: Sandra, Barbara, Doreen, John, Meral, Milena, the Hickmans, the Burns, and a s p e c i a l thank you to an old f r i e n d , Sviatoslav, who started me on t h i s journey. Without x i x i i the support and i n s p i r a t i o n of my family t h i s work would never been begun. My daughter Brigette has shown me great understanding and love, being responsible beyond her years. I deeply appreciate the work of Mrs. Ruby Toren, who typed t h i s thesis and pa t i e n t l y edited i t while we were three thousand miles apart. This thesis i s only one of many that she has been e s s e n t i a l i n producing. F i n a l l y * I would l i k e to express thanks to the Public Law Department of Squire, Sanders & Dempsey of Cleveland, Ohio for believing i n the worth of the academic world. TRANSLATION, TRANSLITERATION AND ABBREVIATIONS Proper names, t i t l e s and passages quoted w i l l be t r a n s l i t e r a t e d according to the Library of Congress method, except for names or t i t l e s which have an accepted English t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n ; e.g., "Leo Tolstoy" instead of "Lev T o l s t o i " (to be used i n most places). T i t l e s of books, s t o r i e s , journals and newspapers w i l l be given f i r s t i n t h e i r L. C. form, then i n English translation; e.g., Russkoe bogatstvo (Russian Wealth). A l l translations of the works of M. P. Artsybashev included in t h i s thesis are mine unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d . When quoting long passages from Russian, English translations w i l l be used. I f there are words or phrases whose meaning (or sound) in Russian i s e s p e c i a l l y important for the under-standing of the passage, they w i l l be t r a n s l i t e r a t e d . Abbreviations such as P.s.s. are used to indicate Polnoe sobranie sochinenii of authors other than Artsybashev. S.s. — Sobranie sochinenii. x r i i /VI. II. i\pu,Li6auieBi>. F i g u r e 1 M.P. A r t s y b a s h e v x i v INTRODUCTION AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH The l i t e r a r y works o f M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v (1878-1927) span a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y ; — 1900 t o 1927. These y e a r s o v e r l a p a most f a s c i n a t i n g , d i v e r s e and r i c h p e r i o d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n c u l t u r e w h i c h has been c a l l e d "The S i l v e r A g e " 1 ( c i r c a 1890 t o 1914 o r 1917). I t saw a r e b i r t h o f p o e t r y and t h e advent o f Modern a r t , m u s i c , dance and l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a r t o f cinematography — an amalgamation o f a l l a r t forms. W l a d i m i r W e i d l e c h a r a c t e r i z e s and d e s c r i b e s t h e twenty y e a r s b e f o r e the R e v o l u t i o n as a time o f r e n e w a l : " I t was n o t o n l y a r e l i g i o u s , a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e n e w a l , b u t a r e n e w a l o f t h e S t a t e i t s e l f , o f the s t r u c t u r e , s o c i a l 2 and economic, o f t h e R u s s i a n Empire." However, he e x p l a i n s , even the changes t h a t were made were o n l y a r e d e c o r a t i n g program on a b u i l d i n g w h i c h was on s h i f t i n g ground. The t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y p e r i o d i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e gave b i r t h t o a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e : the l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e A p o c a l y p s e . "The w o r l d was on t h e b o r d e r o f a new age w h i c h many hoped would be t h e promised M i l l e n n i u m , 3 whether s o c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s . " D. S. M e r e z h k o v s k i i 1 s K h r i s t o s  i A n t i k h r i s t ( C h r i s t and A n t i c h r i s t , 1906), V. V. Rozanov's A p o k a l i p s i s nashego vremeni (The A p o c a l y p s e o f Our Time, 1917), V. B r i u s o v ' s "Kon' b l e d " ( P a l e H o r s e , 1905), and f i n a l l y the m a s t e r p i e c e o f A. B l o k , w h i c h appeared a f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n : "Dvenadtsat'" (The Twelve, 1918), p r o c l a i m the 2 coming o f the end — a time o f r e c k o n i n g f o r R u s s i a . A t the end o f I . Bunin' s Gospodin i z San- F r a n t s i s k o (The Gentleman from San F r a n c i s c o , 1916), t h e D e v i l appears on the Rock o f G i b r a l t a r d u r i n g a f i e r c e s t o r m , t o mock "the p r i d e o f t h e New Man w i t h the o l d h e a r t . " 4 C o e x i s t i n g w i t h t h e m y s t i c i s m o f a p o c a l y p t i c f e r v o r , the r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n o f t h e . p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y c o n t i n u e d . M. Gorky's- (1868-1936) Znanie (Knowledge) p u b l i s h i n g house p u b l i s h e d works o f r e a l i s t w r i t e r s who o f t e n d e s c r i b e d s o c i a l i l l s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems i n t h e i r c o n t r o v e r s i a l works. Two e s p e c i a l l y well-known w r i t e r s o f t h i s group were A l e k s a n d r K u p r i n (1870-1938) and L e o n i d Andreev (1871-1919). K u p r i n ' s Poedinok (The D u e l , 1905) d e p i c t e d the t o r t u r e s o f an o v e r - s e n s i t i v e s o u l s u b j e c t e d t o t h e u g l y r e a l i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l m i l i t a r y l i f e . H i s l a r g e n o v e l IAma (The P i t , P a r t I p u b l i s h e d i n 1914) denounced t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e time w h i c h b o t h l e g a l l y s a n c t i o n e d p r o s t i t u t i o n and condemned the women who f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . Andreev's name i s o f t e n mentioned a l o n g w i t h t h a t o f A r t s y b a s h e v . Some c r i t i c s s i m p l i s t i c a l l y see Andreev and A r t s y b a s h e v as a u t h o r s concerned m a i n l y w i t h sex and d e a t h , w i t h no f e e l i n g f o r a n y t h i n g o u t s i d e t h e s e two human im m e d i a c i e s . I n r e a l i t y , b o t h c o n t i n u e d the ty p e o f psycho-l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n i n g s begun by Dostoevsky and T o l s t o y , and v e r y much p r e - f i g u r e the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t w r i t i n g s o f Camus and S a r t r e . Andreev's work has been 3 e x p l o r e d by a t l e a s t two c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s i n E n g l i s h : t h e f i r s t by A l e x a n d e r Kaun, L e o n i d Andreev: A C r i t i c a l Study (192 4 ) , and the second by James B. Woodward, L e o n i d Andreev:  A Study (1969). B o t h a u t h o r s b e l i e v e i n t h e w o r t h o f Andreev as an a u t h o r and s e t themselves t h e t a s k o f c r i t i -c a l l y p r e s e n t i n g h i s l i f e and works. W e l l o v e r one hundred a r t i c l e s and numerous pamphlets were devoted t o c r i t i c i s m s o f the s t o r i e s and n o v e l s o f M i k h a i l A r t s y b a s h e v . But now h i s name i s seldom mentioned and h i s p o p u l a r i t y and i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i s i g n o r e d . I t i s now one hundred y e a r s s i n c e the b i r t h o f t h i s w r i t e r , and f u l l y t i me f o r a s e r i o u s a p p r a i s a l o f h i s major s t o r i e s and n o v e l s and f o r an a s s e s s -ment o f A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s p l a c e i n R u s s i a n and w o r l d l i t e r a t u r e . * * * * * * * M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v was b o r n November 6 (Old S t y l e , October 24) i n I z i u m , Kharkov p r o v i n c e , i n t o a p e t t y g e n t r y f a m i l y . H i s f a t h e r was a former Guards o f f i c e r who became a d i s t r i c t p o l i c e o f f i c i a l . A r t s y b a s h e v ' s f r i e n d and companion, B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i , r e l a t e s t h a t [ A r t s y b a s h e v ' s f a t h e r ] d i e d a t c l o s e t o one hundred y e a r s o l d . A r t s y b a s h e v r a r e l y spoke o f him but spoke of h i s mother and how she was a descendant o f the p r i n c e l y Sangushkos, n o t w i t h o u t a shadow o f b o a s t f u l n e s s . 5 I n f o r m a t i o n about A r t s y b a s h e v ' s l i f e i s s p a r s e and s c a t t e r e d , b u t i t p r o v i d e s some i n s i g h t i n t o the a u t h o r and h i s l i t e r a r y 4 c r e a t i o n s . A r t s y b a s h e v a t t e n d e d the A k t y r s k gymnasium, wh i c h he l e f t a f t e r the f i f t h form, n o t s t a y i n g on t o complete h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n (which would have ended w i t h t h e s i x t h f o r m ) . He q u i p s i n a humorous a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h : "They ex-p e l l e d me from s c h o o l , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f a c t t h a t I n e v e r s t u d i e d t h e r e anyway"; 6 and, " I went as f a r as the f i f t h c l a s s n o t knowing e x a c t l y what i t was t h a t they were t r y i n g 7 t o t e a c h me, so I d e c i d e d t o become an a r t i s t . . . " L a z a r e v -s k i i adds t h a t "the s u p e r i o r s o f the gymnasium d i d not l i k e p him a t a l l . " T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n makes one who i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e work o f A r t s y b a s h e v t h i n k o f Pasha Tumanov, the h e r o o f the a u t h o r ' s f i r s t major p u b l i s h e d work of 1900. I n t h i s s t o r y a h a r a s s e d f i f t h - f o r m s t u d e n t , who i s f a i l i n g a l l h i s c o u r s e s , s h o ots the d i r e c t o r o f t h e gymnasium a f t e r h a v i n g been d e n i e d p a s s i n g marks. The s t o r y j u x t a p o s e s s o c i e t y ' s o r d e r e d concept o f knowledge w i t h n a t u r a l beauty and the r e a l knowledge o f l i f e w h i c h can o n l y be a t t a i n e d from the g r e a t e s t t e a c h e r o f a l l : t h e v o i c e o f n a t u r e . The s t o r y s e t s t h e tone and mood f o r most o f t h e e a r l y w o r k s , where the i n d i v i d u a l i s I n harmony w i t h n a t u r e b u t i n d i s -harmony w i t h s o c i a l forms and o b l i g a t i o n s . A f t e r l e a v i n g the gymnasium, A r t s y b a s h e v e n r o l l e d i n the Kharkov s c h o o l o f a r t where he was, i n L a z a r e v s k i i ' s 9 o p i n i o n , "one o f t h e b e s t s t u d e n t s . " The i n s t i t u t i o n no l o n g e r e x i s t s , and t h e r e are no examples o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s 5 a r t work, b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n has k i n d l y been s u p p l i e d i n a l e t t e r by P r o f e s s o r V a l e r i a n R e v u t s k y : I can say q u i t e p o s i t i v e l y t h a t t h e a r t i s t i c d i r e c -t i o n o f t h i s s c h o o l was c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h t h a t o f members o f the P e r e d v i z h n i k i ^ - O [ t r a v e l i n g a r t g r o u p ] . I . Kramskoi and I . Repin o f t h i s group c e r t a i n l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p e d a g o g i c a l a c t i v i -t i e s a t the Kharkov s c h o o l . . . t h e s c h o o l was o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n 1869 by M a r i a R a e v s k a i a -Ivanova. H An a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h , w h i c h appears i n E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h r e e _ o f . A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s s t o r i e s , s t a t e s t h a t i n d e e d h i s f i r s t l o v e was p a i n t i n g : I renounced my dream o f becoming an a r t i s t and t r a n s f e r r e d my a l l e g i a n c e t o l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s was v e r y h a r d ; even today I cannot see p a i n t i n g s w i t h -out emotion, I l o v e c o l o r s more th a n words.12 T h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o v i s u a l a r t w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e . f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . D e s p i t e a l o v e f o r a r t , the young A r t s y b a s h e v d i d n o t s t a y l o n g enough t o complete h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d y , and l e f t 13 f o r P e t e r s b u r g b e f o r e t h e g r a d u a t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s . A l r e a d y , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a c a r e e r as an a r t i s t , he had begun t o w r i t e and p u b l i s h a few s k e t c h e s i n p r o v i n -c i a l newspapers such as I U z h n y i K r a i (The S o u t h e r n R e g i o n ) . B e s i d e s t h e s e s k e t c h e s , i n 1894, a t the age o f s i x t e e n , he began work on a n o v e l ( " I U r i i S v a r o z h i c h ' V ) w h i c h l a t e r 14 e v o l v e d i n t o S anin.. A l t h o u g h the a v a i l a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l i s e s p e c i a l l y vague c o n c e r n i n g t h e y e a r s 189 4-1900, a few s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s may be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . As a v e r y young man (twenty t o t w e n t y - o n e ) , M i c h a i l P e t r o v i c h became a 6 husband and f a t h e r . He m a r r i e d a p r o v i n c i a l g i r l , Anna V a s i l ' e v n a Kobushko, and soon a f t e r had a son, born May 25, 18 99. T h i s c h i l d (whose p a r e n t s were s e p a r a t e d a y e a r a f t e r h i s b i r t h ) grew up t o be t h e famous emigre^,, i l l u s t r a t o r - a r t i s t B o r i s A r t z y b a s h e f f who, l i v i n g i n New York, made f o r h i m s e l f t h e c a r e e r as an a r t i s t t h a t h i s f a t h e r had once dreamed o f . The a r t i s t son o f t h e w r i t e r commented t h a t "he saw h i s f a t h e r t w i c e a year when p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Moscow on h i s way 15 t o v a c a t i o n s i n Southern R u s s i a . " He a l s o adds t h a t ne went t o P r i n c e T e n i s h e v ' s s c h o o l " f o r t h e r i c h and p o w e r f u l , " f o r w h ich, a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , h i s f a t h e r r e f u s e d t o pay the h i g h t u i t i o n f e e s . "But t h e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s were so impressed by t h e boy's t a l e n t t h a t t h e y a l l o w e d him t o 16 c o n t i n u e on a s c h o l a r s h i p . " One o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s e a r l y s t o r i e s , "Zhena" (A W i f e , 19Q4) seems a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , as i t t e l l s o f a young c o u p l e who s e p a r a t e because t h e a r t i s t - h e r o of t h e s t o r y has been d i s i l l u s i o n e d by m a r r i a g e . The young husband l e a v e s h i s w i f e when she i s pregnant w i t h t h e i r c h i l d and sees h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y . The c h i l d i s never mentioned and t h e f a t h e r seems t o have no p a t e r n a l i n s t i n c t , y e t does send money f o r t h e s u p p o r t of t h e c h i l d . As w i t h t h e s t o r y "Pasha Tumanov," we may C o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h i s s t o r y i s p a r t of A r t s y b a s h e v ' s own s t o r y . A r t s y b a s h e v went t o P e t e r s b u r g i n t h e l a t e 1890s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f e n r o l l i n g i n t h e P e t e r s b u r g A r t Academy. 7 He d i d not c a r r y t h r o u g h t h i s p l a n ; i n s t e a d he l i v e d by draw-i n g c a r i c a t u r e s f o r humorous j o u r n a l s and was a l s o employed as a c l e r k f o r a Zemstvo agent f o r two y e a r s . By 1900, A r t s y b a s h e v had begun h i s l i t e r a r y work, a t which he would l a b o r u n t i l h i s d e a t h . In 1900 "Pasha Tumanov" was a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by Russkoe b o g a t s t v o ( R u s s i a n W e a l t h ) , t h e n r e j e c t e d a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e c e n s o r . I t was f i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t s t o r i e s . A nother of h i s f i r s t s t o r i e s , " K u p r i i a n , " about a f u g i t i v e h o r s e - t h i e f , was p u b l i s h e d i n numbers 3 and 4 o f Russkoe  b o g a t s t v o o f 1902. In t h e s e f i r s t y e a r s o f h i s p u b l i s h i n g c a r e e r , A r t s y -bashev a l s o wrote f o r M i r b o z h i i (God's W o r l d ) , w h i c h was then e d i t e d by t h e w r i t e r A l e k s a n d r K u p r i n and t h e well-known c r i t i c A n g e l Bogdanovich. I n 190 3 t h e n o v e l S a n i n , w h i c h had emerged from t h e o r i g i n a l " I U r i i S v a r o z h i c h ! i m a n u s c r i p t , was a c c e p t e d by K u p r i n and B o g d a n o v i c h , who p r a i s e d i t s h i g h 17 a r t i s t x c m e r i t , b u t i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d a t t h a t t i m e because o f t h e c e n s o r s h i p . The w i d e l y - r e a d Z h u r n a l d l i a v s e k h ( J o u r n a l f o r E v e r y -one) a l s o p u b l i s h e d e a r l y s t o r i e s by A r t s y b a s h e v . The e d i t o r of t h i s j o u r n a l , V i k t o r S e r g e e v i c h M i r o l i u b o v (1860-19 39) was a f r i e n d o f most o f t h e famous w r i t e r s o f t h e day, and o f t e n went t o d i s c u s s j o u r n a l i s t i c m a t t e r s w i t h Lev T o l s t o y a t I A s n a i a p o l i a n a , v i s i t e d G o r k i i a t N i z h n i i , and spoke w i t h 18 Andreev i n Moscow; he a l s o c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h - t h e s e a u t h o r s - - " s The charm o f t h e j o u r n a l was, as i t s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , t h a t i t appealed t o peopl e o f a l l c l a s s e s . A l t h o u g h i t "was p o p u l a r because i t was cheap, . . . t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s l i t e r a r y con-19 t r i b u t i o n s was h i g h . " B o r i s L a z a r e v s k n comments on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A r t s y b a s h e v and M i r o l i u b o v ' s j o u r n a l : When, i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 18 90s, V. S. M i r o -l i u b o v a c q u i r e d Z h u r n a l d l i a vsekh and became i t s e d i t o r , i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e he succeeded i n a t t r a c t i n g t h e young a u t h o r s : L. An-d r e e v , B u n i n , V e r e s a e v , Gorky, K u p r i n , and t h e o l d : Anton Chekhov, F. S o l o g u b , L. N. T o l s t o y . L a t e r t h e names A r t s y b a s h e v , Surguchev, and I U s h k e v i c h appeared. To have one's work a c c e p t e d by t h i s j o u r n a l was not easy: M i r o l i u b o v was n o t a f r a i d t o r e t u r n t h e s t o r y "Vor" [The T h i e f ] t o L. Andreev, or even one m a n u s c r i p t t o T o l s t o y h i m s e l f . And s u d d e n l y we co-workers were s u r p r i s e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t M i r o l i u b o v had a s s i g n e d us t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r - y e a r - o l d M. P. A r t s y b a s h e v . 2 0 In 1904 " S m e r f Lande" ("The Death of Lande") was p u b l i s h e d i n Z h u r n a l d l i a v sekh. T h i s l o n g s t o r y b r o u g h t p r o b a b l y more r e c o g n i t i o n t o A r t s y b a s h e v as a w r i t e r than any o t h e r work b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f S a n i n . I n f a c t , soon a f t e r t h e s t o r y a p p eared, M e r e z h k o v s k i i and G i p p i u s i n v i t e d A r t s y b a s h e v t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r N o v y i p u t ' (New Way). The s a i n t l y h e r o , Ivan Lande, i s a descendant o f P r i n c e M y s h k i n , and t h e m y s t i c a l a u r a around him was a t t r a c -t i v e t o the s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h o s e c o n n e c t e d w i t h N o v y i p u t * . In t h e same y e a r , A r t s y b a s h e v t o o k o v e r t h e l i t e r a r y e d i t o r s h i p o f Z h u r n a l d l i a v s e k h . Two more o f h i s own s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d h e r e : " T e n i u t r a " (The Shadows of Morning) and "Krovavoe p i a t n o " (The Blood---stain) , wh i c h d e a l t w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f 1905. I n May o f 1905 the f i r s t volume of s t o r i e s appeared, p u b l i s h e d by Sk i r m u n t . A r t s y b a s h e v c o n t r a c t e d t u b e r c u l o s i s a t a v e r y e a r l y 21 age. He s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l of time d u r i n g h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r i n t h e s o u t h o f R u s s i a where, away from t h e n o r t h e r n c o l d of Moscow and P e t e r s b u r g , he c o u l d r e g a i n h i s s t r e n g t h and so r e t u r n t o h i s v a r i o u s w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n 19 06 he spen t some time i n Y a l t a w i t h a f r i e n d , the young poet B a s h k i n . Perhaps i n s p i r e d by the s o u t h e r n l o c a l e , he wrot e and p u b l i s h e d a n o v e l l a based on the Potemkin i n c i d e n t C h e l o v e c h e s k a i a v o l n a (The Human Wave). The same y e a r saw the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a second volume o f s t o r i e s w h i c h , l i k e t h e f i r s t , was p u b l i s h e d by S k i r m u n t . I n 19 07 S a n i n was p u b l i s h e d , making A r t s y b a s h e v one 22 of the most p o p u l a r w r i t e r s i n R u s s i a . When S a n i n appeare i n i s s u e s 1 t o 5 of Sovremennyi m i r (The Contemporary World) many c r i t i c a l a r t i c l e s d i s c u s s e d t h e n o v e l , i t s h e r o and the p l a c e o f b o t h i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e . S a n i n was t r u l y a l i t e r a r y phenomenon a r o u s i n g h e a t e d debates l i k e t h o s e w h i c h ensued a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Turgenev's O t t s y I d e t i ( F a t h e r s and S o n s ) . Indeed, A r t s y b a s h e v ' s r e p u t a t i o n as an a u t h o r r e s t s m a i n l y on t h i s one work; h i s l a t e r works were t r e a t e d more o r l e s s as c o n t i n u a t i o n s o f S a n i n . The p u b l i -c a t i o n o f S a n i n d u r i n g the p o p u l a r i t y o f e r o t i c l i t e r a t u r e a f t e r 1905 r e s u l t e d i n the n o v e l b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y added t o 10 t h a t c a t e g o r y , even though R u s s i a n R e a l i s m had begun t o d e a l w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f s e x u a l i t y c e r t a i n l y as e a r l y as Anna  K a r e n i n a (begun 1873). Soon a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the n o v e l , Z h u r n a l d l i a  v sekh was c l o s e d , and A r t s y b a s h e v took o v e r the e d i t o r s h i p of the l i t e r a r y s e c t i o n of O b r a z o v a n i e ( E d u c a t i o n ) , where he e n c o u n t e r e d one of h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l opponents, Lunachar-s k i i , who r e q u e s t e d t h a t A r t s y b a s h e v be removed from h i s p o s i t i o n as l i t e r a r y e d i t o r . The p u b l i s h e r , A. I . O s t r o g o r -s k i i , d i d n o t accede t o L u n a c h a r s k i i * s w i s h e s . The d i s p u t e was r e s o l v e d by O s t r o g o r s k i i ' s d e a t h , a f t e r w h i c h t h e p u b l i -c a t i o n c l o s e d . D u r i n g t h i s y e a r , 1907, and the f o l l o w i n g one, A r t s y b a s h e v l i v e d h a l f the time i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , h a l f the time i n Y a l t a a t the dacha " p ' z h a l i t t a " with. B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i , who remarked t h a t M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h t h e n l o o k e d 23 " f o r t y ..not t h i r t y because of h i s i l l n e s s . " Durxng one r e t u r n t r i p t o P e t e r s b u r g , the w r i t e r f e l l i l l and was g i v e n up as d y i n g by the d o c t o r s a t t e n d i n g him. D e s p i t e h i s i l l -n e s s , he c o n t i n u e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s , e d i t i n g v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s and c o l l e c t i o n s , and w r i t i n g n o v e l s and s t o r i e s . The y e a r 1908 was a v e r y busy one i n ^ t h e c a r e e r o f A r t s y b a s h e v . He e d i t e d the almanac Z h i zn' ( L i f e ) , worked on h i s second ' n o v e l , U' p o s l e d n e i c h e r t y ( B r e a k i n g P o i n t ) , and wrote and p u b l i s h e d a number of s h o r t s t o r i e s . I n 1911 he was asked t o e d i t the l i t e r a r y c o l l e c t i o n Zem11a ( E a r t h ) . L e o n i d Andreev and Ivan B u n i n were among i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s . 11 In the following year Artsybashev moved to Moscow and began to e d i t t h i s c o l l e c t i o n more or less secretly ("Neglasno po 24 nekotorym prichinam"). He continued to work there u n t i l 1917. Simultaneously, he also contributed to the Moscow newspaper Itogi nedeli (Weekly Review), edited by V. Krande-e v s k i i . This paper f i r s t published Artsybashev's Zapiski  p i s a t e l i a (Notes of a Writer). During the years 1911-1912 U poslednei cherty was published. I t was not the sensation that Sanin had been: the c r i t i c s hastened to define this novel as merely a continuation of the former work. During the years 1913-1917 Artsybashev's c o l l e c t e d works were published i n ten volumes by the Moscow Book Publishing House. The c o l l e c t i o n includes f i v e volumes of stories (short stories and novellas Volumes I-V); two volumes containing Parts I and II of the second large novel (Volumes VI and VII); three plays comprise Volume VIII; Volume IX includes a novella and two s t o r i e s ; and Volume X contains the novel Sanin. The years 1913-1916, the l a s t period of Artsybashev's s t r i c t l y l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y (apart from p o l i t i c s , philosophy or j o u r n a l i s t i c w r i t i n g ) , were devoted mainly to the genre of drama. The dramas are very much a continuation and r e p e t i t i o n of the themes, characters and s t y l e -found i n the prose works. His f i r s t drama Revnost' (Jealousy), published 25 i n 1913, created a " l i t e r a r y storm." His other plays, which followed soon af t e r , were also sensations: Voina (War, 12 1914), Zakon d i k a r i a (The Law o f t h e Savage, 1915), and V r a g i (Enemies, 1916). W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f V o i n a , w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e R u s s i a n i n v o l v e m e n t i n the F i r s t W o rld War, the p l a y s are concerned w i t h t h e s o c i a l r o l e s o f men and women. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e n s i t y and s e x u a l e x p l i c i t n e s s of t h e dramas are v e r y . r e m i n i s c e n t o f I b s e n , S t r i n d b e r g and Wedekind. The p a t h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e sexes are a c u t e l y d e p i c t e d by the a u t h o r . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the works o f I b s e n , S t r i n d b e r g and Wedekind were i n d e e d f a m i l i a r t o A r t s y b a s h e v . As W e i d l e s t a t e s : " W r i t e r s l i k e I b s e n and S t r i n d b e r g , when they were h a r d l y known i n F r a n c e , were 2 6 p a s s i o n a t e l y admired i n R u s s i a . " N o v e l s , s t o r i e s and p l a y s about a d u l t e r y were n o t h i n g new t o l i t e r a t u r e of the t i m e ; what was new was the s e r i e s o f i n s i g h t s t h a t were p r e s e n t e d i n the p l a y s o f the S c a n d i n a v i a n s and are a l s o found i n A r t -sybashev. The s o c i a l phenomenon o f a d u l t e r y , as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e dramas o f A r t s y b a s h e v , was r e a l l y a st a t e m e n t about the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the s o c i a l o r d e r , the chan g i n g r o l e s o f men and women, and the b e g i n n i n g o f the e x i s t e n t i a l i s t dilemma o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y man. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , as b e f o r e , A r t s y b a s h e v made t r i p s t o the s o u t h o f R u s s i a f o r h i s h e a l t h . I n 1914 he met w i t h h i s f r i e n d B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i f o r what was t o be the l a s t t i m e . They v i s i t e d S v i a t y e g o r y , i n Kharkov p r o v i n c e , "one 27 of the most b e a u t i f u l s p o t s i n a l l o f R u s s i a , " When i n Moscow, A r t s y b a s h e v c o n t i n u e d t o e d i t and 13 w r i t e f o r Z e m l i a , and a l s o wrote a s t o r y f o r a c o l l e c t i o n ( S h c h i t , The S h i e l d ) aimed a g a i n s t a n t i - S e m i t i s m i n R u s s i a . The a n t i - B o l s h e v i k tone o f h i s second s e r i e s o f Z a p i s k i p i s a t e l i a made him un p o p u l a r w i t h the new o r d e r of 1917. H i s o l d F r i e n d B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i r e f l e c t e d t h a t a t t h a t time he 2 8 d i d n o t e x p e c t A r t s y b a s h e v t o g e t out o f R u s s i a a l i v e . I n 1918 h i s o n l y s t r i c t l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l work/ V e c h n y i m i r a z h (The E t e r n a l Mirage) was w r i t t e n and s e n t s e c r e t l y t o B e r l i n , where i t was p u b l i s h e d o n l y i n 1922. T h i s work i s a comment on the p r o g r e s s o f the human r a c e from i t s b e g i n n i n g s t o modern t i m e s . The " e t e r n a l mirage" i s man's q u e s t f o r ha p p i n e s s and w e l l - b e i n g , w h i c h he attempts t o g a i n t h r o u g h r e l i g i o n — a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h God; o r t h r o u g h s o c i a l systems l i k e Communism o r S o c i a l i s m — a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h o t h e r men. The f a l l a c y o f such hopes f o r a b e t t e r f u t u r e i s o b v i o u s : t h e b e t t e r f u t u r e i s t h e e t e r n a l l y r e c e d i n g m i r a g e . I f p e o p l e must s u f f e r and d i e , who b e n e f i t s from the tomorrows? The a u t h o r ' s c o n c l u d i n g words may be v a l i d f o r a l l men: I f we cannot l i v e w i t h o u t r e l i g i o n t h e n l e t our r e l i g i o n be l o v e o f man. Love f o r the s m a l l , v i t a l , s u f f e r i n g man o f our todays j u s t as he e x i s t s w i t h a l l h i s weaknesses and f l a w s . 2 9 T h i s r i n g i n g a f f i r m a t i o n • o f humanity i s c o u n t e r e d by one of A r t s y b a s h e v ' s l a s t l i t e r a r y w orks, the p l a y i n v e r s e , D ' i a v o l (The D e v i l ) , w r i t t e n i n 1920-21. I n t h i s work t h e S p i r i t o f Love and the D e v i l s t r i k e a b a r g a i n : they agree t o g i v e man. a chance t o prove w h i c h o f the two f o r c e s i s the 14 s t r o n g e r and thus which r u l e s man. Love i s d e f e a t e d i n t h i s p l a y , w h i c h i s a m i x t u r e o f a l l e g o r y , symbol,.and r e a l p e o p l e o f t h e e a r l y S o v i e t p e r i o d . The D e v i l p r o c l a i m s , as he b a n i s h e s the S p i r i t o f Love: "Know t h a t i n t h i s w o r l d E v i l 30 — a l o n e , e t e r n a l — i s p o w e r f u l ! " The t r a n s i t i o n y e a r s a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n o f 1917 were d i f f i c u l t t i m e s f o r most w r i t e r s . W e i d l e , r e f l e c t i n g upon th e s e y e a r s , w r o t e : . . . i t was d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d —- from 19 21 t o 1924 — t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s who had any h i g h degree of c u l t u r e l e f t t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d t o become emigres.31 I n the autumn of 1923, A r t s y b a s h e v l e f t R u s s i a n e v e r t o 32 . . r e t u r n . He l i v e d the l a s t f o u r y e a r s o f h i s l i f e as an a c t i v e member o f t h e R u s s i a n e'migre community i n Warsaw. One of h i s main a c t i v i t i e s was the c o - e d i t o r s h i p , w i t h D m i t r i i F i l o s o f o v , o f the a n t i - B o l s h e v i k newspaper Za svobodu (For Freedom). There was p o l i t i c a l d i s c o r d among the w r i t e r s f o r t h e p a p e r , between th o s e i n c l i n e d t o the " l e f t " and t h o s e t o t h e " r i g h t . " These y e a r s were d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e a i l i n g w r i t e r . He had f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , w h i c h were o n l y s l i g h t l y m i t i g a t e d by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of D ' i a v o l , a s h o r t - s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n Pod s o l n t s e m (Under the S u n ) , and h i s Z a p i s k i  p i s a t e l i a i n book form. I n 1925 he c e l e b r a t e d h i s t wenty-f i f t h a n n i v e r s a r y as a w r i t e r . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , when L a z a r e v s k i i wrote i n v i t i n g him t o N i c e f o r "the s o u t h e r n 33 sun w h i c h he l o v e d s o , " A r t s y b a s h e v d e c l i n e d , s a y i n g : 15 I ' l l make i t t o N i c e a s s u r e d l y i n the n e x t w o r l d . How can I j o u r n e y t o N i c e when I've f o r g o t t e n what i t ' s l i k e t o r i d e i n a c a r r i a g e o r even i n a s t r e e t c a r ? 3 4 L a z a r e v s k i i w r i t e s t h a t h i s f r i e n d was always v e r y p h i l o s o p h i c a l when he spoke about d e a t h ; he d i d n o t w i s h t o a p p e a l t o any r e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make h i s l i f e e a s i e r . Knowing t h a t h i s companion o f so many y e a r s was poor and i l l , L a z a -r e v s k i i w r o t e t o I v a n B u n i n i n P a r i s on A r t s y b a s h e v ' s b e h a l f B u n i n s e n t the w r i t e r f i v e hundred f r a n c s , which he a c c e p t e d because he needed an immediate t r e p a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f an e a r i n f e c t i o n . L a z a r e v s k i i a l s o wrote t o a f r i e n d i n Ameri c a a s k i n g h e l p f o r A r t s y b a s h e v , who wrote back i n t h a n k s : I r e c e i v e d the money from A m e r i c a . I t was not much b u t i t was from the h e a r t and f o r t h a t I thank you. I n A m e r i c a d o l l a r s are so numerous, and t h a t you who are s u f f e r i n g from p o v e r t y would ask f o r a f r i e n d , t h a t i s i n v a l u a b l e and w i l l n e v e r be f o r -g o t t e n . 35 The w i n t e r s i n Warsaw proved d e a d l y . One o f h i s co-w o r k e r s , A. F e d o r o v , has remarked how he.found t h a t t h e w r i t e r had s u f f e r e d from t u b e r c u l o s i s a l l h i s l i f e and th e n remembered t h a t he had no heavy c o a t and went around a l l 3 w i n t e r i n h i s l i g h t c o a t w i t h a wool s c a r f around h i s neck. D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1926, h i s h e a l t h was so bad t h a t he had t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d ; t h i s time h i s k i d n e y s were f a i l i n g . He t o l d Fedorov t h a t he c o u l d a f f o r d t o s t a y i n t h e h o s p i t a l o n l y f o r a week even though the rooms were v e r y r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d . When a t home a g a i n , he w o r r i e d about the newspaper .16 and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o devote any of h i s energy t o i t . He needed sun and peace of mind, and had i n s t e a d the f i e r c e Warsaw w i n t e r and the p e t t y s q u a b b l i n g o f t h e e m i g r e s . A t the end o f December, M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h began once a g a i n t o v i s i t t h e e d i t o r i a l o f f i c e of the newspaper. H i s s t r e n g t h l a s t e d u n t i l the end o f J a n u a r y , a t w h i c h time he a g a i n f e l l s e r i o u s l y i l l . He was t a k e n t o a d o c t o r and then t o a s p e c i a l i s t , who d i a g n o s e d h i s i l l n e s s as m e n i n g i t i s . He was t a k e n t o a h o s p i t a l , where he d i e d e a r l y i n March. The l a s t l i n e s o f the f i n a l l e t t e r w r i t t e n t o L a z a r e v s k i i , on F e b r u a r y 26, 1927, show a d e f i n i t e r e s i g n a t i o n t o h i s f a t e : . . . I am i l l a g a i n , b u t t h i s time i t i s much worse. As a r e s u l t o f a l l t h a t I-have l i v e d t hrough and my d i s e a s e o f t h e k i d n e y s they have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I have m y o c a r d i t i s . My h e a r t does-not want t o work any more. A l l of my b e s t . Y o u r s , M. A r t s y b a s h e v . 3 7 The w r i t e r d i e d on March 3, 1927 and was b u r i e d i n the Warsaw V o l ' s k i i Orthodox Cemetery. CHAPTER I EARLY STORIES (1901-1904) P a r t 1: S o c i e t y , the I n d i v i d u a l and N a t u r e C i v i l i z a t i o n i s t h e d i s e a s e produced by the p r a c t i c e o f b u i l d i n g s o c i e t i e s w i t h r o t t e n m a t e r i a l . B e r n a r d Shaw, "The R e v o l u t i o n i s t ' s Handbook," Man and Superman, 1903. 'Was he b o r n t h e n , I a s k , j u s t t o p i c k a t the e a r t h and t o p e r i s h w i t h -out h a v i n g had time even t o s c r a t c h a grave f o r h i m s e l f w i t h h i s own n a i l s : What does he know of freedom? Does he u n d e r s t a n d the b r e a d t h o f the steppe? Does the murmur o f the sea waves gl a d d e n h i s h e a r t ? He's a s l a v e — from the moment of h i s b i r t h , a l l h i s l i f e a s l a v e and t h a t ' s a l l ! What can he do w i t h h i m s e l f ? Only hang h i m s e l f i f he becomes any w i s e r . 1 - Maksim Gorky, "Makar Chudra," 1892. The y e a r 1901, t h e f i r s t y e a r o f the new c e n t u r y , when M i k h a i l P e t r o v i c h A r t s y b a s h e v made h i s debut as a w r i t e r w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of "Pasha Tumanov," saw a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . I n January the second e d i t i o n o f Volumes I- I V o f Gorky's Rasskazy ( S t o r i e s ) was p u b l i s h e d by Z n a n i e . 1 I v a n B u n i n ' s book o f v e r s e L i s t o p a d ( F a l l i n g L e a v e s ) , ap-peared. V. K o r o l e n k o ' s " S i b i r s k i e r a s s k a z y " ( S i b e r i a n . T a l e s ) were p u b l i s h e d i n Russkoe b o g a t s t v o ( R u s s i a n W e a l t h ) . V. V e r e s a e v p u b l i s h e d h i s s t o r y "K spekhu', (Iz . l e t n i k h - v s t r e c h ) " 17 18 (In H a s t e , From Summer M e e t i n g s ) . A. K u p r i n ' s " U b i i t s y , N o v o g o d n i i r a s s k a z " ( M u r d e r e r s , A New Y e a r ' s T a l e ) was pub-l i s h e d i n O d e s s k i e N o v o s t i (The.Odessa News). L. Andreev's s t o r y "Smekh" (Laughter) was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d . I n mid-January the P e t e r s b u r g A r t Academy opened an e x h i b i t i o n o f the group " M i r i s k u s s t v a " (World of A r t ) , which was c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s attempt " t o f r e e a r t from the f e t t e r s o f academism and n a t u -2 r a l i s m . " On the l a s t day o f J a n u a r y the Moscow A r t T h e a t e r s t a g e d the p r e m i e r e of Anton Chekhov's Three S i s t e r s . I n e a r l y F e b r u a r y , a t a meeting o f the P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y o f P e t e r s b u r g U n i v e r s i t y , D m i t r i M e r e z h k o v s k i i r e a d a paper c o n c e r n i n g T o l s t o y and C h r i s t i a n i t y , w h i c h " o f f e n d e d many o f t h e l i s t e n e r s because o f the r u d e , d i s r e s p e c t f u l tone of the a d d r e s s . " On F e b r u a r y 14 a s t u d e n t , P. V. K a r p o v i c h , f a t a l l y wounded the M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n . On F e b r u -ary 24, Tserkovnye vedomosti (Church News) p u b l i s h e d the d e c i s i o n o f the H o l y Synod t o excommunicate Leo T o l s t o y f o r 4 h i s attempt " t o a n n i h i l a t e the t r u e f a i t h . " A book o f p h i l -o s o p h i c a l a r t i c l e s was p u b l i s h e d by V. Rozanov. Ibsen's p l a y An Enemy of the P e o p l e , performed a t the Moscow A r t T h e a t e r under the t i t l e Dr. Stockmann, was a g r e a t s u c c e s s . The y e a r ' s e v e n t s -— c u l t u r a l , l i t e r a r y , h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g -i c a l are t o o numerous t o c i t e ; however, a few more w i l l be mentioned f o r the w e i g h t o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n A p r i l , Gorky's s y m b o l i c i n v i t a t i o n t o r e v o l u t i o n , " P e s n i a o b u r e v e s t n i k e " (Song of the Stormy P e t r e l ) , appeared 19 i n Z h i z n ' ( L i f e ) . I t s c o n c l u d i n g message, " P u s t ' s i l ' n e e g r a n i t b u r i a " ( L e t t h e s t o r m , b e g i n w i t h a l l i t s m i g h t ) , e x p r e s s e d the s p i r i t o f growing u n r e s t among t h e i n t e l l i g e n t -s i a . The r e a l i s t s c h o o l (mainly prose) e x e m p l i f i e d by Gorky and h i s "Znanie" g r o u p . ( K u p r i n , Bunin-, Andreev, "and Veresaev) had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n the m o d e r n i s t poets Z. G i p p i u s , K. Bal'mont, V. B r i u s o v , D. M e r e z h k o v s k i i and F. S o l o g u b , who p u b l i s h e d t h e i r almanac, Severnye t s v e t y ( N o r t h e r n F l o w e r s ) , a l s o i n A p r i l . I n May, V. I . L e n i n p u b l i s h e d h i s a r t i c l e "S chego n a c h a t " 1 (What t o B e g i n w i t h ) i n I s k r a (The Spark) on a p l a n f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a M a r x i s t p a r t y i n R u s s i a . I n November and December, t h r e e o f R u s s i a ' s g r e a t e s t w r i t e r s , T o l s t o y , Chekhov and Gorky, met i n the Crimea. The above c o l l a g e o f e v e n t s g i v e s a g l i m p s e o f R u s s i a a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . R u s s i a n R e a l i s m , e s p e c i a l l y i n the works o f Gorky, Chekhov, and the l a t e r Tolstoy', was s t i l l f l o u r i s h i n g . The term o f t e n used t o e x p r e s s d i v e r g e n c e from t h i s w e l l - a c c e p t e d and famous s c h o o l o f w r i t i n g i s Modernism. George G i b i a n i s o l a t e s some common f e a t u r e s o f R u s s i a n Modernism as i t i s d e f i n e d by l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s such as W l a d i m i r W e i d l e , Rene W e l l e k , and George I v a s k . He d i s c u s s e s t h r e e broad areas when d e f i n i n g Modern-i s m : " a t t i t u d e , a r t i s t i c manner, and s u b j e c t m a t t e r " : 6 The a t t i t u d e i s u s u a l l y one o f antagonism t o a u t h o r -i t y and c o n v e n t i o n , and o f n i h i l i s m i n r e l a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r e . The a r t i s t i c manner i s marked by the d i s s o c i a t i o n o f o b j e c t s from t h e i r c o n t e x t s , d i s p l a c e m e n t , the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f ev e n t s uncon-n e c t e d i n time and s p a c e — w i t h o u t a t t e n t i o n t o l o g i c 20 e x c e p t f o r the ' l o g i c ' o f a s s o c i a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s f r e q u e n t l y are urban o r connected w i t h the machine. The p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , a t l e a s t among most of the F u t u r i s t s , tended t o be composed o f dreams of a m i l l e n n i u m o r a Utopia, w h i c h , as Rene W e l l e k s t a t e s , 'might be a S o c i a l i s t U t o p i a , hence j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r adherence t o the R e v o l u t i o n . 1 7 The above comments are more of a , s k e t c h o r g u i d e l i n e than a d e f i n i t i o n . There i s a sense o f l i t e r a t u r e (and a r t i n g e n e r a l ) b r e a k i n g away from or b r e a k i n g down the e s t a b l i s h e d forms. I f one views l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y as a s e r i e s o f waves, then i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l , and t o be e x p e c t e d , t h a t a time o f r e a l i s m and n a t u r a l i s m ( n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) would be f o l l o w e d by a more e x p e r i m e n t a l and expanded a r t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s . One may even g e n e r a l i z e and say t h a t i n d e e d a l l w r i t e r s , whether o f the l a t e r e a l i s t s c h o o l o f Gorky o r the S y m b o l i s t s , A c m e i s t s o r F u t u r i s t s , were t o a g r e a t e r r . o r l e s s e r e x t e n t M o d e r n i s t i n o r i e n t a t i o n . Even the l a t e works o f Leo T o l s t o y d i s p l a y some m o d e r n i s t t e n d e n c i e s ( a c c o r d i n g t o the above o u t l i n e o f t h i s movement). A r t s y b a s h e v i s sometimes c a l l e d a M o d e r n i s t , a Decadent, o r a N e o - n a t u r a l i s t . These terms are o f t e n more , m i s l e a d i n g and c o n f u s i n g than h e l p f u l . I n view o f the c r i t e r i a a f f o r d e d by G i b i a n and o t h e r c r i t i c s i n R u s s i a n  Modernism, t o what e x t e n t are A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y a t t e m p t s M o d e r n i s t ? The f i r s t ^ c r i t e r i o n , t h a t o f the a t t i -tude o f the w r i t e r , d e f i n e d as " a n t a g o n i s t i c t o a u t h o r i t y and c o n v e n t i o n , " i s a p p l i c a b l e t o A r t s y b a s h e v ' s w r i t i n g . As f o r h i s a r t i s t l c ' m a n n e r , . . . i t • i s " only: v a g u e l y - a n d n o t 21 s i g n i f i c a n t l y touched by i n n o v a t i o n s o f the type mentioned above. H i s a t t i t u d e does n o t t r a n s l a t e d i r e c t l y i n t o h i s s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e . A l t h o u g h urban o r m e c h a n i c a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s n o t p r e s e n t t o any d e g r e e , t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l sense as w e l l as s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o a coming time o f g r e a t change i n v a r i o u s works from the e a r l y s t o r i e s t o the l a t e s t . A r e v o l u t i o n i s p r e f i g u r e d . Because, when one mentions A r t s y b a s h e v , one u s u a l l y meets w i t h e i t h e r the m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t he i s the a u t h o r o f S a n i n and n o t h i n g e l s e ( w i t h a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) o r a complete l a c k o f knowledge about the a u t h o r , i t i s u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y t o keep i n mind a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s when c o n s i d e r i n g A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s e a r l y s t o r i e s . These g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are n o t meant t o f u n c t i o n as a scheme f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t o r i e s , r a t h e r as p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e f o r a p r i m a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s a u t h o r . 1) Theme: Man i s o f t e n p r e s e n t e d as s t r u g g l i n g o r s u f f e r i n g i n s o c i e t y . The s o c i e t y i t s e l f , whether p e a s a n t , w o r k i n g c l a s s o r g e n t r y , i s b u i l t on f a l s e v a l u e s and does n o t a l l o w f o r the growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Man i s b a s i c a l l y a l o n e and f i n d s o n l y b r i e f moments o f h a p p i n e s s and beauty i n communion w i t h n a t u r e . N a t u r e i s a mighty f o r c e t o w h i c h man r e l a t e s i n d i v e r s e ways, depending on the c h a r a c t e r o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The themes are p r e s e n t e d so t h a t they are b o t h p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y t o p i c a l and u n i v e r s a l . 2) P l o t : The s t o r i e s are b u i l t a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on 22 c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , t h a t i s , s i t u a t i o n s which a l t e r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s l i f e (and o f t e n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ' too) i r r e v e r -s i b l y . C o n f l i c t s a re extreme and d r a m a t i c . 3) N a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e : An o m n i s c i e n t (or alm o s t o m n i s c i e n t ) n a r r a t o r i s used f o r each work. The n a r r a t o r i s sometimes d i d a c t i c and o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e . He may i n t r u d e t o e x p r e s s an o p i n i o n o r make a judgment w h i c h may be s p e c i f i -c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the s t o r y o r may be a " u n i v e r s a l t r u t h . " He i s a l s o employed f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l e a v e s d r o p p i n g on c h a r a c -t e r s t o f u r t h e r the p l o t o r n a r r a t i v e by c o n v e y i n g t h e i r t h o u g h t s . 4) C h a r a c t e r s and C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : C h a r a c t e r s are m a i n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f two groups — " i n d i v i d u a l s " and members o f s o c i e t y . Those who are i n the f i r s t g r o u p i n g spend much o f t h e i r time and energy a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f the c h a r a c t e r s are s e n s i t i v e when the n a r r a t o r i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o a c h a r a c t e r . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ? m a y a l s o be i n the G o g o l i a n g r o t e s q u e v e i n when the n a r r a t o r f e e l s n e g a t i v e l y about the c h a r a c t e r . The speech o f a c h a r a c t e r may o r may n o t be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . 5) S e t t i n g : N a t u r e s e r v e s as t h e background f o r man's a c t i o n s and t h o u g h t s . When t h e r e i s a d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e passage of any l e n g t h , i t i s u s u a l l y a s i g n a l t h a t t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t t o be made. N a t u r e s e r v e s t o a c c e n t u -ate theme and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l m i l i e u . A l l the s e t t i n g s 23 used i n the f i r s t s t o r i e s b e l o n g t o t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y R u s s i a . I n s i d e s o f b u i l d i n g are a l s o c o n t r a s t e d t o o u t s i d e . " I n s i d e " i t may be d u l l and c o n f i n i n g , o r cozy and h o m e l i k e . " O u t s i d e " i t may be b e a u t i f u l and f r e e , o r h o s t i l e and c o l d . 6) Imagery: I t i s o b v i o u s from the n o t e s on s e t t i n g t h a t images may be h i g h l y s y m b o l i c . The t ime of day, s e a s o n , and weather are a l s o used s y m b o l i c a l l y i n the s t o r i e s . The appearance of the sun denotes l i f e and s p l e n d o r . S u n l i g h t has t h e power t o b e a u t i f y o b j e c t s and p l a c e s t h a t are u g l y . N a t u r e i s o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d , and a n i m a l s , e s p e c i a l l y b i r d s , are o f t e n used as symbols. N a t u r e i s A r t s y b a s h e v ' s main s o u r c e o f images. 