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UBC Theses and Dissertations

From juvenile asylum to treatment center : changes in a New York institution for children, 1905-1930 Seixas, Peter Carr 1981

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FROM JUVENILE ASYLUM TO TREATMENT CENTER: CHANGES IN A NEW YORK INSTITUTION FOR CHILDREN 1905-1930  by PETER CARR SEIXAS B.A., Swarthmore C o l l e g e , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER.OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  (Department o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1981 c Peter C a r r Seixas  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s or her  granted by  the head of  representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for financial  gain  s h a l l not be  Q f l a / Y c , /VAift  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  (2/79)  r  thesis  allowed without my  0UC/ATCOtjAU ^ i K D t c r f  Columbia  my  It i s  permission.  Department of  thesis  written  Abstract In 1851  a group of wealthy, P r o t e s t a n t  nessmen and  New  York C i t y b u s i -  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p r e v i o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n the  paternal-  i s t i c A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement of the C o n d i t i o n  of  Poor, s u c c e s s f u l l y p e t i t i o n e d the S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e to  incorpor-  ate a new  The  organization,  Asylum was  the New  York J u v e n i l e Asylum.  to care f o r , t r a i n and m o r a l l y  of the C i t y ' s poor c h i l d r e n .  the  u p l i f t a mixed group  While those who  had  committed  s e r i o u s crimes were g e n e r a l l y sent to the House of Refuge on Randall's  I s l a n d , the Asylum r e c e i v e d those g u i l t y of a range of  l e s s e r offenses t h e i r parents, w i l l i n g or  such as truancy,  During the l a t e nineteenth  J u v e n i l e Asylum was York.  from i t s New  out a c c o r d i n g  un-  u n f i t to take  century,  the New  York  the l a r g e s t i n s t i t u t i o n of i t s k i n d i n  In 19 05 the Asylum was  twenty m i l e s  d i s o b e d i e n c e to  as w e l l as those whose parents were unable,  ( i n the eyes of the court) m o r a l l y  care of them.  New  vagrancy, and  moved to Dobbs F e r r y , New  York C i t y s i t e .  to the popular "cottage"  There, i t was  p l a n of the day.  York,  laid Optim-  ism surrounded the move, r e f l e c t i n g a more g e n e r a l i z e d Progressive V i l l a g e , was  s o c i a l reform s p i r i t .  In 1920  a new  name, C h i l d r e n ' s  l e g a l l y adopted.  Between 1905  and  1930,  the focus of t h i s study, the  t i o n underwent a number of s t r u c t u r a l and  institu-  i d e o l o g i c a l changes,  some d i c t a t e d by the requirements of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u r v i v a l ,  some b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e s  i n the ideas of a l a r g e r c h i l d - c a r i n g  community beyond t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ,  and some as  structural  society.  care  changes  i n the o u t s i d e  thought are observable  period.  responses  to  Three eras of  child-  at C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e d u r i n g the  The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r a l u p l i f t m o d e l g a v e way t o  an e d u c a t i o n a l m o d e l w i t h t h e move t o Dobbs F e r r y .  Foundations  of  is  the present  t h e r a p e u t i c model  "A Center f o r Treatment,  (today  Research,  the V i l l a g e  T r a i n i n g and P r e v e n t i o n o f  E m o t i o n a l Problems o f C h i l d r e n " ) were l a i d W h i l e none o f t h e s e m o d e l s p e r i o d of ascendancy implications children,  i n the program p h i l o s o p h y .  f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n and s u b s e q u e n t  represented  racial  classification  objective progress i n t h e i r  raised  as  h a i l e d as  i n f a c t was u s e d  segregation,  between  these  ability  is  to  examined,  the c l a i m s .  f o r purposes  help  ques-  The c o t t a g e  of  at-  classification,  competition i n p u r s u i t of  A f u r t h e r g u l f between t h e r h e t o r i c and  t h e r e a l i t y a p p e a r s when t h e d i r e c t o r s ' running a preparatory  the  e n c o u r a g i n g a more f a m i l i a l  and i n t e r - c o t t a g e  o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e .  of  needs.  to the v a l i d i t y of  for instance,  mosphere,  E a c h m o d e l had  and f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  As t h e a c t u a l r u n n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n  system,  each had a  The i n s t i t u t i o n men c l a i m e d t h a t  p o o r c h i l d r e n and meet s o c i a l  t i o n s are  20's.  f o r t h e forms o f c o n t r o l w h i c h were e x e r c i s e d by  and i n m a t e s .  changes  i n the l a t e  is mutually exclusive,  i n s t i t u t i o n over the c h i l d r e n , staff  called  c l a i m s t h a t t h e y were  s c h o o l f o r the poor are  juxtaposed  with  the f a c t  t h a t n e i t h e r p a r e n t n o r c h i l d had any c o n t r o l o v e r  latter's  entering or leaving.  L i k e w i s e , t h e name c h a n g e  the  from  the d i s c i p l i n a r y Cottage",  " C o r r e c t i o n a l Cottage"  p a r t of a major r e o r i e n t a t i o n  seem t o have been a c c o m p a n i e d by As  professionalized.  in  concern  for training,  function.  of  i t i s not c l e a r  i n s t i t u t i o n men,  30's,  p l a c e , the  T h i s was  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s t a f f the  i n the  t h e c h a n g e s i n p r o g r a m model t o o k  increasing  "Psychopathic does  not  a change i n f u n c t i o n .  came i n c r e a s i n g l y the  to  and  Again,  staff  reflected  i n the  be-  both  increasing  c o n t r a r y to the  that  increasing  claims  pro-  fessionalization  represented simply a developing a b i l i t y  to  help children  the b a s i s of s c i e n t i f i c  It is  clear,  on  however, f r o m  the changes i n s c h o o l i n g , from p s y c h o l o g i c a l  testing  and  clinic,  t h a t more and  over the type  record-keeping,  the inmates  from  t h e work o f t h e m e n t a l  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  were p u t  i n s t i t u t i o n men  of  control  i n t o p l a c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d , e n a b l i n g  t o d i s p e n s e w i t h many a s p e c t s o f  study  adds a s i g n i f i c a n t  s u b s t a n t i a l body o f h i s t o r i c a l  C o n c l u s i o n s drawn from  Village,  i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h was  unique,  an  become new  together  military-  b a s i s o f h i s / h e r own  this  evidence,  I t i s i n that  study are  t o what i s b e c o m i n g  the  on  institutions  without  offered.  being  I f the  h i s t o r i a n must a t t e m p t ,  spirit  for 1  prominent  to o f f e r  a  N.Y.J.A./Children s  pieces of a larger puzzle.  i s t o p r o g r e s s , each  the whole.  case  literature  juveniles.  from  instruments  hygiene  drill. This  for  understanding.  a theoretical  that  piecing on  the  framework  the l a r g e r c o n c l u s i o n s  - iv -  Table o f Contents Page  Abstract  i  List  of Figures  v  List  of Abbreviations  vi  Acknowledgements. . . Chapter  v i i  1  Wholesome, C h e e r f u l  S u r r o u n d i n g s " : The  Move t o Dobbs F e r r y  6  Chapter 2 A Context  f o r t h e Study  of Children's Village  17  Chapter 3 "A Work o f G r e a t U s e f u l n e s s " : The New Y o r k Asylum i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h Century Chapter 4 \  "A Modern S c h o o l o f C o r r e c t i o n " : System i n A c t i o n  Juvenile 37  the Cottage 57  Chapter 5 D e c l i n e and Renewal: The C o l o n e l T a k e s 1918-1930.  Hold, 76  Chapter 6 The W i t h e r s R e p o r t and Beyond  106  Bibliography  119  Appendix  129  - „v -  L i s t of F i g u r e s Page The Asylum a t Washington Heights  1  The Layout of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , Dobbs F e r r y , York and Sawyer, A r c h i t e c t s  2  C o l l i n s and Dwight Cottages  3  "A Quiet Evening a t P e t e r Cooper Cottage."  4  C o l . Leon Faulkner  5  - vi-  L i s t of Abbreviations A.I.CP.  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement o f the C o n d i t i o n o f the Poor.  C.V.  Children's  Village  C.V.A.R.  C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e Annual Report  E.C.B.C.  Executive  Committee of the Board o f  Directors  (of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e )  L.S.R.M.  Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial Fund  N.C.C.C.  N a t i o n a l Conference o f C h a r i t i e s and Correction  N.C.S.W.  N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work  N.Y.J.A.  New York J u v e n i l e Asylum  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  New York J u v e n i l e Asylum Annual Report  N.Y.P.L.  New York P u b l i c L i b r a r y  - v i i -  Acknowledgements A number o f p e o p l e research  f o r and w r i t i n g  Howard M i l l m a n ,  and  o r d e r t o open d o o r s rest  of the s t a f f  their  provided i n d i s p e n s i b l e h e l p i n the  stories  and  of t h i s  Frank  Hartsoe  f o r me  Lawrence P e r k i n s ,  gave f r e e l y  listening  t o mine.  uncle,  Sutherland, Steven  Neil  into  Payne h e l p e d t o c l a r i f y  and my  two  supervisors, Marvin  J.  Donald  can  list If  i t had  b o t h my  Lazerson  thinking  and  n o t b e e n f o r P h i l Aranow's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  i n December, 1978,  I  My  parents, Frank  s u p p l y me  from  the bottomless w e l l  I have b e e n d r a w i n g r o o f o v e r my  since b i r t h ,  head w h i l e I was  S u s a n Inman has production.  She  and  to l i s t e n  with a  which familiar  out the r e s e a r c h i n  s h a r e d most i n t i m a t e l y had  have  Seixas, continued to  p r o v i d e d me  carrying  and managed t o keep Naomi happy and typewriter.  Judy  study would  o f encouragement from  and  we  g r o u n d s w h i l e on a w i n t e r  the s u b j e c t of t h i s  by.  this  her  here.  p a s s e d me  York.  of  W i l s o n , were o f i m m e a s u r a b l e h e l p i n more ways t h a n  detour through stroll  provided  Schlossman,  Bob  My  the me  the p e r s o n a l i t y  B a r b a r a B r e n z e l and writing.  telling  Nancy C a r u s o  insight  time i n  Many o f  t o t h e work b o t h by  t h e i n t e r v i e w w h i c h gave me Leon F a u l k n e r .  of t h e i r  at Children's Village.  contributed by  paper.  t o my  i n the t r i a l s  midnight  smiling  New  and  of  ramblings,  away f r o m  the  \\j  if  \k\  I'  1  \\ c ^ KriCIICN A N D  - ~**0\VLR HOUSt  "NAMES OF COTTAGES  1 -EDMUND DW1CHT 1 -PETE1 COOPER 3 - SAMUEL WiLLETTS 4 - J. P. HOWARJD 5 • .lAMKi LLNOX G - L U T H E R B RADISH 7 - J O H N ROSE S - JOHN B. 5CHOLE4 9 - ROBERT M. HARTLEY .10-MARY S TUART U ' EZRA M. K.INCSLEY ANDREW H. GREEN 13 - J O H N D. RUSS 14-JOSEPH B COLLIN A 15 - MORNAY WILLIAMS 16 - BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 17 - CLARK.SON CROL1US IS - DAVID FANS HAW 19 - REX3SZ.LAER H HAVENS 20- JAMES BROWN 21 • RUFUS L L O W 21- MARY BURR 23- WILLIAM L.RHINELANDER M - ABRAHAM L I N C O L N 23- JAMES RUFU3 SMITH  26 27  28- MRS VAN HORN  29 30  J O H N l»AV»» W O L F E 3 C H O O L - WETMORE HALL  C O N T O U R S SHOW 10 FT SCAIJIIN-IFFT " —  INTERVAL!  —  —  'VILLAGE •  32Jk!!SjUSJ T.T,N.YC  aam  BSISal In! H*li>l  till 5a]  - 6 -  Chapter  1  "Wholesome, C h e e r f u l Surroundings": The Move to Dobbs F e r r y Over the course of two weeks, i n May, C h a r l e s D. H i l l e s of the New  19 05,  Superintendent  York J u v e n i l e Asylum c h a r t e d  the  move of an e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n — t h r e e hundred n e g l e c t e d , d e l i n q uent and dependent c h i l d r e n , approximately and a l l t h e i r p a r a p h e r n a l i a — f r o m  s i x t y s t a f f members,  the o l d b u i l d i n g i n Washington  Heights, a t 176th S t r e e t and Amsterdam Avenue i n New to  a new  York C i t y  l o c a t i o n twenty m i l e s north i n Dobbs F e r r y , New  Though the name change would not become o f f i c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a t the new  s i t e was  u n t i l 1920,  the  called Children's V i l l a g e .  The move i n v o l v e d t r a n s p o r t i n g the people and belongings  York.  their  to Grand C e n t r a l S t a t i o n , r i d i n g the t r a i n to the  Chauncey S t a t i o n , and again l o a d i n g the baggage onto wagons to be d r i v e n up the i n c l i n e from the s t a t i o n to the new, I f they had  277  acre  site.  f e l t cramped f o r space i n the o l d , c o n g r e g a t e - s t y l e  i n s t i t u t i o n , whose grounds were being c r i s s - c r o s s e d by i n c r e a s i n g l y busy New here.  York C i t y s t r e e t s , there was  The  out  At the top of a r i s e o v e r l o o k i n g the Hudson R i v e r i n an  area known as Echo H i l l s was of  room to spread  a symmetrically planned  arrangement  s i x t e e n " c o t t a g e s " , a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , and a u x i l i a r y s t r u c t u r e s . l a y o u t had been designed by the winners of an  c o m p e t i t i o n on land purchased  from s e v e r a l farmers  architectural in  1901.  - 7 At south, The  t h e n o r t h end  o f the  first  of the  s i t e was  ten cottage  a semi-circle,  sites,  spaced  every  open t o  2 00  c o t t a g e s w h i c h were a l r e a d y b u i l t were s u b s t a n t i a l  frame b u i l d i n g s ,  appearing  from  the  feet. stone  the o u t s i d e not u n l i k e the  and  spac-  i o u s s u b u r b a n f a m i l y homes a l o n g t h e Hudson R i v e r i n t h e  nearby  towns o f Dobbs F e r r y and  semi-  circle, future  a hill site  southern then one  Hastings-on-Hudson.  rose g e n t l y to a f l a g p o l e  of m i l i t a r y  drill  boundary of the  n o r t h , l e d one  t o Dobbs F e r r y .  down t h e t r e e - s h a d e d  had  s e m i - c i r c l e were t h e a t h l e t i c six  additional  room t o expand i n t o  field,  tion  t h e woods t o t h e  i n t h e coming y e a r .  Hudson, one  The  of the  the west,  Across  the road  a large school  food f o r the  t h e New  R a i l r o a d ' s Hudson R i v e r L i n e , were s t i l l  the  plenty of  Twenty a c r e s  o u t l y i n g houses o f  s t o p s o u t h o f Dobbs F e r r y on  from  building,  more, and  south.  to supply  lead  s l o p e t o Chauncey  f o r seventeen  been plowed f o r a s p r i n g p l a n t i n g  framed  F o l l o w i n g the road  arrived.  cottages, sites  A road  the  F o l l o w i n g i t e a s t would  switch-backs  S t a t i o n where t h e c h i l d r e n  the  a t the c e n t r e ,  exercises.  semi-circle.  Within  had institu-  Hastings-onYork C e n t r a l  a m i l e away t h r o u g h  the  woods. Though H i l l e s m a i n t a i n e d tics in  o f t h e move i t s e l f  threatened  o v e r s e e i n g not o n l y the  charges, details seed,  and  the b u i l d i n g  as t h e  reduced  an u n d e r l y i n g o p t i m i s m ,  staff  hiring  and  of the p h y s i c a l  supplying of beef, rate train  t o swamp him.  fares,  c o t t a g e e a c h s t a f f member w o u l d  He  firing,  the  was  involved  inmate  p l a n t , but a l s o  livestock,  logis-  tableware,  dissuch  potato  lawn-mowers; a r r a n g i n g i n w h i c h live,  how  and  when e a c h one  would  have h i s o r h e r b e l o n g i n g s to the V i l l a g e , stance,  8 -  transported  and so on.  A letter  from t h e t r a i n  to the contractors, f o r i n -  r e l a y e d t h e message t h a n Mornay W i l l i a m s ,  of t h e Board, Palliser  "requests  that the walls  House be p a i n t e d  Three days a f t e r  station  the President  of the o f f i c e  of the  g r e e n i n s t e a d o f t e r r a cotta".''"  the a r r i v a l  of the f i r s t  boys, H i l l e s  wrote:  I have b e e n l i t e r a l l y overwhelmed w i t h p e t t y d e t a i l s incident to the s t a r t . Notwithstanding a l l the promises t o u s , o u r w a r n i n g s and p l e a d i n g s , t h e c o n t r a c t o r s a r e not y e t o u t o f the houses. P l a s t e r e r s a r e i n a l l o f them, with t h e i r d i r t . E l e c t r i c i a n s haven't a l l t h e i r equipment i n p o s i t i o n , we h a v e n ' t h o t w a t e r n o r h e a t , n o r light. Our t r e a t m e n t h a s b e e n r e a l l y c r u e l a n d i n t h e e f f o r t t o make o u r p e o p l e c o m f o r t a b l e we have b e e n d r i v e ^ to t h e extreme. I hope i t w i l l be a l l r i g h t s h o r t l y . . .  By  May 20, w i t h  100 p e o p l e on t h e g r o u n d s t h e r e was s t i l l  no  light. One necessity  o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t of a drastic  problems H i l l e s  reduction  i n t h e number o f i n m a t e s  f o r by t h e New Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m . a l m o s t one t h o u s a n d c h i l d r e n c o m m i t t e d t i m e o f t h e move, t h e new V i l l a g e t h o u g h t h e r e were p l a n s Arrangements had a l r e a d y  I n 1904, t h e r e t o t h e Asylum.  h a d room f o r t h r e e  cared  had been At the hundred,  f o r expansion t o around s i x hundred. b e e n made t o send t h i r t y - o n e c h i l d r e n  t o f a r m s i n t h e West t h r o u g h H a s t i n g s Children's A i d Society.  f a c e d was t h e  Hart's  Illinois  The p r a c t i c e o f s e n d i n g  Home a n d  c h i l d r e n west  3  had  b e e n common s i n c e 1855. Population  authorities, in  was f u r t h e r r e d u c e d by r e q u e s t i n g  who h a d p r o v i d e d  school  up t o o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  t h e 1890's a n d e a r l y 1900's t o send t r u a n t s  elsewhere  (this  was  t o be  ficult that his  i f he  eliminated  In  addition,  the  not  s e n d any  cessful  that  carried  too  he  he  H i l l e s was  calculated,  early  Jews, B l a c k s ,  r e m a i n i n g w o u l d be  dred. to  -  a temporary measure).  numbers game; he  total  9  got  i n the  the  new  cases.  was  a f r a i d that  involved i n the  and  by  neighborhood of  April,  the  spring  Protestant  Department o f  But  in a of  three  had  1905  girls,  Charities  Hilles  dif-  to  hunagree  been so  numbers r e d u c t i o n  had  suc-  been  far:  . . . I d e s i r e t o make t h e e m p h a t i c s t a t e m e n t now that u n l e s s we l i m i t t h e d i s c h a r g e s i n A p r i l and May t o t h e g i r l s and t h e J e w i s h and c o l o r e d b o y s , we w i l l n o t have enough c h i l d r e n t o f i l l t h e c o t t a g e s a t Dobbs F e r r y i n June. Where d i d New  York S t a t e  a l l the  discharged  Training  School  c h i l d r e n go?  for Girls  In  1904,  the  a t Hudson o p e n e d ,  and  5 was  able  to  take  some o f  the  c h i l d r e n were t r a n s f e r r e d  delinquent g i r l s .  to  and  the  had  always been r e l a t i v e l y  the  Hebrew Orphan A s y l u m .  transferred  to  the  New  Five  The  small,  number o f  t o come w i t h  House o f  number o f B l a c k and  some o f  some s h o e s and  clothes  up  the  were  Howard  though, t h a t  Jews—were  to pick  Industry  these c h i l d r e n  I t appears,  parents—particularly  of  commitments  Y o r k C o l o r e d Orphan A s y l u m , o r  C o l o r e d Orphan A s y l u m i n B r o o k l y n . large  Points  A number  a  simply n o t i f i e d  their  children  g  and  t a k e them home. It  is difficult  "unfortunate" charged the  and  from the  "bad  to  know how  and  disorderly"  institution  move t o C h i l d r e n ' s  those w h i t e , male,  i n the  Village.  c h i l d r e n who  spring  of  1905,  Protestant, were n o t  dis-  experienced  From t h e ber we  fact  of disturbances can  10  -  t h a t t h e r e had and  escapes  s p e c u l a t e t h a t many had  r e c e n t l y b e e n an u n u s u a l  from the  institution  been d i s c o n t e n t w i t h  num-  i n the  City,  their l o t  7 prior  t o t h e move.  experiences it  still  iod  I f i t were n o t  of these  more d i f f i c u l t .  give  enough t o know  the  s e v e r a l c o i n c i d e n c e s c o n s p i r e t o make In r e c e n t years  have b e e n weeded o u t ,  records destroyed.  and  any  records  personal  from the  letters  and  per-  conduct  While the photographs from the Annual  Reports  some s e n s e o f t h e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t , t h e p i c t u r e s o f t h e  a r e p o s e d and in  boys,  hard  formal.  A study  P e t e r Cooper Cottage"  stance,  o f t h e p i c t u r e "A q u i e t  from the  shows s t r e e t - b o y s s i t t i n g  r e a d i n g n e w s p a p e r s and t h i n g s were as  books.  1906  119  of  163  evening for i n -  e x p r e s s i o n l e s s l y around a t a b l e  There i s at l e a s t  t h e y were p o r t r a y e d on  a y e a r when o n l y  Annual Report,  boys  those  some d o u b t  that  "quiet evenings"  entering children  could  "read,  in  write  Q  and in  cipher". the  Further evidence  superintendent's  cottages w i l l  be  of doctored  instructions  to the  t h e mecca o f v i s i t o r s  kindergarten w i l l  be  these  b u i l d i n g s i f we  floor  the  visited  same t r e a t m e n t  t h a t we  survives  contractors:  to the v i l l a g e .  a great deal.  could give the  appearances  I t w o u l d add  "The The to  i n t e r i o r w a l l s of the  gave t h e  two  exhibition  first  cot-  tages."^ With the d r a s t i c staff  composition  ulation required  had  u n d e r w e n t some c h a n g e s .  been reduced,  to run  relatively  r e d u c t i o n i n number o f c h i l d r e n ,  (Though o v e r a l l  proportionally, a larger  the cottage  style  the  operation.)  staff  I n an  heavy-handed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r e a t m e n t  of  era  popwas  of  institution  - 11 workers, H i l l e s waited staff  until  e a r l y May t o n o t i f y most o f h i s  a s t o whose p o s i t i o n s w o u l d be c o n t i n u e d  tion.  Of c o u r s e ,  i n t h e new  loca-  t h e r e were w o r k e r s who d i d n o t want t o r e -  locate outside of the City,  and some new h i r i n g was  necessary.  Criteria  for hiring  s t a f f were n o t u n r e l a t e d t o t h e k i n d s o f  criteria  used i n d i s c h a r g i n g inmates.  vertised  f o r a w h i t e P r o t e s t a n t f e m a l e cook f o r t h e new  F o r example, H i l l e s a d insti-  tution. Most s t a f f were e x p e c t e d inmates."'""'"  Each c o t t a g e ,  to live  i n the cottages with the  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e twenty boys,  would  have a m a t r o n , o r a m a t r o n and m a s t e r , a s w e l l a s two o t h e r employees, o f t e n  teachers.  The c o t t a g e m a t r o n w i l l have f u l l c h a r g e o f t h e h o u s e , s u p e r v i s i n g t h e d i n i n g room, t h e mending and housework. The f o o d w i l l be c o o k e d e l s e w h e r e and d e l i v e r e d . She w o u l d n o t have o t h e r d u t i e s t h a n t h o s e i n h e r own c o t t a g e and w o u l d be o f f d u t y one d a y e v e r y two weeks and have two weeks a n n u a l v a c a t i o n . The s a l a r y i s Two o f f i c e r s s l e e p up s t a i r s and e a t i n t h e c o t t a g e . Hilles and  explained to a prospective teacher  t h a t " t h e two t e a c h e r s  m a t r o n w o u l d u s e a common b a t h r o o m , and w o u l d have a s m a l l  13 table all  i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e d i n i n g room."  unmarried  women.  Teachers  were  almost  The male m a s t e r s o f t h e c o t t a g e s h a d o u t -  side d u t i e s , g e n e r a l l y i n the v o c a t i o n a l education/maintenance areas. sible  Thus, H e n r y J . C o u p e r , t h e V i l l a g e not only  for overseeing  f o r the crops  and a n i m a l s  t h e boys working w i t h  farmer,  was  themselves,  the crops  respon-  but also  and a n i m a l s , a n d  14 along with  h i swife,  i n g decades w i t h  f o rrunning  Bradish Cottage.  increasing professionalization,  w o u l d become more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  and s t a f f  In these  r o l e s more  succeedtasks  specific.  -  12  -  And  t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u l d have i m p o r t a n t  way  i n which c h i l d r e n By  1905,  thropists reform this  and  had  As  N a t i o n a l Conference  C h a r l e s D.  community o f  saw  H i l l e s was  clearly  philanjuvenile  a member o f  chairman of the C h i l d r e n ' s S e c t i o n of of C h a r i t i e s  f o r a r r a n g i n g the He  and  speakers  re-  and  19 05  papers  f o r the  t o i t t h a t D e n v e r ' s J u d g e Ben  Lindsey,  known o f t h e n a t i o n ' s j u v e n i l e c o u r t j u d g e s ,  take  of the  others of s i m i l a r for  the  s e s s i o n on stature.  the  He  juvenile  was  Delinquent,  Truant,  and  c o u r t s , and  a l s o busy w i t h  smaller N a t i o n a l Conference  the  C o r r e c t i o n s • h e was  most w i d e l y charge  f o r the  institution.  workers i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s aspects of  evolved.  conference.  the  a self-conscious national  community.  sponsible  experienced  implications  on  the  would  invited  arrangements  the E d u c a t i o n  of  Backward C h i l d r e n , o f w h i c h he was  the  Secretary. Hilles' i d e a s and likely  those  t o be  munity.  e x t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s meant t h a t h i s governing  i n harmony w i t h  Hilles'  of the  those  of the  institution  of the n a t i o n a l  t h i n k i n g , as e x p r e s s e d  f e r began, was' i n d e e d optimism  the p o l i c i e s  reform  a week b e f o r e  were com-  the t r a n s -  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t  times:  . . . Having exploded the theory t h a t a l l e v i l i s t r a c e a b l e t o bad b i r t h , and s u b s t i t u t e d t h e t h e o r y t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t i s more a t f a u l t t h a n h e r e d i t y , I t h i n k we must i n s i s t on a t t r a c t i v e , wholesome, c h e e r f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n w h i l e t h e y a r e w i t h us.15 The  advantages of the  t o be d e r i v e d t h r o u g h day.  surroundings  to which H i l l e s  the cottage  s y s t e m , w h i c h was  Though t h e r e were p r e c e d e n t s  i n North  referred  were  i n i t s hey-  America a  half  -  century e a r l i e r , juvenile buildings that  i t was a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h a t many  institutions  the c l u s t e r s  streets,  t h e urban  addition  and c l o s e r to solving  Washington H e i g h t s , the i n s t i t u t i o n  then,  young, by d r a w i n g  charges  in a field  The o p t i m i s m  functioning  structure  concrete p r a c t i c a l  problems a t  This,  of the national  i n turn, that  enabled  a l lof  t h e y were  t h a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d — t h a t which generated  The r e a l i t y  brought  doing they  nouncements a b o u t  considerable scrut-  of daily  of course,  institutional  to--the national  what s h o u l d b e .  r e f o r m community's  Further, those  pro-  pronouncements  and t h e c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n o f w h i c h t h e y were a p a r t ,  were u n d e r g o i n g  a p r o c e s s o f c o n t i n u a l change.  Thus, w h i l e t h e  move t o Dobbs F e r r y r e p r e s e n t e d a m a j o r change f o r t h e New J u v e n i l e Asylum,  i talso  Problems o f d i s c i p l i n e , ulation, tinue  were  l e d t o m e a s u r e s w h i c h were q u i t e d i v o r c e d f r o m — a n d .  sometimes a n t i t h e t i c a l  themselves,  them c l o s e r t o  c r e a t e d b y t h e new f a c i l i t i e s ,  was n o t s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g .  settings  to the "natural" family.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Asylum t o f e e l  t o standards  iny.  i n more r u r a l  i n l i n e with the thinking  the best f o r t h e i r up  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n men c l a i m e d  t h e move t o t h e c o t t a g e s y s t e m  P r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m community. those  the large  rhythms o f n a t u r e , w i t h i n a s o c i a l  institutional In  Leaving behind  of smaller buildings  would r e h a b i l i t a t e  less  relocated.  and crowded c i t y  the r e s t o r a t i v e  13 -  staffing,  s e t the stage  f o r further  changes.  program, i m a g e - m a i n t e n a n c e , s t u d e n t  indeed o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  s u r v i v a l would  t o be c h a l l e n g e s f o r t h e men who r a n t h e V i l l a g e .  they responded  York  to the i d e o l o g i c a l  and p r a c t i c a l  pop-  conHow  dimensions  of  - 14 these challenges.makes up the r e s t of t h i s  story.  - 15  -  Footnotes Chapter  """Hilles t o Sawyer, May  22,  1  1905.  2 Hilles  to Wendell,  May  19,  1905.  3 U n t i l 1903, c h i l d r e n had b e e n s e n t d i r e c t l y t o a W e s t e r n A g e n c y m a i n t a i n e d by t h e N.Y.J.A. The c l o s i n g o f t h a t o f f i c e and. t h e s h i f t ' t o H a r t ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h e d i m i n i s h i n g numbers o f i n m a t e s b e i n g t h u s a p p r e n t i c e d . H a r t was a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a c a r e e r o f n a t i o n a l eminence i n c h a r i t y , c h i l d w e l f a r e and p e n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The use o f w e s t e r n farms f o r p l a c i n g o u t u r b a n c h i l d r e n was more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d by t h e New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . See M i r i a m Z. Langsam, C h i l d r e n West: A H i s t o r y o f t h e P l a c i n g Out S y s t e m o f t h e New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y 1853-1890. (Madison: S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1964). See a l s o b e l o w , C h a p t e r 3. 4 H i l l e s t o Henry G r e g o r y (Chairman o f t h e A d m i s s i o n s , I n d e n t u r e s and D i s c h a r g e s Committee) A p r i l 4, 1905. 5 I n t h e same y e a r t h e S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d a law p r o h i b i t i n g g i r l s f r o m s t a y i n g i n t h e House o f R e f u g e and t h e S t a t e I n d u s t r i a l School at Rochester. Hilles  Correspondence,  7  N . Y . J . A . A.R.,  8  N . Y . J . A . A.R.,  passim,  March,  1905.  1903. 1917,  pp..  48,49.  9 Hilles "^Hilles  Correspondence,  April  3,  1905.  t o M e t r o p o l i t a n A g e n c y and  H o t e l E x c h a n g e , May  8,  1905  "'""'"This made c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by E r v i n g G o f f m a n i n A s y l u m s : E s s a y s on t h e S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n o f M e n t a l P a t i e n t s and O t h e r I n m a t e s . (New Y o r k : Anchor/Doubleday, 1961). In h i s account, though i n m a t e s whole l i v e s a r e c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e s t a f f a r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n outside l i v e s . 1  12 Hilles 1 3  14  Hilles  t o Sawyer, A p r i l to Dowling,  N . Y . J . A . A.R.,  13,  M a r c h 29,  1906.  1905. 1905.  - 16 -  1 5  Hilles  t o Vaux, May 6, 1905.  -  17  -  Chapter A Context The  f o r the  p o t e n t i a l of  Children's Village during  the  history  past  and  the  emphasize the  tion, As  study  h i s t o r y of  place  experiences  o f an  of the  years  institution  i n the  New  of  educational  perspectives  i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n a broad  of a l l of  i t s various  those  h i s t o r y and  these  social  f u n c t i o n s , and  connected with  other  concerns, areas  the  the  w i t h i n the  h i s t o r y have i n e v i t a b l y  it  become i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e  various  kinds  of  took p l a c e w i t h i n upon M i c h a e l spate  institutions the  Katz's  field  The  of e d u c a t i o n a l  Irony  to educational  latter.  between  framework  of  earliest  history.  work  Following  R e f o r m i n 1968,  examined t h e  historiography prior  and  developments i n The  of E a r l y School  o f works a p p e a r e d , w h i c h c r i t i c a l l y  central  the  become i n c r e a s i n g l y b l u r r e d  t o each o t h e r .  the  institu-  boundaries  social has  as  developments  o f t e n u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology to e x p l o r e  educational  cratic  synonymous w i t h  opportunities."'"  their  s t u d i e s an  The  progress new  awareness o f  to the m i d - s i x t i e s ,  the  e x p a n s i o n o f demo-  educational  h i s t o r i a n s brought  the  and  a  idea,  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a u n i v e r s a l s t a t e - r u n p u b l i c .school.,  s y s t e m was  to  such  fields  social welfare.  a n a l y s i s of  s c h o l a r s have p u r s u e d  that  Village  b e e n g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d by  ten to f i f t e e n  framework, c r i t i c a l actual  Study of C h i l d r e n ' s  the  has  2  contemporary  shortcomings  -  and  18  -  f a i l u r e s of p u b l i c s c h o o l systems.  