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From juvenile asylum to treatment center : changes in a New York institution for children, 1905-1930 Seixas, Peter Carr 1981

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FROM JUVENILE ASYLUM TO TREATMENT CENTER: CHANGES IN A NEW YORK INSTITUTION FOR CHILDREN 1905-1930 by PETER CARR SEIXAS B.A., Swarthmore College, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER.OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Soc i a l and Educational Studies) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1981 c Peter Carr Seixas In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Qfla/Yc, /VAift r 0UC/ATCOtjAU ^ i K D t c r f The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) Abstract In 1851 a group of wealthy, Protestant New York City busi-nessmen and professionals, previously involved i n the paternal-i s t i c Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, successfully petitioned the State l e g i s l a t u r e to incorpor-ate a new organization, the New York Juvenile Asylum. The Asylum was to care for, t r a i n and morally u p l i f t a mixed group of the City's poor children. While those who had committed serious crimes were generally sent to the House of Refuge on Randall's Island, the Asylum received those g u i l t y of a range of lesser offenses such as truancy, vagrancy, and disobedience to t h e i r parents, as well as those whose parents were unable, un-w i l l i n g or (in the eyes of the court) morally u n f i t to take care of them. During the late nineteenth century, the New York Juvenile Asylum was the largest i n s t i t u t i o n of i t s kind i n New York. In 19 05 the Asylum was moved to Dobbs Ferry, New York, twenty miles from i t s New York City s i t e . There, i t was l a i d out according to the popular "cottage" plan of the day. Optim-ism surrounded the move, r e f l e c t i n g a more generalized Progressive s o c i a l reform s p i r i t . In 1920 a new name, Children's V i l l a g e , was l e g a l l y adopted. Between 1905 and 1930, the focus of t h i s study, the i n s t i t u -t i o n underwent a number of s t r u c t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l changes, some dictated by the requirements of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , some because o f changes i n t h e i d e a s o f a l a r g e r c h i l d - c a r i n g community beyond t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , and some as r e s p o n s e s t o s t r u c t u r a l changes i n t h e o u t s i d e s o c i e t y . T h r e e e r a s o f c h i l d -c a r e t h o u g h t a r e o b s e r v a b l e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m o r a l u p l i f t mode l gave way t o an e d u c a t i o n a l model w i t h t h e move t o Dobbs F e r r y . F o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t t h e r a p e u t i c model ( today t h e V i l l a g e i s c a l l e d " A C e n t e r f o r T r e a t m e n t , R e s e a r c h , T r a i n i n g and P r e v e n t i o n o f E m o t i o n a l P r o b l e m s o f C h i l d r e n " ) were l a i d i n t h e l a t e 2 0 ' s . W h i l e none o f t h e s e model s i s m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , each had a p e r i o d o f a s c e n d a n c y i n t h e program p h i l o s o p h y . E a c h model had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a d m i s s i o n and subsequent c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , f o r t h e forms o f c o n t r o l w h i c h were e x e r c i s e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n , and f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t a f f and i n m a t e s . The i n s t i t u t i o n men c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e changes r e p r e s e n t e d o b j e c t i v e p r o g r e s s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h e l p p o o r c h i l d r e n and meet s o c i a l n e e d s . As t h e a c t u a l r u n n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s e x a m i n e d , q u e s -t i o n s a r e r a i s e d as t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c l a i m s . The c o t t a g e s y s t e m , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a i l e d as e n c o u r a g i n g a more f a m i l i a l a t -mosphere , i n f a c t was used f o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and i n t e r - c o t t a g e c o m p e t i t i o n i n p u r s u i t o f o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e . A f u r t h e r g u l f between t h e r h e t o r i c and t h e r e a l i t y a p p e a r s when t h e d i r e c t o r s ' c l a i m s t h a t t h e y were r u n n i n g a p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l f o r t h e poor a r e j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r p a r e n t n o r c h i l d had any c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l a t t e r ' s e n t e r i n g o r l e a v i n g . L i k e w i s e , t h e name change f rom the d i s c i p l i n a r y " C o r r e c t i o n a l Cottage" to "Psychopathic Cottage", p a r t of a major r e o r i e n t a t i o n i n the 30's, does not seem to have been accompanied by a change i n f u n c t i o n . As the changes i n program model took p l a c e , the s t a f f be-came i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d both i n the i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r t r a i n i n g , and i n the i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s t a f f f u n c t i o n . Again, c o n t r a r y to the c l a i m s of the i n s t i t u t i o n men, i t i s not c l e a r t h a t i n c r e a s i n g pro-f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n represented simply a d e v e l o p i n g a b i l i t y to h e l p c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s of s c i e n t i f i c understanding. I t i s c l e a r , however, from the changes i n s c h o o l i n g , from p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g and record-keeping, from the work of the mental hygiene c l i n i c , t h a t more and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d instruments of c o n t r o l over the inmates were put i n t o p l a c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d , e n a b l i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n men to dispense with many aspects of m i l i t a r y -type d r i l l . T h i s study adds a s i g n i f i c a n t case to what i s becoming a s u b s t a n t i a l body of h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r j u v e n i l e s . C o n c l u s i o n s drawn from the N . Y . J . A . / C h i l d r e n 1 s V i l l a g e , an i n s t i t u t i o n which was prominent without being unique, become new p i e c e s of a l a r g e r p u z z l e . I f the p i e c i n g together i s to p r ogress, each h i s t o r i a n must attempt, on the b a s i s of h i s / h e r own evidence, to o f f e r a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the whole. I t i s i n t h a t s p i r i t t h a t the l a r g e r c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s study are o f f e r e d . - i v -Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i L i s t of F i g u r e s v L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i Acknowledgements. . . v i i Chapter 1 Wholesome, C h e e r f u l Surroundings": The Move to Dobbs F e r r y 6 Chapter 2 A Context f o r the Study of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e 17 Chapter 3 "A Work of Great U s e f u l n e s s " : The New York J u v e n i l e Asylum i n the Nineteenth Century 37 Chapter 4 "A Modern School of C o r r e c t i o n " : the Cottage \ System i n A c t i o n 57 Chapter 5 D e c l i n e and Renewal: The C o l o n e l Takes Hold, 1918-1930. 76 Chapter 6 The Withers Report and Beyond 106 B i b l i o g r a p h y 119 Appendix 129 - „v -L i s t of Figures Page The Asylum at Washington Heights 1 The Layout of Children's V i l l a g e , Dobbs Ferry, York and Sawyer, Architects 2 C o l l i n s and Dwight Cottages 3 "A Quiet Evening at Peter Cooper Cottage." 4 Col. Leon Faulkner 5 - v i -L i s t of Abbreviations A.I.CP. Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor. C.V. Children's V i l l a g e C.V.A.R. Children's V i l l a g e Annual Report E.C.B.C. Executive Committee of the Board of Directors (of Children's Village) L.S.R.M. Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Fund N.C.C.C. National Conference of Charities and Correction N.C.S.W. National Conference of Social Work N.Y.J.A. New York Juvenile Asylum N.Y.J.A. A.R. New York Juvenile Asylum Annual Report N.Y.P.L. New York Public Library - v i i -Acknowledgements A number of people provided i n d i s p e n s i b l e h e l p i n the r e s e a r c h f o r and w r i t i n g of t h i s paper. Lawrence P e r k i n s , Howard Millman, and Frank Hartsoe gave f r e e l y of t h e i r time i n order to open doors f o r me a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . Many of the r e s t of the s t a f f c o n t r i b u t e d to the work both by t e l l i n g me t h e i r s t o r i e s and by l i s t e n i n g to mine. Nancy Caruso p r o v i d e d the i n t e r v i e w which gave me i n s i g h t i n t o the p e r s o n a l i t y of her u n c l e , Leon Faulkner. N e i l Sutherland, Steven Schlossman, Barbara B r e n z e l and Bob Payne helped to c l a r i f y both my t h i n k i n g and my w r i t i n g . My two s u p e r v i s o r s , Marvin Lazerson and J . Donald Wilson, were of immeasurable help i n more ways than I can l i s t here. I f i t had not been f o r P h i l Aranow's suggestion t h a t we detour through the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e grounds while on a w i n t e r s t r o l l i n December, 1978, the s u b j e c t of t h i s study would have passed me by. My parents, Frank and Judy Seixas, continued to supply me from the bottomless w e l l of encouragement from which I have been drawing s i n c e b i r t h , and provided me w i t h a f a m i l i a r r o o f over my head w h i l e I was c a r r y i n g out the r e s e a r c h i n New York. Susan Inman has shared most i n t i m a t e l y i n the t r i a l s of t h i s p r o d u c t i o n . She had to l i s t e n to my midnight ramblings, and managed to keep Naomi happy and s m i l i n g and away from the t y p e w r i t e r . \\j \k\ i f I' 1 \\ c ^ KriCIICN AND - ~**0\VLR HOUSt "NAMES OF COTTAGES 1 -EDMUND DW1CHT 1 -PETE1 COOPER 3 - SAMUEL WiLLETTS 4 - J. P. HOWARJD 5 • . lAMKi LLNOX G -LUTHER B RADISH 7 - JOHN ROSE S - JOHN B. 5CHOLE4 9 - ROBERT M. HARTLEY .10-MARY S TUART U ' EZRA M. K.INCSLEY ANDREW H. GREEN 13 - JOHN D. RUSS 14-JOSEPH B COLLIN A 15 - MORNAY WILLIAMS 16 - BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 17 - CLARK.SON CROL1US IS - DAVID FANS HAW 19 - REX3SZ.LAER H HAVENS 20- JAMES BROWN 21 • RUFUS L L O W 21- MARY BURR 23- WILLIAM L.RHINELANDER M - ABRAHAM LINCOLN 23- JAMES RUFU3 SMITH 26 27 28- MRS VAN HORN 29 30 JOHN l»AV»» W O L F E 3CHOOL - WETMORE HALL CONTOURS SHOW 10 FT INTERVAL! S C A I J I I N - I F F T " — 'VILLAGE • — — 32Jk!!SjUSJ T.T,N.YC aam H*li>l In! BSISal t i l l 5a] - 6 -Chapter 1 "Wholesome, Cheerful Surroundings": The Move to Dobbs F e r r y Over the course of two weeks, i n May, 19 05, Superintendent Charles D. H i l l e s of the New York Juvenile Asylum charted the move of an entire i n s t i t u t i o n — t h r e e hundred neglected, delinq-uent and dependent children, approximately six t y s t a f f members, and a l l t h e i r paraphernalia—from the old building i n Washington Heights, at 176th Street and Amsterdam Avenue i n New York C i t y to a new location twenty miles north i n Dobbs Ferry, New York. Though the name change would not become o f f i c i a l u n t i l 1920, the i n s t i t u t i o n at the new s i t e was c a l l e d Children's V i l l a g e . The move involved transporting the people and t h e i r belongings to Grand Central Station, r i d i n g the t r a i n to the Chauncey Station, and again loading the baggage onto wagons to be driven up the i n c l i n e from the station to the new, 277 acre s i t e . If they had f e l t cramped for space i n the old, congregate-style i n s t i t u t i o n , whose grounds were being criss-crossed by increas-ingly busy New York City streets, there was room to spread out here. At the top of a r i s e overlooking the Hudson River i n an area known as Echo H i l l s was a symmetrically planned arrangement of sixteen "cottages", a school building, and a u x i l i a r y structures. The layout had been designed by the winners of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l competition on land purchased from several farmers i n 1901. - 7 -At the n o r t h end of the s i t e was a s e m i - c i r c l e , open to the south, of the f i r s t ten cottage s i t e s , spaced every 2 00 f e e t . The c o t t a g e s which were a l r e a d y b u i l t were s u b s t a n t i a l stone and frame b u i l d i n g s , appearing from the o u t s i d e not u n l i k e the spac-ious suburban f a m i l y homes along the Hudson R i v e r i n the nearby towns of Dobbs F e r r y and Hastings-on-Hudson. W i t h i n the semi-c i r c l e , a h i l l rose g e n t l y to a f l a g p o l e a t the c e n t r e , the f u t u r e s i t e of m i l i t a r y d r i l l e x e r c i s e s . A road framed the southern boundary of the s e m i - c i r c l e . F o l l o w i n g the road west, then north, l e d one to Dobbs F e r r y . F o l l o w i n g i t e a s t would l e a d one down the tree-shaded switch-backs of the slope to Chauncey S t a t i o n where the c h i l d r e n had a r r i v e d . Across the road from the s e m i - c i r c l e were the a t h l e t i c f i e l d , a l a r g e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , s i x a d d i t i o n a l c o t t a g e s , s i t e s f o r seventeen more, and p l e n t y of room to expand i n t o the woods to the south. Twenty acres had been plowed f o r a s p r i n g p l a n t i n g to supply food f o r the i n s t i t u -t i o n i n the coming year. The o u t l y i n g houses of Hastings-on-Hudson, one stop south of Dobbs F e r r y on the New York C e n t r a l R a i l r o a d ' s Hudson R i v e r L i n e , were s t i l l a m i l e away through the woods. Though H i l l e s maintained an u n d e r l y i n g optimism, the l o g i s -t i c s of the move i t s e l f threatened to swamp him. He was i n v o l v e d i n o v e r s e e i n g not o n l y the s t a f f h i r i n g and f i r i n g , inmate d i s -charges, and the b u i l d i n g of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t , but a l s o such d e t a i l s as the s u p p l y i n g of beef, l i v e s t o c k , tableware, potato seed, reduced r a t e t r a i n f a r e s , lawn-mowers; a r r a n g i n g i n which cottage each s t a f f member would l i v e , how and when each one would - 8 -have h i s or her belongings t r a n s p o r t e d from the t r a i n s t a t i o n to the V i l l a g e , and so on. A l e t t e r to the c o n t r a c t o r s , f o r i n -stance, r e l a y e d the message than Mornay W i l l i a m s , the P r e s i d e n t of the Board, "requests t h a t the w a l l s of the o f f i c e of the P a l l i s e r House be p a i n t e d green i n s t e a d of t e r r a cotta".''" Three days a f t e r the a r r i v a l of the f i r s t boys, H i l l e s wrote: I have been l i t e r a l l y overwhelmed with p e t t y d e t a i l s i n c i d e n t to the s t a r t . Notwithstanding a l l the promises to us, our warnings and p l e a d i n g s , the c o n t r a c t o r s are not y e t out of the houses. P l a s t e r e r s are i n a l l of them, with t h e i r d i r t . E l e c t r i c i a n s haven't a l l t h e i r equip-ment i n p o s i t i o n , we haven't hot water nor heat, nor l i g h t . Our treatment has been r e a l l y c r u e l and i n the e f f o r t to make our people comfortable we have been d r i v e ^ to the extreme. I hope i t w i l l be a l l r i g h t s h o r t l y . . . By May 20, wit h 100 people on the grounds there was s t i l l no l i g h t . One of the most d i f f i c u l t problems H i l l e s faced was the n e c e s s i t y of a d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n the number of inmates cared f o r by the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum. In 1904, there had been almost one thousand c h i l d r e n committed to the Asylum. At the time of the move, the new V i l l a g e had room f o r thr e e hundred, though there were plans f o r expansion to around s i x hundred. Arrangements had al r e a d y been made to send t h i r t y - o n e c h i l d r e n to farms i n the West through Hastings Hart's I l l i n o i s Home and C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The p r a c t i c e of sending c h i l d r e n west 3 had been common s i n c e 1855. P o p u l a t i o n was f u r t h e r reduced by r e q u e s t i n g s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , who had provided up to o n e - t h i r d o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the 1890's and e a r l y 1900's to send t r u a n t s elsewhere ( t h i s - 9 -was to be a temporary measure). H i l l e s was i n v o l v e d i n a d i f -f i c u l t numbers game; he c a l c u l a t e d , e a r l y i n the s p r i n g of 1905 t h a t i f he e l i m i n a t e d the Jews, B l a c k s , and P r o t e s t a n t g i r l s , h i s t o t a l remaining would be i n the neighborhood of three hun-dred. In a d d i t i o n , he got the Department of C h a r i t i e s to agree not to send any new cases. But by A p r i l , H i l l e s had been so suc-c e s s f u l t h a t he was a f r a i d t h a t the numbers r e d u c t i o n had been c a r r i e d too f a r : . . . I d e s i r e to make the emphatic statement now t h a t u n l e s s we l i m i t the d i s c h a r g e s i n A p r i l and May to the g i r l s and the Jewish and c o l o r e d boys, we w i l l not have enough c h i l d r e n to f i l l the c ottages a t Dobbs F e r r y i n June. Where d i d a l l the d i s c h a r g e d c h i l d r e n go? In 1904, the New York S t a t e T r a i n i n g School f o r G i r l s a t Hudson opened, and 5 was a b l e to take some of the d e l i n q u e n t g i r l s . A number of c h i l d r e n were t r a n s f e r r e d to the F i v e P o i n t s House of Industry and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. The number of Black commitments had always been r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , and some of these c h i l d r e n were t r a n s f e r r e d to the New York C o l o r e d Orphan Asylum, or the Howard Col o r e d Orphan Asylum i n Brooklyn. I t appears, though, t h a t a l a r g e number of p a r e n t s — p a r t i c u l a r l y Jews—were simply n o t i f i e d to come with some shoes and c l o t h e s to p i c k up t h e i r c h i l d r e n g and take them home. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know how those white, male, P r o t e s t a n t , "unfortunate" and "bad and d i s o r d e r l y " c h i l d r e n who were not d i s -charged from the i n s t i t u t i o n i n the s p r i n g of 1905, experienced the move to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . - 10 -From the f a c t t h a t there had r e c e n t l y been an unusual num-ber of d i s t u r b a n c e s and escapes from the i n s t i t u t i o n i n the C i t y , we can s p e c u l a t e t h a t many had been d i s c o n t e n t with t h e i r l o t 7 p r i o r to the move. I f i t were not hard enough to know the experiences of these boys, s e v e r a l c o i n c i d e n c e s c o n s p i r e to make i t s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t . In r e c e n t years records from the per-i o d have been weeded out, and any p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s and conduct records destroyed. While the photographs from the Annual Reports g i v e some sense of the p h y s i c a l l a y o u t , the p i c t u r e s of the boys are posed and formal. A study of the p i c t u r e "A q u i e t evening i n Peter Cooper Cottage" from the 1906 Annual Report, f o r i n -stance, shows s t r e e t - b o y s s i t t i n g e x p r e s s i o n l e s s l y around a t a b l e r e a d i n g newspapers and books. There i s a t l e a s t some doubt t h a t t h i n g s were as they were p o r t r a y e d on those " q u i e t evenings" i n a year when only 119 of 163 e n t e r i n g c h i l d r e n c o u l d "read, w r i t e Q and c i p h e r " . F u r t h e r evidence of doctored appearances s u r v i v e s i n the superintendent's i n s t r u c t i o n s to the c o n t r a c t o r s : "The c o t t a g e s w i l l be the mecca of v i s i t o r s to the v i l l a g e . The k i n d e r g a r t e n w i l l be v i s i t e d a g r e a t d e a l . I t would add to these b u i l d i n g s i f we c o u l d g i v e the i n t e r i o r w a l l s of the f i r s t f l o o r the same treatment t h a t we gave the two e x h i b i t i o n c o t -tages."^ With the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n number of c h i l d r e n , the s t a f f composition underwent some changes. (Though o v e r a l l pop-u l a t i o n had been reduced, p r o p o r t i o n a l l y , a l a r g e r s t a f f was r e q u i r e d to run the cottage s t y l e o peration.) In an era of r e l a t i v e l y heavy-handed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e treatment of i n s t i t u t i o n - 11 -workers, H i l l e s waited u n t i l e a r l y May to n o t i f y most of h i s s t a f f as to whose p o s i t i o n s would be continued i n the new l o c a -t i o n . Of course, there were workers who d i d not want t o r e -l o c a t e o u t s i d e of the C i t y , and some new h i r i n g was necessary. C r i t e r i a f o r h i r i n g s t a f f were not u n r e l a t e d to the kinds of c r i t e r i a used i n d i s c h a r g i n g inmates. For example, H i l l e s ad-v e r t i s e d f o r a white P r o t e s t a n t female cook f o r the new i n s t i -t u t i o n . Most s t a f f were expected to l i v e i n the co t t a g e s w i t h the inmates."'""'" Each c o t t a g e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the twenty boys, would have a matron, or a matron and master, as w e l l as two other employees, o f t e n t e a c h e r s . The cottage matron w i l l have f u l l charge of the house, s u p e r v i s i n g the d i n i n g room, the mending and housework. The food w i l l be cooked elsewhere and d e l i v e r e d . She would not have other d u t i e s than those i n her own c o t -tage and would be o f f duty one day every two weeks and have two weeks annual v a c a t i o n . The s a l a r y i s Two o f f i c e r s s l e e p up s t a i r s and eat i n the c o t t a g e . H i l l e s e x p l a i n e d to a p r o s p e c t i v e teacher t h a t "the two teachers and matron would use a common bathroom, and would have a smal l 13 t a b l e i n the ce n t e r of the d i n i n g room." Teachers were almost a l l unmarried women. The male masters o f the co t t a g e s had out-s i d e d u t i e s , g e n e r a l l y i n the v o c a t i o n a l education/maintenance areas. Thus, Henry J . Couper, the V i l l a g e farmer, was respon-s i b l e not o n l y f o r the crops and animals themselves, but a l s o f o r o v e r s e e i n g the boys working with the crops and animals, and 14 along with h i s w i f e , f o r running B r a d i s h Cottage. In succeed-i n g decades wi t h i n c r e a s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , these tasks would become more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and s t a f f r o l e s more s p e c i f i c . - 12 -And these developments would have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the way i n which c h i l d r e n experienced the i n s t i t u t i o n . By 1905, a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n a t i o n a l community of p h i l a n -t h r o p i s t s and workers i n v o l v e d i n v a r i o u s aspects of j u v e n i l e reform had evolved. C h a r l e s D. H i l l e s was c l e a r l y a member of t h i s community. As chairman of the C h i l d r e n ' s S e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Conference of C h a r i t i e s and C o r r e c t i o n s • h e was r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g the speakers and papers f o r the 19 05 conference. He saw to i t t h a t Denver's Judge Ben Lindsey, the most widely known of the n a t i o n ' s j u v e n i l e c o u r t judges, would take charge of the s e s s i o n on the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , and i n v i t e d o t h e rs of s i m i l a r s t a t u r e . He was a l s o busy w i t h arrangements f o r the s m a l l e r N a t i o n a l Conference on the E d u c a t i o n of Delinquent, Truant, and Backward C h i l d r e n , of which he was the S e c r e t a r y . H i l l e s ' e x t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i n k s meant t h a t h i s ideas and those governing the p o l i c i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n were l i k e l y to be i n harmony wi t h those of the n a t i o n a l reform com-munity. H i l l e s ' t h i n k i n g , as expressed a week bef o r e the t r a n s -f e r began, was' indeed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t optimism of the times: . . . Having exploded the theory t h a t a l l e v i l i s t r a c e a b l e to bad b i r t h , and s u b s t i t u t e d the theory t h a t environment i s more at f a u l t than heredity, I t h i n k we must i n s i s t on a t t r a c t i v e , wholesome, c h e e r f u l surround-ings f o r the c h i l d r e n w h i l e they are with us.15 The advantages of the surroundings to which H i l l e s r e f e r r e d were to be d e r i v e d through the cottage system, which was i n i t s hey-day. Though there were precedents i n North America a h a l f - 13 -century e a r l i e r , i t was a t the t u r n of the century t h a t many j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e l o c a t e d . Leaving behind the l a r g e b u i l d i n g s and crowded c i t y s t r e e t s , the i n s t i t u t i o n men claimed t h a t the c l u s t e r s of s m a l l e r b u i l d i n g s i n more r u r a l s e t t i n g s would r e h a b i l i t a t e the urban young, by drawing them c l o s e r to the r e s t o r a t i v e rhythms of nature, w i t h i n a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c l o s e r to the " n a t u r a l " f a m i l y . In a d d i t i o n t o s o l v i n g c o n c r e t e p r a c t i c a l problems a t Washington Heights, then, the move to the cottage system brought the i n s t i t u t i o n i n l i n e w i t h the t h i n k i n g of the n a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s i v e reform community. T h i s , i n t u r n , enabled a l l of those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Asylum to f e e l t h a t they were doing the b e s t f o r t h e i r charges t h a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d — t h a t they were up to standards i n a f i e l d which generated c o n s i d e r a b l e s c r u t -i n y . The optimism c r e a t e d by the new f a c i l i t i e s , of course, was not s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . The r e a l i t y of d a i l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g l e d to measures which were q u i t e d i v o r c e d f r o m — a n d . sometimes a n t i t h e t i c a l t o - - t h e n a t i o n a l reform community's pro-nouncements about what should be. F u r t h e r , those pronouncements themselves, and the c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n of which they were a p a r t , were undergoing a process of c o n t i n u a l change. Thus, while the move to Dobbs F e r r y represented a major change f o r the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum, i t a l s o s e t the stage f o r f u r t h e r changes. Problems of d i s c i p l i n e , program, image-maintenance, student pop-u l a t i o n , s t a f f i n g , indeed of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u r v i v a l would con-t i n u e to be c h a l l e n g e s f o r the men who ran the V i l l a g e . How they responded t o the i d e o l o g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l dimensions of - 14 -these challenges.makes up the rest of t h i s story. - 15 -Footnotes Chapter 1 """Hilles to Sawyer, May 22, 1905. 2 H i l l e s to Wendell, May 19, 1905. 3 U n t i l 1903, c h i l d r e n had been sent d i r e c t l y t o a Western Agency maintained by the N.Y.J.A. The c l o s i n g of t h a t o f f i c e and. the s h i f t ' t o Hart's o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f l e c t e d the d i m i n i s h i n g numbers of inmates being thus a p p r e n t i c e d . Hart was a t the beginning of a c a r e e r of n a t i o n a l eminence i n c h a r i t y , c h i l d w e l f a r e and penal o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The use of western farms f o r p l a c i n g out urban c h i l d r e n was more f u l l y developed by the New York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . See Miriam Z. Langsam, C h i l d r e n  West: A H i s t o r y of the P l a c i n g Out System of the New York  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y 1853-1890. (Madison: S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Wisconsin, 1964). See a l s o below, Chapter 3. 4 H i l l e s to Henry Gregory (Chairman of the Admissions, Indentures and Discharges Committee) A p r i l 4, 1905. 5 In the same year the S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e passed a law pro-h i b i t i n g g i r l s from s t a y i n g i n the House of Refuge and the S t a t e I n d u s t r i a l School a t Rochester. H i l l e s Correspondence, passim, March, 1905. 7N.Y.J.A. A.R., 1903. 8N.Y.J.A. A.R., 1917, pp.. 48,49. 9 H i l l e s Correspondence, A p r i l 3, 1905. " ^ H i l l e s to M e t r o p o l i t a n Agency and H o t e l Exchange, May 8, 1905 "'""'"This made c o n d i t i o n s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those d e s c r i b e d by E r v i n g Goffman i n Asylums: Essays on the S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n of  Mental P a t i e n t s and Other Inmates. (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1961). In h i s account, though inmates 1 whole l i v e s are c i r -cumscribed by the i n s t i t u t i o n , the s t a f f are a b l e to m a i n t a i n o u t s i d e l i v e s . 12 H i l l e s t o Sawyer, A p r i l 13, 1905. 1 3 H i l l e s to Dowling, March 29, 1905. 