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The success of limited learners in attaining general science concepts through programmed instruction Dow, Michael Alan 1982

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THE  SUCCESS OF LIMITED LEARNERS  IN ATTAINING GENERAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS THROUGH PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION by MICHAEL ALAN DOW B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 75  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , Science E d u c a t i o n Department)  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 fc} M i c h a e l A l a n Dow, 19 82  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  &3>LlCrf~7/6/J  The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  1956  Main Mall  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ABSTRACT  The purpose  of t h i s study was  t o determine whether  or not the use o f a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k l e t , as the b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s than t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods.  An attempt was  made t o measure the success t h a t  l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s have i n a t t a i n i n g g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts through programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . The study c o l l e c t e d evidence t o show i f there was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between normal l e a r n e r s and  any  limited  l e a r n e r s i n academic s c i e n c e achievement (as measured by p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s ) , when taught u s i n g t h i s methodology.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n provided evidence t o support  i n c r e a s e d development and use o f programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r m o d i f i e d and r e g u l a r s c i e n c e classrooms. To assess the achievement i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts, an author-developed examination was  implemented as a p r e t e s t  and l a t e r as a p o s t t e s t f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l  treatment.  The mean scores i n achievement were c a l c u l a t e d f o r d i s t i n c t groups thus e n a b l i n g a comparison  o f gains i n achievement.  A n o n - e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group w i t h a f i x e d e f f e c t s design was  used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  factorial  fixed effects  a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , u s i n g the p r e t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e , p e r m i t t e d the separate a n a l y s i s o f l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n and a two-way i n t e r a c t i o n between these variables.  The  analysis  differences learning  o f covariance produced s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r the two main e f f e c t s .  a b i l i t y normal l e a r n e r s achieved h i g h e r than  l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s and the d i f f e r e n c e the  In terms o f  0.05 l e v e l .  was s i g n i f i c a n t a t  F o r the methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n ,  students  u s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those students taught w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. Since there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e instruction and  f o r programmed  and no i n t e r a c t i o n between l e a r n i n g  i n s t r u c t i o n mode, i t f o l l o w s t h a t programmed  t i o n was b e t t e r The  ability instruc-  f o r both groups o f s t u d e n t s .  r e s u l t s o f the study are t h a t both l i m i t e d and  normal l e a r n e r s were more s u c c e s s f u l ,  i n terms o f a c q u i -  s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge, w i t h programmed  instruction  than w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g i n terms o f p o s t t e s t achievement s c o r e s .  iii  mean  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER ONE:  THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND  1.00 Statement o f the Problem 1.10 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 1.11 T r a d i t i o n a l 1.12 Programmed  Teaching Instruction  1.13 L i m i t e d Learners 1.14 Normal Learners 1.15 Regular  Classroom  1.20 P o p u l a t i o n o f L i m i t e d Learners 1.30 B a s i c Premise 1.40 P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n s 1.41 B.C. Science Assessment 1.50 R a t i o n a l e f o r Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n 1.60 The L e a r n e r as an I n d i v i d u a l 1.70 A Summary o f P e r s o n a l i z e d E d u c a t i o n 1.80 Compendium  iv  CHAPTER TWO;  LITERATURE REVIEW  3  Page  2.0  Introduction  23  2.1  Causes f o r Underachievement  24  2.2  Present Q u a l i t i e s Perceived  26  2.30 General Teaching S t r a t e g i e s and Suggestions  30  2.31 General A c t i v i t i e s  30  2.32 Communication  31  2.33 Textbooks  31  2.34 T e s t s  32  2.35 A t t i t u d i n a l O b j e c t i v e s  32  Program Designs f o r M o d i f i e d Science  33  2.50 P r i n c i p l e s o f Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n  34  2.4  2.6  2.51 B e h a v i o r a l A n a l y s i s  36  2.52 E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n  40  Progress w i t h L i m i t e d Learners  43  2.70 D e s i g n i n g a Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n  46  2.71 Branching and L i n e a r Programs  46  2.72 Concrete M a t e r i a l s  47  2.73 Advance O r g a n i z e r s  48  2.74 V i s u a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s  50  2.75 I n d u c t i v e and Deductive Programs  51  2.76 S p e c i f i c Review and Question Complexity  52  2.8  Place i n Curriculum  54  2.9  I m p l i c a t i o n s from Research  58  v  CHAPTER THREE:  THE DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Page  3.0  Introduction  60  3.1  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample  61  3.2  School  63  and Teacher Background  3.30 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  o f the L i m i t e d Learners  64  3.31 Former E v a l u a t i o n  65  3.32 Current E v a l u a t i o n  67  3.40 Instrumentation  70  3.41 The Programmed Booklet  71  3.42 O p i n i o n n a i r e  72  3.4 3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  73  3.5  Design o f Study  75  3.6  Data A n a l y s i s  77  3.7  P i l o t Study R e s u l t s  77  vi  /  "CHAPTER FOUR:  THE ANALYSIS OF DATA Page  4.0  Introduction  80  4.1  General Achievement R e s u l t s  81  4.2  A n a l y s i s o f C e l l Samples  84  4.3  A n a l y s i s o f Covariance  86  4.4  A t t i t u d i n a l Survey A n a l y s i s  88  4.5  Opinionnaire  90  CHAPTER FIVE:  Comments  THE DISCUSSION OF RESULTS  5.0  Introduction  93  5.1  Synopsis o f Study  94  5.2  Results  94  5.3  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  97  5.4  Implications  99  5.5  Recommendations f o r Future  Research  BIBLIOGRAPHY  100  102  APPENDIX A  A t t i t u d i n a l Survey Responses  109  APPENDIX B  Copy o f the P o s t t e s t  112  APPENDIX C  Item A n a l y s i s o f P o s t t e s t  117  APPENDIX D  Behavioral Objectives  118  vii  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  1.  V a r i o u s Student L a b e l s  6  2.  Q u a l i t i e s Perceived  27  3.  Behavioral Objectives  39  4.  Summary o f Research  59  5.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F i v e ClusterfSamples  62  6.  C.T.B.S. T o t a l Scores  67  7.  V.S.B. Science Survey  8.  General Summary o f Achievement T e s t s  81  9.  General Summary o f D i s t i n c t Group Means  84  10.  Summary o f C e l l Sample Means  85  11.  Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f Covariance o f Achievement P o s t t e s t Scores  87  Results  viii  69  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The thesis  author wishes t o acknowledge the members o f the  committee, P r o f . D.C. G i l l e s p i e , Dr. H. R a t z l a f f  and Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e , f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement throughout  the t h e s i s .  author wishes t o thank h i s w i f e Theresa,  The  f o r her patience  and p r o o f r e a d i n g and would l i k e t o r e c o g n i z e Mr. R. Fearn as the "other" teacher i n t h i s study.  F i n a l l y , t h e author  wishes t o thank the E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r generous support o f the study.  ix  -  1 -  CHAPTER 1 THE 1.0  PROBLEM AND  ITS BACKGROUND  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The  purpose o f /this study was  t o determine how  success-  f u l l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were i n a t t a i n i n g g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts The  through  the use o f a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l  study c o l l e c t e d evidence  t o show i f there was  any  unit. signi-  f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between normal l e a r n e r s and l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i n academic s c i e n c e achievement (as measured by p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t results).;,; when taught u s i n g t h i s methodology. i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e d evidence  The  to support i n c r e a s e d develop-  ment and use o f programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r m o d i f i e d and r e g u l a r science  classrooms.  From t h r e e years experience i n t e a c h i n g m o d i f i e d s c i e n c e , i t was  suspected t h a t l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s can be  relatively  s u c c e s s f u l when compared w i t h normal s t u d e n t s , a l l i n s t r u c t e d by a programmed u n i t .  Due  t o a l i m i t e d l e a r n e r ' s weak language  a r t s s k i l l s and p r e v i o u s l a c k o f success, i t was  assumed t h a t  they would not a t t a i n the same achievement l e v e l as the r e g u l a r students. to how  The  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n becomes one  of r e l a t i v i t y  s u c c e s s f u l can these l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s be.  The  s p e c i f i c questions:  1.  Are l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s as s u c c e s s f u l , i n terms o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge as-the normal l e a r n e r s ?  as  - 2 -  2.  I s programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as s u c c e s s f u l , i n terms o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge as t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g ?  3.  I s there any c o r r e l a t i o n between the mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n used (programmed o r t r a d i t i o n a l ) and l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y (normal o r l i m i t e d ) ?  A f t e r summarizing the r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s r e l a t e d studies,  no c o n c l u s i v e evidence was o b t a i n e d r e g a r d i n g  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s .  Therefore,  i n t h i s study the r e s e a r c h hypotheses were s t a t e d form, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . of the hypotheses was t e s t e d knowledge.  in null  Each one  f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f science  The comparison o f two independent  variables  ( l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y and i n s t r u c t i o n mode), was c a r r i e d out looking  f o r what e f f e c t they have on achievement and ac-  q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e concepts.  The dependent v a r i a b l e was  measured i n terms o f mean performance on p o s t t e s t  results.  The three n u l l hypotheses, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the research questions are: 1.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean performance i n s c i e n c e achievement between l i m i t e d and normal l e a r n e r s .  2.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean performance i n s c i e n c e achievement between programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l teaching.  - 3 -  3.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n used and l e a r n i n g ability.  As t h i s study was more e x p l o r a t i v e than d e f i n i t i v e , the  .05. l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (ai.) was used t o  t e s t each  hypothesis.  1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS The  f o l l o w i n g subsections  d i s c u s s the intended  meanings  o f the important, r e l e v a n t terms used throughout t h i s i n v e s t igation. 1.11 TRADITIONAL TEACHING The the  terms, c o n v e n t i o n a l  o r t r a d i t i o n a l teaching  include  f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures and m a t e r i a l s : textbook study, w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s , l e c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i o n s , demonstrations, experiments, chalkboard  drawings , f i l m p r e s e n t a t i o n s and 1  overhead p r o j e c t i o n The  transparencies.  i n s t r u c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n employed a l l  o f these methods d u r i n g normal, group-paced,  classroom  sessions. 1.12 PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION In any programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , the m a t e r i a l s are designed  - 4 -  so t h a t the l e a r n e r i s r e q u i r e d to make a s e r i e s of responses t o a s e r i e s o f problems, e i t h e r by w r i t i n g an answer o r performing some p h y s i c a l t a s k .  In a S k i n n e r i a n - t y p e  gram, the statements are given responses.  l i n e a r pro-  Immediate  confirm-  a t i o n o f the answer's c o r r e c t n e s s i s a main f e a t u r e o f t h i s technology.  The  l e a r n e r may  assess p e r s o n a l performance,  repeat o r change responses as necessary without  then  r e q u i r i n g the  teacher's a s s i s t a n c e . In the g e n e r i c sense o f the term, Ausubel (196 8) d e s c r i b e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n  as:  ... an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d form o f s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n i n which emphasis i s p l a c e d on s e q u e n t i a l i t y , l u c i d i t y and graded d i f f i c u l t y i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s , on c o n f i r m a t o r y and c o r r e c t i v e feedback, and on c o n s o l i d a t i o n and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r r e a d i n e s s . An attempt i s made to manipulate as o p t i m a l l y as p o s s i b l e a l l p r a c t i c e , task and t r a n s f e r v a r i a b l e s t h a t are r e l e v a n t f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f content :(p. 348) . A programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s u s u a l l y found at the o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or p e r s o n a l i z e d programmes. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n  center  The main  (Cohen, 1964  p. 7 ;)  include: 1. 2. 3. 4.  b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f new i n f o r m a t i o n o r m a t e r i a l s a h i g h degree o f redundancy and prompting inducement o f the c o r r e c t response checking the response a. ) i f c o r r e c t . . . serves as a reward b. ) i f i n c o r r e c t . . . i n d i c a t i o n o f a f a u l t y program Another d e f i n i t i o n , given by Schramm Q962) , s t a t e d t h a t  by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n we  mean the k i n d o f l e a r n i n g exper-  - 5 -  i e n c e i n which a "program" takes the f o r the  student.  The  place of a teacher/tutor  "program" leads them through a s e t  s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o r s designed and  of  sequenced to make i t more  probable t h a t they w i l l behave i n a given d e s i r e d way  in  the  future. For  the purpose of t h i s study, a m o d i f i e d S k i n n e r i a n  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was gator.  The  (Mr.  used by  the  investi-  m o d i f i c a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f p r e s e n t i n g a choice  answers to the and  developed and  learner  i n some q u e s t i o n s .  suggestions from the J . Petrak) i n d i c a t e d  enhances the  P i l o t study  c u r r e n t Science e i g h t that variety  learners i n t e r e s t .  was  developed o u t s i d e o f the  the  success t h a t  The  thesis.  of  results  textbook author,  i n the program s t y l e  programmed The  instruction  investigation  explores  l i m i t e d learners experienced using t h i s .  methodology. A d i s t i n c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n programmed i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l a v o i d c o n f u s i o n . instruction  Individualized  aims to p r o v i d e a complete i n s t r u c t i o n a l program  designed e x p l i c i t l y  f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t a k i n g i n t o  p e r s o n a l background e x p e r i e n c e , i n t e r e s t , and (Carin  and  ualized  in  Sund, 1975) the  .  account  capabilities  Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n d i v i d -  sense t h a t i t i s one  to one  i n s t r u c t i o n where  students proceed at independent r a t e s through an program.  and  existing  - 6 -  1.13 LIMITED LEARNERS In t h i s study, l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were d e f i n e d as those students whose academic achievement was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n from the normal. by p r e v i o u s grade performance, with limited  (low C-, D and E)  achievement l e v e l s  Canadian T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s  T h i s was  combined  (the lowest 18%) on the  (C.T.B.S.).  A d i v e r s e l i s t o f synonyms f o r l i m i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e  indicated  (see T a b l e 1 ) .  learners  exists  These terms are o f t e n used  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h o u t c l e a r r e f e r e n c e t o what c r i t e r i a were used to determine the l a b e l . Table 1. V a r i o u s Student L a b e l s Low e d u c a t i o n a l attainment  Adjustment Culturally Dull  deprived  normal  Marginal Non-Academic  Dumb  Non-Achiever  E d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged  Reluctant learners  Exceptional  Slow l e a r n e r s  Intellectually Limited  backward  learners  L i m i t e d success  Stupid Terminal Underachievers  - 7 -  Merle B. Karnes (19 70), those  d e f i n e s slow l e a r n e r s as  c h i l d r e n who l e a r n a t a l e s s r a p i d r a t e than:"normal  but n o t as s l o w l y as the educable mentally  retarded.  He  s t a t e s an I.Q. f o r slow l e a r n e r s t o range from 75 t o 90. These f i g u r e s correspond to  with  those given by Oxenhorn  d e f i n e what he c a l l s the "true low a c h i e v e r "  fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f these students  (1972)j  (p. 38).. The  i s t h e i r low  mental c a p a c i t y . Conversely,  Oxenhorn continues  to d e s c r i b e  underachievers  as>those who show I.Q: scores w e l l w i t h i n the "normal" range above 90, as high as 110 and i n a s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y o f cases, even w e l l above 110. are n o t a c a d e m i c a l l y Utley  These p u p i l s have the i n n a t e a b i l i t y but successful i n school.  (1961) , r e p o r t s t h a t slow l e a r n e r s cannot l e a r n  as f a s t as t h e i r p e e r s .  T h i s does n o t mean t h a t they  cannot  learn, but require s p e c i a l considerations o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodologies.  L i m i t e d l e a r n e r s are n e i t h e r m e n t a l l y  retarded  nor average b u t a r e o f t e n t r e a t e d as one o r the o t h e r .  Limited  l e a r n e r s cannot be i d e n t i f i e d by the blank expressions  on t h e i r  faces o r t h e i r slow movements. There i s a t r e n d t o u n r a v e l some o f the above c o n f u s i o n . Healy (19 78) , makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between the underachiever, slow l e a r n e r s and disadvantaged  students.  Each o f these  labels'i'is then q u a l i f i e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r istics.  - 8 -  In7summary, l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were d e f i n e d as undera c h i e v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f mental c a p a c i t y , classroom or socioeconomic  background.  effort  The students i n the i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n t h a t are c l a s s i f i e d as l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were i d e n t i f i e d by f o u r c r i t e r i a  ( s e c t i o n 3.3).  1.14 NORMAL LEARNERS F o r the purpose o f t h i s study, normal o r r e g u l a r l e a r n e r s are those students who have n o t been screened o u t o f the student p o p u l a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l treatment. r a r e l y achieve f a i l i n g l e t t e r grades  These students  and are i n the t o p 82%  o f the c l a s s as i n d i c a t e d by the C.T.B.S. r e s u l t s . 1.15 REGULAR CLASS ROOM The words; r e g u l a r , normal, t r a d i t i o n a l , o r c o n v e n t i o n a l , when a p p l i e d t o a classroom d e s c r i b e the most common s i t u a t i o n f o r student i n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  (B.C.).  Students  are s e l e c t e d by t h e i r age and assembled t o g e t h e r f o r the purpose o f group-paced i n s t r u c t i o n . 1.2 POPULATION OF LIMITED LEARNERS There are s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f students i n secondary s c h o o l s who have had l i m i t e d l e a r n i n g s u c c e s s .  Estimates o f  the e x t e n t o f low attainment among p u p i l s vary w i t h the c r i t e r i a used t o d e f i n e i t .  Many w r i t e r s , w h i l e n o t u s i n g  the term l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s conclude t h a t some form o f s p e c i a l  - 9 -  e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n i s necessary percent o f a s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n 1975,  Jenkins  f o r a t l e a s t 15 t o 20  (Ferguson 1961, G u l l i f o r d  1973, Oxenhorn 1972, Page 1968).  In New York C i t y , the grade 8 s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m guide i n d i c a t e s t h a t 20% o f a l l students have achieved understanding  when compared w i t h each o t h e r .  limited  This large  f i g u r e i s found i n many i n n e r c i t y schools as w e l l as subs t a n t i a l numbers i n suburban s c h o o l s . Although, there has been no attempt t o measure the number o f l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i n B.C., i t seems reasonable t o suspect t h a t there e x i s t s a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n . with  Therefore,  a c u r r e n t secondary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f 19 8,025 (19 81),  there must be approximately  29,700 t o 39,600 (15 to 20%)  limited learners. 1.3 BASIC PREMISE Science educators  are committed t o provide  s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s o f student  abilities.  p o s i t i o n i s based upon the b e l i e f t h a t s c i e n c e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n value o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n  This  instruction  o f any c i t i z e n .  