They examined the  school's r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g i n e q u a l i t y r a t h e r than c r e a t i n g e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , by m a i n t a i n i n g power imbalances,  and  2  by p r o v i d i n g the i l l u s i o n of m e r i t o c r a t i c e q u a l i t y . The  e x t e n s i o n of s t a t e power through the implementation  compulsory education and the expansion  of a s t a t e  of  bureaucracy  to d e a l with p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l problems were measures which paved the way  f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o more aspects of more  peoples' The  lives.  These developments can be seen i n two ways.  t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r y f o l l o w e d the r a t i o n a l e g i v e n by  the  s c h o o l promoters themselves, i n arguing t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , prov i d i n g u n i v e r s a l f r e e p u b l i c education  f o r the working c l a s s  and  immigrant groups would provide them w i t h access to the f r u i t s of the American dream, t h a t a broad  and d i v e r s i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m  r e l e v a n t to the v o c a t i o n a l aims of more c h i l d r e n , and  was  that guid-  ance c o u n s e l l o r s i n the schools provided i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a t t e n 3  t i o n to h e l p students make wise c a r e e r c h o i c e s . examination  A  critical  of the same reforms r e v e a l e d c l a s s domination  a s s a u l t s on immigrants' c u l t u r e , s e x - r o l e reinforcement, occupational streaming—in  other words, the maintenance  and and  and  p e r p e t u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . The  i n i t i a l r e v i s i o n i s t e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s of the  l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s p o s i t e d a r e l a t i v e l y crude c o n t r o l " t h e s i s , whereby schools were seen as one  "social  of the  ments imposed on the poor and working c l a s s by the middle upper c l a s s .  instruand  Yet the " s o c i a l c o n t r o l " t h e s i s n e g l e c t e d to ask  whether and what k i n d of r e s i s t a n c e and o p p o s i t i o n o c c u r r e d  - 19 among those who were being imposed upon.  In many i n s t a n c e s  those who were presumably being c o n t r o l l e d were e i t h e r  indif-  f e r e n t t o , e n t h u s i a s t i c about, o r w i l l i n g l y accommodated t o the 4  reform measures.  The task then, was t o provide an a n a l y s i s  which would encompass an awareness o f the c l a s s i n e q u a l i t y and r a d i c a l l y d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s of members o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s r e g a r d i n g the e x t e n s i o n o f s t a t e power; the r o l e o f the schools i n m a i n t a i n i n g the c l a s s system through an e x t e n s i o n o f s t a t e power; and the apparent c o o p e r a t i o n o f groups who were being imposed upon i n the e x t e n s i o n of s t a t e power f o r s o c i a l In the mid-seventies,  control.  Katz, who was a t the f o r e f r o n t o f  the o r i g i n a l wave o f r e v i s i o n i s m , provided a r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the argument.  Drawing on Antonio  Gramsci's n o t i o n o f hegemony,  Katz d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the i m p o s i t i o n which e n f o r c e s c i p l i n e on groups which do not consent, consent  dis-  and "the 'spontaneous'  given by the g r e a t masses o f the p o p u l a t i o n t o the  g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n imposed on s o c i a l l i f e by the dominant  funda-  5  mental group."  The b u i l d i n g of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system and  P r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l reform, both o f which generated  a con-  sensus o f support among a l l c l a s s e s , were i m p o s i t i o n s o f the second k i n d , he argued. maintain  Using t h i s d e v i c e Katz was able t o  the core o f the r e v i s i o n i s t c r i t i c i s m , t h a t the r e s u l t s  of e d u c a t i o n a l reform,  i . e . , c l a s s domination and i d e o l o g i c a l  l e g i t i m a t i o n of i n e q u a l i t y , cal justification"  " d i f f e r e d s h a r p l y from i t s i d e o l o g i -  i . e . , e x t e n s i o n o f democratic  and y e t t o formulate  the beginnings  opportunity,  of an e x p l a n a t i o n as t o how  such an. i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d r e c e i v e popular  acceptance.^  -  This Hogan who  20  -  argument has r e c e n t l y rejects  come u n d e r c r i t i c i s m f r o m  the notion that  David  " i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony" c a n 7  explain que  working  drawing  class  responses  on t h e i n s i g h t s  to schooling.  Hogan's  o f t h e new w o r k i n g  class  criti-  historians  in  t h e t r a d i t i o n o f E.P. Thompson, e m p h a s i z e s t h e a c t i v e  of  the working  class  the combination ation,  comes i n t h e f o r m  The c u l t u r e  own f a m i l i e s ,  i n shaping  responses  or r u l i n g c l a s s .  i m p e r a t i v e s , i . e . , economic  success. their  of t h e c a p i t a l i s t  he a r g u e s ,  ogical,  and i t s c u l t u r e  That  to  domin-  of s t r u c t u r a l , not i d e o l survival,  mobility,  of the p a r t i c u l a r working-class  r e l i g i o n , values, p o l i t i c a l  t r a d i t i o n a l work s k i l l s — d e t e r m i n e s  role  how t h o s e  group—  ideas,  and  s t r u c t u r a l im-  g  peratives  a r e t o be d e a l t  Historians offer  additional  as C h i l d r e n ' s a broad  with.  i n the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d insights  Village.  field  of s o c i a l welfare  f o r t h e s t u d y o f an i n s t i t u t i o n s u c h  I n The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e A s y l u m  survey which t r e a t s  the growth o f p r i s o n s ,  ( 1 9 7 1 ) ,  orphan  asy-  lums, and i n s a n e a s y l u m s d u r i n g ; t h e J a c k s o n i a n e r a i n t h e U n i t e d States,  David  iginally of  Rothman s e e s  t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n o f a movement, o r -  i n s p i r e d by a h u m a n i t a r i a n  disorder  impulse,  r  i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g , u r b a n i z i n g  coupled with a America,  fear  into a  9  punitive,  custodial  set of i n s t i t u t i o n s .  the o r i g i n a l statements  o f purpose  come o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e f o r m i e n c e and C o n v e n i e n c e : ressive of  America  (1980)  The c o n t r a s t  and t h e a c t u a l  i s explored further  effective  r e f o r m movements, as w e l l  as h i s attempt  out-  i n h i s Consc-  The A s y l u m and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e s Rothman' s s k e p t i c i s m  between  about  i n Prog-  the e f f i c a c y  to set i n s t i t u t i o n s i n  - 21 a broad  context,  finds parallels  b e c a u s e p r i s o n s and  than  control  and  these w r i t e r s ' c r i t i c a l  t h a t of the r e v i s i o n i s t related:  under a d e v e l o p i n g  capitalist  have  mid-nineteenth  given persistent industrial  class  divided  roughly  traditional resented  into  two  camps.  orientation,  their  o f t e n serve p a r a d o x i c a l l y  on  class.  juvenile  These authors  can  T h e r e a r e t h o s e who  that successive reform  genuine progress  Yet  o r d e r , measures which  specifically  delinquency.  radical  inequality  f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t e t h e power o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t O t h e r w r i t e r s have f o c u s e d  periodi-  p e r s p e c t i v e seems l e s s  a r e a d v e r t i s e d as p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m  o r p h a n a g e s , a s y l u m s and  institu-  educational historians.  message i s c l o s e l y  to  because they  been the o b j e c t o f a t t a c k s s i n c e the  century,  Perhaps  m e n t a l a s y l u m s a r e more o b v i o u s l y  t i o n s of c o e r c i v e s o c i a l cally  i n o t h e r works."'"'''  i n the e f f o r t s  be  have  measures  to provide  the rep-  humanitar-  12 ian,  rehabilitative  T h e s e f o c u s on efforts cial  toward d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ;  o f s e p a r a t i n g young p e o p l e  from n e g l e c t e d o r dependent c h i l d r e n , in  law;  and  on  have s h a r e d  at least  the major t a s k s of h i s t o r y  2)  t h a t r e f o r m m e a s u r e s must be  cause the reformers  both  the b e n e f i -  in institutions  or because the  final  and  The  educational  three assumptions:  i s to inform present  1)  classless  e f f e c t s were o f t e n n o t  that  one  policy  examined c r i t i c a l l y ,  t h e m s e l v e s were n o t  and  from a d u l t s , d e l i n q u e n t s  to the r e v i s i o n i s t  of  ested,  on  increasing opportunities for schooling.  second group, c o r r e s p o n d i n g historians,  youth.  p u b l i c h e a l t h measures, c h i l d - l a b o u r laws,  directed  effects  environments f o r poor or d e v i a n t  either  and  be-  disinter-  those  envisioned ever  the  by  the  reformers  promises of the  and  3)  an  reformers,  understanding  the  t h a t , what-  p r o b l e m s were  not  13 s o l v e d by  the  new  direction  The  Child  interests into  the  i n 1969  Savers. of the  clusions,  focused  upper c l a s s r e f o r m e r s , of  Matters  using  statistical  were g o v e r n e d by  their  the  the  the  records  tional  of the  systems.  key  the  the  research  lives  of  effects  have t a k e n on of  of  individual  questions  poor  a top-down f o c u s , and  make more s u b t l e  juvenile courts  c r e a t i o n and  This question  s o c i a l welfare  the and  but  his  and  on  difficult those  reformatories, and  Diane  the  expansion of the  institutions.  w h i c h we  can  by  setting  revisionist  as b e i n g  public  important  Does t h e  educa-  for historians  notion  Is there  s h a p e d by  Historians  of  the  inmates  for social  of any  ruling sense  in  prisons,  c o n t r o l purposes,  themselves?  t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s have c a u t i o n e d  t o o many a s p e c t s  or  school  see what a c t u a l l y happened i n a s y l u m s ,  h o s p i t a l s , founded e x p l i c i t l y  who  context.  r a i s e d by  is similarly  con-  distinc-  the  policies  institutions,  hegemony have a p p l i c a t i o n h e r e ?  seeing  d i d no  class  h i s t o r i a n s i s whether the working c l a s s supported  resisted  class  the  more e x t e n s i v e ,  f i n d i n g s i n a broad h i s t o r i c a l One  but  r e f o r m s on  research,  the  unsophisticated  Steven Schlossman, Barbara B r e n z e l  of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the  studying  launched  h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on  though e q u a l l y c r i t i c a l ,  Recently  and  He  his relatively  i s much more c a r e f u l ,  tions.  of  with  Anthony P i a t t  R o b e r t M e n n e l l i k e w i s e , has  research  task  msitutions.  actual effects  children. his  new  of working-class  life  as  against  evidence  of  - 23 social the  control  imposed  from above.  14  While t h i s c o r r e c t i v e t o  s o c i a l c o n t r o l model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e  pretations  o f t h e workplace, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ,  the  where p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n t a i n an a c t i v e  school  cultural to  life,  "total  juvenile scribed the  i t becomes more p r o b l e m a t i c  i n s t i t u t i o n s " such as p r i s o n s ,  of the i n s t i t u t i o n  individual's family  duced."^  In the world  these t o t a l  and e t h n i c  and p e r h a p s t o family  and  i n i t s application  mental h o s p i t a l s , or  a s y l u m s where t h e i n m a t e s ' e n t i r e by t h e r u l e s  to i n t e r -  lives  are circum-  and t h e i n f l u e n c e s  of  background are g r e a t l y r e -  of the poor o r w o r k i n g - c l a s s  i n s t i t u t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y  immigrant  s e e n as p l a c e s  t o be  a v o i d e d p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d mean t h e s e v e r e l i m i t i n g — a t  l e a s t f o r the period  make t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s individual's hegemony  active  of i n c a r c e r a t i o n — o f and d e c i s i o n s  opportunities  which c o n s t i t u t e  participation i n a culture.  i s a c o n c e p t w h i c h becomes u s e f u l  otherwise i n e x p l i c a b l e overt  force  i s required  tion,  the l e s s relevant  lack  of coercion  when t h e r e  or c o n f l i c t .  force  i s an The more  i n an  of ideological  c o n c e p t t o be u s e d p r e c i s e l y when o v e r t  an  Ideological  to r e c r u i t "participants" i s the notion  to  institu-  hegemony—a  i s not i n e v i -  dence . Many o f t h e s e  i n s t i t u t i o n s , Children's  were, o f c o u r s e t e m p o r a r y lives  were t o t a l l y  ation,  i n s t i t u t i o n s : while  circumscribed  during  the period  a s a r u l e t h e y had b o t h p a s t s and f u t u r e s  institution walls. tion  total  V i l l a g e among them,  that  the inmates' of  incarcer-  beyond t h e  Inmates p u t i n t h e i r t i m e w i t h t h e e x p e c t a -  t h e y w o u l d resume r o l e s  i n an e x t r a - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  -  culture.  S t u d i e s which adopt the  individuals organizing the  who  reside  Total  the  resort,  to  be  hegemony o r  less  As  a l m s h o u s e s and  to  the  logic  of  do or  power o f  coercive  institutions.  coercive  institutions  p o o r and  working c l a s s  are  not  law.  the And  As  state  them as  outlines  take the  to  of  the  do  not  adhere  reforma-  dictates  non-coercive  the  last  control.  a s y l u m s and the  a  ideological  t h o s e who  of  institu-  through  e x i s t e n c e of  its the  reason  to maintain p a r t i c i p a t i o n  the  prisons, end  overt  hospitals  for  in  of  end,  of  has the  i n the the  form of  and  the  the  asylums,  a continuum of  state coercion.  Likewise,, i t i s at  mental h o s p i t a l s , class  for  the  in fact,  o c c u p y i n g one  working.class culture  more c o e r c i v e  the  impact  to  social  adds a n o t h e r c o m p e l l i n g  i n degrees of  continuum."  m i n i n g the  as  they are  respond  i s revealed  hegemony o p e r a t e most s i g n i f i c a n t l y the  the  the  institutions.  make s e n s e o f  which vary  not  sense,  adhere to  school,  see  do  a  juvenile  parents,  can  In  work d i s c i p l i n e ,  either  To  overstating  seen i n r e l a t i o n  society.  penitentiaries  t h o s e who  "non-coercive"  of  institution,  c o e r c i v e mechanisms o f  are. ^ f o r  the  the  than  lives.  p e o p l e who  tories  fail,  in  risk  s h o u l d be  i n the  u s e d on  the  the  inmates'  institutions  other i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n s t i t u t i o n rather  temporarily  framework, r u n  i n s t i t u t i o n on  tions  -  24  at the  the less  less  institutions  Mechanisms  role  end in  institutions', functioning. prisons,  active  reformatories,  choices of  efforts  to  avoid  the  and  p o o r and  initial  of  c o e r c i v e end  coercive  i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t  we  of  that deter-  At  the  state working  incarceration,  and  acts of resistance, rebellion, The  pare  heuristic  institutions  of p a r t i c i p a n t s , life,  of discipline,  participants,  and t h e p o t e n t i a l  or c o l l e c t i v e  to the participants  comparisons a r e developed, e a c h o t h e r may b e g i n  o f genuine u s e f u l n e s s o f the and t h e i r  t o be e x p l o r e d  families.  As  these  relationship to  ( e . g . , t o what e x t e n t d i d  a s y l u m and r e f o r m a t o r y  help to  attendance?).  A number o r q u e s t i o n s ,  then,  t u r e , w h i c h may be p u r s u e d  through  tions.  offers  these  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n by  the i n s t i t u t i o n s '  existence of the juvenile school  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  o t h e r mechanisms o f c o n t r o l ,  for individual  enforce  us t o com-  and t o a s k q u e s t i o n s not only about recruitment  opportunities  the  afterwards.  d e v i c e o f t h e continuum allows  b u t about t h e contours  the s t y l e  institution  and e s c a p e  Children's Village questions.  a r e suggested a study  by t h e l i t e r a -  of juvenile  institu-  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e a l  A t t h e Dobbs F e r r y s i t e ,  with  the i n s t i t u t i o n  never again  reached  in  (a maximum o f 1160 i n 1 8 6 3 ) , b u t i t m a i n t a i n e d  the C i t y  t h e s i z e o f t h e New Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m  p o p u l a t i o n between t h e y e a r s  a  o f 1905 and 1930 o f between 200  16 and  6 00  inmates.  The c h a n g e s i t went t h r o u g h  of t h e major changes which o c c u r r e d throughout national and ular  the country.  many  institutions  I t s l e a d e r s were i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  climate of child-caring,  correspondence.  i n similar  reflected  through  I t was a s t a n d a r d  conferences,  visits,  r e f e r e n c e i n t h e pop-  r e f o r m i s t l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y 17 twentieth centuries. I n h i s s t u d y o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t , S c h l o s s m a n warns  against generalizing in  the n a t i o n a l  from the e x p e r i e n c e s o f a major  limelight,  without examining  institution  c a s e s from  t h e many  18 similar,  l e s s well-known i n s t i t u t i o n s .  caution.  I n s t i t u t i o n s which  than o t h e r s , or which movements, may  His i s a  a r e more s u b j e c t  a r e i n some way  to public  into  Though t h e b o o s t e r  the boys i n the V i l l a g e  scrutiny  standard-bearers of  n o t p r o v i d e us w i t h deep i n s i g h t  most o f t h e o t h e r s f u n c t i o n .  useful  the  way  literature  printed  by  Village  i n n o v a t i o n s , as b e i n g a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f j u v e n i l e i n -  stitutional t u t i o n has  policy, i t s own  generally  print  new  t h e y were n o t .  p e c u l i a r i t i e s which  t h e N.Y.J.A. seems no  less  shop t e n d e d  typical,  While  t o promote  each  insti-  s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d ,  despite  i t s importance,  t h a n most o t h e r s . The  l o n g e v i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  functioning study.  today,  i s another  Cottages b u i l t  1981.  While  period  f r o m 1905  by  the e n t i r e  change, urban  urban problems,  European  Blacks  to the North.  these developments c o u r t had system  The  the  growth,  through a v a r i e t y i n New  Many u r b a n  of reforms.  York  s e t up  "cottage-style"  to a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n  importance.  increased  City  This  sentiment of the time.  was  Southern  t o cope w i t h A  children's  the  and  a  state  i n s t i t u t i o n s were m a k i n g r e s i d e n c e s as an  the  awareness o f  i n 1900,  throughout  of  house boys i n  interesting  P r o g r e s s i v e s attempted  o f j u v e n i l e c o u r t s was  move t o w a r d  and  i m m i g r a t i o n , and m i g r a t i o n o f  been e s t a b l i s h e d  three years l a t e r .  still  is potentially  i s of p a r t i c u l a r  a time of r a p i d  i n 1851  f a c t o r w h i c h makes i t w o r t h y  s t u d e n t s i n 1911  story  t o 1930  founded  the  accommodation  T h e r e was  agitation  for  child  labor l e g i s l a t i o n  I n s t i t u t i o n men v i a n t s and in  on  s t a t e and  segregating  the d i f f e r e n t  c a t e g o r i e s as  was  also during  policy,  this  field  p e r i o d t h a t major  of psychology  though t h e r e  and  i s controversy  changes.  I n 1909,  Institute  i n C h i c a g o t o work a l o n g s i d e  saging year,  an  aid  a new  model of  treatment  was  invited  University,  and  i t was  by  G.  transformations  i t s application in  about the  W i l l i a m Healy organized  Freud  the  the  i t s tasks being  juvenile court,  for delinquents.  Stanley H a l l  f o r M e n t a l H y g i e n e was  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  by  publication  o f G o d d a r d ' s The  ulated  1918  interest  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  i m p a c t o f h e r e d i t y on  experimentation  with  psychiatric  the  year  period.  twenty-five T h i s was  groups i n t o  the  And  same  before  i n 1909  too,  established, of  one  mental  of the  I.Q.  clinics  (1912) w h i c h  The stim-  c h a r a c t e r and test,  and  a l l took p l a c e  t i m e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f new  s e l f consciousness  pre-  s t a t e committees.  K a l l i k a k Family  proliferation  these  Clark  decades,  significance  t h e r e were s e v e n t e e n  i n the  In the  to v i s i t  a matter of years, not  deficiency;  impact of  soc-  Psychopathic  i d e a s became commonplace i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .  t h e N a t i o n a l Committee of  levels.  became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f c a t e g o r i z i n g de-  came a b o u t i n t h e  his  national  rehabilitation. It  ial  27  I.Q.,  the during  occupational  professional organizations.  R o b e r t Wiebe s e e s t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , b e g inning  f o r s o c i a l , workers around the  major element i n "the  search  turn of  f o r order"  the  century.,  i n response to  as  a  the  19 c h a n g e s w r o u g h t by the  various other  industrial  capitalism.  i n s t i t u t i o n w o r k e r s had  S o c i a l workers  and  established national  -  28  -  n e t w o r k s w h i c h helped to determine t h e d i m e n s i o n s The  particular  larger  social  self.  I n 1905,  and  dates  picture,  o f 1905  but  important  t h e move was  the i n s t i t u t i o n  began an  change.  I n 1930,  the l a s t  of the major reforms  in  charge  Village The  through  short  important  p e r i o d o f i n n o v a t i o n and  insight  into  i n some  related  E x p l o r a t i o n of these  instituted,  political  themes w i l l  be  of  important  i n the  C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was Village's New  Board  York C i t y  demography. b a s i s o f age,  and  impor-  Further,  the  and  social  changes  and  classification  institution.  Which c h i l d r e n  ended up  determined  an  among  around  the  Were c h i l d r e n religion,  yet  institution.  of D i r e c t o r s ,  and  reaction,  today.  theme i s t h a t o f d e f i n i t i o n  the c h i l d r e n  a  war, .  themes r e v e a l s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f  beyond the  first  through  o f change d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  ideological  The  Depression.  followed to provide  themes shed the world  been  detail.  i t exists  in  had  and C h i l d r e n ' s  the h a r d s h i p s of the  t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m as on  Report,  cycles of depression, prosperity,  the dimensions  light  t o Dobbs F e r r y ,  o f C o l o n e l F a u l k n e r who  p r o g r e s s i v i s m and  closely  i n the  for Children's Village i t -  span i s l o n g enough t o t a k e us  enough t o s t u d y Three  are a r b i t r a r y  the C i t y  t h e t w e n t i e s , was  number o f d i r e c t o r s ,  thought.  made f r o m  began t o s t r u g g l e w i t h  political  1930  the recommendations o f the W i t h e r s  twenty-five year  peace,  and  of reform  by  the C h i l d r e n ' s Court state  admitted  sex,  interaction  and  c o u n t r y , and  judges a  v s . d e p e n d e n t o r n e g l e c t e d ) , I.Q.,  or emotional  the in  changing  to the i n s t i t u t i o n  race, "character" (i.e.,  at  on  the  delinquent  status?  As  the  history  29  of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  o f t h e s e become i m p o r t a n t  -  i s traced, different  in different  Once c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d , within  the  from the  institution?  "congregate  One  how  periods. were t h e y  classified  o f the major arguments f o r  s y s t e m " — t h e p l a n w h i c h had  t i o n a t the J u v e n i l e Asylum's Washington H e i g h t s the  "cottage  combinations  changing  been i n  opera-  location—to  s y s t e m " — t h e p l a n u s e d a t Dobbs F e r r y — w a s  that  20 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w o u l d be  e a s i e r and  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n meant d i f f e r e n t times  i t meant r a c i a l  the p o p u l a t i o n a f t e r tion  (as f a r as  the  s e p a r a t i o n of the "indeterminate" the  some-  s e g r e g a t i o n ; when t h e r e were g i r l s  among  i t i n v a r i a b l y meant s e x u a l  staff  could enforce  short-term  commitments; and  things i n d i f f e r e n t  But eras:  1926,  "feeble-minded",  more m e a n i n g f u l .  remand c a s e s  sometimes i t meant  from the  longer  sometimes i t meant s e p a r a t i o n o f  a t .other t i m e s  f o r punishment i n a s p e c i a l  it);  segrega-  i t meant  segregation  e u p h e m i s t i c l y termed  "reflection  cottage". A s e c o n d theme o f c e n t r a l the  first,  concerns  and  officials  the y e a r s .  t h e y were d o i n g  What t h e  changed  related  f o r the  i n b a s i c ways century  Then, a t t h e  t u r n of the  model became d o m i n a n t , and  was  Poor"  t o d e a l w i t h what i t saw  intemperence,  improvidence,  century,  the  over  the  Improvement o f t h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e  the b a s i c causes of p o v e r t y :  to  directors  moral c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g program o f  which founded the Asylum i n o r d e r  indolence.  closely  d o m i n a n t model o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  the p a t e r n a l i s t i c , "Association  program p h i l o s o p h y .  thought  The  interest,  as and  educational  t h e d i r e c t o r s were p e r p e t u a l l y a t  pains  t o convince  t h a t what t h e y As  30 -  the c h i l d r e n ,  were r u n n i n g  vocational education  t h e p u b l i c , and t h e m s e l v e s ,  was "a s c h o o l , n o t an i n s t i t u t i o n . "  was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o  s y s t e m s , t h e d i r e c t o r s were p r o v i d e d educational  justification  the public  not only with  f o rthe age-old  a  school  convenient  practice of children  w o r k i n g on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s m a i n t e n a n c e , b u t a l s o e v e n t u a l l y with  standards  education place,  by w h i c h t o e v a l u a t e  program.  and i m p r o v e t h e i r  However, by t h e t i m e t h i s  i n t h e 19 29 W i t h e r s R e p o r t , b e g i n n i n g s  evaluation  took  o f another  dom-  i n a n t m o d e l were i n p l a c e : t h e m e n t a l h y g i e n e c l i n i c 1926  as t h e p r e c u r s o r  treatment The the  of the f u l l f l e d g e d  w h i c h now e x i s t s  at Children's  vocational  started i n  t h e r a p e u t i c model o f Village.  c h a n g e s i n d o m i n a n t p r o g r a m model were r e f l e c t e d i n  terminology  used t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h i l d r e n :  to  "students"  to "clients".  in  the use o f these  But there  terms, as t h e r e  from  "inmates"  i s considerable  i s i n t h e models  overlap  them-  s e l v e s : t h e r e h a s b e e n a s c h o o l component t o t h e p r o g r a m its  founding  i n 1853 t o t h e p r e s e n t ,  character-building  of the nineteenth  from  and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c century  has a t l e a s t  some-  21 thing the  literature  these and  i n common w i t h  important  task  p e r i o d o f ascendency.  f o rthe h i s t o r i a n  Yet i n  e a c h one o f A  difficult  i s t o a s c e r t a i n what  dif-  t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f d o m i n a n t m o d e l s made i n t h e l i v e s o f  c h i l d r e n whose d a i l y  institution. the  and i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e t i m e s ,  m o d e l s had a d e f i n i t e  ferences the  t h e t h e r a p e u t i c model o f t o d a y .  e x i s t e n c e was c i r c u m s c r i b e d  I t i s interesting  by t h e  t o n o t e t h a t a t no t i m e i n  h i s t o r y , was a p u n i t i v e o r p e n a l  model o p e n l y  espoused,  - 31 though there  -  i s a tendency i n t h i s and  other  institutions, in  d i f f e r e n t eras, to c h a r a c t e r i z e the immediately preceeding model as a p u n i t i v e The two,  one.  t h i r d theme, again,  i n t i m a t e l y bound up with the  i s t h a t of s t a f f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n .  first  At the time of  the  move to Dobbs F e r r y , there were approximately s i x t y s t a f f members,  a l l of whose names were p u b l i s h e d  each year. call had  The  people who  i n the Annual Report  were r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r what we  " c h i l d - c a r e " — t h e masters and matrons of the d u t i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance, which was  of the v o c a t i o n a l teaching were no 1930,  program.  now  cottages—also i n turn,  Needless to say,  there  s o c i a l workers, p s y c h i a t r i s t s or p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  t h i s had  changed: s t a f f who  part  By  d e a l t with the c h i l d r e n were  l e s s l i k e l y to have d u t i e s r e l a t i n g to p h y s i c a l maintenance of the f a c i l i t y .  Jobs were more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ,  and what 22  Roy  Lubove has  New  p o s i t i o n s had  t e s t i n g , and  called  "the p r o f e s s i o n a l a l t r u i s t " had  been c r e a t e d  f o r home v i s i t i n g ,  s p e c i a l i z e d teaching.  emerged.  psychological  These changes a t  Children's  V i l l a g e , of course, r e f l e c t e d the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n which t a k i n g p l a c e among teachers, workers across  s o c i a l workers, and  was  health-care  the country, and were c l o s e l y t i e d to the changes  i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes and  treatment models which,  similarly,  corresponded to changes on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . The  succession  progression  of v a r i o u s models of program philosophy,  of c r i t e r i a by which inmates were admitted  s o r t e d a f t e r admission, and  the  and  the phenomenon of i n c r e a s i n g  staff  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n were a l l promoted at the time as ways to  32  -  i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y dent  population.  stance,  -  of Children's V i l l a g e  After  I.Q.  on  o r i e n t e d t o w a r d h e l p i n g them, and  presence  the V i l l a g e  i s p o s s i b l e , however, t o e x p l o r e  three areas  critically,  of c o e r c i v e n e s s of the did of  program's e f f i c a c y  by  institution.  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n have on inmates?  the V i l l a g e  Did  t o them a f t e r  How  d i d changing  leaving?  Children's Village  the  level  for instance, and  s c h o o l model  skills  these  control enable  w h i c h w o u l d be  use-  affect  disciplinary  pro-  e x p l o r a t i o n should  h e l p us b o t h  to  in relation  determine i t s c h a n g i n g — o r society.  on  others.  What were i t s o t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s ?  program p h i l o s o p h y  This c r i t i c a l  effects  communication w i t h  inmates w i t h  their  f o r the  What e f f e c t ,  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  to provide  ful  cedures?  the  that  the changes i n  examining t h e i r  the  institutions  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  It  for i n -.  f o r the e x c l u s i o n of  t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r  hindered  its resi-  t e s t s became a v a i l a b l e  i t became p o s s i b l e t o p r e s s  "feebleminded"  to serve  to other  institutions  unchanging—functions  and  i n the  see  to larger  - 33  -  Footnotes Chapter  2  M i c h a e l K a t z , The I r o n y o f E a r l y S c h o o l R e f o r m : E d u c a t i o n a l I n n o v a t i o n i n M i d - N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y M a s s a c h u s e t t s (Cambridge Mass.: H a r v a r d U. P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . A l s o see M i c h a e l K a t z , C l a s s , B u r e a u c r a c y and S c h o o l s : The I l l u s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l Change i n A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1971); M a r v i n L a z e r s o n , O r i g i n s o f t h e U r b a n S c h o o l : P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 18701915 (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971); C a r l K a e s t l e , The E v o l u t i o n o f an U r b a n S c h o o l S y s t e m : New Y o r k C i t y , 17 50-18 50 (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973). D a v i d T y a c k , The One B e s t S y s t e m (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974). 