1 4N.Y.J.A. A.R., 1906. - 16 -1 5 H i l l e s to Vaux, May 6, 1905. - 17 -Chapter 2 A Context f o r the Study of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e The p o t e n t i a l of the study of an i n s t i t u t i o n such as C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e has been g r e a t l y enhanced by developments d u r i n g the past ten to f i f t e e n years i n the f i e l d s of e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y and the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l w e l f a r e . New p e r s p e c t i v e s emphasize the p l a c e of the i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n a broad s o c i a l framework, c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of i t s v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s , and the a c t u a l experiences of a l l of those connected w i t h the i n s t i t u -t i o n , o f t e n u s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology to e x p l o r e the l a t t e r . As s c h o l a r s have pursued these concerns, the boundaries between e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y and other areas w i t h i n the framework of s o c i a l h i s t o r y have i n e v i t a b l y become i n c r e a s i n g l y b l u r r e d and i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e developments i n v a r i o u s kinds of i n s t i t u t i o n s t o each o t h e r . The e a r l i e s t work took p l a c e w i t h i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . F o l l o w i n g upon Michael Katz's The Irony of E a r l y School Reform i n 1968, a spate of works appeared, which c r i t i c a l l y examined the i d e a , c e n t r a l to e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y p r i o r t o the m i d - s i x t i e s , t h a t the development of a u n i v e r s a l s t a t e - r u n p u b l i c .school., system was synonymous wit h progress and the expansion of demo-c r a t i c opportunities."'" The new e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s brought to t h e i r s t u d i e s an awareness of the contemporary shortcomings - 18 -and f a i l u r e s of public school systems. They examined the school's role i n maintaining inequality rather than creating equality of opportunity, by maintaining power imbalances, and 2 by providing the i l l u s i o n of meritocratic equality. The extension of state power through the implementation of compulsory education and the expansion of a state bureaucracy to deal with perceived s o c i a l problems were measures which paved the way for increased intervention into more aspects of more peoples' l i v e s . These developments can be seen i n two ways. The t r a d i t i o n a l history followed the rationale given by the school promoters themselves, i n arguing that, for instance, pro-viding universal free public education for the working class and immigrant groups would provide them with access to the f r u i t s of the American dream, that a broad and d i v e r s i f i e d curriculum was relevant to the vocational aims of more children, and that guid-ance counsellors i n the schools provided i n d i v i d u a l i z e d atten-3 tion to help students make wise career choices. A c r i t i c a l examination of the same reforms revealed class domination and assaults on immigrants' culture, sex-role reinforcement, and occupational streaming—in other words, the maintenance and perpetuation of the ex i s t i n g class structure. The i n i t i a l r e v i s i o n i s t educational historians of the l a t e 1960's and early 1970's posited a r e l a t i v e l y crude " s o c i a l control" thesis, whereby schools were seen as one of the i n s t r u -ments imposed on the poor and working class by the middle and upper cl a s s . Yet the " s o c i a l control" thesis neglected to ask whether and what kind of resistance and opposition occurred - 19 -among those who were being imposed upon. In many instances those who were presumably being controlled were either i n d i f -ferent to, enthusiastic about, or w i l l i n g l y accommodated to the 4 reform measures. The task then, was to provide an analysis which would encompass an awareness of the class inequality and r a d i c a l l y divergent interests of members of d i f f e r e n t classes regarding the extension of state power; the role of the schools in maintaining the class system through an extension of state power; and the apparent cooperation of groups who were being imposed upon i n the extension of state power for s o c i a l control. In the mid-seventies, Katz, who was at the forefront of the o r i g i n a l wave of revisionism, provided a reformulation of the argument. Drawing on Antonio Gramsci's notion of hegemony, Katz distinguished between the imposition which enforces d i s -c i p l i n e on groups which do not consent, and "the 'spontaneous' consent given by the great masses of the population to the general d i r e c t i o n imposed on s o c i a l l i f e by the dominant funda-5 mental group." The building of the public school system and Progressive educational reform, both of which generated a con-sensus of support among a l l classes, were impositions of the second kind, he argued. Using t h i s device Katz was able to maintain the core of the r e v i s i o n i s t c r i t i c i s m , that the re s u l t s of educational reform, i . e . , class domination and i d e o l o g i c a l legitimation of inequality, " d i f f e r e d sharply from i t s i d e o l o g i -c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n " i . e . , extension of democratic opportunity, and yet to formulate the beginnings of an explanation as to how such an. i n s t i t u t i o n could receive popular acceptance.^ - 2 0 -T h i s argument has r e c e n t l y come under c r i t i c i s m from David Hogan who r e j e c t s the n o t i o n t h a t " i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony" can 7 e x p l a i n working c l a s s responses to s c h o o l i n g . Hogan's c r i t i -que drawing on the i n s i g h t s of the new working c l a s s h i s t o r i a n s i n the t r a d i t i o n of E.P. Thompson, emphasizes the a c t i v e r o l e of the working c l a s s and i t s c u l t u r e i n shaping responses to the combination of the c a p i t a l i s t or r u l i n g c l a s s . That domin-a t i o n , he argues, comes i n the form of s t r u c t u r a l , not i d e o l -o g i c a l , i m p e r a t i v e s , i . e . , economic s u r v i v a l , m o b i l i t y , success. The c u l t u r e of the p a r t i c u l a r w o r k i n g - c l a s s g r o u p — t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , r e l i g i o n , v a l u e s , p o l i t i c a l i d e a s , and t r a d i t i o n a l work s k i l l s — d e t e r m i n e s how those s t r u c t u r a l im-g p e r a t i v e s are to be d e a l t w i t h . H i s t o r i a n s i n the c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s f o r the study of an i n s t i t u t i o n such as C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . In The Dis c o v e r y of the Asylum ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a broad survey which t r e a t s the growth of p r i s o n s , orphan asy-lums, and insane asylums during;the Jacksonian e r a i n the United S t a t e s , David Rothman sees the degeneration of a movement, o r -i g i n a l l y i n s p i r e d by a humanitarian impulse, r coupled w i t h a f e a r of d i s o r d e r i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g , u r b a n i z i n g America, i n t o a 9 p u n i t i v e , c u s t o d i a l s e t of i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c o n t r a s t between the o r i g i n a l statements of purpose and the a c t u a l e f f e c t i v e out-come of s o c i a l w e l f a r e reform i s expl o r e d f u r t h e r i n h i s Consc-ience and Convenience: The Asylum and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e s i n Prog-r e s s i v e America ( 1 9 8 0 ) Rothman' s s k e p t i c i s m about the e f f i c a c y of reform movements, as well as h i s attempt to s e t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n - 21 -a broad context, f i n d s p a r a l l e l s i n other works."'"''' Perhaps because p r i s o n s and mental asylums are more o b v i o u s l y i n s t i t u -t i o n s of c o e r c i v e s o c i a l c o n t r o l and because they have p e r i o d i -c a l l y been the o b j e c t of a t t a c k s s i n c e the mid-nineteenth century, these w r i t e r s ' c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e seems l e s s r a d i c a l than t h a t of the r e v i s i o n i s t e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s . Yet t h e i r message i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d : g i v e n p e r s i s t e n t c l a s s i n e q u a l i t y under a d e v e l o p i n g c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l order, measures which are a d v e r t i s e d as p r o g r e s s i v e reform o f t e n serve p a r a d o x i c a l l y to f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t e the power of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . Other w r i t e r s have focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on j u v e n i l e orphanages, asylums and delinquency. These authors can be d i v i d e d roughly i n t o two camps. There are those who have the t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h a t s u c c e s s i v e reform measures rep-resented genuine progress i n the e f f o r t s to p r o v i d e humanitar-12 i a n , r e h a b i l i t a t i v e environments f o r poor or d e v i a n t youth. These focus on p u b l i c h e a l t h measures, c h i l d - l a b o u r laws, and e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d toward d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ; on the b e n e f i -c i a l e f f e c t s of s e p a r a t i n g young people from a d u l t s , d e l i n q u e n t s from n e g l e c t e d or dependent c h i l d r e n , both i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n law; and on i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s c h o o l i n g . The second group, corresponding to the r e v i s i o n i s t e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s , have shared a t l e a s t t hree assumptions: 1) t h a t one of the major tasks of h i s t o r y i s to inform p r e s e n t p o l i c y 2) t h a t reform measures must be examined c r i t i c a l l y , e i t h e r be-cause the reformers themselves were not c l a s s l e s s and d i s i n t e r -e s t e d , or because the f i n a l e f f e c t s were o f t e n not those e n v i s i o n e d by the reformers and 3) an understanding t h a t , what-ever the promises of the reformers, the problems were not 13 s o l v e d by the new m s i t u t i o n s . Anthony P i a t t launched the new d i r e c t i o n i n 1969 with h i s r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d The C h i l d Savers. He focused h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the c l a s s i n t e r e s t s of the upper c l a s s reformers, but d i d no r e s e a r c h i n t o the a c t u a l e f f e c t s of the reforms on the l i v e s of poor c h i l d r e n . Robert Mennel l i k e w i s e , has a top-down focus, but h i s r e s e a r c h i s much more c a r e f u l , more e x t e n s i v e , and h i s con-c l u s i o n s , though e q u a l l y c r i t i c a l , make more s u b t l e d i s t i n c -t i o n s . Recently Steven Schlossman, Barbara B r e n z e l and Diane Matters u s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h , have taken on the d i f f i c u l t task of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the e f f e c t s of the p o l i c i e s on those who were governed by the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s and r e f o r m a t o r i e s , by s t u d y i n g the records of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and s e t t i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n a broad h i s t o r i c a l c o ntext. One of the key q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by the r e v i s i o n i s t educa-t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s i s whether the working c l a s s supported or r e s i s t e d the c r e a t i o n and expansion of the p u b l i c s c h o o l systems. T h i s q u e s t i o n i s s i m i l a r l y important f o r h i s t o r i a n s of s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Does the n o t i o n of r u l i n g c l a s s hegemony have a p p l i c a t i o n here? Is there any sense i n which we can see what a c t u a l l y happened i n asylums, p r i s o n s , and h o s p i t a l s , founded e x p l i c i t l y f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l purposes, as being shaped by the inmates themselves? H i s t o r i a n s of the working c l a s s have cautioned a g a i n s t seeing too many aspects of w o r k i n g - c l a s s l i f e as evidence of - 23 -14 s o c i a l c o n t r o l imposed from above. While t h i s c o r r e c t i v e to the s o c i a l c o n t r o l model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of the workplace, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and perhaps to the s c h o o l where p a r t i c i p a n t s m a i n tain an a c t i v e f a m i l y and c u l t u r a l l i f e , i t becomes more problematic i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to " t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " such as p r i s o n s , mental h o s p i t a l s , or j u v e n i l e asylums where the inmates' e n t i r e l i v e s are circum-s c r i b e d by the r u l e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n and the i n f l u e n c e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a m i l y and e t h n i c background are g r e a t l y r e -duced."^ In the world of the poor or w o r k i n g - c l a s s immigrant these t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y seen as p l a c e s t o be avoided p r e c i s e l y because they would mean the severe l i m i t i n g — a t l e a s t f o r the p e r i o d of i n c a r c e r a t i o n — o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s to make the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c u l t u r e . I d e o l o g i c a l hegemony i s a concept which becomes u s e f u l when there i s an otherwise i n e x p l i c a b l e l a c k of c o e r c i o n or c o n f l i c t . The more o v e r t f o r c e i s r e q u i r e d to r e c r u i t " p a r t i c i p a n t s " i n an i n s t i t u -t i o n , the l e s s r e l e v a n t i s the n o t i o n of i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony—a concept to be used p r e c i s e l y when o v e r t f o r c e i s not i n e v i -dence . Many of these i n s t i t u t i o n s , C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e among them, were, of course temporary t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s : w h i l e the inmates' l i v e s were t o t a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d of i n c a r c e r -a t i o n , as a r u l e they had both pasts and f u t u r e s beyond the i n s t i t u t i o n w a l l s . Inmates put i n t h e i r time w i t h the expecta-t i o n t h a t they would resume r o l e s i n an e x t r a - i n s t i t u t i o n a l - 2 4 -c u l t u r e . S t u d i e s which adopt the i n s t i t u t i o n r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l s who r e s i d e t e m p o r a r i l y i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , as the o r g a n i z i n g framework, run the r i s k of o v e r s t a t i n g the impact of the i n s t i t u t i o n on the inmates' l i v e s . T o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s should be seen i n r e l a t i o n to the o ther i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the s o c i e t y . In a sense, they are a l a s t r e s o r t , to be used on people who do not respond to i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony or the l e s s c o e r c i v e mechanisms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . As almshouses and p e n i t e n t i a r i e s are f o r those who do not adhere to the l o g i c of work d i s c i p l i n e , j u v e n i l e asylums and reforma-t o r i e s are. ^ f o r those who do not adhere to the d i c t a t e s of e i t h e r p arents, s c h o o l , or law. As the non-coercive i n s t i t u -t i o n s f a i l , the power of the s t a t e i s r e v e a l e d through i t s c o e r c i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . And i n f a c t , the e x i s t e n c e of the c o e r c i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s adds another compelling reason f o r the poor and working c l a s s to m a i n t a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "non-coercive" i n s t i t u t i o n s . To make sense of the p r i s o n s , h o s p i t a l s and asylums, we can see them as occupying one end of a continuum of i n s t i t u t i o n s which vary i n degrees of o v e r t s t a t e c o e r c i o n . Mechanisms of hegemony operate most s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the l e s s c o e r c i v e end of the continuum." Likewise,, i t i s a t the l e s s c o e r c i v e end t h a t w o r k i n g . c l a s s c u l t u r e has i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r -mining the o u t l i n e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s ' , f u n c t i o n i n g . A t the more c o e r c i v e end, i n the p r i s o n s , r e f o r m a t o r i e s , and s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l s , the a c t i v e c h o i c e s of the poor and working c l a s s take the form of e f f o r t s to a v o i d i n i t i a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n , and a c t s o f r e s i s t a n c e , r e b e l l i o n , and escape aft e r w a r d s . The h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e o f the continuum allows us to com-pare i n s t i t u t i o n s and to ask quest i o n s not only about recruitment of p a r t i c i p a n t s , but about the contours of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e , the s t y l e of d i s c i p l i n e , other mechanisms of c o n t r o l , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l or c o l l e c t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n by p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the p o t e n t i a l of genuine u s e f u l n e s s of the i n s t i t u t i o n t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As these comparisons are developed, the i n s t i t u t i o n s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other may begin t o be explo r e d (e.g., to what extent d i d the e x i s t e n c e of the j u v e n i l e asylum and reformatory h e l p to enfo r c e s c h o o l attendance?). A number or q u e s t i o n s , then, are suggested by the l i t e r a -t u r e , which may be pursued through a study of j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u -t i o n s . C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e o f f e r s an o p p o r t u n i t y to d e a l w i t h these q u e s t i o n s . At the Dobbs F e r r y s i t e , the i n s t i t u t i o n never again reached the s i z e of the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum i n the C i t y (a maximum of 1160 i n 1863), but i t maintained a p o p u l a t i o n between the years of 1905 and 1930 of between 200 16 and 6 00 inmates. The changes i t went through r e f l e c t e d many of the major changes which occ u r r e d i n s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout the country. I t s l e a d e r s were i n c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t i o n a l c l i m a t e of c h i l d - c a r i n g , through conferences, v i s i t s , and correspondence. I t was a standard r e f e r e n c e i n the pop-u l a r r e f o r m i s t l i t e r a t u r e of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y 17 t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . In h i s study o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t , Schlossman warns a g a i n s t g e n e r a l i z i n g from the experiences of a major i n s t i t u t i o n i n the n a t i o n a l l i m e l i g h t , without examining cases from the many 18 s i m i l a r , l e s s well-known i n s t i t u t i o n s . H i s i s a u s e f u l c a u t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n s which are more s u b j e c t to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y than o t h e r s , or which are i n some way standard-bearers of new movements, may not p r o v i d e us with deep i n s i g h t i n t o the way most of the o t h e r s f u n c t i o n . Though the booster l i t e r a t u r e p r i n t e d by the boys i n the V i l l a g e p r i n t shop tended to promote V i l l a g e innovations, as being a t the f o r e f r o n t of j u v e n i l e i n -s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y , g e n e r a l l y they were not. While each i n s t i -t u t i o n has i t s own p e c u l i a r i t i e s which should not be overlooked, the N.Y.J.A. seems no l e s s t y p i c a l , d e s p i t e i t s importance, than most o t h e r s . The l o n g e v i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n , founded i n 1851 and f u n c t i o n i n g today, i s another f a c t o r which makes i t worthy of study. Cottages b u i l t by students i n 1911 s t i l l house boys i n 1981. While the e n t i r e s t o r y i s p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g the p e r i o d from 1905 to 1930 i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance. T h i s was a time of r a p i d change, urban growth, i n c r e a s e d awareness of urban problems, European immigration, and m i g r a t i o n of Southern Blacks to the North. The P r o g r e s s i v e s attempted to cope w i t h these developments through a v a r i e t y of reforms. A c h i l d r e n ' s c o u r t had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n New York C i t y i n 1900, and a system of j u v e n i l e c o u r t s was s e t up throughout the s t a t e t hree years l a t e r . Many urban i n s t i t u t i o n s were making the move toward the " c o t t a g e - s t y l e " r e s i d e n c e s as an accommodation to a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n sentiment of the time. There was a g i t a t i o n - 27 -f o r c h i l d l a b o r l e g i s l a t i o n on s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . I n s t i t u t i o n men became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of c a t e g o r i z i n g de-v i a n t s and s e g r e g a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s as an a i d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t major t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s came about i n the f i e l d of psychology and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n soc-i a l p o l i c y , though there i s c o n t r o v e r s y about the impact of these changes. In 1909, W i l l i a m Healy o r g a n i z e d the Psychopathic I n s t i t u t e i n Chicago to work a l o n g s i d e the j u v e n i l e c o u r t , pre-saging a new model of treatment f o r d e l i n q u e n t s . In the same year, Freud was i n v i t e d by G. S t a n l e y H a l l to v i s i t C l a r k U n i v e r s i t y , and i t was a matter of y e a r s , not decades, be f o r e h i s ideas became commonplace i n North America. And i n 1909 too, the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r Mental Hygiene was e s t a b l i s h e d , one of i t s tasks being to i n v e s t i g a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of mental d e f i c i e n c y ; by 1918 there were seventeen s t a t e committees. The p u b l i c a t i o n of Goddard's The K a l l i k a k Family (1912) which s t i m -u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the impact of h e r e d i t y on c h a r a c t e r and I.Q., the development and p r o l i f e r a t i o n of the I.Q. t e s t , and the experimentation w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s a l l took p l a c e d u r i n g the t w e n t y - f i v e year p e r i o d . T h i s was the time of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of new o c c u p a t i o n a l groups i n t o s e l f consciousness p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Robert Wiebe sees t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , beg-i n n i n g f o r s o c i a l , workers around the t u r n of the century., as a major element i n "the search f o r order" i n response to the 19 changes wrought by i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m . S o c i a l workers and the v a r i o u s other i n s t i t u t i o n workers had e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l - 28 -networks which helped to determine the dimensions of reform thought. The p a r t i c u l a r dates of 1905 and 1930 are a r b i t r a r y i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l p i c t u r e , but important f o r C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i t -s e l f . In 1905, the move was made from the C i t y to Dobbs F e r r y , and the i n s t i t u t i o n began an important p e r i o d of i n n o v a t i o n and change. In 1930, the recommendations of the Withers Report, the l a s t of the major reforms of C o l o n e l Faulkner who had been i n charge through the twenties, was i n s t i t u t e d , and C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e began to s t r u g g l e with the hardships of the Depression. The t w e n t y - f i v e year span i s long enough to take us through a number of d i r e c t o r s , c y c l e s of d e p r e s s i o n , p r o s p e r i t y , war, . peace, p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s s i v i s m and p o l i t i c a l r e a c t i o n , and y e t s h o r t enough to study i n some d e t a i l . Three c l o s e l y r e l a t e d themes w i l l be f o l l o w e d to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the dimensions of change d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . E x p l o r a t i o n of these themes r e v e a l s the foundations of impor-t a n t aspects of the program as i t e x i s t s today. F u r t h e r , the themes shed l i g h t on important i d e o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l changes i n the world beyond the i n s t i t u t i o n . The f i r s t theme i s t h a t of d e f i n i t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Which c h i l d r e n ended up a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was determined by an i n t e r a c t i o n among the V i l l a g e ' s Board of D i r e c t o r s , the C h i l d r e n ' s Court judges i n New York C i t y and around the s t a t e and country, and a changing demography. Were c h i l d r e n admitted to the i n s t i t u t i o n on the b a s i s of age, r e l i g i o n , sex, r a c e , " c h a r a c t e r " ( i . e . , d e l i n q u e n t vs. dependent or n e g l e c t e d ) , I.Q., or emotional s t a t u s ? As the - 29 -h i s t o r y of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i s t r a c e d , d i f f e r e n t combinations of these become important i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . Once c h i l d r e n were admitted, how were they c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ? One of the major arguments f o r changing from the "congregate s y s t e m " — t h e p l a n which had been i n opera-t i o n a t the J u v e n i l e Asylum's Washington Heights l o c a t i o n — t o the "cottage s y s t e m " — t h e p l a n used a t Dobbs F e r r y — w a s t h a t 20 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be e a s i e r and more meaningful. But c l a s s i f i c a t i o n meant d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n d i f f e r e n t e r a s : some-times i t meant r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n ; when th e r e were g i r l s among the p o p u l a t i o n a f t e r 1926, i t i n v a r i a b l y meant sexual segrega-t i o n (as f a r as the s t a f f c o u l d enforce i t ) ; sometimes i t meant s e p a r a t i o n of the short-term remand cases from the longer "indeterminate" commitments; sometimes i t meant s e p a r a t i o n of the "feeble-minded", and a t .other times i t meant s e g r e g a t i o n f o r punishment i n a s p e c i a l e u p h e m i s t i c l y termed " r e f l e c t i o n c o t t a g e " . A second theme of c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f i r s t , concerns program philosophy. What the d i r e c t o r s and o f f i c i a l s thought they were doing changed i n b a s i c ways over the y e a r s . The dominant model of the n i n e t e e n t h century was the p a t e r n a l i s t i c , moral c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g program of the " A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement of the C o n d i t i o n of the Poor" which founded the Asylum i n order to d e a l with what i t saw as the b a s i c causes of poverty: intemperence, improvidence, and i n d o l e n c e . Then, a t the t u r n of the century, the e d u c a t i o n a l model became dominant, and the d i r e c t o r s were p e r p e t u a l l y a t - 30 -pains to convince the c h i l d r e n , the p u b l i c , and themselves, t h a t what they were running was "a s c h o o l , not an i n s t i t u t i o n . " As v o c a t i o n a l education was i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l systems, the d i r e c t o r s were pr o v i d e d not onl y with a convenient e d u c a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the age-old p r a c t i c e of c h i l d r e n working on the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s maintenance, but a l s o e v e n t u a l l y with standards by which to ev a l u a t e and improve t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l education program. However, by the time t h i s e v a l u a t i o n took p l a c e , i n the 19 29 Withers Report, beginnings of another dom-i n a n t model were i n p l a c e : the mental hygiene c l i n i c s t a r t e d i n 1926 as the p r e c u r s o r of the f u l l f l e d g e d t h e r a p e u t i c model of treatment which now e x i s t s a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . The changes i n dominant program model were r e f l e c t e d i n the terminology used to d e s c r i b e the c h i l d r e n : from "inmates" to "students" to " c l i e n t s " . But there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p i n the use of these terms, as there i s i n the models them-s e l v e s : there has been a sch o o l component to the program from i t s founding i n 1853 to the present, and the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g of the ni n e t e e n t h century has a t l e a s t some-21 t h i n g i n common wit h the t h e r a p e u t i c model of today. Yet i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n the t h i n k i n g of the times, each one of these models had a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of ascendency. A d i f f i c u l t and important task f o r the h i s t o r i a n i s to a s c e r t a i n what d i f -f e r e n c e s the s u c c e s s i o n of dominant models made i n the l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n whose d a i l y e x i s t e n c e was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a t no time i n the h i s t o r y , was a p u n i t i v e or penal model openly espoused, - 31 -though there i s a tendency i n t h i s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n d i f f e r e n t eras, to characterize the immediately preceeding model as a punitive one. The t h i r d theme, again, intimately bound up with the f i r s t two, i s that of s t a f f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . At the time of the move to Dobbs Ferry, there were approximately six t y s t a f f mem-bers, a l l of whose names were published i n the Annual Report each year. The people who were responsible for what we now c a l l " c h i l d - c a r e " — t h e masters and matrons of the c o t t a g e s — a l s o had duties of i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance, which was i n turn, part of the vocational teaching program. Needless to say, there were no s o c i a l workers, p s y c h i a t r i s t s or psychologists. By 1930, t h i s had changed: s t a f f who dealt with the children were less l i k e l y to have duties r e l a t i n g to physical maintenance of the f a c i l i t y . Jobs were more c l e a r l y defined, and what 22 Roy Lubove has c a l l e d "the professional a l t r u i s t " had emerged. New positions had been created for home v i s i t i n g , psychological testing, and specialized teaching. These changes at Children's V i l l a g e , of course, r e f l e c t e d the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n which was taking place among teachers, s o c i a l workers, and health-care workers across the country, and were clo s e l y t i e d to the changes in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes and treatment models which, s i m i l a r l y , corresponded to changes on a national scale. The succession of various models of program philosophy, the progression of c r i t e r i a by which inmates were admitted and sorted a f t e r admission, and the phenomenon of increasing s t a f f p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n were a l l promoted at the time as ways to - 32 -i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e to serve i t s r e s i -dent p o p u l a t i o n . A f t e r I.Q. t e s t s became a v a i l a b l e f o r i n - . stance, i t became p o s s i b l e to press f o r the e x c l u s i o n of the "feebleminded" on the b a s i s t h a t there were other i n s t i t u t i o n s more s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d toward h e l p i n g them, and t h a t t h e i r presence hindered the V i l l a g e program's e f f i c a c y f o r the o t h e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to e x p l o r e the changes i n these three areas c r i t i c a l l y , by examining t h e i r e f f e c t s on the l e v e l of c o e r c i v e n e s s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . What e f f e c t , f o r i n s t a n c e , d i d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n have on communication w i t h and c o n t r o l of inmates? Did the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s c h o o l model enable the V i l l a g e to p r o v i d e inmates w i t h s k i l l s which would be use-f u l to them a f t e r l e a v i n g ? What were i t s other i m p l i c a t i o n s ? How d i d changing program ph i l o s o p h y a f f e c t d i s c i p l i n a r y pro-cedures? T h i s c r i t i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n should h e l p us both to see C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s and to determine i t s c h a n g i n g — o r u n c h a n g i n g — f u n c t i o n s i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . - 33 -Footnotes Chapter 2 Michael Katz, The Irony of E a r l y School Reform: E d u c a t i o n a l  Innovation i n Mid-Nineteenth Century Massachusetts (Cambridge Mass.: Harvard U. Press, 1968). A l s o see Michael Katz, C l a s s , Bureaucracy and Schools: The I l l u s i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Change  i n America (New York: Praeger, 1971); Marvin Lazerson, O r i g i n s  of the Urban School: P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n Massachusetts, 1870-1915 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971); C a r l K a e s t l e , The E v o l u t i o n of an Urban School System: New York  C i t y , 17 50-18 50 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973). David Tyack, The One Best System (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1974). 