f o r a l l students  a statement by F i s c h e r (1960):  secondary  The  i s reflected i n  - 10  -  Because we are a democracy, whose c i t i z e n s are fche u l t i m a t e p o l i c y makers, l a r g e numbers o f us must be educated to understand, to support and when necessary, to judge the work o f the e x p e r t s . The p u b l i c s c h o o l must educate both the producers and the consumers o f s c i e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s (p.23). E d u c a t i o n i n a democratic, e n l i g h t e n e d on the assumption t h a t we own  s o c i e t y i s grounded  expose a l l our c h i l d r e n , w i t h i n  c a p a b i l i t i e s , to a l l the primary d i s c i p l i n e s of knowledge,  Oxenhorn (19 72), extends t h i s assumption t o a educational  goal:  the p o s s e s s i o n  Scientific Literacy.  far-reaching  T h i s term i m p l i e s  o f a b a s i c core o f l e a r n i n g i n the  s c i e n c e i n c l u d i n g knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s , an a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e i n the s c i e n c e s . i s not only achiever  t h i s possession  field  and  of  secondly,  and become more l i t e r a t e  Oxenhorn, concludes t h a t S c i e n t i f i c L i t e r a c y  f o r the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y e l i t e but  f o r the under-  as w e l l , i n t h a t they too w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  democratic  process.  In her work w i t h young c h i l d r e n (k-3) a s s e r t s t h a t i f we unique and  Mclntyre  (1973) ,  accept the premise t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n have  s p e c i a l needs, by meeting those needs p o s i t i v e  r e s u l t s can be a t t a i n e d i n our  r e l a t i o n s h i p with a l l c h i l d r e n ;  no progress i s made w i t h o u t t r y i n g .  T h i s t r y i n g can  l i n k e d to working through the phases o f a s c i e n c e One  their  g o a l of s c i e n c e education  a t a l l l e v e l s of a b i l i t y .  be  experiment.  i s to meet the needs o f students  I d e a l l y , t h i s g o a l c o u l d be  achieved  through some form o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , t h a t would  - 11 -  p e r s o n a l i z e the l e a r n i n g process o f each student. The sum o f the viewpoints above can be concluded w i t h a quote from John W. Gardner, ( i n Oxenhorn, 19 72): The t r a d i t i o n a l democratic i n v i t a t i o n t o each i n d i v i d u a l t o achieve the b e s t t h a t i s i n him r e q u i r e s t h a t we p r o v i d e each youngster w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n which w i l l b e n e f i t him. T h i s i s the o n l y sense i n which e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y can mean anything. The good s o c i e t y i s n o t one t h a t i g n o r e s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b u t one t h a t d e a l s w i t h them w i s e l y and humanely (p. 2 ) . 1.40 PRESENT CONDITIONS I t was p e r c e i v e d t h a t i n many t r a d i t i o n a l the student i s expected  classrooms,  to f i t i n t o a predetermined  mold.  F a i l u r e t o reach a standard c l a s s l e v e l o f t e n r e s u l t s i n r e m e d i a l work t h a t some students may view as punishment. Despite most t e a c h e r s ' c o n v i c t i o n s t h a t the p u p i l i s an i n d i v i d u a l , l e a r n s a t h i s own r a t e , has a unique  style or  mode o f l e a r n i n g , and has d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t and m o t i v a t i o n , the m a j o r i t y o f s c i e n c e teachers continue w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l " c l a s s " approach t o e d u c a t i o n . i n s t r u c t i o n given i s aimed a t m y t h i c a l "average  The  student"  who i s r a r e l y p r e s e n t ( C a r d a r e l l i , 1972). She expresses s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l approach,  c l a i m i n g t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g , "does a  good job o f p r e p a r i n g students f o r a t o t a l i t a r i a n (p. 28).  state"  - 12 -  Her sentiments become c l e a r as she e n v i s i o n s a l l students s t u d y i n g the same page a t the same time, l a t e r  fumbling  through homework, each student b e i n g spoon-fed the knowledge a t e a c h e r wishes  them t o know, and each  t o t a l l y guided by teacher d e c i s i o n making. t i o n a l approach  student  The  t o t e a c h i n g , she contends,  tradi-  actually i n -  h a b i t s the very i n i t i a t i v e , c r e a t i v i t y , independence and a b i l i t y t o get along w i t h o t h e r s , t h a t i s g r e a t l y needed in  today's In  society.  group-paced  i n s t r u c t i o n , the t e a c h e r i s f r e q u e n t l y  aiming f o r the average o r conforming s t u d e n t .  Kapfer  and  Swenson (1968), d i s c u s s e d the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g for  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h a l e s s o n p l a n geared f o r  an average student u s i n g a s i n g l e methodology and a common medium.  They a l s o acknowledged t h a t even though students  l e a r n i n d i f f e r e n t ways and a t very d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , mostp u b l i s h e d c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s are designed f o r  group-paced  instruction. In  a t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g , student numbers and  lack o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l o f t e n prevents teachers from reaching t h e i r ultimate goal. needs o f each s t u d e n t ) .  ( i . e . to meet the i n d i v i d u a l  Students who  are unable t o respond  p o s i t i v e l y to grouping o r o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l techniques o f t e n f a l l  classroom  f a r behind i n the primary grades  and  s u f f e r from severe b a s i c s k i l l d e f i c i e n c y by the time they have f i n i s h e d elementary T ...  school.  Walther  (1975), r e p o r t s  - 13 -  t h a t t h i s l a c k o f success engenders a l o s s o f s e l f confidence as such students e v e n t u a l l y experience g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y coping w i t h l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l and w i t h peer group p r e s s u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . "The most s t r i k i n g evidence o f the f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s prov i d e d by the low l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y found and the assignment o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e study m a t e r i a l s " , Flanagan  (1971, p. 173)^ made t h e p r e v i o u s comment a f t e r  n o t i n g t h a t 34 p e r c e n t o f grade twelve students have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending  assignments.  I f educators accept the premise  that a l l children  should be exposed o r c h a l l e n g e d t o the e x t e n t o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , then t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s n o t b e i n g  fulfilled.  Science e d u c a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a t e r e d t o the academic e l i t e , n e g l e c t i n g the slower l e a r n e r s t h a t are always p r e s e n t .  Hurd (1969),  agreed t h a t minimal  pro-  gress had been made when the m a j o r i t y o f the new n a t i o n wide s c i e n c e courses were developed  f o r c o l l e g e prepara-  t o r y s t u d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y the c l a s s e s i n chemistry and p h y s i c s and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the b i o l o g y courses. S i n c e we are l i v i n g i n a s c i e n t i f i c age, every p o s s i b l e e f f o r t should be made t o supply programs o r m a t e r i a l s a t a l e v e l t h a t i s commensurate w i t h each  - 14 -  student's a b i l i t i e s .  As s c i e n c e i n v o l v e s s t u d y i n g  life,  a l l p u p i l s r e g a r d l e s s o f mental c a p a c i t y , experience n a t u r a l phenomena. about:  life,  A l l c h i l d r e n have i n n a t e c u r i o s i t i e s  the U n i v e r s e , e l e c t r i c i t y ,  heat, sounds, the E a r t h and weather. adequately  light,  matter,  In e f f o r t s to  c h a l l e n g e average and s u p e r i o r students, W i t t y  (1961), p r e d i c t e d the ever p r e s e n t t h r e a t t h a t educators may overlook the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s . 1.41 B.C. SCIENCE ASSESSMENT In the Summary Report t o the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ( B r i t i s h Columbia Science Assessment, 1978), j u n i o r secondary of  s c i e n c e teachers thought-that the p r o v i s i o n  a wider s e l e c t i o n o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s and a complete  r e v i s i o n o f the j u n i o r s c i e n c e program would improve the q u a l i t y o f s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n .  The teachers r e -  p o r t e d t h a t there appears t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o cover the p r e s c r i b e d course and t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e provision i n science f o r i n d i v i d u a l differences i n student The  ability. 1978 Science Assessment l i s t e d the f i r s t major  g o a l o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n as Understanding  Concepts,  f o l l o w e d by S k i l l s i n the Process o f S c i e n c e , A p p l i c a t i o n , S a f e t y , S c i e n t i f i c L i t e r a c y and Favorable A t t i t u d e s t o Science and S c i e n t i s t .  General s c i e n c e assessment a t  the grade e i g h t l e v e l was encouraging w i t h  student  15 -  performance r a t e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r on o f the survey q u e s t i o n s .  The  70%  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n panel  r a t e d grade four and twelve a t 84%  and  30%  respect-  ively. In the c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t , the l e a r n i n g assessment team suggests (p. 44) : 1.  That the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h immediately a c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n committee t o c a r r y out a major r e v i s i o n o f the j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e program.  2.  That the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , as a p r i o r i t y item, i n c r e a s e the s e l e c t i o n o f t e x t s and supplementary reading m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e t o teachers o f the present j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m as long as i t i s i n f o r c e .  3.  That teachers widen t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e o f methods o f t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e at the j u n i o r secondary l e v e l , and a l l o c a t e some o f the time now spent.on r o u t i n e marking o f l a b o r a t o r y r e p o r t s to p l a n n i n g d i f f e r e n t approaches.  They f u r t h e r recommended t h a t a new c u r r i c u l u m was  j u n i o r science  c a l l e d f o r , and i n the i n t e r i m , the  p r o v i s i o n o f a wider range o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s f o r j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e . designed  Any  new  c u r r i c u l u m should  to appeal to g i r l s as w e l l as boys,, and  be adaptable  t o the wide ranges both o f a b i l i t y  i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e a t the j u n i o r secondary  be  should and  level.  - 16 -  Teacher r e p o r t s i n the Assessment i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n i n B.C. s c i e n c e c l a s s e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f student j u n i o r secondary teachers The  a b i l i t y and 29% o f  r e p o r t e d no p r o v i s i o n a t a l l .  most common p r o v i s i o n s a t the j u n i o r secondary  level  were l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c l a s s e s (40%) and a b i l i t y grouping by c l a s s e s (38%).  In l a r g e r schools i t i s  p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y and group m o d i f i e d s c i e n c e  students.  Throughout the p r o v i n c e  grouping  i n s m a l l e r communities,  i s n o t p o s s i b l e due t o budget r e s t r i c t i o n s . i n s t r u c t o r s can rearrange  Talented  t h e i r own c l a s s e s i n t o groups,  accommodating the slower l e a r n e r s , then attempt t o teach each group.  T h i s method imparts  teacher and only the most capable continue  e x t r a work onto the s t a f f members c o u l d  t h i s arrangement over a longer p e r i o d o f time.  Current be designed  j u n i o r s c i e n c e programs i n B.C. appear t o f o r the s u c c e s s f u l s t u d e n t s ,  l e a d i n g them  i n t o s e n i o r s c i e n c e and c o l l e g e courses.  Most non-academic  p u p i l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o take s c i e n c e courses  at least  until  grade 10, when t h e i r s c i e n c e c a r e e r s may terminate and the M i n i s t e r i a l terms o f s c i e n c e education  have been met.  Underachievers can now e i t h e r drop-out l e g a l l y , i n d u s t r i a l - t e c h n i c a l program o r search trade.  f o l l o w an  f o r a vocational  1.5  A RATIONALE FOR  PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION  An educator cannot j u s t i f y spending e x t r a time on the slower l e a r n e r s a t the expense o f normal and students'  needs.  i n a modified  However, i t can be  advanced  argued t h a t success  s c i e n c e program i s more d e f e n s i b l e  f a i l u r e i n an u n a t t a i n a b l e  than  program (Oxenhorn, 19 72).  A  very s u c c e s s f u l technique f o r h e l p i n g l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i s to employ an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program.  Ausubel (1968) ,  s t a t e s t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s " p o t e n t i a l l y the most e f f e c t i v e method f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g the content o f most subject-matter  fields"  (p. 348);.  A p r i n c i p a l theme w i t h program design e d l y s t r e s s e d i n a l l the  established  that i s  repeat-  l i t e r a t u r e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h slower  l e a r n e r s , i s involvement.  The  students t h a t have  had  l i m i t e d success l e a r n b e s t when they come i n t o d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the s u b j e c t matter and o r g a n i z i n g the l e a r n i n g approach and  assume some r o l e i n sequence  (Abraham,  1961) . In a survey conducted by Healy reported  t h a t the t e x t s and  are d e s c r i b e d  The  as b e i n g  of  teachers  lab manuals i n use were o n l y  somewhat s u i t a b l e to u n s u i t a b l e limited learners.  (1978), 74%  f o r teaching  science  to  p r o v i n c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d textbooks inadequate f o r underachievers mainly  because o f the students'  i n a b i l i t y i n language a r t s  skills.  - 18 -  The  slower p u p i l s are unable t o comprehend major concepts  unless  the i n s t r u c t o r augments the lessons with  materials.  More a p p r o p r i a t e textbooks,  worksheets,  m o d i f i e d m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e to those search resource  special  teachers  c e n t r e s , l o c a t e and o b t a i n these  t o use i n the classroom;  and who  items  t h i s i s a very time consuming  process. Healy (19 78), r e p o r t s t h a t 70% o f teachers p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l s c i e n c e course Of those  t h a t do, 60%  not  for limited learners.  r e p o r t e d t h a t they never used  programmed l e a r n i n g w h i l e 28% l e a s t once or twice a term.  used t h i s approach at The  Assessment r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y 22% p r e s c r i b e d readers  do  19 78 B.C.  Science  o f teachers noted the  as s a t i s f a c t o r y , y e t 57%  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they a s s i g n readings  of  teachers  from the t e x t s .  The Science Assessment i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s need f o r the development o f m o d i f i e d s c i e n c e m a t e r i a l s t h a t can be  r e a d i l y p l a c e d i n the teacher's hands.  The  must be a f f o r d a b l e , easy t o implement, guarantee able s a t i s f a c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and  items reason-  compliment  the e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m .  I t i s not necessary  the p r e v i o u s  r a t h e r to c o n s t r u c t adjustments  s y l l a b u s but  i n the methodology or process conceptual expedient  development.  to d i s c a r d  areas which l e a d to s i m i l a r  Young (1967), proposed t h a t an  method f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g s c i e n c e courses  i s by  - 19 -  d e s i g n i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s . A programmed i n s t r u c t i o n on the t o p i c , " L i g h t "  was  developed to augment the l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e to non-achievers  i n B.C.  i n s t r u c t i o n was  designed  s c i e n c e courses.  programmed  to meet the needs o f most l i m i t e d  l e a r n e r s a t the grade e i g h t l e v e l .  The program developed  f o l l o w s the core c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s and the main concepts presented. o f underachievers  The  crystallizes  As homogeneous groupings  are not f e a s i b l e i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s ,  a p e r s o n a l i z e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be i s s u e d o r arranged  f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d as b e i n g  limited  learners. 1.6  THE  LEARNER AS AN  INDIVIDUAL  The major problem o f i n s t r u c t i n g today's i s not the poor q u a l i t y o f m a t e r i a l s o r o f techniques to  students  inappropriateness  but r a t h e r the f a i l u r e o f e d u c a t i o n a l systems  d e a l w i t h d i f f e r i n g student  abilities.  an i n d i v i d u a l and must be taught  A learner i s  a c c o r d i n g l y (Baker  and  Goldberg, 1970). As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, some educators  believe that  i n an i d e a l s o c i e t y , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n maximize the l e a r n i n g process with  the p r e s e n t  facilities  o f most s t u d e n t s .  could However,  and m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e ,  p l u s the c u r r i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n and  administrative  - 20 -  c o n s t r i c t i o n s , Burns (19 71) r e l a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y f o r achieving i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l Burns' statement  setting.  that i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s  e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e s i r a b l e comes from the nature o f mankind. S i n c e no two l i v i n g organisms  ( p u p i l s ) are a l i k e , a  r e g i s t e r o f v a r i a b l e s concerning students was c o n s t r u c t e d examining  the l o g i s t i c s o f i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n .  Burns  (p. 55), l i s t s t h a t no two l e a r n e r s : 1.  achieve a t the same r a t e  2.  a c h i e v e u s i n g the same study  3.  s o l v e problems i n e x a c t l y the same way  4.  possess the same r e p e r t o i r e o f behaviours  5.  possess the same p a t t e r n o f i n t e r e s t s  6.  are motivated t o achieve t o the same degree  7.  are motivated t o achieve the same goals  8.  are ready t o l e a r n a t the same time  9.  have the same c a p a c i t y to l e a r n  I f these n i n e assumptions  a r e combined w i t h  c i t y , home, and s c h o o l environments, l e a r n i n g i s a unique p r o c e s s .  technique  different  one must admit  that  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the d i f f i c u l t y  o f t r y i n g t o f i n d one textbook o r methodology t o adequately serve a l l students i n a classroom. 1.7 A SUMMARY OF PERSONALIZED EDUCATION Personalizing a curriculum requires that provisions  - 21 -  be made for each person's strengths, weaknesses and current knowledge l e v e l i n the content area being  restructured  (Carin and Sund, 19 75).  instruction,  one  In i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  t r i e s to provide learning opportunities that are i n  agreement with a student's needs, i n t e r e s t s , and aptitudes. Sheehan and Hambleton (1977), stated that at present we lack s u f f i c i e n t t h e o r e t i c a l guidelines and empirical  results  to know just how i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n can be done, results reported i n the next chapter demonstrate many areas of success. Most d e f i n i t i o n s of personalized i n s t r u c t i o n  specify  a concept of i n s t r u c t i o n or program of study t a i l o r e d to each student's needs based on t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s and characteristics of learning  (Burns, 1971).  Others imply  that i t i s nothing more than applying l o g i c to the learning act.  Then, by c a r e f u l l y planning and organizing, provide  an e f f i c i e n t method for learners to have the opportunity to acquire behaviors i n t h e i r own way at t h e i r own rate. Kapfer and Swenson (1968), note the d i f f i c u l t y i n t r y i n g to describe the term, personalized i n s t r u c t i o n . I t contains high l e v e l abstractions which sound good and contain current jargon but do not r e a l l y o f f e r any s p e c i f i c course of action. However, when i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g a program, Bolvin suggests the following  goals.  (196 8)  Each student should (p. 239):  - 22 -  1.  make continuous progress towards mastery o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l content  2.  continue t h i s mastery a t t h e i r own r a t e  3.  engage i n the l e a r n i n g process a c t i v e involvement  4.  view the l e a r n i n g process as p r i m a r i l y self-directed  5.  be able t o e v a l u a t e the q u a l i t y , e x t e n t and r a p i d i t y o f t h e i r progress towards mastery o f s u c c e s s i v e areas i n the l e a r n i n g continuum.  B o l v i n concludes t h a t i t i s o n l y through  through  the use o f s e l f -  i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s t h a t p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l be manageable w i t h i n the c o n t e x t , o f p r e s e n t s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s . 1.8'  COMPENDIUM A synopsis o f chapter one suggests  t h a t the i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s could provide information f o r teaching l i m i t e d  learners.  A group o f students having d i f f i c u l t y i n s c h o o l has been i d e n t i f i e d and an i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology o u t l i n e d . The  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d on whether o r n o t  the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s are more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n than w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g .  