2 Samuel Bowles and H e r b e r t G i n t i s , S c h o o l i n g i n C a p i t a l i s t A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1 9 7 6 ) , c o n t a i n s one o f t h e most developed a n a l y s i s o f s c h o o l s ' r o l e from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . 3 The t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l , e x e m p l i f i e d by E l l w o o d C u b b e r l e y , The H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n ( B o s t o n , 1 9 2 0 ) , i s a n a l y z e d i n L a w r e n c e C r e m i n , The W o n d e r f u l W o r l d o f E l l w o o d P. Cubberley (New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1965). 4 The e n t h u s i a s m o f i m m i g r a n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h s c h o o l i n g i s d i s c u s s e d i n T i m o t h y L. S m i t h , "Immigrant S o c i a l A s p i r a t i o n s and A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n , 1880-1930", A m e r i c a n Q u a r t e r l y (1964), pp. 523-542. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o S m i t h ' s c o n c l u s i o n s have been p u t f o r w a r d by a number o f s t u d e n t s s i n c e t h e n , i n c l u d i n g D a v i d Hogan, " E d u c a t i o n and t h e M a k i n g o f t h e C h i c a g o W o r k i n g C l a s s , 1880-1930" H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 18, no. 3 ( F a l l , 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 227-270; and M a r v i n L a z e r s o n " C o n s e n s u s and C o n f l i c t i n American E d u c a t i o n : H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 7 no. 3 (1978) pp. 197-205. M i c h a e l K a t z , "The O r i g i n s o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n : A R e a s s e s s m e n t " , H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 16, p. 400. 5  (1976),  6 Katz,  "Reassessment",  p.  401.  ^Hogan. g T h e r e may be more o f a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between " i d e o l o g i c a l " and " s t r u c t u r a l " e l e m e n t s t h a n Hogan a c k nowledges. W h i l e he r e j e c t s K a t z ' s " i d e o l o g i c a l " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h i s own " s t r u c t u r e " i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o one o f t h e mechanisms d e s c r i b e d by K a t z as i d e o l o g i c a l ,  - 34  -  i . e . , "the r o l e o f s m a l l s c a l e s u c c e s s sytsems i n accomodating people t o a l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e of i n e q u a l i t y . " (Katz, " R e a s s e s s m e n t " , p. 4 0 2 ) . T h e r e i s a f i n e l i n e between t h e imp o s i t i o n o f a c e r t a i n " i d e a " o f s u c c e s s , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a l i m i t e d set of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r success. 9 D a v i d J . Rothman, The D i s c o v e r y T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown, 1 9 7 1 ) .  of the Asylum  (Boston,  " ^ D a v i d J . Rothman, C o n s c i e n c e and C o n v e n i e n c e : The A s y l u m and i t s A l t e r n a t i v e s i n P r o g r e s s i v e A m e r i c a ( B o s t o n , T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown, 1 9 8 0 ) . "'"''"Michel F o u c a u l t , D i s c i p l i n e and P u n i s h : The B i r t h o f t h e P r i s o n (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 197 9 ) ; G e r a l d Grob, M e n t a l ~ I n s t i t u t i o n s i n A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) ; M i c h a e l I g n a t i e f f , A J u s t Measure o f P a i n : The P e n i t e n t i a r y i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n , 1 9 7 8 ) . Susan H o u s t o n , "The Impetus t o Reform: U r b a n C r i m e , P o v e r t y and I g n o r a n c e i n O n t a r i o , 1850-1875" Diss. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1974; R i c h a r d W. Fox, So F a r D i s o r d e r e d i n M i n d : I n s a n i t y i n C a l i f o r n i a , 1870-1930 ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1979). 12  • F o r example, J o s e p h M. Hawes, C h i l d r e n i n U r b a n S o c i e t y : J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : O x f o r d , 1971); N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : Framing the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Consensus (Toronto: R e f u g e : O r i g i n s o f J u v e n i l e R e f o r m i n New Y o r k 1915-1857 (Syracuse: S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969). 13 A n t h o n y P i a t t , The C h i l d S a v e r s : The I n v e n t i o n o f D e l i n q u e n c y ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1969); R o b e r t M e n n e l , T h o r n s and T h i s t l e s : J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1825-1940 (Hanover, N.H.: U n i v e r s i t y o f New H a m p s h i r e , 197 3 ) ; S t e v e n S c h l o s s m a n , L o v e and t h e A m e r i c a n D e l i n q u e n t ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1977); B a r b a r a B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t o f t h e F i r s t R e f o r m S c h o o l f o r G i r l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , 1856-1905" D i s s . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y 1978; D i a n e M a t t e r s , "'A C h a n c e t o Make G o o d : J u v e n i l e M a l e s and t h e Law i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C., B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978. P e t e r T y o r and J a m i l Z a i n a l d i n , "Asylum and S o c i e t y : An A p p r o a c h t o I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change." , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l H i s t o r y , ( F a l l , 1979) pp. 23-48. D a v i d Rothman, i n "The S t a t e as P a r e n t : S o c i a l P o l i c y i n t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a " , i n W. G a y l i n , e t a l . , D o i n g Good (New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n , 1978) , n o t e s t h a t p r o b l e m s have a r i s e n f r o m t h e P r o g r e s s i v e i m p u l s e t o s e r v e c h i l d r e n ' s needs w h i l e i g n o r i n g rights. 1  -  35  -  14  G a r e t h Stedman J o n e s , " C l a s s e x p r e s s i o n V e r s u s S o c i a l Control? A C r i t i q u e of Recent Trends i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of ' L e i s u r e , ' " H i s t o r y Workshop 4 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , pp .' 162-170. 1  15 E r v i n g Goffman, A s y l u m s : E s s a y s on t h e S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n o f M e n t a l P a t i e n t s and O t h e r Inmates (New Y o r k : Doubleday> 1961). G o f f m a n ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a " t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n " i s "a p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and work where a l a r g e number o f l i k e - s i t u a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , c u t o f f f r o m t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y f o r an a p p r e c i a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e , t o g e t h e r l e a d an e n c l o s e d , f o r m a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d round o f " l i f e . " p. x i i i . 16 A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1917-1930. I n a t a b l e p u b l i s h e d as a U.S. g o v e r n m e n t document i n 1900, o f a l l j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the c o u n t r y e x c l u d i n g those p r i m a r i l y c a r i n g f o r "orphans", the N.Y.J.A. i s b y f a r t h e l a r g e s t , b o t h i n number i n a t t e n d a n c e , and t o t a l number s i n c e f o u n d i n g . R e p u b l i s h e d i n R o b e r t M e n n e l , e d . , C h i l d r e n i n C o n f i n e m e n t (New Y o r k : A r n o P r e s s , 1974) . 17 For example, see J a c o b R n s , C h i l d r e n o f t h e P o o r (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1 8 9 2 ) , p . 109; J o h n S p a r g o , The B i t t e r Cry o f t h e C h i l d r e n (New Y o r k : Q u a d r a n g l e , 1 9 6 8 . ( 1 9 0 6 ) ) , p. 187. 18 In S c h l o s s m a n , L o v e , t h e C h i c a g o and D e n v e r j u v e n i l e c o u r t s are bypassed i n f a v o r of Milwaukee's. 19  R o b e r t Wiebe, The S e a r c h f o r O r d e r , 1877-1920 ;(New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1967) . 20 T h e r e e x i s t a t l e a s t t h r e e m e a n i n g s o f t h e word "congregate" i n d e a l i n g with i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to the way i t i s u s e d h e r e , as a c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o t t a g e s y s t e m , i t was u s e d by C h a r l e s H i l l e s t o c o n t r a s t t h e o l d s y s t e m where d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ( n e g l e c t e d , d e p e n d e n t and d e l i n q u e n t ) were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e new " s e g r e g a t e " s c h o o l s where t h e y were s e p a r a t e d . F i n a l l y , i n d i s c u s s i o n o f p r i s o n s , Rothman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e A u b u r n c o n g r e g a t e s y s t e m and t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a s e p a r a t e s y s t e m ( s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e ment) o f p r i s o n management. H i l l e s i n N.Y.J.A. A.R., 1908, p. 80. Rothman, D i s c o v e r y , p. 80. 21 The p a r a l l e l i s n o t e d by I g n a t i e f f i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f B r i t i s h p r i s o n p o l i c y . " "[At the p s y c h i a t r i c f a c i l i t y a t Grendon Underwood i n B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e ] g r o u p t h e r a p y and p s y c h i a t r i c c o u n s e l i n g have r e p l a c e d s o l i t u d e and r e l i g i o u s e x h o r t a t i o n as t h e l a t e s t vogue i n t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f r e f o r m a t i o n . " (p. 205). 22 Roy Lubove, The P r o f e s s i o n a l A l t r u i s t (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), i s the o n l y f u l l - l e n g t h c r i t i c a l study of the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . His o r i e n t a t i o n  - 36 i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g : " S u b s t i t u t i n g e x p e r t i s e f o r moral s u p e r i o r i t y as the b a s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , s o c i a l workers perpetuated the c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i d e a l of p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and i n f l u e n c e i n p l a c e of m a t e r i a l r e l i e f , but avoided the f i c t i o n t h a t such c o n t a c t was one of f r i e n d s and peers bound i n neighborhood a s s o c i a t i o n . " (p. 16).  -  37  -  Chapter  3  "A Work o f G r e a t U s e f u l n e s s " : The New Y o r k i n the Nineteenth Century S t i m u l a t e d by a new which  Poor,  i n t h e P a n i c o f 18 37,  P r o t e s t a n t businessmen  the A s s o c i a t i o n  life.''"  p r o f e s s i o n a l s met  the A s s o c i a t i o n  c h a r i t i e s which  apparently  and  i n 1843.  i n many A m e r i c a n  A . I . C P . developed a system o f f u n d s , and  problems  Organization  chiefly  form  cities  during  t i m e were of  urban  Societies  t h e 1880"s,  which  the  to coordinate family v i s i t i n g ,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of r e l i e f .  most o f i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s were " o f f o r e i g n b i r t h and  to  had b e e n o p e r a t i n g b e f o r e t h i s  A p r e c u r s o r of the C h a r i t y  collection  of  The u n c o o r d i n a t e d  i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g the massive  were f o r m e d  a group  f o r t h e Improvement o f t h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e  incorporating  private  Asylum  awareness o f the e x t e n t o f p o v e r t y  had become e v i d e n t  wealthy  Juvenile  Roman C a t h o l i c s "  i t s officers  and  or  the  While parentage,  contributors  were  2 Protestant. figure  Robert Milham  t h r o u g h t h e 1870's, was  ization.  Born  New  he moved t o New  York,  ried On  Hartley,  i n England  f o u n d e r and  typical  i n 1799,  o f t h e men  raised  York C i t y  of the A . I . C P . ,  l e a d i n g bankers Lenox,  and m e r c h a n t s ,  Robert Mmturn,  he was men  of the  organ-  on a f a r m i n u p s t a t e  a t t h e age  the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer  the Board  dominating  joined  o f 23 and  soon by  mar-  thereafter.  some o f New  o f s u c h s t a t u r e as James 3 and A p o l l o s Wetmore.  York's  -  Fearing and  class  division,  women o f t h e A . I . C P .  ence,  and intemperence  burden  38  -  d i s e a s e , and i m m o r a l i t y , t h e men  saw i n d i v i d u a l s '  as t h e p r i m a r y  indolence, improvid-  causes  of poverty.  The  o f p o v e r t y was t h u s p l a c e d s q u a r e l y on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f  the poor.  The A . I . C P : Home V i s i t o r s '  Manual a d v i s e d t h e  organization's volunteers: You w i l l become a n i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t o f good t o y o u r s u f f e r i n g f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , when y o u a i d them t o o b t a i n t h i s good f r o m r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . To e f f e c t t h i s , show them t h e t r u e o r i g i n o f t h e i r s u f f e r i n g s , when t h e s e s u f f e r i n g s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f i m p r o v i d e n c e , extravagance, i d l e n e s s , intemperence, o r other moral . c a u s e s w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t h e i r own c o n t r o l ; and e n d e a v o r , by a l l a p p r o p r i a t e means, t o awaken t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t t o d i r e c t t h e i r e x e r t i o n s , and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c a p acities for self-support.^ Roy  Lubove c h a r a c t e r i z e s  the A.I.CP.  as " l e s s  a charitable  • 5  agency than an i n s t r u m e n t o f m o r a l The defuse  desire  uplift."  t o promote t h i s m o r a l  the threat  to social  stability  uplift posed  and t h e need t o by t h e u r b a n  poor  were k e y m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e n , when t h e men o f t h e A . I . C P . r e acted Police  to the widely d i s t r i b u t e d  r e p o r t o f New Y o r k ' s  Chief of  G e o r g e W. M a t s e l l who d e s c r i b e d a " d e p l o r a b l e a n d  growing e v i l " : I a l l u d e t o t h e c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f v a g r a n t , i d l e and v i c i o u s c h i l d r e n o f b o t h s e x e s , who i n f e s t our p u b l i c t h o r o u g h f a r e s , h o t e l s , docks, e t c . Children are g r o w i n g up i n i g n o r a n c e and p r o f l i g a c y , o n l y d e s t i n e d t o a l i f e o f m i s e r y , shame a n d c r i m e , a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o a f e l o n ' s doom. T h e i r numbers a r e a l m o s t i n c r e d i b l e , and t o t h o s e whose b u s i n e s s and h a b i t s do n o t p e r m i t them a s e a r c h i n g s c r u t i n y , t h e d e g r a d i n g and d i s g u s t i n g p r a c t i c e s o f these almost i n f a n t s i n the s c h o o l s o f v i c e , p r o s t i t u t i o n and rowdyism, would c e r t a i n l y be b e y o n d b e l i e f . The o f f s p r i n g o f a l w a y s c a r e l e s s , g e n e r a l l y i n t e m p e r a t e , and o f t e n t i m e s i m m o r a l and d i s h o n e s t p a r e n t s , t h e y n e v e r s e e t h e i n s i d e o f a schoolroom.6  Following A.I.CP.  a year  and  a h a l f o f m e e t i n g s and  l e a d e r s , a b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s was  New  Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m was  New  Y o r k i n 1851.  in  J u l y , 1853,  b o y s who  had  of Ladies  With  the  incorporated  f o r m e d , and by  In A p r i l  f o r by  a s m a l l group, the  of the  Bank S t r e e t , i n  f o l l o w i n g year,  b o y s o f t h e A s y l u m moved t o 5 5 t h S t r e e t , on where a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n  T h o s e t o be by  obedient  to t h e i r  courts  s i t e was  accepted  rendered  parents,  o u t means o f habitual  built  or  lower  the  East  remained u n t i l  c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s i n the  saloons,  River, the  homes o r  dis-  are  being  by  were j u d g e d  dance houses,  p l a c e s where w i n e , m a l t o r  sur-  orphans  company o f  museums, o r o t h e r  i n charge of  200  1856.  of c r i m i n a l a c t s , vagrants,  i n "concert  sold, without  57  Association  truants, children convicted  c r i m i n a l s , c h i l d r e n found  prostitutes,  in  for  included children voluntarily  parents,  support,  of  t h e more t h a n  children deserting their  or magistrates  the  State  D i r e c t o r s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r an A s y l u m , a t 109  Washington Heights  the  among  $150,000. i n p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s  been c a r e d  Manhattan.  negotiations  withto  be  thieves  or  theatres,  spirituous liquors  [ t h e i r ] parents  or  guard-  7 ian."  Children could  arrive  initiative  (which was  "friends",  a magistrate,  I n 1853, New  York S t a t e  rare)  responding  a t t h e A s y l u m e i t h e r on  o r on  a court,  t h a t of t h e i r or another  to pressure  own  parents,  institution.  from A . I . C P .  L e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d a law  their  providing  leaders, f o r the  the  ar-  g  rest  and  detention  of vagrant  children  committed  to the  children.  As  479  N.Y.J.A. i n t h a t y e a r  of were  the  623  committed  f o r vagrancy,  i t was  m a j o r o f f e n s e was mitted. as not  While  characteristic "unfortunate" century,  early  1860's w h i l e admissions,  had  though not  disobedience,  f o r a b o u t one  third  When t h e A s y l u m was  made up  sent  ablished  accepted  children  Fears  fifth  t o one  i n New  generated  Simple  of the  1875,  children  1875  half  York.  children  The  nineteenth  dependency  (never  of or  ages o f  (through  seven  the  and  nine-  o f a num-  delinquent  House o f R e f u g e , e s t -  among C a t h o l i c s o f e n t r u s t i n g t h e i r  found  " C h i l d r e n ' s Law"  second h a l f  and  c o n v i c t e d o f more s e r i o u s  and  entirely  smaller  i n the century.  i n p o o r h o u s e s i n New  prohibiting  of the n i n e t e e n t h  establishment  a number o f  organizations later  c o u l d be  p a r t of the attempt  a  a d m i s s i o n s . "^  to P r o t e s t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s l e d to the  charitable  as  " r e a d , w r i t e , and cipher"."'""'"  o f t h e C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y i n 1863 Catholic  institu-  of a mixed  o f i n s t i t u t i o n s where n e g l e c t e d , d e p e n d e n t o r  offenses.  was  truancy,  i n c o r p o r a t e d , i t became one  c h i l d r e n m i g h t be  The  of the  G e n e r a l l y , i n the  i n serious crime.  were a b l e t o  i n 1824,  admitted  b e e n i n v o l v e d i n some m i n o r v i o l a t i o n  a b o u t one  teenth century)  ber  years  c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y between t h e  f o u r t e e n and  other  c h i l d r e n were com-  vagrancy decreased  t h e A s y l u m p o p u l a t i o n was  n e g l e c t accounted  The  5 c h i l d r e n were  i n the e a r l y  status increased.  g r o u p o f b o y s who  Entering  f o r w h i c h 102  9  I t appears t h a t orphan s t a t u s alone  o f new  then,  authority,  i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l measure.  f o r admission  From t h e  -  were o r p h a n s , o n l y  "unfortunate".  tion.  an  "pilfering"  106  sufficient  not  40  such  York  commitments  Until State. was  s u c c e s s f u l ) throughout  century  t o d e f i n e more  the  clearly  specific  functions  f o r the  41  various  A d i f f e r e n t approach to the y o u t h was  simply  institutions.  perceived  t o remove them f r o m t h e  city,  w i t h Western farm f a m i l i e s .  The  rural  would p r o v i d e  and  s e t t i n g s , i t was  personal  ments, w i t h tunity  felt,  problem of  work t h a t  urban  placing  them  t h e y w o u l d do them w i t h  in  discipline  attention i n "natural" n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l environthe  added b e n e f i t t h a t  f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e on  the  "there  w o u l d be  part  of o f f i c i o u s  1853  Charles  l e s s oppor-  or  undesirable  12 relatives  of  Children's many o f  the  Aid  the  child."  Society,  In  i n competition  B r a c e ' s C.A.S. p r o g r a m i n v o l v e d  of for  rural  family  a social milieu  exercise ties  Asylum  a basic  Boyer's  respect  community's  not  social  slums.  f o r the  benefits  cohesiveness,  as  farms.  for  enterprising city  between one end  of  T h e r e i s no  century.  two  sent  West t o  evidence here of Brace's  child:  t r a i n e d and  h u n d r e d and the  abili-  N.Y.J.A. opened a W e s t e r n A g e n c y i n C h i c a g o  to handle placements of C h i l d r e n  N.Y.J.A. t o be  but  l a r g e enough f o r them t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y  growth.  the  a  Brace  nation's  the  "street  product of  thus c o n t r i b u t i n g to the of  York's  f o r the  entrepreneurial 13  men  saw  and  supervision,  for  account,  superior  1855,  what he  f o r s u r v i v a l i n the  little  work on  the  new  their  The in  struggle  them West w i t h  the  In P a u l  a c l e v e r , e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l , the  social-Darwinian sent  w i t h the  Braces's  same c h i l d r e n , began i t s work o f p l a c i n g New  d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n i n W e s t e r n homes.  A r a b " as  Loring  c h i l d r e n were s e n t 14  disciplined.  The  West by  the  received  hundred c h i l d r e n each year be  and  respect  Agency  C h i l d r e n would g e n e r a l l y  live  until  sent  West  after  a stay i n the Asylum.  placements  appeared  as  42  -  Letters  a regular  from the  feature  b u t t h e r e w e r e a number o f p r o b l e m s .  successful  of the Annual  Many o f t h e  s i m p l y d i d n o t w a n t t o g o , w h i c h made f o r some N . Y . J . A . o f f i c i a l s minimized these:  Reports,  children  difficulty.  15  The h a r d s h i p s a t t e n d i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i s s o m e t h i m e s more a p p a r e n t t h a n r e a l . B u t when t h e p a r e n t s o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s a r e c o n v i n c e d by t h e c l e a r e s t and b e s t t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e f a v o r a b l y s i t u a t e d , and a r e h a p p y and c o n t e n t e d i n W e s t e r n r u r a l homes, t h e y g e n e r a l l y s o o n become r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e new c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 1 ° T h e r e was a p r o b l e m w i t h J e w s , a f a i r number o f whom w e r e placed  i n the N . Y . J . A . :  naturally  " p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n as we d o ,  on  farms,  f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t a g e and e a r l i e r t r a i n i n g t h e Hebrew  c h i l d r e n are  least successful  and f a r m e r s  as  a r u l e are  pre-  17 j u d i c e d a g a i n s t them.'" Catholics objected to t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l i e s , and i n r e s p o n s e t h e 18 C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d I n 18 5 6 , acres at a site  in  1863.  t h e New Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m moved t o  176th S t r e e t  twelve  and A m s t e r d a m A v e n u e i n W a s h i n g t o n H e i g h t s ,  w h i c h was f a i r l y  rural  at  t h e t i m e , b u t w h i c h w o u l d be  s u r r o u n d e d by t h e C i t y by t h e end o f  the c e n t u r y .  Additions to  t h o s e b u i l d i n g s e n a b l e d a p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h f r o m 200 i n  1853,  t o 500 i n 1859  In  contrast almost  t o o v e r 1,000  to the t w e n t i e t h century p r a c t i c e  two y e a r s ,  tion for  d u r i n g the 80's  many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n  less than a  and 9 0 ' s .  of average stays  stayed  i n the  of  institu-  year.  By t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s t h o u g h , t h e r e was s u b s t a n t i a l  c r i t i c i s m o f New  Y o r k ' s welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y a i m e d a t  tightening  control  o v e r them.  w h i c h had children state.  The  charge of i n New  various  caring  Y o r k had  Under " t h e  New  43  aid.  had  little  State  C h a r i t i e s , and  institutions delinquent  central control  York system", p r i v a t e  changed the  Board of  and  d e p e n d e n t and  by  imposed  Charities Aid extended  the  organizations  i n s t i t u t i o n s , using  More c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n was  Legislature State  organizations  f o r the  took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w e l f a r e state  -  per  i n 1873  capita when  Association  i t s powers t o  the  to  the  allow  in-  19 spection In  of  the  1875,  Britain's  various  private institutions.  Mary C a r p e n t e r ,  Ragged S c h o o l s , had  philanthropist praise  and  founder  for conditions  at  of  the  N.Y.J.A.: The J u v e n i l e A s y l u m , a few m i l e s d i s t a n t f r o m New York, p r e s e n t e d a v e r y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t [from the R a n d a l l ' s I s l a n d , N.Y. poorhouse]. N e g l e c t e d and d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n h e r e f i n d a t r u e home, and a r e w a t c h e d o v e r by v o l u n t a r y b e n e v o l e n t c a r e . The c h i l d r e n f o u n d by t h e p o l i c e a r e f i r s t c o n d u c t e d by t h e d e s i r e o f t h e m a g i s t r a t e s , t o a h o u s e i n t h e c i t y where t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s a s c e r t a i n e d , and t h e y a r e p r e p a r e d t o go w i t h g r e a t e r a d v a n t a g e t o t h e c o u n t r y home, whence o n c e a f o r t n i g h t a d e t a c h m e n t i s s e n t , u n d e r e s c o r t o f an o f f i c i a l , i n t o homes i n t h e West, where t h e y a r e v i s i t e d from time to time. The t i m e o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e J u v e n i l e A s y l u m v a r i e s f r o m one month t o f i v e y e a r s , a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n d i t i o n of the c h i l d . The s y s t e m a p p e a r s most s u c c e s s f u l and a d m i r a b l y c o n d u c t e d . 2 0 Such c r i t i c a l pass the ance of same a c t  contrasts  "Children's  l e d the  Law"  New  i n 1875  controlled  by  "persons of  sixteen  c h i l d r e n be the  Legislature  which p r o h i b i t e d  c h i l d r e n between t h r e e and stipulated that  York S t a t e  the  to  mainten-  i n almshouses.  committed  The  to i n s t i t u t i o n s  same r e l i g i o u s f a i t h  as  the  21 parents of  such c h i l d ,  step forward  in child  so  f a r as  welfare  practicable."  legislation,  Hailed  i t stimulated  as the  a  growth  of private  population  44  institutions  jumped  f r o m 628  -  including  t h e N.Y.J.A. whose  a t t h e end o f 1875  t o 778  a year  later. Through immigrants  t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , as s u c c e s s i v e waves o f  settled  i n New  a r r i v e d were c o m m i t t e d thus, a f t e r  the I r i s h  York,  the c h i l d r e n  o f t h e most  recently  i n n o t i c e a b l e numbers t o t h e N.Y.J.A.; and German waves, came numbers o f  Italian  23 and  then Russian c h i l d r e n .  was  explicitly  defined  One  of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  as an e f f o r t  purposes  to Americanize the  un-American. A f u n d - r a i s i n g pamphlet e x p l a i n e d : The c h i l d r e n come, f o r t h e most p a r t , f r o m t h e d e n s e d i s t r i c t s t h a t have been i n v a d e d by and have c a p i t u l a t e d to the i m m i g r a n t — d i s t r i c t s having l e s s than twenty-five percent n a t i v e - b o r n white p o p u l a t i o n a t the 1900 c e n s u s . . . . I t has been p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " t h e reason f o r the immigrant p o p u l a t i o n crowding i n the g r e a t c i t i e s i s t h e i n a b i l i t y t o make t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r stood outside t h e i r c i r c l e . The u p l i f t i n g p r o c e s s c a n n e v e r come w h i l e i m m i g r a n t s a r e bound t o what i s p r a c t i c a l l y a European environment." The J u v e n i l e A s y l u m makes a f u n d a m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h c o m p u l s o r y and i n t h i s one r e s p e c t i s a p o t e n t i a l f o r c e as i t a i d s i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the f o r e i g n born element. . . . I f t h e y a r e t o know h i g h i d e a l s and a r e t o a d j u s t t h e m s e l v e s t o n o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , t h e y must be removed f r o m t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y a r e e x p o s e d , and t r a n s p l a n t e d w h i l e they are i n the f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d . Genera l l y t h e i r r e m o v a l must be p e r m a n e n t — t h e r e must be a l i t e r a l e f f a c e m e n t o f t h e o l d h a u n t s and h i n d r a n c e s and t h e y must be d i s c i p l i n e d and t r a i n e d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g new homes o r a s s u m i n g new t a s k s . The m o l d i n g medium i s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and i t i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a l l n o t be s u c h as t o u n f i t t h e wards f o r t h e work t h a t l i e s b e f o r e them i n life.24 The m i d d l e c l a s s sisted  c o n v i c t i o n o f i t s own  throughout the c e n t u r y .  American  P r o t e s t a n t s , would  By d e s t r o y i n g  The A s y l u m ,  "uplift"  the o l d c u l t u r e ,  moral  superiority r u n by  native  the immigrants'  h e r e s e e n as  per-  children.  "the o l d haunts  and  hindrances",  pline  necessary  the  i n s t i t u t i o n would equip  f o r wage l a b o r and  a t the  them w i t h  the  disci  same t i m e d e f u s e  the  25 t h r e a t s p o s e d by I n 1897, financial  a  "dangerous  i n view of  difficulty,  w r o t e a "Memoranda as directed tion and to and of  noted  "critics  t h a t they  to the  tutions  o f our  institution  "are not  restrictions  few  nor  I n i t he and  are  called  atten-  institutions  uninfluential",  s t r a i t s w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was 26 p l a c e d on had  i t .  l e d to the  o r p h a n home i n New  i n the E i g h t h J u d i c i a l rules.  Williams  kindred  they  I n 1896, closing  York C i t y ,  showed n o n - c o m p l i a n c e by most o f t h e  Charities'  and  t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e A s y l u m Work",  Charities investigation  survey  by  P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d Mornay  serious financial  congregate-style  of  i n c r e a s i n g crowding, c r i t i c i s m ,  t o o t h e r members o f t h e B o a r d .  to the  the  class."  The  District,  of a  the  Board  a broader  child-caring  with  mounting c r i t i c i s m  and  a State  in,  State  instiBoard  i s summarized  S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h : a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e p r o v i d e d an a r t i f i c i a l environment w h i c h was a p o o r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e i n t h e "normal" w o r l d . b) I n some o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , d e p e n d e n t , n e g l e c t e d , and d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d and k e p t u n d e r c a r e w i t h l i t t l e o r no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n so t h a t " v i r t u o u s " c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e "vicious." c) The New Y o r k s y s t e m o f p u b l i c p e r c a p i t a s u b s i d i e s f o r d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n a f f o r d e d an i n c e n t i v e f o r k e e p i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s as l o n g as possible. . . . d) . . . the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n supported a t p u b l i c e x p e n s e i n o r p h a n a g e s had one o r b o t h p a r e n t s l i v i n g and had b e e n s u r r e n d e r e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n s b e c a u s e o f the i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the parents to m a i n t a i n them a t home.27 The N.Y.J.A. c e r t a i n l y f i t t h e l a t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f an  institution ficult  filled  to r a i s e  committed  w i t h c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s  them, b u t who  i n 1896,  found  i t dif-  were v e r y much a l i v e .  