7) S t y l e : Key words o r word c l u s t e r s are o f t e n r e p e a t e d f o r emphasis. R e p e t i t i o n i s used c h i e f l y i n c h a r -a c t e r i z a t i o n , n a r r a t i v e comments and d e s c r i p t i v e p assages. I t s f u n c t i o n i s s h a p i n g and d i d a c t i c . Formulas are c r e a t e d f o r d e s c r i b i n g c h a r a c t e r s , p l a c e s and moods. A s i n g l e -s e ntence p a r a g r a p h may be used t o p u n c t u a t e the n a r r a t i v e . These s e n t e n c e s e i t h e r c o n t i n u e the n a r r a t i v e o r make a g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t o u t s i d e the bounds o f t h e n a r r a t i o n . The f i r s t f i v e c a t e g o r i e s are shaped by images and s t y l e , w h i c h are b o t h i n the s e r v i c e o f the f i n a l c a t e g o r y — 8) V i s i o n : I n t h e e a r l y s t o r i e s , . A r t s y b a s h e v ' s v i s i o n i s I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , though t e n d i n g a l s o i n some cases t o E x p r e s s i o n i s t i c and, over a l l , b a s i c a l l y R e a l i s t i c . The term I m p r e s s i o n i s m was borrowed i n i t i a l l y from the n i n e t e e n t h -24 c e n t u r y F r e n c h p a i n t e r s Manet, Monet, Degas, R e n o i r and o t h e r s , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t a w r i t e r i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n r e t a i n i n g the i m p r e s s i o n an o b j e c t has made (on him) than i n . . . m e t i c u l o u s l y p r e s e n t i n g the appearance of t h a t o b j e c t by p r e c i s e d e t a i l and c a r e f u l , r e a l i s t i c f i n i s h . . . . The o b j e c t o f the i m p r e s s i o n i s t , then . . . i s t o p r e s e n t h i s m a t e r i a l . . . as i t i s seen o r f e l t t o be by h i m s e l f i n a s i n g l e p a s s i n g moment. He employs h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e d e t a i l s , t h e 'brush s t r o k e s ' of s e n s e - d a t a t h a t can s u g g e s t the i m p r e s s i o n made upon him o r upon some c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . ^ E x p r e s s i o n i s m r e t a i n s the s k e t c h i n e s s o f i t s f o r e r u n -n e r b u t i s more d i r e c t e d i n i t s message. I n a r t i t m a n i f e s t e d 9 x t s e l f i n " b i t t e r and r e b e l l i o u s h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m . " T h i s a r t , composed as i t was o f a c t i o n and s t r u g g l e c o u l d n o t d i v o r c e i t s e l f from s o c i a l r e v o l t . T h i s a r t was not a d e c o r a t i v e e m b e l l i s h m e n t t o l i f e . . . i t was r a t h e r an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a l l t h a t was c o n t r a r y , gloomy, d i s a g r e e a b l e .and m o n s t r o u s l y i n i q u i t o u s i n l i f e . 1 0 R e a l i s m , as i t f l o u r i s h e d i n n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a , u n d e r l i e s A r t s y b a s h e v ' s e a r l y s t o r i e s . T h i s must be a lmost t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i n the p r o s e works 11 o f Gorky, K u p r i n , B u n i n , Andreev and Chekhov r e a l i s m was s t i l l the l e a d i n g t r e n d . Among the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f R u s s i a n R e a l i s m are s o c i a l conscience., p o r t r a y a l o f a v a s t g a l l e r y o f c h a r a c t e r s i n a l l s o c i a l g r o u p s , i n s i g h t s i n t o the p s y c h o l o g y of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s , and u s u a l l y an accompanying s e r i o u s n e s s o f p u r p o s e , e i t h e r p e r c e i v e d o r e x p r e s s e d o p e n l y i n the t e x t . T h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e use o f humor, i r o n y o r sarcasm. * * * * * * * * * 25 "Pasha Tumanov" "Pasha Tumanov" was a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1901; t h e n , because o f i t s o b v i o u s t o p i c a l i t y , i t was r e j e c t e d a t the r e q u e s t of t h e c e n s o r . L a t e r c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s (which appeared a f t e r the 1905 p u b l i c a t i o n o f R a s s k a z y , Volume I , i n w h i c h t h e s t o r y was i n c l u d e d ) saw the work as a condemna-t i o n o f a " p s e u d o - c l a s s i c a l ' s c h o o l system w h i c h t a u g h t Greek 12 and L a t i n and r u l e d w i t h i r o n a u t h o r i t y . " I . I . Baranov s t a t e s t h a t Pasha i s a v e r y commonplace boy who does n o t a t a l l u n d e r s t a n d the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f l i f e . One of t h e s e complex-i t i e s i s a major theme i n A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s works: t h e r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y . B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i quotes A r t s y -bashev: " ' I am an a n a r c h i s t - i n d i v i d u a l i s t b u t I am n o t 13 p r e p a r e d t o k i l l anyone and I do n o t endorse v i o l e n c e . ' " One o f the most i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s o f the day, c a u s i n g debate among the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , was s o c i a l i s m v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l i s m . The g e r m i n a l work on t h i s t o p i c — more/2 p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y — "was Per E i n z i g e und s e i n Eigentum (The Ego and H i s Own, 1844), w r i t t e n by the German, Max S t i r n e r (pseudonym of Johann Kaspar S c h m i d t ) . I n the y e a r t h a t S t i m e r ' s book was p u b l i s h e d , F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e was b o r n . Both t h e s e a u t h o r s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e e a r l y 1900s i n R u s s i a . I n a s h o r t a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e , A r t s y b a s h e v s t a t e s t h a t he has n o t r e a d N i e t z s c h e , b u t t h a t S t i r n e r i s 14 t o h i s l i k i n g . To d e f i n e f u r t h e r what i s meant by A r t s y -bashev' s " a n a r c h i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i s m " as i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f 26 i n h i s l i t e r a r y w o r k s , one may r e f l e c t on the i d e a s o f a r e c e n t i n t e r p r e t e r o f S t i r n e r : S t i r n e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach t a k e s t h e i n d i v i d -u a l psyche as t h e o n l y c o h e r e n t and m e a n i n g f u l u n i t of a n a l y s i s ; economic and s o c i a l a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i -c a n t o n l y i n terms o f i t s i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h t h i s p s y c h e , how i t c o n f i r m s o r t h r e a t e n s i t . Thus t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o whether i t g e n e r a t e s ego-enhancing o r eg o - d e g r a d i n g f o r c e s . 1 5 T h i s passage t e l l s us much about t h e psyches of many o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s h e r o e s , from a b e g i n n i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e " t r u t h " o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m by Pasha Tumanov t o the p r o p h e t of i n d i v i d u a l i s m — V l a d i m i r S a n i n . Pasha f e e l s p r e s s u r e n o t o n l y from the s c h o o l system b u t a l s o from h i s own f a m i l y . The boy wi s h e s t o pass h i s e x a m i n a t i o n s and thus conform, b u t l a c k s the i n i t i a t i v e t o s t u d y , w h i c h would be the p r a c t i c a l way t o a v o i d f a i l u r e . He d e c i d e s t o go t o t h e headmaster t o p l e a d f o r a pass d e s p i t e h i s l a c k o f knowledge. As a second t h o u g h t , he buys a gun t o use as a t h r e a t , s h o u l d the headmaster r e f u s e t o comply. The outcome i s t h a t t h e pedagogue i s murdered and the young man g i v e s h i m s e l f up t o the p o l i c e . The c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f the n a r r a t i v e i s i n t e r r u p -t e d : the f i r s t t h r e e c h a p t e r s and the l a s t p a r a g r a p h o c c u r a f t e r Pasha murders t h e headmaster. T h i s i n v e r s i o n s h i f t s the emphasis o f the s t o r y from the deed — murder — t o the c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g up t o i t . The i s s u e i s n o t t h a t a murder has been committed by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t , P a v e l Tumanov, b u t why i t has been committed. 27 The theme o f the s t o r y i s t h a t l i f e , knowledge and h a p p i n e s s l i e o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s o f the s o c i a l l y - s a n c -t i o n e d s c h o o l system. T h i s system i s seen as hampering the growth o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l (Pasha). The n a r r a t i v e i s v e r y much c o l o r e d by t h i s a t t i t u d e . T h i s can be demonstrated by e x a m i n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r t o theme, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and s e t t i n g . By c h o o s i n g the vantage p o i n t o f o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r , the a u t h o r i s f r e e t o e x p r e s s s h i f t i n g , m u l t i p l e p o i n t s o f v iew by r e l a t i n g and j u x t a p o s i n g the t h o u g h t s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . These f u n c t i o n s o f the n a r r a t o r h e l p t o c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e . An example of the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r as he p r e s e n t s c h a r a c t e r by "a few b r u s h s t r o k e s " o c c u r s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y . Pasha's o n l y p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s : . . . a y o u t h i n a t h i n s c h o o l b o y ' s o v e r c o a t and s c h o o l b o y ' s cap. He was o f medium h e i g h t , l a r g e -headed, w i t h an unhandsome, b u t a l l t h e same r a t h e r n i c e f a c e ; on h i s cheeks and upper l i p c l e a r l y appeared th e uneven down of mustaches and a b e a r d . He was f l u s h e d and o b v i o u s l y e x c i t e d . He e n t e r e d v e r y q u i c k l y , j u s t as i f someone were p u r s u i n g him, and h a v i n g e n t e r e d , i m m e d i a t e l y removed h i s cap.16 I n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n d e t a i l s o f the boy's appear-ance, much i n f o r m a t i o n i s conveyed w i t h o u t l e n g t h y d e s c r i p -t i o n . The weli-ehdsen- a d j e c t i v e "large--headed" (bol'she^-g o l o v y i ) makes one t h i n k o f a c h i l d , as a s m a l l c h i l d ' s head i s l a r g e r i n p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s body t h a n than of an a d u l t . Pasha has a t r a c e o f f a c i a l h a i r , i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s c h i l d -i s h l y l a r g e head. H i s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e i s s k e t c h e d w i t h 28 extreme economy. He i s r e d o r f l u s h e d ( k r a s e n ) , and i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t i t seems as i f he were b e i n g p u r s u e d , as he i s — by c i r c u m s t a n c e s . That he removes h i s cap i s a s i g n o f h i s a u t o m a t i c response t o a p l a c e o r f i g u r e o f a u t h o r i t y . The l a s t s e n t e n c e o f t h e above q u o t a t i o n , s t a n d i n g a l o n e as a p a r a g r a p h , i s emphatic and sums up the s i t u a t i o n . The one-sentence p a r a g r a p h i s r e g u l a r l y used by the a u t h o r f o r p h y s i c a l l y s e t t i n g a p a r t and t h e r e b y v i s u a l l y and g r a p h i c a l l y e m p h a s i z i n g a s t a t e m e n t . I n t h i s s t o r y i t seems i r o n i c t h a t P asha, a murderer, removes h i s cap as he e n t e r s t o g i v e h i m s e l f up. Thus, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Pasha th e a u t h o r i s "more i n t e r e s t e d i n atmosphere than i n p e r s p e c t i v e and o u t l i n e . " The p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f Pasha may be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t o f the f o u r o f f i c i a l s a t the p o l i c e s t a t i o n , who are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s o c i a l o r d e r : I n the l a r g e , w e l l - l i t room, adorned w i t h p o r t r a i t s o f t h e t s a r ' s f a m i l y , were a t t h a t t i m e f o u r p e o p l e : the c h i e f o f p o l i c e h i m s e l f , a d i g n i f i e d [ v i d n y i ] , i m p r e s s i v e man w i t h l a r g e mustaches, and r i n g s on h i s f i n g e r s ; h i s a s s i s t a n t , a f a t man w i t h a b i g stomach and p u r p l e f a c e , which t u r n e d w i t h d i f f i -c u l t y upon h i s s h o r t neck w i t h no adam's a p p l e ; and a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , t a l l , t h i n and t u b e r c u l a r , on whose narrow s h o u l d e r s a s o l d i e r ' s c o a t and s a b r e hung as- i f on a c o a t s t a n d . The f o u r t h was a gen-t l e m a n , i n a s o l d i e r ' s c o a t w i t h u n i f o r m b u t t o n s , h a v i n g a l a r g e r e d b e a r d and w i t h b l u e g l a s s e s on., the end of h i s l a r g e p i m p l y nose. [p. 3] An atmosphere o f o f f i c i a l d o m i s c r e a t e d by the p o r t r a i t s o f the t s a r ' s f a m i l y . Here s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s i s u n d e r t a k e n , s y m b o l i c a l l y o v erseen by the t s a r h i m s e l f . Not o n l y i s t h e 29 t s a r ' s p i c t u r e p r e s e n t , b u t a l s o t h o s e o f h i s f a m i l y —- thus the s o c i a l u n i t o f the f a m i l y i s r e p r e s e n t e d . The c h a r a c t e r s i n t he room, and t h e scene w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e , are i n i r o n i c j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o the s o l e m n i t y s u g g e s t e d by the t s a r ' s p o r t r a i t . As i n the s k e t c h o f Pasha, c e r t a i n d e t a i l s a re sup-p l i e d by the n a r r a t o r as he draws the f o u r c h a r a c t e r s . V e ry much u n l i k e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Pasha, t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s emerge as mere g r o t e s q u e c a r i c a t u r e s o f men.. They are not s t o c k c h a r a c t e r s , and y e t one f e e l s t h a t the a u t h o r does e x p e c t most r e a d e r s t o r e a c t t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s i n a s i m i l a r manner. T h i s r e a c t i o n may be g e n e r a l i z e d as a c o m b i n a t i o n o r humor and m i l d a v e r s i o n . The f a c t t h a t the a u t h o r t a k e s t h e s e f o u r c a r i c a t u r e s and b r e a t h e s l i f e i n t o them, o r makes them m a r g i n a l l y human by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r m e n t a l s t a t e s , a t t e s t s t o h i s a b i l i t y as a p s y c h o l o g i s t as w e l l as a w r i t e r . The n a r r a t o r r e l a t e s how each c h a r a c t e r f e e l s d u r i n g the time when the p o l i c e c h i e f i s t e l l i n g a s t o r y about t h e dau g h t e r of a J e w i s h watchmaker who was a r r e s t e d f o r p r o s t i t u t i o n , d e s p i t e h e r f a t h e r ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t she was b u t a c h i l d ; he t e l l s w i t h s p e c i a l r e l i s h how t h e g i r l was t h e n found t o be p r e g n a n t . W h i l e he i s t e l l i n g t h i s s t o r y , the f a t a s s i s t a n t , who " i n g e n e r a l f e l t n o t h i n g e x c e p t h i s o b e s i t y and s u f f e r e d from the h e a t and boredom"(p. 4 ) , s m i l e s when he sees t h e p o l i c e c h i e f i s l a u g h i n g . The s i c k o f f i c e r i s b i t t e r because he i s o b l i g e d t o s t a n d , and f i n d s t h i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t 30 as he i s so weak:; he l o o k s a t the h e a l t h y , s t r o n g p o l i c e c h i e f and h a t e s him. The s e c r e t a r y i n the b l u e g l a s s e s , "who h a t e s the p o l i c e c h i e f f o r h i s c r u d i t y and c h u r l i s h n e s s " ( I b i d . ) , l i s t e n s t o t h e s t o r y g a i l y , as he has heard t h a t the p o l i c e c h i e f ' s c a r e e r w i l l soon be ended. A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e a d e r ' s i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n o f the f o u r has been s o f t e n e d by the added i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r as he eavesdrops on t h e tho u g h t s o f t h e o f f i c i a l s . Pasha's mother i s the o n l y female c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y who i s p r e s e n t e d i n any d e t a i l . Her d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n the same mode as t h a t of Pasha: Pasha's mother, Anna Ivanovna, a c o l o n e l ' s widow, came i n [ t o the room]. She l i v e d on a p e n s i o n and on r e l i e f a s s i s t a n c e somehow o b t a i n e d f o r the edu-c a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n . She was an e m a c i a t e d , weak woman, w i t h a s o f t v o i c e and a l a r g e s u p p l y o f c h a r a c t e r l e s s goodness and a d u l l , p r e m a t u r e l y aged f a c e . [p. 12] I t i s r e a l l y f o r the sake o f t h i s h e l p l e s s , p i t i f u l woman t h a t Pasha i s so d e s p e r a t e t o pass h i s e x a m i n a t i o n . On the day o f h i s exams, h i s s i s t e r s t e l l him t h a t she has gone t o c h u r c h . T h i s f a c t makes him f e e l more g u i l t y and f u r t h e r widens t h e g u l f between mother and son. The f i r s t scene between Pasha and h i s mother i s d e p i c t e d (as i s the scene w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l s ) by showing the outward r e a l i t y j u x t a p o s e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t i e s o f the c h a r a c t e r s . Pasha's mother t h i n k s how c r u e l - h e a r t e d c h i l d r e n a r e , w h i l e Pasha t h i n k s how u n f a i r : ' h i s mother i s and what l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g she displays:;-I t seemed t o her t h a t i f Pasha c o u l d o n l y under-s t a n d how she s u f f e r e d and f e a r e d f o r him, he would i m m e d i a t e l y b e g i n t o s t u d y w e l l and make a p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f . And Pasha l o o k e d a t her askance and thought almost t h e same t h i n g : t h a t h i s mother was c r u e l and n o t a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d how d i f f i c u l t and b o r i n g i t was t o s t u d y , and t h a t he, Pasha, was n e v e r t h e -l e s s a f i n e , k i n d boy, even i f he c o u l d n ' t pass h i s exams. [p. 13] T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f i d e a s g i v e s t h e r e a d e r p r o f o u n d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e i r s i s t h e sad i r o n y o f t o t a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h e i r g r e a t e m o t i o n a l demands on each o t h e r a r e a n t i t h e t i c a l , t h u s n o t r e a l i z a b l e . The m o t i f o f man a l o n e and a l i e n a t e d , even from h i s c l o s e s t f e l l o w - m e n , i s u n d e r l i n e d by t h e i r t h o u g h t s . When Pasha b u r s t s i n on t h e f o u r o f f i c i a l s he produces a p i s t o l from h i s p o c k e t ; as he does so, some cake-crumbs f a l l on t h e f l o o r . The crumbs suggest h i s youth and t i e s w i t h home ( h i s m o t h e r ) , and a r e a n o t h e r example o f i r o n i c j u x t a p o s i t i o n . W h i l e Pasha remains a l o n e w i t h t h e s e c r e t a r y , he has an o b s e s s i v e d e s i r e t o c l e a n up t h e s e crumbs from t h e f l o o r . T h i s d e t a i l f u n c t i o n s i n a n o t h e r manner: i t h e l p s t o show h i s mental s t a t e . The d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s mind's wander-i n g s i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e a l i s t i c : He d i d n o t even r e a l i z e i n what manner began, co n -t i n u e d , or ended ' t h i s 1 [' eto." ] , and how he got h e r e and f o r what r e a s o n he was s i t t i n g i n a b i g empty room i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b i g , bearded man i n b l u e g l a s s e s who was r u s t l i n g p a pers. A t t i m e s i t seemed t h a t he s h o u l d g e t up and l e a v e and t h e n a l l t h i s would s i m p l y end and seem as i f i t were n o t h i n g , even gay and humorous . . . b u t t h e n he f e l l i n t o a c o n f u s i n g mass o f s e n s e l e s s scenes, p a r t s o f words and r e d s p l o t c h e s , w h i c h began t o 32 b l u r and s w e l l and f i n a l l y f l o o d e d e v e r y t h i n g w i t h a r e d d i s h haze i n w h i c h bobbed some s o r t o f f a m i l i a r , y e t t e r r i b l e f a c e s . [p. 8] The n a r r a t o r comments t h a t Pasha's s t a t e o f mind i s "near d e l i r i u m " ( " b l i z k o e k b r e d u " ) . -This d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t seems s u p e r f l u o u s a f t e r t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n . I t may be n o t e d t h a t the d e s c r i p t i o n i s v e r y v i s u a l as the r e a d e r "sees" i n t o Pasha's mind. Pasha's estrangement from what has.hap-pened, and i s h a p p e n i n g , i s a c u t e l y o b s e r v e d i n t h i s passage. On t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n , as Pasha l o o k s m i s e r a b l y a t h i s books w i t h "a b l i n d , d u l l d e s p a i r b o r d e r i n g on apathy" and "hates and blames h i s t e a c h e r s " (p. 1 1 ) , the n a r r a t o r i n t r u d e s d i r e c t l y t o e x p l a i n what the t r o u b l e i s . The t e a c h e r s are n o t t o blame, "but t h e u n n a t u r a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s by which a t w e n t y - y e a r - o l d y o u t h , t h i r s t i n g f o r meaning and i n t e r e s t i n l i f e , was made t o l e a r n by r o t e u n i n t e r e s t i n g , m e a n i n g l e s s , l i f e l e s s t e x t s " ( I b i d . ) . The n a r r a t o r adds t h a t Pasha's n e g a t i v e , o p p r e s s i v e f e e l i n g s are "hard t o bear f o r h i s k i n d s o f t h e a r t " ( " t i a z h e l o d l i a ego dobrogo i miagkogo s e r d t s a , " I b i d . ) . Here th e r e a d e r may f e e l m a n i p u l a t e d , as the o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r i n t e r r u p t s t o i w h i s p e r "the t r u t h " and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f a c t s i n .his e a r . I n Seymour Chapman's a r t i c l e , "The S t r u c t u r e of N a r r a t i v e T r a n s m i s s i o n , " he s t a t e s : A t r u e n a r r a t i v e a s s e r t i o n i s always i n t e g r a l t o the s t o r y , and cannot be q u e s t i o n e d by the r e a d e r , s i n c e t o do so i s t o p r e v e n t the n a r r a t i v e from p r o c e e d i n g , t o deny i t s v e r y f a b r i c . The a u t h o r must be g r a n t e d , by c o n v e n t i o n , the r i g h t t o p o s i t 33 a l l t h o s e e n t i t i e s and a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y - t o h i s n a r r a t i v e . But a s s e r t i o n s . w h i c h are o p i n i o n s do no t have t h i s w a r r a n t y : they r e f e r t o the n a r r a t o r ' s v i e w o f the w o r l d a t l a r g e , n o t t o the i n f r a w o r l d of the s t o r y , and the r e a d e r can i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z e t h e d e p a r t u r e from the n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h a t i n f r a w o r l d . 