I n chapter two  a l i t e r a t u r e survey p r o v i d e s a background o f i n f o r m a t i o n on l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . was  An attempt  made t o f i n d i n t e r a c t i n g a r t i c l e s t h a t correspond w i t h  both o f these s u b j e c t s .  - 23 -  CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION The review o f the l i t e r a t u r e  focused on two r e g i o n s ,  a p r o f i l e o f the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r and r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . Si-Most r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t e d one s p e c i f i c aspect o f programmed  instruc-  t i o n and p r o v i d e i n s i g h t f o r d e s i g n i n g f u t u r e programs. The meager s e l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s i n v o l v i n g both the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n does n o t provide answers t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .  clear  T h i s s e c t i o n begins  with  an overview o f the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r , r e v e a l i n g p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t should be c o n s i d e r e d when developing med u n i t s f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s .  program-  - 24 -  2.1 CAUSES FOR UNDERACHIEVEMENT "Underachievers  are not born, they are made", claims  Weider (1973, p. 19). This statement i s supported by the work of eight theorists who have associated an emotional sequence with low achievement.  Thefi  i s o l a t i o n of causes  for underachievement i s',inherently d i f f i c u l t as the complexity of dealing with backgrounds, i n d i v i d u a l differences and a d i v e r s i t y of needs i s enormous. Many researchers i n t h e i r e f f o r t to generalize the causes have found s i m i l a r explanations.  Jenkins (1973),  c l a s s i f i e s these causes under five general headings which can be summarized as: 1.  I n t e l l e c t u a l Factors  - Limited i n t e l l e c t u a l development due to genetics, injury or disease  2.  Home Background  - home f a i l e d to provide adequate opportunities f o r language development  3.  Personality Factor  - deviations from normal emotional and s o c i a l development  4.  Physical Factors  - prolonged i l l n e s s , and undernourishment impair learning e f f i c i e n c y  5.  School Factors  - material f a c i l i t i e s , teaching s t a f f characteristics and classroom procedures  Oxenhorn (1972), approaches the factors related to underachievement by l i s t i n g blockages  i n a student's  - 25 -  p o t e n t i a l to perform.  When these b l o c k s ; s o c i a l , economic,  r a c i a l , p h y s i c a l , emotional o r combinations  o f a l l these  are removed o r m o d i f i e d , the achievement l e v e l  improves.  A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s p e c i f i e s the f o l l o w i n g causes  (p. 37):  1.  P r e v i o u s Underachievement - former l a c k o f success widens the gap w i t h t h e i r peers  2.  Reading  3.  Low  4.  S o c i e t a l Problems  - poverty, r a c i a l segreg a t i o n , slum, e t c .  5.  School Factors  - irrelevant curricula, poor methodology, inappropriate school materials, mislabeling  Retardation  - e i t h e r as a cause or e f f e c t o f low a t t a i n ment i s debatable  Personal Motivation  - e l u s i v e f a c t o r s due to fear, frustration, f a m i l y or emotional problems  With the e x c e p t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to low attainment, one must conclude t h a t underachievers  develop  w i t h r e s p e c t t o the d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n the literature.  One  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o compliment t h i s  l i s t of causes was  undertaken  by Bingham (19 70).  t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v i n g youth are a product o f  He  claims  inadequate  a t t e n t i o n along three main l i n e s o f a c t i v i t i e s which have been shown t o h e l p a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e grow (p. 52 8). 1.  Infancy S t i m u l a t i o n  - parents unable t o p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l needs nor a s t i m u l a t i n g environment  - 26 -  2.  Language A c t i v i t i e s  - minimal e a r l y  conversation  3.  Reading P r e p e r a t i o n  - hours o f r e a d i n g t o , naming items i n the environment  To conclude the causes f o r underachievement, Bruner (1960) p r e d i c t e d t h a t improvements  i n s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g may accentuate  the gaps a l r e a d y o b s e r v a b l e between t a l e n t e d , average and slow students i n the s u b j e c t .  A q u o t a t i o n from Tanzer (1960), ex-  e m p l i f i e s t h i s p r e d i c t i o n and notes a concern.  A major problem a r i s i n g from the c u r r e n t r e a p p r a i s a l o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n i s the danger t h a t , i n our eagerness t o r a i s e standards f o r the average and above average student, we may l o s e s i g h t o f a l a r g e segment o f our p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n . Our slow l e a r n e r s are always w i t h us (p. 181).  2.2 PRESENT QUALITIES PERCEIVED  A f t e r examining the suggested causes f o r -underachievement, it  i s necessary t o i t e m i z e c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s t h a t allow an  underachiever t o be i d e n t i f i e d i n the average classroom. Teachers s h o u l d be a l e r t f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x h i b i t e d by p u p i l s t h a t are summarized  by the author i n Table 2 and as a  g e n e r a l i z e d , comprehensive  summary, n o t a l l l e a r n e r s possess  these q u a l i t i e s .  They can be c o n s i d e r e d i n d i a g n o s i n g p o t e n t i a l  candidates and subsequently p l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs f o r these s t u d e n t s .  TABLE 2 QUALITIES PERCEIVED  1.  KARNES  JENKINS  Physical defects  1. * Poor powers of  0XENH0RN  BINGHAM 1.  Social product  1.  Poor reasoning a b i l i t y  reading and writing 2. $ Low academic progress 3.  Poor reasoning a b i l i t y  4.  Short "attention span  5. # Poor retention 6.  No incidental learning  7. **Poor work habits and motivation 8.  2. * Vocabulary problems 3. # Poor retentive  2. # Experience  2. # Poor retention  3. $ Inferior concep-  3. * Communication  4. **Limited powers of 5.  Disorganization  6.  Absence  7. $ Reassurance  4. * Communication  4.  5.  5. $ Poor i n abstractions  COMMON QUALITIES  "i  10.  Personal adjustment  11.  Confidence  12.  Regimentation  13. 14.  Creativity Home L i f e  15.  Adult Outlook  Culture of poverty  6. **Attitudes 7. P r e f e r e n t i a l treatment  Gratification  9. * Communication  weak  tual development  memories  skills  Language and Communication *  Low c u r i o s i t y  6.  Generalizing  7.  Concept formation  8.  Spaciai-relations  9.  Low attention span  10.  No i n c i d e n t a l learning  11.  Poor work habits  12. **Volunteers r a r e l y Motivation **  13.  Cannot follow directions  14.  Leaves work incomplete  15.  A social isolate  Retention # Previous Success $  The  t a b l e c o o r d i n a t e s the common q u a l i t i e s  i n l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s by:  perceived  Bingham (19 70) , Jenkins  Karnes (.1970) and Oxenhorn (19 72).  (NOTE:  (19 73) ,  the coded  markings i n d i c a t e s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as l i s t e d simultaneous  by  authors).  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to note the s i m i l a r i t y between a l l the p r e v i o u s l y recorded causes f o r underachievement and the q u a l i t i e s p e r c e i v e d i n the classroom. a t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from a s l i g h t l y  To  look  different  p e r s p e c t i v e , Weider (1973), d e s c r i b e s what the  teacher  observes: In the underachiever t h e r e appears to be no m o t i v a t i o n , but o n l y an apparent l e t h a r g y ; eyes which gaze i n t o deep w e l l s o f emptiness, an a t t i t u d e o f estrangement o r a s t a t e o f r e b e l l i o u s n e s s which evades p r o d u c t i v i t y . Disengagement r a t h e r than involvement (p. 19). T h i s i n t e r e s t i n g r e p o r t s t a t e s p a t t e r n s which d e s c r i b e how  the underachiever  has  formed.  Weider p r o v i d e s a  psychodynamic a n a l y s i s o f the underachiever  which can  be  summarized as f o l l o w s : 1.  S e l f Concept  - become o v e r l y i n t r o spective  2.  P e r s o n a l Inadequancies  - feels u n f u l f i l l e d , trapped, p e s s i m i s t i c , discouraged and confused  3.  Adult Perception  - more r e a l i s t i c , notes a d u l t preaching a t variance with actions  4.  Needs  - d e s i r e s immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n but has an unconscious need to f a i l , s e e k i n g parental rejection  Weider concludes h i s a r t i c l e d e s c r i b i n g a syndrome o f underachievement.  The parents o f t e n do not know the  p o t e n t i a l and c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e i r progeny.  The student  i s u s u a l l y r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t h i s parents to f i n d as an independent person. takes the form o f p a s s i v e agression.  himself  The s u c c e s s f u l r e b e l l i o n then r e s i s t a n c e r a t h e r than a c t i v e  The youngster wants t o get, "back a t the  parents through f a i l u r e "  (p. 21) .  - 30 -  2.30  GENERAL TEACHING STRATEGIES AND  SUGGESTIONS  To cope w i t h the complexity and m u l t i p l i c i t y o f problems t h a t the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r b r i n g s i n t o the c l a s s room, s p e c i a l techniques and awareness should be employed by the t e a c h e r .  Many authors have made suggestions to  c l a r i f y a s u c c e s s f u l approach progress.  t h a t i n c r e a s e s the r a t e o f  To a l l e v i a t e the p e r s i s t e n t problems f a c i n g  the underachiever, l i s t s o f s t r a t e g i e s have been from Ar on s t e i n  (1969), Bingham (1968), Holzberg  Karnes (19 70) , Lombardi and B a l c h (19 76)  compiled (1976),  and Weider  (1973) . S i n c e the l i t e r a t u r e i s expansive on t h i s f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were used to summarize i t as 2.31  topic,  follows:  GENERAL ACTIVITIES - use a m u l t i s e n s o r y approach, quantity - i n t r o d u c e concepts knowledge  s t r e s s q u a l i t y not  from p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d  - t e a c h i n g s h o u l d proceed from the known to the unknown with emphasis on the c h i l d ' s d a i l y living activities - experiments chosen and o r g a n i z e d so t h a t immediate a p p l i c a t i o n i s apparent and r e l e v a n t - s e l e c t a c t i v i t i e s f o r immediate success i n the minimal amount o f time - g i v e immediate feedback, encouragement and progress r e p o r t s - r e i n f o r c e s u c c e s s f u l performance  with praise  - important l e a r n i n g must be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y taught, following sequential, organized patterns of instruction  - 31 -  - experiences s h o u l d r e q u i r e the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f concrete m a t e r i a l s t o improve v i s u a l - m o t o r coordination - s e l e c t l e a r n i n g experiences which promote a c t i v e student involvement, encourage t h e i r hypotheses - the key i s adaption t o the environment, n o t i n t i m i d a t i o n by i t - s c i e n c e experiences must be developed from the c u r r e n t , common i n t e r e s t s o f the l e a r n e r s and r e s u l t i n an understanding o f the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s - a v o i d t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l on a h i g h l y a b s t r a c t l e v e l , use concrete experiences - c r e a t e i n t e r e s t through a humanistic approach by u s i n g d i f f e r e n t media sources - develop a home-science c u r r i c u l u m , c o o r d i n a t e l e a r n i n g a t home w i t h l e a r n i n g a t s c h o o l 2.32  COMMUNICATION - make a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s s h o r t , s p e c i f i c and c l e a r - t o p i c s s h o u l d f u r n i s h a b a s i s f o r improving a l l language arts s k i l l s , e s p e c i a l l y r e a d i n g and o r a l expression - i n c r e a s e vocabulary, g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y o f word use allows more e f f e c t i v e t h i n k i n g - p r a c t i s e language, read student a c t i v i t y t o g e t h e r as a c l a s s  sheets  - d i s c u s s outcomes t o ensure p r e c i s e concept mation  for-  - develop new language by u s i n g p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s and events - have supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e w i t h s i m i l a r c o n c e p t u a l schemes a t a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g levels - the emphasis o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l system i s on r e a d i n g , i f you cannot read, l e a r n i n g becomes formidable 2.33 TEXTBOOKS - s h o u l d be a t o r below the student's r e a d i n g l e v e l  - 32 -  - minimized emphasis on r e a d i n g a b i l i t y through of diagrams and i l l u s t r a t i o n s  use  - c o n t a i n a decreased vocabulary l o a d , t e c h n i c a l jargon used o n l y when i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the present experience - s h o u l d p r o v i d e w r i t t e n accounts have p e r s o n a l l y observed  o f phenomena students  - a v o i d use o f i r r e l e v a n t formulas, symbols and math - m a t e r i a l s o f h i g h i n t e r e s t and low vocabulary be taperecorded to ease comprehension 2.34  may  TESTS - s h o u l d be r e p l i c a s o f a c t i v i t i e s performed i n c l a s s - e v a l u a t e g e n e r a l concepts  i n the same s e t t i n g  - s i t u a t i o n centered i n v o l v i n g a l l s k i l l s  taught  - s h o u l d not be a t h r e a t e n i n g a u t h o r i t a t i v e demand but a n a t u r a l c u l m i n a t i o n o f work - employ a t i m i n g device so t h a t the l e a r n e r does not get bogged down on one q u e s t i o n - a simple  format w i l l a v o i d c o n f u s i o n o r deception  - w r i t e out model answers b e f o r e the  test  - i d e a l l y , those w i t h r e a d i n g problems may compensated through an o r a l exam  be  - s h o u l d be used p r i m a r i l y to promote l e a r n i n g 2.35  ATTITUDINAL OBJECTIVES - g i v e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students to f e e l important, become c o n s t r u c t i v e h e l p e r s , not d e s t r u c t i v e delinquents - encourage c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s , q u e s t i o n s , s e l f expression - focus on the p o s i t i v e w i t h an emotional conducive t o l e a r n i n g  climate  - the teacher accepts every response as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development o f a concept - student l e a r n s how t o r e s o l v e f r u s t r a t i o n a c o n s t r u c t i v e means  through  - underachievement i s s e l f - d e f e a t i n g and t h a t there are hidden causes f o r t h i s f a i l u r e  - 33 -  - overcome f e a r s o f s c h o o l by working w i t h quent f e e l i n g s o f accomplishment  conse-  - develop a mature a t t i t u d e i n route to b e i n g a responsible adult - supply a l l b a s i c emotional needs - an awareness of the complex i n t e r a c t i o n between s c i e n c e , technology and s o c i e t y - develop the a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a problem and the confidence to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e s k i l l s t o solve i t - an u n t h r e a t e n i n g classroom atmosphere, s t r u c t u r e d to where the students know what i s expected o f them 2.4  PROGRAM DESIGNS FOR  MODIFIED SCIENCE  To a v o i d a "watered down" c u r r i c u l u m , Oxenhorn (19 72) r e v e a l s t h a t a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f any s y l l a b u s shows t h a t it  can be a d j u s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p u p i l ' s needs.  If  i n s t r u c t o r s t h i n k more i n terms o f c o n t e n t - a d j u s t e d and p r o c e s s - a d j u s t e d c u r r i c u l a , keeping r e a l i s t i c g o a l s , they r e t a i n a l l the important concepts meaningful,  and a r r i v e a t a more  p r a c t i c a b l e and strengthened program.  horn a l s o argues  Oxen-  t h a t success through a m o d i f i e d program  i s more d e f e n s i b l e than f a i l u r e i n an u n a t t a i n a b l e program. Most authors, i n c l u d i n g Lombardi and B a l c h  (1976),  r e p o r t t h a t s i n c e l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s are not o r i e n t e d towards a b s t r a c t concepts, s u i t a b l e programs must have a p r a c t i c a l application.  T h i s does not mean the e l i m i n a t i o n o f theory,  concepts o r processes o f s c i e n c e but t h a t programs should p r o v i d e the s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a c y to h e l p p u p i l s f u n c t i o n i n our s o c i e t y .  M o d i f i e d s c i e n c e programs "should be  - 34 -  s t r u c t u r e d t o permit e a s i e r comprehension and b e t t e r retention. The  nature o f m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n  designed f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s has been mentioned by several educators.  Abraham (1961) , notes t h a t concreteness  i s o f utmost importance; m a t e r i a l s  t h a t can be handled  and manipulated should be used t o make s c i e n c e more meaningful . Johnson (196 3) and Anderson (1966), recommend a l a b o r a t o r y approach as both b e l i e v e t h a t s c i e n c e f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s should be taught as i n q u i r y .  T h i s can  be extended t o an accumulation o f d i s c o v e r i e s as r e p o r t e d by Younie (196 7).  Some s u c c e s s f u l programs f o r l i m i t e d  l e a r n e r s are d e s c r i b e d 1970,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e by Bingham (196 8,  1973 and 1974), M i l s o n  Wheeler (1973).  (1973), Quayle (19 70) and  I n B.C. the c u r r e n t m o d i f i e d ?  programs i n c l u d e the Pathways i n Science  science  S e r i e s by  Oxenhorn (196 8), Concepts and Challenges i n Science by W i n k l e r e t a l (19 74)  and I n v i t a t i o n s t o I n v e s t i g a t e  Science  by Wong (19 76) . 2.50  PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been c a l l e d one o f the  most e x c i t i n g advances i n l e a r n i n g techniques d u r i n g years  (Anderson, 19 72) .  Formerly r e c o g n i z e d  recent  as a simple  s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n method o f shaping v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , i t  - 35 -  has become a p r o c e s s , an i n t e g r a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l system o f f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , and a d i a g n o s t i c a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g techniques  ( C a l l e n d e r , 1969).  The work o f S k i n n e r  (1961), on the a n a l y s i s o f  b e h a v i o r based on experimental s t u d i e s w i t h animals, l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t by the process o f reinforcement the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y o f an w i l l be repeated ViisL i n c r e a s e d .  Nothing  p r i n c i p l e except in, understanding how  i s new  organism i n this  conditions of re-  inforcement work b e s t . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n r e s t s f i r m l y on a b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e base f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . o u t l i n e d what t h i s base should be design.  G l a s e r (1965),  f o r any  has  instructional  He c i t e s d i a g n o s i n g o f p r e - i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r  as c r i t i c a l and g i v e s p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s which can determine  course achievement.  A l i s t o f some c o n d i t i o n s  t h a t i n f l u e n c e the l e a r n i n g process such as; s t i m u l u s and response  sequencing,  factors, self-monitoring, inter-  f e r e n c e , p r a c t i c e , and response  contingencies i s also  provided. A programmer's job i s t o analyze the tasks t o be performed,  c o n s t r u c t the sequence and then decide the mode  of presentation.  Whereas the onus o f l e a r n i n g i s on  student, the onus o f e n s u r i n g t h a t the program i s on the programmer ( C a l l e n d e r , 1969) .  the  teaches  To achieve  this,  the w r i t e r must i d e a l l y c a r r y out a b e h a v i o r a l o f s k i l l s t o be  learned before  designing  analysis  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  sequence. L i m i t e d l e a r n e r s need a g e n t l e teacher  r e l e a s e from the  dominated classroom scene to a more open,  exploratory  atmosphere, f e a t u r i n g the  approach (Nasca, 1965  student-centered  and Walther, 1975).  i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , the teacher's  In  r o l e becomes t h a t o f a  manager o f l e a r n i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . monitors each student's p r o g r e s s ,  personal-  The  teacher  diagnoses l e a r n i n g  problems, p r e s c r i b e s a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , a c t i v i t i e s to h e l p s o l v e problems and e v a l u a t e s  and  each  student's progress i n a c h i e v i n g s t a t e d b e h a v i o r a l  object-  ives . 2.51  BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS The  tasks t o be  l e a r n e d should be  d e f i n e d and  down i n t o separate components, (a h i e r a r c h y o f i v e s ) so t h a t program o b j e c t i v e s can be  broken  sub-object-  formulated.  As  p r e s c r i b e d by Gagne (19 70), a h i e r a r c h i c a l knowledge s t r u c t u r e can be w r i t t e n reduction.  The  from these o b j e c t i v e s by  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence should  logical  a r i s e from  an e d u c a t i o n a l need r a t h e r than a programmer's independent decision.  The  behavioral psychologists,  from whom pro-  grammed l e a r n i n g o r i g i n a t e d , have not developed t h e o r i e s but  r a t h e r techniques  (Callender,  1969).  They c l a i m t h a t  s i n c e l i t t l e i s known o f the human mind's workings i t i s more u s e f u l t o concentrate  on t e a c h i n g techniques which  are seen t o produce r e s u l t s . Komoski (196 3), s t a t e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l b e l i e v e the b e s t  psychologists  l e a r n i n g environment i s one i n which  f a c t o r s are o p e r a t i v e  five  (p. 292):  1.  The l e a r n e r i s a c t i v e  2.  The l e a r n e r gets frequent uaijd and performance feedback.  3.  L e a r n i n g proceeds g r a d u a l l y from the l e s s complex toward the more complex i n an o r d e r l y fashion.  4.  The l e a r n e r i s allowed t o develop h i s own b e s t pace o f l e a r n i n g .  5.  The teacher's s t a t e g i e s are c o n s t a n t l y r e a p p r a i s e d on the b a s i s o f an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the learner's a c t i v i t y .  I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the program determine whether m a t e r i a l s  designer"to  and procedures enable the  student t o reach the d e s i r e d performance l e v e l i n a s p e c i f i c subject.  