o n l y 39 were o r p h a n s and  371  had  Of  the  both  692  par-  28 ents  living.  I t s h o u l d be  e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e New  recalled,  in this  respect,  the  York J u v e n i l e Asylum d i s c h a r g e d i t s 29  Jewish  i n m a t e s when t h e t i m e  Attention to c r i t i c i s m in  18 98  to c h i l d  l a b o r and  of the Western p l a c i n g - o u t system.  i t s work was  and  Children's Aid Society.  taken  a career of n a t i o n a l  experience t o be  over  by  law 30  supervision.  Hasting's  H a r t , who  passed Reflecting  proves  Hart's  was  Illinois  in old A.I.CP.  t h a t many c h i l d r e n  removed t o a d i s t a n c e f r o m  ought,  their  early  influence of vicious  b e y o n d t h e odium w h i c h has 31  1903,  Home  at the beginning  prominence, r e t a i n e d c o n f i d e n c e  system, p o n t i f i c a t i n g  order to escape the  their  A  numbers, t h e N.Y.J.A. W e s t e r n A g e n c y c l o s e d i n  and  out  i t s population.  the abuses o f i n d e n t u r i n g l e d  p r e s c r i b e d more f o l l o w - u p and  diminished  placing  came t o r e d u c e  of  i n the  style:  for their  "our  own  good,  environment i n  relatives,  or to  a r i s e n because of the conduct  get of  parents." But  the c r i t i c i s m which caught  more o f a r e s p o n s e  than  the c l o s i n g  the ear of W i l l i a m s  o f the Western Agency.  p r o b l e m s must have seemed c o m p e l l i n g b e c a u s e t h e o p t i o n s p l a c e d b e f o r e the Board departures  from  "as  suggestions  previous practice.  demanded  He  s i m p l y " were rejected  the  he  radical idea of  r e d u c i n g c o s t s by m a i n t a i n i n g an economy o f s c a l e : A l l o f t h e s o u r c e s o f e x p e n d i t u r e c a n be m a t e r i a l l y r e d u c e d by t h e a g g r e g a t i n g o f l a r g e numbers o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r one r o o f . The c l o t h i n g c a n be made i n b u l k ; t h e  The  h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g c a r r i e d on a t a l e s s p e r c a p i t a c o s t , and t h e number o f a t t e n d a n t s r e d u c e d , b u t i t i s more t h a n q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h i s method o f t r a i n i n g subserves the best i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d r e n . Institut i o n l i f e , a t t h e b e s t , i s a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e home. The f u r t h e r removed t h e mode o f l i f e i s f r o m t h e home l i f e , t h e more o b j e c t i o n a b l e i t becomes. The l a r g e r t h e number o f c h i l d r e n m a i n t a i n e d u n d e r one r o o f , t h e l e s s o f t h e home a t m o s p h e r e . ^ 2 Similarly, simply  he r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f a l i m i t e d  "retrenchment,"  b e c a u s e he d i d n o t t h i n k c o s t s c o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t l y r e -  duced.  Instead,  he a r g u e d  f o r " d e v i s i n g an e n t i r e l y  new p l a n  33 o f work." vert  He p r e s e n t e d  the operation  two o p t i o n s .  The f i r s t  i n t o a "Day I n d u s t r i a l  School  t r u a n t c h i l d r e n and d i s o b e d i e n t  c h i l d r e n should  instruction  during  but  and manual t r a i n i n g  was t o c o n . . . t o which  be s e n t f o r  t h e hours o f t h e day,  w h i c h w o u l d n o t b o a r d any c h i l d r e n ; o n l y  g i v i n g them a  34 mid-day meal." the  The o t h e r  tremendous i n c r e a s e  Avenue l a n d  possibility  i n property  s i n c e i t was p u r c h a s e d  value  i t s use f o r t h e Asylum, w h i l e  upwards o f one m i l l i o n sale of this smaller  Manhattan.  was  crossing the s i t e ,  i t s market v a l u e suggested  the neighborhood of three  rose  that the for a  hundred  be l o c a t e d on c h e a p e r l a n d b e y o n d t h e i s l a n d o f The a d o p t i o n  cottage  limits—of  city,  Williams  o f t h e second  i n the c r e a t i o n of Children's The  o f t h e Amsterdam  l a n d c o u l d be u s e d a s an endowment f u n d  institution—in  children—to  step  dollars.  advantage o f  i n 1854 f o r $33,000.  S t r e e t s and a v e n u e s o f t h e e n c r o a c h i n g limited  would take  style  institution,  suggestion  was t h e f i r s t  Village. located outside  which the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  the c i t y  i s an e x e m p l a r y  n o t a new i d e a a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h  century.  model— The  first  such  institution  Industrial opened  School  i n 1856,  i n the United  for Girls  the  S t a t e s , the  State  a t Lancaster, Massachusetts,  same y e a r  t h e N.Y.J.A. o c c u p i e d  had  i t s con-  36 gregate had  building  been b u i l t  a t Washington H e i g h t s .  after  a study  Lancaster  itself  o f a number o f E u r o p e a n  prece-  37 dents.  But  i t was  l a r g e number o f New direction.  not u n t i l  the  t u r n of the  the  State Industrial  School  was  a u t h o r i z e d t o change i t s name t o t h e S t a t e  and  Industrial  I n 1904,  School, N.Y.)  and  to convert  up  L e g i s l a t u r e on  institution  on  ommendations were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o actual  site  selection  o b s t a c l e s p l a c e d by t h e move d i d n o t plan  institutions  were t h e New  and  to  actually  On cities,  the  City, plan. but  pur-  and  the  The  rec-  the  into d e l a y s — i n c l u d i n g Vassar  take p l a c e u n t i l  early  the  College—so 38 1930's.  moved  and  site  to  twentieth century,  t h e Hawthorne S c h o o l i n Hawthorne, N . Y .  even g i v e n the  s h i f t was  not  the  Leake moved  founded i n 3 9  economy o f m o v i n g o u t s i d e  a money s a v e r .  that  Cottage  i n Y o n k e r s , S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s w h i c h had  C e d a r K n o l l s i n 1912 balance,  plan.  i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e Dobbs F e r r y  Dobbs F e r r y i n 1890, and  1,400  I s l a n d , the  legislation, ran  (to  t h e House o f  cottage  Y o r k Orphan A s y l u m w h i c h had  Watts School  1906  building  the  p r o s p e c t i v e neighbor  Hastings-on-Hudson i n the and  Rochester  Agricultural  a c r e s w i t h i n f i f t y m i l e s o f N.Y.  o f a new  this  to the cottage  R e f u g e recommended abandonment o f R a n d a l l ' s  setting  at  t o move o u t s i d e o f R o c h e s t e r  a r e p o r t t o t h e N.Y.  c h a s e o f 1,000  that a  Y o r k i n s t i t u t i o n s made t h e move i n  I n 1902,  acres at Industry,  century  I t r e q u i r e d more  the staff  and  more f a c i l i t i e s  per c a p i t a .  of  D i r e c t o r s conducted  of  child  welfare.  49  a mail  I n 1901,  survey  W h i l e many f e l t  i t was  at  this  not  superintendents  still  favored  time?  The  concern:  family  ideal.  expansion  of  institutional  costs  that  a money s a v e r , what f o r c e s were b e h i n d  public  found  of state  t h a t t h e per c a p i t a  t h e c o t t a g e p l a n were g r e a t e r , t h e y If  t h e N.Y.J.A. B o a r d  system.  the  c a r e was  of 4  change  causing  i n s t i t u t i o n s were s e e n as c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o I f t h e y were t o s u r v i v e , ways w o u l d have t o  the be  to r e s o l v e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n .  . . . i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e s h o u l d be v e r y much t h e same as t h a t o f a v e r a g e b o y s and g i r l s i n homes where c h a r a c t e r and a f f e c t i o n d o m i n a t e . T h e r e must be a c l o s e r adherence t o r u l e s , g r e a t e r r e g u l a r i t y of l i f e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . . . an i n s t i t u t i o n c o n d u c t e d upon the o l d congregate p l a n i s q u i t e i n c a p a b l e of reproduci n g t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f e v e n an a v e r a g e home.^l The  cottage  reconciliation  system p r o v i d e d  by  promising  the  the  necessary  ideological  atmosphere o f a f a m i l y w i t h i n  t h e c o n f i n e s o f an  institution.  a building with  t o 4 0 i n m a t e s t o a f a m i l y home must h a v e  20  Of  course,  the resemblance  of  42 been m i n i m a l i n the b e s t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . more t a n g i b l e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e new Opportunities increased. harder easier.  for classification  Delinquents  to c o n t r o l The  new  i n t o g r o u p s , and  c o u l d be  children cottage  and  c o n t r o l were  can  from  segregated  s y s t e m w o u l d have  classifications  t h e r e were  system f o r those  separated  c o u l d be  But  in  charge.  significantly  dependents; from  the  "inmates d i v i d e d  be made a c c o r d i n g  to  43 character." As t h e c o t t a g e s were u s e d f o r homogeneous age and c h a r a c t e r g r a d i n g , t h e y were f u r t h e r removed f r o m any r e 44 semblance t o a f a m i l y . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g to  - 50 note the emphasis on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the N.Y.J.A., even bef o r e the cottage system was a c t u a l l y  implemented.  Beyond the advantages o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r o l , the cottage system was touted, i n N.Y.J.A. l i t e r a t u r e , as being more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g i r l s ' v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  An e x c e r p t  from an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d  " I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g o f Pauper and  Neglected G i r l s " , argued  t h a t the cottage would p r o v i d e the  s e t t i n g f o r the l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s which would be needed by poor g i r l s a f t e r they leave the i n s t i t u t i o n , as mother "of a 45 f a m i l y o f s m a l l means" o r as a maid.  There i s o f course a  c e r t a i n i r o n y i n the use o f t h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r the cottage system i n t h a t the move t o Dobbs F e r r y was accompanied by the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the female  inmates.  W i l l i a m s ' o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l , i n 1897,  c o n t a i n e d the paren-  t h e t i c a l remark, as i f i t were u n i v e r s a l l y agreed  to, that 46  "boys and g i r l s should be kept i n d i s t i n c t  institutions".  There was i n c r e a s i n g f e e l i n g t h a t there should be s e x - s e g r e g a t i o n , c e r t a i n l y i n i n s t i t u t i o n s for delinquents.  In 1904,  the g i r l s  were removed from the House o f Refuge and the S t a t e I n d u s t r i a l School a t Rochester.  The House o f Refuge f o r Women a t Hudson,  which had taken women from 16 t o 30, was re-opened as the S t a t e T r a i n i n g School f o r G i r l s , f o r ages up t o 16, thus g i r l s who were t r a n s f e r r e d from the former haps the implementation  accommodating  institutions.  of sex-segregation, l i k e the cottage  system, helped t o d e f l a t e the t h r e a t posed by c u r r e n t criticism. ("now  Per-  widespread  The semblance o f reform presented by these changes  the problem o f delinquency w i l l be p r o p e r l y  addressed")  permitted To  an  e x t e n s i o n of the  recapitulate,  Children's Village, itself,  classify  in  the  and  process  establishment in  -  institutions'  the contours  i t s location,  were d e t e r m i n e d  to  51  by  of the p o p u l a t i o n and  by  age,  of development over  The  factors.  of  plan The  layout  tendency  " p r o b l e m " , and  sex  the  century.  o f t h e N.Y.J.A. i t s e l f  that process.  the c o t t a g e  a number o f  segregate,  existence.  nineteenth  can  C h i l d r e n ' s Law  be  had  s e e n as one  o f 1875  which  removed  s i x t e e n from the  h o u s e s was  the time  important  Children's Village, s e x e s and  classifying  by  i n the  same  C a t h o l i c immigrants. that, insofar  inmates of t h e i r Ferry,  this  had  segregating  dependent) ruling  c o u l d n o t be  in  main-  institution.  were P r o t e s t a n t , t h e i r  tended  toward  (delinquent vs.  dependent youth  alms-  o f t h e move t o  i n a S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s  In r e s p e c t to r e l i g i o n  of  At  strong feeling  "habits"  t h a t d e l i n q u e n t and  tained  step.  t h e r e was  which would c u l m i n a t e 19 07  next  The  step  c h i l d r e n between t h e a g e s o f t h r e e and an  been  own  and  ethnicity,  e f f o r t s were l a r g e l y The  though the aimed a t  S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s  as p o s s i b l e , i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d religion,  but  until  n e v e r meant s y s t e m a t i c  founders children had  in-  serve  t h e move t o Dobbs  e x c l u s i o n o f one  group 47  or another,  and  differentiation and  even then, a t the  t u r n of the  t h e N.Y.J.A. a c c e p t e d While the  b a c k e d up  by  sex  C a t h o l i c s were n o t  children  c e n t u r y was  the  very  Age  rudimentary,  from i n f a n c y t o s i x t e e n .  s e g r e g a t i o n of the  a rationale,  expelled.  t u r n of the  attempts a t r a c i a l  century and  s e g r e g a t i o n a p p e a r t o have b e e n h a p h a z a r d m e a s u r e s ,  was  ethnic conveniences  - 52 d i c t a t e d by t h e need t o r e d u c e i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n lar  number. The  and  Renewed a t t e m p t s a t l a t e r  cottage  p l a n was w i d e l y  by  The l i t e r a t u r e  ning  p a i d homage  a t m o s p h e r e , b u t i t seems l i k e l y  of the i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  cottages  supported,  i n t h e i r moves n e a r t h e  promoting the idea t h a t the cottages  family  were n o t s o b e n i g n .  known, g e n e r a l l y  u s e d by a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  turn of the century.  dates  to a particu-  to the family  would r e p r o d u c e a that i n the a c t u a l  run-  the convenience o f the use o f the  for classification  and c o n t r o l were more  important  benefits. The  idea of r e l o c a t i n g outside  Washington Heights center  o f New  had b e e n r u r a l  area  beyond  Y o r k when t h e N.Y.J.A. f i r s t  of the expanding c i t y , for  of the c i t y  the low-density  built  w h i c h had u n d e r l a i n t h e s e n d i n g  space.  for  i t s r e s t o r a t i v e powers, made t h e Dobbs F e r r y  come f r o m t h e i r  which r e l i e d  o p p o s i t i o n t o moves prospective  rural  on t h e c o u n t r y  through  environment  site  s u c h as t h e s e  neighbors.  t o use  ideology  o f c h i l d r e n t o t h e West  nineteenth  Because  suitable for  The same  the  Indeed, t h e o n l y  there.  t h e l a n d had become t o o v a l u a b l e  t h a t work b e c a u s e o f t h e c o n f i n e d  new:  the population  a s y l u m work and become l e s s  century,  was n o t h i n g  attractive.  seems t o have  Footnotes Chapter 3 See P a u l B o y e r , U r b a n M a s s e s and M o r a l O r d e r i n A m e r i c a , 1820-1920 (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . Boyer e x p l a i n s t h e s t o r y o f t h e A . I . C P . and s i m i l a r v o u n t a r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n m a i n t a i n i n g urban s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n the n i n e teenth century. A l s o see D a v i d Rothman s d i s c u s s i o n o f the A . I . C P . i n The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e A s y l u m , pp. 162, 163. 1  o  A . I . C P . A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1856, pp. 25, 26, q u o t e d i n Roy L u b o v e , "The New Y o r k A s s o c i a t i o n f o r I m p r o v i n g t h e C o n d i t i o n o f t h e P o o r : t h e F o r m a t i v e Y e a r s " , New Y o r k H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Q u a r t e r l y , 43 (1959), p. 313. 3 B o y e r , pp. 86-94. 4 F i r s t A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e A. I.. C P . , 1845, V i s i t o r s ' M a n u a l , q u o t e d i n L u b o v e , "The New Y o r k A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 316. 5 L u b o v e , "The New Y o r k A s s o c i a t i o n , " p. 316. P u b l i s h e d as an a p p e n d i x t o Thomas L. H a r r i s , J u v e n i l e D e p r a v i t y and C r i m e i n Our C i t y , New Y o r k , 1850, pp. 14-15, q u o t e d i n D a v i d M. S c h n e i d e r and A l b e r t D e u t s c h , The H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e i n New Y o r k S t a t e 1867-1940 ( C h i c a g o , 1941) p. 329. 7 C h a r t e r and By-Laws o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e P r e s s , 1931).  Village  (Dobbs  Ferry  g  Lubove,  "The New  York A s s o c i a t i o n , "  p.  N . Y . J . A . A.R. 1914, p. 45. N o t e : 1914 Reports c o n t a i n comprehensive, r e t r o s p e c t i v e 9  10  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1914,  pp.  39-55.  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1914,  pp.  39-55.  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1902,  p.  1:L  12  1 3  Boyer,  pp.  319. and 1918 A n n u a l s t a t i s t i c a l tables.  43.  94-107.  14 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1902, p. 43. See a l s o M i r i a m Z. Langsam, C h i l d r e n West: A H i s t o r y o f t h e P l a c i n g Out S y s t e m o f t h e New Y o r k C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y 1853-1890 ( M a d i s o n : S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1964) and R i c h a r d R. Wohl "The ' C o u n t r y Boy' Myth and i t s P l a c e i n A m e r i c a n U r b a n C u l t u r e : i n  - 54 Moses R i s c h i n , e d . , P e r s p e c t i v e s i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y 3 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 77-158; J o y P a r r , L a b o u r i n g C h i l d r e n : B r i t i s h Immigrant A p p r e n t i c e s t o Canada 1869-1924 ( M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Q u e e n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , f o r t h e a n a l o g o u s movement o f t h e movement o f t h e B r i t i s h u r b a n p o o r t o Canada. 15 H i l l e s t o H a r t , A p r i l 10, 1905: r e f e r r i n g t o a g r o u p b e i n g s e n t West: " I t w i l l be an e a s y company t o c o n d u c t b e c a u s e a l l b u t two o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e a p p l i c a n t s t o go." i. v  16  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1901, p. 19.  17 N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1901, p. 41.  18 W h i l e Hawes a s s e r t s t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y r e d u c e d t h e number o f i n m a t e s i n New Y o r k ' s House o f R e f u g e , t h a t y e a r s e t a r e c o r d f o r t h e number o f comm i t m e n t s t o t h e N.Y.J.A. J o s e p h M. Hawes, C h i l d r e n i n U r b a n S o c i e t y : J u v e n i l e Delinquency i n Nineteenth Century America (New Y o r k : O x f o r d , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 134. P e r h a p s t h e c i v i l d i s o r d e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h New Y o r k ' s d r a f t r i o t s o f t h e same y e a r s t i m u l a t e d the increased intake. 19 S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h , p. 22. T h e s e powers were s t r e n g t h e n e d a g a i n i n 1894, b u t e v e n a f t e r t h a t d a t e were d i s p u t e d by t h e d i r e c t o r s o f t h e N.Y.J.A. and o t h e r p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . 20 C o n f e r e n c e o f C h a r i t i e s , 1875, q u o t e d i n G r a c e A b b o t t , e d . , The C h i l d and t h e S t a t e , S e l e c t Documents w i t h I n t r o d u c t o r y N o t e s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1938, pp. 375, 376. 21 C h a p t e r 173, Laws o f 1875, q u o t e d i n R o b e r t Bremner e t a l . , e d s . , C h i l d r e n and Y o u t h I n A m e r i c a ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , I I , p . 281. O f f i c i a l c r i t i c i s m had come i n t h e f o r m o f t h e L e t c h w o r t h R e p o r t on P o o r h o u s e s and A l m s h o u s e s i n 1874. The S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n , f o u n d e d i n 1875, a l s o p r e s s e d f o r more restrictive legislation. T h e s e were e f f o r t s , n o t t o d e - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e , b u t t o change t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s , as w e l l a s t o t o u g h e n v a g r a n c y , p e d d l i n g , and b e g g i n g laws. See Hawes, pp. 135-139. N . Y . J . A . A.R. 1914, p. 39. "Toward t h e end o f 1874, t h e r e were 132 o r p h a n a s y l u m s a n d homes f o r t h e f r i e n d l e s s [ i n New Y o r k S t a t e ] w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 11,907 c h i l d r e n u n d e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . By 1885 t h e r e were 204 s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s m a i n t a i n i n g a t o t a l o f 23,592 c h i l d r e n . " Deutsch and S c h n e i d e r , p. 65. 22  23  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1914, p. 52.  -  55  -  24  New Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m , P r o p o s e d G r e a t U s e f u l n e s s (New Y o r k , 1 9 0 4 ) .  S e q u e l t o a Work o f  25 For a survey of the middle c l a s s p i c t u r e o f the urban i m m i g r a n t , s e e B o y e r , pp. 123-131. The t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y i m m i g r a n t e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada i s documented i n R o b e r t H a r n e y and H a r o l d T r o p e r , I m m i g r a n t s : A P o r t r a i t o f t h e U r b a n E x p e r i e n c e , 1890-1930 ( T o r o n t o : Van N o s t r a n d , R e i n h o l d , 1 9 7 5 ) . The g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n s e t o t h e p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t o f t h e i m m i g r a n t i n Canada i s e x p l o r e d i n D o n a l d A v e r y , "Dangerous F o r e i g n e r s " : E u r o p e a n Immigrant W o r k e r s and L a b o u r R a d i c a l i s m i n Canada, 1896-1932 ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 7 9 ) . 26 Mornay W i l l i a m s , Memoranda as t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e A s y l u m Work (New Y o r k , 1 8 9 7 ) , p. 5. 27 S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h , pp. 162, 163. 28  N.Y.J.A.  A.R.  1914,  p.  49.  29 B r e n z e l reached s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s about the L a n c a s t e r i n m a t e s : "More t h a n h a l f o f t h e g i r l s , b o t h C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , were b r o u g h t t o t h e c o u r t by members o f t h e i r own families. The c o m p l a i n a n t f a m i l i e s seemed t o have had i n common a s e n s e o f d e s p e r a t i o n b r e d by p o v e r t y , unemployment, death, or p h y s i c a l uprooting." Barbara Brenzel, "Domestication as R e f o r m : A S t u d y o f t h e S o c i a l i z a t i o n o f Wayward G i r l s " , H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 50, (May, 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 204. 30 S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h , p. 169. 31  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1906,  p.  Mornay W i l l i a m s , p.  3.  37.  32 33 Ibid.,  p.  7.  Ibid.,  p.  8.  34 35 S c h n e i d e r and  Deutsch,  pp.  162-163.  36 F o r a f u l l a c c o u n t , see B a r b a r a B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t o f the F i r s t Reform S c h o o l f o r G i r l s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , 1856-1905," D i s s . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y 1978. 37 P r e c e d e n t s s u c h as W i c h e r n ' s Rauhe Haus i n Germany, De M e t a ' E c o l e A g r i c o l e i n F r a n c e , and t h e R o y a l P h i l a n t h r o p i c S o c i e t y ' s R e d h i l l S c h o o l a r e s u r v e y e d i n B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s at Lancaster", Chapter I I I . 38 S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h , pp. 174-177.  -  56  -  39  M a u r i c e O d q u i s t , "The H i s t o r y o f Graham" ( p a m p h l e t ) ; "Hawthorne C e d a r K n o l l s S c h o o l " , J e w i s h B o a r d o f G u a r d i a n s (pamphlet); S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s School Annual Report, 1970. 40  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  41  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1901. 1901,  p.  16.  42 D e s c r i b i n g the Boys T r a i n i n g S c h o o l a t S t . C h a r l e s , I l l i n o i s , Rothman n o t e s : "To e x p e c t t h a t l i f e i n a d o r m i t o r y o f f o r t y w o u l d r e c r e a t e f a m i l y - l i k e i n t i m a c y and p r o m o t e f a m i l y - l i k e c o o p e r a t i o n was a b s u r d . . . . The r o u t i n e o f d a i l y l i v i n g . . . b o r e no r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h a t o f a h o u s e h o l d , " Rothman, C o n s c i e n c e p. 271. 43  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1901,  p.  27.  44 B r e n z e l n o t e s t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e u s e o f c o t t a g e s t o c r e a t e a f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t , and t h e u s e o f c o t t a g e s f o r age and c h a r a c t e r g r a d i n g . In the L a n c a s t e r I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , an o p t i m i s t i c l e g i s l a t u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t e e r e d away f r o m t h e l a t t e r u s e : " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be r e g u l a t e d i n any c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e by t h e a g e s o f t h e pupils. The i d e a o f a f a m i l y i s e l e v a t e d and made p e r f e c t by v a r i e t y i n age and s t a t u r e as w e l l as by d i v e r s i t y o f d i s p o s i t i o n , h a b i t s , and a c q u i r e m e n t s . " M a s s a c h u s e t t s House Documents 1855, p. 15, q u o t e d i n B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r " , p. 156. I t was o n l y when t h e i n s t i t u t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f i t s b e i n g f o r c e d t o t a k e o l d e r , more h a r d e n e d g i r l s , t h a t t h e y abandoned t h e a n t i - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n model. 45 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, pp. 84-86. The a r t i c l e was origina l l y p u b l i s h e d i n C o n t e m p o r a r y Review ( J u l y , 1 8 8 2 ) . 46 Mornay W i l l i a m s , Memoranda. 47 See S c h n e i d e r and D e u t s c h c i r c a p. 160. H i l l e s corr e s p o n d e n c e t o G e o r g e R o b i n s o n , May 9, 1905, d e f e n d s t h e "New York system" of sending c h i l d r e n to p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h p u b l i c , per c a p i t a funding.  -  57 -  Chapter  4  "A Modern S c h o o l o f C o r r e c t i o n " : t h e C o t t a g e S y s t e m i n A c t i o n , 1905-1918. When t h e d u s t justed  settled,  t o t h e new l o c a l e ,  facilities.  physical  year.  they  found  a "first  set-up.  class"  and c h i l d r e n  themselves  I n 1907, t h e S t a t e B o a r d  Children's Village its  and t h e s t a f f  had a d -  i n excellent  of Charities  awarded  judgement on t h e b a s i s o f  I t was the only such judgement made i n t h a t  B u t t h e new b u i l d i n g s and i d y l l i c  setting  d i d not s p e l l  an end t o p r o b l e m s .  The c l i m a t e o f opinion among c h i l d - c a r e  fessionals  t o be d o m i n a t e d by t h o s e who q u e s t i o n e d t h e  efficacy  continued  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n — e v e n  tution—and maintain programs.  those  associated with  a continuing effort Board  the f i r s t  Children  i n 1909."'"  their  Other  t h a t he  the merits of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n on t h e C a r e o f D e p e n d e n t  p r o b l e m s were g e n e r a t e d  by what t h e  saw a s q u e s t i o n a b l e g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s on  own o p e r a t i o n s : t h e y d i d n o t have t h e k i n d o f c o n t r o l  wanted e i t h e r o v e r  admissions,  however, manage t o d e v e l o p day-to-day running by  insti-  for their  P r e s i d e n t Mornay W i l l a i m s a c k n o w l e d g e d  W h i t e House C o n f e r e n c e  i n s t i t u t i o n men  style  i n s t i t u t i o n s were f o r c e d t o  to provide a rationale  was i n a m i n o r i t y i n d e f e n d i n g at  i n a cottage  pro-  nor over  new t o o l s  discipline.  they  They d i d ,  t o h e l p them c a r r y on t h e  o f the V i l l a g e w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s posed  t h e c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n and t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t a t u t e s and r e g u -  lations.  New  forms o f d i s c i p l i n e  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  the f i r s t  - 58 i n c u r s i o n s of s c i e n t i f i c psychology, s e l f , were among the important  and the cottage system i t -  i n n o v a t i o n s of t h i s pre-war  and  wartime p e r i o d . In h i s address  as Past P r e s i d e n t of the Board i n  W i l l i a m s used language and  ideas r e m i n i s c e n t of h i s  1915,  1897  "Memoranda as to the Development of the Asylum Work": There i s a g r e a t d e a l of f o o l i s h t a l k about the i n e f f i c i e n c y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . . . . An i n s t i t u t i o n such as t h i s , i s not an a c t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n , but a s c h o o l ; i t i s a p l a c e where young l i v e s are moulded and f i t t e d . . . and the c h i l d . . . i s educated.2 In the new  s e t t i n g , however, there were some new  wrinkles i n  the attempt to maintain the image t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n was  in  fact a school. In the f i r s t decades of the century, there was  active  p u b l i c debate about the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l education i n t o p u b l i c school programs l e a d i n g to a broad  consensus t h a t 3  schools should g i v e t h e i r students  skills  f o r the workplace.  In the 1897 "Memoranda", W i l l i a m s had acknowledged t h a t the o b j e c t of the c h i l d r e n ' s work was  primary  "the making of c l o t h i n g ,  shoes, caps, e t c . , not the t r a i n i n g of c h i l d r e n as  tailors,  4  shoemakers, cap-makers and c a l grounds was program.  so on."  used as evidence  Now  the work on the p h y s i -  of a p r o g r e s s i v e  education  Though i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t the boys r e c e i v e d any more  u s e f u l s k i l l s than i n the C i t y , t h e i r accomplishments were considerable. Lumber was  S t a r t i n g i n 1911,  they b u i l t a cottage each year.  sawn f o r the b u i l d i n g s from the dead t r e e s on  the  p r o p e r t y , and once b u i l d i n g s were completed, maintenance  was  also  the  responsibility  59  of the  -  trades  class.  Extensive  gardens  5 and  animal But  husbandry p r o v i d e d  both  food  t h e d i r e c t o r s seemed  less  i n t e r e s t e d i n d r a w i n g com-  parisons with out  the  t h e New  and  revenue.  York C i t y p u b l i c s c h o o l s  resemblance of the  cottage  than  in pointing  system l a y o u t t o t h a t o f  a  p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l campus. We have a l m o s t w i t h o u t knowing i t t a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f what may be t e r m e d a p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l , meaning p r e p a r a t o r y f o r l i f e . . . . C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e has more and more t a k e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . We may r e f e r t o t h e a l m o s t a c a d e m i c a t m o s p h e r e c r e a t e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a group of detached houses surroundi n g a c e n t r a l campus.^ The to  superintendent be a " l i f e  fairly  described residence  quite similar  well-to-do  i n our  at Children's  t o t h a t l e d by  more o r  Village  c h i l d r e n of  the  l e s s p r o s p e r o u s towns  and  7 villages." "The  school  And  the o f f i c i a l s  i s not  unlikely  t h a t any  have t o l o o k v e r y parisons.  an  institution  t h i n g b e c o m i n g more p r i s o n - l i k e ,  was  the  to the  institution  1901,  responding  e a r l y as  1901,  a school."  