2 Samuel Bowles and Herbert G i n t i s , S c h o o l i n g i n C a p i t a l i s t  America (New York: B a s i c Books, 1976), c o n t a i n s one of the most developed a n a l y s i s of s c h o o l s ' r o l e from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . 3 The t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l , e x e m p l i f i e d by Ellwood Cubberley, The H i s t o r y of Education (Boston, 1920), i s analyzed i n Lawrence Cremin, The Wonderful World of Ellwood P. Cubberley (New York: Teachers C o l l e g e Press, 1965). 4 The enthusiasm of immigrants f o r education through s c h o o l -i n g i s d i s c u s s e d i n Timothy L. Smith, "Immigrant S o c i a l A s p i r a -t i o n s and American E d u c a t i o n , 1880-1930", American Q u a r t e r l y (1964), pp. 523-542. Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to Smith's c o n c l u s i o n s have been put forward by a number of students s i n c e then, i n c l u d i n g David Hogan, "Education and the Making of the Chicago Working C l a s s , 1880-1930" H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 18, no. 3 ( F a l l , 1978), pp. 227-270; and Marvin Lazerson "Consensus and C o n f l i c t i n American E d u c a t i o n : H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , " H i s t o r y of Education, v o l . 7 no. 3 (1978) pp. 197-205. 5 M i c h a e l Katz, "The O r i g i n s of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n : A Reassessment", H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 16, (1976), p. 400. 6 Katz, "Reassessment", p. 401. ^Hogan. g There may be more of a problem with the d i s t i n c t i o n between " i d e o l o g i c a l " and " s t r u c t u r a l " elements than Hogan ack-nowledges. While he r e j e c t s Katz's " i d e o l o g i c a l " i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n , h i s own " s t r u c t u r e " i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to one of the mechanisms d e s c r i b e d by Katz as i d e o l o g i c a l , - 34 -i . e . , "the r o l e of sma l l s c a l e success sytsems i n accomodating people t o a l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e of i n e q u a l i t y . " (Katz, "Reassessment", p. 402). There i s a f i n e l i n e between the im-p o s i t i o n of a c e r t a i n " i d e a " of success, and the p r o v i s i o n of a l i m i t e d s e t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r success. 9 David J . Rothman, The Di s c o v e r y of the Asylum (Boston, Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown, 1971). "^David J . Rothman, Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum  and i t s A l t e r n a t i v e s i n P r o g r e s s i v e America (Boston, Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown, 1980). "'"''"Michel F o u c a u l t , D i s c i p l i n e and Punish: The B i r t h of the  P r i s o n (New York: Vintage, 197 9); Gerald Grob, Mental ~ I n s t i t u t i o n s i n America (New York: Free Press, 1973); M i c h a e l I g n a t i e f f , A J u s t Measure of P a i n : The P e n i t e n t i a r y i n the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n (New York: Pantheon, 1978). Susan Houston, "The Impetus to Reform: Urban Crime, Poverty and Ignorance i n O n t a r i o , 1850-1875" D i s s . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1974; Richard W. Fox, So Far D i s o r d e r e d i n Mind: I n s a n i t y i n  C a l i f o r n i a , 1870-1930 (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r ess, 1979). 12 • For example, Joseph M. Hawes, C h i l d r e n i n Urban S o c i e t y : J u v e n i l e Delinquency i n Nineteenth Century America (New York: Oxford, 1971); N e i l Sutherland, C h i l d r e n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y : Framing the Twentieth Century Consensus (Toronto: Refuge: O r i g i n s of J u v e n i l e Reform i n New York 1915-1857 (Syracuse: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969). 13 Anthony P i a t t , The C h i l d Savers: The I n v e n t i o n of  Delinquency (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1969); Robert Mennel, Thorns and T h i s t l e s : J u v e n i l e D elinquents i n  the United S t a t e s , 1825-1940 (Hanover, N.H.: U n i v e r s i t y of New Hampshire, 197 3); Steven Schlossman, Love and the American  Delinquent (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1977); Barbara B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t of the F i r s t Reform School f o r G i r l s i n North America, 1856-1905" D i s s . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 1978; Diane Matters, "'A Chance to Make Good 1: J u v e n i l e Males and the Law i n Vancouver, B.C., B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Peter Tyor and J a m i l Z a i n a l d i n , "Asylum and S o c i e t y : An Approach to I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change." , J o u r n a l of S o c i a l H i s t o r y , ( F a l l , 1979) pp. 23-48. David Rothman, i n "The S t a t e as Parent: S o c i a l P o l i c y i n the P r o g r e s s i v e E r a " , i n W. G a y l i n , e t a l . , Doing Good (New York: Pantheon, 1978) , notes t h a t problems have a r i s e n from the P r o g r e s s i v e impulse to serve c h i l d r e n ' s needs w h i l e i g n o r i n g r i g h t s . - 35 -14 Gareth Stedman Jones, " C l a s s e x p r e s s i o n Versus S o c i a l C o n t r o l ? A C r i t i q u e of Recent Trends i n the S o c i a l H i s t o r y of ' L e i s u r e , ' " H i s t o r y Workshop 4 (October, 1977), pp1.' 162-170. 15 E r v i n g Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n  of Mental P a t i e n t s and Other Inmates (New York: Doubleday> 1961). Goffman's d e f i n i t i o n of a " t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n " i s "a p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e and work where a l a r g e number of l i k e - s i t u a t e d i n d i -v i d u a l s , c u t o f f from the wider s o c i e t y f o r an a p p r e c i a b l e p e r i o d of time, together l e a d an enclosed, f o r m a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d round of " l i f e . " p. x i i i . 16 Annual Reports, 1917-1930. In a t a b l e p u b l i s h e d as a U.S. government document i n 1900, of a l l j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the country e x c l u d i n g those p r i m a r i l y c a r i n g f o r "orphans", the N.Y.J.A. i s by f a r the l a r g e s t , both i n number i n a t t e n d -ance, and t o t a l number s i n c e founding. Republished i n Robert Mennel, ed., C h i l d r e n i n Confinement (New York: Arno Press, 1974) . 17 For example, see Jacob R n s , C h i l d r e n of the Poor (New York: S c r i b n e r ' s , 1892), p. 109; John Spargo, The B i t t e r  Cry of the C h i l d r e n (New York: Quadrangle, 1968.(1906)), p. 187. 18 In Schlossman, Love, the Chicago and Denver j u v e n i l e c o u r t s are bypassed i n f a v o r of Milwaukee's. 19 Robert Wiebe, The Search f o r Order, 1877-1920 ;(New York: H i l l and Wang, 1967) . 20 There e x i s t a t l e a s t three meanings of the word "congregate" i n d e a l i n g with i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o the way i t i s used here, as a c o n t r a s t to the c o t t a g e system, i t was used by C h a r l e s H i l l e s to c o n t r a s t the o l d system where d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n (neglected, dependent and delinquent) were brought together w i t h the new "segregate" schools where they were separated. F i n a l l y , i n d i s c u s s i o n of p r i s o n s , Rothman d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the Auburn congregate system and the P h i l a d e l p h i a separate system ( s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e -ment) of p r i s o n management. H i l l e s i n N.Y.J.A. A.R., 1908, p. 80. Rothman, Disco v e r y , p. 80. 21 The p a r a l l e l i s noted by I g n a t i e f f i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of B r i t i s h p r i s o n p o l i c y . " " [At the p s y c h i a t r i c f a c i l i t y a t Grendon Underwood i n Buckinghamshire] group therapy and p s y c h i a t r i c c o u n s e l i n g have r e p l a c e d s o l i t u d e and r e l i g i o u s e x h o r t a t i o n as the l a t e s t vogue i n the technology of r e f o r m a t i o n . " (p. 205). 22 Roy Lubove, The P r o f e s s i o n a l A l t r u i s t (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), i s the o n l y f u l l - l e n g t h c r i t i -c a l study of the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . His o r i e n t a t i o n - 36 -i s exemplified by the following: "Substituting expertise for moral superiority as the basis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , s o c i a l workers perpetuated the charity organization i d e a l of personal contact and influence i n place of material r e l i e f , but avoided the f i c t i o n that such contact was one of friends and peers bound i n neighborhood association." (p. 16). - 37 -Chapter 3 "A Work of Great U s e f u l n e s s " : The New York J u v e n i l e Asylum i n the Nineteenth Century S t i m u l a t e d by a new awareness of the e x t e n t of poverty which had become e v i d e n t i n the Panic of 18 37, a group of wealthy P r o t e s t a n t businessmen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s met to form the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement of the C o n d i t i o n of the Poor, i n c o r p o r a t i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1843. The uncoordinated p r i v a t e c h a r i t i e s which had been o p e r a t i n g b e f o r e t h i s time were ap p a r e n t l y i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g the massive problems of urban l i f e . ' ' " A p r e c u r s o r of the C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t i e s which were formed i n many American c i t i e s d u r i n g the 1880"s, the A . I . C P . developed a system to c o o r d i n a t e f a m i l y v i s i t i n g , the c o l l e c t i o n of funds, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i e f . While most of i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s were "of f o r e i g n b i r t h or parentage, and c h i e f l y Roman C a t h o l i c s " i t s o f f i c e r s and c o n t r i b u t o r s were 2 P r o t e s t a n t . Robert Milham H a r t l e y , founder and dominating f i g u r e through the 1870's, was t y p i c a l of the men of the organ-i z a t i o n . Born i n England i n 1799, r a i s e d on a farm i n u p s t a t e New York, he moved to New York C i t y a t the age of 23 and mar-r i e d the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer soon t h e r e a f t e r . On the Board of the A . I . C P . , he was j o i n e d by some of New York's l e a d i n g bankers and merchants, men of such s t a t u r e as James 3 Lenox, Robert Mmturn, and A p o l l o s Wetmore. - 3 8 -F e a r i n g c l a s s d i v i s i o n , d i s e a s e , and immorality, the men and women of the A . I . C P . saw i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n d o l e n c e , improvid-ence, and intemperence as the primary causes of poverty. The burden of poverty was thus p l a c e d s q u a r e l y on the shoulders o f the poor. The A . I . C P : Home V i s i t o r s ' Manual advised the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s v o l u n t e e r s : You w i l l become an important instrument of good to your s u f f e r i n g f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , when you a i d them to o b t a i n t h i s good from r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n themselves. To e f f e c t t h i s , show them the t r u e o r i g i n of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g s , when these s u f f e r i n g s are the r e s u l t of improvidence, extravagance, i d l e n e s s , intemperence, or other moral . causes which are w i t h i n t h e i r own c o n t r o l ; and endeavor, by a l l a p p r o p r i a t e means, t o awaken t h e i r s e l f - r e s p e c t to d i r e c t t h e i r e x e r t i o n s , and to strengthen t h e i r cap-a c i t i e s f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t . ^ Roy Lubove c h a r a c t e r i z e s the A . I . C P . as " l e s s a c h a r i t a b l e • 5 agency than an instrument of moral u p l i f t . " The d e s i r e t o promote t h i s moral u p l i f t and the need to defuse the t h r e a t to s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y posed by the urban poor were key m o t i v a t i o n s , then, when the men of the A . I . C P . r e -acted to the wid e l y d i s t r i b u t e d r e p o r t of New York's C h i e f of P o l i c e George W. M a t s e l l who d e s c r i b e d a " d e p l o r a b l e and growing e v i l " : I a l l u d e to the c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g numbers of vagrant, i d l e and v i c i o u s c h i l d r e n of both sexes, who i n f e s t our p u b l i c thoroughfares, h o t e l s , docks, e t c . C h i l d r e n are growing up i n ignorance and p r o f l i g a c y , o n l y des-t i n e d t o a l i f e of misery, shame and crime, and u l t i -mately to a f e l o n ' s doom. T h e i r numbers are almost i n -c r e d i b l e , and to those whose business and h a b i t s do not permit them a s e a r c h i n g s c r u t i n y , the degrading and d i s -g u s t i n g p r a c t i c e s of these almost i n f a n t s i n the schools of v i c e , p r o s t i t u t i o n and rowdyism, would c e r -t a i n l y be beyond b e l i e f . The o f f s p r i n g o f always c a r e -l e s s , g e n e r a l l y intemperate, and oft e n t i m e s immoral and d i s h o n e s t parents, they never see the i n s i d e of a schoolroom.6 F o l l o w i n g a year and a h a l f of meetings and n e g o t i a t i o n s among A . I . C P . l e a d e r s , a board of d i r e c t o r s was formed, and the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum was i n c o r p o r a t e d by the S t a t e of New York i n 1851. With $150,000. i n p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s i n J u l y , 1853, the D i r e c t o r s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 57 boys who had been cared f o r by a s m a l l group, the A s s o c i a t i o n of L a d i e s f o r an Asylum, a t 109 Bank S t r e e t , i n lower Manhattan. In A p r i l of the f o l l o w i n g year, the more than 200 boys of the Asylum moved to 55th S t r e e t , on the E a s t R i v e r , where a r a p i d l y expanding p o p u l a t i o n remained u n t i l the Washington Heights s i t e was b u i l t i n 1856. Those to be accepted i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n v o l u n t a r i l y s u r -rendered by parents, c h i l d r e n d e s e r t i n g t h e i r homes or d i s -obedient to t h e i r parents, t r u a n t s , c h i l d r e n c o n v i c t e d by c o u r t s or m a g i s t r a t e s of c r i m i n a l a c t s , vagrants, orphans w i t h -out means of support, c h i l d r e n whose parents were judged to be h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s , c h i l d r e n found i n the company of t h i e v e s or p r o s t i t u t e s , or i n " c o n c e r t saloons, dance houses, t h e a t r e s , museums, or other p l a c e s where wine, malt or s p i r i t u o u s l i q u o r s are s o l d , without being i n charge of [ t h e i r ] parents or guard-7 i a n . " C h i l d r e n c o u l d a r r i v e a t the Asylum e i t h e r on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e (which was rare) or on t h a t of t h e i r p a r e n t s , " f r i e n d s " , a m a g i s t r a t e , a c o u r t , or another i n s t i t u t i o n . In 1853, responding to p r e s s u r e from A . I . C P . l e a d e r s , the New York S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e passed a law p r o v i d i n g f o r the a r -g r e s t and d e t e n t i o n of vagrant c h i l d r e n . As 479 of the 623 c h i l d r e n committed to the N.Y.J.A. i n t h a t year were committed - 40 -9 f o r vagrancy, i t was not an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l measure. The other major o f f e n s e was " p i l f e r i n g " f o r which 102 c h i l d r e n were com-m i t t e d . While 106 were orphans, o n l y 5 c h i l d r e n were admitted as "unfortunate". I t appears t h a t orphan s t a t u s alone was not s u f f i c i e n t f o r admission i n the e a r l y years of the i n s t i t u -t i o n . From the e a r l y 1860's w h i l e vagrancy decreased as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of new admissions, d i s o b e d i e n c e , truancy, and "unfortunate" s t a t u s i n c r e a s e d . G e n e r a l l y , i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, then, the Asylum p o p u l a t i o n was made up of a mixed group of boys who had been i n v o l v e d i n some minor v i o l a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y , though not i n s e r i o u s crime. Simple dependency or n e g l e c t accounted f o r about one f i f t h of the admissions. "^ E n t e r i n g c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y between the ages of seven and f o u r t e e n and about one t h i r d to one h a l f (through the n i n e -teenth century) were ab l e to "read, w r i t e , and cipher"."'""'" When the Asylum was i n c o r p o r a t e d , i t became one of a num-ber of i n s t i t u t i o n s where n e g l e c t e d , dependent or d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n might be sent i n New York. The House of Refuge, e s t -a b l i s h e d i n 1824, accepted c h i l d r e n c o n v i c t e d of more s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s . Fears generated among C a t h o l i c s of e n t r u s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n to P r o t e s t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y i n 1863 and a number of s m a l l e r C a t h o l i c c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y . U n t i l 1875, c h i l d r e n c o u l d be found i n poorhouses i n New York S t a t e . The 1875 " C h i l d r e n ' s Law" p r o h i b i t i n g such commitments was p a r t of the attempt (never e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l ) throughout the second h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h century to d e f i n e more c l e a r l y - 41 -s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . A d i f f e r e n t approach to the p e r c e i v e d problem of urban youth was simply to remove them from the c i t y , p l a c i n g them wit h Western farm f a m i l i e s . The work t h a t they would do i n r u r a l s e t t i n g s , i t was f e l t , would pr o v i d e them wi t h d i s c i p l i n e and p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n i n " n a t u r a l " n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n -ments, with the added b e n e f i t t h a t "there would be l e s s oppor-t u n i t y f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e on the p a r t of o f f i c i o u s or u n d e s i r a b l e 12 r e l a t i v e s of the c h i l d . " In 1853 C h a r l e s L o r i n g Braces's C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the new Asylum f o r many of the same c h i l d r e n , began i t s work of p l a c i n g New York's dependent c h i l d r e n i n Western homes. In Paul Boyer's account, Brace's C.A.S. program i n v o l v e d a b a s i c r e s p e c t f o r the " s t r e e t Arab" as a c l e v e r , e n t e r p r i s i n g i n d i v i d u a l , the product of a s o c i a l - D a r w i n i a n s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l i n the slums. Brace sent them West with l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n , not f o r the b e n e f i t s of the r u r a l f a m i l y and community's s o c i a l cohesiveness, but f o r a s o c i a l m i l i e u l a r g e enough f o r them to c o n s t r u c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e what he saw as t h e i r s u p e r i o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a b i l i -13 t i e s thus c o n t r i b u t i n g to the n a t i o n ' s growth. The men of the N.Y.J.A. opened a Western Agency i n Chicago i n 1855, to handle placements of C h i l d r e n sent West to l i v e and work on farms. There i s no evidence here of Brace's r e s p e c t f o r the e n t e r p r i s i n g c i t y c h i l d : c h i l d r e n were sent West by the 14 N.Y.J.A. to be t r a i n e d and d i s c i p l i n e d . The Agency r e c e i v e d between one hundred and two hundred c h i l d r e n each year u n t i l the end of the century. C h i l d r e n would g e n e r a l l y be sent West - 42 -a f t e r a s t a y i n t h e A s y l u m . L e t t e r s f rom t h e s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e m e n t s appeared as a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t s , b u t t h e r e were a number o f p r o b l e m s . Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n 15 s i m p l y d i d n o t want t o go , w h i c h made f o r some d i f f i c u l t y . N . Y . J . A . o f f i c i a l s m i n i m i z e d t h e s e : The h a r d s h i p s a t t e n d i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f rom t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i s somethimes more a p p a r e n t t h a n r e a l . B u t when t h e p a r e n t s o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s a r e c o n v i n c e d by t h e c l e a r e s t and b e s t t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e f a v o r a b l y s i t u a t e d , and a r e happy and c o n t e n t e d i n W e s t e r n r u r a l homes, t h e y g e n e r a l l y soon become r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e new c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 1 ° T h e r e was a p r o b l e m w i t h J ews , a f a i r number o f whom were p l a c e d i n t h e N . Y . J . A . : " p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n as we d o , on f a r m s , n a t u r a l l y f rom t h e i r p a r e n t a g e and e a r l i e r t r a i n i n g t h e Hebrew c h i l d r e n a r e l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l and f a r m e r s as a r u l e a r e p r e -17 j u d i c e d a g a i n s t them.'" C a t h o l i c s o b j e c t e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e i n g p l a c e d w i t h P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l i e s , and i n r e s p o n s e t h e 18 C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1863 . I n 18 56 , t h e New Y o r k J u v e n i l e A s y l u m moved t o t w e l v e a c r e s a t 1 7 6 t h S t r e e t and Amsterdam Avenue i n W a s h i n g t o n H e i g h t s , a s i t e w h i c h was f a i r l y r u r a l a t t h e t i m e , b u t w h i c h w o u l d be s u r r o u n d e d by t h e C i t y by t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y . A d d i t i o n s t o t h o s e b u i l d i n g s e n a b l e d a p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h f rom 200 i n 1853 , t o 500 i n 1859 t o o v e r 1,000 d u r i n g t h e 8 0 ' s and 9 0 ' s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p r a c t i c e o f a v e r a g e s t a y s o f a l m o s t two y e a r s , many o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n s t a y e d i n t h e i n s t i t u -t i o n f o r l e s s t h a n a y e a r . By t h e 1 8 7 0 ' s t h o u g h , t h e r e was s u b s t a n t i a l c r i t i c i s m o f New Y o r k ' s welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y a imed a t t i g h t e n i n g - 43 -c o n t r o l over them. The v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which had charge of c a r i n g f o r the dependent and d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n i n New York had had l i t t l e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l by the s t a t e . Under "the New York system", p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s , u s i n g per c a p i t a s t a t e a i d . More c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n was imposed i n 1873 when the L e g i s l a t u r e changed the S t a t e C h a r i t i e s A i d A s s o c i a t i o n to the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s , and extended i t s powers to allow i n -19 s p e c t i o n of the v a r i o u s p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . In 1875, Mary Carpenter, p h i l a n t h r o p i s t and founder of B r i t a i n ' s Ragged Schools, had p r a i s e f o r c o n d i t i o n s a t the N.Y.J.A.: The J u v e n i l e Asylum, a few m i l e s d i s t a n t from New York, presented a very d i f f e r e n t aspect [from the R a n d a l l ' s I s l a n d , N.Y. poorhouse]. Neglected and d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n here f i n d a t r u e home, and are watched over by v o l u n t a r y benevolent c a r e . The c h i l d r e n found by the p o l i c e are f i r s t conducted by the d e s i r e of the m a g i s t r a t e s , to a house i n the c i t y where t h e i r p o s i -t i o n i s a s c e r t a i n e d , and they are prepared to go w i t h g r e a t e r advantage to the country home, whence once a f o r t n i g h t a detachment i s sent, under e s c o r t of an o f f i c i a l , i n t o homes i n the West, where they are v i s i t e d from time to time. The time of r e s i d e n c e i n the J u v e n i l e Asylum v a r i e s from one month to f i v e y e a r s , a c c o r d i n g to the c o n d i t i o n of the c h i l d . The system appears most s u c c e s s f u l and admirably conducted.20 Such c r i t i c a l c o n t r a s t s l e d the New York St a t e L e g i s l a t u r e to pass the " C h i l d r e n ' s Law" i n 1875 which p r o h i b i t e d the mainten-ance of c h i l d r e n between three and s i x t e e n i n almshouses. The same a c t s t i p u l a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n be committed to i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d by "persons of the same r e l i g i o u s f a i t h as the 21 parents of such c h i l d , so f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e . " H a i l e d as a step forward i n c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n , i t s t i m u l a t e d the - 44 -growth of p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the N.Y.J.A. whose p o p u l a t i o n jumped from 628 a t the end of 1875 to 778 a year l a t e r . Through the n i n e t e e n t h century, as s u c c e s s i v e waves of immigrants s e t t l e d i n New York, the c h i l d r e n of the most r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d were committed i n n o t i c e a b l e numbers to the N.Y.J.A.; thus, a f t e r the I r i s h and German waves, came numbers of I t a l i a n 23 and then Russian c h i l d r e n . One of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s purposes was e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d as an e f f o r t to Americanize the un-American. A f u n d - r a i s i n g pamphlet e x p l a i n e d : The c h i l d r e n come, f o r the most p a r t , from the dense d i s t r i c t s t h a t have been invaded by and have c a p i t -u l a t e d to the i m m i g r a n t — d i s t r i c t s having l e s s than t w e n t y - f i v e percent n a t i v e - b o r n white p o p u l a t i o n a t the 1900 census. . . . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t "the reason f o r the immigrant p o p u l a t i o n crowding i n the g r e a t c i t i e s i s the i n a b i l i t y t o make themselves under-stood o u t s i d e t h e i r c i r c l e . The u p l i f t i n g process can never come w h i l e immigrants are bound to what i s p r a c t i -c a l l y a European environment." The J u v e n i l e Asylum makes a fundamental e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h compulsory and i n t h i s one r e s p e c t i s a p o t e n t i a l f o r c e as i t a i d s i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the f o r e i g n born element. . . . I f they are to know high i d e a l s and are to a d j u s t themselves to normal s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , they must be removed from the contamination to which they are exposed, and t r a n s -p l a n t e d w h i l e they are i n the formative p e r i o d . Gener-a l l y t h e i r removal must be p e r m a n e n t — t h e r e must be a l i t e r a l effacement of the o l d haunts and hindrances and they must be d i s c i p l i n e d and t r a i n e d b e f o r e e n t e r i n g new homes or assuming new t a s k s . The molding medium i s the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t i s of v i t a l importance t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s h a l l not be such as to u n f i t the wards f o r the work t h a t l i e s b e f o r e them i n l i f e . 