1 ? Thus, the n a r r a t o r i s o v e r - s t e p p i n g the b o u n d a r i e s o f s i m p l e n a r r a t i o n . The s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r may be e x p l a i n e d by the a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s t o r y . A r t s y -bashev w r i t e s : An a c t u a l o c c u r r e n c e and my own h a t r e d f o r t h e superannuated s c h o o l s suggested the s u b j e c t . P e o p l e have no i d e a o f what a R u s s i a n grammar s c h o o l i s l i k e . The innumerable s u i c i d e s o f the p u p i l s , which s t i l l c o n t i n u e , a re a t e s t i m o n y t o i t s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e f o r R u s s i a n y o u t h . x 8 - I f i t i s u n n a t u r a l and o b j e c t i o n a b l e f o r a twenty-y e a r - o l d y o u t h t o s t u d y d r y t e x t s , what then does t h e a u t h o r o f f e r as an a l t e r n a t i v e s t y l e of l i f e ? Pasha does come i n c o n t a c t w i t h " o t h e r w o r l d s " : f o r one, t h a t o f the o l d f i s h e r -man K o s t r o v , who i s c o n t e n t t o l i v e on the r i v e r bank i n a h u t , t o f i s h , and t o admire h i s n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . H i s son V a s i l i i and h i s f r i e n d D a k h n e v s k i i r e p r e s e n t y e t a n o t h e r l i f e - s t y l e : they a re s t u d e n t s a l o n g w i t h P a s ha, b u t spend most, o f t h e i r time p l a y i n g b i l l i a r d s . They are n o t u p s e t about f a i l i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s , as t h e y have t h e i r game, by w h i c h , presumably, they can e a r n a l i v e l i h o o d . On h i s way t o and from h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , Pasha meets o l d K o s t r o v . At t h e exam V a s i l i i and D a k h n e v s k i i t r e a t Pasha k i n d l y and t e l l him n o t t o w o r r y . B e f o r e the exams b e g i n , the n a r r a t o r g i v e s h i s 34 o p i n i o n o f the system o f e x a m i n a t i o n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t e x a m i n a t i o n s are u s e l e s s , as t h e t e a c h e r a l r e a d y knows each s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y i n a g i v e n s u b j e c t . The e x a m i n a t i o n i t s e l f i s p a i n f u l f o r most of t h e s t u d e n t s . F o r P a s h a . i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t e r r i b l e because he knows so l i t t l e . B e f o r e he meets K o s t r o v f o r t h e second t i m e , t h e r e i s a c o n t r a s t of o u t s i d e / i n s i d e . L e a v i n g the s c h o o l , Pasha i s met by the o u t s i d e w o r l d o f b r i g h t s u n l i g h t , v o i c e s and the c h i r p i n g o f s w a l l o w s . A t f i r s t , t h e s e s i g n s o f l i f e buoy h i s s p i r i t s . Then, w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t he has i n d e e d f a i l e d h i s exams, he f e e l s "as i f he were n o t a l i v e , s m a l l and w o r t h l e s s . . . I t seemed t o him t h a t everyone c o u l d t e l l by h i s f a c e t h a t he had f a i l e d " (p. 2 3 ) . F i v e and o n e - h a l f pages are d e v o t e d t o the scene o f Pasha and K o s t r o v a t the r i v e r . . The n a r r a t o r l i n g e r s h e r e , and the i m p r e s s i o n one g e t s from him i s t h a t t h i s i s "the good l i f e . " Here A r t s y b a s h e v p o r t r a y s an a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e t h r o u g h l i f e : one i n which p e o p l e do n o t w o r r y about c a r e e r s o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . K o s t r o v t e l l s Pasha how a f r i e n d once t o l d him t h a t "the v e r y g r e a t e s t b l o c k h e a d s are the p e o p l e who s t u d y t h e b e s t " (p. 2 6 ) . Pasha i s overwhelmed t h a t he has met an a d u l t who i s n o t concerned w i t h t h e u s u a l s o c i e t a l g o a l s . The scene a t the r i v e r ' s edge i s one o f b eauty and t r a n q u i l i t y . The o l d f i s h e r m a n r e v e l s i n a l l around him: the s p a r k l i n g r i v e r , d i p p i n g b i r d s , and t h e s m a l l s h i n i n g f i s h t h a t s p l a s h i n h i s p a i l . Here i s a g l i m p s e o f l i f e 35 t h a t appears f r e e i n comparison t o Pasha's own. The r i v e r scene i s p r e s e n t e d i d y l l i c a l l y ; the r i v e r may a l s o be a symbol o f the r i v e r o f l i f e . I t i s more e x a c t t o say t h a t the r i v e r i s bound t o l i f e and t o the beauty o f l i f e . There are o b v i o u s s i g n s t h a t i t g i v e s l i f e and l i v e l i h o o d : steam-b o a t s p l y the w a t e r , K o s t r o v c a t c h e s f i s h , and so on. I n K o s t r o v ' s e y e s , the r i v e r i s "an e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e " ("blago-d a t ' ," p. 25) :•' . . . he screwed up h i s eyes and gazed w i t h d e l i g h t u pstream, sometimes s h a d i n g h i s eyes w i t h h i s hand, f o l l o w i n g the passage of the steamboats. He k i c k e d p e b b l e s i n t o t h e w a t e r and, b l i s s f u l l y s m i l i n g , watched the d i a m o n d - r o l l i n g w a v e l e t s break on the s h o a l . He s i g h e d l i g h t l y and f r e e l y , and f i n a l l y s a i d : 'An e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e . ' [pp. 24-25] For Pasha he has s i m p l e words o f wisdom: 'Vaska has h i s b i l l i a r d s , I have the r i v e r and f i s h , you . . . w i l l have something. We cannot a l l l e a r n by r o t e , b u t a l l the same we are peop l e no worse t h a n o t h e r s , and a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f our c r e a t o r . ' [p. 27]. The o l d f i s h e r m a n cannot be b o t h e r e d w i t h such problems as Pasha's. He b r e a k s o f f h i s goodbye t o Pasha w i t h "'Ah, the s w a l l o w s , t h e s w a l l o w s ' . " The c h a r a c t e r K o s t r o v i s b o t h c o l o r f u l and d r a m a t i c . As a spokesman f o r the " r i v e r l i f e , " he adds a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o t h e s t o r y . The r i v e r scene l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o an i m p r e s s i o n i s -t i c r e n d e r i n g . The b i r d s f l i t , diamond waves s p a r k l e , and f i s h s p l a s h i n the o l d f i s h e r m a n ' s p a i l . Everywhere i s l i g h t and movement. A f t e r K o s t r o v l e a v e s , Pasha a l s o o b s e r v e s the beauty o f h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s : " t h e sw a l l o w s t w i t t e r e d , g l i d i n g 36 i n a s ea o f a i r , l i g h t and s k y - b l u e space" ( " l a s t o c h k i z a -s h i v a l i , p l a v a i a v more vozdukha, s v e t a i golubogo p r o s t o r a , " /p. '25). The b i r d s i n f l i g h t are perhaps s y m b o l i c o f P a s h a ' s , however s h o r t - l i v e d , sense o f freedom. When K o s t r o v l e a v e s , a s h o r t , one-sentence p a r a g r a p h s t a t e s : "Pasha was l e f t a l o n e " ( I b i d . ) . He i s a l o n e p h y s i -c a l l y and a l s o i n the w o r l d , as he has no one t o s u p p o r t him o r a i d him i n h i s c r i s i s . H i s mother does n o t u n d e r s t a n d h i s p roblem, nor do h i s t e a c h e r s . K o s t r o v can n o t h e l p ; as the youth's enchantment w i t h the r i v e r scene wanes, he even wonders how he c o u l d have l i s t e n e d t o such a man. Pasha's mind and o p i n i o n s have been shaped s i n c e b i r t h by the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , s c h o o l and the s o c i e t y o f the town i n which he l i v e s . The p r o g r e s s o f h i s s t a t e o f a g i t a t i o n i s n o ted i n a f o l l o w i n g s m a l l p a r a g r a p h ; he r e a l i z e s what h i s f a i l u r e , means t o h i s mother: "And from t h i s a r ose the i d e a t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o l i v e " (p. 3 1 ) . The n a r r a t o r comments t h a t i f Pasha had been s t r o n g e r i n c h a r a c t e r , he would have com-m i t t e d s u i c i d e , thus e c h o i n g A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t a t e m e n t about the numerous s u i c i d e s i n R u s s i a n s c h o o l s . I n the scene i n which Pasha buys the gun t o t h r e a t e n the headmaster, a n o t h e r o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s concerns appears. I n t h e window o f the f i r e a r m s s t o r e , s t u f f e d a n i m a l s and b i r d s are d i s p l a y e d . The s t o r y "Krov'" ("Blood") makes c l e a r the a u t h o r ' s d i s t a s t e f o r k i l l i n g a n i m a l s . I n "Pasha Tumanov," the a n i m a l s i n the window s t a n d 37 . . . i n l i f e l e s s and u n n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n s . They ba r e d t h e i r fangs a t the p a s s e r s - b y , who stopped t o lo o k a t t h e i r d u l l g l a s s eyes and p r a i s e the a r t o f those who had k i l l e d t h e s e c r e a t u r e s and the n t r i e d t o make them l i f e - l i k e , c u r v i n g t h e i r s p i n e s and d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r y e l l o w l i f e l e s s jaws. [pp. 37-38] The d i s p l a y o f a n i m a l s and guns a t t r a c t s the s c h o o l b o y s , who are t a k e n by the adventure and e x o t i c n a t u r e o f the hunt. Pasha approaches the s t o r e a p p r e h e n s i v e l y : he does n o t know i f they s e l l guns t o " s c h o o l b o y s " (p. 3 9 ) . He l o o k s w i t h " c h i l d i s h c u r i o s i t y " a t the guns shown him (p. 4 0 ) . The gun d e a l e r i s c o m p l e t e l y d e t a c h e d from h i s a c t o f s e l l i n g a gun t o the y o u t h . H i s mind i s on h i s c h i l d , who i s i l l . I n t h i s s c e n e , as w i t h the one a t the p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s , the n a r r a t o r g i v e s added i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h makes a c h a r a c t e r more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . The young woman c a s h i e r reads the d i s t r e s s i n Pasha's f a c e and:says p e o p l e l i k e t h a t s h o u l d n o t be s o l d guns. The shop p r o p r i e t o r r e t o r t s t h a t t h e r e i s no law t h a t s t i p u l a t e s t o whom he can s e l l . These d e t a i l s seem t o show the a u t h o r ' s concern f o r s o c i e t y ' s blase 1 a t t i t u d e toward weapons. L i f e i s r e n d e r e d v e r y cheap — the c o s t o f a s m a l l p i s t o l — t e n r u b l e s , t w e l v e kopeks. The headmaster V o z n e s e n s k i i , whom Pasha k i l l s , i s d e s c r i b e d as "a v e r y k i n d man w i t h k i n d e y e s , b u t most o f a l l he was a g r e a t f o r m a l i s t , and h i s eyes were h i d d e n b e h i n d b l u e g l a s s e s " (p. 3 5 ) . When Pasha comes t o p l e a d w i t h him t o be p a s s e d , he t r i e s t o e x p l a i n t h a t the masters have t h e i r duty above a l l e l s e . He h i m s e l f i s touched by Pasha's 38 p l i g h t , b u t a c t s as a puppet of the e d u c a t i o n a l system. The n a r r a t o r makes a judgment on the s c h o o l system as w e l l as on the way i n which the m a s t e r r e l a t e s t o the y o u t h : I f the headmaster, s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o h i s t r o u b l e , had a d v i s e d him i n any way, Pasha Tumanov most l i k e l y would have gone home. But the head-master b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was most i m p o r t a n t t h a t he f u l f i l l h i s o f f i c i a l d u t i e s , n o t make c h i l d r e n happy . . . and t h a t was n o t a t a l l because he was a hardened man, b u t because the i d e a l s o f modern e d u c a t i o n -we're-not coneernedu_.with whether ' c h i l d r e n became happy o r good p e o p l e , b u t w i t h p r e p a r i n g them f o r the s t r u g g l e f o r the b e s t p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y . . . and a l s o because the headmaster, by h i s p o s i t i o n , was d e v o i d o f any independence and was o b l i g e d t o a c t a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n s drawn up by p e o p l e who were n o t i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h c h i l d r e n and d i d n o t c a r e about them; t h e i r p l a n s were based on s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a which d i d n o t t a k e l i v e c h i l -d r e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . [pp. 45-46] A passage such as t h i s s u g g e s t s why the s t o r y was c e n s o r e d . Such a d i r e c t a s s a u l t on the s c h o o l system, i t s c r e a t o r s and p e r p e t u a t o r s , c o u l d n o t be t o l e r a t e d . I n t r u s i o n s o f t h i s k i n d , i n w h i c h the a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n s are e x p r e s s e d , show the w r i t e r ' s c o n c e r n f o r h i s m a t e r i a l . However, A r t s y b a s h e v i s n o t always so o v e r t i n e x p r e s -s i n g h i s o p i n i o n s . The s t o r y " K u p r i i a n " i s h a n d l e d more o b j e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h the mode o f n a r r a t i o n , t h a t o f o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r / i s t h e same i n b o t h s t o r i e s , t h e r e are no d i d a c t i c i n t r u s i o n s i n the second. More emphasis i s p l a c e d on the p l o t and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c h a r a c t e r s . The n a r r a t o r a c t s as o b s e r v e r , n o t commentator. He s t i l l has the a b i l i t y t o note a c h a r a c t e r ' s t h o u g h t s , and s w i t c h e s from the mind o f one c h a r a c t e r t o a n o t h e r . 39 " K u p r i i a n " The s t o r y " K u p r i i a n " f i r s t appeared i n 1902 i n Russkoe b o g a t s t v o , I s s u e s 3 and 4. I t i s a l o n g s t o r y , about one hundred pages, as are a l s o "Smert 1 Lande" (The Death o f Lande) and "Bunt" (The R e b e l l i o n ) , 1903; " C h e l o v e c h e s k a i a v o l n a " ("The Human Wave"), 1906; " M i l l i o n y " ( " M i l l i o n s " ) , 1908; and " R a b o c h i i Shevyrev" ("The-,Worker Shevyrev") , 1909. The l o n g e r form o f s t o r y a l l o w s f o r more development o f p l o t and c h a r a c t e r . B r i e f l y , i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the n o v e l . . . i n t h a t i t tends t o r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s o r under s t r e s s , the purpose of the s t o r y b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d when the r e a d e r comes t o .know what the t r u e " nature:. of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s . . . whereas the n o v e l tends t o show the c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p i n g as a r e s u l t o f a c t i o n s and under the i m p a c t of events.19 " K u p r i i a n " i s the s t o r y o f a h o r s e - t h i e f who, w h i l e making a b u s i n e s s of s t e a l i n g and r e - s e l l i n g h o r s e s w i t h h i s fri e n d V a s k a , has been l i v i n g w i t h the w i f e o f a v i l l a g e p e a s a n t . The p e a s a n t had l e f t the v i l l a g e f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e the b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y , t o become a s o l d i e r . K u p r i i a n and the p e a s a n t Egor's w i f e , M a t r e n a , have a c h i l d i n Egor's absence. W i t h h i s r e t u r n , t h e l i v e s o f a l l the c h a r a c t e r s are a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y . There i s a second c o m p l i c a t i o n : t h e new g o v ernor has d e c i d e d t o round up t h e h o r s e t h i e v e s . The s e t t i n g o f the s t o r y i s the c o u n t r y s i d e and the s m a l l v i l l a g e o f Dernovoe. There i s enough d e s c r i p t i o n o f r u r a l l i f e f o r the s t o r y t o be d e f i n e d as l o c a l - c o l o r w r i t i n g ; i t c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r s o c i a l c l a s s o r l o c a t i o n . 40 T h i s s t o r y e s t a b l i s h e s a mood r a t h e r t h a n a theme. There i s the r e c u r r e n t i m p r e s s i o n of l i v e s and scenes t h a t are g r e y , h a r s h , j o y l e s s and c r u s h i n g l y o p p r e s s i v e , i n which i t i s a l l a man can do t o s u r v i v e . The mores, o f the s o c i e t y o f t h i s r u r a l a r e a are s t r i c t , m e r c i l e s s and d u l l . The st a t e m e n t made by the o l d r e l i g i o u s p e a s a n t Fedor G u n i a v y i echoes the mood o f the s t o r y : "'They are b e a s t s , n o t people'." (" ' Z v e r i , ne l i u d i ' . " -— p. 152). The l i f e p o r t r a y e d i s i n d e e d p r i m i t i v e . I t has been i m p o s s i b l e f o r the beauty o f l i f e t o be p r e s e r v e d i n any o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . C o n c e r n i n g " K u p r i i a n , " one o f the more i n s i g h t f u l , a l b e i t e f f u s i v e , A r t s y b a s h e v c r i t i c s , Baranov, has w r i t t e n t h a t t h e r e i s something t r i u m p h a n t and h e r o i c i n K u p r i i a n ' s l i f e . He a l s o n o t e s t h a t " t h e r e i s something t o r t u r e d and 20 s e n s i t i v e i n t h i s man l i v i n g l i k e a w o l f . " These o p i n i o n s cannot be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n . K u p r i i a n i s n o t a Gorkyan "proud hobo" who i s a master o f h i s own l i f e . He i s no t a C h e l k a s h r e v e l i n g i n h i s deeds — a s w a g g e r i n g , f r e e , s t r o n g man. To s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s "something t o r t u r e d and s e n s i t i v e " i n K u p r i i a n i s s e n t i m e n t a l i z i n g . The s t o r y p r e s e n t s s i m p l y a r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e o f the l i f e and de a t h o f a h o r s e - t h i e f . I t b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f K u p r i i a n d u r i n g a t y p i c a l day i n h i s l i f e : ; K u p r i i a n was weary and s o a k i n g wet. H i s f e e t stumbled weakly a l o n g the s l i p p e r y wet h i l l o c k s ; h i s b o o t s were soaked t h r o u g h , c o a t e d w i t h 41 mud and l e a v e s , and had become v e r y heavy. K u p r i -i a n , w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , p u l l e d them out o f the t h i c k , s t i c k y mud. K u p r i i a n was hungry and had n o t s l e p t the p r e v i o u s n i g h t ; t h e r e was a r o a r i n g i h h i s e a r s ; an u n p l e a s a n t k i n d o f w e i g h t hung o v e r h i s e y e s . To t h e s e s e n s a t i o n s was added a n o t h e r : a vague aware-ness of danger — j u s t o v e r h i s s h o u l d e r . K u p r i i a n f e l t m i s e r a b l e , as; ah e m a c i a t e d w o l f f e e l s m i s e r a b l e > when h u n t e r s are c l o s i n g i n on a l l s i d e s . [p. 49] I t i s a c o l d , r a i n y , autumn day, and K u p r i i a n ' s o n l y thoughts are o f h i s d i s c o m f o r t and h i s f e e l i n g o f impending danger. As i f h i s l o t were n o t h a r d enough, he meets the p e a s a n t M o z i a v y i from the v i l l a g e , who r e p o r t s t h a t Egor has r e t u r n e d . M o z i a v y i h i m s e l f s t e a l s wood from the f o r e s t i n . o r d e r t o s u r v i v e . D i a l o g u e i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the s t o r y t o r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r and advance the a c t i o n . The speech i s t h a t , o f p e a s a n t s : c o l l o q u i a l , o f t e n humorous, and sometimes r e p e t i -t i o u s a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n M o z i a v y i ' s speech. He t e l l s K u p r i i a n o f the homecoming o f Egor and o f h i s d i s c o v e r y of Matrena's c h i l d : 'Na s m e r t 1 bil.'!> C h e i p a r n i s h k a ? s p r a s h i v a e t . . . e t o F e d ' k a - t o ! K a k o i , g o v o r i t , p a r n i s h k a ? K a k a i a p r i -c h i n a p a r n i s h k e b y t ' . . . Fed'ke, t o e s t ' . . . e z h e l i t v o i z a k o n n y i muzh, t o e s t " , p i a t ' l e t v o t s u t s t v i i ? — B i l babu ochenno.' [p. 55] ('He a l m o s t b e a t h e r t o d e a t h ! Whose k i d i s t h i s ? he a s k s . . . t h i s Fed'ka! What k i d i s t h i s ? he s a y s . What's the k i d ' s r e a s o n f o r b e i n g . . . F e d ' k a 1 s , t h a t i s . . . w i t h your l a w f u l husband absent f o r f i v e : ' y e a r s ? — He r e a l l y b e a t the woman.') K u p r i i a n i s n o t a hardened man, even though he i s a t h i e f . He p i t i e s M a trena and t h i n k s o f Egor: "'He's a b e a s t , j u s t a b e a s t ! " "- (p;. 5 6 ) . 42 I n f o r m a t i o n about K u p r i i a n and Vaska i s s u p p l i e d by t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n as t h e y spend the n i g h t i n an o l d b a r n . To ward o f f the c o l d and assuage t h e i r hunger, they d r i n k vodka. Vaska t e l l s how he used t o s i n g w e l l and w i s h e d t o w r i t e . H i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s e v i d e n t when he t e l l s how he used t o g l i s t e n t o the c r y o f the cranes u n t i l he wanted t o weep. To make a l i v i n g , Vaska had no c h o i c e b u t t o f i n d work i n a f a c t o r y . There he began t o d r i n k and became hardened t o l i f e . The l a n d worked by K u p r i i a n ' s f a m i l y was p o o r , and a t the age of t w e l v e he began t o s t e a l h o r s e s w i t h h i s ' g r a n d -f a t h e r and h i s b r o t h e r . When th e y were k i l l e d , K u p r i i a n . w a s n o t harmed because he was so young. These f l a s h b a c k s show how the two have a r r i v e d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t p l a c e i n l i f e . Kupriian*- i's c o n c e r n f o r Matrena and Fed'ka i s a g a i n n o t e d as he t a l k s t o Vaska. The n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s Vaska's r e a c t i o n t o t h i s : H i s s o u l , h o r r i b l y and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l y d e s t r o y e d by f a c t o r i e s and p l a n t s , where a p e r s o n becomes o n l y a p a r t o f a huge machine, c o u l d n o t have f e e l i n g s o f sympathy. He d i d n o t even c o n s i d e r a c h i l d t o be a p e r s o n . [p. 64] The a u t h o r chooses t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r p h y s i c a l appear-ance as they s l e e p , b a t h e d by the dim l i g h t o f m orning: The grey morning shone t h r o u g h a l a r g e c r a c k and, w i t h i t s d u s t y , m i l k y l i g h t , i l l u m i n a t e d the two s l e e p i n g f i g u r e s o f the most f o r m i d a b l e h o r s e - t h i e v e s o f t h e a r e a . K u p r i i a n s l e p t s t r e t c h e d out on h i s back, and h i s d a r k - b e a r d e d , h i g h cheek-boned, s t r o n g m a s c u l i n e f a c e was s e r i o u s and s t i l l ; he b r e a t h e d d e e p l y and e v e n l y , h i s . c h e s t r i s i n g and f a l l i n g . Vaska s l e p t 43 w i t h h i s l o n g t h i n l e g s c u r l e d up . . . and h i s arm under h i s head. H i s c l e a n - s h a v e n f a c e was d e a t h l y s t i l l and, : i n r t h e weak morning l i g h t , seemed ashen; he b r e a t h e d i r r e g u l a r l y w i t h w h i s t l e s and wheezes; h i s s l e n d e r neck was s t r e t c h e d out and h i s e y e l i d s f l u t t e r e d l i g h t l y . l i k e t h o s e o f a man ready a t any moment t o jump up and r u n . Tp. 65] The two " f o r m i d a b l e h o r s e - t h i e v e s " seem i n n o c e n t and p i t i -a b l e . A g a i n the d e s c r i p t i o n , as i n "Pasha-Tumanov," i s one o f mood, a c c o m p l i s h e d by a few b r u s h s t r o k e s . There i s a l a r g e group o f minor c h a r a c t e r s , v i l l a g e i n h a b i t a n t s , who add t o the p i c t u r e o f r u r a l l i f e . Many o f them are o n l y names, and f u n c t i o n i n "walk-on" p a r t s . There i s a t r i u m v i r a t e o f o f f i c i a l s a t the r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n when Egor a r r i v e s : the s e n i o r o f f i c e r Golovchenko, the c l e r k I s a e v , and a l o c a l p o l i c e m a n , Shchpurn. They are o n l y b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d ; :l"ike t h e ' f o u r *-po l i c e o f f i c e r s i n "Pasha Tumanov," these c h a r a c t e r s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the e s t a b -l i s h e d o r d e r . When th e y speak w i t h E g o r , they do n o t mention what they know about h i s w i f e and K u p r i i a n ; i n s t e a d they send g r e e t i n g s . t o Egor's w i f e . L i k e the p o l i c e c h i e f i n "Pasha Tumanov," th e y t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y p e t t y g o s s i p and i n t r i g u e . F edor G u n i a v y i i s the most d e v e l o p e d o f the p easant c h a r a c t e r s , a f t e r Egor. He i s d e s c r i b e d as he s i t s by t h e i c o n i n h i s h u t : " I n h i s t r o u s e r s , b a r e f o o t e d , w i t h h i s open s h i r t e x p o s i n g h i s dark h a i r y c h e s t , he seemed even t a l l e r and more gaunt" (p. 109). The d i a l o g u e between the r a s c a l l y Vaska and the r e l i g i o u s o l d man i s q u i t e humorous, and s e r v e s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e b o t h . K u p r i i a n and Vaska are s p e n d i n g the 44 n i g h t a t F e d o r ' s , when the t a l k t u r n s t o Matrena and K u p r i i a n . Vaska s a y s : 'What d i d he do, f o r c e h e r , d r a g h e r away? She was w i l l i n g . . . 1 G u n i a v y i frowned. ' A l s o t h e c l e v e r f e l l o w d i d n o t have t o tempt h e r . . . she h e r s e l f knows where i t i s sweet! 1 laughed Vaska. G u n i a v y i s i g h e d . ' A l l the same, i t ' s a s i n on K u p r i i a n ' s head... What's a woman?; She's b u t a f o o l — he l e d h e r i n t o s i n . . . and the s i n i s on h i s head!' 'You're h a r p i n g : a s i n ! ' Vaska s a i d s c o r n f u l l y . 'We know — * 'You do n o t know... 1 Vaska laughed s p i t e f u l l y . ' I f a h o r s e i s s t o l e n , and one h a r b o r s the h o r s e t h i e v e s , i s t h a t a s i n a l s o ? ' G u n i a v y i f e l l s i l e n t f o r a moment. ' That's d i f f e r e n t [Osob\ d e l o ] , ' he s a i d c a l m l y — 1 a h o r s e i s an a n i m a l , w h i l e a woman...' ' W e l l , i t ' s a l s o a s p e c i a l case [osob' d e l o ] w i t h women,1 c h u c k l e d V a s k a . 'They, are b o t h c r e a t e d f o r the same t h i n g . . . You know I took c a r e o f m a r k e t i n g the g i r l s a t our f a c t o r y . . . 1 'Ekh... y o u r f a c t o r y s o u l , a l o s t s o u l ! 1 w i t h s harp r e p r o a c h G u n i a v y i w h i s t l e d t h r o u g h h i s mustaches...- [pp. 110-111] Vaska i s a s w a g g e r i n g , happy-go-lucky t h i e f compared t o K u p r i i a n , who i s always r a t h e r g r i m and somber. Na t u r e i s used t h r o u g h o u t the s t o r y t o h i g h l i g h t v a r i o u s scenes and moods o f the c h a r a c t e r s . The r a i n i s l i k e a m u s i c a l r e f r a i n i n the f i r s t two c h a p t e r s . I t u n d e r l i n e s K u p r i i a n ' s d i s c o m f o r t and echoes h i s l o n e l i n e s s : 1) . . . through t h e r o a r o f the r a i n [shum dozh-d i a ] , i t seemed as i f someone were b e a t i n g a s t i c k 45 s h a r p l y a g a i n s t a b i r c h trunk.' : [ T h i s i s t h e sound o f M o z i a v y i ' s c a r t a p p r o a c h i n g . ] [p. 50] 2) "The r a i n r u s t l e d , r u s t l e d d r e a r i l y [Dozhd 1 vse s h u r s h a l , s h u r s h a l t o s k l i v o ] . Now and then the wind r o s e up i n the f o r e s t , and then a m y s t e r i o u s l o n g drawn-out r o a r i n g drowned out the r u s t l i n g o f the r a i n , b u t the n a g a i n i t began i t s p e r s i s t e n t w h i s p e r i n g . [p. 54] 3) [The sound o f M o z i a v y i ' s c a r t l e a v i n g ] m i n g l e d w i t h and then d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o the r o a r of the r a i n [shum d o z h d i a ] . [p. 56] 4) The r o a r o f t h e r a i n , drumming on the t h a t c h e d r o o f / was s t r o n g e r and s h a r p e r [Shum d o s h d i a , b a r a -b a n i v s h o g o po solomennoi k r y s h e , b y l s i 1 " n e e i rezc h e ] . [p. 58] 5) The r a i n b e a t down monotonously as b e f o r e . [p. 59] 6) They [ K u p r i i a n and Vaska] f e l l s i l e n t , and once a g a i n c o u l d be h e a r d the r o a r o f the r a i n and t h e c r e a k i n g o f the b i r c h e s . [p. 61] 7) [By morning] the o i l y c u r t a i n o f r a i n had f r o z e n . [p. 65] B e s i d e s the use o f n a t u r e as a b a c k d r o p , t h e r e i s t h e d i r e c t comparison o f K u p r i i a n t o a w o l f — an a n i m a l who i s al o n e i n t he c o l d , hungry and hunted. There are t h r e e p l a c e s i n the s t o r y where K u p r i i a n i s compared t o a w o l f : " K u p r i i a n f e l t m i s e r a b l e , as an e m a c i a t e d w o l f f e e l s m i s e r a b l e , when h u n t e r s a re c l o s i n g i n on a l l s i d e s " (p. 4 9 ) . K u p r i i a n says he l i v e s ". . . l i k e a w o l f , worse than a dog" (p. 6 1 ) . As he and Vaska come up from the r i v e r bank, "they c r a w l e d up and h i d l i k e two hungry w o l v e s , s c r u t i n i z i n g the road " (p. 134). A w o l f i s mentioned f o r the f o u r t h t i m e , b u t t h i s time i t i s a r e a l w o l f t h a t K u p r i i a n s e e s . He i s spe n d i n g a day alone i n the f o r e s t — the day t h a t i s t o be h i s l a s t : 46 Around midday a w o l f appeared a t the marsh and, s e n s i t i v e l y p r i c k i n g up his' e a r s , s t o o d on the o t h e r s i d e of t h e g l a d e . K u p r i i a n c o u l d see h i s p r o t r u d i n g r i b s and mangy haunches", on which hung clumps o f f u r . The w o l f s t o o d , s n i f f e d and, draw-i n g up h i s t h i n l e g s , l e a p e d o f f i n t o a t h i c k e t . 