these  One  does  a b s u r d i t y of these w h i c h were n o t  the  not  com-  generated  i n s t i t u t i o n was  t h e myth o f t h e  i f any-  "school",  changes.  t u r n of the c e n t u r y ,  directly  But i t  d e s p i t e t h e p a s t o r a l , campus-  P e r h a p s most i r o n i c ,  used t o j u s t i f y Prior  but  f a r to d i s c o v e r the  I n many ways, f o r r e a s o n s  setting.  as  o f t h e c h i l d r e n were f o o l e d .  entirely within Children's Village,  like  pleaded  a p r i s o n : the p u p i l s are c o n s t a n t l y l e d t o  b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s not is  had  on  the  some c h i l d r e n had  r e q u e s t of t h e i r  to a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  parents.  criticism,  B o a r d o f C h a r i t i e s r u l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d no  the  longer  entered In  State enter  simply  by p a r e n t s  60 -  s u r r e n d e r i n g them.  T h i s was  an a t t e m p t ,  on  t h e p a r t o f t h e B o a r d , t o r e d u c e what i t saw a s u n n e c e s s a r y mitments. that  N.Y.J.A.  directors  but  objected unsuccessfully, arguing  i f t h e r e were t o o many d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n  care of, r e s t r i c t i o n s that "access"  on i m m i g r a t i o n  to i n s t i t u t i o n s  Children's Village  com-  should  should  could not accept  t o be  taken  be t i g h t e n e d up,  remain a v a i l a b l e .  children  unless  Now  committed  9 by  a court If  magistrate.  parents  d i d n o t have t h e power t o " s e n d "  to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , draw them.  n e i t h e r d i d they  The a d v e n t o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t  an  not trouble the d i r e c t o r s  put  d e c i d e d when t h e c h i l d r e n  an end t o " r i d i c u l o u s l y  of the indeterminate was  at f i r s t ,  t h a t the people  should  according  punishment b u t e d u c a t i o n , the boys' i n t e r e s t  importance  the c h i l d r e n  to leave.  the l e n g t h of the inmates'  used the " s c h o o l " analogy  incarceration.  The  thus  to p u b l i c r h e t o r i c ,  who were a c t u a l l y w o r k i n g w i t h  ironically  the i n s t i t u -  go home, and  s h o r t commitments.""'"^  sentence,  a s s u m i n g more c o n t r o l o v e r  indefinite  commitments, b u t t h i s  sentences:  w o u l d be a b l e t o s e e when t h e y were r e a d y  officials  and t h e p r a c t i c e  because i t a l s o l e d t o  i n c r e a s e i n the use o f i n d e t e r m i n a t e  t i o n men  children  h a v e t h e power t o w i t h -  o f p r o b a t i o n i n 19 0 0 had l e d t o f e w e r new did  their  While stays,  to justify  even  I f s t a y i n g a t t h e V i l l a g e was n o t they  argued,  t o be c o m m i t t e d  then  p e r h a p s i t was i n  f o r an i n d e f i n i t e  length of  time: H a v i n g i n mind t h e f a c t s o f b i r t h , p a r e n t a g e and c o n d i t i o n s o f environment as f a c t o r s i n j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y and how l i t t l e t h e y o u n g o f f e n d e r has r e a l l y  - 61 had t o do w i t h s h a p i n g h i s m i s d i r e c t e d c o u r s e , t h e m a t t e r o f h i s commitment i s n o t i n t h e mind o f t h e C o u r t , t o any g r e a t e x t e n t a p u n i t i v e m e a s u r e . . . . I n t h e modern s c h o o l o f c o r r e c t i o n . . . a boy's soj o u r n may be p r o l o n g e d i n d e f i n i t e l y w i t h o u t d a n g e r o f l o s s t o h i m s e l f o f much t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t o r n e c e s s a r y t o a n o r m a l d e v e l o p m e n t . "-J  Children's Village  J  officials  d e v i s e d a system  of  credit 12  marks w h i c h a c h i l d fact, year  the c r e d i t sentence.  explanations  had  system  t o e a r n i n o r d e r t o be quickly  devolved  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Guy  t o two  p a r e n t s who  into  released.  In  a standard  Morgan w r o t e t h e  requested release of  two-  following their  sons. Dear Madam: I have your l e t t e r making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e l e a s e o f y o u r son f r o m t h i s s c h o o l . A l l b o y s who come h e r e a r e r e q u i r e d t o e a r n a c e r t a i n amount o f c r e d i t marks b e f o r e t h e y a r e e l i g i b l e t o go o u t . This u s u a l l y takes them 24 months. Dear S i r : I have y o u r l e t t e r m a k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e r e l e a s e o f y o u r son f r o m t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l boys committed t o t h i s s c h o o l a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e m a i n 24 months f r o m t h e t i m e o f t h e i r commitment.13 Illustrative  of the f u n c t i o n i n g  indeterminate  sentence,  children,  Village  the f a l l  and  o f 1914,  p a r o l e had  p i n , worth wages.  o f t h e d y n a m i c s among p a r e n t s ,  i s t h e c a s e o f W.M.  a t age  stemmed f r o m  w h i c h he had  and  of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  15,  He  f o r the v i o l a t i o n  committed  of parole.  in His  a b u r g l a r y i n the preceding s p r i n g ,  s t o l e n a p a i r o f e y e - g l a s s e s and  about  was  $2 3, a p p r o x i m a t e l y two  A t t h e t i m e , he had  a gold breast  weeks o f h i s  been w o r k i n g  father's  as a b e l l - b o y .  f a m i l y depended on  t h e wages o f h i s f a t h e r ,  work was  unsteady,  h i s m o t h e r , whose work as a j a n i t o r  building  earned  them a f i f t y  in  The  a l o n g s h o r e m a n whose  percent reduction i n rent,  for their and  himself.  62 -  T h e r e were e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y ,  whom a t t h e t i m e o f W.M.'s commitment l i v e d cold-water bathless lived  Brooklyn apartment.  i n t h e s i x room  W.M.'s o l d e r  S o c i a l Hygiene d u r i n g  h i s stay  Laboratory of  a t the V i l l a g e .  I t was u n d e r s t o o d b y b o t h him and h i s f a m i l y  a t t h e time o f  commitment t h a t h i s s t a y w o u l d b e f o r two y e a r s . years,  i t was r e c o r d e d  worked i n t h e t a i l o r W.M. be a l l o w e d grounds.  travel two  shop.  those  a n d t h a t he  Though t h e p a r e n t s r e q u e s t e d  that  them, i n m a t e s were n e v e r a l l o w e d o f f  A s i t was d i f f i c u l t  t o Dobbs F e r r y ,  During  t h a t he was i n g r a d e e i g h t ,  tovisit  f o r poor C i t y f a m i l i e s t o  t h e y n e v e r saw e a c h o t h e r  during  those  years. In the f a l l  father,  o f 1916, when t h e two y e a r s were up, W.M., h i s  and h i s mother each wrote a l e t t e r  dent requesting and  sister  a t a "House o f t h e Good S h e p h e r d " , a n d o n e o f h i s y o u n g e r  s i s t e r s w o u l d be removed t o t h e B e d f o r d H i l l s  the  seven o f  h i s release.  t o the  H i s mother n o t e d ,  superinten-  " I am n o t w e l l  I c a n a s s u r e y o u i f he was home he w o u l d be a g r e a t  help  t o me a s I have no one t o h e l p  me and he ( s i c ) a good boy,  besides."  stressed  The f a t h e r ' s  contribution  letter  t o the struggling  W.M. was r e l e a s e d  the boy's  financial  family.  and soon a f t e r found a j o b as a d r i v e r  of  a coal truck.  Working  he  earned  d o l l a r s a week, t e n o f w h i c h he gave t o h i s  family, later,  fifteen  f r o m 7:00 A.M. t o 6:00 P.M. e a c h d a y ,  c o n s t i t u t i n g the family's  primary  support.  A year  he j o i n e d t h e army and h i s m o t h e r went b a c k t o work.  W h i l e W.M.'s s t a y  doesn't  seem t o have s t i g m a t i z e d  him o r  hindered h i s a b i l i t y is  no  to function  i n the o u t s i d e world,  r e a s o n t o c o n c l u d e from the s u r v i v i n g  received t o him  any  training  or e d u c a t i o n which  or h i s family.  aspect of t h e i r  an  was  to ease  appeared  one  whom n e i g h b o r s s a i d  of  on  any  the  of the major  had  "always  h o n e s t and w e l l b e h a v e d , n e v e r c a u s i n g them any T h u s , W.M.'s s t a y as  use  I f they  the burden  t h e y c e r t a i n l y w o u l d n o t have c h o s e n  he  of p a r t i c u l a r  were h i s p a r e n t s i n c o n t r o l  institution  wage e a r n e r s , m o r e o v e r one  ance."  records that  interaction with Children's V i l l a g e .  had wanted t o "use" family,  Nor  there  annoy-  " d o i n g t i m e " makes more s e n s e  than  14 any  other  interpretation.  In the m i d s t of the r h e t o r i c in  1907  the S t a t e Board  of Charities  t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f " d e p e n d e n t " The  decision  of which  about  group  and  " s c h o o l s " and  "campuses  acted to segregate  institu  "delinquent" children.  t o t a k e seems t o have b e e n i n t h e  hands o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  directors,  and  they chose  the  l a t t e r , but complained b i t t e r l y : The A s y l u m has become a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a r e f o r m a t o r y institution. T h a t i s t o s a y , i t s wards a r e no l o n g e r drawn b o t h f r o m t h e c l a s s o f c h i l d r e n t e c h n i c a l l y l a b e l l e d as d e p e n d e n t s and t h e c l a s s t e c h n i c a l l y l a b e l l e d as d e l i n q u e n t s , b u t a r e , by t h e a c t i o n o f c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s , and by t h e d e s i r e o f t h e S t a t e B o a r d o f C h a r i t i e s , c o n f i n e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o b o y s committ e d by t h e c o u r t s f o r m i s d e m e a n o r s and sometimes f e l o n i e s . . . . The c o u r t s , as g u a r d i a n s o f p u b l i c m o r a l s , have made t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , as f a r as t h e c h i l d r e n of P r o t e s t a n t parents are concerned, the r e f o r m a t o r y a g e n c y o f t h e c i t y o f New York. -^ J  The  officials  ulation, one  and  of t h e i r  disciplined:  felt  that  t h e y were d e a l i n g w i t h a t o u g h e r  y e t , a t t h e same t i m e , t h e s t a t e had tools  for maintaining d i s c i p l i n e  the S t a t e Board  of C h a r i t i e s  had  pop-  t a k e n away,  among t h e ruled  out  un-  c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t i n 1903. Village  officials  p u n i t i v e one, played  were t o c o n c e i v e  p u n i s h m e n t and  as  the  Children's  o f t h e i r w h o l e p r o g r a m as  d i s c i p l i n a r y measures  a l a r g e p a r t i n day-to-day operations.  Charities for  Loath  r u l i n g was  a time.  largely  due  apparently  I n 1903, to  the  firings  going  s t a f f was  t o be  certainly  The  Board  enforced—at  almost e n t i r e l y  for violation  of  the  a  of least  replaced,  p r o h i b i t i o n of  16 c o r p o r a l punishment. which the The  staff  had  We placed  might i n f e r on  administration questioned  Board of C h a r i t i e s , decision. number  and  of  p u n i s h m e n t was  responsible  o f New  ruling  sought a r e v e r s a l of ruling  s u c c e s s f u l escapes Hilles  discipline  t h e wisdom o f t h e  actively  Superintendent  the r e l i a n c e  c o r p o r a l punishment b e f o r e  I t a t t r i b u t e d to the  (14)  from t h i s ,  the  relatively  i n that year.  thought t h a t the  abolition  of  Writing  the  the large  In  fact,  of  corporal  f o r a w i d e s p r e a d breakdown i n  York s c h o o l s .  1903.  t o a New  York  the  City  p r i n c i p a l , he n o t e d : I f e e l t h a t the a b o l i t i o n of c o r p o r a l punishment i s v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a c t t h a t both t r u a n t s c h o o l s a r e f u l l ; t h a t a v e r y l a r g e number o f y o u r c h i l d r e n have b e e n s e n t t o t h e C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y ; t h a t you have t a k e n a l l t h e s u r p l u s room i n t h e W e s t c h e s t e r Temporary Home; t h a t you have f i f t y b o y s i n t h e J u v e n i l e A s y l u m and t h a t you now have more t h a n a ^ h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s . The  logic  licit, etc.,  was was  motivation in  the  of H i l l e s '  statement,  that i f l i f e not  harsh  t h o u g h he  i n the v a r i o u s  d i d n o t make i t exp-  truant  schools,  enough, t h e n t h e r e w o u l d n o t  f o r young p e o p l e t o s t a y o u t  regular school  system.  Not  of  o n l y was  be  them by the  asylums,  sufficient participating  internal  order  of  the  institutions  j e o p a r d i z e d , but  a t h r e a t to students was  put  into  The this  used  " s t a n d i n g on  larger  Rather  t e r m s c o u l d be  The  i t s internal social  and  did  fines,  order,  they  sentence  could  institu-  not—and  meant t h a t of the  forms inmates'  staff.  free  time,  squad.  "In the d r i l l  without  recreation.  alternately" while  relax  or s c h o o l -  i f the  deprivation of  the d r i l l  in  order, or i t s  a t the d i s c r e t i o n  e x e r c i s e a l l day,  calisthenics  actually  c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t , new  indeterminate  lengthened  line"  reform,  I have s u g g e s t e d ,  than use  along with  t h e y march and do  as  to maintain e i t h e r  d i d not.  and  t o c r e a t e a more f a m i l y - l i k e ,  In f a c t ,  were d e v e l o p e d .  and  optimism  i n order  r a i s o n d ' e t r e i n the  T h i s was  as  system  q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s as t o w h e t h e r t h e N.Y.J.A. p e o p l e ,  atmosphere.  they  usefulness  question.  the d i s c i p l i n e  t i o n was  larger  t o behave w e l l i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l  p e r i o d of o f f i c i a l  like  their  squad, They  rest  f o o d r a t i o n s were r e -  18 duced.  Some b o y s s t i l l  were s e n t t o a h a r s h e r  d i d not respond,  environment  still:  i n which case,  they  the Randall's I s l a n d  19 House o f R e f u g e .  At  t h e House o f R e f u g e ,  that  " i n m a t e s were r e q u i r e d t o s t a n d w i t h  cell  door  time,  for periods ranging  w i t h no  relief  except  from  five  investigators  their  backs to  found the  to s i x t e e n hours a t a  f o r m e a l s and  occasional  'setting  20 up'  exercises."  of  R e f u g e c o u l d be  at  the  the extent  held before  t h a t the  t h r e a t of the  the Asylum inmates,  l a t t e r m i g h t have b e e n somewhat r e l a x e d .  the c o t t a g e The  To  drill  system l e n t  squad was  itself  t o some new  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  House  discipline  But  in  disciplinary  the C o r r e c t i o n a l  fact, measures.  Cottage.  While for  66  assignment to the d r i l l  such  o f f e n s e s as  obedient  and  generally  lazy",  lasted  -  s q u a d w o u l d be  "talking  of running  f o r a day  away" o r  "being  assignment to the C o r r e c t i o n a l  s e v e r a l weeks, and  was  found  or  two, dis-  Cottage  t o be  very  effect-  21 lve  among c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s . In t h i s c o t t a g e t w e n t y o f t h e most t r o u b l e s o m e b o y s i n the s c h o o l are quartered. These boys a r e a s s i g n e d the more a r d u o u s and most d i s a g r e e a b l e t a s k s a b o u t t h e Village. They a r e c o m p e l l e d t o work b o t h t h e m o r n i n g and a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s , r e c r e a t i o n t i m e s and e v e n i n g s b e i n g d e v o t e d t o s c h o o l and s t u d y . While i n t h i s c o t t a g e , t h e y a r e a t no t i m e p e r m i t t e d t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h the o t h e r boys o f the V i l l a g e . 2 2 The  cottage  system enabled  system o f p o s i t i v e  the o f f i c i a l s  i n c e n t i v e s as w e l l :  gold, s i l v e r ,  m e d a l s were awarded t o t h e b e s t - c o n d u c t And  the m i l i t a r y  further  drill  "inculcate  discipline,  p r o g r a m was  to i n i t i a t e and  c o t t a g e s of the  enlarged,  i n an  bronze month.  attempt  i n the boys the h a b i t s of obedience  . . . which w i l l  a  to  and  h e l p them t o become more d e p e n d 23  a b l e workmen and not e a r l i e r ,  the experiment  p u n i s h m e n t was for  the d r i l l  strokes with If  better citizens."  over:  with  conduct  squad and  I n any  case,  the a b o l i t i o n  records  Correctional  1914,  if  of c o r p o r a l  show, n e x t Cottage,  by  to the  entries  four, s i x or e i g h t  the s t r a p .  the entrance  and  leaving  requirements,  and  t h e mode o f  d i s c i p l i n e were u n l i k e t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l s , much l e s s  prepara-  tory  the  s c h o o l s , so t o o was  commitments d u r i n g 1913, were "bad  and  "pilfering".  the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . 60 were  disorderly", Of  and  the•remainder,  Of  " d i s o b e d i e n t and  another  63  had  truant",  been  most were s i m p l y  245 64  caught  "unfortunate",  w h i c h presumably, meant t h e y were c h a r g e d w i t h  no  proper  guard-  24 ianship.  Why  of c h i l d r e n , parents?  were t h e s e  who  The  children different  were w i l l i n g  explanations  t o go  from the  t o s c h o o l and  o f f e r e d by  majority  obey  the people  who  their  ran  C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e u n d e r w e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t change d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t e n y e a r s a t t h e new l o c a t i o n . I n 1906, t h e a n n u a l r e p o r t ventured  the f o l l o w i n g :  The p o o r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f a p r e p o n d e r a t i n g m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n a t the time of t h e i r admission to the A s y l u m e x p l a i n s much o f t h e t e n d e n c y t o t r u a n c y , and the i n d i f f e r e n c e to the requirements of the p u b l i c s c h o o l and o f s o c i e t y . ^ 5 The  environmentalist  the  remaining  rhetoric  and  years i n the  e x p l a n a t i o n w o u l d be before  the  guiding  F i r s t W o r l d War,  framework f o r t h e  c h a n g e s a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e were r o o t e d in  climate of The  Training rapidly ren  test,  promoted  i n the U n i t e d  L e w i s Terman and  School  in  program.  i n a broader  1910's.  ment p r o g r a m s .  i n New  for delinquent  I t s use  had  the The shift  shown t o be  and  Stanford  Vineland  Jersey,  spread  dependent  major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  I f l a r g e numbers o f t h e  t u t i o n s c o u l d be  S t a t e s by  Henry Goddard o f the  f o r the Feeble-Minded  among i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n the  both  during  opinion.  I.Q.  University's  transformed  mentally  inmates of  such  deficient—and  childtreatinsti-  they  26 were  —then  environmentalist  waste of time.  The  I.Q.  o f h e r e d i t a r i a n i s m as one  hand, and  the  other.  the  an  s o l u t i o n s were m i s g u i d e d  t e s t i n g movement was explanation  part of a  for social  promotion of eugenics  ills  for their  on  and  a  revival the  solution  on  - 68 Hastings  Hart,  formerly  associated with  through i t s Western p l a c i n g out the "The  N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f C h a r i t i e s and E x t i n c t i o n of  "In o r d e r duction the  p r o g r a m and  the D e f e c t i v e  to r e s t r i c t  and  of the  now  N.Y.J.A. president  Correction  Delinquent:  u l t i m a t e l y to put  of d e f e c t i v e delinquents,  propagation  the  , wrote i n  A Working an  end  i t i s necessary  feeble-minded v a r i e t y of  of  Program":  to the to  the  pro-  restrict human  27 race."  The  l i n k s between d e l i n q u e n c y ,  were s p e l l e d o u t Provision  by  the  I.Q.,  S t a t e Commission t o  f o r the M e n t a l l y  and  heredity  Investigate  D e f i c i e n t i n i t s report to  the  Legislature: F e e b l e - m i n d e d n e s s i s a g r a v e s o c i a l menace. To i t c a n be a t t r i b u t e d a v e r y d e f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e v i c e , c r i m e , and d e g e n e r a c y t h a t t e n d t o d e s t r o y t h e p e a c e and p r o s p e r i t y o f o u r communal l i f e . Not o n l y i s i t a fundamental cause of misery, but i t possesses the q u a l i t y o f h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n , t h u s i n s u r i n g t h e 2Q c o n t i n u a n c e o f m i s e r y t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r a t i o n s t o come. M e n t a l d e f i c i e n c y was was  l i n k e d to the  i n c a r c e r a t e d i n the  u l a t i o n was children.  o v e r w h e l m i n g l y one This  fact  associated with  greater As  was  t h e movement.  of  institutions. of  The  mentally  immigrant  population But  i m m i g r a n t s and  p a v e d t h e way  i n m a t e p o p u l a t i o n was population  various  delinquent  f o r the logic  stock,  then  and  pop-  immigrants *  systematic  ran:  deficient,  that  which  racism  i f most o f most o f  the  that  i m m i g r a n t s must, t o  d e g r e e t h a n n a t i v e A m e r i c a n s , be m e n t a l l y  deficient.  e a r l y as  of  1901,  there  had  been s e g r e g a t i o n  a  "backward" 29  pupils  i n t o a s p e c i a l , c l a s s a t the  However, i n 1912, Family  was  the  published,  year the  New  York J u v e n i l e Asylum.  Goddard's b e s t s e l l i n g Binet  intelligence  The  t e s t was  Kallikak introduced  - 69 at  Children's Village  to segregate  scientifically  the  "dis^  30 tinctly  backward"  come s t a n d a r d The  general  related the  children.  p r a c t i c e to give  p o p u l a r i t y of the  to the  Children's Village,  the the  two  i t had  e u g e n i c s a p p r o a c h may of the  spread  of the  cottage I.Q.  experiencing  betest.  have b e e n  r e c e n t wave o f  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  i n s t i t u t i o n was  years,  a l l incoming c h i l d r e n the  seeming f a i l u r e  juvenile courts,  t i m e when t h e  Within  reforms,  system.  At  t e s t s came a t "an  a  increasing  num-  31 ber  and  years  magnitude of problems".  a t Dobbs F e r r y was  genesis  men  e x p l a i n t o t h e m s e l v e s and  p r o b l e m s no  however, p u t  the  The  doubt helped others  Children's Village who  theorized  the  possibility  the  an  of a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r definitely  i n s t i t u t i o n men  i n the  wholeheartedly  of  institution  going  on.  similar  from the  f o r m e r s h i e d away f r o m e x p l a n a t i o n s  tion  the  to  that  institution,  confines  U n i v e r s i t y or Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers'  e u g e n i c s was  first  t h e o r i s t s i n a very  The  racist  the  explanation  what was  demands o f o p e r a t i n g  p o s i t i o n from those  Stanford  a new  t h i n k i n g a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was  found elsewhere.  ent  optimism of  t e m p e r e d , and  the  The  of the  The  which would programs.  a i r , i t was embraced.  differof  College. eliminate Thus,  not An  while  a posiannual  report hinted: I t may be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e numerous s u b j e c t s and p r o b l e m s v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e work o f an i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , and p e r h a p s t h i s i s n o t t h e p l a c e i n w h i c h t o t a k e up t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f them; b u t a s u r v e y o f t h e b o y s and a l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h them and t h e i r p a r e n t s b r i n g t o mind many f e a t u r e s o f t h e immigration q u e s t i o n , t h e e u g e n i c s p r o p a g a n d a and t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f t h e c a u s e s and r e m e d i e s o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n quency .  P e r h a p s one of the  official  s c h o o l was The be  of the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e s to the position  t h e way  judges,  while  the  maintenance  t h a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was  court magistrates  using probation  saw  the  i n many c a s e s ,  just  a  institution. a l s o wanted  to  a b l e t o g i v e some m i n o r o f f e n d e r s a s m a l l t a s t e o f what pun-  ishment,  i . e . , commitment t o an  They a t t e m p t e d  t h i s created a l l kinds  i n the c o t t a g e s .  really  d i d have any  something o t h e r  As  well,  currency,  than  For  b o y s on  s h o r t t e r m remands.  being  a number o f y e a r s  punished  by  b o y s were b e i n g lem  generated  reverse their I t was, officials  by  the  disci-  idea, i f i t  educational refused to  speculated t h a t they  By  refusals,  1917,  and  was  experadmit were  were that  i n s p i t e of the  the prob-  o f t h e remands, t h e y were f o r c e d t o  policy. then,  t o the  advantage of the C h i l d r e n ' s  t o draw t h e p a r a l l e l s  a school.  short  when t h r e e c o t t a g e s  f o r these  sent elsewhere. acceptance  as an  the d i r e c t o r s  they  judges  on  t h a t commitment t o t h e V i l l a g e  I n 1915,  f o r l a c k of inmates,  like.  o f problems f o r  i t undermined the  punishment, such  ience.  closed  m i g h t be  t o a s s i g n boys t o C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  t e r m remands, b u t pline  institution,  They were q u i c k  between t h e i r  to point to  Village  institution  and  the  i n s t a l l a t i o n o f modern methods o f t e a c h i n g i n c l a s s rooms, o f s c i e n t i f i c d e v i c e s o r t e s t s f o r g r a d i n g p u p i l s , and w i t h s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s t o c a r e f o r t h o s e m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t ; t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f one a f t e r another branch of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; the organi z a t i o n o f p l a y and s p o r t s , and t h e f u r n i s h i n g o f w e e k l y i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s on t o p i c s e d u c a t i o n a l . 3 4 If  t h e y were o f f e r i n g  then  i t was  i n the  primarily  education  i n t e r e s t s of the  and  "students"  not  punishment,  t o s p e n d as  long  as  possible  school  was f a r  ferences degree tion, to  their  the  70  but  City  had  entrance  those Both  immigrant,  into  a  labour  at  the  force,  and  to  the  use  of  time of  the  the  i n s t i t u -  (whose^students immigrants  youth  d i f -  parallels  differed  act  i n  futures),  sought  in  as  i n  markedly  institutions  discipline  preparatory  and  certain  children  of  to the  glaringly  the  were  parallels  sets  to  most  over  schools or  reformatory  origins  There  immigrants  doctrine.  ways,  control  public  of  the  (their  itself.  nature  7Americanize t h e for  populations  percent  o f f i c i a l  of  i n a number o f  program  the  analogy  parents  New Y o r k  over  The  fetched  which  and  1909), the  in  to  the  were  there.  from  to  preparation  an  instrument  35  in  the  preservation  classification both.  But  as  a  last  of  Refuge)  be  drawn  molding  resort for  into  punishment, i n  suasion,  force  to  next  and  which  regular  net  of  by  degree  most  public  a  of  approved  Systematic  as  a  characterized d i s c i p l i n a r y  resort,  students  before  who w e r e  institutions  and  measure,  the  not  their  House  able  character-  was  expressed  i n  the  squad,  in  the  corporal  importantly,  in  the  fact  i n s t i t u t i o n ,  force,  Children's  as  norms;  residential  opposed  to  i t and  moral  was  greater  F i r s t ,  the  population,  less and  that  Village  system.  people  to  means.  Village  total  school up  last  d r i l l  overt  in  used  subtle  the  of  existed  socially  the  Children's  sense,  made  was  state  i n  order.  professionalism  school  more  perhaps  was  to  public  at  social  Village  Cottage,  The  definition, form  the  Goffman's  isolated.  the  the  urban  growing  (or  influences  Correctional  in  a  Children's  Overt  was,  and  of  w i l l i n g  second,  and  the  ready  than  to  i n s t i t u t i o n  by con-  c o u l d only hope to serve as a d e t e r r e n t , c o u l d o n l y h e l p p u b l i c school standards  of behavior,  and job and f a m i l y d i s c i p l i n e ,  i f commitment were seen as more odious than p u b l i c school a t t e n dance, working, and/or f a m i l y l i v i n g .  In f a c t , c h i l d r e n and  t h e i r f a m i l i e s found themselves with fewer c h o i c e s , less, freedom, and more s u r v e i l l a n c e once the N.Y.J.A. became i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r lives.  -  73  -  Footnotes Chapter  4  """Proceedings o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e on t h e C a r e o f D e p e n d e n t C h i l d r e n , 1909, q u o t e d i n R o b e r t Bremner, e d . , C h i l d r e n and Y o u t h i n A m e r i c a (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , I I , p. 361. 2  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1915,  p.  69.  3 See Education 1974).  M a r v i n L a z e r s o n and W. and V o c a t i o n a l i s m (New  N o r t o n Grubb, e d s . , American York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s ,  A  Mornay W i l l i a m s ,  "Memoranda" p.  4.  N,Y,J.A. A.R. 1915, p. 22. N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1915, pp. 10, 11. Schlossman notes, "Ninet e e n t h c e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n i s t s . . . saw j u v e n i l e c o r r e c t i o n s as forming a p a r a l l e l e d u c a t i o n a l system p r i m a r i l y f o r lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n o f i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s : , and t h a t i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h e two s p h e r e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n d e p e n d e n t . There i s evidence here t h a t c o r r e c t i o n s people c o n t i n u e d t o l o o k t o the s c h o o l model f o r t h e i r r a t i o n a l e . S c h l o s s m a n , "End o f I n n o c e n c e : S c i e n c e and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f P r o g r e s s i v e . J u v e n i l e J u s t i c e , 1899-1917", H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 7, 3 ( O c t . , 1978) p. 207. F o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l model i n m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o r r e c t i o n s , see B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r " , p. 76. 5  6  7  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1914,  p.  19.  8  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1901,  p.  24.  9 F o r example, see Guy W a t e r s , May 9, 1917. 10  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1903,  Morgan c o r r e s p o n d e n c e p.  t o Mrs.  Grace  17.  """"""N.Y.J.A. i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e c o r d s . B r e n z e l has a r g u e d i n "Lancaster I n d u s t r i a l School f o r G i r l s : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t of a N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Reform S c h o o l f o r G i r l s " , F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s , (1975), pp. 40-53, and K a t z has p i c k e d up t h e a r g u m e n t i n " O r i g i n s o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t a t e " , M a r x i s t P e r s p e c t i v e s , 1, 4 ( W i n t e r , 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 6-22, t h a t t h e e a r l y r e f o r m a t o r i e s were u s e d by p o o r p a r e n t s t o h e l p them i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r own g o a l s . "Poor p a r e n t s " , t h e l a t t e r a r g u e s , " t u r n e d t o r e f o r m s c h o o l s ,  - 74 which had not y e t a c q u i r e d t h e i r present stigma, p r e c i s e l y as o t h e r and more a f f l u e n t parents turned to academies as p l a c e s t h a t would remove t h e i r r e f r a c t o r y c h i l d r e n from trouble and educate them a t the same time." p. 14. T h i s i s an a p p l i c a t i o n of the argument put forward by Hogan, Tyack, and o t h e r s , t h a t s c h o o l s were used by immigrant f a m i l i e s i n the same way. Whatever v a l i d i t y i t has f o r mid-nineteenth century r e f o r m a t o r i e s , i t c l e a r l y does not apply i n the P r o g r e s s i v e e r a . 15  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1912,  p.  13.  16  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1903,  p.  20.  1 7  Hilles  to Conroy, A p r i l 17,  1905.  18 H i l l e s to Boyer, A p r i l p. 25 and 1912.  1907,  3, 1905;  a l s o see N.Y.J.A.  A.R.  19  N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1906, p. 30. For the e a r l i e r s t o r y of the House of Refuge, see Robert N. P i c k e t t , The House of Refuge: O r i g i n s of J u v e n i l e Reform i n New York S t a t e , 1815-1857 (Syracuse,':Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969). 