In these terms, l e a r n i n g can be d e f i n e d  as a change o f b e h a v i o r t h a t i s both observable and measurable ( C a l l e n d e r , expressions  such as:  1969).  When l i s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s ,  t o know, understand o r a p p r e c i a t e  are vague and meaningless d e s c r i p t i o n s .  They are n o t  b e h a v i o r a l terms as they cannot be measured o r observed w i t h o u t asking the l e a r n e r s t o demonstrate c e r t a i n a c t i o n s . Therefore,  a l l o b j e c t i v e s must be d e s c r i b e d i n o p e r a t i o n a l  terms such as represented  i n Table #2.  This  illustrates  - 38 -  an e x t e n s i v e b u t n o t an exhaustive  l i s t of behavioral  objectives. At t h e p r e l i m i n a r y stage o f program c o n s t r u c t i o n , there i s a statement o f g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e (Appendix D). T h i s statement i s then broken down i n t o a s e r i e s o f s m a l l e r o b j e c t i v e s which s p e c i f y what the l e a r n e r w i l l be able to do a t each stage o f the program.  A declaration  of d e t a i l e d o b j e c t i v e s , p r i o r to w r i t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , ensures e x c l u s i o n o f extraneous  information  and the i n c l u s i o n o f every s t e p and concept necessary towards attainment o f the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e .  In summary,  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s g o a l - o r i e n t e d l e a r n i n g t o h e l p students  acquire s p e c i f i c knowledge o r s k i l l s .  - 39 -  TABLE 3 Behavioral Objectives Analyze  Demonstrate  Plan  Answer  Describe  Portray  Arrange  Design  Practise  Assemble  Develop  Prepare  Bring  Discuss  Present  Build  Draw  Question  Calculate  Edit  Read  Catalogue  Explain  Recognize  Check  Express  Record  Choose  Find  Report  Classify  Graph  Research  Compile  Identify  Select  Compare  Illustrate  Sketch  Conduct  List  Sort  Construct  Listen  Tape  Contrast  Make  Tell  Convert  Organize  Use  Debate  Outline  View  De c i de  Participate  Write  Note:  O b j e c t i v e s s t a t e what the student w i l l be able t o do o r demonstrate a f t e r completing a given l e a r n i n g sequence o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s d e f i n e e x a c t l y what the student must be able t o do to a t t a i n the broader goals o r understand the t o p i c s of the course.  - 40 -  2.52 EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMMED Evidence  INSTRUCTION  i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t when com^  pared w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l techniques, programmed m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t e n t l y produced  a t l e a s t equal s t u d e n t performance  o f l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , o f t e n i n s h o r t e r p e r i o d s o f time. In an a n a l y s i s o f r e s e a r c h on i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures i n secondary  s c h o o l s c i e n c e , Ramsay and Howe (1969) reviewed  16 r e p o r t s on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and have n e a t l y summarized the r e s u l t s .  For r e p o r t s t h a t show the p o s i t i v e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f programming t o impart content,  these  authors c i t e ; B e s l e r (1966), Karnes (1966), Darnowski (1968), S a y l e s  (1966), Young (1967), and Zesche  (1966).  In a d d i t i o n t o i m p a r t i n g content, Young a l s o  concluded  t h a t students u s i n g programmed m a t e r i a l s i n h i g h s c h o o l b i o l o g y reached the same l e v e l o f achievement as other students i n l e s s time.  Karnes,  r e p o r t s t h a t h i g h e r achieve-  ment l e v e l i s a t t a i n e d when compared w i t h students taught by the t r a d i t i o n a l methods given e q u a l time.  A f t e r three  years o f work w i t h programmed s c i e n c e experiences w i t h student performed  coupled  a c t i v i t i e s , Hedges and Mac Dougall  (1965) concluded t h a t a programmed approach can be a v a l u a b l e adjunct t o modern s c h o o l s c i e n c e .  The i n v e s t i -  gators note t h a t t h i s i s t r u e i n the sense t h a t students become h i g h l y motivated over l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f time because o f the o p p o r t u n i t y t o proceed a t t h e i r own r a t e doing many experiments  by themselves.  Another review o f the l i t e r a t u r e conducted by Royce and Shank (19 75), summarized the r e s u l t s o f 21 research papers on i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e a c h i n g and made c o n c l u s i o n s about i t s u s e f u l n e s s and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n s c i e n c e education.  They i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e was -?crm*  found f o r achievement i n c o g n i t i v e o b j e c t i v e s , skills  inquiry  and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g between i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and  group paced i n s t r u c t i o n when measuring the understanding of  science.  S i m i l a r l y , Bard  (19 75), attempted  t o develop  a programmed, s e l f - p a c e d , v a r i a b l e s t e p guide, and to determine i f t h i s was as e f f e c t i v e as the t r a d i t i o n a l book method.  text-  An a n a l y s i s o f h i s r e s u l t s f o r a g e n e r a l  s c i e n c e course f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t rence i n achievement.  Students  diffe-  a l s o p r e f e r r e d the s e l f -  paced study and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f s m a l l groups over  large.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an e n t i r e c o l l e g e s c i e n c e course taught by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has been r e p o r t e d by Lagendijk  (19 78) , and B a l f o u r (1978) , i n separate s t u d i e s .  Both r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement between students i n programmed c l a s s e s and those i n c o n v e n t i o n a l l a b o r a t o r y courses. They a l s o found t h a t these students were able to achieve these h i g h e r scores i n l e s s time.  Hedges (1978), w h i l e  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the long term e f f e c t s o f programmed m a t e r i a l  - 42 -  concurs w i t h the above f i n d i n g s .  He  a l s o noted t h a t d i f €  ferences i n achievement were a t t r i b u t e d to the development of b e t t e r study h a b i t s o f the experimental students p l u s a student b e l i e f t h a t they can l e a r n more through a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . In a l i t e r a t u r e search comparing i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  and  c o n v e n t i o n a l modes o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e , Marchese (1977) n o t i c e d t h a t compared w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s , very l i t t l e has been r e p o r t e d i n s c i e n c e .  He  criticizes  the poor q u a l i t y o f r e s e a r c h methods used and o n l y those r e p o r t s a p p l y i n g acceptable r e s e a r c h designs were s e l e c t e d f o r the review.  Marchese, c i t e s Dutton  (1970), W i l l i a m s (1969), Leo r e s e a r c h e r s who  (196 3),  Peterson  (1973) and Lewis (1974) as  found t h a t the achievement of students  u s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s was  significantly  h i g h e r than those taught by c o n v e n t i o n a l methods. W i l l i a m s , Leo and Lewis, a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t not o n l y was  achievement h i g h e r , but r e t e n t i o n was  greater.  l a r l y , students u s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach had p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the course.  Simia more  A p o s i t i v e outlook  towards s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and acknowledged i n other by Moriber  (1967), Del B a r t o  (1978) and Flowers  articles (1977).  - 43  -  From a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , o n l y one c a t e d t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was c o n v e n t i o n a l methods.  study  indi-  l e s s e f f e c t i v e than  Eshleman (196 7), concluded that  terms of immediate l e a r n i n g  and  the  more e f f e c t i v e .  c o n v e n t i o n a l method was  i n measures o f  in  retention?  Both methods  of i n s t r u c t i o n , however d i d produce s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n s u b j e c t knowledge. As  a synopsis of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to persona-  l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , Gabel, Kagen and cluded t h a t  2.6  (p.  con-  456):  1.  When methods such as a u d i o - t u t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n , programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y package are used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , studentAs a t t i t u d e s toward the s u b j e c t and/or method of i n s t r u c t i o n are g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . It is d i f f i c u l t to know whether t h i s e f f e c t i s s t a b l e over time, or due to the n o v e l t y o f u s i n g a new method.  2.  C o g n i t i v e gains from i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n have been mixed. With a u d i o - t u t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y packages, c o g n i t i v e gains are g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d when the method i s used f o r a s m a l l number o f u n i t s or over a s h o r t time span. C o g n i t i v e gains f o r programmed i n s t r u c t i o n have not been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  PROGRESS WITH LIMITED LEARNERS A r e p o r t on  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  t i o n w i t h d i s t u r b e d students was The  Sherwood (19 80),  of programmed  conducted, by E l d r e d  main purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was  e f f e c t s of programming upon the  instruc(1966).  to study  academic, t h e r a p e u t i c  and  - 44 -  s o c i a l progress o f c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s i n a s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l .  I t was  l a t e r expanded to i n c l u d e l i m i t e d  l e a r n e r s or underachievers i n a p u b l i c h i g h s c h o o l . E l d r e d , b e l i e v e d t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n would p r o v i d e a sense o f worth and academic progress needed t o prevent dropouts.  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , he i n v e s t i g a t e d  and  concluded t h a t many l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p a s t experience w i t h s c h o o l , were able t o l e a r n under t h i s system.  The r e s u l t s are not p e r f e c t l y c l e a r as to b e n e f i t s  t h a t the programmed method may  p r o v i d e over c o n v e n t i o n a l  t e a c h i n g methods as there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s reported. A r e s e a r c h study by Walther e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h which the New  (19 75), r e p o r t s on  the  E d u c a t i o n a l Program, (a  m o d i f i c a t i o n and refinement o f the Job Corps programmed l e a r n i n g ) can p r o v i d e worthwhile underachieving adolescents.  l e a r n i n g experiences f o r  The program success  was  measured by achievement t e s t s the q u a l i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and o t h e r outcomes i n d i c a t i v e o f success.  On  average,  students gained t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a grade achievement i n academic s k i l l s  d u r i n g three months.  t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was  Walther  concluded  found to be an e f f e c t i v e  e d u c a t i o n a l component i n a v a r i e t y o f programs w i t h academic underachievers.  level  concerned  - 45 -  There seems to be some discrepancy i n the r e g a r d i n g l i m i t e d and more able l e a r n e r s . found t h a t high a b i l i t y  l e v e l seventh  literature  Hirrel  (19 71) ,  graders have  need f o r programmed i n s t r u c t i o n whereas at lower  little  ability  l e v e l s , there i s a s t r o n g need f o r f u l l employment o f such techniques.  In terms o f immediate l e a r n i n g and r e -  t e n t i o n Eshleman (1967) , found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a v o r of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n  f o r below average students  when compared w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . bury  (1976),  Arlin  and West-  reported that student-paced,-individualized  s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n u s i n g programmed m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r mean l e a r n i n g r a t e f o r those students d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g more able of f a s t l e a r n e r s . They d e s c r i b e a phenomenon known as the " l e v e l i n g s e f f e c t " where teachers tend t o focus on the needs o f a b i l i t y students.  lower-  The t e a c h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n  and  a press f o r g r e a t e r achievement i s d e f l e c t e d from more able students by t h i s is  " s t e e r i n g c r i t e r i o n group".  t h a t teacher-paced  The  classroom i n s t r u c t i o n may  suggestion  significantly  e f f e c t s c i e n c e achievement by l i m i t i n g the a b l e r students. The evidence  presented i n t h e i r study i n d i c a t e d t h a t slow to  medium l e a r n e r s achieve e q u a l l y as w e l l through  programmed  i n s t r u c t i o n , whereas f a s t l e a r n e r s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r l e a r n i n g r a t e very s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  The  r e s e a r c h e r s concluded  that  t h e i r f i n d i n g should be viewed as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the  - 46 -  powerful i n f l u e n c e t h a t an i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology may have on a l l students. 2.70 DESIGNING A PROGRAMMED The  INSTRUCTION  following subsections  findings related t o designing rials.  reveal s p e c i f i c  research  s u c c e s s f u l programmed mate-  As the success o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o u l d be i n -  f l u e n c e d by the q u a l i t y o f an author-designed programmed i n s t r u c t i o n ; i t was e s s e n t i a l t o review a r t i c l e s examined programming  that  techniques.  2.71 LINEAR PROGRAMS Morley  (19 70),  med m a t e r i a l s  r e p o r t s t h a t 90% o f p u b l i s h e d program-  are o f the l i n e a r format mainly due t o t h e i r  e f f i c a c y and simple  construction.  A study conducted by Crabtree  (1967) on the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between s c o r e s , time, I.Q. and r e a d i n g fourth-grade  students u s i n g v a r i e d programmed s c i e n c e mate-  rials,  revealed  scores,  I.Q.'s o r the mean reading  but By  level for  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean l e v e l s f o r any v e r s i o n s ,  there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean times. s t r u c t u r i n g the m a t e r i a l s  i n d i f f e r e n t ways, l i n e a r .  v e r s i o n s seemed p r e f e r a b l e t o other program designs s i n c e the same amount o f m a t e r i a l was covered i n l e s s time. I t was noted t h a t those students who took l e s s time t o work  - 47 -  through l i n e a r programs tended t o earn h i g h e r scores  than  those on other v e r s i o n s , even a f t e r I.Q. and r e a d i n g  level  d i f f e r e n c e s have been e l i m i n a t e d . time and score are n o t r e l a t e d . o d d i t y by s u g g e s t i n g  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t Crabtree  e x p l a i n s the  t h a t the c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f s t u -  dents u s i n g programmed m a t e r i a l s was.needed. 2.72 CONCRETE MATERIALS Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e does n o t r u l e out t h a t l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s such as experiments can be made an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the program, i f they a r e h i g h l y s t r u c tured.  I n a study by Nasca (1965), an attempt was-made t o  determine how a c t i v e involvement i n l e a r n i n g s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s i n f l u e n c e s some s p e c i f i c student student's  involvement was assured  abilities.  The  through the use o f pro-  grammed m a t e r i a l s accompanied by three methods o f a c q u i r i n g s c i e n t i f i c evidence t o support  new p r i n c i p l e s developed i n  the program. The  three methods o f p r o v i d i n g supplementary evidence  were; s e e i n g a t e a c h e r  demonstrate 73 a c t i v i t i e s ,  personal  a c t i v e performance, and reading about new concepts.  The  r e s u l t s indicated that active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n obtaining s u p p o r t i v e evidence f o r s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior. were about e q u a l .  The o t h e r  two independent v a r i a b l e s  Nasca, suggests t h a t a programmed i n -  - 48 -  s t r u c t i o n may  be  accompanied by a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s  s u p p o r t i n g the v e r b a l b e h a v i o r b e i n g developed. ments w i t h i n a program c o u l d d i r e c t students  State-  to p a r t i -  c i p a t e i n any number o f a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to the t o p i c . Therefore, new 2.73  concrete m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be used to  concepts presented  support  i n the program.  ADVANCE ORGANIZERS In an experiment designed  to i n v e s t i g a t e i n d i v i -  dual d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g from programmed m a t e r i a l s , Koran and Koran (19 73)  preceded the m a t e r i a l s w i t h  vance o r g a n i z e r s .  purpose of an advance o r g a n i z e r  is  The  ad-  to provide some s t r u c t u r e or "general i d e a s c a f f o l -  ding" i n t o which new  concepts can be i n c o r p o r a t e d .  has been r e p o r t e d t h a t l i m i t e d and more able b e n e f i t from t h i s technique.  It  students  Zeaman and House (1967),  suggest t h a t i f lower a b i l i t y students  are weak i n  a t t e n t i o n a l and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a l s k i l l s , the s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d by advance o r g a n i z e r s may  compensate f o r t h i s  lack by means o f a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t i n g and  controlling  features. The  r e s u l t s o f the experiment conducted by  Korans, d i d not  f i n d any  the  s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n using  advance o r g a n i z e r s b e f o r e programmed m a t e r i a l s . suggest t h a t t h i s e f f e c t may  be  They  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the  fact  LEAF 49 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING  - 50 t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f , w i t h feedback  accompanying  f o l l o w i n g each frame, p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t  ture t o serve the needs o f l i m i t e d  struc-  learners.  2.74 VISUAL ILLUSTRATIONS Dwyer (19 72) , r e p o r t s t h a t r e s e a r c h has found t h a t all  types o f v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s are n o t e q u a l l y e f f e c -  t i v e i n complimenting  programmed m a t e r i a l s .  One o f the  reasons c i t e d f o r the phenomenon i s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s t i muli c o n t a i n e d i n more r e a l i s t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s tends t o d i s t r a c t a student's a t t e n t i o n from the r e l e v a n t l e a r n i n g cues. The purpose o f Dwyer's study was t o determine  which  types o f v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s used w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n were most e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g student ment.  achieve-  S p e c i f i c a l l y , e i g h t types o f v i s u a l s were used t o  determine  their relative effectiveness.  The amount o f time  students study t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e programs and the i n f l u e n c e of  c o l o r i n v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p l o r e d  as i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s f o r promoting  student achieve-  ment. The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l types o f v i s u a l s are  not e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . alistic  An i n c r e a s e i n the amount o f r e -  d e t a i l i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l n o t a r b i t r a r i l y im-  prove student achievement.  Dwyer's s u g g e s t i o n ,  agrees  w i t h c u r r e n t o p i n i o n s t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s presented as  - 51 -  simple l i n e drawings ( i n c o l o r ) are the most e f f e c t i v e f o r i n c r e a s i n g studetftt»achievement. drawings may  Success o f simple  line  be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t students c o u l d  r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y r e l e v a n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l cues i n the d i a grams and l e a r n from them. 2.75  INDUCTIVE AND In  DEDUCTIVE PROGRAMS  a comparison of i n d u c t i v e and deductive programmed  m a t e r i a l s , Sakmyser (1974),  found no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between the type of program used when t e a c h i n g chemical e q u i l i b r i u m to high s c h o o l chemistry s t u d e n t s . there was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the student's r e -  tention tests. fits  Similarly,  However, each program had s p e c i f i c bene-  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s  or  skills. For example, r e a d i n g a b i l i t y had l i t t l e e f f e c t the student's i n d u c t i v e program performance but  on  those  students w i t h lower r e a d i n g a b i l i t y were l e s s s u c c e s s f u l on the deductive program than students with h i g h e r r e a d i n g ability.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may  be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t  the deductive program r e q u i r e d students t o read and comprehend l a r g e p r i n c i p l e s a l l at once at the s t a r t .  The  i n d u c t i v e program, r e q u i r e s comprehension o f s m a l l p i e c e s of  knowledge b u i l d i n g towards l a r g e r concepts.  The  impli-  c a t i o n drawn from the study i n d i c a t e s t h a t programmers should f o l l o w an i n d u c t i v e programming scheme t o  minimize  - 52 -  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n reading The  abilities.  above r e s e a r c h i s i n agreement w i t h e a r l i e r work  by T h e o f a n i s  (1964), who compared two programs, one w r i t t e n  i n d u c t i v e l y and the other d e d u c t i v e l y w h i l e c o v e r i n g the same t o p i c .  