'Our b r o t h e r 1 — - l a u g h e d K u p r i i a n w r y l y . 'They t r y t o c a t c h you t o o — g i v e you no r e s t . . . and a l l because you must e a t . " [p. 142] K u p r i i a n ' s l i f e i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h a t of Egor and Mat r e n a , who are l a n d - h o l d i n g p e a s a n t s . K u p r i i a n e n v i e s t h i s l i f e as he remarks t h a t he would l o v e t o plough the <• • e a r t h and see green v e g e t a t i o n , a l l around (p. 6 1 ) . He i s j e a l o u s and e n v i o u s o f Egor as he w a i t s one e v e n i n g o u t s i d e t h e i r h u t f o r Matrena. He v i s u a l i z e s the cozy scene w i t h i n , and remembers w i t h a pang t h a t the time when he l i v e d such a l i f e i s o v e r . S h a r i n g Matrena\s h u n t , he was l i k e a dog who was t e m p o r a r i l y a l l o w e d t o warm h i m s e l f a t the h e a r t h . W i t h Egor's r e t u r n , he i s reminded t h a t he i s not a dog, b u t a w o l f — a l o n e and o u t s i d e the warmth o f s o c i e t y . The i n s i d e s o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s s t o r y ( h u t s , barns) are p l a c e s o f momen-t a r y r e f u g e from the e l e m e n t s . They are s t i l l o p p r e s s i v e , though, as i s Fedor's crowded, s t u f f y h u t : I n the h u t i t was d a r k , d i r t y and s t u f f y . On p l a n k b eds, and on t h e f l o o r under mats and s k i n s , s l e p t the c h i l d r e n o f G u n i a v y i , s n o r i n g i n u n i s o n . Cock-roaches r a n a l o n g t h e w a l l s and t h e i r shadows r a n a f t e r them. B e h i n d t h e s t o v e a c r i c k e t c h i r p e d monotonously and t h e wind c o u l d be h e a r d , t e a r i n g a t the wet t h a t c h o f the r o o f . [p. 109] The " o u t s i d e " i s c o l d and l o n e l y . There are o n l y b r i e f g l i m p s e s o f beauty i n n a t u r e . D u r i n g Egor's t r i p home, the sun b r e a k s t h r o u g h the c l o u d s , g i l d i n g whatever i t t o u c h e s : 47 . . . a l o n g the p l a i n d a r t e d dim and momentary r a y s o f s u n s h i n e and, as they c r e p t a l o n g t h e mangy back o f the p u f f - b e l l i e d l i t t l e h o r s e and M o z i a v y i * s t o r n army c o a t , t h e y g i l d e d them. [ p i 74] And — The sun l o o k e d o u t f o r a minute and ba t h e d t h e v i l l a g e w i t h a b r i g h t g l i t t e r , g i l d i n g the d i r t y , wet, t h a t c h e d r o o f s and s p a r k l i n g on the f a r - o f f new d e c o r a t i v e s i g n b o a r d o u t s i d e the l o c a l , g o v e r n -ment b u i l d i n g . [pp. 77-78] Matrena a l s o w i t n e s s e s a scene o f r a r e calm.and b e a u t y . She goes o u t s i d e i n t h e e v e n i n g , a f t e r Egor's r e t u r n and h i s b r u t a l b e a t i n g o f h e r . A l l i n t h e y a r d i s p e a c e f u l . " I t was a p l e a s a n t , c l e a r , warm e v e n i n g . The sky was t r a n s p a r e n t and i n i t the l i t t l e s t a r s had j u s t begun t o s p a r k l e " (p. 8 5 ) . The q u i e t and s e r e n i t y o f t h i s scene i s i n c o n t r a s t t o h e r own b l e a k , p a i n f u l l i f e . When K u p r i i a n spends h i s l a s t day i n t h e f o r e s t , a l l around him, i s warm and g o l d e n . The spider-webs are g i l d e d by the sun. He sees a f l o c k o f c r a n e s overhead and muses: ". . . they f l y . . . what a good t h i n g i t i s ! To f l y where you w i s h . . . n o t t o p l o u g h the e a r t h , o r s t e a l h o r s e s , . o r pay t a x e s . . . how good i t i s ! " (pp. 141-142). The cra n e s were mentioned e a r l i e r by V a s k a , and now K u p r i i a n watches them i n f l i g h t . They s i g n i f y the l o n g i n g i n the men f o r t h a t which i s u n f e t t e r e d and b e a u t i f u l . The cr a n e s are a symbol o f freedom, as are t h e b i r d s a t t h e r i v e r scene i n "Pasha Tuma-nov." N ature i n v e s t s t h e b i r d s w i t h a l i f e s e e m i n g l y a p a r t from the l i v e s and c a r e s o f men. Thus the a u t h o r d e p i c t s some o f t h e d e n i z e n s o f n a t u r e ' s r e a l m . 48 Man's r e a l m , h i s s o c i e t y , i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s of Egor S h i b a e v . He i s t o t a l l y w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e : a s o l d i e r and l a n d - h o l d i n g p e a s a n t . On the t r a i n home he t h i n k s o f h i s w i f e , h i s home and the "fame" which a w a i t s him. He w i l l be asked q u e s t i o n s about t h e c a p i t a l ( S t . P e t e r s b u r g ) , w i l l d r i n k and t e l l s t o r i e s . W h i l e away from home, he has had v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women, b u t t h e t h o u g h t t h a t h i s w i f e c o u l d be u n f a i t h f u l t o him does n o t e n t e r h i s mind. Upon s e e i n g h i s w i f e , Egor S h i b a e v s m i l e d h a p p i l y and c o n f u s e d l y . He i m m e d i a t e l y l i k e d t h e way she l o o k e d , a l t h o u g h he had remembered h e r d i f f e r e n t l y . He l i k e d the way she was d r e s s e d , a f t e r t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e c i t y , because he, as an o f f i c e r [ " u n t e r - o f i t s e r " : hoh-. commissioned o f f i c e r ] d i d not t h i n k i t f i t t i n g f o r h i s w i f e t o d r e s s i n t h e p e a s a n t s t y l e . [p. 80] When Egor r e a l i z e s what Matrena's bows and meekness s i g n i f y , and sees t h e s m a l l c h i l d Fed'ka, he i s enraged. He b e a t s h e r because t h i s p r a c t i c e i s j u s t as much p a r t of t h e p easant way o f l i f e as w o r k i n g the l a n d , s t e a l i n g wood o r d r i n k i n g vodka. The b e a t i n g i s d e s c r i b e d m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y w i t h no comments o r judgments o f f e r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r . E g o r ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , as c o n t r a s t e d with" t h e a n t i -s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e h o r s e - t h i e f , a l r e a d y marks him as t h e one who. i s p a r t o f t h e d i s e a s e d body o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . M a t r ena i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a meek woman, t a l l and t h i n ; h e r t h i n n e s s makes h e r l o o k o l d e r . She acknowledges h e r g u i l t b e f o r e h e r husband because h e r v a l u e s are t o t a l l y shaped by t h e p e a s a n t c u l t u r e i n which she l i v e s . She does n o t t r y t o defend h e r s e l f , b u t f e a r s " . . . t h a t Egor would l e a d h e r out i n t o t h e s t r e e t naked, l e a s h e d t o a c a r t , and would whip h e r i n f r o n t o f t h e p e o p l e , as was c u s t o m a r i l y done w i t h u n f a i t h f u l w i v e s " (p. 8 4 ) . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t Egor w i l l k i l l Fed'ka seems t o h e r i n e s c a p a b l e , and somehow " l a w f u l " ("zakonnym," p. 8 7 ) . There i s no i n t e r r u p t i o n by the n a r r a t o r t o comment on t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r f u n c t i o n s o n l y as o b s e r v e r . Matrena's p a s s i v e sadness resembles t h a t o f Pasha Tumanov's mother. Both women are t h i n , o l d e r - l o o k i n g and, i n t h e i r , p r e s e n t , s i t u a t i o n s , j o y l e s Both are o p p r e s s e d by the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r l i v e s . K u p r i i a n ' s and Matrena's r e l a t i o n s h i p , as i t i s s k e t c h e d i n the s t o r y , i s a p e r s o n a l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p and a g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t about l o v e i n the l o w e s t c l a s s . K u p r i i a n once mentions t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i v o r c e t o V a s k a , who l a u g h i n g l y says t h a t d i v o r c e i s o n l y f o r g e n t l e f o l k who have enough money t o pay the p r i e s t s . When Matrena comes t o meet K u p r i i a n , a f t e r h e r hus-band's r e t u r n , the time o m i s s i o n ' - — o r " f a d e - o u t " — i n t h e n a r r a t i v e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e y make l o v e , b u t no d e t a i l s are g i v e n : "They . . . sank down i n t h e musty g r a s s . The wind r u s t l e d and r u s t l e d [ s h u m e l ] , ' I have t o go, K u p r i i a n ' — w h i s p e r e d Matrena a f t e r h a l f an hour" (p. 104). K u p r i i a n i s f r u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t Egor i s t h e " l a w f u l " husband, and he, K u p r i i a n , has no r i g h t s . Almost a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , he s t r i k e s M a t r e n a , an a c t i o n which m a n i f e s t s a l l h i s 50 d e s p e r a t i o n , l o v e and j e a l o u s y . F i n a l l y , i t i s K u p r i i a n 1 s g u i l t b e f o r e M a t r e n a , and h i s l o v e f o r h e r , w h i c h make i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o escape from the d i s t r i c t w i t h o u t coming t o b i d h e r f a r e w e l l . T h i s sense o f o b l i g a t i o n t o the woman he l o v e s l e a d s t o h i s murder. S u r v e y i n g the p l o t , one sees t h a t c e r t a i n e v e n t s ensnare K u p r i i a n . I n t h e s e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r c h a r a c t e r s , the h o r s e - t h i e f d i s p l a y s a k i n d o f a n i m a l c u n n i n g . The p l o t throws him i n t o two o v e r l a p p i n g s i t u a t i o n s — E g o r ' s r e t u r n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the l o v e between K u p r i i a n and M a t r e n a , and the s e a r c h f o r the h o r s e - t h i e v e s w h i c h i s i n i t i a t e d by the new g o v e r n o r . I n b o t h cases K u p r i -i a n i s an o u t l a w : as an a d u l t e r e r and as a h o r s e - t h i e f . U n c o n s c i o u s l y , he a c c e p t s the c h a l l e n g e o f b o t h s i t u a t i o n s : he goes t o see M a t r e n a , and he s t e a l s the p r i e s t ' s h o r s e and the v i l l a g e commandant's new t r o i k a . I n b o t h cases the con-f l i c t s are between f o r c e s o f e q u a l s t r e n g t h , so l o n g as he has the advantage o f t h e w o l f — s t e a l t h . K u p r i i a n i n d e e d has a moment o f p e r s o n a l t r i u m p h as he r i d e s away d r i v i n g the commandant's t r o i k a : . . . n o t knowing why,,'only e x p e r i e n c i n g a l i g h t and u n b r i d l e d f e e l i n g f l o w i n g through h i s b r e a s t , he c r i e d o u t a t the t o p o f h i s v o i c e : 'Catch K u p r i i a n ! . . ' [p. 140] I f t h e a u t h o r had w i s h e d K u p r i i a n t o be a r o m a n t i c f i g u r e he c o u l d have ended the s t o r y w i t h such a scene: K u p r i i a n r i d i n g away f r e e l y , l e a v i n g . h i s p u r s u e r s f a r b e h i n d . But i n s t e a d 51 he d i e s a t the hands o f h i s enemies. The f i n a l g l i m p s e o f K u p r i i a n i s f l e e t i n g : " K u p r i i a n l a y pr o n e , h i s head bent f o r w a r d , and d i d n o t move. H i s h a i r was matted w i t h b l o o d and d i r t " (p. 152). Thus, he d i e s a f t e r b e i n g b e a t e n by a group o f pe a s a n t s l e d by Egor. He d i e s as he has l i v e d — f i g h t i n g . The pe a s a n t s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o l i v e t h e i r d u l l l i v e s as " b e a s t s , n o t p e o p l e " ( I b i d ) . " K r o v 1 " The b e a s t l y n a t u r e o f man i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o the peasant c l a s s , as the s t o r y "Krov'" (Blood) shows. One sees t h a t , o b v i o u s l y , by h i s f r e q u e n t use o f n a t u r e symbolism, A r t s y b a s h e v does n o t i m p l y t h a t " b e a s t " i s synonymous w i t h a n i m a l o r w i l d b e a s t . The a n i m a l s he p o r t r a y s are i n d e e d seldom b e a s t s i n t h i s sense.. Man, i n h i s g r o s s c r u e l t y t o h i s f e l l o w man, i n h i s j e a l o u s y and p r e m e d i t a t e d c r i m e s , i s "the b e a s t . " The s t o r y " K r o v 1 " makes c l e a r t h i s man-beast/ a n i m a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . "Krov'," w r i t t e n i n 1903, a p p e a r i n g i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Rasskazy ( S t o r i e s ) i n 1905, i s a problem s t o r y . I s i s as much concerned w i t h b u r n i n g i s s u e s as i s "Pasha Tumanov." B o r i s L a z a r e v s k i i mentions t h a t T o l s t o y was q u i t e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s t o r y as a prime example o f t h e need f o r a m o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f man t o h i s f e l l o w a n i m a l s . The s t o r y i s an argument f o r v e g e t a r i a n i s m . I n "Krov"' t h e a u t h o r j u x t a p o s e s two realms t h a t o f man and t h a t o f a n i m a l s . How does man r e l a t e t o the a n i m a l , n a t u r a l 52 w o r l d ? I n t h i s s t o r y he k i l l s , e a t s , s t u d i e s members of i t ; he w r i t e s about i t , p h i l o s o p h i z e s on i t , , w i s h e s to. s u b j u g a t e i t , b u t does n o t l o v e i t o r l e a r n from i t . The s e t t i n g o f t h e s t o r y i s a c o u n t r y e s t a t e owned by young V i n o g r a d o v , who has r e c e n t l y been m a r r i e d . Two ;-b r o t h e r s and a w r i t e r come from the c i t y t o v i s i t and s h a r e e n j o y a b l e s o c i a l p u r s u i t s : d r i n k i n g , e a t i n g , c o n v e r s i n g and h u n t i n g . B e s i d e s the two " w o r l d s , " o f man and of a n i m a l s , t h e r e are two s i d e s t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s . As one o f the v i s i t o r s , B o r i s o v , d e c l a r e s : " ' I n e v e r y man t h e r e i s always a b e a s t " 1 ("'V c h e l o v e k e vsegda z v e r ' s i d i t , ' " p. 200). The . n a r r a t o r o f t e n eavesdrops on t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' t h o u g h t s , showing t h e o u t e r man t o be d i f f e r e n t from the i n n e r . The c h a r a c t e r s — V i n o g r a d o v , h i s w i f e and h i s g u e s t s — presumably a l l g e n t r y , are s k e t c h e d i n the f i r s t pages o f the s t o r y . The e l d e r B o r i s o v i s a l e c t u r e r a t the u n i v e r s i t y , " t h i n , s h o r t - s i g h t e d and v e r y k i n d " (p. 190). H i s b r o t h e r , S e r g e i , i s " l o v e d by a l l f o r h i s h e a l t h y , handsome appear-ance and f o r h i s gay, even n a t u r e " ( I b i d . ) . The t h i r d , Gvozdev, i s a w r i t e r whose "works are h i g h l y v a l u e d by t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c who most of a l l demand s y m p a t h e t i c , s i n c e r e and k i n d i d e a s " ( I b i d . ) . The f r i e n d s b r i n g w i t h them t h e i r h u n t i n g dogs, A j a x and Marx, who s i t b e s i d e t h e i r m a s t ers a t t h e t a b l e and are p r a i s e d and p e t t e d . V i n o g r a d o v ' s w i f e , K l a v d i i a , i s d e s c r i b e d as s m a l l i n s t a t u r e , b l o n d e and l a r g e - e y e d . She has an a n g e l i c l o o k , as she w e l l knows, and t r i e s always t o be k i n d and g e n t l e i n k e e p i n g w i t h h e r l o o k s (p. 193). The tone o f t h e s e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s i s i r o n i c and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e , w h i l e o u t w a r d l y k i n d , s o c i a b l e and humane, p o s s i b l y are n o t r e a l l y as t h e y appear. Gvozdev's remark about the "other" s i d e o f man's n a t u r e under-l i n e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a l l i s n o t as i t a p p e a r s . The c o n v e r s a t i o n /turns t o . . . a r e c e n t b l o o d y e n c o u n t e r between two p o l i t i -c a l groups. [But] . . . as they were a l l o f the same p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n was gay and p l e a s a n t , d e s p i t e the sad theme. [p. 197] T h i s d e t a i l shows t h a t the h o s t and h i s g u e s t s are somewhat c a l l o u s , b u t t h a t t h i s d e t a c h e d way of r e l a t i n g t o t r a g e d y i s s o c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d and u s u a l b e h a v i o r . The V i n o g r a d o v s ' s e r v a n t s are t h e p h y s i c a l l i n k between the a n i m a l (barnyard), w o r l d and the human. W h i l e the g u e s t s t a l k and e n j o y each o t h e r ' s company, t h e cook A k u l i n a k i l l s c h i c k e n s and p r e p a r e s them f o r d i n n e r . The scene she e n c o u n t e r s a t t h e c h i c k e n - c o o p i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . The n a r r a t o r d e p i c t s the l i f e and f e e l i n g s o f the b a r n y a r d f o w l as he d i s c u s s e s t h e i r day. The c h i c k e n s " r a n around i n t h e sun and h a p p i l y pecked i n the warm manure. They were c o n t e n t e d , warm and s a t e d " (p. 197). A k u l i n a b i n d s the f e e t o f two b i r d s w h i c h are t o be used f o r d i n n e r and c a r r i e s them away t o be k i l l e d . The n a r r a t o r c h r o n i c l e s the l a s t m inutes o f t h e s e bound c r e a t u r e s : Most o f a l l , i t was u n n a t u r a l and t o r t u r o u s f o r , any l i v i n g c r e a t u r e t o be i n t h e p o s i t i o n head downward. And the e v e n i n g , w h i c h t h e y never saw because t h e y went t o s«l'eep as soon as t h e sun s e t , made an i n d e s c r i b a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on them — o n e o f d e a t h l y , a n i m a l t e r r o r . [p. 19 8] A k u l i n a ' s t w e l v e - y e a r - o l d s o n , P a s h k a , i s a good, q u i e t boy who v e r y much e n j o y s k i l l i n g a n i m a l s (p. 199). T h i s i r o n i -c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the d e s c r i p -t i o n o f how Pashka k i l l s one o f t h e c h i c k e n s : "The t h i c k , a l m o s t b l a c k b l o o d poured o n t o the ground; Pashka h e l d the r o o s t e r up by the f e e t and watched the b l o o d f l o w " ( I b i d . ) . The n a r r a t o r t h e n a b r u p t l y , and most e f f e c t i v e l y , s w i t c h e s back t o the scene a t the d i n i n g - t a b l e , where S e r g e i i s t a l k i n g about a s t u d e n t s c a n d a l , and i n t e r j e c t s h i s comment: "I n e v e r y man t h e r e i s a b e a s t . " Because t h e t o p i c o f con- . v e r s a t i o n has become u n p l e a s a n t , the h o s t o f f e r s more vodka: Gvozdev o n l y bowed h i s head, as h i s mouth was f u l l o f t he meat o f the c h i c k e n , and h i s s t r o n g w h i t e t e e t h , o f w h i c h he was so p r o u d , gnawed on t h e bones of the r e d r o o s t e r . [p. 201] Whether o r n o t one i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o the cause o f v e g e t a r i -anism, the above passage i s n o n e t h e l e s s e f f e c t i v e and p o w e r f u l . A scene t a k e s p l a c e l a t e r t h a t e v e n i n g w h i c h i s con-s t r u c t e d t o c o n t r a s t the animal/human w o r l d s and the i n n e r / o u t e r man. K l a v d i i a r e s t s h e r f e e t on a w o l f - s k i n : As she was v e r y b e a u t i f u l , and h e r f e e t were beau-t i f u l , a l l i n v o l u n t a r i l y l o o k e d a t h e r f e e t b u t , t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s was c r u d e , they p r e t e n d e d t o be• l o o k i n g a t t h e w o l f - s k i n . [p. 201] T a l k f o c u s e s on t h e s k i n , w h i c h i s t h a t of a s h e - w o l f w h i c h , V i n o g r a d o v b o a s t s , was a b i g , b e a u t i f u l a n i m a l . He t e l l s p r o u d l y how he s h o t h e r h i m s e l f . The f u r t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t e v e n i n g and t h e n e x t morning u n d e r s c o r e the th o u g h t s and b e l i e f s o f the c h a r a c t e r s . When t h e y speak o f whether a n i m a l s p i r i t s go t o heaven o r h e l l , K l a ' v d i i a becomes s e r i o u s because such "thoughts about t h e s o u l of an a n i m a l seemed d e g r a d i n g f o r what she c o n s i d e r e d a g r e a t p r o c e s s g o i n g on i n s i d e h e r " (p. 206). The n a r r a t o r adds t h a t K l a v d i i a had o f t e n seen p r e g n a n t a n i m a l s around h e r home b u t d i d n o t f e e l t h a t she had a n y t h i n g i n common w i t h them. O u t r i g h t h y p o c r i s y i s d i s p l a y e d once more when the n a r r a t o r j u x t a p o s e s thoughts t o words. When S e r g e i s i n g s , accompanied by V i n o g r a d o v , t h e y d i s c u s s modern m u s i c : "they argued h o t l y and s e r i o u s l y , a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d have l i v e d t h e i r e n t i r e l i v e s w i t h o u t music" (p. 208). W h i l e a r g u i n g , "they found i t p l e a s a n t t o d i s c u s s i n t e l l i g e n t and h u m a n i s t i c p o i n t s o f v i e w , as th e y c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o be i n t e l l i -gent and h u m a n i s t i c p e o p l e " ( I b i d . ) . L a t e r , t h e y d i s c u s s the f u t u r e : A l t h o u g h t h e y t a l k e d about the most d i v e r s e t h i n g s , the essence o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n was a d i s c u s s i o n of the good, k i n d and h o n o r a b l e i d e a s o f t h a t f u t u r e time which would be U t o p i a n , i n which they d i d n o t r e a l l y b e l i e v e , when e v e r y t h i n g —- p e o p l e and o r d e r o f l i f e —- would be d i f f e r e n t from the p r e s e n t and much b e t t e r , when t h e d i f f e r e n c e between good and e v i l would be c l e a r t o a l l . [pp. 209-210] Ch a p t e r F i v e i s devo t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the • s l a u g h t e r o f a lamb. Throughout t h e s t o r y , the n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s the g e n t l e f o l k and t h e an i m a l s a l t e r n a t e l y . A f t e r the l o f t y thoughts o f V i n o g r a d o v and h i s g u e s t s , t h e s t a r k , g r a p h i c b r u t a l i t y o f the s l a u g h t e r , o f t h e lamb v i v i d l y c o n f r o n t s the r e a d e r . The a n i m a l ' s h o r r o r when he r e a l i z e s t h a t he i s s t r u g g l i n g f o r l i f e i s c a r e f u l l y drawn. The a u t h o r must p e r s o n i f y the a n i m a l s t o some e x t e n t , because one does n o t r e a l l y know i n what way a c h i c k e n , o r a lamb, f e e l s " h o r r o r . " What one can t e l l i s t h a t the a n i m a l does d i s p l a y a sense o f i t s impending d e a t h . The c r i t i c P o l o n s k i s t a t e s t h a t the c o n t r a s t between the beauty and f r e s h n e s s o f the e a r l y morning and the p u r p l e , b l o o d y , lamb c a r c a s s i s one o f t h e most s t r i k i n g i n t h e s t o r y : A l l the sounds o f t h e morning seemed e s p e c i a l l y r e s o n a n t and s t r o n g . And the r o o f s , e a r t h , t r e e s washed by the dew, and even p e o p l e and a n i m a l s seemed b r i g h t , c l e a n and j o y f u l . E v e r y t h i n g shone and s p a r k l e d , b a t h e d i n a thousand hues. A l l b u s t l e d and r a n g , f i l l e d w i t h p o w e r f u l , b e a u t i f u l l i f e . . . even th e shadows seemed e s p e c i a l l y l i g h t and t r a n s p a r e n t . I t was o n l y a t the b a r n , on a s t e e l hook pounded i n t o the w a l l , t h a t something hung, b l u i s h - p u r p l e , g r e a s y , u g l y , f o r m l e s s and s t i l l . From i t d r i p p e d c o l d , l i f e l e s s b l o o d . [p. 214] Moreover, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r lamb was chosen by V i n o g r a d o v h i m s e l f , because i t was e s p e c i a l l y h e a l t h y , f a t and l i v e l y ( " z h i z n e r a d o s t n y i , " p. 210). Chapter S i x c o n t r a s t s K l a v d i i a ' s pregnancy w i t h t h a t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d c a t . The mother c a t b r i n g s h e r new-born k i t t e n s t o the bed o f t h e cook. A k u l i n a i s out o f s o r t s because o f t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e caused h e r . I t - i s d e c i d e d t h a t Pashka w i l l d i s p o s e o f the k i t t e n s , even though K l a y d i i a does l o v e a l l baby a n i m a l s and t r i e s t o save one from b e i n g drowned. Her " s e n s i t i v i t y " i s e v i d e n t as she t u r n s away 57 when Pashka p u t s t h e k i t t e n s i n t o h i s c o a t . The mother c a t t r i e s t o f o l l o w P a s h k a , b u t K l a v d i i a s h u t s the door q u i c k l y , b a r r i n g h e r way. As the mother c a t " p i t i f u l l y meows . . . Pashka drowns the k i t t e n s i n a d i t c h b e h i n d the a n i m a l y a r d and f o r a l o n g time watches the b u b b l e s r i s i n g i n t h e d i r t y , s h a l l o w w a t e r " (p. 219). The scenes f o l l o w i n g t h i s one d e s c r i b e t h e h u n t e r s en r o u t e t o the marsh. Gvozdev, a d m i r i n g t h e