20 Schneider and Deutsch, p. 176. 21 N.Y.J.A. i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e c o r d s . 22 Morgan to N o r r i s , June 20, 1914. 23  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1914,  p.  13.  24 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1917, pp. 46, 47. As noted above, notw i t h s t a n d i n g the d i r e c t o r s ' complaints, there doesn't seem to have been an e l i m i n a t i o n or even a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n of the "unfortunate" inmates. 25  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  1906,  p.  19.  26 "According to the t e s t s , anywhere from t w e n t y - f i v e to s e v e n t y - f i v e percent of i n c a r c e r a t e d d e l i n q u e n t s were c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y feeble-minded; t h a t i s t h e i r I.Q. scores were so low t h a t they were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n c a p a b l e of i n t e r n a l i z i n g s o c i a l norms." Schlossman, "End of Innonence", p. 215. 27 Hastings Hart, The E x t i n c t i o n of the D e f e c t i v e Delinquent: A Working Program (New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1912) , p. 5. Hart f e l t t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e way to l i m i t proc r e a t i o n by the feebleminded was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , w h i l e s t e r i l i z i n g o n l y " r a p i s t s , sexual p e r v e r t s or degenerates, confirmed masturbators and o t h e r s whose sexual tendencies c a l l f o r such a c t i o n . " Hastings Hart, S t e r i l i z a t i o n as a P r a c t i c a l Measure (New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1912), p. 5. 28 (1915), quoted i n Schneider and Deutsch, p. 241.  -  75 -  N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 25, " T h i s c l a s s " , i t was r e p o r t e d , " i s n o t d i s t i n c t by name f r o m t h e o t h e r s , t h o u g h i n r e a l i t y i t is peculiar." ^ T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h H a r t ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n : "The m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n w o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n t h e m e n t a l d e f e c t s and l i m i t ations of the c h i l d " . H a s t i n g s Hart, P r e v e n t a t i v e Treatment o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n (New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 1 0 ) , p. 13. 3  31  N . Y . J . A . A.R.  1912. 1912  32  N.Y.J.A.  A.R. 1912,  P-  14.  33  N.Y.J.A.  A.R. 1915,  P-  34.  34  N.Y.J.A.  A.R. 1915,  P- 11.  35 See D a v i d T y a c k , The One B e s t S y s t e m (Cambridge, Mass: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) ; and M a r v i n L a z e r s o n , The O r i g i n s o f t h e Urban S c h o o l : P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1870-1915 (Cambridge, Mass: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) .  76  -  -  Chapter D e c l i n e and  After  reached  Renewal: The C o l o n e l T a k e s 1918-1930  t h e F i r s t W o r l d War,  widespread  l a b o r and  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and  a high pitch.  strikes,  5  including  I n 1919  police  one  the U n i t e d Mine Workers i n t h e  and  a series  o f bombings and  a g a i n s t g o v e r n m e n t l e a d e r s who activity "red  and  There  was  but  U.S.  e n t e r t a i n e d such  a Black u p r i s i n g  was  A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l A.  left  bitter  steel  the  strike,  These, a l o n g  International attempted  bombings  of labor scale  and  a legacy.  of  of a l l .  sending  The  of  t o a p e n a l c o l o n y i n Guam, o r  Mitchell aliens,  The  and  plot  a r c h i t e c t of the  P a l m e r , whose r a i d s  on  scare  anar-  the d e p o r t a t i o n of the  the c o r e o f government  hysterical  with  directed  a full  worst  s u g g e s t i o n s as t h e  and  i n March,  foreigners,  o f t h o s e was  i n t h e South."""  c o m m u n i s t s , and  constituted The  activity  i n a supposed p l a n f o r a Communist-inspired  for  ter,  was  i n January,  favored r e s t r i c t i o n  the combination  citizens with radical b e l i e f s  chists,  fall.  fear of labor, of  Bolshevism,  intervention  Strike  i m m i g r a t i o n were enough t o b r i n g on  scare".  Senate  political  i n September, a m a s s i v e  t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Communist T h i r d 1919,  unrest  t h e r e were a number o f  Boston by  social  radical  the S e a t t l e General  strike  Hold,  lat-  activity.  r e a c t i o n d i e d down w i t h i n a y e a r , b u t i t  At the N a t i o n a l Conference  o f S o c i a l Work i n  1920,  J a n e Addams d e p l o r e d  noted  t h a t t h e c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n had  only  towards r a d i c a l s ,  but  the  anti-immigrant  sentiment,  and  become u n f a v o r a b l e  not  a l s o toward s o c i a l  reformers:  The i m m i g r a n t s a r e f e e l i n g , some o f them w i t h good r e a s o n , t h a t t h e y a r e b e i n g l o o k e d upon w i t h s u s p i c i o n and r e g a r d e d as d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . . . . I f t h e i m m i g r a n t s now h o l d m e e t i n g s and s a y t h e t h i n g s t h e y a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o s a y , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o be a r r e s t e d and e v e n d e p o r t e d . I n 19 24,  a new  into effect  immigration  and  law,  drastically  b a s e d on  reduced  a quota  immigration  s y s t e m , came from  Eastern,  3 Central  and  Southern  damper on m i l i t a n t of  the  leftist  The  as a r e s u l t t o new  Popular agencies How  social  expectations  were b e i n g  system.  but  unrest,  the  but  f o r the  wave and  directors  shops,  end  of the p o l i t i c s  search of  social  of  problems  for  fears that 4  respond?  At  "normalcy"  control. juvenile  through  S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I.Q.  r e s u l t s were t h e n  a boy  who  leave the  used to c l a s s i f y  has  and  and  t e s t s were  c o t t a g e s , and  the  disciplinary  of mental t e s t i n g  number o f b o y s w o u l d  s c h o o l , and  core of  a p a r o l e system  under i t s c o n t r o l  w i s e s t method o f d e a l i n g w i t h  the  traditional  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  substantial  The  the  a  l e n i e n t were p r e v a l e n t .  remain l e g a l l y  to a l l entrants.  only put  a p p e a r a n c e o f new  s o p h i s t i c a t e d use  (See A p p e n d i x )  not  a l s o marked t h e  from i n s t i t u t i o n s  T h e s e were now  A  had  the b e g i n n i n g  program remained the  increasingly  Village  too  d i d the V i l l a g e  classification.  ents  politics,  perceptions of a crime  techniques. an  hysteria  o f d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e , and  Children's Village  by  The  " P r o g r e s s i v e e r a " , and  "normalcy."  led  Europe.  the parole  given stud-  to determine  "the  been r e p o r t e d f o r  d i s o b e d i e n c e o r i n f r a c t i o n of the 1921, the  the t e s t i n g r e s u l t e d  i n the following categorization of  All  Superior Normal Dull-normal Borderline Moron o r f e e b l e m i n d e d  inmates, r e g a r d l e s s formal  day.  P e r c e n t o f C.V. Population  Category  110 90-110 80-90 70-80 Below 7 0  in  In  population:  I.Q.  of  r u l e s of the school."^  school  4% 18% 22% 25% 31%  o f t e s t r e s u l t s , w o u l d have t h r e e  work and t h r e e  hours o f v o c a t i o n a l  hours  t r a i n i n g each  B u t t h e d i r e c t o r s , f o l l o w i n g L e w i s Terman, saw d i f f e r e n c e s  the boys'  futures  as c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i r e c t l y  t o t h e I.Q. t e s t  results: I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t b e l o w 70 r a r e l y p e r m i t s a n y t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n u n s k i l l e d l a b o r ; f r o m 80-100 t h a t o f s k i l l e d o r o r d i n a r y c l e r i c a l l a b o r . . . we know t h a t 95% o f o u r b o y s need m a n u a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . ^ The  establishment  of a "multiple  geneous g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g the of  increased  specificity  "sub-normal"  organization  system" w i t h  categories  i n m a t e s were l a b e l l e d were t h e c o r e  o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Department implemented  1922 by a J u l i a  Heibel.  had  made a " c a r e f u l and e x h a u s t i v e  homo-  t o m e n t a l a b i l i t y , and  w i t h which the v a r i o u s  and  tally  track  of ar e i n 1921  Her appointment as p r i n c i p a l (she s t u d y o f b a c k w a r d and men-  7 d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n " ) r e f l e c t e d a growing concern  with  g  professionalization. first staff,  I n 1918, t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t h a d made i t s  mention o f the n e c e s s i t y  of "professional fitness"  and i n 1920 came t h e f i r s t  in-service  of the  "professional  development" specialist staff  .  Dr. Walter  i n c o r r e c t i o n o f speech  and c o n d u c t e d  a clinic  a i n methods employed speech.  S w i f t of Harvard  defects, "lectured  demonstrating  i n the readjustment  t o the  t o the teachers  o f t h e organs o f  t h e post-war p e r i o d f o r C h i l d r e n ' s  V i l l a g e was a t i m e o f d e c l i n e , to c r i s i s .  There  a d e c l i n e which t h r e a t e n e d t o  were b e g i n n i n g s  o f severe  financial  p r o b l e m s i n 1917, b u t an e v e n more w o r r i s o m e t r e n d became dent  cert-  1 , 9  Despite these e f f o r t s ,  lead  University, a  i n the early  precipitously,  twenties.  Village  p l u n g i n g from  evi-  p o p u l a t i o n was f a l l i n g o f f  538 i n 1919, t o 435 i n 1920, t o  410 i n 1921, t o 380 i n 1922, t o 325 i n 1923, t o 295 i n 1 9 2 4 . S t a f f were l a i d The  1 0  o f f , and by 1923, t e n c o t t a g e s h a d b e e n c l o s e d .  p r o b l e m s w i t h remands became more  Morgan c o m p l a i n e d  t o New Y o r k C i t y  severe.  Superintendent  judges:  D u r i n g t h e month o f J u n e , we r e c e i v e d f r o m G r e a t e r New Y o r k 55 b o y s and o f t h i s number 47 were s h o r t remands. When t h e s c h o o l c o n s e n t e d t o r e c e i v e s h o r t commitments, i t was s t a t e d t h a t s h o r t commitments w o u l d be made o n l y i n s p e c i a l c a s e s . A further the f a c t  c o m p l i c a t i o n , i n t h e eyes  o f t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , was  t h a t remands were c o m m i t t e d w i t h o u t  regard to r e l i g i o n ,  12 and most were C a t h o l i c The in way  directors  searched  numbers; c l e a r l y ,  formerly leading  f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d e c r e a s e  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n would n o t l a s t  t h i n g s were g o i n g .  delinquency?  o r Jewish.  Had t h e y  Was p r o h i b i t i o n  inebriated  parents?  to a "better quality"  s o l v e d t h e problem  l e a d i n g t o more Was r e s t r i c t e d of city  long the of juvenile  s u p e r v i s i o n by immigration  dweller?  already  Had t h e war h a d  - 80 an  effect  on t h e m o r a l s o f y o u t h ?  to  reform  the poor?  Were h i g h e r  wages  helping  The d i r e c t o r s t h o u g h t n o t .  N o t h i n g c o u l d be more g r a t i f y i n g t o t h e D i r e c t o r s o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n than t o d i s c o v e r that j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y had d i s a p p e a r e d and t h a t t h e b o y s o f t o d a y had so f a r i m p r o v e d i n c h a r a c t e r t h a t none o f them r e q u i r e r e s t r a i n t and d i s c i p l i n e b u t t h e y do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s has o c c u r r e d . ^ Rather, they on  t h e blame f o r t h e d r o p p i n g  the judges o f the C h i l d r e n ' s  lenient  i n their  extensive, in  placed  they  sentencing reasoned.  the v i c i n i t y ,  Court.  population  The j u d g e s had b e e n t o o  and t h e u s e o f p r o b a t i o n Morgan s u r v e y e d  and f o u n d t h a t t h e y  other  was t o o  institutions  t o o were p l a g u e d by d r o p -  14 ping  populations.  A further complication  of the extensive  use  of probation,  that  t h e b o y s who were c o m m i t t e d were an " i n f e r i o r t y p e " : W h i l e i t i s a f a c t t h a t we r e c e i v e a v e r y much i n f e r i o r t y p e o f boy m e n t a l l y t h a n f o r m e r l y , who o f c o u r s e r e q u i r e c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n , I had n o t t h o u g h t o f t h e i r b e i n g so much more h a r d e n e d as t h a t t h e y a r e d e f e c t i v e and low g r a d e morons w h i c h makes t h e m o r a l p r o b l e m more d i f f i c u l t t o cope w i t h . I t seems t h a t t h e boy who comes up t o t h e mark i n i n t e l l i g e n c e i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y p a r o l e d when he comes b e f o r e t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t r e g a r d l e s s o f the o f f e n s e committed.  Anti-institution extent first  feeling,  p l a c e was a g a i n  the b e s t  w h i c h had been r e s p o n s i b l e t o some  presenting  d i r e c t o r s continued  itself  to hold  system i n the  as a p r o b l e m .  that theirs  a r r a n g e m e n t f o r young d e l i n q u e n t s ,  young b o y s . tional  Morgan, was  f o r t h e move t o Dobbs F e r r y and t h e c o t t a g e  The  for  i n t h e eyes o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  was  i f not f o r a l l  Morgan a r g u e d t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t u s e o f  commitment  i n e a r l i e r years  criminal careers"  and t h i s  had l a i d  explained  i n fact  "the  institu-  foundations  the recent  c r i m e wave  and  81  -  the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n a t E l m i r a Reformatory 16)."^  men o v e r  ( f o r young  On t h e d e f e n s i v e , t h e d i r e c t o r s went  further:  The d i r e c t o r s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e a r e f i r m i n t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a good i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l — a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l — i s i n v e r y many c a s e s t h e o n l y s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e f o r t h e commitment o f t h e d e l i n q u e n t b o y . They send t h e i r own c h i l d r e n t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may g e t t h e c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and c a r e , t h e w a t c h f u l e y e , t h e r e g u l a r h o u r s f o r work and s t u d y and p l a y , w h i c h c a n o n l y be g i v e n by s u c h a s c h o o l . 1 7 But  the simple  save the  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these  the i n s t i t u t i o n .  The B o a r d  idea of admitting mentally  a r g u m e n t s was n o t g o i n g t o  of Directors briefly  toyed  r e t a r d e d boys, b u t found  t h e y w o u l d have t o become a s t a t e  institution,  with  that  which they  were  18 unwilling  t o do.  a more p o t e n t  solution.  superintendent Guy  Morgan.  breadth in  U l t i m a t e l y , however, t h e d i r e c t o r s I n 1922  of vision  as thorough  t h e y began a s e a r c h f o r a new  t o r e p l a c e t h e competent though  They hoped t o f i n d necessary  found  uninspiring  someone who w o u l d have t h e  t o reshape  the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  a way a s had happened i n 1905.  Only  perhaps  through  such change,they thought, c o u l d C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e s u r v i v e . In January,  19 24,  after  two y e a r s o f l o o k i n g ,  P r e s i d e n t Edmund Dwight was a b l e t o p r e s e n t Faulkner  t o t h e Board  Board  t h e name o f L e o n  o f D i r e c t o r s a s t h e new s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f  Children's Village.  Morgan's r e s i g n a t i o n was s o u g h t  tained,  assumed c o n t r o l on J u n e  and F a u l k n e r  The  and ob^.-  1.  E x e c u t i v e Committee had b e e n l o o k i n g f o r "a man o f  larger  executive experience,  entire  field  of child  one who i s more i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  s a v i n g work and p a r t i c u l a r l y  present our cause e f f e c t i v e l y  before  the world."  20  one who c a n Although  -  F a u l k n e r had have t h e nor  held  p o s i t i o n s of  upper c l a s s s o c i a l  d i d he  have t h e  formal  -  82  some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he  contacts schooling  become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t Faulkner  Police  t h e Army R e s e r v e C o r p s ) ,  military  S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n War. juvenile  institutions.  Berkshire the  came w i t h a  had  and  (N.Y.), and  been  "drill  the  T r a i n i n g S c h o o l w h i c h he one  had  of  Military  the  of p o s i t i o n s  successively,  the  in  the  (N.Y.), t h e  most r e c e n t l y o f  as  decidedly  master" of  superintendent,  t o a p o i n t where i t i s now  Known  Philippines during  Home f o r F r i e n d l e s s C h i l d r e n  Republic  Industrial status  He  Williams,  a major of  honed i n a s u c c e s s i o n  I n d u s t r i a l Farm and  Fairview  Junior  , and  was  he  i n the  not  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which would  (though i n f a c t he  o r i e n t a t i o n , forged  or  i n subsequent years.  "Colonel" of  of a H i l l e s  did  of  George  Maryland  " r a i s e d from a  poor  t h e most e f f i c i e n t  and 21  well  recognized  Significantly, Prison  industrial he  was  t h e work" o f  e x p e c t e d him  d i r e c t o r and  t o be  the  not  given  Vice  of  this  country."  President  of  a " f r e e hand i n t h e  institution,  only  to  salvage  it  back i n t o n a t i o n a l prominence.  on  h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  any  schools  of  c h i l d - s a v i n g and  as  "a man  interest  of very in his  but  i t was  the  operation,  For  American  job",  and  as  but  s t e r n and  Board  catapult  t h e y were r e l y i n g  ability  rather  F a u l k n e r was  than  described  magnetism, t r e m e n d o u s e n e r g y  "unsmiling,  unrelaxed, 22  and  to  the  out  emerging t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s  child-guidance.  considerable  carrying  clear that  this,  administrative  p a r t i c u l a r competence i n t h e  firm  the  Association.  F a u l k n e r was of  reform  f r i g h t e n i n g to a k i d .  . . . "  and  both and  terribly  -  Faulkner's  reforms  those which r e f l e c t e d solutions was  -  83  may be d i v i d e d  to  two c a t e g o r i e s :  h i s p e r s o n a l , sometimes  t o problems o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ,  responsible administratively  reflect  into  and t h o s e  i n tune w i t h  f o r w h i c h he  b u t which d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y  h i s own p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n .  be more c l o s e l y  indiosyncratic  The l a t t e r  institutional  tended  developments  else-  where. Faulkner's tive,  o r i e n t a t i o n was q u i c k l y  disciplinary,  Military  and m i l i t a r y  i n uniform  seven  i n the administra-  aspects of the V i l l a g e .  e q u i p m e n t was p u r c h a s e d  were d r e s s e d  felt  from  t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t ;  boys  d a y s a week; t h e r e was a m u s t e r 23  drill  e v e r y m o r n i n g and a f o r m a l p a r a d e on S u n d a y s .  cipline  s y s t e m was revamped.  credits  and g r a d e s  The d i s -  I t s core remained a system o f  f o r good b e h a v i o r .  t h o u g h i t e x i s t e d , was s t r i c t l y  C o r p o r a l punishment,  controlled,  a n d s t a f f who  used  24  it  without  b e i n g a u t h o r i z e d were f i r e d .  Perhaps from  p e r i e n c e s a t t h e George J u n i o r R e p u b l i c , F a u l k n e r idea o f a Student  brought the  C o u n c i l , w h i c h made t h e i n m a t e s an i n t e g r a l  p a r t o f .the d i s c i p l i n e  system.  The C o u n c i l , s o o n r e p l a c e d b y a  " G r a d u a t e C l u b " , made r e p o r t s on s t u d e n t and  presented.student  and c o t t a g e  conduct,  g r i e v a n c e s t o t h e Managing D i r e c t o r ( t h e  new name f o r t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) .  Faulkner  also effected  p l e t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and h a d t h e V i l l a g e a  "Union Free S c h o o l D i s t r i c t "  his of  tenure.  The l a t t e r  t h e New Y o r k C i t y  institutions  h i s ex-  Schools,  i n New Y o r k made  declared  w i t h i n t h e f i r s t few months o f  removed t h e V i l l a g e  Public  a com-  from  the s u p e r v i s i o n  a move w h i c h o t h e r  subsequently.  juvenile  Faulkner's personal dealing  with  Children's  i d i o s y n c r a s i e s were a l s o  the c r i t i c a l  Village.  84 felt  problem o f the p o p u l a t i o n  H i s s o l u t i o n , was,  t o a c c e p t new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  i n general  inhis  drop a t terms, not  o f inmates, but t o e l i m i n a t e c e r 25  tain  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h were a l r e a d y  time o f h i s a r r i v a l , for  present.  From t h e  he wanted t o make t h e V i l l a g e "a  school  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and t r a i n i n g o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n who  had  26 acquired  bad h a b i t s . "  children  (listed  who, had of  This  as t h o s e c o m m i t t e d  i n s p i t e of the State never r e a l l y  reject  applications  branded  I t a l s o meant t h e  o f s h o r t - t e r m remands.  i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e ,  them as " f e e b l e - m i n d e d " .  t h e V i l l a g e would  elimination  Finally,  I.Q.  test  i t meant t h e e l i m i n -  boys". o f the Black c h i l d r e n a t the time o f the  new move t o Dobbs F e r r y 1909,  continuation  f o r commitment o f c h i l d r e n whose  a t i o n of the "colored The  guardianship"),  B o a r d o f C h a r i t i e s r u l i n g i n 1907,  been e x c l u d e d .  i t meant t h a t ,  o f dependent  f o r "improper  t h e c a m p a i g n t o r e d u c e t h e number  Further,  the  meant t h e e x c l u s i o n  had n o t r e m a i n e d p o l i c y f o r l o n g .  By  s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f B l a c k c h i l d r e n were c o m m i t t e d t o V i l l a g e each year.  crimination: subject  t h e y were s e g r e g a t e d  to blatant  two " l i t e r a r y  official  clubs"  gram w i t h c h a r a c t e r s imitated  the t r i a l s  program r e c e i v e d reported  B u t a d m i s s i o n had n o t come w i t h o u t  i n t o t h e i r own c o t t a g e s and 27  racism.  The I r v i n g C l u b , one o f  a t the V i l l a g e , presented  a minstrel  s u c h a s Tambo and Sambo.  "William  of a s t u t t e r e r  dis-  pro-  Farley  . . . b u t no number on t h e  so much a p p l a u s e as t h e l i t t l e  The V i l l a g e R e c o r d , whose r e g u l a r  pickaninnies,"  feature,  "Darktown  - 85 Ways", was  replete with r a c i s t  -  jokes.  28  D u r i n g the p o s t - w a r p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e t h e B l a c k p o p u l a t i o n had becoming a l a r g e r January,  1919  January,  1924,  and  remained  approximately  l a r g e r percentage  t h e r e had  b e e n 432  t h e r e were 185  white  white  and  and  187  173  f a c t o r s may  the  increase i n southern Black immigration  thus  In  Black boys.  Black  have b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s  i n c l u d i n g New  constant,  of the t o t a l .  Two  centers,  at Children's V i l l a g e ,  By  children.  situation.  to northern  Y o r k C i t y , meant a l a r g e r  1 0  First,  urban  number o f  poor  30 B l a c k s t o draw f r o m . decline the  S e c o n d , i f one  i n p o p u l a t i o n was  i n c r e a s e d use  judges'  in fact,  o f p r o b a t i o n by  r e l u c t a n c e to put Black  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r  of the reasons  as t h e d i r e c t o r s  f o r the  supposed,  j u v e n i l e c o u r t judges,  the  j u v e n i l e s on p r o b a t i o n may  continued presence  i n the  have  institu-  31 tions. Three  months a f t e r he  assumed o f f i c e ,  t o t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e B o a r d Black  inmates  be d i s c h a r g e d and  Faulkner  recommended  of D i r e c t o r s  t h a t no more be  that  accepted  the for  com-  32 mitment.  The  directors  o b l i g e d , and 33  w i t h a minimum o f d e b a t e . expected, deadline  and  i n May,  1925,  The  task proved  logic  f o r the e x p u l s i o n : "Steps  trying  behind  project  population of s l i g h t l y  inmate c a p a c i t y .  I n any  s h o u l d be . . .  remains  to get r i d of approximately  institution a 600  this  e n a b l i n g motions more d i f f i c u l t  F a u l k n e r got the Board  the d i s c h a r g e o f a l l c o l o r e d bbys The  passed  100 over  case,  to set a  taken  to  by J a n u a r y  1,  baffling:  than  complete 34 1926."  Faulkner  was  Black  students of a  total  200,  in a facility  with  t h e t a s k was  not  easy.  Faulkner Caring  solicited  help  86 -  from t h e F e d e r a t i o n  of Institutions  f o r P r o t e s t a n t C h i l d r e n i n " p o i n t i n g t h e way t o w a r d t h e  solution  o f the problem o f d i s p o s i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t  colored  35 boys."  N e a r b y R i v e r d a l e and L e a k e and W a t t s S c h o o l s  t o o k on  some o f t h e w h i t e d e p e n d e n t b o y s , a s w e l l a s some o f t h e B l a c k children.  The C o l o r e d  Orphan A s y l u m i n n e i g h b o r i n g  Hudson accommodated by m o d i f y i n g  Hastings-on-  i t s program t o i n c l u d e  delin-  quents. W i t h p o p u l a t i o n a t an a l l - t i m e was d e c i d e d tion  " t o keep one c o t t a g e 37  i s built  up."  a t each e x e c u t i v e populations.  low, i n December, 1925,  o f c o l o r e d boys u n t i l  Throughout e a r l y  popula-  1926, t h e r e was a r e p o r t  committee meeting o f t h e B l a c k  By J u n e 16, t h e l a s t  i t  Black  and w h i t e  i n m a t e had been  dis-  charged. A v i s i t o r i n 1927 r e p o r t e d : C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e f o r m e r l y took a very c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f Negro c h i l d r e n b u t now d e c l i n e s t o r e c e i v e them and t h e y a r e s e n t t o t h e House o f R e f u g e , w h i c h i s a poor s o r t o f p l a c e e x c e p t i n g f o r v e r y aggravated cases. Colonel Faulkner f e e l s that the Children's V i l l a g e c a n n o t be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o p e r a t e d i f t h e r e i s a m i x t u r e o f w h i t e s and b l a c k s . 3 8 F a u l k n e r was e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e remand problem.  I n 1927, t h e number o f remands was down t o 18  (presum-  39 ably  i n one c o t t a g e ) .  t o o k no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y one  cottage  In the t h i r t i e s ,  Children's  f o r remands a t a l l :  they  Village  simply  rented  t o t h e C o u n t y f o r i t s own u s e f o r remands, and had  40 nothing  t o do w i t h  Population steadily  during  attributed  admission,  started  to rise  the next  to the l a s t  discharges,  years.  o r program.  a g a i n by l a t e  1926, and d i d so  P a r t o f t h e i n c r e a s e may be  two o f F a u l k n e r ' s  "personal"  innovations:  the acceptance them d i r e c t l y of g i r l s . until  and  " b o a r d e r s " — c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s who  (Boarders  t h e end  reasons  of  paid for their and  girls  of Faulkner's  the  provided  conclusive evidence  tenure  achieved.  T h e r e was  ments, n o r was  i n the annual as  t o how  not  i n 1941).  V i l l a g e but years  y e a r would  Village  Otherwise  even  the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e  a marked  t h e r e a marked d e c l i n e i n d i s c h a r g e s . y e a r was  legally  remain under i t s c o n t r o l .  o f Morgan's c o n t r o l , l e a v e the V i l l a g e  between 150  i n t h i s manner.  end  leave  In the  and  250  commit-  What d o e s  an  p a r o l e s y s t e m , whereby i n m a t e s w o u l d  provide  was  i n c r e a s e i n number o f  first  the  A n a l y s i s of  r e p o r t s does not  seem t o have happened i n F a u l k n e r ' s the V i l l a g e ' s  acceptance  remained p a r t of the  f o r the p o p u l a t i o n b u i l d - u p are u n c l e a r .  statistics  eral  s t a y , and  committed  to the  last  sev-  inmates  per  This practice  was  41 a b r u p t l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 19 24 The  (see  c o t t a g e s were f i l l i n g  up  Appendix). again.  But  the n a t i o n a l  ure which the d i r e c t o r s  s o u g h t r e q u i r e d more t h a n  ulation.  i n n o v a t i o n s undertaken under  The  remaining  t e n u r e were t h e ones w h i c h w o u l d meet t h a t end. sible  f o r them i n an  not d i c t a t e d Faulkner's  by  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sense,  h i s own  orientation  personal philosophy.  t o some c o n f l i c t ,  but  later  i n time  N a t i o n a l p r o m i n e n c e c o u l d be with  other  He  was  their The  institutions  prominent l e a d e r s i n the  and  to  respon-  shape  was  divergence  reflected,  in  work led at  accommodation.  e s t a b l i s h e d by  agencies,  field  reforms  pop-  Faulkner's  from t h a t of the n a t i o n a l s o c i a l  community, whose t h i n k i n g t h e s e first  but  a higher  stat-  by  forging ties  attracting  t o work a t C h i l d r e n ' s  nationally Village,  - 88 by working with methods which were a t the f o r e f r o n t of reform thought,  and by p u b l i c i z i n g the work through  and p u b l i c a t i o n s .  juvenile  conferences  Faulkner's f i r s t i n n o v a t i o n (which was w r i t t e n  i n t o h i s o r i g i n a l agreement w i t h the Board of D i r e c t o r s ) combined a l l of these.  In a d d i t i o n , i t promised  vacant c o t t a g e s .  a way  to f i l l  up  the  I t i n v o l v e d the establishment a t C h i l d r e n ' s  V i l l a g e of a N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g School f o r I n s t i t u t i o n E x e c u t i v e s and Workers. By the twenties, the potency established.  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m was  well  The examples of d o c t o r s , lawyers, t e a c h e r s , and  s o c i a l workers had p r o v i d e d models f o r the development of a p r o f e s s i o n a l ethos, a s p e c i a l i z e d body of knowledge, and r e s t r i c t e d access through the c r e d e n t i a l i n g of p r o f e s s i o n a l schools.  Workers i n i n s t i t u t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e s were  threatened w i t h being l e f t behind a t t h i s p o i n t .  There  was  s t r o n g a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e e l i n g among the n a t i o n a l s o c i a l f a r e community.  The c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f i e l d of s o c i a l work  wel-  was  developing f a s t , but the s p e c i a l i z e d body of knowledge on which i t came to r e l y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u r e — t h e d e v e l o p i n g s c i e n c e of  i n d i v i d u a l casework—seemed to be c a r r y i n g i t f u r t h e r away 42  from i t s t i e s w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n s . the time any  There d i d not e x i s t a t  formal t r a i n i n g or c r e d e n t i a l i n g body f o r i n s t i t u -  t i o n workers: most of them simply rose through s t i t u t i o n work i t s e l f selves) . to  the ranks of i n -  ( v i z . H i l l e s , Morgan and Faulkner them-  The N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g School was  supply a f i r s t step i n the attempt  t u t i o n workers, and i t was  a conscious  effort  to p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported  by  insti-  -  89 -  i n s t i t u t i o n men and women a r o u n d t h e c o u n t r y . liant  plan  from t h e s t a n d p o i n t  I t was a b r i l -  of Children's Village.  students  w o u l d be t h e e x e c u t i v e s  juvenile  and p e n a l  institutions  The  and w o u l d - b e e x e c u t i v e s o f from a c r o s s  t h e c o u n t r y , and  the V i l l a g e would t u r n i n t o a l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e p r o j e c t . I n September, figure,  1925, C a l v i n D e r r i c k , a n a t i o n a l l y known  Superintendent  o f t h e New J e r s e y  State  Home f o r Boys a t  J a m e s b u r g , and s o o n t o be p r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l of J u v e n i l e Agencies, School  was a t t r a c t e d t o o r g a n i z e  and t o assume t h e p o s i t i o n o f d e a n .  