2 4 The middle c l a s s c o n v i c t i o n of i t s own moral s u p e r i o r i t y per-s i s t e d throughout the century. The Asylum, run by n a t i v e American P r o t e s t a n t s , would " u p l i f t " the immigrants' c h i l d r e n . By d e s t r o y i n g the o l d c u l t u r e , here seen as "the o l d haunts and hindrances", the i n s t i t u t i o n would equip them wit h the d i s c i p l i n e necessary f o r wage l a b o r and a t the same time defuse the 25 t h r e a t s posed by a "dangerous c l a s s . " In 1897, i n view of i n c r e a s i n g crowding, c r i t i c i s m , and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y , P r e s i d e n t of the Board Mornay W i l l i a m s wrote a "Memoranda as to the Development of the Asylum Work", d i r e c t e d to o t h e r members of the Board. In i t he c a l l e d a t t e n -t i o n to the " c r i t i c s o f our i n s t i t u t i o n and k i n d r e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and noted t h a t they "are not few nor are they u n i n f l u e n t i a l " , to the s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l s t r a i t s which the o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n , 2 6 and to the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on i t . In 1896, a S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n had l e d to the c l o s i n g of a c o n g r e g a t e - s t y l e orphan home i n New York C i t y , and a broader survey showed non-compliance by most of the c h i l d - c a r i n g i n s t i -t u t i o n s i n the E i g h t h J u d i c i a l D i s t r i c t , w i t h the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s ' r u l e s . The mounting c r i t i c i s m i s summarized by Schneider and Deutsch: a) I n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e p r o vided an a r t i f i c i a l e n v i r o n -ment which was a poor p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e i n the "normal" world. b) In some of the i n s t i t u t i o n s , dependent, n e g l e c t e d , and d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d r e n were admitted and kept under care with l i t t l e or no c l a s s i f i c a t i o n so t h a t " v i r t u o u s " c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n c o n t a c t w i t h the " v i c i o u s . " c) The New York system of p u b l i c per c a p i t a s u b s i d i e s f o r dependent c h i l d r e n a f f o r d e d an i n c e n t i v e f o r keeping these c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s as long as p o s s i b l e . . . . d) . . . the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n supported a t p u b l i c expense i n orphanages had one or both parents l i v i n g and had been surrendered to i n s t i t u t i o n s because of the i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the parents to m a i n t a i n them a t home.27 The N.Y.J.A. c e r t a i n l y f i t the l a t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n s t i t u t i o n f i l l e d w i t h c h i l d r e n whose parents found i t d i f -f i c u l t to r a i s e them, but who were very much a l i v e . Of the 692 committed i n 1896, o n l y 39 were orphans and 371 had both par-2 8 ents l i v i n g . I t should be r e c a l l e d , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , the ease with which the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum d i s c h a r g e d i t s 29 Jewish inmates when the time came to reduce i t s p o p u l a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n to c h i l d l a b o r and the abuses of i n d e n t u r i n g l e d to c r i t i c i s m of the Western p l a c i n g - o u t system. A law passed 30 i n 18 98 p r e s c r i b e d more follow-up and s u p e r v i s i o n . R e f l e c t i n g d i m i n i s h e d numbers, the N.Y.J.A. Western Agency c l o s e d i n 1903, and i t s work was taken over by Hasting's Hart's I l l i n o i s Home and C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Hart, who was a t the beginning of a c a r e e r of n a t i o n a l prominence, r e t a i n e d c o n f i d e n c e i n the p l a c i n g out system, p o n t i f i c a t i n g i n o l d A . I . C P . s t y l e : "our experience proves t h a t many c h i l d r e n ought, f o r t h e i r own good, to be removed to a d i s t a n c e from t h e i r e a r l y environment i n order to escape the i n f l u e n c e of v i c i o u s r e l a t i v e s , or to get beyond the odium which has a r i s e n because of the conduct of 31 t h e i r p arents." But the c r i t i c i s m which caught the ear of W i l l i a m s demanded more of a response than the c l o s i n g of the Western Agency. The problems must have seemed compelling because the o p t i o n s he p l a c e d b e f o r e the Board "as suggestions simply" were r a d i c a l d epartures from p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e . He r e j e c t e d the i d e a of r e d u c i n g c o s t s by m a i n t a i n i n g an economy of s c a l e : A l l of the sources of expenditure can be m a t e r i a l l y reduced by the aggregating of l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n under one r o o f . The c l o t h i n g can be made i n bulk; the h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g c a r r i e d on a t a l e s s per c a p i t a c o s t , and the number of attendants reduced, but i t i s more than q u e s t i o n a b l e whether t h i s method of t r a i n i n g subserves the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d r e n . I n s t i t u -t i o n l i f e , a t the best , i s a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r the home. The f u r t h e r removed the mode of l i f e i s from the home l i f e , the more o b j e c t i o n a b l e i t becomes. The l a r g e r the number of c h i l d r e n maintained under one r o o f , the l e s s of the home atmosphere.^2 S i m i l a r l y , he r e j e c t e d the id e a of a l i m i t e d "retrenchment," simply because he d i d not t h i n k c o s t s c o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e -duced. Instead, he argued f o r " d e v i s i n g an e n t i r e l y new p l a n 33 of work." He presented two o p t i o n s . The f i r s t was to con-v e r t the o p e r a t i o n i n t o a "Day I n d u s t r i a l School . . . to which t r u a n t c h i l d r e n and d i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n should be sent f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and manual t r a i n i n g d u r i n g the hours of the day, but which would not board any c h i l d r e n ; o n l y g i v i n g them a 34 mid-day meal." The other p o s s i b i l i t y would take advantage of the tremendous i n c r e a s e i n pr o p e r t y value of the Amsterdam Avenue land s i n c e i t was purchased i n 1854 f o r $33,000. S t r e e t s and avenues of the encroaching c i t y , c r o s s i n g the s i t e , l i m i t e d i t s use f o r the Asylum, w h i l e i t s market v a l u e rose upwards of one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . W i l l i a m s suggested t h a t the s a l e of t h i s land c o u l d be used as an endowment fund f o r a sm a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n — i n the neighborhood of t h r e e hundred c h i l d r e n — t o be l o c a t e d on cheaper lan d beyond the i s l a n d of Manhattan. The adoption of the second suggestion was the f i r s t s tep i n the c r e a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . The cottage s t y l e i n s t i t u t i o n , l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the c i t y l i m i t s — o f which the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i s an exemplary m o d e l — was not a new id e a a t the end of the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The f i r s t such i n s t i t u t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the S t a t e I n d u s t r i a l School f o r G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r , Massachusetts, had opened i n 1856, the same year the N.Y.J.A. occupied i t s con-3 6 gregate b u i l d i n g a t Washington Heights. L a n c a s t e r i t s e l f had been b u i l t a f t e r a study of a number of European prece-37 dents. But i t was not u n t i l the t u r n of the century t h a t a l a r g e number of New York i n s t i t u t i o n s made the move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . In 1902, the S t a t e I n d u s t r i a l School a t Rochester was a u t h o r i z e d to change i t s name to the S t a t e A g r i c u l t u r a l and I n d u s t r i a l School, to move o u t s i d e of Rochester (to 1,400 acres a t Industry, N.Y.) and to convert to the cottage p l a n . In 1904, a r e p o r t to the N.Y. L e g i s l a t u r e on the House of Refuge recommended abandonment of Randall's I s l a n d , the pur-chase of 1,000 acres w i t h i n f i f t y m i l e s of N.Y. C i t y , and the s e t t i n g up of a new i n s t i t u t i o n on the cottage p l a n . The r e c -ommendations were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o l e g i s l a t i o n , but the a c t u a l s i t e s e l e c t i o n and b u i l d i n g ran i n t o d e l a y s — i n c l u d i n g o b s t a c l e s p l a c e d by p r o s p e c t i v e neighbor Vassar C o l l e g e — s o t h a t 3 8 the move d i d not a c t u a l l y take p l a c e u n t i l the 1930's. Cottage p l a n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the Dobbs F e r r y s i t e were the New York Orphan Asylum which had moved to Hastings-on-Hudson i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, the Leake and Watts School i n Yonkers, S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s which had moved to Dobbs F e r r y i n 1890, and the Hawthorne School founded i n 1906 and Cedar K n o l l s i n 1912 i n Hawthorne, N.Y. 3 9 On balance, even g i v e n the economy of moving o u t s i d e the c i t i e s , the s h i f t was not a money saver. I t r e q u i r e d more s t a f f - 49 -and more f a c i l i t i e s per c a p i t a . In 1901, the N.Y.J.A. Board of D i r e c t o r s conducted a m a i l survey of s t a t e superintendents of c h i l d w e l f a r e . While many f e l t t h a t the per c a p i t a c o s t s of 4 the c o t t a g e p l a n were g r e a t e r , they s t i l l f avored t h a t system. I f i t was not a money saver, what f o r c e s were behind the change at t h i s time? The expansion of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care was c a u s i n g p u b l i c concern: i n s t i t u t i o n s were seen as c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the f a m i l y i d e a l . I f they were to s u r v i v e , ways would have to be found to r e s o l v e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n . . . . i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e should be very much the same as t h a t of average boys and g i r l s i n homes where c h a r a c t e r and a f f e c t i o n dominate. There must be a c l o s e r adherence to r u l e s , g r e a t e r r e g u l a r i t y of l i f e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . . . an i n s t i t u t i o n conducted upon the o l d congregate p l a n i s q u i t e i n c a p a b l e of reproduc-i n g the atmosphere of even an average home.^l The cottage system p r o v i d e d the necessary i d e o l o g i c a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n by promising the atmosphere of a f a m i l y w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n . Of course, the resemblance of a b u i l d i n g w i t h 20 to 4 0 inmates to a f a m i l y home must have 4 2 been minimal i n the b e s t of circumstances. But t h e r e were more t a n g i b l e advantages of the new system f o r those i n charge. O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r o l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d . Delinquents c o u l d be separated from dependents; harder to c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n c o u l d be segregated from the e a s i e r . The new cottage system would have "inmates d i v i d e d i n t o groups, and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s can be made a c c o r d i n g to 43 c h a r a c t e r . " As the c o t t a g e s were used f o r homogeneous age and c h a r a c t e r grading, they were f u r t h e r removed from any r e -44 semblance to a f a m i l y . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g to - 50 -note the emphasis on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the N.Y.J.A., even be-fore the cottage system was actually implemented. Beyond the advantages of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and control, the cottage system was touted, i n N.Y.J.A. l i t e r a t u r e , as being more appropriate for g i r l s ' vocational t r a i n i n g . An excerpt from an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Industrial Training of Pauper and Neglected G i r l s " , argued that the cottage would provide the setting for the learning of s k i l l s which would be needed by poor g i r l s a f t e r they leave the i n s t i t u t i o n , as mother "of a 45 family of small means" or as a maid. There i s of course a certain irony i n the use of thi s rationale for the cottage system i n that the move to Dobbs Ferry was accompanied by the elimination of the female inmates. Williams' o r i g i n a l proposal, i n 1897, contained the paren-t h e t i c a l remark, as i f i t were unive r s a l l y agreed to, that 4 6 "boys and g i r l s should be kept i n d i s t i n c t i n s t i t u t i o n s " . There was increasing f e e l i n g that there should be sex-segregation, c e r t a i n l y i n i n s t i t u t i o n s for delinquents. In 1904, the g i r l s were removed from the House of Refuge and the State In d u s t r i a l School at Rochester. The House of Refuge for Women at Hudson, which had taken women from 16 to 30, was re-opened as the State Training School for G i r l s , for ages up to 16, thus accommodating g i r l s who were transferred from the former i n s t i t u t i o n s . Per-haps the implementation of sex-segregation, l i k e the cottage system, helped to deflate the threat posed by current widespread c r i t i c i s m . The semblance of reform presented by these changes ("now the problem of delinquency w i l l be properly addressed") - 51 -p e r m i t t e d an e x t e n s i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n s ' e x i s t e n c e . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , the contours of the p o p u l a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , i t s l o c a t i o n , and the cottage p l a n l a y o u t i t s e l f , were determined by a number of f a c t o r s . The tendency to c l a s s i f y and segregate, by age, "problem", and sex had been i n the process of development over the n i n e t e e n t h century. The establishment of the N.Y.J.A. i t s e l f can be seen as one step i n t h a t p r o c e s s . The C h i l d r e n ' s Law of 1875 which removed c h i l d r e n between the ages of three and s i x t e e n from the alms-houses was an important next step. At the time of the move to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , t here was s t r o n g f e e l i n g toward s e g r e g a t i n g sexes and c l a s s i f y i n g by " h a b i t s " (delinquent vs. dependent) which would culminate i n a S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s r u l i n g i n 19 07 t h a t d e l i n q u e n t and dependent youth c o u l d not be main-t a i n e d i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n . In r e s p e c t to r e l i g i o n and e t h n i c i t y , though the founders were P r o t e s t a n t , t h e i r e f f o r t s were l a r g e l y aimed at c h i l d r e n of C a t h o l i c immigrants. The S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s had i n -tended t h a t , i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n s t i t u t i o n s would serve inmates of t h e i r own r e l i g i o n , but u n t i l the move to Dobbs F e r r y , t h i s had never meant systematic e x c l u s i o n of one group 47 or another, and even then, C a t h o l i c s were not e x p e l l e d . Age d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a t the t u r n of the century was very rudimentary, and the N.Y.J.A. accepted c h i l d r e n from i n f a n c y to s i x t e e n . While the sex s e g r e g a t i o n of the t u r n of the century was backed up by a r a t i o n a l e , the attempts a t r a c i a l and e t h n i c s e g r e g a t i o n appear to have been haphazard measures, conveniences - 52 -d i c t a t e d by the need to reduce inmate p o p u l a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u -l a r number. Renewed attempts a t l a t e r dates were not so benign. The cottage p l a n was wi d e l y known, g e n e r a l l y supported, and used by a number of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r moves near the t u r n of the century. The l i t e r a t u r e p a i d homage to the f a m i l y by promoting the i d e a t h a t the cot t a g e s would reproduce a f a m i l y atmosphere, but i t seems l i k e l y t h a t i n the a c t u a l run-ning o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s , the convenience of the use of the cot t a g e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r o l were more important b e n e f i t s . The i d e a of r e l o c a t i n g o u t s i d e of the c i t y was nothing new: Washington Heights had been r u r a l area beyond the p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r of New York when the N.Y.J.A. f i r s t b u i l t t h e r e . Because of the expanding c i t y , the land had become too v a l u a b l e to use f o r the low-density asylum work and become l e s s s u i t a b l e f o r t h a t work because of the c o n f i n e d space. The same i d e o l o g y which had u n d e r l a i n the sending of c h i l d r e n to the West through the n i n e t e e n t h century, which r e l i e d on the country environment f o r i t s r e s t o r a t i v e powers, made the Dobbs F e r r y s i t e a t t r a c t i v e . Indeed, the onl y o p p o s i t i o n to moves such as these seems to have come from t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e r u r a l neighbors. Footnotes Chapter 3 See Paul Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order i n America, 1820-1920 (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978). Boyer e x p l a i n s the s t o r y of the A . I . C P . and s i m i l a r v o u n t a r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n m a i n t a i n i n g urban s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n the n i n e -teenth century. A l s o see David Rothman 1s d i s c u s s i o n of the A . I . C P . i n The Dis c o v e r y of the Asylum, pp. 162, 163. o A . I . C P . Annual Report, 1856, pp. 25, 26, quoted i n Roy Lubove, "The New York A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Improving the C o n d i t i o n of the Poor: the Formative Years", New York H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  Q u a r t e r l y , 43 (1959), p. 313. 3 Boyer, pp. 86-94. 4 F i r s t Annual Report of the A. I.. C P . , 1845, V i s i t o r s ' Manual, quoted i n Lubove, "The New York A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 316. 5 Lubove, "The New York A s s o c i a t i o n , " p. 316. P u b l i s h e d as an appendix to Thomas L. H a r r i s , J u v e n i l e  D e p r a v i t y and Crime i n Our C i t y , New York, 1850, pp. 14-15, quoted i n David M. Schneider and A l b e r t Deutsch, The H i s t o r y  of P u b l i c Welfare i n New York S t a t e 1867-1940 (Chicago, 1941) p. 329. 7 Cha r t e r and By-Laws of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e (Dobbs F e r r y C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e P r e s s , 1931). g Lubove, "The New York A s s o c i a t i o n , " p. 319. 9N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 45. Note: 1914 and 1918 Annual Reports c o n t a i n comprehensive, r e t r o s p e c t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s . 1 0N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, pp. 39-55. 1 : LN.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, pp. 39-55. 1 2N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1902, p. 43. 1 3 B o y e r , pp. 94-107. 14 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1902, p. 43. See a l s o Miriam Z. Langsam, C h i l d r e n West: A H i s t o r y of the P l a c i n g Out System of the New  York C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y 1853-1890 (Madison: S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Wisconsin, 1964) and R i c h a r d R. Wohl "The 'Country Boy' Myth and i t s P l a c e i n American Urban C u l t u r e : i n - 54 -Moses R i s c h i n , ed., P e r s p e c t i v e s i n American H i s t o r y 3 (1969), pp. 77-158; Joy Parr , Labouring C h i l d r e n : B r i t i s h Immigrant  A p p r e n t i c e s to Canada 1869-1924 (Montreal: McGill-Queens U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980), f o r the analogous movement of the movement of the B r i t i s h urban poor to Canada. 15 H i l l e s t o Hart, A p r i l 10, 1905: r e f e r r i n g t o a group being sent West: " I t w i l l be an easy company to conduct vbecause a l l but two of the c h i l d r e n are a p p l i c a n t s to go." i. 1 6N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 19. 17 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 41. 18 While Hawes a s s e r t s t h a t the es t a b l i s h m e n t of the C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y reduced the number of inmates i n New York's House of Refuge, t h a t year s e t a r e c o r d f o r the number of com-mitments to the N.Y.J.A. Joseph M. Hawes, C h i l d r e n i n Urban  S o c i e t y : J u v e n i l e Delinquency i n Nineteenth Century America (New York: Oxford, 1971), p. 134. Perhaps the c i v i l d i s o r d e r a s s o c i a t e d with New York's d r a f t r i o t s of the same year stimu-l a t e d the i n c r e a s e d i n t a k e . 19 Schneider and Deutsch, p. 22. These powers were strength-ened a g a i n i n 1894, but even a f t e r t h a t date were d i s p u t e d by the d i r e c t o r s of the N.Y.J.A. and other p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . 20 Conference of C h a r i t i e s , 1875, quoted i n Grace Abbott, ed., The C h i l d and the S t a t e , S e l e c t Documents wi t h I n t r o d u c t o r y  Notes (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1938, pp. 375, 376. 21 Chapter 173, Laws of 1875, quoted i n Robert Bremner et a l . , eds., C h i l d r e n and Youth In America (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), I I , p. 281. O f f i c i a l c r i t i c i s m had come i n the form of the Letchworth Report on Poorhouses and Almshouses i n 1874. The S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of C r u e l t y to C h i l d r e n , founded i n 1875, a l s o pressed f o r more r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . These were e f f o r t s , not to d e - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e , but to change the nature of the i n s t i t u -t i o n s , as w e l l as to toughen vagrancy, p e d d l i n g , and begging laws. See Hawes, pp. 135-139. 2 2N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 39. "Toward the end of 1874, there were 132 orphan asylums and homes f o r the f r i e n d l e s s [ i n New York State] w i t h a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 11,907 c h i l d r e n under s i x t e e n years of age. By 1885 there were 204 such i n -s t i t u t i o n s m a i n t a i n i n g a t o t a l of 23,592 c h i l d r e n . " Deutsch and Schneider, p. 65. 2 3N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 52. - 55 -24 New York J u v e n i l e Asylum, Proposed Sequel to a Work of Great U s e f u l n e s s (New York, 1904). 25 For a survey of the middle c l a s s p i c t u r e of the urban immigrant, see Boyer, pp. 123-131. The t u r n of the century immigrant experience i n Canada i s documented i n Robert Harney and H a r o l d Troper, Immigrants: A P o r t r a i t of the Urban  Experience, 1890-1930 (Toronto: Van Nostrand, Reinhold, 1975). The government response to the p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t of the immigrant i n Canada i s e x p l o r e d i n Donald Avery, "Dangerous F o r e i g n e r s " : European Immigrant Workers and Labour R a d i c a l i s m i n Canada, 1896-1932 (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1979). 2 6 Mornay W i l l i a m s , Memoranda as to the Development of the  Asylum Work (New York, 1897), p. 5. 27 Schneider and Deutsch, pp. 162, 163. 2 8N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 49. 29 B r e n z e l reached s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s about the L a n c a s t e r inmates: "More than h a l f of the g i r l s , both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , were brought to the c o u r t by members of t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . The complainant f a m i l i e s seemed to have had i n com-mon a sense of d e s p e r a t i o n bred by poverty, unemployment, death, or p h y s i c a l u p r o o t i n g . " Barbara B r e n z e l , "Domestication as Reform: A Study of the S o c i a l i z a t i o n of Wayward G i r l s " , Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 50, (May, 1980), p. 204. 30 Schneider and Deutsch, p. 169. 3 1N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1906, p. 37. 32 Mornay W i l l i a m s , p. 3. 33 I b i d . , p. 7. 34 I b i d . , p. 8. 35 Schneider and Deutsch, pp. 162-163. 3 6 For a f u l l account, see Barbara B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t of the F i r s t Reform School f o r G i r l s i n North America, 1856-1905," D i s s . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 1978. 37 Precedents such as Wichern's Rauhe Haus i n Germany, De Meta' E c o l e A g r i c o l e i n France, and the Royal P h i l a n t h r o p i c S o c i e t y ' s R e d h i l l School are surveyed i n B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r " , Chapter I I I . 3 8 Schneider and Deutsch, pp. 174-177. - 56 -39 Maurice Odquist, "The H i s t o r y of Graham" (pamphlet); "Hawthorne Cedar K n o l l s School", Jewish Board of Guardians (pamphlet); S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s School Annual Report, 1970. 4 0N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901. 4 1N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 16. 42 D e s c r i b i n g the Boys T r a i n i n g School a t S t . C h a r l e s , I l l i n o i s , Rothman notes: "To expect t h a t l i f e i n a dormitory of f o r t y would r e c r e a t e f a m i l y - l i k e i n t i m a c y and promote f a m i l y - l i k e c o o p e r a t i o n was absurd. . . . The r o u t i n e of d a i l y l i v i n g . . . bore no resemblance to t h a t of a household," Rothman, Conscience p. 271. 4 3N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 27. 44 B r e n z e l notes the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the use of c o t t a g e s to c r e a t e a f a m i l y environment, and the use of c o t t a g e s f o r age and c h a r a c t e r g r a d i n g . In the L a n c a s t e r I n d u s t r i a l School, an o p t i m i s t i c l e g i s l a t u r e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t e e r e d away from the l a t t e r use: " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n should not be r e g u l a t e d i n any c o n s i d e r a b l e degree by the ages of the p u p i l s . The i d e a of a f a m i l y i s e l e v a t e d and made p e r f e c t by v a r i e t y i n age and s t a t u r e as w e l l as by d i v e r s i t y of d i s -p o s i t i o n , h a b i t s , and acquirements." Massachusetts House Documents 1855, p. 15, quoted i n B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r " , p. 156. I t was o n l y when the i n s t i t u t i o n d e t e r -i o r a t e d , p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of i t s being f o r c e d to take o l d e r , more hardened g i r l s , t h a t they abandoned the a n t i - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n model. 45 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, pp. 84-86. The a r t i c l e was o r i g i n -a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n Contemporary Review ( J u l y , 1882). 46 Mornay W i l l i a m s , Memoranda. 47 See Schneider and Deutsch c i r c a p. 160. H i l l e s c o r -respondence to George Robinson, May 9, 1905, defends the "New York system" of sending c h i l d r e n to p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h p u b l i c , per c a p i t a funding. - 57 -Chapter 4 "A Modern School of C o r r e c t i o n " : the Cottage System i n A c t i o n , 1905-1918. When the dust s e t t l e d , and the s t a f f and c h i l d r e n had ad-j u s t e d to the new l o c a l e , they found themselves i n e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s . In 1907, the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s awarded C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e a " f i r s t c l a s s " judgement on the b a s i s of i t s p h y s i c a l set-up. I t was the only such judgement made i n t h a t year. But the new b u i l d i n g s and i d y l l i c s e t t i n g d i d not s p e l l an end to problems. The c l i m a t e of opinion among c h i l d - c a r e pro-f e s s i o n a l s continued t o be dominated by those who questioned the e f f i c a c y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n — e v e n i n a co t t a g e s t y l e i n s t i -t u t i o n — a n d those a s s o c i a t e d with i n s t i t u t i o n s were f o r c e d to maintain a c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t to p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r programs. Board P r e s i d e n t Mornay W i l l a i m s acknowledged t h a t he was i n a m i n o r i t y i n defending the m e r i t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n at the f i r s t White House Conference on the Care of Dependent C h i l d r e n i n 1909."'" Other problems were generated by what the i n s t i t u t i o n men saw as q u e s t i o n a b l e government r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s : they d i d not have the k i n d of c o n t r o l they wanted e i t h e r over admissions, nor over d i s c i p l i n e . They d i d , however, manage to develop new t o o l s to h e l p them c a r r y on the day-to-day running of the V i l l a g e w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s posed by the c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n and the government s t a t u t e s and regu-l a t i o n s . New forms of d i s c i p l i n e and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the f i r s t - 58 -incursions of s c i e n t i f i c psychology, and the cottage system i t -s e l f , were among the important innovations of t h i s pre-war and wartime period. In his address as Past President of the Board i n 1915, Williams used language and ideas reminiscent of his 1897 "Memoranda as to the Development of the Asylum Work": There i s a great deal of f o o l i s h talk about the inef-f i c i e n c y and u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s for c h i l d -ren. . . . An i n s t i t u t i o n such as t h i s , i s not an actual i n s t i t u t i o n , but a school; i t i s a place where young l i v e s are moulded and f i t t e d . . . and the c h i l d . . . i s educated.2 In the new setting, however, there were some new wrinkles i n the attempt to maintain the image that the i n s t i t u t i o n was i n fact a school. In the f i r s t decades of the century, there was active public debate about the incorporation of vocational education into public school programs leading to a broad consensus that 3 schools should give t h e i r students s k i l l s for the workplace. In the 1897 "Memoranda", Williams had acknowledged that the primary object of the children's work was "the making of clothing, shoes, caps, etc., not the t r a i n i n g of children as t a i l o r s , 4 shoemakers, cap-makers and so on." Now the work on the physi-c a l grounds was used as evidence of a progressive education program. Though i t i s doubtful that the boys received any more useful s k i l l s than i n the City, t h e i r accomplishments were con-siderable. Starting i n 1911, they b u i l t a cottage each year. Lumber was sawn for the buildings from the dead trees on the property, and once buildings were completed, maintenance was - 59 -a l s o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the t r a d e s c l a s s . E x t e n s i v e gardens 5 and animal husbandry provided both food and revenue. But the d i r e c t o r s seemed l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n drawing com-p a r i s o n s w i t h the New York C i t y p u b l i c schools than i n p o i n t i n g out the resemblance of the cottage system l a y o u t to t h a t of a p r e p a r a t o r y school campus. We have almost without knowing i t taken the p o s i t i o n of what may be termed a p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l , meaning prep-a r a t o r y f o r l i f e . . . . C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e has more and more taken on the c h a r a c t e r of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . We may r e f e r to the almost academic atmosphere c r e a t e d by the establishment of a group of detached houses surround-i n g a c e n t r a l campus.^ The superintendent d e s c r i b e d r e s i d e n c e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e to be a " l i f e q u i t e s i m i l a r to t h a t l e d by c h i l d r e n of the f a i r l y w e l l - t o - d o i n our more or l e s s prosperous towns and 7 v i l l a g e s . " And the o f f i c i a l s had pleaded as e a r l y as 1901, "The s c h o o l i s not a p r i s o n : the p u p i l s are c o n s t a n t l y l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s not an i n s t i t u t i o n but a s c h o o l . " But i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any of the c h i l d r e n were f o o l e d . One does not have to look very f a r to d i s c o v e r the a b s u r d i t y of these com-p a r i s o n s . In many ways, f o r reasons which were not generated e n t i r e l y w i t h i n C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , the i n s t i t u t i o n was i f any-t h i n g becoming more p r i s o n - l i k e , d e s p i t e the p a s t o r a l , campus-l i k e s e t t i n g . Perhaps most i r o n i c , the myth of the " s c h o o l " , was used to j u s t i f y these changes. P r i o r to the t u r n of the century, some c h i l d r e n had entered the i n s t i t u t i o n d i r e c t l y on the request of t h e i r p a r e n t s . In 1901, responding to a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s r u l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d no longer e n t e r - 60 -simply by parents s u r r e n d e r i n g them. T h i s was an attempt, on the p a r t of the Board, to reduce what i t saw as unnecessary com-mitments. N.Y.J.A. d i r e c t o r s o b j e c t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , arguing t h a t i f there were too many dependent c h i l d r e n to be taken care o f , r e s t r i c t i o n s on immigration should be t i g h t e n e d up, but t h a t "access" to i n s t i t u t i o n s should remain a v a i l a b l e . Now C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e c o u l d not accept c h i l d r e n u n l e s s committed 9 by a c o u r t m a g i s t r a t e . I f parents d i d not have the power to "send" t h e i r c h i l d r e n to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , n e i t h e r d i d they have the power to w i t h -draw them. The advent of the C h i l d r e n ' s Court and the p r a c t i c e of p r o b a t i o n i n 19 0 0 had l e d to fewer new commitments, but t h i s d i d not t r o u b l e the d i r e c t o r s a t f i r s t , because i t a l s o l e d to an i n c r e a s e i n the use of indeterminate sentences: the i n s t i t u -t i o n men decided when the c h i l d r e n should go home, and thus put an end to " r i d i c u l o u s l y s h o r t commitments.""'"