When i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between  i n s t r u c t i o n a l base and student mental a b i l i t y , he found t h a t students o f low and h i g h mental a b i l i t y inductively.  The average  learned b e t t e r  students showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between the two methods. 2.76 SPECIFIC REVIEW AND QUESTION COMPLEXITY When comparing s p e c i f i c review a g a i n s t repeated presentations, M e r r i l l  (1970), concludes t h a t when coupled  w i t h a c o r r e c t i o n procedure,  the s p e c i f i c review  increased learning e f f i c i e n c y . review immediately  technique  Apparently, r e c e i v i n g the  following a series of presentation  frames was b e t t e r than having t o w a i t f o r a c r i t e r i o n measuring q u e s t i o n .  I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t a summary  presented a t the end o f a sequence i n c r e a s e d student  con-  f i d e n c e i n the m a t e r i a l s as they tended t o spend more time w i t h subsequent  frames.  A study e n t i t l e d , i n s t r u c t i o n a l responses  "The e f f e c t on l e a r n i n g o f p o s t to questions of d i f f e r i n g  degrees  o f complexity", has been researched by Yost, A v i l l a and Vexler  (19 77) .  T h e i r purpose was t o determine  the e f f e c t  - 53 -  on l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e content by having students respond  overtly  to q u e s t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t complexity f o l l o w i n g  segments of programmed m a t e r i a l s . completed  Those s u b j e c t s  the program by responding t o i n t e r s p e r s e d  q u e s t i o n s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those completed  who  the program w i t h c o v e r t responses.  who  T h i s phe-  nomenon o c c u r r e d r e g u l a r l y when a t e c h n i c a l or s p e c i a l i z e d vocabulary was  used w i t h a time delay, between the i n s t r u c -  t i o n and the c r i t e r i o n measure. These authors suggest (that as complexity o f q u e s t i o n s i n c r e a s e s , achievement i n c r e a s e d as d i d amount of time spent on the program.  They t h e r e f o r e concluded,  t h a t by  a s k i n g more complex q u e s t i o n s as p a r t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence, h i g h e r r e l e v a n t and i n c i d e n t a l achievement occurred.  T h i s g r e a t e r achievement was  r e l a t e d to the ad-  d i t i o n a l experience o f p r a c t i s e students o b t a i n e d inspection behaviors.  ( i . e . rereading, sorting,  and  stimuli).  looking f o r other  through examining,  Yost, A v i l l a and V e x l e r , note the need f o r a g r e a t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t between char a c t e r i s t i c s o f q u e s t i o n s used t o e l i c i t student  responses  and the amount o f l e a r n i n g t h a t occurs from those They a l s o r e p o r t the work o f F r a s e r (1970), and (1966),  responses.  Rothkopf  t h a t q u e s t i o n s p l a c e d e i t h e r before or a f t e r  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence have i n g e n e r a l , produced  an  facilita-  - 54  -  t i v e e f f e c t s on learning.'2.8  PLACE IN CURRICULUM Personalized i n s t r u c t i o n provides  of l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c content place i n science education,  an e f f i c i e n t method  outcomes and has  a definite  but what t h a t a c t u a l p l a c e i n  the t o t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l scene i s not completely  clear.  Ramsey and Howe (1969), found t h a t research has  been  gely preoccupied  with  the nature of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s ;;of  i n d i v i d u a l programs r a t h e r than how applied i n school s i t u a t i o n s . v i d u a l teacher  lar-  these may  best  be  They suggest t h a t each i n d i -  and each s c h o o l should make some e v a l u a t i o n  on the r o l e o f p e r s o n a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , perhaps c o n t r i b u t i n g to the meagre l i t e r a t u r e on i t s e f f e c t i v e i n the  utilization  classroom.  Morrow (1965), a l s o s t a t e s t h a t programmed m a t e r i a l s w i l l d e f i n i t e l y serve  a purpose i n the s c h o o l system.  suggests t h e i r g r e a t e s t value would be m a t e r i a l s i n a r e g u l a r classroom grams c o u l d be presented dents.  He  as supplementary  situation.  Specific  pro-  designed to expand on a s i n g l e concept,  i n a textbook, f o r the b e n e f i t of more able s t u -  Other programs c o u l d be w r i t t e n f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s ,  g i v i n g them a "slower p i t c h " on some e l u s i v e t o p i c .  Morrow,  summarizes t h a t programmed m a t e r i a l s should supplement, as enrichment f o r the able student  and  l e a r n e r , r a t h e r than r e p l a c e present  a s s i s t a n c e f o r the slow instructional materials.  -  55 -  S i m i l a r l y , Roucek (1969) suggest t h a t p e r s o n a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n be g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d and used f o r s p e c i f i c purposes.  These i n c l u d e d e v e l o p i n g s h o r t u n i t s t o com-  pliment, extend, modes.  remedy, and review o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n  The f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h i s technology allows  slower  students a d d i t i o n a l time f o r review whereas f a s t e r s t u dents can e i t h e r work i n g r e a t e r depth o r e x p l o r e new areas o f i n t e r e s t . Often i n the p a s t , words like"programmed i n s t r u c t i o n " or even worse, " t e a c h i n g machines" have conjured up e r r o neous n o t i o n s about a package d e a l o f i n s t a n t e d u c a t i o n . Eldred  (1966), s a r c a s t i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t you j u s t add a  student, l e t simmer f o r two semesters  and p r e s t o . . . . an  instant scholar! T h i s i s n o t t r u e as these programs w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e when used by an e x p e r i e n c e d teacher w i t h adequate t r a i n i n g and r e l a t e d background.  I t i s n o t t o disparage  the claims o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n notes E l d r e d , b u t v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g can b e s t occur u s i n g i t i n one s m a l l ! s u b j e c t area by one h i g h l y motivated i n d i v i d u a l .  He recom-  mends t h a t teachers use t h i s technology as an a i d to personalize education. A s i m i l a r comment i s r e p o r t e d by Blake and McPherson (1969), t o c l a r i f y c h i l d r e n cannot  an important p o i n t .  They w r i t e t h a t  learn e f f e c t i v e l y v i a i n d i v i d u a l  instruction  - 56 -  by simply being t o l d t o proceed a t t h e i r own study o f t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s .  pace through  the  S p e c i a l l y prepared m a t e r i a l s  are r e q u i r e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s u b j e c t and should proceed s e q u e n t i a l l y u n t i l a r e q u i r e d l e v e l o f competence has been completed. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l not r e p l a c e the  classroom  teacher, dehumanize l e a r n i n g , or i n c r e a s e the teacher's work load.  Blake and McPherson, r e p o r t e d t h a t programmed i n s t r u c -  t i o n can a c t u a l l y enhance l e a r n i n g .  They p r e d i c t e d t h a t the  technique w i l l f r e e teachers f o r v a r i o u s n e g l e c t e d dimensions of  t e a c h i n g ( i . e . by l e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s , r a i s i n g c h a l l e n g i n g  q u e s t i o n s , d i a g n o s i n g , working w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , examining a l t e r n a t e m a t e r i a l s , planning,sand  conferences,  l i s t e n i n g to  students). Sheehan and Hambleton  (19 77) , s t a t e t h a t no s i n g l e i n -  s t r u c t i o n a l process p r o v i d e s o p t i m a l l e a r n i n g f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . Given predetermined  e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , some students w i l l  be  more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h one program whereas others are more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h d i f f e r e n t methodologies.  The t e a c h e r i s not  i s o l a t e d from a student's p r o g r e s s , as programmed i n s t r u c t i o n provides two  constant gauges on l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  The  number of e r r o r s and r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the program i n d i c a t e s areas o f d i f f i c u l t y or ease of progress and allow a l t e r n a t e p l a n n i n g o f l e a r n i n g experiences to c l a r i f y  situations.  - 57 -  Programmed l e a r n i n g should not be  allowed to s e t the  c l a s s scene or d i c t a t e t e a c h i n g methods. agrees  Morrow  (1965),  t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s a b r i g h t t o o l whose  uses and  l i m i t a t i o n s must be c a u t i o u s l y d e f i n e d .  Similarly,  Hedges and MacDougall (1965), have s e r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s about programmed m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t i n g the t o t a l i t y o f any s c i e n c e program.  They suggest  school  a v a r i e t y o f ways i n which  s h o r t programmed u n i t s can become another  f a c e t o f the b a l a n -  ced s c i e n c e program i n a modern s c h o o l . S t u d i e s conducted  by Woodruff (1965),  and Sayles  (1966),  i n d i c a t e d t h a t students enjoy the n o v e l t y o f programming but can soon t i r e of i t when used to excess. t i t u d e problem c o u l d develop i f t h i s was  T h e r e f o r e , an a t the o n l y o r  primary  i n s t r u c t i o n mode. Most s c i e n c e courses  a l r e a d y programmed seem t o be  con-  cerned w i t h s u b j e c t matter outcomes, these b e i n g v e r b a l i n nature.  Techniques have a p p a r e n t l y not been d e v i s e d as y e t  f o r a t t a i n i n g the broad goals o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n . s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , processes o f s c i e n c e , etc.)  (i.e.  Therefore  teachers should be c a u t i o u s i n employing programmed m a t e r i a l s o t h e r than to supplement r e g u l a r classroom  procedures.  - 58 -  2.90 IMPLICATIONS FROM RESEARCH A f t e r summarizing r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s  (Table 4 ) , the author  considered the f o l l o w i n g suggestions when w r i t i n g the program. An e x t e n s i v e e f f o r t was made t o w r i t e w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g l e v e l as i t tends t o p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t b l o c k " t o underachievers.  "stumbling  The format o f the program was  l i n e a r and f o l l o w e d an i n d u c t i v e approach t o l e a r n i n g . The students  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an advance o r g a n i z e r may h e l p some c o n c e p t u a l l y arrange  t r a t i o n s i n the form o f simple  the new m a t e r i a l .  Visual i l l u s -  l i n e drawings were a v a l u a b l e  a s s e t i n c l a r i f y i n g c e r t a i n i d e a s , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and i n f o r mation.  A p r o v i s i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d f o r a l t e r n a t i v e  acti-  v i t i e s t h a t i n c l u d e d concrete m a t e r i a l s t o r e i n f o r c e v e r b a l behaviors  and s k i l l s b e i n g taught.  Ideally, personalized  i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d a i d as an important classroom procedures o f each student. for a l l education.  supplement t o r o u t i n e  adding v a r i e t y t o meet the r e q u i r e d needs  P e r s o n a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t a panacea Astute observers have r e c o g n i z e d both the  p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s as w e l l as some negative comments i n the literature.  TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH: AUTHOR(S)  PROGRAMMED RESEARCH AREA  IMPLICATIONS  Bard, Ramsey and Howe  General e f f e c t i v e n e s s  e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l as t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g  Barry  Advanced content  s e n i o r content c a n be d e s i g n e d f o r j u n i o r students  Crabtree  L i n e a r programs  l i n e a r programs a r e more e f f i c i e n t  Dwyer  Visual  •simple l i n e drawings a r e most e f f e c t i v e  illustrations  L i m i t e d l e a r n e r s success  I n c r e a s e d achievement f o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r s  Koran and Koran  Advance o r g a n i z e r s  •some form o f mental framework may h e l p c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s p r e p a r e f o r a program  Merrill  Review c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  •present a summary a f t e r a s h o r t sequence  Morrow  Place i n curriculum  •as a supplement t o r e g u l a r procedures  Nasca  Concrete m a t e r i a l s  •include l a b a c t i v i t i e s t o r e i n f o r c e new s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o r concepts  Sakmyser  I n d u c t i v e and deductive programs  • i n d u c t i v e programs f a v o u r a b l e f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s o r those w i t h lower r e a d i n g ability  A r l i n and Westbury  Leveling  effect  •bright students i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g r a t e significantly  Yost, A v i l l a and V e x l e r  Question  complexity  -overt responses t o complex q u e s t i o n s i n c r e a s e d achievement and h i g h e r concept development  Eldred,  Walther  - 60 -  CHAPTER 3. DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY  3.0 INTRODUCTION The  f o l l o w i n g chapter d e s c r i b e s the course o f a c t i o n  taken t o answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s .  I t c o v e r s : the  background o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s , a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f how the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were i d e n t i f i e d , the m a t e r i a l s and instruments employed w i t h the chosen design and concludes w i t h p r e v i o u s p i l o t study  results.  The impetus f o r conducting t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o e x p l o r e the success o f programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i n a r e g u l a r classroom.  - 61 -  3.1 DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE The  students i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study were e n r o l l e d i n a  r e g u l a r s c i e n c e e i g h t program a t K i l l a r n e y Secondary i n D i s t r i c t #39, Vancouver.  F o r most o f these  t h i s was the f i r s t year of secondary education grades e i g h t through twelve.  School,  students, encompassing  The students came from a  wide range o f socioeconomic backgrounds, i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l single-parent  and immigrant f a m i l i e s .  A t K i l l a r n e y , students are heterogeneously grouped and assigned  to c l a s s e s by a computer program which i s considered  to be e q u i v a l e n t  t o random s e l e c t i o n .  of l i m i t e d learners the p o p u l a t i o n  However, a s m a l l group  (13 students) was p r e v i o u s l y screened from  and p l a c e d i n a " B a s i c s " program.  This s p e c i a l  group were not s e l e c t e d f o r the study, as the research  question  examines the r e l a t i v e performance o f l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s w i t h i n a r e g u l a r classroom s i t u a t i o n . A t o t a l of f i v e c l u s t e r s of science eight classes mately 120 students) were s e l e c t e d from a grade e i g h t of 310 students.  (approxipopulation  The a c t u a l number o f students who p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the study was 116.  Four students were n o t i n c l u d e d due t o  extended i l l n e s s e s when e i t h e r the p r e t e s t o r p o s t t e s t was written.  TABLE 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F i v e C l u s t e r  Samples  Limited Learners  Class  Size  Normal Learners  1**  15  12  3  2*  24  21  3  3**  29  24  5  4*  25  21  4  5*  23  19  4  116  97  Teacher 1  Teacher 2  19  •experimental treatment (n=72) * * c o n t r o l groups (n=44)  C l u s t e r sampling assumes t h a t a l l members o f the s e l e c ted groups have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Gay, 19 76).  This  means t h a t r a t h e r  stu-  than randomly s e l e c t i n g grade e i g h t  dents, e n t i r e classrooms are randomly s e l e c t e d and a l l s t u dents i n the s e l e c t e d  classrooms p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  T h e r e f o r e , some confidence must be p l a c e d i n the s c h o o l ' s c l a s s s e l e c t i o n format. chances o f o b t a i n i n g i n t a c t classes few  rather  Cluster  sampling i n c r e a s e s the  administrative  approval due t o s e l e c t i n g  than randomly s e l e c t i n g and removing a  students from each c l a s s .  One drawbacktto c l u s t e r sam-  p l i n g i s s e l e c t i n g a sample which i s n o t represent!ve, i n some way, o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s was compensated f o r by s e l e c t i n g  a l a r g e r sample ( f i v e c l u s t e r s )  rather  than one c l u s t e r .  - 63 -  The  f i v e s c i e n c e e i g h t c l a s s e s were taught by two male  s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s , w i t h the study c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the w i n t e r term i n January,  19 82.  T h i s allowed the previous  months o f " a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n " f o r these new to a l a r g e secondary  s c h o o l system.  i n d i c a t e d t h a t most students had programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . were no confounding ences.  The  A p r e v i o u s survey  had  l i t t l e or no experience w i t h  T h e r e f o r e , i t was  e f f e c t s due  students to a d j u s t  assumed t h a t there  to p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i -  treatments were randomly assigned to the c l a s s e s  so t h a t each teacher had a t l e a s t one experimental and  one  c o n t r o l group. 3.2  SCHOOL AND KiHarney  Vancouver.  TEACHER BACKGROUND Secondary School i s l o c a t e d i n south-east  The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n was  complement o f 88 s t a f f members. was  a semestered  students w i t h a  The s c i e n c e e i g h t program  course i n v o l v i n g f i v e classroom p e r i o d s o f  59 minutes each, i n seven s c h o o l days. a l l o t m e n t was  1665  Although  the time  below the p r o v i n c i a l l y recommended g u i d e l i n e s  o f 110 hours per s u b j e c t , K i l l a r n e y students r e c e i v e a p p r o x i mately  130 hours o f s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n per year i n both  nine and t e n .  The  grades  s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s aware o f these  d i s c r e p e n c i e s and t i m e t a b l e s are b e i n g changed i n September 19 82 . One  of the s c i e n c e teachers i n t h i s study has been  t e a c h i n g f o r 29 years i n Vancouver a t both the elementary  and  - 64 -  secondary  levels.  For over the l a s t 15 y e a r s , t h i s  instruc-  t o r has been employed at K i l l a r n e y , working e x c l u s i v e l y with the j u n i o r s c i e n c e program.  The  teacher does not  recall  i n s t r u c t i n g w i t h programmed m a t e r i a l s a t any time i n h i s c a r e e r but appeared'to show a genuine, p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n b e i n g p a r t of t h i s The  author, who  investigation. was  the second teacher, had,taught  j u n i o r science at K i l l a r n e y f o r f i v e years.  This  experience  i n c l u d e s three years o f i n s t r u c t i n g l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i n s p e c i a l l y modified science c l a s s e s .  Both i n s t r u c t o r s f o l l o w e d  s i m i l a r approaches i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n ,  (as  f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 1.11)  the  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . the two  and i d e n t i c a l approaches w i t h  de-  D a i l y conferences were h e l d between  teachers to ensure t h a t they f u l f i l l e d s i m i l a r i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l techniques.  At these meetings, f i l m s were exchanged,  l a b o r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s and the student's progress were d i s c u s s e d along w i t h any problems encountered.  Both s c i e n c e teachers  have taught the c u r r e n t program e i g h t times i n the p r e v i o u s four y e a r s . 3.30  IDENTIFICATION OF THE  LIMITED LEARNERS  A c r u c i a l stage i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  the a p p r o p r i a t e  d e s i g n a t i o n of those s u b j e c t s deemed as l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s . The  l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the proposed sample would pro-  b a b l y i n c l u d e 18 to 24 l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s , i n a p o p u l a t i o n of 120  s u b j e c t s (see s e c t i o n 1.2).  Since a s m a l l group o f the  - 65 -  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n had been p l a c e d i n the " B a s i c s " program, the sample was  l i k e l y to c o n t a i n 14 to 20 l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s .  f i n a l s e l e c t i o n , 19 students were i d e n t i f i e d as  In  limited  learners. To i d e n t i f y students were used.  as l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s , f o u r  criteria  They were:  1.  Canadian T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s  (C.T.B.S.) r e s u l t s  2.  grade seven f i n a l s c i e n c e l e t t e r grade  3.  s c i e n c e e i g h t f i r s t term l e t t e r grade  4.  D i s t r i c t Science Survey examination  score  Using a combination o f these assessments, the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were c o n s i d e r e d  as those s u b j e c t s who  had  c o n s i s t e n t l y achieved  low grades i n s c i e n c e d u r i n g grades seven and e i g h t and were p r e s e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g l i m i t e d academic success.  Each one  of  the four c r i t e r i a i s c l a r i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n s . 3.31  FORMER EVALUATION Each student's  permanent r e c o r d card was  vide a grade seven f i n a l s c i e n c e e v a l u a t i o n . yielded The  a r e c e n t performance l e v e l o f s c i e n c e C.T.B.S. was  administered  T h i s l e t t e r grade achievement.  i n the s p r i n g o f 19 81 to  101 o f the s u b j e c t s proposed f o r t h i s study. a v a i l a b l e f o r 15 students who  reviewed to pro-  Scores were not  r e c e n t l y moved i n t o t h i s  from o u t s i d e regions o r d i d not w r i t e the examination.  area These  - 66 students were t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g l i m i t e d o r normal l e a r n e r s on the three remaining  criteria.  