Conference  the Training  H i s s a l a r y was s e t 43  a t $6,000, t h e same a s F a u l k n e r ' s s e t up w i t h  credit  as e x t e n s i o n s  i n that year.  o f t h e New Y o r k S c h o o l o f  S o c i a l Work and C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e . responsibility so  C o u r s e s were  Derrick  f o r Children's V i l l a g e ' s Educational  t h a t he c o u l d  reorganize  assumed Department,  v o c a t i o n a l and a c a d e m i c work f o r  more c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e two, and between them and t h e Training part  School.  Most o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  i n t h e coursework o f t h e T r a i n i n g School.  Annual Report s t a t e d ,  "there  have been numerous c h a n g e s i n o u r  during  obtaining  a higher  cern with  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m which t h e T r a i n i n g School  type  many o f w h i c h have r e s u l t e d i n o u r 44  o f worker than h e r e t o f o r e . "  t h u s had s p i n - o f f s f o r t h e V i l l a g e  to twenty r e s i d e n t students enroled had tion  held  f o r the year  from o u t s i d e  and l i v e d  some e x e c u t i v e  and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  took  T h e 1925  personnel  the V i l l a g e  the year,  staff  they  brought t o  staff.  of Children's  i n the cottages.  or supervisory  The c o n -  From t e n Village  Most o f t h e s e  p o s i t i o n i n an i n s t i t u -  represented  a national cross-section.  - 90 By  1928,  being  selection  selected After  one  o f s t u d e n t s had  from  one  hundred  year, the Board  beyond the V i l l a g e  funds.  now  45  They had  seen  and  B r o t h e r B a r n a b a s , who work f o r t h i r t y  been prominent  Johnson,  League o f  America,  York  o f t h e New  C a r i n g f o r P r o t e s t a n t s , and  the  Hastings  Charles  i n New  of  from  the b a s i s of  y e a r s , Martha F a l c o n e r , s e c r e t a r y of  Federation of Agencies  from  f o r funds  . l u m i n a r i e s as  Sage F o u n d a t i o n ,  had  money  sponsorship  petitioned  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the C h i l d Welfare  Thurston,  sought  their  With the support of such  of the R u s s e l l  twelve  applicants.  Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r M e m o r i a l Fund on  work t o d a t e . Hart,  become c o m p e t i t i v e ,  of D i r e c t o r s  t h e p r o g r a m as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n , the Laura  -  juvenile the  Henry  Y o r k S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, t h e  petition  46 was  successful.  the T r a i n i n g The June,  School  Training  1927,  The  M e m o r i a l Fund g r a n t e d money f o r r u n n i n g  f o r a three-year  School  D e r r i c k was  soon r a n i n t o problems, lured  f o r Boys w i t h t h e p r o m i s e c e r n on that  of a higher s a l a r y .  S c h o o l was  that h i s replacement  t h e Fund, b e c a u s e and  b a c k t o t h e New  the p a r t o f the M e m o r i a l Fund.  the T r a i n i n g  noted  term.  training  has  been such 47  s i n g l e handed."  through  the remaining  ment f o r D e r r i c k was  T h i s caused  t o t h e New  i t was  s h o u l d receive the active a t t e n t i o n  him  The  School c a r r i e d  found.  to grapple with  funding, but  I n 1929,  of  education  as t o e n a b l e Training  con-  A tour i n July revealed  " t h o r o u g h l y d i s r u p t e d : , and  y e a r s of committed never  In  J e r s e y S t a t e Home  " i t i s doubtful i f Col. Faulkner's  problem  transferred  however.  on a replace-  the program  Y o r k S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, and  this  was direct  Children's  Village  During quarter Training and  involvement  i t s second year,  w h i c h had School  91  originally  became t h e  -  ended.  criticism  had  developed  supported  the  project.  focus  o f d e b a t e between  home-maintenance p r o p o n e n t s on  p r o p o n e n t s on  the  other.  brought a greater Village  and  t h e r e was  tives,  criticism  of  Derrick's  and  i n s t i t u t i o n men. as  t h e y saw  administrator with  48  the  and  The  i t , had securing  i n the  "the  with  School  Children's adequate  . . orientation  institution being  adequate funding, And  institution  Training  Faulkner's  more t o do  case-work  a b s e n c e o f an  of  a  The  hand and  s c r u t i n y to  training  p r i n c i p l e s of casework.  important  one  presence of the  degree of o u t s i d e  casework s e r v i c e . " that of  The  the  from  an  execu-  efficient  than being  casework i t s e l f  eyes of these t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s ,  was  familiar  was  than the  less reg-  49 ular discipline  of  approach from the  institutional  life.  Skepticism  with  this  C h i l d W e l f a r e League l e d t o a t h r e a t t o  the  50  continuation  of  funding  ment o f a s e c o n d  The  step  i n a new  i n avoiding  I.Q.  While the  p r o g r a m b a s e d on Children's  Village,  and  as  develop-  however,  innovation  must be  t e s t i n g had  been o n l y  provided  s e g r e g a t e a new  sketched. the  delinquents. a basis  category:  for  the  h e r e d i t a r i a n e u g e n i c i s t s promoted  has  may  such a c t i o n .  t e s t i n g had  such s e g r e g a t i o n ,  Village,  The  o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i n k i n g about  campaign t o i d e n t i f y  feebleminded.  second  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  L e w i s Terman's work on the  Training School.  at Children's  background of t h i s  pre-war spread  first  the  innovation  have b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l The  of  institutions  s u c h as  b e e n s t a t e d a b o v e , had  no  real  a  0... place  for  such  a program.  b e c o m i n g an  As  David  e n t r y i n the  a superintendent  92  Rothman has  case  to t r a n s f e r  -  r e c o r d and  indicated, "aside  from  occasionally allowing  a s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d inmate  to 51  another the  facility,  the  I.Q.  test  score h a r d l y mattered."  o t h e r hand t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e u s e  provision ellious,  into  Psychopathic  Clinic,  flowered  Here, a p s y c h i a t r i s t , served  areas  of t h e i r  i t s roots i n W i l l i a m Healy's  Judge Baker F o u n d a t i o n  Clinic  i n Healy  and  organized  Augusta  Bronner s 1  in  1917.  a psychiatric  social  to the  j u v e n i l e c o u r t , making  mendations f o r sentencing  to the  judges,  subsequent treatment. not  proliferate  The  until  and  recom-  playing a role  s t r u c t u r e u s e d by the  This  Chicago  i n Boston  p s y c h o l o g i s t , and  reb-  and  lives.  as a d j u n c t s  did  the  f o r the poor, d e v i a n t , or  t h e most " p r i v a t e "  step, with  worker  therapy  to  would e v e n t u a l l y i n v o l v e i n c r e a s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e  intrusion second  of p s y c h i a t r i c  of psychology  On  Healy  and  in  Bronner  1920's, when i t c a u g h t on  like  52 wildfire. phor,  for  arsonists.  the w e l f a r e  a new  however, i f we effort  I n 1920,  ( e s t a b l i s h e d by Mrs.  School  on  the  o f mankind  ")  a t t a c k on  a f i v e - y e a r p l a n : the  Delinquency,  w h i c h was  included  funding  the  extend  year  "do  asked: H e n r y T h u r s t o n a broad, He  B r o n n e r , and  f o r m a l l y adopted  meta-  well-  something  o f the  and  a committee i n -  Martha F a l c o n e r  drew  of  i n November, 19 21.  teachers,  N.Y.  national plan for  Program f o r the P r e v e n t i o n  of v i s i t i n g  the  o l d Commonwealth  Harkness to  juvenile delinquency.  among o t h e r s , H e a l y ,  can  the p a r t of very  two  S t e p h e n V.  o f S o c i a l Work t o f o r m u l a t e  cluding, up  wildfire,  involved a concerted  organized Fund  The  fellowships for  It  psychiatric tion in  s o c i a l workers,  clinics  which  would  t h e d i a g n o s i s and  nile  court."  53  93  and  the establishment of  show t h e v a l u e o f " p s y c h i a t r i c  treatment of c h i l d r e n  Finally,  t h e o t h e r work, and  publications.  • Committee  on  would c o o r d i n a t e a l l  d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and  Eight demonstration c h i l d  work  coming from the j u v e -  . i t provided for a Joint  Methods o f P r e v e n t i n g D e l i n q u e n c y , w h i c h of  demonstra-  guidance  ideas through clinics  were 54  fully By  funded  1927,  by  t h e Commonwealth Fund between 1922  in addition  to the c l i n i c s  which  t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , t h e r e were t w e n t y and  s e v e r a l hundred In October,  opened. a testing  five  throughout  Children's Village's  I n c h a r g e was  Miss Marian Derrick.  operation, classifying borderline,  children  two  stay.  She  d e c i d e d "upon what seems t o be  training  and  t r e a t m e n t t h a t c a n be  scheme  ran  normal,  feebleminded.  tests during Committee  the best course of by  the  institution",  to the a p p r o p r i a t e c o t t a g e , classroom  But,  (and D e r r i c k  offered  Clinic  basically  A Classification  and  work p r o j e c t .  clinics 55  as s u p e r i o r ,  t h e n met  and made a s s i g n m e n t s  through  Psychological  feebleminded or p o t e n t i a l  weeks o f t h e i r  1927.  the country.  commitments were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e C l i n i c ' s  the f i r s t  however s o p h i s t i c a t e d  acknowledged t h a t  the treatment o f f e r e d it  begun  full-time  1925,  dull-normal, All  p a r t - t i m e ones,  had  and  by  the V i l l a g e  the  i t was remained  and  classification  " i n i t s infancy"), essentially  what  had been a l l a l o n g . Miss D e r r i c k complained: The work o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t i n t h i s f i e l d c a n be o n l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t r e n d s and s u g g e s t i v e f o r t r e a t m e n t . We a r e g r e a t l y i n need o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f a v i s i t i n g P s y c h i a t r i s t f o r one o r two d a y s a week. . . . We t r u s t  we may clinic Her  94  -  be a b l e t o add t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e t o d u r i n g t h e coming y e a r . ^ 7  h o p e s were n o t  unfounded.  I n September, 1926,  our  the  Commonwealth Fund s p o n s o r e d a f u l l - b l o w n M e n t a l H y g i e n e Not  a visiting  psychiatrist,  t r i s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t , and  but  two  a full-time  resident  psychiatric social  Clinic.  psychia-  workers—the 58  standard  Commonwealth Fund m o d e l — m a d e up  p o i n t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was of  259  institutions,  psychiatrists  (while  T h e r e was  a psychiatric clinic context  108  for juveniles, revealed  only a 59  41%  had  of Faulkner's  were c o m p l a i n t s  therapy  military  being  i n s t i t u t i o n was  followed  p a t t e r n o f t e n s i o n between t h e  g r e s s i v e p r o g r a m s w h i c h he military, the  running  abilities outside  institutional the  the V i l l a g e  from the  The  and  the  this  a  survey  1928. Exactly  how  function in  not  clear.  difficulty  essentially  himself,  responsible and  and  recom-  f i t into  traditional  per-  innovative,  pro-  appropriate his  the  There  sponsored at C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e .  institution,  personnel  often  up.  At  few  that h i s treatment  b a c k g r o u n d was  were p r o b a b l y  funds,  A visitor  of  in  model w o u l d  psychiatrist  sonal o r i e n t a t i o n of Faulkner  for  psychologists)  p e r i o d of adjustment.  the  from the  m e n d a t i o n s were n o t the  trend:  and  i n the  staff. new  a difficult  a leader  the  His  i n many ways  administrative  for i t s survival.  i n s p e c t i o n w h i c h he  seemed t o work a t odds w i t h  But  the  a t t r a c t e d to  his orientation.  L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r M e m o r i a l Fund  s e r v e d i n 1927, t h e work was b e i n g c a r r i e d on a l o n g r a t h e r o l d f a s h i o n e d l i n e s b u t i n a v e r y wholesome and k i n d l y way; i n o t h e r words . . . t h e h i g h s p o t s were t h e  ob-  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e V i l l a g e had a g a i n won a f i r s t c l a s s r a t i n g from t h e S t a t e Board o f C h a r i t i e s i n 1925 and n o t improvements i n method.60 As  Faulkner  remained i n c o n t r o l ,  t o some e x t e n t  of  t h e t e n s i o n s may have come t h r o u g h r e l a b e l l i n g ,  c u r r e n t names t o t h i n g s w h i c h had b e e n a r o u n d the d e t e n t i o n cottage emotionally  unstable  and r u n n i n g  g i v i n g more  f o r a while.  became t h e ' p s y c h o p a t h i c children,  the r e s o l u t i o n  Thus  cottage"—for  away became an  i l l -  61 ness,  the "desertion habit."  But t h i s  i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e  c h a n g e s d i d n o t u l t i m a t e l y have some i m p a c t on t h e l i v e s  of the  children.  and i n  "Recreation"  some s e n s e i t s t i l l changed.  The c a s e  some i n s i g h t at that W.D.  means p l a y i n g games, b u t a t t i t u d e s have o f W.D.,  was a b o a r d e r ,  two  f o s t e r parents  several occasions  $5  t h e 30's g i v e s u s  at Children's  Village  time.  he a r r i v e d  1934,  an i n m a t e d u r i n g  i n t o t h e meaning o f r e s i d e n c e  the year deaf  may become " r e c r e a t i o n therapy.",  one o f s e v e n t e e n s u c h p l a c e m e n t s i n 62  i n t h e mid-30's.  before  i n Cincinnati, being  a t age 13, he had b r o k e n  and some l a d i e s ' s i l k  the C i n c i n n a t i C h i l d  He had grown up w i t h and had b e e n i n c o u r t on  sent to Children's V i l l a g e . into  underwear.  Guidance C l i n i c  a neighbor's For this  home, s t o l e n  he was r e f e r r e d t o  where he was e x a m i n e d b y a  p s y c h i a t r i s t who s p e c u l a t e d : A l l known f a c t s s u p p o r t t h e b e l i e f t h a t h i s a c t s a r e r e l a t e d to h i s sexual fantasies . . . the r i s k of d e t e c t i o n and embarrasment w h i c h he o v e r s t e p p e d i n d i c a t e r a t h e r deepseated sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s . Two p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s f r o m t h e C i n c i n n a t i C e n t r a l a c c o m p a n i e d W.D.  In  to Children's Village,  Clinic  where he t o o k no f e w e r  -  than  five  Healy  I.Q.  P.C.II)  achievement after ary  tests as  which  a week a f t e r before  cessation  of  test,  W.D. during  was  his  including slaps  in this  two-year another  on the  walked by. 'This  is  waving  at  "passing  little A.I.  spective awalys  of  girls;  lady's  for  .  .  .  It  "prelimin-  cars  is  oriented, full  that  (the  spree a  significant eight  or  ten  accumulated,  "conduct  The n e x t  card",  He r e c e i v e d after  by nape  he  of  neck  fifty  girls'  cottage)  m o n t h he was for  "10 girls  said,  demerits  two h u n d r e d d e m e r i t s  (the  weeks  but  from p r i n t shop  a month l a t e r  month,  three  week  W.D. had undergone  underwear.  him back  Cooper  of  behavior."  "walking out  detained."  for  and  put  for  talking  i n the  "meeting A . I . back  re-  stage  theatre." and W.D. passed  notes  detention houses. (sic)  in closing,  there  is  awalys  my l o v e ,  on a c h e e r i e r  a silver  lining  'The T r a i n '  back  and f o r t h  from t h e i r  W.D. complained i n one,  r i g h t no m a t t e r  then,  awalys  of  a  In a  several  a comparatively  a place'";  and r e p a s s i n g  filed.  d i s c o n t i n u e d and w i t h i n  stay,  another  cottage  of  and achievement  for  place  and  sets  p s y c h i a t r i s t noted  commitment)  When I b r o u g h t  a hell  theft  explosive  theft  hand"  to A.I.-who i s flection  bright  the  Maze,  and t h r e e  exam t o o k  masturbation.  h i s m a s t u r b a t i o n was  w e e k s he was  that,  the  had p r e c i p i t a t e d h i s  "complete  is  personality  A psychological  a month and a h a l f  of  as  Pintner, Porteus  a d m i s s i o n w i t h a two page r e p o r t  interview"  that  (Terman, O t i s ,  well  tests.  -  96  P.S.  what note,  any  one  else  "Oh w e l l  i n a dark More l o v e  "Any  says",  cheer  cloud. than I  up  Love, can  reofficer but  for love,  express."  97  -  The  n o t e was i n t e r c e p t e d a n d p l a c e d  determination, through.  sent,  . . . ": a l s o  t h a t they  longer,  couldn't  decided  "I did not think  a book a n d Dad p i p e d s w e l l you w i l l in  like  two y e a r s  a clan-  W o r k i n g i n a r e s t a u r a n t , he  I w o u l d m i s s o l d C.V. when I l e f t once i n a w h i l e  o f days.  Mom j u s t  I s o r t o f wish I  said  up, " A i n ' t l o v e g r a n d ! " them a l o t . "  I must be w r i t i n g They a r e  I n November A . I .  p a r t t i m e , a n d went t o s c h o o l .  both  was p l a c e d  When W.D. a r r i v e d o n  C h r i s t m a s Day, t h e f a m i l y became a f r a i d , the V i l l a g e .  At that point,  thechagrin  a s one c a n t e l l The  lied  about t h e i r  from the  amount o f t e s t i n g  file,  lived  iar  t o t h e days o f t h e C l i n i c .  Despite  life  But otherwise,  a t Children's Village diagnosis  to, the analywere  pecul-  were n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o days.  They  as a l o s s o f freedom.  and t h e r a p y ,  f o u n d h i s own s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m .  after.  i t seems a s  b y many i n m a t e s f r o m p r e - C l i n i c  thetesting,  their  ages, g o t  of his f i l e ,  t h o u g h t h e b a s i c p r o b l e m s o f W.D.'s l i f e  experienced  into  h a p p i l y ever  t h a t he was s u b j e c t e d  o f h i s problems, and t h e t h i c k n e s s  experienced  back t o  and d i s t r e s s o f Leon F a u l k n e r — a n d , as  sis  those  and s e n t A . I .  t h e two t o o k m a t t e r s  hands, r a n o f f t o K e n t u c k y ,  married—to far  he h a d b e e n  a f a m i l y ' s home i n H a s t i n g s - o n - H u d s o n , where s h e d i d  cleaning  own  after  He managed t o m a i n t a i n  A.I.  b u t I d i d and e v e r y  back f o r a c o u p l e  "The m a i l must go  pay f o r h i s s t a y i n g a t the V i l l a g e any  and he was d i s c h a r g e d .  either,  With  intercepted.  destine correspondence with wrote,  i n W.D.'s f i l e .  he began h i s n e x t one,  W.D.'s f o s t e r p a r e n t s  was  -  u l t i m a t e l y , W.D.  98  -  with  The  existence  of  the  the  T r a i n i n g School)  professionalization. claim in  tied  Further,  at Children's V i l l a g e  the V i l l a g e  country.  implications Fund C h i l d  i t s e x i s t e n c e made p l a u s i b l e t h e  the  T h e s e methods and  cases  of r e f e r r a l s  came i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y w i t h ilies.  "The  delinquency  focus and  advanced  t h i s movement had  beyond C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e  Guidance C l i n i c s ,  (along  t o t h e movement o f  t h a t t h e V i l l a g e ' s methods were among t h e most  the  study  Clinic  -  itself.  The  though o r i g i n a l l y from the  courts,  schools,  social  profound Commonwealth  designed  to  i n c r e a s i n g l y be-  agencies  and  fam-  of p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t e n t i o n . . . s h i f t e d  the  court  t o t h e more s u b t l e e v i d e n c e s  of  from non-  63 adjustment vided  an  dividual  i n the  school."  The  avenue o f e v e n more d i r e c t  access  life,  home and  t h a n had  the  advance over s c h o o l s  tions.  And  the  offenses  w h i c h had  the  the  Improvement o f  for  the  Prevention  nineteenth  century,  in  century  same d i s c i p l i n a r y ,  the  social  a t t e n t i o n to. t h e  Condition  of the  and For  so  the  clinic  example, o f  was the  of  frequency  had  clinics  control  Association  Poor, the  not  in-  institu-  to the  the out  Society  like  in  of place  t w e n t y most  reasons f o r b r i n g i n g c h i l d r e n to c l i n i c s ,  order 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  nineteenth  o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n , and  Children's Village. given  and  come t o t h e  for  pro-  i n t o f a m i l y and  preponderance of r e f e r r a l s  were f o r e s s e n t i a l l y  thus  j u v e n i l e c o u r t , which i t s e l f  been an  yet  clinics  the  the at  frequently first  six,  were:  disobedience, negativism, "nervousness" [admittedly temper stealing truancy Iying64  stubborness, a new one].  rebelliousness.  99  -  For middle  and  teenth century fessionals The  upper c l a s s moral reformers b e e n s u b s t i t u t e d a new  equipped  with  the  placed  directly  d o c t r i n e i n t h a t , once a g a i n ,  s q u a r e l y on  social  the  change was  altogether.  As  shoulders p u t on  Lubove  of the  middle  class  t o o l s of a developing  p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n was  A.I.CP.  for  had  -  nineof  pro-  science.  parallel  to the o l d  t h e onus f o r change  of the  individual.  the back b u r n e r ,  i f not  was  Pressure forgotten  interprets:  I f r e a l i t y was r o o t e d n o t i n t h e o b j e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t b u t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t , and i f men had g r o s s l y o v e r - e s t i m a t e d t h e power o f r e a s o n t o d i r e c t b e h a v i o r , then caseworkers w r e s t l e d with s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s i f they c o n c e n t r a t e d upon e x t e r n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h e c l i e n t ' s psychic life.65 The  "individual  psychological  d e l i n q u e n t " was rearrangement  the  what was  director  on  Committee f o r M e n t a l clinics,  therapy,  ( s u p p l a n t i n g the n i n e t e e n t h  m o r a l r e a r r a n g e m e n t ) was of the D i v i s i o n  focus of the  sought.  G e o r g e S.  Community C l i n i c s  of  the  Hygiene, w r i t i n g the h i s t o r y  of  and  century  Stevenson, National the  began:  The c h i l d g u i d a n c e c l i n i c i s an a t t e m p t t o m a r s h a l t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e community i n b e h a l f o f c h i l d r e n who are i n d i s t r e s s because o f u n s a t i s f i e d i n n e r needs, o r are s e r i o u s l y a t outs w i t h t h e i r environment.66 S t e v e n s o n a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s were c a u s e d the environment, but clinics The  felt  t h a t i t was  to t r y to deal with p r o f e s s i o n of  p e u t i c m o d e l had  for  by  the  them.67  s o c i a l work and  a symbiotic  unrealistic  the d e v e l o p i n g  relationship.  l o c u s of the u n f o l d i n g of t h i s  relationship.  The  clinic  And  a  therawas  the  institutions  s u c h as by  the  Children's clinic,  advancement o f  aspirations social  profession,  field,  the  toward a d j u s t i n g  and  were t i e d  potential political  the  war),  and  and  the  the  profession  and  the  therapeutic  by  came w i t h  "science" Thus,  towards r e f o r m i n g  timebomb  increasingly  work, was  A  large  group of  depended on aled  i n d i v i d u a l s , and  the  the  i n t o promoting  tions  s u c h as  the  i t , and  Memorial.  therapeutic  model a t  potent t o o l s of isted  before. If  the  the  after  urban  the  for  Probmal-  therapy. as  such  t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , were m a r s h -  the  same t i m e p r o v i d e d  i n t r u s i o n into peoples'  f u n d e d by Laura  the  lives  founda-  Spelman the  s t a t e w i t h more  t h a n had  ever  ex-  6 8  first  two  decades of  the  public  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y were that  t w e n t i e s were s p e n t , i n t h e  a l l reformatories words o f 69  trying  as  whose s t a t u s  were g e n e r o u s l y  spent t r y i n g to convince the schools,  heard  While d e p o l i t i c i z i n g discontent, the  from  individual.  material  Commonwealth Fund and  Rockefeller  away  depoliticizing i t .  aspiring professionals acceptance of  the  oriented  a l i e n a t i n g forms o f  thus the  Ad-  professional  lems became " i n d i v i d u a l i z e d " , i . e . , i n t e r p r e t e d a d a p t a t i o n of  was  (whose t i c k i n g was  d e f u s e d by  more  model.  to d e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , turning  The  life  d o m i n a t e d more and  i n d i v i d u a l psyche.  r e f o r m e f f o r t s and  family  of  "science",  the  created  -  V i l l a g e came t o be  the  vancement i n t h e  100  t o make, " e v e r y  school  a  clinic."  E.L.  were  Woods,  -  1 0 1  -  Footnotes Chapter 5 """William E . L e u c h t e n b u r g , The P e r i l s o f P r o s p e r i t y , 1914-1932 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) . L e u c h t e n b u r g , c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s a r e s i d e n t o f Dobbs F e r r y . 2 J a n e Addams, "The Immigrant and S o c i a l U n r e s t " , N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f S o c i a l Work P r o c e e d i n g s , 1920, p. 61. 3 From 1924 t o 1925, E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n i m m i g r a t i o n went f r o m 34,000 t o 4,600, C e n t r a l f r o m 60,000 t o 10,000 ( e x c l u d i n g Germany), and S o u t h e r n f r o m 65,000 t o 8,000, i n r o u n d f i g u r e s . U.S. B u r e a u o f C e n s u s , i n Ben J . W a t t e n b e r g , The S t a t i s t i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m C o l o n i a l Times t o t h e P r e s e n t (New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 105. 4 H a s t i n g s H a r t , " C o d d l i n g t h e P r i s o n e r " , NCSE P r o c e e d i n g s , 1921, pp. 52-57. Hart r e f e r s to "great excitement i n the p u b l i c p r e s s . . . o v e r t h e p r e s e n t c r i m e wave, and a d v o c a c y o f i n t e n s i f y i n g punishment." p. 53. 5  C.V.A.R. 1921,  p.  6  C.V.A.R. 1922,  pp.  26. 34,  35.  C.V.A.R. 1922, p. 22. g S c h l o s s m a n p o i n t s t o t h e F i r s t W o r l d War as t h e end o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f "amateur s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s l i k e Addams, S t e w a r t and S c h o f f " and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e a s c e n d e n c y o f a " v a r i e t y of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s " . Schlossman, "End o f I n n o c e n c e " , p. 213. 7  9  10  N.Y.J.A. A.R.  C.V.A.R.,  1918,  p.  35.  1919-1924.  """"""Morgan t o Hon.  Robert W i l k i n ,  June  29,  1921.  12 Morgan t o v a n A m r i n g e , 13  C . V . A . R . 1921,  Dec.  28,  1920.  p.. 11.  14 Morgan t o Dwight, F e b . 8, 1923. Rothman ( i n C o n s c i e n c e and C o n v e n i e n c e , pp. 2 5 7 f f ) c o n c l u d e s t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t " j u v e n i l e court reform d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce r a t e s of i n c a r c e r a tion". He a r g u e s t h a t p r o b a t i o n s u p p l e m e n t e d , r a t h e r t h a n r e p l a c e d , i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitments. I t would appear t h a t i n New. Y o r k C i t y , f r o m t h i s e v i d e n c e , t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e .  15 Jan.  Morgan t o J . K l e i n 29, 1923.  102  -  (superintendent  "^Morgan t o Owen Dawson, A p r i l 17  C . V . A . R . 1923,  p.  20,  o f Hawthorne  School)  1922.  13.  18 Executive 12, 1923.  Sept.  Committee o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , M i n u t e s ,  1 9  M o r g a n t o J u d g e F.C.  H o y t , M a r c h 15,  20  E.C.B.D. Minutes, Jan.  16.  1922.  1924.  21 Ibid. F o r f u l l t r e a t m e n t o f the George J u n i o r R e p u b l i c , see J a c k M. H o l l , J u v e n i l e R e f o r m i n t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a : W i l l i a m R. G e o r g e and t h e J u n i o r R e p u b l i c (Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). 22 L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r M e m o r i a l F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927; p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Nancy C a r u s o ( n i e c e o f Leon F a u l k n e r ) August, 1979). 23 C a r u s o i n t e r v i e w ; B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s ' M i n u t e s , Dec. 10, 1924. 24 P e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , 1924, 1926; E.C.B.D. m i n u t e s , May 13, 1925. 25 E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p o l i c y — t w o new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f i n m a t e s ( g i r l s and b o a r d e r s ) d i d n o t make up, i n numbers, t h e needed p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . See p. 8. 26 C.V.A.R. r e t r o s p e c t i v e , 1934. 27 Morgan t o S t r i f f l e r , J a n . 13, 1921, r e f e r s t o " c o l o r e d cottages". 2 8  Village  Record M a r c h - A p r i l  1918,  p.  10  (N.Y.P.L.).  29 Children's Village  D a i l y Census,  1912-1924.  30 W o r l d War I had c r e a t e d a l a b o r s h o r t a g e , w h i c h l e d t o more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r B l a c k s i n t h e N o r t h . M i g r a t i o n cont i n u e d a f t e r t h e war, so t h a t between 1900 and 1930, while t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n U.S. i n c r e a s e d by a b o u t f i f t y percent, Black population t r i p l e d . W a t t e n b e r g , p. 22. 31 Rothman's d i s c u s s i o n o f c l a s s - b a s e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a d u l t p r o b a t i o n s e n t e n c e s has a p p l i c a t i o n h e r e . (Conscience and C o n v e n i e n c e , pp. 1 0 4 - 1 0 6 ) : "The v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f a s y s t e m t o t r a n s f o r m 'them' i n t o 'us' meant t h a t t h o s e a l r e a d y more l i k e 'us' were bound t o be f a v o r e d . Once c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h i f t e d  - 103 f r o m t h e c r i m e t o t h e c r i m i n a l , c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s came a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y t o assume new s i g n i f i c a n c e when p u n i s h m e n t s were meted o u t . " 32  E.C.B.D. Minutes  Sept.  10, 1924.  33  E.C.B.D. Minutes  O c t . 15, 1924.  34  E.C.B.D. Minutes  May 13, 1925.  35  E.C.B.D. Minutes  March 11, 1925.  36  E.C.B.D. Minutes  M a r c h 18, May 13, 1925.  37  E.C.B.D. M i n u t e s Dec. 16, 1925. 38 L.S.R.M. F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927. 39 C h i l d W e l f a r e League S t u d y o f C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , q u o t e d i n J o h n W i t h e r s , "A B r i e f S u r v e y o f C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e " , u n p u b l i s h e d MS. 1929. 40 F a u l k n e r t o H e l e n L o c k e , S e p t . 30, 1937. 41 . . C.V.A.R. 1920-1930. In the Annual Report s t a t i s t i c s , t h e number p l a c e d on p a r o l e was g i v e n as a s e p a r a t e f i g u r e f r o m t h o s e s e n t West. I n 1926, a new c a t e g o r y , " r e t u r n e d t o comm i t t i n g o f f i c e r s " appeared f o r inmates l e a v i n g C h i l d r e n ' s Village. The number i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , however, d i d n o t r e a c h t h e l e v e l s o f t h o s e p a r o l e d p r i o r t o 1924. 42 See Roy L u b o v e , The P r o f e s s i o n a l A l t r u i s t (Cambridge, H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 85-117. 43 "An Open L e t t e r From t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e Members o f the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n a t T h e i r M e e t i n g September 15, 1926." ( p a m p h l e t ) .  MA.:  44  C.V.A.R.  1925, p . 20.  45 L a u r a Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r M e m o r i a l was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1918 and l a s t e d u n t i l 1929 when i t was c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o o t h e r R o c k e f e l l e r funds. I t s m a i n c o n c e r n s were s o c i a l s c i e n c e and s o c i a l w e l f a r e , c h i l d s t u d y , and p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , and i n t e r racial relations. F o r an a n a l y s i s o f R o c k e f e l l e r money i n r e l a t e d v e n t u r e s , s e e J o h n D. A r r a s " M e d i c i n e Men, B u s i n e s s m e n " , The H a s t i n g s C e n t e r R e p o r t , 10, 3- (June 1980).-, a r e v i e w o f R o c k e f e l l e r M e d i c i n e Men: M e d i c i n e and C a p i t a l i s m i n A m e r i c a ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1979). 46 Board 47  o f D i r e c t o r s Minutes,  L.S.R.M.  File  Memorandum,  Sept.  July  15, 1926.  5, 1927.  - 104 48  C.C. C a r s t e n s ( C h i l d W e l f a r e League) c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o L. F r a n k (L.S.R.M.), May 24, 1926. 