^ The importance of the indeterminate sentence, a c c o r d i n g to p u b l i c r h e t o r i c , was t h a t the people who were a c t u a l l y working w i t h the c h i l d r e n would be ab l e to see when they were ready to l e a v e . While assuming more c o n t r o l over the l e n g t h of the inmates' s t a y s , o f f i c i a l s i r o n i c a l l y used the " s c h o o l " analogy t o j u s t i f y even i n d e f i n i t e i n c a r c e r a t i o n . I f s t a y i n g a t the V i l l a g e was not punishment but education, they argued, then perhaps i t was i n the boys' i n t e r e s t to be committed f o r an i n d e f i n i t e l e n g t h of time: Having i n mind the f a c t s of b i r t h , parentage and con-d i t i o n s of environment as f a c t o r s i n j u v e n i l e d e l i n -quency and how l i t t l e the young o f f e n d e r has r e a l l y - 61 -had to do w i t h shaping h i s m i s d i r e c t e d course, the matter of h i s commitment i s not i n the mind of the Court, to any g r e a t extent a p u n i t i v e measure. . . . In the modern school of c o r r e c t i o n . . . a boy's so-jou r n may be prolonged i n d e f i n i t e l y without danger of l o s s to h i m s e l f of much t h a t i s important or necessary to a normal development. " J-J-C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s d e v i s e d a system of c r e d i t 12 marks which a c h i l d had to earn i n order to be r e l e a s e d . In f a c t , the c r e d i t system q u i c k l y devolved i n t o a standard two-year sentence. Superintendent Guy Morgan wrote the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s to two parents who requested r e l e a s e of t h e i r sons. Dear Madam: I have your l e t t e r making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e l e a s e of your son from t h i s s c h o o l . A l l boys who come here are r e q u i r e d to earn a c e r t a i n amount of c r e d i t marks before they are e l i g i b l e to go out. T h i s u s u a l l y takes them 24 months. Dear S i r : I have your l e t t e r making a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the r e l e a s e of your son from t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l boys committed to t h i s s c h o o l are r e q u i r e d to remain 24 months from the time of t h e i r commitment.13 I l l u s t r a t i v e of the f u n c t i o n i n g of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e indeterminate sentence, and of the dynamics among pare n t s , c h i l d r e n , and V i l l a g e i s the case of W.M. He was committed i n the f a l l of 1914, a t age 15, f o r the v i o l a t i o n of p a r o l e . H i s p a r o l e had stemmed from a b u r g l a r y i n the preceding s p r i n g , i n which he had s t o l e n a p a i r of e y e - g l a s s e s and a g o l d b r e a s t p i n , worth about $2 3, approximately two weeks of h i s f a t h e r ' s wages. At the time, he had been working as a b e l l - b o y . The f a m i l y depended on the wages of h i s f a t h e r , a longshoreman whose work was unsteady, h i s mother, whose work as a j a n i t o r f o r t h e i r b u i l d i n g earned them a f i f t y p e rcent r e d u c t i o n i n r e n t , and - 62 -hi m s e l f . There were e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y , seven of whom a t the time of W.M.'s commitment l i v e d i n the s i x room cold-water b a t h l e s s Brooklyn apartment. W.M.'s o l d e r s i s t e r l i v e d a t a "House of the Good Shepherd", and one of h i s younger s i s t e r s would be removed t o the Bedford H i l l s L a b o r a t o r y of S o c i a l Hygiene d u r i n g h i s stay a t the V i l l a g e . I t was understood by both him and h i s f a m i l y a t the time of commitment t h a t h i s stay would be f o r two yea r s . During those years, i t was recorded t h a t he was i n grade e i g h t , and t h a t he worked i n the t a i l o r shop. Though the parents requested t h a t W.M. be allowed to v i s i t them, inmates were never allowed o f f the grounds. As i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r poor C i t y f a m i l i e s to t r a v e l to Dobbs F e r r y , they never saw each other d u r i n g those two years. In the f a l l of 1916, when the two years were up, W.M., h i s f a t h e r , and h i s mother each wrote a l e t t e r to the s u p e r i n t e n -dent r e q u e s t i n g h i s r e l e a s e . H is mother noted, "I am not w e l l and I can assure you i f he was home he would be a g r e a t h e l p to me as I have no one to help me and he (s i c ) a good boy, be s i d e s . " The f a t h e r ' s l e t t e r s t r e s s e d the boy's f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s t r u g g l i n g f a m i l y . W.M. was r e l e a s e d and soon a f t e r found a job as a d r i v e r of a c o a l t r u c k . Working from 7:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. each day, he earned f i f t e e n d o l l a r s a week, ten of which he gave to h i s f a m i l y , c o n s t i t u t i n g the f a m i l y ' s primary support. A year l a t e r , he j o i n e d the army and h i s mother went back to work. While W.M.'s stay doesn't seem to have s t i g m a t i z e d him or hindered h i s a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n i n the o u t s i d e world, there i s no reason to conclude from the s u r v i v i n g r e c o r d s t h a t he r e c e i v e d any t r a i n i n g or education which was of p a r t i c u l a r use to him or h i s f a m i l y . Nor were h i s parents i n c o n t r o l of any aspect of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . I f they had wanted to "use" an i n s t i t u t i o n to ease the burden on the f a m i l y , they c e r t a i n l y would not have chosen one of the major wage earners, moreover one whom neighbors s a i d had "always appeared honest and w e l l behaved, never causing them any annoy-ance." Thus, W.M.'s stay as "doing time" makes more sense than 14 any other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In the midst of the r h e t o r i c about " s c h o o l s " and "campuses i n 1907 the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s acted to segregate i n s t i t u t i o n s on the b a s i s of "dependent" and " d e l i n q u e n t " c h i l d r e n . The d e c i s i o n of which group to take seems to have been i n the hands of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e d i r e c t o r s , and they chose the l a t t e r , but complained b i t t e r l y : The Asylum has become almost e x c l u s i v e l y a reformatory i n s t i t u t i o n . That i s to say, i t s wards are no longer drawn both from the c l a s s of c h i l d r e n t e c h n i c a l l y l a b e l l e d as dependents and the c l a s s t e c h n i c a l l y l a b e l l e d as d e l i n q u e n t s , but are, by the a c t i o n of c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s , and by the d e s i r e of the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s , c o n f i n e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y to boys commit-ted by the c o u r t s f o r misdemeanors and sometimes f e l o n i e s . . . . The c o u r t s , as guardians of p u b l i c morals, have made t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , as f a r as the c h i l d r e n of P r o t e s t a n t parents are concerned, the r e -formatory agency of the c i t y of New York. J-^ The o f f i c i a l s f e l t t h a t they were d e a l i n g w i t h a tougher pop-u l a t i o n , and y e t , a t the same time, the s t a t e had taken away, one of t h e i r t o o l s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e among the un-d i s c i p l i n e d : the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s had r u l e d out c o r p o r a l punishment i n 1903. Loath as the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s were to conceive of t h e i r whole program as a p u n i t i v e one, punishment and d i s c i p l i n a r y measures c e r t a i n l y p l a y e d a l a r g e p a r t i n day-to-day o p e r a t i o n s . The Board of C h a r i t i e s r u l i n g was a p p a r e n t l y going to be e n f o r c e d — a t l e a s t f o r a time. In 1903, the s t a f f was almost e n t i r e l y r e p l a c e d , l a r g e l y due to f i r i n g s f o r v i o l a t i o n of the p r o h i b i t i o n of 16 c o r p o r a l punishment. We might i n f e r from t h i s , the r e l i a n c e which the s t a f f had p l a c e d on c o r p o r a l punishment b e f o r e 1903. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n questioned the wisdom of the r u l i n g of the Board of C h a r i t i e s , and a c t i v e l y sought a r e v e r s a l of the d e c i s i o n . I t a t t r i b u t e d to the r u l i n g the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number (14) of s u c c e s s f u l escapes i n t h a t year. In f a c t , Superintendent H i l l e s thought t h a t the a b o l i t i o n of c o r p o r a l punishment was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a widespread breakdown i n the d i s c i p l i n e of New York s c h o o l s . W r i t i n g to a New York C i t y p r i n c i p a l , he noted: I f e e l t h a t the a b o l i t i o n of c o r p o r a l punishment i s very r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a c t t h a t both t r u a n t schools are f u l l ; t h a t a very l a r g e number of your c h i l d r e n have been sent to the C a t h o l i c P r o t e c t o r y ; t h a t you have taken a l l the s u r p l u s room i n the Westchester Temporary Home; t h a t you have f i f t y boys i n the J u v e n i l e Asylum and t h a t you now have more than a ^ hundred c h i l d r e n on the w a i t i n g l i s t f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s . The l o g i c of H i l l e s ' statement, though he d i d not make i t exp-l i c i t , was t h a t i f l i f e i n the v a r i o u s t r u a n t s c h o o l s , asylums, e t c . , was not harsh enough, then there would not be s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v a t i o n f o r young people to stay out of them by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system. Not o n l y was the i n t e r n a l order of the i n s t i t u t i o n s j e o p a r d i z e d , but t h e i r l a r g e r u s e f u l n e s s as a t h r e a t to students to behave w e l l i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system was put i n t o q u e s t i o n . The q u e s t i o n remains as to whether the N.Y.J.A. people, i n t h i s p e r i o d of o f f i c i a l optimism and reform, a c t u a l l y d i d r e l a x the d i s c i p l i n e i n order to c r e a t e a more f a m i l y - l i k e , or s c h o o l -l i k e atmosphere. In f a c t , as I have suggested, i f the i n s t i t u -t i o n was to m a i n t a i n e i t h e r i t s i n t e r n a l o r d e r , or i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e i n the l a r g e r s o c i a l order, they c o u l d n o t — a n d they d i d not. Rather than use c o r p o r a l punishment, new forms were developed. The indeterminate sentence meant t h a t inmates' terms c o u l d be lengthened a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the s t a f f . T h i s was used along w i t h f i n e s , d e p r i v a t i o n of f r e e time, "standing on l i n e " and the d r i l l squad. "In the d r i l l squad, they march and e x e r c i s e a l l day, without r e c r e a t i o n . They r e s t and do c a l i s t h e n i c s a l t e r n a t e l y " w h i l e food r a t i o n s were r e -18 duced. Some boys s t i l l d i d not respond, i n which case, they were sent to a harsher environment s t i l l : the R a n d a l l ' s I s l a n d 19 House of Refuge. At the House of Refuge, i n v e s t i g a t o r s found t h a t "inmates were r e q u i r e d to stand w i t h t h e i r backs to the c e l l door f o r p e r i o d s ranging from f i v e to s i x t e e n hours a t a time, with no r e l i e f except f o r meals and o c c a s i o n a l ' s e t t i n g 20 up' e x e r c i s e s . " To the extent t h a t the t h r e a t of the House of Refuge c o u l d be h e l d b e f o r e the Asylum inmates, d i s c i p l i n e at the l a t t e r might have been somewhat r e l a x e d . But i n f a c t , the c ottage system l e n t i t s e l f to some new d i s c i p l i n a r y measures. The d r i l l squad was supplemented by the C o r r e c t i o n a l Cottage. - 66 -While assignment to the d r i l l squad would be f o r a day or two, f o r such o f f e n s e s as " t a l k i n g of running away" or "being d i s -obedient and l a z y " , assignment to the C o r r e c t i o n a l Cottage g e n e r a l l y l a s t e d s e v e r a l weeks, and was found to be very e f f e c t -21 l v e among c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s . In t h i s cottage twenty of the most troublesome boys i n the s c h o o l are q u a r t e r e d . These boys are a s s i g n e d the more arduous and most d i s a g r e e a b l e tasks about the V i l l a g e . They are compelled to work both the morning and a f t e r n o o n p e r i o d s , r e c r e a t i o n times and evenings being devoted to s c h o o l and study. While i n t h i s c o t -tage, they are a t no time p e r m i t t e d to a s s o c i a t e w i t h the other boys of the V i l l a g e . 2 2 The cottage system enabled the o f f i c i a l s t o i n i t i a t e a system of p o s i t i v e i n c e n t i v e s as w e l l : g o l d , s i l v e r , and bronze medals were awarded to the best-conduct c o t t a g e s of the month. And the m i l i t a r y d r i l l program was enlarged, i n an attempt to f u r t h e r " i n c u l c a t e i n the boys the h a b i t s of obedience and d i s c i p l i n e , . . . which w i l l h e lp them to become more depend-23 able workmen and b e t t e r c i t i z e n s . " In any case, by 1914, i f not e a r l i e r , the experiment with the a b o l i t i o n of c o r p o r a l punishment was over: conduct records show, next to the e n t r i e s f o r the d r i l l squad and C o r r e c t i o n a l Cottage, f o u r , s i x or e i g h t s t r o k e s with the s t r a p . I f the entrance and l e a v i n g requirements, and the mode of d i s c i p l i n e were u n l i k e the r e g u l a r s c h o o l s , much l e s s p repara-t o r y s c h o o l s , so too was the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . Of the 245 commitments d u r i n g 1913, 60 were " d i s o b e d i e n t and t r u a n t " , 64 were "bad and d i s o r d e r l y " , and another 63 had been caught " p i l f e r i n g " . Of the•remainder, most were simply "unfortunate", which presumably, meant they were charged with no proper guard-24 i a n s h i p . Why were these c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e n t from the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n , who were w i l l i n g t o go to s c h o o l and obey t h e i r parents? The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f f e r e d by the people who ran C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e underwent a s i g n i f i c a n t change d u r i n g the f i r s t ten years a t the new l o c a t i o n . In 1906, the annual r e p o r t ventured the f o l l o w i n g : The poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of a preponderating m a j o r i t y of the c h i l d r e n a t the time of t h e i r admission to the Asylum e x p l a i n s much of the tendency to truancy, and the i n d i f f e r e n c e to the requirements of the p u b l i c s c h o o l and of s o c i e t y . ^ 5 The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n would be transformed d u r i n g the remaining years b e f o r e the F i r s t World War, both i n the r h e t o r i c and i n the g u i d i n g framework f o r the program. The changes a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e were ro o t e d i n a broader s h i f t i n c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n . The I.Q. t e s t , promoted i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s by S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ' s Lewis Terman and Henry Goddard of the V i n e l a n d T r a i n i n g School f o r the Feeble-Minded i n New J e r s e y , spread r a p i d l y among i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r d e l i n q u e n t and dependent c h i l d -ren i n the 1910's. I t s use had major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r e a t -ment programs. I f l a r g e numbers of the inmates of such i n s t i -t u t i o n s c o u l d be shown to be m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t — a n d they 2 6 were — t h e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s o l u t i o n s were misguided and a waste of time. The I.Q. t e s t i n g movement was p a r t of a r e v i v a l of h e r e d i t a r i a n i s m as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r s o c i a l i l l s on the one hand, and the promotion of eugenics f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n on the other. - 68 -Hastings Hart, f o r m e r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the N.Y.J.A. through i t s Western p l a c i n g out program and now p r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l Conference of C h a r i t i e s and C o r r e c t i o n , wrote i n "The E x t i n c t i o n of the D e f e c t i v e Delinquent: A Working Program": "In order to r e s t r i c t and u l t i m a t e l y to put an end to the pro-d u c t i o n of d e f e c t i v e d e l i n q u e n t s , i t i s necessary to r e s t r i c t the propagation of the feeble-minded v a r i e t y of the human 27 r a c e . " The l i n k s between delinquency, I.Q., and h e r e d i t y were s p e l l e d out by the S t a t e Commission to I n v e s t i g a t e P r o v i s i o n f o r the M e n t a l l y D e f i c i e n t i n i t s r e p o r t to the L e g i s l a t u r e : Feeble-mindedness i s a grave s o c i a l menace. To i t can be a t t r i b u t e d a very d e f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n of the v i c e , crime, and degeneracy t h a t tend to d e s t r o y the peace and p r o s p e r i t y of our communal l i f e . Not o n l y i s i t a fundamental cause of misery, but i t possesses the q u a l i t y of h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n , thus i n s u r i n g the 2Q continuance of misery through the g e n e r a t i o n s to come. Mental d e f i c i e n c y was l i n k e d to the d e l i n q u e n t p o p u l a t i o n which was i n c a r c e r a t e d i n the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . But t h a t pop-u l a t i o n was overwhelmingly one of immigrants and immigrants * c h i l d r e n . T h i s f a c t paved the way f o r the systematic r a c i s m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the movement. The l o g i c ran: i f most of the inmate p o p u l a t i o n was m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t , and most of t h a t p o p u l a t i o n was of immigrant stock, then immigrants must, to a g r e a t e r degree than n a t i v e Americans, be m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t . As e a r l y as 1901, there had been s e g r e g a t i o n of "backward" 29 p u p i l s i n t o a s p e c i a l , c l a s s a t the New York J u v e n i l e Asylum. However, i n 1912, the year Goddard's b e s t s e l l i n g The K a l l i k a k  Family was p u b l i s h e d , the B i n e t i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t was i n t r o d u c e d - 69 -a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e t o segregate s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the " d i s ^ 30 t i n c t l y backward" c h i l d r e n . W i t h i n two y e a r s , i t had be-come standard p r a c t i c e to g i v e a l l incoming c h i l d r e n the t e s t . The g e n e r a l p o p u l a r i t y of the eugenics approach may have been r e l a t e d to the seeming f a i l u r e of the r e c e n t wave of reforms, the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s , the spread of the cottage system. At C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of I.Q. t e s t s came a t a time when the i n s t i t u t i o n was e x p e r i e n c i n g "an i n c r e a s i n g num-31 ber and magnitude of problems". The optimism of the f i r s t years a t Dobbs F e r r y was tempered, and a new e x p l a n a t i o n of the genesis of the problems no doubt helped the i n s t i t u t i o n men e x p l a i n to themselves and others what was going on. The t h i n k i n g a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was s i m i l a r to t h a t found elsewhere. The demands of o p e r a t i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n , however, put the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e t h e o r i s t s i n a very d i f f e r -ent p o s i t i o n from those who t h e o r i z e d from the c o n f i n e s of S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y or Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers' C o l l e g e . The former s h i e d away from e x p l a n a t i o n s which would e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r programs. Thus, w h i l e r a c i s t eugenics was d e f i n i t e l y i n the a i r , i t was not a p o s i -t i o n the i n s t i t u t i o n men wholeheartedly embraced. An annual r e p o r t h i n t e d : I t may be noted t h a t there are numerous s u b j e c t s and problems very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the work of an i n s t i -t u t i o n of t h i s k i n d , and perhaps t h i s i s not the p l a c e i n which to take up the d i s c u s s i o n of them; but a sur-vey of the boys and a l i t t l e c o n t a c t with them and t h e i r parents b r i n g to mind many f e a t u r e s of the immigration q u e s t i o n , the eugenics propaganda and the s c i e n t i f i c study of the causes and remedies of j u v e n i l e d e l i n -quency . Perhaps one of the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e s to the maintenance of the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was j u s t a school was the way the c o u r t m a g i s t r a t e s saw the i n s t i t u t i o n . The judges, w h i l e u s i n g p r o b a t i o n i n many cases, a l s o wanted to be able to g i v e some minor o f f e n d e r s a s m a l l t a s t e of what pun-ishment, i . e . , commitment to an i n s t i t u t i o n , might be l i k e . They attempted to a s s i g n boys to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e on s h o r t term remands, but t h i s c r e a t e d a l l kinds of problems f o r d i s c i -p l i n e i n the c o t t a g e s . As w e l l , i t undermined the i d e a , i f i t r e a l l y d i d have any currency, t h a t commitment to the V i l l a g e was something other than punishment, such as an e d u c a t i o n a l exper-i e n c e . For a number of years the d i r e c t o r s r e f u s e d to admit boys on s h o r t term remands. In 1915, when three c o t t a g e s were c l o s e d f o r l a c k of inmates, they s p e c u l a t e d t h a t they were being punished by the judges f o r these r e f u s a l s , and t h a t the boys were being sent elsewhere. By 1917, i n s p i t e of the prob-lem generated by acceptance of the remands, they were f o r c e d to r e v e r s e t h e i r p o l i c y . I t was, then, to the advantage of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e o f f i c i a l s to draw the p a r a l l e l s between t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n and a s c h o o l . They were quick to p o i n t to the i n s t a l l a t i o n of modern methods of t e a c h i n g i n c l a s s -rooms, of s c i e n t i f i c d e v i c e s or t e s t s f o r g r a d i n g p u p i l s , and w i t h s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d teachers to care f o r those m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t ; the i n t r o d u c t i o n of one a f t e r another branch of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; the organ-i z a t i o n of p l a y and s p o r t s , and the f u r n i s h i n g of weekly i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s on t o p i c s educational.34 I f they were o f f e r i n g p r i m a r i l y education and not punishment, then i t was i n the i n t e r e s t s of the "students" to spend as long a s p o s s i b l e t h e r e . T h e a n a l o g y o f t h e r e f o r m a t o r y t o t h e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l was f a r f e t c h e d i n a number o f w a y s , m o s t g l a r i n g l y i n t h e d i f -f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s ( t h e i r o r i g i n s a n d f u t u r e s ) , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p a r e n t s h a d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u s e o f t h e i n s t i t u -t i o n , a n d t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f . T h e r e w e r e c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s t o t h e N e w Y o r k C i t y p u b l i c s c h o o l s a t t h e t i m e ( w h o s e ^ s t u d e n t s w e r e o v e r 7 0 p e r c e n t i m m i g r a n t s o r c h i l d r e n o f i m m i g r a n t s i n 1 9 0 9 ) , b u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e p a r a l l e l s d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y f r o m t h e o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e . B o t h s e t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s s o u g h t t o 7Americanize t h e i m m i g r a n t , t o d i s c i p l i n e y o u t h i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t r a n c e i n t o a l a b o u r f o r c e , a n d t o a c t a s a n i n s t r u m e n t 3 5 i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f u r b a n s o c i a l o r d e r . S y s t e m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d a g r o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i z e d b o t h . B u t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e w a s u s e d a s a d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a s u r e , a s a l a s t r e s o r t ( o r n e x t t o t h e l a s t r e s o r t , b e f o r e t h e H o u s e o f R e f u g e ) f o r t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s w h o w e r e n o t a b l e t o b e d r a w n i n t o t h e n e t o f s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r -m o l d i n g i n f l u e n c e s b y m o r e s u b t l e m e a n s . O v e r t f o r c e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e w a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e C o r r e c t i o n a l C o t t a g e , i n t h e d r i l l s q u a d , i n t h e c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t , a n d p e r h a p s m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s , i n G o f f m a n ' s s e n s e , a t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n , r e s i d e n t i a l a n d i s o l a t e d . T h e d e g r e e o f o v e r t f o r c e , a s o p p o s e d t o m o r a l s u a s i o n , w h i c h e x i s t e d i n C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e w a s g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . F i r s t , t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b y d e f i n i t i o n , w a s m a d e u p o f p e o p l e l e s s w i l l i n g a n d r e a d y t o c o n -f o r m t o s o c i a l l y a p p r o v e d n o r m s ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n could only hope to serve as a deterrent, could only help public school standards of behavior, and job and family d i s c i p l i n e , i f commitment were seen as more odious than public school atten-dance, working, and/or family l i v i n g . In fact, children and thei r families found themselves with fewer choices, less, freedom, and more surveillance once the N.Y.J.A. became involved i n t h e i r l i v e s . - 73 -Footnotes Chapter 4 """Proceedings of the Conference on the Care of Dependent C h i l d r e n , 1909, quoted i n Robert Bremner, ed., C h i l d r e n and  Youth i n America (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971), I I , p. 361. 2N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1915, p. 69. 3 See Marvin Lazerson and W. Norton Grubb, eds., American  Educati o n and V o c a t i o n a l i s m (New York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1974). A Mornay W i l l i a m s , "Memoranda" p. 4. 5N,Y,J.A. A.R. 1915, p. 22. 6N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1915, pp. 10, 11. Schlossman notes, "Nine-teenth century e d u c a t i o n i s t s . . . saw j u v e n i l e c o r r e c t i o n s as forming a p a r a l l e l e d u c a t i o n a l system p r i m a r i l y f o r lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n of immigrant parents:, and t h a t i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century w i t h the development of p r o f e s s i o n -a l i z a t i o n , the two spheres became i n c r e a s i n g l y independent. There i s evidence here t h a t c o r r e c t i o n s people continued to look to the s c h o o l model f o r t h e i r r a t i o n a l e . Schlossman, "End of Innocence: Science and the Transformation of P r o g r e s s i v e . J u v e n i l e J u s t i c e , 1899-1917", H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n , 7, 3 (Oct., 1978) p. 207. For the i n f l u e n c e of the e d u c a t i o n a l model i n mid-nineteenth century c o r r e c t i o n s , see B r e n z e l , "The G i r l s a t L a n c a s t e r " , p. 76. 7N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 19. 8N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 24. 9 For example, see Guy Morgan correspondence to Mrs. Grace Waters, May 9, 1917. 1 0N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1903, p. 17. """"""N.Y.J.A. i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e c o r d s . B r e n z e l has argued i n "Lancaster I n d u s t r i a l School f o r G i r l s : A S o c i a l P o r t r a i t of a Nineteenth-Century Reform School f o r G i r l s " , F e m i n i s t S t u d i e s , (1975), pp. 40-53, and Katz has p i c k e d up the argument i n " O r i g i n s of the I n s t i t u t i o n a l S t a t e " , M a r x i s t P e r s p e c t i v e s , 1, 4 (Winter, 1978), pp. 6-22, t h a t the e a r l y r e f o r m a t o r i e s were used by poor parents to h e l p them i n pursuing t h e i r own g o a l s . "Poor parents", the l a t t e r argues, "turned to reform s c h o o l s , - 74 -which had not yet acquired t h e i r present stigma, p r e c i s e l y as other and more affluent parents turned to academies as places that would remove t h e i r refractory children from trouble and educate them at the same time." p. 14. This i s an application of the argument put forward by Hogan, Tyack, and others, that schools were used by immigrant families i n the same way. Whatever v a l -i d i t y i t has for mid-nineteenth century reformatories, i t c l e a r l y does not apply i n the Progressive era. 1 5N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1912, p. 13. 1 6N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1903, p. 20. 1 7 H i l l e s to Conroy, A p r i l 17, 1905. 18 H i l l e s to Boyer, A p r i l 3, 1905; also see N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1907, p. 25 and 1912. 19 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1906, p. 30. For the e a r l i e r story of the House of Refuge, see Robert N. Pickett, The House of Refuge: Origins of Juvenile Reform i n New York State, 1815-1857 (Syracuse,':Syracuse University Press, 1969). 20 Schneider and Deutsch, p. 176. 21 N.Y.J.A. individuals' records. 22 Morgan to Norris, June 20, 1914. 2 3N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1914, p. 13. 24 N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1917, pp. 46, 47. As noted above, not-withstanding the d i r e c t o r s ' complaints, there doesn't seem to have been an elimination or even a substantial reduction of the "unfortunate" inmates. 2 5N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1906, p. 19. 