beauty and s t i l l -n ess o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , remarks t h a t he e n v i e s V i n o g r a d o v . V i n o g r a d o v r e p l i e s t h a t i t i s n o t always so i d y l l i c , b u t i s s e c r e t l y p l e a s e d t h a t he i s e n v i e d ; When V i n o g r a d o v was al o n e he d i d n o t pay much a t t e n -t i o n t o n a t u r e , t h a t i s , t o what we c a l l by t h a t name: f i e l d s , f o r e s t s , a n i m a l s , g r a s s , w a t e r , sky and sun. He n o t i c e d the grandeur o f a l l t h e s e much more i n p a i n t i n g s and w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s i n books. He s a i d he w o r s h i p p e d n a t u r e . But i n h i s c o u n t r y l i f e t h e bounty o f n a t u r e b o r e d him and seemed monotonous. And t h i s was n o t because he was a d r y , p r o s a i c p e r s o n , b u t s i m p l y because he was used t o v i e w i n g n a t u r e as a c r e a t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r h i s own s o l a c e and use. But now, when Gvozdev, r e v e l -i n g i n h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n a t u r e , e n v i e d him, ... t h i s l i f e among t h e r i c h e s o f n a t u r e became u n u s u a l l y p o e t i c , i n t e r e s t i n g and u n a t t a i n a b l e t o o t h e r p e o p l e who d i d n o t p o s s e s s h i s p o e t i c s o u l . . . [p. 220] The n a t u r e passages o f the f i n a l two p a r t s (Chapters Seven and E i g h t ) are e s p e c i a l l y v i v i d and d e t a i l e d . One d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e pu d d l e s a l o n g the ro a d i s an e s p e c i a l l y good example o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e : " . . . he r e and t h e r e s m a l l p u d d l e s s p a r k l e d , l i k e b i t s o f br o k e n b l u e and r o s e c o l o r e d g l a s s " (p. 221). L o o k i n g around them, the p a r t y d i s c u s s e s l i v i n g as T o l s t o y a n s i n . a c c o r d w i t h 58 n a t u r e , or even b e i n g h e r m i t s . S e r g e i c o n f i d e s t h a t he c o u l d n o t s e r i o u s l y t h i n k o f l i v i n g such a l i f e : 'Because n a t u r e i s a l i e n t o me. We are r a i s e d from c h i l d h o o d t o l o o k a t n a t u r e as a p l a c e f o r s t r o l l s and e d u c a t i o n a l e x c u r s i o n s . We are shown t h r e e t y p e s o f g r a s s and one r e e d , and t o l d t h e i r o r d e r , c l a s s and s p e c i e s . . . y e s , we are t o o f a r from the r e a l m o f n a t u r e and we can o n l y p l a t o n i c a l l y w o r s h i p h e r . ' [pp. 221-222] Gvozdev, th e w r i t e r , i s t h i n k i n g about a s t o r y he w i l l w r i t e i n w h i c h he w i l l show the d i s t a n c e between man and h i s c u l t u r e and n a t u r e . The n a r r a t o r ' s i r o n i c v o i c e i n t e r r u p t s once a g a i n , t o add t h a t Gvozdev i s so overwhelmed by h i s i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t he does n o t r e a l i z e t h a t t h e theme o f the s t o r y he p l a n s t o w r i t e i s n o t o r i g i n a l b u t v e r y o l d and t r i t e . A s t r i k i n g d e s c r i p t i o n p a i n t s the scene of l i f e a t the pond, and on t h e marsh where^.the men hunt. A g a i n t h e a n i m a l s are p e r s o n i f i e d t o show b e t t e r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o man's w o r l d . As i n p r e v i o u s p a s s a g e s , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r " f e e l i n g s " and "emotions" by the use o f a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs i m p l y i n g "human" s t a t e s o f mind are a major d e v i c e . The f o l l o w i n g paragraph d e s c r i b e s t h e l i f e o f the marsh c r e a t u r e s i n t h i s manner: And i t seemed as i f t h e whole marsh were a l i v e : i n e v e r y l i t t l e p l a c e l i f e e x i s t e d and l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s s t i r r e d . The ducks quacked c a l m l y and a c c u s i n g l y . . . here and t h e r e a handsome drake u n e x p e c t e d l y b r oke away i n f l i g h t and, h a v i n g i n s c r i b e d a wide h a l f -c i r c l e , l a n d e d l o u d l y p l o u g h i n g the b l u e w a t e r , w h i c h f o r a time c o u l d n o t calm i t s e l f and r i p p l e d , as i f s m i l i n g a t t h e sky which was r e f l e c t e d i n i t . L o ng-legged s n i p e s . . . w i t h j o y f u l c h i r p i n g sped 59 away t o the d i s t a n t shadowy grove . . . i n a s h a l l o w p l a c e t h e herons s t o o d c e r e m o n i o u s l y on one l e g , r e s t i n g t h e i r heads on t h e i r s h o u l d e r s ; they h e l d up t h e i r l o n g l e g s i m p o r t a n t l y as i f they were a d m i r i n g n a t u r e . White s e a g u l l s ; . . . c i r c l i n g above . . . l o o k e d v i g i l a n t l y around... And a l l was a hubbub, c r i e s and c h i r p s . And a l l t h e s e m i g h t y sounds were g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r by the g r e a t wave o f l i f e i n t o one e x u l t a n t d i n , w h i c h resounded a l l over the l a k e . [pp. 224-225] The men make war on t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e m a r s h l a n d . One duck, r e t r i e v e d by Marx, i s not y e t dead: "Marx h e l d i t down by p u t t i n g h i s paw on the wing t h a t had been broken by the s h o t . . . t h e n t h e e x c i t e d dog grabbed i t by the head and dragged i t a l o n g , t r e a d i n g on i t s w ings" (p. 227). As the h u n t e r s go deeper i n t o the marsh, "more and more s p o t s o f b l o o d were l e f t on t h e young green g r a s s " (p. 22 8 ) . The massacre c o n t i n u e s when Gvozdev must k i l l a c a p t i v e b i r d : One b i g o l d duck was o n l y s l i g h t l y wounded and Gvozdev's y e l l o w A j a x c o u l d n o t h a n d l e i t . He took th e duck by the wings and the t a i l , b u t i t k e p t t e a r i n g i t s e l f away, l e a v i n g t r a c e s o f down and b l o o d i n the dog's mouth. I t s h r i e k e d h o a r s e l y and h o p e l e s s l y . F i n a l l y , Gvozdev caught i t h i m s e l f . . . The duck's d e s i r e t o l i v e was so a p parent t h a t Gvozdev a l m o s t l e t i t go, b u t , m a s t e r i n g h i s h e s i -t a t i o n , he took i t by the wings and q u i c k l y and f o r c e f u l l y s t r u c k i t on t h e head w i t h the b u t t o f h i s gun. Drops of b l o o d s p r a y e d from the beak and the duck f e l l s i l e n t so s u d d e n l y t h a t i t seemed . . . as i f e v e r y t h i n g around him had f a l l e n - . s i l e n t . 'Here i s the n a s t y s i d e o f h u n t i n g , ' he t h o u g h t . [pp. 228-229] B o r i s o v e n j o y s t h e p o e t i c mood whi c h o v e r t a k e s him as he w a l k s w i t h gun i n hand y e t does n o t p e r c e i v e t h e l i f e t eeming around him. He m i s t a k e s the s i l e n c e o f t h e g l a d e f o r " l i f e l e s s n e s s " : 60 . . . t h i s q u i e t u d e was not t h a t of l i f e l e s s n e s s . I n t h i s m o t i d n l e s s n e s s was m i g h t y , h i d d e n work: r o o t s w i t h a l l t h e i r s t r e n g t h drew m o i s t u r e from the e a r t h , and on t h e branches downy, s t i c k y l e a f -J buds b u r s t o u t ; the young t e n d e r g r a s s t u n n e l e d t h r o u g h t h e d r y l e a v e s and pushed upwards . . . somewhere around the r o o t s , the m a j e s t i c eyes o f t h e f i r s t f l o w e r s l o o k e d around . . . l i f e was everywhere, q u i e t , u n n o t i c e d , b u t mighty. [pp. 230-231] He w i s h e s t o have a s t u f f e d b i r d made and s h o o t s a t a wood-p e c k e r , w h i c h he t h e n cannot f i n d . When he does come a c r o s s t h e dead b i r d , i t s - b e a k has been s h o t o f f and i t s body i s too damaged by the s h o t t o be used. I n d i s g u s t , he throws i t on a p i l e o f dead l e a v e s . As i f a l l t h i s has n o t been enough f o r t h e h u n t e r s , on the way home a f l o c k o f cranes i s s i g h t e d and S e r g e i jumps out of the wagon t o t a k e a s h o t a t them: The s h o t r a n g o u t ; i n t h e e n d l e s s steppe i t • • • seemed a m a z i n g l y u n n o t i c e a b l e . A minute p a s s e d . The c r a n e s /' e v e n l y - f l a p p i n g t h e i r wide w i n g s , ploughed on as b e f o r e i n t h e u n r e a c h a b l e h e i g h t s . Only one, the v e r y l a s t , seemed t o bend h i s head s l i g h t l y downward and t h e n a g a i n f i x e d h i s eyes ahead, as i f t o comment, w i t h s i l e n t h a t r e d on t h i s t h o u g h t l e s s attempt t o t a k e h i s l i f e . [p. 233] " K r o v " 1 p r e s e n t s the a u t h o r ' s v i e w t h a t , a l t h o u g h n a t u r e may y i e l d t o the d e p r e d a t i o n s o f man, h e r might t r a n s c e n d s h i s a s s a u l t s . A r t s y b a s h e v ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r through h i s o m n i s c i e n t n a r r a t o r i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s s t o r y , as i t i s i n "Pasha Tumanov." 61 "Smekh" and " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k G o l o l o b o v " . The c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f e t e r n a l n a t u r e l e a d s t o t h e i n s a n i t y of two men i n t h e s t o r y "Smekh" ( L a u g h t e r ) , 1903. Man's m o r t a l i t y becomes an o b s e s s i o n i n . t h i s s t o r y , and i n an e a r l i e r one (1902) , " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k G o l o l o b o v " ( E n s i g n -b e a r e r G o l o l o b o v ) . When f a c e d by the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f d e a t h , G o l o l o b o v commits s u i c i d e i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f l i f e . " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k G o l o l o b o v " and "Smekh" were pub-l i s h e d i n the 1905 volume -of s t o r i e s . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d here t o g e t h e r because they have a common theme — man's c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e i d e a o f d e a t h . "Smekh" i s almost t o t a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d from the d i a l o g u e between an inmate of a l u n a t i c asylum and h i s d o c t o r . " G o l o l o b o v " c o n t a i n s a l o n g scene i n d i a l o g u e , b u t the p l o t i s a l s o advanced t h r o u g h t h e e v e n t s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e and the thoughts o f the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r , Dr. S o l o d o v n i k o v . "Smekh," a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t 21 work, has no d i v i s i o n s i n t o p a r t s o r c h a p t e r s as do t h e o t h e r s t o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . B e i n g a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y n a r r a t e d by the d o c t o r , i t has no i n t r u s i v e , d i d a c t i c n a r r a t o r . The v i s u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i v i d n e s s o f the f i r s t p a r a g r a p h o f "Smekh" s e t s t h e mood f o r the s t o r y . I t may be n o t e d t h a t t h i s passage tends more t o e x p r e s s i o n i s m as i t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s the l a n d s c a p e t o the d i s e a s e d s t a t e s o f mind d e p i c t e d i n the s t o r y : Beyond the window s t r e t c h e d the f i e l d . Red, green and b l a c k s t r i p e s s t r e t c h e d one b e s i d e another i n t o 62 t h e d i s t a n c e and merged t h e r e i n a t h i n , c u r v i n g m i r a g e . There was so much l i g h t , a i r and e n d l e s s f r e e s p a c e , t h a t i t became o p p r e s s i v e i n one's own narrow, s m a l l and weary body. [p. 234] As the d o c t o r s t a n d s a t t h e window l o o k i n g out on the f i e l d , he watches b i r d s i n f l i g h t . He t h i n k s t h a t even i f they do have t h e freedom of f l i g h t , t h e y s t i l l must come t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e end. The thought t h a t n a t u r e i s e t e r n a l reminds him o f a v e r s e t h a t t h e n goes t h r o u g h h i s mind: " . . . over the g r a v e , w i t h e t e r n a l b e a u t y s p a r k l e s . . . i n d i f f e r e n t 22 n a t u r e " ("ravnodushnaia p r i r o d a " ) . Having r e a c h e d t h e age o f s i x t y - f i v e , he f e e l s the nearness o f d e a t h . He i s haunted by an i d e a e x p r e s s e d i n a book he once r e a d : t h a t as n a t u r e i s f i n i t e , sooner o r l a t e r t h e e x a c t s e r i e s o f e v e n t s t h a t produced him as an e n t i t y would r e c u r and produce a l i k e b e i n g t o h i m s e l f a g a i n . T h i s t h o u g h t , t h a t he i s b u t - a " c o m b i n a t i o n " w h i c h w i l l r e a p p e a r w i t h the r i g h t c i r c u m s t a n -c e s , makes him f e e l t h a t n a t u r e has d e n i e d h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . He i s o b s e s s e d w i t h the p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f d e a t h and decay, and has begun t o s u f f e r i n s o m n i a because o f t h e s e t h o u g h t s . At n i g h t i n the h o s p i t a l h i s mind d w e l l s on d e a t h , w h i l e t h e inmates s h r i e k and l a u g h . As he i s the s e n i o r d o c t o r a t t h e h o s p i t a l , he happens one day t o v i s i t a new p a t i e n t who proves t o be f a i r l y w e l l a d j u s t e d t o h i s new s u r r o u n d i n g s . He c a l l s h i s room "a gay l i t t l e room" ( " v e s e l e n ' k a i a komnatka"). He e x p l a i n s t o the d o c t o r why i t i s t h a t he has been put i n t o t h e ward. As he s t a n d s by the window l o o k i n g out a t the sun ("priamo n a v s t r e e h u 63 s o l n t s a " ) , h i s d i r t y y e l l o w gown i s g i l d e d by the sun's r a y s (p. 242) . T h i s i s a g a i n the use o f s u n l i g h t t o make u g l y t h i n g s b e a u t i f u l ^ as was n o t e d i n " K u p r i i a n . " The inmate laughs h i s d r y , wooden l a u g h , a t w h i c h the d o c t o r remarks t h a t l a u g h t e r does n o t become him. The p a t i e n t says t h a t , as a t h i n k i n g man, he c o u l d n o t h e l p becoming caught up i n t h o u g h t s o f d e a t h ; t h a t as he t h o u g h t more and more about death he began t o c r y a t n i g h t l i k e a c h i l d . He f i n d s the e x t i n c t i o n o f h i s " I " a most f e a r f u l t h i n g . I n r e a d i n g a book, he d i s c o v e r e d the i d e a t h a t n a t u r e i s c o m p l e t e l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o man and h i s l i f e : "Nature i s i r r e s i s t i b l e , no one can h u r r y h e r , and sooner o r l a t e r she c l a i m s h e r own. She knows n o t h i n g , n e i t h e r good nor e v i l , and does n o t t o l e -r a t e a n y t h i n g a b s o l u t e , e t e r n a l o r unchanging. Man i s h e r c h i l d . . . b u t she i s the mother n o t o n l y o f man, and she has no p r e f e r e n c e s : a l l t h a t she c r e a t e s , she c r e a t e s a t t h e expense of a n o t h e r ; she d e s t r o y s one i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a n o t h e r and i t ' s a l l the same t o h e r . . . ' [p. 244] The p a t i e n t c r i e s out a g a i n s t t h i s s e e m i n g l y b l i n d power o f n a t u r e t h a t w i l l c a l m l y d e s t r o y what she has c r e a t e d . He wonders how p e o p l e who know what he knows can s i m p l y go on about the b u s i n e s s o f l i f e . He t h e n r e l a t e s how he s t u d i e d astronomy and came upon a t h e o r y o f sun s p o t s . T h i s m a n i f e s -t a t i o n o f s o l a r energy would e v e n t u a l l y cause th e sun t o b u r n out and the e a r t h t o d i e o f c o l d . He says t h a t by the a c c e p t e d c a l c u l a t i o n s , the sun s h o u l d "go o u t " i n "no l e s s t h a n f o u r m i l l i o n y e a r s " (p. 250) . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h i s i s a mockery, because t h a t l e n g t h o f time might as w e l l be e t e r n i t y . He had t h e n made the d i s c o v e r y t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s c a l c u l a t i o n s had been i n c o r r e c t as they d i d n o t t a k e i n t o account t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e sun s p o t s would c o o l the sun. A c c o r d i n g t o h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e e a r t h would cease t o s u p p o r t l i f e i n f i v e t o s i x - t h o u s a n d y e a r s , n o t m i l l i o n s . N a t u r e h e r s e l f was n o t e t e r n a l and was a l s o condemned t o d e a t h . As the p a t i e n t e x p l a i n s h i s t h e o r y , the s u n l i g h t l e a v e s the room, as i f t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s words. As t h i s happens, i t i s n o t e d t h a t " i t was as i f a l l the o b j e c t s i n t h e room grew .heavy and s t u c k t o t h e f l o o r " (p. 249) . T h i s i s an a r r e s t i n g image which conveys mood as w e l l as v i s u a l e f f e c t . I n t h e absence of d i r e c t l i g h t , the madman appears "more p r i m i t i v e and c o a r s e " ( I b i d . ) . The p a t i e n t t e l l s the d o c t o r t h a t as soon as he c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e demise o f t h e e a r t h was imminent he w i s h e d t o convey t h i s t o e v e r y o n e , and he b e g i n s t o l a u g h u n r e s t r a i n e d l y . The d o c t o r , who has ceased t o t h i n k of a n y t h i n g b u t d e a t h , i s a l s o g r e a t l y p l e a s e d by the news t h a t n a t u r e w i t h h e r h a t e f u l "combina-t i o n s " w i l l cease t o e x i s t . They b o t h become g l e e f u l and l a u g h u n t i l t h e y are p u t i n t o r e s t r a i n i n g j a c k e t s . Perhaps the s t o r y c o u l d be c a l l e d "the l a s t l a u g h " ; i f s o , does n a t u r e have i t — o r the madman? The c h a r a c t e r s i n Chekhov's " P a l a t a No. 6" ("Ward No. 6,.'" 1892) and Andreev's " K r a s n y i smekh" ("The Red Laugh," 1904) are a l s o c o n f r o n t e d by the h o r r o r o f m o r t a l i t y . Super-, f i c i a l l y , "Smekh" resembles Chekhov's s t o r y : t h e r e are . 65 d o c t o r s i n b o t h who a t t e n d "madmen," and b o t h d o c t o r s r e c o g n i z e i n t h e end t h a t the madmen are the r e a l b e a r e r s o f t r u t h . A l l the c h a r a c t e r s ( A r t s y b a s h e v ' s and Chekhov's) f i n a l l y r e a l i z e t h a t they are h e l p l e s s . The f a t e o f the madmen, and o f t h e d o c t o r s i s t h e same. Andreev's " K r a s n y i smekh" d e a l s more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h d e a t h e n c o u n t e r e d i n war. War and t h e u n t i m e l y and t e r r i b l e .death which i t b r i n g s i s s y m b o l i z e d by the c r a z e d , b l o o d y " r e d l a u g h . " Both " P a l a t a ho. 6" and " K r a s n y i smekh" c o n t a i n more s o c i a l comment than A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t o r y , which d e a l s w i t h an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t u a l -i z a t i o n o f d e a t h , man and n a t u r e . Chekhov's s t o r y can be viewed as an i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e system.of m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s i n R u s s i a w i t h t h e i r f i l t h , mismanagement and inhuman l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The s t o r y by Andreev c a r r i e s t he t i m e l y message " t h a t i f war i s s e n s e l e s s and c r i m i n a l i n g e n e r a l , the p r e s e n t war [Russo-Japanese War,. 1904-05] i s even more 23 s e n s e l e s s and c r i m i n a l t h a n u s u a l . " The second s t o r y concerned w i t h the c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f d e a t h , " P o d p r a p o r s h c h i k G o l o l o b o v , " a l s o appeared i n t h e f i r s t volume o f s t o r i e s . The young G o l o l o b o v ' s o n l y accom--p l i s h m e n t i s t h a t he c a r r i e s o u t h i s own dea t h s e n t e n c e . The s t o r y as a whole i s n o n e t h e l e s s an a f f i r m a t i o n o f l i f e because t h e young man's s u i c i d e t e a c h e s the smug and s e l f -s a t i s f i e d h e r o , Dr. S o l o d o v n i k o v , an i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n . He l e a r n s t h a t he need o n l y l o o k around t o see the bea u t y o f l i f e . He awakens from h i s apathy and boredom and r e a l l y 66 b e g i n s t o l i v e . " G o l o l o b o v " i s the o n l y s t o r y i n t h i s group t h a t has an e p i g r a p h . The e p i g r a p h i s t h e theme o r , one c o u l d s a y , the message of the s t o r y : "'For a l i v i n g dog i s b e t t e r than a dead l i o n . ' (Ecc. 9:4)" The e n t i r e v e r s e i s : "For t o him t h a t i s j o i n e d t o t h e l i v i n g t h e r e i s hope: f o r a l i v i n g dog i s b e t t e r than a dead l i o n . " V e r s e 5 c o n t i n u e s : "For the l i v i n g know t h a t they s h a l l d i e : b u t the dead know not. any t h i n g , n e i t h e r have t h e y more reward; f o r the memory of them i s f o r g o t t e n . " The s t o r y i s based on the chance meeting of two a c q u a i n t a n c e s , S o l o d o v n i k o v and G o l o l o b o v , t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r t h a t n i g h t , and how i t a f f e c t s them. The d o c t o r i s i n -t r o d u c e d f i r s t , b u t no p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f him i s g i v e n ; o n l y h i s , moods and f e e l i n g s towards o t h e r s are presented-. He meets G o l o l o b o v i n the s t r e e t and g r e e t s him c o n d e s c e n d i n g l y as he c o n s i d e r s him " s t u p i d and undeveloped" (p. 154). A f t e r t h i s m e e t i n g , -.Solodovnikov spends an e v e n i n g at; h i s c l u b . He p l a y s b i l l i a r d s , d r i n k s b e e r and vodka, t a l k s w i t h a c q u a i n -t a n c e s and reads newspapers — one c o n s e r v a t i v e and one l i b e r a l (p. 155). The t e x t i s s i m p l y an e n u m e ration of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h no p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f the a c t i o n performed by the d o c t o r . The a c t i o n s are m e c h a n i c a l and u nremarkable. The o n l y f a i r l y l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f G o l o l o b o v w h i l e a l i v e employs l i g h t . As t h e d o c t o r passes by the young man's window, he o b s e r v e s him from th e vantage p o i n t o f the . 