Of the 15 students,  o n l y one was i d e n t i f i e d as a l i m i t e d learnerr.The C.T.B.S. r e p r e s e n t s an a p p r o p r i a t e assessment o f comprehension i n f o u r areas o f e v a l u a t i o n : math concepts  and math problems.  vocabulary,  reading,  These C.T.B.S. t e s t s are con-  structed to f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l testing of pupils, at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f development, i n the same classroom.  The range  o f d i f f i c u l t y i n the t e s t items p r o v i d e s a maximum e f f i c i e n c y  e i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g over the e n t i r e rangeof grade.  (King, 19 77) .  The lowest  achievement i n the  C.T.B.S. r e s u l t s were recorded as s t a n i n e s with the  f o u r s t a n i n e s corresponding  D- and E .  t o l e t t e r grades o f C-, D,  Those s u b j e c t s whose f o u r s t a n i n e s c o r e s t o t a l 13  or l e s s were c o n s i d e r e d l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s i n t h i s study. the 116 students  Of  i n the sample, 18 were i d e n t i f i e d as l i m i t e d  l e a r n e r s by the C.T.B.S. r e s u l t s .  Table 6 C.T.B.S. T o t a l Scores  Score I n t e r v a l  Frequency  Cumulative Frequency  2-4  0  0  5-7  1  1  8-10  6  7  11-13  11  *18  14-16  18  36  17-19  13  49  20-22  15  64  23-25  17  81  26-28  10  91  29-31  7  98  32-34  3  101  • i d e n t i f i e d as l i m i t e d  learners  3.32 CURRENT EVALUATION As the r e s e a r c h was conducted i n January 19 82, a l l students had r e c e i v e d one o f the two l e t t e r grades earned f o r the semestered course. immediate  T h i s gave some i n d i c a t i o n o f the  l e v e l o f progress a t which each student was  d e v e l o p i n g i n the new environment.  - 68 -  The Vancouver School Board Program Resources conducted  Department,  a survey o f s c i e n c e achievement among grade  eight  students i n Vancouver s c h o o l s i n June 1980. A t o t a l o f 2643 students took p a r t i n the survey which was designed t o assess the degree  t o which c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s were b e i n g a t t a i n e d  i n the c u r r e n t program.  The survey instrument was based on  the s c i e n c e e i g h t c u r r i c u l u m and contained 15 g e n e r a l s c i e n c e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e itemstt The  l a t t e r m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items were w r i t t e n by a l l  s u b j e c t s t o assess t h e i r performance  i n the areas o f : s a f e t y ,  m e t r i c s , s c i e n t i f i c method, simple formula c a l c u l a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f graph o r l a b data.  A d i s t r i b u t i o n of  achievement scores f o r students who wrote the g e n e r a l s e c t i o n p r o v i d e d median and mean s c o r e s , a standard d e v i a t i o n p l u s a cumulative percentage o f student s c o r e s . Of the 25 80 students who wrote the s u b t e s t , 18% s c o r e d f i v e o r l e s s o u t o f a p o s s i b l e 15 responses.  In t h i s  study,  33 o f the 116 students i n the sample who achieved a score o f f i v e o r l e s s on the g e n e r a l s c i e n c e survey were c o n s i d e r e d to be p o s s i b l e l i m i t e d  learners.  - 69 -  Table 7. V.S.B. S c i e n c e Survey R e s u l t s  Score  Interval  Frequency  0-1  Cumulative Frequency 0  0c  2-3  10  10  4-5  23  * 33  6-7  26  59  8-9  31  90  10-11  16  106  12-13  8  114  14-15  2  116  • i d e n t i f i e d as l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s  For the purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a student i d e n t i f i e d as a l i m i t e d learner^must meet the c r i t e r i o n i n a t l e a s t three o f f o u r d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  In summary,  the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were i d e n t i f i e d as those s u b j e c t s who: 1.  inggrade  seven achieved low s c i e n c e grades  (C-,D and E)  2.  i n grade e i g h t achieved a low f i r s t term s c i e n c e grade  3.  scored a stanihe  t o t a l o f 13 o r l e s s on the four  C.T.B.S. s u b t e s t s and 4.  achieved a score o f f i v e o r l e s s on the g e n e r a l s c i e n c e survey.  - 70 -  3.40 INSTRUMENTATION To assess achievement  i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts, an  examination was c o n s t r u c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r  which con-  t a i n e d 30 m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items r e f e r e n c e d t o the contents of the programmed i n s t r u c t i o n .  The t e s t items were then  "  compared w i t h the m a t e r i a l covered i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approaches.  Content v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by h a v i n g  both teachers agree t h a t the t e s t items were reasonable w i t h r e s p e c t t o the m a t e r i a l covered i n the programmed and traditional instruction.  A copy o f the t e s t  iss-included  (Appendix B) . The author-developed t e s t was used as a p r e t e s t and postt e s t t o measure gains i n achievement.  Although i d e n t i c a l  items appeared on both t e s t s , a d i v e r t i n g attempted  on the p o s t t e s t .  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was  The sequence o f t e s t items was  randomly jumbled and the p o s t t e s t p r i n t e d on a d i f f e r e n t  color  of paper t o c r e a t e an i l l u s i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t t e s t , t o reduce errors of test-retest s e n s i t i v i t y  and improve  internal  validity  performance  on a p o s t t e s t ,  of the study. Taking a p r e t e s t may improve  r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e r e i s any treatment o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n between (Gay, 19*76) .  This threat to i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y i s  more l i k e l y t o be a problem when time between t e s t i n g i s s h o r t o r when t e s t s measure f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n which can be recalled.  - 71 -  3.41 THE PROGRAMMED BOOKLET At present, there i s no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t corresponds  programmed  w i t h the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m  f o r the s c i e n c e e i g h t s y l l a b u s i n B.C.  T h e r e f o r e , the pro-  grammed b o o k l e t used f o r the study was designed by the author  ( o u t s i d e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) f o r a l l students  e n r o l l e d i n grade e i g h t .  The b o o k l e t was w r i t t e n t o accom-  modate l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s by u s i n g language a t an a p p r o p r i a t e level  combined w i t h r e p e t i t i o n o f core c u r r i c u l u m concepts ( _P  f o r the t o p i c o f LEGHT.  B a s i c s k i l l s such as; completing  diagrams, f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n f e r r i n g and reviewing p r e v i o u s questions i n c o r p o r a t e d . The  student's b o o k l e t c o n t a i n e d 90 frames o f i n f o r m a t i o n ,  q u e s t i o n s , concepts, alternate a c t i v i t i e s .  c h a l l e n g e s and 17 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r A ^ b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n f o r other  was a l s o i n c l u d e d c o v e r i n g the purpose, content, some programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l theory, suggestions implementation  and use of the m a t e r i a l .  teachers  activities, f o r the  The b o o k l e t was  w r i t t e n i n b e h a v i o r a l terms w i t h a t l e a s t one item t o cover each o f the u n i t o b j e c t i v e s (Appendix D). activities  The a l t e r n a t e  h e l p t o achieve these o b j e c t i v e s by r e i n f o r c i n g  the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The  author o f the c u r r e n t s c i e n c e e i g h t textbook  Mr. John Petrak, p r o v i d e d c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m  on LIGHT,  and suggestions  - 72 -  f o r improving the e n t i r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t .  Revisions of  the f i r s t d r a f t i n c l u d e d : 1.  p r o v i d i n g more m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e items,  2.  a t t r a c t i v e l y s p a c i n g each  3.  f o c u s i n g on the key i d e a b e i n g presented,  4.  o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of alternate  The b o o k l e t was  frame and  (a o r b  type)  response,  activities.  presented t o Mrs. J a c k i e E c c l e s , a r e a d i n g  s p e c i a l i s t employed by the Vancouver School Board.  She  ducted a r e a d a b i l i t y t e s t , u s i n g the formula developed  conby  Edward F r y (known simply as the Fry R e a d a b i l i t y System) .  Two  random samples were a n a l y z e d t o be a t the grade seven and  ;  grade  two r e a d i n g l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Other comments were  t h a t the simple sentences, easy vocabulary and an a t t r a c t i v e format w i t h good s p a c i n g would i n c r e a s e success f o r poorer readers. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  taken mainly from the s c i e n c e e i g h t  textbook are c l e a r and u n c l u t t e r e d . diagrams was  Permission to use these  o b t a i n e d from the e d i t o r , Mr. Manfred  Schmid.  These diagrams correspond to simple l i n e drawings t h a t c u r r e n t research l i t e r a t u r e  (Dwyer, 19 72) i n d i c a t e s i s most e f f e c t i v e  f o r i n c r e a s i n g student achievement. 3.42  OPINIONNAIRE To o b t a i n some g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on student a t t i t u d e s  towards programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , an o p i n i o n n a i r e was by the author to r e v e a l the s t u d e n t s  1  reactions.  developed  I t was  - 73 assumed t h a t i f the s u b j e c t ' s name d i d not appear on the survey s h e e t s , there would be i n c r e a s e d v a l i d i t y i n the responses.  Students were encouraged  to d i s p l a y t h e i r  actual  f e e l i n g s towards the methodology as s i n c e r e l y as p o s s i b l e i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n . 3.43  ADMINISTRATION The p r e t e s t was w r i t t e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the 15 item  m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e g e n e r a l s c i e n c e survey, b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g the new  u n i t , LIGHT.  T h i s was  more convenient than w r i t i n g  tests at d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s . c o r r e c t procedure  two  The students were shown the  f o r r e c o r d i n g answers on computer cards t o  f a c i l i t a t e marking. The  computer cards were checked  for c l e r i c a l errors  fore marking,"(appropriate darkness, s l o p p i n e s s , e t c . ) .  beAs a  f u r t h e r check a g a i n s t e r r o r s , the p o s t t e s t answers were a l s o w r i t t e n on paper and subsequently marked by hand.  There were  few d e v i a t i o n s i n achievement scores from the computer s c o r e s amounting t o i n c r e a s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g some scores by one or two marks.  W r i t i n g time f o r the p o s t t e s t was  some 45  minutes.  The experimental groups were t o l d t h a t they are b e i n g taught by a d i f f e r e n t mode, programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , t o if  i t was  a worthwhile  method f o r l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e .  determine  The LIGHT  u n i t o f the s c i e n c e e i g h t program would "count" j u s t as much as o t h e r t o p i c s towards t h e i r f i n a l l e t t e r grade.  The  students  were reminded t h a t they were accountable f o r anything i n the  -  74 -  programmed b o o k l e t and would w r i t e an important, comprehensive,  f i n a l exam on the m a t e r i a l covered.  The p o s t t e s t was  w r i t t e n as a standard classroom exam when a l l s u b j e c t s had completed the u n i t . I t was assumed t h a t the above s t r a t e g y would e l i m i n a t e a "just-for-fun"  attitude  t h a t some p u p i l s a c q u i r e when  t r y i n g something new and i n c r e a s e the s e r i o u s n e s s o f student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study.  However, the h a l o o r Hawthorne  e f f e c t may be present w i t h some i f not most s t u d e n t s .  The  o p i n i o n n a i r e was administered one week a f t e r the p o s t t e s t . T h i s allowed time  f o r some r e f l e c t i o n and a b e t t e r compa-  r i s o n w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l approach. In the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  a l l s u b j e c t s were s t u d y i n g the  t o p i c , LIGHT, ath the same time. instruction  Those u s i n g programmed  completed the b o o k l e t i n two weeks (10 t o 12  hours) depending upon the amount o f time spent on l a b o r a t o r y activities.  The students  r e q u i r e d more time material.  f o l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l approach  (2 hours) t o cover the same amount o f  The p o s t t e s t was w r i t t e n as a group a f t e r a l l  members o f one s p e c i f i c group had completed t h e i r  instruction.  Those students who completed the programmed i n s t r u c t i o n  before  o t h e r students were encouraged t o e x p l o r e other areas o f i n t e r e s t r e l a t e d t o LIGHT i n t h e i r r e a d e r s . t e l e s c o p e f u n c t i o n s , l e n s e s , mirages, e t c * ) .  ( i . e . lasers,  - 75 -  A l l s u b j e c t s absent  f o r one o r more p e r i o d s d u r i n g the  study were r e q u i r e d t o work f o r an e q u i v a l e n t i n t e r v a l on t h e i r own time b e f o r e w r i t i n g the p o s t t e s t .  T h i s was a r -  ranged w i t h each teacher f o r e a r l y morning, lunch time, s c h o o l o r as home study assignments.  The teachers  after  organized  m a t e r i a l s f o r absent students i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g when they r e t u r n e d , whereas a p o s i t i v e  f e a t u r e o f programmed'  m a t e r i a l s i s t h e i r f l e x i b l e use i n s c h e d u l i n g , r e q u i r i n g minimal p r e p a r a t i o n . 3.5 DESIGN OF STUDY A 2 X 2 X 2 quasi-experimental  fixed effects  factorial  design w i t h a repeated measure on the t h i r d f a c t o r was used i n t h i s study.  Campbell and S t a n l e y  (1963), o u t l i n e d a non-  e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group design t h a t was f o l l o w e d t o t e s t the n u l l hypotheses between the means o f l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s , normal l e a r n e r s and the i n t e r a c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y with grammed and t r a d i t i o n a l The  first  factor  instruction.  ( F a c t o r A ) , the type o f i n s t r u c t i o n has  two l e v e l s , programmed and t r a d i t i o n a l .  The second f a c t o r .  (Factor B) , l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y has two l e v e l s , mal.  pro-  l i m i t e d and nor-  The l i m i t e d and normal l e a r n e r s were d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n s  1.13 and 1.14 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The t h i r d f a c t o r ,  ( F a c t o r C)  achievement has two l e v e l s , p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t scores which serve as a repeated measure.  -  An  76  i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s design i s drawn below w i t h  s i z e of each c e l l  the  sample. Figure  1  C e l l S i z e s i n F a c t o r i a l Design  LEARNING ABILITY"  Normal (n=96) Limited (n=19) Traditional (n=44)  Programmed (n=72)  INSTRUCTION METHOD  The  reason f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s design was  to determine  whether the e f f e c t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e instruction) variable  were g e n e r a l i z a b l e to a l l l e v e l s o f the  (learning  l e v e l s of the  a f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n , there was i n t e r a c t i o n e x i s t s between the i n s t r u c t i o n method was learning  control  a b i l i t y ) or whether the e f f e c t s were  s p e c i f i c to c e r t a i n  upon the  (programmed  control  variable.  By  a chance to determine i f an variables  such t h a t each  d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e depending  a b i l i t y o f the  students.  F a c t o r i a l designs  permit simultaneous t e s t i n g of numerous hypotheses and answers to a number o f q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n the experiment.  using  provide  framework of a  single  3.6 DATA ANALYSIS The p r e t e s t was i n i t i a l l y used t o determine i f the c l u s t e r samples were the same oh the dependent v a r i a b l e . I f the r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r , p o s t t e s t scores c o u l d be d i r e c t l y compared u s i n g an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . ter  samples were not s i m i l a r  Since the c l u s -  (random assignment does n o t  guarantee e q u a l i t y ) , the p o s t t e s t scores were analyzed u s i n g an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e .  Covariance  a d j u s t s the p o s t t e s t  scores f o r i n i t i a l p r e t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s . The most a p p r o p r i a t e way i n which data can be analyzed for  f a c t o r i a l design i n t e r a c t i o n s i s simply to compare post-  t e s t mean scores o f t h e two groups w i t h the treatment. ever, s i n c e the p r e t e s t r e s u l t s  How-  f o r each group were d i f f e r e n t ,  the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s were a d j u s t e d .  By u s i n g the same items  on the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t , gains i n achievement were d e t e r mined f o r each group.  The mean s c o r e s and standard d e v i a t i o n s  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g both  tests.  To d i s -  p l a y the raw score data, a frequency polygon was c o n s t r u c t e d to  compare the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s .  of  the measuring instrument was conducted  difficulty  and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n indexes  a reliability  coefficient  An item a n a l y s i s  to determine-sthe  f o r each t e s t item and  (Appendix C) .  3.7 PILOT STUDY RESULTS A p i l o t study u s i n g s i m i l a r instruments was w i t h a r e g u l a r s c i e n c e e i g h t c l a s s i n March 19 80.  conducted The group  of 29 students c o n t a i n e d f i v e l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s as i n d i c a t e d by p r e v i o u s achievement and l e t t e r grades.  Classroom  obser-  v a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t most p u p i l s s u c c e s s f u l l y completed the b o o k l e t i n two p e r i o d s as no lab a c t i v i t y was i n v o l v e d . average  An  student r e q u i r e d 1.5 hours o f continuous work t o  f i n i s h the program.  T h i s i m p l i e d t h a t a r e v i s i o n o f the  o r i g i n a l program should be undertaken  before  implementation  as a complete u n i t f o r grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s . During the f i r s t b o o k l e t s e s s i o n s , t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e atmosphere o f d i l i g e n t student a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n the c l a s s room.  Fewer than u s u a l classroom d i s t u r b a n c e s were noted as  each s t u d e n t was keen t o work independently.  The Hawthorne  e f f e c t c o u l d be one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these c o n d i t i o n s .  As a  classroom a c t i v i t y , programmed i n s t r u c t i o n was a s u c c e s s f u l tool i n c o n t r o l l i n g undesirable behavior while productive, genuine l e a r n i n g appeared The  t o be o c c u r r i n g .  s t a t i s t i c a l results  from an examination  showed the  mode and median score both a t 41 out o f 50, whereas the mean score was 39.  The range o f scores went from 20 t o 48. The  h i g h scores on t h i s c o g n i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d e s i r e d core o r b a s i c comprehension l e v e l c o u l d be achieved f o r a l l students i n c l u d i n g l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s . student was very p r o f i c i e n t  (80%) i n answering  An average a l l test  q u e s t i o n s w h i l e three o f the f i v e l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s achieved scores h i g h e r than 50% .  An a t t i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e d a most s e c t i o n o f the p i l o t study.  From a student's  interesting viewpoint,  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t c u r r e n t l y used as a classroom activity.  Most students  (81%) were i n f a v o r o f and would  enjoy working on a s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k l e t a t l e a s t once a month.  When c o n t r a s t e d w i t h o t h e r common classroom  acti-  v i t i e s , t h i s l e a r n i n g methodology seems very e f f e c t i v e and practical.  The r e s u l t s suggested  t h a t there should be; >  g r e a t e r r e s e a r c h done and i n t e n s e c u r r i c u l a r development of v a r i o u s programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s f o r s c i e n c e education .  - 80 -  CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA  4.0 INTRODUCTION The  r e s u l t s o f the analyses d e s c r i b e d i n the l a s t chap-  t e r ( s e c t i o n 3.6) are presented i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  An over-  view o f the g e n e r a l achievement t e s t r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d f i r s t t o provide a background o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the t o t a l sample.  Four d i s t i n c t groups ( l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y X mode o f  i n s t r u c t i o n ) were then examined and by u s i n g the p r e t e s t as a c o v a r i a t e , an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was generated. chapter concludes w i t h a summary o f a q u a l i t a t i v e  The  attitu-  d i n a l survey i n which the students were encouraged t o express o p i n i o n s on the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method.  -  4.1 GENE PAL  -  831  ACHIEVEMENT RESULTS  To o b t a i n an overview o f the g e n e r a l  achievement r e s u l t s  f o r the t o t a l sample, two frequency polygons have been cons t r u c t e d f o r the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . data f o r the p r e t e s t i s d i s p l a y e d i n the study. possible  In f i g u r e 2, the raw  f o r a l l 116 p a r t i c i p a n t s  The p r e t e s t mean score was 14.88 (out o f a  30) w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 3.71.  The raw data  f o r the p o s t t e s t i s d i s p l a y e d i n f i g u r e 3, y i e l d i n g a mean score  o f 20.86 and a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 3.47.  In g e n e r a l  terms, there was an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n  achievement as measured by these instruments. gain i n achievement scores g a t i o n was 5.9 8.  