49 C.C. C a r s t e n s o f t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e L e a g u e , an a v i d p r o ponent o f casework, had been c r i t i c a l o f D e r r i c k ' s and F a u l k n e r ' s orientation. He a d d r e s s e d t h e 1929 NCSW on t h e same t o p i c : " T h e r e i s a n a t u r a l c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s between t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n who does n o t d e s i r e c a s e w o r k , o r i f i t i s d e s i r e d , does n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t s v a l u e s and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , and t h e d i r e c t o r o f c a s e w o r k . " C.C. C a r s t e n s , "Methods o f O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s i n t h e C h i l d c a r i n g F i e l d , " NCSW P r o c e e d i n g s , 1929. 50 Memorandum o f I n t e r v i e w : L . F r a n k (L.S.R.M.) w i t h B a r r y S m i t h (Commonwealth F u n d ) , S e p t . 9. 1927. 51 Rothman, C o n s c i e n c e a n d C o n v e n i e n c e , p . 275. 52 The b e g i n n i n g s o f a s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a r e e v i d e n c e d i n t h e name change i n 1917 i n t h e N.C.S.W. The D i v i s i o n on F e e b l e m i n d e d n e s s a n d I n s a n i t y became t h e D i v i s i o n on M e n t a l H y g i e n e , p a v i n g t h e way f o r a b r o a d e r s c o p e o f activities. 53 Q u o t e d xn G e o r g e S. S t e v e n s o n a n d Geddes S m i t h , C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c s : A Q u a r t e r C e n t u r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t (New Y o r k : The Commonwealth Fund, 1934), p . 21. F o r a r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e Commonwealth Fund, s e e S o l Cohen, "The M e n t a l H y g i e n e Movement, The Commonwealth Fund, a n d P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n , 1921-1933" i n G e r a l d Benjamin, e d . P r i v a t e P h i l a n t h r o p y and P u b l i c E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n ( P o c a n t i c o H i l l s : R o c k e f e l l e r A r c h i v e C e n t e r , 1980), pp. 33-46. 54 S t . L o u i s , N o r f o l k , D a l l s , Monmouth C o u n t y ( j o i n t l y w i t h L.S.R.M.) M i n n e s o t a , L o s A n g e l e s , C l e v e l a n d , P h i l a d e l p h i a . 55 Commonwealth Fund T w e l f t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1930, p p . 48-52, r e p r i n t e d i n Bremner, C h i l d r e n a n d Y o u t h , pp. 1056, 1057. 56  C . V . A . R . 1925,  p . 51.  57  C . V . A . R . 1925,  p p . 52,  53.  58 C.V.A.R. S u p p l e m e n t , 1926,  p . 4.  59 W m f r e d O v e r h o l s e r , "Use o f P s y c h i a t r i c F a c i l i t i e s i n C o u r t s a n d P e n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s T h r o u g h o u t t h e U.S.: A S u r v e y o f P r o g r e s s " , N.C.S.W. P r o c e e d i n g s , 1928, pp. 143-155. 60  L . S . R . M . F i l e Memorandum, J u l y  5,  1927.  -  105  -  61  "The t e a c h e r n e c e s s a r i l y assumes t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e p h y s i c i a n who e n d e a v o r s t o d i a g n o s e t h e p a t i e n t s ' i l l s and t o a p p l y r e m e d i a l t r e a t m e n t . . . , " one o f t h e i l l n e s s e s b e i n g , "the d e s e r t i o n h a b i t which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t r u a n c y from s c h o o l and r u n n i n g away f r o m home o r i n s t i t u t i o n s " . From "A S c h o o l Program f o r the Problem C h i l d " , C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , 1932. 62 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n comes f r o m t h e V i l l a g e individual records. 63  C . V . A . R . S u p p l e m e n t 1926,  p.  Children's  4.  S t e v e n s o n and S m i t h , pp. 55, 56. T h e s e were f r o m a s t u d y a t t h e N.Y. I n s t i t u t e f o r C h i l d G u i d a n c e between 1927-1933. The f a c t t h a t what was c a l l e d " v a g r a n c y " i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , was now c a l l e d " t r u a n c y f r o m t h e home", i s t e s t i m o n y t o t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e s c h o o l model o f r e l a t i o n s between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . 6 4  65 L u b o v e , The  Professional Altruist,  p.  89.  66 S t e v e n s o n and S m i t h , p. 1. 6V "The w e i g h t o f r e a l i t y l i e s h e a v y on t h e c h i l d ' a c r o s s t h e t r a c k s ' , who i s t h e f o c u s n o t o n l y o f f a m i l i a l t e n s i o n s , b u t o f ward p o l i t i c s , u r b a n c o n g e s t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l m a k e s h i f t s , e c o n o m i c h a n d i c a p s , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s , and t h e g e n e r a l i n s e c u r i t y of a t r a n s i t i o n a l c i v i l i z a t i o n . . . . I t i s perhaps a matter o f temperament, p e r h a p s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b i a s , w h i c h l e a d s one p e r s o n t o be more i n t e r e s t e d i n g r o s s s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y and another i n the i n t e n s i v e but c i r c u m s c r i b e d task of i n d i v i d u a l adjustment. Any s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , must c h o o s e and l i m i t i t s o b j e c t i v e s ; the c h i l d guidance c l i n i c attempts to d e a l w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l . . . " S t e v e n s o n and S m i t h , p. 62. 68 Lasch c o n v i n c i n g l y a t t r i b u t e s "voter apathy, popular i n d i f f e r e n c e and c y n i c i s m , and n a t i o n a l ' m a l a i s e ' " t o t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s d y n a m i c : " [ T h e r a p e u t i c modes o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l ] c r e a t e new forms o f d e p e n d e n c e and d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a tion in political l i f e . I n so d o i n g t h e y s i m p l i f y some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e b u t a t t h e same t i m e make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t o m o b i l i z e p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f t h e i r p o l i c i e s when t h e need a r i s e s . . . . The d i r e c t o r s o f t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s t a t e , h a v i n g t o some e x t e n t p a c i f i e d a f o r m e r l y r e b e l l i o u s p o p u l a t i o n , now f i n d t h e m s e l v e s c o n f r o n t e d by a f u l l - s c a l e ' c r i s i s o f c o n f i d e n c e ' " C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , " L i f e i n t h e T h e r a p e u t i c S t a t e " , New Y o r k Review o f B o o k s , J u n e 12, 1980, pp. 24-32. 69 E.L. Woods, "The S c h o o l and D e l i n q u e n c y : E v e r y S c h o o l A C l i n i c " , N.C.S.W. P r o c e e d i n g s , 1929, pp. 213-221.  -  106  -  Chapter The On  May  Village School  8,  W i t h e r s R e p o r t and  1929,  h i r e d J o h n W. of Education,  Withers,  Dean o f New  t o head a s u r v e y A  special  Commonwealth Fund t o p r o v i d e  viewed  "education"  Beyond  the Board of D i r e c t o r s of  at Children's V i l l a g e . the  6  Children's  York U n i v e r s i t y  of the  educational  a p p r o p r i a t i o n had f o r such a survey.  i n i t s broadest  program  b e e n made  by  Withers  context:  We a r e i n v i t e d t o examine t h e " s c h o o l " a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e and t o s u b m i t an e s t i m a t e o f i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i t s n e e d s . That department which i s c a l l e d the " s c h o o l " i s o n l y one p a r t o f t h e w h o l e e d u c a t i o n a l process a t the V i l l a g e . Its influence penetrates every p a r t o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n and, c o n v e r s e l y , t h e " s c h o o l ' s " own p r o g r a m and p r o g r e s s a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e w h o l e i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s d e p a r t ments. Wither's perspective i n w h i c h he was the  immersed.  F i r s t W o r l d War,  Education  reflected  with  the  The  Progressive  movement had  the  founding  A s s o c i a t i o n , i n 1919.  education  come o f age  of the  milieu after  Progressive  I t advocated  an  education  2 w h i c h was  c h i l d - c e n t e r e d and  expression,  e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g , the  and  the  key  concerns.  w o u l d be  anti-formalist.  centrality The  of  and  child's  underlying  g u a r a n t e e d by  ject divisions  the  own  organizing  child's  the  self-  emotional  life,  n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s were  u n i t y of the  d i s c a r d i n g the  Creative  subject  traditional  curriculum  matter formal  sub-  e i t h e r around  - 107 " u n i t s o f work", p i o n e e r e d  by  the  L i n c o l n School,  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers C o l l e g e around the  Laboratory  " p r o j e c t method" p u b l i c i z e d by  w h i c h was  school,  William  the  or  Heard  3 Kilpatrick ized  (John Dewey's p o p u l a r i z e r ) , o r b o t h .  lessons  and  i n s t r u c t i o n were t o s u p p l e m e n t t h o s e  k n o w l e d g e where p r o j e c t s and provide  the  fessionalize tion  necessary the  g r o u p work on  drill.  occupation  The of  the  tifically  Progressives to  study  systematically vations.  on  the  Progressives  teaching,  i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t made up  ally,  Individual-  and  aimed t o  teacher  part of t h i s  improving  Most o f t h e s e  educational  methods on  ideas  had  the  the  b a s i s of  been developed  i n Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , o r  York, or  i n the  public school  as W i n n e t k a , I l l i n o i s , Massachusetts.  The  seemed b o l d  1929.  in  B r o n x v i l l e , New  idea of applying  whom he  report.  had  examined t h e  They p r a i s e d t h e  of D i r e c t o r s , s t a t i n g ,  participathrust. school  i n the  Y o r k , and  institution  "Children's V i l l a g e  obser-  s u c h as  Shady  in  suburbs  New  such  Newton,  seven  Village  colleagues  submitted  a t t i t u d e s of Faulkner  scien-  rarified  them t o C h i l d r e n ' s  W i t h e r s and  Fin-  t o work  their  L i n c o l n School  systems o f w e a l t h y  I n December o f t h a t y e a r , with  the  not  pro-  p r o b l e m s , and  atmospheres of upper m i d d l e c l a s s p r i v a t e s c h o o l s Hill  of  u n i t s would  were i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g  c h i l d r e n and  areas  and  their the  Board  seems d e s t i n e d  to  5  blaze  the  aspects tions the  trail  of the  simply  1920's.  t o a new  order."  Report i s the  Yet  one  o f t h e most  d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t s recommenda-  consolidated d i r e c t i o n s already In  striking  some ways, i n f a c t ,  the  undertaken  R e p o r t and  c h a n g e s i n p r o g r a m were r e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e  the  during resulting  s t r a i n s which  had  -  d i v i d e d the i n s t i t u t i o n men  108  -  (Faulkner and D e r r i c k ) from  P r o g r e s s i v e academics d u r i n g the  the  1920's.  While Faulkner's admission p o l i c y was  uncritically  ac-  cepted, s t a f f i n g p o l i c y and c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n r e c e i v e d considerable attention.  In c o n s i d e r i n g approaches to i n c r e a s i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , the study supported goals a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by the d i r e c t o r s and Faulkner, but gave them a b a s i s i n what was  c o n s i d e r e d to be the most advanced e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g of  the time.  A number of the recommendations were c u r i o u s l y rem-  i n i s c e n t of the r e c e n t l y defunct " t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l executives."  Withers recommended t h a t "the V i l l a g e  be  . . . u t i l i z e d as a l a b o r a t o r y and t r a i n i n g c e n t e r f o r the vanced p r o f e s s i o n a l education of persons who themselves  ad-  are p r e p a r i n g  f o r v a r i o u s kinds of expert s e r v i c e s needed by com-  m u n i t i e s and p u b l i c s c h o o l systems of the country i n d e a l i n g 5  w i t h problem c h i l d r e n of t h i s type."  He saw  a " l a b o r a t o r y f o r d i r e c t and continuous  the V i l l a g e  scientific  as  study of  j u v e n i l e delinquency" and recommended t h a t the V i l l a g e be  used  "as a c e n t e r of r e s e a r c h and r e p o s i t o r y of i n f o r m a t i o n as t o what i s being accomplished  elsewhere  toward a s o l u t i o n of the 7  problem w i t h which the V i l l a g e i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned."  Beginning w i t h the s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , the surveyors advised t h a t the "employing  o f f i c i a l s put f o r t h a strenuous e f f o r t to  a t t r a c t t o the v i l l a g e , a s t a f f composed of teachers who  have  8  had more p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . " paid  $ 7 0 0 - $ 8 0 0  At the time, teachers were  per year, compared to annual s a l a r i e s of twice  t h a t much i n the surrounding suburbs.  In a d d i t i o n to h i g h e r  salaries,  a variety  participation training  109 -  of in-service  programs i n c l u d i n g  i n curriculum revision  s e s s i o n s were recommended.  and a t t e n d a n c e  and t h e work and s a l a r y  Mental  were p r a i s e d .  disturbed  a t t h e low s a l a r i e s  a t summer  The a d d i t i o n o f f i v e  workers t o the s t a f f , Hygiene C l i n i c  teacher  level  of the  But the surveyors  of the cottage  social  were  officers,  and r e c -  ommended p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n s o f M a s t e r and Matron. In t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , the Survey lamented t h e s t u d e n t s ' "lack  . . . of spontaneity,  intelligent  understanding  dealing with"  initiative,  o f t h e p u r p o s e o f what t h e y  i n the classroom,  and c a l l e d  " e n c o u r g a e d t o c r e a t e and i n n o v a t e docile  and obedient.""'"  was t o be d e v e l o p e d were o f d i r e c t  by o f f e r i n g  to the students'  expanded, and p r a c t i c a l the e n t i r e  t o be  t o be m e r e l y of the children  o f s u b j e c t s which present  l i v e s or  The r o t e l e a r n i n g o f " v e r b a l i s m s " was t o  be d i s c a r d e d , t h e l i b r a r y  ing,  r a t h e r than  the study  were  forchildren  The n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y  0  relevance  future occupations.  judgement, o r even o f  u p g r a d e d , t h e a r t and m u s i c  science introduced.  programs  A t i t s most  sweep-  s c h o o l s y s t e m was t o be r e v i s e d :  So f a r a s an a c a d e m i c s c h o o l o f t h e u s u a l t y p e i s c o n c e r n e d i t m i g h t be a b o l i s h e d , t h e v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g t h e i r room a s s i g n m e n t s , a s f o r l a b o r a t o r y p u r p o s e s i n w h i c h rooms t h e r e w o u l d be worked o u t , o n l y s u c h p r o b l e m s a s w o u l d s a t i s f y need o r c u r i o s i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d i n h i s a s s i g n e d o c c u p a t i o n . "• L  The  possibility  o f o r g a n i z i n g a- s i g n i f i c a n t  s c h o o l day around  t h e " p r o j e c t method" was  L  portion of the suggested:  . . . t h e p u p i l s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o d i s c o v e r a s e a r l y as p o s s i b l e some t y p e o f a s p e c t o f e d u c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r on w h i c h t h e y c a n and w i l l e n t e r w h o l e h e a r t e d l y . Some  -  110  -  s e l f - d i s c o v e r y w i l l most p r o b a b l y t a k e p l a c e i n a s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h band and o r c h e s t r a and s c h o o l p a p e r and m e c h a n i c a l d r a w i n g and a r t work and home e c o n o m i c s and p r e v o c a t i o n a l work a r e open t o a l l p u p i l s who have p a s s e d t h e i r t w e l f t h b i r t h day. 12 Individualized  i n s t r u c t i o n would  supplement these  integrated  activities. Senior vocational Village sented  would  training.  had  The  a l w a y s had  second  spend h a l f o f  the  i t served  to  justification:  On  the  one  workplace s k i l l s ,  a c a d e m i c program, and differentiated The  tradictions.  on  from the  Progressive  first,  the  other,  program o f  attitudes later  T h e r e was  be  institutional  a humanistic  two providing  integrated with  i t should  p o s i t i o n glossed  mainten-  p r o g r a m on  more  the  clearly  maintenance.  over  some d i f f i c u l t  vision  of rewarding  m e a n i n g f u l work where w o r k e r s ' l i v e s w o u l d be their  own  useful in their  be more c l o s e l y  p u r s u i t o f knowledge r e l a t e d t o t h e i r  enriched  daily  in  i t repre-  hand, t r u e v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ,  should  day  Children's  inculcate appropriate  W i t h e r s recommended c h a n g e s i n t h e  fronts.  school  inmates towards t h e i r  w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h w o u l d be  lives.  their  manual work p r o g r a m a t  a dual  a c o n t r i b u t i o n by  a n c e ; and and  students  conand  through  tasks:  T h e r e has b e e n a b e l i e f among many t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d hand-minded i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a s o n s and s o u r c e s , and t h a t he does n o t r e s p o n d t o t h a t w h i c h we a r e p l e a s e d t o c a l l c u l t u r a l . T h i s i s an erroneous b e l i e f . Every normal i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e Way o f T h i n g s . E v e r y human b e i n g has l i k e s and d i s l i k e s and t h e s e a r e a f o r m o f e v a l u a t i o n , p e r h a p s c r u d e and c o a r s e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , b u t c a p a b l e o f g r a d u a l e l e v a t i o n by t h e s e l e c t i o n and c o n t a c t s w h i c h w i l l awaken a h e a l t h f u l e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . " 1 3 This  thinking provided  the b a s i s  f o r the  recommendation  for  the  - I l li n t e g r a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c and v i s i o n became p r o b l e m a t i c were c o n s i d e r e d .  The  v o c a t i o n a l programs.  when t h e  authors  "such  w o r k e r s need f i r s t  this  f u t u r e s of the  were aware t h a t most o f  c h i l d r e n w o u l d become s e m i - s k i l l e d that  real  But  children the  or u n s k i l l e d workers,  of a l l a general  and  adaptability  for  14  t h e manual t r a d e s . "  I f the  training  for their  likely  ity,  and  unthinking obedience  than  developed  students  were g o i n g  to r e c e i v e  f u t u r e employment, d i s c i p l i n e , were u l t i m a t e l y h i g h e r  vocational skills  or healthy  docil-  priorities  intellectual  curi-  osity. The served  program of d i s c i p l i n e ,  two  f o r the  ents and  and  inculcation  f u t u r e workers.  c o n t r o l was  b a s e d on  s t y l e d i s c i p l i n e was inmates c o n t i n u e d Withers trol. the  was  the v o c a t i o n a l program,  purposes a t the V i l l a g e .  maintenance of the V i l l a g e ant  like  I t was  society,  and  i t was  s e e n as  The  Withers  another  philosophy  one  of the  regimentation  need f o r more o f t h e  and  of  contradiction.  importstud-  discipline  While  for control  military-  over  the  prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  s e a r c h i n g f o r c o n t r o l which d i d not  "Strict  for  of a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s i n the  repugnant, the need  t o be  essential  look  minute d i r e c t i o n  like  breed  same, so t h a t i t [ s i c ] o f f e r s  con-  always no  solu15  tion The  to the problems which c o n f r o n t the C h i l d r e n ' s therapy  implied  no  model, i n t r o d u c e d  i n the  reduction of c o n t r o l :  20's  was  i f anything,  the  Village." answer.  It  i t meant i n c r e a s e d  c o n t r o l , but with a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e : The i n m a t e i s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a p a t i e n t whose w h o l e l i f e , w a k i n g o r s l e e p i n g i n t h e c o t t a g e , needs t o be under i n t e l l i g e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . Every d e v i a t i o n from  -  112  -  n o r m a l c o n d u c t c a l l s f o r c l o s e s c r u t i n y and conference between t h e a d u l t c h a r g e d w i t h i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c h i l d and t h e a d v i s i n g e x p e r t . I t i s conceiva b l e t h a t e v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l w i l l be v i r t u a l l y an a s s i s t a n t t o t h e head p s y c h i a t r i s t . 6  There are pletion along  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t , e v e n by  of the  these  Survey, Faulkner  lines.  The  therapy  t o o was  the  time of  starting  to  external disciplinary  still  I n n e r d i s c i p l i n e w o u l d be  for  maintain  control.  regimentation,  through a program o f  19 30 A n n u a l R e p o r t  com-  think  model o f f e r e d a way  some o f t h e more v i s i b l e  the  to  relax  measures,  and  substituted  "treatment".  The  stated:  I t has b e e n o u r a m b i t i o n t o l e s s e n r e s t r a i n t month by month, p l a c e them more and more on t h e i r own resources, keep b e f o r e them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r u l e t h e i r own actions. We have d i s c o n t i n u e d a l l m a r c h i n g o f c o t t a g e and s c h o o l g r o u p s s i n c e o u r l a s t r e p o r t and s i n c e September have had no g r o u p " d e t a i l " . 1 7 This  i s not  t o say  t h a t t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f  p l i n e were a l t o g e t h e r d i s c a r d e d . cottages  (called  charges  f o r one  carried  o u t by  to,  u s e d by,  and  years the  and  an  reported  on  reality,  teachers  teachers  increased.  19 35,  By  1937)  disciplinary  would  receive  punishment, w h i l e  could  of Withers'  educational  still  be  not  recommended  staff.  r a t h e r than being Faulkner  next  Some p r o g r e s s  u n i t s , and  Depression  increased,  reported  oversaw  was  In-service training  developed curriculum However, t h e  colleagues,  a d v i s o r over the  them a n n u a l l y .  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of  tion.  senior  the Managing D i r e c t o r .  outside  and  by  Corporal  teachers,  M i n a r d , one  salaries,  cottages"  month o r more. individual  G e o r g e C. c h a n g e s as  "reflection  J u n i o r and  disci-  "the  had  they  departure  the an  three made i n became a  number  impact  underwent of  a  the  of  on reduc-  - 113  -  c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f o u r p e r s o n n e l , c o t t a g e p a r e n t s and  staff  18 members" due  to higher s a l a r i e s  Administrative September,  is  u n c l e a r from subsequent  By  and  but the s i g n i f i c a n c e  to increase  i t s u s e by  Minard reported  that  training  in electricity,  printing,  painting,  or i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance, their  training  Village  plumbing,  successful.  nual reports.  I n 1933,  job placements  "74%  for  woodworking,  auto  "Semi-vocational" training,  continued.  The  girls  received a t the  guest lodge.  o f u n s k i l l e d work o r — p a r t i c u l a r l y  Depression—unemployment,  upgrade  equipment  t e n s i o n between t h e myth o f s p e c i l i z e d  the r e a l i t y  appears i t was  repeatedly  noted that  training, during  the  through the  107  and  graduates  anreceived  o f w h i c h were p l a c e m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d f o r 19 t h e c h i l d r e n were t r a i n e d . " L a t e r i n t h e R e p o r t we f i n d o f t h o s e 107, 14 had r e s i g n e d , 1 was d i s c h a r g e d , and 47 20  which that,  had b e e n l a i d  o f f "because  o f slow b u s i n e s s . "  Dwight, the P r e s i d e n t o f the Board p r o u d l y t h a t he was a boy who he was the  special  shuffling to  t h r o u g h t h e i r work i n t h e c o t t a g e s and  Inn, the v i s i t o r s '  The  Attempts  s t u d e n t s were  t h e r e was  and masonry.  implemented  of the grade  annual r e p o r t s .  1932,  mechanics,  elsewhere.  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l was  in  the l i b r a r y  1931,  being offered  "employing  of Directors,  proving very s a t i s f a c t o r y " ,  George M i n a r d ' s  reported  as h i s c h a u f f e u r , L e s l i e E n s l e e ,  g r a d u a t e d from the V i l l a g e  "successful" Village  T h a t Edmund  s e v e n y e a r s ago,  g i v e s us  graduate might  into  that what  expect.  follow-up studies refer  t h e W i t h e r s R e p o r t as a " p i o n e e r p e r i o d  insight  and  to the years  of reorganization  after and  experimentation."  the  staff  but  the  -  I t seems, t h o u g h , t h a t t h e  changes o f these in directions.  114  years  d i d not  T h e r e was  salaries  i n the  represent  any  s u b s t a n t i a l change  recognition of  the  need t o  interest  of promoting  economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the  sible.  Likewise,  shaping  the  children,  but  prospects.  t h e r e was  educational  The  "self-directing  Depression  paid  c o n t i n u i n g need f o r a s t r o n g  with  increasing a b i l i t y — l a r g e l y  sional  staff—to  of c o n t r o l .  use  therapeutic  Even without  t o one  w h i c h a p p e a r e d more a c c e p t a b l e  on  outside.  The  1930's F a u l k n e r  of C o l . Faulkner  institution  the  today.  able  Faulkner The  years  research,  and  prevention  tion  in earlier  welfare  same k i n d s years-—an  community,  the  of  called  insti-  program,  and  profes-  effective  means  then,  institution in-  to Progressive t h e o r i s t s  the  Withers  the  retirement  d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h were are  still  recognizable  t h e r a p e u t i c model i s i n f u l l  being  The  an  t o shape t h e  Many o f t h e  now  children."  disciplinary  i n t h e wake o f  Children's Village training  with  l a s t major reforms b e f o r e  i n 1941.  established during the  was  changes which f o l l o w e d  Report c o n s t i t u t e d the  of  major changes i n d i r e c t i o n ,  the  of  the  through expanding  during  the  development  t r e a t m e n t as  impos-  occupational  juxtaposed  tution's the  f u t u r e needs o f  to the  i n d i v i d u a l s " must be  professionalism,  importance  seem t o change t h e i r  lip-service  increase  made t h a t  r e c o g n i t i o n of the  program t o the  that didn't  Progressive  a "center  for  of emotional  i n the  problems  of institu-  national  increasing professionalization,  force,  treatment,  f o r c e s which changed the  e v o l v i n g ethos  in  social  pressure  from  the of  surrounding  115 -  community, d i f f e r i n g  the successive  directors—have  changes i n r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , 1950's, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  o r i e n t a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s  r e s u l t e d i n c e r t a i n major  staffing,  and p r o g r a m .  In the  i n the midst of fears of a j u v e n i l e crime  wave, t h e r e s i d e n t s o f n e a r b y H a s t i n g s - o n - H u d s o n mounted a campaign  to close the V i l l a g e .  missions  t o no more t h a n 12 y e a r s  the  threat to the i n s t i t u t i o n .  continuity  i n the struggle  By r e d u c i n g  o l d , the d i r e c t o r s defused  While t h i s  order  to assess  Thirties, provides  example  for institutional  e x a m i n a t i o n than has been completed in  t h e age o f t h e a d -  suggests  survival,  a closer  t o d a t e w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the h i s t o r y since the  to that before.  What h a s b e e n t r a c e d  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e k i n d s  a t work i n t h e p a s t  i n this  paper  o f f o r c e s w h i c h have b e e n  i n shaping the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  and  provides  p a r a m e t e r s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e n e e d e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e more recent In  Children's  V i l l a g e might take  t h e p e r i o d between 1905 and 1930, we have s e e n t h e l a s t  v e s t i g e s o f the moral reform model, which, During  movement r e p l a c e d  i n t u r n was s u p p l a n t e d  t h e same p e r i o d  t r e n d was t o w a r d  increasing specialization  which provided  model.  attempts a t i n c r e a s e d  more o r l e s s s u c c e s s ,  professional qualifications.  child-care,  by t h e s c h o o l  by t h e t h e r a p e u t i c  o f time, v a r i o u s  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n met w i t h  and  place.  but the basic  and i n c r e a s e d  The d e v e l o p i n g  training  "science" of  the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s both  f o r the  change i n p r o g r a m m o d e l s and f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , a l s o l a y b e h i n d many o f t h e c h a n g e s i n s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r residents,  and f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  among r e s i d e n t s  once  -  116  -  institutionalized.  I have taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t ,  three r e l a t e d areas  (program model, s t a f f i n g , and  u l a t i o n s e l e c t i o n and l e s s of an o b j e c t i v e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) the  in a l l  resident  changes r e p r e s e n t e d  progression i n professionals'  h e l p poor young people, than changes i n the  ability  caring  Children's  thoroughly  i n t o the broad sweep of these changes t a k i n g  on a n a t i o n a l  scale.  the  V i l l a g e , an exemplary c h i l d -  i n s t i t u t i o n d u r i n g much of i t s h i s t o r y , was  integrated  to  ideological tools  which the middle c l a s s used to d e a l with d e v i a n t s from middle c l a s s norm.  pop-  place  -  117  Chapter  6  Footnotes """John W. W i t h e r s , A B r i e f S u r v e y o f C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , Dobb's F e r r y , New Y o r k . U n p u b l i s h e d t y p e s c r i p t , 1929, p. 140. 2 A c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence Cremin, the h i s t o r i a n o f the P r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n movement, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o g r e s s i v i s t work o f t h e T w e n t i e s was Rugg and Shumaker's 1928 publica t i o n , The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d S c h o o l . See L a w r e n c e C r e m i n , The Transformation of the School: P r o g r e s s i v i s m i n American E d u c a t i o n 1876-1957. K n o p f , New Y o r k , 19 69, p. 128. 3 On t h e L i n c o l n S c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , see C r e m i n , i b i d . , pp. 2 8 3 f f . W i l l i a m H e a r d K i l p a t r i c k , "The P r o j e c t Method", T e a c h e r s ' C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 1919, c i t e d i n C r e m i n , p. 216. 4 Abraham F l e x n e r , head o f L i n c o l n S c h o o l , n o t e d i n 1923, "The Modern S c h o o l s h o u l d be a l a b o r a t o r y f r o m w h i c h w o u l d i s s u e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l problems.", c i t e d i n Cremin, p. 281. 5 132. W i t h e r s , P^Withers,  P.  11.  Withers,  P-  10.  ^Withers,  P-  49.  P.  135.  7  9 Withers, 10„... Withers,  PP . 100,  "'""''Withers, P"^Withers, 13  145.  PP .  101-102.  . Withers,  P-  148.  "^Withers,  P-  147.  "^Withers,  P-  109.  "^Withers,  P-  137.  17 C.V.A.R.  109  1930,  p.  30.  1 fi  C.V.A.R. 1935, p . 6. 19  C . V . A . R . 1933, p. 6.  20 C.V.A.R. 1933, p . 23.  -  119 -  Bibliography I.  Primary  Sources  A.  Manuscript::  C a r u s o , Nancy.  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"The Impetus t o R e f o r m : C r i m e , P o v e r t y and I g n o r a n c e i n O n t a r i o , 1850-1875." D i s s . U. o f T o r o n t o 1974. Matters, Diane. "'A Chance t o Make G o o d : J u v e n i l e M a l e s and t h e Law i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1910-1915." M.A. T h e s i s . U.B.C. 1978. 1  - 129 -  Appendix  Appendix C h i l d r e n Committed, D i s c h a r g e d , R e m a i n i n g a t C.V., P l a c e d on P a r o l e , 1918-1930  and  1918  1919  1920  1921  1922  1923  1924  1925  1926  1927  1928  1929  1930  _479  420  388  392  299  281  289  261  324  274  261  266  274  Discharges  234  214  262  246  181  162  319  337  234  218  238  273  242  Remaining a t C.V.  574  538  435  410  380  325  295  219  309  366  389  381  413  P l a c e d on Parole  163  241  199  181  145  166  TOTAL  Commitments  

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