67 d a r k ness o u t s i d e . The d o c t o r t a p s on the window w i t h h i s cane, c a u s i n g the young man t o r a i s e h i s head: The b r i g h t l a m p l i g h t shone d i r e c t l y i n h i s f a c e . . . o b v i o u s l y he was s t i l l v e r y young, o n l y a boy: he had no mustaches o r b e a r d . H i s f a c e was p u f f y and b l e m i s h e d . He had s m a l l l i g h t - c o l o r e d e y e s , y e l l o w brows and c l o s e l y - c u t a s h - c o l o r e d h a i r . H i s f a c e was c o m p l e t e l y c o l o r l e s s and somehow i n s i g n i f i c a n t . [p. 156] G o l o l o b o v i s re n d e r e d as a l i f e l e s s , c o l o r l e s s b e i n g . The s t r o n g odor o f b r e a d and y e a s t w h i c h s t r i k e s the d o c t o r as he e n t e r s G o l o l o b o v 1 s room (the young man l i v e s by a bakery) c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e young man. I n s i d e t h e room t h e r e are i c o n s and a p a i n t e d E a s t e r egg, a t the s i g h t o f which the d o c t o r remarks t o h i m s e l f t h a t G o l o -l o b o v must be q u i t e r e l i g i o u s ( " ' V i s h 1 ty> bogomol'hyi k a k o i 1 , " I b i d . ) When t h e two b e g i n t o t a l k , the d o c t o r asks c o n d e s c e n d i n g l y why the young man had been, so l o s t i n t h o u g h t . T h i s q u e s t i o n e l i c i t s G o l o l o b o v ' s e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s own r e v e l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l i f e and d e a t h . He s a y s : "'The p o s i t i o n o f e v e r y man i s that>;of one who i s condemned t o d e a t h 1 " (p. 163). The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t he who i s se n t e n c e d by e a r t h l y powers can s t i l l hope f o r something t o save him, whereas he who i s se n t e n c e d by n a t u r e must go t o h i s end knowing i t i s r e a l and f i n a l . He has come t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s h i s body t h a t i s e t e r -n a l , b u t h i s s o u l o r essence d i e s ("dukh umret," p. 169). T h i s s e l f , essence o r " I " , G o l o l o b o v d e f i n e s as "my v i c e s , h a b i t s , funny and b e a u t i f u l s p e c i a l n e s s , my d o u b t s , my 68 i n t e l l i g e n c e , my s t u p i d i t y , my e x p e r i e n c e and my i g n o r a n c e " ( I b i d . ) The young man's r e a s o n i n g l e a d s him t o the b e l i e f t h a t , as man i s h e l p l e s s and must d i e , he can o n l y a v o i d an e x t e r n a l f o r c e t a k i n g h i s l i f e by t a k i n g i t h i m s e l f . By s u i c i d e he t r i u m p h s over "the death s e n t e n c e " : "'. . . t h i s w i l l be the o v e r p o w e r i n g o f n a t u r e by my s o u l . . . ' " (p. 168). T h i s r e a s o n i n g b r i n g s t o mind Dostoevsky's K i r i l o v i n Besy (The D e v i l s ) . However, i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t made by G o l o l o b o v t h e r e i s no mention of God i n any form (as man-God or God-man); t h e r e i s m e r e l y the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n from l i f e t o d e a t h . The o n l y h i n t t h a t perhaps G o l o l o b o v may b e l i e v e i n God o r p r a y i s g i v e n by the presence of the i c o n s . Perhaps he does seek r e f u g e i n C h r i s t i a n dogma. K i r i l o v s t a t e s t h a t he i s k i l l i n g h i m s e l f t o "'show my d e f i a n c e and my new t e r r i b l e 24 freedom'": d e f i a n c e , , i n t h i s c a s e , o f God. G o l o l o b o v k i l l h i m s e l f t o escape t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r . H i s " I " w i l l t r i u m p h i n t h e a c t , however b r i e f l y . I t has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d t h a t G o l o l o b o v may resemble another o f Dostoevsky's s u i c i d a l c h a r a c t e r s : I p p o l i t o f I d i o t (The I d i o t ) . Edward W a s i o l e k d i s c u s s e s the m o t i v a t i o n f o r I p p o l i t ' s s u i c i d e attempt as 25 r e v e a l e d i n Dostoevsky's Notebook: Commenting on I p p o l i t ' s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e D o s t o e v s k i i s a y s : 'There - i s p r i d e i n h e l p l e s s n e s s , ' and the P r i n c e h i m s e l f says i n t h e n o t e s : 'No, he won't k i l l h i m s e l f now, h a v i n g missed out on i t , f o r i t would make no i m p r e s s i o n on t h o s e p e o p l e , so now he won't k i l l h i m s e l f . ' 2 6 69 The n o t e s make s t a r k and c l e a r the u n p l e a s a n t , i n d e e d v i c i o u s s i d e o f I p p o l i t ' s c h a r a c t e r . . . . The p e t t y , i n t r i g u i n g and c r u e l s i d e o f h i s c h a r a c -t e r a t the end o f the n o v e l i s a l r e a d y i m p l i c i t i n h i s f a l s e l y h e r o i c g e s t u r e s when he reads h i s l a s t c o n f e s s i o n . The notes c o n f i r m t h i s : ' I p p o l i t —-the v a n i t y of a weak c h a r a c t e r . ' 2 7 G o l o l o b o v , however, i s n o t p o r t r a y e d as c r u e l o r v a i n . He i s s i m p l y young, and i n the s o l i t u d e i n w h i c h he l i v e s has been obsessed w i t h t h o u g h t o f d e a t h . As the e v e n i n g p r o g r e s s e s , the d o c t o r f i n d s t h a t he i s i m p r e s s e d by the young man's words. Y e t he cannot d e c i d e whether G o l o l o b o v * s t h e o r y i s v e r y c l e v e r o r v e r y s t u p i d . H i s mood changes g r a d u a l l y as he becomes more a g i t a t e d and u n c o m f o r t a b l e . As he f i n a l l y l e a v e s , he i s s e i z e d by t h e f e a r t h a t G o l o l o b o v may commit s u i c i d e a f t e r h i s d e p a r t u r e . Once o u t s i d e , S o l o d o v n i k o v rushed back t o the window, where he " i m a g i n e s " t h a t he sees smoke from a gun. But h i s p r a c -t i c a l n a t u r e p r e v a i l s and he goes home w o r r y i n g t h a t perhaps he had been o b s e r v e d by the young man and appeared f o o l i s h . Because o f h i s a g i t a t e d s t a t e of mind, h i s own home l o o k s e s p e c i a l l y dark and f o r e b o d i n g . Here the absence of l i g h t u n d e r s c o r e s a l l h i s f e a r s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s . The weather i s a l s o h o s t i l e : The r a i n r o a r e d u n c e a s i n g l y . . . i n the b i g house a t the owner's window the flame of the b l u e i c o n lamp burned w e a k l y , and i n h i s own wing the windows were d a r k . These dark windows seemed e s p e c i a l l y s i n i s t e r . Now f o r the f i r s t time he p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o h i s w i n g : i t was an o l d , c r u m b l i n g house, w h i c h was e n t i r e l y c l o s e d i n by a dark m o t i o n l e s s , mass, of t r e e s . Among t h e s e huge s i l e n t t r e e s t h e house seemed s m a l l and m y s t e r i o u s , and i t suddenly seemed t e r r i b l e t o V l a d i m i r I v a n o v i c h t h a t he l i v e d and would spend th e n i g h t i n such a house. [p. 173] The gloom i s d i s p e l l e d m o m e n t a r i l y when he i s g r e e t e d a t the door by h i s s e r v a n t . I n h i s own room, however, the d o c t o r i s once more e n g u l f e d by t h o u g h t s of d e a t h . He t r i e s t o r e a d b u t c a n n o t , and a f t e r he t u r n s out the l i g h t he watches the glow o f h i s c i g a r e t t e i n t h e . d a r k n e s s : The g l o w i n g end o f t h e c i g a r e t t e q u i e t l y glimmered i n h i s hand and, now and t h e n f l a r i n g up, i l l u m i -n a t e d a p a r t o f the w a l l , the d e s i g n o f t h e w a l l p a p e r , . t h e f i n g e r s , b l a n k e t and mustaches o f V l a d i m i r I v a n o v i c h . [p. 175] L i g h t i s a g a i n used here i n an e s p e c i a l l y v i v i d image. As the d o c t o r watches the c i g a r e t t e d i e o u t , he muses on t h e f i n a l i t y o f d e a t h . He remembers t h a t Turgenev's Baz a r o v says a burdock w i l l grow where we d i e , — b u t what i f n o t even t h a t happens, i f a l l i s gone? He t h i n k s o f a l l t h o s e who have come b e f o r e him and gone t o .dust. As though t o u n d e r l i n e t h e s e thoughts, o f e x t i n c t i o n , h i s c i g a r e t t e goes o u t . The spark o f t h e c i g a r e t t e has gone — the s p a r k o f l i f e i n man w i l l a l s o cease t o b u r n . As the n i g h t p a s s e s , he comes t o the same c o n c l u s i o n as G o l o l o b o v : t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o t a k e one's own l i f e . He a l s o wonders why he has n o t t h o u g h t o f t h i s b e f o r e , and why he d i d n o t r e a l i z e what a unique p e r s o n was G o l o l o b o v . The d o c t o r i s a l m o s t i n a d e l i r i u m when h i s s e r v a n t comes t o f e t c h him: G o l o l o b o v has committed s u i c i d e . As. t h e s e r v a n t e n t e r s the room h i s f a c e looms up o u t o f t h e d a r k n e s s . A t f i r s t t h e d o c t o r does n o t even r e c o g n i z e t h e s e r v a n t o r know what i s h a p p e n i n g : .71 ;. 'And what k i n d o f an i d i o t t h i n k s about how one s h o u l d l i v e b e t t e r o r more h o n e s t l y , when a l l one -s h o u l d t h i n k about i s how t e r r i b l e i t i s t o d i e ? ' he thought w i t h anger and r i s i n g , as i f i n a d e l i r i u m , l o o k e d a t t h e b r i g h t r e d flame b e f o r e him and someone's t e r r i b l y p a l e f a c e . But t h i s was the f a c e o f P a s h k a , who s t o o d w i t h a c a n d l e i n h i s hand. [pp. 180-181] A f t e r the t h o u g h t s o f t h e n i g h t , the d o c t o r i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the r e a l i t y o f d e a t h . I n t h e p l a c e o f G o l o l o b o v ' s f a c e t h e r e i s " n o t h i n g b u t a r e d s p l o t c h " (p. 183). One o f the c o r p s e ' s eyes i s open and seems t o be a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y : "But t h i s eye no l o n g e r resembled a b e a u t i -f u l human eye; i t was a r e p u l s i v e , d u l l , huge, dead e n t i t y , dumbly and t e r r i b l y l o o k i n g a t l i f e " ( I b i d . ) . T h i s eye i s t h a t o f death as i t l o o k s o u t on the l i v i n g . What the d o c t o r s e e s , G o l o l o b o v ' s corpse,. does not remind him o f the l i v e man. When he t h i n k s of a l l the young man's t r a i t s and man-n e r i s m s , h i s p h y s i c a l b e i n g i n l i f e , i t s t r i k e s him j u s t how unique a c r e a t i o n he was. The d o c t o r b r e a k s down and s o b s , showing h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g the n i g h t , from a man who thought G o l o l o b o v t o be an i n s i g n i f i c a n t c r e a t u r e , t o a man who r e a l i z e d t h e beauty and r a r i t y o f each s i n g l e human l i f e . L e a v i n g the house, S o l o d o v n i k o v i s g r e e t e d by the beauty o f dawn. The r i s i n g sun a t t e s t s t o t h e t r i u m p h once a g a i n o f . l i g h t o v er d a r k n e s s , o f l i f e o v e r d e a t h : R i g h t i n f r o n t o f V l a d i m i r I v a n o v i c h t h e s t i l l h i d d e n sun was r i s i n g , and t h i s p l a c e i n t h e sky was b l i n d i n g l y b r i g h t : i t shone, burned and s p a r -k l e d . The a i r q u i v e r e d and f l o w e d i n one's c h e s t i n f r e e , m i g h t y , c l e a n and t e n d e r waves. [p. 187] The d o c t o r l o o k s around him as i f f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n a t t e n d a n c e a t the s u i c i d e cannot h e l p s m i l i n g a t t h e f e e l i n g s o f l i f e and s t r e n g t h embodied i n t h e morning. He s u g g e s t s t h a t he and the d o c t o r go f i s h i n g some t i m e . The d o c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e toward p e o p l e has been m o d i f i e d , and t h i s o f f e r seems t o i him a p l e a s a n t one. He m a r v e l s a t h i s own l e g s , as he "watches them" w a l k i n g . He g r e e t s a w h i t e dog and he r e a l i z e s t h a t "he and t h e dog were l o o k i n g a t each o t h e r , n o t l y i n g i n d i f f e r e n t and unmoving [dead] i n t h e m i d s t of t h i s l i v e l y , moving w o r l d " (p. 189). T h i s dog i s perhaps an i n c a r n a t i o n o f the " l i v e dog" mentioned i n the e p i g r a p h . He and the d o c t o r a r e , i n d e e d , " b e t t e r than a dead l i o n . " The d o c t o r i s overpowered by the beauty of the morning and t h e s e n s a t i o n s i t p r o d u c e s . The f a c t t h a t he must e v e n t u a l l y d i e no l o n g e r seems i m p o r t a n t . The a f f i r m a -t i o n o f l i f e i n t h i s s t o r y i s c e r t a i n l y the mose p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t made about l i f e i n the e a r l y s t o r i e s . T h i s j o y o f l i f e comes t o f u l l b l o o m . i n t h e n o v e l S a n i n . " I z p o d v a l a " The c r i t i c Baranov d e c l a r e s t h a t " I z p o d v a l a " (From the Basement) i s "one o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s f i n e s t a r t i s t i c 2 8 moments." T h i s s t o r y o f 1903, p u b l i s h e d i n the second volume of s t o r i e s (1906), a g a i n r e v o l v e s around the theme o f man o p p r e s s e d by s o c i e t y . I t s p r o t a g o n i s t , Anton th e shoe-maker, works i n a d i m l y - l i t basement. He i s abused by h i s 73 c l i e n t s and t h i n k s t h a t i t , i s t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r o f t h i n g s t h a t he be t h u s t r e a t e d . He e v e n i t h i n k s t h a t i f t h e r e were any lower s o c i a l l y t han h i m s e l f he i n t u r n would abuse them a l s o . The h a r s h words and blows he r e c e i v e s from o t h e r s he a c c e p t s as the f u n c t i o n o f a human s a f e t y v a l v e w h i c h goes o f f "so t h a t the p e t t y , b e a s t l y rage l i v i n g i n t h e c o w ardly depths of p e o p l e ' s s o u l s would n o t s u f f o c a t e them" (p. 3 ) . Anton's j o y l e s s l i f e i s compared t o t h a t o f a p l a n t w h i c h was l e f t b e h i n d by a p r e v i o u s t e n a n t o f t h e basement. "Anton o f t e n l o o k e d a t t e n t i v e l y a t t h i s p i t i f u l p l a n t , w h i c h was d y i n g a s low death from the l a c k of a i r and s u n s h i n e , and f o r some.reason he was l o a t h t o put i t o u t s i d e i n t h e c o u r t -y a r d " (p. 2 ) . The i n t e r i o r o f h i s basement room,is c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the b r i g h t c o u r t y a r d . The w a l l s of the house r i s i n g up on a l l s i d e s t o s u r r o u n d him make h i s p o s i t i o n l i k e t h a t o f b e i n g a t the bottom of a w e l l (p. 3 ) . When i n t h e e v e n i n g he goes out t o l o o k a t the c l e a r b l u e s k y , he i s so used t o b e n d i n g o v e r h i s work t h a t h i s head i s drawn downward t o the dark e a r t h . H i s work g i v e s him no j o y ; he makes b o o t s "no b e t t e r or worse t h a n anyone e l s e " ( I b i d . ) . When he t r i e s t o p l a y h i s a c c o r d i o n i n the e v e n i n g s he i s chased away by the j a n i t o r . H i s w i s h i s t o go t o t h e c o u n t r y some Sunday and p l a y h i s music and r e s t . Anton's p a s t i s r e l a t e d i n a b r i e f f l a s h b a c k . There was a time when i t seemed t h a t he c o u l d have a happy l i f e . He began t o c o u r t a s e a m s t r e s s , made h e r a p a i r o f b o o t s and was about t o propose t o h e r , when by a case o f m i s t a k e n i d e n t i t y he was s e n t t o p r i s o n f o r s i x months. There he . r e a l i z e d t h a t something i r r e v e r s i b l e had o c c u r r e d i n h i s l i f e . When he was r e l e a s e d , he d i d not go t o v i s i t h i s s e a m s t r e s s , b u t l e a r n e d t h a t she had t a k e n up w i t h "a f i n e gentleman" (p. 7 ) . From then on Anton worked, s l e p t and drank. H i s s t a t e of d u l l sadness i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a l i v e l y scene a t a house he p a s s e s . Through a window he sees l i g h t and a c t i v i t y and h e a r s v o i c e s and m u s i c . H i s l o n g i n g t o h e a r o r p l a y music i s h i s s o u l ' s y e a r n i n g f o r beauty and something t o l i g h t e n t h e burdens o f l i f e . Someone c l o s e s the window, c u t t i n g o f f the sounds o f t h e l i f e w i t h i n . H i s day ends w i t h a dream o f b e i n g r u n over by the heavy wheels of a c a r r i a g e d r i v e n by a drunken cabman. Anton's s o c i a l l i f e c o n s i s t s o f v i s i t s t o t a v e r n s . He . t r i e s t o watch a game o f b i l l i a r d s , and admires the s k i l l o f one o f t h e p l a y e r s , b u t i s d r i v e n , away. He has no one t o t a l k t o , i s not even a l l o w e d t o watch o t h e r s e n j o y i n g them-s e l v e s i n a game. By "the u s u a l r o a r i n h i s e a r s and t h e way i n w h i c h sounds seemed.muffled and f a r away, Anton under-s t o o d v e r y w e l l t h a t he was drunk" (p. 1 0 ) . He i s ashamed and f e e l s o f f e n d e d , as i f someone were t o blame f o r h i s drunken s t a t e . He says t o h i m s e l f " * I am a w o r k i n g man'" ( I b i d . ) T h i s would i m p l y t h a t he has some r i g h t t o h a p p i n e s s and t o the r e s p e c t and f r i e n d s h i p o f o t h e r men. When he t r i e s t o ease h i s t o r t u r e d s o u l by s i n g i n g , he i s t o l d i t i s 75 "not a l l o w e d . " He the n g e t s i n t o a f i g h t and i s thrown out i n t o the s t r e e t . And then he. u n d e r s t o o d c l e a r l y t h a t h i s l i f e was w i t h o u t j o y — a b i t t e r l i f e — t h a t he was c o n t i n -u a l l y wronged and i n s u l t e d . . . Anton began t o weep and shook h i s f i s t a t the l o c k e d d o o r . [p. 14] S e e i n g t h e men w i t h whom he f o u g h t l e a v e the t a v e r n , he pursues them, c l u t c h i n g h i s shoemaker's k n i f e . He c a t c h e s up w i t h them as they s t o p t o t a l k w i t h a woman " i n a huge r e d h a t , which swayed l i k e a phantom i n t h e dim l i g h t o f the s t r e e t lamp" (p. 1 5 ) . T h i s image evokes a n a g h t m a r i s h f e e l -i n g . F i n a l l y o v e r t a k i n g the men, he s t a b s one. H i s f l i g h t from the murder scene i s r e n d e r e d by v i v i d v e r b s : "Anton f l e w , l e a p i n g , c r a w l i n g , w h e e z i n g , p a n t i n g , g r o w l i n g l i k e a w i l d a n i m a l b e i n g pursued" (p. 1 6 ) . He o u t - d i s t a n c e s h i s p u r s u e r s and spends the n i g h t i n a s m a l l h o l l o w . D i s j o i n t e d images o f the p a s t hours f l a s h t h r o u g h h i s mind as he r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s former l i f e i s o v e r and t h a t he w i l l n e v e r r e t u r n t o h i s basement. "The f e e l i n g o f freedom was g r e a t e r t h a n h i s f e a r and be w i l d e r m e n t " (p. 1 7 ) . He spends the day wandering i n an u n f a m i l i a r p a r t o f t h e c i t y and r e s t i n g i n a f i e l d : He t r i e d t o imagine something f e a r f u l , b u t he s i m p l y f e l t f r e e , calm.and happy. He was not a f r a i d of the p o l i c e because he a l r e a d y knew p r i s o n l i f e and even t h a t was b e t t e r t h a n the hungry, c o l d , j o y l e s s and s l a v i s h l i f e he l i v e d as a f r e e man. . . . He f e l t no re p e n t a n c e o r sorrow; on the c o n t r a r y , he f e l t t e r r i b l y t r i u m p h a n t , u n u s u a l l y b r a v e b u t d e s p e r a t e . [p. 19] As n i g h t f a l l s , he approaches the town b e a r i n g the 76 l o o k o f one w a i t i n g f o r someone."to grab by the t h r o a t " ( I b i d . ) . The s t o r y ends w i t h a n a t u r e image: "a free,-s t e a d y , s t r o n g wind blew m o u r n f u l l y a c r o s s the b r o a d f i e l d " ( I b i d . ) . The s t o r y i s the account of the making of a c r i m i n a l . Anton i s o p p r e s s e d , d e s p e r a t e f o r human warmth, and when he i s c r u e l l y r e j e c t e d and pushed t o o f a r he s t r i k e s out b l i n d l y . The i n c i d e n t i n the t a v e r n r e l e a s e s h i s s u p p r e s s e d h o s t i l i t y . He i s no l o n g e r w i l l i n g t o e x i s t on t h e l o w e s t rung of the s o c i a l l a d d e r . The murder he commits p l a c e s him o u t s i d e s o c i e t y . I n the f i n a l l i n e s o f the s t o r y , the " f r e e , s t r o n g wind" s y m b o l i z e s the f o r c e o f l i f e and the w i l l t o be f r e e from any f e t t e r s . T h i s wind o f freedom blows "mourn-f u l l y , " f o r Anton has p a i d a h i g h p r i c e t o f r e e h i m s e l f from s o c i e t y . * * * * * * * The s i x s t o r i e s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r are u n i f i e d by t h e a u t h o r ' s keen o b s e r v a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the drama o f l i f e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e are a s p e c t s o f t h e works w h i c h may be d e f i n e d as m o d e r n i s t i c , the s t o r i e s are more i n k e e p i n g w i t h the R u s s i a n r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . Perhaps the most o b v i -ous o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h e s e two l i t e r a r y movements t o be found i n A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s e a r l y works i s the m o d e r n i s t antagonism t o a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h can be l i k e n e d t o the r e a l i s t ' s s o c i a l con-s c i o u s n e s s . Both u s u a l l y i m p l y the need f o r o r d e s i r a b i l i t y of s o c i a l change. "Pasha Tumanov," "Kupriian," "Krov" 1 and "Iz podvala" make very strong statements about the ugliness and inhumanity of society. The only noble man i s the one who exists outside the s o c i a l order. The only man who l i v e s honestly i s the one who r e a l i z e s that the essence ,of l i f e can only be discerned by the i n d i v i d u a l , i n many cases by confronting death ("Podpraporshchik <Gololobov") or by com-muning with nature (Kostrov i n "Pasha Tumanov"). The dictum that death and nature are man's only r e a l i t i e s echoes throughout Artsybashev*s works. Ideas and techniques t y p i c a l of the early stories continue i n l a t e r works. Artsybashev's concern with s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l immediacies i s expressed i n "Rabochii Shevyrev" (The Worker Shevyrev, 1907), "Bunt" (The Rebellion, 1905), "Teni utra" (Morning Shadows, 1905), "Krovavoe piatno" (The Blood-stain, 1906) and "Chelovecheskaia volna" (The Human Wave, 1907). The i n d i v i d u a l i s t characters — Kostrov, Kupri-ian and Vaska, and Anton the shoemaker — share some t r a i t s with Artsybashev's famous i n d i v i d u a l i s t Sanin. L i f e , as portrayed by thi s author, i s both a be a u t i f u l experience and a b r i e f l i g h t i n the void. The early stories depict both the love of l i f e found i n Sanin and the negation of l i f e exempli-f i e d by Artsybashev's other novel, U poslednei cherty (The  Breaking Point). Man as beast or as s o c i a l beast reappears also i n many of the l a t e r works. Artsybashev's depiction of the relationships between men and women as exemplified i n 78 " K u p r i i a n " i s comparable i n many ways t o t h a t i n l a t e r w orks. K u p r i i a n and Matrena share a t r u e and r e a l b u t i l l i c i t l o v e . The s o c i e t y w h i c h s a n c t i o n s the m a r r i a g e o f Matrena and Egor may, i n t h e extreme, a l s o a l l o w s t h e husband t o b e a t h i s w i f e t o d e a t h . The t r u t h e x p r e s s e d by the e p i g r a p h t o S a n i n , which i s t a k e n from E c c l e s i a s t e s : "Lo, t h i s o n l y have I fo u n d , t h a t God h a t h made man u p r i g h t ; b u t they have sought out many i n v e n t i o n s " (7:29) — i s a l s o b a s i c t o the e a r l y s t o r i e s . P a r t 2: "Smert" Lande" — The L i f e o f a T w e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y S a i n t . . . he [ C h r i s t ] was not c a r r y i n g on any l i b e r a l o r p o l i t i c a l f i g h t a g a i n s t the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s , b u t wanted t o walk h i s own way, u n t r o u b l e d and u n d i s t u r b e d by these a u t h o r i t i e s . Max S t i r n e r , The Ego and H i s Own The l o n g s t o r y , "Smert* Lande" (The Death o f L a n d e ) , a l s o b e l o n g s t o the e a r l y p e r i o d (1900-1904). I t s p u b l i c a -t i o n i n i s s u e 12 o f Z h u r n a l d l i a vsekh f o r 1904 drew the a t t e n t i o n o f many well-known w r i t e r s t o t h e work o f young A r t s y b a s h e v . Gorky wrote t o Andreev t h a t he c o u l d n o t imagine how Lande c o u l d be "a p o s i t i v e type.""'" He remarks: Read A r t s y b a s h e v * s s t o r y i n Z h u r n a l d l i a v s ekh and see what a t r u e man, a p o s i t i v e t y p e , s h o u l d be. Even a hungry b e a r wouldn't e a t such a man, so r e p u l s i v e l y sweet, a sugar b e e t and n o t a man!^ T o l s t o y f e l t t h a t t h e r e were p a r t s o f the s t o r y which were 79 s t r o n g . Soon a f t e r the s t o r y appeared, i t was r e a d a l o u d t o him, i n the presence o f a few f r i e n d s . I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t T o l s t o y commented a f t e r one passage: "'Now, t h a t i s s i n c e r e ^ ' " G i p p i u s p r a i s e d t h e s t o r y , remembering i t i n a p i e c e she wrote a f t e r h e r e x i l e : He i s a r e a l a r t i s t . H i s t a l e n t i s o u t s t a n d i n g , though a t times uneven and even f a u l t y . I s t i l l remember h i s o l d , i m p r e s s i v e and p r o f o u n d s t o r y , "The Death o f Lande.' He i s n o t o n l y a t a l e n t e d w r i t e r o f f i c t i o n , b u t a l s o a v e r y t a l e n t e d p e r s o n . ^ A l e k s a n d r B l o k c o n s i d e r e d A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t o r y t o be " c h a r a c -5 t e r i s t i c " o f h i s w r i t i n g o f t h a t t i m e . The poet f e l t t h a t the s t o r y resembled Dostoevsky's The I d i o t . He w r i t e s : J u s t l i k e P r i n c e M y s h k i n , the g e n t l e Lande r e c e i v e s a s l a p i n t h e f a c e ' f o r good.' And t h r o u g h o u t one f e e l s the i n f l u e n c e o f Dostoevsky and Andreev and the a r t i s t i c d e v i c e s o f Chekhov.° The p o p u l a r c r i t i c s o f the day a l s o made v a r i o u s comments about "Smert' Lande." L a n d e 1 s C h r i s t i a n . o r i e n t a t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l i n g t o K h a r b a r o v , who b e l i e v e d t h a t Lande was "a g r a n d i o s e i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l f a r i n advance 7 of o t h e r heroes o f A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t o r i e s . " V o l z h s k i i d evotes a whole segment o f one a r t i c l e t o a s t u d y o f "Lande." He t o o l i k e n s A r t s y b a s h e v ' s h e r o t o P r i n c e M y s h k i n i n Dosto-evsky's The I d i o t . He f e e l s t h a t the work r e p r e s e n t s "the freedom and courage o f h i s [ A r t s y b a s h e v ' s ] young, s e a r c h i n g , 9 d a r i n g t a l e n t . " The c r i t i c P i l ' s k i i sees A r t s y b a s h e v ' s t a l e n t d i v i d e d between the m o r a l i s t and the i m m o r a l i s t ; "Smert 1 Lande" i s a 80 c r e a t i o n of t h e m o r a l i s t . 1 ^ These two o p p o s i t e a s p e c t s o f A r t s y b a s h e v 1 s c r e a t i v i t y make p o s s i b l e the p o r t r a y a l o f b o t h the C h r i s t i a n Lande and the m a n - b e a s t . 1 1 When one reads the s t o r y , the form o f the " s a i n t l y l i v e s " comes t o mind. A s c h o l a r of o l d R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e , N. K. G u d z i i , d i s c u s s e s the z h i t i i n y i zhanr (genre o f the s a i n t l y l i f e ) i n h i s I s t o r i i a d r e v n e i r u s s k o i l i t e r a t u r y ( H i s t o r y o f O l d R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e ) . G u d z i i i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s a i n t l y one's l i f e f o l l o w s a p r e s c r i b e d o r d e r : i ) " H i s p a r e n t s a re devout and n o b l e . 2) He has a e a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n towards the s c r i p t u r e s . 3) He s c o r n s the sweetness o f e a r t h l y l i f e and 4) i s a s t r i c t a s c e t i c . 