The average  f o r a l l students i n the i n v e s t i -  A summary o f these r e s u l t s i s d i s p l a y e d  i n t a b l e 8. Table 8. General Summary o f Achievement  Pretest 14. 88  Mean Standard Range  Deviation  3.71 4-2 7  Tests  Posttest 20. 86 3.47 7-28  - 82 Figure 2 Pretest Score D i s t r i b u t i o n (n=ll6)  i 10  12  14  1 16  r 18  i—r 20  22  24  26  28  30  Score (out of 30)  Figure 3 Posttest Score D i s t r i b u t i o n (n=ll6) 20.86 3.47  r—i—r 8  10  12^14  16  Score (out of 30)  18  22  24  26  28  30  Each one o f the f a c t o r l e v e l s :  traditional instruction,  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , normal l e a r n e r s and l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s a l s o y i e l d s a g e n e r a l mean f o r the d i s t i n c t group.  In terms  o f l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , the 9 7 normal l e a r n e r s scored  a mean o f  15.45 on the p r e t e s t and 21.55 on the p o s t t e s t . dents i d e n t i f i e d as l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s scored  The 19 s t u -  11.94 and 17.37  as p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means r e s p e c t i v e l y . When only the methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n are compared, the 44 students taught by t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n scored of 14.13 on the p r e t e s t and 19.57 on the p o s t t e s t .  a mean The 72  students taught by the e x p e r i m e n t a l mode, programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , scored  a p r e t e s t mean o f 15.33 and 21.65 on the post*')  test. The l a r g e s t gain i n achievement scores  o f 6.32 was r e a -  l i z e d by students u s i n g the programmed i n s t r u c t i o n .  Tradi-  t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n produced an average gain i n achievement scores  o f 5.44.  The smallest gain i n mean achievement  f o r a d i s t i n c t group was 5.43 o b t a i n e d  scores  by the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s .  Normal l e a r n e r s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r mean achievement score by 6.10.  A summary o f these r e s u l t s i s d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e 9.  Table 9 General Summary of D i s t i n c t Group Means  Grand Mean  Difference  n  Pretest  Posttest  116  14. 88  20. 86  5.98  Normal Learners  97  15.45  21.55  6.10  L i m i t e d Learners  19  11.94  17.37  5.43  Traditional  44  14.13  19.5 7  5.44  72  15.33  21.65  6.32  Programmed  Instruction Instruction  4.2 ANALYSIS OF CELL SAMPLES A model o f the design used i n t h i s study was drawn i n section the  3.5 as f i g u r e  1.  Each f a c t o r ,  learning  a b i l i t y and  method o f i n s t r u c t i o n had two separate l e v e l s .  s c o r e s i n achievement were c a l c u l a t e d each group.  F o l l o w i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n  as p r e t e s t  The mean  results for  of different  treat-  ments, mean scores i n achievement were o b t a i n e d from the p o s t test  results. The  by  greatest posttest  the normal l e a r n e r s u s i n g the programmed  Normal l e a r n e r s f o l l o w i n g with a posttest on  mean score o f 22.10 was r e a l i z e d  a t r a d i t i o n a l approach were next  mean score o f 20.61.  The l i m i t e d  the programmed method o b t a i n e d a p o s t t e s t  whereas those r e c e i v i n g  instruction.  learners  mean o f 19.18  t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n had a mean  score o f 14.88 on the p o s t t e s t  i n terms o f achievement.  When the d i f f e r e n c e s between p o s t t e s t and p r e t e s t mean scores  are c o n s i d e r e d  order develops.  as gains  i n achievement, a new group  The l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s taught by the program-  med i n s t r u c t i o n had the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e o f 6.45 i n mean score  achievement g a i n s .  The normal l e a r n e r s u s i n g  this  experimental method had an average gain o f 6.30 i n achievement p o s t t e s t s c o r e s .  The s m a l l e s t gain i n achievement  scores o f 4.02 was o b t a i n e d by the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s  following  a t r a d i t i o n a l method o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  Normal l e a r n e r s  v i n g t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n obtained  a gain o f 5.75 i n mean  score p o s t t e s t achievement.  recei-  A summary o f these r e s u l t s i s  d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e 10.  Table 10 Summary o f C e l l Sample Means (standard  deviations)  Learning Ability  Instruction Method  n  Pretest  Normal  Traditional  36  14.86 ( 4.12)  20.61 ( .3.2 8)  5.75  Programmed  61  15.80 ( 3.69)  22.10 ( 3*6:3)  6.30  8  10.86 ( 2.89)  14.88 ( 3.95)  4.02  11  12.73 ( 3.16)  19.18 (. 2v95)  6.45  Limited  Traditional Programmed  Posttest  Difference  -  8 6—  4.3 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE The p r e t e s t was i n i t i a l l y used t o determine  the e q u i -  valence l e v e l i n achievement scores b e f o r e the a p p l i c a t i o n of  treatments.  By implementing  the same measuring i n s t r u -  ment as the p o s t t e s t , gains i n achievement were recorded for  each c e l l sample.  I n order t o determine whether the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean score achievement on the p o s t t e s t were due  t o l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y o r the methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n , a  2 X 2 X 2  f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was per-  formed u s i n g the p r e t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e . The  a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was conducted a t the Edu-  c a t i o n a l Research  S e r v i c e Centre  (ERSC) u s i n g the S t a t i s -  t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s .  The l e v e l o f s i g -  n i f i c a n c e used f o r a l l analyses was the 0.05 l e v e l .  The  r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s are d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e 11. The  a n a l y s i s o f covariance y i e l d s s i g n i f i c a n t  ences f o r the two main e f f e c t s .  differ-  In terms o f l e a r n i n g  ability,  the normal l e a r n e r s achieved h i g h e r than l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s and the d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l .  F o r the  methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n , students u s i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those students taught w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  The p o s t t e s t achievement means  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o these f a c t o r s were p r e v i o u s l y d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e 10.  Table 11 Summary o f A n a l y s i s  o f Covariance o f  Achievement P o s t t e s t Scores Mean Source o f Variance  D.F.  Squares  F  Probability  1  730.282  84.929  0.000  1 1  70.532 50.731  8.203 5.900  0.005 0.017  1  20.937  2.435  0.122  Residual  111  8.599  Total  115  15.876  Covariate Pretest Main E f f e c t s L e a r n i n g A b i l i t y (LA) I n s t r u c t i o n Mode (IM) 2-Way I n t e r a c t i o n LA X IM  To determine i f the programmed o r t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group o f students ( i n terms o f l e a r n i n g  a b i l i t y ) , a 2-way i n t e r a c t i o n was performed.  A t the 0.05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n between learniro.g a b i l i t y and the methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n . A graphical a better  analysis  o f the i n t e r a c t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t .  s c o r e s o f the achievement p o s t t e s t  In f i g u r e 4, the mean  r e s u l t s were p l o t t e d  the  i n s t r u c t i o n mode.  but  there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between  learning  The g r a p h i c a l  analysis  reveals  against  a trend  a b i l i t y and mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o achieve-  ment on the p o s t t e s t  scores.  - 88 Figure 4 30 — r  2-Way I n t e r a c t i o n  25-1 Posttest 20  Mean Achievement  15"^  Scores  Normal Learners L i m i t e d Learners  10 5-i  Traditional  Programmed  I n s t r u c t i o n Mode 4.4  ATTITUDINAL SURVEY ANALYSIS The  a t t i t u d i n a l survey was  conducted  to obtain further  background i n f o r m a t i o n on the student's experience w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and to p r o v i d e a q u a l i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the experimental methodology. a sample a t t i t u d i n a l survey converted to a percentage The mental  The  r e s u l t s were based  (Appendix A ) .  The  on  t o t a l s were  f o r the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n .  survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t 5 8% o f students i n the e x p e r i group c l a i m t o have never o r were not sure i f they  e v e r worked on a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n task b e f o r e . t e r m i n i n g how  u s e f u l the b o o k l e t was  had  In de-  i n h e l p i n g students to  l e a r n about L i g h t , 30% r e p l i e d w i t h , "very h e l p f u l " w h i l e 9 8% responded  i n the combined c a t e g o r i e s o f , " h e l p f u l " and,  "very  89 -  helpful".  T h i s f i g u r e corresponds w i t h another q u e s t i o n  r e g a r d i n g the value o f t h e programmed b o o k l e t .  Only 2%  r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was, " u s e l e s s " or, of, "no v a l u e " . y  As a classroom a c t i v i t y  f o r one p e r i o d , 26% o f the s t u -  dents surveyed r a t e d i t as b e i n g , "very good". (66%)  The m a j o r i t y  claimed the a c t i v i t y was, "average" whereas 8% thought  i t was, " b o r i n g " .  When asked how o f t e n students would want  to work on a programmed u n i t , 80% suggested  a t l e a s t , "once  a month" o r more f r e q u e n t l y w h i l e the m a j o r i t y (50%) , d e s i r e d to work on programmed i n s t r u c t i o n ,  "once a week".  An attempt was made t o r a t e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n qual i t a t i v e l y w i t h nine o t h e r methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  The most  p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y s e l e c t e d by the students was t o , "watch a f i l m " on the t o p i c under study. hods were: cher perform let".  t o , "do an experiment a demonstration"  The next most d e s i r a b l e metthemselves, watch the t e a -  and s t a r t ,  "a programmed book-  A c t i v i t i e s t h a t were r a t e d l e s s d e s i r a b l e than working  on a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n were: t o , " w r i t e out n o t e s , work on p r a c t i s e problems, l i s t e n to the teacher t a l k , begin a l i b r a r y p r o j e c t , w r i t e a t e s t and read from a textbook." When asked  f o r what main use c o u l d be made o f a s e t o f  programmed b o o k l e t s , 49% o f the students thought b e s t use would be i n , "reviewing f o r a t e s t " .  t h a t the  A substantial  group (40%), i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would use programmed book-  - 90 -  l e t s t o , " l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t o p i c s t h a t were not understood  i n class".  clearly-  Only a s m a l l group o f 11% thought  that  they would use programmed i n s t r u c t i o n f o r , "advanced l e a r n i n g i n t o o t h e r t o p i c s " or as a, "general study method f o r d a i l y assignments".  On  another q u e s t i o n , 62%  of the students  indi-  cated t h a t they, "would l i k e t o study another u n i t o f s c i e n c e by u s i n g o n l y programmed i n s t r u c t i o n " . The b o o k l e t was  not thought  to be more, " t i r i n g " by  the s t u d e n t s , than a normal c l a s s .  85%  of  To d e s c r i b e the b o o k l e t i n  o t h e r terms, 40% d e s c r i b e d programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as, "fun o r easy",  62%  thought (10%)  r a t e d the b o o k l e t as, " i n t e r e s t i n g " whereas  the m a t e r i a l was  either,'"dull or boring".  Few  students  c l a i m t o never have looked ahead f o r answers w h i l e  m a j o r i t y o f students d i d look a t answers when unable an item.  the  to complete  In summary, 9 4% o f students r a t e d programmed i n s t r u c t  t i o n as a, "good way 4.5  12%  to l e a r n about L i g h t " .  OPINIONNAIRE COMMENTS I t i s important  to c o n s i d e r the s t u d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s  and  a t t i t u d e s when d i s c u s s i n g experimental modes o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The  f o l l o w i n g are a c o l l e c t i o n o f the d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s  students e x p r e s s i n g a d d i t i o n a l comments on the methodology. comments.  Due  The  from  experimental  l i s t s are o r g a n i z e d i n t o n e g a t i v e and  t o anonymity i n c o l l e c t i n g the survey  positive  data,  comments g i v e n by l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from normal l e a r n e r s .  The survey  r e s u l t s acknowledged many p o s i t i v e  - 91 -  f e a t u r e s o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and s u p p l i e d suggestion f o r f u t u r e b o o k l e t designs. ments was to  The r a t i o o f p o s i t i v e to n e g a t i v e com-  g r e a t e r than these l i s t s i n d i c a t e , approximately  five  one.  Negative - I t was  Comments  b o r i n g because a l l you do i s look a t answers.  - I t h i n k i t was a f a i r l y good book but I wouldn't want to l e a r n out of i t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . - They s h o u l d have the answers on the back o f the - I t should be a l i t t l e  sheet.  tougher.  - I d i d n ' t l i k e the a c t i v i t i e s because they were too s h o r t . - Should have s e c t i o n s where they t e l l you to copy notes.  P o s i t i v e Comments - The b o o k l e t was  u s e f u l because i t d e s c r i b e s t h i n g s i n d e t a i l .  - I would recommend t h i s b o o k l e t f o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s . - We  s h o u l d do t h i s on every  topic.  - The most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t i s when the a c t i v i t i e s came up. - J u s t when you're about t o q u i t you get t o do something f u n . - I l i k e d i t because you don't have t o mark i t a l l t o g e t h e r . - I t was  good because you c o u l d work a t your own  speed.  - I t h i n k t h i s e x e r c i s e s h o u l d be used more o f t e n and I think you would f i n d the r e s u l t s on t e s t s b e t t e r . - I t was fun knowing what the answer was wrong.  when you got yours  - You have l o t s o f time to do i t and work a t your own without b e i n g bothered.  speed  -  92  -  - The b o o k l e t was worthwhile because i t h e l p e d me and i t was easy t o understand. - I t was fun because i t was d i f f e r e n t and e x c i t i n g . - The b o o k l e t was good because you c o u l d experiment and not ask the t e a c h e r f o r the answer. - I t was easy t o understand and i t h e l p e d me get a b e t t e r mark. - No homework.  I like  thatJ  - 93 -  CHAPTER 5 THE DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 5.0 INTRODUCTION The f o l l o w i n g chapter o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . the data analyses  summarizes  the purpose and development  The c o n c l u s i o n s  d i s p l a y e d i n chapter  l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s regarding knowledge c l a i m i s r e p o r t e d  o u t l i n e d are r e l a t e d t o f o u r and concur w i t h  learners i n general.  A specific  f o r limited learners.  The l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study a r e e x p l o r e d w i t h  various  sources o f p o s s i b l e e r r o r t h a t may e f f e c t the o v e r a l l g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s .  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these r e s u l t s are  d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the 19 78 B.C. Science  Assessment and i n d i -  cate s p e c i f i c areas where programmed m a t e r i a l s c o u l d f i n d immediate a p p l i c a t i o n . In c l o s i n g , s e v e r a l unexplored areas o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n are presented  i n which f u t u r e research may y i e l d  significant  r e s u l t s t o f u r t h e r the development o f a l t e r n a t e programmed materials  for limited learners.  _ 94 -  5.1  SYNOPSIS OF STUDY The purpose of t h i s study was  t o determine  whether or not the  use o f a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k l e t , as the b a s i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s than t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods. was  An  attempt  made to measure the success t h a t l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s have i n  a t t a i n i n g g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts  through  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n .  To assess the achievement i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e concepts, author-'developed  examination was  an  implemented as a p r e t e s t and  l a t e r as a p o s t t e s t f o l l o w i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l treatment.  The  mean scores i n achievement were c a l c u l a t e d f o r d i s t i n c t groups thus e n a b l i n g a comparison o f gains i n achievement. e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group w i t h a f i x e d e f f e c t s was  used i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The  A  non-  f a c t o r i a l design  fixed effects analysis of  c o v a r i a n c e , u s i n g the p r e t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e , p e r m i t t e d  sepa-  r a t e a n a l y s i s o f l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n and a two-way i n t e r a c t i o n between these v a r i a b l e s . The outcome o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e d the ensuing  dis-  c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t c o u l d be drawn from  this  study. 5.2  RESULTS The  r e s u l t s o f analyses o u t l i n e d i n chapter f o u r p r o v i d e d  s t a t i s t i c a l evidence t o answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and hypotheses  expressed i n the f i r s t  chapter.  As i n i t i a l l y  null indi-  - 95 -  cated, the p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n became one o f r e l a t i v i t y as t o how s u c c e s s f u l  are l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s ,  i n terms o f a c q u i s i -  t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n when i t i s compared w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d consistently  t h a t programmed  instruction  produced a t l e a s t e q u a l performance o f l e a r n i n g ob-  j e c t i v e s when compared w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l methods (Ramsey and Howe 1969 , Marchese 1977, Royce and Shank 1975). s u f f i c i e n t evidence t o provide a s u b s t a n t i a l success t h a t  There was i n -  i n s i g h t to the  l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were h a v i n g w i t h programmed i n s t r u c -  t i o n i n a r e g u l a r classroom. The  f i r s t n u l l hypothesis s t a t i n g that  cant d i f f e r e n c e  there was no s i g n i f i -  o f mean performance i n s c i e n c e achievement be-  tween l i m i t e d and normal l e a r n e r s was r e j e c t e d  a t the 0.05 l e v e l  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The second n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g no s i g n i -  ficant difference  i n mean performance f o r i n s t r u c t i o n mode was  also rejected. be  The programmed method o f i n s t r u c t i o n was found t o  s i g n i f i c a n t l y better  than the t r a d i t i o n a l method o f i n s t r u c -  t i o n f o r both l i m i t e d and normal l e a r n e r s i n e l e v a t i n g posttest  achievement s c o r e s .  These f i n d i n g s  support the r e s e a r c h  of Dutton (1963), Leo (1973), Lewis (1974), Peterson Williams  (1969).  the mean  (1970) and  - 96 -  In terms o f a c t u a l scores o u t o f 30, the l i m i t e d  learners  r e c e i v i n g programmed i n s t r u c t i o n had a mean score g a i n i n achievement o f 6.45 from the p r e t e s t  l e v e l o f 12.73 t o the p o s t t e s t  achievement mean s c o r e o f 19.18. the experimental  receiving  treatment had a mean score gain i n achievement  o f 6.30 from the p r e t e s t 2 2.10.  The normal l e a r n e r s  l e v e l o f 15.80 t o t h e p o s t t e s t  level of  These gains i n achievement are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  and were d i s p l a y e d  i n table  10 a l o n g w i t h the mean score gains  for t r a d i t i o n a l teaching. The  t h i r d n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t i n g t h a t there was no s i g n i f i -  cant i n t e r a c t i o n between the mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n used (programmed o r t r a d i t i o n a l ) and l e a r n i n g rejected.  ability  ( l i m i t e d o r normal) was n o t  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between these  variables  a t the 0.05 l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  There-  f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was accepted and f o r the purpose o f t h i s study  there was no i n t e r a c t i o n between mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n  and l e a r n i n g  ability.  In summary, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e learners  over l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s  ment s c o r e s .  f o r normal  i n terms o f p o s t t e s t mean achieve-  A l l students r e c e i v i n g programmed  instruction  achieved s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r scores than students taught by traditional instruction.  S i n c e there was a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  f o r programmed i n s t r u c t i o n and no i n t e r a c t i o n between l e a r n i n g ability  and i n s t r u c t i o n mode, i t f o l l o w s  t i o n was b e t t e r  f o r both  study a r e t h e r e f o r e :  t h a t programmed  groups o f s t u d e n t s .  instruc-  The r e s u l t s o f the  - 97 -  1.  The l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s  were more s u c c e s s f u l ,  i n terms o f  a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n than w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g .  2.  The normal l e a r n e r s  were more s u c c e s s f u l ,  i n terms o f  a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n c e knowledge w i t h programmed  instruc-  t i o n than w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g .  3.  There was no i n t e r a c t i o n between the mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n used '(programmed o r t r a d i t i o n a l ) and l e a r n i n g  ability  (normal o r l i m i t e d ) .  5.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The  study d i d not attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e  the long term e f f e c t s  o f continued i n s t r u c t i o n through programmed m a t e r i a l s on student attitudes  o r achievement l e v e l s .  