2 6 "According to the tests, anywhere from twenty-five to seventy-five percent of incarcerated delinquents were constitu-t i o n a l l y feeble-minded; that i s t h e i r I.Q. scores were so low that they were i n t e l l e c t u a l l y incapable of i n t e r n a l i z i n g s o c i a l norms." Schlossman, "End of Innonence", p. 215. 27 Hastings Hart, The Extinction of the Defective Delinquent: A Working Program (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1912) , p. 5. Hart f e l t that the most appropriate way to l i m i t pro-creation by the feebleminded was i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , while s t e r i l i z i n g only " r a p i s t s , sexual perverts or degenerates, confirmed masturbators and others whose sexual tendencies c a l l for such action." Hastings Hart, S t e r i l i z a t i o n as a P r a c t i c a l  Measure (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1912), p. 5. 2 8 (1915), quoted in Schneider and Deutsch, p. 241. - 75 -N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1901, p. 25, "This c l a s s " , i t was r e p o r t e d , " i s not d i s t i n c t by name from the o t h e r s , though i n r e a l i t y i t i s p e c u l i a r . " 3 ^ T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hart's recommendation: "The medic a l examination would be accompanied by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l ex-amination, i n order to a s c e r t a i n the mental d e f e c t s and l i m i t -a t i o n s of the c h i l d " . Hastings Hart, P r e v e n t a t i v e Treatment  of Neglected C h i l d r e n (New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1910), p. 13. 3 1N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1912 3 2N.Y.J.A. A.R. 3 3N.Y.J.A. A.R. 3 4N.Y.J.A. A.R. 35 See David Tyack, The One Best System (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974); and Marvin Lazerson, The  O r i g i n s of the Urban School: P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n Massachusetts, 1870-1915 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971). 12. 1912, P- 14. 1915, P- 34. 1915, P- 11. - 76 -Chapter 5 D e c l i n e and Renewal: The C o l o n e l Takes Hold, 1918-1930 A f t e r the F i r s t World War, l a b o r and s o c i a l u n r e s t was widespread i n the United S t a t e s and r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y reached a high p i t c h . In 1919 there were a number of b i t t e r s t r i k e s , i n c l u d i n g the S e a t t l e General S t r i k e i n January, the Boston p o l i c e s t r i k e i n September, a massive s t e e l s t r i k e , and one by the United Mine Workers i n the f a l l . These, along w i t h the c r e a t i o n of the Communist T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n March, 1919, and a s e r i e s of bombings and attempted bombings d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t government l e a d e r s who favored r e s t r i c t i o n of l a b o r a c t i v i t y and immigration were enough to b r i n g on a f u l l s c a l e "red s c a r e " . There was f e a r of l a b o r , of f o r e i g n e r s , and of Bolshevism, but the combination of those was worst of a l l . The U.S. Senate e n t e r t a i n e d such suggestions as the sending of c i t i z e n s w i t h r a d i c a l b e l i e f s t o a penal colony i n Guam, or i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a supposed p l a n f o r a Communist-inspired p l o t f o r a Black u p r i s i n g i n the South.""" The a r c h i t e c t of the scare was A t t o r n e y General A. M i t c h e l l Palmer, whose r a i d s on anar-c h i s t s , communists, and a l i e n s , and the d e p o r t a t i o n of the l a t -t e r , c o n s t i t u t e d the core of government a c t i v i t y . The h y s t e r i c a l r e a c t i o n d i e d down w i t h i n a year, but i t l e f t a legacy. At the N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work i n 1920, Jane Addams deplored the anti-immigrant sentiment, and noted t h a t the c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n had become u n f a v o r a b l e not o n l y towards r a d i c a l s , but a l s o toward s o c i a l r eformers: The immigrants are f e e l i n g , some of them wi t h good reason, t h a t they are being looked upon wi t h s u s p i c i o n and regarded as d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t of the world. . . . I f the immigrants now h o l d meetings and say the t h i n g s they are accustomed to say, they are l i k e l y to be a r -r e s t e d and even deported. In 19 24, a new immigration law, based on a quota system, came i n t o e f f e c t and d r a s t i c a l l y reduced immigration from E a s t e r n , 3 C e n t r a l and Southern Europe. The h y s t e r i a had not o n l y put a damper on m i l i t a n t l e f t i s t p o l i t i c s , but a l s o marked the end of the " P r o g r e s s i v e e r a " , and the beginning of the p o l i t i c s of "normalcy." The s o c i a l u n r e s t , the appearance of new problems as a r e s u l t of demographic change, and the search f o r "normalcy" l e d to new e x p e c t a t i o n s from i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Popular p e r c e p t i o n s of a crime wave and f e a r s t h a t j u v e n i l e 4 agencies were being too l e n i e n t were p r e v a l e n t . How d i d the V i l l a g e d i r e c t o r s respond? At the core of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e program remained the t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n a r y techniques. These were now supplemented by a p a r o l e system and by an i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d use of mental t e s t i n g and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A s u b s t a n t i a l number of boys would leave the V i l l a g e but remain l e g a l l y under i t s c o n t r o l through the p a r o l e system. (See Appendix) S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I.Q. t e s t s were g i v e n to a l l e n t r a n t s . The r e s u l t s were then used to c l a s s i f y s t u d -ents f o r the shops, s c h o o l , and c o t t a g e s , and to determine "the w i s e s t method of d e a l i n g w i t h a boy who has been r e p o r t e d f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e or i n f r a c t i o n of the r u l e s of the s c h o o l . " ^ In 1921, the t e s t i n g r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n : Percent of C.V. I.Q. Category P o p u l a t i o n 110 S u p e r i o r 4% 90-110 Normal 18% 80-90 Dull-normal 22% 70-80 B o r d e r l i n e 25% Below 7 0 Moron or feebleminded 31% A l l inmates, r e g a r d l e s s of t e s t r e s u l t s , would have three hours of formal s c h o o l work and three hours of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g each day. But the d i r e c t o r s , f o l l o w i n g Lewis Terman, saw d i f f e r e n c e s i n the boys' f u t u r e s as corresponding d i r e c t l y to the I.Q. t e s t r e s u l t s : I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t below 70 r a r e l y permits anything b e t t e r than u n s k i l l e d l a b o r ; from 80-100 t h a t of s k i l l e d or o r d i n a r y c l e r i c a l l a b o r . . . we know t h a t 95% of our boys need manual and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . ^ The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a " m u l t i p l e t r a c k system" w i t h homo-geneous grouping of students a c c o r d i n g to mental a b i l i t y , and the i n c r e a s e d s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h which the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of "sub-normal" inmates were l a b e l l e d were the core of a r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Educat i o n Department implemented i n 1921 and 1922 by a J u l i a H e i b e l . Her appointment as p r i n c i p a l (she had made a " c a r e f u l and exhaustive study of backward and men-7 t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n " ) r e f l e c t e d a growing concern w i t h g p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . In 1918, the Annual Report had made i t s f i r s t mention of the n e c e s s i t y of " p r o f e s s i o n a l f i t n e s s " of the s t a f f , and i n 1920 came the f i r s t i n - s e r v i c e " p r o f e s s i o n a l development" . Dr. Walter S w i f t of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , a s p e c i a l i s t i n c o r r e c t i o n o f speech d e f e c t s , " l e c t u r e d t o the s t a f f and conducted a c l i n i c demonstrating t o the teachers c e r t -a i n methods employed i n the readjustment of the organs of speech. 1 , 9 Despite these e f f o r t s , the post-war p e r i o d f o r C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was a time of d e c l i n e , a d e c l i n e which threatened t o l e a d to c r i s i s . There were beginnings o f severe f i n a n c i a l problems i n 1917, but an even more worrisome t r e n d became e v i -dent i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e s . V i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n was f a l l i n g o f f p r e c i p i t o u s l y , p l u n g i n g from 538 i n 1919, to 435 i n 1920, to 410 i n 1921, to 380 i n 1922, to 325 i n 1923, to 295 i n 1924. 1 0 S t a f f were l a i d o f f , and by 1923, ten cottages had been c l o s e d . The problems w i t h remands became more severe. Superintendent Morgan complained to New York C i t y judges: During the month of June, we r e c e i v e d from Greater New York 55 boys and of t h i s number 47 were s h o r t remands. When the sch o o l consented t o r e c e i v e s h o r t commitments, i t was s t a t e d t h a t s h o r t commit-ments would be made onl y i n s p e c i a l cases. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n , i n the eyes of the superintendent, was the f a c t t h a t remands were committed without regard to r e l i g i o n , 12 and most were C a t h o l i c or Jewish. The d i r e c t o r s searched f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the decrease i n numbers; c l e a r l y , the i n s t i t u t i o n would not l a s t long the way t h i n g s were going. Had they s o l v e d the problem of j u v e n i l e delinquency? Was p r o h i b i t i o n l e a d i n g t o more s u p e r v i s i o n by forme r l y i n e b r i a t e d parents? Was r e s t r i c t e d immigration a l r e a d y l e a d i n g to a " b e t t e r q u a l i t y " of c i t y d w e l l e r ? Had the war had - 80 -an e f f e c t on the morals of youth? Were high e r wages h e l p i n g to reform the poor? The d i r e c t o r s thought not. Nothing c o u l d be more g r a t i f y i n g to the D i r e c t o r s of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n than to d i s c o v e r t h a t j u v e n i l e d e l -inquency had disappeared and t h a t the boys of today had so f a r improved i n c h a r a c t e r t h a t none of them r e q u i r e r e s t r a i n t and d i s c i p l i n e but they do not be-l i e v e t h a t t h i s has o c c u r r e d . ^ Rather, they p l a c e d the blame f o r the dropping p o p u l a t i o n on the judges of the C h i l d r e n ' s Court. The judges had been too l e n i e n t i n t h e i r sentencing and the use of p r o b a t i o n was too e x t e n s i v e , they reasoned. Morgan surveyed other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y , and found t h a t they too were plagued by drop-14 ping p o p u l a t i o n s . A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n of the e x t e n s i v e use of p r o b a t i o n , i n the eyes of Superintendent Morgan, was t h a t the boys who were committed were an " i n f e r i o r type": While i t i s a f a c t t h a t we r e c e i v e a very much i n f e r i o r type of boy men t a l l y than fo r m e r l y , who of course r e -q u i r e c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n , I had not thought of t h e i r being so much more hardened as t h a t they are d e f e c t -i v e and low grade morons which makes the moral problem more d i f f i c u l t t o cope wi t h . I t seems t h a t the boy who comes up to the mark i n i n t e l l i g e n c e i s almost i n v a r i -a b l y p a r o l e d when he comes bef o r e the C h i l d r e n ' s Court r e g a r d l e s s of the o f f e n s e committed. A n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n f e e l i n g , which had been r e s p o n s i b l e t o some extent f o r the move to Dobbs F e r r y and the cottage system i n the f i r s t p l a c e was again p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f as a problem. The d i r e c t o r s continued to h o l d t h a t t h e i r s was i n f a c t the b e s t arrangement f o r young d e l i n q u e n t s , i f not f o r a l l young boys. Morgan argued t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t use of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l commitment i n e a r l i e r years had l a i d "the foundations f o r c r i m i n a l c a r e e r s " and t h i s e x p l a i n e d the r e c e n t crime wave - 81 -and the i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n a t E l m i r a Reformatory ( f o r young men over 16)."^ On the d e f e n s i v e , the d i r e c t o r s went f u r t h e r : The d i r e c t o r s of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e are f i r m i n t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a good i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l — a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l — i s i n very many cases the only s u c c e s s f u l p l a c e f o r the commitment of the d e l i n q u e n t boy. They send t h e i r own c h i l d r e n to boarding s c h o o l s , i n order t h a t they may get the con-s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and ca r e , the wat c h f u l eye, the r e g u l a r hours f o r work and study and p l a y , which can only be giv e n by such a school.17 But the simple p r e s e n t a t i o n of these arguments was not going to save the i n s t i t u t i o n . The Board o f D i r e c t o r s b r i e f l y toyed w i t h the idea o f a d m i t t i n g m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d boys, but found t h a t they would have to become a s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , which they were 18 u n w i l l i n g to do. U l t i m a t e l y , however, the d i r e c t o r s found a more potent s o l u t i o n . In 1922 they began a search f o r a new superintendent to r e p l a c e the competent though u n i n s p i r i n g Guy Morgan. They hoped to f i n d someone who would have the breadth of v i s i o n necessary to reshape the i n s t i t u t i o n , perhaps i n as thorough a way as had happened i n 1905. Only through such change,they thought, c o u l d C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e s u r v i v e . In January, 19 24, a f t e r two years of l o o k i n g , Board P r e s i d e n t Edmund Dwight was able to present the name of Leon Faulkner t o the Board of D i r e c t o r s as the new superintendent o f C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . Morgan's r e s i g n a t i o n was sought and ob^.-t a i n e d , and Faulkner assumed c o n t r o l on June 1 . The E x e c u t i v e Committee had been l o o k i n g f o r "a man of l a r g e r e x e c u t i v e experience, one who i s more i n c o n t a c t with the e n t i r e f i e l d o f c h i l d s a ving work and p a r t i c u l a r l y one who can 20 present our cause e f f e c t i v e l y b efore the world." Although - 82 -Faulkner had h e l d p o s i t i o n s of some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he d i d not have the upper c l a s s s o c i a l c o n t a c t s of a H i l l e s or W i l l i a m s , nor d i d he have the formal s c h o o l i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which would become i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n subsequent y e a r s . Known as " C o l o n e l " Faulkner (though i n f a c t he was a major of the M i l i t a r y P o l i c e of the Army Reserve Corps), he came wit h a d e c i d e d l y m i l i t a r y o r i e n t a t i o n , forged i n the P h i l i p p i n e s d u r i n g the Spanish-American War. , and honed i n a s u c c e s s i o n of p o s i t i o n s i n j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . He had been " d r i l l master" of the B e r k s h i r e I n d u s t r i a l Farm and superintendent, s u c c e s s i v e l y , of the F a i r v i e w Home f o r F r i e n d l e s s C h i l d r e n (N.Y.), the George J u n i o r Republic (N.Y.), and most r e c e n t l y of the Maryland I n d u s t r i a l and T r a i n i n g School which he had " r a i s e d from a poor s t a t u s to a p o i n t where i t i s now one of the most e f f i c i e n t and 21 w e l l r e c o g n i z e d i n d u s t r i a l reform schools of t h i s country." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he was d i r e c t o r and V i c e P r e s i d e n t of the American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n . Faulkner was to be g i v e n a " f r e e hand i n the c a r r y i n g out of the work" of the i n s t i t u t i o n , but i t was c l e a r t h a t the Board expected him not o n l y to salvage the o p e r a t i o n , but to c a t a p u l t i t back i n t o n a t i o n a l prominence. For t h i s , they were r e l y i n g on h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y r a t h e r than any p a r t i c u l a r competence i n the emerging t h e o r e t i c a l aspects of c h i l d - s a v i n g and c h i l d - g u i d a n c e . Faulkner was d e s c r i b e d both as "a man of very c o n s i d e r a b l e magnetism, tremendous energy and i n t e r e s t i n h i s job", and as "unsmiling, unrelaxed, and t e r r i b l y 22 f i r m and s t e r n and f r i g h t e n i n g to a k i d . . . . " - 8 3 -Faulkner's reforms may be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : those which r e f l e c t e d h i s p e r s o n a l , sometimes i n d i o s y n c r a t i c s o l u t i o n s to problems of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and those f o r which he was r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y but which d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t h i s own p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The l a t t e r tended to be more c l o s e l y i n tune with i n s t i t u t i o n a l developments e l s e -where. Faulkner's o r i e n t a t i o n was q u i c k l y f e l t i n the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e , d i s c i p l i n a r y , and m i l i t a r y aspects of the V i l l a g e . M i l i t a r y equipment was purchased from the U.S. government; boys were dressed i n uniform seven days a week; there was a muster 2 3 d r i l l every morning and a formal parade on Sundays. The d i s -c i p l i n e system was revamped. I t s core remained a system o f c r e d i t s and grades f o r good behavior. C o r p o r a l punishment, though i t e x i s t e d , was s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d , and s t a f f who used 2 4 i t without being a u t h o r i z e d were f i r e d . Perhaps from h i s ex-pe r i e n c e s a t the George J u n i o r R e p u b l i c , Faulkner brought the ide a of a Student C o u n c i l , which made the inmates an i n t e g r a l p a r t of .the d i s c i p l i n e system. The C o u n c i l , soon r e p l a c e d by a "Graduate Club", made r e p o r t s on student and cottage conduct, and presented.student g r i e v a n c e s to the Managing D i r e c t o r (the new name f o r the Supe r i n t e n d e n t ) . Faulkner a l s o e f f e c t e d a com-p l e t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and had the V i l l a g e d e c l a r e d a "Union Free School D i s t r i c t " w i t h i n the f i r s t few months of h i s tenure. The l a t t e r removed the V i l l a g e from the s u p e r v i s i o n of the New York C i t y P u b l i c Schools, a move which other j u v e n i l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n New York made subsequently. - 84 -Faulkner's p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s were a l s o f e l t i n h i s d e a l i n g w i t h the c r i t i c a l problem of the p o p u l a t i o n drop a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . His s o l u t i o n , was, i n g e n e r a l terms, not to accept new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of inmates, but to e l i m i n a t e c e r -25 t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which were a l r e a d y p r e s e n t . From the time of h i s a r r i v a l , he wanted to make the V i l l a g e "a sc h o o l f o r the development and t r a i n i n g of normal c h i l d r e n who had 2 6 a c q u i r e d bad h a b i t s . " T h i s meant the e x c l u s i o n of dependent c h i l d r e n ( l i s t e d as those committed f o r "improper g u a r d i a n s h i p " ) , who, i n s p i t e of the St a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s r u l i n g i n 1907, had never r e a l l y been excluded. I t a l s o meant the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the campaign to reduce the number of short-term remands. F u r t h e r , i t meant t h a t , i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , the V i l l a g e would r e j e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r commitment of c h i l d r e n whose I.Q. t e s t branded them as "feeble-minded". F i n a l l y , i t meant the e l i m i n -a t i o n of the " c o l o r e d boys". The e l i m i n a t i o n of the Black c h i l d r e n a t the time of the new move to Dobbs F e r r y had not remained p o l i c y f o r lo n g . By 1909, s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of Black c h i l d r e n were committed to the V i l l a g e each year. But admission had not come without d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n : they were segregated i n t o t h e i r own cot t a g e s and 27 s u b j e c t to b l a t a n t o f f i c i a l r acism. The I r v i n g Club, one of two " l i t e r a r y c l u b s " a t the V i l l a g e , presented a m i n s t r e l pro-gram with c h a r a c t e r s such as Tambo and Sambo. " W i l l i a m F a r l e y i m i t a t e d the t r i a l s of a s t u t t e r e r . . . but no number on the program r e c e i v e d so much applause as the l i t t l e p i c k a n i n n i e s , " r e p o r t e d The V i l l a g e Record, whose r e g u l a r f e a t u r e , "Darktown - 85 -2 8 Ways", was r e p l e t e with r a c i s t jokes. During the post-war p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , the Black p o p u l a t i o n had remained approximately constant, thus becoming a l a r g e r and l a r g e r percentage of the t o t a l . In January, 1919 there had been 432 white and 187 Black boys. By January, 1924, there were 185 white and 173 Black c h i l d r e n . 1 0 Two f a c t o r s may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . F i r s t , the i n c r e a s e i n southern Black immigration to northern urban c e n t e r s , i n c l u d i n g New York C i t y , meant a l a r g e r number of poor 30 Blacks to draw from. Second, i f one of the reasons f o r the d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n was i n f a c t , as the d i r e c t o r s supposed, the i n c r e a s e d use of p r o b a t i o n by j u v e n i l e c o u r t judges, the judges' r e l u c t a n c e to put Black j u v e n i l e s on p r o b a t i o n may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r continued presence i n the i n s t i t u -31 t i o n s . Three months a f t e r he assumed o f f i c e , Faulkner recommended to the E x e c u t i v e Committee of the Board of D i r e c t o r s t h a t the Black inmates be d i s c h a r g e d and t h a t no more be accepted f o r com-32 mitment. The d i r e c t o r s o b l i g e d , and passed e n a b l i n g motions 33 with a minimum of debate. The task proved more d i f f i c u l t than expected, and i n May, 1925, Faulkner got the Board to s e t a d e a d l i n e f o r the e x p u l s i o n : "Steps should be taken to complete 34 the d i s c h a r g e of a l l c o l o r e d bbys . . . by January 1, 1926." The l o g i c behind t h i s p r o j e c t remains b a f f l i n g : Faulkner was t r y i n g to get r i d of approximately 100 Black students of a t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n p o p u l a t i o n of s l i g h t l y over 200, i n a f a c i l i t y w i t h a 600 inmate c a p a c i t y . In any case, the task was not easy. - 86 -Faulkner s o l i c i t e d h e lp from the F e d e r a t i o n of I n s t i t u t i o n s C a r i n g f o r P r o t e s t a n t C h i l d r e n i n " p o i n t i n g the way toward the s o l u t i o n of the problem of d i s p o s i n g of d e l i n q u e n t c o l o r e d 35 boys." Nearby R i v e r d a l e and Leake and Watts Schools took on some of the white dependent boys, as w e l l as some of the Black c h i l d r e n . The Colored Orphan Asylum i n ne i g h b o r i n g Hastings-on-Hudson accommodated by modifying i t s program to i n c l u d e d e l i n -quents. With p o p u l a t i o n a t an a l l - t i m e low, i n December, 1925, i t was decided "to keep one cottage o f c o l o r e d boys u n t i l popula-37 t i o n i s b u i l t up." Throughout e a r l y 1926, th e r e was a r e p o r t a t each e x e c u t i v e committee meeting of the Black and white p o p u l a t i o n s . By June 16, the l a s t Black inmate had been d i s -charged. A v i s i t o r i n 1927 r e p o r t e d : C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e f o r m e r l y took a very c o n s i d e r a b l e number of Negro c h i l d r e n but now d e c l i n e s to r e c e i v e them and they are sent t o the House of Refuge, which i s a poor s o r t of p l a c e e x c e p t i n g f o r very aggravated cases. C o l o n e l Faulkner f e e l s t h a t the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e cannot be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y operated i f there i s a mixture of whites and blacks.38 Faulkner was e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d e a l i n g w i t h the remand problem. In 1927, the number of remands was down to 18 (presum-39 a b l y i n one c o t t a g e ) . In the t h i r t i e s , C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e took no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r remands a t a l l : they simply r e n t e d one cottage to the County f o r i t s own use f o r remands, and had 40 nothing to do w i t h admission, d i s c h a r g e s , or program. P o p u l a t i o n s t a r t e d to r i s e again by l a t e 1926, and d i d so s t e a d i l y d u r i n g the next y e a r s . P a r t o f the i n c r e a s e may be a t t r i b u t e d to the l a s t two of Faulkner's " p e r s o n a l " i n n o v a t i o n s : the acceptance of " b o a r d e r s " — c h i l d r e n whose parents committed them d i r e c t l y and who p a i d f o r t h e i r s t a y , and the acceptance of g i r l s . (Boarders and g i r l s remained p a r t of the V i l l a g e u n t i l the end of Faulkner's tenure i n 1941). Otherwise the reasons f o r the p o p u l a t i o n b u i l d - u p are u n c l e a r . A n a l y s i s of s t a t i s t i c s p r ovided i n the annual r e p o r t s does not even p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e evidence as to how the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was achieved. There was not a marked i n c r e a s e i n number of commit-ments, nor was there a marked d e c l i n e i n d i s c h a r g e s . What does seem to have happened i n Faulkner's f i r s t year was an end to the V i l l a g e ' s p a r o l e system, whereby inmates would leave the V i l l a g e but l e g a l l y remain under i t s c o n t r o l . In the l a s t sev-e r a l years of Morgan's c o n t r o l , between 150 and 250 inmates per year would leave the V i l l a g e i n t h i s manner. T h i s p r a c t i c e was 41 a b r u p t l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 19 24 (see Appendix). The c o t t a g e s were f i l l i n g up again. But the n a t i o n a l s t a t -ure which the d i r e c t o r s sought r e q u i r e d more than a h i g h e r pop-u l a t i o n . The remaining i n n o v a t i o n s undertaken under F a u l k n e r ' s tenure were the ones which would meet t h a t end. He was respon-s i b l e f o r them i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sense, but t h e i r shape was not d i c t a t e d by h i s own p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . The divergence i n Faulkner's o r i e n t a t i o n from t h a t of the n a t i o n a l s o c i a l work community, whose t h i n k i n g these l a t e r reforms r e f l e c t e d , l e d a t f i r s t to some c o n f l i c t , but i n time to accommodation. N a t i o n a l prominence c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d by f o r g i n g t i e s w ith other i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies, by a t t r a c t i n g n a t i o n a l l y prominent l e a d e r s i n the f i e l d to work a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , - 88 -by working with methods which were at the forefront of juvenile reform thought, and by p u b l i c i z i n g the work through conferences and publications. Faulkner's f i r s t innovation (which was written into his o r i g i n a l agreement with the Board of Directors) combined a l l of these. In addition, i t promised a way to f i l l up the vacant cottages. I t involved the establishment at Children's V i l l a g e of a National Training School for I n s t i t u t i o n Executives and Workers. By the twenties, the potency of professionalism was well established. The examples of doctors, lawyers, teachers, and s o c i a l workers had provided models for the development of a professional ethos, a specialized body of knowledge, and re-s t r i c t e d access through the credentialing of professional schools. Workers i n i n s t i t u t i o n s dealing with juveniles were threatened with being l e f t behind at t h i s point. There was strong a n t i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e e l i n g among the national s o c i a l wel-fare community. The c l o s e l y related f i e l d of s o c i a l work was developing fast, but the specialized body of knowledge on which i t came to r e l y for professional s t a t u r e — t h e developing science of i n d i v i d u a l casework—seemed to be carrying i t further away 42 from i t s t i e s with the i n s t i t u t i o n s . There did not e x i s t at the time any formal t r a i n i n g or credentialing body for i n s t i t u -t ion workers: most of them simply rose through the ranks of i n -s t i t u t i o n work i t s e l f (viz. H i l l e s , Morgan and Faulkner them-selves) . The National Training School was a conscious e f f o r t to supply a f i r s t step i n the attempt to professionalize i n s t i -tution workers, and i t was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported by - 89 -i n s t i t u t i o n men and women around the country. I t was a b r i l -l i a n t p l a n from the stan d p o i n t of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . The students would be the e x e c u t i v e s and would-be e x e c u t i v e s of j u v e n i l e and penal i n s t i t u t i o n s from across the country, and the V i l l a g e would t u r n i n t o a l a b o r a t o r y f o r the p r o j e c t . In September, 1925, C a l v i n D e r r i c k , a n a t i o n a l l y known f i g u r e , Superintendent of the New J e r s e y S t a t e Home f o r Boys a t Jamesburg, and soon to be p r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l Conference of J u v e n i l e Agencies, was a t t r a c t e d to or g a n i z e the T r a i n i n g School and to assume the p o s i t i o n of dean. H i s s a l a r y was s e t 43 a t $6,000, the same as Faulkner's i n t h a t year. Courses were s e t up with c r e d i t as extensions of the New York School of S o c i a l Work and Columbia Teachers' C o l l e g e . D e r r i c k assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e ' s E d u c a t i o n a l Department, so t h a t he c o u l d r e o r g a n i z e v o c a t i o n a l and academic work f o r more c o o r d i n a t i o n between the two, and between them and the T r a i n i n g School. Most of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e s t a f f took p a r t i n the coursework of the T r a i n i n g School. The 1925 Annual Report s t a t e d , "there have been numerous changes i n our personnel d u r i n g the year, many of which have r e s u l t e d i n our 44 o b