5) he has a b l e s s e d d e a t h and 6) a f t e r h i s d e a t h m i r a c l e s o c c u r around h i s p l a c e o f b u r i a l . Other t r a d i t i o n a l elements o f t h i s form a r e : t h e c h i l d l e s s n e s s o f the p a r e n t s u n t i l the b i r t h o f t h e s a i n t l y one, h i s d e p a r t u r e from the p a r e n t a l home, the d i s t r i b u t i o n by the s a i n t o f h i s b e l o n g i n g s t o t h e p o o r , and h i s r e j e c t i o n o f w o r l d l y g l o r y . C e r t a i n l y , a s p e c t s o f the s t o r y "Smert' Lande" are t y p i c a l o f t h i s genre. A l s o , the genre may be i n t e r p r e t e d as s i m p l y a paradigm of an Orthodox C h r i s t i a n g o d l y l i f e . A r t s y b a s h e v uses one o f h i s best-known c h a r a c t e r s , 13 V l a d i m i r S a n i n o f t h e n o v e l S a n i n , t o comment on Lande. S a n i n says he once knew Lande and was i n f l u e n c e d by him f o r a w h i l e . He remarks t h a t t h e t r y i n g e v e n t s i n the l i f e o f C h r i s t are m i r r o r e d i n Lande's l i f e . Lande does not d e f e n d 81 h i m s e l f when a t t a c k e d , f o r g i v e s t h o s e who wrong him, t r e a t s e v e r y man as h i s b r o t h e r , and i s c h a s t e . The c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n o f Lande, a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h s e l e c t e d d e t a i l s and key words and p h r a s e s , shows him t o be g e n t l e , meek and l o v i n g . . H i s g e s t u r e s , s p e a k i n g v o i c e , p h y s i c a l appearance and a c t i o n s are drawn t o p r e s e n t a c o n s t a n t l y g e n t l e p e r s o n . Lande i s i n t r o d u c e d by the f o l l o w i n g passages as he goes t o meet f r i e n d s i n t h e s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l town where he i s v i s i t i n g , h i s mother's home: Lande approached,; s m i l i n g c a l m l y and q u i e t l y . He was a s l i g h t , t h i n man, and h i s s t e p s were b a r e l y a u d i b l e upon t h e damp e a r t h . He_ spoke q u i e t l y , b u t d i s t i n c t l y and c a l m l y , and c o u l d always be h e a r d . [p. 23] [Molochaev] l o o k e d him [Lande] f u l l i n the f a c e as i f l o o k i n g t h r o u g h h i s pure and calm eyes i n t o h i s s o u l . [ I b i d . ] I n the i n t r o d u c t o r y twenty pages o f the s t o r y , L a n d e 1 s c h a r a c t e r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y d e p i c t e d as q u i e t and g e n t l e : — c a l m l y and q u i e t l y w a l k e d . . . and s m i l e d [p. 22] — spoke q u i e t l y , b u t d i s t i n c t l y and c a l m l y [p. 23] — s o f t l y s m i l e d [p. 23] — pure and calm eyes [p. 23] — s m i l e d and t e n d e r l y spoke [p. 24] — s o f t v o i c e [p. 24] — g e n t l y , c a l m i n g him, s m i l i n g , s a i d [p. 28] s a d l y s m i l e d [p. 29] — j o y o u s l y and g e n t l y s m i l e d [p. 33] — h i s v o i c e was e s p e c i a l l y calm and t e n d e r [p. 33] — he l e f t , s o f t l y s m i l i n g [p. 34] 82 — he s m i l e d s a d l y [p. 38] — h i s s p i r i t was calmed [p. 42] — a f u l l and joyous s e n s a t i o n r o s e up i n him [p. 42] The o b s e r v a t i o n s o f two major c h a r a c t e r s e a r l y i n the s t o r y supplement L a n d e 1 s image. The main female c h a r a c t e r , M a r ' i a N i k o l a e v n a , says o f Lande: "'he i s a dear one and somehow s t r a n g e — b l e s s e d , i n n o c e n t ! ' , " ( " b l a z h e n e n ' k i i " , . p. 33) . The o t h e r main male c h a r a c t e r , the . a r t i s t Molochaev, says": "'That Lande i s some k i n d of F o o l - i n - C h r i s t 1 1 1 (p. 3 4 ) . There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n o f a d j e c t i v e s and adverbs i n t h e s e f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s : Lande i s "calm," "pure," " q u i e t " and " l o v i n g " and a l l h i s a c t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e s e t r a i t s . The r e p e t i t i o n s impress t h i s upon the r e a d e r . H i s s t e p i s so l i g h t i t i s b a r e l y n o t i c e d . I n h i s g r e e t i n g t h e r e i s s i n c e r i t y , g u i l e l e s s n e s s and a v e r y g e n t l e l o v e f o r those he meets. When Lande hear s o f the p l i g h t o f the w o r k ers on s t r i k e a t a l o c a l m i l l he d e c i d e s t o g i v e h i s monetary i n h e r i t a n c e from h i s f a t h e r t o t h e s e men and t h e i r d e s t i t u t e f a m i l i e s . Thus, the " s a i n t l y one" g i v e s h i s w o r l d l y goods t o the needy. H i s mother does not u n d e r s t a n d h i s w i s h t o g i v e away h i s i n h e r i t a n c e , and c a l l s him a f o o l -i s h c h i l d . She asks how he w i l l l i v e , and he r e p l i e s , as the t r u e h o l y man who t h i n k s n o t of the morrow, "-'Somehow.'" On Lande's f i r s t day a t home, he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h many p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h weigh upon him. B e s i d e s the m i s f o r t u n e s o f the w o r k e r s , h i s f r i e n d Semenev i s d y i n g o f t u b e r c u l o s i s and i s b i t t e r and a f r a i d . D u r i n g h i s f i r s t 83 n i g h t a t home, w h i l e a l o n e i n the d a r k n e s s , Lande i s t o r t u r e d by h i s own l a c k o f f a i t h . Semenev's f a t e s u g g e s t s t o him the end t h a t a w a i t s a l l . H i s s t a t e o f mind i s s k i l l f u l l y d e p i c t e d : . .. . around him was e m p t i n e s s , o n l y e n d l e s s e m p t i n e s s . Somewhere t h e r e were s t a r s , o n l y s t a r s ! 'And I am n o t as much as a g r a i n o f sand, and l e s s , much l e s s , and.my l i f e i n e t e r n i t y i s n o t an i n s t a n t ' . . . Then he remembered t h a t k i t t e n w h ich V e r s h i l o v ' s coachman had p i c k e d up by the s c r u f f o f the neck and dashed t o the ground, k i l l i n g i t — and t o Lande i t seemed t h a t he hung by t h e s c r u f f o f the neck o v e r an a b y s s . . . he yearned t e r r i b l y f o r someone t o r e a s s u r e him t h a t he was n o t a l o n e i n the unfathomably immense u n i v e r s e . . . [pp. 39-40] Lande i s r e l e a s e d from h i s dilemma by p r a y e r and abasement of the f l e s h . He l e a v e s the warmth o f h i s bed and l i e s down on the c o l d b a r e f l o o r , thus f e e l i n g u n i t e d w i t h the workers i n t h e i r h a r d s h i p s . L y i n g on the f l o o r , he e x p e r i e n c e s a calm and b l i s s f u l f e e l i n g from ;a r e s u r g e n c e ..of f a i t h : , A f u l l , j oyous f e e l i n g arose i n him, and t h e space around him was f i l l e d w i t h something immense, l i g h t and t r a n s p a r e n t . H i s f e a r v a n i s h e d l i k e smoke.. I t was c o l d on t h e f l o o r and Lande' :s body t r e m b l e d . . . t h e n s u d d e n l y t h e h a r d n e s s o f the f l o o r and t h e c o l d and the dark and h i s own r i d i c u l o u s d i s c o m f o r t — a l l f a d e d and became u n n o t i c e a b l e , u n i m p o r t a n t . . . And he was suspended and calmed i n a j o y f u l s t a t e r e s e m b l i n g the g r e a t e s t and d e e p e s t h a p p i n e s s . . . T h i s was the l a s t time i n h i s l i f e t h a t he had the l e a s t d o u b t , t h a t he was t r o u b l e d f o r a minute i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of f u t u r e t r i a l s . A s t r a i g h t r o a d , w e l l i l l u m i n a t e d , s t r e t c h e d ahead i n h i s s o u l . [p. 42] Lande's t r a v a i l s and m o r t i f i c a t i o n of t h e f l e s h are f u r t h e r c h r o n i c l e d . The scene w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e as he v i s i t s an a c q u a i n t a n c e , Tkachev, i n j a i l i s a f u r t h e r t e s t i m o n i a l 84 t o L a n d e 1 s f a i t h . Lande argues t h a t one must l o v e l i f e d e s p i t e e v e r y t h i n g . H i s words are l i k e "a song from h i s h e a r t . " He t r i e s t o f o r t i f y the man's f a i l i n g s p i r i t s w i t h a few words about n o n - r e s i s t a n c e t o e v i l : 'You must n o t meet enmity w i t h e n m i t y ! 1 Lande s a i d , w i t h s h i n i n g , wide-opened e y e s , as i f he were n o t t h i n k i n g about what he s a i d . . . 'never w i l l you f e e l such j o y , such peace, such g r a t i f i c a t i o n as when you v a n q u i s h t h e h a t r e d i n y o u r s e l f ! . . [pp. 49-50] D u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o Tkachev, Lande c o n t i n u a l l y t r i e s t o t a k e the p r i s o n e r ' s hand i n a g e s t u r e o f u n i t y and l o v e . T h i s g e s t u r e i s u n c o n s c i o u s and shows h i s s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o r e a c h Tkachev. Throughout th e e n c o u n t e r L a n d e 1 s appearance r e f l e c t s h i s i n n e r s t a t e : " H i s l i g h t h a i r s t u c k t o h i s f o r e -h ead, h i s l i p s and hands t r e m b l e d , and o n l y h i s eyes were, as b e f o r e , s h i n i n g w i t h l o v e and p i t y " (p. 5 2 ) . Tkachev says t h a t perhaps Lande i s a h o l y man ( " ' s v i a t o i c h e l o v e k ' " ) because h i s s o u l i s " ' c l e a n and c l e a r as a p i e c e o f g l a s s ' " (p. 5 3 ) . The p r i s o n e r f i n a l l y v e n t s a l l h i s b i t t e r n e s s on Lande, c a l l i n g him "'a h o l y s o u l on c r u t c h e s ' " and "*a f o o l ' " (p. 5 6 ) . T h i s s t a t e m e n t echoes i n the f o u l c e l l as a con-demnation and a c u r s e . Lande has no words t o c o u n t e r t h i s a t t a c k , and the drama o f the m e e t i n g hangs h e a v i l y as the c h a p t e r ends. He has reached out t o a f e l l o w man o n l y t o be denounced as i m p o t e n t : "'a h o l y s o u l on c r u t c h e s . ' " L a t e r i n the n a r r a t i v e , w h i l e on an e v e n i n g walk w i t h M a r ' i a N i k o l a e v n a , Lande i s a t t a c k e d and robbed by Tkachev, who has been r e l e a s e d from j a i l , and a n o t h e r man., Lande 85 g i v e s h i s p u r s e and o u t e r c l o t h i n g t o the t h i e v e s w i t h o u t r e m onstrance. The a r t i s t Molochaev, who i s n e a r , h e a r s M a r ' i a ' s c r i e s f o r h e l p and h u r r i e s t o h e r a i d . He a t t a c k s the t h i e v e s , b u t Lande t r i e s t o s h i e l d them from h i s b l o w s . He i s a poor and c o m i c a l f i g u r e o f a man compared t o the b r u t a l l y s t r o n g Molochaev. He s t a n d s h u m i l i a t e d and h a l f -naked b e f o r e M a r ' i a , the a r t i s t and Tkachev, but i s n o t d i s t r e s s e d by t h i s and p i t i e s the t h i e f , t h i n k i n g : "'when he j e e r e d a t me, he s u f f e r e d more t h a n I , t h i s I saw...'" (p. 86). Lande, because of h i s a s c e t i c n a t u r e , i s d i s s o c i a t e d from some o f the u s u a l emotions o f l i f e and does n o t r e c o g -n i z e t h a t Mar i a N i k o l a e v n a has f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h him. She b e l i e v e s him t o be a " d e a r , r a d i a n t , pure" ( " m i l y i , s v e t l y i , c h i s t y i " ) b e i n g (p. 127). She dreams o f m a r r i a g e t o him w h i c h would c r e a t e a pure r e l a t i o n s h i p , e l e v a t i n g h e r s p i r i t . . She does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between body and s p i r i t i n t h e same way as he does, and l o v e s him b o t h as a man and as a pure s o u l . Once Lande i s s e v e r e l y b e a t e n as he a g a i n t r i e s t o mediate between Tkachev and Molochaev. M a r ' i a and Seme-nev's s i s t e r d e c i d e t o s i t w i t h him t h r o u g h the n i g h t . As Lande l i e s p a l e and weak on t h e bed, M a r ' i a l a y s h e r head on h i s c h e s t . When she k i s s e s him f o r the f i r s t t i m e , "Lande, k i s s e d h e r g e n t l y l i k e a c h i l d " (p. 143). She k i s s e s him more f e r v e n t l y and opens h e r eyes t o see h i s " c o l d , a f r a i d , d i s t r e s s e d f a c e " (p. 144). He t e l l s h e r t h a t he l o v e s h e r , b u t n o t i n t h a t way. He does n o t respond t o the p h y s i c a l 86 n a t u r e o f h e r l o v e . D u r i n g L a n d e 1 s l a s t m e e t i n g w i t h Tkachev, th e t h i e f begs him t o be t h e p r o p h e t of a "new f a i t h . " Lande vehe-mently d e c l i n e s , s a y i n g t h a t a l l one can do i s t o r e f r a i n from d o i n g e v i l . " ' T r a v e l y o u r own r o a d , ' " he s a y s , "'and i f someone goes w i t h you —— l e t them... i f y o u r l i f e i s r i g h t e o u s , i t s t r a c e w i l l n o t d i s a p p e a r , b u t w i l l c o n t i n u e t h r ough th e a g e s ! . . 1 " (p. 154). Tkachev, who w i s h e s d e s p e r -a t e l y t o f i n d a p e r s o n a l and w o r l d s a v i o r i n Lande, a n g r i l y denounces him a g a i n , s a y i n g , " ' C h r i s t ' s f o o l , unhappy one'" (p. 155). Thus, Lande's l i f e t o t h i s p o i n t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the s a i n t as d e f i n e d by G u d z i i , and a l s o , i n some r e s p e c t s , f o l l o w s the l i f e o f C h r i s t . He does n o t respond t o the sweetness o f e a r t h l y l o v e , he t u r n s the o t h e r cheek t o h i s t o r m e n t o r s , preaches, l o v e and f a i t h , g i v e s h i s money t o t h e p o o r , and i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p o s s i b l e g l o r y a w a i t i n g a "new p r o p h e t . " H i s s o l i t a r y d eath i n t h e f o r e s t c o n c l u d e s the s t o r y , and i s a f i n a l p o i n t o f comparison t o the " L i v e s " genre.. There are no m i r a c l e s a f t e r Lande's d e a t h . I n f a c t , the odor of d e c o m p o s i t i o n coming from h i s body r e p e l s t h r e e R i a z a n p e a s a n t s who happen upon i t . The b o d i e s o f s a i n t s are o f t e n a l l e g e d t o be f r e e of s i g n s o f decay. The l a s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o r p s e shows i t c o v e r e d w i t h l e a v e s and damp e a r t h "as i f t h e ground had a l r e a d y s e i z e d him w i t h i t s m o i s t 87 f e e l e r s and were s l o w l y and f i r m l y drawing him down t o i t s e l f " (p. 189). From L a n d e 1 s d e a t h s p r i n g s : l i f e o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d , as the f i n a l l i n e o f t h e s t o r y r e l a t e s : . " O n t h i s p l a c e , from y e a r t o y e a r , a f e r n grew e s p e c i a l l y l u x u r i a n t l y and j o y o u s l y " ("radostno,," p. 190). T h i s t h e a u t h o r p r e s e n t s as the g r e a t e s t o f a l l m i r a c l e s . The f a c t t h a t Lande's body decays i s a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t o f the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l a y i n g - o u t of F a t h e r Zossima i n The B r o t h e r s Karamazov. The s m e l l of c o r r u p t i o n i s s u e s from the p r i e s t ' s body so soon a f t e r h i s death t h a t i t i s c o n s i d -e r e d a s i g n t h a t h i s t e a c h i n g had been f a l s e . A r t s y b a s h e v ' s f i n a l s t a tement i n t h e s t o r y echoes the words o f Zossima and seems t o v i n d i c a t e them: Love a l l God's c r e a t i o n , t h e whole and e v e r y g r a i n o f sand o f i t . Love e v e r y l e a f , e v e r y r a y o f God's l i g h t . Love th e a n i m a l s , l o v e t h e p l a n t s , l o v e e v e r y t h i n g . I f you l o v e e v e r y t h i n g , you w i l l p e r c e i v e the d i v i n e m y s t e r y i n t h i n g s . 1 5 Lande's l a s t d a y s , s p e n t i n t h e f o r e s t i n a d e s e r t e d h u t , have a m y s t i c a l a i r about them. H i s s o l i t u d e b e g i n s a f t e r he has c r o s s e d a l a r g e r i v e r . T h i s may s y m b o l i z e c r o s s i n g o v e r i n t o the o t h e r w o r l d , conveyed from one bank t o the o t h e r by a boatman l i k e Charon f e r r y i n g s o u l s on the R i v e r S t y x . The boatman b l e n d s v i s u a l l y so w e l l w i t h h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h him from the r i v e r f o l i a g e . Lande and t h e boatman-muzhik ex-change a few i d e a s about l i f e . Lande says t h a t most o f a l l one must " ' l o v e and p i t y o t h e r s . 1 " To t h i s the boatman 88 answers, "'You say we must l o v e . . . how can we l o v e when a t some time we may have our t h r o a t s s l i t f o r a c r u s t o f b r e a d ! ' " (p. 181). They do b o t h a g r e e , however, t h a t s u f f e r -i n g i s n e c e s s a r y , and t h a t t h a t w h i c h goes f o r w a r d i n t h e w o r l d does so because of the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of s u f f e r i n g . Lande's o b s e r v a t i o n s and s e n s a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t are v e r y sharp* As he s i t s beneath the t r e e s , he p e r c e i v e s c o l o r s , l i g h t and l i f e a l l around him. A t midday a t h i n b e a r approaches him. Lande has no f e a r as he and t h e b e a r c o n f r o n t each o t h e r : "That he might a t t a c k him d i d n o t e n t e r h i s mind, because h i s s o u l was a t peace so n o t h i n g mean o r c r u e l c o u l d e n t e r i t " (p. 185). He o n l y w i s h e s t o g i v e t h e b e a r some b r e a d , b u t c o n s i d e r s h i s movement, mi g h t f r i g h t e n the c r e a t u r e . T h i s segment, was most, l i k e l y s u g g e sted by the L i f e o f S t . S e r g i u s o f Radonezh, who b e f r i e n d e d a b e a r : [The b e a s t ] formed the h a b i t o f always coming t o the s a i n t and t h e l a t t e r , knowing i t , would b r i n g out o f h i s c a b i n a s m a l l c r u s t o f b r e a d and p u t i t upon a l o g o r stump. . . . But when b r e a d was l a c k i n g and the b e a r came as u s u a l he would n o t go away f o r a l o n g time b u t would s t a n d l o o k i n g here and t h e r e , w a i t i n g l i k e a m e r c i l e s s c r e d i t o r f o r h i s d e b t . I f t h e s a i n t happened t o have o n l y one c r u s t , he was o b l i g e d t o d i v i d e even i t i n t o two p a r t s . Autumn has begun and Lande i s exposed t o the c o l d r a i n . He f a l l s i l l and, as he f e e l s h i s h o l d on l i f e e b b i n g , he says t o h i m s e l f , "'Here one may d i e ' " (p. 185). He r e a l -i zes, t h a t Semenev, whom he has l e f t home on f o o t t o v i s i t — a j o u r n e y o f a thousand v e r s t s — must now be a i d e d by a power g r e a t e r t h a n h i s own. S u f f e r i n g from c o l d and i l l n e s s , 89 Lande t h i n k s , ' " L o r d , Thy w i l l be done'" (p. 186). D u r i n g h i s l a s t h ours he e x p e r i e n c e s a s t r a n g e s e n s a t i o n : Suddenly a l l around him was b a t h e d i n a y e l l o w l i g h t as i f t h e r e were an i n v i s i b l e lamp somewhere above him. By i t s s t r a n g e l i g h t i t seemed t o Lande t h a t he s t o o d b e s i d e h i s own body w h i c h was w r i t h i n g i n p u d d l e s , p i t i f u l i n a wet, b l a c k c a s s o c k , d i r t y , unhappy —- l i k e a worm. T e r r i b l e s u f f e r i n g and f e a r c l u t c h e d Lande's h e a r t . He c r i e d out and h i t h i s head a g a i n s t t h e o v e r h a n g i n g branches . . . many f a m i l i a r f a c e s w i t h l i v e l y g l o w i n g eyes came c l o s e r i n an e n d l e s s s t r e a m , bowed t o him i n t u r n and d e p a r t e d . The 'lamp' shone now as i f n o t b e h i n d him b u t r a d i a t i n g from him . . . — a weak b u t c l e a r l i g h t shone on t h e f a c e o f t h o s e bowing t o him. I t was not t h o u g h t , n o t d e l i r i u m , n o t f e e l i n g , b u t the r a d i a n t l i g h t of a m i r a c u l o u s r e v e l a t i o n t h a t p i e r c e d the i n f l a m e d b r a i n o f Lande, and i n t h a t i n s t a n t a l l h i s l i f e .was s p l i t i n t o two p a r t s : i t was as i f something huge, l i g h t and m i r a c u l o u s i n -i t s m y s t e r y , t h a t w h i c h had been h i s l i f e , removed i t s e l f from him and s l o w l y d i s p e r s e d , f i l l i n g the space around him; and h i s v e r y k e e n e s t s u f f e r i n g — s o l i t a r y , d a u n t l e s s and f i n a l — s e i z e d him w i t h s h a r p claws and drove him t o the ground. [pp. 187-188] I n t h i s v e r y s t r o n g and m y s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n Lande*s p h y s i c a l d e a t h i s c h r o n i c l e d . The image o f h i s d u a l n a t u r e , as he " l o o k s a t h i s own body," i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g . Lande's C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t a t i o n i s expanded t o encompass a l l o f n a t u r e . He i s t r a n s f e r r e d from the r e a l m o f man t o the r e a l m o f n a t u r e . W i t h h i s death he becomes a p h y s i c a l b r i d g e between the two w o r l d s . An a s p e c t o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t o f h i s s i m i l a r i t y t o the H o l y F o o l s o f the R u s s i a n Orthodox Church.?"^' Three of the main c h a r a c t e r s o f the work c a l l Lande a b l e s s e d i n n o c e n t , o r i u r o d y v y i . The H o l y F o o l s were a t 90 one time a c a n o n i z e d o r d e r o f s a i n t s i n the E a s t e r n Orthdox 17 Church. They d e r i v e from the Greek s a l o i . Fedotov d i s -c u sses t h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n a t some l e n g t h , d e f i n i n g t h e F o o l s as those whose b e h a v i o r was o f t e n i r r a t i o n a l and immoral,"but o n l y so f o r the purpose of t e a c h i n g and e n l i g h t e n m e n t . The concept of the madman b e i n g a k i n t o the m y s t i c i s found i n many r e l i g i o n s . S t . P a u l ' s F i r s t E p i s t l e t o the C o r i n t h i a n s seems t o e x p l a i n p a r t l y the phenomenon of the i u r o d i v y i : " I f any man t h i n k e t h t h a t he i s w i s e among you i n t h i s w o r l d l e t him become a f o o l , t h a t he may become w i s e " (3:18). Naked-n e s s , extreme p o v e r t y , and a l l manners o f m o r t i f i c a t i o n of the f l e s h were marks o f " f o o l i s h n e s s " ( i u r o d s t v o ) . F o o l s were o f t e n a l l o w e d t o say t h i n g s t o the T s a r s t h a t no one e l s e would dare say. C h a s t i t y was not n e c e s s a r i l y a p r e r e q -u i s i t e f o r t h i s o r d e r , as many shocked the r i g h t e o u s w i t h t h e i r b e h a v i o r . I n t h e s e r e s p e c t s , Lande can be o n l y s u p e r -f i c i a l l y compared t o the F o o l s . H i s a c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d by a s o c i a l and m o r a l c o n s c i e n c e even i f i t i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d by h i s mother or the p r i e s t . D o stoevsky's P r i n c e M y s h k i n o f The I d i o t may w e l l have been the model f o r Lande. As s u g g ested by B l o k , V o l z h s k i i and o t h e r s , Lande i s g e n t l e and l o v i n g as i s M y s h k i n . But D o stoevsky's i d i o t p r i n c e i s a complex c h a r a c t e r , and A r t s y -bashev' s s t o r y cannot be compared, i n scope t o Dostoevsky's n o v e l . There i s the o b v i o u s l o v e - t r i a n g l e i n b o t h works: i n The I d i o t — M y s h k i n , N a s t a s i i a F i l i p o v n a , and Rogozhin; and 91 i n "Lande" — Lande, M a r ' i a N i k o l a e v n a , and Molochaev. Molochaev and Rogozhin a re b o t h as " p h y s i c a l " and s t r o n g as Lande and Myshk i n a r e s p i r i t u a l and f r a i l . Lande and M y s h k i n are n o t c a p a b l e o f the p h y s i c a l l o v e t h a t the r e s p e c t i v e h e r o i n e s d e s i r e . Myshkin's b e l i e f t h a t "compassion was the 18 c h i e f and perhaps o n l y law o f human e x i s t e n c e " i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s t o r y o f Lande. A f i n a l , o b v i o u s comparison can be made between Lande and M y s h k i n . Dostoevsky w r i t e s : One of Myshkin's s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was the e x t r a o r d i n a r y n a i v e t e o f the a t t e n t i o n w i t h which he always l i s t e n e d t o a n y t h i n g t h a t i n t e r e s t e d him, and o f the answers he gave when anyone asked him q u e s t i o n s . H i s f a c e , and even h i s a t t i t u d e , somehow r e f l e c t e d t h a t n a i v e t e , t h a t good f a i t h , u n s u s p i -c i o u s o f mockery o r humour.^ A r t s y b a s h e v ' s Lande must be c o n s i d e r e d t o be based on Dos-t o e v s k y 's P r i n c e M y s h k i n . One may a l s o d i s c e r n s t r i k i n g l y T o l s t o y a n f a c e t s i n A r t s y b a s h e v ' s s t o r y . The c r i t i c P i l ' s k i i s t a t e d t h a t t h e dea t h of the main c h a r a c t e r " i s n o t the death o f t h e s t u d e n t Lande, b u t the de a t h o f t h e young A r t s y b a s h e v , who was enamored o f T o l s t o y a n m o r a l i z i n g . " What the c r i t i c i s r e f e r r i n g t o i s o b v i o u s l y T o l s t o y i s c o n c e p t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n -i t y t o be found i n the g r e a t w r i t e r ' s works a f t e r 1881. I n an o v e r v i e w o f Lande's a c t i o n s and i d e a s , t h e f o l l o w i n g may be r e l a t e d t o T o l s t o y a n C h r i s t i a n i t y : n o n - r e s i s t a n c e t o e v i l , d e a t h as a b r i d g e , l o v e o f a l l men, and a s o c i a l - m o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Two minor c h a r a c t e r s i n the s t o r y r e p r e s e n t the h y p o c r i s y t h a t T o l s t o y f e l t was b u i l t i n t o o r g a n i z e d C h r i s t i a n i t y and the c h u r c h : the town p r i e s t and the " r a b i d C h r i s t i a n , " F i r s o v . F i r s o v c h a l l e n g e s Lande, demanding t o know i f he c o n f e s s e s the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . He s t a t e s t h a t by n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the church., Lande i s showing t h a t f o r him "the t r u e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n i s o u t s i d e t h e c h u r c h " (p. 9 6 ) . T h e i r d i a l o g u e i l l u s t r a t e s Lande's p o s i t i o n . F i r s o v asks Lande i f he i s a C h r i s t i a n o r n o t , t o which Lande r e p l i e s , " ' I , i n t r u t h , do n o t know'" (p. 9 7 ) . F i r s o v then a s k s , "'Do you b e l i e v e i n the Orthodox Church?'" Lande answers: "'What k i n d o f a q u e s t i o n i s t h i s , F i r s o v ? . . To what p u r p o s e ? . . And i f you must know, I do n o t b e l i e v e i n the church a t a l l ' " ( I b i d . ) . R e t u r n i n g home, F i r s o v w r i t e s a d e n u n c i a t i o n " of Lande t o the b i s h o p ! Lande's answer, t h a t he " i n t r u t h does n o t know" whether he i s a C h r i s t i a n o r n o t , means t h a t he o n l y does what he can t o l i v e j u s t l y and does n o t f i n d the l a b e l n e c e s s a r y . As M i r s k y says o f T o l s t o