The e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g method  was used f o r t h r e e weeks, which represents 7% o f the time the students are i n s c h o o l each y e a r .  E a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e s t o the  Hawthorne e f f e c t d e s c r i b e d how the h a l o e f f e c t may l i m i t these findings  and c a u t i o n should be used i n a p p l y i n g the r e s u l t s t o  other s i t u a t i o n s . The  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s  s h o u l d be used w i t h some d i s c r e t i o n . a t the grade e i g h t  from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n The study was conducted  l e v e l and the e f f e c t s o f programmed i n s t r u c -  - 98 -  t i o n w i t h l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y was n o t e x p l o r e d a t o t h e r grade  levels.  S i m i l a r l y , the p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s expressed by grade e i g h t sturfe dents may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r age l e v e l s . The The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n one Vancouver high s c h o o l .  116 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the sample o b t a i n e d a mean score o f 7.3  (out o f 15) on the d i s t r i c t s c i e n c e survey as compared w i t h a mean score o f 8.3 f o r 25 80 students t e s t e d i n 19 80.  Whether o r  not s i m i l a r r e s u l t s f o r the programmed b o o k l e t would be found i n other h i g h s c h o o l s was n o t e x p l o r e d . The  teacher f a c t o r was one v a r i a b l e assumed t o be e q u i v a l e n t  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  One t e a c h e r had no p r e v i o u s  experience  w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n whereas the author had developed the u n i t and taught With o t h e r programmed m a t e r i a l s . e r r o r o r experimenter explored The  Some p o s s i b l e  b i a s may have been i n t r o d u c e d a t t h i s un-  level. i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y was l i m i t e d by the lack o f random  assignment o f the s u b j e c t s t o the treatment.  As d i s c u s s e d i n  s e c t i o n 3.1, the s e l e c t i o n o f f i v e c l u s t e r samples was an attempt made t o compensate f o r the random assignment. Stanley  (1963),  Campbell and  acknowledge the use o f n a t u r a l l y formed c l a s s e s  i n experiments as an a c c e p t a b l e procedure  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s  when the random assignment o f s u b j e c t s t o treatment possible.  i s not  - 99 -  5.4 IMPLICATIONS The  r e s u l t s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d s t a t i s t i c a l  evidence  to f u r t h e r support the use o f programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains i n achievement were  d i s c o v e r e d f o r both  the l i m i t e d and normal l e a r n e r s r e c e i v i n g  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n .  The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d  t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Since t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n s t r u c t i o n mode and l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , i t can be suggested  that this  programmed  u n i t o f i n s t r u c t i o n b e n e f i t t e d a l l students r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r learning a b i l i t y  level.  The programmed method has n o t only been  shown t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l approach b u t r a t h e r s u p e r i o r t o , i n terms o f gains i n p o s t t e s t achievement s c o r e s . With regards t o t h e B.C. Science Assessment ( s e c t i o n i t i s suggested  1.41),  t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n may meet both the  needs o f teachers and s t u d e n t s .  I t was recommended by the a s s e s s -  ment team as a p r i o r i t y item t h a t the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n crease the s e l e c t i o n o f t e x t s and supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e t o teachers o f the p r e s e n t j u n i o r s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m . In the i n t e r i m , they suggested  a wider range o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s  be designed t h a t are adaptable  t o ranges i n both a b i l i t y and  i n t e r e s t a t the j u n i o r s c i e n c e l e v e l . s a t i s f y these suggestions  Programmed m a t e r i a l s c o u l d  and the recommendation t h a t teachers  widen t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e o f t e a c h i n g methods a t the j u n i o r dary l e v e l w i t h these m a t e r i a l s .  secon-  -  100 -  Teachers a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t there appeared t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o cover the p r e s c r i b e d course and t h a t  there was l i t t l e  v i s i o n i n science f o r i n d i v i d u a l differences  i n student  The  programmed b o o k l e t used f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  content i n l e s s time ( s e c t i o n more s u c c e s s f u l  pro-  ability.  covered the  3 . 4 3 ) and l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s were  than w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  5.5.RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The  l i m i t a t i o n s o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  provide i n s i g h t t o  o t h e r areas o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s and program-r med i n s t r u c t i o n . eight age  For example, the study was l i m i t e d t o grade  students which suggests the q u e s t i o n o f t r a n s f e r  levels.  Research may i n d i c a t e  to other  t h a t programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s  more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s a t a l l age l e v e l s  rather  than a s p e c i f i c age group. There was no attempt d u r i n g t h i s study t o measure the success o f female versus male l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s . g a t i o n may i n d i c a t e one  A further  investi-  i f programmed m a t e r i a l s are more s u i t a b l e f o r  sex o r the o t h e r i n enhancing s c i e n c e achievement. The  analysis  study was l i m i t e d t o one t o p i c i n s c i e n c e  (Light).  An  o f programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s o f  s c i e n c e may i n d i c a t e  i f some t o p i c s  are more conducive t o pro-  gramming than o t h e r s , f o r l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s .  Similarly,  other  goals o f s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n b e s i d e s achievement c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . There i s a need to d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t o f programmed  instruction  - 101 -  on the r e t e n t i o n of s c i e n c e knowledge, the processes o f s c i e n c e and the s k i l l s or techniques  developed.  Student a t t i t u d e s were c o l l e c t e d on an o p i n i o n n a i r e i n an attempt  t o gather some g e n e r a l responses towards programmed  instruction.  A l o n g i t u d i n a l study where l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s are  taught e x c l u s i v e l y by programmed m a t e r i a l s may  reveal  a t t i t u d i n a l changes when expressed over the long term. students responded survey.  i n a p o s i t i v e manner to the  An e x p l o r a t i o n c o u l d be undertaken  s i g n i f i c a n t reasons  distinct Most  attitudinal  t o examine any  f o r the f a v o r a b l e responses.  The e f f e c t s on classroom management o f f e r s o t h e r areas of research.  The  teacher's workload,  morale and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  the l i m i t e d l e a r n e r s should be determined  i f programmed i n s t r u c -  t i o n i s to become a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m . E n g l i s h as a Second Language (ESL) programs, appear t o be ficient  i n science materials.  l e a r n e r s may  The de-  Programmed m a t e r i a l s f o r l i m i t e d  be of b e n e f i t f o r those students e x p e r i e n c i n g l a n -  guage d i f f i c u l t i e s . The amount o f time r e q u i r e d to complete compared w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c i t o n may i n s t r u c t i o n mode.  Although  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was  time was  programmed u n i t s as  y i e l d a more e f f i c i e n t  not a f o c a l p o i n t o f t h i s  found t h a t those students r e c e i v i n g pro-  grammed i n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d l e s s time to complete  the t o p i c .  A q u a n t i t a t i v e study c o u l d expand these f i n d i n g s to e s t a b l i s h most expedient method o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  the  - 102  -  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, w i l l a r d A., "A V a r i e t y o f Ideas P e r t i n e n t to the Slow Learner," E d u c a t i o n , 81: 352-355, 1961. Anderson, H.O., "A Philosophy of Education f o r the Slow Learner i n S c i e n c e , " The American B i o l o g y Teacher, 77-78, October 1969. , Toward More E f f e c t i v e Science I n s t r u c t i o n i n Secondary E d u c a t i o n , Macmillan and Company, 19 72. A r l i n , M. and Westbury, I . , "The L e v e l i n g E f f e c t o f Teacher Pacing on Science Content Mastery." J o u r n a l o f Research i n Science Teaching, 13 (3), 19 76 . A r o n s t e i n , Laurence W., "Two S t r i k e s , Then You're Out," Teacher, 77-78, October 1969.  Science  Ausubel, David P., Education Psychology - A C o g n i t i v e View, H o l t , Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1968. 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Gagne Xed.), L e a r n i n g and I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , M e r i l l F P u b l i s h i n g Company, Columbus, Ohio, 1967.  1  - 109 -  APPENDIX A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION ATTITUDINAL EVALUATION  1.  Have you ever worked on a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e ? a. ) no b. ) yes c. ) not sure  2.  DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ANYWHERE ON THIS PAPER  How many times?  How u s e f u l was the b o o k l e t i n h e l p i n g you t o l e a r n about light? a. ) very h e l p f u l b. ) h e l p f u l c. ) u s e l e s s  3.  As a classroom a c t i v i t y f o r one p e r i o d , how would you r a t e programmed i n s t r u c t i o n ? a. ) very good b. ) average c. ) b o r i n g  4.  Would you l i k e t o study a u n i t . o f s c i e n c e by u s i n g ONLY a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n ? a. ) yes b. ) no Why?  5.  How o f t e n would you want t o work w i t h a programmed tion?  instruc-  a. ) once a week b. ) once i n 2 weeks c. ) once a month d. ) once i n two months e. ) never again 6.  D e s c r i b e the b o o k l e t you worked w i t h by choosing one word from each group.  - 110  -  a. ) d i f f i c u l t b. ) average c. ) easy  g. ) fun h. ) average i . ) dull  d. ) i n t e r e s t i n g e. ) average f. ) boring  j.) v a l u a b l e k.) average 1.) o f no value  You are now s t a r t i n g a new t o p i c i n s c i e n c e . L i s t the a c t i v i t i e s (using #l-#8) i n order o f what you t h i n k w i l l the b e s t way f o r l e a r n i n g about t h i s t o p i c .  be  w r i t i n g out some notes watching s e v e r a l f i l m s study a programmed b o o k l e t l i s t e n to the teacher t a l k read from the textbook watch the teacher do an experiment begin a l i b r a r y p r o j e c t do an experiment y o u r s e l f You have 30 minutes l e f t i n your scienoE c l a s s . The teacher w i l l l e t you do any of the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d below. For each, l i s t them i n order o f what you would s e l e c t i f g i v e n a choice. (Write 1 b e s i d e your f a v o r i t e , 4 next to the l e a s t desirable.) a. ) w r i t e out notes _^.,„. J. watch a f i l m '... work on p r a c t i s e problems ~ a programmed b o o k l e t  .  X  b. ) watch the t e a c h e r do a demonstration l i s t e n to the teacher t a l k do an experiment y o u r s e l f work on a programmed i n s t r u c t i o n c. ) b e g i n a l i b r a r y p r o j e c t write a test read from the textbook s t a r t a programmed b o o k l e t  '  I f our l i b r a r y had a s e t of programmed b o o k l e t s on a l l s u b j e c t s f o r what one main use c o u l d they be to you. a. ) r e v i e w i n g f o r a t e s t b. ) advanced l e a r n i n g i n t o o t h e r t o p i c s c. ) a g e n e r a l study method f o r d a i l y assignments d. ) l o c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t o p i c s t h a t you d i d not understand  clearly  - Ill10.-  How manyvftimes d i d you look ahead f o r answers? a. ) never b. ) one t o f o u r times c. ) f i v e t o t e n times d. ) over t e n times  11.  Was working on the b o o k l e t more t i r i n g than a normal a. ) yes b. ) no Why?  12.  Was t h i s a good way t o l e a r n about a. ) yes b. ) no  COMMENTS:  class?  —  light?  - 112 APPENDIX B PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION LIGHT POSTTEST M. DOW INSTRUCTIONS;  1.)  S e l e c t t h e b e s t answer f o r each q u e s t i o n by w r i t i n g the CAPITAL LETTER ON YOUR ANSWER SHEET.  An example o f a NON-LUMINOUS o b j e c t i s A. ) the sun B. ) the moon C. ) a l i t c a n d l e  2.)  k i l o m e t r e s p e r second,  The speed o f l i g h t i s A. ) B. ) C. )  3.)  D. ) a s t a r E. ) a f l u o r e s c e n t tube  300,000 3,000,000 30,000  D. ) E. )  187,000 1,870,000  M a t e r i a l s t h a t stop l i g h t from p a s s i n g through them a r e : A. ) t r a n s p a r e n t B. ) t r a n s l u c e n t C. ) opaque  D. ) E. )  solids transmitters  4. ) You cannot see l i g h t i n a curved rubber tube because A. ) darkness absorbs l i g h t B. ) l i g h t goes i n s t r a i g h t lines C. ) l i g h t must e n t e r your eyes  D.) E.)  d e t e c t i o n i s t o o slow both B and C  i  5. ) M a t e r i a l s which a l l o w a l l t h e l i g h t t o pass through a r e A. ) t r a n s p a r e n t B. ) t r a n s l u c e n t C. ) opaque 6.)  solids liquids  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g words means, " t o glow w i t h heat." A. ) i n c a n d e s c e n t B. ) f l u o r e s c e n t C. ) b i o l u m i n e s c e n t  7.)  D. ) E. )  D. ) E. )  chemiluminescent irridescent  I f a source o f energy RADIATES, i t w i l l A. ) k i l l l i f e B. ) absorb l i g h t C. ) s h i n e o n l y i n one direction  D. ) cause cancer E. ) spread o u t i n a l l directions  PAGE 2 - 113 -  8.) Screen  Pinhole  The image created from the above arrangement i s best described as A) real and upright. B) real and inverted. C) virtual and upright. D) virtual and inverted. E) none of the above. 9 . Pinhole images form because light A) reflects. B) refracts. C) travels i n straight lines. D) i s absorbed. E) i s invisible. 10.  What do you c a l l an image t h a t i s upside down from an object? A. ) v i r t u a l B. ) i n r e a l C. ) i n v e r t e d  11.  A S o l a r E c l i p s e happens every time the A. ) B. ) C. ) D. ) E. )  12.  D. ) r e v e r s e d E. ) i l l u m i n a t e d  Consider  Moon i s between t h e Sun and the E a r t h E a r t h stops l i g h t from r e a c h i n g t h e Moon Moon stops l i g h t from r e a c h i n g the E a r t h Sun sends l i g h t t o t h e Moon Both A and B the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t s : i) ii) iii) iv)  a a a a  campfire bolt of lightning desk plant  Are any o f t h e above luminous l i g h t A. ) a l l o f them B. ) none o f them C. ) i i i ) o n l y  D. ) E. )  sources? i ) and i i ) o n l y i ) , i i ) , and i v ) o n l y  PAGE 3 - 114  13.)  L i g h t can do work and make p l a n t s D. E.  A. ) i n v i s i b l e B. ) move C. ) dry out 14.)  D. E.  L i g h t made by people  i s called D. E,  A. ) n a t u r a l B. ) f l u o r e s c e n t C. ) s y n t h e s i z e d 16.)  weak die  The wire i n s i d e a l i g h t b u l b i s c a l l e d A. ) copper B. ) a fuse C. ) a f i l a m e n t  15.)  -  aluminum lead  light. artificial bioluminescent  Objects which produce l i g h t are D. E.  A. ) t r a n s p a r e n t B. ) luminous C. ) opaque  As the object distance the screen A) B) C) D) E)  D  Q  nonluminous real  increases in the above diagram, the shadow on  becomes larger. becomes smaller. stays the same size. disappears. i s none of the above.  PAGE 4 - 115 -  18. ) By changing the p o s i t i o n o f a l i g h t source, a shadow may have a d i f f e r e n t A. ) s i z e B. ) shape C. ) darkness  D.) E.)  location a l l the above  19. ) In a bathroom m i r r o r , your r e f l e c t i o n appears t o be A. ) s h o r t e r B. ) the same h e i g h t C. ) t a l l e r  D.) E.)  thinner wider  Of the f o l l o w i n g , which i s t h e c o r r e c t image o f t h e word you would see i t r e f l e c t e d i n a p l a n e m i r r o r ? A)  Physics  B)  SOISXUJ  C)  SHyeiDe  D)  eoieYri !  E)  None o f t h e above  0  21. ) L i g h t i s a form o f A. ) heat B. ) e l e c t r i c i t y C. ) sound 22. ) Without any source o f l i g h t , A. ) become deaf B. ) become dead C. ) become c o l d 23. ) An image i s A. ) B. ) C. )  Physic* a s  the same s i z e as a similar likeness of s m a l l e r than  . D.) E.)  lightning energy  a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s would D.) E.)  a real D.) E.)  move underground produce oxygen  object. the opposite o f a negative r e f l e c t i o n of  24. ) A window t h a t does n o t p e r m i t a c l e a r view o f o b j e c t s on the o t h e r s i d e i s A. ) luminous B. ) nonluminous C. ) t r a n s p a r e n t  D. ) E. )  translucent opaque  - 116  25.)  D. ) a l i g h t e d E. ) a desk  an area where l i g h t i s b l o c k e d out an absence of l i g h t where l i g h t s h i n e s c a s t o n l y by t r a n s p a r e n t o b j e c t s both B and D  During a s o l a r e c l i p s e , the E a r t h , Sun and Moon a l l l i n e up. Which o f these t h r e e i s i n the middle? D. ) the E a r t h o r the Moon E. ) the Sun o r the Moon  A. ) the Sun B. ) the Moon C. ) the E a r t h 28.)  Most l i g h t i n the U n i v e r s e comes from A. ) the moon and p l a n e t s B. ) chemicals i n the e a r t h C. ) the sun and s t a r s  29.)  A LUMINOUS o b j e c t i s one  D.) E.)  fires l i g h t bulbs or  D.) E.)  gives o f f l i g h t both B and C  candles  that  A. ) r e f l e c t s l i g h t B. ) does not r e f l e c t l i g h t C. ) absorbs l i g h t 30.)  bulb  A shadow i s A. ) B. ) C. ) D. ) E. )  27.)  5  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g i s a r e a l image? A. ) a movie p i c t u r e B. ) a t r e e C. ) a person  26.)  PAGE  -  Light travels A. ) through a l l s o l i d s B. ) through a l l l i q u i d s C. ) i n c i r c u l a r motions  D. ) i n s p i r a l p a t t e r n s E. ) i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s  - 117 -  APPENDIX C; ITEM ANALYSIS OF ACHIEVEMENT POSTTEST  T e s t Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  Difficulty  Index  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Index  .684 .582 .959 .480 .602 .520 ,755 .520 .684 .796 .102 .867 .102 . .888 .806 .878 .439 .561 .776 .704 .929 .806 .673 .898 .643 .918 .898 .9 39 .908 .949  Hoyt Estimate o f R e l i a b i l i t y = 0.66 Standard E r r o r o f Measurement = 2.08  0.25 0.29 0.13 0.37 0.10 0.58 0.39 0.36 0.42 0.51 0.23 0.27 0.27 0.41 0.39 0.39 0.55 0.28 0.32 0.07 0.25 0.09 0.26 0.35 0.38 0.28 0.15 0.29 0.20 0.15  - "IAPPENDIX D A PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION COURSE;  Science 8  TARGET POPULATION: SECTION: TOPIC:  ages 12 through  15 years  Physics  Light  PROBABLE CLASS SIZE:  30 students  SPECIFIC CONTENT AREAS 1.  describing light  2.  transmission of l i g h t  3.  shadows  4.  i n t r o d u c i n g ray diagrams  5.  formation o f images  COVERED:  sources  PRE-INSTRUCTIONAL  REQUIREMENTS:  - a r e a d i n g l e v e l o f approximately  grade 5 (C.T.B.S.)  - an a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c activities  BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES The  f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t e r m i n a l b e h a v i o r s t h a t students  w i l l possess a t the completion of each s e c t i o n . w i l l be able PART A:  The  student  to:  L i g h t Sources  - describe  l i g h t as a form of energy,  - r e l a t e the importance o f l i g h t to l i v i n g  things,  - l i s t d i f f e r e n t l i g h t sources and ways o f producing  light,  - d e f i n e the meanings of the words; incandescent, luminous, non-luminous, f i l a m e n t , a r t i f i c i a l , emit, and i l l u m i n a t e , - d e s c r i b e l i g h t sources by u s i n g the terms, p o i n t or broad, luminous o r non-luminous, and n a t u r a l or a r t i ficial , PART B:  Transmission of L i g h t  - explain that l i g h t travels i n s t r a i g h t lines i n a l l directions, - d e f i n e what i s meant by the words; r a d i a t e , r e f l e c t , absorb, ray, opaque, t r a n s l u c e n t , t r a n s p a r e n t , i n v i s i b l e , and t r a n s m i t , - recognize  the speed of l i g h t as 30 0 000  km/s,  - c a l c u l a t e simple problems u s i n g the speed o f  light,  - d e s c r i b e the b e h a v i o r of l i g h t when s t r i k i n g t r a n s l u c e n t and t r a n s p a r e n t o b j e c t s ,  opaque,  - c l a s s i f y m a t e r i a l s by t h e i r a b i l i t y to t r a n s m i t  light,  - 120 -  PART C:  Shadows  - e x p l a i n the formation o f shadows, - d e s c r i b e t h a t shadows can be made l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r by moving the opaque o b j e c t , - d e f i n e the terms; shadow, umbra, penumbra, p r e d i c t , and solar eclipse, - draw a ray diagram o f a l i g h t source, and a s c r e e n ,  an opaque o b j e c t  - i d e n t i f y and l a b e l d i f f e r e n t types o f shadows on ray diagrams and i n the r e a l w o r l d , - r e l a t e the circumstances occur,  PART D:  r e q u i r e d f o r a s o l a r e c l i p s e to  Formation o f Images  - d e s c r i b e t h a t an image looks l i k e something r e a l because o f the way i t r e f l e c t s l i g h t , - i d e n t i f y r e a l images as those t h a t can be p r o j e c t e d on a screen, - d e f i n e the terms; image, u p r i g h t , i n v e r t e d , r e a l image and v i r t u a l image, ri,use a ray diagram t o e x p l a i n the formation o f images, - d e s c r i b e why a p i n h o l e image on a screen appears down,  upside  - s p e c i f y t h a t v i r t u a l images as seen i n a m i r r o r are upright but l a t e r a l l y reversed, - demonstrate how t o make p i n h o l e images l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r on a s c r e e n .  TASK size  solar eclipse  \ I  ANALYSIS:  identification - umbra - penumbra  SHADOWS  / virtual or r e a l  4  DIFFERENT  shapes  definitions formation o f  opaque RAY DIAGRAMS  detection  \  -drawing -explaining -predicting  IMAGES  MATERIALS  translucent transparent  /  TRANSMISSION  radiates i n straight lines  travels at 300 000 km/s  inverted or upright LIGHT d e f i n e d as a form o f energy  r e l a t e d to o t h e r energy forms such as heat l a n t e r n s e l e c t r i c sun I I PRODUCTION METHODS  DESCRIBING LIGHT SOURCES illumination photography reading •communication point natural uminous •required or or or -for l i f e broad a r t i f i c i a l non-luminous  /  I  candles  classification, identification  

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