t a i n i n g a high e r type of worker than h e r e t o f o r e . " The con-cer n w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m which the T r a i n i n g School brought to the V i l l a g e thus had s p i n - o f f s f o r the V i l l a g e s t a f f . From ten to twenty r e s i d e n t students from o u t s i d e of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e e n r o l e d f o r the year and l i v e d i n the c o t t a g e s . Most of these had h e l d some e x e c u t i v e or s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n i n an i n s t i t u -t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y they r e p r e s e n t e d a n a t i o n a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n . - 90 -By 1928, s e l e c t i o n of students had become c o m p e t i t i v e , twelve being s e l e c t e d from one hundred a p p l i c a n t s . A f t e r one year, the Board of D i r e c t o r s sought money from beyond the V i l l a g e funds. They had seen t h e i r sponsorship of the program as a demonstration, and p e t i t i o n e d f o r funds from the Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial Fund on the b a s i s of the 45 . work to date. With the support of such l u m i n a r i e s as Hastings Hart, now of the R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, C h a r l e s Johnson, E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of the C h i l d Welfare League of America, Brother Barnabas, who had been prominent i n New York j u v e n i l e work f o r t h i r t y y ears, Martha F a l c o n e r , s e c r e t a r y of the F e d e r a t i o n of Agencies C a r i n g f o r P r o t e s t a n t s , and Henry Thurston, of the New York School of S o c i a l Work, the p e t i t i o n 46 was s u c c e s s f u l . The Memorial Fund granted money f o r running the T r a i n i n g School f o r a three-year term. The T r a i n i n g School soon ran i n t o problems, however. In June, 1927, D e r r i c k was l u r e d back to the New J e r s e y S t a t e Home f o r Boys wi t h the promise of a h i g h e r s a l a r y . T h i s caused con-c e r n on the p a r t of the Memorial Fund. A t o u r i n J u l y r e v e a l e d t h a t the T r a i n i n g School was "thoroughly d i s r u p t e d : , and i t was noted t h a t h i s replacement should receive the active a t t e n t i o n of the Fund, because " i t i s d o u b t f u l i f C o l . Faulkner's education and t r a i n i n g has been such as to enable him to grapple w i t h t h i s 47 problem s i n g l e handed." The T r a i n i n g School c a r r i e d on through the remaining years of committed funding, but a r e p l a c e -ment f o r D e r r i c k was never found. In 1929, the program was t r a n s f e r r e d to the New York School of S o c i a l Work, and d i r e c t - 91 -C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e involvement ended. During i t s second year, c r i t i c i s m had developed from a q u a r t e r which had o r i g i n a l l y supported the p r o j e c t . The T r a i n i n g School became the focus of debate between case-work and home-maintenance proponents on the one hand and i n s t i t u t i o n proponents on the other. The presence of the T r a i n i n g School brought a g r e a t e r degree of o u t s i d e s c r u t i n y to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e and there was c r i t i c i s m of "the absence of an adequate 48 . . casework s e r v i c e . " D e r r i c k ' s and Faulkner's o r i e n t a t i o n was t h a t of i n s t i t u t i o n men. The t r a i n i n g of i n s t i t u t i o n execu-t i v e s , as they saw i t , had more to do w i t h being an e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r and s e c u r i n g adequate funding, than being f a m i l i a r with the p r i n c i p l e s of casework. And casework i t s e l f was l e s s important i n the eyes of these t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , than the r e g -49 u l a r d i s c i p l i n e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e . S k e p t i c i s m w i t h t h i s approach from the C h i l d Welfare League l e d to a t h r e a t to the 50 c o n t i n u a t i o n of funding of the T r a i n i n g School. The develop-ment of a second i n n o v a t i o n a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , however, may have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a v o i d i n g such a c t i o n . The background of t h i s second i n n o v a t i o n must be sketched. The pre-war spread of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g had been on l y the f i r s t step i n a new o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i n k i n g about d e l i n q u e n t s . Lewis Terman's work on I.Q. t e s t i n g had p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r the campaign to i d e n t i f y and segregate a new category: the feebleminded. While the h e r e d i t a r i a n e u g e n i c i s t s promoted a program based on such s e g r e g a t i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n s such as 0... C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , as has been s t a t e d above, had no r e a l p l a c e - 92 -f o r such a program. As David Rothman has i n d i c a t e d , "aside from becoming an e n t r y i n the case r e c o r d and o c c a s i o n a l l y a l l o w i n g a superintendent to t r a n s f e r a s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d inmate to 51 another f a c i l i t y , the I.Q. t e s t score h a r d l y mattered." On the other hand the e x t e n s i o n of the use of psychology to the p r o v i s i o n of p s y c h i a t r i c therapy f o r the poor, d e v i a n t , or reb-e l l i o u s , would e v e n t u a l l y i n v o l v e i n c r e a s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e and i n t r u s i o n i n t o the most " p r i v a t e " areas of t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s second step, w i t h i t s r o o t s i n W i l l i a m Healy's Chicago Psychopathic C l i n i c , flowered i n Healy and Augusta B r o n n e r 1 s Judge Baker Foundation C l i n i c o r ganized i n Boston i n 1917. Here, a p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t , and a p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l worker served as adjuncts to the j u v e n i l e c o u r t , making recom-mendations f o r sentencing to the judges, and p l a y i n g a r o l e i n subsequent treatment. The s t r u c t u r e used by Healy and Bronner d i d not p r o l i f e r a t e u n t i l the 1920's, when i t caught on l i k e 52 w i l d f i r e . The w i l d f i r e , however, i f we can extend the meta-phor, i n v o l v e d a concerted e f f o r t on the p a r t of very w e l l -o r g a n i z e d a r s o n i s t s . In 1920, the two year o l d Commonwealth Fund ( e s t a b l i s h e d by Mrs. Stephen V. Harkness to "do something f o r the w e l f a r e of mankind ") asked: Henry Thurston of the N.Y. School of S o c i a l Work to formulate a broad, n a t i o n a l p l a n f o r a new a t t a c k on j u v e n i l e delinquency. He and a committee i n -c l u d i n g , among o t h e r s , Healy, Bronner, and Martha F a l c o n e r drew up a f i v e - y e a r p l a n : the Program f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of Delinquency, which was f o r m a l l y adopted i n November, 19 21. I t i n c l u d e d the funding of v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r s , f e l l o w s h i p s f o r - 93 -p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l workers, and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of demonstra-t i o n c l i n i c s which would show the value of " p s y c h i a t r i c work i n the d i a g n o s i s and treatment of c h i l d r e n coming from the juve-53 . • n i l e c o u r t . " F i n a l l y , i t provided f o r a J o i n t Committee on Methods of P r e v e n t i n g Delinquency, which would c o o r d i n a t e a l l of the other work, and disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s through p u b l i c a t i o n s . E i g h t demonstration c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s were 54 f u l l y funded by the Commonwealth Fund between 1922 and 1927. By 1927, i n a d d i t i o n t o the c l i n i c s which had begun through the demonstrations, there were twenty f i v e f u l l - t i m e c l i n i c s 55 and s e v e r a l hundred p a r t - t i m e ones, throughout the country. In October, 1925, C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e ' s P s y c h o l o g i c a l C l i n i c opened. In charge was Miss Marian D e r r i c k . She b a s i c a l l y ran a t e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n , c l a s s i f y i n g c h i l d r e n as s u p e r i o r , normal, d u l l - n o r m a l , b o r d e r l i n e , feebleminded or p o t e n t i a l feebleminded. A l l commitments were su b j e c t e d to the C l i n i c ' s t e s t s d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks of t h e i r s t a y . A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee then met and decided "upon what seems to be the b e s t course of t r a i n i n g and treatment t h a t can be o f f e r e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n " , and made assignments to the a p p r o p r i a t e c o t t a g e , classroom and work p r o j e c t . But, however s o p h i s t i c a t e d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme (and D e r r i c k acknowledged t h a t i t was " i n i t s i n f a n c y " ) , the treatment o f f e r e d by the V i l l a g e remained e s s e n t i a l l y what i t had been a l l along. Miss D e r r i c k complained: The work of the P s y c h o l o g i s t i n t h i s f i e l d can be o n l y i n d i c a t i v e of trends and s u g g e s t i v e f o r treatment. We are g r e a t l y i n need of the s e r v i c e s of a v i s i t i n g P s y c h i a t r i s t f o r one or two days a week. . . . We t r u s t - 94 -we may be able to add the p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e to our c l i n i c d u r i n g the coming year.^7 Her hopes were not unfounded. In September, 1926, the Commonwealth Fund sponsored a f u l l - b l o w n Mental Hygiene C l i n i c . Not a v i s i t i n g p s y c h i a t r i s t , but a f u l l - t i m e r e s i d e n t p s y c h i a -t r i s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t , and two p s y c h i a t r i c s o c i a l w o r k e r s — t h e 5 8 standard Commonwealth Fund model—made up the s t a f f . A t t h i s p o i n t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e was a l e a d e r i n the new t r e n d : a survey of 259 i n s t i t u t i o n s , 108 f o r j u v e n i l e s , r e v e a l e d o n l y a few 59 p s y c h i a t r i s t s (while 41% had p s y c h o l o g i s t s ) i n 1928. There was a d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d of adjustment. E x a c t l y how a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c and the therapy model would f u n c t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of Faulkner's m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n was not c l e a r . There were complaints from the p s y c h i a t r i s t t h a t h i s treatment recom-mendations were not being f o l l o w e d up. The d i f f i c u l t y f i t i n t o the p a t t e r n of t e n s i o n between the e s s e n t i a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l per-s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of Faulkner h i m s e l f , and the i n n o v a t i v e , pro-g r e s s i v e programs which he sponsored a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . His m i l i t a r y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l background was a p p r o p r i a t e i n many ways f o r the running of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s were probably r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s s u r v i v a l . But the o u t s i d e funds, personnel and i n s p e c t i o n which he a t t r a c t e d to the V i l l a g e o f t e n seemed to work a t odds wi t h h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . A v i s i t o r from the Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial Fund ob-served i n 1927, the work was being c a r r i e d on along r a t h e r o l d -f a s h i o n e d l i n e s but i n a very wholesome and k i n d l y way; i n other words . . . the h i g h spots were the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r which the V i l l a g e had again won a f i r s t c l a s s r a t i n g from the S t a t e Board of C h a r i t i e s i n 1925 and not improvements i n method.60 As Faulkner remained i n c o n t r o l , t o some extent the r e s o l u t i o n of the t e n s i o n s may have come through r e l a b e l l i n g , g i v i n g more c u r r e n t names to t h i n g s which had been around f o r a w h i l e . Thus the d e t e n t i o n cottage became the 'psychopathic c o t t a g e " — f o r e m o t i o n a l l y unstable c h i l d r e n , and running away became an i l l -61 ness, the " d e s e r t i o n h a b i t . " But t h i s i s not to say t h a t the changes d i d not u l t i m a t e l y have some impact on the l i v e s of the c h i l d r e n . " R e c r e a t i o n " may become " r e c r e a t i o n therapy.", and i n some sense i t s t i l l means p l a y i n g games, but a t t i t u d e s have changed. The case of W.D., an inmate d u r i n g the 30's g i v e s us some i n s i g h t i n t o the meaning of r e s i d e n c e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e a t t h a t time. W.D. was a boarder, one of seventeen such placements i n 6 2 the year he a r r i v e d i n the mid-30's. He had grown up wit h two deaf f o s t e r parents i n C i n c i n n a t i , and had been i n c o u r t on s e v e r a l o ccasions b e f o r e being sent to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . In 1934, a t age 13, he had broken i n t o a neighbor's home, s t o l e n $5 and some l a d i e s ' s i l k underwear. For t h i s he was r e f e r r e d to the C i n c i n n a t i C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c where he was examined by a p s y c h i a t r i s t who s p e c u l a t e d : A l l known f a c t s support the b e l i e f t h a t h i s a c t s are r e l a t e d to h i s sexual f a n t a s i e s . . . the r i s k o f d e t e c t i o n and embarrasment which he overstepped i n -d i c a t e r a t h e r deepseated sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s . Two p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s from the C i n c i n n a t i C e n t r a l C l i n i c accompanied W.D. to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , where he took no fewer - 96 -t h a n f i v e I . Q . t e s t s ( T e r m a n , O t i s , P i n t n e r , P o r t e u s M a z e , a n d H e a l y P . C . I I ) a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t , a n d t h r e e s e t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . A p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x a m t o o k p l a c e a w e e k a f t e r a d m i s s i o n w i t h a t w o p a g e r e p o r t f i l e d . I n a " p r e l i m i n -a r y i n t e r v i e w " a w e e k a f t e r t h a t , t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t n o t e d t h a t a m o n t h a n d a h a l f b e f o r e t h e t h e f t o f s e v e r a l c a r s ( t h e s p r e e w h i c h h a d p r e c i p i t a t e d h i s c o m m i t m e n t ) W . D . h a d u n d e r g o n e a " c o m p l e t e c e s s a t i o n o f m a s t u r b a t i o n . . . . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t h i s m a s t u r b a t i o n was d i s c o n t i n u e d a n d w i t h i n e i g h t o r t e n w e e k s he w a s i n t h i s e x p l o s i v e b e h a v i o r . " W . D . w a s b r i g h t a n d a c h i e v e m e n t o r i e n t e d , b u t a c c u m u l a t e d , d u r i n g h i s t w o - y e a r s t a y , a c o m p a r a t i v e l y f u l l " c o n d u c t c a r d " , i n c l u d i n g a n o t h e r t h e f t o f l a d y ' s u n d e r w e a r . He r e c e i v e d "10 s l a p s o n t h e h a n d " f o r " w a l k i n g o u t f r o m p r i n t s h o p a f t e r g i r l s w a l k e d b y . When I b r o u g h t h i m b a c k b y n a p e o f n e c k h e s a i d , ' T h i s i s a h e l l o f a p l a c e ' " ; a m o n t h l a t e r f i f t y d e m e r i t s f o r w a v i n g a t g i r l s ; a n o t h e r m o n t h , t w o h u n d r e d d e m e r i t s f o r " p a s s i n g a n d r e p a s s i n g C o o p e r ( t h e g i r l s ' c o t t a g e ) a n d t a l k i n g t o A . I . - w h o i s d e t a i n e d . " T h e n e x t m o n t h h e w a s p u t i n t h e r e -f l e c t i o n c o t t a g e f o r t h r e e w e e k s f o r " m e e t i n g A . I . b a c k s t a g e o f l i t t l e t h e a t r e . " A . I . a n d W . D . p a s s e d n o t e s b a c k a n d f o r t h f r o m t h e i r r e -s p e c t i v e d e t e n t i o n h o u s e s . W . D . c o m p l a i n e d i n o n e , " A n y o f f i c e r i s a w a l y s ( s i c ) r i g h t n o m a t t e r w h a t a n y o n e e l s e s a y s " , b u t t h e n , i n c l o s i n g , o n a c h e e r i e r n o t e , " O h w e l l c h e e r u p f o r t h e r e i s a w a l y s a s i l v e r l i n i n g i n a d a r k c l o u d . L o v e , l o v e , a w a l y s my l o v e , ' T h e T r a i n ' P . S . M o r e l o v e t h a n I c a n e x p r e s s . " - 97 -The note was i n t e r c e p t e d and pl a c e d i n W.D.'s f i l e . With d e t e r m i n a t i o n , he began h i s next one, "The m a i l must go through. . . . ": a l s o i n t e r c e p t e d . W.D.'s f o s t e r parents decided two years a f t e r he had been sent, t h a t they c o u l d n ' t pay f o r h i s s t a y i n g a t the V i l l a g e any longer, and he was di s c h a r g e d . He managed t o ma i n t a i n a c l a n -d e s t i n e correspondence w i t h A.I. Working i n a r e s t a u r a n t , he wrote, "I d i d not t h i n k I would miss o l d C.V. when I l e f t e i t h e r , but I d i d and every once i n a whi l e I s o r t of wish I was back f o r a couple of days. Mom j u s t s a i d I must be w r i t i n g a book and Dad piped up, " A i n ' t love grand!" They are both s w e l l you w i l l l i k e them a l o t . " In November A.I. was p l a c e d i n a f a m i l y ' s home i n Hastings-on-Hudson, where she d i d c l e a n i n g p a r t time, and went t o s c h o o l . When W.D. a r r i v e d on Christmas Day, the f a m i l y became a f r a i d , and sent A.I. back to the V i l l a g e . At t h a t p o i n t , the two took matters i n t o t h e i r own hands, ran o f f to Kentucky, l i e d about t h e i r ages, got m a r r i e d — t o the c h a g r i n and d i s t r e s s of Leon F a u l k n e r — a n d , as f a r as one can t e l l from the f i l e , l i v e d h a p p i l y ever a f t e r . The amount of t e s t i n g t h a t he was subj e c t e d t o , the ana l y -s i s of h i s problems, and the t h i c k n e s s of h i s f i l e , were p e c u l -i a r to the days of the C l i n i c . But otherwise, i t seems as though the b a s i c problems of W.D.'s l i f e were not d i s s i m i l a r t o those experienced by many inmates from p r e - C l i n i c days. They experienced l i f e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e as a l o s s of freedom. Despite the t e s t i n g , d i a g n o s i s and therapy, u l t i m a t e l y , W.D. found h i s own s o l u t i o n to the problem. - 98 -The e x i s t e n c e of the C l i n i c a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e (along with the T r a i n i n g School) t i e d the V i l l a g e to the movement of p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r , i t s e x i s t e n c e made p l a u s i b l e the c l a i m t h a t the V i l l a g e ' s methods were among the most advanced i n the country. These methods and t h i s movement had profound i m p l i c a t i o n s beyond C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i t s e l f . The Commonwealth Fund C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s , though o r i g i n a l l y designed to study the cases of r e f e r r a l s from the c o u r t s , i n c r e a s i n g l y be-came i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y w i t h s c h o o l s , s o c i a l agencies and fam-i l i e s . "The focus of p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t e n t i o n . . . s h i f t e d from delinquency and the c o u r t to the more s u b t l e evidences of non-6 3 adjustment i n the home and s c h o o l . " The c l i n i c s thus pro-v i d e d an avenue of even more d i r e c t access i n t o f a m i l y and i n -d i v i d u a l l i f e , than had the j u v e n i l e c o u r t , which i t s e l f had been an advance over schools and n i n e t e e n t h century i n s t i t u -t i o n s . And y e t the preponderance of r e f e r r a l s to the c l i n i c s were f o r e s s e n t i a l l y the same d i s c i p l i n a r y , s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f f e n s e s which had come to the a t t e n t i o n to. the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Improvement of the C o n d i t i o n of the Poor, the S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of C r u e l t y to C h i l d r e n , and the l i k e i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, and so the c l i n i c was not out of p l a c e a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . For example, of the twenty most f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n reasons f o r b r i n g i n g c h i l d r e n to c l i n i c s , the f i r s t s i x , i n order of frequency were: 1. d i s o b e d i e n c e , negativism, stubborness, r e b e l l i o u s n e s s . 2. "nervousness" [a d m i t t e d l y a new one]. 3. temper 4. s t e a l i n g 5. truancy 6. Iying64 - 9 9 -For middle and upper c l a s s moral reformers of the n i n e -t e e n t h century had been s u b s t i t u t e d a new middle c l a s s of pro-f e s s i o n a l s equipped with the t o o l s of a d e v e l o p i n g s c i e n c e . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n was d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l to the o l d A . I . C P . d o c t r i n e i n t h a t , once again, the onus f o r change was p l a c e d s q u a r e l y on the shoulders of the i n d i v i d u a l . Pressure f o r s o c i a l change was put on the back burner, i f not f o r g o t t e n a l t o g e t h e r . As Lubove i n t e r p r e t s : I f r e a l i t y was rooted not i n the o b j e c t i v e environment but i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t environment, and i f men had g r o s s l y over-estimated the power of reason to d i r e c t b ehavior, then caseworkers w r e s t l e d w i t h s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s i f they concentrated upon e x t e r n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i n s t e a d of the c l i e n t ' s p s y c h i c l i f e . 6 5 The " i n d i v i d u a l d e l i n q u e n t " was the focus of the therapy, and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l rearrangement ( s u p p l a n t i n g the n i n e t e e n t h century moral rearrangement) was what was sought. George S. Stevenson, d i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n on Community C l i n i c s of the N a t i o n a l Committee f o r Mental Hygiene, w r i t i n g the h i s t o r y of the c l i n i c s , began: The c h i l d guidance c l i n i c i s an attempt to marshal the r e s o u r c e s of the community i n b e h a l f of c h i l d r e n who are i n d i s t r e s s because of u n s a t i s f i e d i n n e r needs, or are s e r i o u s l y a t outs with t h e i r environment.66 Stevenson acknowledged t h a t s e r i o u s problems were caused by the environment, but f e l t t h a t i t was u n r e a l i s t i c f o r the c l i n i c s to t r y to d e a l with them.67 The p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work and the d e v e l o p i n g t h e r a -p e u t i c model had a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c l i n i c was the l o c u s of the u n f o l d i n g of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . And i n s t i t u t i o n s - 100 -such as C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e came to be dominated more and more by the c l i n i c , the p r o f e s s i o n , and the t h e r a p e u t i c model. Ad-vancement i n the f i e l d , and of the p r o f e s s i o n came wit h the advancement of the " s c i e n c e " , and the " s c i e n c e " was o r i e n t e d toward a d j u s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l psyche. Thus, p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s were t i e d t o d e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , t u r n i n g away from s o c i a l reform e f f o r t s and towards reforming the i n d i v i d u a l . The p o t e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l timebomb (whose t i c k i n g was heard a f t e r the war), c r e a t e d by i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t i n g forms of urban f a m i l y l i f e and work, was defused by d e p o l i t i c i z i n g i t . Prob-lems became " i n d i v i d u a l i z e d " , i . e . , i n t e r p r e t e d as the mal-a d a p t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , and thus the m a t e r i a l f o r therapy. A l a r g e group of a s p i r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s whose s t a t u s as such depended on the acceptance of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , were marsh-a l e d i n t o promoting i t , and were generously funded by founda-t i o n s such as the Commonwealth Fund and the Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial. While d e p o l i t i c i z i n g d i s c o n t e n t , the t h e r a p e u t i c model a t the same time provided the s t a t e w i t h more potent t o o l s of i n t r u s i o n i n t o peoples' l i v e s than had ever ex-i s t e d b e f o r e . 6 8 I f the f i r s t two decades of the t w e n t i e t h century were spent t r y i n g to convince the p u b l i c t h a t a l l r e f o r m a t o r i e s were sc h o o l s , the twenties were spent, i n the words of E.L. Woods, 69 t r y i n g to make, "every s c h o o l a c l i n i c . " - 1 0 1 -Footnotes Chapter 5 """William E. Leuchtenburg, The P e r i l s of P r o s p e r i t y , 1914-1932 (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1958). Leuchtenburg, c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s a r e s i d e n t of Dobbs F e r r y . 2 Jane Addams, "The Immigrant and S o c i a l Unrest", N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work Proceedings, 1920, p. 61. 3 From 1924 to 1925, E a s t e r n European immigration went from 34,000 to 4,600, C e n t r a l from 60,000 to 10,000 (e x c l u d i n g Germany), and Southern from 65,000 to 8,000, i n round f i g u r e s . U.S. Bureau of Census, i n Ben J . Wattenberg, The S t a t i s t i c a l  H i s t o r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s from C o l o n i a l Times to the Present (New York: B a s i c Books, 1976), p. 105. 4 Hastings Hart, "Coddling the P r i s o n e r " , NCSE Proceedings, 1921, pp. 52-57. Hart r e f e r s t o "great excitement i n the p u b l i c press . . . over the pres e n t crime wave, and advocacy of i n t e n -s i f y i n g punishment." p. 53. 5C.V.A.R. 1921, p. 26. 6C.V.A.R. 1922, pp. 34, 35. 7C.V.A.R. 1922, p. 22. g Schlossman p o i n t s to the F i r s t World War as the end of the l e a d e r s h i p of "amateur s o c i a l reformers l i k e Addams, Stewart and S c h o f f " and the beginning of the ascendency of a " v a r i e t y of u n i v e r s i t y c r e d e n t i a l e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s " . Schlossman, "End of Innocence", p. 213. 9N.Y.J.A. A.R. 1918, p. 35. 1 0C.V.A.R., 1919-1924. """"""Morgan to Hon. Robert W i l k i n , June 29, 1921. 12 Morgan to van Amringe, Dec. 28, 1920. 1 3C.V.A.R. 1921, p.. 11. 14 Morgan to Dwight, Feb. 8, 1923. Rothman ( i n Conscience  and Convenience, pp. 257ff) concludes t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t " j u v e n i l e c o u r t reform d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce r a t e s of i n c a r c e r a -t i o n " . He argues t h a t p r o b a t i o n supplemented, r a t h e r than r e p l a c e d , i n s t i t u t i o n a l commitments. I t would appear t h a t i n New. York C i t y , from t h i s evidence, t h i s was not the case. - 102 -15 Morgan to J . K l e i n (superintendent of Hawthorne School) Jan. 29, 1923. "^Morgan to Owen Dawson, A p r i l 20, 1922. 1 7C.V.A.R. 1923, p. 13. 18 E x e c u t i v e Committee of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , Minutes, Sept. 12, 1923. 1 9Morgan to Judge F.C. Hoyt, March 15, 1922. 2 0E.C.B.D. Minutes, Jan. 16. 1924. 21 I b i d . For f u l l treatment of the George J u n i o r R e p u b l i c , see Jack M. H o l l , J u v e n i l e Reform i n the P r o g r e s s i v e E r a : W i l l i a m R. George and the J u n i o r Republic (Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971). 22 Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927; p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Nancy Caruso (niece of Leon Faulkner) August, 1979). 23 Caruso i n t e r v i e w ; Board of D i r e c t o r s ' Minutes, Dec. 10, 1924. 24 Personnel r e c o r d s , 1924, 1926; E.C.B.D. minutes, May 13, 1925. 25 Exceptions to t h i s p o l i c y — t w o new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of inmates ( g i r l s and boarders) d i d not make up, i n numbers, the needed p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . See p. 8. 2 6 C.V.A.R. r e t r o s p e c t i v e , 1934. 27 Morgan to S t r i f f l e r , Jan. 13, 1921, r e f e r s to " c o l o r e d c o t t a g e s " . 2 8 V i l l a g e Record M a r c h - A p r i l 1918, p. 10 (N.Y.P.L.). 29 C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e D a i l y Census, 1912-1924. 30 World War I had c r e a t e d a l a b o r shortage, which l e d to more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Blacks i n the North. M i g r a t i o n con-t i n u e d a f t e r the war, so t h a t between 1900 and 1930, w h i l e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n U.S. i n c r e a s e d by about f i f t y percent, Black p o p u l a t i o n t r i p l e d . Wattenberg, p. 22. 31 Rothman's d i s c u s s i o n of c l a s s - b a s e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n a d u l t p r o b a t i o n sentences has a p p l i c a t i o n here. (Conscience  and Convenience, pp. 104-106): "The very e x i s t e n c e of a system to t ransform 'them' i n t o 'us' meant t h a t those a l r e a d y more l i k e 'us' were bound to be f a v o r e d . Once c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h i f t e d - 103 -from the crime to the c r i m i n a l , c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s came almost i n e v i t a b l y t o assume new s i g n i f i c a n c e when punishments were meted out." 3 2E.C.B.D. Minutes Sept. 10, 1924. 3 3E.C.B.D. Minutes Oct. 15, 1924. 3 4E.C.B.D. Minutes May 13, 1925. 3 5E.C.B.D. Minutes March 11, 1925. 3 6E.C.B.D. Minutes March 18, May 13, 1925. 37 E.C.B.D. Minutes Dec. 16, 1925. 3 8 L.S.R.M. F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927. 39 C h i l d Welfare League Study of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , quoted i n John Withers, "A B r i e f Survey of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e " , unpublished MS. 1929. 40 Faulkner to Helen Locke, Sept. 30, 1937. 41 . . C.V.A.R. 1920-1930. In the Annual Report s t a t i s t i c s , the number p l a c e d on p a r o l e was gi v e n as a separate f i g u r e from those sent West. In 1926, a new category, "returned to com-m i t t i n g o f f i c e r s " appeared f o r inmates l e a v i n g C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . The number i n t h i s category, however, d i d not reach the l e v e l s of those p a r o l e d p r i o r to 1924. 4 2 See Roy Lubove, The P r o f e s s i o n a l A l t r u i s t (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), pp. 85-117. 43 "An Open L e t t e r From the P r e s i d e n t to the Members of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e f o r Co n s i d e r a -t i o n a t T h e i r Meeting September 15, 1926." (pamphlet). 4 4C.V.A.R. 1925, p. 20. 45 Laura Spelman R o c k e f e l l e r Memorial was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1918 and l a s t e d u n t i l 1929 when i t was c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o other R o c k e f e l l e r funds. I t s main concerns were s o c i a l s c i e n c e and s o c i a l w e l f a r e , c h i l d study, and parent e d u c a t i o n , and i n t e r -r a c i a l r e l a t i o n s . For an a n a l y s i s of R o c k e f e l l e r money i n r e l a t e d ventures, see John D. A r r a s "Medicine Men, Businessmen", The Hastings Center Report, 10, 3- (June 1980).-, a review of R o c k e f e l l e r Medicine Men: Medicine and C a p i t a l i s m i n America (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r ess, 1979). 46 Board of D i r e c t o r s Minutes, Sept. 15, 1926. 4 7L.S.R.M. F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927. - 104 -48 C.C. Carstens ( C h i l d Welfare League) correspondence to L. Frank (L.S.R.M.), May 24, 1926. 49 C.C. Carstens of the C h i l d Welfare League, an a v i d pro-ponent of casework, had been c r i t i c a l of D e r r i c k ' s and Faul k n e r ' s o r i e n t a t i o n . He addressed the 1929 NCSW on the same t o p i c : "There i s a n a t u r a l c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s between the s u p e r i n -tendent of an i n s t i t u t i o n who does not d e s i r e casework, or i f i t i s d e s i r e d , does not understand i t s v a l u e s and i t s i m p l i c a -t i o n s , and the d i r e c t o r o f casework." C.C. Car s t e n s , "Methods of O r g a n i z a t i o n and I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s i n the C h i l d c a r i n g F i e l d , " NCSW Proceedings, 1929. 50 Memorandum of Interview: L. Frank (L.S.R.M.) with Barry Smith (Commonwealth Fund), Sept. 9. 1927. 51 Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, p. 275. 52 The beginnings of a s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g i n the p r o f e s s i o n are evidenced i n the name change i n 1917 i n the N.C.S.W. The D i v i s i o n on Feeblemindedness and I n s a n i t y became the D i v i s i o n on Mental Hygiene, paving the way f o r a broader scope of a c t i v i t i e s . 53 Quoted xn George S. Stevenson and Geddes Smith, C h i l d  Guidance C l i n i c s : A Quarter Century o f Development (New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1934), p. 21. For a r e c e n t study of the Commonwealth Fund, see S o l Cohen, "The Mental Hygiene Movement, The Commonwealth Fund, and P u b l i c E d ucation, 1921-1933" i n Gera l d Benjamin, ed. P r i v a t e P h i l a n t h r o p y and P u b l i c Elementary  and Secondary Education (Pocantico H i l l s : R o c k e f e l l e r A r c h i v e Center, 1980), pp. 33-46. 54 St. L o u i s , N o r f o l k , D a l l s , Monmouth County ( j o i n t l y w i t h L.S.R.M.) Minnesota, Los Angeles, C l e v e l a n d , P h i l a d e l p h i a . 55 Commonwealth Fund T w e l f t h Annual Report, 1930, pp. 48-52, r e p r i n t e d i n Bremner, C h i l d r e n and Youth, pp. 1056, 1057. 5 6C.V.A.R. 1925, p. 51. 5 7C.V.A.R. 1925, pp. 52, 53. 5 8 C.V.A.R. Supplement, 1926, p. 4. 59 Wmfred Overholser, "Use of P s y c h i a t r i c F a c i l i t i e s i n Courts and Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s Throughout the U.S.: A Survey o f Progress", N.C.S.W. Proceedings, 1928, pp. 143-155. 6 0L.S.R.M. F i l e Memorandum, J u l y 5, 1927. - 105 -61 "The teacher n e c e s s a r i l y assumes the viewpoint of the p h y s i c i a n who endeavors to diagnose the p a t i e n t s ' i l l s and to apply remedial treatment . . . , " one of the i l l n e s s e s being, "the d e s e r t i o n h a b i t which ma n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n truancy from s c h o o l and running away from home or i n s t i t u t i o n s " . From "A School Program f o r the Problem C h i l d " , C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , 1932. 6 2 The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n comes from the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s . 6 3C.V.A.R. Supplement 1926, p. 4. 6 4 S t e v e n s o n and Smith, pp. 55, 56. These were from a study a t the N.Y. I n s t i t u t e f o r C h i l d Guidance between 1927-1933. The f a c t t h a t what was c a l l e d "vagrancy" i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, was now c a l l e d "truancy from the home", i s testimony to the p e r v a s i v e n e s s of the school model of r e l a t i o n s between a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n . 65 Lubove, The P r o f e s s i o n a l A l t r u i s t , p. 89. 6 6 Stevenson and Smith, p. 1. 6 V "The weight of r e a l i t y l i e s heavy on the c h i l d 'across the t r a c k s ' , who i s the focus not o n l y of f a m i l i a l t e n s i o n s , but of ward p o l i t i c s , urban c o n g e s t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l m a k e s h i f t s , economic handicaps, r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s , and the g e n e r a l i n s e c u r -i t y of a t r a n s i t i o n a l c i v i l i z a t i o n . . . . I t i s perhaps a matter of temperament, perhaps of p h i l o s o p h i c a l b i a s , which leads one person to be more i n t e r e s t e d i n gross s o c i a l pathology and another i n the i n t e n s i v e but c i r c u m s c r i b e d task of i n d i v i d u a l adjustment. Any s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , must choose and l i m i t i t s o b j e c t i v e s ; the c h i l d guidance c l i n i c attempts to d e a l w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l . . . " Stevenson and Smith, p. 62. 6 8 Lasch c o n v i n c i n g l y a t t r i b u t e s "voter apathy, popular i n d i f f e r e n c e and c y n i c i s m , and n a t i o n a l 'malaise'" to the f u r t h e r development of t h i s dynamic: " [ T h e r a p e u t i c modes of s o c i a l con-t r o l ] c r e a t e new forms of dependence and d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e . In so doing they s i m p l i f y some of the problems of s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e but a t the same time make i t more and more d i f f i c u l t f o r p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s to m o b i l i z e p u b l i c support of t h e i r p o l i c i e s when the need a r i s e s . . . . The d i r e c t o r s of the t h e r a p e u t i c s t a t e , having to some ext e n t pac-i f i e d a f o r m e r l y r e b e l l i o u s p o p u l a t i o n , now f i n d themselves c o n f r o n t e d by a f u l l - s c a l e ' c r i s i s of c o n f i d e n c e ' " C h r i s t o p h e r Lasch, " L i f e i n the T h e r a p e u t i c S t a t e " , New York Review of  Books, June 12, 1980, pp. 24-32. 69 E.L. Woods, "The School and Delinquency: Every School A C l i n i c " , N.C.S.W. Proceedings, 1929, pp. 213-221. - 106 -Chapter 6 The Withers Report and Beyond On May 8, 1929, the Board of D i r e c t o r s of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e h i r e d John W. Withers, Dean of New York U n i v e r s i t y School of Education, to head a survey of the e d u c a t i o n a l program at C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . A s p e c i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n had been made by the Commonwealth Fund to p r o v i d e f o r such a survey. Withers viewed "education" i n i t s broadest c o n t e x t : We are i n v i t e d to examine the " s c h o o l " a t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e and to submit an estimate of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s and i t s needs. That department which i s c a l l e d the " s c h o o l " i s o n l y one p a r t of the whole e d u c a t i o n a l process a t the V i l l a g e . I t s i n f l u e n c e p e n e t r a t e s every p a r t of the I n s t i t u t i o n and, c o n v e r s e l y , the " s c h o o l ' s " own program and progress are a f f e c t e d by the p o l i c i e s and procedures of the whole i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s depart-ments. Wither's p e r s p e c t i v e r e f l e c t e d the P r o g r e s s i v e education m i l i e u i n which he was immersed. The movement had come of age a f t e r the F i r s t World War, w i t h the founding of the P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , i n 1919. I t advocated an e d u c a t i o n 2 which was c h i l d - c e n t e r e d and a n t i - f o r m a l i s t . C r e a t i v e s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n , e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g , the c h i l d ' s emotional l i f e , and the c e n t r a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s own n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s were key concerns. The u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y of the s u b j e c t matter would be guaranteed by d i s c a r d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l formal sub-j e c t d i v i s i o n s and o r g a n i z i n g the c u r r i c u l u m e i t h e r around - 107 -" u n i t s of work", pioneered by the L i n c o l n School, which was the Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Teachers C o l l e g e Laboratory s c h o o l , or around the " p r o j e c t method" p u b l i c i z e d by W i l l i a m Heard 3 K i l p a t r i c k (John Dewey's p o p u l a r i z e r ) , or both. I n d i v i d u a l -i z e d l e s s o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n were to supplement those areas of knowledge where p r o j e c t s and group work on the u n i t s would not p r o v i d e the necessary d r i l l . The P r o g r e s s i v e s aimed to pro-f e s s i o n a l i z e the o c c u p a t i o n of t e a c h i n g , and teacher p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m development made up p a r t of t h i s t h r u s t . F i n -a l l y , the P r o g r e s s i v e s were i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g the s c h o o l s c i e n -t i f i c a l l y to study c h i l d r e n and e d u c a t i o n a l problems, and to work s y s t e m a t i c a l l y on improving methods on the b a s i s of t h e i r obser-v a t i o n s . Most of these ideas had been developed i n the r a r i f i e d atmospheres of upper middle c l a s s p r i v a t e schools such as Shady H i l l i n Cambridge, Massachusetts, or the L i n c o l n School i n New York, or i n the p u b l i c school systems of wealthy suburbs such as Winnetka, I l l i n o i s , B r o n x v i l l e , New York, and Newton, Massachusetts. The i d e a of a p p l y i n g them to C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e seemed b o l d i n 1929. In December of t h a t year, Withers and seven c o l l e a g u e s with whom he had examined the i n s t i t u t i o n submitted t h e i r r e p o r t . They p r a i s e d the a t t i t u d e s of Faulkner and the Board of D i r e c t o r s , s t a t i n g , " C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e seems d e s t i n e d to 5 b l a z e the t r a i l to a new o r d e r . " Yet one of the most s t r i k i n g aspects of the Report i s the degree to which i t s recommenda-t i o n s simply c o n s o l i d a t e d d i r e c t i o n s a l r e a d y undertaken d u r i n g the 1920's. In some ways, i n f a c t , the Report and the r e s u l t i n g changes i n program were r e s o l u t i o n s to the s t r a i n s which had - 1 0 8 -divided the i n s t i t u t i o n men (Faulkner and Derrick) from the Progressive academics during the 1 9 2 0 ' s . While Faulkner's admission policy was u n c r i t i c a l l y ac-cepted, s t a f f i n g p o l icy and curriculum r e v i s i o n received con-siderable attention. In considering approaches to increasing professionalism, the study supported goals already established by the directors and Faulkner, but gave them a basis i n what was considered to be the most advanced educational thinking of the time. A number of the recommendations were curiously rem-iniscent of the recently defunct "training school for i n s t i t u -t i o n a l executives." Withers recommended that "the V i l l a g e be . . . u t i l i z e d as a laboratory and t r a i n i n g center for the ad-vanced professional education of persons who are preparing themselves for various kinds of expert services needed by com-munities and public school systems of the country i n dealing 5 with problem children of t h i s type." He saw the V i l l a g e as a "laboratory for d i r e c t and continuous s c i e n t i f i c study of juvenile delinquency" and recommended that the V i l l a g e be used "as a center of research and repository of information as to what i s being accomplished elsewhere toward a solution of the 7 problem with which the V i l l a g e i s primarily concerned." Beginning with the school teachers, the surveyors advised that the "employing o f f i c i a l s put forth a strenuous e f f o r t to a t t r a c t to the v i l l a g e , a s t a f f composed of teachers who have 8 had more professional t r a i n i n g . " At the time, teachers were paid $ 7 0 0 - $ 8 0 0 per year, compared to annual s a l a r i e s of twice that much in the surrounding suburbs. In addition to higher - 109 -s a l a r i e s , a v a r i e t y of i n - s e r v i c e programs i n c l u d i n g teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n and attendance a t summer t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were recommended. The a d d i t i o n of f i v e s o c i a l workers to the s t a f f , and the work and s a l a r y l e v e l of the Mental Hygiene C l i n i c were p r a i s e d . But the surveyors were d i s t u r b e d a t the low s a l a r i e s of the cottage o f f i c e r s , and r e c -ommended p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the p o s i t i o n s of Master and Matron. In the sch o o l c u r r i c u l u m , the Survey lamented the students' " l a c k . . . of spo n t a n e i t y , i n i t i a t i v e , judgement, or even of i n t e l l i g e n t understanding of the purpose of what they were d e a l i n g with" i n the classroom, and c a l l e d f o r c h i l d r e n t o be "encourgaed t o c r e a t e and innovate r a t h e r than t o be merely d o c i l e and obedient.""'" 0 The n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y o f the c h i l d r e n was to be developed by o f f e r i n g the study of s u b j e c t s which were of d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e to the students' p r e s e n t l i v e s or f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n s . The r o t e l e a r n i n g of "verbalisms" was to be d i s c a r d e d , the l i b r a r y upgraded, the a r t and music programs expanded, and p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e i n t r o d u c e d . At i t s most sweep-i n g , the e n t i r e s c h o o l system was to be r e v i s e d : So f a r as an academic school of the u s u a l type i s con-cerned i t might be a b o l i s h e d , the v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s h o l d i n g t h e i r room assignments, as f o r l a b o r a t o r y purposes i n which rooms there would be worked out, only such problems as would s a t i s f y need or c u r i o s i t y on the p a r t of the c h i l d i n h i s assigned o c c u p a t i o n . "•L-L The p o s s i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z i n g a- s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the sc h o o l day around the " p r o j e c t method" was suggested: . . . the p u p i l s should be helped to d i s c o v e r as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e some type of aspect of e d u c a t i o n a l endeavor on which they can and w i l l e nter wholeheartedly. Some - 110 -s e l f - d i s c o v e r y w i l l most probably take p l a c e i n a s c h o o l environment i n which band and o r c h e s t r a and school paper and mechanical drawing and a r t work and home economics and p r e v o c a t i o n a l work are open to a l l p u p i l s who have passed t h e i r t w e l f t h b i r t h -day. 12 I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n would supplement these i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . S enior students would spend h a l f of t h e i r s c h o o l day i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The manual work program at C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e had always had a d u a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n : f i r s t , i t r e p r e -sented a c o n t r i b u t i o n by the inmates towards t h e i r own mainten-ance; and second i t served to i n c u l c a t e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s and w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e which would be u s e f u l i n t h e i r l a t e r l i v e s . Withers recommended changes i n the program on two f r o n t s . On the one hand, t r u e v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g workplace s k i l l s , should be more c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the academic program, and on the other, i t should be more c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the program of i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance. The P r o g r e s s i v e p o s i t i o n g l o s s e d over some d i f f i c u l t con-t r a d i c t i o n s . There was a humanistic v i s i o n of rewarding and meaningful work where workers' l i v e s would be e n r i c h e d through t h e i r p u r s u i t of knowledge r e l a t e d to t h e i r d a i l y t a s k s : There has been a b e l i e f among many t h a t the s o - c a l l e d hand-minded i n d i v i d u a l i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n reasons and sources, and t h a t he does not respond to t h a t which we are p l e a s e d to c a l l c u l t u r a l . T h i s i s an erroneous b e l i e f . Every normal i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t e r -e s t ed i n the Way of Things. Every human being has l i k e s and d i s l i k e s and these are a form of e v a l u a t i o n , perhaps crude and coarse i n the beginning, but capable of g r a d u a l e l e v a t i o n by the s e l e c t i o n and c o n t a c t s which w i l l awaken a h e a l t h f u l emotional response."13 T h i s t h i n k i n g p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the recommendation f o r the - I l l -i n t e g r a t i o n of academic and v o c a t i o n a l programs. But t h i s v i s i o n became problematic when the r e a l f u t u r e s of the c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d . The authors were aware t h a t most of the c h i l d r e n would become s e m i - s k i l l e d or u n s k i l l e d workers, and t h a t "such workers need f i r s t of a l l a g e n e r a l a d a p t a b i l i t y f o r 14 the manual t r a d e s . " I f the students were going to r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r l i k e l y f u t u r e employment, d i s c i p l i n e , d o c i l -i t y , and u n t h i n k i n g obedience were u l t i m a t e l y h i g h e r p r i o r i t i e s than developed v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s or h e a l t h y i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i -o s i t y . The program of d i s c i p l i n e , l i k e the v o c a t i o n a l program, served two purposes a t the V i l l a g e . I t was e s s e n t i a l f o r maintenance of the V i l l a g e s o c i e t y , and i t was seen as import-ant f o r the i n c u l c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d e s i n the stud-ents and f u t u r e workers. The Withers philosophy of d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l was based on another c o n t r a d i c t i o n . While m i l i t a r y -s t y l e d i s c i p l i n e was repugnant, the need f o r c o n t r o l over the inmates continued to be one of the prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Withers was s e a r c h i n g f o r c o n t r o l which d i d not look l i k e con-t r o l . " S t r i c t r e g i m e n t a t i o n and minute d i r e c t i o n breed always the need f o r more of the same, so t h a t i t [ s i c ] o f f e r s no s o l u -15 t i o n to the problems which c o n f r o n t the C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e . " The therapy model, i n t r o d u c e d i n the 20's was the answer. I t i m p l i e d no r e d u c t i o n of c o n t r o l : i f anything, i t meant i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l , but with a d i f f e r e n t s t y l e : The inmate i s i n the p o s i t i o n of a p a t i e n t whose whole l i f e , waking or s l e e p i n g i n the c o t t a g e , needs to be under i n t e l l i g e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . Every d e v i a t i o n from - 112 -normal conduct c a l l s f o r c l o s e s c r u t i n y and conference between the a d u l t charged w i t h immediate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d and the a d v i s i n g expert. I t i s c o n c e i v -a b l e t h a t every r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l w i l l be v i r t u a l l y an a s s i s t a n t to the head p s y c h i a t r i s t . 6 There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t , even by the time of the com-p l e t i o n of the Survey, Faulkner too was s t a r t i n g to t h i n k along these l i n e s . The therapy model o f f e r e d a way to r e l a x some of the more v i s i b l e e x t e r n a l d i s c i p l i n a r y measures, and s t i l l m a i n t a in c o n t r o l . Inner d i s c i p l i n e would be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r r e g i m e n t a t i o n , through a program of "treatment". The 19 30 Annual Report s t a t e d : I t has been our ambition to l e s s e n r e s t r a i n t month by month, p l a c e them more and more on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , keep be f o r e them the o p p o r t u n i t y to r u l e t h e i r own a c t i o n s . We have d i s c o n t i n u e d a l l marching of c o t t a g e and s c h o o l groups s i n c e our l a s t r e p o r t and s i n c e September have had no group " d e t a i l " . 1 7 T h i s i s not to say t h a t the more t r a d i t i o n a l modes of d i s c i -p l i n e were a l t o g e t h e r d i s c a r d e d . J u n i o r and s e n i o r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o t t a g e s ( c a l l e d " r e f l e c t i o n c o t t a g e s " by 1937) would r e c e i v e charges f o r one month or more. C o r p o r a l punishment, w h i l e not c a r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s , c o u l d s t i l l be recommended to , and used by, the Managing D i r e c t o r . George C. Minard, one of Withers' c o l l e a g u e s , oversaw the changes as an o u t s i d e e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i s o r over the next three years and r e p o r t e d on them a n n u a l l y . Some progress was made i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of s t a f f . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g became a r e a l i t y , teachers developed c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s , and the number of teachers i n c r e a s e d . However, the Depression had an impact on s a l a r i e s , and r a t h e r than being i n c r e a s e d , they underwent reduc-t i o n . By 19 35, Faulkner r e p o r t e d "the departure of a - 113 -c o n s i d e r a b l e number of our p e r s o n n e l , cottage parents and s t a f f 18 members" due to higher s a l a r i e s being o f f e r e d elsewhere. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c h o o l was implemented i n September, 1931, but the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the grade s h u f f l i n g i s u n c l e a r from subsequent annual r e p o r t s . Attempts to upgrade the l i b r a r y and to i n c r e a s e i t s use by students were s u c c e s s f u l . By 1932, Minard r e p o r t e d t h a t there was s p e c i a l equipment f o r t r a i n i n g i n e l e c t r i c i t y , p r i n t i n g , plumbing, woodworking, auto mechanics, p a i n t i n g , and masonry. "Semi- v o c a t i o n a l " t r a i n i n g , or i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance, continued. The g i r l s r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g through t h e i r work i n the c o t t a g e s and a t the V i l l a g e Inn, the v i s i t o r s ' guest lodge. The t e n s i o n between the myth of s p e c i l i z e d t r a i n i n g , and the r e a l i t y of u n s k i l l e d work o r — p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the Depression—unemployment, appears r e p e a t e d l y through the an-nual r e p o r t s . In 1933, i t was noted t h a t 107 graduates r e c e i v e d job placements "74% of which were placements i n the f i e l d f o r 19 which the c h i l d r e n were t r a i n e d . " L a t e r i n the Report we f i n d t h a t , of those 107, 14 had r e s i g n e d , 1 was d i s c h a r g e d , and 47 20 had been l a i d o f f "because of slow b u s i n e s s . " That Edmund Dwight, the P r e s i d e n t of the Board of D i r e c t o r s , r e p o r t e d proudly t h a t he was "employing as h i s c h a u f f e u r , L e s l i e E n s l e e , a boy who graduated from the V i l l a g e seven years ago, and t h a t he was p r o v i n g very s a t i s f a c t o r y " , g i v e s us i n s i g h t i n t o what the " s u c c e s s f u l " V i l l a g e graduate might expect. George Minard's follow-up s t u d i e s r e f e r to the years a f t e r the Withers Report as a "pioneer p e r i o d of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and - 114 -experimentation." I t seems, though, t h a t the P r o g r e s s i v e changes of these years d i d not r e p r e s e n t any s u b s t a n t i a l change i n d i r e c t i o n s . There was r e c o g n i t i o n of the need to i n c r e a s e the s t a f f s a l a r i e s i n the i n t e r e s t of promoting p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , but the economic c o n d i t i o n s of the Depression made t h a t impos-s i b l e . L i k e w i s e , there was r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of shaping the e d u c a t i o n a l program to the f u t u r e needs of the c h i l d r e n , but t h a t d i d n ' t seem to change t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o s p e c t s . The l i p - s e r v i c e p a i d to the development of " s e l f - d i r e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s " must be juxtaposed w i t h the i n s t i -t u t i o n ' s c o n t i n u i n g need f o r a s t r o n g d i s c i p l i n a r y program, and w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y — l a r g e l y through expanding p r o f e s -s i o n a l s t a f f — t o use t h e r a p e u t i c treatment as an e f f e c t i v e means of c o n t r o l . Even without major changes i n d i r e c t i o n , then, d u r i n g the 1930's Faulkner was a b l e to shape the i n s t i t u t i o n i n -to one which appeared more a c c e p t a b l e to P r o g r e s s i v e t h e o r i s t s on the o u t s i d e . The changes which f o l l o w e d i n the wake of the Withers Report c o n s t i t u t e d the l a s t major reforms b e f o r e the r e t i r e m e n t of C o l . Faulkner i n 1941. Many of the d i r e c t i o n s which were e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the Faulkner years are s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n today. The t h e r a p e u t i c model i s i n f u l l f o r c e , C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e now being c a l l e d a "center f o r treatment, r e s e a r c h , t r a i n i n g and p r e v e n t i o n of emotional problems of c h i l d r e n . " The same kinds of f o r c e s which changed the i n s t i t u -t i o n i n e a r l i e r years-—an e v o l v i n g ethos i n the n a t i o n a l s o c i a l w e l f a r e community, i n c r e a s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , p ressure from - 115 -the surrounding community, d i f f e r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s and a b i l i t i e s of the s u c c e s s i v e d i r e c t o r s — h a v e r e s u l t e d i n c e r t a i n major changes i n r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , s t a f f i n g , and program. In the 1950's, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n the midst of f e a r s of a j u v e n i l e crime wave, the r e s i d e n t s of nearby Hastings-on-Hudson mounted a campaign to c l o s e the V i l l a g e . By redu c i n g the age of the ad-miss i o n s to no more than 12 years o l d , the d i r e c t o r s defused the t h r e a t to the i n s t i t u t i o n . While t h i s example suggests c o n t i n u i t y i n the s t r u g g l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , a c l o s e r examination than has been completed to date would be necessary i n order to assess the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the h i s t o r y s i n c e the T h i r t i e s , to t h a t b e f o r e . What has been t r a c e d i n t h i s paper pr o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the kinds of f o r c e s which have been at work i n the past i n shaping the i n s t i t u t i o n , and p r o v i d e s parameters w i t h i n which the needed examination of the more re c e n t C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e might take p l a c e . In the p e r i o d between 1905 and 1930, we have seen the l a s t v e s t i g e s of the moral reform movement r e p l a c e d by the sch o o l model, which, i n t u r n was supplanted by the t h e r a p e u t i c model. During the same p e r i o d of time, v a r i o u s attempts a t i n c r e a s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n met wit h more or l e s s success, but the b a s i c t r e n d was toward i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The dev e l o p i n g " s c i e n c e " of c h i l d - c a r e , which provided the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s both f o r the change i n program models and f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , a l s o l a y behind many of the changes i n s e l e c t i o n procedures f o r r e s i d e n t s , and f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n among r e s i d e n t s once - 116 -i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . I have taken the position that, i n a l l three related areas (program model, s t a f f i n g , and resident pop-ulation selection and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) the changes represented less of an objective progression i n professionals' a b i l i t y to help poor young people, than changes in the i d e o l o g i c a l tools which the middle class used to deal with deviants from the middle class norm. Children's V i l l a g e , an exemplary c h i l d -caring i n s t i t u t i o n during much of i t s history, was thoroughly integrated into the broad sweep of these changes taking place on a national scale. - 117 -Chapter 6 Footnotes """John W. Withers, A B r i e f Survey of C h i l d r e n ' s V i l l a g e , Dobb's F e r r y , New York. Unpublished t y p e s c r i p t , 1929, p. 140. 2 A c c o r d i n g to Lawrence Cremin, the h i s t o r i a n of the P r o g r e s s i v e education movement, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o g r e s s -i v i s t work of the Twenties was Rugg and Shumaker's 1928 p u b l i c -a t i o n , The C h i l d - C e n t e r e d School. See Lawrence Cremin, The  Transformation of the School: P r o g r e s s i v i s m i n American E d u c a t i o n  1876-1957. Knopf, New York, 19 69, p. 128. 3 On the L i n c o l n School c u r r i c u l u m , see Cremin, i b i d . , pp. 283ff. W i l l i a m Heard K i l p a t r i c k , "The P r o j e c t Method", Teachers' C o l l e g e Record, 1919, c i t e d i n Cremin, p. 216. 4 Abraham F l e x n e r , head of L i n c o l n School, noted i n 1923, "The Modern School should be a l a b o r a t o r y from which would i s s u e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l problems.", c i t e d i n Cremin, p. 281. 5 Withers, P- 132. ^Withers, P. 11. 7 Withers, P- 10. ^Withers, P- 49. 9 Withers, P. 135. 10„... Withers, PP . 100, 109 "'""''Withers, P- 145. "^Withers, PP . 101-102. 13 . Withers, P- 148. "^Withers, P- 147. "^Withers, P- 109. "^Withers, P- 137. 17 C.V.A.R. 1930, p. 30. 1 fi C.V.A.R. 1935, p. 6. 1 9C.V.A.R. 1933, p. 6. 20 C.V.A.R. 1933, p. 23. - 119 -B i b l i o g r a p h y I. Primary Sources A. 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U.B.C. 1978. - 129 -Appendix Appendix C h i l d r e n Committed, Discharged, Remaining a t C.V., and Placed on P a r o l e , 1918-1930 TOTAL 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 Commitments _479 420 388 392 299 281 289 261 324 274 261 266 274 Discharges 234 214 262 246 181 162 319 337 234 218 238 273 242 Remaining at C.V. 574 538 435 410 380 325 295 219 309 366 389 381 413 Placed on Parole 163 241 199 181 145 166 

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